Texas Instruments | Thermal Considerations for the DM64xx, DM64x, and C6000 Devices | Application notes | Texas Instruments Thermal Considerations for the DM64xx, DM64x, and C6000 Devices Application notes

Texas Instruments Thermal Considerations for the DM64xx, DM64x, and C6000 Devices Application notes
Application Report
SPRAAL9 – May 2007
Thermal Considerations for TMS320DM64xx,
TMS320DM64x, and TMS320C6000 Devices
Kimberly Wells .................................................................................................................................
ABSTRACT
As integrated circuit (IC) components become more complex, the challenge of
producing an end product with superior thermal performance increases. Thermal
performance is a system level concern, impacted by IC packaging as well as by printed
circuit board (PCB) design. This application report addresses the thermal
considerations for the TMS320DM64xx, TMS320DM64x, and TMS320C6000™ DSP
devices.
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Contents
Trademarks .......................................................................................... 1
Introduction .......................................................................................... 2
General Thermal Considerations ................................................................. 2
Thermal Definitions ................................................................................. 2
Rough Estimate of System Thermal Performance Using Theta-JA (ΘJA) ................... 4
Case Temperature Measurement ................................................................ 5
System Thermal Improvements .................................................................. 7
Thermal Improvements via a System Heat Sink ............................................... 7
Heat Sink Recommendations ..................................................................... 7
Heat Sink Attachment Methods ................................................................... 8
Heat Sink Vendor List ............................................................................ 10
List of Figures
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Thermal Path ........................................................................................ 3
Trademarks
TMS320C6000, DM64x, C6000 are trademarks of Texas Instruments.
Grafoil is a registered trademark of UCAR Company .
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Introduction
1
Introduction
As technology advances, the demand increases for more highly complex ICs with faster clock rates,
smaller packages, higher pin counts, and increased reliability for a lower cost. This complexity creates
higher power consumption and increased thermal challenges across IC component products. Many of
these IC packages make it difficult to produce an end product that meets the thermal limitations of the
product components. The following IC package features can contribute to increasing the thermal output:
• Decreased package size
• Decreased die size
• Increased pin count
• Increased system complexity/integration
• Faster clocks
• Processes with increased leakage
• Need for lower cost
• Higher reliability/lower junction temperatures
This application report discusses the thermal considerations of the DM64xx and DM64x™ digital media
processors, and the C6000™ DSP devices and offers guidance on thermal performance analysis, as well
as options to improve your thermal design.
2
General Thermal Considerations
When designing a system with DM64xx, DM64x and C6000 devices, consider the following items:
• Potential maximum power consumption in the intended application. This can be determined from the
device-specific power application report.
• Maximum rated case temperature or junction temperature specification. This can be determined from
the device-specific data manual.
• Typical θJA in real systems. This depends on both the specific device used, and the thermal design of
the overall system.
The device power consumption varies across applications, so you should use the device-specific power
consumption summary to calculate power consumption for a specific application.
2.1
Junction Temperature versus Case Temperature
In the device-specific data manual, TI specifies a maximum operating temperature. The maximum
operating temperature specified in the data manual is either a maximum operating case temperature or a
maximum operating junction temperature. To ensure device reliability and proper operation, do not exceed
the maximum operating case or junction temperature specified in the data manual.
Although the only thermal requirement TI specifies is a maximum operating case or junction temperature,
other system features such as PCB characteristics, PCB layout, and ambient temperature can also
contribute to the thermal performance of the system. These must be designed to meet TI’s maximum case
or junction temperature specification. For instance, the most commonly used thermal parameter, θJA, is not
just a function of the device package, but is also of the characteristics of the PCB on which it is mounted.
3
Thermal Definitions
The next few sections summarize the usage of the thermal resistances discussed in the device-specific
data manual. See the data manual for more information.
