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Texas Instruments CC2640 Wireless MCU DC Supply Evaluation Application notes
Application Report
SWRA494 – December 2015
CC2640 Wireless MCU DC Supply Evaluation
Habeeb Ur Rahman Mohammed and James Murdock
ABSTRACT
This application report evaluates CC2640 Wireless MCU DC power supply. CC2640 is TI SimpleLink™
Bluetooth® Smart Wireless MCU that offers exceptional RF performance with ultralow-power consumption.
CC2640 incorporates linear and switching voltage regulators and this application report details the
performance and evaluation of these regulators.
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Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 2
Basics on Linear and Switching Regulators .............................................................................. 3
Supply Efficiency ............................................................................................................. 4
Load Regulation.............................................................................................................. 8
Line Regulation ............................................................................................................. 10
Power Supply Rejection Ratio ............................................................................................ 12
Summary .................................................................................................................... 14
References .................................................................................................................. 14
1
CC2640 Block Diagram ..................................................................................................... 2
2
CC2640 DC-DC Converter ................................................................................................. 2
3
Linear LDO
List of Figures
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
................................................................................................................... 3
Buck DC Switching Regulator .............................................................................................. 3
Basic Regulator Configuration ............................................................................................. 4
DC-DC and LDO Configuration in CC2640 .............................................................................. 5
CC2640 Typical Efficiency Characteristics ............................................................................... 7
CC2640 Efficiency Across Temperature and Load Currents .......................................................... 7
Load Regulation.............................................................................................................. 8
Load Regulation Evaluation Setup ........................................................................................ 8
Load Regulation Setup Picture ............................................................................................ 9
Load Regulation Measurement Result (The red curve is the output of the LDO.) .................................. 9
Line Regulation ............................................................................................................. 10
Line Regulation Evaluation Setup ........................................................................................ 10
LDO Line Regulation Measurement Result ............................................................................. 11
DC-DC Line Regulation Measurement Result .......................................................................... 11
PSRR Measurement Setup .............................................................................................. 12
LDO PSRR Measurement Result, Frequency 1 kHz .................................................................. 13
LDO PSRR Measurement Result, Frequency 10 kHz................................................................. 13
DC-DC PSRR Measurement Result, Frequency 10 kHz ............................................................. 14
SimpleLink is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
ARM, Cortex are registered trademarks of ARM Limited.
Bluetooth is a registered trademark of Bluetooth SIG.
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1
Introduction
1
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Introduction
Voltage regulators are the basic building blocks of any DC power supply. CC2640 wireless MCU
incorporates an on-chip internal DC-DC converter. Figure 1 shows CC2640 SoC (system-on-chip) block
diagram, which contains blocks for ARM® Cortex®-M3 CPU, RF core, sensor controller, general
peripherals, memory, and a DC-DC converter.
Figure 1. CC2640 Block Diagram
One of the core advantages of the CC2640 SoC is that it has an integrated DC-DC converter block. The
CC2640 DC-DC converter incorporates both switching and linear regulators that support all power modes
and power-management features. Figure 2 shows how the CC2640 device uses a parallel DC-DC
switching regulator and low-dropout linear regulator (LDO).
Low-Dropout Regulator
(LDO)
DC-DC Switching Regulator
Figure 2. CC2640 DC-DC Converter
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2
Basics on Linear and Switching Regulators
Most of the CC2640 applications are battery powered. As the battery drains over a period of time, efficient
and clean voltage regulators are essential to provide a constant DC output to the respective subcircuits
maintaining the regulated voltage irrespective of any changes in input voltage and load currents. The
CC2640 uses LDOs and a DC-DC switching regulator to provide clean and regulated supply with the
highest efficiency.
2.1
Low-Dropout Voltage Regulator
LDO regulators are linear regulators with low-dropout voltage. Dropout voltage is the minimum voltage
required across the regulator to maintain output voltage regulation. Figure 3 shows a simplified LDO
circuit.
Vin
REF
M1
Amp
Vout
R1
R2
Figure 3. Linear LDO
The R1 and R2 resistors sense the output voltage which appears as a sense signal at the amplifier (Amp)
input. This error amplifier drives the pass transistor (M1) to constantly regulate the output voltage (Vout)
through the negative feedback loop by forcing the sense voltage equal to the reference (REF) voltage.
