Elenco | CI73 | Owner Manual | Elenco CI73 Computer Interface for Snap Circuits Owner Manual

Elenco CI73 Computer Interface for Snap Circuits Owner Manual
CI-73_REV-E_051314.qxp_CI-73_Manual_072213 5/13/14 4:01 PM Page 1
Copyright © 2014, 2004 by Elenco® Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by
any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written permission from the publisher.
REV-E
Revised 2014
753293
CI-73_REV-E_051314.qxp_CI-73_Manual_072213 5/13/14 4:01 PM Page 2
CI-73 - READ THIS FIRST
The CI-73 is a set of 73 Snap Circuits® with special
software that allows you to “see” the electrical signals
in the circuits, just like electronics engineers do using
oscilloscopes and spectrum analyzers.
Requirements for your computer:
1. Windows® computer with internet connection.
2. A microphone input port.
Complies with CAN ICES-3 (B)/NMB-3 (B). This product
should only be connected to equipment of class II.
INSTRUCTIONS:
1. Download our software from www.elenco.com/downloads/CI73.zip (Windows® may give you a warning, but our software is
safe to download). Go to the download and extract the
compressed files. Connect the plug end of our cable to the
microphone input (or microphone/USB adapter) on your
computer. With our cable connected, open the extracted files
folder and run file Winscope.exe.
2. Change the default settings for Winscope by selecting
<Options>. Then select <Timing> and change Sampling to
44100 and press <OK>. Then select <Options> again, then
<Colors> - <Y1 Trace> and pick a bright color like pink. Then
select <Options>, then <Save Setup> to save these settings
as your default.
3. Follow the instructions through project PC3 before
moving on to any other circuits, since the main features
of the software are demonstrated.
If you have any questions contact:
WARNING:
ELENCO®
SHOCK HAZARD - NEVER connect
the probe to AC power or a wall
electricity outlet for any reason since
serious injury or damage may result.
150 Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090
(847) 541-3800
Website: www.elenco.com • e-mail: elenco@elenco.com
-1-
!
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Looking at Electronic Signals using the WINSCOPE Software
Electronic engineers use specialized test equipment to “see”
electronic signals and make performance measurements. They
use an oscilloscope to look at the shape of the signal and use a
spectrum analyzer to look at its frequency content. This
equipment is specialized and usually very expensive.
The Winscope software simulates this equipment using your
personal computer. The PC-interface cable can be connected
across any 2 points in your circuit to look at the signal.
Click on the On-Line button to turn it on. You should now get
one of the following 2 pictures, depending on whether your
microphone input is properly turned on:
On-Line
button
Example
A
WARNING:
SHOCK HAZARD - NEVER connect the probe to AC power
or a wall electricity outlet for any reason since serious injury
or damage may result.
It is usually connected to the output of a circuit, as in the circuits
shown for the CI-73. Connect the plug end of the probe to the
microphone input on your personal computer. Run the
Winscope application (Winscope.exe). It will come up in Hold
mode looking like this:
Example
B
If you get the picture shown in Example B, then your microphone
input is not properly turned on. Go to the “Turning On Your
Microphone Input” section to turn it on. There may also be other
sound card controls on your computer that you need to set.
When your input is properly configured, you will get a picture like
Example A above. Touch the red and black “alligator” clips on the
PC-interface cable to each other and you should see the random
pattern on the Winscope screen change as you do so. You are
now ready to proceed with the first CI-73 experiment or you may
investigate the Winscope software on your own.
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Looking at Electronic Signals using the WINSCOPE Software (continued)
You may freeze a waveform on the screen by clicking on the
Hold mode button (just to the right of the On-Line button).
Hold mode button
NOTES:
1. It is recommended that you disable or turn down the
volume to the speakers on your computer. CI-73’s use of
the microphone input port will also channel the same
signal to the speakers, and the result can be distracting.
2. It is recommended that you become familiar with the Snap
Circuits® parts and assembly methods before building
any of the circuits in this manual.
3. For some Windows® versions, you must plug in the PCinterface cable before you run Winscope, or you will not
be able to activate the Winscope on-line button.
Turning On Your Microphone
(For Windows® 98 or XP, other Windows® versions may be
slightly different.)
WARNING: Do not “save setup” in Winscope. Many of the
buttons on Winscope control features that this manual will not be
using. If you accidentally place the Winscope software into an
unknown mode, you may always close and re-start Winscope.
Doing so will reset all settings to those described in this booklet
unless you have done a “save setup”.
PROJECTS PC1-PC3 SHOW
HOW TO USE THE MAIN
FUNCTIONS OF WINSCOPE SO
DO THEM FIRST!
-3-
If you don’t get any signal from the PC-interface cable then
your microphone may be disabled on your computer. To turn
it on, follow these instructions which begin by pressing the
<Start> button on the lower-left corner:
1. Select <Start> - <Programs> - <Accessories> <Entertainment> (or <Multimedia>) - <Volume Control>.
2. Select <Options>.
3. Select <Properties>.
4. Select <Recording> in the “Adjust Volume For” box.
5. In the “Show the Following Controls” box, check
<Microphone>.
6. Select <OK>.
7. In the “Microphone - Volume” box, check <Select> and set
volume to about 40% of max.
Your microphone should now be turned on.
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Looking at Electronic Signals using the WINSCOPE Software (continued)
IMPORTANT NOTE: The designs for the microphone input port
vary throughout the computer industry. Hence you may get
waveforms different from those shown in your manual even
though the circuit is actually performing the same way. Here are
some types of differences:
A. The gain of your microphone input may be significantly
different from that indicated on pages 8-10 (and similarly
for the other circuits). Page 4 describes how to turn on the
microphone input and adjust its volume to about 40% of
max, you may want to adjust this volume higher or lower
so that your results better match those shown. Note that
having the volume set too high may “clip off” the top or
bottom portion of a waveform.
C. The shape of waveforms may appear distorted for some
circuits, due to protection circuitry that acts as a filter. For
example:
This waveform . . .
might look like this.
And this waveform . . .
might look like this.
And this waveform . . .
might look like this.
B. The oscilloscope waveforms shown on your display may
appear upside down (“inverted”) from those shown
throughout this document. For example the waveform
shown on the top of page 10 would look like this:
If this is the case then swap the connections of the red and black
clips of the Winscope probe in all circuits.
Contact ELENCO® if you have any questions about this.
-4-
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Limitations of WINSCOPE and Its Interface
By using the microphone audio input and the flexible processing
power of the personal computer, we have created an inexpensive
and easy-to-use way of looking at electronic signals. However,
no electronic oscilloscope or spectrum analyzer ever made
works on all electronic signals, and similarly Winscope has
limitations. The projects in this booklet were written to minimize
those limitations.
Winscope can only measure changing signals (AC voltages, >20
Hz frequency) and cannot measure fixed voltages (DC voltages,
such as a battery), due to the design of the microphone input.
Fixed voltages are not very exciting to look at anyway. Slowchanging or transient signals (such as when you first turn on
power to a circuit) will be displayed in a distorted form.
