Texas Instruments | TRF7970A MSP430G2xx NFC/RFID Module Reference Design | Application notes | Texas Instruments TRF7970A MSP430G2xx NFC/RFID Module Reference Design Application notes

Texas Instruments TRF7970A   MSP430G2xx NFC/RFID Module Reference Design Application notes
Application Report
SLOA199 – July 2014
TRF7970A + MSP430G2xx NFC/RFID Module Reference
Design
John Crutchfield
ABSTRACT
This application report is intended to provide a complete hardware and firmware reference design for use
in NFC/RFID applications, using the TRF7970A NFC/RFID transceiver combined with a MSP430G2xx
series 16-bit microcontroller. The reference design is intended to be easy to incorporate into new and
existing designs. The MSP430G2xx MCU plus TRF7970A handles basic NFC/RFID task while
communicating back to a host.
Two reference designs are presented that share the same basic hardware configuration. Each uses a
separate means of communication to a host. There is an I2C NFC/RFID module and an universal
asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) NFC/RFID module, known as the eZ430-TRF7970A. These
modules are presented as a paper reference design. This means they include schematics, Gerber files,
and example firmware, but the modules themselves are not supplied by Texas Instruments.
There are also associated example code projects for each module with detailed descriptions and
explanations of how to utilize the projects given within. The code examples demonstrate basic NFC/RFID
Reader functionality, interacting with ISO15693, ISO14443A, ISO14443B, and FeliCa.
NOTE: Any members of the TRF79xx family could be substituted in place of the TRF7970A based
on system requirements.
Contents
1
Theory of Operation ......................................................................................................... 3
2
Overview ..................................................................................................................... 3
3
Hardware Description ....................................................................................................... 3
4
Firmware Description ....................................................................................................... 5
5
Conclusion .................................................................................................................. 11
6
References .................................................................................................................. 11
Appendix A
I2C NFC/RFID Module............................................................................................ 12
Appendix B
eZ430-TRF7970A UART Module ............................................................................... 17
List of Figures
1
Hardware Block Diagram ................................................................................................... 4
2
eZ430-TRF7970A UART Module .......................................................................................... 4
3
I2C NFC/RFID Module ...................................................................................................... 5
4
eZ430-TRF7970A Output to Host ......................................................................................... 6
5
General Overview Flow Diagram .......................................................................................... 6
6
eZ430-TRF7970A System Description
7
eZ430-TRF7970A Firmware Initialization Flowchart .................................................................... 7
8
eZ430-TRF7970A Tag Polling Loop Flowchart .......................................................................... 8
9
I2C NFC/RFID Module System Description .............................................................................. 9
10
I2C NFC/RFID Module Firmware Initialization Flowchart
11
I2C NFC/RFID Module Tag Polling Loop Flowchart
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TRF7970A + MSP430G2xx NFC/RFID Module Reference Design
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12
I2C Host/Master Firmware Flowchart.................................................................................... 11
13
I2C Module Schematic - Part 1 ........................................................................................... 13
14
I2C Module Schematic - Part 2 ........................................................................................... 14
15
I2C Module Layout ......................................................................................................... 15
16
I2C Module eZ430-TRF7970A Schematics - Part 1 ................................................................... 18
17
I2C Module eZ430-TRF7970A Schematics - Part 2 ................................................................... 19
18
eZ430-TRF7970A Module Layout ........................................................................................ 20
List of Tables
1
2
3
4
............................................................................... 4
I2C NFC/RFID Module ..................................................................................................... 5
I2C NFC/RFID Module Bill of Materials ................................................................................. 16
eZ430-TRF7970A Bill of Materials ....................................................................................... 21
eZ430-TRF7970A UART Module Pin Out
Trademarks
MSP430, LaunchPad, eZ430 are trademarks of Texas Instruments.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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Theory of Operation
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1
Theory of Operation
According to the Near Field Communication (NFC) Forum Specifications, there are two types of devices in
NFC Reader/Writer mode. There are “readers,” known as Proximity Coupling Devices (PCDs), and there
are “tags,” known as Proximity Integrated Circuit Cards (PICCs). The PCD is active, which means it
radiates a 13.56MHz RF field while a PICC is passive, which means it modulates the PCD’s field. A PCD
communicates with PICCs in a master/slave relationship. The PCD is the master and communicates with
the PICC over the air using ISO standard commands and protocols. There are several standard PICCs
which include ISO15693, ISO14443A, ISO14443B, and FeliCa. The different PICCs support different
modulation schemes and commands.
