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Texas Instruments for Manufacture Testing of RF4CE Products Application notes
Application Report
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Guide for Manufacture Testing of RF4CE Products
............................................................................................................. Low-Power Wireless Products
ABSTRACT
This application report describes a sample implementation of a manufacturing line test program for RF4CE
products. It is based on RemoTI-Linux, which is the Linux host driver for CC253x RemoTI Network
Processor (RNP). It includes the ability to setup a fake pairing between the remote control and target side,
how to enter test mode, how to change RF parameters, and so forth. It helps customers to understand
RemoTI-Linux structure and utilize the API of TI RF4CE stack. Based on this application report, customers
can easily implement their own test flow and meet varying factory environments.
The last section discusses the way to perform basic RF functions with test equipment. Besides
implementing the test program, customers can perform RF tests, too.
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2
3
4
5
6
Contents
RemoTI-Linux Introduction ................................................................................................. 2
Implement Test Program ................................................................................................... 5
Setup for RF Test .......................................................................................................... 12
RemoTI Mass Production Test ........................................................................................... 21
Summary .................................................................................................................... 22
References .................................................................................................................. 23
List of Figures
1
RemoTI Network Processor Component Architecture .................................................................. 3
2
RemoTI-Linux Software Architecture ...................................................................................... 3
3
RemoTI-Linux Application Architecture ................................................................................... 4
4
Network Enabling for NPI Client ........................................................................................... 4
5
The setup for the Test Program Implementation ........................................................................ 5
6
Controller Could Send Packet to Target After Doing Fake Pairing.................................................... 9
7
Setup for RF Test .......................................................................................................... 12
8
Tx Test Mode0 Launch on Linux Laptop ................................................................................ 13
9
Tx Test Mode0 Perform on Spectrum Analyzer ........................................................................ 13
10
Tx test Mode1 Launch on Linux Laptop ................................................................................. 14
11
Tx Test Mode1 Perform on Spectrum Analyzer ........................................................................ 15
12
Rx Test Launch on Linux Laptop ......................................................................................... 16
13
Rx Test Perform on Spectrum Analyzer................................................................................. 16
14
PER Test Launch on Linux Laptop
15
16
17
18
19
20
......................................................................................
Sniff Log While Performing PER Test ...................................................................................
NPI Server and Client Run on Different Devices.......................................................................
Setup for PER Test With SmartRF Studio ..............................................................................
Configuration on SmartRF Studio ........................................................................................
Execute massProduction_lnx_x86_client ...............................................................................
Result of RemoTI Mass Production Test ................................................................................
17
18
18
19
21
22
22
List of Tables
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1
RemoTI-Linux Introduction
1
Acronyms ..................................................................................................................... 2
2
Configuration for Fake Pairing on Target and Controller ............................................................... 8
3
Pairing Table After Fake Pairing on Target and Controller............................................................. 8
4
Configuration for Device Own Information on Target and Controller
5
6
7
1
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................................................. 9
Definition of nodeCapabilities .............................................................................................. 9
Test Modes Supported by RTI_TestModeReq ......................................................................... 10
Server Configuration Difference on Target and Controller ............................................................ 17
RemoTI-Linux Introduction
This section introduces the architecture of RemoTI-Linux, which utilizes the RNP architecture for a Linux
host. To simplify the development effort, this document provides some code snips that are described in
the following sections. Then, you can implement your own manufacturing test program based on the
RemoTI-Linux source code.
1.1
Acronyms Used in This Document
Table 1. Acronyms
Acronym
Device
A physical object consisting of an IEEE 802.15.4 radio
Node
A device containing RF4CE functionality
Target
A Node that implements the Target functionality as defined in the RF4CE specification (for example, a TV)
Controller
A Node that implements the Controller functionality as defined in the RF4CE specification (for example, a remote
control)
ACK
Acknowledge
API
Application Programming Interface
ARC
Advance Remote Control
DUT
Device under test
EM
Evaluation module
IEEE
Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers, Inc.