2.2
Switching DC-DC Regulator
The CC2640 has a built-in DC-DC switching regulator that offers higher efficiency and flexibility to support
different internal voltage supplies. Figure 4 shows a simple diagram of buck DC switching voltage
regulator.
Vin
M1
L
Controller
Vout
C
M2
Figure 4. Buck DC Switching Regulator
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Supply Efficiency
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Buck regulators reduce input DC level to lower levels. The controller switches the switch on and off, and
equivalent DC output voltage level is determined based on its pulse-switching duty cycle. The high-side
switch transistor (M1) alternately connects and disconnects input voltage (Vin) to the inductor (L). When
the high-side switch is on, the voltage drop across inductor induces increased current within the inductor
(current ramps up), which flows through the load (RL) and charges the capacitor (C). During switchoff time
current within inductor ramps down. The resultant DC load current is the average of these ramp up and
ramp down inductor currents and the time that no current flows through the inductor; these determine the
regulated output voltage level. See Linear and Switching Voltage Regulator Fundamental Part 1
Application Report (SNVA558).
Two characteristics determine what type of DC-DC is used based on the conducted inductor current.
When the current is continuously conducted through the inductor, the DC-DC is a continuous current
mode (CCM) DC-DC. Noncontinuous conduction DC-DCs are discontinuous current mode (DCM) DC-DC.
DC-DC controllers may use either pulse frequency modulation (PFM) or pulse width modulation (PWM).
The CC2640 uses a PFM DCM DC-DC.
3
Supply Efficiency
3.1
Background Information
Figure 5 shows the basic regulator configuration. Supply efficiency is the ratio of power output (Pout) by a
regulator to the power inputted (Pin) to the regulator. See Equation 1.
P
η (% ) = out g 100
Pin
(1)
Pin
Battery
Pout
DC-DC/LDO
Load
Figure 5. Basic Regulator Configuration
3.2
LDO Efficiency
To calculate efficiency, you must measure Pout and Pin. For an LDO, efficiency is theoretically limited to the
ratio of the output to the input voltage. Consider that most power in an LDO is used by the pass transistor
and delivered to the load. If the pass device is a PMOS with its drain connected directly to the load and if
all input current is delivered to the load, the same current that flows into the pass device also flows out to
the load. The ratio of power out to power in for an LDO is approximately Vout/Vin.
3.3
Switching Regulators Efficiency
For a switching DC-DC regulator, the output current and the input current are different. Due to the
switching of the inductor in the DC-DC regulator, the average current from the battery supply to the DCDC regulator is scaled by the duty cycle of the inductor switch. If the inductor of the DC-DC regulator is
connected to the supply only 25% of the time, the average current into the DC-DC regulator from the
battery supply is only 0.25 times the output current (assuming no losses). A buck DC-DC converter can
have a higher efficiency than an LDO because the current from the battery supply is reduced (if no losses
occur, a buck DC-DC regulator is 100% efficient).
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3.4
Evaluation Setup and Measurement Results
Figure 6 shows basic DC-DC and LDO configuration in CC2640, VIN is the main supply to CC2640, IIN is
the current through the main supply. Some of the CC2640 circuitry is directly powered by main supply.
This current in other circuits is designated as IOTHER. The bias current in LDO is IBIAS and is obtained from
simulations. IIN_ LDO and IIN_DCDC are the input currents through LDO and DC-DC, respectively. IOUT_ LDO and
IOUT_ DCDC are the output currents from LDO and DC-DC, respectively. R is the external pullup resistor at
output of DC-DC and LDO whose value could be around 100 Ω. IPU is the current through the external pull
resistor when the output is pulled up. VOUT is the output voltage with IOUT current through the output load,
which is CC2640 circuitry powered by the regulator.
NOTE: The pullup resistor is used only for measuring efficiency and is not generally present in an
application using the CC26XX and CC13XX.
OTHER CKTs.
VIN
IOTHER
REF
IBIAS
Amp
IIN_LDO
M1
R1
IIN
EN
Text Point t
External Pull-up.
R
IIN_DCDC
IPU
M1
IOUT_LDO IOUT_DCDC
x
VOUT
L
Controller
C
M2
IOUT
R2
Load
LDO
DCDC
Figure 6. DC-DC and LDO Configuration in CC2640
The first task in measuring efficiency is to measure IOTHER. When the DC-DC is turned off and the output of
the LDO is pulled up, which disables LDO, the total current drawn from the main supply is equivalent to
sum of IOTHER and LDO bias current after pullup IBIAS_AP. IBIAS_AP is obtained from simulations.
