Texas Instruments | Fly-Buck(TM) converter provides EMC and isolation in PLC applications | Application notes | Texas Instruments Fly-Buck(TM) converter provides EMC and isolation in PLC applications Application notes

Texas Instruments Fly-Buck(TM) converter provides EMC and isolation in PLC applications Application notes
Analog Applications Journal
Industrial
Fly-Buck™ converter provides EMC and
­isolation in PLC applications
By Timothy Hegarty
Systems Engineer, Non-Isolated Power Solutions
How do you provide galvanically-isolated positive or negative voltage rails while keeping cost and complexity to a
minimum? At the same time, how do you fend off a diversity of challenges tied to wide input voltage range, multiple outputs, small solution size, electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC), and high reliability?
Consider factory automation and control end equipment
segments such as programmable logic controllers (PLC),
field transmitters, sensors and process instrumentation,
industrial communication, data acquisition systems (DAS),
human machine interface (HMI), and IGBT-based motor
drives. There is an inescapable requirement in many of
these applications for more functionality in less space.
Solution footprint and height are critical, meaning system
designers must explore all avenues to conserve valuable
PCB real estate. For the power solution in particular, a
key requirement is a robust design that provides one or
more isolated voltage rails. This article focuses on PLCs
in particular, examines EMC and safety isolation requirements, and describes a multi-output power converter
solution.
PLC I/O module
An illustrative block diagram of a PLC I/O module is given
in Figure 1. Used in modular rack-based PLC systems, an
I/O module establishes the physical connection between
the PLC and factory or field equipment. The rack can
accept various types of I/O modules that effectively slide
into slots in the rack to accomplish backplane connection.
The system in Figure 1 includes a microcontroller, data
converters, isolators, input amplifiers, I/V output drivers,
references, wired and/or wireless connectivity, and a
multi-output DC/DC Fly-Buck™-based power solution[1,2].
Analog I/O signal ranges are usually selected from the voltage options of 0 to 5 V, 0 to 10 V, ±5 V, and ±10 V, or the
current options of 0 to 20 mA and 4 to 20 mA.
Figure 1. Factory automation PLC I/O module
Input
Low-Pass Filter
Sensor Inputs
Temp
Relays, Motor, etc.
Peripheral Driver
+
Clock
V+
∆Σ
ADC
MUX
Low Voltage Input
–10 V... +10 V,
0...10 V,
Digital In
Processor
Interface
RF/IF
Amplifier
24-V Power Bus
18- to 30-VDC
DAC
Embedded
Processor
I/V
Driver
±20 mA,
±10 V Out
Current
Driver
4…20 mA,
0...20 mA Out
Voltage
Driver
Buffer
–10 V...+10 V,
0...10 V Out
VREF
ADC
PGA
Analog
Digital
Isolation
Level Translation
and Deserialization
Support
Logic
Logic
Power
ADC /DAC
Clock
Ot her
Digital Out
Wired Interfaces
Digital
Isolation
Core &
I/O Power
Ethernet
USB
CAN
RS-232/RS-485
Core and I/O Power
Isolated
Fly-Buck
12 V
5V
Digital
Digital
Isolation
Level Translation Debounce
and Serialization
Isolated
Fly-Buck™
DAC
DAC
Digital
Isolation
ADC
4...20 mA,
0...20 mA Input
Legend
Digital
Isolation
Buffer
Pressure
Texas Instruments
Output
VREF
Low-Noise Power
3.3 V, 1.8 V
Isolated
Fly-Buck
15
+12V
Wireless Interfaces
–12V
+12V
Bluetooth®
ZigBee®
Low-Power Wireless
–12V
AAJ 1Q 2015
Analog Applications Journal
Industrial
Table 1: Summary of popular harmonized standards for EMC and electrical safety
Standard
IEC/EN 61131-2
Applicability
Listed in EMC Directive
Remarks
PLC equipment specific requirements and tests
IEC/EN 61000-6-2/-4 Listed in EMC Directive
Generic immunity/emission standard for industrial environments
IEC/EN 61326-1/-2
Listed in EMC Directive
Electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use
IEC/EN 61000-4-2
High-frequency disturbances
ESD immunity test
IEC/EN 61000-4-3
Radiated EM field immunity test
IEC/EN 61000-4-4
Switching transients (EFT/burst) immunity test
IEC/EN 61000-4-5
Surge impulse (lightning) immunity test
IEC/EN 61000-4-6
IEC/EN 61000-4-8
Conducted RF current immunity test
Low frequency disturbances
IEC/EN 61000-4-11
50/60-Hz magnetic field immunity test
Voltage dips and short interruptions immunity test
IEC/EN 61000-4-12
Damped oscillatory waves immunity test
IEC/EN 55011
(or CISPR 11)
Low- and high-frequency
emissions
Conducted and radiated emissions for industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) equipment
IEC/EN 60664-1
Listed in Low Voltage
­Directive
Insulation for equipment within low-voltage systems. Low voltage defined as 75 to 1500 VDC
or 50 to 1000 VACrms
IEC/EN 61010-1
Safety
Safety requirements for electrical equipment for measurement, control and laboratory use
IEC/EN 60950-1
Safety
Safety of IT equipment
be chosen to provide sufficient power for the given I/O
config­ur­ation and the number of base/option module slots
to be powered. Multiple isolated-converter outputs are
required, particularly if isolation is required on a per-­
channel basis to protect against transients and ground
loops.
