Texas Instruments | Cost-Effective Transformerless Offline Supply for Light Load Applications (Rev. A) | Application notes | Texas Instruments Cost-Effective Transformerless Offline Supply for Light Load Applications (Rev. A) Application notes

```Application Report
SNVA733A – May 2015 – Revised June 2015
Cost Effective Transformer-less OFFLINE SUPPLY for
Akshay Mehta, Frank De Stasi
ABSTRACT
This design idea provides a simple non-isolated AC/DC power supply for low power applications. The
design uses a "capacitive-dropper" front-end combined with a LM46000 SIMPLE SWITCHER® buck
regulator from Texas Instruments. The circuit provides 3.3 V at a minimum of 100 mA from a line supply of
90 VAC to 265 VAC. Theory of operation as well as design equations and performance results are given.
1
2
3
4
5
Contents
Introduction ...................................................................................................................
Theory of Operation .........................................................................................................
Application Circuit and Plots................................................................................................
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................
References ...................................................................................................................
1
3
5
9
9
List of Figures
1
Basic Schematic ............................................................................................................. 2
2
Voltage and Current Waveforms........................................................................................... 3
3
Voltage Ripple at VDC ........................................................................................................ 6
4
Application Schematic ....................................................................................................... 6
5
6
Line Regulation
7
Max Output Current vs Line Voltage ...................................................................................... 8
8
Line Current Vs Line Voltage............................................................................................... 8
..............................................................................................................
7
List of Tables
1
1
Application Requirements
..................................................................................................
6
Introduction
Many times a simple off-line power supply is required for low power applications such as E-meters, battery
chargers, etc. Typically, the need is to convert the line voltage to a small DC value such as 3.3 V or 5 V.
This can be done with a line frequency power transformer or a complex AC/DC off-line power supply. Both
approaches have well known disadvantages of weight, size, and/or complexity. A better option is shown in
Figure 1.
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Introduction
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Bridge
Rectifier
IDC
VDC = VIN
VOUT
DC/DC
Converter
C1
IC
+
vLN
-
+ vC - +
vX
-
Zener
Clamps
IOUT
+
CBULK
Figure 1. Basic Schematic
Here we first convert the line voltage to an intermediate unregulated DC rail (VDC) and then use a Wide VIN
range DC/DC converter to supply the load. The front-end is the well-known full-wave "capacitive-dropper".
The Zener diodes clamp the input voltage to the DC/DC converter under no-load conditions. The input
voltage to the DC/DC converter (VDC = VIN) is set to a relatively high value, so that the current required
from the "capacitive-dropper" can be kept low. For this design we use the LM46000 as the DC/DC
converter and VDC is set to 48 V. The LM46000 converts this down to 3.3 V. For a line voltage range of 90
VAC to 265 VAC, this design can supply at least 100 mA to the 3.3 V load. The high step-down ratio,
possible with the LM46000, allows the 100 mA load to appear as less than 10 mA load to the front-end.
This permits a small value of C1 to be used.
It is easy to see that this circuit is connected directly to the line supply and is not isolated. EXTREME
CAUTION must be used when experimenting with this design. The user must ensure that the intended
application for this power supply, including the load on the LM46000, is completely isolated from any
contact with grounded entities; including people, animals and test equipment. All safety precautions must
be observed when taking measurements. Test equipment with grounded inputs can not be used with this
circuit without proper isolation. The user is also responsible for any fusing, transient protection, and/or EMI
filtering required on the input to this circuit.
