Texas Instruments | Plastic Ball Grid Array [PBGA] Application Note (Rev. B) | Application notes | Texas Instruments Plastic Ball Grid Array [PBGA] Application Note (Rev. B) Application notes

Texas Instruments Plastic Ball Grid Array [PBGA] Application Note (Rev. B) Application notes
Application Report
SSZA002B–August 2009–Revised August 2015
Plastic Ball Grid Array (PBGA)
SSZA002B – August 2009 – Revised August 2015
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Plastic Ball Grid Array (PBGA)
1
1
SSZA002B – August 2015
1.0 Introduction:
The Plastic Ball Grid Array or PBGA package, qualified and ramped by Texas Instruments Philippines is a cavityup laminate based substrate package in which the die is attached to the substrate in the normal die up manner. The
wire- bonded device and the complete assembly is then overmolded and solder balls attached to form the package.
This package provides a cost-effective packaging solution, offering higher density over traditional leadframe
packages. Texas Instruments’ advanced design and simulation capabilities enable package optimizations needed for
maximum electrical and thermal performance. The PBGA package is offered in a range of sizes from 17mm x 17mm
to 35mm x 35mm, in ball pitch of 0.8mm and 1.0mm, to provide a ball count ranging from 208 to 976 balls. PBGA
packages are available in 2 and 4 layer substrate designs.
Transfer Molded Overmold
Wire Bonds
Conductor Traces
Conventional PBGA
Substrate and Structure
Die
Solder Balls
PBGA Package Configuration
2
SSZA002B – August 2015
Typical Nominal Dimensions of Selected pBGA Substrate Features
Features
Substrates Thickness (2ML)
Substrate Thickness (4ML)
Copper Thickness
Trace/Space Widths
Soldermask Thickness
Via
Dimensions (mm)
0.56 +/- 0.04
0.61 +/- 0.05
0.015
0.05
0.02
0.2
Solder Pad Cu
0.60~0.65
Solder Mask Opening
0.40~0.50
Comments
Overall thickness ( Core+SR+inner layer+outer layer)
Overall thickness ( Core+SR+inner layer+outer layer)
minimum
Over Copper
Normal
Typical process flow for PBGA assembly
SA
WAFER
DIE
WIRE
Plasma
Clean
PMC
BALL ATTACH
HEATSLUG
ENCAPSULATION
IR REFLOW
MARK/
SINGULAT
FLUX
VM/LA
SHIP
Plasma
Clean
DISPENSE
PACK/PACK LA
inc. Bake
BALL INSPECT
ELECTRICAL
V
3
A
Ω
SSZA002B – August 2015
pBGA Package Product Guide
Pitch
(mm)
Package Size (mm)
17x17
23x23
27x27
31x31
35x35
208ZFE/ZKB
288ZDQ
388ZDS
772ZXM
976ZEY
256ZDH/ZFE/ZKB
324ZDU/ZDW
456ZXF/ZXZ
900ZXM
352ZDU
484ZED
376ZDW/ZDU
520ZXF
388ZDW
580ZEQ
420ZDQ
632ZXZ
1
432ZDU
0.8
640ZKK
4
SSZA002B – August 2015
A typical package outline with 1mm pitch and appropriate tolerances are shown below.
ZXZ (S-PBGA-N456)
2.0 PC Board Design Guidelines:
The PBGA is compliant with JEDEC MS-034. IPC-SM-782 usually dictates the guidelines by which the PC Board
(PCB) pattern should be designed. Working with an Electronics Manufacturing Service provider and/or PCB design
house with experience designing and mounting this package type is recommended. The following guidelines are
offered based on best known practice at the moment based on Texas Instruments evaluations and research.
Package Height .......... ranges depending on body size, ball size and layer count.
Package Size ............. Ranging from 17mm x 17mm to 35mm x35mm
Ball Pitch .................... 0.8 mm and 1.0mm
The PBGA package is primarily composed of copper laminated BT substrate. This adds stiffness to the package
and uniform expansion during board mount and board level temperature cycling.
Also, because of cavity up
configuration, the solder balls for this package may be placed in a complete array over the entire bottom side.
Therefore, balls immediately under the die may be used as thermal paths to further enhance the thermal performance.
