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Texas Instruments Design a Flybuck Solution with Optocoupler to Improve Regulation Performance Application notes
Application Report
SNVA727 – January 2015
Design a Flybuck Solution With Optocoupler to Improve
Regulation Performance
Johnny Guo, Daniel Li
ABSTRACT
This paper presents an isolated flybuck design with synchronous buck regulator LM5160
using optocoupler for better regulation performance. Compared with typical isolated flyback
solution, flybuck topology has outstanding features like higher frequency, smaller solution
size, and better efficiency. Higher performance and reliability requires better input and load
regulation. For typical flybuck design, the isolated output voltage is only controlled by
primary output voltage and transformer. Therefore the input and load regulation cannot be
ensured. Aiming at this, an optocoupler is added into the design as compensation to
improve regulation performance. This paper includes application design and test results.
Contents
1
Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 2
2
Design Flybuck With LM5160 ...................................................................................................... 2
2.1 Selection of Primary Voltage and Turns Ratio ....................................................................... 3
2.2 Feedback Resistor................................................................................................................. 3
2.3 Secondary Rectifier Diode ..................................................................................................... 3
2.4 Transformer Calculation ........................................................................................................ 4
2.5 Input and Output Capacitor .................................................................................................... 4
2.6 Ripple Injection Circuit ........................................................................................................... 5
2.7 LM5160 Flybuck Schematic ................................................................................................... 6
3
Design Flybuck With Optocoupler .............................................................................................. 6
3.1 Quiescent Operation Point ..................................................................................................... 7
3.2 Loop Compensation Design .................................................................................................. 7
3.3 LM5160 Flybuck With Optocoupler Schematic ...................................................................... 8
4
Test Result and Regulation Improvement .................................................................................. 9
4.1 Regulation Performance Improvement .................................................................................. 9
4.2 Efficiency ............................................................................................................................. 12
4.3 Ripple .................................................................................................................................. 12
4.4 Transient Performance ........................................................................................................ 13
5
Conclusion.................................................................................................................................. 13
Reference ........................................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 3.
Figure 4.
Figures
LM5160 Flybuck Solution ................................................................................................ 3
LM5160 Flybuck Schematic ............................................................................................ 6
Optocoupler for Secondary Output Signal Transmission............................................. 6
Loop Test Result With Type I Compensation Network ................................................. 8
1
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Figure 5.
Figure 6.
Figure 7.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Figure 10.
Figure 11.
Figure 12.
LM5160 Flybuck With Optocoupler Schematic .............................................................. 9
Load Regulation: LM5160 Flybuck Without Optocoupler ............................................. 9
Load Regulation: LM5160 Flybuck With Optocoupler................................................. 10
Input Regulation: LM5160 Flybuck Without Optocoupler ........................................... 11
Input Regulation: LM5160 Flybuck With Optocoupler ................................................ 11
Efficiency ....................................................................................................................... 12
Output Voltage Ripple (VIN = 48 V, VOUT2 = 12 V, IOUT2 = 1 A) ......................................... 12
Transient Test (VIN = 48 V, VOUT2 = 12 V, IOUT2 = 0.5 A to 1 A, 0.1 A/µs Slew Rate) ...... 13
Table 1.
Tables
Design Specification ....................................................................................................... 2
1
Introduction
The LM5160 device is a 65-V, 1.5-A synchronous, COT control mode, step-down
converter with integrated high- and low-side MOSFETs. The LM5160 can be applied in
numerous end equipment systems requiring efficient step-down regulation. Flybuck
solution is also a typical application for this device.
Compared with traditional isolated flyback solution, flybuck topology has outstanding
features like higher frequency, smaller solution size, and better efficiency. In this kind of
primary-side control, the secondary regulation is affected by the leakage inductance, diode
drop, DCR, and so forth. Thus the flybuck solution results in poor regulation, especially in
wide VIN, high IOUT application. Higher performance and reliability requires better input
and load regulation. To improve regulation performance, an optocoupler is added into the
design as compensation to increase regulation performance. This paper provides the
application design and test result using the LM5160 with optocoupler.
2
Design Flybuck With LM5160
We start the design with a typical flybuck circuit using synchronous buck regulator
LM5160, and calculate the component values. Table 1 is the design specification for the
example. Figure 1 shows the LM5160 flybuck solution.
Table 1.
