Elenco | EDU61004 | Owner Manual | Elenco EDU61004 Printing Press Owner Manual

Elenco EDU61004 Printing Press Owner Manual
AGES
Genius is Timeless
Printing Press
Instruction manual
8+
Contents
• About Leonardo Da Vinci
P.1
• Da Vinci’s Notebooks
P.4
• Early Printing in Europe
P.6
• Gutenberg Printing Press
P.6
• Da Vinci’s Contribution to the Design
P.7
• The Importance of the Printing Press
P.8
• Components
P.9
• How To Assemble
P.10
• How to Operate the Printing Press
P.14
• Da Vinci Series Kit
P.16
i
(April 15, 1452 - May 2, 1519)
“Iron rusts from disuse; stagnant water
loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen;
even so does inaction sap the vigor of the mind.”
Leonardo
Leonardo da Vinci was born April 15, 1452 in Vinci, Italy. Da Vinci was
an artist, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, sculptor,
architect, botanist, musician and writer. He has often been described as a perfect
example of a Renaissance man, a man whose unquenchable curiosity was equaled
only by his powers of invention and observation. Da Vinci is widely considered
to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely
talented person to have ever lived.
At an early age, Da Vinci’s talent for drawing became evident, and his father
apprenticed his young son to a noted period artist, Andrea del Verrocchio.
Through the coming years, the young Leonardo learned much from his mentor and
at the age of thirty, Da Vinci left Florence and settled in Milan and established
a workshop of his own. During the following years, he earned his living painting
commissioned pieces. He soon came to the conclusion that it was not possible for
him to earn steady income doing this and began his search for employment.
He began by writing a letter to the Duchy of Milan, Duke Ludovico Sforza,
known by the nickname, the Moor. In this correspondence, Da Vinci stated that
he had studied machines of war and had come up with improvements that would
1
strengthen the Moor’s position in battles. The letter hinted at inventions that
included portable lightweight bridges and improved designs for bombards, mortars,
catapults, covered assault vehicles and weapons. The Moor eventually became
Da Vinci’s patron and kept him busy with everything from designing a heating
system to painting portraits, to overseeing production of cannons and even
decorating the vaulted ceilings in his castle.
It was during this time that Da Vinci began writing and drawing in his journals.
These volumes became repositories of the outflow of Leonardo’s gifted mind.
He was a voracious student of the universe and his observations led to magnificent
plans and concepts. Da Vinci’s notebooks consist of more than 20,000 sketches,
copious notes and detailed drawings. Some of his conceptual designs led to the
greatest inventions of his day, while others came to fruition hundreds of years after
his initial concepts were penned, simply because the machinery needed to build
and power them were not yet invented. Leonardo’s notebooks clearly illustrate his
genius of not only improving upon existing inventions, but also
conceiving a myriad of new ideas and designs.
Ultimately, the Moor was captured by the French and
Da Vinci left Milan in search of a new patron. He traveled
through Italy for more than a decade, working for several
Dukes and rulers, including Cesare Borgia, a General
intent on conquering central Italy. Leonardo traveled with
Borgia as a military engineer, designing weapons, fortresses
and artillery, but became disillusioned and quickly left his
service with the General. It seems that despite Da Vinci’s
design for artillery and weaponry, he was actually a
pacifist and detested war and its destruction.
2
Da Vinci later took positions with King Louis XII and Pope Leo X and ultimately
with the King of France, Francis I. It was the King who offered Da Vinci the title,
Premier Painter and Engineer and Architect of the King. Francis I valued
Da Vinci’s great mind and his sole function was to engage in conversations about
Renaissance culture and art with the benevolent royal.
ARTISTIC MASTERPIECES OF LEONARDO DA VINCI
It is important to remember that Da Vinci is not only
and great inventor, but is considered to be one of the
most acclaimed artists to ever have lived, creating
such masterpieces as The Last Supper (c.1498) and the
Mona Lisa (c.1503). Leonardo's drawing of the
Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a masterpiece.