5
SSZA002B – August 2015
2.1 PCB Land Pattern and Solder Mask Design
The solder lands on the package side are always Solder Mask Defined (SMD). The land pattern on the PCB
should be designed to correspond with the land pattern on the package. The land on the PCB should be Non-Solder
Mask Defined (NSMD) in order to realize the best board level reliability performance.
SOLDER PAD GEOMETRY
For NSMD pads, TI recommends a clearance (typically 3 mils) between the copper pad and solder mask to avoid
overlap between the solder joint and solder mask due to mask registration tolerances.
The diameter of the solder ball land on the PCB should be the same or up to 20% less than that of the package
substrate solder land. The trace leading into the NSMD ball land on the PCB should not exceed more than 50% of the
land diameter. Again, this is to avoid too much solder wetting this lead-in to the ball thereby creating too much ball
collapse and possibly impacting board level reliability.
Optium Land Configurations
All measurements in mm
Ball size, SMO, Pad Size and Apertures are shown in Diameters
PCB Design
Stencil Design
SMO
Pad Size
Thickness
Aperature
SMD
0.400
0.500
0.8
0.152
0.400
NSMD
0.500
0.400
SMD
0.450
0.550
1
0.152
0.450
NSMD
0.550
0.450
Note: Area Aspect Ratio = Area of Aperture / Area of Aperture Wall
Note: For optial release of solder paste, it is recommended Area Aspect Ratio ≥ 0.66
Ball Pitch
Solder Mask Type
6
Area Aspect Ratio
0.66
0.74
SSZA002B – August 2015
2.2 Escape routing guidelines
A typical PBGA has four or five rows of solder balls around the periphery of the package. The number of lines routed (N)
between the pads on the PCB is defined by the pad size and trace (width and spacing) fabrication capabilities of the PCB
manufacturer. For NSMD pads, exposure of underlying copper traces is forbidden, so the diameter and tolerance of the
solder mask opening define D. The following relationship is used to define N:
Figure 8. P = Pad Pitch
D = Pad Diameter
L = Line Width
S = Line Space
As shown below, 1 mm ball pitch with 4 rows of solder balls can be routed to 4 layers of PCB which uses a 0.125 mm
line width and 0.125 mm line space.
1 mm Ball Pitch with 0.125 mm Line Width/Spacing
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SSZA002B – August 2015
Routing for 5 rows of solder ball
1 mm Ball Pitch with 0.1 mm Line Width/Spacing
3.0 Assembly Recommendations
3.1 PROCESS FLOW & SET-UP RECOMMENDATION
The BGA surface mount assembly process flow includes:
• PCB plating requirements
• Screen printing the solder paste on the PCB
• Monitoring the solder paste volume (uniformity) , preferably using solder paste inspection machine
• Package placement using standard SMT placement equipment
• X-ray inspection prior to reflow to check for placement accuracy and other defects such as solder paste bridging
• Reflow and flux residue cleaning (dependent upon the paste type)
• X-ray inspection after reflow to check for defects such as solder bridging & voids
3.2 PCB PLATING RECOMMENDATIONS
A uniform PCB plating thickness is key for high assembly yield.
• PCB with Organic Solderability Preservative coating (OSP) finish is recommended.
• For PCBs with electroless or immersion gold finish, the gold thickness recommendation is 0.15 μm ±0.05 μm to avoid
solder joint embrittlement. For PCBs with Hot Air Solder Leveling (HASL), the surface flatness should be controlled
within 28 μm.
8
SSZA002B – August 2015
3.3 SOLDER PASTE PRINTING
Solder paste deposition by the stencil-printing process involves the transfer of the solder paste through pre-defined
apertures with the application of pressure. Stencil parameters such as aperture area ratio and the stencil fabrication
method have a significant impact on paste deposition. Inspection of the stencil prior to placement of the BGA package is
highly recommended to improve board assembly yields. Aperture size to PCB pad size is typically 1:1 ratio with 0.100 to
0.125 mm thick stencil.
Three typical stencil fabrication methods include:
• Chem-etch
• Laser cut
• Electroform (Metal additive processes)
Nickel-plated electro polished chem-etch or laser cut with tapered aperture walls (5° tapering) is recommended to
facilitate paste release.
