Texas Instruments | Low-Power Sub-1-GHz Fractional-N UHF Device Family for Automotive (Rev. B) | Datasheet | Texas Instruments Low-Power Sub-1-GHz Fractional-N UHF Device Family for Automotive (Rev. B) Datasheet

Texas Instruments Low-Power Sub-1-GHz Fractional-N UHF Device Family for Automotive (Rev. B) Datasheet
CC11x1-Q1
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SWRS076B – 11-07-22-013 - APRIL 2009 – REVISED APRIL 2010
Low-Power Sub-1-GHz Fractional-N UHF Device Family for Automotive
1 Introduction
1.1
Features
12
• Qualification in Accordance With AEC-Q100
Grade 1
• Extended Temperature Range Up To 125°C
• Radio-Frequency (RF) Performance
– High Sensitivity (–114 dBm at 1.2 kBaud,
315 MHz, 1% Packet Error Rate)
– Low Current Consumption (15.5 mA in
Receive, 1.2 kBaud, 315 MHz)
• Programmable Output Power up to +10 dBm for
All Supported Frequencies
• Excellent Receiver Selectivity and Blocking
Performance
• Programmable Data Rate From 1.2 kBaud to
250 kBaud
• Frequency Bands: 310 MHz to 348 MHz,
420 MHz to 450 MHz, and 779 MHz to 928 MHz
• Analog Features
– 2-FSK, GFSK, and MSK Supported, as Well
as OOK and Flexible ASK Shaping
– Suitable for Frequency-Hopping Systems
Due to a Fast Settling Frequency
Synthesizer: 90-µs Settling Time
– Automatic Frequency Compensation (AFC)
Can Align Frequency Synthesizer to
Received Center Frequency
– Integrated Analog Temperature Sensor
• Digital Features
– Flexible Support for Packet-Oriented
Systems: On-Chip Support for Sync Word
Detection, Address Check, Flexible Packet
Length, and Automatic CRC Handling
– Efficient SPI Interface: All Registers Can Be
Programmed With One Burst Transfer
– Digital RSSI Output
– Programmable Channel Filter Bandwidth
– Programmable Carrier Sense (CS) Indicator
– Programmable Preamble Quality Indicator
(PQI) for Improved Protection Against False
Sync Word Detection in Random Noise
– Support for Automatic Clear Channel
Assessment (CCA) Before Transmitting (for
Listen-Before-Talk Systems)
– Support for Per-Package Link Quality
Indication (LQI)
– Optional Automatic Whitening and
Dewhitening of Data
• Low-Power Features
– Fast Startup Time: 240 µs From Sleep to
Receive (RX) or Transmit (TX) Mode
– Wake-On-Radio Functionality for Automatic
Low-Power RX Polling
– Separate 64-Byte RX and TX Data FIFOs
(Enables Burst Mode Data Transmission)
• General
– Few External Components: Completely
On-Chip Frequency Synthesizer, No External
Filters or RF Switch Needed
– Green Package: RoHS Compliant and No
Antimony or Bromine
– Small Size QFN 5-mm×5-mm 32-Pin Package
– Suited for Systems Compliant With
EN 300 220 (Europe) and FCC CFR Part 15
(US)
– Support for Asynchronous and Synchronous
Serial Receive/Transmit Mode for Backward
Compatibility With Existing Radio
Communication Protocols
– Designed for Automotive Applications
1.2
•
•
•
•
•
•
Applications
Ultra-Low-Power Wireless Applications in the
315/433/868/915-MHz ISM/SRD Bands
Remote Keyless Entry Systems
Passive Entry/Passive Start Systems
Vehicle Service Links
Garage Door Opener
TPMS Systems
1
2
Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of Texas
Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.
SmartRF is a registered trademark of Texas Instruments.
PRODUCTION DATA information is current as of publication date.
Products conform to specifications per the terms of the Texas
Instruments standard warranty. Production processing does not
necessarily include testing of all parameters.
Copyright © 2009–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated
CC11x1-Q1
SWRS076B – 11-07-22-013 - APRIL 2009 – REVISED APRIL 2010
1.3
Advantages
•
•
•
•
1.4
www.ti.com
Relay Attack Prevention Through Fast Channel Hopping
Lowest System Cost Through Highest Integration Level
Only One Crystal Needed For Key-Fob Designs
Integrated Protocol Handling, Wake-On-Radio, Clock Output Relax Microcontroller Requirements
Family Members
All family members are pin-to-pin and software compatible.
UHF Transceivers
CC1101IRHBRG4Q1 (–40°C to 85°C)
CC1101TRHBRG4Q1 (–40°C to 105°C)
CC1101QRHBRG4Q1 (–40°C to 125°C)
UHF Receivers
CC1131IRHBRG4Q1 (–40°C to 85°C)
CC1131TRHBRG4Q1 (–40°C to 105°C)
CC1131QRHBRG4Q1 (–40°C to 125°C)
UHF Transmitters
CC1151IRHBRG4Q1 (–40°C to 85°C)
CC1151TRHBRG4Q1 (–40°C to 105°C)
CC1151QRHBRG4Q1 (–40°C to 125°C)
1.5
Description
The CC11x1-Q1 device family is designed for very low-power wireless applications. The circuits are
mainly intended for the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) and Short Range Device (SRD) frequency
bands at 315 MHz, 433 MHz, 868 MHz, and 915 MHz, but can easily be programmed for operation at
other frequencies in the 310-MHz to 348-MHz, 420-MHz to 450-MHz, and 779-MHz to 928-MHz bands.
The devices integrate a highly configurable baseband modem. The modem supports various modulation
formats and has a configurable data rate up to 250 kBaud. CC11x1-Q1 family provides extensive
hardware support for packet handling, data buffering, burst transmissions, clear channel assessment, link
quality indication, and wake-on-radio. The main operating parameters and the 64-byte transmit/receive
FIFOs can be controlled via an SPI interface. In a typical system, the devices are used together with a
microcontroller and a few additional passive components.
WARNING
This product shall not be used in any of the following products or systems
without prior express written permission from Texas Instruments:
(i) implantable cardiac rhythm management systems, including without
limitation pacemakers, defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization devices;
(ii) external cardiac rhythm management systems that communicate directly
with one or more implantable medical devices; or
(iii) other devices used to monitor or treat cardiac function, including without
limitation pressure sensors, biochemical sensors and neurostimulators.
Please contact lpw-medical-approval@list.ti.com if your application might fall
within a category described above.
2
Introduction
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1.6
SWRS076B – 11-07-22-013 - APRIL 2009 – REVISED APRIL 2010
Abbreviations
The following abbreviations are used in this data manual.
ACP
Adjacent Channel Power
MSK
Minimum Shift Keying
ADC
Analog-to-Digital Converter
N/A
Not Applicable
AFC
Automatic Frequency Compensation
NRZ
Non Return to Zero (Coding)
AGC
Automatic Gain Control
OOK
On-Off Keying
AMR
Automatic Meter Reading
PA
Power Amplifier
ASK
Amplitude Shift Keying
PCB
Printed Circuit Board
BER
Bit Error Rate
PD
Power Down
BT
Bandwidth-Time Product
PER
Packet Error Rate
CCA
Clear Channel Assessment
PLL
Phase-Locked Loop
CFR
Code of Federal Regulations
POR
Power-On Reset
CRC
Cyclic Redundancy Check
PQI
Preamble Quality Indicator
CS
Carrier Sense
PQT
Preamble Quality Threshold
CW
Continuous Wave (Unmodulated Carrier)
PTAT
Proportional To Absolute Temperature
DC
Direct Current
QLP
Quad Leadless Package
DVGA
Digital Variable Gain Amplifier
QPSK
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
ESR
Equivalent Series Resistance
RC
Resistor Capacitor
FCC
Federal Communications Commission
RF
Radio Frequency
FEC
Forward Error Correction
RSSI
Received Signal Strength Indicator
FIFO
First In, First Out
RX
Receive, Receive Mode
FHSS
Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
SAW
Surface Acoustic Wave
2-FSK
Binary Frequency Shift Keying
SMD
Surface Mount Device
GFSK
Gaussian shaped Frequency Shift Keying
SNR
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
IF
Intermediate Frequency
SPI
Serial Peripheral Interface
I/Q
In-Phase/Quadrature
SRD
Short Range Devices
ISM
Industrial, Scientific, Medical
TBD
To Be Defined
LC
Inductor-Capacitor
T/R
Transmit/Receive
LNA
Low Noise Amplifier
TX
Transmit, Transmit Mode
LO
Local Oscillator
UHF
Ultra-High Frequency
LSB
Least-Significant Bit
VCO
Voltage Controlled Oscillator
LQI
Link Quality Indicator
WOR
Wake on Radio, Low power polling
MCU
Microcontroller Unit
XOSC
Crystal Oscillator
MSB
Most-Significant Bit
XTAL
Crystal
Introduction
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1
2
3
4
.............................................. 1
1.1
Features .............................................. 1
1.2
Applications .......................................... 1
1.3
Advantages .......................................... 2
1.4
Family Members ..................................... 2
1.5
Description ........................................... 2
1.6
Abbreviations ........................................ 3
Electrical Specifications ............................... 5
2.1
Absolute Maximum Ratings .......................... 5
2.2
Recommended Operating Conditions ............... 5
2.3
General Characteristics .............................. 5
2.4
Current Consumption ................................ 6
2.5
RF Receive Section Characteristics ................. 8
2.6
Selectivity ........................................... 10
2.7
RSSI Section Characteristics ....................... 11
2.8
RF Transmit Section Characteristics ............... 12
2.9
Crystal Oscillator Characteristics ................... 13
2.10 Low-Power RC Oscillator Characteristics .......... 13
2.11 Frequency Synthesizer Characteristics ............ 14
2.12 Analog Temperature Sensor Characteristics ....... 15
2.13 Digital Input/Output DC Characteristics ............ 15
2.14 Power-On Reset Characteristics ................... 15
2.15 SPI Interface Timing ................................ 16
2.16 Typical State Transition Timing ..................... 16
Detailed Description .................................. 17
3.1
Terminal Assignments .............................. 17
3.2
Block Diagram ...................................... 19
3.3
Application Circuit .................................. 20
3.4
Configuration Overview ............................. 22
3.5
Configuration Software ............................. 23
3.6
4-Wire Serial Configuration and Data Interface .... 24
Introduction
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3.7
3.8
....
Data Rate Programming ............................
Receiver Channel Filter Bandwidth .................
28
................
31
Microcontroller Interface and Pin Configuration
29
3.9
3.10
29
Demodulator, Symbol Synchronizer, and Data
Decision ............................................ 30
3.11
Packet Handling Hardware Support
3.12
3.13
Modulation Formats ................................ 37
Received Signal Qualifiers and Link Quality
Information .......................................... 38
3.14
Forward Error Correction With Interleaving
43
3.15
Radio Control
44
3.16
3.17
3.18
3.19
3.20
3.21
3.22
3.23
3.24
3.25
3.26
........
.......................................
Data FIFO ..........................................
Frequency Programming ...........................
VCO ................................................
Voltage Regulators .................................
Output Power Programming ........................
Shaping and PA Ramping ..........................
Crystal Oscillator ...................................
External RF Match ..................................
PCB Layout Recommendations ....................
General Purpose / Test Output Control Pins .......
52
52
53
53
54
55
55
56
56
Asynchronous and Synchronous Serial Operation
......................................................
............
4 Configuration Registers ..............................
4.1
Overview ............................................
4.2
Register Details .....................................
5 Package and Shipping Information ................
5.1
Package Thermal Properties .......................
5.2
Soldering Information ...............................
5.3
Carrier Tape and Reel Specifications ..............
5.4
Ordering Information ................................
6 References ..............................................
Revision History ............................................
3.27
50
System Considerations and Guidelines
Contents
59
60
63
63
68
86
86
86
86
86
87
88
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2 Electrical Specifications
Absolute Maximum Ratings (1)
2.1
over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted)
Supply voltage (2)
VDD
–0.3 V to 3.9 V
–0.3 V to (VDD + 0.3 V) (3)
Voltage on any digital pin
Voltage on the pins RF_P, RF_N, DCOUPL1 and DCOUPL2
–0.3 V to 2 V
Voltage ramp-up rate
120 kV/µs
Input RF level
10 dBm
Tstg
Storage temperature range
Tsolder
Solder reflow temperature (4)
ESD
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
2.2
VDD
TA
2.3
–50°C to 150°C
260°C
Electrostatic discharge rating (5)
Human-Body Model (HBM) (6)
±750 V
Charged-Device Model (CDM) (7)
±200 V
Machine Model (MM) (8)
±100 V
Stresses beyond those listed under absolute maximum ratings may cause permanent damage to the device. These are stress ratings
only, and functional operation of the device at these or any other conditions beyond those indicated under recommended operating
conditions is not implied. Exposure to absolute-maximum-rated conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
All supply pins must have the same voltage.
Maximum voltage is 3.9 V.
Measured according to IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020C
High-sensitivity UHF devices must be handled with special care to avoid ESD damage. TI is not responsible for damage to this device
caused by external ESD conditions. The following electrostatic discharge (ESD) precautions are recommended:
• Protective outer garments
• Handling in ESD-safeguarded work area
• Transporting in ESD-shielded containers
• Frequent monitoring and testing of all ESD-protection equipment
Measured according to JEDEC STD 22, Method A114
Measured according to JEDEC STD 22, C101C
Measured according to JEDEC STD 22, Method A115A
Recommended Operating Conditions
MIN
MAX
1.8
3.6
I temperature suffix
–40
85
T temperature suffix
–40
105
Q temperature suffix
–40
125
TYP
MAX
Supply voltage
Operating free-air temperature
V
°C
General Characteristics
PARAMETER
Frequency range
Data rate (1)
TEST CONDITIONS
TA = –40°C to 105°C, VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V
The data rate step size is determined by the reference frequency –
see Data Rate Programming
Shaped MSK (also known as differential offset QPSK)
Device weight
(1)
UNIT
MIN
310
348
420
450
779
928
1.2
250
UNIT
MHz
kBaud
26 to 250
0.0715
g
Optional Manchester encoding halves the data rate.
Electrical Specifications
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Current Consumption
VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V, fREF = 26 MHz, All voltages refer to GND (unless otherwise noted). Typical values at TA = 25°C, VDD = 3
V. All measurement results obtained using the reference designs.
PARAMETER
Current consumption in
power-down modes
TEST CONDITIONS
5
0.7
1.9
Voltage regulator to digital part off, register values
retained, low-power RC oscillator running (SLEEP state
with WOR enabled)
–40°C to 105°C
125°C
2.5
Voltage regulator to digital part off, register values
retained, XOSC running (SLEEP state with
MCSM0.OSC_FORCE_ON set)
–40°C to 105°C
370
125°C
400
Voltage regulator to digital part on, all other modules in
power down (XOFF state)
–40°C to 105°C
160
125°C
190
Only voltage regulator to digital part and crystal oscillator
running (IDLE state)
–40°C to 105°C
1.8
125°C
1.9
Only the frequency synthesizer running (after going from
IDLE until reaching RX or TX states, and frequency
calibration states)
–40°C to 105°C
125°C
9.1
Transmit mode (1), 10-dBm output power, Continuous
wave
–40°C to 105°C
29.5
125°C
28.9
–40°C to 105°C
14.6
125°C
14.3
Transmit mode (1), –5-dBm output power, Continuous
wave
–40°C to 105°C
12.2
125°C
12.1
Receive mode (2), 1.2 kbps, input 20 dB above sensitivity
limit
–40°C to 105°C
17.5
125°C
18.3
Receive mode (2), 38.4 kbps, input 20 dB above sensitivity
limit
–40°C to 105°C
17.5
125°C
18.4
Receive mode (2), 38.4 kbps, input 20 dB above sensitivity
limit, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1)
–40°C to 105°C
15.5
125°C
16.5
–40°C to 105°C
17.8
125°C
18.4
–40°C to 105°C
30.5
(2)
, 250 kbps, input 30 dB above sensitivity
Transmit mode (1), 0-dBm output power
Transmit mode (1), –5-dBm output power
6
MAX
125°C
Transmit mode (1), 10-dBm output power
(1)
(2)
TYP
–40°C to 105°C
Receive mode
limit
Current consumption,
433 MHz
MIN
Voltage regulator to digital part off, register values
retained, RC oscillator off, all GDO pins programmed to
0X2F (SLEEP state)
Transmit mode (1), 0-dBm output power, Continuous wave
Current consumption,
315 MHz
TA
125°C
2
9
15.4
125°C
15.1
–40°C to 105°C
13.1
µA
490
300
2.5
10.5
mA
32.9
16.5
14
21
mA
21
17
21.5
33
17.5
14.9
13
Receive mode (2), 1.2 kbps, input 20 dB above sensitivity
limit
–40°C to 105°C
18.6
125°C
19.2
Receive mode (2), 38.4 kbps, input 20 dB above sensitivity
limit
–40°C to 105°C
18.6
125°C
19.3
Receive mode (2), 38.4 kbps, input 20 dB above sensitivity
limit, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1)
–40°C to 105°C
16.5
Receive mode (2), 250 kbps, input 30 dB above sensitivity
limit
–40°C to 105°C
18.6
125°C
19.3
125°C
6
30
–40°C to 105°C
125°C
UNIT
22
mA
22.2
18
17
22.2
Transmit parameters valid for CC1101 and CC1151 only
Receive parameters valid for CC1101 and CC1131 only
Electrical Specifications
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Current Consumption (continued)
VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V, fREF = 26 MHz, All voltages refer to GND (unless otherwise noted). Typical values at TA = 25°C, VDD = 3
V. All measurement results obtained using the reference designs.
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
Transmit mode (1), 10-dBm output power
Transmit mode (1), 0-dBm output power
Transmit mode (1), –5-dBm output power
Current consumption,
868 MHz
MIN
TYP
MAX
–40°C to 105°C
35.5
39
125°C
33.9
–40°C to 105°C
16.4
125°C
16.2
–40°C to 105°C
15
125°C
16
Receive mode (2), 1.2 kbps, input 20 dB above sensitivity
limit
–40°C to 105°C
Receive mode (2), 38.4 kbps, input 20 dB above sensitivity
limit
–40°C to 105°C
125°C
19
Receive mode (2), 38.4 kbps, input 20 dB above sensitivity
limit, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1)
–40°C to 105°C
16
Receive mode
limit
(2)
, 250 kbps, input 30 dB above sensitivity
Transmit mode (1), 10-dBm output power
Transmit mode (1), 0-dBm output power
Transmit mode (1), –5-dBm output power
Current consumption,
915 MHz
TA
125°C
18.5
125°C
16.5
–40°C to 105°C
18.5
125°C
19.1
–40°C to 105°C
34
125°C
32
–40°C to 105°C
18.5
17.5
21.5
mA
19
18.4
16
125°C
15.8
–40°C to 105°C
14.5
125°C
15.5
Receive mode (2), 1.2 kbps, input 20 dB above sensitivity
limit
–40°C to 105°C
18.2
125°C
18.8
Receive mode (2), 38.4 kbps, input 20 dB above sensitivity
limit
–40°C to 105°C
18.3
125°C
18.8
Receive mode (2), 38.4 kbps, input 20 dB above sensitivity
limit, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1)
–40°C to 105°C
125°C
16.5
Receive mode (2), 250 kbps, input 30 dB above sensitivity
limit
–40°C to 105°C
18.3
125°C
18.8
16
21.5
18
22
41
18
16.5
21.5
mA
21.5
18
21.5
Electrical Specifications
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7
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2.5
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RF Receive Section Characteristics
VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V, Forward error correction disabled, All voltages refer to GND (unless otherwise noted). Typical values at
TA = 25°C, VDD = 3 V. Receive parameters valid for CC1101 and CC1131 only.
PARAMETER
Digital channel RX
filter input bandwidth
Receiver sensitivity,
315 MHz
TEST CONDITIONS
58 to
812
–40°C to 105°C
–114
125°C
–113
1.2 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation 5.2
kHz, 58-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1)
–40°C to 105°C
–109
125°C
–105
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, high-sensitivity mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 0)
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1)
–40°C to 105°C
–98
125°C
–101
–96
–40°C to 105°C
–108
1.2 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation 5.2
kHz, 58-kHz RX bandwidth, high-sensitivity mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 0)
–40°C to 105°C
–114
125°C
–113
1.2 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation 5.2
kHz, 58-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1)
–40°C to 105°C
–109
125°C
–105
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, high-sensitivity mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 0)
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1)
–40°C to 105°C
125°C
–101
–40°C to 105°C
–109
1.2 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation 5.2
kHz, 58-kHz RX bandwidth, high-sensitivity mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 0)
–40°C to 105°C
–111
125°C
–109
1.2 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation 5.2
kHz, 58-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1)
–40°C to 105°C
–107
125°C
–102
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, high-sensitivity mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 0)
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1)
–40°C to 105°C
250 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
127 kHz, 540-kHz RX bandwidth, high-sensitivity mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 0)
–40°C to 105°C
Electrical Specifications
125°C
dBm
dBm
–104
125°C
–100
kHz
–107
–102
–98
UNIT
–103
–100
–100
MAX
–105
125°C
1.2 kBaud / ASK, 1% packet error rate, 58-kHz RX
bandwidth, high-sensitivity mode.
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 0)
8
TYP
1.2 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation 5.2
kHz, 58-kHz RX bandwidth, high-sensitivity mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 0)
1.2 kBaud / ASK, 1% packet error rate, 58-kHz RX
bandwidth, high-sensitivity mode.
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 0)
Receiver sensitivity,
868 MHz
MIN
User programmable, depend on reference frequency, fREF
= 26 MHz
1.2 kBaud / ASK, 1% packet error rate, 58-kHz RX
bandwidth, high-sensitivity
mode(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 0)
Receiver sensitivity,
433 MHz
TA
–106
–101
–96
125°C
–103
dBm
–99
–90
–98
125°C
–95
–40°C to 105°C
–108
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RF Receive Section Characteristics (continued)
VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V, Forward error correction disabled, All voltages refer to GND (unless otherwise noted). Typical values at
TA = 25°C, VDD = 3 V. Receive parameters valid for CC1101 and CC1131 only.
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
TA
1.2 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation 5.2
kHz, 58-kHz RX bandwidth, high-sensitivity mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 0)
–40°C to 105°C
–111
125°C
–109
1.2 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation 5.2
kHz, 58-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1)
–40°C to 105°C
–107
125°C
–102
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, high-sensitivity mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 0)
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1)
–40°C to 105°C
125°C
–100
250 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
127 kHz, 540-kHz RX bandwidth, high-sensitivity mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 0)
–40°C to 105°C
–98
125°C
–93
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1), Channel spacing
200 kHz, Desired channel 3 dB above sensitivity level,
Signal level at ±200 kHz
–40°C to 105°C
–56
Receiver adjacent
channel rejection,
315 MHz/433 MHz
125°C
–52
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1), Channel spacing
200 kHz, Desired channel 3 dB above sensitivity level,
Signal level at ±400 kHz
–40°C to 105°C
–55
Receiver alternate
channel rejection,
315 MHz/433 MHz
125°C
–50
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1), Channel spacing
200 kHz, Desired channel 3 dB above sensitivity level,
Signal level at ±2 MHz
–40°C to 105°C
–46
Receiver blocking
±2 MHz,
315 MHz/433 MHz
125°C
–41
Receiver blocking
±10 MHz,
315 MHz/433 MHz
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1), Desired channel 3
dB above sensitivity level, Signal level at ±10 MHz
–40°C to 105°C
–40
125°C
–33
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1), Channel spacing
200 kHz, Desired channel 3 dB above sensitivity level,
Signal level at fSignal – 608 kHz
–40°C to 105°C
–65
Receiver image
channel rejection,
315 MHz/433 MHz
125°C
–61
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1), Channel spacing
200 kHz, Desired channel 3 dB above sensitivity level,
Signal level at ±200 kHz
–40°C to 105°C
–64
Receiver adjacent
channel rejection,
868 MHz/915 MHz
125°C
–61
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1), Channel spacing
200 kHz, Desired channel 3 dB above sensitivity level,
Signal level at ±400 kHz
–40°C to 105°C
–58
Receiver alternate
channel rejection,
868 MHz/915 MHz
125°C
–54
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1), Wanted signal 3 dB
above sensitivity limit, level of unmodulated signal at ±2
MHz is recorded
–40°C to 105°C
–44
Receiver blocking,
868 MHz ± 2 MHz
125°C
–40
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1), Wanted signal 3 dB
above sensitivity limit, Level of unmodulated signal at ±10
MHz is recorded
–40°C to 105°C
–38
Receiver blocking,
868 MHz ± 10 MHz
125°C
–33
Receiver sensitivity,
915 MHz
MIN
–100
125°C
TYP
MAX
–107
–102
–97
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–103
Electrical Specifications
Copyright © 2009–2010, Texas Instruments Incorporated
UNIT
dB
dB
dBm
dBm
dB
dB
dB
dBm
dBm
9
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RF Receive Section Characteristics (continued)
VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V, Forward error correction disabled, All voltages refer to GND (unless otherwise noted). Typical values at
TA = 25°C, VDD = 3 V. Receive parameters valid for CC1101 and CC1131 only.
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
TA
Receiver image
channel rejection,
868 MHz/915 MHz
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate, TX deviation
19 kHz, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1), Channel spacing
200 kHz, Desired channel 3 dB above sensitivity level,
Signal level at fSignal – 608 kHz
Receiver spurious
emission
38.4 kBaud / 2-FSK, 1% packet error rate,
TX deviation 19 kHz, 100-kHz RX
bandwidth, low-current mode
(MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1)
2.6
MIN
TYP
–40°C to 105°C
–60
125°C
–55
25 MHz to
1 GHz
–40°C to 105°C
–57
> 1 GHz
–40°C to 105°C
–47
MAX
UNIT
dB
dBm
Selectivity
Figure 2-1 to Figure 2-3 show the typical selectivity performance (adjacent and alternate rejection).