3.1
Overview
Figure 1 shows a simplified representation of the thermal path from the junction of the die through both the
top and bottom of the package. As shown here, the thermal path can be modeled as an equivalent
electrical circuit. In this approach, power in watts is equivalent to current in amps, temperature delta in
degrees is equivalent to voltage drop, and thermal resistance in °C/W is equivalent to electrical resistance
in Ωs. Therefore, a thermal resistance can be calculated as the temperature delta between node X and
node Y, divided by the power.
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Thermal Definitions
T - TY
qXY = X
Power
Ambient
4
Case
(Top of Package)
2
5
Junction
(Heat Generated)
6
1
3
Board
(Bottom of Package)
Board
(Larger Area)
Ambient
Figure 1. Thermal Path
The resistances shown in Figure 1 relate to the thermal resistances of the package and system as follows:
1. ΘJA,effective: Total resistance of the whole system from the die (junction) to ambient air
2. Total θ through top (θtop) of device to environment (including heat sink if used)
3. Total θ through bottom (θbot) of device and PCB to environment
4. ΘCA : Resistance from top of device through air or heat sink to environment
5. ΘJC : Resistance from die (junction) to the top of the package (case)
6. ΘJB : Resistance from die (junction) to the board (near to the device), as defined by JESD 51-8
The resistances in steps 2 and 3 are not defined in the device-specific data manuals, but are mentioned
here because they are useful in heat sink calculations.
3.2
Theta-JA (ΘJA) Junction to Ambient
ΘJA is the difference in junction temperature to ambient temperature, divided by the operating power. As
discussed in Section 3.1, θJA is not a constant but a function of any and all factors that influence the
thermal resistance between the junction of the device and the ambient environment. Some key factors that
influence θJA are:
• PCB design and layout
• Chassis/box design
• Venting
• Altitude
In the device-specific data manual, θJA is a measurement of the thermal performance of an IC package
mounted on a specific test coupon. TI conducts measurements on systems defined in the following
JEDEC specifications:
• JEDEC theta-JA measurement conditions defined in JESD51-2
• 1s0p or low effective thermal conductivity test board defined in JESD51-3
• 2s2p or high effective thermal conductivity test board defined in JESD51-7
ΘJA provides a metric by which the relative thermal performance of a package can be compared. Thus, the
thermal performance of a Texas Instruments device can be compared to a device from another company,
as long as the other company follows the JEDEC conditions as defined in the specifications.
These θJA values are not intended to provide an accurate estimate of the temperature difference between
junction and ambient in a real system. Instead, the θJA value as defined by JEDEC provides a means of
comparing the thermal performance between packages. Methods for estimating this temperature
difference are discussed in the next section.
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Rough Estimate of System Thermal Performance Using Theta-JA (ΘJA)
3.3
Theta-JC (ΘJC) Junction to Case
ΘJC is the difference in junction temperature to case temperature, divided by the operating power in a
specified environment. There is not currently a JEDEC specification for this parameter, although one is in
progress. ΘJC is measured by putting a mounted package up against a Cu block cold plate to force heat to
flow from the die through the mold compound into the Cu block.
As described later in this application report, this parameter is useful when a heat sink is applied to a
package. Without a heat sink, θJC should not be used to predict junction temperatures. When case
temperatures are measured in a system, and junction temperatures are then calculated from the following
equation, pessimistic junction temperatures are obtained.
TJunction = TCase + (Power ´ qJC )
3.4
Theta-JB (ΘJB) Junction to Board
ΘJB is the difference in junction temperature to board temperature, divided by the operating power in a
specified environment. ΘJB provides an overall thermal resistance between the die and the PCB. It is the
difference in the junction temperature and the PCB temperature at the PCB perimeter (closest to the die)
when the PCB is clamped in a cold plate structure. JEDEC standard JESD 51-8 defines θJB measurement
conditions and board measurement locations.