3.4 PASTE RECOMMENDATIONS
Type 3/4 water soluble or no-clean solder pastes are acceptable.
o 37%Pb-63%Sn eutectic paste for tin-lead process with tin-lead PBGA device
o Sn-3%Ag-0.5%Cu lead free paste for lead free process lead free PBGA device
3.5 COMPONENT PLACEMENT
BGA packages are placed using standard pick and place equipment with a placement accuracy of ±0.10 mm.
Component pick and place systems are composed of a vision system that recognizes and positions the component and
a mechanical system which physically performs the pick and place operation. Two commonly used types of vision
systems are: (1) a vision system that locates a package silhouette and (2) a vision system that locates individual bumps
on the interconnect pattern. Both methods are valid since the parts align due to self-centering feature of the BGA solder
joint during solder reflow. The latter vision system while providing greater accuracy tends to be more expensive and time
consuming. BGAs have excellent self-alignment during solder reflow if a minimum of 50% of the ball is aligned with the
pad. The 50% accuracy is in both the X and Y direction as determined by the following relation.
BGA self centering
9
SSZA002B – August 2015
3.6 REFLOW
Finally, successful reflow cycles strike a balance among temperature, timing, and length of cycle. Mistiming may lead
to excessive fluxing activation, oxidation, excessive voiding, or even damage to the package. Heating the paste too
hot, too quickly before it melts can also dry the paste, which leads to poor wetting. Process development is needed
to optimize reflow profiles for each solder paste/flux combination
The BGA may be assembled using standard IR or IR convection SMT reflow processes. As with other packages, the
thermal profile for specific board locations must be determined. The BGA is qualified for up to three reflow cycles at 245°
C peak (J-STD-020). The actual temperature used in the reflow oven is a function of:
• Board density
• Board geometries
• Component location on the board
• Size of surrounding components
• Component mass
• Furnace loading
• Board finish
• Solder paste types
It is recommended that the temperature profile be validated at the ball location of the BGA as well as several other
locations on the PCB surface.
Solder Ball Collapse
To produce the optimum solder joint, it is important to understand the amount of collapse of the solder balls, and the
overall shape of the joint. These are a function of:
• The diameter of the package solder ball via.
• The volume and type of paste screened onto the PCB.
• The diameter of the PCB land.
• The board assembly reflow conditions.
• The weight of the package.
0.50+/-0.1mm
Controlling the collapse, and thus defining the package standoff, is critical to obtaining the optimum joint reliability.
Generally, a larger standoff gives better solder joint fatigue strength, but this should not be achieved by reducing the
board land diameter. Reducing the land diameter will increase the standoff, but will also reduce the minimum crosssection area of the joint. This, in turn, will increase the maximum shear force at the PCB side of the solder joint.
Therefore, a reduction of land diameter will normally result in a worse fatigue life, and should be avoided unless all the
consequences are well understood
10
SSZA002B – August 2015
3.6.1 For Pb Free paste reflow
A DOE (design of experiment) was performed to assemble the board under different assembly conditions.
3.6.1.1 Assembly build matrix
PCBA
S/N
Packages
per Board
Stencil Parameters
Reflow
Atmosphere
Solder Alloy
01
02
03
04
4
4
4
4
5-mil Thick, 0.6mm Diameter Aperture
5-mil Thick, 0.6mm Diameter Aperture
4-mil Thick, 0.6mm Square Aperture
4-mil Thick, 0.6mm Square Aperture
Air
Nitrogen
Air
Nitrogen
SAC305
SAC305
SAC305
SAC305
3.6.1.2 Board properties
• 228.6 mm x 63.7 mm
• 3.7 mm thick
• 8 Layers
• OSP finish over Cu
• 0.45mm Pad Size
• NSMD pad
• 4 components per board
3.6.1.3 Package information:
• 27 mm x 27 mm
• 2.48 mm thick
• 1.0 mm pitch
• 456 balls
• SAC305 solder ball
3.6.1.4 Thermocouple locations:
•U4 Bottom Right Solder Joint
•U4 Center Solder Joint
•U4 Top Left Solder Joint
•U1 Top Right Solder Joint
•U1 Center Solder Joint
•U1 Bottom Left Solder Joint
•PCB
: Thermocouples were attached to the solder joint through the other side of
the board by drilling through the PCB. Then the components were placed on
the board.