50
Selectivity [dB]
40
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-1.0 -0.9 -0.8 -0.7 -0.5 -0.4 -0.2 -0.1 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
Frequency offset [MHz]
Figure 2-1. Typical Selectivity at 1.2-kBaud Data Rate, 868.3 MHz, GFSK, 5.2-kHz Deviation,
IF Frequency 152.3 kHz, Digital Channel Filter Bandwidth 58 kHz
50.0
40.0
Selectivity [dB]
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
-10.0
-20.0
-1.0
-0.8
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2 -0.1 0.0
0.1
Frequency offset [MHz]
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.8
1.0
Figure 2-2. Typical Selectivity at 38.4-kBaud Data Rate, 868 MHz, GFSK, 20-kHz Deviation,
IF Frequency 152.3 kHz, Digital Channel Filter Bandwidth 100 kHz
10
Electrical Specifications
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Selectivity (continued)
50.0
40.0
Selectivity [dB]
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
-10.0
-20.0
-3.00
-2.25
1.50
-1.00
-0.75
0.00
0.75
1.00
1.50
2.25
3.00
Frequency offset [MHz]
Figure 2-3. Typical Selectivity at 250-kBaud Data Rate, 868 MHz, GFSK,
IF Frequency 304 kHz, Digital Channel Filter Bandwidth 540 kHz
2.7
RSSI Section Characteristics (1)
VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V, All voltages refer to GND (unless otherwise noted). Typical values at TA = 25°C, VDD = 3 V. Receive
parameters valid for CC1101 and CC1131 only.
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
TA
RX mode, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, Reference signal
CW , –90-dBm power level. Read RSSI status register
and calculate measured RSSI level.
–40°C to 105°C
RX mode, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, Reference signal
CW , –20-dBm power level. Read RSSI status register
and calculate measured RSSI level.
–40°C to 105°C
RX mode, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, Reference signal
CW , –90-dBm power level. Read RSSI status register
and calculate measured RSSI level.
–40°C to 105°C
RX mode, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, Reference signal
RSSI accuracy, 928 MHz CW , –55-dBm power level. Read RSSI status register
and calculate measured RSSI level.
–40°C to 105°C
RX mode, 100-kHz RX bandwidth, Reference signal
CW , –20-dBm power level. Read RSSI status register
and calculate measured RSSI level.
–40°C to 105°C
RSSI accuracy, 310 MHz
(1)
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
–90
125°C
dBm
–20
125°C
–97
125°C
–82
–91
–62
125°C
125°C
–89
–54
–45
dBm
–56
–27
–19
–10
–21
RSSI tolerances can be compensated by an offset correction for each device.
Electrical Specifications
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2.8
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RF Transmit Section Characteristics
VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V, All voltages refer to GND (unless otherwise noted). Typical values at TA = 25°C, VDD = 3 V. Transmit
parameters valid for CC1101 and CC1151 only.
PARAMETER
Differential load
impedance
TEST CONDITIONS
315 MHz
Load impedance as seen from the
RF port RF_N and RF_P towards the 433 MHz
antenna. For matching follow the
868 MHz/
reference design.
915 MHz
TA
MIN
TYP
116 + j41
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / GFSK, TX deviation 19 kHz, Output power
setting: 0 dBm
CW, Delivered into a 50-Ω load, including matching
network as outlined
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / GFSK, TX deviation 19 kHz, Output power
setting: –5 dBm
CW, Delivered into a 50-Ω load, including matching
network as outlined
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / GFSK, TX deviation 19 kHz, Output power
setting: 10 dBm
CW, Delivered into a 50-Ω load, including matching
network as outlined
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / GFSK, TX deviation 19 kHz, Output power
setting: 0 dBm
CW, Delivered into a 50-Ω load, including matching
network as outlined
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / GFSK, TX deviation 19 kHz, Output power
setting: –5 dBm
CW, Delivered into a 50-Ω load, including matching
network as outlined
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / GFSK, TX deviation 19 kHz, Output power
setting: 10 dBm
CW, Delivered into a 50-Ω load, including matching
network as outlined
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / GFSK, TX deviation 19 kHz, Output power
setting: 0 dBm
CW, Delivered into a 50-Ω load, including matching
network as outlined
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / GFSK, TX deviation 19 kHz, Output power
setting: –5 dBm
CW, Delivered into a 50-Ω load, including matching
network as outlined
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / GFSK, TX deviation 19 kHz, Output power
setting: 10 dBm
CW, Delivered into a 50-Ω load, including matching
network as outlined
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / GFSK, TX deviation 19 kHz, Output power
setting: 0 dBm
CW, Delivered into a 50-Ω load, including matching
network as outlined
–40°C to 105°C
38.4 kBaud / GFSK, TX deviation 19 kHz, Output power
setting: –5 dBm
CW, Delivered into a 50-Ω load, including matching
network as outlined
–40°C to 105°C
125°C
–5.6
Second-order
harmonics, 315 MHz
Conducted measurement on reference design with CW
and maximum output-power settings
Note: PA output matching impacts harmonics level
–40°C to 105°C
–50
125°C
–53
Third-order
harmonics, 315 MHz
Conducted measurement on reference design with CW
and maximum output-power settings
Note: PA output matching impacts harmonics level
–40°C to 105°C
–32
125°C
–40
TX output power,
868 MHz
TX output power,
915 MHz
12
Ω
87 + j43
–40°C to 105°C
TX output power,
433 MHz
UNIT
122 + j31
38.4 kBaud / GFSK, TX deviation 19 kHz, Output power
setting: 10 dBm
CW, Delivered into a 50-Ω load, including matching
network as outlined
TX output power,
315 MHz
MAX
9
125°C
12.5
10
–3
125°C
–0.5
2.5
dBm
–1.5
–8.5
125°C
–5.7
–2.5
–6.7
9
125°C
10.8
12
10.3
–4.5
125°C
–0.2
4
dBm
–1.1
–8
125°C
–5.3
–2.5
–6.2
8
125°C
10.4
12
9.7
–4
125°C
–0.5
3.5
dBm
–1.9
–9
125°C
–5
–2.5
–7
7.5
125°C
9.6
12
9.4
–4
125°C
Electrical Specifications
11
–0.3
4
dBm
–0.9
–8
–5
–1.5
dBm
dBm
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RF Transmit Section Characteristics (continued)
VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V, All voltages refer to GND (unless otherwise noted). Typical values at TA = 25°C, VDD = 3 V. Transmit
parameters valid for CC1101 and CC1151 only.
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
TA
Second-order
harmonics, 433 MHz
Conducted measurement on reference design with CW
and maximum output power settings
Note: PA output matching impacts harmonics level
–40°C to 105°C
–40
125°C
–41
Third-order
harmonics, 433 MHz
Conducted measurement on reference design with CW
and maximum output power settings
Note: PA output matching impacts harmonics level
–40°C to 105°C
–26
125°C
–27
Second-order
harmonics, 868 MHz
Conducted measurement on reference design with CW
and maximum output power settings
Note: PA output matching impacts harmonics level
–40°C to 105°C
–48
125°C
–44
Third-order
harmonics, 868 MHz
Conducted measurement on reference design with CW
and maximum output power settings
Note: PA output matching impacts harmonics level
–40°C to 105°C
–45
125°C
–45
Second-order
harmonics, 915 MHz
Conducted measurement on reference design with CW
and maximum output power settings
Note: PA output matching impacts harmonics level
–40°C to 105°C
–50
125°C
–53
Third-order
harmonics, 915 MHz
Conducted measurement on reference design with CW
and maximum output power settings
Note: PA output matching impacts harmonics level
–40°C to 105°C
–45
125°C
–46
2.9
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
Crystal Oscillator Characteristics
VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V, TA = –40°C to 105°C, without forward error correction (unless otherwise noted). All voltages refer to
GND. Typical values at TA = 25°C, VDD = 3 V.
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
Reference frequency
Depending on the UHF operating frequency a 26-MHz or 27-MHz crystal
should be used.
Tolerances
The acceptable crystal tolerance depend on the system requirements e.g.,
RX/TX bandwidth, channel spacing, clock synchronization between RX/TX
units
MIN
ESR
Start-up time
Measured on the reference design. Parameter depends on the crystal that
is used. Time does not include POR of the device
Load capacitors
Simulated over operating conditions
TYP
MAX
UNIT
26 to
27
MHz
±20
ppm
100
Ω
150
µs
10 to
20
pF
2.10 Low-Power RC Oscillator Characteristics
VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V, TA = –40°C to 105°C, without forward error correction (unless otherwise noted). All voltages refer to
GND. Typical values at TA = 25°C, VDD = 3 V.
PARAMETER
Nominal, calibrated
frequency
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
After calibration: fRC = fREF/750, fREF = 26 MHz
34
34.666
35
Frequency accuracy after
calibration
Calibration time
Time to calibrate RC oscillator, Calibration is continuously done in the
background as long as the crystal oscillator is running
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kHz
±0.3
%
2
ms
Electrical Specifications
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UNIT
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2.11 Frequency Synthesizer Characteristics
VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V, fREF = 26 MHz, without forward error correction (unless otherwise noted). All voltages refer to GND.
Typical values at TA = 25°C, VDD = 3 V.
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
TA
Synthesizer frequency
resolution
26-MHz or 27-MHz fREF, Frequency resolution
is equal for all frequency bands
–40°C to 105°C
fREF/216
Phase noise at 50-kHz
offset
Single sideband noise power in dBc/Hz
measured at nominal supply over all frequency
bands at maximum power setting
–40°C to 105°C
–80
dBc/Hz
Phase noise at 100-kHz
offset
Single sideband noise power in dBc/Hz
measured at nominal supply over all frequency
bands at maximum power setting
–40°C to 105°C
–85
dBc/Hz
Phase noise at 200-kHz
offset
Single sideband noise power in dBc/Hz
measured at nominal supply over all frequency
bands at maximum power setting
–40°C to 105°C
–92
dBc/Hz
Phase noise at 500-kHz
offset
Single sideband noise power in dBc/Hz
measured at nominal supply over all frequency
bands at maximum power setting
–40°C to 105°C
–100
dBc/Hz
Phase noise at 1-MHz
offset
Single sideband noise power in dBc/Hz
measured at nominal supply over all frequency
bands at maximum power setting
–40°C to 105°C
–100
dBc/Hz
Synthesizer turn-on time
/ hop time
Time from IDLE state crystal oscillator running
until arriving the RX, FSTXON, or TX state,
RC oscillator calibration disabled
–40°C to 105°C
110
µs
Synthesizer turn-on time
Time from IDLE state crystal oscillator running
until arriving the RX, FSTXON, or TX state,
with synthesizer calibration
–40°C to 105°C
850
µs
Synthesizer RX/TX
settling time
Time to switch from RX to TX
–40°C to 105°C
10
µs
Synthesizer TX/RX
settling time
Time to switch from TX to RX
–40°C to 105°C
25
µs
Synthesizer calibration
time
Manual triggered calibration before entering or
after leaving the RX/TX state
–40°C to 105°C
18739
14
Electrical Specifications
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
Hz
fREF cycles
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2.12 Analog Temperature Sensor Characteristics
VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V, TA = –40°C to 105°C, without forward error correction (unless otherwise noted). All voltages refer to
GND. Typical values at TA = 25°C, VDD = 3 V. Note that it is necessary to write 0xBF to the PTEST register to use the analog
temperature sensor in the IDLE state.
PARAMETER
TEST CONDITIONS
TA = –40°C
Output voltage
MIN
TYP
MAX
0.60
0.70
0.80
TA = 0°C
0.775
TA = 25°C
0.815
TA = 70°C
0.880
TA = 85°C
UNIT
V
0.912
TA = 105°C
0.88
TA = 125°C
0.96
1.07
0.968
Temperature coefficient
Fitted from TA = –20°C to 80°C
1.6
mV/ C
Error in calculated temperature,
calibrated
From TA = –20°C to 80°C when using 2.44 mV/°C, after 1-point
calibration at 25°C temperature
±2
°C
2.13 Digital Input/Output DC Characteristics
VDD = 1.8 V to 3.3 V, TA = –40°C to 105°C, without forward error correction (unless otherwise noted). All voltages refer to
GND. Typical values at TA = 25°C, VDD = 3 V.
PARAMETER
Input voltage
Output voltage
Input current
TEST CONDITIONS
MIN
TYP
MAX
Logic 0
0
0.7
Logic 1
VDD – 0.7
VDD
Logic 0
0
0.5
Logic 1
VDD – 0.3
VDD
Logic 0, Input equals 0 V
–50
Logic 1, Input equals VDD
50
UNIT
V
V
nA
2.14 Power-On Reset Characteristics (1)
PARAMETER
Power-up ramp-up time
(1)
TEST CONDITIONS
From 0 V to 3 V
MIN
TYP
MAX
1
UNIT
ms
When the power supply complies with the requirements shown here, proper power-on-reset functionality is assured. Otherwise, the chip
should be assumed to have unknown state until it transmits an SRES strobe over the SPI interface. See Power-On Startup Sequence
for further details.
Electrical Specifications
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2.15 SPI Interface Timing
MIN
TYP
MAX
UNIT
6
MHz
fSCLK
SCLK frequency
tch
Clock high time
80
ns
tcl
Clock low time
80
ns
(1)
tsd
Setup time, data (negative SCLK edge) to positive edge on SCLK
80
ns
thd
Hold time, data after positive edge on SCLK
50
ns
tns
Negative edge on SCLK to CS high
50
ns
(1)
tsd applies between address and data bytes, and between data bytes.
2.16 Typical State Transition Timing
PARAMETER
IDLE to RX, no calibration
IDLE to RX, with calibration
IDLE to TX/FSTXON, no calibration
IDLE to TX/FSTXON, with calibration
XOSC
PERIODS
26-MHz
CRYSTAL
2298
88.4 µs
~21037
809 µs
2298
88.4 µs
~21037
809 µs
TX to RX switch
560
21.5 µs
RX to TX switch
250
9.6 µs
2
0.1 µs
RX or TX to IDLE, with calibration
~18739
721 µs
Manual calibration
~18739
721 µs
RX or TX to IDLE, no calibration
16
Electrical Specifications
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3 Detailed Description
3.1
Terminal Assignments
DCOUPL1
DVDD2
DVDD1
GND
GDO2
TEST_MODE
SO (GDO1)
SCLK
RHB PACKAGE
(TOP VIEW)
1
32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25
24
2
3
23
22
4
21
5
6
20
19
7
18
8
17
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
NC
SI
AGND_GUARD
AVDD_GUARD
RBIAS
GND
AVDD_CHP
NC
AVDD_RF1
GND
AVDD_RF2
RF_P
RF_N
GND
AVDD_RF3
NC
GND
DCOUPL2
GDO0 (ATEST)
CS
XOSC_Q1
AVDD_IF
XOSC_Q2
GND
NC – No internal connection
Detailed Description
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Table 3-1. Terminal Functions
TERMINAL
NO.
18
TYPE
NAME
1
GND
2
DCOUPL2
Ground (Analog)
Power Input
(Digital )
Analog ground connection
1.6-V to 2-V digital power supply input for decoupling
Digital output pin for general use:
•
Test signals
•
FIFO status signals
•
Clear Channel Indicator
•
Clock output, down-divided from XOSC
•
Serial output RX data
•
Serial input TX data
Also used as analog test I/O for prototype and production testing.
3
GDO0 (ATEST)
4
CS
Digital Input
Serial configuration interface, chip select
5
XOSC_Q1
Analog I/O
Crystal oscillator pin 1, or external clock input
6
AVDD_IF
Power (Analog)
7
XOSC_Q2
Analog I/O
8
GND
Ground (Analog)
Analog ground connection
9
AVDD_RF1
Power (Analog)
1.8-V to 3.6-V analog power supply connection
10
GND
Ground (Analog)
Analog ground connection
11
AVDD_RF2
Power (Analog)
1.8-V to 3.6-V analog power supply connection
12
RF_P
RF I/O
Positive RF input signal to LNA in receive mode. Positive RF output signal from PA in
transmit mode
13
RF_N
RF I/O
Negative RF input signal to LNA in receive mode. Negative RF output signal from PA in
transmit mode
14
GND
Ground (Analog)
Analog ground connection
15
AVDD_RF3
Power (Analog)
1.8-V to 3.6-V analog power supply connection
16
NC
Not connected
17
NC
Not connected
18
AVDD_CHP
Power (Analog)
1.8-V to 3.6-V analog power supply connection
19
GND
Ground (Analog)
Analog ground connection
20
RBIAS
21
AVDD_GUARD
Power (Digital)
Power supply connection for digital noise isolation
22
AGND_GUARD
Ground (Digital)
Ground connection for digital noise isolation
23
SI
24
NC
25
SCLK
26
SO (GDO1)
27
TEST_MODE
28
GDO2
29
GND
30
DVDD1
31
DVDD2
32
DCOUPL1
Digital I/O
DESCRIPTION
Analog I/O
Digital Input
1.8-V to 3.6-V analog power supply connection
Crystal oscillator pin 2
External precision bias resistor for reference current
Serial configuration interface, data input
Not connected
Digital Input
Digital Output
Digital Input
Digital Output
Ground (Analog)
Power (Digital)
Output regulator
digital core
Serial configuration interface, clock input
Serial configuration interface, data output. Optional general output pin when CS is high.
GND enables and NC disables on-chip data scrambling. Internal pullup resistor.
Digital output pin for general use:
•
Test signals
•
FIFO status signals
•
Clear channel indicator
•
Clock output, down-divided from XOSC
•
Serial output RX data
Analog ground connection
1.8-V to 3.6-V digital power supply for digital I/Os and for digital core voltage regulator
1.6-V to 1.8-V digital power supply output for digital core / decoupling.
NOTE: This pin is intended to supply only the CC11x1-Q1 chip. It cannot be used to provide
supply voltage to other devices.
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Block Diagram
A simplified block diagram of CC11x1-Q1 is shown in Figure 3-1. The CC11x1-Q1 devices feature a low
intermediate frequency (IF) receiver. The received radio frequency (RF) signal is amplified by the
low-noise amplifier (LNA) and down-converted in a quadrature (I and Q) to the IF. At IF, the I/Q signals
are digitized by the analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Automatic gain control (AGC), fine channel
filtering, and demodulation bit/packet synchronization is performed digitally.
The transmitter part of CC11x1-Q1 is based on direct synthesis of the RF frequency. The frequency
synthesizer includes a completely on-chip LC voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) and a 90° phase shifter
for generating the I and Q signals, and it is also used for the down-conversion mixers in receive mode. A
crystal must be connected to XOSC_Q1 and XOSC_Q2. The crystal oscillator generates the reference
frequency for the synthesizer as well as the clocks for the ADC and the digital part.
A 4-wire SPI serial interface is used for the register configuration and data buffer access. The digital base
band modem includes support for channel configuration, packet handling, Forward Error Correction and
data buffering.
In the CC1131-Q1 devices, the TX path is not available. In the CC1151-Q1 devices, the RX path is not
available.
Frequency
Synthesizer
0
90
RXFIFO
Modulator
PA
BIAS
SI
CS
GDO0 (ATEST)
GDO2
XOSC
2
_Q
SC
XO
XO
R
SC
B
IA
_Q
1
S
RC OSC
Digital Interface to MCU
RF_P
RF_N
SCLK
SO (GDO1)
TXFIFO
ADC
Packet Handler
LNA
FEC / Interleaver
ADC
Demodulator
Radio Control
Figure 3-1. Simplified Block Diagram
CC11x1-Q1 features a low intermediate frequency (IF) receiver. The received RF signal is amplified by the
low-noise amplifier (LNA) and down-converted in quadrature (I and Q) to the IF. At IF, the I/Q signals are
digitized by the ADCs. Automatic gain control (AGC), fine channel filtering and demodulation bit/packet
synchronization are performed digitally.
The transmitter part of CC11x1-Q1 is based on direct synthesis of the RF frequency. The frequency
synthesizer includes a completely on-chip LC VCO and a 90° phase shifter for generating the I and Q LO
signals to the down-conversion mixers in receive mode.
A crystal is to be connected to XOSC_Q1 and XOSC_Q2. The crystal oscillator generates the reference
frequency for the synthesizer, as well as clocks for the ADC and the digital part.
A 4-wire SPI serial interface is used for configuration and data buffer access.
The digital baseband includes support for channel configuration, packet handling, and data buffering.
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Application Circuit
Only a few external components are required for using the CC11x1-Q1. The recommended application
circuits are shown in Figure 3-2 and Figure 3-3. Typical values for the external components are given in
Table 3-2.
Bias Resistor
The bias resistor R171 is used to set an accurate bias current.
Balun and RF Matching
The components between the RF_N/RF_P pins and the point where the two signals are joined together
(C131, C122, L121, and L131 for the 315/433-MHz reference design [5], or L101, L111, C111, L121,
C131, C122, and L131 for the 868/915-MHz reference design [6]) form a balun that converts the
differential RF signal on CC11x1-Q1 to a single-ended RF signal. C125 is needed for dc blocking.
Together with an appropriate LC network, the balun components also transform the impedance to match a
50-Ω antenna or cable. Suggested values for 315 MHz, 433 MHz, and 868/915 MHz are listed in
Table 3-2.
Crystal
The reference oscillator uses an external 26-MHz or 27-MHz crystal with two loading capacitors (C81 and
C101). See Section 3.22 for details.
Additional Filtering
Additional external components (e.g., an RF SAW filter) may be used to improve the performance in
specific applications.
Power Supply Decoupling
The power supply must be properly decoupled close to the supply pins. A short and proper GND
connection is also essential for the functionality of the device.
20
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R171
VDD
C31
26 SO (GDO1)
NC 17
GND 19
RBIAS 20
AVDD_CHP 18
25 SCLK
AVDD_GUARD 21
SCLK
SO (GDO1)
AGND_GUARD 22
NC 24
SI 23
SI
NC 16
AVDD_RF3 15
CC11x1-Q1
31 DVDD2
GND 10
L123
C125
C122
C123
C124
L121
C121
8 GND
7 XOSC_Q2
5 XOSC_Q1
6 AVDD_IF
AVDD_RF1 9
4 CS
2 DCOUPL2
1 GND
3 GDO0(ATEST)
AVDD_RF2 11
32 DCOUPL1
L122
RF_P 12
30 DVDD1
C51
L131
RF_N 13
29 GND
C21
C131
GND 14
27 NC/GND
28 GDO2
GDO2
Antenna
(50 W)
C41
GDO0
XTAL
CS
C81
C101
Figure 3-2. Typical Application Circuit for 315 MHz/433 MHz
R171
VDD
C31
26 SO (GDO1)
NC 17
AVDD_CHP 18
GND 19
RBIAS 20
AVDD_GUARD 21
SO (GDO1)
25 SCLK
AGND_GUARD 22
SCLK
SI 23
NC 24
SI
AVDD_RF3 15
27 NC/GND
CC11x1-Q1
AVDD_RF2 11
31 DVDD2
GND 10
C125
C123
L101
C122
L121
C126
L125
See Note A
C121
8 GND
7 XOSC_Q2
6 AVDD_IF
4 CS
AVDD_RF1 9
5 XOSC_Q1
2 DCOUPL2
1 GND
L123
C111
RF_P 12
30 DVDD1
32 DCOUPL1
C51
L131
L122
RF_N 13
28 GDO2
29 GND
C21
L111
GND 14
3 GDO0(ATEST)
GDO2
Antenna
(50 W)
C131
NC 16
C41
GDO0
XTAL
CS
C81
A.
C101
C126 and L125 may be added to build an optional filter to reduce emission at 699 MHz.
Figure 3-3. Typical Application Circuit for 868 MHz/915 MHz
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Table 3-2. Bill of Materials for the Application Circuit
COMPONENT
VALUE AT 315 MHz
VALUE AT 433 MHz
100 nF ± 10%, 0402 X5R
C31
100 nF ± 10%, 0402 X5R
C41
100 nF ± 10%, 0402 X5R
C51
100 nF ± 10%, 0402 X5R
C81
27 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0
C101
VALUE AT 915 MHz
27 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0
C111
—
1 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0
1 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0
C121
220 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0
220 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0
100 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0
100 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0
C122
6.8 pF ± 0.5 pF, 0402 NP0
3.9 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0
1.5 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0
1.5 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0
C123
12 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0
8.2 pF ± 0.5 pF, 0402 NP0
3.3 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0
3.3 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0
C124
6.8 pF ± 0.5 pF, 0402 NP0
5.6 pF ± 0.5 pF, 0402 NP0
—
C125
220 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0
220 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0
C126
C131
—
—
6.8 pF ± 0.5 pF, 0402 NP0
—
100 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0
—
100 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0
47 pF ± 5%, 0402 NP0
—
3.9 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0
1.5 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0
1.5 pF ± 0.25 pF, 0402 NP0
L101
—
—
12 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
12 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
L111
—
—
12 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW14A
12 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
L121
33 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
27 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
18 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
18 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
L122
18 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
22 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
12 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW14A
12 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW14A
L123
33 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
27 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
12 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
12 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
L125
—
—
3.3 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
—
L131
33 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
27 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
18 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
18 nH ± 5%, 0402 / muRata
LQW15A
26 MHz
27 MHz
R171
XTAL
3.4
VALUE AT 868 MHz
C21
56 kΩ ± 1%, 0402
27 MHz
26 MHz
Configuration Overview
CC11x1-Q1 can be configured to achieve optimum performance for many different applications.