The following steps summarize the DC-DC efficiency calculation procedure in CC2640.
1. Calculate the DC-DC output current.
(a) Turn off the DC-DC converter.
(b) Measure the input current through the main supply before DC-DC and LDO output are pulled up (IIN
= IIN_BP). (See Equation 2 and Equation 3.)
NOTE: With DC-DC turned off, the DC-DC input current (IIN_DCDC) is negligible.
IIN _ BP = IOTHER + IBIAS _ BP + IIN _ LDO + IIN _ DCDC
(2)
IIN _ BP = IOTHER + IBIAS _ BP + IIN _ LDO _ BP
(3)
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(c) Measure the input current through the main supply after DC-DC is turned off and LDO and DC-DC
output is pull up (IIN = IIN_AP). (See Equation 4 and Equation 5.)
NOTE: With DC-DC turned off, DC-DC input current (IIN_DCDC) is negligible. With the LDO output
pulled up, the LDO input current (IIN_LDO) is also negligible.
IIN _ AP = IOTHER + IBIAS _ AP + IIN _ LDO + IIN _ DCDC
(4)
IIN _ AP = IOTHER + IBIAS _ AP
(5)
(d) Calculate IIN_LDO_BP as follows from Equation 3 and Equation 5.
IIN _ AP _ BP = (IIN _ BP - IIN _ AP ) - (IBIAS _ BP - IBIAS _ AP )
(6)
(e) Measure the drop across pullup resistor while the DC-DC converter is off (VR_DCDC_OFF).
(f) Measure the drop across pullup resistor while the DC-DC converter is on (VR_DCDC_ON).
(g) Calculate the additional current draw when the DC-DC converter is on with the R pullup resistor
using Equation 7.
IPU =
(VR _ DCDC _ ON - VR _ DCDC _ OFF )
(7)
R
(h) Calculate the total load current which can be assumed as current from LDO and is equivalent to
LDO input current (see Equation 8 and Equation 9).
IOUT = IOUT _ DCDC + IOUT _ LDO + IPU = IOUT _ LDO + IPU
(8)
IOUT = IIN _ LDO _ BP + IPU
(9)
(i) Calculate the total DC-DC output current or load current (IOUT) from Equation 7, Equation 8, and
Equation 9 as follows.
(VR _ DCDC _ ON - VR _ DCDCOFF )
IOUT = (IIN _ BP - IIN _ AP ) - (IBIAS _ BP - IBIAS _ AP ) +
(10)
R
2. Measure the DC-DC input current.
(a) Calculate the current in other circuits as follows from Equation 5.
IOTHER = IIN _ AP - IBIAS _ AP
(11)
(b) Turn on the DC-DC converter.
(c) Measure the DC-DC input voltage (VIN).
(d) Measure the DC-DC and LDO output voltage (VOUT).
(e) Measure the total input supply current (IIN).
NOTE: This input current from Equation 4 with the DC-DC converter turned on is as follows.
IIN = IOTHER + IBIAS _ BP + IIN _ LDO + IIN _ DCDC
(12)
(f) Calculate the total input current in DC-DC and LDO with the DC-DC converter on from Equation 12.
(See Equation 13 and Equation 14.)
IIN DCDC + IIN LDO + IBIAS BP = IIN - IOTHER
(13)
IIN _ DCDC + IIN _ LDO + IBIAS _ BP = (IIN - IIN _ AP ) - IBIAS _ AP
(14)
3. Calculate efficiency using Equation 15 and Equation 16.
P
VOUT ´ IOUT
h (%) = OUT ´ 100 =
´ 100
PIN
VIN ´ (IIN _ DCDC + IIN _ LDO + IBIAS _ BP)
VOUT ´ (IIN _ BP - IIN _ AP ) - (IBIAS _ BP - IBIAS _ AP ) +
h (%) =
6
(15)
(VR _ DCDC _ ON - VR _ DCDC _ OFF )
VIN ´ ([IIN - IIN _ AP ] - IBIAS _ AP )
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R
´ 100
(16)
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Figure 7 shows the typical characteristics of the CC2640 regulator. At typical device operation when the
DC-DC effiency is enabled, most the input current is through DC-DC, that is, IIN_DCDC + IIN_LDO + IBIAS_BP is
equivalent tp IIN_DCDC.