LAN
Local Area Network
NPI
Network Processor Interface
RTIS
RemoTI-Linux
RF
RF4CE
2
Description
RemoTI application framework surrogate
A RF4CE application for a Linux host using a CC253x RNP
Radio Frequency
Radio Frequency for Consumer Electronics
RNP
RemoTI Network Processor. An application configuration of the RemoTI stack that configures the CC253x
device as a network processor
RTI
RemoTI Application Framework
STB
Set-Top Box
TE
Target Emulator
TI
Texas Instruments Incorporated
ZID
Zigbee Input Device, a name for a ZigBee RF4CE profile
ZRC
Zigbee Remote Control, a name for a Zigbee RF4CE profile
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1.2
RemoTI Network Processor Architecture
Figure 1 shows the architecture of RemoTI Network Processor [1]. The right side is the network processor.
An RTI surrogate module (RTIS) decodes the command frames sent over universal asynchronous
receiver/transmitter (UART), serial peripheral interface, (SPI), inter-integrated circuit (I2C), or universal
serial bus (USB) and calls appropriate C function of RemoTI application framework [2]. The left side is the
application processor. The RTIS module abstracts the same C function interface on host processor,
enabling application to call C functions remotely instead of building network processor interface directly.
PC/MCU
CC2533
RTIS
Application
RTI
RTIS
NPI
NPI
NWK
MAC
SPI/UART/I2C/USB
Figure 1. RemoTI Network Processor Component Architecture
1.3
Structure of RemoTI-Linux
RemoTI-Linux is a simple RF4CE target application on a linux host [3]. Figure 2 is an overview of the
architecture. The linux software is split in two executables:
• An NPI server that creates an IP socket and connects it to the requested serial interface
• An NPI client that runs the RemoTI application
The NPI client sends all commands to the socket. The NPI server takes care of translating them to the
RNP. The NPI client uses the RemoTI interface to drive the RNP.
Figure 2. RemoTI-Linux Software Architecture
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Figure 3 illustrates the application architecture. The simple application creates an RF4CE network. By
default, it allows pairing with any RF4CE controller node using ZRC or ZID profile. Once paired, all data
sent by the controller node will be displayed on the terminal.
Figure 3. RemoTI-Linux Application Architecture
1.4
Network Enabling for NPI Client
Since the communication between NPI server and client adopts IP socket, NPI server and client can run
on different devices. Figure 4 describes the scenario where NPI server is running inside the STB and NPI
client is running inside a test PC. The STB and the test PC are under the same LAN via Ethernet on the
production line. In this case, the NPI client including the test application can run on the test PC and test
the CC253x on the actual STB. To enable this scenario, it just needs to set some configuration files. For
more information, see Section 3.5.
Figure 4. Network Enabling for NPI Client
1.5
Installation for RemoTI-Linux
The RemoTI-Linux is open source. It is available on Git HUB [4]. With the different configuration, RemoTILinux can perform as the RF4CE target or controller role. On the official release of RemoTI-Linux, there is
a "SIMPLE_lnx_x86_client" application project. You can base your project on this, then modify the
application for your own manufacturing usage.
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2
Implement Test Program
The environment of manufacturing line is different from the RND working space. The equipments are
limited, much noise exists and products need to be verified on time. Besides, some customers make
target only or controller only. The RemoTI-Linux can simulate target or controller function. Customers
could utilize devices of the same hardware to test transmitter and receiver function. Figure 5 shows the
setup for the implementation environment. Two CC2533 kits are connected to one laptop that runs Linux
OS: EM and the RemoTI Target Board. One kit acts as controller, the other acts as target. Multiple
instances of the client application can be run simultaneously, preferably in different sessions in separate
terminals. For the setup with one controller and one target, two instances must run. The only difference is
that the configuration file is used for controller and target.
Figure 5. The setup for the Test Program Implementation
Example 1 lists the default functions supported by RemoTI-Linux. The lastest RemoTI-Linux on the GitHub
might be a little different. RemoTI provide many APIs [7]. This section utilizes some APIs to implement
useful features for testing RF4CE products.