Configuration is done using the SPI interface. The following key parameters can be programmed:
<br/>
• Power-down / power-up mode
• RF output power
• Crystal oscillator power up / power down
• Data buffering with separate 64-byte
receive and transmit FIFOs
• Receive / transmit mode
• Packet radio hardware support
• RF channel selection
• Forward error correction (FEC) with
• Data rate
interleaving
• Modulation format
• Data whitening
• RX channel filter bandwidth
• Wake-on-radio (WOR)
Details of each configuration register are in Section 4.
Figure 3-4 shows a simplified state diagram that explains the main CC11x1-Q1 states, together with
typical usage and current consumption. For detailed information on controlling the CC11x1-Q1 state
machine, and a complete state diagram, see Section 3.15.
22
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Sleep
SIDLE SPWDor wake-on-radio(WOR)
Default state when the radio is
not receiving or transmitting.
Typ current consumption: 1.8 mA
Lowest power mode. Most
register values are retained.
Typ current consumption: 700 nA
(2 µA when wake-on-radio (WOR)
is enabled)
CSn= 0
IDLE
Used for calibrating frequency
synthesizer up front (entering
receive or transmit mode can
then be done more quickly).
Transitional state.
Typ current consumption: 9 mA
SXOFF
SCAL
Manual
frequency
synthesizer
calibration
CSn= 0
SRX or STX or SFSTXON or wake-on-radio(WOR)
SFSTXON
Frequency synthesizer is on,
ready to start transmitting.
Frequency
Transmission starts very
synthesizer on
quickly after receiving the
STX command strobe.
Typ current consumption: 9 mA
STX
Frequency
synthesizer startup,
optional calibration,
settling
Crystal
oscillator off
All register values are
retained. Typ current
consumption : 160 µA
Frequency synthesizer is turned on, can optionally be
calibrated, and then settles to the correct frequency.
Transitional state. Typ current consumption: 9 mA
STX
SRX or wake-on-radio(WOR)
TXOFF_MODE = 01
SFSTXON or RXOFF_MODE = 01
Typ current consumption:
12.2 mA at -5 dBm output
14.6 mA at 0 dBm output
29.5 mA at +10 dBm output
In FIFO-based modes,
transmission is turned off and
this state entered if the TX
FIFO becomes empty in the
middle of a packet. Typ
current consumption: 1.8 mA
Transmit mode
STX or RXOFF_MODE=10
Receive mode
Typ current
consumption: 15.5 mA
SRX or TXOFF_MODE = 11
TXOFF_MODE = 00
RXOFF_MODE = 00
Optional transitional state.
Typ current consumption: 8 mA
TX FIFO
underflow
Optional freq.
synth. calibration
SFTX
RX FIFO
overflow
In FIFO-based modes,
reception is turned off and this
state entered if the RX FIFO
overflows. Typ current
consumption: 1.8 mA
SFRX
IDLE
Figure 3-4. Simplified State Diagram, With Typical Current Consumption at 1.2-kBaud Data Rate and
MDMCFG2.DEM_DCFILT_OFF = 1 (Current Optimized), Frequency Band = 315 MHz
3.5
Configuration Software
CC11x1-Q1 can be configured using the SmartRF® Studio software. The SmartRF Studio software is
highly recommended for obtaining optimum register settings and for evaluating performance and
functionality. A screenshot of the SmartRF Studio user interface for CC11x1-Q1 is shown in Figure 3-5.
After chip reset, all the registers have default values as shown in Section 4. The optimum register setting
might differ from the default value. Therefore, after a reset, all registers that are different from the default
value need to be programmed through the SPI interface. For the CC11x1-Q1 device, the settings of the
CC1101 are valid.
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Figure 3-5. SmartRF Studio User Interface
3.6
4-Wire Serial Configuration and Data Interface
CC11x1-Q1 is configured via a simple 4-wire SPI-compatible interface (SI, SO, SCLK, and CS) where
CC11x1-Q1 is the slave. This interface is also used to read and write buffered data. All transfers on the
SPI interface are done most significant bit first.
All transactions on the SPI interface start with a header byte containing a R/W bit, a burst access bit (B),
and a 6-bit address (A5 to A0).
The CS pin must be kept low during transfers on the SPI bus. If CS goes high during the transfer of a
header byte or during read/write from/to a register, the transfer is canceled. The timing for the address and
data transfer on the SPI interface is shown in Figure 3-6 with reference to Section 2.15.
When CS is pulled low, the MCU must wait until CC11x1-Q1 SO pin goes low before starting to transfer
the header byte. This indicates that the crystal is running. Unless the chip was in the SLEEP or XOFF
states, the SO pin goes low immediately after taking CS low.
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See Section 2.15 for SPI interface timing specifications.
Figure 3-6. Configuration Registers Write and Read Operations
3.6.1
Chip Status Byte
When the header byte, data byte, or command strobe is sent on the SPI interface, the chip status byte is
sent by the CC11x1-Q1 on the SO pin. The status byte contains key status signals, useful for the MCU.
The first bit, s7, is the CHIP_RDYn signal. This signal must go low before the first positive edge of SCLK.
The CHIP_RDYn signal indicates that the crystal is running.
The STATE value comprises bits 6, 5, and 4. This value reflects the state of the chip. The XOSC and
power to the digital core is on in the IDLE state, but all other modules are in power down. The frequency
and channel configuration should be updated only when the chip is in this state. The RX state is active
when the chip is in receive mode. Likewise, TX is active when the chip is transmitting.
The last four bits (3:0) in the status byte contain FIFO_BYTES_AVAILABLE. For read operations (the R/W
bit in the header byte is set to 1), the FIFO_BYTES_AVAILABLE field contains the number of bytes
available for reading from the RX FIFO. For write operations (the R/W bit in the header byte is set to 0),
the FIFO_BYTES_AVAILABLE field contains the number of bytes that can be written to the TX FIFO.
When FIFO_BYTES_AVAILABLE = 15, 15 or more bytes are available/free.
Table 3-3 gives a status byte summary.
Table 3-3. Status Byte Summary
BITS
NAME
DESCRIPTION
7
CHIP_RDYn
Stays high until power and crystal have stabilized. Should always be low when using the SPI
interface.
06:04
STATE[2:0]
Indicates the current main state machine mode
Value
03:00
FIFO_BYTES_AVAILABLE[3:0]
State
Description
0
IDLE
IDLE state
(Also reported for some transitional states instead of
SETTLING or CALIBRATE)
1
RX
Receive mode
10
TX
Transmit mode
11
FSTXON
Fast TX ready
100
CALIBRATE
Frequency synthesizer calibration is running
101
SETTLING
PLL is settling
110
RXFIFO_OVERFLOW
RX FIFO has overflowed. Read out any useful data, then
flush the FIFO with SFRX.
111
TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW
TX FIFO has underflowed. Acknowledge with SFTX.
The number of bytes available in the RX FIFO or free bytes in the TX FIFO
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Register Access
The configuration registers on the CC11x1-Q1 are located on SPI addresses from 0x00 to 0x2E. Table 4-2
lists all configuration registers. SmartRF Studio should be used to generate optimum register settings. The
detailed description of each register is found in Section 4.2. All configuration registers can be both written
to and read. The R/W bit controls if the register should be written to or read. When writing to registers, the
status byte is sent on the SO pin each time a header byte or data byte is transmitted on the SI pin. When
reading from registers, the status byte is sent on the SO pin each time a header byte is transmitted on the
SI pin.
Registers with consecutive addresses can be accessed efficiently by setting the burst bit (B) in the header
byte. The address bits (A5 to A0) set the start address in an internal address counter. This counter is
incremented by one each new byte (every 8 clock pulses). The burst access is either a read or a write
access and must be terminated by setting CS high.
For register addresses in the range 0x30 to 0x3D, the burst bit is used to select between status registers,
burst bit is one, and command strobes, burst bit is zero (see 10.4 below). Because of this, burst access is
not available for status registers and they must be accessed one at a time. The status registers can only
be read.
3.6.3
SPI Read
When reading register fields over the SPI interface while the register fields are updated by the radio
hardware (e.g., MARCSTATE or TXBYTES), there is a small, but finite, probability that a single read from
the register is being corrupt. As an example, the probability of any single read from TXBYTES being
corrupt, assuming the maximum data rate is used, is approximately 80 ppm. See the CC1101 errata notes
(SWRZ020) for more details.
3.6.4
Command Strobes
Command strobes may be viewed as single byte instructions to CC11x1-Q1. By addressing a command
strobe register, internal sequences are started. These commands are used to disable the crystal oscillator,
enable receive mode, enable wake-on-radio etc. The 13 command strobes are listed in Table 4-1.
The command strobe registers are accessed by transferring a single header byte (no data is being
transferred). That is, only the R/W bit, the burst access bit (set to 0), and the six address bits (in the range
0x30 through 0x3D) are written. The R/W bit can be either one or zero and determines how the
FIFO_BYTES_AVAILABLE field in the status byte should be interpreted.
When writing command strobes, the status byte is sent on the SO pin.
A command strobe may be followed by any other SPI access without pulling CS high. However, if an
SRES strobe is being issued, wait for SO to go low again before the next header byte is issued, as shown
in Figure 3-7. The command strobes are executed immediately, with the exception of the SPWD and the
SXOFF strobes that are executed when CS goes high.
CSn
SO
SI
Header SRES
Header Addr
Data
Figure 3-7. SRES Command Strobe
3.6.5
FIFO Access
The 64-byte TX FIFO and the 64-byte RX FIFO are accessed through the 0x3F address. When the R/W
bit is zero, the TX FIFO is accessed, and the RX FIFO is accessed when the R/W bit is one.
The TX FIFO is write-only, while the RX FIFO is read-only.
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The burst bit is used to determine if the FIFO access is a single byte access or a burst access. The single
byte access method expects a header byte with the burst bit set to zero and one data byte. After the data
byte a new header byte is expected; hence, CS can remain low. The burst access method expects one
header byte and then consecutive data bytes until terminating the access by setting CS high.
The following header bytes access the FIFOs:
• 0x3F: Single byte access to TX FIFO
• 0x7F: Burst access to TX FIFO
• 0xBF: Single byte access to RX FIFO
• 0xFF: Burst access to RX FIFO
When writing to the TX FIFO, the status byte (see Section 3.6.1) is output for each new data byte on SO,
as shown in Figure 3-6. This status byte can be used to detect TX FIFO underflow while writing data to
the TX FIFO. Note that the status byte contains the number of bytes free before writing the byte in
progress to the TX FIFO. When the last byte that fits in the TX FIFO is transmitted on SI, the status byte
received concurrently on SO indicates that one byte is free in the TX FIFO.
The TX FIFO may be flushed by issuing a SFTX command strobe. Similarly, a SFRX command strobe
flushes the RX FIFO. A SFTX or SFRX command strobe can only be issued in the IDLE,
TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW, or RXFIFO_OVERFLOW states. Both FIFOs are flushed when going to the
SLEEP state.
Figure 3-8 gives a brief overview of different register access types possible.
Figure 3-8. Register Access Types
3.6.6
PATABLE Access
The 0x3E address is used to access the PATABLE, which is used for selecting PA power control settings.
The SPI expects up to eight data bytes after receiving the address. By programming the PATABLE,
controlled PA power ramp-up and ramp-down can be achieved, as well as ASK modulation shaping for
reduced bandwidth. See SmartRF Studio for recommended shaping / PA ramping sequences.
See Section 3.20 for details on output power programming.
The PATABLE is an 8-byte table that defines the PA control settings to use for each of the eight PA power
values (selected by the 3-bit value FREND0.PA_POWER). The table is written and read from the lowest
setting (0) to the highest (7), one byte at a time. An index counter is used to control the access to the
table. This counter is incremented each time a byte is read or written to the table, and set to the lowest
index when CS is high. When the highest value is reached the counter restarts at zero.
The access to the PATABLE is either single byte or burst access depending on the burst bit. When using
burst access the index counter counts up; when reaching 7 the counter restarts at 0. The R/W bit controls
whether the access is a read or a write access.
If one byte is written to the PATABLE and this value is to be read out then CS must be set high before the
read access to set the index counter back to zero.
Note that the content of the PATABLE is lost when entering the SLEEP state, except for the first byte
(index 0).
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3.7
Microcontroller Interface and Pin Configuration
In
•
•
•
3.7.1
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a typical system, CC11x1-Q1 interfaces to a microcontroller. This microcontroller must be able to:
Program CC11x1-Q1 into different modes
Read and write buffered data
Read back status information via the 4-wire SPI-bus configuration interface (SI, SO, SCLK and CS).
Configuration Interface
The microcontroller uses four I/O pins for the SPI configuration interface (SI, SO, SCLK and CS). The SPI
is described in Section 3.6.
3.7.2
General Control and Status Pins
The CC11x1-Q1 has two dedicated configurable pins (GDO0 and GDO2) and one shared pin (GDO1) that
can output internal status information useful for control software. These pins can be used to generate
interrupts on the MCU. See Section 3.25 for more details on the signals that can be programmed. GDO1
is shared with the SO pin in the SPI interface. The default setting for GDO1/SO is 3-state output. By
selecting any other of the programming options, the GDO1/SO pin becomes a generic pin. When CS is
low, the pin functions as a normal SO pin.
In the synchronous and asynchronous serial modes, the GDO0 pin is used as a serial TX data input pin
while in transmit mode.
The GDO0 pin can also be used for an on-chip analog temperature sensor. By measuring the voltage on
the GDO0 pin with an external ADC, the temperature can be calculated. Specifications for the temperature
sensor are found in Section 2.12.
With default PTEST register setting (0x7F) the temperature sensor output is available only when the
frequency synthesizer is enabled (e.g., the MANCAL, FSTXON, RX, and TX states). It is necessary to
write 0xBF to the PTEST register to use the analog temperature sensor in the IDLE state. Before leaving
the IDLE state, the PTEST register should be restored to its default value (0x7F).
3.7.3
Optional Radio-Control Feature
The CC11x1-Q1 has an optional way of controlling the radio by reusing SI, SCLK, and CS from the SPI
interface. This allows simple three-pin control of the major states of the radio: SLEEP, IDLE, RX, and TX.
This optional functionality is enabled with the MCSM0.PIN_CTRL_EN configuration bit.
State changes are commanded as follows: When CS is high, the SI and SCLK is set to the desired state
according to Table 3-4. When CS goes low, the state of SI and SCLK is latched and a command strobe is
generated internally according to the pin configuration. It is only possible to change state with this
functionality. That means that, for instance, RX is not restarted if SI and SCLK are set to RX and CS
toggles. When CS is low, the SI and SCLK has normal SPI functionality.
All pin control command strobes are executed immediately, except the SPWD strobe, which is delayed
until CS goes high.
Table 3-4. Optional Pin Control Coding
28
CS
SCLK
SI
1
X
X
Chip unaffected by SCLK/SI
FUNCTION
↓
0
0
Generates SPWD strobe
↓
0
1
Generates STX strobe
↓
1
0
Generates SIDLE strobe
↓
1
1
Generates SRX strobe
0
SPI mode
SPI mode
SPI mode (wakes up into IDLE if in SLEEP/XOFF)
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Data Rate Programming
The data rate used when transmitting, or the data rate expected in receive is programmed by the
MDMCFG3.DRATE_M and the MDMCFG4.DRATE_E configuration registers. The data rate is given by
the formula below. As the formula shows, the programmed data rate depends on the crystal frequency.
(1)
The following approach can be used to find suitable values for a given data rate:
ê
æR
´220
DRATE_E = êlog2 ç DATA
ç f XOSC
ê
è
ë
DRATE_M =
RDATA ´228
f XOSC ´2DRATE_E
öú
÷ú
÷ú
øû
-256
(2)
If DRATE_M is rounded to the nearest integer and becomes 256, increment DRATE_E and use
DRATE_M = 0.
The data rate can be set from 1.2 kBaud to 500 kBaud with the minimum step size shown in Table 3-5.
Table 3-5. Data Rate Step Size
DATA RATE (kBaud)
3.9
MINIMUM
TYPICAL
MAXIMUM
DATA RATE
STEP SIZE
(kBaud)
0.8
1.2 / 2.4
3.17
0.0062
3.17
4.8
6.35
0.0124
6.35
9.6
12.7
0.0248
12.7
19.6
25.4
0.0496
25.4
38.4
50.8
0.0992
50.8
76.8
101.6
0.1984
101.6
153.6
203.1
0.3967
203.1
250
406.3
0.7935
Receiver Channel Filter Bandwidth
To meet different channel width requirements, the receiver channel filter is programmable. The
MDMCFG4.CHANBW_E and MDMCFG4.CHANBW_M configuration registers control the receiver channel
filter bandwidth, which scales with the crystal oscillator frequency. Equation 3 gives the relation between
the register settings and the channel filter bandwidth:
BWchannel =
fXOSC
8 × (4 + CHANBW_M) × 2
CHANBW_E
(3)
The CC11x1-Q1 supports the channel filter bandwidths shown in Table 3-6.
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Table 3-6. Channel Filter Bandwidths (kHz) (Assuming a 26-MHz Crystal)
MDMCFG4.CHANBW_E
MDMCFG4.
CHANBW_M
00
01
10
11
00
812
406
203
102
01
650
325
162
81
10
541
270
135
68
11
464
232
116
58
For best performance, the channel filter bandwidth should be selected so that the signal bandwidth
occupies at most 80% of the channel filter bandwidth. The channel center tolerance due to crystal
accuracy should also be subtracted from the signal bandwidth, as shown in the following example.
With the channel filter bandwidth set to 500 kHz, the signal should stay within 80% of 500 kHz, which is
400 kHz. Assuming 915-MHz frequency and ±20-ppm frequency uncertainty for both the transmitting
device and the receiving device, the total frequency uncertainty is ±40 ppm of 915 MHz, which is ±37 kHz.
If the whole transmitted signal bandwidth is to be received within 400 kHz, the transmitted signal
bandwidth should be maximum 400 kHz – (2 × 37 kHz), which is 326 kHz.
3.10 Demodulator, Symbol Synchronizer, and Data Decision
CC11x1-Q1 contains an advanced and highly configurable demodulator. Channel filtering and frequency
offset compensation are performed digitally. To generate the RSSI level (see Section 3.13.3 for more
information) the signal level in the channel is estimated. Data filtering is also included for enhanced
performance.
3.10.1 Frequency Offset Compensation
When using 2-FSK, GFSK, or MSK modulation, the demodulator compensates for the offset between the
transmitter and receiver frequency, within certain limits, by estimating the center of the received data. This
value is available in the FREQEST status register. Writing the value from FREQEST into
FSCTRL0.FREQOFF the frequency synthesizer is automatically adjusted according to the estimated
frequency offset.
The tracking range of the algorithm is selectable as fractions of the channel bandwidth with the
FOCCFG.FOC_LIMIT configuration register.
If the FOCCFG.FOC_BS_CS_GATE bit is set, the offset compensator freezes until carrier sense asserts.
This may be useful when the radio is in RX for long periods with no traffic, because the algorithm may drift
to the boundaries when trying to track noise.
The tracking loop has two gain factors, which affect the settling time and noise sensitivity of the algorithm.
FOCCFG.FOC_PRE_K sets the gain before the sync word is detected, and FOCCFG.FOC_POST_K
selects the gain after the sync word has been found.
NOTE
Frequency offset compensation is not supported for ASK or OOK modulation.
3.10.2 Bit Synchronization
The bit synchronization algorithm extracts the clock from the incoming symbols. The algorithm requires
that the expected data rate is programmed as described in Section 3.8. Resynchronization is performed
continuously to adjust for error in the incoming symbol rate.
3.10.3 Byte Synchronization
Byte synchronization is achieved by a continuous sync word search. The sync word is a 16-bit
configurable field (can be repeated to get a 32 bit) that is automatically inserted at the start of the packet
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by the modulator in transmit mode. The demodulator uses this field to find the byte boundaries in the
stream of bits. The sync word also functions as a system identifier, because only packets with the correct
predefined sync word are received if the sync word detection in RX is enabled in register MDMCFG2 (see
Section 3.13.1). The sync word detector correlates against the user-configured 16- or 32-bit sync word.
The correlation threshold can be set to 15/16, 16/16, or 30/32 bits match. The sync word can be further
qualified using the preamble quality indicator mechanism described below and/or a carrier sense
condition. The sync word is configured through the SYNC1 and SYNC0 registers.
To make false detections of sync words less likely, a mechanism called preamble quality indication (PQI)
can be used to qualify the sync word. A threshold value for the preamble quality must be exceeded in
order for a detected sync word to be accepted. See Section 3.13.2 for more details.
3.11 Packet Handling Hardware Support
The CC11x1-Q1 has built-in hardware support for packet oriented radio protocols.
In transmit mode, the packet handler can be configured to add the following elements to the packet stored
in the TX FIFO:
• A programmable number of preamble bytes
• A two byte synchronization (sync) word. Can be duplicated to give a 4-byte sync word (recommended).
It is not possible to insert only preamble or insert only a sync word.
• A CRC checksum computed over the data field.
The recommended setting is 4-byte preamble and 4-byte sync word, except for 500 kBaud data rate
where the recommended preamble length is 8 bytes.
In addition, the following can be implemented on the data field and the optional 2-byte CRC checksum:
• Whitening of the data with a PN9 sequence.
• Forward error correction by the use of interleaving and coding of the data (convolutional coding)
In receive mode, the packet handling support deconstructs the data packet by implementing the following
(if enabled):
• Preamble detection
• Sync word detection
• CRC computation and CRC check
• One byte address check
• Packet length check (length byte checked against a programmable maximum length)
• Dewhitening
• Deinterleaving and decoding
Optionally, two status bytes (see Table 3-7 and Table 3-8) with RSSI value, Link Quality Indication, and
CRC status can be appended in the RX FIFO.
Table 3-7. Received Packet Status Byte 1 (First Byte Appended After Data)
BIT
FIELD NAME
DESCRIPTION
7:0
RSSI
RSSI value
Table 3-8. Received Packet Status Byte 2 (Second Byte Appended After Data)
BIT
FIELD NAME
DESCRIPTION
7
CRC_OK
1: CRC for received data OK (or CRC disabled)
6:0
LQI
0: CRC error in received data
Indicating the link quality
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NOTE
Register fields that control the packet handling features should be altered only when
CC11x1-Q1 is in the IDLE state.
3.11.1 Data Whitening
From a radio perspective, the ideal over-the-air data are random and dc free. This results in the smoothest
power distribution over the occupied bandwidth. This also gives the regulation loops in the receiver
uniform operation conditions (no data dependencies).
Real-world data often contain long sequences of zeros and ones. Performance can then be improved by
whitening the data before transmitting, and dewhitening the data in the receiver. With CC11x1-Q1, this
can be done automatically by setting PKTCTRL0.WHITE_DATA = 1. All data, except the preamble and
the sync word, are then XORed with a 9-bit pseudo-random (PN9) sequence before being transmitted, as
shown in Figure 3-9. At the receiver end, the data are XORed with the same pseudo-random sequence.
This way, the whitening is reversed, and the original data appear in the receiver. The PN9 sequence is
initialized to all ones.
Figure 3-9. Data Whitening in TX Mode
3.11.2 Packet Format
The format of the data packet can be configured and consists of the following items (see Figure 3-10):
• Preamble
• Synchronization word
• Optional length byte
• Optional address byte
• Payload
• Optional 2-byte CRC
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Figure 3-10. Packet Format
The preamble pattern is an alternating sequence of ones and zeros (10101010…). The minimum length of
the preamble is programmable. When enabling TX, the modulator starts transmitting the preamble. When
the programmed number of preamble bytes has been transmitted, the modulator sends the sync word and
then data from the TX FIFO if data is available. If the TX FIFO is empty, the modulator continues to send
preamble bytes until the first byte is written to the TX FIFO. The modulator then sends the sync word and
then the data bytes. The number of preamble bytes is programmed with the
MDMCFG1.NUM_PREAMBLE value.
The synchronization word is a two-byte value set in the SYNC1 and SYNC0 registers. The sync word
provides byte synchronization of the incoming packet. A one-byte synch word can be emulated by setting
the SYNC1 value to the preamble pattern. It is also possible to emulate a 32-bit sync word by using
MDMCFG2.SYNC_MODE set to 3 or 7. The sync word is then repeated twice.
CC11x1-Q1 supports both constant packet length protocols and variable length protocols. Variable or fixed
packet length mode can be used for packets up to 255 bytes. For longer packets, infinite packet length
mode must be used.
Fixed packet length mode is selected by setting PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG = 0. The desired packet
length is set by the PKTLEN register.
In variable packet length mode, PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG = 1, the packet length is configured by the
first byte after the sync word. The packet length is defined as the payload data, excluding the length byte
and the optional CRC. The PKTLEN register is used to set the maximum packet length allowed in RX. Any
packet received with a length byte with a value greater than PKTLEN is discarded.
With PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG = 2, the packet length is set to infinite, and transmission and
reception continues until turned off manually. As described in the next section, this can be used to support
packet formats with different length configuration than natively supported by CC11x1-Q1. One should
make sure that TX mode is not turned off during the transmission of the first half of any byte. Refer to the
errata notes for more details.
NOTE
The minimum packet length supported (excluding the optional length byte and CRC) is one
byte of payload data.
3.11.2.1 Arbitrary Length Field Configuration
The packet length register, PKTLEN, can be reprogrammed during receive and transmit. In combination
with fixed packet length mode (PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG = 0) this opens the possibility to have a
different length field configuration than supported for variable length packets (in variable packet length
mode the length byte is the first byte after the sync word). At the start of reception, the packet length is set
to a large value. The MCU reads out enough bytes to interpret the length field in the packet. Then the
PKTLEN value is set according to this value. The end of packet occurs when the byte counter in the
packet handler is equal to the PKTLEN register. Thus, the MCU must be able to program the correct
length, before the internal counter reaches the packet length.