The TRF7970A has the ability to be a PCD reading all these PICC types and is able to emulate an
ISO14443A/B PICC. In this application reference design, the TRF7970A in PCD mode is presented on two
hardware platforms. Each platform has an onboard microcontroller; one uses a UART as an interface to
external devices and one uses I2C.
2
Overview
2.1
Example Operation of eZ430-TRF7970A UART Module
The example code for the eZ430-TRF7970A UART module demonstrates basic NFC reader operation.
The provided example code will allow the eZ430-TRF7970A boards to read the Unique Identification
numbers (UIDs) of ISO15693, ISO14443A, ISO14443B, and FeliCa tags. It reads the UIDs as well as
each tag’s associated RSSI value, a field signal strength indicator. The eZ430-TRF7970A will send this
data out over a UART interface.
2.2
Example Operation I2C NFC/RFID Module
The example code for the I2C NFC module will also demonstrate the same NFC reader/writer operation
seen on the eZ430-TRF7970A. The I2C NFC/RFID module will be an I2C slave device, so a host
controller must play the role of I2C master. In this example, the master is another MSP430G2553 on the
MSP430™ LaunchPad™. Code for the master is also provided for reference.
The I2C NFC/RFID Module will poll for tags every 350 ms. Once the module finds a tag, it drives a GPIO
line low to signal the master that the tag data is ready to be read. The master then reads this data from
the I2C NFC/RFID module, and transmits the data out of a UART port for demonstration purposes.
3
Hardware Description
3.1
TRF7970A – NFC/RFID Transceiver IC
TRF7970A is a high performance 13.56MHz HF RFID/NFC Transceiver IC composed of an integrated
analog front end (AFE) and a built-in data framing engine for ISO15693, ISO14443A, ISO14443B, and
FeliCa. This includes data rates up to 848kbps for ISO14443 with all framing and synchronization tasks on
board (in default mode). The TRF7970A also supports NFC Tag Type 1, 2, 3, and 4 operations. This
architecture enables the customer to build a complete cost-effective yet high-performance multi-protocol
13.56MHz RFID/NFC system together with a low-cost microcontroller (for example, MSP430).
3.2
MSP430G2553 – 16-Bit RISC Mixed Signal Microcontroller
The Texas Instruments MSP430 family of ultra-low-power microcontrollers consists of several devices
featuring different sets of peripherals targeted for various applications. The architecture, combined with
five low-power modes, is optimized to achieve extended battery life in portable measurement applications.
The device features a powerful 16-bit RISC CPU, 16-bit registers, and constant generators that contribute
to maximum code efficiency. The digitally controlled oscillator (DCO) allows wake-up from low-power
modes to active mode in less than 1 µs.
The MSP430G2x53 series are ultra-low-power mixed signal microcontrollers with built-in 16-bit timers, up
to 24 I/O capacitive-touch enabled pins, a versatile analog comparator, and built-in communication
capability using the universal serial communication interface. In addition, the MSP430G2x53 family
members have a 10-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
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Hardware Description
3.3
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NFC/RFID Transceiver Reference Modules
The two reference designs presented both use TRF7970A + MSP430G2553 NFC/RFID modules. The
modules use serial communication to transfer tag data to outside devices.
The onboard MSP430G2553 can drive a small NFC/RFID reader firmware stack that will handle basic
NFC/RFID Communication. It uses SPI to communicate with the TRF7970A, as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Hardware Block Diagram
3.3.1
eZ430-TRF7970A UART Module
The eZ430-TRF7970A follows Texas Instrument’s eZ430™ connector standard. The eZ430-TRF7970A
connector can connect to many of TI’s evaluation boards and uses UART for serial communication.
The eZ430-TRF7970A has an onboard PCB antenna, as well as an UFL connector pads to connect to an
external antenna. The passive components are for the RF signal path and antenna tuning. It also has two
LEDs on board that indicate when a tag is read.
The UART is running at 9600 Baud. It could be run faster, but the UART to the USB bridge on the MSPEXP430G2 Launch pad is limited to 9600 Baud.