Design Specification
Design Specifications
2
Input voltage range (VIN)
33 V to 57 V
Isolated output voltage (VOUT2)
12 V
Primary load current (IOUT1)
0A
Isolated load current (IOUT2)
1A
Switching frequency (f)
340 kHz
Design a Flybuck Solution With Optocoupler to Improve Regulation Performance
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Figure 1.
2.1
LM5160 Flybuck Solution
Selection of Primary Voltage and Turns Ratio
The primary output voltage in a flybuck converter should be no more than half of the
minimum input voltage. For a minimum VIN of 33 V, the primary output voltage (VOUT1)
should be less than 16 V. In this design, a transformer turns ratio (N1:N2) of 1:1 is selected.
Using this turns ration, the primary output voltage VOUT1 is calculated to be:
VOUT1 =
VOUT2 + 0.7 V
= 12.7 V
1
(1)
The 0.7 V subtracted from represents the forward voltage drop of the secondary rectifier
diode.
2.2
Feedback Resistor
With the required primary output voltage set point at 12.7 V and VFB = 2 V (typical), this
parameter is selected by the user. VOUT1 is calculated as follows:
Choose RFB1=1.91 kΩ.
Choose RFB2=10 kΩ.
2.3
VOUT1 = VFB × �1 +
R FB2
�
R FB1
VOUT1
R FB2 = R FB1 × �
− 1� = 10.2 kΩ
VFB
(2)
(3)
Secondary Rectifier Diode
The secondary rectifier diode must block the maximum input voltage multiplied by the
transformer turns ratio. Equation 4 gives the minimum diode reverse voltage rating.
VR(diode) = VIN(MAX) ×
N2
+ VOUT2 = 69 V
N1
(4)
Design a Flybuck Solution With Optocoupler to Improve Regulation Performance
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Considering the margin and the voltage spike when high-side MOSFET turns on, a diode
of 80 V or higher reverse voltage rating should be selected. If the input voltage has
transients above the normal operating maximum input voltage of 57 V, then the worstcase transient input voltage should be used in the diode voltage calculation. A 100-V/3-A
diode is selected in this design.
2.4
Transformer Calculation
A coupled inductor or a flyback-type transformer is required for flybuck topology. Energy is
transferred from primary to secondary when the synchronous switch of the buck converter
is on.
Peak current in high-side FET and primary winding,
ISW(PEAK) = IL(PEAK) =
N2
∆IL
IOUT2 +
N1
2
The maximum inductor current ripple that can be tolerated is given by,
∆IL = �ISW(PEAK) −
N2
I
� × 2 = (1.8 A − 1 × 1.0 A) × 2 = 1.6 A
N1 OUT2
Primary winding peak-to-peak current ripple,
∆IL =
VIN(MAX) − VOUT1
VOUT1
×
L×f
VIN(MAX)
The minimum inductor value is given by,
L=
VIN(MAX) − VOUT1
VOUT1
57 V − 12.7 V
12.7 V
×
=
×
= 18 µH
∆IL × f
VIN(MAX) 1.6 A × 340 kHz
57 V
We chose 33 µH for primary inductor, thus ΔIL = 0.87 A.
2.5
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
Input and Output Capacitor
An input capacitor should be large enough to limit the input voltage ripple.
CIN ≥
∆IL
0.87 A
=
= 0.64 µF
8 × f × ∆VIN 8 × 340 kHz × 0.5 V
(9)
For better input ripple performance, an input capacitor with a standard value of 2.2 µF is
selected.
The secondary output current is sourced by COUT2 during on time. Ignoring the current
transitions time in the secondary winding, the secondary output capacitor ripple voltage
can be calculated as shown in Equation 10.
4
Design a Flybuck Solution With Optocoupler to Improve Regulation Performance
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COUT2 =
IOUT2 × DMAX 1.0 A × 12.7 V/33 V
=
= 9.4 µF
∆VOUT2 × f
0.12 V × 340 kHz
Two 10-µF capacitors are selected for secondary output.
(10)
For primary-side output current, in this design, IOUT1 = 0 A,
Set ΔVOUT1= 100 mV,
COUT1 =
∆VOUT1 =
N
IOUT2 × N2 × TON(MAX)
N
IOUT2 × N2 × TON(MAX)
1
∆VOUT1
1
COUT1
12.7 V
1A × 1 × 33 V /340 kHz
=
= 11.3 µF
100 mV
(11)
(12)
Also two 10-µF capacitors are selected for primary side output to maintain a small ripple.
