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Texas Instruments Final Test Considerations for Wireless Technology Products Application notes
Application Report
SWRA468 – October 2014
Final Test Considerations for Wireless Technology
Products
Abhed Misra and Thomas Almholt
ABSTRACT
This application note highlights suggested best practices to be adopted in manufacturing the low-power
radio frequency (LPRF) enabled devices. TI provides many software and hardware application
development tools which can be effectively and efficiently used to realize a semi-automated production
line setup for LPRF-enabled devices.
Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................................... 2
Module Manufacturing....................................................................................................... 2
2.1
PCB Material Selection ............................................................................................ 2
2.2
PCB Thickness and Stack Profile ................................................................................ 2
2.3
Copper Mask Thickness ........................................................................................... 2
2.4
DC Check ............................................................................................................ 3
2.5
Solder Masking ...................................................................................................... 3
2.6
Bill of Material (BOM) .............................................................................................. 3
2.7
Cleanliness .......................................................................................................... 3
2.8
High Temperature Solder .......................................................................................... 3
2.9
Shielding Material ................................................................................................... 3
3
Module Testing at the Manufacturing Line ............................................................................... 4
3.1
Things to be Tested/Scoped ...................................................................................... 4
3.2
Radio Registers to be Used for Testing ......................................................................... 4
3.3
Probable Reasons for Variations in Test Points ................................................................ 5
4
Recommended/Suggested Test Procedure .............................................................................. 6
4.1
Setup 1 ............................................................................................................... 6
4.2
Setup 2 ............................................................................................................... 8
4.3
Setup 3 ............................................................................................................. 10
5
References .................................................................................................................. 12
Appendix A
....................................................................................................................... 13
1
2
List of Figures
1
Suggestion 1: Setup Used in Production Line ........................................................................... 6
2
Suggestion 2: Setup Used in Production Line ........................................................................... 8
3
Suggestion 3: Setup to be Used in Production Line ................................................................... 10
4
Interface Board Block Diagram ........................................................................................... 11
5
PC GUI Interface: Dash Board View..................................................................................... 13
6
PC GUI Interface: Dash Board Selection View ......................................................................... 14
7
PC GUI Interface: COM Port and Baud Rate Configuration .......................................................... 15
8
PC GUI Interface: Test Result View: Pass
9
PC GUI Interface: Test Result View: Fail
.............................................................................
..............................................................................
15
16
List of Tables
SimpleLink is a trademark of Texas Instruments.
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1
Introduction
1
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Introduction
Low-power wireless radio technology is an important application to many products where wireless
connectivity is needed. But the world of RF is completely different from the conventional development
environment perspective, as the frequencies involved make the testing of such systems more complex. TI
has a huge portfolio of low-power wireless SimpleLink™ solutions catering to the frequency band from 169
MHz in sub-GHz band through the 2.4-GHz band. Each device in the portfolio has exhaustive reference
design data and guidelines on layout of the board around the chip, for fast and easy development. The RF
performance observed during the application development is attained with expensive lab equipment
(spectrum analyzers, network analyzers, and so forth) which may not be possible to put in the production
line, thereby generating the need to come up with alternative solutions to solve the quality requirements of
the final product.
This document covers the guidelines for implementing a high volume production test of products enabled
by low-power wireless technologies. The need to achieve maximum yield with best possible quality
generates a requirement to make an inexpensive, yet reliable test methodology. This document also
covers suggestions to make the testing and production as automated as possible to eliminate the
likelihood of manual errors.
2
Module Manufacturing
One thing needs to be clearly understood and kept in mind that the RF performance of any low-power
wireless device depends not only on the actual silicon device but also on its basic building blocks, which
are the discrete component (value, tolerance, package) or the PCB (material, thickness, layout). Any
deviation on the critical components can result in reduced performance or out of band signal noise issues.
2.1
PCB Material Selection
When selecting the base material for a product, there is a tradeoff between price, safety and performance.
FR-4 glass epoxy has proven, over time, to be a versatile product that has the best compromise between
price and safety while exhibiting acceptable RF performance. There are numerous PCB materials that
have better RF performance and similar safety specifications but come with a much higher price tag.