The wide-VIN Fly-Buck circuit has gained prominence
from a range of buck-based topologies. The concept is
becoming a more mainstream solution for power system
engineers. The most noteworthy feature of a Fly-Buck
converter is what is missing. Built from the reliable synchronous buck regulator, the Fly-Buck has neither loop
compensation nor feedback optocoupler components. A
compensated error amplifier is not needed, and a constant
on-time (COT) control approach gives nearly instantaneous response for excellent transient dynamics.
Feedback regulation is from the primary side through a
standard resistor divider. Switching frequency is kept
steady with line feedforward and continuous conduction
mode (CCM) operation.
For maximum flexibility, both isolated and non-isolated
outputs are available. This makes the Fly-Buck ideal for
auxiliary and bias rails, floating supplies for digital isolators (Figure 1), and bipolar supplies for powering highprecision amplifiers and data converters[2]. To customize
for additional outputs, simply add a transformer secondary
winding with requisite number of turns, a rectifier diode,
and an output capacitor. For space-constrained designs,
dual, triple, quad, or more outputs are easily obtained with
a small-size magnetic component. As a multi-output converter, the Fly-Buck is an excellent fit for PLCs where a
high level of integration is needed as PLC channel count
and functional density increase while the enclosure
gets smaller.
Emissions, immunity, and safety requirements
for PLCs
Factory equipment placed into the European Union (EU)
market should generally comply when fully installed with
the EMC Directive (2014/30/EU) and low-voltage (LV)
directive (2014/35/EU). These directives point to compliance of the main requirements using a list of harmonized
standards based on several generic and product specific
standards. Table 1 lists several European Norm (EN) standards[3-5] that apply to EMC and electrical safety. Many of
these tests are performed at the system level, either at the
enclosure power or data port(s). Note that the Low
Voltage Directive applies if the applicable input or output
voltage lies within 75 to 1500 VDC or 50 to 1000 VACrms.
EN 61131-2 specifies requirements and related tests
specifically for PLCs and their associated peripherals.
However, while this standard supersedes generic standards
for immunity (EN 50082-2) and safety (EN 61010-3),
generic standards are still used for emissions (EN 610006-2) and AC harmonics/fluctuations (EN 61000-3-2) for
AC-powered equipment. Also, various tests referenced
within the EN 61000-4 transient immunity specification
cater to electrostatic discharge (ESD), electrical fast transient (EFT)/burst, lightning surge, and conducted/radiated
RF immunity[6,7].
Choosing a power solution
Converter- or controller-based IC solutions are widely
available, and the choice hinges initially on input voltage
and output current specifications. However, solutions specifically with a large input voltage range (wide VIN) offer
outsized voltage rating and operating margin to deal with
supply rail voltage transients described in EN 61000-4. For
a given PLC application, the power solution must
Texas Instruments
16
AAJ 1Q 2015
Analog Applications Journal
Industrial
Figure 2: EMC-compliant Fly-Buck™ regulator supply for PLC applications
EMC Filter
+
VIN
24 V (nom)
18 to 32 V
RIN1
Cx1
Isolation
DIN
CY1
LCM1
VOUT
TVS1
36 V
CX2
12 V
100 mA
DS2
CO2
NS
–
CY2
Isolated
GND
CBOOT
NS
CIN
LM5160
VIN
–12 V
–100 mA
VOUT
3 VIN
VCC 9
CVCC
Q1
BST 10
11 SW
T1
RUVB
AGND 1
C o n t r o l
RUVT
EN/UVLO 4
RF
12 SW
RT
Q2
5 RON
CSS
8 FB
FPWM 7
CF
VAUX
12 V
300 mA
RFBT
RFBB
2 PGND
Fly-Buck™ circuit implementation
larly sensitive nodes in the signal chain where high attenuation is required[8].
