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Texas Instruments Transient Response versus Ripple – An Analysis of Ripple Injection Techniques Application notes
Application Report
SLVA653 – April 2014
Transient Response versus Ripple – An Analysis of Ripple
Injection Techniques Used in Hysteretic Controllers
Dilip Mohol, Gitesh Bhagwat, Akshat Garg ..................................................................... SVA Power - SPD
ABSTRACT
In this application note we highlight the implications of ripple injection techniques, aimed at minimizing
output ripple voltage, on the transient response of a supply. The results help choose a suitable ripple
injection technique after striking a balance between the output ripple voltage and the transient response
required by the load.
1
2
3
4
5
Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 2
Hysteretic Controllers ....................................................................................................... 2
2.1
Constant On Time Control Scheme .............................................................................. 2
2.2
Ripple Injection Techniques ....................................................................................... 3
Test Results .................................................................................................................. 6
3.1
Impact of Ripple Injection Techniques on the Transient Response of the System ........................ 6
3.2
Case 1 : Resistance in Series with the Output Capacitor (ESR of output cap): ............................ 6
3.3
Case 2 : Feedforward Capacitor Connected Across Feedback Resistor.................................... 9
3.4
Case 3: Inductor Current Ripple Injection ...................................................................... 12
Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 14
References .................................................................................................................. 14
List of Figures
1
Hysteretic Control Scheme ................................................................................................. 2
2
Constant on Time (COT) scheme ......................................................................................... 3
3
Increasing Output Capacitor ESR to Increase the Feedback Ripple
4
Bypassing the Output Ripple Directly to the Feedback Pin - Reducing the Output Ripple ........................ 4
5
Ripple Injection Using the Inductor Current Ripple ...................................................................... 4
6
Summary of the Different Ripple Injection Techniques ................................................................. 5
7
Output Ripple (3-A Load Current) = 525 mV ............................................................................. 6
8
Load Transition (3 A to 1 A) – Overshoot = 650 mV .................................................................... 7
9
Load Transition (1 A to 3 A) – Undershoot = 420 mV
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
.................................................
3
................................................................. 7
Settling Time (Falling Current) = 32 µs ................................................................................... 8
Settling Time (Rising Current) = 45 µs .................................................................................... 8
Ripple Voltage (3-A Load) = 78 mV ....................................................................................... 9
Load Transition (3 A to 1 A) – Overshoot = 112 mV .................................................................... 9
Load Transition (1 A to 3 A) – Undershoot = 111 mV ................................................................. 10
Settling Time (Falling Current) = 46 µs .................................................................................. 10
Settling Time (Rising Current) = 47 µs .................................................................................. 11
Ripple Voltage (3-A Load Current) = 30 mV ............................................................................ 12
Load Current Rising (3 A to 1 A) – Overshoot = 320 mV ............................................................. 12
Falling Current (1 A to 3 A) – Undershoot = 320 mV .................................................................. 13
Settling time (Falling Edge): 102 µs ..................................................................................... 13
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1
Introduction
1
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Introduction
Power supply applications that expect ultra-fast transient response along with lower ripple are growing
today. So, there is an eminent need to use supplies that offer very fast transient responses, at the same
time maintaining the required output voltage ripple. Hysteretic-based feedback in the design of a Buck
switch mode supply is popular among customers especially for its simple control scheme. Many
modifications have been done by various IC manufactures in the hysteretic control scheme, for example,
the Constant On Time (COT) scheme used by TI.
Many techniques aim at injecting ripple in the feedback loop while minimizing the same in the final output
voltage as delivered to the load with a good degree of success.
However, this does adversely affect the transient response of the supply, an aspect often neglected by
amateur power supply designers.
2
Hysteretic Controllers
Of all the voltage regulator control strategies ever devised, the hysteretic regulator is probably the
simplest. This control methodology simply turns a switch on when the output voltage is below the lower
reference and turns the switch off when the output rises to a slightly higher reference. The output ripple is,
therefore, a direct function of the difference between the upper and lower reference threshold, that is, the
hysteresis amplitude.
In Figure 1, the switch is turned on when the feedback voltage falls below the lower threshold and is
turned off when the feeback voltage crosses the upper threshold.
