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Texas Instruments Designing Single and Multiple Position Switches Using TI Hall Effect Sensors Application notes
Application Report
SLVAEH3 – November 2019
Designing Single and Multiple Position Switches Using TI
Hall Effect Sensors
Carolus Andrews
ABSTRACT
This application report discusses the benefits and methods for using Hall Effect sensors in 1–3 positions
switches.
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Contents
Hall Effect Switch Introduction ............................................................................................. 2
Overview ...................................................................................................................... 2
Device Descriptions ......................................................................................................... 3
Detailed Design Procedures ............................................................................................... 4
References ................................................................................................................. 15
List of Figures
.......................................... 2
................................................................................................... 2
TI Magnetic Calculator Results for DH1H1 .............................................................................. 4
DRV5032ZE and DRV5032DU, BOP and BRP Locations and Distances .............................................. 5
Head On Magnetic Travel for Single Position Switch ................................................................... 5
DH1H1 Magnetic Curve, BOP and BRP points, 2-mm Height ........................................................... 6
Lateral Magnetic Travel for Dual-Position, Single Output Switch ..................................................... 7
Magnetic Field Behaviors For Various Magnets, 2.5-mm Height ..................................................... 8
D11SH Magnetic Curve, BOP and BRP Points, 2.5mm Height .......................................................... 9
Dual-Position, Dual-Output Switch Lateral Movement ................................................................ 10
D18 Magnetic Curve, BOP and BRP points, 2.5-mm Height ........................................................... 11
Three-Position Switch OFF Position .................................................................................... 12
Three-Position Switch Lateral Movement .............................................................................. 12
D42DIA Magnetic Curve, BOP and BRP Points, 2.5-mm Height ....................................................... 13
Three Position Rotary Switch OFF Position ........................................................................... 14
Rotary Magnetic Travel for Three-Position Switch .................................................................... 14
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Axial Disc and Cylinder, Diametric Disc, and Cylinder Magnet Examples
2
Block Magnet Examples
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Trademarks
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Hall Effect Switch Introduction
1
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Hall Effect Switch Introduction
Many of today's applications require small form-factor buttons and switches for the most basic of user
interfaces. From powering devices to mode selections, switches can be found in nearly every end
equipment on the market, and come with their own challenges to implement, namely reliability,
robustness, and cost. Hall effect sensors can be implemented in switching applications to provide several
features: they can help to eliminate bouncing on a sensitive switch, provide water and weather barriers
due to their isolative nature from their paired magnet, and add reliability and versatility to a system for
increased robustness through a reduction in metallic contacts and moving parts.
2
Overview
2.1
Useful Magnet Types
When making a switch or button, the most useful types of magnets are blocks, discs, and cylinders. For
discs and cylinders, these magnets may be magnetized axially (Figure 1, the first and second images from
the left) or diametrically (Figure 1, the third and fourth images from the left). Block magnets are typically
magnetized through the thickness of the magnet, and care must be taken to ensure that the correct
dimensions are allocated. Examples of block magnet orientations are given in Figure 2 below.
2.2
Types of Magnets
Figure 1. Axial Disc and Cylinder, Diametric Disc, and Cylinder Magnet Examples
Figure 2. Block Magnet Examples
2
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Device Descriptions
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3
Device Descriptions
3.1
DRV5021(-Q1): 2.5 V to 5.5 V Hall Effect Unipolar Switch
The DRV5021 is a low-voltage, digital-switching Hall effect sensor for high-speed applications. Operating
from a 2.5-V to 5.5-V power supply, the device senses magnetic flux density and gives a digital output
based on predefined magnetic thresholds.
This device senses magnetic fields perpendicular to the face of the package. When the applied magnetic
flux density exceeds the magnetic operate point (BOP) threshold, the open-drain output of the device drives
a low voltage. When the flux density decreases to less than the magnetic release point (BRP) threshold, the
output goes to high impedance. The hysteresis resulting from the separation of BOP and BRP helps prevent
output errors caused by input noise. This configuration makes system designs more robust against noise
interference.