Off-the-shelf transformers are readily available with slim
form factor and isolation rating of up to 4.5 kV peak, based
on the requisite creepage and clearance. Certainly, larger
isolation ratings dictate increased winding spacing, which
means higher leakage inductance. Fortunately, the FlyBuck is more tolerant of leakage inductance than an
equivalent flyback converter. The Fly-Buck has no primary-side voltage spike related to leakage inductance,
which provides an increased operating voltage margin
against input-voltage transients. Also helpful for EMC, the
Fly-Buck has a primary-side current waveform with lower
harmonic content compared to the flyback.
Note that the 24-V industrial bus is normally double or
reinforced insulated. Thus, functional isolation to 500-VDC
continuous is usually adequate for the downstream power
stages. As an example, most sensors adopt a 4- to 20-mA
loop to transmit the measured quantity without noise or
line-length concerns. In this case, an isolated rail increases
signal accuracy and avoids any ground noise current
issues related to interconnection of other equipment. As
an example for basic or reinforced isolation, when powering digital data isolators, select the magnetic component
that meets the isolation grade requirement and design the
PCB layout to meet the relevant creepage and clearance
specification of the referencing standard.
Based on the 65-V, LM5160 synchronous regulator, the
schematic of Figure 2 details an EMC-compliant Fly-Buck
converter that delivers ±12-V isolated rails from a centertapped secondary winding. Output voltages are scaled
commensurate with turns ratio NP/NS of transformer T1,
and a 12-V primary-side output, VAUX, is also provided.
The red dashed line shows the isolation boundary. The
upper circuitry is the EMC filter with common-mode
inductor, X and Y capacitors, damping resistor, bidirectional transient voltage suppressor (TVS) voltage clamp,
and reverse-polarity protection diode.
Optimizing EMC and isolation
The Fly-Buck topology has broad versatility to meet EMC
and isolation performance objectives[1, 8]. Generally, the
goal of EMC-protected circuits is to shunt the external
transients to ground with low impedance and protect the
circuit from damage. A Fly-Buck regulator with wide-VIN
capability permits a higher voltage TVS diode with a lower
power rating and a smaller footprint that still meets the
input transient immunity specifications for the power
stage. Selection of TVS voltage rating is based on the
dynamic impedance of the TVS and the expected peak
current. Y capacitors, denoted as CYI and CY2 in Figure 2,
shunt transient energy from the input lines to the enclosure’s chassis ground. This approach is supplemented by
small ferrite beads to provide high impedance at particu-
Texas Instruments
CAC
NP
CO1
SS 6
VCC
CO3
DS3
17
AAJ 1Q 2015
Analog Applications Journal
Industrial
Conclusion
5. EMC Directive list of harmonized standards, Journal of
the European Union, February 25, 2014. Available:
eur-lex.europa.eu/homepage.html?locale=en
6. Ian Williams, “EMC testing explained,” Precision Hub, TI
E2E™ Community. Available: e2e.ti.com/blogs/
7. “8-Channel Digital Input Module for Programmable
Logic Controllers (PLCs),” TI Design. Available:
www.ti.com/1q15-tidu196
8. LM5017 Fly-Buck™ PLC Reference Designs:
• “16-Bit Analog Mixed Input and Output Module for
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).” Available:
www.ti.com/tool/TIDA-00170
• “16-Bit, 8 Channel, Integrated Analog Input module
for Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC).” Available:
www.ti.com/tool/TIDA-00164
• “PLC I/O Module Front-End Controller Using a
Tiva™ C Series ARM® Cortex™ M4 MCU.” Available:
www.ti.com/tool/TIDA-00123
PLCs for factory automation and control applications have
unique power-stage design requirements. Testament to its
ease-of-use, small size, safety isolation, EMC regulatory
compliance, and low overall bill-of-materials cost, a wideVIN Fly-Buck solution meets these requirements. Looking
forward, as more demanding isolated applications come to
fruition, complying to regulatory specifications is clearly a
benchmark of power solutions for industrial applications
that is becoming more important.
References
1. “Isolated Tri-output Fly-Buck Power Supply for
Industrial PLC Applications,” LM5160 reference design,
Texas Instruments. Available:
www.ti.com/tool/PMP10532
2. Tim Hegarty, “Post-Regulated Fly-Buck Powers NoiseSensitive Loads,” Power Electronics, October 14, 2014.
Available: www.powerelectronics.com/
3. “Introduction to IEC 61131-2, PLC Equipment
Requirements and Tests.” Available:
www.plcopen.org/pages/tc1_standards/iec61131-2
4. Harmonized standards to the EMC and Low Voltage
Directives, description and guidance. Available:
ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/electrical/
Texas Instruments
Related Web sites
www.ti.com/1q15-LM5160
18
AAJ 1Q 2015
Analog Applications Journal
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