This is a simple hysteretic control scheme which only uses the variation or ripple on the output voltage for
control. This results in variable frequency operation which is undesirable because of variable frequency of
radiated noise resulting in difficult filter design.
2.1
Constant On Time Control Scheme
A solution to this is the COT control scheme.
Figure 1. Hysteretic Control Scheme
In the COT scheme, as the name suggests, the ON time of the switch is made fixed (set by an external
resistor). Only the off time is determined by when the feedback voltage falls below the lower threshold.
The ON time is given as:
K ´ RON
TON =
VIN
(1)
Since this varies as 1/VIN, this ensures fixed frequency operation in CCM operation.
2
Transient Response versus Ripple – An Analysis of Ripple Injection
Techniques Used in Hysteretic Controllers
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This frequency is given as:
VOUT
FSW =
2 (K ´ RON )
(2)
Figure 2. Constant on Time (COT) scheme
COT offers several advantages:
1. Simple design
2. No compensation required
3. Excellent transient response as there is no error amplifier or compensation components in the
feedback loop to limit the bandwidth
2.2
Ripple Injection Techniques
The major disadvantage with this simple scheme is its dependence on the output ripple voltage. This can
be resolved by filtering out the ripple from the output but not the feedback path or generating a ripple from
the inductor itself.
A detailed discussion of the different ripple injection techniques that can be used in hysteric converters
follows:
1. Adding a series resistance Rc with the output capacitor. This, in effect, increases the ESR of the output
Capacitor.
Figure 3 shows a circuit with the Rc connected. Equation 3 is used to calculate the value of Rc:
Vripple ´ VOUT
RC min =
IL min´VREF
(3)
Where Vripple is the minimum ripple voltage required on the feedback pin.
This derives from the simple fact that the ripple voltage generated across the Rc is the inductor ripple
current times the resistance value. This gets scaled down by a factor of Vref/Vout due to the feedback
resistor divider.
Figure 3. Increasing Output Capacitor ESR to Increase the Feedback Ripple
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Hysteretic Controllers
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2. Adding a feed forward capacitor across the upper feedback resistor reduces the output ripple by
bypassing it directly to the FB pin.
Figure 4 shows a circuit with the Cff connected. Use Equation 4 to calculate the values of Cff:
5
Cff min =
éëFsw ´ (RFB1 / /RFB2 )ùû
(4)
Figure 4. Bypassing the Output Ripple Directly to the Feedback Pin - Reducing the Output Ripple
3. Adding an integrator circuit across the inductor.
Figure 5 shows a circuit with the components connected.
Figure 5. Ripple Injection Using the Inductor Current Ripple
The Rr and Cr form a triangular wave generator that provides desired information to the FB pin. It does
this by integrating the voltage across the inductor and coupling the resulting ac signal to the FB pin
through capacitor Cac.
4
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Techniques Used in Hysteretic Controllers
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The calculation of the values of Rr, Cr, and Cac are understood as:
Cr: The impedance of the integrator capacitor should be small compared to the feedback divider
impedance at the desired switching frequency. The impedance of the feedback network is the parallel
combination of Rfb1||Rfb2. The impedance of Cr at the switching frequency can be taken to be about
one tenth of this value.
Cr =
5 ´ (Rƒb1 + Rƒb2 )
p ´ (Fsw ´ Rfb1´Rfb2 )
(5)
Rr: Since VIN – VOUT is very large compared to the ripple voltage being produced, think of the resistor
Rr as being a current source. The current is simply (VIN – VOUT)/Rr.
A charging capacitor obeys the following: I/C = dV/dt. For VIN, based on the operation frequency and
duty cycle, the on time can be calculated, this is the dt. The dV term is the minimum required ripple,
and Cr is as calculated previously.
Solving for I and then equating it to (VIN – VOUT)/Rr, gives the value of Rr.
(Vin - Vout)
Rr =
Cr ´ Vripple ´ Fsw
(6)
Cac: The AC coupling cap should be 3 to 4 times larger than the integrator capacitor (Cr).
Cac = 4 × Cr
Figure 6. Summary of the Different Ripple Injection Techniques
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Test Results
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3
Test Results
3.1
Impact of Ripple Injection Techniques on the Transient Response of the System
As we have seen earlier in this document, one of the primary advantages of hysteretic controllers is the
excellent transient response as there are no compensation components in the feedback loop to limit the
bandwidth.