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Example 1. Default Init Menu list of RemoTI-Linux
Init MENU:
1. Toggle Target/Controller
2. Set Node Capabilities
3. Supported Profiles
4. Supported Devices
5. Supported Target Types
6. Vendor ID
7. Vendor String
8. Toggle User String
9. User String
i- Initialize without configuration. (Restore from NV)
g- Get current configuration from RNP
l- Show configuration. Note! Not Necessarily the One Written To RNP
s- Apply Configuration and Move On To Application
r- Back To Application, Do Not Apply Changes
c- Start As Controller (default settings)
t- Start As Target (default settings)
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Example 2 provides an example of the modified Menu with code snips. Here, one fakePairing folder is
created on “Projects\tools\LinuxHost\application\fakePairing“. The NPI client is called FPA_lnx_x86_client.
Example 2. Updated Main Menu List
Init MENU:
q- exit
0- Config
1- Pairing
2- Unpairing
7- Send Data
8- Clear Pairing Table
9- Display Pairing Table
t- Toggle __DEBUG_TIME_ACTIVE on Server
y- Toggle __BIG_DEBUG on Server
c- Toggle simple data display
a- Check States
g- Get MAC Channel
r- Reset RNP
m- Show This Menu
f- Enter RF Test Mode
k- Configure Fake Pairing Table
Example 3. RF Test Mode Menu List
RF Test Mode MENU:
r- Return to Main Menu
1- Perform Tx Mode 0: unmodulated carrier
2- Perform Tx Mode 1: pseudo-random data
3- Perform Rx Mode
4- Perform PER Test
5- Perform PER2 by SmartRFStudio
6- STOP PER2 by SmartRFStudio
c- Set Channel
p- Set TxPower
n- Set PER Counterl- List Current Channel, TxPower
m- Show This Menu
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2.1
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Fake Pairing
Pairing is the first step to connect the RF4CE target and controller. But, it may take some time in a noisy
environment. It would be very helpful if the pairing tables between DUTs (target and remote) could be
configured by programming. Since the pairing process in this case is not negotiated through RF packets, it
is called “Fake Pairing”.
For RemoTI source code, the structure of “rcnNwkPairingEntry_t” stores the pairing table of the peer.
Table 2 lists an example to configure the pairing table on target and controller. Some elements (for
example, panID, securityKey) need to be the same on both sides, while others must mirror each other (for
example, NWK Address versus SRC NWK Address).
Table 2. Configuration for Fake Pairing on Target and Controller
Element of Pairing Table,
rcnNwkPairingEntry_t
on Target
on Controller
[PAIRING_INFO]
[PAIRING_INFO]
pairingRef
PAIRINGREF=0X00
PAIRINGREF=0X00
devTypeList[]
DEVTYPE0=0x01
DEVTYPE0=0x02
DEVTYPE1=0x00
DEVTYPE1=0x00
DEVTYPE2=0x00
DEVTYPE2=0x00
ieeeAddress
IEEE=00 12 4B 00 12 34 01 00
IEEE=00 12 4B 00 12 34 00 01
nwkAddress
NWKADDR=0xAAAA
NWKADDR=0xBBBB
srcNwkAddress
SRCNWKADDR=0xBBBB
SRCNWKADDR=0xAAAA
panId
PANID=0x1234
PANID=0x1234
recCapabilities
RECCAP=0x0C
RECCAP=0x0F
recFrameCounter
RECFRAMECOUNTER=0x00000000
RECFRAMECOUNTER=0x00000000
vendorIdentifier
VENDORID=0x0007
VENDORID=0x0007
securityKeyValid
KEY_VALID=1
KEY_VALID=1
securityKey[]
SECKEY=01 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 SECKEY=01 01 01 01 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 02 01
01 01 01 01
01 01 01
profileDiscs
PROFILE_DISC=0x02
PROFILE_DISC=0x02
Table 3 lists the printout on target and controller.