Unfortunately, only a small number of Da Vinci’s
paintings have survived. Leonardo experimented with
new techniques, most of which did not yield
Virtruvian Man (circa 1487)
long-lasting results. The master painter was also somewhat of a perfectionist
with fastidious attention to detail. It is believed that when painting the Mona
Lisa, the artist spent ten years perfecting the lips of this masterpiece.
The Mona Lisa (circa 1503)
The Last Supper (circa 1498)
3
Da Vinci’s Notebooks
Da Vinci’s notebooks are now more than 500 years old.
They are not bound the way a typical book would be
today, but rather comprised of loose sheets of paper
gathered into collections and wrapped with fabric.
Paper was scarce in Da Vinci’s time, so he used
every available space in a page for drawings,
observations, even recipes and shopping lists, making
them somewhat difficult to interpret. Adding to the
difficulty in deciphering his works was the fact that
Da Vinci’s scripted notes were written backwards, or in
a mirror image, and read from right to left. His reason for
this remains a mystery, but it is thought that Leonardo’s
theories sometimes went against church teachings and his secret writing could
have been a way to avoid scrutiny. Da Vinci also might have feared that someone
would steal his designs and publish them under
their own name. Ironically, Da Vinci addressed
an imaginary readership in the margins of his
notebooks urging the reader to make sure his work
was printed into a proper book. It is presumed that
he meant for the notebooks
to be published after
his death.
4
Da Vinci’s Notebooks
Several common themes recur in the now fragile
notebooks: Nature, Technology (including gears,
cogwheels, screws and pulleys), aviation and vision,
to name a few. Upon the death of Leonardo Da
Vinci, the notebooks were given to his long-time
friend, Count Francesco Melzi. Melzi did not fully comprehend the value of the
information and published only a portion of the volumes. He placed the notebooks
in his home where they were viewed by guests who sometimes took pages with
them as souvenirs.After Melzi’s death, an additional 13 Da Vinci notebooks
disappeared and soon pages were scattered across Europe. Da Vinci’s notebook
extracts were published in 1883 and about half of
them have not yet resurfaced so far. It is easy to
imagine that had the notebooks been published
earlier, the history of science might have been
completely changed.
In his drawings, Leonardo strived for
saper vedere or “knowing how to see.”
Da Vinci’s illustrations are unparalleled
and some experts believe that no one has
since been better.
5
Early Printing in Europe
Prior to the invention of the printing press, text was either handwritten or printed
from woodblocks that were hand-carved with text and then pressed to paper.
The woodblock method could only be used to print one written work and other blocks
had to be carved to create others. Johannes Gutenberg later created a movable printing
press by making individual metal letters and characters so that different printed works
could be created with the same press.
Gutenberg Printing Press
Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in the fifteenth century. This important
machine takes its inspiration from the technology of the screw-type wine presses used in
the Rhine Valley. It was there that Johannes Gutenberg created a hand press in which ink
was rolled over the raised surfaces of moveable hand-set block letters held within a wooden
form. These letters were pressed against a sheet of paper to create a printed page. Johannes
Gutenberg is credited with printing the Gutenberg Bible, the world's first book printed
using movable type.
Gutenberg-style printing press from 1568.
Such presses could make 240 prints per hour.
Johannes Gutenberg
(1398 - February 3, 1468)
6
Da Vinci’s Contribution to the Design
Years later, Leonardo Da Vinci studied the Guttenberg printing press and modified it
for greater efficiency. In his design, Da Vinci uses an automatic system that moves the
type-saddle forward in time with the pressure movement. The saddle then returns to
its initial position, sliding along a tilted surface with the use of a weight. The forward
movement and descent of the saddle are combined so as to allow the machine to
perform more than one operation in a given time to make the machine more efficient.
Museo Nazionale Della Scienza E Della Tecnologia
7
The Importance of the Printing Press
Da Vinci may have been drawn to improve the printing press because of its impact on
science. The printing press was a factor in the establishment of a community of
scientists who could easily communicate their discoveries through widely disseminated
scholarly journals. Because of the printing press, authorship became more meaningful.