11
SSZA002B – August 2015
3.6.1.5 Lead free reflow profile for lead free components using lead free solder paste
An actual reflow profile using no clean paste that produce good board level reliability result.
12
SSZA002B – August 2015
3.6.2 Reflow profile for PbSn components using PbSn solder paste
The reflow peak temperature should be kept in the 215°C to 225°C range. An actual reflow profile used to produce good
board level reliability result is shown below (no clean paste):
PbSn Reflow Profile:
Time between 150°C – 170°C: 100 sec
Time above 183C: 60 sec
Peak Temp: 220C
13
SSZA002B – August 2015
4.0 REPLACEMENT AND REWORK
Removing BGA packages involves heating the solder joints above the liquidus temperature of the solder and picking
the part off the PCB when the solder melts. The quality of rework is controlled by directing thermal energy to solder
without over-heating the adjacent components. Heating should occur in an encapsulated, inert, gas-purged environment
where the temperature gradients do not exceed ±5° C across the heating zone using a convective bottom side preheater to maximize temperature uniformity. If possible, the PCB area should be preheated through the bottom side of
the board, to 100°C before heating the BGA to ensure a controlled process. Interchangeable nozzles designed with
different geometries will accommodate different applications to direct the airflow path. Once the liquidus temperature is
reached, the nozzle vacuum is automatically activated and the component is removed.
4.1 SITE PREPARATION
It is recommended that the reflow profile used to reflow the BGA be as close to the PCB mount profile as possible.
Preheat from the bottom side of the board is recommended where possible. Once the liquidus temperature is reached,
the solder will reflow and the BGA will self-align.
4.2 COMPONENT PLACEMENT
Most BGA rework stations will have a pick and place feature for accurate placement and alignment. Manual pick and
place, with only eyeball alignment, is not recommended. It is difficult to achieve consistent placement accuracy.
4.3 COMPONENT REFLOW
It is recommended that the reflow profile used to reflow the BGA be as close to the PCB mount profile as possible.
Preheat from the bottom side of the board is recommended where possible. Once the liquidus temperature is reached,
the solder will reflow and the BGA will self-align.
5.0 Reliability
Reliability is one of the first questions designers ask about any new packaging technology. They want to know how
well the package will survive handling and assembly operation, and how long it will last on the board. The elements of
package reliability and system reliability, while related, focus on different material properties and characteristics and are
tested by different methods.
Package reliability focuses on materials of construction, thermal flows, material adherence/ delamination issues,
resistance to high temperatures, moisture resistance and ball/stitch bond reliability. Thorough engineering of the
package is performed to prevent delamination caused by the interaction of the substrate material and the mold
compound. TI subjects each PBGA to rigorous qualification testing before the package is released to production.
14
SSZA002B – August 2015
Package-Level Reliability Test Results
PinPkg
PkgSize (mm)
Die (mm)
376ZDW
23x23
8.64x8.44
Level
4
168 hrs
300 hrs
600hrs
1000hrs
0/26
0/26
0/26
0/26
0/78
na
0/78
0/78
na
na
na
na
uHAST,85RH/110°C
96 hrs
192 hrs
264 hrs
0/77
0/77
0/77
0/78
0/78
0/78
0/78
0/78
0/78
TC, -55/125°C
100cyc
500cyc
1000cyc
2000cyc
0/77
0/77
0/77
0/77
0/78
0/78
0/78
na
0/78
0/78
0/78
0/78
TS, -55/125°C
200cyc
500cyc
1000cyc
0/77
0/77
0/77
0/26
0/26
na
0/78
0/78
0/78
HTOL, 125°C
168cyc
300cyc
600cyc
1000cyc
0/77
0/77
0/77
0/77
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
Bake, 150°C
168hrs
300hrs
500hrs
1000hrs
na
na
na
na
0/78
na
0/78
0/78
0/78
0/78
0/78
0/78
Test Environments
THB, 85RH/85°C
256ZDH
17x17
5.13x4.67
3
15
388ZDS
27x27
6.41x6.54
4
SSZA002B – August 2015
Board-level Reliability Summary
Test
Conditions
Package Information
Package Pkg Size
(mm)
Pitch
(mm)
Die
(mm)
Sample Size/Failures
Test Cycle Requirements
Test Cycle Extended range
Temp Cyc
(degC)
500
1000
1500
2000
256ZKB
17X17
1
6.949 X 5.820
-40/125
38/0
38/0
38/0
38/0
456ZXZ
27X27
1
8.500 X 8.800
-40/125
32/0
32/0
32/0
32/0
640ZKK
23X23
0.8
8.010 X 8.098
-40/125
42/0
42/0
42/0
42/0
6.0 Packing and Shipping
PBGA packages are shipped in trays or “Tape-and-Reels”.