Figure 2. eZ430-TRF7970A UART Module
Table 1. eZ430-TRF7970A UART Module Pin Out
Connector Pin
Function
1
RX
2
VCC
3
TEST/SBWTCK
4
RST_NMI/SBWTDIO
5
GND
6
TX
NOTE: The schematic and layout for the eZ430-TRF7970A UART Module can be found in
Appendix B.
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Firmware Description
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3.3.2
I2C NFC/RFID Module
The I2C NFC/RFID module uses a standard header connector. The I2C NFC/RFID Module supports both
1.8 and 3.3V communication levels, but requires a 3.3V supply for NFC/RFID functionality. It has included
onboard pull up resistors for the I2C lines as well as a level shifter.
NOTE: For 3.3 V communication, supply the Level Shifter Communication Voltage pin with 3.3 V,
and do not populate R12. For more information, see the schematic in Appendix A.
The I2C NFC/RFID module has an onboard PCB antenna and pads for an UFL connector allowing you to
connect to an external antenna. There are also passive components for the RF signal path matching and
antenna tuning.
Figure 3. I2C NFC/RFID Module
Table 2. I2C NFC/RFID Module
Connector Pin
Function
1
SDA
2
SCL
3
Level Shifter Communication Voltage
4
GND
5
3.3 V
6
TEST/SBWTCK
7
RST_NMI/SBWTDIO
8
1.8 V GPIO
NOTE: The schematic and layout for the eZ430-TRF7970A UART Module can be found in
Appendix B.
4
Firmware Description
The example firmware is discussed over three sections:
• General Overview: a high level description of the functionality
• eZ430-TRF7970A Detailed Firmware Description
• I2C NFC/RFID Module Detailed Firmware Description
4.1
4.1.1
General Overview
Code Description
The provided code examples demonstrate the TRF7970A as a NFC/RFID reader. The module polls for
ISO15693, ISO14443A, ISO14443B, and FeliCa tags every 350 ms. It then transmits the UID and
associated RSSI values for any tags found in the field back to a host, as seen in Figure 4.
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Firmware Description
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Figure 4. eZ430-TRF7970A Output to Host
Between polling cycles, the TRF7970A and the MSP430G2xx are placed into low-power modes to
demonstrate power savings.
4.1.2
Flow Diagram Overview
Start
(Device Power-Up)
Initialization MCU
Setup WDT, GPIOs, SPI, UART, Enable interrupts, Initialize flags
Enable and Initialization TRF7970A
Sleep
Disable TRF7970A and put MSP430G2xx into low power mode.
Poll for Tags
ISO1515693, ISO14443A, ISO14443B, Felica, Type 2
No
Tag_Count > 0?
Yes
Report Tag Info
All tag's UID's and RSSI will be broadcast out to Host.
Figure 5. General Overview Flow Diagram
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4.2
eZ430-TRF7970A Detailed Firmware Description
The example firmware for the eZ430-TRF7970A scans for tags and sends their UID’s to a host via UART.
The easiest way to use this module is with a UART to USB convertor to allow you to talk with a PC, as
shown in Figure 6. The MSP-EXP430G2 LaunchPad comes with an eZ430 header and can be easily used
as a bridge for programming and talking directly with a PC.
Figure 6. eZ430-TRF7970A System Description
4.2.1
Module Initialization
Start
(Device Power-Up)
Initialization Watch Dog Timer to set polling frequency.
Setup Watch Dog Timer (WDT) to fire every ~350 ms.
McuOscSel().
Switch DCO Clock to 8 MHz
Trf7970CommunicationSetup().
Bring TRF7970A EN high. Configure SPI.
Trf7970InitialSetting().
Soft Init (83h), Idle (80h), Modulation Control Register (09h = 01h)
UartSetup().
Configure as an I2C slave device.
Polling loop.
Poll for ISO15693, ISO14443A, ISO14443B, and Felica tags.
Figure 7. eZ430-TRF7970A Firmware Initialization Flowchart
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Firmware Description
4.2.2
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Tag Polling Loop
Start Polling Loop.
__bis_SR_register(LPM3_bits);
Put MSP430G2xx into Low power mode 3, wait for polling timer.
No
WDT Fire?