Not all FR-4-compliant materials are made the same and typically the differences are exposed at higher
frequencies first, so it is highly recommended placing requirements on the PCB manufacture to not
change FR-4 vendor without prior approval.
2.2
PCB Thickness and Stack Profile
The PCB thickness and stack up are critical in attaining the desired performance and must be strictly
followed. A slight variation in the PCB profile can lead to unaccounted changes in impedance which in
some cases can cause significant performance degradation.
The thickness of the PCB should not be more than 1.0 mm for 2-layer and 1.6 mm for a 4-layer PCB. For
multilayer boards, the top layer should be less than 1.0 mm. In general, the thinner the active RF layer is,
the better the performance is, however, the mechanical integrity of the design must also be considered.
Most of the TI reference designs clearly mention the stack profile for the designed board.
2.3
Copper Mask Thickness
The final copper thickness on the outer layers of a PCB is determined by two variables:
• First is the initial copper thickness, this is the thickness of the copper foil used during the assembly of
the PCB stack up. The most common thickness is 1-oz copper which stands for 1 oz of copper per
square foot, resulting in a copper thickness of 30 µm.
• Second, the thickness of the copper plating added during the process used to create the via’s needed
to connect the various conductor layers of the PCB. The most common thickness again, is 1-oz copper
per square foot, or 30-µm copper thickness.
The thicker the conductor, the more current the conductor can carry. Sometimes the final copper thickness
is greater than 60 µm. For RF circuits this is generally not advisable because the resolution of the line
etching process is reduced as the copper thickness is increased, resulting in poor tolerance of RF lines'
characteristic impedance.
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Module Manufacturing
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2.4
DC Check
Implement DC checks at various spots in the production flow to be able to catch production issues before
the assemblies are fully populated and the cost of rejecting is increased.
Implementing a comprehensive DC shorting test on the bare PCBs is a cost-effective method of rejecting
PCB-only manufacturing issues that could have resulted in costly final unit test yield.
2.5
Solder Masking
Solder mask is an essential and important part in the board fabrication. Solder mask in the RF section is
critical, for example, to avoid unintentional shorting due to solder debris. Solder mask in the antenna feed
point can be skipped.
2.6
Bill of Material (BOM)
Each component in the BOM for the low-power wireless radio device is a tested and calculated
component. Do not deviate from the manufacturer, the value, and the source of the component. If, during
the product life cycle, it becomes required to change a particular component then the entire cycle of
testing needs to be carried out, involving the output power optimization, frequency stability (over
temperature range), out of band transmission, harmonic levels.
Each component in the BOM for the low-power wireless radio device is a tested and calculated
component. Do not deviate from the manufacturer, the value, and the source of the component. If, during
the product life cycle, a particular component must be changed, then the entire cycle of testing needs to
be carried out; the output power optimization, frequency stability (over temperature range), out-of-band
transmission, and harmonic levels.
2.7
Cleanliness
Avoid using flux. The conductive nature of flux may lead to shorting or variation of RF performance in the
radio device. After assembly, clean the module with IP (isopropyl alcohol) or aqueous wash and then
properly dry the module.
2.8
High Temperature Solder
If the device has to be mounted on a motherboard using the reflow process, then the solder for the submodule has to be high-temperature grade as the reflow may lead to de-soldering or opening of component
solder joints.
2.9
Shielding Material
For the different certifications and wireless planning compliance, usually a shield on the board is required
to confine the unwanted spurs and harmonics in and out of band. Common shielding materials are tin,
nickel-silver alloy, nickel-brass alloy or treated oxidized copper. Another important point is soldering, as an
improper soldering technique can defeat the entire purpose of having the shield. The sides of the shield
must be soldered with no gaps on the corners. Place vias on the edges of the shield to connect to the
ground. Gaps should be less than 1/10 of a wavelength (ƛ) of the fifth harmonics wave (approximately 2
mm).