Winscope works best on signals up to about 5kHz, since its
sampling rate is limited to 44kHz. If you attempt to measure
higher frequency signals, then you will get wrong results due to
undersampling. This is a narrow range but it covers human voice
and most (but not all) music. AM and FM radio frequencies
cannot be measured. Every measurement you make will have
some amount of random “chatter” superimposed on the signal of
interest. This chatter is due to the limited sampling rate and from
the PC-interface cable picking up energy from other electronic
instruments in the vicinity (including room lights and your
computer), hence it cannot be avoided.
Using WINSCOPE’s Full Capabilities
Winscope has 2 input channels that can be displayed at the
same time. This is commonly done by electronic engineers using
an oscilloscope, to show the relationship of one (or more) signals
to another. However, use of this requires a second microphone
input, which most computers do not have. If the sound card in
your computer has this then you may use all of Winscope
features for 2 channels, which include X-Y and correlate modes.
Use of these Winscope capabilities is beyond the introductory
level of this product, use the Help menu in Winscope for
information about using these features (to make the help file work
on Windows Vista, you may need to download and install the
program (WinHlp32.exe) from the Microsoft Download Center).
WARNING:
SHOCK HAZARD - NEVER connect the probe to AC power
or a wall electricity outlet for any reason since serious injury
or damage may result.
!
Exporting Graphs from WINSCOPE
To make a copy of the Winscope display screen, hold down the Alt button and press the PrtScn button on your
computer when Winscope is the active window. You can then paste it into word processing programs such as
Microsoft Word.
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Project Listings
Project #
PC1
PC2
PC3
PC4
PC5
PC6
PC7
PC8
PC9
PC10
PC11
PC12
PC13
PC14
PC15
PC16
PC17
PC18
PC19
PC20
PC21
PC22
PC23
PC24
PC25
PC26
PC27
PC28
PC29
PC30
PC31
PC32
PC33
PC34
PC35
PC36
PC37
Description
Pitch PC
Screaming Fan PC
Hissing Foghorn PC
Light and Sounds PC
Light and Sounds PC (II)
Light and Sounds PC (III)
Light and Sounds PC (IV)
Light and Sounds PC (V)
Light and Sounds PC (VI)
Modulation
Filtering
AM Radio PC
Space War PC
Microphone
Speaker Microphone
Symphony of Sounds PC
Doorbell PC
Periodic Sounds PC
Lasting Doorbell PC
Space War Flicker PC
Buzzing in the Dark PC
Trombone PC
Sound Pulse Oscillator PC
High Pitch Bell PC
Tone Generator PC
Tone Generator PC (II)
Tone Generator PC (III)
Old-Style Typewriter PC
Transistor Fading Siren PC
Fading Doorbell PC
Police Siren Amplifier PC
Music Amplifier PC
Space War Amplifier PC
Adjustable Tone Generator PC
Adjustable Tone Generator PC (II)
Adjustable Tone Generator PC (III)
Adjustable Tone Generator PC (IV)
Page #
7
11
14
16
18
18
18
18
19
19
21
22
24
25
27
28
29
30
31
33
34
35
37
38
39
39
39
40
41
41
42
42
43
43
44
44
44
Project #
PC38
PC39
PC40
PC41
PC42
PC43
PC44
PC45
PC46
PC47
PC48
PC49
PC50
PC51
PC52
PC53
PC54
PC55
PC56
PC57
PC58
PC59
PC60
PC61
PC62
PC63
PC64
PC65
PC66
PC67
PC68
PC69
PC70
PC71
PC72
PC73
Description
Adjustable FM Radio PC
Transistor AM Radio PC (II)
Playback & Record PC
Power Amplifier Playing Music PC
Music Meter PC
Oscillation Sounds PC
Oscillation Sounds PC (II)
Oscillation Sounds PC (III)
Oscillation Sounds PC (IV)
Oscillator Sounds PC
Oscillator Sounds PC (II)
Whistle Chip Sounds PC
Whistle Chip Sounds PC (II)
Whistle Chip Sounds PC (III)
Whistle Chip Sounds PC (IV)
Bird Sounds PC
Bird Sounds PC (II)
Electronic Cat PC
Electronic Cat PC (II)
Electronic Cat PC (III)
Electronic Cat PC (IV)
Variable Oscillator PC
Variable Oscillator PC (II)
Variable Oscillator PC (III)
Variable Oscillator PC (IV)
Electronic Sound PC
Electronic Sound PC (II)
Siren PC
Drawing Resistors PC
Electronic Noisemaker PC
Electronic Noisemaker PC (II)
Bee PC
Bee PC (II)
Space War Alarm Combo PC
Space War Music Combo PC
Sound Mixer PC
Page #
44
45
45
46
47
48
48
48
48
49
49
49
50
50
50
50
51
51
51
51
51
52
52
52
52
53
53
54
55
55
56
56
57
57
58
58
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Project #PC1
Pitch PC
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output signal from a transistor oscillator while changing the pitch of the sound.
You will now be introduced to the Winscope features, and thereby
become familiar with oscilloscopes and spectrum analyzers, and
see some of the most important concepts in electronics. It is
recommended that you already be familiar with the Snap Circuits®
parts and assembly methods from the other manuals.
Build the circuit shown and connect the PC-interface cable to the
microphone input on your computer. Turn on the slide switch (S1)
and vary the adjustable resistor (RV). The frequency or pitch of
the sound is changed. Run the Winscope software and be sure
your microphone input is configured properly, as described
earlier.
-7-
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Click on the On-Line button if Winscope is currently in Hold mode
and you should get a picture similar to this one:
On-Line
button
Note that your picture may not exactly match this picture due to
variances in the microphone input gain between computers, which
is beyond software control. You may want to adjust the volume
control of your microphone input to compensate, see note A on
page 4 for more details. You may also disable 1:1 mode by clicking
on its button again and then adjust the gain using the Y1 control.
The gain and position control features just described enable
electronic engineers and technicians to “see” the amplitude
(voltage level) of a signal. By adjusting the settings on an
oscilloscope, they can look at both very large and very small
voltage waveforms.
The waveform peak is off the top of the screen because the scope
gain (amplification) is set too high. You may adjust this gain by
moving the Y1 gain control around (try it).
Similarly, you may adjust the position of the waveform on the
screen by moving the Y1 position control around (try it).
Move the adjustable resistor control (snap part RV) and watch how
it changes the waveform on the computer screen. Now click on the
0.5ms/div button to change the time scale on the display. (The
button to the left of it is for 5ms/div, the default.) Move the
adjustable resistor control around again. You may click on the Hold
button to freeze the waveform on the screen, then click on OnLine to restart.
Hold
button
0.5ms/div button
Now click on the 1:1 button to set the gain to x1 and disable the
Y1 controls. You should now have a picture similar to this one:
1:1 button
Y1 position
control
Y1 gain
control
With the time scale at 0.5ms/div and the adjustable resistor set for
middle position, you should now have a picture similar to this one.
Your picture may appear different due to variations in the
microphone input designs between computers. Although this is
beyond software control, in some cases you may be able to
compensate externally. See notes B and C on page 4 for details.