Yes
ENABLE_TRF;
RE-enable TRF7970A
Iso15693FindTag();
Poll for ISO15693 Tags.
Iso14443aFindTag();
Poll for ISO14443-A and Type 2 Tags.
Iso14443bFindTag();
Poll for ISO1443-B Tags.
FelicaFindTag();
Poll for Felica Tags.
No
Tag_Count > 0?
Yes
UartSendCString();
Send UID and RSSI values out via UART.
DISABLE_TRF;
Disable TRF7970A to save power.
Figure 8. eZ430-TRF7970A Tag Polling Loop Flowchart
4.3
I2C NFC/RFID Module Detailed Firmware Description
The example firmware for the I2C NFC/RFID Module scans for tags and sends their UID’s to a host via
I2C. The I2C NFC/RFID Module is configured as and I2C Slave which requires an I2C Master to initiate
communication. The I2C NFC/RFID Module generates a signal, INTO, to the master to signal data is
ready.
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Firmware Description
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For demonstration and evaluation purposes, firmware for a MSP430G2553 as an I2C Master to UART
bridge is provided for the MSP-EXP430G2 LaunchPad. On the MSP-EXP430G2 Launchpad there is a
UART to USB convertor to allow you to talk with a PC, as shown in Figure 9
The MSP-EXP430G2 LaunchPad comes with standard headers that can be connected via jumper wire.
The LaunchPad can also be easily used as a bridge for programming.
Figure 9. I2C NFC/RFID Module System Description
4.3.1
Module Initialization
Start
(Device Power-Up)
Initialization Watch Dog Timer to set polling frequency.
Setup Watch Dog Timer (WDT) to fire every ~350 ms.
McuOscSel().
Switch DCO Clock to 8 MHz
Setup INTO pin.
INTO signals host (I2C Master) to read data out from the module.
Trf7970Communication Setup().
Bring TRF7970A EN high. Configure SPI.
TRF7970InitialSettings().
Soft Init (83h), Idle (80h), Modulation Control Register (09h = 01h)
I2cSetup().
Configure as an I2C slave device.
Polling loop.
Poll for ISO15693, ISO14443A, ISO14443B, Felica, and Type 2 tags.
Figure 10. I2C NFC/RFID Module Firmware Initialization Flowchart
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Firmware Description
4.3.2
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Tag Polling Loop
Start Polling Loop.
__bis_SR_register(LPM3_bits);
Put MSP430G2xx into Low power mode 3, wait for polling timer.
No
WDT Fire?
Yes
ENABLE_TRF;
RE-enable TRF7970A
Iso15693FindTag();
Poll for ISO15693 Tags.
Iso14443aFindTag();
Poll for ISO14443-A and Type 2 Tags.
Iso14443bFindTag();
Poll for ISO1443-B Tags.
FelicaFindTag();
Poll for Felica Tags.
No
Tag_Count > 0?
Yes
I2C_Transfer();
Trigger I lost to read Tag Data out over I2C.
DISABLE_TRF;
Disable TRF7970A to save power.
Figure 11. I2C NFC/RFID Module Tag Polling Loop Flowchart
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4.3.3
Host Firmware
Start
(Device Power-Up)
Initialization MCU
Setup WDT, GPIOs, SPI, UART, Enable interrupts, Initialize flags
Initialization Interrupt pin from I2C Module (INTO)
Sleep
Put the MSP430G2553 into LPM3 mode.
ToggleHeartbeatLED;
No
Into_Fired?
Yes
Read_Continuous();
Read tag dat out via I2C
UartPutChar();
Send Tag Data Out via UART
Figure 12. I2C Host/Master Firmware Flowchart
5
Conclusion
This paper reference design presents everything required to manufacture, build, and test these NFC
modules. Both UART and I2C module designs have been provided for direct integration into most
applications.
Project collateral and source code discussed in this application report can be downloaded from the
following URL: http://www.ti.com/lit/zip/sloc313.
For follow up questions concerning this reference design, see the NFC E2E forums at the following URL:
http://e2e.ti.com/support/wireless_connectivity/f/667.aspx.