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3.11.2.2 Packet Length Greater Than 255
Also the packet automation control register, PKTCTRL0, can be reprogrammed during TX and RX. This
opens the possibility to transmit and receive packets that are longer than 256 bytes and still be able to use
the packet handling hardware support. At the start of the packet, the infinite packet length mode
(PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG = 2) must be active. On the TX side, the PKTLEN register is set to
mod(length, 256). On the RX side the MCU reads out enough bytes to interpret the length field in the
packet and sets the PKTLEN register to mod(length, 256). When less than 256 bytes remain of the
packet, the MCU disables infinite packet length mode and activates fixed packet length mode. When the
internal byte counter reaches the PKTLEN value, the transmission or reception ends (the radio enters the
state determined by TXOFF_MODE or RXOFF_MODE). Automatic CRC appending/checking can also be
used (by setting PKTCTRL0.CRC_EN = 1).
When for example a 600-byte packet is to be transmitted, the MCU should do the following (see also
Figure 3-11).
1. Set PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG = 2.
2. Preprogram the PKTLEN register to mod(600, 256) = 88.
3. Transmit at least 345 bytes (600 – 255), for example by filling the 64-byte TX FIFO six times (384
bytes transmitted).
4. Set PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG = 0.
5. The transmission ends when the packet counter reaches 88. A total of 600 bytes are transmitted.
Figure 3-11. Packet Length Greater Than 255
3.11.3 Packet Filtering in Receive Mode
CC11x1-Q1 supports three different types of packet filtering: address filtering, maximum length filtering,
and CRC filtering.
3.11.3.1 Address Filtering
Setting PKTCTRL1.ADR_CHK to any other value than zero enables the packet address filter. The packet
handler engine compares the destination address byte in the packet with the programmed node address
in the ADDR register and the 0x00 broadcast address when PKTCTRL1.ADR_CHK = 10 or both 0x00 and
0xFF broadcast addresses when PKTCTRL1.ADR_CHK = 11. If the received address matches a valid
address, the packet is received and written into the RX FIFO. If the address match fails, the packet is
discarded and receive mode restarted (regardless of the MCSM1.RXOFF_MODE setting).
If the received address matches a valid address when using infinite packet length mode and address
filtering is enabled, 0xFF is written into the RX FIFO followed by the address byte and then the payload
data.
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3.11.3.2 Maximum Length Filtering
In variable packet length mode, PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG = 1, the PKTLEN.PACKET_LENGTH
register value is used to set the maximum allowed packet length. If the received length byte has a larger
value than this, the packet is discarded and receive mode restarted (regardless of the
MCSM1.RXOFF_MODE setting).
3.11.3.3 CRC Filtering
The filtering of a packet when CRC check fails is enabled by setting PKTCTRL1.CRC_AUTOFLUSH = 1.
The CRC auto flush function flushes the entire RX FIFO if the CRC check fails. After auto flushing the RX
FIFO, the next state depends on the MCSM1.RXOFF_MODE setting.
When using the auto flush function, the maximum packet length is 63 bytes in variable packet length mode
and 64 bytes in fixed packet length mode. Note that the maximum allowed packet length is reduced by
two bytes when PKTCTRL1.APPEND_STATUS is enabled, to make room in the RX FIFO for the two
status bytes appended at the end of the packet. Because the entire RX FIFO is flushed when the CRC
check fails, the previously received packet must be read out of the FIFO before receiving the current
packet. The MCU must not read from the current packet until the CRC has been checked as OK.
3.11.4 Packet Handling in Transmit Mode
The payload that is to be transmitted must be written into the TX FIFO. The first byte written must be the
length byte when variable packet length is enabled. The length byte has a value equal to the payload of
the packet (including the optional address byte). If address recognition is enabled on the receiver, the
second byte written to the TX FIFO must be the address byte. If fixed packet length is enabled, then the
first byte written to the TX FIFO should be the address (if the receiver uses address recognition).
The modulator first sends the programmed number of preamble bytes. If data is available in the TX FIFO,
the modulator sends the two-byte (optionally four-byte) sync word and then the payload in the TX FIFO. If
CRC is enabled, the checksum is calculated over all the data pulled from the TX FIFO and the result is
sent as two extra bytes following the payload data. If the TX FIFO runs empty before the complete packet
has been transmitted, the radio enters TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW state. The only way to exit this state is by
issuing an SFTX strobe. Writing to the TX FIFO after it has underflowed does not restart TX mode.
If whitening is enabled, everything following the sync words is whitened. This is done before the optional
FEC/Interleaver stage. Whitening is enabled by setting PKTCTRL0.WHITE_DATA = 1.
If FEC/Interleaving is enabled, everything following the sync words is scrambled by the interleaver and
FEC encoded before being modulated. FEC is enabled by setting MDMCFG1.FEC_EN = 1.
3.11.5 Packet Handling in Receive Mode
In receive mode, the demodulator and packet handler searches for a valid preamble and the sync word.
When found, the demodulator has obtained both bit and byte synchronism and receives the first payload
byte.
If FEC/Interleaving is enabled, the FEC decoder starts to decode the first payload byte. The interleaver
descrambles the bits before any other processing is done to the data.
If whitening is enabled, the data is dewhitened at this stage.
When variable packet length mode is enabled, the first byte is the length byte. The packet handler stores
this value as the packet length and receives the number of bytes indicated by the length byte. If fixed
packet length mode is used, the packet handler accepts the programmed number of bytes.
Next, the packet handler optionally checks the address and only continues the reception if the address
matches. If automatic CRC check is enabled, the packet handler computes CRC and matches it with the
appended CRC checksum.
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At the end of the payload, the packet handler optionally writes two extra packet status bytes (see
Table 3-7 and Table 3-8) that contain CRC status, link quality indication, and RSSI value.
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3.11.6 Packet Handling in Firmware
When implementing a packet oriented radio protocol in firmware, the MCU needs to know when a packet
has been received/transmitted. Additionally, for packets longer than 64 bytes the RX FIFO needs to be
read while in RX and the TX FIFO needs to be refilled while in TX. This means that the MCU needs to
know the number of bytes that can be read from or written to the RX FIFO and TX FIFO respectively.
There are two possible solutions to get the necessary status information:
Interrupt Driven Solution
In both RX and TX one can use one of the GDO pins to give an interrupt when a sync word has been
received/transmitted
and/or
when
a
complete
packet
has
been
received/transmitted
(IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG = 0x06). In addition, there are two configurations for the IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG
register that are associated with the RX FIFO (IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG = 0x00 and
IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG = 0x01) and two that are associated with the TX FIFO (IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG = 0x02
and IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG = 0x03) that can be used as interrupt sources to provide information on how
many bytes are in the RX FIFO and TX FIFO respectively (see Table 3-17).
SPI Polling
The PKTSTATUS register can be polled at a given rate to get information about the current GDO2 and
GDO0 values respectively. The RXBYTES and TXBYTES registers can be polled at a given rate to get
information about the number of bytes in the RX FIFO and TX FIFO respectively. Alternatively, the number
of bytes in the RX FIFO and TX FIFO can be read from the chip status byte returned on the MISO line
each time a header byte, data byte, or command strobe is sent on the SPI bus.
An interrupt-driven solution should be used, as high-rate SPI polling reduces the RX sensitivity.
Furthermore, as explained in Section 3.6.3 and the errata notes, when using SPI polling, there is a small,
but finite, probability that a single read from registers PKTSTATUS , RXBYTES, and TXBYTES is corrupt.
The same is the case when reading the chip status byte.
See the TI web site for software examples.
3.12 Modulation Formats
CC11x1-Q1 supports amplitude, frequency, and phase shift modulation formats. The desired modulation
format is set in the MDMCFG2.MOD_FORMAT register.
Optionally, the data stream can be Manchester coded by the modulator and decoded by the demodulator.
This option is enabled by setting MDMCFG2.MANCHESTER_EN = 1. Manchester encoding is not
supported at the same time as using the FEC/Interleaver option.
3.12.1 Frequency Shift Keying
CC11x1-Q1 can use Gaussian shaped 2-FSK (GFSK). The 2-FSK signal is then shaped by a Gaussian
filter with BT = 1, producing a GFSK modulated signal. This spectrum-shaping feature improves adjacent
channel power (ACP) and occupied bandwidth.
In 'true' 2-FSK systems with abrupt frequency shifting, the spectrum is inherently broad. By making the
frequency shift 'softer', the spectrum can be made significantly narrower. Thus, higher data rates can be
transmitted in the same bandwidth using GFSK.
When FSK/GFSK modulation is used, the DEVIATN register specifies the expected frequency deviation of
incoming signals in RX and should be the same as the TX deviation for demodulation to be performed
reliably and robustly.
The frequency deviation is programmed with the DEVIATION_M and DEVIATION_E values in the
DEVIATN register. The value has an exponent/mantissa form, and the resultant deviation is given by:
f
fdev = xosc ´(8 +DEVIATION_ M) ´2DEVIATION_ E
217
(4)
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The symbol encoding is shown in Table 3-9.
Table 3-9. Symbol Encoding for 2-FSK/GFSK
Modulation
FORMAT
2-FSK/GFSK
SYMBOL
CODING
0
– Deviation
1
+ Deviation
3.12.2 Minimum Shift Keying
When using MSK [identical to offset QPSK with half-sine shaping (data coding may differ)], the complete
transmission (preamble, sync word, and payload) is MSK modulated. Phase shifts are performed with a
constant transition time. The fraction of a symbol period used to change the phase can be modified with
the DEVIATN.DEVIATION_M setting. This is equivalent to changing the shaping of the symbol. The MSK
modulation format implemented in CC11x1-Q1 inverts the sync word and data compared to, e.g., signal
generators.
3.12.3 Amplitude Modulation
CC11x1-Q1 supports two different forms of amplitude modulation: On-Off Keying (OOK) and Amplitude
Shift Keying (ASK).
OOK modulation simply turns on or off the PA to modulate 1 and 0 respectively.
The ASK variant supported by the CC11x1-Q1 allows programming of the modulation depth (the
difference between 1 and 0), and shaping of the pulse amplitude. Pulse shaping produces a more
bandwidth constrained output spectrum.
3.13 Received Signal Qualifiers and Link Quality Information
CC11x1-Q1 has several qualifiers that can be used to increase the likelihood that a valid sync word is
detected.
3.13.1 Sync Word Qualifier
If sync word detection in RX is enabled in register MDMCFG2, the CC11x1-Q1 does not start filling the RX
FIFO and performing the packet filtering described in Section 3.11.3.3 before a valid sync word has been
detected. The sync word qualifier mode is set by MDMCFG2.SYNC_MODE and is summarized in
Table 3-10. Carrier sense is described in Section 3.13.4.
Table 3-10. Sync Word Qualifier Mode
MDMCFG2.SYNC_MODE
38
SYNC WORD QUALIFIER MODE
000
No preamble/sync
001
15/16 sync word bits detected
010
16/16 sync word bits detected
011
30/32 sync word bits detected
100
No preamble/sync, carrier sense above threshold
101
15/16 + carrier sense above threshold
110
16/16 + carrier sense above threshold
111
30/32 + carrier sense above threshold
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3.13.2 Preamble Quality Threshold (PQT)
The preamble quality threshold (PQT) sync-word qualifier adds the requirement that the received sync
word must be preceded with a preamble with a quality above the programmed threshold.
Another use of the preamble quality threshold is as a qualifier for the optional RX termination timer. See
Section 3.15.7 for details.
The preamble quality estimator increases an internal counter by one each time a bit is received that is
different from the previous bit, and decreases the counter by 8 each time a bit is received that is the same
as the last bit. The threshold is configured with the register field PKTCTRL1.PQT. A threshold of 4 × PQT
for this counter is used to gate sync word detection. By setting the value to zero, the preamble quality
qualifier of the synch word is disabled.
A preamble quality reached signal can be observed on one of the GDO pins by setting
IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG = 8. It is also possible to determine if preamble quality is reached by checking the
PQT_REACHED bit in the PKTSTATUS register. This signal/bit asserts when the received signal exceeds
the PQT.
3.13.3 RSSI
The RSSI value is an estimate of the signal power level in the chosen channel. This value is based on the
current gain setting in the RX chain and the measured signal level in the channel.
In RX mode, the RSSI value can be read continuously from the RSSI status register until the demodulator
detects a sync word (when sync word detection is enabled). At that point the RSSI readout value is frozen
until the next time the chip enters the RX state. The RSSI value is in dBm with ½-dB resolution. The RSSI
update rate, fRSSI, depends on the receiver filter bandwidth (BWchannel defined in Section 3.9) and
AGCCTRL0.FILTER_LENGTH.
fRSSI =
2´ BWchannel
8´2FILTER_LEN GTH
(5)
If PKTCTRL1.APPEND_STATUS is enabled the last RSSI value of the packet is automatically added to
the first byte appended after the payload.
The RSSI value read from the RSSI status register is a twos-complement number. The following
procedure can be used to convert the RSSI reading to an absolute power level (RSSI_dBm).
1. Read the RSSI status register
2. Convert the reading from a hexadecimal number to a decimal number (RSSI_dec)
3. If RSSI_dec ≥ 128 then RSSI_dBm = (RSSI_dec – 256)/2 – RSSI_offset
4. Else if RSSI_dec < 128 then RSSI_dBm = (RSSI_dec)/2 – RSSI_offset
Table 3-11 gives typical values for the RSSI_offset. Figure 3-12 and Figure 3-13 shows typical plots of
RSSI reading as a function of input power level for different data rates.
Table 3-11. Typical RSSI_offset Values
DATA RATE (kBaud)
RSSI_offset (dB),
433 MHz
RSSI_offset (dB),
868 MHz
1.2
74
74
38.4
74
74
250
74
74
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0
1.2 kBaud
38.4 kBaud
250 kBaud
-10
-20
-30
RSSI Readout [dBm]
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
-120
-120
-110
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Input Power [dBm]
Figure 3-12. Typical RSSI Value vs Input Power Level for Different Data Rates at 433 MHz
0
38.4 kBaud
1.2 kBaud
250 kBaud
-10
-20
RSSI Readout [dBm]
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
-80
-90
-100
-110
-120
-120
-110
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0
Input Power [dBm]
Figure 3-13. Typical RSSI Value vs Input Power Level for Different Data Rates at 868 MHz
3.13.4 Carrier Sense (CS)
Carrier sense (CS) is used as a sync word qualifier and for CCA and can be asserted based on two
conditions, which can be individually adjusted:
• CS is asserted when the RSSI is above a programmable absolute threshold and deasserted when
RSSI is below the same threshold (with hysteresis).
• CS is asserted when the RSSI has increased with a programmable number of dB from one RSSI
sample to the next and deasserted when RSSI has decreased with the same number of dB. This
setting is not dependent on the absolute signal level and is thus useful to detect signals in
environments with time varying noise floor.
Carrier sense can be used as a sync word qualifier that requires the signal level to be higher than the
threshold for a sync word search to be performed. The signal can also be observed on one of the GDO
pins by setting IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG = 14 and in the status register bit PKTSTATUS.CS.
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Other uses of carrier sense include the TX-if-CCA function (see Section 3.13.5) and the optional fast RX
termination (see Section 3.15.7).
CS can be used to avoid interference from other RF sources in the ISM bands.
3.13.4.1 CS Absolute Threshold
The absolute threshold related to the RSSI value depends on the following register fields:
• AGCCTRL2.MAX_LNA_GAIN
• AGCCTRL2.MAX_DVGA_GAIN
• AGCCTRL1.CARRIER_SENSE_ABS_THR
• AGCCTRL2.MAGN_TARGET
For a given AGCCTRL2.MAX_LNA_GAIN and AGCCTRL2.MAX_DVGA_GAIN setting the absolute
threshold can be adjusted ±7 dB in steps of 1 dB using CARRIER_SENSE_ABS_THR.
The MAGN_TARGET setting is a compromise between blocker tolerance/selectivity and sensitivity. The
value sets the desired signal level in the channel into the demodulator. Increasing this value reduces the
headroom for blockers, and therefore close-in selectivity.
It is strongly recommended to use SmartRF Studio to generate the correct MAGN_TARGET setting.
Table 3-12 and Table 3-13 show the typical RSSI readout values at the CS threshold at 2.4 kBaud and
250 kBaud data rate respectively. The default CARRIER_SENSE_ABS_THR = 0 (0 dB) and
MAGN_TARGET = 3 (33 dB) have been used.
For other data rates the user must generate similar tables to find the CS absolute threshold.
Table 3-12. Typical RSSI Value in dBm at CS Threshold
With Default MAGN_TARGET at 2.4 kBaud, 868 MHz
MAX_DVGA_GAIN[1:0]
MAX_LNA_GAIN[2:0]
000
00
01
10
11
–97.5
–91.5
–85.5
–79.5
001
–94
–88
–82.5
–76
010
–90.5
–84.5
–78.5
–72.5
011
–88
–82.5
–76.5
–70.5
100
–85.5
–80
–73.5
–68
101
–84
–78
–72
–66
110
–82
–76
–70
–64
111
–79
–73.5
–67
–61
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Table 3-13. Typical RSSI Value in dBm at CS Threshold
With Default MAGN_TARGET at 250 kBaud, 868 MHz
MAX_LNA_GAIN[2:0]
MAX_DVGA_GAIN[1:0]
00
01
10
11
000
–90.5
–84.5
–78.5
–72.5
001
–88
–82
–76
–70
010
–84.5
–78.5
–72
–66
011
–82.5
–76.5
–70
–64
100
–80.5
–74.5
–68
–62
101
–78
–72
–66
–60
110
–76.5
–70
–64
–58
111
–74.5
–68
–62
–56
If the threshold is set high (i.e., only strong signals are wanted) the threshold should be adjusted upwards
by first reducing the MAX_LNA_GAIN value and then the MAX_DVGA_GAIN value. This reduces power
consumption in the receiver front end, because the highest gain settings are avoided.
3.13.4.2 CS Relative Threshold
The relative threshold detects sudden changes in the measured signal level. This setting is not dependent
on the absolute signal level and is thus useful to detect signals in environments with a time varying noise
floor. The register field AGCCTRL1.CARRIER_SENSE_REL_THR is used to enable/disable relative CS,
and to select threshold of 6 dB, 10 dB, or 14 dB RSSI change.
3.13.5 Clear Channel Assessment (CCA)
The Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) is used to indicate if the current channel is free or busy. The
current CCA state is viewable on any of the GDO pins by setting IOCFGx.GDOx_ CFG = 0x09.
MCSM1.CCA_MODE selects the mode to use when determining CCA.
When the STX or SFSTXON command strobe is given while CC11x1-Q1 is in the RX state, the TX or
FSTXON state is only entered if the clear channel requirements are fulfilled. The chip otherwise remains in
RX (if the channel becomes available, the radio does not enter TX or FSTXON state before a new strobe
command is sent on the SPI interface). This feature is called TX-if-CCA. Four CCA requirements can be
programmed:
• Always (CCA disabled, always goes to TX)
• If RSSI is below threshold
• Unless currently receiving a packet
• Both the above (RSSI below threshold and not currently receiving a packet)
3.13.6 Link Quality Indicator (LQI)
The Link Quality Indicator (LQI) is a metric of the current quality of the received signal. If
PKTCTRL1.APPEND_STATUS is enabled, the value is automatically added to the last byte appended
after the payload. The value can also be read from the LQI status register. The LQI gives an estimate of
how easily a received signal can be demodulated by accumulating the magnitude of the error between
ideal constellations and the received signal over the 64 symbols immediately following the sync word. LQI
is best used as a relative measurement of the link quality (a high value indicates a better link than a low
value does), because the value is dependent on the modulation format.
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3.14 Forward Error Correction With Interleaving
3.14.1 Forward Error Correction (FEC)
CC11x1-Q1 has built in support for Forward Error Correction (FEC). To enable this option, set
MDMCFG1.FEC_EN to 1. FEC is supported only in fixed packet length mode
(PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG = 0). FEC is employed on the data field and CRC word to reduce the
gross bit error rate when operating near the sensitivity limit. Redundancy is added to the transmitted data
in such a way that the receiver can restore the original data in the presence of some bit errors.
The use of FEC allows correct reception at a lower SNR, thus extending communication range if the
receiver bandwidth remains constant. Alternatively, for a given SNR, using FEC decreases the bit error
rate (BER). As the packet error rate (PER) is related to BER by:
PER = 1 – (1 – BER)packet_length
(6)
A lower BER can be used to allow longer packets, or a higher percentage of packets of a given length, to
be transmitted successfully. Finally, in realistic ISM radio environments, transient and time-varying
phenomena produce occasional errors even in otherwise good reception conditions. FEC masks such
errors and, combined with interleaving of the coded data, even correct relatively long periods of faulty
reception (burst errors).
The FEC scheme adopted for CC11x1-Q1 is convolutional coding, in which n bits are generated based on
k input bits and the m most recent input bits, forming a code stream able to withstand a certain number of
bit errors between each coding state (the m-bit window).
The convolutional coder is a rate 1/2 code with a constraint length of m = 4. The coder codes one input bit
and produces two output bits; hence, the effective data rate is halved. I.e., to transmit at the same
effective data rate when using FEC, it is necessary to use twice as high over-the-air data rate. This
requires a higher receiver bandwidth, and thus reduce sensitivity. In other words the improved reception
by using FEC and the degraded sensitivity from a higher receiver bandwidth are counteracting factors.
3.14.2 Interleaving
Data received through radio channels often experiences burst errors due to interference and time-varying
signal strengths. To increase the robustness to errors spanning multiple bits, interleaving is used when
FEC is enabled. After deinterleaving, a continuous span of errors in the received stream become single
errors spread apart.
CC11x1-Q1 employs matrix interleaving, which is illustrated in Figure 3-14. The on-chip interleaving and
deinterleaving buffers are 4×4 matrices. In the transmitter, the data bits from the rate one-half
convolutional coder are written into the rows of the matrix, whereas the bit sequence to be transmitted is
read from the columns of the matrix. Conversely, in the receiver, the received symbols are written into the
columns of the matrix, whereas the data passed onto the convolutional decoder is read from the rows of
the matrix.
When FEC and interleaving is used at least one extra byte is required for trellis termination. In addition,
the amount of data transmitted over the air must be a multiple of the size of the interleaver buffer (two
bytes). The packet control hardware therefore automatically inserts one or two extra bytes at the end of
the packet, so that the total length of the data to be interleaved is an even number. Note that these extra
bytes are invisible to the user, as they are removed before the received packet enters the RX FIFO.
When FEC and interleaving are used the minimum data payload is 2 bytes.
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Figure 3-14. General Principle of Matrix Interleaving
3.15 Radio Control
CC11x1-Q1 has a built-in state machine that is used to switch between different operational states
(modes). The change of state is done either by using command strobes or by internal events such as TX
FIFO underflow.
A simplified state diagram, together with typical usage and current consumption, is shown in Figure 3-4.
The complete radio control state diagram is shown in Figure 3-15. The numbers refer to the state number
readable in the MARCSTATE status register. This register is primarily for test purposes.
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SIDLE
SPWD | SWOR
SLEEP
0
CAL_COMPLETE
MANCAL
3,4,5
IDLE
1
CSn = 0 | WOR
SXOFF
SCAL
CSn = 0
XOFF
2
SRX | STX | SFSTXON | WOR
FS_WAKEUP
6,7
FS_AUTOCAL = 01
&
SRX | STX | SFSTXON | WOR
FS_AUTOCAL = 00 | 10 | 11
&
SRX | STX | SFSTXON | WOR
SETTLING
9,10,11
SFSTXON
CALIBRATE
8
CAL_COMPLETE
FSTXON
18
STX
SRX
STX
SFSTXON | RXOFF_MODE = 01
TXOFF_MODE=01
STX | RXOFF_MODE = 10
TXOFF_MODE = 10
SRX | WOR
RXTX_SETTLING
21
TX
19,20
SRX | TXOFF_MODE = 11
TX_UNDERFLOW
22
TXOFF_MODE = 00
&
FS_AUTOCAL = 00 | 01
RX
13,14,15
RXOFF_MODE = 11
TXRX_SETTLING
16
RXOFF_MODE = 00
&
FS_AUTOCAL = 10 | 11
TXOFF_MODE = 00
&
FS_AUTOCAL = 10 | 11
TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW
( STX | SFSTXON ) & CCA
|
RXOFF_MODE = 01 | 10
CALIBRATE
12
RXOFF_MODE = 00
&
FS_AUTOCAL = 00 | 01
SFTX
RXFIFO_OVERFLOW
RX_OVERFLOW
17
SFRX
IDLE
1
Figure 3-15. Complete Radio-Control State Diagram
3.15.1 Power-On Start-Up Sequence
When the power supply is turned on, the system must be reset. This is achieved by one of the two
sequences described below, i.e. automatic power-on reset (POR) or manual reset.
After the automatic power-on reset or manual reset it is also recommended to change the signal that is
output on the GDO0 pin. The default setting is to output a clock signal with a frequency of
CLK_XOSC/192, but to optimize performance in TX and RX an alternative GDO setting should be
selected from the settings found in Table 3-17.
3.15.1.1 Automatic POR
A power-on reset circuit is included in the CC11x1-Q1. The minimum requirements stated in Section 2.14
must be followed for the power-on reset to function properly. The internal power-up sequence is
completed when CHIP_RDYn goes low. CHIP_RDYn is observed on the SO pin after CS is pulled low.
See Section 3.6.1 for more details on CHIP_RDYn.
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When the CC11x1-Q1 reset is completed, the chip is in the IDLE state and the crystal oscillator is running.
If the chip has had sufficient time for the crystal oscillator to stabilize after the power-on-reset the SO pin
goes low immediately after taking CS low. If CS is taken low before reset is completed the SO pin first
goes high, indicating that the crystal oscillator is not stabilized, before going low as shown in Figure 3-16.
