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Texas Instruments Enabling Android Automotive on Your TI Development Board Application notes
Application Report
SPRACO0 – August 2019
Enabling Android Automotive on Your TI Development
Board
Joshua Allen Shafran and Praneeth Bajjuri
ABSTRACT
This application report walks you through the steps necessary to enable Android™ Automotive on your TI
development board.
The Android Automotive OS and Human-Machine Interface (HMI) provide users with a simplified interface
for accessing applications while on the road. The OS is an Android-based infotainment system that allows
for a vehicle-optimized, stand-alone Android device to be placed inside the head unit. In place of the
phone apps, users install driver-optimized versions of the app directly onto the console. This streamlined
experience enables the driver to perform efficient tasks, such as climate control, maps, phone, audio, and
so forth, in the convenience of their vehicle.
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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 2
Implementation ............................................................................................................... 4
2.1
Prerequisites......................................................................................................... 4
2.2
Software Changes .................................................................................................. 5
Deploy Instructions .......................................................................................................... 6
3.1
Build Instructions .................................................................................................... 6
3.2
Boot Instructions .................................................................................................... 7
Testing ........................................................................................................................ 8
4.1
Prerequisites/Setup for Automotive Testing ..................................................................... 8
4.2
Automotive Testing ................................................................................................. 9
Open Source ................................................................................................................. 9
Extending to a New Platform ............................................................................................. 10
Known Bugs................................................................................................................. 10
Future Work ................................................................................................................. 10
FAQ .......................................................................................................................... 11
References .................................................................................................................. 11
List of Figures
1
Home Screen for Tablet Configuration.................................................................................... 2
2
Start Screen for Automotive Configuration, Depicting a Car With PSI Information Near Tires .................... 2
3
“Let’s Drive” Interface for Automotive Configuration (allowing you to interact with applications by
selecting the icon in the middle) ........................................................................................... 3
4
Climate Control Interface for Automotive Configuration (allowing you to adjust temperature, fan speed
and direction, seat warmers, and so forth) ............................................................................... 3
5
Notification Pane for Automotive Configuration (presenting you with up-to-date notifications regarding
your vehicle) .................................................................................................................. 4
Trademarks
Android is a trademark of Google LLC.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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1
Introduction
1
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Introduction
This document shows the key differences between the standard (tablet) configuration and the Android
Automotive interface. The look and feel of the applications will differ in the sense that they will be specially
tuned towards an automotive experience. It also shows how to switch between the different target types
(tablet and automotive) at build time. The AM57xx BeagleBoard-X15 Sitara platform was used since this is
the only currently supported TI platform for development in the Android Open Source Project. The same
work accomplished on the AM57xx BeagleBoard-X15 can be extended to a new platform; the AM65x EVM
module is used as an example. Finally, the future work involved when enabling these features on a more
automotive-tuned platform once it’s available is discussed.
• By default, the TI development board will launch with a tablet user interface (UI).
Figure 1. Home Screen for Tablet Configuration
•
After creation of the automotive target on the TI development board, the following user interface will be
available.
Figure 2. Start Screen for Automotive Configuration, Depicting a Car With PSI Information Near Tires
2
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Introduction
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Figure 3. “Let’s Drive” Interface for Automotive Configuration (allowing you to interact with applications
by selecting the icon in the middle)
Figure 4. Climate Control Interface for Automotive Configuration (allowing you to adjust temperature, fan
speed and direction, seat warmers, and so forth)
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Implementation
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Figure 5. Notification Pane for Automotive Configuration (presenting you with up-to-date notifications
regarding your vehicle)
2
Implementation
2.1
Prerequisites
1. Check to make sure your setup meets the hardware and software requirements as given by Android.
2. Environment Setup:
a. Android Pastry Version: Pie (based on
http://git.ti.com/cgit/cgit.cgi/android/manifest.git/log/?h=pie-core-release)
b. Linux Kernel: ti-android-linux-4.19.y
c. Toolchain: gcc-arm-8.3-2019.03-x86_64-arm-linux-gnueabihf
3. Follow the steps provided in the Processor SDK Android 1.1 Getting Started Guide to install the
necessary components and 1.3 Building the SDK to prepare for development on the TI
microprocessor.