Figure 7. CC2640 Typical Efficiency Characteristics
For example, calculate the efficiency of CC2640 with VIN = 3 V, VOUT = 1.7 V, measured IIN = 10.5 mA.
Bias currents IBIAS_BP = 62 µA and IBIAS_AP = 15 µA. Voltage across a 100-Ω pullup resistor is 380 mV and
400 mV when the DC-DC converter is off and on, respectively. The DC-DC input current is 15.3 mA and
2.3 mA previously to and prior to DC-DC and LDO output being pulled up, respectively. For more
information, see Equation 17.
[400 - 880]
1.7 ´ ([15.3 - 2.3] - [0.062 - 0.015] +
)
100
h (%) =
´ 100 = 91.06%
3 ´ ([10.5 - 2.3] - 0.015)
(17)
Figure 8 shows a typical set of efficiency curves of a DC-DC converter.
100%
95%
Efficiency
90%
85%
80%
TA = -90qC
TA = -40qC
TA = 27qC
75%
70%
7
9
11
13
DC-DC Output Current (mA)
15
17
D001
Figure 8. CC2640 Efficiency Across Temperature and Load Currents
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Load Regulation
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4
Load Regulation
4.1
Background Information
Load regulation is the ability of a regulator to maintain a given output voltage with respect to any load
current variations. Load regulation is defined as change in output voltage (ΔVout) divided by the change in
output load current (ΔIout). See Figure 9 for more information.
D Vin
Battery
D Iout
DCDC/LDO
Load
Load Regulation =
D Vout
D Iout
Figure 9. Load Regulation
4.2
Evaluation Setup and Measurement Results
To measure load regulation, apply a load step to the output of the regulator and observe the output
voltage. To achieve a switching load, a switch board is used with a PNP switch as shown in Figure 10.
D Iin
D Vin
D Iout
DC-DC/LDO
Load Current Switches from
0 to 20 mA in 100 µs.
D Vout
Switch Board
Signal
Generator
Pulse rise and fall time: 100 µs
Period: 2.2 ms
Duty cycle: 50%
Level 1: 460 mV, Level 2: 920 mV
Figure 10. Load Regulation Evaluation Setup
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Load Regulation
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To switch DC-DC and LDO output load current from 0 to 20 mA (ΔIout = 20 mA) in 100 µs, a pulse signal
is used with a 100-µs rise and fall time, a 2.2-ms period, and a 50% duty cycle. In Figure 11, this pulse
signal is a yellow curve and drives the base of the switch. The DC-DC output voltage variation (ΔVout) is
the blue line. The total peak-peak change in output voltage is 5.8 mV, and approximately maximum
overshoot, that is, with the change output voltage (ΔVout) could be estimated to about 4 mV. The typical
load regulation is given less than 4 mV for change in output current from 0 mA to 20 mA. See Equation 18
and see Figure 12 for the results of the measurement.
4 mV
DVout
=
= 0.2V / A
Load regulation =
20 mA
DIout
(18)
Figure 11. Load Regulation Setup Picture
Figure 12. Load Regulation Measurement Result (The red curve is the output of the LDO.)
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Line Regulation
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5
Line Regulation
5.1
Background Information
Line regulation is the ability of a regulator to maintain a specified output voltage with respect to any input
voltage variations. Line regulation is defined as change in output voltage (ΔVout) divided by change in
input voltage (ΔVin). See Figure 13 for more information.
D Vin
Battery
D Vout
DC-DC/LDO
Load
Load Regulation =
D Vout
D Vin
Figure 13. Line Regulation
5.2
Evaluation Setup and Measurement Results
To measure line regulation, apply a voltage step to the input of the regulator and observe the output. The
challenging part of measuring line regulation is providing a voltage step from a power supply. A highspeed amplifier connected to a function generator is used to generate the voltage step. See Figure 14.
Supply Voltage Switches from
1.8 V to 3.8 Vin in 100 µs.
Signal
Generator
Switch Board
Pulse rise and fall time: 100 µs
Period: 2.2 ms
Duty cycle: 50%
D Iin
D Vin
DC-DC/LDO
D Iout
D Vout
Load
Figure 14. Line Regulation Evaluation Setup
To switch DC-DC and LDO input supply voltage from 1.8 V to 3.8 V (ΔVin = 2 V) in 100 µs, a pulse signal
is used with a 100-µs rise and fall time, a 2.2-ms period, and a 50% duty cycle. In Figure 15, Input supply
voltage to DC-DC and LDO is the blue curve. The LDO (with the DC-DC converter turned off) output
voltage variation (ΔVout) is the red line. The total peak-peak change in output is approximately 8 mV.