Table 3. Pairing Table After Fake Pairing on Target and Controller
on Target
on Controller
*************************************
*************************************
* Max number of pairing entries: 10
* Max number of pairing entries: 10
*************************************
*************************************
* Pairing Index:
0x00
* Pairing Index:
0x00
* SRC NWK Address:
0xBBBB
* SRC NWK Address:
0xAAAA
* Logical Channel:
0x0F
* Logical Channel:
0x19
* IEEE Address:
00:12:4B:00:12:34:01:00
* IEEE Address:
00:12:4B:00:12:34:00:01
* PAN Id:
0x1234
* PAN Id:
0x1234
* NWK Address:
0xAAAA
* NWK Address:
0xBBBB
* Rec Capabilities:
0x0C
* Rec Capabilities:
0x0F
* Security Key Valid:
0x01
* Security Key Valid:
0x01
* Vendor Identifier:
0x0007
* Vendor Identifier:
0x0007
* Device Type List:
[0x01, 0x00, 0x00]
* Device Type List:
[0x02, 0x00, 0x00]
* Received Frame Counter:
0x00000000 (0)
* Received Frame Counter:
0x00000000 (0)
* Profiles Discovered:
0x0002
* Profiles Discovered:
0x0002
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Afterwards, target and controller are in the same RF4CE network and can send data packets to each
other. Figure 6 shows the controller send data to the target. At the beginning, it sends data from channel
15. Because agility is enabled by default, it uses channel 20, 25. After that, it gets ACK on channel 25 and
stays on that channel for the next packet.
Figure 6. Controller Could Send Packet to Target After Doing Fake Pairing
2.2
Configured as Target or Controller
Customers might manufacture only target or controller devices. It would be helpful if their device could be
configured to their peer types. For RemoTI source code, the structure of “appDevInfo_t” stores the device
own information. Table 4 provides an example to configure the device own information on target and
controller.
Table 4. Configuration for Device Own Information on Target and Controller
Element of appDevInfo_t
on Target
on Controller
[OWN_INFO]
[OWN_INFO]
IEEE=00 12 4B 00 12 34 00 01
IEEE=00 12 4B 00 12 34 01 00
nodeCapabilities
NODECAP=0x0F
NODECAP=0x0C
tgtTypeList
TGTLIST=0x01 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00
TGTLIST=0x02 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00 0x00
appCapabilites
APPCAP=0x12
APPCAP=0x12
devTypeList
DEVTYPELIST=0x02 0x00 0x00
DEVTYPELIST=0x01 0x00 0x00
profileIdList
PROFILEIDLIST=0x01 0xFF 0xFF 0xFF
0xFF 0xFF 0xFF
PROFILEIDLIST=0x01 0xFF 0xFF 0xFF 0xFF 0xFF
0xFF
vendorId
VENDORID=0x0007
VENDORID=0x0007
vendorString
VENDORSTRING="TI_LPRF"
VENDORSTRING="TI_LPRF"
“nodeCapabilities” is the most important element. Table 5 lists the bits definition [2]. For controller, bit0
and bit1 should be set as ‘0’.
Table 5. Definition of nodeCapabilities
Bit
0
Description
0 – Controller type
1 – Target type
1
0 – Battery powered
1 - AC mains powered
2
0 – Security incapable
1 – Security capable
3
0 – Channel normalization incapable
1 – Channel normalization capable
4-7
Reserved
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2.3
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Enable RF Test Modes
To verify the RF performance on manufactured products, devices need to enter specific test mode.
RemoTI provides one API (RTI_TestModeReq) to place the radio in different test modes [2]. Table 6 lists
the test modes supported by RTI_TestModeReq.
Table 6. Test Modes Supported by RTI_TestModeReq
Test Mode Description
0x00
The device transmits unmodulated carrier at the specified frequency and with the specified transmit power.
0x01
The device will transmit pseudo-random data at the specified frequency and with the specified transmit power.
0x02
The device will have the radio placed in receive mode on the specified frequency.
