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Texas Instruments Multipage, Selective-Addressable, Selective-Addressable (Secured) Transponders User guides
Texas Instruments Registration and
Identification System
Description of Multipage, Selective Addressable and
Selective Addressable (Secured) Transponders
Reference Guide
October 1999
SCBU020
Texas Instruments Registration and
Identification System
Description of Multipage, Selective Addressable and
Selective Addressable (Secured) Transponders
Reference Guide
Literature Number: SCBU020
October 1999
Contents
1
General ...................................................................................................................... 7
....................................................................................................... 7
1.2
Nomenclature ..................................................................................................... 8
2
Function .................................................................................................................... 8
2.1
Memory Organization ............................................................................................ 8
2.2
Selective Addressing Principle ................................................................................. 9
2.3
Function Overview .............................................................................................. 10
3
EMI/EMC Performance ............................................................................................... 24
3.1
General .......................................................................................................... 24
3.2
CE Declaration .................................................................................................. 24
3.3
TIRIS™ System Performance ................................................................................ 25
4
Read and Write Principle ............................................................................................ 26
4.1
Read .............................................................................................................. 26
4.2
Write and Program ............................................................................................. 26
5
Measurement Set-Ups ................................................................................................ 28
5.1
Measurement Set-Up: Resonance Frequency, Bandwidth, Quality Factor of Transponder .......... 28
5.2
Measurement Set-Up: Powering Field Strength ............................................................ 29
5.3
Measurement Set-Up: Transponder Signal Strength ...................................................... 30
6
General Product Data ................................................................................................. 31
6.1
Memory .......................................................................................................... 31
6.2
Data Retention .................................................................................................. 32
6.3
ESD............................................................................................................... 33
Appendix A Conversion Formula ........................................................................................ 34
A.1
Abbreviations .................................................................................................... 34
1.1
Introduction
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Table of Contents
3
List of Figures
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
4
System Configuration Showing the Reader, Antenna, and Transponder ............................................ 7
Block Diagram of the TIRIS Transponder ................................................................................ 7
Memory Organisation of the MPT 0/17 ................................................................................... 8
Memory Organisation of the SAMPT & SAMPTS 0/17-24 ............................................................. 9
MPT Read Data Format ................................................................................................... 11
Data Format of the General Read Page Function ..................................................................... 12
Data Format of the Selective Read Page Function .................................................................... 14
Data Format of the Program Page Function ............................................................................ 16
Data Format of the Selective Program Page Function ................................................................ 18
Data Format of the Lock Page Function ................................................................................ 20
Data Format of the Selective Lock Page Function..................................................................... 22
TIRIS System Immunity over a Spectrum of 6 Decades .............................................................. 25
FM Principle Used for the Read Function of TIRIS Transponders .................................................. 26
Write and Program Function .............................................................................................. 26
Charge, Write and Program principle used for TIRIS, Showing the Voltage at the Exciter (Reader) and
Transponder Antenna Coil ................................................................................................ 27
Determination of the Resonance Frequency and -3db Bandwidth by Monitoring the Pick-Up Coil Voltage ... 28
Measurement Set-up for the Determination of Transponder Resonance Frequency, Bandwidth and
Quality Factor ............................................................................................................... 28
Test Set-up for Powering Field Strength Determination .............................................................. 29
Received Signal at the Pick-up Coil, if Power Field Strength is Sufficient .......................................... 30
Determination of the Transponder Signal Strength (Data Transmission Signal Strength) with Helmholtz
Aperture ..................................................................................................................... 30
Monitored Signal Voltage at the Spectrum Analyser (Time Domain Mode) ........................................ 31
................................................................................................................................ 32
................................................................................................................................ 33
List of Figures
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List of Tables
1
2
3
4
5
6
Responses
Responses
Responses
Responses
Responses
Responses
to
to
to
to
to
to
General Read Page ......................................................................................
General Read Page ......................................................................................
Program Page .............................................................................................
Selective Program Page .................................................................................
Lock Page ..................................................................................................
Selective Lock Page ......................................................................................
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List of Tables
13
15
17
19
21
23
5
Reference Guide
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xxx
Edition Notice: Second Edition October 1999
This is the second edition of this manual, it describes the following transponder families:
Multipage Transponder (MPT)
Selective Addressable Multipage Transponder (SAMPT)
Selective Addressable Multipage Transponder (Secure) (SAMPTS)
The manual includes technical information concerning the function, technical specifications, application
and environmental related data.
Texas Instruments reserves the right to change its products or services at any time without notice.
TI provides customer assistance in various technical areas, but does not have full access to data
concerning the uses and applications of customer's products. Therefore TI assumes no
responsibility for customer product design or for infringement of patents and/or the rights of third
parties, which may result from assistance provided by TI.
The TIRIS™ logo and the word TIRIS™ are registered trademarks of Texas Instruments Incorporated.
Copyright © 1996 Texas Instruments Incorporated.
All rights reserved.
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Reference Guide
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XXX
1
General
1.1
Introduction
The TIRIS transponder is a key product in low frequency RFID systems that can be used for a variety of
applications.
Electro Magnetic signals are used to power the passive (batteryless) device, to transmit the identification
number to a reader unit or to program the device with new data. The basic principle is described in Fgure
1.
