Texas Instruments | CC1310 Skyworks PA Chinese AMR Reference Design Rev 2.x | Application notes | Texas Instruments CC1310 Skyworks PA Chinese AMR Reference Design Rev 2.x Application notes

Texas Instruments CC1310 Skyworks PA Chinese AMR Reference Design Rev 2.x Application notes
Application Report
SWRA527 – December 2016
CC1310 Skyworks PA Chinese AMR Reference Design Rev
2.x
Albin Zhang and Richard Wallace
ABSTRACT
Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) is to collect the information of the amount of water, electric or gas
consumed automatically that has been used from each household. When the AMR information has been
received then the exact energy amount can be charged from the energy supplier company. Traditionally,
this has been done by manual reading of meters but with wireless technology this can now be done
automatically. Several countries now have laws requiring energy companies to charge for the exact
amount of energy being consumed and not just a predicted energy bill. Each country has specific
regulatory requirements for AMR.
This application report is targeting the Chinese AMR market (470 MHz to 510 MHz) with CC1310 [2]. To
enhance the wireless operation range in China, TI provides the range extender reference design. The
initial design was based upon a discrete PA solution [7]. To simplify the RF front design, TI worked with
Skyworks Solutions to integrate the CC1310 wireless MCU with a compact, cost-effective front-end
module (FEM). The CC1310 wireless MCU, together with SKY66115-11 [4] addresses customers’ needs
for easy-to-use, long-range, low-power and low-cost solutions serving applications across the Internet of
Things (IoT). The reference design covered in this application report can support up to +20 dBm TX power
with high power efficiency.
1
2
3
4
5
Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 2
Design ......................................................................................................................... 2
Measurement Results ....................................................................................................... 9
Summary .................................................................................................................... 13
References .................................................................................................................. 14
List of Figures
1
CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 Board....................................................................................... 2
2
CC1310 Block Diagram ..................................................................................................... 3
3
Schematic - CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 Rev2_0_x
4
CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 Layout ...................................................................................... 6
5
DIO Configuration in SmartRF Studio 7 .................................................................................. 7
6
Tx Mode Configuration ...................................................................................................... 8
7
Rx mode configuration ...................................................................................................... 8
8
Conductive Spurious Emission on 510 MHz to 566 MHz .............................................................. 9
9
Matching of the Antenna With ANT1 and ANT2 Components ....................................................... 11
10
Return Loss With ANT1 and ANT2 Components ...................................................................... 12
11
PCB Helical Antenna Efficiency .......................................................................................... 13
..................................................................
5
List of Tables
1
SKY66115-11 Truth Table .................................................................................................. 7
2
Conducted Output Power and Harmonics, 3.3 V ...................................................................... 10
3
TX Output Power, Current Consumption vs. Power Table, 3.3 V.................................................... 10
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1
Introduction
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Trademarks
SmartRF is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
1
Introduction
The Chinese AMR market has been allocated a frequency range of 470 MHz to 510 MHz. The maximum
radiated output from the metering unit is not to exceed 17 dBm effective radiated power (ERP). The
majority of meters are quite compact and require a compact antenna. The antenna efficiency is normally
quite low due to the physical size so higher output power is desired to compensate for the antenna losses.
The design covered in this application reort is based on the CC1310 from the CC13xx family.
Figure 1. CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 Board
2
Design
When designing an AMR system, the maximum range between the transmitter and receiver is one of the
most important parameters that will dominate the system configuration and installation. In the AMR
system, the range is critical so that all households’ meters can be read otherwise this must be done
manually or adding more concentrators, which is expensive. To achieve a long range the output power
can be increased to the maximum limit specified by the regulations and the data rate reduced as much as
possible for the application.
The AMR system must be able to work in a noisy RF environment since the number of meters in industrial
complexes or high rise buildings can be positioned very close to each other so blocking and selectivity are
critical requirements. More information on achieving optimum radio distance and blocking/selectivity is
available in a device-specific application report [1].
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CC1310 Skyworks PA Chinese AMR Reference Design Rev 2.x
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Design
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2.1
CC1310
The CC1310 has been specifically designed for long range, city-wide low power networks. This is used in
home automation, building automation and outdoor wide-area networks. The main advantages of CC1310
are high sensitivity (-124 dBm with a 0.625 kbps data rate), strong co-existence (up to 80 dB blocking),
lowest power consumption (61 µA / MHz ARM Cortex M3).
CC1310 can be basically split into four low-power sections as shown in Figure 2:
• Main CPU with Cortex M3
• RF Core with radio controller. The RF core is a highly flexible and capable radio system that interfaces
the analog RF and base-band circuitries, handles data to and from the system side, and assembles the
information bits in a given packet structure.