2
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Theory of Operation
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2
Theory of Operation
The idea behind this circuit is that the series capacitor C1 acts as a lossless resistance and the reactance
of the capacitor will set the maximum current that can be provided. Since a normal electrolytic capacitor
cannot handle the stresses resulting from the line voltage, we use "X"-type capacitors which would be
rated for the maximum line voltage in our range. From Figure 1 we can understand that the current IC
through the cap C1 would be flowing when there is a voltage differential across the capacitor. The
capacitor current would steadily increase while vLN is increasing. When the line voltage reaches the peak
voltage, C1 stops charging, because the slope of the differential voltage across it goes to zero. Figure 2
shows the relevant waveforms; where we have the following definitions:
vLN = line voltage
vC = C1 voltage
iC = C1 current
vX = Voltage at input of bridge rectifier
VLN = RMS line voltage
VDC = VIN = DC intermediate bus voltage and input voltage to DC/DC
VOUT = Output voltage of DC/DC
IOUT = Output current of DC/DC = user load current
VD = One diode drop
F = line frequency = 1/T
η = Efficiency of LM46000
vLN
vc
vx
T/2
T
0
T1
ic
Figure 2. Voltage and Current Waveforms
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Theory of Operation
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The peak capacitor current can be obtained as follows:
IP
2S  F  C1  VLN  2
where
•
IP = Peak C1 current
(1)
To know the amount of DC current (IDC) coming from the bridge rectifier, we would first need to know the
time duration, T1, for which the capacitor current is zero. Observing the timing in Figure 2 we can see that
at time T1 one of the diode pair turns on. Thus the voltage across the capacitor at time T1 would be equal
to the peak line voltage minus VDC . From that time T1 can be equated to be as follows:
T1
§
2  VIN VD
1
 cos 1¨1 ¨
VLN
2S  F
·
¸
¸
¹
(2)
Knowing time T1, we can find the DC current value. The IDC is basically the area under the rectified
capacitor current curve (iC). The area can be found by integrating the curve from time T1 to T/2 and
multiplying by 2. The expression for IDC is shown as follows:
IDC
§
V VD
4  VLN  2  F  C1  ¨1 IN
¨
2  VLN
·
¸
¸
¹
(3)
This is the DC current that the capacitor C1 can provide to the input of the LM46000. As mentioned
previously, the advantage of interfacing a Wide VIN DC/DC converter with the "capacitor drop" front-end is
that a fairly small duty cycle can be possible. This means that the input current requirement will also be
fairly small for a required load current. The DC input current to the LM46000, IINDC, can be estimated by
assuming the worst case efficiency of the switching converter shown as follows:
VOUT  IOUT
IINDC
VIN  K
(4)
The worst case situation in the cap drop circuit will occur at lowest line voltages. The capacitor C1 needs
to be sized such that at lowest line voltage of 90 VAC it can still provide enough current to keep the bulk
caps charged to 48 V. At lowest line, the Zener diodes will not see any current flowing through them and
the IDC will be equal to IINDC. Knowing this value, we can then calculate the amount of capacitance we need
at minimum VLN of 90 VAC as shown:
IDC
C1
§
V VD ·¸
4  VLN  2  F  ¨1 IN
¨
2  VLN ¸¹
(5)
4
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Application Circuit and Plots
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3
Application Circuit and Plots
WARNING
CAUTION MUST BE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION, TESTING, AND
USE OF THE CIRCUITS FOUND IN THIS DOCUMENT.
LETHAL VOLTAGES ARE PRESENT IN THESE CIRCUITS THAT
MAY CAUSE INJURY.
THE USER MUST ENSURE THAT SAFETY PROCEDURES ARE
FOLLOWED WHEN WORKING ON THESE CIRCUITS.
Let's look over some BOM calculations for the capacitor dropping circuit.
3.1
Dropping Capacitor
The dropping capacitor C1 is sized for the lowest line voltage thus ensuring that the load current is
maintained even at the worst case. For our design requirements and from Equation 5 the cap C1 is sized
to be about 0.56 µF rated for 375 VAC. Care must be taken to not oversize this capacitor. Oversizing this
capacitor would increase IDC and would cause greater power dissipation in the Zener diodes at higher line
voltages. This capacitor must be rated for the highest peak line voltage.
3.2
Zener Diodes
The LM46000 is rated for a maximum input voltage of 60 V and a load current of 500 mA. Therefore VDC
can be clamped at a high voltage of 48 V. The Zener voltage established VDC. As shown in the schematic
two Zener diodes of 24 V each have been used in series to obtain a clamping voltage of 48 V. It is
important to size the Zener diodes for the right power requirement. From schematic in Figure 1, we can
observe that
IZ
IDC IINDC
(6)
At low line voltages of 90 VAC, to maintain load at the output of the converter all of IDC would be supplied
to the input of the converter. The Zener current IZ would be zero then. But with increasing line voltages, IDC
would be more than what the switcher requires and therefore IZ would no longer be zero. At high line
voltage IZ would be considerably high and would therefore cause some heating in the device. The worst
case is when all of IDC flows in the Zener. The power in the Zener is then:
PZ
3.3
IDC  VDC
(7)
Bulk Capacitor
A bulk electrolytic capacitor of 680 µF is used to hold the 48 V with low ripple voltage. Keeping the ripple
voltage on the intermediate rail low will also help with keeping the output voltage ripple low. Having
enough bulk capacitance is also important to maintain enough voltage at the input of converter in case of
a fast load transient at the output of the converter. A range of 470 µF to 680 µF was tested to be
appropriate. Figure 3 shows the voltage ripple at the input of the LM46000. The 680 µF cap results in a
100 mV ripple at 120Hz. Since the ripple at VDC is at a relatively low frequency, it is important to keep the
ripple low because it cannot be filtered effectively by the inductor and the output capacitor of the
LM46000.