The transponder comprises an antenna, a charge capacitor, a resonance capacitor and the integrated
circuit (Figure 2). The antenna inductance and a capacitor form a high quality resonant circuit.
TRANSMIT/RECEIVE ANTENNA
FIELD LINES
ANTENNA AXIS
RF MODULE
CONTROL
UNIT
TRANSPONDER
CF45538
TIRIS READ/WRITE UNIT
Figure 1. System Configuration Showing the Reader, Antenna, and Transponder
ANTENNA
CHARGE
CAPACITOR
TRANSPONDER
IC
Figure 2. Block Diagram of the TIRIS Transponder
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Function
1.2
Nomenclature
In this manual we describes the following transponders:
Multipage Transponder with 17 R/W pages (MPT 0/17)
Selective Addressable Multipage Transponder with 17 R/W pages and 24 bits selective address
(SAMPT 0/17-24)
Selective Addressable Multipage Transponder (Secure) with 17 R/W pages and 24 bits selective
address (SAMPTS 0/17-24)Transponder PackagingThe dimensions of the transponder are given in .
For information to the availability of the described functionalities in different packages view our internet
home page http://www.tiris.com
2
Function
2.1
Memory Organization
Figure 3 shows the memory organization principle of the EEPROM cells for the MPT 0/17. Figure 4 shows
the memory organization principle of the EEPROM cells for the SAMPT and SAMPTS 0/17-24.
The memory organization described and shown here is that used by TIRIS readers, if you use readers
other than TIRIS readers (customer designed) the allocation of the 64 data bits depends on the reader
software.
1 PAGE LOCK BIT
80 bi ts
17
4
3
2
LS B
PAGE
1
MSB
LS B
LSB
MSB
IDENTIFICATION DAT A
DATA BCC
IDENTIFICATION DAT A
DATA BCC
IDENTIFICATION DAT A
DATA BCC
IDENTIFICATION DAT A
DATA BCC
MSB
IDENTIFICATION DAT A
64 bits
LSB
MSB
DATA BCC
16 bits
1
Figure 3. Memory Organisation of the MPT 0/17
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Function
1 PAGE LOCK BIT
80 bi ts
17
IDENTIFICATION DATA
4
3
2
PAGE
1
MSB
LSB
LSB
MSB
DATA BCC
IDENTIFICATION DATA
DATA BCC
IDENTIFICATION DATA
DATA BCC
IDENTIFICATION DATA
DATA BCC
MSB LSB
MSB LSB
LSB
MSB
SELECTIVE ADDRESS
IDENTIFICAT ION DATA
24 BIT
DATA BCC
40 BIT
64 bits
16 bits
1
Figure 4. Memory Organisation of the SAMPT & SAMPTS 0/17-24
The memory is structured into 17 pages each containing 80 data bits and one lock bit each. 64 bits are
used for identification data and 16 bits for protection data (Data BCC). The page lock bit can be set by
sending the corresponding command to the transponder. Once a page is locked it cannot be reset
(unlocked). The pages are organized as follows:
MPT 0/17: Each page is readable, user programmable and lockable.
SAMPT 0/17-24: The 64 bits of page 1 are divided into 24 selective address bits which make up the
selective address of the transponder and the remaining 40 identification bits. Each page is readable, user
programmable and lockable.
SAMPTS 0/17-24: The 64 bits of page 1 are divided into 24 selective address bits which make up the
selective address of the transponder and the remaining 40 identification bits. Each page is readable, user
programmable and lockable.
2.2
Selective Addressing Principle
In SAMPT 0/17-24 and SAMPTS 0/17-24 page 1 contains 24 selective address bits and 40 identification
data bits. Some commands can only be executed by selective addressable transponders if they are
addressed with its selective address, otherwise they discharge and do not reply.
Thus selective addressing is useful for applications where:
several transponders are in close proximity.
several transponders are in the reading/programming range so that more than one transponder would
be read/programmed/locked. With selective addressable types only the transponder addressed with its
selective address executes the command.
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Function
2.3
Function Overview
The functions that can be performed by the different multipage transponders are as follows (refer to
section 2.3.1 Function Description for details about the different functions):
2.3.1
MPT 0/17:
Charge Only Read
General Read
Page Program Page
Lock Page
SAMPT
0/17-24:
General Read Page
Selective Read Page
Selective Program Page
Selective Lock Page
SAMPTS
0/17-24:
Selective Read Page
Selective Program Page
Selective Lock Page
Function Description
The functions as mentioned above are:
CHARGE ONLY READ:The contents of page 1 can be read without a specific page address, by just
powering-up the transponder.
GENERAL READ PAGE: A page is addressed by sending a page address to the transponder. The
content of the addressed page is returned during the subsequent read Phase.
SELECTIVE READ PAGE: To achieve a readout of a specified page selectively, the transponders
selective address must be sent to the transponder as well as the page address. The transponder
compares the selective address with the corresponding bit field in page 1. If all the bits match, the function
is executed; otherwise the transponder does not respond.
PROGRAM PAGE: A 64-bit identification and a 16 bit BCC are sent to the transponder and programmed
into the specified page. The transponder responds with the new contents of the page.