The device operates consistently across a wide ambient temperature range of –40°C to +125°C.
3.2
DRV5023(-Q1): 2.5 V to 38 V Hall Effect Unipolar Switch
The DRV5023 is a chopper-stabilized Hall effect sensor that offers a magnetic sensing solution with
superior sensitivity stability over temperature and integrated protection features.
When the applied magnetic flux density exceeds the BOP threshold, the DRV5023 open-drain output is
pulled low. The output stays low until the magnetic field decreases to less than the BRP of the device,
where the output then moves to a high-impedance state. The output current sink capability is 30 mA. A
wide operating voltage range from 2.5 to 38 V with reverse polarity protection up to –22 V makes the
device suitable for a wide range of industrial applications.
Internal protection functions are provided for reverse supply conditions, load dump, and output short circuit
or overcurrent.
3.3
DRV5032: Ultra-Low Power 1.65 V to 5.5 V Hall Effect Switch
The DRV5032 device is an ultra-low-power digital-switch Hall effect sensor, designed for the most
compact and battery-sensitive systems. The device is offered in multiple magnetic thresholds, sampling
rates, output drivers, and packages to accommodate various applications.
When the applied magnetic flux density exceeds the BOP threshold, the device either outputs a low
voltage, or pulls to a low state through an open drain output configuration. The output stays low until the
flux density decreases to less than BRP, and then the output either drives a high voltage or becomes high
impedance, depending on the device version. By incorporating an internal oscillator, the device samples
the magnetic field and updates the output at a rate of 20 Hz or 5 Hz, for optimized low-current
consumption. Omnipolar and unipolar magnetic responses are available.
The device operates from a VCC range of 1.65 V to 5.5 V, and is packaged in a standard SOT-23 and
small X2SON.
3.4
DRV5033(-Q1): 2.5 V to 38 V Hall Effect Omnipolar Switch
The DRV5033 device is a chopper-stabilized Hall Effect Sensor that offers a magnetic sensing solution
with superior sensitivity stability over temperature and also features integrated protection features.
The DRV5033 responds the same to both polarities of magnetic field direction. When the applied magnetic
flux density exceeds the BOP threshold, the DRV5033 open-drain output goes low. The output stays low
until the field decreases to less than BRP, and then the output becomes a high-impedance state. The
output current sink capability is 30 mA. A wide operating voltage range from 2.5 to 38 V with reverse
polarity protection up to –22 V makes the device suitable for a wide range of industrial applications.
Internal protection functions are provided for reverse supply conditions, load dump, and output short circuit
or overcurrent.
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Detailed Design Procedures
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Detailed Design Procedures
Presented in the following sections are various methods for implementing push-button, two-position single
output, two-position dual output, and three-position linear and radial switches. For each of these designs,
major consideration was given to form factor and energy overhead, as many switches in today's modern
products are optimized for small size and low-power schemes. Physical switches are not frequency
dependent in most cases, so the DRV5032 family is used extensively in these designs, as the low-power
features of the device are desirable in this application.
4.1
1 Position Switch (Push-Button)
The push button switch is a design challenge where the magnet approaches the sensor head on, and thus
greatly simplifies the calculations for magnet selection. That said, the challenge with this design lies in the
replication of a typical switch, in regards to size as well as function. As form factor is of importance here,
an extremely small magnet is desired, and a variety of magnets were examined. An example using TI's
Magnetic Calculator tool to determine head on values for a magnet is shown in Figure 3 below.
Figure 3. TI Magnetic Calculator Results for DH1H1
The calculations given by the calculator tool show a quick distance solution from the face of the magnet to
the Hall effect sensor location inside the package for all varieties of the DRV5032 family. Note that the
sensor location may change internal to the device dependent on the package chosen, and this distance
must be taken into account during mechanical design. From the several magnets examined, K&J
Magnetic's DH1H1 was chosen, which is a 2.54-mm diameter x 2.54-mm thick, grade N42 neodymium
magnet.