6
References
•
•
•
•
TRF7970A Multiprotocol Fully Integrated 13.56-MHz RFID and Near Field Communication (NFC)
Transceiver IC Data Manual (SLOS743)
MSP430x2xx Family User's Guide (SLAU144)
NFC Forum Type 4 Tag Operation Specification: http://members.nfcforum.org/apps/org/workgroup/allmembers/download.php/17511/latest
Using TI Technology to Simplify Bluetooth Pairing Via NFC (SLAA512)
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Appendix A
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I2C NFC/RFID Module
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Schematics
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A.1
Schematics
Figure 13. I2C Module Schematic - Part 1
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Schematics
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TRF7970A + MSP430G2xx Reference Design
Figure 14. I2C Module Schematic - Part 2
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Layout
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A.2
Layout
Figure 15. I2C Module Layout
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Bill of Materials
A.3
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Bill of Materials
Table 3. I2C NFC/RFID Module Bill of Materials
Reference
Qty
Value
Part Description
Manufacturer Part Number
Package
C1
1
10 µF
CAP CER 10UF 6.3 V 20% X5R 0603
C1608X5R0J106M
C0603
C2
1
220 nF
CAP CER 220NF 10 V 10% X7R 0402
GRM155R60J224KE01D
C0402
C3, C4,
C24, C25,
C26
5
27 pF
CAP CER 27PF 16 V 10% CH 0402
CC0402JRNPO9BN270
C0402
C5, C7,
C9, C11,
C34
4
2.2 µF
CAP CER 2.2UF 10 V 10% X5R 0402
C1005X5R0G225M
C0402
C6, C8,
C10, C12,
C13, C35
6
0.1 µF
CAP CER 0.1UF 10 V 10% X5R 0402
C1005X5R0J104K
C0402
C15, C16,
2
1500 pF
CAP CER 1500PF 16 V 10% X7R 040
GRM155R71H152KA01D
C0402
C17, C18
2
1200 pF
CAP CER 1200PF 10 V 10% X5R 0201
GRM155R71H122KA01D
C0402
C19
1
220 pF
CAP CER 220PF 16 V 10% X7R 0201
CC0402JRNPO8BN221
C0402
C20, C22
2
680 pF
CAP CER 680PF 16 V 10% X7R 0201
C1005X7R1H681K
C0402
C21, C27
2
10 pF
CAP CER 10PF 16 V 10% NP0 0402
CC0402JRNPO9BN100
C0402
C23
1
100 pF
CAP CER 100PF 16 V 10% NP0 0402
GRM1555C1H101JZ01D
C0402
L2
1
150 nH
INDUCTOR 150NH .80A WW 1008
744762215A
L2825P/
1008
L3
1
330 nH
INDUCTOR 330NH .80A WW 1008
744762233A
L2825P/
1008
R1, R7,
R8, R12,
4
1k
RES 1.00K Ω 1/16W 1% 0402 SMD
RC0402FR-071KL
0402
R2
1
47k
RES 10K Ω 1/16W 1% 0402
RC1005F103CS
0402
R3
1
220k
RES 220K Ω 1/16W 1% 0402 SMD
RC0402FR-07220KL
0402
R4
1
10k
RES 10K Ω 1/16W 1% 0402
RC1005F103CS
0402
R5, R6
2
4.7k
RES 4.7K Ω 1/10W 1% 0402 SMD
ERJ-2RKF4701X
0402
R9, R10
2
2.2k
RES 2.20K Ω 1/16W 1% 0402 SMD
RC0402FR-072K2L
0402
R11
1
1.2k
RES 1.2K Ω 1/16W 1% 0402 SMD
MCR01MRTF1201
U1
1
TRF7970A
IC RFID/NFC AFE 13.56MHZ 32QFN
TRF7970ARHBR
QFN32
U2
1
MSP430G2553
IC MCU 16BIT 16KB FLASH 20TSSOP
MSP430G2553IPW20R
RHB32
U3
1
I2C Translator
IC V-LEVL XLATR I2C/SMBUS 8X2SON
PCA9306DQER
PSOP-8
UFL1
1
UFL Connector
CONN UMC JACK STR 50 Ω SMD
U.FL-R-SMT(10)
Y1
1
Crystal
13.56 MHz Crystal Oscillator
7A-13.560MAAJ-T
16
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0402