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3
Module Testing at the Manufacturing Line
3
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Module Testing at the Manufacturing Line
Testing the board or module for the desired performance is the most critical and important procedure in
the manufacturing line. This section highlights several items on the module that should be automatically
checked at selected test points. The following section lists some of the most important tests:
3.1
Things to be Tested/Scoped
1.
2.
3.
4.
3.2
Output power test
Frequency offset test
RX sensitivity
Current consumption of the module.
(a) During TX
(b) During RX
(c) During Sleep
Radio Registers to be Used for Testing
There are specific registers in TI radios which need to be used for the module performance judgment. The
interpretation of the RSSI, FREQEST, and FREQTUNE registers which is used for testing and calibration
purposes is described in Section 3.2.1 through Section 3.2.3 .
3.2.1
Register for Frequency Error Value
The frequency error is calculated and updated in the specific register of the CC radio. For example, the
CC112x, which is a sub 1-GHz transceiver, the FREQOFF_EST-0/1, register gives you the Frequency
Offset Estimation in 2’s complement format.
Similarly, using CC253x/4x, the SOC's FREQEST register gives the Frequency Offset Estimation.
3.2.2
Register for Frequency Error Correction
The generated VCO frequency is configured through register FREQ-0/1/2. There is a provision in the TI
CC radios to perform the OFFSET correction/calibration using the Frequency Estimation Register output.
For example, in the CC112x, the FREQOFF-0/1 register is used for the correction of offset. This register
value can either be manually fed or can be programmed automatically to be updated by enabling the bit in
FREQOFF_CFG, that is OR it with 0x30).
Similarly, in the CC253x/4x, the FREQTUNE register needs to be loaded as per the offset of the
frequency.
3.2.3
Register for Measurement and Testing
For RX and TX performance of the radio, RSSI and TXPOWER are the parameters to be measured and
scoped.
Each TI CC radio has an RSSI register, giving the strength of the received signal at the configured
frequency band. For example, with the CC112x, RSSI is a 12 bits two's complement number with 0.0625
dB resolution, hence ranging from –128 to 127 dBm. A value of –128 dBm indicates that the RSSI is
invalid.
As an example, assume a –70 dBm signal into the antenna and RSSI [11:0] = 0x200 (32) when
AGC_GAIN_ADJUST.GAIN_ADJUSTMENT = 0x00. This means that the offset is 102 dB as
32 dBm – 102 dB = –70 dBm.
Similarly, for the CC253x/4x, the RSSI value is a 2's-complement signed number on a logarithmic scale
with 1-dB steps. To find the actual signal power (P) at the RF pins with reasonable accuracy, an offset
must be added to the RSSI value.
P = RSSI – OFFSET [dBm]
4
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Module Testing at the Manufacturing Line
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For example, with an offset of 73 dB, reading an RSSI value of –10 from the RSSI register means that the
RF input power is approximately –83 dBm.
The output power of the radio needs to be configured as per the application need and can be done
through a register.
For example, in the CC112x, the output power of the radio is configured and controlled through the
PA_CFG0/1/2 register. The resolution of the output power is up to 0.5 db. When used along with the
range extended or additional power amplifier, the register needs to have the value loaded accordingly.
Also with PA in front, the port configuration also needs to be updated for enable and disable of the PA and
LNA for TX and RX, respectively.
Similarly, in the CC253x/254x, the TXPOWER register is used to control the output power of the radio.
When used along with the range extended or additional power amplifier, the register value remains the
same but the port register (P0/1) value takes care of enable and disable of the PA and LNA for TX and
RX, respectively.
Conclusively, the TI radio allows creation of a cost friendly, easy to use and maintain, semi-automatic
production test and quality control setup with the inbuilt capabilities and featured data registers.
3.3
Probable Reasons for Variations in Test Points
This section provides the most probable reasons for variations in the test points listed in Section 3.1.
1. Variation in R/C/L components. Swapping of the components or different values.
2. Crystal variation due to different make and loading capacitance.
3. Dry soldering or cold solder points.
4. Various PCB manufacturing issues not found during the DC short check.
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Recommended/Suggested Test Procedure
4
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Recommended/Suggested Test Procedure
In Figure 1, the test setup and its essential components (devices) are shown along with DUT (device
under test).
