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Texas Instruments Designing Thermostats With CC3220 SimpleLink Single-Chip Wi-Fi MCU SoC Application notes
Application Report
SWAA168 – October 2017
Designing Thermostats With CC3220 SimpleLink™
Single-Chip Wi-Fi® MCU System-on-Chip
ABSTRACT
According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), 41% of all US residential energy cost is
spent on heating and cooling. The average energy cost has increased by 4% (over the last 10 years), and
the upward trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. This increase in energy cost is
pushing end equipment manufacturers to find ways to lower energy consumption, which can benefit
homeowners. Though programmable thermostats have been used for many years, a study has shown that
fewer than 15% of homeowners actually program their thermostats.
A smart thermostat has advanced capabilities to learn user behaviors, which provide energy savings
(estimated to be from 15 to 25%) by automatically adjusting the temperature, thus eliminating the need for
users to program the thermostat. The smart thermostat also serves other functionalities external to the
HVAC system by providing the following:
• Connectivity
• Remote control and programmability
• Energy usage monitoring
• Home gateway access
Many smart thermostats use Wi-Fi® for connectivity through cloud. This application report is presented for
enabling customers to create a low-power, connected-MCU based thermostat that can link a variety of
sensors and securely connect to the cloud and provide remote monitoring and control.
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Contents
Introduction ...................................................................................................................
Smart Thermostat Features and Generic Use Cases...................................................................
Smart Thermostat Development Resources With the CC3220 Device ...............................................
Summary ......................................................................................................................
References and Related Collateral ........................................................................................
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Trademarks
SimpleLink, LaunchPad, SmartConfig, CapTIvate, E2E, BoosterPack are trademarks of Texas
Instruments.
Amazon Web Services is a trademark of Amazon Web Services, Inc.
HomeKit is a trademark of Apple Inc.
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Inc.
Arm, Cortex are registered trademarks of Arm Limited (or its affiliates).
Bluetooth is a registered trademark of Bluetooth SIG, Inc.
IBM Watson is a registered trademark of IBM Corporation.
Azure is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Microsoft is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation.
Wi-Fi CERTIFIED is a trademark of Wi-Fi Alliance.
Wi-Fi, Wi-Fi Alliance are registered trademarks of Wi-Fi Alliance.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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1
Introduction
1
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Introduction
Smart thermostats come with a variety of features to enable maximum comfort with energy savings, along
with ease of use for setup and operation. Figure 1 shows some advanced use cases and features for
smart thermostats.
R
°C
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Cloud
Sub-1 GHz
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R
R
R
°C
%
Sub-1 GHz
Zone
Temperature
Cloud
Connectivity
Remote
Program and
Control
Geofencing
Voice
Based
In-Home
Control
Copyright © 2017, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Figure 1. Smart Thermostat Ecosystem
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Smart Thermostat Features and Generic Use Cases
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2
Smart Thermostat Features and Generic Use Cases
With connectivity to the internet and cloud services, it is easy to realize many use cases that are not
possible with conventional programmable thermostats. Use cases and general considerations for the
essential smart thermostat are briefly explained in the following.
2.1
Ease of Setup and Control
Primary necessities of a smart thermostat are ease of setup and control. Ease of configuration and
connection to the internet are crucial, which enable remote configurability and monitoring of smart
thermostats through cloud connectivity. The algorithms in the cloud can provide tips on energy saving as
well as provide a wide range of analytics for self-learning (understand the user behavior, learn about the
home setup, adjust to comfort settings as occupant approaches).
Smart thermostats can also compare the history energy usage of others in the neighborhood to provide
information about the pattern of energy consumption. With HomeKit™ hardware and software technology,
end equipment manufactures can easily connect their thermostat to any Apple® device. Other software
plugins [for example, Amazon Web Services™ (AWS), Microsoft® Azure™, and IBM Watson®] are
provided, which enable connection to other cloud and internet services. A host of internet protocols are
also provided:
• MQTT
• HTTP
• HTTPS
• DHCP
• SSH
• TLS/SSL
• SMTP
• SNMP
2.2
Security
Security is an important consideration for all devices connected to the internet of things (IoT). Because the
IoT device is a connected device by nature, it can be a gateway to malicious access and sensitive
information (for example: control over actuator, user settings, user network information, and so on).
In addition to network security, local area network (LAN) security and physical device level security are
also required. The devices used in IoT applications also must prevent application code tampering, they
must provide cloning protection to the application code, and allow the thermostat manufacturer to protect
the investment of their software intellectual property.