3.5
Psi-JT (ΨJT ) Junction to Top of Package
ΨJT is the difference in junction temperature to case temperature at the top center of the package, divided
by the operating power. ΨJT has the same measurement points and units as θJC; however, ψJT is
measured when the package is mounted on the test PCB, allowing power to partition itself into any path.
Note that θJC is a true thermal resistance, while ψJT is measured under conditions that are closer to real
world use.
ΨJT is primarily used to calculate the junction temperature from a measured case temperature via the
following equation:
TJunction = TCase + (Power ´ Y JT )
4
Rough Estimate of System Thermal Performance Using Theta-JA (ΘJA)
Before finalizing the system layout and PCB design, you must plan to meet the maximum operating
temperature documented in the data manual. As described in Section 2.1, this maximum operating
temperature is specified as either a case or junction temperature. This requires a preliminary assessment
of either the case or junction temperature in context of the entire system. The most accurate method for
evaluating the case temperature and junction temperature prior to completion of the system layout is to
use detailed thermal models of the final system. One service provider that TI is aware of who can assist
with system thermal modeling and analysis is Applied Thermal Technologies, see
http://www.thermalcooling.com/.
Although thermal models are the most accurate method for predicting the case or junction temperature of
the device in a specific application, you can also make a less accurate estimate by comparing TI’s JEDEC
θJA data measured on two JEDEC defined test boards:
• ΘJA (no airflow) on a high effective thermal conductivity test board defined in JESD51-7
• ΘJA (no airflow) on a low effective thermal conductivity test board defined in JESD51-3
ΘJA varies between application scenarios because it is not just a function of the device package alone, but
also a function of other factors in the system. Therefore, the temperature rise above ambient as measured
under JEDEC test conditions is different from the temperature rise above ambient in a real application. To
differentiate the use of the term θJA as measured in JEDEC conditions versus that estimated or measured
in a real application, TI uses the term θJA,effective to describe the θJA in a real application.
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Case Temperature Measurement
The window defined by the θJA values provided under the JEDEC defined test conditions can be used as a
very rough estimate of θJA,effective for a specific application, although applications could fall anywhere in that
window and even outside that window. Ultimately, θJA,effective is best gathered from system thermal
modeling or actual measurements in the application environment.
Once θJA,effective has been estimated, use the following equation to generate a rough estimate of junction
temperature:
(
TJunction = TAmbient + Power ´ qJA,effective
Note:
)
To be consistent with JEDEC measurement techniques, as well as referencing the most
independent and static temperature point, TI recommends measuring the final system
ambient temperature outside the enclosure, rather than inside the enclosure, which may
be influenced by heating from other parts.
Devices with a specified maximum operating case temperature may require an additional step to estimate
case temperature. For devices that have a low ψJT value (less then 0.2 °C/W) specified in their data
manual without a heat sink, the difference between case temperature and junction temperature is typically
less than 1°C. Therefore, you can assume that case temperature is approximately equal to junction
temperature.
(
TCase » TJunction = TAmbient + Power ´ qJA,effective
) (Used for devices with low Y JT )
For devices that have higher ψJT values (higher then 0.2 °C/W), there is a larger delta between case
temperature and junction temperature. Use the following equation to estimate case temperature.
TCase = TJunction - (Power ´ Y JT ) (Used for devices with low Y JT )
The power included in the above equations should be estimated for the specific application using the
device-specific power application report.
5
Case Temperature Measurement
Once the system has been finalized and manufactured, perform a case temperature measurement to
ensure that you have not exceeded the maximum case temperature specification of the device.
Devices with a specified maximum operating junction temperature require an additional step to determine
the junction temperature from the measured case temperature. Use the following equation without a heat
sink:
TJunction = TCase + (Power ´ Y JT )
5.1
Case Temperature Measurement Without a Heat Sink
Case temperature is the hottest temperature on the top of the device and should be measured at the
center of the device top or lid. In order of accuracy, you can measure the case temperature with an IR
camera, a fluor optic probe, a thermocouple, or an IR gun with a maximum field view of 4mm diameter.