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Application Circuit and Plots
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Ripple on VDC, 100mV/div
5ms/div
Figure 3. Voltage Ripple at VDC
The newly released LM46000 Wide VIN DC/DC converter was interfaced with the "capacitive drop" frontend to obtain the schematic as shown in Figure 4.
Bridge
Rectifier
120µH
L
2x 4.7µF
VIN = 48V
VIN
CIN
1.3M
C1
A.C. Line Input
90Vrms to 265Vrms
Fusing,
Transient protection,
EMI filtering, etc.
0.56µF
310 VAC
RENT
100k
RENB
PGOOD
CBOOT
CBOOT
SS/TRK
SYNC
+ 680µF
63V
AGND
COUT 2x 47µF
0.47µF
BIAS
CBIAS
1µF
CFF
RFBT
1M
FB
68pF
RT
24V
1W
CBULK
LM46000
ENABLE
24V
1W
VOUT = 3.3V
SW
VCC
PGND
CVCC
2.2µF
RFBB
432k
RT
200k
Figure 4. Application Schematic
Table 1. Application Requirements
6
Parameter
Value
VLN
90 VAC to 265 VAC
VOUT
3.3 V
IOUT
100 mA
η at 120 VAC and 160 mA
71 %
IRMS from line at 120 VAC
23 mA
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The BOM for the LM46000 can be calculated for VIN of 48 V to VOUT of 3.3 V. The design can be obtained
from the datasheet for LM46000. The data sheet has detailed calculations for the entire BOM. The rising
UVLO threshold on the LM46000 was set to about 30 V. This helps with limiting the inrush currents and
potential voltage crash at the input of the converter. The resulting falling UVLO threshold is about 25 V.
For the application circuit shown in Figure 4 load regulation test was performed at 120 VAC line voltage
and line regulation test was performed at 100 mA ILOAD. At light loads, the LM46000 enters the PFM mode.
In this mode the switching frequency is folded back to improve the efficiency. In PFM operation, a small
positive DC offset is required at the output voltage to activate the PFM detector. This can be seen in
3.39
3.385
3.38
Output Voltage (V)
3.375
3.37
3.365
3.36
3.355
3.35
3.345
3.34
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
Output Current (A)
3.36
3.359
3.358
Output Voltage (V)
3.357
3.356
3.355
3.354
3.353
3.352
3.351
3.35
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
Mains Voltage (VRMS)
Figure 6. Line Regulation
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0.6
Maximum Output Current (A)
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
Mains Voltage (VRMS)
Figure 7. Max Output Current vs Line Voltage
0.06
Mains Line Current (ARMS)
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
Mains Voltage (VRMS)
Figure 8. Line Current Vs Line Voltage
With increasing line voltage, more current can be delivered to the input of the LM46000. This means that
more current can be delivered at the output also. At the max line voltage of 265 VAC about 500 mA of
current can be delivered to the output of the LM46000. Figure 7 shows the max current capability at
increasing line voltages.
8
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Conclusion
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4
Conclusion
The cap drop circuit is an easy cost effective approach for low load AC-to-DC conversion. Interfacing with
a Wide VIN DC/DC converter can be further useful to draw relatively higher loads at the output while
keeping the current drawn from the line low. A maximum of 500 mA can be obtained from the output of
the LM46000 at 265 VAC line voltage. While this circuit is easy to make, utmost care should be taken to
create a bench prototype and appropriate filtering and protection circuit should be added.
5
References
1. A Capacitor-Fed, Voltage-Step-Down, Single-phase, Non-Isolated Rectifier Authors: Nathan O. Sokal,
K. Kit Sum, David C. Hamill
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Revision History
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Revision History
Changes from Original (May 2015) to A Revision ........................................................................................................... Page
•
Changed to VLN from VLINE ................................................................................................................ 6
NOTE: Page numbers for previous revisions may differ from page numbers in the current version.
10
Revision History
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