4. Establish your Build Environment for Android.
5. Ensure that your device meets the Automotive Requirements defined by the Android Compatibility
Definition Document.
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Implementation
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2.2
Software Changes
NOTE: Please change directory to your Android File System before continuing.
1. Changes inside device/ti/beagle_x15/AndroidProducts.mk:
a. These changes add a new lunch combo called “beagle_x15_auto-userdebug” and it’s path to the
relative top-level makefile.
PRODUCT_MAKEFILES += \
$(LOCAL_DIR)/beagle_x15.mk \
+
beagle_x15:$(LOCAL_DIR)/beagle_x15.mk \
+
beagle_x15_auto:$(LOCAL_DIR)/auto/beagle_x15.mk \
COMMON_LUNCH_CHOICES := \
beagle_x15-userdebug \
+
beagle_x15_auto-userdebug \
2. Changes inside device/ti/beagle_x15/BoardConfig.mk:
a. Conditional is needed to differentiate the content that is included depending on the
TARGET_PRODUCT (macro set by lunch combo).
b. DEVICE_MANIFEST_FILE adds the auto-specific manifest file to the build.
BOARD_SEPOLICY_DIRS += \
device/ti/beagle_x15/sepolicy
+ifeq ($(TARGET_PRODUCT), beagle_x15_auto)
+BOARD_SEPOLICY_DIRS += \
+
packages/services/Car/car_product/sepolicy
+
+DEVICE_MANIFEST_FILE += device/ti/beagle_x15/auto/manifest.xml
+endif
3. Create an auto directory inside of device/ti/beagle_x15.
NOTE: The following steps will all be completed inside the device/ti/beagle_x15/auto directory.
4. Create a top-level makefile for the "beagle_x15_auto-userdebug" lunch combo.
a. The top-level makefiles are inherited to include all necessary components
(PRODUCT_PACKAGES, PRODUCT_COPY_FILES, PRODUCT_PROPERTY_OVERRIDES, and
so forth) to enable desired features.
i. auto/device.mk and car.mk are crucial to enabling all automotive-specific features.
ii. The content inside the car.mk, the common makefile for all car builds, can be found here.
iii. car.mk then inherits car_base.mk, the base platform for car builds, whose content can be
found here.
iv. Inside car_base.mk, the auto-specific PRODUCT_PROPERTY_OVERLAYS are added to
customize the product at build time.
b. Insert the following content:
$(call
$(call
$(call
$(call
inherit-product,
inherit-product,
inherit-product,
inherit-product,
device/ti/beagle_x15/device.mk)
device/ti/beagle_x15/auto/device.mk)
$(SRC_TARGET_DIR)/product/full_base.mk)
packages/services/Car/car_product/build/car.mk)
PRODUCT_NAME := beagle_x15_auto
PRODUCT_DEVICE := beagle_x15
PRODUCT_BRAND := Android
PRODUCT_MODEL := AOSP Auto on BeagleBoard X15
PRODUCT_MANUFACTURER := Texas Instruments Inc
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Deploy Instructions
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5. Create the device.mk to declare the auto-specific files and modules needed for the device.
a. The android.hardware.automotive.vehicle@2.0-service PRODUCT_PACKAGE is the Android
Automotive hardware abstraction layer (HAL), which is the interface definition between the car and
the vehicle network service.
b. The frameworks/../../../android.hardware.type.automotive.xml PRODUCT_COPY_FILE determines
that the Android device implementation is classified as “Automotive”.