-8-
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Notice that the waveform seems to be randomly dancing across the
screen, making it hard to study. We can fix this. Click on the
“trigger positive level” button and make sure the trigger bar is
in the position shown here. Notice that a small “-” appears on the
left of the display as you do so.
“Trigger positive level button
Now its time to look at your electronic signal in a different way. The
oscilloscope features you have been using show you voltage
(amplitude) vs. time, now you will see voltage vs. frequency.
Engineers use expensive instruments called spectrum analyzers to
do this, but Winscope uses a mathematical transformation called
an FFT to do this. Set the Y1 gain control back to its default
position for now. Click on the 5ms/div button to display a wider
range, then click on the FFT button. Your display should be similar
to this:
5ms/div button
FFT button
“-”
Y1 gain
control
default
position
Trigger bar
The small slash “-” represents the trigger voltage, when the signal
reaches this voltage level it activates the display. This makes it
easy to observe a stream of pulses like you have now, and also to
record a single (non-repeating) pulse.
Move the adjustable resistor control (snap part RV) and watch how
it changes the waveform on the computer screen. Now you can
see how changing the adjustable resistor changes the time
between the pulses, which changes the tone of the sound you
hear.
The waveform you see here is the voltage across the speaker, the
peaks of the pulses occur when the transistors turn on and provide
current to the speaker. Changing the amplitude of the peaks
changes the loudness of the sound, changing their separation
changes the tone or “pitch” of the sound. The time scale and
trigger control features just described enable electronic engineers
and technicians to see the relationship between parts of a
waveform on their oscilloscope.
-9-
You are seeing the frequency spectrum of your signal, up to 22kHz.
Notice that most of the energy is at the low frequencies (below
7kHz), and there is very little as you go higher.
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The 1:1 gain mode does not apply to the FFT screen, so move the
Y1 gain control down to here so you can see the peak energy at
the low frequencies.
Now you can see that the tone you hear is actually a range of
related frequencies combined together. The first peak is considered
to be the main signal (and it is usually but not always the highest),
the energy at all the other peaks determine the waveform of the
signal you see on an oscilloscope.
Now modify your circuit by placing the 0.1mF capacitor (C2) on top
of the 0.02mF capacitor (C1).
By increasing circuit capacitance, you lower the oscillation
frequency and your display should now look something like this:
Y1 gain
control
level
Move the adjustable resistor control (snap part RV) and watch how
it changes the frequencies on the display.
Set the adjustable resistor control (snap part RV) to mid-range. In
addition to the 5ms/div and 0.5ms/div settings for the horizontal
scale, there is also a variable setting. See if you can set it so that
all the signal peaks line up with the grid lines, as shown.
Variable
setting
Frequency
As you can see, all the peaks are equally spaced in frequency.
Move your computer mouse directly over the first peak, the
software displays the frequency you are pointing at. Move the
mouse to the other peaks and you see they are multiples of the first
frequency.
-10-
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Now adjust the horizontal scale so the peaks line up with the
gridlines as they did before.
Horizontal scale
Notice that all the peaks went down in frequency by a
corresponding amount and many changed in amplitude, that is why
your ears hear a different sound. Notice also that in this case the
left-most frequency peak no longer is the highest in voltage (your
results may vary).
Project #PC2
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate storage mode.
!
-11-
WARNING: Moving parts.
Do not touch the fan or
motor during operation. Do
not lean over the motor.
Now you can click on the FFT box to return to oscilloscope mode
and look at the waveform with the 0.1mF capacitor in the circuit. You
can observe it with the same settings as before for comparison, but
these settings usually work best:
Screaming Fan PC
CI-73_REV-E_051314.qxp_CI-73_Manual_072213 5/13/14 4:01 PM Page 13
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
switch (snap part S1). Set Winscope to the settings shown below,
and move the lever on the adjustable resistor (snap part RV)
around to change the waveform and the sound. A sample
waveform is shown here, but the pattern and shape of the pulses
depends on the adjustable resistor setting.
On-Line
button
Winscope has a mode that can display multiple scans at the same
time, called Storage mode. Set the adjustable resistor lever to a
low-middle position, place Winscope in this mode, and watch the
results.
Waveform
Without Storage Mode
Storage
mode
With Storage Mode
-12-
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What you see here is the effect of timing variations on the trigger
used for synchronization. Turn off the trigger and you will see how
much variation there is without using the trigger:
Trigger
You can use Storage mode on any of the other circuit waveforms if
desired.
Now turn off storage mode and turn on FFT mode to look at the
frequency spectrum, try the settings shown here.
Settings
Moving the adjustable resistor lever will change the spectrum
shown.
-13-
You can also use storage mode when in FFT mode, so turn it on
now.
Storage mode
In this way you can show the peak energy achieved at each
frequency. But this is only useful on a stable waveform, so if you
move the adjustable resistor lever now the signal will fill the screen
as the peaks move across the display.
Most oscilloscopes and spectrum analyzers have a storage mode
like this of some form.
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Project #PC3
Hissing Foghorn PC
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate wait mode with multiple colors.
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
switch (snap part S1). Set Winscope to the settings shown on the
right, and move the lever on the adjustable resistor (snap part RV)
around to change the waveform and the sound. At some positions
there may be no sound. A sample waveform is shown here, but the
pattern and shape of the pulses depends on the adjustable resistor
setting.
On-Line
button
Settings
-14-
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Place Winscope in Wait mode by clicking on the button for it, then
slowly press the On-Line button several times. Now turn off the
slide switch (snap part S1) and press On-Line again. Then turn the
switch back on. You see that in Wait mode Winscope scans
(“waits”) until it sees a waveform that exceeds the trigger level you
set, then stops. With a strong signal it will make one scan and then
stop, whereas if no signal is present it keeps scanning until it finds
one. You could use this to sense when someone has turned on the
circuit.
On-Line
button
Now your display should look something like this:
Storage mode
Wait
mode
Now you see the range of waveforms this circuit can create, all at
the same time. Engineers often do this to compare signals during
analysis.
You can use Wait mode and different colors like this on the other
circuits if you like.
You can change the color of the waveform: select <Options>, then
select <Colors>, then select <Y1 Trace>. Now select the color you
like and click <OK>.
Now we will combine the wait and storage modes to display several
waveforms that this circuit can create. You should have the circuit
on with the adjustable resistor at mid-range and Winscope in Wait
mode. Now turn on Storage mode. Now change the color of the
Y1 trace. Move the adjustable resistor control lever a little, then
press On-Line once to record another waveform. Now change the
color of Y1 again. Move the resistance control again and press OnLine once. Change the Y1 color, adjust the resistance and press
On-Line. Change the Y1 color, adjust the resistance and press OnLine. Do this several more times if you like. Note that at some
resistance settings there may be no waveform to trigger on, move
the resistance control until it does.
-15-
Now turn off storage mode and turn on FFT mode to look at the
frequency spectrum, try the settings shown here. Wait mode does
not apply in FFT mode, so it has no effect here. Moving the
adjustable resistor lever will change the spectrum shown.