U.FL
CRYSTALSMD-5X3.2
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Appendix B
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eZ430-TRF7970A UART Module
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Schematics
B.1
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Schematics
Figure 16. I2C Module eZ430-TRF7970A Schematics - Part 1
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Schematics
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Figure 17. I2C Module eZ430-TRF7970A Schematics - Part 2
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Layout
B.2
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Layout
Figure 18. eZ430-TRF7970A Module Layout
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Bill of Materials
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B.3
Bill of Materials
Table 4. eZ430-TRF7970A Bill of Materials
Qty
Value
Part Description
"Manufacturer Part
Number"
Package
C1
1
10 µF
CAP CER 10UF 6.3 V 20% X5R 0603
C1608X5R0J106M
C0603
C2
1
220 nF
CAP CER 220NF 10 V 10% X7R 0402
GRM155R60J224KE01D
C0402
C3, C4,
C24, C25,
C26
5
27 pF
CAP CER 27PF 16 V 10% CH 0402
CC0402JRNPO9BN270
C0402
C5, C7,
C9, C11,
C34
5
2.2 µF
CAP CER 2.2UF 10 V 10% X5R 0402
C1005X5R0G225M
C0402
C6, C8,
C10, C12,
C35
5
100 nF
CAP CER 0.1UF 10 V 10% X5R 0402
C1005X5R0J104K
C0402
C15, C16
2
1500 pF
CAP CER 1500PF 16 V 10% X7R 040
GRM155R71H152KA01D
C0402
C17, C18
2
1200 pF
CAP CER 1200PF 10 V 10% X5R 0201
GRM155R71H122KA01D
C0402
C19
1
220 pF
CAP CER 220PF 16 V 10% X7R 0201
CC0402JRNPO8BN221
C0402
C20, C22
2
680 pF
CAP CER 680PF 16 V 10% X7R 0201
C1005X7R1H681K
C0402
C21, C27
2
10 pF
CAP CER 10PF 16 V 10% NP0 0402
CC0402JRNPO9BN100
C0402
C23
1
100 pF
CAP CER 100PF 16 V 10% NP0 0402
GRM1555C1H101JZ01D
C0402
C28
1
68 pF
CAP CER 68PF 50 V 5% NP0 0402
C1005C0G1H680J
D3
1
red
LED SUPER RED CLEAR 0603 SMD
LTST-C190KRKT
CHIP-LED0603
D4
1
green
LED SUPER GREEN CLEAR 0603 SMD
LTST-C190KGKT
CHIP-LED0603
L2
1
150 nH
INDUCTOR 150NH .80A WW 1008
744762215A
L2825P/1008
L3
1
330 nH
INDUCTOR 330NH .80A WW 1008
744762233A
L2825P/1008
R1
1
10
RES 10 Ω 1/16W 5% 0402 SMD
RC0402JR-0710RL
R0402_GE
R2
1
47k
RES 10K Ω 1/16W 1% 0402
RC0402JR-0747KL
R0402_GE
R4
1
10k
RES 10K Ω 1/16W 1% 0402
RC0402JR-0710KL
R0402_GE
R7, R8
2
1k
RES 1.00K Ω 1/16W 1% 0402 SMD
RC0402JR-071KL
R0402_GE
R11
1
1.2k
RES 1.2K Ω 1/16W 1% 0402 SMD
RC0402JR-071K2L
R12, R13
2
330R
RES 330 Ω 1/16W 5% 0402 SMD
RC0402JR-07330RL
ST1
1
1X06
CONN HEADER .050" 6POS PCB GOLD
LPPB061NFFN-RC
1X06
U1
1
TRF7970A
IC RFID/NFC AFE 13.56MHZ 32QFN
TRF7970ARHBR/BT
QFN(RHB)32
U2
1
MSP430G2553
IC MCU 16BIT 16KB FLASH 20TSSOP
MSP430G2553RHBR/BT
UFL1
1
U.FL
CONN UMC JACK STR 50 Ω SMD
U.FL-R-SMT-1(10)
U.FL
Y1
1
13.56 MHz
13.56 MHz Crystal Oscillator
7A-13.560MAAJ-T
CRYSTALSMD-5X3.2
Reference
SLOA199 – July 2014
Submit Documentation Feedback
C0402
R0402
R0402_GE
RHB32
TRF7970A + MSP430G2xx NFC/RFID Module Reference Design
Copyright © 2014, Texas Instruments Incorporated
21
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