SELECTIVE PROGRAM PAGE: In order to program a specified page selectively, the selective address
must be sent to the transponder in addition to the page address. The transponder compares the selective
address with the corresponding bit field in page 1. If all the bits match, the function is executed; otherwise
the transponder does not respond.
LOCK PAGE (Disable reprogramming): A specified page can be locked in order to create a read only
page. The transponder responds with the contents of the addressed page and conformation that the page
has been locked.
SELECTIVE LOCK PAGE: In order to lock a specified page selectively, the selective address must be
sent to the transponder in addition to the page address. The transponder compares the selective address
with the corresponding bit field in page 1. If all the bits match, the function is executed; otherwise the
transponder does not respond.
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Function
2.3.2
Multipage Transponder Read Data Format
The following read data format is sent out by all multipage transponders after receiving a read, program or
lock command.
START
PRE BITS
IDENTIFICATION DATA
16
READ
ADDR.
READ DATA
64
8
128 bit
DISCHARGE
FBCC
DBCC
16
816
MSB
LSB
Figure 5. MPT Read Data Format
DESCRIPTION
BITS
VALUE (HEX)
MSB
LSB
Pre Bits
16
Start Byte
8
7E
Read Data
80
yyyyxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
COMMENT
0000
Read Address
8
ps s
Read Frame BCC
16
zzzz
TOTAL
128
x: identification data
y: data BCC
ps: page + statu
All parts of the multipage transponder read data format are transmitted with LSB first. The data format
starts with 16 pre bits (0000HEX) and ends with the Read Frame Block Check Character (Read FBCC). In
order to be ready for a new activation the transponder discharges the charge capacitor during bit 129.
80 read data bits are located between the start byte (7EHEX) and the read address. The read data bits
are user programmable and lockable. The read data is split into 64 identification data bits which are
transmitted first, followed by 16 protection data bits (DBCC). Because it allows optimum data security,
CRC-CCITT is used as protection algorithm for both DBCC and FBCC.
The read address consists of a 2-bit status field and a 6-bit page field. The status field transmitted first,
provides information about the function the multipage transponder has executed, and the page field shows
which page was affected.
Page 1
Page 2
. .
Page 16
Page 17
READ ADDRESS
MSB
LSB
P P P P P P S S
|
|
PAGE STATUS
MSB
LSB
MSB LSB
000001
00 Read unlocked page
000010
01 Programming done
.
10 Read locked page
010000
11 Reserved *)
010001
000000
00 Read unlocked page, locking not correctly executed
000000
01 Programming done, but possibly not reliable
000000
10 Read locked page, but locking possibly not reliable
*) If the status indicates 'Reserved', the read data cannot be interpreted as identification data.
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Function
2.3.3
Write Data Format
The write function is used to transfer commands, addresses and data to the transponder in order to
activate certain functions. Writing is started after the charge phase. It is achieved by switching the RF
Modules transmitter off and on according to the data bits. The duration of the transmitter deactivation
defines whether it is a low bit or a high bit (see section 4.2 for detailed information).
Since the memory of the multipage transponder is structured in multiple pages the reader has to send the
write address to the transponder in order to read, program or lock a specified page.
WRITE ADDRESS
MSB
LSB
P P P P P P C C
|
|
PAGE COMMAND
MSB
Page 1
Page 2
. .
Page 16
Page 17
LSB
000001
000010
.
010000
010001
MSB LSB
00
01
10
11
General read page
Program page
Lock page
Selective read
The write address byte consists of a 2-bit command field and a 6-bit page address. The command field
which is transmitted first (LSB first), determines the function to be executed in the transponder. The page
field defines the affected page.
2.3.3.1
General Read Page
The general read function is applicable to: MPT 0/17 & SAMPT 0/17-24
The general read page function is provided to allow a selected page to be read. Figure 6 shows the data
format to be sent to the transponder in order to read a specified page.
8 bit
128 bit
OFF
TRANSMITTER
WRITE
CHARGE
RF MODULE
ADDRESS
READ
ON
LSB
16 ms
50 ms
20 ms
86 ms
Figure 6. Data Format of the General Read Page Function
For additional information about the write address see section 2.3.3.
Note:
If page 1 of an MPT 0/17 is to be read, the page address does not need to be sent. The
read phase can start immediately after the charge phase.
If the general read page command is corrupted, the transponder could detect the wrong command. If the
number of bits in the write data format are not correct, the transponder discharges its charge capacitor (no
response).
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Function
After having received the data format of the general read page function the multipage transponder
responds with the read data format (see section 2.3.2). Table 1 shows the possible responses. The reader
has to check the response and repeat the command if necessary.