Settings
CI-73_REV-E_051314.qxp_CI-73_Manual_072213 5/13/14 4:01 PM Page 17
Project #PC4
Light & Sounds PC
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output signal from a circuit that makes alarm sounds.
Build the circuit and connect the Winscope PC-interface cable as
shown, the cable should still be connected to the microphone input
on your computer.
-16-
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If continuing from the previous experiment then close the Winscope
program and run it again, to reset the settings. Then use the mouse
to set it up as shown here, and turn on the switch (snap part S1).
Click on the On-Line button to activate.
On-Line
button
Set up
You should see a waveform similar to that shown here, but it will be
constantly changing. This is because the siren sound you hear is
not a continuous tone but instead is constantly changing. Note the
differences in the waveshape for this circuit compared to the circuit
in Project PC1.
Your picture may appear different due to variations in the
microphone input designs between computers. See the notes on
page 4 for details.
-17-
Click on the FFT button to look at the frequency spectrum.
Also set the amplitude and time scales (really amplitude and
frequency scales in FFT mode) to be as shown here.
Time scales
Amplitude
FFT button
You should see a fuzzy spectrum similar to that shown here, but it
will be constantly changing. This is because the siren sound you
hear is not a continuous tone but instead is constantly changing
frequency, and it spends more time at some frequencies than at
others. Note the differences in the spectrum for this circuit
compared to the circuit in Project PC1.
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Project #PC5
Light & Sounds PC (II)
Project #PC6
Light & Sounds PC (III)
Modify the circuit for project PC4 by connecting points X and Y on the
snap diagram. Now the sound is a machine gun, it shuts off between
bursts.
Modify the circuit by removing the connection between X and Y and
then make a connection between T and U. It makes a fire engine
sound.
Look at the waveform and frequency spectrum using the same
settings as for project PC4, and compare them to those for the siren.
Look at the waveform and frequency spectrum using the same
settings as for project PC4. The waveform slowly rises and falls in
pitch, and gives a clear spectrum that slowly rises and falls in
frequency.
Project #PC7
Light & Sounds PC (IV)
Remove the connection between T and U and then make a
connection between U and Z. It makes an ambulance sound.
Look at the waveform and frequency spectrum using the same
settings as for project PC4. It alternates between two frequencies.
Sample Frequency Spectrum
Project #PC8
Light & Sounds PC (V)
Remove the connections between U and Z and between V and W,
then make a connection between T and U. It makes a water faucet
sound.
Look at the waveform and frequency spectrum using the same
settings as for project PC4. This sound is different from the others
and seems to have little or no pattern.
Sample Frequency Spectrum
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Project #PC9
Light & Sounds PC (VI)
Look at the waveform in oscilloscope mode using the same
settings as earlier in PC4. Replace the whistle chip with the
speaker and remove the lamp. Compare the waveform you see
now with that from the whistle chip. The amplitude of the
waveforms are similar but yet the sound from the speaker is much
louder, since the speaker is drawing more current.
Project #PC10
Modulation
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous
experiment then close the Winscope program and run it again, to
reset the settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and
turn on the switch (snap part S1). If you press the key (snap part
S2) then you will hear a siren sound, but it will not be very loud.
Click on the 1:1 button to set the gain automatically, then talk or
hum into the microphone (snap part X1) and observe how the
waveform changes. You may freeze the waveform by pressing
the Hold button if desired.
Hold button
1:1 button
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate AM and FM modulation.
When you are quiet you just get a stream of pulses with roughly
equal height and width, as shown at left.
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The waveform shown here is from humming into the microphone,
notice how the tops of the pulses show a regular pattern of dips
now.
Look ahead to the Microphone project PC14 on page 25, and note
the waveform shown there for humming into the microphone:
If you talk into the microphone now you will get different patterns
depending on what words you say, how loudly you say them, and
your distance from the microphone. Words produce a more
“random” pattern than humming, but less random than blowing into
the microphone. The waveform at left is an example of talking into
the microphone. Observe the waveforms you get and compare with
what you get in project PC14.
And so you see that your voice is being superimposed onto the
peaks of the stream of pulses, this is called Amplitude Modulation
or AM. At AM radio stations music or voice is superimposed on a
high frequency waveform (similar to the pulse stream here),
filtered, amplified, and transmitted. Doing this allows the music to
be transmitted over great distances.
Notice that you can see roughly the same pattern in the peaks of
the waveform at left. If you hum at a similar tone and at a similar
distance from the microphone, you will get similar results.
You can place Winscope into FFT mode to view the frequency
spectrum if you like, but it will be confusing to look at.
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You probably noticed that the width of the pulses in the pulse
stream is constantly changing, that is because there is actually a
second type of modulation occurring here. Press the key again and
you hear a siren. A siren is not a stable tone but rather is constantly
changing in frequency. Change the time scale to 0.5ms/div and
observe the range of waveforms:
Time scale
Look back at the Light & Sounds project PC4 on page 16. It shows
several different ways of configuring the alarm IC to make different
sounds, all of these are examples of frequency modulation using
different controlling signals created within the alarm IC. It also
shows examples of the frequency spectrum.
Project #PC11
Filtering
With the same circuit as PC10 and the same settings as shown at
the end of PC10, look at the waveform again and then press the
key. Notice how the pulses become more “rounded” when the key
is pressed. The whistle chip (snap part WC) has capacitance that
filters or smoothes the output signal. Now replace the whistle chip
with the 0.02mF capacitor (snap part C1) and it should look similar
though you won’t hear any sound. You can also look at the
frequency spectrum in FFT mode like in the other projects.
The width of the pulses (or frequency of the signal) is slowly being
changed, at a regular and repetitive rate. This is an example of
Frequency Modulation, or FM. In AM you use a controlling signal
(voice or music) to vary the amplitude of a second signal, in FM you
use the controlling signal to vary the frequency of the other signal.
In this circuit the output frequency from the alarm IC is being
controlled by a signal created inside the alarm IC, but it could have
been controlled by humming like you did for the AM (you don’t have
the parts needed to do this).
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Typical waveform using
whistle chip
Typical waveform using
0.02mF capacitor
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Project #PC12
AM Radio PC
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output signal from an AM radio.
Build the circuit shown and
connect the PC-interface
cable to the microphone
input on your computer.
Turn on the slide switch
(snap part S1), tune the
variable capacitor (snap
part CV) to a local radio
station that gives good
reception, and set the
adjustable resistor (snap
part RV) to a comfortable
volume. The integrated
circuit (snap part U5)
detects and amplifies the
AM radio waves all around
you. The power amplifier IC
(snap part U4) drives the
speaker (snap part SP) to
complete the circuit.
In this project you will study
the audio signal at the
radio’s output to the
speaker. The actual AM
radio transmission is at
high
frequencies
that
cannot be viewed using
Winscope.
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If continuing from the previous experiment then close the Winscope
program and run it again, to reset the settings. Then use the mouse
to set the scale to 1:1 mode. Click on the On-Line button to activate.