• General Peripherals
• Sensor Controller
For more in-depth information on the CC1310, see the CC1310 SimpleLink™ Ultra-Low-Power Sub-1 GHz
Wireless MCU Data Sheet (SWRS181).
Figure 2. CC1310 Block Diagram
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Design
2.2
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Schematic
The RF core of CC1310 is highly configurable and the radio front-end can be set to differential or single
ended. With a differential output configuration, the maximum output is 14 dBm. With a single ended
output, the maximum output is 11 dBm. Since many AMR customers have requested an output power up
to 20dBm, the CC1310 transmitter was configured as a single ended port (RF_P set to Tx) connected to
an external FEM with an integrated amplifier, see Figure 3. If an output power of 14 dBm is sufficient then
the standard reference design for 420 MHz to 510 MHz can be used [8].
The schematic shown in Figure 3 is a general schematic (Rev 2.0.x) to cover the ISM frequency bands
from 400 MHz to 510 MHz; the BOM is specified for three different ISM frequency bands:
• 470 MHz – 510 MHz: BOM - CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 Rev 2.0.1
• 420 MHz – 440 MHz: BOM - CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 Rev 2.0.2
• 400 MHz – 420 MHz: BOM - CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 Rev 2.0.3
The FEM used is from Skyworks (SKY66115-11). The SKY66115-11 consists of an amplifier and a switch
contained in the package. It also includes a shutdown mode to minimize power consumption. The transmit
path contains an amplifier optimized for saturated performance. SKY66115-11 is specifically matched for
CC1310 which enables optimum transmit output power and efficiency for 50 Ω load impedance. The
transmit path passes through a low-pass filter before being entering to one side of the SPDT switch. The
receive path has a bypass function from the other side of the SPDT switch.
The reference design [3] shown in Figure 3 is based upon 3.3 V supply voltage. Two RF output options
are available. Mounting C72, the RF path is routed to the RF connector (J1) that allows an external
antenna or conductive RF testing. Mounting C63, connects the compact PCB antenna. ANT1, ANT2 and
ANT3 compose of the antenna matching circuit.
An optional low-pass filter (LPF) (C484, C485, C486 and L332 ) can be incorporated on the ANT port to
provide additional rejection of PA output harmonic levels and/or limit unwanted signals from entering the
receive path. For 470 MHz – 510 MHz band, there is no external LPF circuit needed. Since the FEM is
specifically designed for the CC1310 470 MHz – 510 MHz band, there is no matching circuit needed on
the TX inputs of the SKY66115-11. C487, C489 and L333 are only required for 433 MHz and 408 MHz.
CC1310 can support a several RF port options, which is described in the wiki page [9]. For better Rx
sensitivity, the reference design adopts a single-end, external-bias RF front-end design. L1 is used for the
external bias circuit. C11, L11 and L12 compose a matching circuit to optimize the RX sensitivity.
The reference design [3] utilizes noise decoupling filtering on the power and control lines of the
SKY66115-11.
4
CC1310 Skyworks PA Chinese AMR Reference Design Rev 2.x
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Design
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Figure 3. Schematic - CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 Rev2_0_x
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Design
2.3
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Layout
The design [3] is based upon a 0.8 mm thick, two-layer PCB. The top layer and bottom layer are shown in
Figure 4. All components are positioned on the top layer apart from the evaluation module (EM)
connectors. The CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 is based upon the 7x7 QFN package. The RF frond-end
design can be re-used for 5x5 QFN and 4x4 QFN packages.
A PCB helical antenna is incorporated in the EM design. The antenna is routed on both the top and
bottom layers. It is important to incorporate the matching components (ANT1, ANT2 and ANT3) as well if
the antenna structure is to be copied to another design. Changing the PCB thickness will change the
resonance of the antenna and this would require new antenna matching values for ANT1 and ANT2
(ANT3: DNM).
Figure 4. CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 Layout
The top view is shown on the left side; the bottom view is shown on the right side.
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2.4
SmartRF™ Studio
To evaluate the reference design it is recommended to use the EM on the SmartRF06EB with SmartRF
Studio software. The supported functions are continuously being updated and the software can be
downloaded [6].
With SmartRF studio 7 (version 2.4.3), new features have been added to support 433 MHz – 510 MHz
reference designs.
• Default recommended setting on 430-510MHz band.
• DIOs configuration based on the truth table of the FEM.
• RF front-end mode configuration.