Equation 19 gives the typical line regulation.
DVout 8 mV
=
= 0.004
LDO Line regulation =
2V
DVin
(19)
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Figure 15. LDO Line Regulation Measurement Result
\When the DC-DC converter is turned on, the DC-DC output voltage variation (ΔVout) is the red line in
Figure 16. The total peak-peak change in output voltage is 55.4 mV, and approximately maximum
overshoot, that is, with the change output voltage (ΔVout) could be estimated to about 35 mV.
Equation 20 gives the typical line regulation.
DVout 35 mV
DC - DC Line Regulation =
=
= 0.0175
2V
DVin
(20)
Figure 16. DC-DC Line Regulation Measurement Result
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Power Supply Rejection Ratio
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6
Power Supply Rejection Ratio
6.1
Background Information
Power supply rejection ration (PSRR) is the ability of a regulator to maintain the regulated output voltage
free of any input voltage fluctuations. PSRR could be considered similar to line regulator but inclusive of
frequency spectrum. For more information, see Equation 21 and Figure 17.
æ Vin (w ) ö
PSRR = 20.log10 ç
ç Vout (w ) ÷÷
è
ø
(21)
Sine Wave AC + DC
Signal
Generator
Switch Board
Sine Wave
Iin(w)
Vin(w)
DC-DC/LDO
Iout(w)
Vout(w)
Load
Figure 17. PSRR Measurement Setup
6.2
Evaluation Setup and Measurement Results
To measure PSRR, a sine wave is applied on top of the supply voltage of the regulator (the input voltage).
The sine wave generator produces a sine wave with a nonzero DC value. Amplitude of the sine wave is
kept low at first and then increased until it is measurable at the output. The ratio of the input sine wave
amplitude to the output sine wave amplitude is the PSRR.
Figure 17 shows the PSRR measurement setup. This setup is the same as for line regulation. Figure 18,
Figure 19, and Figure 20 show the measurement results of CC2640 LDO and DC-DC PSRR. In these
figures, blue curves are DC-DC/LDO sine wave applied at input and red curves are DC-DC/LDO output
sine wave. Sine waves of frequencies 1 kHz and 10 kHz were considered. DC-DC and LDO PSRR are
calculated in Equation 22, Equation 23, and Equation 24.
12
æ Vin (w ) ö
æ 1.846 ö
= 20.log10 ç
PSRRLDO 1KHz = 20.log10 ç
÷ = 55dB
ç Vout (w ) ÷÷
è 0.00325 ø
è
ø
(22)
æ Vin (w ) ö
æ 1.514 ö
= 20.log10 ç
PSRRLDO 10KHz = 20.log10 ç
÷ = 37.89dB
ç Vout (w ) ÷÷
è 0.0193 ø
è
ø
(23)
æ Vin (w ) ö
æ 1.487 ö
= 20.log10 ç
PSRRDCDC 10KHz = 20.log10 ç
÷ = 35.21dB
ç Vout (w ) ÷÷
è .0258 ø
è
ø
(24)
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Figure 18. LDO PSRR Measurement Result, Frequency 1 kHz
Figure 19. LDO PSRR Measurement Result, Frequency 10 kHz
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Summary
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Figure 20. DC-DC PSRR Measurement Result, Frequency 10 kHz
7
Summary
CC2640 Wireless MCU DC power supply is evaluated in this application report. Major specifications of a
DC supply are discussed. Procedure to calculate CC2640 supply efficiency is detailed along with the load
regulation, line regulation, and power supply rejection ratio parameters. CC2640 DC-DC regulator typically
shows more than 90% efficiency. CC2640 LDO has 0.2 V/A of load regulation and .004 line regulation,
with PSSR of 55 dB at 1 kHz and more than 37 dB at 10 kHz.
8
References
1. CC2640 SimpleLink™ Bluetooth® Smart Wireless MCU data sheet (SWRS176)
2. Linear and Switching Voltage Regulator Fundamental Part 1 Application Report (SNVA558)
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