4.1
Setup 1
RF
foam
RFlossy
Lossy
Foam
(Inside
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shieldedbox,
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Along
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standingwaves)
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Metal Shielded
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Enclosure
Ref Unit
Unit Receiver
Receiver
(CC2530 EM)
(CC2530
EM)
Device Under
under Test
Device
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Smart
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SmartRF
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board
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PCPCSmart
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check
PC:To
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configure,
check
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moduleoutput
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and
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using
Smart
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USB
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andand
to power
up theup
modules)
(For
studioconfiguration
configuration
to power
the modules)
Figure 1. Suggestion 1: Setup Used in Production Line
6
Final Test Considerations for Wireless Technology Products
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Recommended/Suggested Test Procedure
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4.1.1
Procedure for Setup-1
1. Output Power Test
(a) Using SmartRF studio, configure the DUT in Continuous modulated transmission (any fixed
channel).
(b) Put the Reference receiver in Continuous Receiving (same channel as transmitter).
(c) Check the graph and peak on PC.
2. Frequency Offset
(a) Using SmartRF studio, put the DUT in Continuous Receiving mode.
(b) Put the Reference (TI EM) in continuous transmission.
(c) Read and log the RSSI OFFSET on SmartRF studio. This is a reference for all the modules.
(d) Put DUT in continuous transmission and Reference (TI EM) in continuous Receiving mode.
(e) Read the RSSI OFFSET on SmartRF studio, match it to the logged value.
3. RX Sensitivity
(a) Using SmartRF studio, configure the DUT in Continuous Receiving (any fixed channel).
(b) Put the Reference (TI EM) in Continuous Transmission (same channel as Receiver). Ensure TX
power of maximum level.
(c) Check the graph on DUT on PC for receiving signal.
4. Current Consumption
(a) Measure the current consumption (putting multimeter in series on connector at SmartRF board)
with the DUT in previously completed tests and match it to the following (or the reference module
tested thoroughly in your lab):
(i) Full power TX: In milliamps as per the configuration of with/without PA.
(ii) RX mode: In milliamps
(iii) Sleep/Idle Mode: In milliamps
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Recommended/Suggested Test Procedure
4.2
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Setup 2
In Figure 2, the test setup and its essential components (devices) are shown along with DUT (device
under test).
RF
foam
RFlossy
Lossy
Foam
(Inside
Metal Shielded
Shielded
(Inside Metal
box,
to
box, Along
along the walls to
avoid standing
standingwaves)
waves.)
avoid
Metal
MetalShielded
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Scope
Scopefrom
from
Spectrum
SpectrumAnalyzer
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under Test
Device
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PCPCSmart
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SmartRF
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Smart
DC Block
DC
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SmartRF
RF
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SmartRF
board
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Spectrum
Spectrum
Analyzer
Analyzer
SA: To scope the output
SA: To scope the output
power before Antenna
power
before antenna
feed point
feed
point to
to check
checkthe
the
output
power and
and with
output power
with
antenna
to
test
center
antenna to test center
frequency.
frequency.
USBUSB
Cables
Cables
(For SmartRF
studioRF
configuration
and to power
the modules)
(For Smart
studio configuration
and toup
power
up the
modules)
Signal
Signal
Generator
Generator
SG: To test the RX
SG: To test the RX
sensitivity at DUT using
sensitivity at DUT using
smart RF studio and PC.
SmartRF
studio and PC.
Figure 2. Suggestion 2: Setup Used in Production Line
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4.2.1
Procedure for Setup-2
1. Output Power Test
(a) Using SmartRF studio, configure the DUT in Continuous modulated transmission (any fixed
channel).
(b) Connect the sub 1-GHz/2.4-GHz antenna on a spectrum analyzer (SA). Configure SA for center
frequency of the operating frequency band, for example, in the case of 2.4 GHz, that is, 2.45 GHz.
Configure the start frequency as per operating frequency band, for example, in the case of the 2.4GHz band, it is 2.4 GHz as a start frequency and 2.48 GHz as a stop frequency.