6.1 Trays
Thermally resistant plastic trays are used to ship these packages. Each family of parts with the same package outline
has its own individually designed tray. The trays are designed to be used with pick-and-place machines.
Typical tray details
Table with number of units per tray.
Package Size, mm
Matrix
17 x 17
19 x 19
23 x 23
27 x 27
31 x 31
35 x 35
6 x 15
6 x 14
5 x 12
4 x 10
3x9
3x8
16
Units/Tray
90
84
60
40
27
24
Units/Box
900
840
600
200
135
120
SSZA002B – August 2015
6.2 Tape-and-Reel
Pkg
Group
Package
PBGA
256 GDH
PBGA
PBGA
PBGA
256 ZKB
256 ZEP
491 ZCN
PBGA
491 ZDN
PBGA
256 ZFE
PBGA
208 ZFE
PBGA
1088 CYL
PBGA
208 ZKB
PBGA
754 AAN
PBGA
256 ZDH
PBGA
208 ZDH
PBGA
289 ZEL
PBGA
289 GDY
PBGA
289 ZDY
PBGA
484 ZVK
PBGA
288 GDQ
PBGA
324 GDU
PBGA
324 GDW
PBGA
PBGA
324 ZKD
376 ZKD
PBGA
324 ZDU
PBGA
768 ZDU
PBGA
640 ZKK
PBGA
324 ZDW
PBGA
376 ZDU
PBGA
376 ZDW
PBGA
388 ZDW
PBGA
420 ZDQ
PBGA
484 ZDU
PBGA
376 ZKC
PBGA
324 ZKC
PBGA
484 ZER
PBGA
484 ZDW
PBGA
256 GFN
PBGA
256 ZFN
PBGA
272 GDP
PBGA
272 GFN
PBGA
PBGA
584 ZEQ
580 ZEQ
PBGA
316 GFN
PBGA
352 GPC
PBGA
352 ZPC
PBGA
388 GDS
PBGA
388 GED
PBGA
388 GPC
PBGA
388 ZDS
PBGA
388 ZED
PBGA
388 ZPC
PBGA
456 GXF
PBGA
456 ZXF
PBGA
484 ZED
PBGA
520 ZXF
PBGA
676 GPY
PBGA
352 GFT
PBGA
352 ZFT
PBGA
388 GFW
PBGA
388 GFT
PBGA
420 GDC
PBGA
474 GPJ
PBGA
520 GPJ
PBGA
580 GPA
PBGA
624 GPA
PBGA
624 ZPA
PBGA
676 GXD
PBGA
676 ZXD
PBGA
680 GPA
PBGA
680 ZPA
PBGA
680 ZWZ
PBGA
976 ZWZ
PBGA
729 GXB
Reel
Pkg
Size
Qty per reel
17x17
750
32mm
13 in
4 in
19x19
500
32mm
13 in
4 in
23X23
250
44mm
13 in
7 in
27x27
250
44mm
13 in
6 in
35x35
250
56mm
13 in
6 in
WIDTH
DIAMETER HUB
7.0 Sockets
17
SSZA002B – August 2015
7.1 PBGA Test Contactor Pin and Ball Contact
Typical testing of TI pbga packages is done through the use of a pogo pin style contactor. See below for an image of
an actual test socket and contactor. Also note the typical witness marks on the ball after testing.
Pogo Pin
Contactor for 0.8/1.0mm pitch PBGA (23X23)
18
SSZA002B – August 2015
• Pin – Ball Contact is pricking
• Expected toolmark - Crown Tip marks on balls.
