Texas Instruments | High-Integration, High-Efficiency Power Solution Using DC/DC Converters w/DVFS (Rev. A) | Application notes | Texas Instruments High-Integration, High-Efficiency Power Solution Using DC/DC Converters w/DVFS (Rev. A) Application notes

Texas Instruments High-Integration, High-Efficiency Power Solution Using DC/DC Converters w/DVFS (Rev. A) Application notes
Application Report
SLVA340A – June 2009 – Revised May 2010
High-Integration, High-Efficiency Power Solution Using
DC/DC Converters With DVFS
Ambreesh Tripathi .......................................................................... PMP - DC/DC Low-Power Converters
ABSTRACT
This reference design helps those desiring to design-in the TMS320C6742, TMS320C6746,
TMS320C6748 and OMAP-L138. This design, employing sequenced power supplies, describes a system
with an input voltage of 5V, and uses a high-efficiency DC/DC Converter with integrated FETs and DVFS
for a small, simple system.
Sequenced power supply architectures are becoming commonplace in high-performance microprocessor
and digital signal processor (DSP) systems. To save power and increase processing speeds, processor
cores have small-geometry cells that require lower supply voltages than the system-bus voltages. Power
management in these systems requires special attention. This application note addresses these topics
and suggests solutions for output-voltage sequencing.
1
2
3
4
Contents
Introduction ..................................................................................................................
Power Requirements .......................................................................................................
Features ......................................................................................................................
List of Material ...............................................................................................................
1
2
3
5
List of Figures
1
PMP4977 Reference Design Schematic ................................................................................. 4
2
Optional circuit for DVDD_A, DVDD_B and DVDD_C ................................................................. 5
3
Shows Sequencing in Start-Up Waveform
4
DCDC1: Efficiency vs Output Current .................................................................................... 7
5
DCDC2: Efficiency vs Output Current .................................................................................... 7
6
DCDC3: Efficiency vs Output Current .................................................................................... 7
..............................................................................
7
List of Tables
1
1
PMP4977 List of Material .................................................................................................. 5
Introduction
In dual-voltage architectures, coordinated management of power supplies is necessary to avoid potential
problems and ensure reliable performance. Power supply designers must consider the timing and voltage
differences between core and I/O voltage supplies during power-up and power-down operations.
Sequencing refers to the order, timing and differential in which the two voltage rails are powered up and
down. A system designed without proper sequencing may be at risk for two types of failures. The first of
these represents a threat to the long term reliability of the dual-voltage device, while the second is more
immediate, with the possibility of damaging interface circuits in the processor or system devices such as
memory, logic or data-converter ICs.
I2C is a trademark of Philips Electronics N.V. Corporation.
SLVA340A – June 2009 – Revised May 2010
High-Integration, High-Efficiency Power Solution Using DC/DC Converters With
DVFS
Copyright © 2009–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated
1
Power Requirements
www.ti.com
Another potential problem with improper supply sequencing is bus contention. Bus contention is a
condition when the processor and another device both attempt to control a bi-directional bus during power
up. Bus contention may also affect I/O reliability. Power supply designers should check the requirements
regarding bus contention for individual devices.
The power-on sequencing for the OMAP-L138, TMS320C6742, TMS320C6746, and TMS320C6748 are
shown in the Power Requirements table below. There is no specific required voltage ramp rate for any of
the supplies as long as the 3.3V rail never exceeds the 1.8V rail by more than 2V.
Also, in order to reduce the power consumption of the processor core, the Dynamic Voltage and
Frequency Scaling (DVFS) is used in the reference design. DVFS is a power management technique used
while the system-on-chip (SoC) is actively processing. This technique matches the operating frequency of
the hardware to the performance requirement of the active application scenario. Whenever clock
frequencies are lowered, operating voltages are also lowered as well to achieve power savings. In the
reference design, the TPS65023 is used that can scale its output voltage. It supports all five DVFS voltage
values (0.95V, 1V, 1.2V, 1.27V, and 1.35V) defined for VDD_MPU.
2
Power Requirements
The power requirements are as specify in the table.