It was suddenly important to attribute information to its creator. This allowed the exact
citing of references, producing the rule, "One author, one work, one piece of information”
edict. This meant that only one author is credited with his work and it was attributed
to him only. Prior to the use of the printing press, the author of a specific body of work
was less important because a book made in one city would not be exactly identical to
one made in another. For many written works prior to the printing press, the name of
the author was entirely lost. After the advent of the printing press, book publishing
became a commercial enterprise and the first copyright laws were enacted to protect
what we now would call intellectual property rights.
Vocabulary Words
Copyright – rights granted to the author or creator of an original work, including the
right to copy, distribute and adapt the work. Copyrights lasts for a certain time period,
usually 50-100 years after the author’s death.
Handpress – a hand-operated printing press
Intellectual Property – The artistic and commercial ownership of creations of the mind.
Offset Printing – printing technique where the inked image is transferred or "offset"
from a plate to a rubber blanket, and then to the printing surface
8
Components
A
C
B
L
R
D
E
G
H
F
I
J
L
K
M
N
9
O
1
How to Assemble
B
L
R
C
2
A
10
How to Assemble
3
D
F
G
E
4
H
L
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How to Assemble
5
J
6
3
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3
2
1
L
H
1
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1
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2
12
How to Assemble
8
M
Hold
Hold
9
1
2
N
13
How to Operate the Printing Press
1
1
Ink pad
2
(Not included)
2
3
Paper
(Not included)
14
4
How to Operate the Printing Press
5
15
The scientific genius of Leonardo Da Vinci is brought to life through
articulated models offered by Edu-Science. The inventions that inspired
these snap-together replicas are taken from the pages of Da Vinci’s
priceless and awe-inspiring notebooks.
Edu-Science Da Vinci Series Kits
Mechanical Drum
Leonardo da Vinci’s mechanical drum was
designed as a cart equipped with an amply
sized drum. When pulled by its handle,
the gears turn the two lateral drums,
which are fitted with pegs. The pegs move
a total of ten drumsticks that cause
them to beat the large drum.
DV001
Aerial Screw
The Aerial Screw design is a precursor
of the modern day helicopter.
The drawing of Da Vinci’s concept
illustrated the compression of air that
was intended to lift the device off the ground.
DV002
16
Swing Bridge
The Swing Bridge was a portable,
lightweight bridge intended to span a body
of water for armies to cross, and then quickly
disassemble in order to tow away. Equipped with
a rope and wheels, the lightweight bridge
was designed for easy transport.
DV003
Printing Press
Leonardo da Vinci studied the Guttenberg
printing press and finely-tuned it for greater
efficiency. In his design, he used a hand press
with an automatic system that moved
the type-saddle forward and back along
a tilted surface, making printing faster and easier.
DV005
Multi-barreled Canon
The 12-barreled gun carriage was developed to give
the traditional canon additional firepower and was
a potentially effective weapon against a line
of advancing troops.
DV006
Armored Car
A precursor to the modern-day tank,
the armored car was capable of multi-directional
movement and was equipped with
cannons arranged in a 360-degree
firing range around its circumference.
DV007
17
Paddleboat
In Da Vinci’s time, nautical expedition was
the most expedient method of communicating
with the world and his design for a boat
with large wheel-shaped paddles that
would propel it through water offered a faster
and easier method of water transportation.
DV008
Self-Propelled Cart
Da Vinci’s self-propelled cart was the first
to be capable of moving without being
pushed or pulled manually. This precursor to
the automobile was one of the many inventions
that Leonardo created dealing with locomotion and
transportation.
DV009
Catapult
Improvements were made to the age-old military
launching device called a catapult.
The new design employed a hand-crank that
caused tension on the throw arm.
The spring design produced a large amount
of energy in order to propel stone projectiles or
incendiary materials over great distances.
DV010
Bombard
This improved cannon was designed to
include projectiles that contained a quantity
of mini gunpowder shots packed into petal-shaped
iron pieces that formed a ball.
The device exploded into fragments that had greater
range and impact than a single cannonball.
18
DV011
Notes
Notes
Interpretation of the original Leonardo da Vinci’s design/
copyright by Leonardo 3 - www.leonardo3.net - All rights reserved
P38-DV005-81001000
Printed in China
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