19
SSZA002B – August 2015
7.2 PBGA Burn- In Pin and Ball Contact
A pinch style contact has been used extensively for contacting solder balls in conventional BGAs and is the proposed
method for burn-in of these packages, providing the most reliable solution with less ball deformation at an affordable
cost. Further information on the availability of these sockets can be obtained from your local TI Field Sales
representative.
Picture below showing a typical Texas Instruments burn-in socket and pins
Socket Pins
Actual Socket Pin Magnification
PBGA socket
Socket Pin Package: 456 ZXF
The contact is designed to grip the solder ball with a pinching action. This not only provides electrical contact to the
solder ball but also helps retain the package in the socket. Each contact incorporates two beams that provide an oxidepiercing interface with the sides of the balls above the central area—the equator. No contact is made on the bottom of
the solder ball so the original package planarity specifications are unchanged. The contact is shown below:
20
SSZA002B – August 2015
Ball Contact on
Socket Pin
Cross-section Magnification:
Device
Ball
Socket
Pin
Horizontal
Cross Section:
Result:
Good
Contact
between
the ball and the
socket pin
Cross-section Magnification:
Device
Ball
Vertical Cross
Section:
Ball Contact on
Socket Pin
Socket
Pin
Remarks:
Good
Ball Contact on the
socket
pin;
No
Abnormalities seen
inside the socket
The witness marks left on the solder ball from the contact are shown below. There is no damage to the bottom of the
ball and typical pin contact signature is seen in the ball marking magnification photograph below.
Pin contact Signature
Sample PBGA Device
Ball Marking Magnification
21
Frequently Asked Questions
A.1 Package Questions
Q Do the solder balls come off during shipping?
A No, this has never been observed. The balls are inspected for coplanarity, diameter, and other
physical properties prior to packing for shipment. Because solder is used during the ball-attachment process,
uniformly high ball-attachment strengths are developed. Also, the
ball-attachment strength is monitored frequently in the assembly process to prevent ball
loss from vibration and other shipping forces.
Q Is package repair possible? Are tools available?
A Yes, some limited package repair is possible, and there are some semiautomatic
M/C tools available. However, TI does not specify the reliability of repaired packages.
A.2 Assembly Questions
Q What alignment accuracy is possible?
Alignment accuracy for the package is dependent upon board-level pad tolerance, placement accuracy, and
solder ball
position tolerance. Nominal ball position tolerances are specified at ±100 μm. These packages are self-aligning
during solder reflow, so final alignment accuracy may be better than placement accuracy.
Q Can the solder joints be inspected after reflow?
A No final in-line inspection is necessary. Some customers are achieving satisfactory results during process setup with lamographic X-ray techniques.
Q Are there specific recommendations for SMT
processing? A SMT processing must match the
recommended reflow profile.
Q Can the boards be repaired?
A TI strongly recommends that removed packages be discarded.
Q What size land diameter for these packages should I design on my board?
A Land size is the key to board-level reliability, and Texas Instruments strongly
recommends following the design rules included in this document.
----END APPLICATION NOTE----
Revision History
Rev B. August 2015
Changed the “Optium Land Configurations“ table on page 6
22
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Automotive and Transportation
www.ti.com/automotive
Amplifiers
amplifier.ti.com
Communications and Telecom
www.ti.com/communications
Data Converters
dataconverter.ti.com
Computers and Peripherals
www.ti.com/computers
DLP® Products
www.dlp.com
Consumer Electronics
www.ti.com/consumer-apps
DSP
dsp.ti.com
Energy and Lighting
www.ti.com/energy
Clocks and Timers
www.ti.com/clocks
Industrial
www.ti.com/industrial
Interface
interface.ti.com
Medical
www.ti.com/medical
Logic
logic.ti.com
Security
www.ti.com/security
Power Mgmt
power.ti.com
Space, Avionics and Defense
www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense
Microcontrollers
microcontroller.ti.com
Video and Imaging
www.ti.com/video
RFID
www.ti-rfid.com
OMAP Applications Processors
www.ti.com/omap
TI E2E Community
e2e.ti.com
Wireless Connectivity
www.ti.com/wirelessconnectivity
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Copyright © 2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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