When using either a IR camera or IR gun, be sure to correct the reading for the emissivity of the surface
being investigated. See your instrument’s documentation for details.
If you choose a thermocouple as the measurement technique, use a fine gauge wire (36 to 40 gauge, J or
K wire) to minimize the local cooling from the thermocouple. The thermocouple should be attached to the
center of the package surface (± 1 mm) with a bead of thermally conductive epoxy no larger than 2×2 mm
on a side. Taping the thermocouple to the package surface is not recommended. To minimize the heat
sinking aspects of the thermocouple, the wire should be dressed along the diagonal of the package, down
to the PCB surface, and over a minimum distance of 25 mm before lifting from the PCB. The
thermocouple wire can be tacked to the PCB for this routing purpose using tape. Use of improper
thermocouple wire gauge can create errors in the measurements of 5-50%.
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Case Temperature Measurement
5.2
Case Temperature Measurement With a Heat Sink
Measuring case temperatures with heat sinks applied is difficult because the heat sink covers the surface
to be measured. To measure the case temperature with a heat sink applied, use the following procedure:
1. Drill a hole with a diameter of 1 mm or less in the heat sink, so that the hole is at the center of the
package when the heat sink is attached. Be sure to drill the hole through the heat sink before attaching
it to the package. If a pressure sensitive adhesive or epoxy is used to attach the heat sink, drill through
this adhesive. Be sure there are no burrs or other material that would interfere with the mating
surfaces.
2. Attach the heat sink to the package. If an epoxy is used for the attachment, fill the hole drilled in Step 1
with a wax, foam, or other material to ensure the hole is not filled with the epoxy. Be careful not to
contaminate the heat sink attach surface with this material.
3. Fill the hole with thermal grease. If the hole was plugged to avoid epoxy filling, be sure to unplug the
hole.
4. Thread a fine gauge thermocouple of the type described in Section 5.1 into the hole and secure with a
drop of epoxy or tape.
5.3
Case Temperature Measurement: Accounting for Leakage Variations
The resulting case temperature of the device that is measured in the finalized system is dependent on the
power consumption of the device in the specific application. To determine the maximum case temperature
measurement, you must account for the worst case power consumption of the device for the finalized
product.
The power consumption of the device can be broken down into the sum of two components: active power
and static (also called leakage) power. Static power varies across voltage, temperature, and
manufacturing processes. The device-specific power consumption summary spreadsheet takes into
account the static power consumption from the strong units (representative of maximum end of static
power consumption on production units). The spreadsheet calculates the worst case static power
consumption for a given case temperature. The obtained value can then be used to calculate the final
worst case total power consumption.
The following method describes how to measure and use the worst case static power consumption:
1. Measure the case temperature using the method described in Section 5.2.
2. Measure ambient temperature. TI recommends measuring the ambient temperature outside the
enclosure, rather than inside the enclosure, which may be influenced by heating from other parts.
3. Measure total power consumption of the device in the finalized application.
4. Measure the static power consumption of the device at the case temperature measured in Step 1.
5. Calculate the active power consumption in the finalized application.
Active power = Total power(step 3) - Static power(step 4)
6. Calculate the θJA,effective of the finalized system using the following equations:
TJunction = TCase (step 1) + (Power(step 3) ´ Y JT )
T (step 6) - TA (step 2)
qJA,effective » J
Total Power(step 3)
7. Use the power application spreadsheet to determine the maximum static power consumption.
a. For devices with a specified maximum operating case temperature in the data manual, use the
power application spreadsheet to determine the maximum static power consumption at the case
temperature measured in Step 1.
b. For devices with a specified maximum operating junction temperature in the data manual, use the
power application spreadsheet to determine the maximum static power consumption at the junction
temperature calculated in Step 6.