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To emulate the feeling of a real push button switch, a certain amount of downward motion is required to
reach the maximum BOP of the sensor, and the device must also be capable of traveling a return distance
equivalent to the difference between maximum BOP and minimum BRP so that the part is also guaranteed
to release. To help facilitate this, devices of lower sensitivity are usually chosen, as they operate higher on
the non-linear magnetic curve. In Figure 4, the highest and lowest sensitivity devices from the DRV5032
family are shown in relation to the DH1H1 magnet.
80
70
BOP = 2.23mm, 63mT
60
B (mT)
50
40
BRP = 3.22mm, 30mT
BOP = 13.1mm, 0.9mT
30
DRV5032DU Bop - Brp = 5.54mm
BOP = 7.56mm, 3.9mT
20
DRV5032ZE
Bop - Brp = .99mm
10
0
0
5
10
15
Distance (mm)
Figure 4. DRV5032ZE and DRV5032DU, BOP and BRP Locations and Distances
As demonstrated, while the magnitude of the difference between BOP and BRP is much larger, the physical
distance that is traversed to transition states is much smaller, due to the exponential decay relationship at
close proximity to the magnet.
The device chosen based on this factor was the DRV5032ZE, and there is now a clear mechanical design
setup needed to be chosen or designed: an apparatus that rests the magnet above the sensor (internal to
the device package, not the package face) by at least 3.22 mm, and allows a distance of travel such that
the magnet stops at a distance less than 2.23 mm to the sensor. This is demonstrated in Figure 5.
>3.22mm
>3.22mm
<2.23mm
Figure 5. Head On Magnetic Travel for Single Position Switch
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Detailed Design Procedures
4.2
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Two-Position Switch with Single Output
The two-position switch is similar in many ways to the single position switch, with one major difference:
while the magnet still rests in a head-on approach to the sensor, the magnet now moves laterally to the
sensor at an arbitrary height chosen inside the maximum BOP point, calculated through the TI magnetic
calculator. For simplicity's sake, the DH1H1 paired with the DRV5032ZE is again chosen for this design.
Referring to Figure 4, recall that the maximum BOP of this magnet, paired with the DRV5032ZE, occurs at
a distance of 2.23 mm, so any distance beneath this may be utilized. For this design, a distance of 2 mm
is chosen. With this distance decided upon, it must now be determined how far the magnet may be moved
laterally to the sensor to reach the minimum BRP of the device.
For off-axis simulations, additional tools are required. For this paper, simulations were performed with
ANSYS Electronics Desktop, but there are free tools available that can assist with this portion of design,
such as the freely available KJM Magnet Calculator available on KJMagnetics' website. Note that the
curve shown in Figure 6 below only provides information for a DH1H1 magnet placed 2 mm above the
sensing element of the DRV5032ZE, and new data needs to be taken if this distance is chosen at a
different point, or if a different magnet were chosen for the design.
90
80
70
BOP = 0.89mm, 63mT
60
B (mT)
50
40
BRP = 1.95mm, 30mT
30
20
10
0
-10
Logic Level
HI
LO
0
1
2
3
Distance (mm)
4
5
6
Figure 6. DH1H1 Magnetic Curve, BOP and BRP points, 2-mm Height
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With these results, this report now has the physical distance the magnet must traverse to guarantee a
release operation. It can again move to the mechanical portion of this design with the following design
constraints: the magnet needs to rest 2 mm above the Hall sensing element in the DRV5032ZE, and
needs to be capable of displacing the magnet at least 1.95 mm laterally away from the rest position above
the sensor. This is demonstrated in Figure 7.
2mm
>1.95mm
Figure 7. Lateral Magnetic Travel for Dual-Position, Single Output Switch
4.3
2 Position Switch with Dual Output
The two-position dual output switch is where the design procedure diverges from the previous two, as it
now needs two total outputs. A potentially cost-effective way to do this is to access both poles of the
magnet, and as a result, turn the magnet on its side to be able to utilize a single magnet in the design.
Unlike the previous switch design, where an OFF/ON state was determined using a single-output sensor,
this design outputs two individual signals, utilizing a dual output unipolar device. OUT1 pulls low in the
presence of a north facing magnetic signal, while OUT 2 pulls low in the presence of a south-facing
magnetic signal. For the DRV5032 family, only two versions allow this configuration: the DU and FD
versions.