On-Line button
1:1 mode
Click on the FFT button to look at the frequency spectrum. Set the
time scale (really frequency scale in FFT mode) and amplitude
scale to be as shown here.
FFT button
Amplitude scale
Time scale
You should see a waveform similar to that shown here, but it will be
constantly changing as the music or talking you hear is changing.
Try tuning the adjustable capacitor (snap part CV) to different radio
stations and compare the waveforms.
You should see a spectrum similar to that shown here, but it will be
constantly changing as the music or talking you hear is changing.
Try tuning the adjustable capacitor (snap part CV) to different radio
stations and compare the waveforms.
This shows you what talking or music look like in electrical form.
Every word that every person says looks different, though there are
many patterns. The waveform will be fuzzier if there is lots of static
on the station. Here are some other examples of talking and music
using the same settings above:
This shows you the frequency spectrum of talking or music. Every
word that every person says looks different, though there are many
patterns. The spectrum will be fuzzier if there is lots of static on the
station. Here are some other examples of talking and music using
the same settings above:
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Project #PC13
Space War PC
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output signal from a circuit that
makes space war sounds.
If continuing from the previous experiment then close the Winscope
program and run it again, to reset the settings. Then use the mouse
to set it up as shown here, and turn on the switch (snap part S1).
Click on the On-Line button to activate.
On-Line
button
Time scale
Set up
Build the circuit shown and connect the PC-interface cable to the
microphone input on your computer.
Press the press switch (snap part S2) several times to step through
the eight different sounds from the space war integrated circuit.
Hold it down for a few seconds each time so you can see the
waveform representing the sound you hear.
It is also interesting to switch to the 5ms/div time scale setting to
see more of the waveform at one time. Here are some example
waveforms using the same settings as above:
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Click on the FFT button to look at the frequency spectrum for these
signals. For best viewing set the amplitude and time scales (really
amplitude and frequency scales in FFT mode) to be as shown here.
Time scale
FFT button
Amplitude scale
Project #PC14
Microphone
OBJECTIVE: To see what your voice looks like in electrical
form.
Build the circuit shown and connect the PC-interface cable to the
microphone input on your computer.
Press the press switch (snap part S2) several times to step through
the eight different sounds from the space war integrated circuit.
Hold it down for a few seconds each time so you can see the
frequency spectrum representing the sound you hear.
Here are sample spectrums from some of the other sounds using
the same settings as above:
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If continuing from the previous experiment then close the Winscope
program and run it again, to reset the settings. Click on the On-Line
button to activate Winscope, and turn on the switch (snap part S1).
On-Line button
Y1 gain control
On-Line button
Talk into the microphone (snap part X1) and see what your voice
looks like after the microphone converts it to electrical energy.
Adjust the Y1 gain control to get the best view of it, since the
amplitude is greater if you talk louder or are closer to the
microphone. Notice how the waveform is different depending on
which words or tones you say.
Here are some example waveforms using the same settings as
above. Try not to blow on the microphone while you talk into it.
Blowing into
microphone
Ahhhhhh
sound
Click on the FFT button to look at the frequency spectrum for
these signals. Try the amplitude and time scales shown here to
start, but your best settings will depend on what sounds you make,
how loud you speak, and how close you are to the microphone.
Amplitude and time scales
Notice that most women have higher-frequency voices than most men,
and so their frequency peaks are further to the right on your display.
Here are some example waveforms using the same settings as above:
Blowing into
microphone
Whistling into
microphone
Ahhhhhh
sound
Humming into
microphone
Whistling into
microphone
Humming into
microphone
The above frequency spectrum pictures correspond directly to the
waveform pictures on the preceding page. Notice that the
spectrums for the hum and whistle have only a single big peak.
Smooth, well-rounded, and repetitive waveforms (in oscilloscope
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mode) have nearly all of their energy at a specific frequency like for
the hum. “Square” or “rectangular” looking waveforms (like in
Project PC1) and most music have a series of mathematicallyrelated peaks, while “random” waveforms (like from blowing into
the microphone or several people talking at the same time) have a
frequency “blob” instead of distinct peaks.
Project #PC15
Speaker Microphone
Connect the PC-interface cable directly onto the speaker as shown;
no other parts are needed here. If continuing from the previous
experiment then close the Winscope program and run it again, to
reset the settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate.
Hold the speaker next to your mouth and talk into it to see what
your voice looks like after the speaker converts it to electrical
energy. Adjust the Y1 gain control to get the best view of it.
On-Line button
Y1 gain control
OBJECTIVE: To see what your voice looks like in electrical
form.
Notice that you need to set the gain control higher here than in the
preceding project using the microphone, since speakers were not
designed to be used in the same way.
You may switch to FFT mode and view the frequency spectrum in
the same manner as for the microphone project PC14.
A speaker uses electrical energy to create mechanical vibrations.
These vibrations create variations in air pressure, called sound
waves, which travel across the room. You “hear” sound when your
ears feel these air pressure variations. But if air pressure variations
reach the speaker from another source, they will cause it to vibrate
too. This, in turn, causes the speaker to create a small electrical
signal just like a microphone does (though not very efficiently, since
speakers were not designed to be microphones).
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Project #PC16
Symphony of Sounds PC
Due to the combination of sounds, the waveform is complex. Set
Winscope to the settings shown, or as you prefer.
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To see the waveforms for a complex signal.
Click on the FFT button to look at the frequency spectrum for the
signal. Try the settings shown here, or as you prefer.
Settings
The Symphony of Sounds project combines waveforms from the
Music, Alarm, and Space War integrated circuits. Build the circuit
shown. If continuing from the previous experiment then close the
Winscope program and run it again, to reset the settings. Click on
the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the switch (snap part
S1). Press the press switch (S2) and wave your hand over the
photosensitive resistor (RP).
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Project #PC17
Doorbell PC
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output of a musical circuit.
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
slide switch (snap part S1). Try the settings shown here. When the
music stops, press the press switch (part S2) and it will resume.
Settings
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Click on the 5ms/div time scale button and on the FFT button to
look at the frequency spectrum for the signal. The Y1 gain control
is set for high gain now, so the higher peaks are off the screen but
lots of the lower peaks are visible.
5ms/div time
scale button
FFT button
Y1 gain control
Note that the sound is music and the oscilloscope waveform has a
“square” shape, as a result the frequency spectrum has a lot of
peaks with equal spacing.
Now adjust the gain lower until you see the higher peaks.
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Project #PC18
Periodic Sounds PC
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
slide switch (snap part S1). Try the settings shown here.
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output of an alternately changing
circuit.
The oscilloscope display alternates between 2 waveforms, the one
shown here and the one on the next page. This one shows some
pulses followed by a flat signal, then more pulses, then flat, then
pulses, then flat . . .
This is the second oscilloscope waveform, using the same settings.
It is a continuous series of pulses. You can use the Hold button to
freeze the display for easier viewing.
Hold button
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Now change to FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrums
corresponding to the 2 waveforms above. Try the settings shown
here.
Settings
Project #PC19
Lasting Doorbell PC
OBJECTIVE: To look at the output of an alternately changing
circuit.