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System Thermal Improvements
8. Recalculate the maximum total power consumption of the device.
Max Total Power = Active Power(step 5) + Max Static Power(step 7)
9. Recalculate the junction and/or case temperature, accounting for maximum total power consumption.
(
TJ = TA (step 2) + Total power(step 8) ´ qJA,effective (step 6)
)
TCase = TJunction (step 9) - (Power(step 8) ´ Y JT )
6
System Thermal Improvements
As described in this application report, the thermal performance of a system is affected by both the device
and the PCB layout. The following items can improve a system’s ability to dissipate heat. This is not an
exhaustive list and each item should be evaluated to see if it is a good fit for an application.
• Maximize thermal vias in PCB under the device (connected to GND BGA balls and GND plane in PCB)
• Spread out parts on the PCB (including power supplies, etc.) that are dissipating >500 mW
• Ensure the power and ground planes that connect to the device are relatively continuous for a 25-50
mm radius around the package
• Add venting to the chassis, especially near the DSP
• Add screws from the PCB to chassis near the DSP
• Use thermal gap filler material between the top of the device and the chassis, especially if the chassis
is metal. The gap between the PCB and chassis should be less than 3 mm for this cooling scheme to
be effective. The gap filler conducts heat from the PCB to the system chassis, where it can be more
effectively rejected from the system. You can obtain thermal gap fillers with thermal conductivities
ranging from 0.5 W/m-°C to 3 W/m-°C from many sources, including The Bergquist Company. The
following link references one of their products:
http://www.bergquistcompany.com/tm_gap_pad_detail.cfm?oid=110236.
• Use a metal clip between the top of the device and the chassis
• Add a heat sink to the device (optimize heat sink type based on airflow)
7
Thermal Improvements via a System Heat Sink
Heat sinks are one of the most commonly considered thermal improvement methods. In this application,
the term heat sink is defined as both an off-the-shelf heat sink purchased from a vendor, as well as a
direct connection between the top of the device and the chassis (if the chassis is metal or another good
thermal conductor), in which case the chassis becomes a heat sink. When applied to the top of a
package, heat sinks increase the effective surface area of the package face, increasing convection and
radiation off of the top surface of the package.
Typically, without a heat sink, 80-90% of the heat generated by the device is dissipated through the PCB.
Attaching a heat sink improves the heat flow through the top of the device. A good heat sink could
increase the percentage of heat flowing through the top of device from 10-20% up to 30-80%, resulting in
the following improvements:
• Estimated reduction in θJA,effective of 20-80%
• Estimated TJunction reduction of 10-30 °C
You must perform detailed analyses to determine the exact impact of a particular heat sink in a certain
system.
8
Heat Sink Recommendations
There are several general types of heat sinks available in the market for cooling BGA IC devices such as
the DM64xx, DM64x, and C6000 devices. The simplest approach is to find a standard product from a heat
sink supplier. There are often options for significant optimization of the heat sink type and design based on
the details of the application (geometry, usage, chassis material, design flexibility, assembly flow, etc.),
which can result in better thermal performance, and usually a more cost-effective design as well. This
section describes examples of simple, mid-range, and higher-performance heat sink types, as well as
recommendations on heat sink selection and a list of potential heat sink vendors.
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Heat Sink Attachment Methods
The simplest type of heat sink is a spreading plate that is attached to the top of the device, such as
http://www.chomerics.com/products/twing.htm.
Most standard heat sinks are of the plate-fin or pin-fin type, where the heat sink has a base and fins that
extend off the base. These fins can be rectangular or round and extend at different angles and profiles.
There types of heat sinks are readily available at fairly reasonable prices, but the key to selecting this type
of heat sink is to look at the airflow regime. For example, if forced airflow is coming from one direction, a
design with long rectangular fins may be optimal, but if forced airflow is mixing a lot, then round fins may
be needed to ensure air effectively moves through the fins. If there is no forced airflow, it is important to
consider the heat sink performance curve with natural convection (often called θn), as performance might
be worse than with forced airflow. An example of this type of heat sink (used for calculations in the
previous section) is available here: http://www.aavidthermalloy.com.