Figure 3-16. Power-On Reset
3.15.1.2 Manual Reset
The other global reset possibility on CC11x1-Q1 uses the SRES command strobe. By issuing this strobe,
all internal registers and states are set to the default, IDLE state. The manual power-up sequence is as
follows (see Figure 3-17):
• Set SCLK = 1 and SI = 0, to avoid potential problems with pin control mode (see Section 3.7.3).
• Strobe CS low then high.
• Hold CS high for at least 40 µs relative to pulling CS low
• Pull CS low and wait for SO to go low (CHIP_RDYn).
• Issue the SRES strobe on the SI line.
• When SO goes low again, reset is complete and the chip is in the IDLE state.
XOSC and voltage regulator switched on
40 µs
CS
SO
SI
Figure 3-17. Power-On Reset With SRES
NOTE
This reset procedure is required only after the power supply is first turned on. If the user
wants to reset the CC11x1-Q1 after this, it is only necessary to issue an SRES command
strobe.
3.15.2 Crystal Control
The crystal oscillator (XOSC)
MCSM0.XOSC_FORCE_ON is set.
is
either
automatically
controlled
or
always
on,
if
In the automatic mode, the XOSC is turned off if the SXOFF or SPWD command strobes are issued. The
state machine then goes to XOFF or SLEEP, respectively. This can be done only from the IDLE state. The
XOSC is turned off when CS is released (goes high). The XOSC is automatically turned on again when
CS goes low. The state machine then goes to the IDLE state. The SO pin on the SPI interface must be
pulled low before the SPI interface is ready to be used, as described in Section 2.9.
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If the XOSC is forced on, the crystal stays on, even in the SLEEP state.
Crystal oscillator start-up time depends on crystal ESR and load capacitances. The electrical specification
for the crystal oscillator can be found in Section 2.9.
3.15.3 Voltage Regulator Control
The voltage regulator to the digital core is controlled by the radio controller. When the chip enters the
SLEEP state, which is the state with the lowest current consumption, the voltage regulator is disabled.
This occurs after CS is released when a SPWD command strobe has been sent on the SPI interface. The
chip is now in the SLEEP state. Setting CS low again turns on the regulator and crystal oscillator and
make the chip enter the IDLE state.
When wake on radio is enabled, the WOR module controls the voltage regulator as described in
Section 3.15.5.
3.15.4 Active Modes
CC11x1-Q1 has two active modes: receive and transmit. These modes are activated directly by the MCU
by using the SRX and STX command strobes, or automatically by Wake on Radio.
The frequency synthesizer must be calibrated regularly. CC11x1-Q1 has one manual calibration option
(using the SCAL strobe), and three automatic calibration options, controlled by the MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL
setting:
• Calibrate when going from IDLE to either RX or TX (or FSTXON)
• Calibrate when going from either RX or TX to IDLE automatically
• Calibrate every fourth time when going from either RX or TX to IDLE automatically
If the radio goes from TX or RX to IDLE by issuing an SIDLE strobe, calibration is not performed. The
calibration takes a constant number of XOSC cycles (see Table 3-14 for timing details).
When RX is activated, the chip remains in receive mode until a packet is successfully received or the RX
termination timer expires (see Section 3.15.7).
NOTE
The probability that a false sync word is detected can be reduced by using PQT, CS,
maximum sync word length, and sync word qualifier mode as described in Section 3.13.
After a packet is successfully received, the radio controller goes to the state indicated by the
MCSM1.RXOFF_MODE setting. The possible destinations are:
• IDLE
• FSTXON: Frequency synthesizer on and ready at the TX frequency. Activate TX with STX .
• TX: Start sending preamble
• RX: Start search for a new packet
Similarly, when TX is active the chip remains in the TX state until the current packet has been successfully
transmitted. Then the state changes as indicated by the MCSM1.TXOFF_MODE setting. The possible
destinations are the same as for RX.
The MCU can manually change the state from RX to TX and vice versa by using the command strobes. If
the radio controller is currently in transmit and the SRX strobe is used, the current transmission is ended
and the transition to RX is done.
If the radio controller is in RX when the STX or SFSTXON command strobes are used, the TX-if-CCA
function is used. If the channel is not clear, the chip remains in RX. The MCSM1.CCA_MODE setting
controls the conditions for clear channel assessment (see Section 3.13.5 for details).
The SIDLE command strobe can always be used to force the radio controller to go to the IDLE state.
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3.15.5 Wake On Radio (WOR)
The optional Wake on Radio (WOR) functionality enables CC11x1-Q1 to periodically wake up from SLEEP
and listen for incoming packets without MCU interaction.
When the WOR strobe command is sent on the SPI interface, the CC11x1-Q1 goes to the SLEEP state
when CS is released. The RC oscillator must be enabled before the WOR strobe can be used, as it is the
clock source for the WOR timer. The on-chip timer sets CC11x1-Q1 into IDLE state and then RX state.
After a programmable time in RX, the chip goes back to the SLEEP state, unless a packet is received.
See Figure 3-18 and Section 3.15.7 for details on how the timeout works.
Set the CC11x1-Q1 into the IDLE state to exit WOR mode.
CC11x1-Q1 can be set up to signal the MCU that a packet has been received by using the GDO pins. If a
packet is received, the MCSM1.RXOFF_MODE determines the behavior at the end of the received
packet. When the MCU has read the packet, it can put the chip back into SLEEP with the SWOR strobe
from the IDLE state. The FIFO loses its contents in the SLEEP state.
The WOR timer has two events, Event 0 and Event 1. In the SLEEP state with WOR activated, reaching
Event 0 turns on the digital regulator and starts the crystal oscillator. Event 1 follows Event 0 after a
programmed timeout.
The time between two consecutive Event 0 is programmed with a mantissa value given by
WOREVT1.EVENT0 and WOREVT0.EVENT0, and an exponent value set by WORCTRL.WOR_RES. The
equation is:
tEvent0 =
750
´EVENT0 ´25´WOR_RES
f XOSC
(7)
The Event 1 timeout is programmed with WORCTRL.EVENT1. Figure 3-18 shows the timing relationship
between Event 0 timeout and Event 1 timeout.
Rx timeout
State :
SLEEP
IDLE
Event 0
RX
SLEEP
Event 1
IDLE
Event 0
RX
Event1
t
tEvent0
tEvent0
tEvent1
tEvent1
tSLEEP
Figure 3-18. Event 0 and Event 1 Relationship
The time from the CC11x1-Q1 enters SLEEP state until the next Event0 is programmed to appear
(tSLEEP in Figure 3-18) should be larger than 11.08 ms when using a 26-MHz crystal and 10.67 ms when
a 27-MHz crystal is used. If tSLEEP is less than 11.08 (10.67) ms, there is a chance that the consecutive
Event 0 will occur (750 / fXOSC ) × 128 seconds too early. CC1100/CC2500 – Wake-On-Radio (SWRA126)
explains in detail the theory of operation and the different registers involved when using WOR, as well as
highlighting important aspects when using WOR mode.
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3.15.5.1 RC Oscillator and Timing
The frequency of the low-power RC oscillator used for the WOR functionality varies with temperature and
supply voltage. To keep the frequency as accurate as possible, the RC oscillator is calibrated whenever
possible, which is when the XOSC is running and the chip is not in the SLEEP state. When the power and
XOSC is enabled, the clock used by the WOR timer is a divided XOSC clock. When the chip goes to the
sleep state, the RC oscillator uses the last valid calibration result. The frequency of the RC oscillator is
locked to the main crystal frequency divided by 750.
In applications where the radio wakes up very often, typically several times every second, it is possible to
do the RC oscillator calibration once and then turn off calibration (WORCTRL.RC_CAL = 0) to reduce the
current consumption. This requires that RC oscillator calibration values are read from registers
RCCTRL0_STATUS and RCCTRL1_STATUS and written back to RCCTRL0 and RCCTRL1 respectively.
If the RC oscillator calibration is turned off, it must be manually turned on again if temperature and supply
voltage changes.
See CC1100/CC2500 – Wake-On-Radio (SWRA126) for further details.
3.15.6 Timing
The radio controller controls most of the timing in CC11x1-Q1, such as synthesizer calibration, PLL lock
time, and RX/TX turnaround times. Timing from IDLE to RX and IDLE to TX is constant, dependent on the
auto calibration setting. RX/TX and TX/RX turnaround times are constant. The calibration time is constant
18739 clock periods. Table 3-14 shows timing in crystal clock cycles for key state transitions.
Power on time and XOSC start-up times are variable, but within the limits stated in Section 2.9.
Note that in a frequency hopping spread spectrum or a multi-channel protocol the calibration time can be
reduced from 721 µs to approximately 150 µs (see Section 3.27.2).
Table 3-14. State Transition Timing
DESCRIPTION
IDLE to RX, no calibration
IDLE to RX, with calibration
XOSC PERIODS
26-MHz CRYSTAL
2298
88.4 µs
~21037
809 µs
2298
88.4 µs
~21037
809 µs
TX to RX switch
560
21.5 µs
RX to TX switch
250
9.6 µs
IDLE to TX/FSTXON, no calibration
IDLE to TX/FSTXON, with calibration
RX or TX to IDLE, no calibration
2
0.1 µs
RX or TX to IDLE, with calibration
~18739
721 µs
Manual calibration
~18739
721 µs
3.15.7 RX Termination Timer
CC11x1-Q1 has optional functions for automatic termination of RX after a programmable time. The main
use for this functionality is wake-on-radio (WOR), but it may be useful for other applications. The
termination timer starts when in RX state. The timeout is programmable with the MCSM2.RX_TIME
setting. When the timer expires, the radio controller checks the condition for staying in RX. If the condition
is not met, RX terminates.
The programmable conditions are:
• MCSM2.RX_TIME_QUAL = 0
Continue receive if sync word has been found
• MCSM2.RX_TIME_QUAL = 1
Continue receive if sync word has been found or preamble quality is above threshold (PQT)
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If the system can expect the transmission to have started when enabling the receiver, the
MCSM2.RX_TIME_RSSI function can be used. The radio controller then terminates RX if the first valid
carrier sense sample indicates no carrier (RSSI below threshold) (see Section 3.13.4 for details on Carrier
Sense).
For ASK/OOK modulation, lack of carrier sense is only considered valid after eight symbol periods. Thus,
the MCSM2.RX_TIME_RSSI function can be used in ASK/OOK mode when the distance between "1"
symbols is 8 or less.
If RX terminates due to no carrier sense when the MCSM2.RX_TIME_RSSI function is used, or if no sync
word was found when using the MCSM2.RX_TIME timeout function, the chip goes back to IDLE if WOR is
disabled and back to SLEEP if WOR is enabled. Otherwise, the MCSM1.RXOFF_MODE setting
determines the state to go to when RX ends. This means that the chip does not automatically go back to
SLEEP once a sync word has been received. It is therefore recommended to always wake up the
microcontroller on sync word detection when using WOR mode. This can be done by selecting output
signal 6 (see Table 3-17) on one of the programmable GDO output pins, and programming the
microcontroller to wake up on an edge-triggered interrupt from this GDO pin.
3.16 Data FIFO
The CC11x1-Q1 contains two 64 byte FIFOs, one for received data and one for data to be transmitted.
The SPI interface is used to read from the RX FIFO and write to the TX FIFO. Section 3.6 contains details
on the SPI FIFO access. The FIFO controller detects overflow in the RX FIFO and underflow in the TX
FIFO.
When writing to the TX FIFO, it is the responsibility of the MCU to avoid TX FIFO overflow. A TX FIFO
overflow results in an error in the TX FIFO content.
Likewise, when reading the RX FIFO, the MCU must avoid reading the RX FIFO past its empty value,
because an RX FIFO underflow results in an error in the data read out of the RX FIFO.
The chip status byte that is available on the SO pin while transferring the SPI header contains the fill
grade of the RX FIFO if the access is a read operation and the fill grade of the TX FIFO if the access is a
write operation. Section 3.6.1 contains more details on this.
The number of bytes in the RX FIFO and TX FIFO can be read from the status registers
RXBYTES.NUM_RXBYTES and TXBYTES.NUM_TXBYTES respectively. If a received data byte is written
to the RX FIFO at the exact same time as the last byte in the RX FIFO is read over the SPI interface, the
RX FIFO pointer is not properly updated and the last read byte is duplicated. To avoid this problem one
should never empty the RX FIFO before the last byte of the packet is received.
For packet lengths less than 64 bytes it is recommended to wait until the complete packet has been
received before reading it out of the RX FIFO.
If the packet length is larger than 64 bytes the MCU must determine how many bytes can be read from
the RX FIFO (RXBYTES.NUM_RXBYTES-1) and the following software routine can be used:
1. Read RXBYTES.NUM_RXBYTES repeatedly at a rate ensured to be at least twice that at which RF
bytes are received until the same value is returned twice. Store value in n.
2. If n < # of bytes remaining in packet, read n – 1 bytes from the RX FIFO.
3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until n = # of bytes remaining in packet.
4. Read the remaining bytes from the RX FIFO.
The 4-bit FIFOTHR.FIFO_THR setting is used to program threshold points in the FIFOs. Table 3-15 lists
the 16 FIFO_THR settings and the corresponding thresholds for the RX and TX FIFOs. The threshold
value is coded in opposite directions for the RX FIFO and TX FIFO. This gives equal margin to the
overflow and underflow conditions when the threshold is reached.
A signal asserts when the number of bytes in the FIFO is equal to or higher than the programmed
threshold. This signal can be viewed on the GDO pins (see Table 3-17).
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Figure 3-20 shows the number of bytes in both the RX FIFO and TX FIFO when the threshold signal
toggles, in the case of FIFO_THR = 13. Figure 3-19 shows the signal as the respective FIFO is filled
above the threshold, and then drained below.
NUM_RXBYTES
53 54 55 56 57 56 55 54 53
GDO
NUM_TXBYTES
6
7
8
9 10 9
8
7
6
GDO
Figure 3-19. FIFO_THR = 13 vs Number of Bytes in FIFO
(GDOx_CFG = 0x00 in RX and GDOx_CFG = 0x02 in TX)
Table 3-15. FIFO_THR Settings and the Corresponding
FIFO Thresholds
FIFO_THR
BYTES IN TX FIFO
BYTES IN RX FIFO
0 (0000)
61
4
1 (0001)
57
8
2 (0010)
53
12
3 (0011)
49
16
4 (0100)
45
20
5 (0101)
41
24
6 (0110)
37
28
7 (0111)
33
32
8 (1000)
29
36
9 (1001)
25
40
10 (1010)
21
44
11 (1011)
17
48
12 (1100)
13
52
13 (1101)
9
56
14 (1110)
5
60
15 (1111)
1
64
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Overflow
margin
FIFO_THR=13
56 bytes
FIFO_THR=13
Underflow
margin
RXFIFO
8 bytes
TXFIFO
Figure 3-20. Example of FIFOs at Threshold
3.17 Frequency Programming
The frequency programming in CC11x1-Q1 is designed to minimize the programming needed in a
channel-oriented system.
To set up a system with channel numbers, the desired channel spacing is programmed with the
MDMCFG0.CHANSPC_M and MDMCFG1.CHANSPC_E registers. The channel spacing registers are
mantissa and exponent respectively.
The base or start frequency is set by the 24-bit frequency word located in the FREQ2, FREQ1, and
FREQ0 registers. This word is typically set to the center of the lowest channel frequency that is to be
used.
The desired channel number is programmed with the 8-bit channel number register, CHANNR.CHAN,
which is multiplied by the channel offset. The resultant carrier frequency is given by:
×
×
×
(8)
With a 26-MHz crystal the maximum channel spacing is 405 kHz. To get, for example, 1-MHz channel
spacing one solution is to use 333-kHz channel spacing and select each third channel in CHANNR.CHAN.
The preferred IF frequency is programmed with the FSCTRL1.FREQ_IF register. The IF frequency is
given by:
f
fIF = XOSC ´FREQ_IF
210
(9)
NOTE
The SmartRF Studio software automatically calculates the optimum FSCTRL1.FREQ_IF
register setting based on channel spacing and channel filter bandwidth.
If any frequency programming register is altered when the frequency synthesizer is running, the
synthesizer may give an undesired response. Hence, the frequency programming should only be updated
when the radio is in the IDLE state.
3.18 VCO
The VCO is completely integrated on-chip.
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3.18.1 VCO and PLL Self-Calibration
The VCO characteristics vary with temperature and supply voltage changes, as well as the desired
operating frequency. To ensure reliable operation, CC11x1-Q1 includes frequency synthesizer
self-calibration circuitry. This calibration should be done regularly, and must be performed after turning on
power and before using a new frequency (or channel). The number of XOSC cycles for completing the
PLL calibration is given in Table 3-14.
The calibration can be initiated automatically or manually. The synthesizer can be automatically calibrated
each time the synthesizer is turned on, or each time the synthesizer is turned off automatically. This is
configured with the MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL register setting. In manual mode, the calibration is initiated
when the SCAL command strobe is activated in the IDLE mode.
NOTE
The calibration values are maintained in SLEEP mode, so the calibration is still valid after
waking up from SLEEP mode (unless supply voltage or temperature has changed
significantly).
To check that the PLL is in lock, the user can program register IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG to 0x0A and use the
lock detector output available on the GDOx pin as an interrupt for the MCU (x = 0,1, or 2). A positive
transition on the GDOx pin means that the PLL is in lock. As an alternative the user can read register
FSCAL1. The PLL is in lock if the register content is different from 0x3F (see also the errata notes). For
more robust operation the source code could include a check so that the PLL is re-calibrated until PLL
lock is achieved if the PLL does not lock the first time.
3.19 Voltage Regulators
CC11x1-Q1 contains several on-chip linear voltage regulators, which generate the supply voltage needed
by low-voltage modules. These voltage regulators are invisible to the user, and can be viewed as integral
parts of the various modules. The user must however make sure that the absolute maximum ratings and
required pin voltages in Table 3-1 and Section 2.1 are not exceeded. The voltage regulator for the digital
core requires one external decoupling capacitor.
Setting the CS pin low turns on the voltage regulator to the digital core and starts the crystal oscillator.
The SO pin on the SPI interface must go low before the first positive edge of SCLK (setup time is given in
Section 2.15).
If the chip is programmed to enter power-down mode, (SPWD strobe issued), the power is turned off after
CS goes high. The power and crystal oscillator are turned on again when CS goes low.
The voltage regulator output should be used only for driving the CC11x1-Q1.
3.20 Output Power Programming
The RF output power level from the device has two levels of programmability, as illustrated in Figure 3-21.
Firstly, the special PATABLE register can hold up to eight user selected output power settings. Secondly,
the 3-bit FREND0.PA_POWER value selects the PATABLE entry to use. This two-level functionality
provides flexible PA power ramp up and ramp down at the start and end of transmission, as well as ASK
modulation shaping. All the PA power settings in the PATABLE from index 0 up to the
FREND0.PA_POWER value are used.
The power ramping at the start and at the end of a packet can be turned off by setting
FREND0.PA_POWER to zero and then program the desired output power to index 0 in the PATABLE.
If OOK modulation is used, the logic 0 and logic 1 power levels shall be programmed to index 0 and 1
respectively.
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See Design Note DN013 Programming Output Power on CC1101 (SWRA151) for recommended
PATABLE settings for various output levels and frequency bands. Using PA settings from 0x61 to 0x6F is
not recommended. See Section 3.6.6 for PATABLE programming details.
See Design Note DN013 Programming Output Power on CC1101 (SWRA151) for output power and
current consumption for default PATABLE setting (0xC6). PATABLE must be programmed in burst mode
to write to entries other than PATABLE[0].
NOTE
All content of the PATABLE, except for the first byte (index 0), is lost when entering the
SLEEP state.
3.21 Shaping and PA Ramping
With ASK modulation, up to eight power settings are used for shaping. The modulator contains a counter
that counts up when transmitting a one and down when transmitting a zero. The counter counts at a rate
equal to 8 times the symbol rate. The counter saturates at FREND0.PA_POWER and 0 respectively. This
counter value is used as an index for a lookup in the power table. Thus, to utilize the whole table,
FREND0.PA_POWER should be 7 when ASK is active. The shaping of the ASK signal is dependent on
the configuration of the PATABLE.
Figure 3-22 shows some examples of ASK shaping.
PATABLE(7)[7:0]
The PA uses this
setting.
PATABLE(6)[7:0]
PATABLE(5)[7:0]
PATABLE(4)[7:0]
Settings 0 to PA_POWER are
used during ramp-up at start of
transmission and ramp-down at
end of transmission, and for
ASK/OOK modulation.
PATABLE(3)[7:0]
PATABLE(2)[7:0]
PATABLE(1)[7:0]
PATABLE(0)[7:0]
Index into PATABLE(7:0)
The SmartRF® Studio software
should be used to obtain optimum
PATABLE settings for various
output powers.
e.g 6
PA_POWER[2:0]
in FREND0 register
Figure 3-21. PA_POWER and PATABLE
Output P ower
P A TA B LE[ 7]
P A TA B LE[ 6]
P A TA B LE[ 5]
P A TA B LE[ 4]
P A TA B LE[ 3]
P A TA B LE[ 2]
P A TA B LE[ 1]
P A TA B LE[ 0]
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
Time
B it S equence
FRE ND0.P A_P OWE R = 3
FRE ND0.P A_P OWE R = 7
Figure 3-22. Shaping of ASK Signal
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3.22 Crystal Oscillator
A crystal in the frequency range 26-27 MHz must be connected between the XOSC_Q1 and XOSC_Q2
pins. The oscillator is designed for parallel mode operation of the crystal. In addition, loading capacitors
(C81 and C101) for the crystal are required. The loading capacitor values depend on the total load
capacitance, CL, specified for the crystal. The total load capacitance seen between the crystal terminals
should equal CL for the crystal to oscillate at the specified frequency.
CL =
1
+Cparasitic
1
1
+
C81 C101
(10)
The parasitic capacitance is constituted by pin input capacitance and PCB stray capacitance. Total
parasitic capacitance is typically 2.5 pF.
The crystal oscillator circuit is shown in Figure 3-23. Typical component values for different values of CL
are given in Table 3-16.
XTAL
XOSC_Q1
C81
XOSC_Q2
C101
Figure 3-23. Crystal Oscillator Circuit
Table 3-16. Crystal Oscillator Component Values
Component
CL = 10 pF
CL = 13 pF
CL = 16 pF
C81
15 pF
22 pF
27 pF
C101
15 pF
22 pF
27 pF
The crystal oscillator is amplitude regulated. This means that a high current is used to start up the
oscillations. When the amplitude builds up, the current is reduced to what is necessary to maintain
approximately 0.4-Vpp signal swing. This ensures a fast start-up, and keeps the drive level to a minimum.
The ESR of the crystal should be within the specification to ensure a reliable start-up (see Section 2.9).
The initial tolerance, temperature drift, aging and load pulling should be carefully specified to meet the
required frequency accuracy in a certain application.
3.22.1 Reference Signal
The chip can alternatively be operated with a reference signal from 26 to 27 MHz instead of a crystal. This
input clock can either be a full-swing digital signal (0 V to VDD) or a sine wave of maximum 1 V peak-peak
amplitude. The reference signal must be connected to the XOSC_Q1 input. The sine wave must be
connected to XOSC_Q1 using a serial capacitor. When using a full-swing digital signal this capacitor can
be omitted. The XOSC_Q2 line must be left unconnected. C81 and C101 can be omitted when using a
reference signal.
3.23 External RF Match
The balanced RF input and output of CC11x1-Q1 share two common pins and are designed for a simple,
low-cost matching and balun network on the printed circuit board. The receive- and transmit switching at
the CC11x1-Q1 front-end is controlled by a dedicated on-chip function, eliminating the need for an
external RX/TX-switch.
A few passive external components combined with the internal RX/TX switch/termination circuitry ensures
match in both RX and TX mode.
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Although CC11x1-Q1 has a balanced RF input/output, the chip can be connected to a single-ended
antenna with few external low cost capacitors and inductors.
The passive matching/filtering network connected to CC11x1-Q1 should have the following differential
impedance as seen from the RF-port (RF_P and RF_N) toward the antenna:
Zout 315 MHz = 122 + j31 Ω
Zout 433 MHz = 116 + j41 Ω
Zout 868/915 MHz = 86.5 + j43 Ω
To ensure optimal matching of the CC11x1-Q1 differential output it is recommended to follow the
reference design as closely as possible. Gerber files for the reference designs are available for download
from the TI web site.
3.24 PCB Layout Recommendations
The top layer should be used for signal routing, and the open areas should be filled with metallization
connected to ground using several vias.
The area under the chip is used for grounding and shall be connected to the bottom ground plane with
several vias. In the reference designs, five vias are placed inside the exposed die attached pad. These
vias should be tented (covered with solder mask) on the component side of the PCB to avoid migration of
solder through the vias during the solder reflow process.
The solder paste coverage should not be 100%. If it is, out gassing may occur during the reflow process,
which may cause defects (splattering, solder balling). Using "tented" vias reduces the solder paste
coverage below 100%.
Each decoupling capacitor should be placed as close as possible to the supply pin it is supposed to
decouple. Each decoupling capacitor should be connected to the power line (or power plane) by separate
vias. The best routing is from the power line (or power plane) to the decoupling capacitor and then to the
CC11x1-Q1 supply pin. Supply power filtering is very important.
Each decoupling capacitor ground pad should be connected to the ground plane using a separate via.
Direct connections between neighboring power pins increase noise coupling and should be avoided
unless absolutely necessary.
The external components ideally should be as small as possible (0402 is recommended) and surface
mount devices are highly recommended. Please note that components smaller than those specified may
have differing characteristics.
Precaution should be used when placing the microcontroller to avoid noise interfering with the RF circuitry.