2.3
Remote Control and Monitoring
Remote control and monitoring provide an easy-to-use interface for end users to monitor energy usage
and adjust the settings as needed. The thermostat can also be controlled in the home through local Wi-Fi
connectivity using mDNS. Some thermostats are also equipped with Bluetooth® and Bluetooth low energy
(BLE) to provide additional interface options for in-home control and provisioning.
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Smart Thermostat Features and Generic Use Cases
2.4
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Geofencing
The user’s phone location information is used to define geographical boundaries in geofencing, so a smart
thermostat can determine how close to home the user is located. Based on this location information, the
smart thermostat can then provide additional comfort by turning on the heating or cooling system before
the user arrives at home. These operations require periodic internet and cloud connectivity. For battery
powered thermostats, it is essential to implement smarter ways to connect to the internet without
significantly affecting the battery life.
2.5
Voice Activation
Voice activation allows for adjustment of thermostat settings through voice control by the user. The
thermostat can detect a trigger phrase and perform the rest of the voice processing in the cloud. This
feature enables control of the smart thermostat within the home through simple voice commands.
2.6
Zone Temperature Sensing and Control
Traditionally, the thermostat with the ambient temperature sensor was placed only in the main room.
Because the temperature of the whole house was controlled using only the sensor readings from the room
where the thermostat was located, hot and cold regions were created in other rooms as a result.
The newer features of zone temperature sensing and control can provide additional information for
temperature in each room of the house. The smart thermostat uses occupancy detection from remote
rooms to maximize the comfort level for all rooms. Each of the zones can be controlled more efficiently
through the availability of controllable dampers. Zone sensor nodes can be connected to the thermostat
with Bluetooth low energy or Sub-1 GHz.
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Smart Thermostat Development Resources With the CC3220 Device
To achieve the intended functionality, most available smart thermostats on the market today use a
microprocessor control unit (MCU) and a separate Wi-Fi device. To reduce both the bill of materials
(BOM) and the power requirements for smart thermostat devices, a single-chip MCU plus Wi-Fi solution
with rich features is a requirement. Additionally, there is a greater need for single-chip Wi-Fi system-onchip (SoC) devices because more low-end and mid-range programmable thermostats are moving toward
becoming internet-connected thermostats. The CC3220 SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ device from
Texas Instruments is a single-chip MCU with Wi-Fi that is designed to fill this need.
The CC3220 device is a dual-core wireless MCU. The embedded Wi-Fi Network Processor (Wi-Fi NWP)
contains all the Wi-Fi and internet protocols. A separate, dedicated Arm® Cortex®-M4 processor is
available for application development. The SimpleLink CC3220 device also offers the SimpleLink™
Software Development Kit (SDK) with many ready-to-use features, examples, and Plug-ins (cloud
connectivity, HomeKit, Power Management, and so on) to reduce the development effort for system
developers.
Customers can use the SimpleLink™ CC3220 LaunchXL LaunchPad™ Development Kit for all initial
development and Wi-Fi performance evaluation. The LaunchPad (LP) also serves as the hardware
platform to develop proof-of-concept designs before initiating the production design. The SimpleLink SDK
provides the software drivers and code examples that illustrate critical features required for the smart
thermostat. End equipment developers can easily realize these features with the SimpleLink CC3220
device.
4
Designing Thermostats With CC3220 SimpleLink™ Single-Chip Wi-Fi® MCU
System-on-Chip
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Figure 2 shows a typical system block diagram for the smart thermostat using the CC3220 device.
Sub-1 GHz
MSP430FR2633
CapTIvate
CC135x
24VAC
SPI
2XAA
I2C
UART
Analog Sensors
Ex CO2
ADC
VDD
MCU
HVAC/
Boiler
ADC
I2C
1MB Flash
Relays
Sensor
Controller
Sensor Data Aggregation and Gateway
Wi-Fi
NWP
Power
Management
BLE NWP
ADC
Control
C5x DSP
GPIO
CC3220
UART/I2S
DAC
ADC
ADC
Connected Thermostat
MCU
(optional)
Voice Triggering and Recognition
Copyright © 2017, Texas Instruments Incorporated
Figure 2. Block Diagram of the Thermostat Design Based on CC3220 Wi-Fi and MCU SoC
The smart thermostat features can be addressed with the CC3220 device in the following ways:
• Ease of Setup and Control
By using CC3220 device, connection to Wi-Fi is made easy with a variety of provisioning methods
(SmartConfig™ technology, Access Point (AP) Mode, and Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 [WPA2]). These
provisioning methods are explained in detail with both code examples and documentation (see the
CC3120, CC3220 SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi Internet-on-a chip™ Solution Device Provisioning application
report). The easy-to-use defined APIs provide both secure and nonsecure connection to the access
point and to the internet.
