Texas Instruments | CC3135 Production Line | Application notes | Texas Instruments CC3135 Production Line Application notes

Texas Instruments CC3135 Production Line Application notes
Application Report
SWRA647 – January 2019
CC3135 Production Line Guide
ABSTRACT
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Contents
Production Line Overview ..................................................................................................
Programming the CC3135 QFN in the Production Line ................................................................
Creating the Gang Image ...................................................................................................
Programming Directly Through SPI .......................................................................................
Programming Over UART ..................................................................................................
Over-the-Air Programming..................................................................................................
Production Line RF Testing ................................................................................................
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List of Figures
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Production Line Overview .................................................................................................. 2
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Programming Through SPI ................................................................................................. 4
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CC31XXEMUBOOST Jumpers ............................................................................................ 6
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Pin Map ....................................................................................................................... 6
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Programming Through USB ................................................................................................ 7
List of Tables
Trademarks
Texas Instruments, SimpleLink, Internet-on-a chip are trademarks of Texas Instruments.
Wi-Fi is a registered trademark of Wi-Fi Alliance.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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Production Line Overview
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Production Line Overview
Texas Instruments™ provides a number of resources that assist manufacturers using the CC3135 device
to produce products quickly and efficiently. To ensure products are designed with efficient production in
mind, TI provides reference design collateral and application notes for schematic and PCB design.
Software and hardware tools have been developed for programming and testing the CC3135 device in the
production line. In addition, Over-The-Air programming functionality allows for products to have their
software updated periodically, even after they have been deployed.
Figure 1. Production Line Overview
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Programming the CC3135 QFN in the Production Line
Production with the CC3135 device requires a file system to be created on the attached serial flash device
for proper operation. At the minimum, this includes the service pack that contains the necessary software
updates and additional features. Configuration files may also be written, which provide an initial
configuration for the device upon startup. Security certificates and other content such as web pages,
images, scripts, and so forth, can also be included. Although most of this content is usually written during
production, all content including the host program and the service pack can be continuously updated over
the lifetime of the product.
All CC3135 devices must initially be programmed with a gang image. The gang image usually contains all
of the data content necessary for a functional product. The serial flash vendor may be able to pre-program
the serial flash parts with the gang image before they are sent to the manufacturer. There are two
methods of loading the gang image onto the CC3135 serial flash:
• Direct SPI programming – Write directly to the serial flash through SPI, using an external off-the-shelf
programming tool.
• UART programming – A PC-based utility or embedded device can be used for indirectly programming
the serial flash through UART.
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Creating the Gang Image
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Upon boot, the CC3135 device detects the presence of a gang image, and converts it to the target file
system of the device. This formatting process is performed exclusively by the SimpleLink™ device, and
does not require any inputs from external interfaces. It does, however, extend the duration of the first
power-up. The formatted file system is created alongside the gang image. Thus, the serial flash should be
sized to contain both the gang image and the file system. The gang image is retained to allow for factory
default restore functionality. See Using Serial Flash on CC3135 and CC3235x SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi® and
Internet-of-Things Devices for more details about serial flash usage in CC3135 devices.
Generally, a single gang image is used per product release. There are some device-specific parameters
that can be reconfigured through Uniflash CLI during the programming phase. Additional files can be
added to the serial flash using the MCU program afterwards. If the MCU program can perform over-the-air
programming, the serial flash contents can be updated by downloading content from the internet or from a
local connection. Loading more content through serial interface is also possible if the MCU program allows
for it.
Configure the gang image correctly for production, because some things cannot be updated through over
the air updating:
• The gang image should be configured for production mode.
• The Trusted Root-Certificate Catalog used should be the production version.
• Do not use the dummy certificates and keys provided in the certificate-playground of the SDK for
production.
• The formatted serial flash size cannot be changed.
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Creating the Gang Image
The software tool used for creating gang images for the CC3135 device is Uniflash (4.1 or greater). The
country code for the device should be set for allowing RF compliance with regional governmental
regulations (such as US, EU, or JP). This ensures maximum RF performance, while remaining compliant
with regional law. PHY calibration mode should also be set during gang programming. Other configuration
options, such as startup, WLAN role, and WLAN connection policy, can also be set during programming.
The image can be secured with a private key. This done when the code must be secured, and the serial
flash is programmed in a location different than where the assembly takes place. See CC3x20, CC3x35
SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi® Internet-on-a chip™ Solution Built-In Security Features for more details about this
feature.
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Programming Directly Through SPI
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Programming Directly Through SPI
The serial flash device is programmed directly, starting at memory offset 0, with one of the gang image
files created by Uniflash: either Programming.bin or Programming.hex, depending on the SPI programmer.
The serial flash device may be programmed after assembly on the board, provided some schematic and
layout considerations are taken:
• The serial flash SPI interface pins must be brought out for physical contact with the programmer (such
as headers or test pads).
• The SPI lines must not be driven by any other source while programming.
• The CC3135 device is held in reset during programming to prevent I/O contention.
Figure 2. Programming Through SPI
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Programming Over UART
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Programming Over UART
The gang image can be programmed to the serial flash through the CC3135 device through UART
communication. The device is communicated with by using a bootloader protocol over UART. When using
Uniflash, this can be accomplished using the CC31XXEMUBOOST.