c. Insert the following content:
PRODUCT_PACKAGES += \
android.hardware.automotive.vehicle@2.0-service \
PRODUCT_COPY_FILES += \
frameworks/native/data/etc/android.hardware.type.automotive.xml:$(TARGET_COPY_OUT_VENDOR)/etc/p
ermissions/android.hardware.type.automotive.xml \
frameworks/native/data/etc/android.hardware.screen.landscape.xml:$(TARGET_COPY_OUT_VENDOR)/etc/
permissions/android.hardware.screen.landscape.xml \
PRODUCT_PROPERTY_OVERRIDES += \
android.car.drawer.unlimited=true \
android.car.hvac.demo=true \
com.android.car.radio.demo=true \
com.android.car.radio.demo.dual=true \
6. Create the manifest.xml to provide the HAL(s) specific to automotive.
a. Beagle_x15 requires the android.hardware.automotive.vehicle inclusion to define the product as
automotive.
b. Insert the following content:
<manifest version="1.0" type="device">
<hal format="hidl">
<name>android.hardware.automotive.vehicle</name>
<transport>hwbinder</transport>
<version>2.0</version>
<interface>
<name>IVehicle</name>
<instance>default</instance>
</interface>
</hal>
</manifest>
3
Deploy Instructions
3.1
Build Instructions
1. Change directory to your Android File System.
2. To setup your build environment, run the following script:
$ . ./build/envsetup.sh
3. To view the “lunch” menu and select a combo (TARGET_PRODUCT):
$ lunch
4. Select the desired TARGET_PRODUCT (<board>_auto-userdebug).
5. Export the path to your Kernel directory:
$ export KERNELDIR=<path_to_kernel_directory>
6. Build:
$ make -j<number_of_cores>
6
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3.2
Boot Instructions
1. Once build is complete, prepare your eMMC binaries and images:
a. Make a copy of the prebuilt-images directory to be used as a working directory for flashing.
NOTE: Review the <Android_FS>/device/ti/<board>/fastboot.sh for exact images to copy into
flashing directory.
AM5
cd ~/ti-processor-sdk-android-beagle_x15-<version>/board-support/
cp -rv prebuilt-images emmc_files
cp -v ./aosp<version>/out/target/product/beagle_x15/{boot.img,boot_fit.img,recovery.img,system.img,userdata
.img,vendor.img} emmc_files
cp -v ./aosp-<version>/device/ti/beagle_x15/fastboot.sh emmc_files
cp -v ./aosp-<version>/out/host/linux-x86/bin/{simg2img,mkbootimg,fastboot,adb} emmc_files
cp -v ./linux-<version>/arch/arm/boot/zImage emmc_files/zImage-beagle_x15.bin
cp -v ./linux-<version>/arch/arm/boot/dts/am57*.dtb emmc_files
cp -v ./u-boot-<version>/MLO emmc_files
cp -v ./u-boot-<version>/u-boot.img emmc_files
AM6
cd ~/ti-processor-sdk-android-am65xx-evm-<version>/board-support/
cp -rv prebuilt-images emmc_files
cp -v ./aosp<version>/out/target/product/am65xevm/{boot_fit.img,system.img,userdata.img,vendor.img}
emmc_files
cp -v ./aosp-<version>/device/ti/am65xevm/fastboot.sh emmc_files
cp -v ./aosp-<version>/out/host/linux-x86/bin/{simg2img,mkbootimg,fastboot,adb} emmc_files
cp -v ./aosp-<version>/out/host/linuxx86/lib64/{libc++.so,libcutils.so,liblog.so,libselinux.so,libpcre2.so} emmc_files