VOLTAGE
(V)
PIN NAME
Imax
(mA)
TOLERANCE
SEQUENCING
ORDER
1.2
1
–25%, +10%
1 (3)
I/O
RTC_CVDD
Core
CVDD (4)
1.0 / 1.1 / 1.2
600
–9.75%, +10%
2
I/O
RVDD, PLL0_VDDA,
PLL1_VDDA, SATA_VDD,
USB_CVDD, USB0_VDDA12
1.2
200
–5%, +10%
3
I/O
USB0_VDDA18, USB1_VDDA18,
DDR_DVDD18, SATA_VDDR,
DVDD18
1.8
180
±5%
4
I/O
USB0_VDDA33, USB1_VDDA33
3.3
24
±5%
5
±5%
4/5
I/O
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
2
(1) (2)
DVDD3318_A, DVDD3318_B,
DVDD3318_C
1.8 / 3.3
50 / 90
(5)
TIMING
DELAY
If 1.8-V LVCMOS is used, power rails up with the 1.8-V rails. If 3.3-V LVCMOS is used, power it up with the ANALOG33 rails
(VDDA33_USB0/1)
There is no specific required voltage ramp rate for any of the supplies LVCMOS33 (USB0_VDDA33, USB1_VDDA33) never
exceeds STATIC18 (USB0_VDDA18, USB1_VDDA18, DDR_DVDD18, SATA_VDDR, DVDD18) by more than 2 V.
If RTC is not used/maintained on a separate supply, it can be included in the STATIC12 (fixed 1.2 V) group.
If using CVDD at fixed 1.2 V, all 1.2-V rails may be combined.
If DVDD3318_A, B, and C are powered independently, maximum power for each rail will be 1/3 the above maximum power.
High-Integration, High-Efficiency Power Solution Using DC/DC Converters With
DVFS
Copyright © 2009–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA340A – June 2009 – Revised May 2010
Features
www.ti.com
3
Features
The design uses the following high-efficiency DC/DC Converter with integrated FETs .
INPUT VOLTAGE
~5V
HIGH EFFICIENCY AND INTEGRATION
(w DVFS)
COMBINE RTC AND STATIC 1.2
Core 1.2 V at 600 mA
TPS65023
Static 1.2 V + VRTC at 251 mA
Static 1.8 V at 230 mA
Static 3.3 V at 115 mA
Here, VRTC is included in the STATIC12 (fixed 1.2 V) group.
TPS65023
• 1.5-A, 90% Efficient Step-Down Converter for Processor Core (VDCDC1)
• 2 × 200-mA General-Purpose LDO
• 1.2-A, Up to 95% Efficient Step-Down Converter for System Voltage (VDCDC2)
• 1-A, 92% Efficient Step-Down Converter for Memory Voltage (VDCDC3)
• Dynamic Voltage Management for Processor Core
• I2C™ Compatible Serial Interface
More information on the device can be found from the data sheets
• TPS65023, http://focus.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/tps65023.pdf
SLVA340A – June 2009 – Revised May 2010
High-Integration, High-Efficiency Power Solution Using DC/DC Converters With
DVFS
Copyright © 2009–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated
3
Features
www.ti.com
Figure 1. PMP4977 Reference Design Schematic
4
High-Integration, High-Efficiency Power Solution Using DC/DC Converters With
DVFS
Copyright © 2009–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA340A – June 2009 – Revised May 2010
List of Material
www.ti.com
Proper sequencing is ensured in the design with the use of simple circuits involving the use of NPN
transistors as required. Core 1.2 V at 600 mA comes first ,which in turn is level-shifted to input voltage
using NPN transistors to enable the DCDC3_EN ; hence, static 1.2 V + VRTC at 251 mA comes up which
also enable the DCDC2_EN and sequentially static 1.8 V at 230 mA comes up. This 1.8-V output from
DCDC2 converter enable the LDO and hence at last static 3.3 V at 115 mA comes up.
(1)
Use three such LDOs to power up DVDDA, DVDDB, and DVDDC. (It can either be 1.8 V or 3.3 V.)