Table 1. Responses to General Read Page
WRITE ADDRESS
COMMAND
READ ADDRESS
PAGE
General Read Page
STATUS
Read unlocked page
x
General Read Page
x
General Read Page
Read locked page
General Read Page
General Read Page
General Read Page
General read page of
locked page x executed
y
General read page of
unlocked page y
executed, y>x: write
address was not
correctly received
y
General read page of
locked page y executed,
y>x: write address was
not correctly received
z
General read page of
unlocked page z
executed, z<x: max.
page or write address
was not correctly
received
z
General read page of
locked page z executed,
z<x: z=max. page or
write address was not
correctly received
x
No identification data in
page x
y
No identification data in
page y, y>x: write
address was not
correctly received
z
No identification data in
page z, z<x: z=max.
page or write address
was not correctly
received
Read locked page
x
x
General Read Page
Reserved
Reserved
x
General Read Page
Reserved
x
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Read unlocked page
x
General Read Page
General read page of
unlocked page x
executed
Read locked page
x
0
No response
DESCRIPTION
x
Read unlocked page
x
General Read Page
PAGE
Page 0 is not valid
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Function
2.3.3.2
Selective Read Page
The selective read function is applicable to: SAMPT 0/17-24 & SAMPTS 0/17-24
In contrast to the general read page function, the selective read page function reads a specified page of a
specific multipage transponder by specifying its selective address during the write phase. Figure 7 shows
the RF transmitter signal to selectively read a multipage transponder.
48 bit
OFF
RF MODULE
TRANSMITTER
CHARGE
WRITE
ADDRESS
128 bit
24
8
16
SELECTIVE
ADDRESS
WRITE FRAME BCC
READ OR
DISCHARGE
ON
16 ms
50 ms
48 m s
32 ms
20 ms
LSB
MSB
16 6 m s
Figure 7. Data Format of the Selective Read Page Function
DESCRIPTION
Write Address
Selective Address
BITS
VALUE (HEX)
MSB
LSB
Write Frame BCC
16
TOTAL
48
COMMENT
16
pc: page +
command
48
x: identification of
page 1
32
z: protection data
pc
8
24
DURATION
(ms)
xxxxxx
zzzz
96
See section 2.3.3 for additional information on the write address.
All parts of the data format must be sent to the transponder with LSB first.
The selective address is compared bitwise with the corresponding bit field of page 1. If all bits match, the
selective read page function is executed.
The 16-bit Write Frame Block Check Character (Write FBCC) which protects the write address and the
selective address must be generated by the CRC-CCITT algorithm.
The data format of the read page function is checked by the transponder using the hardware CRC
Generator. The read page function is executed by the transponder if:
• the selective read page command is detected
• the selective address is O.K.
• the write data format has the correct number of bits
• the write FBCC check is positive
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Function
After having received the data format of the selective read page function the multipage transponder
responds in the read data format (see section 2.3.2). Table 2 shows the possible responses. The reader
has to check the response and repeat the command if necessary.
Table 2. Responses to General Read Page
WRITE ADDRESS
COMMAND
READ ADDRESS
PAGE
Selective Read
STATUS
Read unlocked page
x
Selective Read
Selective Read
Selective Read
x
Selective read page of
locked page x was
executed
z
Selective read page of
unlocked page z was
executed, z<x: z=max.
page
z
Selective read page of
locked page z was
executed, z<x: z=max.
page
x
Selective read page of
page x was executed.
No identification data in
page x
z
Selective read page of
page z was executed.
No identification data in
page z, z<x: z=max.
page
Read locked page
x
Selective Read
Reserved
x
Selective Read
Reserved
x
Selective Read
No response
Selective read page was
not executed, because a
CRC or framing error
occurred or the selective
address was not valid
during write function
No response
page 0 is not valid
x
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Selective read page of
unlocked page x was
executed
Read unlocked page
x
0
DESCRIPTION
x
Read locked page
x
Selective Read
PAGE
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Function
2.3.3.3
Program Page
The program page function is applicable to: MPT 0/17
The program page function is used to program the write data into a specified page of a multipage
transponder. For that purpose the following data format must be sent to the transponder with LSB first.
104 bit
880
RF MODULE
CHARGE
TRANSMITTER
WRITE
ADDRESS
50 ms
16 ms
128 bit
16
WRITE DATA
WRITE FRAME BCC
160 ms
PROGR.
32 ms
LSB
15 ms
READ OR
DISCHARGE
20 ms
MSB
293 ms
Figure 8. Data Format of the Program Page Function
DESCRIPTION
Write Address
Write Data
BITS
VALUE (HEX)
MSB
LSB
pc
8
80
yyyyxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
x
Write Frame BCC
16
zzzz
TOTAL
104
DURATION
(ms)
COMMENT
16
pc: page +
command
160
x: identification data
& protection data
32
z: protection data
208
For additional information on the write address see section 2.3.3.
The 80 bit write data split into 64 identification data bits and 16 protection data bits (DBCC) must be
transmitted consecutively.
Because it provides optimum data security, CRC-CCITT is used as protection algorithm for the calculation
of the DBCC and the 16-bit Write Frame Block Check Character (Write FBCC), which protects the write
address and the write data.
The multipage transponder checks the received data using a hardware CRC Generator. The program
page function is executed if:
• the program page command is detected
• the write data format has the correct number of bits
• the write FBCC check is OK
• the RF field strength is high enough to generate a reliable programming voltage
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Function
After having received the data format of the program page function the multipage transponder responds in
the read data format (see section 2.3.2). Table 3 shows the possible responses. The reader has to check
the response and repeat the command if necessary.