cp -v ./u-boot_build/a53/u-boot.img emmc_files
cp -v ./u-boot_build/a53/tispl.bin emmc_files
cp -v ./u-boot_build/r5/tiboot3.bin emmc_files
2. Ensure the device is plugged in with USB Host and Debug UART/Serial Debug.
3. Open a terminal debugger to view console output from the device (dmesg: kernel ring buffer, logcat:
log of system messages):
$ sudo picocom -b 115200 /dev/ttyUSB0
4. Enable fastboot on the device through the terminal debugger:
=> fastboot 0
5. In a different terminal, change directory to emmc_files and run the fastboot.sh script:
$ cd ~/ti-processor-sdk-android-<board>-<version>/board-support/emmc_files
$ sudo ./fastboot.sh; sudo ./fastboot reboot
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Testing
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4
Testing
4.1
Prerequisites/Setup for Automotive Testing
4.1.1
Compatibility Test Suite (CTS)
Runs on your desktop and executes a series of test cases on the connected device(s).
The intent is to reveal incompatibilities or malfunctions, ensure API compatibility and Android
Compatibility Definition Document (CDD) compliance while developing the automotive configuration
and additional related software components (Overview of CTS).
1. Desktop machine setup:
a. Ensure the latest versions of both Android Debug Bridge (adb) and Android Asset Packaging Tool
(AAPT) are installed and those tools’ location(s) are added to the system path of your machine:
•
•
$ sudo apt-get install adb aapt
NOTE: The SDK should already come with adb and aapt so the above command will either
update/upgrade them or return the message:
•
“aapt is already the newest version <version_number>”
•
“adb is already the newest version <version_number>”
b. Download the CTS packages matching your devices’ Android version and the Application Binary
Interfaces (ABIs) your devices support.
c. Unzip the CTS packages inside of ~/ti-processor-sdk-android-<board>-<version>/boardsupport/emmc_files:
$ cd ~/ti-processor-sdk-android-<board>-<version>/board-support/emmc_files
$ unzip ~/Downloads/android-cts-<version>.zip .
d. You may need to override the ro.product.first_api_level property in order to ensure upgrade
requirements are applied.
i. Find the valid override values on Codenames, Tags, and Build Numbers.
ii. The following would be done inside the relative device.mk file:
PRODUCT_PROPERTY_OVERRIDES += ro.product.first_api_level=<valid_override_value>
4.1.2
Vendor Test Suite (VTS)
• Used for automated HAL and OS Kernel testing.
– Complete the steps given at Systems Testing with VTS.
8
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Testing
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4.2
Automotive Testing
4.2.1
Compatibility Test Suite (CTS)
1. Running CTS Tests:
a. While inside the ~/ti-processor-sdk-android-<board>-<version>/board-support/emmc_files directory,
run the following commands:
$ cd android-cts/tools
$ sudo ./cts-tradefed
b. Ensure that the Device Under Test (DUT) is found when launching cts-tradefed.
i. The following output should be seen:
Android Compatibility Test Suite [Version] (5550264)
Use "help" or "help all" to get more information on running commands.
[Date] [Time] I/DeviceManager: Detected new device #
cts-tf >
NOTE: The following commands will all be completed inside the ~/ti-processor-sdk-android<board>-<version>/board-support/emmc_files directory.
ii. If the above message is not seen, run the following command:
$ sudo ./adb devices
iii. If your device does not show up here, run the following commands:
$ sudo ./adb kill-server
$ sudo ./adb start-server
iv. Run the following command:
$ sudo ./adb devices
v. If your device still does not show up, reboot the device and retry the above steps.
c. Once the DUT is found, continue.
i. CtsCarTestCases will run car-specific test cases:
cts-tf > run cts --module CtsCarTestCases
d. "cts-tf > list modules" will list all modules and "cts-tf > list plans" will list all plans.
e. To exit CTS, "cts-tf > exit".
2. Test Results:
a. Located in android-cts/results/<time_stamp>:
~/ti-processor-sdk-android-<board>-<version>/board-support/emmc_files$ cd androidcts/results/<time_stamp>.