Additionally, the CC3220 device provides support for HomeKit, AWS, Azure, and IBM cloud servers,
and a host of internet protocols (see Section 2.1) to connect to the other cloud and internet services.
The SimpleLink SDK also includes code examples for cloud Over the Air (OTA) for end equipment
manufactures to update the software on the thermostat after it is deployed to the field. The TI
Resource Explorer has several examples to illustrate the complete OTA update mechanism, MQTT
client and server.
• Security
Security is an important consideration for all connected IoT devices. The SimpleLink CC3220 device is
designed to provide security at several exposure points—internet network level security, local network
level security, and protection against physical access and tampering.
To provide additional security, the CC3220 device has two separate execution environments for
application and network connectivity.
– At the internet security level, the CC3220 device provides:
• Standard compliant secure sockets layer (SSL) [SSLv3] and transport layer security (TLS)
[TLS1.0, TLS1.1, TLS1.2]
• Domain name verification
• Secure content delivery
• Device-unique identifiers
• Personal and enterprise Wi-Fi security to provide communication security at the network layer
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Smart Thermostat Development Resources With the CC3220 Device
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www.ti.com
– At the local network connectivity level, the Wi-Fi Alliance® has regulated security and compliance
tests as part of its standard. The CC3220 device is a Wi-Fi CERTIFIED device that complies with
the security requirements (for more details about the Wi-Fi certifications, see the Transfer of TI’s
Wi-Fi® Alliance Certifications to CC3x00- and CC3x20-Based Products Using the WFA Derivative
Certification Policy application report).
– At the device level or physical access level, the CC3220 device provides:
• IP protection
• File system security by means of encryption
• File system integrity
• Cloning protection
For more details about the security options in the CC3220 device, see the SimpleLink™ CC3120,
CC3220 Wi-Fi® Internet-on-a chip™ Solution Built-In Security Features application report.
Low Power
Low power is required for battery operated thermostats. Depending on the use cases, the system
designers can choose to use Intermittently connected or Always connected modes of operation. Both
the application MCU and network processor (NWP) can independently maintain separate power states.
This feature allows each subsystem to independently handle low-power mode. For example: when the
MCU and other peripherals are in sleep mode, the network connection can still be maintained.
Additionally, TI’s proprietary network learning algorithm can learn the AP behavior and further increase
the sleep interval without dropping the connection. For more details about the power management
schemes and recommendations for power savings, see SimpleLink™ CC3120, CC3220 Wi-Fi®
Internet-on-a chip™ Networking Subsystem Power Management. The Network learning algorithm is
tested with >210 access points, and this interoperability ensures high confidence on worldwide
deployment.
Environment Sensor Interfaces
The CC3220 device provides both analog and digital sensor interfaces. The 4-channel ADC can be
used for analog sensors, and I2C can be used for all digital sensor interfaces. The code example
provided by SimpleLink™ Academy (Sample application to read temperature value from a TMP006 I2C
temperature sensor) shows how to interface the temperature sensor over I2C. For details about the
appropriate selection of the type of temperature sensor, see the What are you sensing? Pros and cons
of four temperature sensor types blog.
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•
•
•
•
•
Human Machine Interface (HMI)
A key feature is providing the thermostat users with an HMI. The HMI display is used to indicate the
following and more:
– Current room temperature
– Local weather
– Local time
– Mode (heating or cooling)
– Fan speed
– Wi-Fi connectivity indication
– Humidity
– Air quality
Most thermostats on the market today have a minimal display along with buttons for programming.
However, the trend is to replace the buttons with a touch screen. The touch and display can be
developed using the Kentec QVGA Display BoosterPack™ (for more detailed information, see the
technical documents for display booster pack). The on-chip SPI in the CC3220 device can be used to
interface with the display. The touch-button functionality can be designed using the MSP CapTIvate™
MCU Development Kit. The number of buttons can be configured and customized as needed.
Voice Triggering and Cloud-Based Voice Recognition
One microphone can be connected to the ADC line of the CC3220 device to provide speakerdependent voice recognition. In this solution, the user can program recognizable words and the
application is designed to perform a specific action based on the words spoken by the user. In addition,
the programmed word or words are used as trigger phrases. The voice commands following the trigger
phrase are sent to the cloud for transcription, thus generating actions based on the transcription.