Example code is shown in Example 4. The parameters of mode, txPower, and channel depend on test
conditions. Disable agility when setting the channel on MainMenu to simplify the test.
Example 4. Example Code to Call RTI_TestModeReq
uint8 mode = 0x00; //tx unmodulated carrier
int8 txPower = 0; //0 dBm
uint8 channel = 15; // channel 15
RTI_TestModeReq(mode, txPower, channel );
}
2.4
Change RF Features
To meet some RF test cases, customers might need to change some RF parameters, (for example, RF
channel, agility, discovery threshold). The example code is shown in Example 5.
About setting discovery threshold, the threshold value is unsigned (from 0 to 255). It is compared to the
incoming discovery request link quality indicator (LQI), which is also an unsigned value (0 to 255, 255
meaning that it is a very strong or good signal). If the discovery request LQI is lower than the threshold,
the request is ignored. With TI RF4CE kit, ARC and a dongle, if the threshold value is set to 205, they
cannot pair when the distance between ARC and dongle is farther than 50 cm.
Example 5. Example Code to Change RF Parameters
// change device RF channel
{
uint8 value=15; //depend on test case
RTI_WriteItemEx(RTI_PROFILE_RTI, 0x61, 1, &value);
//0x61: RTI_SA_ITEM_CURRENT_CHANNEL
}
// enable or disable agility
{
uint8 value=1;
RTI_WriteItemEx(RTI_PROFILE_RTI, 0x87, 1, &value);
//0x87: RTI_SA_ITEM_AGILITY_ENABLE
}
// set discovery threshold
{
uint8 value=205;
RTI_WriteItemEx(RTI_PROFILE_RTI, 0x62, 1, &value);
//0x62: RTI_SA_ITEM_DISCOVERY_LQI_THRESHOLD
}
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2.5
Implement PER Test
PER test verifies the packet error rate between controller and target. Example code is provided in
Example 6. Controller call RTI_SendDataReq() is required to send each packet with ACK. If the target
receives a valid packet, it would reply ACK. Then, DUT checks the status on callback function
RTI_SendDataCnf(). After the number of successful transmission is received, the packet error rate could
be calculated.
Example 6. Example Code for PER Test
void appProcessPER()
{
//send 1st pkt
RTI_SendDataReq(0, RTI_PROFILE_ZRC, 0, /*RTI_TX_OPTION_ACKNOWLEDGED*/4, 2, data);
app_RF_test_data_s.Sent_cntr++;
appRfTestMode = APP_RF_TEST_STATE_PER_RECEIVING;//update on RTI_SendDataCnf
//add timeout mechanism
app_RF_test_data_s.TMOUT = 0;
//clear timeout indication
timeout = (app_RF_test_data_s.PER_CNTR / 10 ) * 5; //could be adjusted
timer_start_timerEx(FPA_App_threadId, FAKEPAIRING_APP_EVT_RF_TMOUT, timeout);
while((app_RF_test_data_s.Sent_cntr<app_RF_test_data_s.PER_CNTR) &&
!(app_RF_test_data_s.TMOUT))
//counter to be send
{
if(appRfTestMode == APP_RF_TEST_STATE_PER_SENDING)
{
RTI_SendDataReq(0, RTI_PROFILE_ZRC, 0, /*RTI_TX_OPTION_ACKNOWLEDGED*/4, 2, data)
app_RF_test_data_s.Sent_cntr++;
appRfTestMode = APP_RF_TEST_STATE_PER_RECEIVING;
//update on RTI_SendDataCnf
}
}
while((appRfTestMode == APP_RF_TEST_STATE_PER_RECEIVING) &&
!(app_RF_test_data_s.TMOUT))
{
//wait the ack for the last packet
}
//calculate PER
per =(1.0 - (app_RF_test_data_s.Rcv_cntr / app_RF_test_data_s.PER_CNTR))*100;
printf("PER Test result = %2.1f %%\n", per);
…
}
void RTI_SendDataCnf(rStatus_t status)
{
if (appState == AP_STATE_RF_TEST_MODE)
//under RF test mode
{
if(appRfTestMode == APP_RF_TEST_STATE_PER_RECEIVING)
{
if (status == RTI_SUCCESS)
app_RF_test_data_s.Rcv_cntr++;
printf("PER Test Rcv_cntr=%d\n",app_RF_test_data_s.Rcv_cntr);
//appRfTestMode = APP_RF_TEST_STATE_PER_SENDING;
}
…
appRfTestMode = APP_RF_TEST_STATE_PER_SENDING; //toggle appRfTestMode
}
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Setup for RF Test
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Setup for RF Test
Using Example 4 and Example 6, this section introduces how to setup the test environment and perform
RF tests. Continuous Tx, Rx and PER test is also introduced. Except PER test, one DUT (RemoTI Target
Board with CC2533EM) is used (see Figure 7). DUT connects to the spectrum analyzer with RF cable. In
addition, it connects to one Linux laptop with a USB cable. The laptop executes the test program, then
DUT emits an RF signal to the spectrum analyzer.