Table 3. Responses to Program Page
WRITE ADDRESS
COMMAND
Program Page
READ ADDRESS
PAGE
x
STATUS
Programming done
PAGE
DESCRIPTION
x
Programming of page x
correctly executed
0
Programming of page x
executed, but probably
not reliable
x
Programming of locked
page x not executed
x
Programming of
unlocked page x not
executed, RF field
strength too low
x
Program Page
Programming done
x
Program Page
x
Program Page
Read locked page
Read unlocked page
x
Program Page
No response
Programming not
executed because of
CRC error or framing
error
Read unlocked page
z
Programming not
executed, z<x: page x
not available, page z =
max. page and is
unlocked
x
Programming not
executed, z<x: page x
not available, page z =
max. page and is locked
z
No identification data in
page x
z
No identification data in
page z, z<x: z=max.
page
x
Program Page
x
Program Page
Read locked page z
x
Program Page
x
Program Page
Reserved
Reserved
x
Program Page
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No response
Page 0 is not valid
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Function
2.3.3.4
Selective Program Page
The selective program page function is applicable to: SAMPT 0/17-24 & SAMPTS 0/17-24
In contrast to the program page function, the selective program page function programs the write data into
a specified page of a specific multipage transponder by giving the transponders selective address during
the write phase. For that purpose the following data format must be sent to the transponder with LSB first.
128 bit
8
RF MODULE
24
128 bit
80
16
OFF
CHARGE
TRANSMITTER
ON
WRITE
ADDRESS
50 ms
16 ms
SELECT IVE
AD D R ES S
WRITE DATA
WRITE FRAME BCC
160 ms
48 m s
PROGRA M
32 ms
LSB
15 ms
READ OR
DISCHARGE
20 ms
MS B
34 1 m s
Figure 9. Data Format of the Selective Program Page Function
DESCRIPTION
Write Address
BITS
VALUE (HEX)
MSB
LSB
pc
8
Selective Address
COMMENT
16
pc: page +
command
48
x: part of
identification of page
1
160
x: identification data
& protection data
32
z: protection data
xxxxxx
24
Write Data
DURATION
(ms)
80
yyyyxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
x
Write Frame BCC
16
zzzz
TOTAL
128
256
For additional information on the write address see section 2.3.3.
The selective address is compared bitwise with the corresponding bit field of page 1. If all bits match, the
selective program page function is executed.
The 80 bit write data split into 64 identification data bits and 16 protection data bits (DBCC) must be
transmitted consecutively.
Because it provides optimum data security, CRC-CCITT is used as protection algorithm for the calculation
of the DBCC and the 16-bit Write Frame Block Check Character (Write FBCC), which protects the write
address, the selective address and the write data.
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Function
The multipage transponder checks the received data using a hardware CRC Generator. The selective
program page function is executed if:
• the program page command is detected
• the selective address is OK
• the write data format has the correct number of bits
• the write FBCC check is OK
• the RF field strength is high enough to generate a reliable programming voltage
After having received the data format of the selective program page function the multipage transponder
responds in the read data format (see section 2.3.2). Table 4 shows the possible responses. The reader
has to check the response and repeat the command if necessary.
Table 4. Responses to Selective Program Page
WRITE ADDRESS
COMMAND
Program Page
READ ADDRESS
PAGE
x
Program Page
STATUS
Programming done
x
Program Page
Read locked page
Programming of page x
correctly executed
0
Programming of page x
executed, but probably
not reliable
x
Programming of locked
page x not executed
x
Programming of
unlocked page x not
executed, RF field
strength too low
Read unlocked page
x
Program Page x
No response
Programming not
executed because of
CRC error, framing error
or wrong selective
address
Read unlocked page
z
Programming not
executed, z<x: page x
not available, page z =
max. page and is
unlocked
z
Programming not
executed, z<x: page x
not available, page z =
max. page and is locked
x
No identification data in
page x
z
No identification data in
page z, z<x: z=max.
page
x
Program Page
x
Program Page
Read locked page
x
Program Page
x
Program Page
Reserved
Reserved
x
Program Page
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DESCRIPTION
x
Programming done
x
Program Page
PAGE
No response
Page 0 is not valid
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Function
2.3.3.5
Lock Page
The lock page function is applicable to: MPT 0/17
The lock page function is used to lock the content of a specified page of a multipage transponder. For that
purpose the following data format must be sent to the transponder with LSB first.
24 bit
8
RF MODULE
CHARGE
TRANSMITTER
WRITE
128 bit
16
PRO G.
WRITE FRAME BCC
ADDRESS
50 ms
16 ms
READ OR
DISCHARGE
32 ms
15 ms
LSB
20 ms
MS B
133 ms
Figure 10. Data Format of the Lock Page Function
DESCRIPTION
Write Address
BITS
VALUE (HEX)
MSB
LSB
pc
8
Write Frame BCC
16
TOTAL 128
24
zzzz
DURATION
(ms)
COMMENT
16
pc: page +
command
32
z: protection data
48
For additional information on the write address see section 2.3.3.
The 16-bit Write Frame Block Check Character (Write FBCC) which protects the write address must be
generated by the CRC-CCITT algorithm.