A radial type heat sink, where there is a round plate which attaches to a pedestal that presses on to the
top of the part, may provide a better performance in some applications. This type features much lower
thermal resistance values at natural convection, as seen in the following example:
http://catalog.tycoelectronics.com
As the industry trends towards miniaturization and increased power density, many heat sink vendors are
already advertising that they support custom designs with quick prototypes and flexible manufacturing.
Based on the number of heat sink types available (standard and custom) and the uniqueness of the
applications, TI recommends that if thermal analysis indicates the need for a heat sink in a customer’s
application, the customer should work closely with a heat sink vendor to find an optimal solution that
meets the thermal needs as well as other system design constraints.
9
Heat Sink Attachment Methods
When attaching a heat sink to a package surface, it is important to reduce the thermal resistance of the
heat sink attachment. If you use a thermal insulating material between the heat sink and the package
surface, the thermal performance could be worse than having no heat sink at all. Calculate the thermal
resistance of the bond line layer as follows:
qca =
t
kA
Where:
• t = Heat sink compound bond line thickness
• k = Thermal compound conductivity
• A = Package surface area
Three primary materials are commonly used to attach heat sinks to the package: epoxy glue, thermal
grease, and thermal pads with and without self adhesive. Other thermal interface materials include
Grafoil® and solders.
9.1
Epoxy Glue
The most reliable material for attaching a heat sink is a thermally conductive epoxy compound. These
materials can be purchased from heat sink vendors, and have thermal conductivities that typically range
from 0.5-1.5 W/m-°C. There are also specialty materials with metal fillers that have much higher bulk
thermal conductivities. When gluing the heat sink to the package surface with an epoxy, use pressure
during the cure process to squeeze out excess material and minimize the bond line thickness. When a
heat sink is attached with an epoxy, it is important to clean the package surface of any greases or
contaminates that can degrade the adhesion strength. The adhesive/package combination should be
tested in the intended environment to ensure reliable operation over the lifetime of the device.
The advantages of epoxies in attaching a heat sink include:
• No fixturing is required to hold the heat sink in place after the epoxy has cured
• The epoxy can fill large surface asperities.
• There is little or no change in thermal properties as a function of time and temperature
• Good shock and vibration resistance.
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Heat Sink Attachment Methods
The disadvantages include:
• The epoxy attach is usually permanent, meaning the heat sink cannot be removed from the package if
necessary
• Fixturing may be required to hold the heat sink in place with pressure during epoxy cure. This can
increase the cost of the heat sink assembly substantially.
• Epoxies may not adhere strongly to certain plastic compounds such as those used in plastic molded IC
packages.
9.2
Thermal Greases
Thermal greases have long been used to minimize the thermal contact resistance between a heat sink
and package surface. These materials are normally formed by suffusing high viscosity silicone greases
with metal oxide powders for thermal conductivity. Thermal conductivies are roughly 0.6-0.9 W/m-°C.
Advantages include:
• Easy to apply
• Allows heat sink removal
• Good gap filler for non-planar surfaces
Disadvantages include:
• Heat sink needs to be clamped to package with some force to minimize the bond line thickness
• Silicone has a tendency to wet out over other surfaces, depleting the grease and making it brittle over
time, which reduces the thermal conductivity
• Can be messy to apply
9.3
Thermal Pads
Thermal pads, with or without pressure sensitive adhesives, are often used to attach large heat sinks to
packages. Thermal pads normally consist of low modulus (pliable, rubbery) polymer material that is filled
with a thermally conductive material. Thermal conductivities range from 0.8-3 W/m-°C. They have multiple
advantages over epoxies or greases, but also some disadvantages.