Figure 7. Setup for RF Test
3.1
Perform Tx Test Mode0
Tx test Mode0 verifies the RF quality while the DUT emits the unmodulated signal. To perform Tx test
Mode0, open two terminals on a Linux laptop (see Figure 8) and run the following steps:
1. On one terminal (the upper one is shown in Figure 8), enter NPI server directory, “RemoTI-Linux/
Projects/tools/LinuxHost/out”.
2. Launch NPI server by running “./NPI_lnx_x86_server”.
3. On another terminal, enter NPI client directory, “RemoTI-Linux/
Projects/tools/LinuxHost/application/fakePairing/out.
4. Launch NPI client by running “./FPA_lnx_x86_client -c ../defCtl.cfg”.
5. Type ‘f’ to select “Enter RF Test Mode”.
6. Type ‘1’ to select “Perform Tx Mode 0: unmodulated carrier”.
7. Then, DUT emits an RF signal to the spectrum (see Figure 9).
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Figure 8. Tx Test Mode0 Launch on Linux Laptop
Figure 9. Tx Test Mode0 Perform on Spectrum Analyzer
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Perform Tx Test Mode1
Tx test Mode1 verifies the RF quality while the DUT emits the modulated signal. To perform Tx test
Mode1, open two terminals on a Linux laptop (see Figure 10) and run the following steps:
1. On one terminal, enter NPI server directory, “RemoTI-Linux/Projects/tools/LinuxHost/out”.
2. Launch NPI server by running “./NPI_lnx_x86_server”.
3. On another terminal, enter NPI client directory, “RemoTI-Linux/
Projects/tools/LinuxHost/application/fakePairing/out”.
4. Launch NPI client by running “./FPA_lnx_x86_client -c ../defCtl.cfg”.
5. Type ‘f’ to select “Enter RF Test Mode”.
6. Type ‘2’ to select “Perform Tx Mode 0: unmodulated carrier”.
7. Then, DUT emits an RF signal (see Figure 11).
Figure 10. Tx test Mode1 Launch on Linux Laptop
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Figure 11. Tx Test Mode1 Perform on Spectrum Analyzer
3.3
Perform Rx Test
Rx test verifies whether DUT enters receiving mode and does not emit any RF signal on the specified
frequency and its second harmonic. To perform Rx test, open two terminals on a Linux laptop (see
Figure 12) and run the following steps:
1. On one terminal, enter NPI server directory, “RemoTI-Linux/ Projects/tools/LinuxHost/out.
2. Launch NPI server by running “./NPI_lnx_x86_server”.
3. On another terminal, enter NPI client directory, “RemoTI-Linux/
Projects/tools/LinuxHost/application/fakePairing/out”.
4. Launch NPI client by running “./FPA_lnx_x86_client -c ../defCtl.cfg”.
5. Type ‘f’ to select “Enter RF Test Mode”.
6. Type ‘3’ to select “Perform Rx Mode”.
7. Modify the spectrum with wider frequency range similar to Figure 13. Verify whether or not DUT emits
an RF signal on the specified frequency and its second harmonic.