2.6
Ripple Injection Circuit
As introduced in LM5160 data sheet, Type I and Type II ripple circuits suffer from larger
jitter as the reflected load current affects the feedback ripple. For a constant on-time
converter to be stable, the injected phase matched ripple should be larger than the
capacitive ripple on primary output capacitor. Type III ripple injection circuit is used in this
design. New loop stability criteria for COT mode with ripple injection approach as follows:
Rr × Cr <
Cr > Cac >
Calculation result follows:
(13)
1
R R
2π × f × � FB1 FB2 �
R FB1 + R FB2
(15)
(VIN(MIN) − VOUT1 ) × TON
Vinj_RIPPLE
(16)
1
1
=
= 292 pF
R R
1.91 kΩ × 10 kΩ
2π × f × � FB1 FB2 � 2π × 340kHz × �
�
R FB1 + R FB2
1.91 kΩ + 10 kΩ
(18)
(VIN(MIN) − VOUT1 ) × TON (33 V − 12.7 V) × 12.7 V / 33 V
=
= 9.19 × 10−4
VRIPPLE
25 mV × 340 kHz
Cr > Cac >
(14)
2 × L × COUT1 2 × 33 µH × 20 µF × 340 kHz
=
= 1.17 × 10−2
TON
12.7 V / 33 V
Rr × Cr <
Rr × Cr <
L × COUT1 TON
>
Rr × Cr
2
(17)
For this design, select Rr = 51.1 kΩ, Cr = 1000 pF, Cac = 63 nF.
Design a Flybuck Solution With Optocoupler to Improve Regulation Performance
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2.7
LM5160 Flybuck Schematic
Figure 2 shows the final schematic for isolated flybuck power supply. The regulator power
loss can be reduced by supplying the VCC voltage externally from primary output. A
preload of 1.63 kΩ is needed to prevent secondary output voltage from going too high at
light load.
Figure 2.
3
LM5160 Flybuck Schematic
Design Flybuck With Optocoupler
Normally for isolated flybuck, secondary output performance is controlled only by the
primary output voltage and transformer, and it can achieve a 6% to 8% regulation
performance. But for some applications, higher regulation is required, especially when
output current is higher. An optocoupler can be used as a secondary-to-primary
compensation to feedback voltage. Figure 3 shows the application circuit.
Figure 3.
6
Optocoupler for Secondary Output Signal Transmission
Design a Flybuck Solution With Optocoupler to Improve Regulation Performance
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LMV431 is regarded as a transconductance amplifier. Optocoupler is designed for signal
transmission between two electrically separated circuits while maintaining a high degree of
electrical isolation. Current transmission rate (CTR) is related to IF and temperature.
Generally, typical CTR value is adopted in analysis.
In this application, optocoupler delivers the secondary side output voltage information to
primary feedback. When VOUT2 rises, current flowing through primary forward LED
increases, and then the output collector current also increases and raises the FB voltage;
this extends OFF time and drives primary output voltage down, thus VOUT2 is pulled down.
3.1
Quiescent Operation Point
An LMV431 optocoupler is used to improve regulation performance, and quiescent
operation point should be set first. Secondary side feedback resistors are calculated as in
Equation 19.
VREF = VOUT2 ×
R FB3
R FB3 + R FB4
Choose RFB3 = 1.24 kΩ, then RFB4 = 10.8 kΩ.
(19)
RLED can be calculated as in Equation 20.
ILED =
VOUT2 − VLMV431 − VLED
R LED
(20)
For primary side, FB voltage is determined by feedback resistors and optocoupler
collector current.
VFB = VOUT1 ×
R FB1
R FB1 R FB2
+ ILED × CTR ×
R FB1 + R FB2
R FB1 + R FB2
Choose RLED = 7.5 kΩ, then RFB1 = 1.5 kΩ.
3.2
(21)
Loop Compensation Design
For this flybuck solution, the optocoupler secondary-side transistor current is
compensation for LM5160 feedback signal. Type I compensation is chosen here for
normal design.
Select R1 = 0, C1 = 6.8 µF, Figure 4 is loop test result. Cross-frequency is 4.83 kHz,
phase margin is 52°. The cross-frequency is limited by ripple injection parameter,
transformer and optocoupler response speed. Normally the performance can meet the
requirements of most applications.