4.2.2
Vendor Test Suite (VTS)
1. Running VTS Tests:
~$ vts-tradefed
a. The full list of plans can be found here.
vts-tf > list plans
b. We are interested in the vts-hal-auto, described as the "VTS automotive vehicle HAL test":
vts-tf > run vts-hal-auto
2. Test Results:
a. Path should be given on completion of test:
~$ cd <Android_FS>/out/host/linux-x86/vts/android-vts/results/<time_stamp>
5
Open Source
Automotive feature enablement on AM57xx BeagleBoard-X15 is merged to Android Open Source Project.
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Extending to a New Platform
6
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Extending to a New Platform
The work that was completed on the AM57xx BeagleBoard-X15 in the Implementation → Software
Changes section can be extended to new platforms. The AM65x EVM is used as an example here. The
differences between what was given in Implementation → Software Changes and what is used for
AM65x EVM are as follows:
• Automotive feature enablement on AM65x EVM is merged to Texas Instruments Pie Repository
7
Known Bugs
NOTE: These are known issues and may be resolved in the future depending on their impacts.
1. Sepolicy output while the device is running:
~/ti-processor-sdk-android-<board>-<version>/boardsupport/emmc_files$ sudo ./adb shell dmesg | grep denied | audit2allow p <Android_FS>/out/target/product/beagle_x15/obj/ETC/sepolicy_intermediates/sepolicy
a. May see the following:
#============== carservice_app ==============
allow carservice_app runtime_event_log_tags_file:file map;
#============== hal_vehicle_default ==============
allow hal_vehicle_default node:tcp_socket node_bind;
allow hal_vehicle_default self:tcp_socket { accept bind create listen };
b. These cannot be resolved at this time due to SEPolicy neverallow.
2. Power manager service is failing.
a. May see the following errors:
E CarPowerManagerNative: Received unknown bootReason = 0
E PowerTestService: ERROR: Could not read bootReason!!
3. CTS test_result_failures.html output when tested on pie-core-release branch with an AM57xx
BeagleBoard-X15 and an AM65x EVM.
• test_result_failures.html returned one failed test.
– android.car.cts.CarBluetoothTest#testRequiredBluetoothProfilesExist
• Details:
– java.lang.NullPointerException: Attempt to invoke virtual method ‘boolean
android.bluetooth.BluetoothAdapter.disable()’ on a null object reference
• This is expected since the AM57xx BeagleBoard-X15 and AM65x EVM do not natively support
bluetooth at this time.
8
Future Work
•
•
10
Enable Android Auto Human-Machine Interface on new automotive-tuned TI platforms.
Migrate to Android Q Pastry Version:
– Add multiple hardware display support:
• Interactive: Individual input mapping, decorative elements and IME (soft keyboard)
• Driver: Main IVI display with all UX restrictions applied
• Passenger: Add support for more types of apps and individual launchers for each screen
– Multiple users with “headless” system, where a user is not associated with a real user and does not
have a lock screen.
– Multi-zone Audio:
• A zone is a collection of audio devices and each user device can only be in one zone.
• Within each zone, audio usage determines which device the audio is routed to.
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FAQ
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9
FAQ
Question: What is important about this topic?
Answer: This topic allows the entire Android Open Source community to benefit from an additional
feature: Android Automotive on all currently supported Texas Instruments ARM32B and ARM64B
platforms, including AM57xx BeagleBoard-X15 and AM65x EVM. Android Automotive will also be
applicable to all new automotive-tuned TI platforms.
Question: Who is the intended end user?
Answer: The intended end user(s) include the Automotive Business Unit for Digital Cockpit
implementation targeted at infotainment customers who need a graphically rich user interface with an
Android extensive app store on a Texas Instruments digital application processor.
Question: When will this document be used?
Answer: This document is intended to implement Android Automotive on any application processor that is
designed to showcase and use the functionality of Android.
10
References
•
•
•
Jacinto 6 EVM on d-oreo-mr1-release: Changes for defining auto platform
Google Cuttlefish Auto (cf_x86_64_auto-userdebug)
AOSP Generic Car (aosp_car_x86_64-userdebug)
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