For more information on SmartRF Studio7, see http://www.ti.com/tool/smartrftm-studio. Figure 5, Figure 6
and Figure 7 illustrate how to configure the CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 board.
2.4.1
DIO Configuration
Based on the truth table of the SKY66115-11 shown in Table 1, SmartRF Studio should have the DIO
configured as shown in Figure 5.
Table 1. SKY66115-11 Truth Table
DIO_1 (CTX) : LOW & DIO_30 (CSD) : HIGH ----> Rx
DIO_1 (CTX) : HIGH & DIO_30 (CSD) : HIGH ----> Tx
DIO_1 (CTX) : X & DIO_30 (CSD) : LOW ----> Sleep
Figure 5. DIO Configuration in SmartRF Studio 7
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Design
2.4.2
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RF Front-End Configuration
Figure 6 and Figure 7 show the configuration of Tx and Rx modes separately. This is configured in the
CMD_PROP_RADIO_DIV_SE radio operation commands.
For the Tx path configuration shown in Figure 6, RF_P is set to single-end option. The txpower
parameters should also be configured based on Table 3.
For the Rx path shown in Figure 7, RF_N is set to single-end option.
Figure 6. Tx Mode Configuration
8
Figure 7. Rx mode configuration
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Measurement Results
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3
Measurement Results
All measurements results were performed on the CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 at 470 MHz – 510 MHz
(BOM Rev 2.0.1) mounted on the SmartRF06EB. The VUSB power source is nominally 3.3 V on the
SmartRF06EB. Software control is based upon SmartRF Studio 2.4.3.
3.1
Spurious Emission
This design is fully compliant with Chinese Sub-1G SRRC regulation.
The ERP requirements set by the regulation requirements is 17 dBm_max. Note that the EIRP = ERP +
2.15 dB. Therefore, the peak EIRP should not exceed 19.15 dBm.
Tx: the emissions should not exceed -36 dBm for 30 MHz – 1GHz, and -30 dBm for 1 GHz – 12.75 GHz.
Rx: the emissions should not exceed -57 dBm for 30 MHz – 1GHz and -47 dBm for 1 GHz – 12.75 GHz.
The conductive spurious emissions are fully compliant and Figure 8 shows one measurement in the
510MHz-566MHz band. In the Chinese regulation, the specification is -54 dBm for radiated
measurements. The conductive test results shows 2.4 dB margin on the spurs in Figure 8 with txpower
register 0x18C6. Further margin will be gained when measuring this parameter in radiated mode due to
antenna efficiency. The solution passes the SRRC regulation with good margin.
Figure 8. Conductive Spurious Emission on 510 MHz to 566 MHz
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Measurement Results
3.2
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Tx Output Power and Harmonics
The output power was measured at 470 MHz, 490 MHz and 510 MHz. For each frequency, the harmonics
were measured up to the 10th harmonic. The txpower register is set to 0x18C6.
Table 2. Conducted Output Power and Harmonics, 3.3 V
fc
2fc
3fc
4fc
5fc
6fc
7fc
8fc
9fc
10fc
470
940
1410
1880
2350
2820
3290
3760
4230
4700
MHz
19.8
-40
-45
-49
-54
-55
-55
-55
-55
-55
dBm
490
980
1470
1960
2450
2940
3430
3920
4410
4900
MHz
20.1
-38
-47
-50
-55
-55
-55
-55
-55
-55
dBm
510
1020
1530
2040
2550
3060
3570
4080
4590
5100
MHz
19.7
-39
-46
-51
-54
-55
-55
-55
-55
-55
dBm
3.3
Tx Output Power Dynamic Range and Current Consumption
Output power and current consumption were measured across the power table at 470 MHz, 490 MHz and
510 MHz. The average results are shown in Table 3.
In the CMD_PROP_RADIO_DIV_SETUP, the power can be configured in the txpower register, which is
shown in Figure 6.
Table 3. TX Output Power, Current Consumption vs. Power Table, 3.3 V
Power Table
0x08C0
0x0041
0x10C3
0x1043
0x14C4
0x18C5
0x18C6
0x1CC7
Output power
Current
consumption
14.9
18
18.9
19.3
19.5
19.7
19.9
19.9
dBm
56.5
68.1
72.6
75
76.6
77.8
78.7
79.4
mA
Solution
efficiency
17.4
28.6
33
34.8
35.6
35.9
36.2
36.1
%
The SKY66115-11 maximum input power rating on the PIN_TX is limited to 10dBm. CC1310 should limit
the TX Power control IB bit of txpower register below 0x07. For optimized current consumption, the
recommended value of the txpower is 0x18C6.
