Texas Instruments | LMZ31506 Parallel Operation | Application notes | Texas Instruments LMZ31506 Parallel Operation Application notes

Texas Instruments LMZ31506 Parallel Operation Application notes
Application Report
SNVA694 – JULY 2013
LMZ31506 Parallel Operation
Jason Arrigo ...................................................................................................... SVA - Simple Switcher
ABSTRACT
The LMZ31506 is a 2.95-V to 14.5-V input, 6-A output, integrated power solution which integrates the
PWM controller, power MOSFETs, inductor and passives in a low-profile, QFN package. For applications
requiring greater than 6 A, it is possible to parallel two or more LMZ31506 devices by following the
recommendations in this paper.
Current Sharing
The LMZ31506 is a peak current mode control device. In peak current mode control, the output voltage is
scaled down through a resistor divider and fed into the error amplifier where it is compared to a fixed
voltage reference. The output of the error amplifier is proportional to the device’s output current. The
output current information is available on the ISHARE pin (pin 5) of the LMZ31506. Connecting the
ISHARE pins of multiple LMZ31506 devices together allows current sharing. Other connections must also
be made between the devices. By connecting the ISHARE pins, multiple devices can share the current
information, allowing them to be paralleled (current share).
Parallel Operation Connections
When paralleling LMZ31506 devices several connections must be made between the devices. Figure 1
shows a typical schematic for paralleling two LMZ31506 devices.
47µF
VIN
PVIN
47µF
CSS
AGND
STSEL
VADJ
SS/TR
CSH
INH
Control
715 Ω
PWRGD
SENSE+
VOUT
LMZ31506
100µF
PGND
AGND
RRT
200kΩ
STSEL
100µF
RT/CLK
100µF 330µF
RSET
VADJ
5V
Voltage
Supervisor
SS/TR
RRT
200kΩ
100µF
INH/UVLO
ISHARE
Sync Freq
480KHz
VOUT
LMZ31506
RT/CLK
VO = 1.8V
SENSE+
INH/UVLO
ISHARE
220µF
PWRGD
VIN
PVIN
PGND
VIN = 12V
Figure 1. Typical LMZ31506 Parallel Schematic
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Parallel Connections
• Connect the VOUT pins of all devices together to operate as a single output.
• The output voltage is monitored at the SENSE+ connection. The SENSE+ connection must only be
made by one of the paralleled devices; the other device’s SENSE+ pins must be left open.
• The VADJ pin of all devices must be connected together to ensure all devices see the same feedback
voltage. The output voltage is set by connecting a single resistor (RSET) between the VADJ connection
and AGND. The RSET resistor value can be selected from Table 2 in the LMZ31506 (SNVS993)
datasheet.
• For proper current sharing, the ISHARE pin (pin 5) voltage of all devices must be equal. Connect the
ISHARE pins together directly.
• Connecting the SS/TR pins together ensures that all devices start-up together by sharing the same
slow start ramp voltage. The STSEL pins of all devices must be connected to AGND. To change the
SS rise time, additional capacitance must be added to the SS/TR pin of each device according to
Table 6 in the LMZ31506 (SNVS993) datasheet.
• The switching frequency of the devices must be the same to ensure proper current sharing and
operation. It is required to drive the RT/CLK pin of all devices with an external clock to ensure they
switch at the same frequency. The clock signal must be present before the devices are turned on. To
reduce input and output voltage ripple and to improve transient response, the devices can be driven
out of phase, at the same frequency.
• The INH/UVLO pins of the devices must be tied together. To enable and disable the output voltage, the
INH/UVLO pins must be controlled for all paralleled devices at the same time. It is recommended to
monitor the input voltage using a supervisor and control the turn-on and turn-off of the output in order
to ensure a clean and controlled power-up and power-down.
LMZ31506 Parallel Operating Conditions
When paralleling multiple LMZ31506 devices, the input voltage range and output voltage range is the
same as for a single device as specified in the datasheet. The amount of required output capacitance for a
single device listed in Table 3 of the datasheet (SNVS993) must be multiplied by the number of devices
being paralleled. The allowable synchronization frequencies are a function of Vin and Vout and can be
found in Table 7 of the datasheet (SNVS993). However, the combined output current must be de-rated as
described in Current Sharing Accuracy.
LMZ31506 Parallel Results
The results and waveforms presented in this report represent two devices in parallel, unless otherwise
stated. The waveforms were taken at 12-V input, 1.8-V output, 25°C ambient temperature, and
synchronized to a 480-kHz external clock. It is possible to parallel up to six devices with similar results, as
is presented here. However, close attention must be paid to board layout when paralleling multiple devices
to ensure clean inter-connecting signals.
ISHARE
For proper current sharing, the voltage on the ISHARE pin of all devices must be equal. Connect the
ISHARE pins of all devices together. The ISHARE connection must be routed in a way to keep this signal
as clean as possible. An optional capacitor (≤ 100 pF) can be added to the ISHARE pin of each device to
help filter the signal.