(c) Observe the peak on center frequency, that is, in 2.4-GHz band, at 2.45 GHz (Match the value of
peak to reference TI EMK, noted beforehand).
2. Frequency Offset
(a) Using SmartRF studio, configure the DUT in Continuous modulated transmission (any fixed
channel).
(b) Connect the sub 1-GHz/2.4-GHz antenna on SA. Configure SA for center frequency of the
operating frequency band, for example, in the case of 2.4 GHz, that is, 2.45 GHz. Configure the
start frequency as per the operating frequency band, for example, in the case of 2.4-GHz band, it is
2.4 GHz as start frequency and 2.48 GHz as a stop frequency.
(c) Observe the peak on center frequency, that is, in the 2.4-GHz band at 2.45 GHz (Match the value
of peak to reference TI EMK, noted beforehand).
3. RX Sensitivity
(a) Using SmartRF studio, configure the DUT in Continuous Receiving (any fixed channel).
(b) Connect the sub 1-GHz/2.4-GHz antenna on Signal Generator (SG).
(c) Configure the SG for –50 dBm. Switch the RF output on the Signal Generator.
(d) Check the RX signal graph on SmartRF studio to –80 dBm.
4. Current Consumption
(a) Measure the current consumption by DUT in the previously completed tests and match it to the
following (or the reference module tested thoroughly in your lab):
(i) Full power TX: In milliamps as per the configuration of with/without PA.
(ii) RX mode: In milliamps
(iii) Sleep/Idle Mode: In milliamps
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Recommended/Suggested Test Procedure
4.3
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Setup 3
The setup for production can have a provision for testing multiple modules at a time inside the shielded
RF chamber (Figure 3). A customized board (INTERFACE BOARD) can be made for mounting,
configuring and controlling all the boards at a time. This board can have an MCU on it to enable and
disable the individual modules. The UART/SPI of MCU will be connected to UART/SPI of all the modules.
The enabled module will only be responding to the testing process, one at a time. Putting all modules
together inside the chamber will increase the throughput of production by eliminating the manual mounting
and removal of single module again.
RF Lossy Foam
(Inside metal shielded
box, along the walls to
avoid standing waves)
Metal Shielded
Enclosure
Ref Unit Receiver
(CC2530-2591 EM)
INTERFACE BOARD
with provision
of 10 module
connection
INTERFACE
BOARD
30-dB
Loss
30-dB
Loss
INTERFACE
BOARD
PCSmartRF
Studio
PC: To configure,
check the
module output
power and
transmission
using the GUI.
USB Cables
(For SmartRF studio configuration and to power up the modules)
Figure 3. Suggestion 3: Setup to be Used in Production Line
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Figure 4 illustrates the interface board block diagram.
UARTto
to PC
PC (USB
UART
(USBtotoSerial)
Serial)
RES
RES
VCC
VCC
GPIO(s)
GPIOs
Going
to to
ADC
Going
ADCofof
MSP430,
MSP430used
usedfor
for
current
Current
measurement
ofof
Measurement
module
Module
Relays/Transistors
Relays/Transistors
3 MSP430
Communication
Communication
Pins from each
pins
each
module
goingto
to
Module going
MSP430
MSP430.
M1
M1
M2
M2
10 GPIOs used
to control the
VCC/CS of
each module
M3
M3
M4
M4
DedicatedUART/SPI
UART/SPIpins
pinsfor
foreach
each
Dedicated
module.UART/SPI
UART/SPIcommunication
communication
module.
controlled
Port
Mapping
controlledthrough
thru Port
Mapping
Controller.
Controller.
M5
M5
M6
M6
M7
M7
M8
M8
M9
M9
M10
M10
Figure 4. Interface Board Block Diagram
This interface board is connected to the PC and is controlled by a GUI. The GUI will configure the
MSP430 for the start and stop of the test. The MSP430 then serially configures each module in
transmission and receive modes to measure the values and then push back to the PC for a database
creation. A simple serial command/packet interface can be developed to configure and read the desired
registers from TI Radio. The command interface can have the following functions:
1. Configure the desired RF band channel.
2. Configure the module in Continuous TX/RX either in Modulated or Unmodulated mode.
3. Configure the Output TX power.
4. Read the Frequency Offset register to adjust and confirm the desired frequency signal. For example;
using CC2530 – configure the FREQTUNE register, using CC1200 – configure the FREQOFF0/1
register to correct the offset. Refer to Section 3.2 for details.