The data format of the lock page function is checked by the transponder using the hardware CRC
Generator. The lock page function is executed by the transponder if:
• the lock page command is detected
• the write data format has the correct number of bits
• the write FBCC check is positive
• the RF field strength is high enough to generate reliable programming voltage
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Function
After having received the data format of the lock page function the multipage transponder responds in the
read data format (see section 2.3.2). Table 5 shows the possible responses. The reader has to check the
response and repeat the command if necessary.
Table 5. Responses to Lock Page
WRITE ADDRESS
COMMAND
Lock Page
READ ADDRESS
PAGE
x
Lock Page
STATUS
Read locked page
PAGE
x
Locking of page x
correctly executed
0
Locking of page x
executed, but probably
not reliable
Read locked page
x
Lock Page
No response
Locking not executed,
because of CRC error or
framing error
x
Lock Page
Read unlocked page
x
Lock Page
Lock Page
Lock Page
x
Lock Page
Reserved
Locking of page x not
executed because field
strength dropped. Page
is not locked
z
Read unlocked page z,
z<x: page x not
available. z = max.
page. Lock page was
not executed
z
Read locked page z,
z<x: page x not
available. z = max.
page. Lock page was
not executed
x
No identification data in
page x
z
No identification data in
page z, z<x, z=max.
page
Reserved
x
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Read locked page
x
Lock Page
Locking of page x not
executed, RF field
strength too low. Page is
not locked
Read unlocked page
x
Lock Page
x
Read unlocked page
x
0
No response
DESCRIPTION
Page 0 is not valid
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Function
2.3.3.6
Selective Lock Page
The selective lock page function is applicable to: SAMPT 0/17-24 & SAMPTS 0/17-24
In contrast to the lock page function, the selective lock page function locks a specified page of a specific
multipage transponder by giving the transponder's selective address during the write phase. For that
purpose the following data format must be sent to the transponder with LSB first.
48 b it
OF F
RF MOD ULE
TRANSMITTER
CHARGE
W R IT E
ADDRESS
128 bit
24
8
16
SELECTIVE
ADDR ESS
READ OR
DISCHARGE
WRITE FRAME BCC
ON
50 ms
16 ms
48 ms
32 ms
20 m s
LSB
MS B
16 6 m s
Figure 11. Data Format of the Selective Lock Page Function
DESCRIPTION
Write Address
BITS
VALUE (HEX)
MSB
LSB
pc
8
Selective Address
DURATION
(ms)
COMMENT
16
pc: page +
command
48
x: part of
identification of page
1
32
z: protection data
xxxxxx
24
Write Frame BCC
16
TOTAL
48
zzzz
96
For additional information on the write address see section 2.3.3.
The selective address is compared bitwise with the corresponding bit field of page 1. If all bits match, the
selective lock page function is executed.
The 16-bit Write Frame Block Check Character (Write FBCC) which protects the write address and the
selective address must be generated by the CRC-CCITT algorithm.
The data format of the selective lock page function is checked by the transponder using the hardware
CRC Generator. The selective lock page function is executed by the transponder if:
• the lock page command is detected
• the selective address is OK
• the write data format has the correct number of bits
• the write FBCC check is positive
• the RF field strength is high enough to generate reliable programming voltage
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Function
After having received the data format of the selective lock page function the multipage transponder
responds in the read data format (see section 2.3.2). Table 6 shows the possible responses. The reader
has to check the response and repeat the command if necessary.
Table 6. Responses to Selective Lock Page
WRITE ADDRESS
COMMAND
Lock Page
READ ADDRESS
PAGE
x
Lock Page
STATUS
Read locked page
PAGE
x
Locking of page x
correctly executed
0
Locking of page x
executed, but probably
not reliable
Read locked page
x
Lock Page
No response
Locking not executed,
because of CRC error,
framing error or wrong
selective address
Read unlocked page
x
Locking of page x not
executed, RF field
strength too low. Page is
not locked
0
Locking of page x was
not executed because
field strength dropped.
Page is not locked
z
Read unlocked page z,
z<x: page x not
available. z = max.
page. Lock page was
not executed
z
Read locked page z,
z<x: page x not
available. z = max.
page. Lock page was
not executed
x
No identification data in
page x
z
No identification data in
page z, z<x, z=max.
page
x
Lock Page
x
Lock Page
Read unlocked page
x
Lock Page
Read unlocked page
x
Lock Page
Read locked page
x
Lock Page
x
Lock Page
Reserved
Reserved
x
Lock Page
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0
DESCRIPTION
No response
Page 0 is not valid
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EMI/EMC Performance
3
EMI/EMC Performance
3.1
General
For any given RF-ID system, the EMI/EMC performance is determined by three factors:
1. The reader design and the resulting noise immunity performance.
2. The signal strength of the transponder and Signal/Noise ratio at the receiver input.
3. The transponder immunity to EM fields:
• The most critical EMI factor or component in a system is the reader immunity.
• A high transponder data signal facilitates reader design through the higher Signal/Noise ratio.
• The least critical component is the transponder. Immunity levels are generally very high.
All
•
•
•
3.2
EMI sources can be classified into three different categories:
Broad band "industrial" noise of sporadic or continuous nature.
Discrete radio frequency signals unmodulated or FM /FSK modulated.
Discrete radio frequency signals which are AM or ASK modulated.