A development kit with a fully assembled evaluation module is available. It is strongly advised that this
reference layout is followed closely to get the best performance. The schematic, BOM, and layout Gerber
files are all available from the TI web site.
3.25 General Purpose / Test Output Control Pins
The three digital output pins GDO0, GDO1, and GDO2 are general control pins configured with
IOCFG0.GDO0_CFG, IOCFG1.GDO1_CFG, and IOCFG2.GDO3_CFG respectively. Table 3-17 shows
the different signals that can be monitored on the GDO pins. These signals can be used as inputs to the
MCU. GDO1 is the same pin as the SO pin on the SPI interface, thus the output programmed on this pin
is valid only when CS is high. The default value for GDO1 is 3-stated, which is useful when the SPI
interface is shared with other devices.
The default value for GDO0 is a 135-141 kHz clock output (XOSC frequency divided by 192). Because the
XOSC is turned on at power-on-reset, this can be used to clock the MCU in systems with only one crystal.
When the MCU is up and running, it can change the clock frequency by writing to IOCFG0.GDO0_CFG.
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An on-chip analog temperature sensor is enabled by writing the value 128 (0x80) to the IOCFG0 register.
The voltage on the GDO0 pin is then proportional to temperature. See Section 2.12 for temperature
sensor specifications.
If the IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG setting is less than 0x20 and IOCFGx_GDOx_INV is 0 (1), the GDO0 and
GDO2 pins are hardwired to 0 (1) and the GDO1 pin is hardwired to 1 (0) in the SLEEP state. These
signals are hardwired until the CHIP_RDYn signal goes low.
If the IOCFGx.GDOx_CFG setting is 0x20 or higher, the GDO pins also work as programmed in SLEEP
state. As an example, GDO1 is high impedance in all states if IOCFG1.GDO1_CFG = 0x2E.
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Table 3-17. GDOx Signal Selection (x = 0, 1, or 2)
GDOx_CFG[5:0]
DESCRIPTION
0 (0x00)
Associated to the RX FIFO: Asserts when RX FIFO is filled at or above the RX FIFO threshold. De-asserts when RX
FIFO is drained below the same threshold.
1 (0x01)
Associated to the RX FIFO: Asserts when RX FIFO is filled at or above the RX FIFO threshold or the end of packet is
reached. De-asserts when the RX FIFO is empty.
2 (0x02)
Associated to the TX FIFO: Asserts when the TX FIFO is filled at or above the TX FIFO threshold. De-asserts when the
TX FIFO is below the same threshold.
3 (0x03)
Associated to the TX FIFO: Asserts when TX FIFO is full. De-asserts when the TX FIFO is drained below the TX FIFO
threshold.
4 (0x04)
Asserts when the RX FIFO has overflowed. De-asserts when the FIFO has been flushed.
5 (0x05)
Asserts when the TX FIFO has underflowed. De-asserts when the FIFO is flushed.
6 (0x06)
Asserts when sync word has been sent / received, and de-asserts at the end of the packet. In RX, the pin de-asserts
when the optional address check fails or the RX FIFO overflows. In TX, the pin de-asserts if the TX FIFO underflows.
7 (0x07)
Asserts when a packet has been received with CRC OK. De-asserts when the first byte is read from the RX FIFO.
8 (0x08)
Preamble Quality Reached. Asserts when the PQI is above the programmed PQT value.
9 (0x09)
Clear channel assessment. High when RSSI level is below threshold (dependent on the current CCA_MODE setting)
10 (0x0A)
Lock detector output. The PLL is in lock if the lock detector output has a positive transition or is constantly logic high. To
check for PLL lock the lock detector output should be used as an interrupt for the MCU.
11 (0x0B)
Serial Clock. Synchronous to the data in synchronous serial mode. In RX mode, data is set up on the falling edge by
CC11x1-Q1 when GDOx_INV = 0. In TX mode, data is sampled by CC11x1-Q1 on the rising edge of the serial clock
when GDOx_INV = 0.
12 (0x0C)
Serial synchronous data output. Used for synchronous serial mode.
13 (0x0D)
Serial data output. Used for asynchronous serial mode.
14 (0x0E)
Carrier sense. High if RSSI level is above threshold.
15 (0x0F)
CRC_OK. The last CRC comparison matched. Cleared when entering/restarting RX mode.
16 (0x10) to
21 (0x15)
Reserved – used for test
22 (0x16)
RX_HARD_DATA[1]. Can be used together with RX_SYMBOL_TICK for alternative serial RX output.
23 (0x17)
RX_HARD_DATA[0]. Can be used together with RX_SYMBOL_TICK for alternative serial RX output.
24 (0x18) to
26 (0x1A)
Reserved – used for test
27 (0x1B)
PA_PD. Note: PA_PD has the same signal level in SLEEP and TX states. To control an external PA or RX/TX switch in
applications where the SLEEP state is used, it is recommended to use GDOx_CFGx = 0x2F instead.
28 (0x1C)
LNA_PD. Note: LNA_PD has the same signal level in SLEEP and RX states. To control an external LNA or RX/TX
switch in applications where the SLEEP state is used, it is recommended to use GDOx_CFGx = 0x2F instead.
29 (0x1D)
RX_SYMBOL_TICK. Can be used together with RX_HARD_DATA for alternative serial RX output.
30 (0x1E) to
35 (0x23)
Reserved – used for test
36 (0x24)
WOR_EVNT0
37 (0x25)
WOR_EVNT1
38 (0x26)
Reserved – used for test
39 (0x27)
CLK_32k
40 (0x28)
Reserved – used for test
41 (0x29)
CHIP_RDYn
42 (0x2A)
Reserved – used for test
43 (0x2B)
XOSC_STABLE
44 (0x2C)
Reserved – used for test
45 (0x2D)
GDO0_Z_EN_N. When this output is 0, GDO0 is configured as input (for serial TX data).
46 (0x2E)
High impedance (3-state)
47 (0x2F)
HW to 0 (HW1 achieved by setting GDOx_INV = 1). Can be used to control an external LNA/PA or RX/TX switch.
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Table 3-17. GDOx Signal Selection (x = 0, 1, or 2) (continued)
GDOx_CFG[5:0]
DESCRIPTION
48 (0x30)
CLK_XOSC/1
49 (0x31)
CLK_XOSC/1.
5
50 (0x32)
CLK_XOSC/2
51 (0x33)
CLK_XOSC/3
52 (0x34)
CLK_XOSC/4
53 (0x35)
CLK_XOSC/6
54 (0x36)
CLK_XOSC/8
55 (0x37)
57 (0x39)
CLK_XOSC/12 Note: There are 3 GDO pins, but only one CLK_XOSC/n can be selected as an output at any time. If
CLK_XOSC/n is to be monitored on one of the GDO pins, the other two GDO pins must be configured
CLK_XOSC/16 to values less than 0x30. The GDO0 default value is CLK_XOSC/192.
CLK_XOSC/24 To optimize RF performance, these signal should not be used while the radio is in RX or TX mode.
58 (0x3A)
CLK_XOSC/32
59 (0x3B)
CLK_XOSC/48
60 (0x3C)
CLK_XOSC/64
61 (0x3D)
CLK_XOSC/96
62 (0x3E)
CLK_XOSC/12
8
63 (0x3F)
CLK_XOSC/19
2
56 (0x38)
3.26 Asynchronous and Synchronous Serial Operation
Several features and modes of operation have been included in the CC11x1-Q1 to provide backward
compatibility with previous Chipcon products and other existing RF communication systems. For new
systems, it is recommended to use the built-in packet handling features, as they can give more robust
communication, significantly offload the microcontroller, and simplify software development.
3.26.1 Asynchronous Operation
For backward compatibility with systems already using the asynchronous data transfer from other Chipcon
products, asynchronous transfer is also included in CC11x1-Q1. When asynchronous transfer is enabled,
several of the support mechanisms for the MCU that are included in CC11x1-Q1 are disabled, such as
packet handling hardware, buffering in the FIFO, and so on. The asynchronous transfer mode does not
allow the use of the data whitener, interleaver, and FEC, and it is not possible to use Manchester
encoding.
NOTE
MSK is not supported for asynchronous transfer.
Setting PKTCTRL0.PKT_FORMAT to 3 enables asynchronous serial mode.
In TX, the GDO0 pin is used for data input (TX data). Data output can be on GDO0, GDO1, or GDO2.
This is set by the IOCFG0.GDO0_CFG, IOCFG1.GDO1_CFG and IOCFG2.GDO2_CFG fields.
The CC11x1-Q1 modulator samples the level of the asynchronous input 8 times faster than the
programmed data rate. The timing requirement for the asynchronous stream is that the error in the bit
period must be less than one eighth of the programmed data rate.
3.26.2 Synchronous Serial Operation
Setting PKTCTRL0.PKT_FORMAT to 1 enables synchronous serial mode. In the synchronous serial
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mode, data is transferred on a two wire serial interface. The CC11x1-Q1 provides a clock that is used to
set up new data on the data input line or sample data on the data output line. Data input (TX data) is the
GDO0 pin. This pin is automatically configured as an input when TX is active. The data output pin can be
any of the GDO pins (this is set by the IOCFG0.GDO0_CFG, IOCFG1.GDO1_CFG, and
IOCFG2.GDO2_CFG fields).
Preamble and sync word insertion/detection may or may not be active, dependent on the sync mode set
by the MDMCFG2.SYNC_MODE. If preamble and sync word is disabled, all other packet handler features
and FEC should also be disabled. The MCU must then handle preamble and sync word insertion and
detection in software. If preamble and sync word insertion/detection is left on, all packet handling features
and FEC can be used. One exception is that the address filtering feature is unavailable in synchronous
serial mode.
When using the packet handling features in synchronous serial mode, the CC11x1-Q1 inserts and detects
the preamble and sync word and the MCU only provides/gets the data payload. This is equivalent to the
recommended FIFO operation mode.
3.27 System Considerations and Guidelines
3.27.1 SRD Regulations
International regulations and national laws regulate the use of radio receivers and transmitters. Short
range devices (SRDs) for license-free operation below 1 GHz are usually operated in the 433 MHz, 868
MHz, or 915 MHz frequency bands. The CC11x1-Q1 is specifically designed for such use with its
310 MHz to 348 MHz, 420 MHz to 450 MHz, and 779 MHz to 928 MHz operating ranges. The most
important regulations when using the CC11x1-Q1 in the 433 MHz, 868 MHz, or 915 MHz frequency bands
are EN 300 220 (Europe) and FCC CFR47 Part 15 (USA). A summary of the most important aspects of
these regulations can be found in SRD Regulations for Licence Free Transceiver Operation (SWRA090).
NOTE
Compliance with regulations is dependent on complete system performance. It is the
customer's responsibility to ensure that the system complies with regulations.
3.27.2 Frequency Hopping and Multi-Channel Systems
The 433-MHz, 868-MHz, and 915-MHz bands are shared by many systems both in industrial, office, and
home environments. It is therefore recommended to use a frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) or
multi-channel protocol, because the frequency diversity makes the system more robust with respect to
interference from other systems operating in the same frequency band. FHSS also combats multipath
fading.
CC11x1-Q1 is highly suited for FHSS or multi-channel systems due to its agile frequency synthesizer and
effective communication interface. Using the packet handling support and data buffering is also beneficial
in such systems, as these features significantly offload the host controller.
Charge pump current, VCO current, and VCO capacitance array calibration data is required for each
frequency when implementing frequency hopping for CC11x1-Q1. There are three ways of obtaining the
calibration data from the chip:
1. Frequency hopping with calibration for each hop. The PLL calibration time is approximately 720 µs.
The blanking interval between each frequency hop is then approximately 810 µs.
2. Fast frequency hopping without calibration for each hop can be done by calibrating each frequency at
startup and saving the resulting FSCAL3, FSCAL2, and FSCAL1 register values in MCU memory.
Between each frequency hop, the calibration process can then be replaced by writing the FSCAL3,
FSCAL2, and FSCAL1 register values corresponding to the next RF frequency. The PLL turn-on time
is approximately 90 µs. The blanking interval between each frequency hop is then approximately
90 µs. The VCO current calibration result available in FSCAL2 is not dependent on the RF frequency.
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Neither is the charge pump current calibration result available in FSCAL3. The same value can,
therefore, be used for all frequencies.
3. Run calibration on a single frequency at startup. Next, write 0 to FSCAL3[5:4] to disable the
charge-pump calibration. After writing to FSCAL3[5:4], strobe SRX (or STX) with
MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL = 1 for each new frequency hop. That is, VCO current and VCO capacitance
calibration are done but not charge-pump current calibration. When charge pump current calibration is
disabled, the calibration time is reduced from approximately 720 µs to approximately 150 µs. The
blanking interval between each frequency hop is then approximately 240 µs.
There is a trade off between blanking time and memory space needed for storing calibration data in
non-volatile memory. Solution 2 above gives the shortest blanking interval, but requires more memory
space to store calibration values. Solution 3 gives approximately 570 µs smaller blanking interval than
solution 1.
NOTE
The recommended settings for TEST0.VCO_SEL_CAL_EN change with frequency.
Therefore, SmartRF Studio should be used to determine the correct settings for a specific
frequency before doing a calibration, regardless of which calibration method is used.
It must be noted that the TESTn registers (n = 0, 1, or 2) content is not retained in SLEEP state, and thus
it is necessary to rewrite these registers when returning from the SLEEP state.
3.27.3 Wideband Modulation Not Using Spread Spectrum
Digital modulation systems under FFC Part 15.247 include 2-FSK and GFSK modulation. A maximum
peak output power of 1 W (+30 dBm) is allowed if the 6-dB bandwidth of the modulated signal exceeds
500 kHz. In addition, the peak power spectral density conducted to the antenna shall not be greater than
8 dBm in any 3-kHz band.
Operating at high data rates and frequency separation, the CC11x1-Q1 is suited for systems targeting
compliance with digital modulation system as defined by FFC part 15.247. An external power amplifier is
needed to increase the output above 10 dBm.
3.27.4 Data Burst Transmissions
The high maximum data rate of CC11x1-Q1 allows burst transmissions. A low average data rate link (e.g.,
10 kBaud), can be realized using a higher over-the-air data rate. Buffering the data and transmitting in
bursts at high data rate (e.g., 500 kBaud) reduces the time in active mode and, therefore, reduces the
average current consumption significantly. Reducing the time in active mode reduces the likelihood of
collisions with other systems in the same frequency range.
3.27.5 Continuous Transmissions
In data streaming applications, the CC11x1-Q1 allows continuous transmissions at 500-kBaud effective
data rate. As the modulation is done with a closed-loop PLL, there is no limitation on the length of a
transmission (open-loop modulation used in some transceivers often prevents this continuous data
streaming and reduces the effective data rate).
3.27.6 Crystal Drift Compensation
The CC11x1-Q1 has a very fine frequency resolution (see Section 2.11). This feature can be used to
compensate for frequency offset and drift.
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The frequency offset between an external transmitter and the receiver is measured in the CC11x1-Q1 and
can be read back from the FREQEST status register as described in Section 3.10.1. The measured
frequency offset can be used to calibrate the frequency using the external transmitter as the reference.
That is, the received signal of the device matches the receiver's channel filter better. In the same way, the
center frequency of the transmitted signal matches the external transmitter's signal.
3.27.7 Spectrum Efficient Modulation
CC11x1-Q1 also allows the use of Gaussian shaped 2-FSK (GFSK). This spectrum-shaping feature
improves adjacent channel power (ACP) and occupied bandwidth. In true 2-FSK systems with abrupt
frequency shifting, the spectrum is inherently broad. By making the frequency shift softer, the spectrum
can be made significantly narrower. Thus, higher data rates can be transmitted in the same bandwidth
using GFSK.
3.27.8 Low Cost Systems
As the CC11x1-Q1 provides 250-kBaud multi-channel performance without any external filters, a very
low-cost system can be made.
A differential antenna eliminates the need for a balun, and the dc biasing can be achieved in the antenna
topology, see Figure 3-2 and Figure 3-3.
A HC-49 type SMD crystal is used in the reference designs. Note that the crystal package strongly
influences the price. In a size-constrained PCB design a smaller but more expensive crystal can be used.
3.27.9 Battery Operated Systems
In low-power applications, the SLEEP state with the crystal oscillator core switched off should be used
when the CC11x1-Q1 is not active. The crystal oscillator core can be left running in the SLEEP state if
start-up time is critical.
The WOR functionality should be used in low power applications.
3.27.10 Increasing Output Power
In some applications, it may be necessary to extend the link range. Adding an external power amplifier is
the most effective way to do this.
The power amplifier should be inserted between the antenna and the balun, and two T/R switches are
needed to disconnect the PA in RX mode (see Figure 3-24).
Antenna
Filter
PA
Balun
T/R Switch
TMS37171
T/R Switch
Figure 3-24. Block Diagram of CC11x1-Q1 With External Power Amplifier
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4 Configuration Registers
4.1
Overview
The configuration of CC11x1-Q1 is done by programming 8-bit registers. The optimum configuration data
based on selected system parameters are most easily found by using the SmartRF Studio software.
Complete descriptions of the registers are given in the following tables. After chip reset, all the registers
have default values as shown in the tables. The optimum register setting might differ from the default
value. After a reset, all registers that should be different from the default value, therefore, need to be
programmed through the SPI interface.
There are 13 command strobe registers, listed in Table 4-1. Accessing these registers initiates the change
of an internal state or mode. There are 47 normal 8-bit configuration registers, listed in Table 4-2. Many of
these registers are for test purposes only and need not be written for normal operation of CC11x1-Q1.
There are also 12 status registers, listed in Table 4-3. These registers, which are read-only, contain
information about the status of CC11x1-Q1.
The two FIFOs are accessed through one 8-bit register. Write operations write to the TX FIFO, while read
operations read from the RX FIFO.
During the header byte transfer and while writing data to a register or the TX FIFO, a status byte is
returned on the SO line. This status byte is described in Table 3-3.
Table 4-7 summarizes the SPI address space. The address to use is given by adding the base address to
the left and the burst and read/write bits on the top. Note that the burst bit has different meaning for base
addresses above and below 0x2F.
Table 4-1. Command Strobes
ADDRESS
STROBE NAME
DESCRIPTION
0x30
SRES
Reset chip.
0x31
SFSTXON
Enable and calibrate frequency synthesizer (if MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL = 1). If in RX (with CCA), go
to a wait state where only the synthesizer is running (for quick RX/TX turnaround).
0x32
SXOFF
Turn off crystal oscillator.
0x33
SCAL
Calibrate frequency synthesizer and turn it off. SCAL can be strobed from IDLE mode without
setting manual calibration mode (MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL = 0).
0x34
SRX
Enable RX. Perform calibration first if coming from IDLE and MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL = 1.
0x35
STX
0x36
SIDLE
Exit RX/TX, turn off frequency synthesizer, and exit WOR mode, if applicable.
0x38
SWOR
Start automatic RX polling sequence (WOR) as described in Section 3.15.5 if WORCTRL.RC_PD
= 0.
In IDLE state, enable TX. Perform calibration first if MCSM0.FS_AUTOCAL = 1.
If in RX state and CCA is enabled, only go to TX if channel is clear.
0x39
SPWD
Enter power-down mode when CS goes high.
0x3A
SFRX
Flush the RX FIFO buffer. Only issue SFRX in IDLE or RXFIFO_OVERFLOW states.
0x3B
SFTX
Flush the TX FIFO buffer. Only issue SFTX in IDLE or TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW states.
0x3C
SWORRST
Reset real-time clock to Event1 value.
0x3D
SNOP
No operation. May be used to access the chip status byte.
Configuration Registers
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Table 4-2. Configuration Registers
ADDRESS
64
REGISTER
DESCRIPTION
PRESERVED IN SLEEP
STATE?
0x00
IOCFG2
GDO2 output pin configuration
Yes
0x01
IOCFG1
GDO1 output pin configuration
Yes
0x02
IOCFG0
GDO0 output pin configuration
Yes
0x03
FIFOTHR
RX FIFO and TX FIFO thresholds
Yes
0x04
SYNC1
Sync word, high byte
Yes
0x05
SYNC0
Sync word, low byte
Yes
0x06
PKTLEN
Packet length
Yes
0x07
PKTCTRL1
Packet automation control
Yes
0x08
PKTCTRL0
Packet automation control
Yes
0x09
ADDR
Device address
Yes
0x0A
CHANNR
Channel number
Yes
0x0B
FSCTRL1
Frequency synthesizer control
Yes
0x0C
FSCTRL0
Frequency synthesizer control
Yes
0x0D
FREQ2
Frequency control word, high byte
Yes
0x0E
FREQ1
Frequency control word, middle byte
Yes
0x0F
FREQ0
Frequency control word, low byte
Yes
0x10
MDMCFG4
Modem configuration
Yes
0x11
MDMCFG3
Modem configuration
Yes
0x12
MDMCFG2
Modem configuration
Yes
0x13
MDMCFG1
Modem configuration
Yes
0x14
MDMCFG0
Modem configuration
Yes
0x15
DEVIATN
Modem deviation setting
Yes
0x16
MCSM2
Main radio control state machine configuration
Yes
0x17
MCSM1
Main radio control state machine configuration
Yes
0x18
MCSM0
Main radio control state machine configuration
Yes
0x19
FOCCFG
Frequency offset compensation configuration
Yes
0x1A
BSCFG
Bit synchronization configuration
Yes
0x1B
AGCTRL2
AGC control
Yes
0x1C
AGCTRL1
AGC control
Yes
0x1D
AGCTRL0
AGC control
Yes
0x1E
WOREVT1
High byte Event 0 timeout
Yes
0x1F
WOREVT0
Low byte Event 0 timeout
Yes
0x20
WORCTRL
Wake-on-radio control
Yes
0x21
FREND1
Front-end RX configuration
Yes
0x22
FREND0
Front-end TX configuration
Yes
0x23
FSCAL3
Frequency synthesizer calibration
Yes
0x24
FSCAL2
Frequency synthesizer calibration
Yes
0x25
FSCAL1
Frequency synthesizer calibration
Yes
0x26
FSCAL0
Frequency synthesizer calibration
Yes
0x27
RCCTRL1
RC oscillator configuration
Yes
0x28
RCCTRL0
RC oscillator configuration
Yes
0x29
FSTEST
Frequency synthesizer calibration control
No
0x2A
PTEST
Production test
No
0x2B
AGCTEST
AGC test
No
0x2C
TEST2
Various test settings
No
0x2D
TEST1
Various test settings
No
0x2E
TEST0
Various test settings
No
Configuration Registers
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Table 4-3. Status Registers
ADDRESS
REGISTER
DESCRIPTION
0x30 (0xF0)
PARTNUM
Part number
0x31 (0xF1)
VERSION
Current version number
0x32 (0xF2)
FREQEST
Frequency offset estimate
0x33 (0xF3)
LQI
Demodulator estimate for link quality
0x34 (0xF4)
RSSI
Received signal strength indication
0x35 (0xF5)
MARCSTATE
Control state machine state
0x36 (0xF6)
WORTIME1
High byte of WOR timer
0x37 (0xF7)
WORTIME0
Low byte of WOR timer
0x38 (0xF8)
PKTSTATUS
Current GDOx status and packet status
0x39 (0xF9)
VCO_VC_DAC
Current setting from PLL calibration module
0x3A (0xFA)
TXBYTES
Underflow and number of bytes in the TX FIFO
0x3B (0xFB)
RXBYTES
Overflow and number of bytes in the RX FIFO
0x3C (0xFC)
RCCTRL1_STATUS
Last RC oscillator calibration result
0x3D (0xFD)
RCCTRL0_STATUS
Last RC oscillator calibration result
Table 4-4. Status Byte Summary
BIT
FIELD NAME
DESCRIPTION
7
CHIP_RDYn
Stays high until power and crystal have stabilized. Should always be low when using the SPI
interface.
06:04
STATE[2:0]
Indicates the current main state machine mode
Value
State
Description
IDLE state
03:00
FIFO_BYTES_AVAILABLE[3:0]
0
IDLE
(Also reported for some transitional states instead of
SETTLING or CALIBRATE)
1
RX
Receive mode
10
TX
Transmit mode
11
FSTXON
Fast TX ready
100
CALIBRATE
Frequency synthesizer calibration is running
101
SETTLING
PLL is settling
110
RXFIFO_OVERFLOW
RX FIFO has overflowed. Read out any useful data,
then flush the FIFO with SFRX
111
TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW
TX FIFO has underflowed. Acknowledge with SFTX.