Advantages:
• Easily handled
• Can be cut to fit
• Can easily remove the heat sink
• Little performance change with time
Disadvantages include:
• Must have method to clamp heat sink to package surface
• Not as good as epoxy or grease at filling between warped surfaces
• Normally, the bond line achievable with these materials is thicker than can be achieved with epoxies or
thermal greases
Many adhesives used on thermal pad materials are pressure sensitive, and non-permanent. As such, they
may be sensitive to changes in moisture in the environment and tend to creep under loading. If the system
is positioned such that there is substantial gravitational loading of the heat sink on the package; i.e., the
PCBs are positioned vertically such that the heat sinks are pulling on the package, pressure sensitive
adhesives alone should not be relied upon to hold the heat sink to the package.
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Heat Sink Vendor List
10
Heat Sink Vendor List
Here is a list of a number of potential heat sink vendors:
• Aavid Thermalloy: http://www.aavidthermalloy.com/products/bga/index.shtml
• Alpha: http://www.alphanovatech.com/
• Calgreg: http://www.calgreg.com/heatsinks.html
• Chomerics: http://www.chomerics.com/products/thermal.htm
• Enertron: http://www.enertron-inc.com/enertron-products/index.php
• Graftech: http://www.graftechaet.com/Home/Brands/eGRAF.aspx
• Malico: http://www.malico.com.tw/
• Radian: http://www.radianheatsinks.com/
• R-Theta: http://www.r-theta.com/
• ThermShield: http://www.thermshield.com/ThermshieldPages/ThermalProducts.html
• Tyco Electronics:
http://catalog.tycoelectronics.com/TE/bin/TE.Connect?M=FEAT&LG=1&I=13&C=16819
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TI products are not authorized for use in safety-critical applications (such as life support) where a failure of the TI product would
reasonably be expected to cause severe personal injury or death, unless officers of the parties have executed an agreement
specifically governing such use. Buyers represent that they have all necessary expertise in the safety and regulatory ramifications
of their applications, and acknowledge and agree that they are solely responsible for all legal, regulatory and safety-related
requirements concerning their products and any use of TI products in such safety-critical applications, notwithstanding any
applications-related information or support that may be provided by TI. Further, Buyers must fully indemnify TI and its
representatives against any damages arising out of the use of TI products in such safety-critical applications.
TI products are neither designed nor intended for use in military/aerospace applications or environments unless the TI products are
specifically designated by TI as military-grade or "enhanced plastic." Only products designated by TI as military-grade meet military
specifications. Buyers acknowledge and agree that any such use of TI products which TI has not designated as military-grade is
solely at the Buyer's risk, and that they are solely responsible for compliance with all legal and regulatory requirements in
connection with such use.
TI products are neither designed nor intended for use in automotive applications or environments unless the specific TI products
are designated by TI as compliant with ISO/TS 16949 requirements. Buyers acknowledge and agree that, if they use any
non-designated products in automotive applications, TI will not be responsible for any failure to meet such requirements.
Following are URLs where you can obtain information on other Texas Instruments products and application solutions:
Products
Applications
Amplifiers
amplifier.ti.com
Audio
www.ti.com/audio
Data Converters
dataconverter.ti.com
Automotive
www.ti.com/automotive
DSP
dsp.ti.com
Broadband
www.ti.com/broadband
Interface
interface.ti.com
Digital Control
www.ti.com/digitalcontrol
Logic
logic.ti.com
Military
www.ti.com/military
Power Mgmt
power.ti.com
Optical Networking
www.ti.com/opticalnetwork
Microcontrollers
microcontroller.ti.com
Security
www.ti.com/security
RFID
www.ti-rfid.com
Telephony
www.ti.com/telephony
Low Power
Wireless
www.ti.com/lpw
Video & Imaging
www.ti.com/video
Wireless
www.ti.com/wireless
Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright © 2007, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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