(2)
Rx = 0.499 MΩ, Ry = 1 MΩ for Vout = 1.8 V
(3)
Rx = 1.8 MΩ, Ry = 1 MΩ for Vout = 3.3 V
(4)
For proper sequencing of output, enable of the LDOs are fed either from 1.2-V output from DCDC3 converter
if DVDDX is 1.8 V or from 1.8-V output from DCDC2 converter if DVDDX is 3.3 V.
Figure 2. Optional circuit for DVDD_A, DVDD_B and DVDD_C
4
List of Material
Table 1. PMP4977 List of Material
Count
8
RefDes
Value
Description
Size
Part Number
MFR
Area
C1
10 mF
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R, 10%
805
C2012X5R0J106K
TDK
10560
C2
10 mF
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R, 10%
805
C2012X5R0J106K
TDK
10560
C3
2.2 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R, 10%
603
C1608X5R0J225K
TDK
5650
C4
2.2 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R, 10%
603
C1608X5R0J225K
TDK
5650
C5
10 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R, 10%
805
C2012X5R0J106K
TDK
10560
C6
10 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R, 10%
805
C2012X5R0J106K
TDK
10560
C7
1.0 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R,10%
603
C1608X5R0J105K
TDK
5650
C8
1.0 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R,10%
603
C1608X5R0J105K
TDK
5650
C9
10 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R, 10%
805
C2012X5R0J106K
TDK
10560
C10
10 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R, 10%
805
C2012X5R0J106K
TDK
10560
C11
1.0 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R,10%
603
C1608X5R0J105K
TDK
5650
1
C12
1500 pF
Capacitor, Ceramic, 50V, X7R, 10%
603
C1608X7R1H152K
TDK
5650
2
C13
2.2 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R,10%
603
C1608X5R0J225K
TDK
5650
C14
2.2 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R,10%
603
C1608X5R0J225K
TDK
5650
C15
10 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R, 10%
805
C2012X5R0J106K
TDK
10560
C16
10 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R, 10%
805
C2012X5R0J106K
TDK
10560
C17
1.0 F
Capacitor, Ceramic, 6.3V, X5R,10%
603
C1608X5R0J105K
TDK
5650
3
J1
PTC36SAAN
Header, 2 pin, 100mil spacing, (36-pin strip)
0.100 x 2
PTC36SAAN
Sullins
23100
1
J2
PEC36SAAN
Header, Male 5-pin, 100mil spacing, (36-pin
strip)
0.100 inch x 5
PEC36SAAN
Sullins
60000
J3
PTC36SAAN
Header, 2 pin, 100mil spacing, (36-pin strip)
0.100 x 2
PTC36SAAN
Sullins
23100
J4
PTC36SAAN
Header, 4 pin, 100mil spacing, (36-pin strip)
0.100 x 4
PTC36SAAN
Sullins
45100
J5
PTC36SAAN
Header, 2 pin, 100mil spacing, (36-pin strip)
0.100 x 2
PTC36SAAN
Sullins
23100
1
J6
22-05-3041
Header, Friction Lock Ass'y, 4 pin Right
Angle
0.400 x 0.500
22-05-3041
Molex
227,900
2
L1
2.2 mH
Inductor, SMT, 1.72A, 59 mΩ
0.157 x 0.157 inch
VLCF4020T-2R2N1R7
TDK
36.8
L2
2.2 mH
Inductor, SMT, 1.72A, 59 mΩ
0.157 x 0.157 inch
VLCF4020T-2R2N1R7
TDK
36.8
2
4
1
SLVA340A – June 2009 – Revised May 2010
High-Integration, High-Efficiency Power Solution Using DC/DC Converters With
DVFS
Copyright © 2009–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated
5
List of Material
www.ti.com
Table 1. PMP4977 List of Material (continued)
Count
RefDes
Value
Description
Size
Part Number
MFR
Area
1
L3
2.2 mH
Inductor, SMT, 1.5A, 87 mΩ
0.137 X 0.147 inch
VLF4012AT-2R2M1R5
TDK
29320
4
Q1
2N3904
Transistor, NPN, 40V, 200mA, 625mW
TO-92
2N3904
Fairchild
37800
Q2
2N3904
Transistor, NPN, 40V, 200mA, 625mW
TO-92
2N3904
Fairchild
37800
Q3
2N3904
Transistor, NPN, 40V, 200mA, 625mW
TO-92
2N3904
Fairchild
37800
Q4
2N3904
Transistor, NPN, 40V, 200mA, 625mW
TO-92
2N3904
Fairchild
37800
R1
10k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
CRCW0603-xxxx-F
Vishay
9100