This is the spectrum for the oscilloscope waveform shown on the
preceding page, which alternates between pulses and flat.
Because of the transition between pulses and flat, the spectrum is
the irregular shape shown here.
This is the spectrum for the oscilloscope waveform shown at the
top of this page, which has a continuous series of pulses. There are
only pulses there, with no transition between pulses and flat.
Hence the frequency spectrum is very “clean”, with the energy
concentrated at a few tall peaks instead of being spread out like in
the other spectrum display.
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Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, turn on the switch
(snap part S1), and press the press switch (part S2). Try the
settings shown here.
Now change to FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum as the
sound fades away. Try the settings shown here.
Settings
Settings
The waveform at left shows the signal just after pressing the press
switch, the waveform below uses the same settings and shows the
waveform just before the sound stops. You see the pulses slowly
spread out as the tone of the sound changes.
The spectrum at left is for just after pressing the press switch. The
spectrum below uses the same settings and shows the spectrum
just before the sound stops. The frequencies and amplitude slowly
get lower as the sound fades away.
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Project #PC20
Space War Flicker PC
OBJECTIVE: To continuously show the patterns created by the
space war IC.
Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the switch
(snap part S1). Set Winscope to the settings shown below. The
signal from the alarm IC (snap part U2) causes the space war IC
(part U3) to step through the 8 different patterns it can create. A
sample waveform is shown here.
On-Line button
Settings
Wait mode
You can also activate Wait mode and press the On-Line button
several times to view one scan of the signal at a time, instead of
seeing continuous scans.
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here. You can see the spectrums for the different
patterns produced by the space war IC, a sample is shown here.
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings.
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Settings
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Project #PC21
Buzzing in the Dark PC
OBJECTIVE: To build a circuit that buzzes.
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Set Winscope to the settings shown below and click on
the On-Line button to activate. A sample waveform is shown here.
Settings
The actual waveform will vary depending on how much light is
shining on the photoresistor (snap part RP). If you cover the
photoresistor then the circuit shuts off.
The waveform above is weak and
erratic, so replace the 0.02mF
capacitor (snap part C1) with the
0.1mF capacitor. A sample of the
new waveform is at left, with the
same settings. It is lower in
frequency but higher in amplitude.
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Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here.
Settings
Project #PC22
Trombone PC
OBJECTIVE: To build a circuit that sounds like a trombone.
Now put the 0.02mF capacitor back
in place of the 0.1mF capacitor to
compare its spectrum. A sample is
on the left, with the same
Winscope settings as above. As
with the oscilloscope mode, its
spectrum is weaker and more
erratic.
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Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
switch (snap part S1). Set Winscope to the settings shown below,
and move the lever on the adjustable resistor (snap part RV)
around to change the waveform and the sound. At some positions
there may be no sound. A sample waveform is shown here.
Settings
Note that in the above display
the Y1 Gain is set high to show
the low energy levels of the
higher frequency components of
the signal, even though the
stronger peaks of the lower
frequency components are off
the top of the display. This can
be deceiving. Now change the
Y1 Gain so that the highest
peak can be seen, this is shown
on the right. Now you see how
the main signal frequency
dominates the others.
Y1 Gain
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here.
Settings
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Project #PC23
Sound Pulse
Oscillator PC
0.5ms/div scale
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To build a pulse oscillator.
LED (D1) is on
layer 1 directly
beneath the
speaker (SP).
You can also change to the
0.5ms/div scale to take a closer
look at one of the pulses, shown on
the right:
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here.
Settings
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
slide switch (snap part S1). Set Winscope to the settings shown
on the upper right, and move the lever on the adjustable resistor
(snap part RV) around to change the waveform and the sound. At
some positions there may be no sound. A sample waveform is
shown on the upper right.
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Project #PC24
High Pitch Bell PC
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To build a high pitch bell.
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here.
Settings
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous
experiment then close the Winscope program and run it
again, to reset the settings. Click on the On-Line button to
activate, and hold down the press switch (snap part S2). Set
Winscope to the settings shown on the upper right. A sample
waveform is shown on the upper right.
You can change some of the Winscope settings around to view the
waveform and spectrum in different ways if desired. You can also
place the 0.02mF capacitor on top of the whistle chip to lower the
frequency.
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Project #PC25
Tone Generator PC
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here.
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To build a high frequency oscillator.
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
switch. Set Winscope to the settings shown below. A sample
waveform is shown here.
Settings
Project #PC26
Tone Generator PC (II)
Modify the circuit for project PC25 by placing the 0.02mF capacitor
(C1) on top of the whistle chip (WC). Look at the waveform and
frequency spectrum using the same settings as for project PC19,
the frequency is lower now.
Project #PC27
Tone Generator PC (III)
Modify the circuit for project PC25 by placing the 0.1mF capacitor
(C2) on top of the whistle chip (WC). Look at the waveform and
frequency spectrum using the same settings as for project PC19,
but you may want to change the time scale since the frequency is
much lower now.
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Project #PC28
Old-Style Typewriter PC
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To build a circuit that sounds like a typewriter.
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here.
Settings
Storage mode
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Click on the On-Line button to activate, and turn on the
switch. Set Winscope to the settings shown on the upper right.
Turn the motor (snap part M1) slowly with your fingers and watch
the waveforms generated. They are very erratic and unpredictable.
A sample is shown on the upper right.
You can also turn on Storage
mode to see the peaks recorded
as you turn the motor, a sample
of this is at right.
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Project #PC29
Transistor Fading Siren PC
OBJECTIVE: To build a siren that slowly fades away.
This display (at the same settings)
shows the siren when it has almost
faded out. The waveform has
become weak and sometimes
erratic.
Turn on FFT mode to look at the frequency spectrum, try the
settings shown here. The display on the left shows the signal just
after pressing the press switch and on the right shows it just before
it fades out.
Settings
Build the circuit shown. If continuing from the previous experiment
then close the Winscope program and run it again, to reset the
settings. Set Winscope to the settings shown on the right. Click on
the On-Line button to activate, turn on the switch, and press the
press switch (snap part S2). You hear a siren that slowly fades
away.
Settings
Project #PC30
Fading Doorbell PC
This display shows the siren just after pressing the press switch.
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Modify the circuit in PC29 by replacing the alarm IC (U2) with the
music IC (U1), use a 1-snap and a 2-snap to make a connection
across D6-E6 on top of the music IC. The music slowly fades away
and stops. Use the same settings as in PC29 to view the waveform
and frequency spectrum.
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Project #PC31
Police Siren Amplifier PC
OBJECTIVE: To show the output of an amplifier.
Build the circuit shown and set Winscope to the settings shown
below. The siren sound is very loud. In most cases the waveform
will have flat edges on the top and bottom, indicating the voltage
is too high for the microphone input stage on your computer and is
being distorted. You may sometimes correct for this if you like by
reducing the volume control of your microphone input (see p. 3),
but it is recommended that you return the volume to the normal
level before doing other projects.
Settings
Flat edges
You may also make different alarm sounds by connecting the
alarm IC using the configurations shown in projects #23-26.