However, using ripple injection techniques introduces additional reactive components. This helps to
reduce the ripple, but has an impact on the transient response of the system.
To get a comparative overview, we use a hysteretic controller, LM5085, to measure the response of the
same system to the same load changes but with different injection techniques.
Figure 7 to Figure 20 give an idea of the settling time, output ripple, overshoot and undershoot for various
ripple injection configurations.
The test parameters used are:
VIN = 16 V
VOUT = 9 V
Load = 3 A to 1 A and 1 A to 3 A
3.2
Case 1 : Resistance in Series with the Output Capacitor (ESR of output cap):
Ch1: Output Ripple
Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 7. Output Ripple (3-A Load Current) = 525 mV
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Techniques Used in Hysteretic Controllers
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Test Results
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Ch1: Output Ripple
Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 8. Load Transition (3 A to 1 A) – Overshoot = 650 mV
Ch1: Output Ripple
Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 9. Load Transition (1 A to 3 A) – Undershoot = 420 mV
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Test Results
Ch1: Output Ripple
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Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 10. Settling Time (Falling Current) = 32 µs
Ch1: Output Ripple
Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 11. Settling Time (Rising Current) = 45 µs
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Techniques Used in Hysteretic Controllers
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Test Results
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3.3
Case 2 : Feedforward Capacitor Connected Across Feedback Resistor
Ch1: Output Ripple
Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 12. Ripple Voltage (3-A Load) = 78 mV
Ch1: Output Ripple
Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 13. Load Transition (3 A to 1 A) – Overshoot = 112 mV
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Test Results
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Ch1: Output Ripple
Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 14. Load Transition (1 A to 3 A) – Undershoot = 111 mV
Ch1: Output Ripple
Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 15. Settling Time (Falling Current) = 46 µs
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Transient Response versus Ripple – An Analysis of Ripple Injection
Techniques Used in Hysteretic Controllers
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Test Results
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Ch1: Output Ripple
Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 16. Settling Time (Rising Current) = 47 µs
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Test Results
3.4
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Case 3: Inductor Current Ripple Injection
Ch1: Output Ripple
Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 17. Ripple Voltage (3-A Load Current) = 30 mV
Ch1: Output Ripple
Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 18. Load Current Rising (3 A to 1 A) – Overshoot = 320 mV
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Transient Response versus Ripple – An Analysis of Ripple Injection
Techniques Used in Hysteretic Controllers
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Test Results
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Ch1: Output Ripple
Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 19. Falling Current (1 A to 3 A) – Undershoot = 320 mV
Ch1: Output Ripple
Ch2: Load Current
Ch3: Switch Node
Figure 20. Settling time (Falling Edge): 102 µs
From these test waveforms, we can conclude that the response of the system is fastest with just ESR of
the output capacitor. The use of a feed forward capacitor helps to optimize the transient response and
ripple. Whereas the inductor current ripple injection technique reduces the output ripple by the largest
value but also slows the transient response by the largest value.
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Conclusion
4
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Conclusion
Hysteretic control scheme is one the simplest buck control schemes. However its operation depends on
the output ripple. This requirement can be relaxed by introducing different ripple injection techniques
aimed at increasing the ripple voltage seen by the feedback pin.
However, these techniques have an impact on the transient response of the system.
From the test results we can conclude that the inductor-current ripple injection technique gives minimum
output ripple. But, it also leads to a slow transient response.
Whereas the feed forward Capacitor Cff technique strikes a balance between transient response and
output ripple voltage.
Adding ESR in series with Output Capacitor results in high Output ripple but fast transient response.
The conclusion is summarized in the below table:
Method
Increasing ESR of O/P Capacitor.
Bypassing O/P ripple to the FB pin.
Inductor Current ripple Injection.
Output Ripple
Transient Response
High
Fast
Medium
Medium
Low
Slow
These findings can be utilized for other COT Hysteretic controllers such as LM25085, LM3485, LM3489,
and so forth.
5
References
1. LM5085 datasheet (SNVS565)
2. Controlling Output Ripple & Achiev ESR Indep Constant On-Time Reg Designs Application Report
(SNVA166)
14
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Techniques Used in Hysteretic Controllers
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