R2
10k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
CRCW0603-xxxx-F
Vishay
9100
R3
10k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
CRCW0603-xxxx-F
Vishay
9100
R4
10k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
CRCW0603-xxxx-F
Vishay
9100
R5
100k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
CRCW0603-xxxx-F
Vishay
9100
R6
100k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
CRCW0603-xxxx-F
Vishay
9100
5
R7
100k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
Std
Std
9100
1
R8
10
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
Std
Std
9100
1
R9
1.65M
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
Std
Std
9100
1
R10
499k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
Std
Std
9100
1
R11
49.9k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
Std
Std
9100
R12
100k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
Std
Std
9100
R13
100k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
Std
Std
9100
R14
100k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
Std
Std
9100
R15
100k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
Std
Std
9100
R16
4.75k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
Std
Std
9100
R17
4.75k
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
Std
Std
9100
R18
1M
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
Std
Std
9100
R19
1M
Resistor, Chip, 1/16W, 1%
603
Std
Std
9100
1
SW1
KT11P2JM
Switch, SPST, PB Momentary, Sealed
Washable
0.245 X 0.251
KT11P2JM
C&K
111,600
1
U1
TPS65023RSB
IC, Power Management IC for Li-Ion
Powered Systems
QFN
TPS65023RSB
TI
69696
4
2
2
2
Notes: 1. These assemblies are ESD sensitive, ESD precautions shall be observed.
2. These assemblies must be clean and free from flux and all contaminants.
Use of no clean flux is not acceptable.
3. These assemblies must comply with workmanship standards IPC-A-610 Class 2.
4. Ref designators marked with an asterisk ('**') cannot be substituted.
All other components can be substituted with equivalent MFG's components.
6
High-Integration, High-Efficiency Power Solution Using DC/DC Converters With
DVFS
Copyright © 2009–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA340A – June 2009 – Revised May 2010
List of Material
www.ti.com
4.1
Test Results
The start-up waveform shown in Figure 3 specifies the required sequence.
Figure 3. Shows Sequencing in Start-Up Waveform
100
100
VI = 2.5 V
90
80
90
VI = 3.6 V
80
70
Efficiency - %
Efficiency - %
70
VI = 4.2 V
60
50
VI = 5 V
40
VI = 4.2 V
60
50
VI = 5 V
40
30
30
TA = 25°C
VO = 1.2 V
PWM/PFM Mode
20
10
0
0.01
VI = 2.5 V
VI = 3.6 V
0.1
1
10
100
IO - Output Current - mA
1k
10
10 k
Figure 4. DCDC1: Efficiency vs Output Current
SLVA340A – June 2009 – Revised May 2010
TA = 25°C
VO = 1.8 V
PWM/PFM Mode
20
0
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
IO - Output Current - mA
1k
10 k
Figure 5. DCDC2: Efficiency vs Output Current
High-Integration, High-Efficiency Power Solution Using DC/DC Converters With
DVFS
Copyright © 2009–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated
7
List of Material
www.ti.com
100
VI = 2.5 V
90 VI = 3.6 V
80
Efficiency - %
70
VI = 4.2 V
60
50
VI = 5 V
40
30
20
TA = 25°C
VO = 1.8 V
PWM/PFM Mode
10
0
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
IO - Output Current - mA
1k
10 k
Figure 6. DCDC3: Efficiency vs Output Current
8
High-Integration, High-Efficiency Power Solution Using DC/DC Converters With
DVFS
Copyright © 2009–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated
SLVA340A – June 2009 – Revised May 2010
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