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Figure 12. Rx Test Launch on Linux Laptop
Figure 13. Rx Test Perform on Spectrum Analyzer
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3.4
Perform PER Test
PER test verifies the packet error rate between the controller and target. The setup is similar to Figure 5.
On a Linux laptop, two NPI server configuration files are needed for the controller and target; Table 7 lists
the difference. Run two NPI server instances for controller and target. Open four terminals (see Figure 14)
and run the following steps:
1. On Terminal1 (the upper left one is on Figure 14), enter NPI server directory, “RemoTI-Linux/
Projects/tools/LinuxHost/out”.
2. Launch NPI server for controller,“./NPI_lnx_x86_server ./RemoTI_RNP.cfg”.
3. On Terminal2 (lower left), enter NPI client directory, “RemoTI-Linux/
Projects/tools/LinuxHost/application/fakePairing/out”.
4. Launch NPI client for controller, “./FPA_lnx_x86_client -c ../defCtl.cfg”.
5. On Terminal3 (upper right), enter NPI server directory, “RemoTI-Linux/ Projects/tools/LinuxHost/out”.
6. Launch NPI server for target, “./NPI_lnx_x86_server ./RemoTI_RNP_Tgt.cfg”.
7. On Terminal4, enter NPI client directory, “RemoTI-Linux/
Projects/tools/LinuxHost/application/fakePairing/out”.
8. Launch NPI client for target, “./FPA_lnx_x86_client -c ../defTgt.cfg”.
9. On Terminal2, type ‘f’ to select “Enter RF Test Mode”.
10. Type ‘4’ to select “Perform PER Test”. After finishing test, it would print out the PER value. Figure 15
shows the sniff log. For good condition, after controller sends each packet, target would reply ACK.
Table 7. Server Configuration Difference on Target and Controller
on Target
on Controller
[PORT]
[PORT]
port=2533
port=2530
devPath="/dev/ttyUSB1" ;
devPath="/dev/ttyUSB0" ;
[LOG]
[LOG]
log="./NpiLnxLog_2.txt"
log="./NpiLnxLog.txt"
Figure 14. PER Test Launch on Linux Laptop
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Setup for RF Test
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Figure 15. Sniff Log While Performing PER Test
3.5
Enable NPI Client on Network Test
As described in Section 1.4, the NPI server and client can run on different devices. An example is shown
in Figure 16. Before performing the RF test, the NPI client needs to understand the physical IP address of
the NPI server and fill to the IP_ADDR of the NPI client’s configuration file. If the NPI client runs as control
role, defCtl.cfg is used. Otherwise, defTgt.cfg is used for target role.
Figure 16. NPI Server and Client Run on Different Devices
18
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Setup for RF Test
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Example 7. Modification on NPI Client
@defCtl.cfg
[DEBUG_MODE]
BIG=0 ; (1: ON, 0: OFF)
TIMER=1 ; (1: ON, 0: OFF)
APP=1 ; (1: ON, 0: OFF, 2: Verbose ON)
[BASE_SETTINGS]
IP_ADDR=192.168.0.66
@defTgt.cfg
[DEBUG_MODE]
BIG=0
TIMER=0
APP=1
CLIENT=0
[BASE_SETTINGS]
IP_ADDR=192.168.0.66
3.6
Perform PER Test With SmartRF Studio
Besides Section 3.4, there is another option for PER test. The setup is shown in Figure 17. The SmartRF
Studio runs PER Tx side, and the RNP runs PER Rx side.
Figure 17. Setup for PER Test With SmartRF Studio
The RF4CE stack already embeds a test function,
RTI_TestModeReq(RTI_TEST_MODE_RX_AT_FREQ,..). After this API is called, the RF4CE stack starts
to count the received MAC frames. If the sender finishes transmitting test packets, you can call
RTI_TestRxCounterGetReq(1) to get the counter of the received MAC frames. If you know in advance the
number of packets sent and the time needed to send them, then you can have an estimation of the PER.