With the magnet turned on its side, the characteristic shape of the magnetic curve changes. As a result,
there are several orientations where BOP or BRP can be triggered on one of the outputs of the device. As
this is a dual-output switch, the goal is to choose a magnet that optimizes the "dead zone," or the region in
the center of the curve between the respective BOP's of the north and south sides of the magnetic
variation. By minimizing the travel distance of this area, the curve quickly slews from north magnetic
influence to south magnetic influence as the magnet is displaced laterally above the sensor, at an arbitrary
chosen height. For this design, a height of 2.5 mm was chosen prior to choosing a magnet. In Figure 8,
several magnets are examined to see how this alignment change causes the curve to shift. Note that
these curves demonstrate the magnetic field of these magnets at a height of 2.5 mm, from the outer
radius of the magnet to the magnetic Hall sensing element embedded in the package.
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DRV5032FD BOP = 4.8mT
B (mT)
DRV5032DU BOP = 3.9mT
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D11SH
DH11
DH12
DRV5032DU BRP = 0.9mT
D18
DH18
DRV5032FD BRP = 0.5mT
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
Distance (mm)
Figure 8. Magnetic Field Behaviors For Various Magnets, 2.5-mm Height
From these choices, D11SH, DH11, and DH12 all appear to work well with DRV5032DU or DRV5032FD,
due to the small distance between the BOP's from the north pole and south poles. As small form-factor is
desired here, the D11SH is chosen to complete this design, which is a 1.5875-mm diameter x 1.5875-mm
thick, grade N42 neodymium magnet. However, DH11 and DH12 could also be made to work here. Note
that these curves are only valid for the chosen height of 2.5 mm. They need to be recalculated for a
different chosen height.
A detailed magnetic field curve for D11SH is shown in Figure 9 below, along with the hysteretics of the
various operating and release points.
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10
8
6
BOP = .47mm, 3.9mT
4
B (mT)
2
BOP = 3.95mm, 3.9mT
BRP = 7mm, 0.9mT
BOP = -.47mm, -3.9mT
0
-2
BRP = -7mm, -0.9mT
-4
-6
BOP = -3.95mm, -3.9mT
-8
-10
Logic Level
HI
LO
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
Distance (mm)
5
10
15
20
Figure 9. D11SH Magnetic Curve, BOP and BRP Points, 2.5mm Height
For each peak of the curve, there are two points where BOP is reached. It is advised that the extremes of
each of these points (-3.95 mm for north pole, 3.95 mm for south pole) be treated as maximum travel
distance points; while there is a separation of 3.05 mm between operating points and the outer release
points, typical values are often far less than the data sheet maximums, and movement past these points
could result in unintended turn-off of the device. With this in mind, we arrive with our mechanical
tolerances for a dual output switch: a minimum travel distance between the two sides of the switch of ±.47
mm (.94 mm total), and a maximum movement distance of ±3.95 mm. This movement is demonstrated in
Figure 10. Note that only one orientation of movement is given, but this movement is symmetric to the
center of the sensor, and is able to be reflected across the axis of the part.
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< 3.95mm
BRP: 0.1mm
BOP Region:
0.47mm ± 3.95mm
Figure 10. Dual-Position, Dual-Output Switch Lateral Movement
4.4
Three-Position Switch with Dual Output (inline)
The three-position switch design is quite similar to the two-position dual output. However, in this design,
the "dead zone" is no longer minimized, and acts as a third output, where neither output of the DRV5032
is active. As such, a flatter curve is desired to elongate the travel area of this third state. Recall D18 and
DH18 in Figure 8 above, as these exhibit the flatter behavior desired here. For simplicity, the D18 is
chosen at a height of 2.5 mm to complete this design, which is a 1.5875 mm diameter x 12.7 mm thick,
grade N42 neodymium magnet.
A more detailed magnetic field curve for D18 is shown in Figure 11 below, along with the hysteretics of the
various operating and release points.