The number of bytes available in the RX FIFO or free bytes in the TX FIFO
Table 4-5. Received Packet Status Byte 1 (First Byte Appended After Data)
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
RSSI
DESCRIPTION
RSSI value
Table 4-6. Received Packet Status Byte 2 (Second Byte Appended After Data)
BIT
7
FIELD NAME
CRC_OK
DESCRIPTION
1: CRC for received data OK (or CRC disabled)
0: CRC error in received data
6:0
LQI
Indicating the link quality
Configuration Registers
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Table 4-7. SPI Address Space
WRITE
READ
BURST
SINGLE BYTE
BURST
+0x00
+0x40
+0x80
+0xC0
0x00
IOCFG2
0x01
IOCFG1
0x02
IOCFG0
0x03
FIFOTHR
0x04
SYNC1
0x05
SYNC0
0x06
PKTLEN
0x07
PKTCTRL1
0x08
PKTCTRL0
0x09
ADDR
0x0A
CHANNR
0x0B
FSCTRL1
0x0C
FSCTRL0
0x0D
FREQ2
0x0E
FREQ1
0x0F
FREQ0
0x10
MDMCFG4
0x11
MDMCFG3
0x12
MDMCFG2
0x13
MDMCFG1
0x14
MDMCFG0
0x15
DEVIATN
0x16
MCSM2
0x17
MCSM1
0x18
MCSM0
0x19
FOCCFG
0x1A
BSCFG
0x1B
AGCCTRL2
0x1C
AGCCTRL1
0x1D
AGCCTRL0
0x1E
WOREVT1
0x1F
WOREVT0
0x20
WORCTRL
0x21
FREND1
0x22
FREND0
0x23
FSCAL3
0x24
FSCAL2
0x25
FSCAL1
0x26
FSCAL0
0x27
RCCTRL1
0x28
RCCTRL0
0x29
FSTEST
0x2A
PTEST
0x2B
AGCTEST
0x2C
TEST2
0x2D
TEST1
0x2E
TEST0
R/W configuration registers, burst access possible
SINGLE BYTE
0x2F
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Table 4-7. SPI Address Space (continued)
READ
SINGLE BYTE
BURST
SINGLE BYTE
+0x00
+0x40
+0x80
BURST
+0xC0
PARTNUM
0x30
SRES
SRES
0x31
SFSTXON
SFSTXON
VERSION
0x32
SXOFF
SXOFF
FREQEST
0x33
SCAL
SCAL
LQI
0x34
SRX
SRX
RSSI
0x35
STX
STX
MARCSTATE
0x36
SIDLE
SIDLE
WORTIME1
0x38
SWOR
SWOR
PKTSTATUS
VCO_VC_DAC
0x37
WORTIME0
0x39
SPWD
SPWD
0x3A
SFRX
SFRX
TXBYTES
0x3B
SFTX
SFTX
RXBYTES
0x3C
SWORRST
SWORRST
RCCTRL1_STATUS
0x3D
SNOP
SNOP
RCCTRL0_STATUS
0x3E
PATABLE
PATABLE
PATABLE
PATABLE
0x3F
TX FIFO
TX FIFO
RX FIFO
RX FIFO
Configuration Registers
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Command Strobes, Status registers (read only) and multi byte registers
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4.2
4.2.1
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Register Details
Configuration Register Details – Registers With Preserved Values In Sleep State
0x00: IOCFG2 – GDO2 Output Pin Configuration
BIT
7
6
5:0
FIELD NAME
Reserved
GDO2_INV
GDO2_CFG[5:0]
RESET
BIT
7
6
5:0
FIELD NAME
GDO_DS
GDO1_INV
GDO1_CFG[5:0]
BIT
7
FIELD NAME
TEMP_SENSOR_ENABLE
0
R/W
R/W
6
5:0
GDO0_INV
GDO0_CFG[5:0]
0
63 (0x3F)
R/W
R/W
0
41 (0x29)
R/W
R0
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Invert output; i.e., select active low (1) or active high (0)
Default is CHP_RDYn (see Table 3-17).
0x01: IOCFG1 – GDO1 Output Pin Configuration
RESET
0
0
46 (0x2E)
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Set high (1) or low (0) output drive strength on the GDO pins.
Invert output; i.e., select active low (1) or active high (0)
Default is 3-state (see Table 3-17).
0x02: IOCFG0 – GDO0 Output Pin Configuration
68
RESET
DESCRIPTION
Enable analog temperature sensor. Write 0 in all other register bits
when using temperature sensor.
Invert output; i.e., select active low (1) or active high (0)
Default is CLK_XOSC/192 (see Table 3-17).
It is recommended to disable the clock output in initialization to optimize
RF performance.
Configuration Registers
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0x03: FIFOTHR – RX FIFO and TX FIFO Thresholds
BIT
7
6
FIELD NAME
Reserved
ADC_RETENTION
RESET
0
0
R/W
R/W
R/W
5:4
CLOSE_IN_RX [1:0]
0 (00)
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Write 0 for compatibility with possible future extensions
0: TEST1 = 0x31 and TEST2 = 0x88 when waking up from SLEEP
1: TEST1 = 0x35 and TEST2 = 0x81 when waking up from SLEEP
Note that the changes in the TEST registers due to the ADC_RETENTION bit
setting are only seen INTERNALLY in the analog part. The values read from
the TEST registers when waking up from SLEEP mode are always the reset
value. The ADC_RETENTION bit should be set to 1 before going into SLEEP
mode if settings with an RX filter bandwidth below 325 kHz are wanted at time
of wake-up.
For more details, see Close-in Reception With CC1101 (SWRA147).
RX Attenuation,
Typical Values
0 dB
6 dB
12 dB
18 dB
Setting
0
1
2
3
3:0
FIFO_THR[3:0]
7 (0111)
R/W
(00)
(01)
(10)
(11)
Set the threshold for the TX FIFO and RX FIFO. The threshold is exceeded
when the number of bytes in the FIFO is equal to or higher than the threshold
value.
Setting
0 (0000)
1 (0001)
2 (0010)
3 (0011)
4 (0100)
5 (0101)
6 (0110)
7 (0111)
8 (1000)
9 (1001)
10 (1010)
11 (1011)
12 (1100)
13 (1101)
14 (1110)
15 (1111)
Bytes in
TX FIFO
61
57
53
49
45
41
37
33
29
25
21
17
13
9
5
1
Bytes in
RX FIFO
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
48
52
56
60
64
0x04: SYNC1 – Sync Word, High Byte
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
SYNC[15:8]
RESET
211 (0xD3)
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
SYNC[7:0]
RESET
145 (0x91)
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
PACKET_LENGTH
RESET
255 (0xFF)
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
8 MSB of 16-bit sync word
0x05: SYNC0 – Sync Word, Low Byte
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
8 LSB of 16-bit sync word
0x06: PKTLEN – Packet Length
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Indicates the packet length when fixed packet length mode is enabled. If
variable packet length mode is used, this value indicates the maximum
packet length allowed.
Configuration Registers
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0x07: PKTCTRL1 – Packet Automation Control
BIT
7:5
FIELD NAME
PQT[2:0]
RESET
0 (0x00)
R/W
R/W
4
3
Reserved
CRC_AUTOFLUSH
0
0
R0
R/W
2
APPEND_STATUS
1
R/W
ADR_CHK[1:0]
0 (00)
R/W
1:0
DESCRIPTION
Preamble quality estimator threshold. The preamble quality estimator
increases an internal counter by one each time a bit is received that is
different from the previous bit, and decreases the counter by 8 each time
a bit is received that is the same as the last bit.
A threshold of 4 × PQT for this counter is used to gate sync-word
detection. When PQT = 0 a sync word is always accepted.
Enable automatic flush of RX FIFO when CRC in not OK. This requires
that only one packet is in the RX FIFO and that packet length is limited
to the RX FIFO size.
When enabled, two status bytes are appended to the payload of the
packet. The status bytes contain RSSI and LQI values, as well as CRC
OK.
Controls address check configuration of received packages.
Setting
Address Check Configuration
0 (00)
No address check
1 (01)
2 (10)
3 (11)
Address check, no broadcast
Address check and 0 (0x00) broadcast
Address check and 0 (0x00) and 255 (0xFF) broadcast
0x08: PKTCTRL0 – Packet Automation Control
BIT
7
6
FIELD NAME
Reserved
WHITE_DATA
1
R/W
R0
R/W
5:4
PKT_FORMAT[1:0]
0 (00)
R/W
Reserved
CRC_EN
0
1
R0
R/W
1:0
LENGTH_CONFIG[1:0]
1 (01)
R/W
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
DEVICE_ADDR[7:0]
RESET
0 (0x00)
3
2
RESET
DESCRIPTION
Turn data whitening on/off
0: Whitening off
1: Whitening on
Format of RX and TX data
Setting
Packet Format
0 (00)
Normal mode, use FIFOs for RX and TX
Synchronous serial mode. Used for backwards
1 (01)
compatibility. Data in on GDO0
Random TX mode. Sends random data using PN9
2 (10)
generator. Used for test.
Works as normal mode, setting 0 (00), in RX.
Asynchronous serial mode. Data in on GDO0 and Data
3 (11)
out on either of the GDO0 pins
Enable CRC
1: CRC calculation in TX and CRC check in RX enabled
0: CRC disabled for TX and RX
Configure the packet length
Setting
Packet Length Configuration
Fixed packet length mode. Length configured in
0 (00)
PKTLEN register
Variable packet length mode. Packet length configured
1 (01)
by the first byte after sync word
2 (10)
Infinite packet length mode
3 (11)
Reserved
0x09: ADDR – Device Address
70
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Address used for packet filtration. Optional broadcast addresses are 0
(0x00) and 255 (0xFF).
Configuration Registers
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0x0A: CHANNR – Channel Number
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
CHAN[7:0]
BIT
7:5
4:0
FIELD NAME
Reserved
FREQ_IF[4:0]
RESET
0 (0x00)
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
The 8-bit unsigned channel number, which is multiplied by the channel
spacing setting and added to the base frequency.
0x0B: FSCTRL1 – Frequency Synthesizer Control
RESET
15 (0x0F)
R/W
R0
R/W
DESCRIPTION
The desired IF frequency to employ in RX. Subtracted from FS base
frequency in RX and controls the digital complex mixer in the
demodulator.
fIF = (fXOSC/210) × FREQ_IF
The default value gives an IF frequency of 381 kHz, assuming a 26-MHz
crystal.
0x0C: FSCTRL0 – Frequency Synthesizer Control
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
FREQOFF[7:0]
RESET
0 (0x00)
R/W
R/W
BIT
7:6
FIELD NAME
FREQ[23:22]
RESET
0 (00)
R
5:0
FREQ[21:16]
30 (0x1E)
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Frequency offset added to the base frequency before being used by the
frequency synthesizer (twos complement).
Resolution is fXTAL/214 (1.59 kHz to 1.65 kHz). Range is ±202 kHz to
±210 kHz, dependent on crystal frequency.
0x0D: FREQ2 – Frequency Control Word, High Byte
R/W
DESCRIPTION
FREQ[23:22] is always 0 (the FREQ2 register is less than 36 with
26-MHz to 27-MHz crystal)
FREQ[23:22] is the base frequency for the frequency synthesizer in
increments of fXOSC/216.
fcarrier = (fXOSC/216) × FREQ[23:0]
0x0E: FREQ1 – Frequency Control Word, Middle Byte
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
FREQ[15:8]
RESET
196 (0xC4)
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
FREQ[7:0]
RESET
236 (0xEC)
BIT
7:6
5:4
FIELD NAME
CHANBW_E[1:0]
CHANBW_M[1:0]
RESET
2 (0x02)
0 (0x00)
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
See description in FREQ2 register
0x0F: FREQ0 – Frequency Control Word, Low Byte
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
See description in FREQ2 register
0x10: MDMCFG4 – Modem Configuration
3:0
DRATE_E[3:0]
12 (0x0C)
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Sets the decimation ratio for the delta-sigma ADC input stream and thus
the channel bandwidth.
The default values give 203 kHz channel filter bandwidth, assuming a
26-MHz crystal.
The exponent of the user specified symbol rate
Configuration Registers
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0x11: MDMCFG3 – Modem Configuration
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
DRATE_M[7:0]
RESET
34 (0x22)
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
The mantissa of the user specified symbol rate. The symbol rate is
configured using an unsigned, floating-point number with 9-bit mantissa
and 4-bit exponent. The 9th bit is a hidden 1. The resulting data rate is:
The default values give a data rate of 115.051 kBaud (closest setting to
115.2 kBaud), assuming a 26-MHz crystal.
0x12: MDMCFG2 – Modem Configuration
BIT
7
FIELD NAME
DEM_DCFILT_OFF
0
R/W
R/W
6:4
MOD_FORMAT[2:0]
0 (000)
R/W
3
2:0
72
RESET
MANCHESTER_EN
0
R/W
SYNC_MODE[2:0]
2 (010)
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Disable digital dc blocking filter before demodulator.
0 = Enable (better sensitivity)
1 = Disable (current optimized). Only for data rates ≤ 250 kBaud.
The recommended IF frequency changes when the dc blocking is
disabled. Use SmartRF Studio to calculate correct register setting.
The modulation format of the radio signal
Setting
Modulation Format
0 (000)
2-FSK
1 (001)
GFSK
2 (010)
Reserved
3 (011)
ASK/OOK
4 (100)
Reserved
5 (101)
Reserved
6 (110)
Reserved
7 (111)
MSK
ASK is supported only for output powers up to –1 dBm
MSK is supported only for data rates above 26 kBaud
Enables Manchester encoding/decoding.
0 = Disable
1 = Enable
Combined sync-word qualifier mode.
The values 0 (000) and 4 (100) disables preamble and sync word
transmission in TX and preamble and sync word detection in RX.
The values 1 (001), 2 (010), 5 (101) and 6 (110) enables 16-bit sync
word transmission in TX and 16-bits sync word detection in RX. Only 15
of 16 bits need to match in RX when using setting 1 (001) or 5 (101).
The values 3 (011) and 7 (111) enables repeated sync word
transmission in TX and 32-bits sync word detection in RX (only 30 of 32
bits need to match).
Setting
Sync-Word Qualifier Mode
0 (000)
No preamble/sync
1 (001)
15/16 sync word bits detected
2 (010)
16/16 sync word bits detected
3 (011)
30/32 sync word bits detected
4 (100)
No preamble/sync, carrier-sense above threshold
5 (101)
15/16 + carrier-sense above threshold
6 (110)
16/16 + carrier-sense above threshold
7 (111)
30/32 + carrier-sense above threshold
Configuration Registers
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0x13: MDMCFG1– Modem Configuration
BIT
7
FIELD NAME
FEC_EN
RESET
0
R/W
R/W
6:4
NUM_PREAMBLE[2:0]
2 (010)
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Enable Forward Error Correction (FEC) with interleaving for packet
payload
0 = Disable
1 = Enable (Only supported for fixed packet length mode, i.e.
PKTCTRL0.LENGTH_CONFIG = 0)
Sets the minimum number of preamble bytes to be transmitted
Setting
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
(000)
(001)
(010)
(011)
(100)
(101)
(110)
Number of Preamble
Bytes
2
3
4
6
8
12
16
7 (111)
3:2
1:0
Reserved
CHANSPC_E[1:0]
R0
R/W
2 (10)
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
CHANSPC_M[7:0]
RESET
248 (0xF8)
24
Two bit exponent of channel spacing
0x14: MDMCFG0 – Modem Configuration
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
8-bit mantissa of channel spacing. The channel spacing is multiplied by
the channel number CHAN and added to the base frequency. It is
unsigned and has the format:
The default values give 199.951 kHz channel spacing (the closest
setting to 200 kHz), assuming 26-MHz crystal frequency.
0x15: DEVIATN – Modem Deviation Setting
BIT
7
6:4
3
2:0
FIELD NAME
Reserved
DEVIATION_E[2:0]
Reserved
DEVIATION_M[2:0]
RESET
4 (100b)
7 (111b)
R/W
R0
R/W
R0
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Reserved
Deviation exponent
Reserved
Transmit
Specifies the nominal frequency deviation from the carrier for a 0
(–DEVIATN) and 1 (+DEVIATN) in a mantissa-exponent format,
2-FSK/ interpreted as a 4-bit value with MSB implicit 1. The resulting
frequency deviation is given by:
GFSK
MSK
The default values give ±47.607-kHz deviation assuming
26.0-MHz crystal frequency.
Specifies the fraction of symbol period (1/8-8/8) during which a
phase change occurs (0: +90°, 1: –90°). See the SmartRF
Studio software [8] for correct DEVIATN setting when using
MSK.
ASK/
This setting has no effect.
OOK
Receive
Specifies the expected frequency deviation of incoming signal,
2-FSK/
and must be approximately correct for demodulation to be
GFSK
performed reliably and robustly.
MSK/
ASK/
This setting has no effect.
OOK
Configuration Registers
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0x16: MCSM2 – Main Radio Control State Machine Configuration
BIT
7:5
4
3
2:0
FIELD NAME
Reserved
RX_TIME_RSSI
RESET
0
R/W
R0
R/W
RX_TIME_QUAL
0
R/W
RX_TIME[2:0]
7 (111)
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Reserved
Direct RX termination based on RSSI measurement (carrier sense). For
ASK/OOK modulation, RX times out if there is no carrier sense in the first 8
symbol periods.
When the RX_TIME timer expires, the chip checks if sync word is found when
RX_TIME_QUAL = 0, or either sync word is found or PQI is set when
RX_TIME_QUAL = 1.
Timeout for sync word search in RX for both WOR mode and normal RX
operation. The timeout is relative to the programmed EVENT0 timeout.
The RX timeout in µs is given by EVENT0 × C(RX_TIME, WOR_RES) × 26/X,
where C is given by the following table, and X is the crystal oscillator frequency in
MHz.
WOR_RES
Setting
0
1
2
3
0 (000)
3.6058
18.0288
32.4519
46.875
1 (001)
1.8029
9.0144
16.226
23.4375
2 (010)
0.9014
4.5072
8.113
11.7188
3 (011)
0.4507
2.2536
4.0565
5.8594
4 (100)
0.2254
1.1268
2.0282
2.9297
5 (101)
0.1127
0.5634
1.0141
1.4648
6 (110)
0.0563
0.2817
0.5071
0.7324
7 (111)
Until end of packet
As an example, EVENT0 = 34666, WOR_RES = 0 and RX_TIME = 6
corresponds to 1.96-ms RX timeout, 1-s polling interval and 0.195% duty cycle.
Note that WOR_RES should be 0 or 1 when using WOR, because using
WOR_RES > 1 gives a very low duty cycle. In applications where WOR is not
used all settings of WOR_RES can be used.
The duty cycle using WOR is approximated by:
WOR_RES
Setting
0
1
0 (000)
12.50%
1.95%
1 (001)
6.25%
9765 ppm
2 (010)
3.13%
4883 ppm
3 (011)
1.56%
2441 ppm
4 (100)
0.78%
NA
5 (101)
0.39%
NA
6 (110)
0.20%
NA
7 (111)
NA
Note that the RC oscillator must be enabled to use setting 0-6, because the
timeout counts RC oscillator periods. WOR mode does not need to be enabled.
The timeout counter resolution is limited: With RX_TIME = 0, the timeout count is
given by the 13 MSBs of EVENT0, decreasing to the 7 MSBs of EVENT0 with
RX_TIME = 6.
74
Configuration Registers
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0x17: MCSM1 – Main Radio Control State Machine Configuration
BIT
7:6
5:4
FIELD NAME
Reserved
CCA_MODE[1:0]
RESET
3 (11)
R/W
R0
R/W
3:2
RXOFF_MODE[1:0]
0 (00)
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Selects CCA_MODE. Reflected in CCA signal.
Setting
Clear Channel Indication
0 (00)
Always
1 (01)
If RSSI below threshold
2 (10)
Unless currently receiving a packet
If RSSI below threshold unless currently receiving a
3 (11)
packet
Select what should happen when a packet has been received
Setting
0
1
2
3
1:0
TXOFF_MODE[1:0]
0 (00)
R/W
(00)
(01)
(10)
(11)
Next State After Finishing Packet
Reception
IDLE
FSTXON
TX
Stay in RX
It is not possible to set RXOFF_MODE to be TX or FSTXON and at the
same time use CCA.
Select what should happen when a packet has been sent (TX)
Setting
0
1
2
3
(00)
(01)
(10)
(11)
Next State After Finishing Packet
Transmission
IDLE
FSTXON
Stay in TX (start sending preamble)
RX
0x18: MCSM0 – Main Radio Control State Machine Configuration
BIT
7:6
5:4
FIELD NAME
Reserved
FS_AUTOCAL[1:0]
0 (00)
R/W
R0
R/W
3:2
PO_TIMEOUT
1 (01)
R/W
PIN_CTRL_EN
XOSC_FORCE_ON
0
0
R/W
R/W
1
0
RESET
DESCRIPTION
Automatically calibrate when going to RX or TX, or back to IDLE
Setting
When To Perform Automatic Calibration
0 (00)
Never (manually calibrate using SCAL strobe)
1 (01)
When going from IDLE to RX or TX (or FSTXON)
2 (10)
When going from RX or TX back to IDLE automatically
Every 4th time when going from RX or TX to IDLE
3 (11)
automatically
In some automatic wake-on-radio (WOR) applications, using setting 3 (11)
can significantly reduce current consumption.
Programs the number of times the six-bit ripple counter must expire after
XOSC has stabilized before CHP_RDYn goes low.
If XOSC is on (stable) during power-down, PO_TIMEOUT should be set so
that the regulated digital supply voltage has time to stabilize before
CHP_RDYn goes low (PO_TIMEOUT = 2 recommended). Typical start-up
time for the voltage regulator is 50 us.
If XOSC is off during power-down and the regulated digital supply voltage
has sufficient time to stabilize while waiting for the crystal to be stable,
PO_TIMEOUT can be set to 0. For robust operation it is recommended to
use PO_TIMEOUT = 2.
Setting
Expire Count
Timeout After XOSC Start
0 (00)
1
Approximately 2.3 µs to 2.4 µs
1 (01)
16
Approximately 37 µs to 39 µs
2 (10)
64
Approximately 149 µs to 155 µs
3 (11)
256
Approximately 597 µs to 620 µs
Exact timeout depends on crystal frequency.
Enables the pin radio control option
Force the XOSC to stay on in the SLEEP state.
Configuration Registers
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0x19: FOCCFG – Frequency Offset Compensation Configuration
BIT
7:6
5
FIELD NAME
Reserved
FOC_BS_CS_GATE
RESET
1
R/W
R0
R/W
4:3
FOC_PRE_K[1:0]
2 (10)
R/W
DESCRIPTION
If set, the demodulator freezes the frequency offset compensation and
clock recovery feedback loops until the CS signal goes high.
The frequency compensation loop gain to be used before a sync word is
detected.
Frequency Compensation
Loop Gain Before Sync Word
0 (00)
K
1 (01)
2K
2 (10)
3K
3 (11)
4K
The frequency compensation loop gain to be used after a sync word is
detected.
Setting
2
FOC_POST_K
1
R/W
Setting
1:0
FOC_LIMIT[1:0]
2 (10)
R/W
Frequency Compensation
Loop Gain After Sync Word
0
Same as FOC_PRE_K
1
K/2
The saturation point for the frequency offset compensation algorithm:
Saturation Point (Maximum
Compensated Offset)
±0 (no frequency offset
0 (00)
compensation)
1 (01)
±BWCHAN/8
2 (10)
±BWCHAN/4
3 (11)
±BWCHAN/2
Frequency offset compensation is not supported for ASK/OOK. Always use
FOC_LIMIT = 0 with these modulation formats.
Setting
76
Configuration Registers
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0x1A: BSCFG – Bit Synchronization Configuration
BIT
7:6
FIELD NAME
BS_PRE_KI[1:0]
RESET
1 (01)
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
The clock recovery feedback loop integral gain to be used before a sync
word is detected (used to correct offsets in data rate):
Clock Recovery Loop Integral
Gain Before Sync Word
0 (00)
KI
1 (01)
2KI
2 (10)
3KI
3 (11)
4KI
The clock recovery feedback loop proportional gain to be used before a
sync word is detected.
Setting
5:4
BS_PRE_KP[1:0]
2 (10)
R/W
Setting
0 (00)
1 (01)
2 (10)
3
BS_POST_KI
1
R/W
Clock Recovery Loop
Proportional Gain Before
Sync Word
KP
2KP
3KP
3 (11)
4KP
The clock recovery feedback loop integral gain to be used after a sync
word is detected.
Clock Recovery Loop Integral
Gain After Sync Word
0
Same as BS_PRE_KI
1
KI /2
The clock recovery feedback loop proportional gain to be used after a sync
word is detected.
Setting
2
BS_POST_KP
1
R/W
Clock Recovery Loop
Proportional Gain After Sync
Word
0
Same as BS_PRE_KP
1
KP
The saturation point for the data rate offset compensation algorithm:
Setting
1:0
BS_LIMIT[1:0]
0 (00)
R/W
Setting
0 (00)
1 (01)
2 (10)
3 (11)
Data Rate Offset Saturation
(Max Data Rate Difference)
±0 (No data rate offset
compensation performed)
±3.125% data rate offset
±6.25% data rate offset
±12.5% data rate offset
Configuration Registers
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0x1B: AGCCTRL2 – AGC Control
BIT
7:6
FIELD NAME
MAX_DVGA_GAIN[1:0]
RESET
0 (00)
R/W
R/W
5:3
MAX_LNA_GAIN[2:0]
0 (000)
R/W
2:0
78
MAGN_TARGET[2:0]
3 (011)
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Reduces the maximum allowable DVGA gain.
Setting
Allowable DVGA Settings
0 (00)
All gain settings can be used
1 (01)
The highest gain setting can not be used
2 (10)
The 2 highest gain settings can not be used
3 (11)
The 3 highest gain settings can not be used
Sets the maximum allowable LNA + LNA 2 gain relative to the maximum
possible gain.
Setting
Maximum Allowable LNA + LNA 2 Gain
0 (000)
Maximum possible LNA + LNA 2 gain
1 (001)
Approximately 2.6 dB below maximum possible gain
2 (010)
Approximately 6.1 dB below maximum possible gain
3 (011)
Approximately 7.4 dB below maximum possible gain
4 (100)
Approximately 9.2 dB below maximum possible gain
5 (101)
Approximately 11.5 dB below maximum possible gain
6 (110)
Approximately 14.6 dB below maximum possible gain
7 (111)
Approximately 17.1 dB below maximum possible gain
These bits set the target value for the averaged amplitude from the digital
channel filter (1 LSB = 0 dB).