Synchronizing to an External Clock
In order to operate the LMZ31506 devices in parallel, it is required to synchronize all devices to an
external clock. The clock must be present before input power is applied, or before release of the INH
control. All devices must be synchronized to the same frequency, however, the devices can be driven out
of phase to reduce ripple voltage and improve transient response.
2
LMZ31506 Parallel Operation
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ON/OFF Control
It is recommended to turn-on and turn-off the paralleled devices by use of the Inhibit control, rather than
by the internal UVLO of the LMZ31506. Using a voltage supervisor, such as the TPS3808, to monitor the
input voltage and control the INH pins is recommended. The INH pins of the paralleled device should be
connected to one another to ensure a controlled ramp up and ramp down of the output voltage. By doing
this, it will avoid the slightly different UVLO turn-on and UVLO turn-off thresholds of the multiple devices.
Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the turn-on and turn-off of the output voltage using the INH control.
Figure 2. Start up Waveform (using INH)
Figure 3. Shut Down Waveform (using INH)
Undervoltage Lock-Out (UVLO)
The LMZ31506 has a UVLO circuit internal to the device. When paralleling multiple LMZ31506 devices,
the INH/UVLO pins of all modules must be connected together and the UVLO threshold must be set
externally with a resistor divider from the input voltage. The values of the resistors in the divider can be
selected from Table 8 of the LMZ31506 (SNVS993) datasheet; however, the resistor values shown in the
table must be divided by the number of modules being paralleled. It is recommended to set the UVLO
threshold to approximately 80% to 85% of the minimum expected input voltage.
Current Sharing Accuracy
When paralleling multiple LMZ31506 devices, the maximum output current the solution can provide must
be calculated using Equation 1. Due to internal variances between devices, the amount of output current
must be de-rated to ensure none of the devices operate above the maximum output current of a single
device (6 A). Figure 2 plots the typical output current per device of two paralleled devices. The X-axis is
the total output current of both devices combined.
Equation 1: IOUTmax = 0.9 × (n × 6) (A); where n is the number of LMZ31506 devices being paralleled.
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Figure 4. Typical Current Sharing Accuracy
Output Voltage Ripple
The output voltage ripple of two paralleled LMZ31506 modules is shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6. The
operating conditions for this waveform are Vin = 12 V, Vout = 1.8 V, Iout = 12 A, fsw = 480 kHz, Cout = 8
× 47-µF ceramic + 2 × 220-µF polymer tantalum. Also included in the waveform are the Phase nodes of
both devices. Figure 5 shows both devices switching in phase with one another. Figure 6 shows the
devices switching 180° out-of-phase with one another. By running out of phase the output voltage ripple is
reduced.
Figure 5. Output Voltage Ripple In-Phase
4
Figure 6. Output Voltage Ripple 180° Out-of-Phase
LMZ31506 Parallel Operation
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Input Voltage Ripple
The input voltage ripple of two paralleled LMZ31506 modules is shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8. The
operating conditions for this waveform are Vin = 12 V, Vout = 1.8 V, Iout = 12 A, fsw = 480 kHz, Cin = 4 ×
47-µF ceramic + 2 × 470-µF polymer tantalum. Also included in the waveform are the Phase nodes of
both devices. Figure 7 shows both devices switching in phase with one another. Figure 8 shows the
devices switching 180° out-of-phase with one another. By running out of phase the input voltage ripple is
reduced.
VIN
VIN
PH1
PH1
PH2
PH2
Ch1 10 V/div
Ch2 10 V/div
Ch3 20 mV/div
Time 1 µs/div
Figure 7. Input Voltage Ripple In-Phase
Ch1 10 V/div
Ch2 10 V/div
Ch3 20 mV/div
Time 1 µs/div
Figure 8. Input Voltage Ripple 180° Out-of-Phase
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Transient Response
The waveform shown in Figure 9 shows the transient response of two LMZ31506 devices operating in
parallel. The operating conditions for this waveform are Vin = 12 V, Vout = 1.8 V, fsw = 480 kHz; 180° outof-phase, Iout load step = 6 A (3 A to 9 A at 2.5 A/µs), Cout = 6 × 47-µF ceramic + 2 × 220-µF polymer
tantalum.
VOUT
50 mV
IOUT
Ch2 20 V/div
˙I
= 6 A (2.5 A/µs)
(3 A to 9 A)
Ch4 5.0 A/div
Time 200 µs/div
Figure 9. Transient Response (6-A load step)
Conclusion
By making the required connections between LMZ31506 devices and synchronizing the devices to the
same switching frequency, paralleled devices will operate and behave as a single stand-alone device with
increased output current capability. Controlling the turn-on and turn-off through the Inhibit function while a
valid input voltage is present, will ensure a proper ramp up and ramp down of the output voltage. By
following the guidelines included in this paper and referencing the LMZ31506 datasheet (SNVS993), up to
six LMZ31506 power modules can be paralleled for increased current applications.
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