5.1
Using the Uniflash CLI
Uniflash communicates with the CC3135 device using the bootloader protocol. The protocol includes a
command line interface, which can be used in batch files and scripts for the purposes of programming the
CC3135 device in the production line through UART. Refer to UniFlash CC3x20, CC3x35 SimpleLink™
Wi-Fi® and Internet-on-a chip™ Solution ImageCreator and Programming Tool for information on how to
use Uniflash ImageCreator.
5.2
Using Embedded Programming
In addition to using Uniflash, an embedded device can be used to program the CC3135 device through
UART. This can be advantageous if a larger number of programming setups are needed to operate
simultaneously, and using multiple PCs with Uniflash would be cost prohibitive. Refer to CC313x and
CC323x Simplelink™ Wi-Fi® Embedded Programming User's Guide for information on programming using
an embedded device for UART programming.
5.3
Configuration of the UART
Programming the serial flash device through the CC3135 UART interface requires the use of the following
CC3135 pins:
• 55 – UART1 TX
• 57 – UART1 RX
• 32 – nRESET or 2 – nHIB
The UART TX and RX pins are used for data transfer. RTS and CTS signals are not used. The nRESET
pin is used to reset the device. The UART data transfer occurs at 921600 bps.
The UART configuration is as follows:
• Baud rate: 921600
• Data bits: 8 bits
• Flow control: None
• Parity: None
• Stop bits: 1
• Polarity: Positive
The CMOS logic level specifications for the UART can be found in the Electrical Characteristics of the
CC3135 SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi® Dual-Band Network Processor, solution for MCU applications Data Sheet.
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Programming Over UART
5.4
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UART Hardware Connection Using the FTDI Emulation Board
The CC31XXEMUBOOST can provide the required USB to UART/GPIO interface for programming the
serial flash through Uniflash. The PC drivers for this board are included in the CC3135 SDK, and installed
during installation of the SDK. The CC31XXEMUBOOST is connected through USB from socket J6 to the
PC. The jumpers on the CC31XXEMUBOOST should be connected as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. CC31XXEMUBOOST Jumpers
The CC31XXEMUBOOST uses a logic level of 3.3 V by default, but there are level shifters on the
CC31XXEMUBOOST, and it can be powered in-dependently with a different I/O voltage by removing the
jumper from J4, and applying the external power to pin 1 of jumper J4. On the product being programmed,
the relevant CC3135 pins must be brought out for physical contact with the programmer (such as male
headers or test pads), and must be driven by no other source while programming. The HIB pin on the
CC31XXEMUBOOST is temporarily pulled to GND by the Uniflash utility at the beginning of the flashing
procedure, which is necessary to synchronize the device and the PC software. The CC31XXEMUBOOST
is configured to receive commands from the Uniflash program for toggling its HIB pin at the appropriate
times during the programming process.
Figure 4. Pin Map
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Over-the-Air Programming
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Figure 5. Programming Through USB
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Over-the-Air Programming
The CC3135 device has the capability for Over-the-Air programming, which allows files to be written and
updated over a network connection. An OTA programming library is available in the CC3135 SDK. Using
OTA in the production line can enable faster data transfer over other methods in some instances. To use
OTA in the production line, a PC on the local network can run the OTA server. The service pack should be
updated before doing OTA or using any wireless functionality. For the fastest transfer of data using OTA,
TI recommends minimizing RF congestion in the production environment. See the CC3x20, CC3x35
SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi® and Internet-of-Things Over the Air Update for more information.
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Production Line RF Testing
Testing of hardware and software functionality is highly specific to each product, but there are some tools
Texas Instruments has made available to assist with testing RF performance. The CC3135 device can be
instructed to perform RF testing operations in a number of ways:
• The host program may have a built-in subroutine dedicated to RF testing. This could be run once upon
first power-up, or could be triggered using a special external command.
• A script using the Radio Tool CLI could control the CC3135 device from a PC, as detailed in CC3x20,
CC3x35 SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi® and Internet-on-a chip™ Solution Radio Tool.
• The CC3135 device can be controlled by interfacing with a dedicated RF tester.
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Production Line RF Testing
7.1
7.1.1
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Testing Software Options
MCU-Controlled RF Testing
SimpleLink™ API functions are available that can put the CC3135 device into modes used for RF testing.
This allows for:
• Transmission of packets at specified channels, modulations, and so forth.
• Receipt of packets while gathering statistics for RSSI, modulation, and so forth.
• Carrier wave transmission
For comprehensive information about the SimpleLink™ API for transceiver mode, see Chapter 13 in the
CC3x20, CC3x35 SimpleLink™ Wi-Fi® and Internet of Things Network Processor Programmer’s Guide.
7.1.2
Testing With an Access Point
A straightforward method of checking for acceptable RF performance is to put the device being tested
through a trial run in an RF environment with worst-case conditions. The trial run begins with the device
under test connecting to an access point, then communicating with either a PC on the local network or
with a remote cloud server. The communication between the device under test and its peer can be
monitored for reliability and speed. To get consistent and relevant results for all devices being tested,
some actions may be taken with respect to the controlling RF environment for this type of testing:
• Minimize unintentional RF congestion in the test area. This can be accomplished by turning off other
nearby 2.4-GHz band devices, or performing the testing in an RF-shielded enclosure.
• Introduce controlled RF congestion. This can involve something such as having another device
connected to the same access point, which transmits a steady stream of packets to the access point.
• Introduce attenuation in the antenna path for the access point, or place at a distance from the device
being tested.
• Set the access point to communicate only on a specific channel, modulation, and so forth.
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