Project #PC32
Music Amplifier PC
Modify the circuit in PC31 by replacing the alarm IC (U2) with the
music IC (U1). Use the same settings as in PC31 to view the
waveform, you may also use the FFT button to view the frequency
spectrum.
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Project #PC33
Space War Amplifier PC
Build the circuit shown and use the same settings as in PC31 to
view the waveform. Press the switch (S2) to change the sounds
and waveform.
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Project #PC34
Adjustable Tone Generator PC
Build the circuit shown, and try the settings below. Move the
adjustable resistor lever to change the frequency. A sample
waveform is shown here.
Settings
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Try these settings to
see the spectrum:
Project #PC38
Adjustable FM Radio PC
OBJECTIVE: To show the output of an FM Radio.
Project #PC35
Adjustable Tone Generator PC (II)
Modify the circuit for project PC34 by placing the 0.02mF capacitor
(C1) on top of the whistle chip (WC). Look at the waveform and
frequency spectrum using the same settings as for project PC34,
the frequency is lower now.
Project #PC36
Adjustable Tone Generator PC (III)
Modify the circuit for project PC34 by
placing the 0.1mF capacitor (C2) on top of
the whistle chip (WC). Look at the
waveform and frequency spectrum using
the same settings as for project PC34, but
you may want to change the time scale
since the frequency is much lower now.
Project #PC37
Adjustable Tone Generator PC (IV)
Modify the circuit for project PC34 by replacing the 10KW (R4)
resistor with the photoresistor (RP). Look at the waveform and
frequency spectrum using the same settings as for project PC34,
and wave your hand over the photoresistor to change the sound
and pattern. There will not always be sound.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and press the R button. Now press
the T button and the FM module scans for a radio station. When a
station is found, it locks on to it and you hear it on the speaker.
Press the T button again for the next radio station.
Connect the PC-interface cable as shown. Set up Winscope as
desired or use the same Winscope settings to view the waveform
and frequency spectrum as for project PC12 (AM radio), since the
output signal to the speaker is music or talking just like in PC12.
(AM and FM radio transmit the same types of information using
different modulation methods.) Adjust the volume using the
adjustable resistor (RV) so that all of the waveform is shown on the
Winscope screen.
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Project #PC39
Transistor AM Radio PC (II)
Project #PC40
Playback & Record PC
OBJECTIVE: To show the output of an AM Radio.
OBJECTIVE: To show the waveforms for music and your voice.
Turn on the switch and adjust the variable capacitor (CV) for a
radio station, then adjust the loudness using the adjustable resistor
(RV). Use the same Winscope settings as for project PC12 (AM
radio) to view the waveform and frequency spectrum. The
waveform will be different from that in projects PC12 and PC38,
because those circuits use the power amplifier IC (U4) instead of
the NPN transistor for amplification.
Build the circuit shown. Turn on the slide switch (S1), you hear a
beep signaling that you may begin recording. Talk into the
microphone (X1) up to 8 seconds, and then turn off the slide switch
(it also beeps after the 8 seconds expires).
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Press the press switch (S2) for playback. It plays the recording you
made followed by one of three songs. If you press the press switch
before the song is over, the music will stop. You may press the
press switch several times to play all three songs.
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Use Winscope to view the waveform and frequency spectrum
when playing back your recording and music. A sample music
waveform is shown here.
Sample music waveform
Project #PC41
Power Amplifier
Playing Music IC
OBJECTIVE:
To show how high amplification can distort
Build the circuit shown. Turn on the slide switch (S1), you hear a
beep signaling that you may begin recording. Talk into the
microphone (X1) up to 8 seconds, and then turn off the slide switch
(it also beeps after the 8 seconds expires).
Press the switch S2 for playback. It plays the recording you made
followed by one of three songs. If you press the press switch (S2)
before the song is over, the music will stop. You may press the
press switch several times to play all three songs.
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This recorder IC circuit works the same as in project PC40 except
that the power amplifer IC (U4) used here makes the sound much
louder than in project PC40. If viewed with the same Winscope
settings as in PC40, then the waveform appears as shown below.
The output from the recorder IC has not changed, but the flat
edges at the top and bottom of the waveform indicate that the
higher amplification is distorting the sound.
Flat edges
Project #PC42
Music Meter PC
OBJECTIVE:
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To show how high amplification can distort
Use the LOW (or 10mA) setting on the meter (M2). Set the
adjustable resistor (RV) to the bottom position and turn on the slide
switch (S1), you will see a waveform like that shown below. Set the
adjustable resistor to the top, and the waveform looks like that
shown on the bottom left, due to lower resistance in the circuit. A
sample frequency spectrum is also shown on the bottom right.
Settings
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Project #PC43
Oscillation Sounds PC
You may look at a pulse close-up by changing the time scale and
slightly adjusting the delay, as shown.
Time scale
Delay
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
You may look at the frequency spectrum on your own if desired.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown here. This circuit
produces a series of pulses (shown below), representing when the
transistor is activated.
Settings
Project #PC44
Oscillation
Sounds PC (II)
Project #PC45
Oscillation
Sounds PC (III)
Project #PC46
Oscillation
Sounds PC (IV)
Using the circuit from PC43,
connect the whistle chip across
points C & D. Notice how the shape
of the pulse has changed from that
shown in PC43 (using the same
settings):
Using the circuit from PC43,
connect the whistle chip across
points B & E. Notice how the shape
of the pulse has changed.
Using the circuit from PC43, install
the whistle chip under capacitor
C2. Notice how the shape of the
pulse has changed.
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Project #PC47
Oscillator Sounds PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Project #PC48
Using the circuit from PC47, install
the whistle chip on top of capacitor
C1. Notice how the spacing
between the pulses has changed.
Oscillation
Sounds PC (II)
Project #PC49
Whistle Chip Sounds PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown.
Settings
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Build the circuit and try the settings shown. You may try other
settings to zoom in or look at the frequency spectrum.
Settings
Project #PC53
Bird Sounds PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Project #PC50
Whistle Chip
Sounds PC (II)
Connect the whistle chip (with the
PC-interface cable still connected
across it) across points B & C. The
circuit oscillates in short intervals.
Project #PC51
Whistle Chip
Sounds PC (III)
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. The oscillator
activates about once-a-second, sounding like a bird chirping. You
may look at the frequency spectrum if you like.
Settings
Connect the whistle chip (with PC cable) across points C & D using a
1-snap, the sound and waveforms are different.
Project #PC52
Whistle Chip
Sounds PC (IV)
Place the 470mF capacitor C5 on top of
the 100mF capacitor C4, and connect the
whistle chip across points A & B. The
circuit oscillates in 2-second intervals.
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Project #PC54
Bird Sounds PC (II)
Replace the 100mF capacitor (C4) with the 10mF capacitor (C3). The
frequency of the oscillator is the same as before (and so the pulses look
the same), but the oscillator activates in shorter intervals (so the bursts of
pulses are shorter but closer together). You could use the 470mF
capacitor to increase the oscillation interval.