CE Declaration
CE−Declaration
The products described in this document comply fully with the European EMC directive 89/336/EEC as
tested according to pr ETS 300 683.
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EMI/EMC Performance
3.3
TIRIS™ System Performance
EMI FIELD STRENGTH
(VOLTS/m)
10,000
Malfunction
1,000
100
10
1
Function
Function
0.1
LW MW
0.01
SW
FM
VHF / UHF
0.001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
10
1,000
FREQUENCY (MHz)
Figure 12. TIRIS System Immunity over a Spectrum of 6 Decades
The graph shows the EMI Immunity level in V/m as function of the frequency range from
1 kHz to 1000 MHz. Measurement condition: minimum 90% read probability at maximum read range,
using a standard TIRIS reader.
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Read and Write Principle
4
Read and Write Principle
This section describes the modulation principle used in the transponder for sending out its telegram (read)
as well as the principle for sending data to the transponder (write, or program).
4.1
Read
After reading, programming or locking of a specified page, the transponder sends out its protocol using
FSK modulation.
The typical data low bit frequency is 134.2 kHz, the typical data high bit frequency is 123.2 kHz. The low
and high bits have different durations, because each bit takes 16 RF cycles to transmit. The high bit has a
typical duration of 129.2 µs, the low bit of 119.9 s. Figure 13 shows the FM principle used.
Data encoding is done in NRZ mode (Non Return to Zero). The clock is derived from the RF carrier by a
divide-by-16 function.
0
1
0
1
134.2 kHz
123.2 kHz
134.2 kHz
123.2 kHz
129.2 µs
119.9 µs
Figure 13. FM Principle Used for the Read Function of TIRIS Transponders
4.2
Write and Program
The write function is used to transfer commands, addresses and data to the transponder in order to
activate certain functions. Writing is started after the charge phase (RF transmitter on for 15..50 ms using
a frequency of 134,2 kHz), it is achieved by switching the RF Module's transmitter off and on according to
the data bits. Modulation index of this amplitude modulation is 100%.
A write bit has a typical duration of tbit = 2 ms. The duration of the transmitter deactivation (pulse width)
defines whether it is a low bit or a high bit. During a high bit the transmitter is deactivated for toffH and
activated afterwards for tonH. During a low bit the transmitter is deactivated for toffL and activated
afterwards for tonL. Figure 14 shows the RF Modules transmitter during write and program function.
WRITE
PROGRAM
HIGH BIT
LO W BIT
OFF
RF MODULE
TR AN SMITTER
ON
to ffH
tonH
tbit
to nL
toffL
tbit
tprog
Figure 14. Write and Program Function
Figure 15 describes the write and programming function by showing the transmitter output signal and the
transponder RF input signal.
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Read and Write Principle
Charge:
Write:
Program:
Read:
Continuous RF Module Transmitter output Signal
Pulse width modulation of the RF module transmitter output signal
Continuous RF module transmitter output signal
Frequency Shift Keying of the transponder resonant circuit oscillation
Figure 15. Charge, Write and Program principle used for TIRIS, Showing the Voltage at the Exciter
(Reader) and Transponder Antenna Coil
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Measurement Set-Ups
5
Measurement Set-Ups
This section describes typical measurement set-ups that can be used to determine transponder relevant
data such as: resonant frequency, bandwidth, quality factor, powering field strength and transponder
signal field strength as listed in the relevant Package Product Parameters under "Recommended
Operating Conditions".
For the examples and figures here we have used a 32 mm Glass Transponder as a representative device,
but the principles are the same for all package types.
5.1
Measurement Set-Up: Resonance Frequency, Bandwidth, Quality Factor of Transponder
This test set-up is suitable for resonant frequency (fres) measurements as well as the determination of the
3dB bandwidth (.f) of the transponder. The quality factor Q of the transponder resonance circuit can be
calculated with equation (1):
Q=
f
Df
res
(1)
U
3 dB
Pick−up
coil
f Res
f
f
Figure 16. Determination of the Resonance Frequency and -3db Bandwidth by Monitoring the Pick-Up
Coil Voltage
The wires of the pick-up coil should be very thin to avoid influence on the measurement results (for
example: by damping). The choice of a 1 M. input resistor at the spectrum analyzer is recommended.
Figure 17 shows the test set-up. The relation between pick-up coil voltage and frequency is shown in
Figure 16.
TRANSPONDER
COIL
PICK−UP
COIL
INPUT
SPECTRUM
ANALYZER
TRACKING GENERATOR
Figure 17. Measurement Set-up for the Determination of Transponder Resonance Frequency, Bandwidth
and Quality Factor
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Measurement Set-Ups
5.2
Measurement Set-Up: Powering Field Strength
The following set-up is used to determine the minimum required powering field strength.
d/2
COILS
TRANSPONDER
ANTENNA AXIS
d
PICK−UP
COIL
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
Trigger
OSCILLOS CO PE
Figure 18. Test Set-up for Powering Field Strength Determination
The field between both serial connected coils is homogeneous, due to the fact that the aperture is built
according to the Helmholtz set-up. The circular coils are positioned in parallel on one axis. The distance
between the coils is half the coil diameter. The transponder is positioned in the middle of the coil axis.