5. Read the RSSI register for reception quality analysis.
Develop and implement this command interface as needed, in the SOC or at the host of the LPRF
module, keeping the interface as UART or SPI.
In the transmission mode of modules (DUT), the receiving is done through the GOLDEN module again
configured and connected through the smaller interface board of the architecture seen in Figure 3. In the
reception test of modules (DUT), the transmission is done by GOLDEN module again configured and
connected through the smaller interface board of the architecture seen in Figure 3.
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References
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After completion of all test modes, the GUI will declare PASS/FAIL of each module.
There can be a tolerance limit for each measured parameter of the module; the range can be defined by
performing these tests on a small lot of 50 modules who pass the performance figures through the lab
equipment.
In Appendix A, an example of the PC GUI is shown for the reference purposes only. In Section 3.2, the
interpretation of the RSSI, FREQEST, and FREQTUNE registers, of TI's LPRF radios, is provided to be
used for testing and calibration purposes.
5
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
12
SmartRF studio by Texas Instruments (http://www.ti.com/tool/smartrftm-studio).
SmartRF Evaluation Board User Guide, SmartRF05EB (SWRU210A).
Interface Board Microcontroller, MSP430F6xxx User Guide (SLAU208).
CC253x/4x User Guide (SWRU191E).
CC112x User Guide (SWRU295).
Agilent Spectrum Analyzer (E-4404B).
Agilent Signal Generator (N-5181A).
ETS -LINDGREN - Shielded Metal Enclosure Supplier (http://www.ets-lindgren.com).
NPI-VTECH Manufacturing Solutions (http://www.vtechcms.com).
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Appendix A
Figure 5 shows the example GUI with an interface to 10 modules through the interface board using
MSP430 for current measurement, configuration, and control of each module. The GUI allows the
selection of the module position and respective RF parameters to be tested. The checkbox click allows the
selection and deselection of the respective option.
Figure 5. PC GUI Interface: Dash Board View
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Appendix A
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After selecting the respective module, the parameter test is enabled for the same and for the rest of the
modules it gets disabled as shown in Figure 6. The selection of the specific RF parameter can also be
omitted for an enabled module, through the GUI. These options allow the capability to keep the entire test
to be time optimized and precise.
Figure 6. PC GUI Interface: Dash Board Selection View
Figure 7 to Figure 9 show how the PC GUI is configured and operated. Figure 7 shows how the desired
module and the RF parameter to be tested are selected. The respective serial COM port on which the
interface board is connected must be selected and the configured baud rate needs to be entered in the
PC GUI. After successful connection with the interface board only, the “RUN TEST”, button is enabled,
ensuring the correct setup installation before the start of the module testing procedure.
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Appendix A
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Figure 7. PC GUI Interface: COM Port and Baud Rate Configuration
Figure 8. PC GUI Interface: Test Result View: Pass
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Appendix A
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Figure 9. PC GUI Interface: Test Result View: Fail
A LOG report should also be created in the utility folder or the same can be displayed on the PC GUI for
further analysis of the FAILED modules. Usually it is preferable to have a faster segregation of the
modules as PASS and FAIL and then later a detailed failure analysis along with the rework. If desired
select the option of stopping the test as soon as any failure of any module in the test occurs. Also, the
report generation or display of results in the GUI can be made as per the preference and production line
workforce capability. For example, in Figure 9, the GUI indicates that modules 1, 5, and 9 have failed the
Frequency OFFSET test. This means the OFFSET value is beyond the tolerable range. The issue could
be due to the crystal, or the loading capacitors of the crystal, or the FREQTUNE register value.
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complete. All semiconductor products (also referred to herein as “components”) are sold subject to TI’s terms and conditions of sale
supplied at the time of order acknowledgment.