Design a Flybuck Solution With Optocoupler to Improve Regulation Performance
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For design that requires higher cross-frequency, the basic method is to test loop with type
I compensation as basic reference. The required gain can be read from loop test result.
Then calculate the compensation demand according to design target as follows:
Phase compensation @required cross-frequency = current phase margin – phase
@current cross-frequency – phase created by type I compensation
After confirming the gain and phase requirement of compensation, choose compensation
network type and calculate required parameter to fit design target.
Figure 4.
3.3
Loop Test Result With Type I Compensation Network
LM5160 Flybuck With Optocoupler Schematic
Figure 5 shows flybuck with optocoupler schematic. FODM121A optocoupler and
LMV431A are used in this design. A 0.1-µF capacitor is added across LMV431A Ref and
cathode pin to ensure normal work. No preload is needed here because of secondary
output closed-loop control.
8
Design a Flybuck Solution With Optocoupler to Improve Regulation Performance
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Figure 5.
4
LM5160 Flybuck With Optocoupler Schematic
Test Result and Regulation Improvement
For better comparison of regulation performance, two boards are under evaluation, one
without optocoupler and the other with optocoupler.
4.1
Regulation Performance Improvement
Figure 6 and Figure 7 show load regulation performance of non-optocoupler and
optocoupler solution, respectively. Load regulation performance is improved significantly.
Figure 6.
Load Regulation: LM5160 Flybuck Without Optocoupler
Design a Flybuck Solution With Optocoupler to Improve Regulation Performance
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Figure 7.
10
Load Regulation: LM5160 Flybuck With Optocoupler
Design a Flybuck Solution With Optocoupler to Improve Regulation Performance
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Figure 8 and Figure 9 show input regulation performance of non-optocoupler and optocoupler solution,
respectively. With optocoupler feedback, input regulation performance improves.
Figure 8.
Figure 9.
Input Regulation: LM5160 Flybuck Without Optocoupler
Input Regulation: LM5160 Flybuck With Optocoupler
Design a Flybuck Solution With Optocoupler to Improve Regulation Performance
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4.2
Efficiency
For optocoupler solution, efficiency is shown in Figure 10. Up to 89.7% efficiency is
achieved with flybuck solution and higher than typical flyback solution.
Figure 10. Efficiency
4.3
Ripple
Figure 11 shows the output ripple, approximately 140 mV when VIN = 48 V, VOUT2 = 12 V,
IOUT2 = 1 A. In this design, secondary output capacitor value is 20 µF, and ripple
performance can be improved by increasing output capacitors to achieve higher
requirement.
Figure 11. Output Voltage Ripple (VIN = 48 V, VOUT2 = 12 V, IOUT2 = 1 A)
12
Design a Flybuck Solution With Optocoupler to Improve Regulation Performance
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4.4
Transient Performance
Figure 12 shows the transient test result. Test condition is VIN = 48 V, VOUT2 = 12 V, IOUT2 =
0.5-A to 1-A step with 0.1-A/us slew rate. In this design, loop analysis is not defined.
Transient performance can also be optimized to achieve higher requirement.
Figure 12. Transient Test (VIN = 48 V, VOUT2 = 12 V, IOUT2 = 0.5 A to 1 A, 0.1 A/µs Slew Rate)
5
Conclusion
An isolated flybuck design with LM5160 using optocoupler can achieve better regulation
performance. With optocoupler and compared with traditional isolated flyback solution,
flybuck topology has features like good regulation, higher frequency, smaller solution size,
and better efficiency. Experiment results verify that good regulation performance can be
achieved by using optocoupler in flybuck topology.
Reference
[1] LM5160 data sheet, SNVSA03, Texas Instruments data sheet
[2] LM5017: 100-V, 600-mA Constant On-Time Synchronous Buck, Texas Instruments
data sheet, SNVS783G, January 2012, revised December 2013
[3] Designing an Isolated Buck (Flybuck) Converter, Texas Instruments Application
Report, SNVA674B, August 2012, revised May 2013
[4] D-CAP™ Mode With All-Ceramic Output Capacitor Application, Texas Instruments
Application Report, SLVA453, February 2011
[5] Creating a Split-Rail Power Supply With a Wide Input Voltage Buck Regulator, Texas
Instruments Application Report, SLVA369, October 2009
Design a Flybuck Solution With Optocoupler to Improve Regulation Performance
13
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