Setting
Target Amplitude From Channel Filter
0 (000)
24 dB
1 (001)
27 dB
2 (010)
30 dB
3 (011)
33 dB
4 (100)
36 dB
5 (101)
38 dB
6 (110)
40 dB
7 (111)
42 dB
Configuration Registers
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0x1C: AGCCTRL1 – AGC Control
BIT
7
6
FIELD NAME
RESET
Reserved
AGC_LNA_PRIORITY
1
R/W
R0
R/W
5:4
CARRIER_SENSE_REL_THR[1:0]
0 (00)
R/W
3:0
CARRIER_SENSE_ABS_THR[3:0]
0 (0000)
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Selects between two different strategies for LNA and LNA 2 gain
adjustment. When 1, the LNA gain is decreased first. When 0, the
LNA 2 gain is decreased to minimum before decreasing LNA gain.
Sets the relative change threshold for asserting carrier sense
Setting
Carrier Sense Relative Threshold
0 (00)
Relative carrier sense threshold disabled
1 (01)
6 dB increase in RSSI value
2 (10)
10 dB increase in RSSI value
3 (11)
14 dB increase in RSSI value
Sets the absolute RSSI threshold for asserting carrier sense. The
twos-complement signed threshold is programmed in steps of 1 dB
and is relative to the MAGN_TARGET setting.
Carrier Sense Absolute Threshold
Setting
(Equal to channel filter amplitude when AGC has not
decreased gain)
-8 (1000)
-7 (1001)
⋮
-1 (1111)
0 (0000)
1 (0001)
⋮
7 (0111)
Absolute carrier sense threshold disabled
7 dB below MAGN_TARGET setting
⋮
1 dB below MAGN_TARGET setting
At MAGN_TARGET setting
1 dB above MAGN_TARGET setting
⋮
7 dB above MAGN_TARGET setting
Configuration Registers
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0x1D: AGCCTRL0 – AGC Control
BIT
7:6
FIELD NAME
HYST_LEVEL[1:0]
RESET
2 (10)
R/W
R/W
5:4
WAIT_TIME[1:0]
1 (01)
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Sets the level of hysteresis on the magnitude deviation (internal AGC
signal that determine gain changes).
Setting
Description
0 (00)
No hysteresis, small symmetric dead zone, high gain
Low hysteresis, small asymmetric dead zone, medium
1 (01)
gain
Medium hysteresis, medium asymmetric dead zone,
2 (10)
medium gain
3 (11)
Large hysteresis, large asymmetric dead zone, low gain
Sets the number of channel filter samples from a gain adjustment has been
made until the AGC algorithm starts accumulating new samples.
Setting
0 (00)
1 (01)
2 (10)
3 (11)
3:2
AGC_FREEZE[1:0]
0 (00)
R/W
1:0
FILTER_LENGTH[1:0]
1 (01)
R/W
Channel Filter Samples
8
16
24
32
Controls when the AGC gain should be frozen.
Setting
Function
0 (00)
Normal operation. Always adjust gain when required.
The gain setting is frozen when a sync word has been
1 (01)
found.
Manually freeze the analog gain setting and continue to
2 (10)
adjust the digital gain.
Manually freezes both the analog and the digital gain
3 (11)
setting. Used for manually overriding the gain.
Sets the averaging length for the amplitude from the channel filter. Sets the
OOK/ASK decision boundary for OOK/ASK reception.
Setting
Channel Filter Samples
OOK Decision
0 (00)
8
4 dB
1 (01)
16
8 dB
2 (10)
32
12 dB
3 (11)
64
16 dB
0x1E: WOREVT1 – High Byte Event0 Timeout
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
EVENT0[15:8]
RESET
R/W
135 (0x87) R/W
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
EVENT0[7:0]
RESET
R/W
107 (0x6B) R/W
DESCRIPTION
High byte of EVENT0 timeout register
0x1F: WOREVT0 – Low Byte Event0 Timeout
DESCRIPTION
Low byte of EVENT0 timeout register.
The default EVENT0 value gives 1-s timeout, assuming a 26-MHz crystal.
80
Configuration Registers
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0x20: WORCTRL – Wake On Radio Control
BIT
7
FIELD NAME
RC_PD
1
R/W
R/W
6:4
EVENT1[2:0]
7 (111)
R/W
3
2
1:0
RESET
RC_CAL
1
R/W
Reserved
WOR_RES
0 (00)
R0
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Power down signal to RC oscillator. When written to 0, automatic initial
calibration is performed
Timeout setting from register block. Decoded to Event 1 timeout. RC
oscillator clock frequency equals fXOSC/750, which is 34.7 to 36 kHz,
depending on crystal frequency. The following table lists the number of
clock periods after Event 0 before Event 1 times out.
Setting
tEvent1
0 (000)
4 (0.111 to 0.115 ms)
1 (001)
6 (0.167 to 0.173 ms)
2 (010)
8 (0.222 to 0.230 ms)
3 (011)
12 (0.333 to 0.346 ms)
4 (100)
16 (0.444 to 0.462 ms)
5 (101)
24 (0.667 to 0.692 ms)
6 (110)
32 (0.889 to 0.923 ms)
7 (111)
48 (1.333 to 1.385 ms)
Enables (1) or disables (0) the RC oscillator calibration.
Controls the Event 0 resolution as well as maximum timeout of the WOR
module and maximum timeout under normal RX operation::
Setting
Resolution (1 LSB)
Maximum Timeout
0 (00)
1 period (28 to 29 µs)
1.8 to 1.9 seconds
1 (01)
25 periods (0.89 to 0.92 ms)
58 to 61 seconds
2 (10)
210 periods (28 to 30 ms)
31 to 32 minutes
3 (11)
215 periods (0.91 to 0.94 s)
16.5 to 17.2 hours
NOTE
WOR_RES should be 0 or 1 when using
WOR, because WOR_RES > 1 results in
a very low duty cycle.
In normal RX operation all settings of WOR_RES can be used.
0x21: FREND1 – Front End RX Configuration
BIT
7:6
5:4
3:2
1:0
FIELD NAME
LNA_CURRENT[1:0]
LNA2MIX_CURRENT[1:0]
LODIV_BUF_CURRENT_RX[1:0]
MIX_CURRENT[1:0]
1
1
1
2
RESET
(01)
(01)
(01)
(10)
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Adjusts front-end LNA PTAT current output
Adjusts front-end PTAT outputs
Adjusts current in RX LO buffer (LO input to mixer)
Adjusts current in mixer
0x22: FREND0 – Front End TX Configuration
BIT
7:6
5:4
FIELD NAME
Reserved
LODIV_BUF_CURRENT_TX[1:0]
RESET
1 (0x01)
R/W
R0
R/W
3
2:0
Reserved
PA_POWER[2:0]
0 (0x00)
R0
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Adjusts current TX LO buffer (input to PA). The value to use in this
field is given by the SmartRF Studio software.
Selects PA power setting. This value is an index to the PATABLE,
which can be programmed with up to 8 different PA settings. In
OOK/ASK mode, this selects the PATABLE index to use when
transmitting a 1. PATABLE index zero is used in OOK/ASK when
transmitting a 0. The PATABLE settings from index 0 to the
PA_POWER value are used for ASK TX shaping, and for power
ramp-up/ramp-down at the start/end of transmission in all TX
modulation formats.
Configuration Registers
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0x23: FSCAL3 – Frequency Synthesizer Calibration
BIT
7:6
FIELD NAME
FSCAL3[7:6]
RESET
2 (0x02)
R/W
R/W
5:4
3:0
CHP_CURR_CAL_EN[1:0]
FSCAL3[3:0]
2 (0x02)
9 (1001)
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Frequency synthesizer calibration configuration. The value to write in this
field before calibration is given by the SmartRF Studio software.
Enable charge pump calibration stage when 1
Frequency synthesizer calibration result register. Digital bit vector defining
the charge pump output current, on an exponential scale:
IOUT = I0 × 2FSCAL3[3:0]/4
Fast frequency hopping without calibration for each hop can be done by
calibrating earlier for each frequency and saving the resulting FSCAL3,
FSCAL2, and FSCAL1 register values. Between each frequency hop,
calibration can be replaced by writing the FSCAL3, FSCAL2, and FSCAL1
register values corresponding to the next RF frequency.
0x24: FSCAL2 – Frequency Synthesizer Calibration
BIT
7:6
5
4:0
FIELD NAME
Reserved
VCO_CORE_H_EN
FSCAL2[4:0]
RESET
0
10 (0x0A)
R/W
R0
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Choose high (1) / low (0) VCO
Frequency synthesizer calibration result register. VCO current calibration
result and override value.
Fast frequency hopping without calibration for each hop can be done by
calibrating earlier for each frequency and saving the resulting FSCAL3,
FSCAL2, and FSCAL1 register values. Between each frequency hop,
calibration can be replaced by writing the FSCAL3, FSCAL2, and FSCAL1
register values corresponding to the next RF frequency.
0x25: FSCAL1 – Frequency Synthesizer Calibration
BIT
7:6
5:0
FIELD NAME
Reserved
FSCAL1[5:0]
RESET
32 (0x20)
R/W
R0
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Frequency synthesizer calibration result register. Capacitor array setting for
VCO coarse tuning.
Fast frequency hopping without calibration for each hop can be done by
calibrating earlier for each frequency and saving the resulting FSCAL3,
FSCAL2, and FSCAL1 register values. Between each frequency hop,
calibration can be replaced by writing the FSCAL3, FSCAL2, and FSCAL1
register values corresponding to the next RF frequency.
0x26: FSCAL0 – Frequency Synthesizer Calibration
BIT
7
6:0
FIELD NAME
Reserved
FSCAL0[6:0]
BIT
7
6:0
FIELD NAME
Reserved
FSCAL0[6:0]
BIT
7
6:0
FIELD NAME
Reserved
RCCTRL0[6:0]
RESET
13 (0x0D)
R/W
R0
R/W
DESCRIPTION
Frequency synthesizer calibration control. The value to use in this register is
given by the SmartRF Studio software.
0x27: RCCTRL1 – RC Oscillator Configuration
RESET
65 (0x41)
R/W
R0
R/W
DESCRIPTION
RC oscillator configuration
0x28: RCCTRL0 – RC Oscillator Configuration
82
RESET
0 (0x00)
R/W
R0
R/W
DESCRIPTION
RC oscillator configuration
Configuration Registers
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4.2.2
SWRS076B – 11-07-22-013 - APRIL 2009 – REVISED APRIL 2010
Configuration Register Details – Registers that Lose Programming in SLEEP State
0x29: FSTEST – Frequency Synthesizer Calibration Control
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
FSTEST[7:0]
RESET
89 (0x59)
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
For test only. Do not write to this register.
0x2A: PTEST – Production Test
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
PTEST[7:0]
RESET
R/W
127 (0x7F) R/W
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
AGCTEST[7:0]
RESET
63 (0x3F)
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
TEST2[7:0]
RESET
R/W
136 (0x88) R/W
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
TEST1[7:0]
RESET
49 (0x31)
DESCRIPTION
Writing 0xBF to this register makes the on-chip temperature sensor
available in the IDLE state. The default 0x7F value should then be written
back before leaving the IDLE state. Other use of this register is for test only.
0x2B: AGCTEST – AGC Test
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
For test only. Do not write to this register.
0x2C: TEST2 – Various Test Settings
DESCRIPTION
The value to use in this register is given by the SmartRF Studio software.
This register is forced to 0x88 or 0x81 when it wakes up from SLEEP mode,
depending on the configuration of FIFOTHR. ADC_RETENTION.
0x2D: TEST1 – Various Test Settings
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
The value to use in this register is given by the SmartRF Studio software.
This register is forced to 0x31 or 0x35 when it wakes up from SLEEP mode,
depending on the configuration of FIFOTHR. ADC_RETENTION.
0x2E: TEST0 – Various Test Settings
BIT
7:2
1
0
4.2.3
FIELD NAME
TEST0[7:2]
VCO_SEL_CAL_EN
TEST0[0]
RESET
2 (0x02)
1
1
R/W
R/W
R/W
R/W
DESCRIPTION
The value to use in this register is given by the SmartRF Studio software.
Enable VCO selection calibration stage when 1
The value to use in this register is given by the SmartRF Studio software.
Status Register Details
0x30 (0xF0): PARTNUM – Chip ID
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
PARTNUM[7:0]
RESET
0 (0x00)
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
VERSION[7:0]
RESET
4 (0x04)
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
FREQOFF_EST
R/W
R
DESCRIPTION
Chip part number
0x31 (0xF1): VERSION – Chip ID
R/W
R
DESCRIPTION
Chip version number
0x32 (0xF2): FREQEST – Frequency Offset Estimate From Demodulator
RESET
R/W
R
DESCRIPTION
The estimated frequency offset (twos complement) of the carrier. Resolution
is fXTAL/214 (1.59 to 1.65 kHz). Range is ±202 kHz to ±210 kHz, dependent
on XTAL frequency.
Frequency offset compensation is only supported for 2-FSK, GFSK, and
MSK modulation. This register reads 0 when using ASK or OOK
modulation.
Configuration Registers
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0x33 (0xF3): LQI – Demodulator Estimate for Link Quality
BIT
7
FIELD NAME
CRC OK
6:0
LQI_EST[6:0]
RESET
R/W
R
R
DESCRIPTION
The last CRC comparison matched. Cleared when entering/restarting RX
mode.
The Link Quality Indicator estimates how easily a received signal can be
demodulated. Calculated over the 64 symbols following the sync word.
0x34 (0xF4): RSSI – Received Signal Strength Indication
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
RSSI
RESET
BIT
7:5
4:0
FIELD NAME
Reserved
MARC_STATE[4:0]
RESET
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
TIME[15:8]
RESET
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
TIME[7:0]
RESET
R/W
R
DESCRIPTION
Received signal strength indicator
0x35 (0xF5): MARCSTATE – Main Radio Control State Machine State
R/W
R0
R
DESCRIPTION
Main radio control FSM state
Value
State Name
State (see Figure 3-15)
0 (0x00)
SLEEP
SLEEP
1 (0x01)
IDLE
IDLE
2 (0x02)
XOFF
XOFF
3 (0x03)
VCOON_MC
MANCAL
4 (0x04)
REGON_MC
MANCAL
5 (0x05)
MANCAL
MANCAL
6 (0x06)
VCOON
FS_WAKEUP
7 (0x07)
REGON
FS_WAKEUP
8 (0x08)
STARTCAL
CALIBRATE
9 (0x09)
BWBOOST
SETTLING
10 (0x0A)
FS_LOCK
SETTLING
11 (0x0B)
IFADCON
SETTLING
12 (0x0C)
ENDCAL
CALIBRATE
13 (0x0D)
RX
RX
14 (0x0E)
RX_END
RX
15 (0x0F)
RX_RST
RX
16 (0x10)
TXRX_SWITCH
TXRX_SETTLING
17 (0x11)
RXFIFO_OVERFLOW
RXFIFO_OVERFLOW
18 (0x12)
FSTXON
FSTXON
19 (0x13)
TX
TX
20 (0x14)
TX_END
TX
21 (0x15)
RXTX_SWITCH
RXTX_SETTLING
22 (0x16)
TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW
Note: It is not possible to read back the SLEEP or XOFF state numbers
because setting CS low makes the chip enter the IDLE mode from the
SLEEP or XOFF states.
0x36 (0xF6): WORTIME1 – High Byte of WOR Time
R/W
R
DESCRIPTION
High byte of timer value in WOR module
0x37 (0xF7): WORTIME0 – Low Byte of WOR Time
84
R/W
R
DESCRIPTION
Low byte of timer value in WOR module
Configuration Registers
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0x38 (0xF8): PKTSTATUS – Current GDOx Status and Packet Status
BIT
7
FIELD NAME
CRC_OK
RESET
R/W
R
6
5
4
3
CS
PQT_REACHED
CCA
SFD
R
R
R
R
2
GDO2
R
DESCRIPTION
The last CRC comparison matched. Cleared when entering/restarting RX
mode.
Carrier sense
Preamble Quality reached
Channel is clear
Sync word found. Asserted when sync word has been sent / received, and
de-asserted at the end of the packet. In RX, this bit de-asserts when the
optional address check fails or the radio enters RX_OVERFLOW state. In
TX this bit de-asserts if the radio enters TX_UNDERFLOW state.
Current GDO2 value. Note: the reading gives the non-inverted value
irrespective of what IOCFG2.GDO2_INV is programmed to.
It is not recommended to check for PLL lock by reading PKTSTATUS[2]
with GDO2_CFG = 0x0A.
1
0
Reserved
GDO0
R0
R
Current GDO0 value.
Note: Gives the noninverted value, regardless of the IOCFG0.GDO0_INV
setting.
It is not recommended to check for PLL lock by reading PKTSTATUS[0]
with GDO0_CFG = 0x0A.
0x39 (0xF9): VCO_VC_DAC – Current Setting from PLL Calibration Module
BIT
7:0
FIELD NAME
VCO_VC_DAC[7:0]
RESET
R/W
R
DESCRIPTION
Status register for test only
0x3A (0xFA): TXBYTES – Underflow and Number of Bytes
BIT
7
6:0
FIELD NAME
TXFIFO_UNDERFLOW
NUM_TXBYTES
BIT
7
6:0
FIELD NAME
RXFIFO_OVERFLOW
NUM_RXBYTES
BIT
7
6:0
FIELD NAME
Reserved
RCCTRL1_STATUS[6:0]
BIT
7
6:0
FIELD NAME
Reserved
RCCTRL0_STATUS[6:0]
RESET
R/W
R
R
DESCRIPTION
Number of bytes in TX FIFO
0x3B (0xFB): RXBYTES – Overflow and Number of Bytes
RESET
R/W
R
R
DESCRIPTION
Number of bytes in RX FIFO
0x3C (0xFC): RCCTRL1_STATUS – Last RC Oscillator Calibration Result
RESET
R/W
R0
R
DESCRIPTION
Contains the value from the last run of the RC oscillator calibration routine.
For usage description, see CC1100/CC2500 – Wake-On-Radio
(SWRA126).
0x3D (0xFD): RCCTRL0_STATUS – Last RC Oscillator Calibration Result
RESET
R/W
R0
R
DESCRIPTION
Contains the value from the last run of the RC oscillator calibration routine.
For usage description, see CC1100/CC2500 – Wake-On-Radio
(SWRA126).
Configuration Registers
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5 Package and Shipping Information
5.1
Package Thermal Properties
Table 5-1. Thermal Properties
of QFN-32 Package
THERMAL RESISTANCE
Air velocity (m/s)
0
RqJA (K/W)
5.2
40.4
Soldering Information
The recommendations for lead-free reflow in IPC/JEDEC J-STD-020C should be followed.
5.3
Carrier Tape and Reel Specifications
Carrier tape and reel is in accordance with EIA Specification 481.
Table 5-2. Carrier Tape and Reel Specification
5.4
PACKAGE
TAPE WIDTH
COMPONENT
PITCH
HOLE PITCH
REEL
DIAMETER
UNITS PER
REEL
QFN-32
12 mm
8 mm
4 mm
13 inches
3000
Ordering Information
Table 5-3. Ordering Information
TI PART NUMBER
MINIMUM ORDER
QUANTITY (MOQ)
DESCRIPTION
CC1101IRHBRG4Q1
CC1101-Q1 Transceiver, QFN-32 (RHB), RoHS Pb-free, –40°C to 85°C
3000 (tape and reel)
CC1101TRHBRG4Q1
CC1101-Q1 Transceiver, QFN-32 (RHB), RoHS Pb-free, –40°C to 105°C
3000 (tape and reel)
CC1101QRHBRG4Q1
CC1101-Q1 Transceiver, QFN-32 (RHB), RoHS Pb-free, –40°C to 125°C
3000 (tape and reel)
CC1131IRHBRG4Q1
CC1131-Q1 Receiver, QFN-32 (RHB), RoHS Pb-free, –40°C to 85°C
3000 (tape and reel)
CC1131TRHBRG4Q1
CC1131-Q1 Receiver, QFN-32 (RHB), RoHS Pb-free, –40°C to 105°C
3000 (tape and reel)
CC1131QRHBRG4Q1
CC1131-Q1 Receiver, QFN-32 (RHB), RoHS Pb-free, –40°C to 125°C
3000 (tape and reel)
CC1151IRHBRG4Q1
CC1151-Q1 Transmitter, QFN-32 (RHB), RoHS Pb-free, –40°C to 85°C
3000 (tape and reel)
CC1151TRHBRG4Q1
CC1151-Q1 Transmitter, QFN-32 (RHB), RoHS Pb-free, –40°C to 105°C
3000 (tape and reel)
CC1151QRHBRG4Q1
CC1151-Q1 Transmitter, QFN-32 (RHB), RoHS Pb-free, –40°C to 125°C
3000 (tape and reel)
86
Package and Shipping Information
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SWRS076B – 11-07-22-013 - APRIL 2009 – REVISED APRIL 2010
6 References
[1] DN009 Upgrade from CC1100 to CC1101 (SWRA145)
[2] CC1101EM 315–433 MHz Reference Design (SWRR046)
[3] CC1101EM 868–915 MHz Reference Design (SWRR045)
[4] CC1101 Errata Notes (SWRZ020)
[5] AN001 SRD Regulations for Licence Free Transceiver Operation (SWRA090)
[6] AN050 Using the CC1101 in the European 868 MHz SRD Band (SWRA146)
[7] AN047 CC1100/CC2500 – Wake-On-Radio (SWRA126)
[8] SmartRF® Studio (SWRC046)
[9] CC1100 CC2500 Examples Libraries (SWRC021)
[10] CC1100/CC1150DK, CC1101DK, and CC2500/CC2550DK Examples and Libraries User Manual
(SWRU109)
[11] DN010 Close-in Reception with CC1101 (SWRA147)
[12] DN017 CC11xx 868/915 MHz RF Matching (SWRA168)
[13] DN015 Permanent Frequency Offset Compensation (SWRA159)
[14] DN006 CC11xx Settings for FCC 15.247 Solutions (SWRA123)
[15] DN505 RSSI Interpretation and Timing (SWRA114)
[16] AN058 Antenna Selection Guide (SWRA161)
[17] AN067 Wireless MBUS Implementation with CC1101 and MSP430 (SWRA234)
[18] DN013 Programming Output Power on CC1101 (SWRA168)
[19] DN022 CC11xx OOK/ASK register settings (SWRA215)
[20] DN005 CC11xx Sensitivity versus Frequency Offset and Crystal Accuracy (SWRA122)
References
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Revision History
NOTE: Page numbers for previous revisions may differ from page numbers in the current version.
REVISION
SWRS076
COMMENTS
Initial Product Preview release
Changed first TYP value for "Current consumption in power-down modes" in Section 2.4 from 1.1 µA to 0.7 µA.
SWRS076A
Changed unit for rejection parameters in Section 2.5 from dBm to dB.
Updated current consumption values in Figure 3-4.
SWRS076B
88
Change all instances of "387 MHz to 464 MHz" to "420 MHz to 450 MHz".
References
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PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
9-Jun-2018
PACKAGING INFORMATION
Orderable Device
Status
(1)
Package Type Package Pins Package
Drawing
Qty
Eco Plan
Lead/Ball Finish
MSL Peak Temp
(2)
(6)
(3)
Op Temp (°C)
Device Marking
(4/5)
CC1101QRHBRG4Q1
ACTIVE
VQFN
RHB
32
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
CC1101
QQ1
CC1131IRHBRG4Q1
ACTIVE
VQFN
RHB
32
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 85
CC1131
IQ1
CC1131QRHBRG4Q1
ACTIVE
VQFN
RHB
32
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
CC1131
QQ1
CC1151IRHBRG4Q1
ACTIVE
VQFN
RHB
32
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 125
CC1151
IQ1
CC1151QRHBRG4Q1
ACTIVE
VQFN
RHB
32
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 105
CC1151
QQ1
CC1151TRHBRG4Q1
ACTIVE
VQFN
RHB
32
3000
Green (RoHS
& no Sb/Br)
CU NIPDAU
Level-2-260C-1 YEAR
-40 to 85
CC1151
TQ1
(1)
The marketing status values are defined as follows:
ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs.
LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued, and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.
NRND: Not recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers, but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.
PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. Samples may or may not be available.
OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device.
(2)
RoHS: TI defines "RoHS" to mean semiconductor products that are compliant with the current EU RoHS requirements for all 10 RoHS substances, including the requirement that RoHS substance
do not exceed 0.1% by weight in homogeneous materials. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures, "RoHS" products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. TI may
reference these types of products as "Pb-Free".
RoHS Exempt: TI defines "RoHS Exempt" to mean products that contain lead but are compliant with EU RoHS pursuant to a specific EU RoHS exemption.
Green: TI defines "Green" to mean the content of Chlorine (Cl) and Bromine (Br) based flame retardants meet JS709B low halogen requirements of <=1000ppm threshold. Antimony trioxide based
flame retardants must also meet the <=1000ppm threshold requirement.
(3)
MSL, Peak Temp. - The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications, and peak solder temperature.
(4)
There may be additional marking, which relates to the logo, the lot trace code information, or the environmental category on the device.
(5)
Multiple Device Markings will be inside parentheses. Only one Device Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. If a line is indented then it is a continuation
of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Device Marking for that device.
Addendum-Page 1
Samples
PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM
www.ti.com
9-Jun-2018
(6)
Lead/Ball Finish - Orderable Devices may have multiple material finish options. Finish options are separated by a vertical ruled line. Lead/Ball Finish values may wrap to two lines if the finish
value exceeds the maximum column width.
Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information
provided by third parties, and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and
continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.
TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary, and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release.
In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis.
OTHER QUALIFIED VERSIONS OF CC1101-Q1 :
• Catalog: CC1101
NOTE: Qualified Version Definitions:
• Catalog - TI's standard catalog product
Addendum-Page 2
GENERIC PACKAGE VIEW
RHB 32
VQFN - 1 mm max height
PLASTIC QUAD FLATPACK - NO LEAD
5 x 5, 0.5 mm pitch
Images above are just a representation of the package family, actual package may vary.
Refer to the product data sheet for package details.
4224745/A
www.ti.com
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