TI warrants performance of its components to the specifications applicable at the time of sale, in accordance with the warranty in TI’s terms
and conditions of sale of semiconductor products. Testing and other quality control techniques are used to the extent TI deems necessary
to support this warranty. Except where mandated by applicable law, testing of all parameters of each component is not necessarily
performed.
TI assumes no liability for applications assistance or the design of Buyers’ products. Buyers are responsible for their products and
applications using TI components. To minimize the risks associated with Buyers’ products and applications, Buyers should provide
adequate design and operating safeguards.
TI does not warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted under any patent right, copyright, mask work right, or
other intellectual property right relating to any combination, machine, or process in which TI components or services are used. Information
published by TI regarding third-party products or services does not constitute a license to use such products or services or a warranty or
endorsement thereof. Use of such information may require a license from a third party under the patents or other intellectual property of the
third party, or a license from TI under the patents or other intellectual property of TI.
Reproduction of significant portions of TI information in TI data books or data sheets is permissible only if reproduction is without alteration
and is accompanied by all associated warranties, conditions, limitations, and notices. TI is not responsible or liable for such altered
documentation. Information of third parties may be subject to additional restrictions.
Resale of TI components or services with statements different from or beyond the parameters stated by TI for that component or service
voids all express and any implied warranties for the associated TI component or service and is an unfair and deceptive business practice.
TI is not responsible or liable for any such statements.
Buyer acknowledges and agrees that it is solely responsible for compliance with all legal, regulatory and safety-related requirements
concerning its products, and any use of TI components in its applications, notwithstanding any applications-related information or support
that may be provided by TI. Buyer represents and agrees that it has all the necessary expertise to create and implement safeguards which
anticipate dangerous consequences of failures, monitor failures and their consequences, lessen the likelihood of failures that might cause
harm and take appropriate remedial actions. Buyer will fully indemnify TI and its representatives against any damages arising out of the use
of any TI components in safety-critical applications.
In some cases, TI components may be promoted specifically to facilitate safety-related applications. With such components, TI’s goal is to
help enable customers to design and create their own end-product solutions that meet applicable functional safety standards and
requirements. Nonetheless, such components are subject to these terms.
No TI components are authorized for use in FDA Class III (or similar life-critical medical equipment) unless authorized officers of the parties
have executed a special agreement specifically governing such use.
Only those TI components which TI has specifically designated as military grade or “enhanced plastic” are designed and intended for use in
military/aerospace applications or environments. Buyer acknowledges and agrees that any military or aerospace use of TI components
which have not been so designated is solely at the Buyer's risk, and that Buyer is solely responsible for compliance with all legal and
regulatory requirements in connection with such use.
TI has specifically designated certain components as meeting ISO/TS16949 requirements, mainly for automotive use. In any case of use of
non-designated products, TI will not be responsible for any failure to meet ISO/TS16949.
Products
Applications
Audio
www.ti.com/audio
Automotive and Transportation
www.ti.com/automotive
Amplifiers
amplifier.ti.com
Communications and Telecom
www.ti.com/communications
Data Converters
dataconverter.ti.com
Computers and Peripherals
www.ti.com/computers
DLP® Products
www.dlp.com
Consumer Electronics
www.ti.com/consumer-apps
DSP
dsp.ti.com
Energy and Lighting
www.ti.com/energy
Clocks and Timers
www.ti.com/clocks
Industrial
www.ti.com/industrial
Interface
interface.ti.com
Medical
www.ti.com/medical
Logic
logic.ti.com
Security
www.ti.com/security
Power Mgmt
power.ti.com
Space, Avionics and Defense
www.ti.com/space-avionics-defense
Microcontrollers
microcontroller.ti.com
Video and Imaging
www.ti.com/video
RFID
www.ti-rfid.com
OMAP Applications Processors
www.ti.com/omap
TI E2E Community
e2e.ti.com
Wireless Connectivity
www.ti.com/wirelessconnectivity
Mailing Address: Texas Instruments, Post Office Box 655303, Dallas, Texas 75265
Copyright © 2014, Texas Instruments Incorporated
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