In another demo, the same functionality is achieved with four microphones and a DSP (TMS320C5517
or TMS320C5545) to process the voice with beam forming and noise suppression. The implementation
with the DSP is currently available as a demo (see the Voice Triggering and Processing with Cloud
Connection to IBM Watson Reference Design).
Additional Support for Bluetooth low energy and Sub-1 GHz
To add remote sensor nodes for different rooms and zones, Bluetooth low energy or Sub-1 GHz
technology can be added to the thermostat. TI's SimpleLink family of devices provides for both
Bluetooth low energy and Sub-1 GHz (CC1350) technologies. For this use case, the thermostat
functions as the gateway to interface with zone temperature sensors using Bluetooth low energy or
Sub-1 GHz technologies. An example of using the CC3220 device as a gateway is explained in the
Bluetooth Smart to Wi-Fi IoT Gateway Reference Design.
Proximity and Occupancy Sensing
Proximity sensing enables the display to turn on from sleep mode when a user is nearby the
thermostat. The Smart Backlight Control by White LED Driver, Ambient Light, and Proximity Sensor
Reference Design explains the same using the MSP430FR5969 device. This example can be ported to
the CC3220 platform.
Also, following TI Design Thermopile-Based Occupancy Detector for People Counting Applications
Reference Design provides a people-counting example using IR sensors.
Power Supply and HVAC Interface
Thermostats using 24-V AC as the power source must convert the voltage to make it suitable for the
power requirements of the CC3220 device. This is provided as TI Design 24-V AC Power Stage With
Wide Vin Converter and Battery Gauge Reference Design for Smart Thermostats. Another TI Design
covers the section for relay interface to HVAC system.
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Summary
4
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Summary
The SimpleLink CC3220 wireless MCU device provides a System-on-Chip functionality for embedded IoT
end equipment design and applications. With complete Wi-Fi Networking capability embedded in the
Network Processor and an ample amount of memory (1MB integrated flash and 256KB RAM), the featurerich CC3220 device makes the perfect platform to realize the smart thermostat. With a host of design
examples and documentation, it is easy for developers to bring down the development time and cost.
5
References and Related Collateral
The resources available with the CC3220 device are as follows:
Product Pages
• SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi® main page
• SimpleLink™ CC3220 Wireless MCU main page
• TI E2E™™ Support Community
• SimpleLink™ MCU Platform
Development Hardware and BoosterPack™
• SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi® CC3220SF Wireless Microcontroller LaunchPad™ Development Kit
• Kentec QVGA Display BoosterPack™
• Sensors BoosterPack™ Plug-In Module
• Audio Signal Processing BoosterPack™ Plug-In Module
• CC2650EM-7ID Reference Design
Software
• SimpleLink™ SDK
• SimpleLink™ SDK Resource Explorer
• Code Examples – Provisioning
• Code Examples – Cloud OTA
• Code Examples – Mqtt Client Server
• Code Examples – Sensor Interface
Companion Products
• CC1350 SimpleLink™ Ultra-Low Power Dual Band Wireless Microcontroller
• TMS320C5517 Fixed-Point Digital Signal Processor
TI
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•
•
•
•
Designs
Bluetooth® Smart to Wi-Fi® IoT Gateway – LaunchPad™/BoosterPack™ Approach
MSP CapTIvate™ MCU Development Kit
Thermopile-Based Occupancy Detector for People Counting Applications Reference Design
Smart Backlight Control by White LED Driver, Ambient Light, and Proximity Sensor Reference Design
24-V AC Power Stage With Wide Vin Converter and Battery Gauge Reference Design for Smart
Thermostat
• Isolated Self-Powered AC Solid State Relay With MOSFETs Reference Design
Blogs
• MCUs can recognize what you say
• What are you sensing? Pros and cons of four temperature sensor types
• CC3220 Security Blog: Strengthening Wi-Fi security at the hardware level
8
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Application Notes
• CC3120, CC3220 SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi Internet-on-a chip™ Solution Device Provisioning
• SimpleLink™ CC3120, CC3220 Wi-Fi® Internet-on-a chip™ Solution Built-In Security Features
• SimpleLink™ CC3120, CC3220 Wi-Fi® Internet-on-a chip™ Networking Subsystem Power
Management
Videos
• SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi® integrated security features
• SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi® CC3220 and CC3120 Product Overview
• Introducing the SimpleLink™ MCU platform
• 100 percent code reuse with SimpleLink™ MCU platform SDK
• Other videos are also available at the bottom of the SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi® family Wireless MCUs and
Network Processors overview page.
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