Project #PC55
Electronic Cat PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Start with the
adjustable resistor set to the left but then adjust to change the
tone. The signal dies out after you release the switch.
Settings
Project #PC56
Electronic Cat
PC (II)
Connect the whistle chip across points A & B, then B & C, then C & D and
observe how the waveform changes as the sound changes.
Project #PC57
Remove the speaker. Connect the PC
interface cable across the whistle chip
and install the whistle chip across
points A & B, then B & C, then C & D
and observe how the waveform
changes as the sound changes. Try
different settings of the adjustable
resistor. The waveform for B & C is
shown.
Project #PC58
Electronic Cat
PC (III)
Electronic Cat
PC (IV)
Replace the 100mF capacitor with the 470mF capacitor and repeat projects PC55PC57. The signal dies out at a much slower rate now, making it easier to observe.
You can also use FFT mode to view the frequency spectrum as desired.
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Project #PC59
Variable Oscillator PC
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Move the adjustable
resistor lever to change the pitch of the sound and pulse
separation in the waveform.
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Project #PC60
Variable Oscillator
PC (II)
Connect the whistle chip across points A & B, then B & C, then D & E and
observe how the waveform changes as the sound changes. Sometimes
the speaker sound and waveform are unchanged, but the whistle chip
itself makes new sound.
Project #PC61
Variable Oscillator
PC (III)
Replace the 100KW resistor R5 with the photoresistor RP, wave your hand or
a piece of paper over it and observe how the sound and waveform change.
Project #PC62
Remove the speaker. Connect the PC
interface cable across the whistle chip
and install the whistle chip across
points A & B, then B & C, then D & E
and observe how the waveform
changes as the sound changes. Try
different settings of the adjustable
resistor. The waveform for A & B is
shown.
Variable Oscillator
PC (IV)
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Project #PC63
Electronic Sound PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Press the press switch
to lower the frequency of the signal by increasing the capacitance
in the oscillator. You can replace the 0.1mF capacitor C2 with the
10mF capacitor C3 (“+” on the right) to further lower the frequency
of the tone. You may try other settings to zoom in or look at the
frequency spectrum.
Settings
Project #PC64
Electronic Sound
PC (II)
Replace the 100KW resistor R5 with the 10KW resistor R4, place the
0.1mF capacitor back in the circuit as before. Now you change the
frequency by changing the resistance in the oscillator.
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Project #PC65
Siren PC
Note: Although the amplitude of the pulses appears to be varying
across the screen (the wider time scale shown below shows this
better), this is an illusion caused by the way Winscope measures
the signal. The amplitude of the pulses is not really varying.
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of a fading siren circuit.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Flip on the slide switch
and press the press switch for a few seconds and release. View
the waveform as a siren starts up and then slowly fades away.
Winscope makes measurements using a 44kHz sampling rate,
which is fast enough to measure the frequency of this signal
(varying from 1-5kHz). However these pulses have much of their
energy spread among higher frequencies that approach the
sampling rate (see the sample spectrum plots at right), where the
amplitude measurement becomes increasingly inaccurate.
Settings
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Project #PC66
Drawing Resistors PC
OBJECTIVE: To draw your own resistors.
Project #PC67
Electronic Noisemaker PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Use the circuit from the Drawing Resistors project #516, but
connect the PC-interface cable across the speaker. Use a pencil to
draw the shapes shown in projects #516-518, as per the directions
given in those projects. Use Winscope to see how the waveforms
and frequency spectrums vary as you move the jumper wires
across the shapes to change the sounds. A sample is shown here.
Settings
Next, place the loose ends of the jumper wires into a cup of water, as
per project #519. The waveforms and frequency spectrum you see
will be similar to the resistors you drew, just as the sounds are similar.
Settings
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Flip on the slide switch
and press the press switch a few times while moving the
adjustable resistor control around. View the waveform and
frequency spectrum.
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Project #PC69
Bee PC
Sample frequency spectrum:
Settings
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of an oscillator circuit.
Sample waveform:
Settings
You can replace the 0.1mF capacitor C2 with the 10mF capacitor
C3 (“+” on the right) to change the sound.
Project #PC68
Electronic Noisemaker
PC (II)
Replace the 10KW resistor R4 with the 100KW resistor R5. Now you
change the frequency by changing the resistance in the oscillator.
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Build the circuit and press the press switch a few times, you hear
cute sounds like a bumble bee. Use Winscope to see how the
waveform fades away after you release the switch, and try storage
mode as shown here.
Time scale
Settings
Storage mode
You may replace the 0.02mF capacitor C1 with 0.1mF capacitor C2
or 10mF capacitor C3 (“+” on the right) to change the sound, but
you may want to change the time scale.
You may also replace the 100mF capacitor C4 with the 10mF
capacitor C3 or the 470mF capacitor C5 to change the duration of
the sound.
Project #PC70
Bee PC (II)
Remove the speaker from the circuit and place the whistle chip
(WC) across the transformer at points labeled A & B on the circuit
layout, connect the PC-interface cable across the whistle chip.
Listen to the sounds and view the waveforms as you press the
press switch. Replace the 0.02mF capacitor C1 with 0.1mF
capacitor C2 or 10mF capacitor C3 (“+” on the right) to change the
sound, or replace the 100mF capacitor C4 with the 10mF capacitor
C3 (“+” on the right) or the 470mF capacitor C5 to change the
duration.
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Project #PC71
Space War Alarm Combo PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of the combined outputs from
the space war and alarm integrated circuits.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Turn it on, press the
press switch (S2) several times, and wave your hand over the
photoresistor (RP) to view all the sound combinations. You may
also use FFT mode to view the frequency spectrum.
Settings
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Project #PC72
Space War Music Combo PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of the combined outputs from
the space war and music integrated circuits.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Turn it on, press the
press switch (S2) several times, and wave your hand over the
photoresistor (RP) to view all the sound combinations. Compare
the waveform and spectrum to the alarm IC combo circuit.
Project #PC73
Sound Mixer PC
OBJECTIVE: To view the output of the music and alarm
integrated circuits.
Build the circuit and try the settings shown. Turn it on and view the
waveforms.
Settings
Settings
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IMPORTANT NOTICE
Disclaimer Information
Oscilloscope for Windows95® or newer, version 2.51.
OSCILLOSCOPE IS SUPPLIED TO YOU AS IS, AND IN
NO CASE IS THE AUTHOR OF THIS PROGRAM
RESPONSIBLE FOR PERSONAL INJURY, HARDWARE
AND/OR DATA DAMAGE, PROPERTY DAMAGE OR
PROFIT LOSS ARISING FROM USE OR INABILITY TO
USE THIS SOFTWARE.
THERE IS NO GUARANTEE IMPLIED OR OTHERWISE
TO THE FITNESS OF THIS OSCILLOSCOPE PROGRAM
FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THIS SOFTWARE IS
NOT INTENDED FOR INDUSTRIAL OR COMMERCIAL
USE.
ELENCO®
150 Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090
(847) 541-3800
Website: www.elenco.com
e-mail: elenco@elenco.com
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