3.4
Rx Current Consumption
The static Rx current consumption was measured at 6.3 mA with 3.3 V power supply.
3.5
Sensitivity
The sensitivity was measured with 50 kbps datarate setting on CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 at 470 MHz –
510 MHz (BOM Rev 2.0.1) to -107.5 dBm during normal temperature and 3.3 V power supply.
For the differential reference design with external biasing, the sensitivity is approximately -109.5 dBm for a
data rate of 50 kbps. This reference design shown in Figure 3 uses single ended configuration of Rx and
Tx to avoid the need for another switch component and balun circuit. The sensitivity is reduced by 1 dB
with single ended configuration compared to differential configuration. External biasing of the LNA is
adopted for better Rx sensitivity. The SKY66115-11 switch has an insertion loss of approx. 0.6 dB. To
keep the external BOM costs as low as possible, LQG inductors are used instead of wire-wound (WW)
inductors which also causes an additional 0.4 dB of loss.
Therefore, the sensitivity delta of this reference design [3] with single-ended configuration, switch and
LQG components compared to the standard reference design [8] with differential configuration is -2.0 dB.
The initial AMR 20 dBm China reference design based upon a discrete PA [7] had a sensitivity of
approximately -106.5 dBm. This updated design with the Skyworks FEM has been improved by 1 dB to
-107.5 dBm.
10
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Measurement Results
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If the data rate is reduced from 50 kbps and Long Range Mode utilized, then the following sensitivity
levels can be achieved on the on CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 at 470 NHz – 510 MHz (BOM Rev 2.0.1)
Ref Design:
●
●
●
●
3.6
5 kbps sensitivity:
2.5 kbps sensitivity:
1.25 kbps sensitivity:
0.625 kbps sensitivity:
-117.5
-119.5
-120.5
-121.5
dBm
dBm
dBm
dBm
Antenna Design
The PCB helical antenna shown in Figure 4 has been matched to 470 MHz – 510 MHz with ANT 1: 5.6 pF
and ANT2: 68 nH. For more information, see Figure 9. The antenna is matched for the complete band of
470 MHz – 510 MHz. For more information, see Figure 10. The antenna was tested at 510 MHz in the
anechoic chamber and the antenna efficiency is -4.1 dB (38.6 %). For the complete CTIA report summary,
see Figure 11.
This antenna design, matching tuning and testing results are based on the CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051
board at 470 MHz – 510 MHz (BOM Rev 2.0.1) plugging on the SmartRF06EB board with the free space
environment. In antenna design theory, some of the nearby materials will impact the antenna
performances, for example, grounded conductor, plastic/rubber cases, and so forth. For a realistic product
antenna design, it is necessary to consider the mechanical case impacts and do proper tuning.
Figure 9. Matching of the Antenna With ANT1 and ANT2 Components
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Measurement Results
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Figure 10. Return Loss With ANT1 and ANT2 Components
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Summary
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Figure 11. PCB Helical Antenna Efficiency
4
Summary
AMR products are normally very compact with a small antenna, physically positioned in locations near
metal objects and normally hidden in a remote storage area of a building. This causes a reduction in the
ERP. The output power can be increased to assure a maximum ERP suited for each application.
The CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 reference design at 470 MHz – 510 MHz (BOM Rev 2.0.1) is a low cost,
easy-to-use, high efficiency solution with 20 dBm output power for 3.3 V supply. Tx current consumption at
20 dBm is approx. 79 mA. The antenna is also integrated into the PCB which provides a compact,
costless antenna solution.
The initial AMR 20 dBm China reference design for 470 MHz – 510 MHz was based upon a discrete PA
Rev 1.x.x [7]. The updated design with the Skyworks FEM Rev 2.0.1 [3] has improved sensitivity, lower
component count and greater margins to Tx spurious emissions.
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References
5
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
14
www.ti.com
Achieving Optimum Radio Range (SWRA479)
CC1310 SimpleLink™ Ultra-Low-Power Sub-1 GHz Wireless MCU Data Sheet (SWRS181)
CC1310EM-SKY66115-4051 Reference Design (Rev: 2.0.x) (SWRC334)
SKY66115 -11 Data Sheet
Antenna Quick Guide (SWRA351)
SmartRF Studio Download
CC1310EM-7PA-4751 Reference Design for China (SWRC311)
SimpleLink CC1310 4-Layer 5x5 Differential 779-930 MHz v1.0.0 Design Files (SWRC311)
CC1310 Front-end Configurations Wiki page
CC1310 Skyworks PA Chinese AMR Reference Design Rev 2.x
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