Determination of the minimum powering field strength is possible by changing the field strength through
increasing the coil current. The relation between the generated magnetic flux / field strength and coil
current can either be measured with a calibrated field probe, or calculated as follows:
B=
4
4 mo × mr × N × I
×
×
= m0 × mr × H
5
5
d/ 2
A
(2)
B: magnetic flux (Tesla=Wb/m2)
H: magnetic field strength (/m)
N: Number of Helmholtz Coil windings
d: Coil diameter (m)
I: Coil current ()
o: magnetic field constant (Vs/m) = 4p107 Vs/Am
r: relative magnetic field constant (in air: =1)
The Helmholtz set-up can be used for the specification of transponders in the temperature range from 40
to +85C. Tests showed, however, that deviations of the field strength caused by temperature are
negligible.
The data telegram of the transponder can be captured by a pick-up coil (for example: 10 windings, thin
wire to minimize influence) wrapped around the transponder. The pulse modulated signal can be adjusted
at the signal generator. The measurement of the power pulse and transponder diagram can be done with
the help of an oscilloscope triggered by the generator signal (see Figure 18). As soon as a data telegram
is completely detected the minimum necessary field strength (calculated with equation 2) can be
monitored.
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Measurement Set-Ups
U
Power
phase
Response phase
max 20msec
t
Figure 19. Received Signal at the Pick-up Coil, if Power Field Strength is Sufficient
5.3
Measurement Set-Up: Transponder Signal Strength
The transponder has to be located into a homogeneous field (Helmholtz set-up). The pulsed power signal
is generated by a signal generator. A calibrated field strength probe picks up the transponder signal. The
field strength can be calculated by using the calibration factor of the field strength probe.
COILS
TRANSPONDER
PICK−UP
COIL
d
ANTENNA AXIS
SIGNAL
GENERATOR
SPECTRUM
ANALYZER
Figure 20. Determination of the Transponder Signal Strength (Data Transmission Signal Strength) with
Helmholtz Aperture
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General Product Data
Power signal
U
Transponder signal
Noise
t
Power
phase
R ead
phase
Figure 21. Monitored Signal Voltage at the Spectrum Analyser (Time Domain Mode)
6
General Product Data
6.1
Memory
PARAMETER
Memory size
Memory organization
Identification data
Error detection (Data BCC)
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DATA
1360 bits
17 pages @ 80 bit
1088 bit
CRC - CCITT , 16 bit
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General Product Data
6.2
Data Retention
For the evaluation of programming endurance and data retention time of user programmable TIRIS
multipage transponders the following test sequence has been passed:
5000/10000/20000/50000/100000/200000
PROGRAMMING CY CLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
UNIT PASS ?
NO
CUMMULATIVE PROGRAMMING CYCLES
EVALUATE UNIT
YES
TRANSPONDER CHARACTERIZATION
First characterization after 5000 cycles
Second characterization after 10000 cycles
TRANSPONDER
CHARACTERIZATION
Third characterization after 20000 cycles
Fourth characterization after 50000 cycles
Fifth characterization after 100000 cycles
Sixth characterization after 200000 cycles
TEMPERATURE STORAGE : 150 DEG C, 48 HRS
YES
UNIT PASS ?
NO
SIMULATION OF LONG −TERM STORAG E
AFTER PROGRAMMING CYCLES
EVALUATE UNIT (BIT FAILURES, etc.)
200000 PROGRAMMING
CYCLES DONE
TEST COMPLETED
Figure 22.
The following graph shows the equivalent extended data retention time at different ambient temperatures
after completion of 100000 programming cycles. Temperature data are derived from measured results at
150 deg C and 48 hrs storage with an acceleration factor of 0.8 eV.
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General Product Data
DATA RETENTION TIME [YEARS]
1000
100
10
1
0
0
25
50
75
100
125
STORAGE TEMP [DegC]
Figure 23.
6.3
ESD
TIRIS transponders are not sensitive to ESD as defined in IEC 801.
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Appendix A Conversion Formula
Conversion formula between magnetic flux, magnetic field strength and electric field strength.
B = µ0 • H
E = ZF • H
H+
dBmA
dBmA
dBmV
E
* 51.5 m ; [H] + m ; [E] + m
dBmV B m
B = Magnetic flux [Tesla = Wb/m2 =Vs/m2]; 1 mWb/m2 = 0.795 A/m
H = Magnetic field strength (A/m or in logarithmic term dBA/m)
E = Electrical field strength (V/m or in logarithmic term dBV/m)
µo = Magnetic field constant = 1.257 106 Vs/Am
ZF = Free space impedance = 120 πΩ = 377 Ω
A.1
Abbreviations
BCC — Block Check Character
CRC — Cyclic Redundancy Check
DBCC — Data BCC
EEPROM — Electrical Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
FBCC — Frame BCC
LSB — Least Significant Bit
MPT — MultiPage Transponder
MSB — Most Significant Bit
RO — Read Only Transponder
R/W — Read/Write Transponder
SAMPT — Selective Programmable Addressable MPT
SAMPTS — Selective Programmable Addressable MPT - Secured
TIRIS — Texas Instruments Registration and Identification System
34
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