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25
20
BOP = 2.15mm, 3.9mT
15
BOP = 10.97mm, 3.9mT
BRP = 0.59mm, -0.9mT
BRP = 14.87mm, 0.9mT
10
BRP = -0.59mm, -0.9mT
B (mT)
5
BRP = -14.87mm, -0.9mT
BOP = -2.15mm, -3.9mT
BOP = -10.97mm, -3.9mT
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
Logic Level
HI
LO
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
Distance (mm)
5
10
15
20
Figure 11. D18 Magnetic Curve, BOP and BRP points, 2.5-mm Height
From here, the design is remarkably similar to the dual output switch. Again, it is advised that the BOP
extremes of each of these points (-10.97 mm for north pole, 10.97 mm for south pole) be treated as
maximum travel distance points for additional robustness. Following the procedure from the dual-output
switch in the previous section, the design now turns to a mechanical problem with the following tolerances:
a minimum travel distance between the two sides of the switch of ±.2.15 mm (4.3 mm total), and a
maximum movement distance of ±10.97 mm. However, there is now a ±.59 mm (1.18 mm) section in the
center of the switch that acts as an "off" position, as the magnetic field seen by the sensor is guaranteed
to be clear of the minimum release point of either side. Note that this 1.18-mm region is based on the
minimum BRP of the device, and in practice this region is typically larger. This movement is demonstrated
in Figure 12 and Figure 13 below. Note that only one orientation of movement is given, but this movement
is symmetric to the center of the sensor, and is able to be reflected across the axis of the part.
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0mm
Figure 12. Three-Position Switch OFF Position
< 10.97mm
BRP: 0.59mm
BOP Region: 2.15mm ± 10.97mm
Figure 13. Three-Position Switch Lateral Movement
4.5
Three-Position Switch with Dual Output (rotational)
For rotary switch designs, disc-style magnets are typically the most convenient due to their periodic nature
when used with Hall effect sensors, but for small form factor, cylindrical magnets may also be used. By
rotating the cylinder magnet, a curve resemblant of the prior design is created.
As this magnet is typically embedded in a dial, a small thickness is desired, but increasing this thickness
also helps with maximizing the dead zone, so a trade-off must be made here. From a quick inspection of
available magnets, D14 was chosen for this simulation, which is a 1.59-mm diameter by 3.175-mm thick,
axial, grade N42 neodymium magnet. A height of 2.5 mm is chosen for the magnet, and once more paired
with the DRV5032DU. A detailed magnetic field curve for D14 is shown in Figure 14 below, along with the
hysteretics of the various operating and release points.
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20
15
BOP = -27.07° , 3.9mT
10
BRP = -7.22° , 0.9mT
B (mT)
5
BRP = 7.22° , 0.9mT
BOP = 27.07° , -3.9mT
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
Logic Level
HI
LO
-180
-135
-90
-45
0
Angle (deg)
45
90
135
180
Figure 14. D42DIA Magnetic Curve, BOP and BRP Points, 2.5-mm Height
These results show that the magnet must be embedded in an enclosure that is capable of traveling at
least ±27.07º to guarantee turn-on of either state. To ensure robustness, a few additional degrees of
margin must be added, so the design is robust with a travel distance of ±30º As the dial is brought back to
the center, the device is guaranteed to turn off at roughly ±7º on either side, with an approximate 14º
window in the center as the "off" point where neither output of the sensor is active. The enclosure must sit
with the magnet 2.5 mm above the sensor, with the sensor mounted under the edge of the radial spin at
the thickest point of the magnet, as seen in Figure 15 and Figure 16.
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0°
Figure 15. Three Position Rotary Switch OFF Position
-7°
0°
7°
-30°
30°
Figure 16. Rotary Magnetic Travel for Three-Position Switch
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References
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5
References
•
•
•
Texas Instruments, Overview Using Linear Hall Effect Sensors to Measure Angle Application Note
Texas Instruments, Breakout Adapter for SOT-23 and TO-92 Hall Sensor Evaluation
Texas Instruments, E2E forums at https://e2e.ti.com/
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