Use the SmartRF Studio to send test packets; it takes around 8s to send 100 packets.
Note that the network layer is still linked on the MAC/RF PHY, which means it can change RF parameters.
To avoid this, disable the following:
• Standby mode : RTI_StandbyReq(RTI_STANDBY_OFF);
• Frequency agility
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Setup for RF Test
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Below are a list of the test steps:
1. On the RNP side, set test channel and launch test mode (see Example 8, call appProcessPER2Start
()).
2. On SmartRF Studio, configure the broadcast packet (see Figure 18). Then start to send packets.
3. After all packets are sent, on RNP side, stop the test mode and calculate the PER (see Example 8, call
appProcessPER2Stop()). To simplify the test, disable agility when setting the channel on MainMenu.
Example 8. Example Code for PER Test With SmartRF Studio
//To reset the counter and start the MAC layer in reception (here one channel 15):
RTI_TestModeReq( RTI_TEST_MODE_RX_AT_FREQ, 0, 15);
void appProcessPER2Start()
{
uint8 value=0;
printf("Note, the number of expected packet is 100. To modify this, need to modify the
definitoin of PKT_exp inside the code\n");
//the network layer is still linked to the MAC/PHY. Which means it can change RF parameters. To
avoid that disable the following:
// - Standby mode
// - Be sure the RF never turn off by application
//RTI_StandbyReq(RTI_STANDBY_OFF); //disable standby mode
//RTI_StandbyReq(RTI_STANDBY_ON);
//To reset the counter (rtiRxConter) and start MAC Layer in reception
RTI_TestModeReq(RTI_TEST_MODE_RX_AT_FREQ,0,app_RF_test_data_s.Channel);
}
#define PKT_exp 100 //set expected packet to 100
void appProcessPER2Stop()
{
double per=0.0;
uint8
res=0;
double
pkt_exp = 1.0 * PKT_exp;
appRfTestMode = APP_RF_TEST_STATE_INIT; //set state
res = RTI_TestRxCounterGetReq(1); //get counter, then reset it.
printf("---- receive counter = %d ----\n", res);
//calculate PER
per = (1.0 - (res / pkt_exp))*100;
printf("---- PER2 Test result = %10.1f %% ----\n", per);
}
20
Guide for Manufacture Testing of RF4CE Products
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RemoTI Mass Production Test
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Figure 18. Configuration on SmartRF Studio
Since the process in Example 8 uses broadcast packets, check that another RF4CE device is not
transmitting, otherwise, the PER will be erroneous. The other possibility is to use unicast packet. On
SmartRF Studio, “Shource PAN” and “Source Address” need to match the values on the RNP target side
(PANID and SHORT_ADDRESS).
4
RemoTI Mass Production Test
To simplify the RF4CE RF test, the RemoTI Mass Production Test [8] [9] was provided, which utilizes the
PC application to analyze the test result. The test flow is depicted in Figure 19. First, prepare the
configuration on the PC side and launch the RemoTI-MassProduction-Test application. Then, execute the
massProduction client on the STB side. The test packets automatically transmit. Finally, the PC
application generates the test result (see Figure 20).
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Summary
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Figure 19. Execute massProduction_lnx_x86_client
Figure 20. Result of RemoTI Mass Production Test
5
Summary
This application report illustrates the methods for “Fake Pairing” and provides some RF test cases, which
can verify the manufactured devices. It also helps customers to manufacture RF4CE products easier.
22
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References
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6
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
RemoTI Host Processor Sample Application and Porting Guide (SWRA259)
RemoTI API (SWRA268)
RF4CE, simple linux target application wiki
TI-LPRF-Software/RemoTI-Linux
RemoTI Network Processor Developer's Guide (SWRU223)
RF4CE, simple linux target application wiki
RemoTI Network Processor Interface Specification API (SWRA271)
NPI Server (SWRA450)
RemoTI Mass Production Test (SWRA451)
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Copyright © 2015, Texas Instruments Incorporated
23
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