Elenco | EDU61010 | Owner Manual | Elenco EDU61010 Bombard Owner Manual

Elenco EDU61010 Bombard Owner Manual
Genius is Timeless
Instruction manual
• About Leonardo Da Vinci
• Da Vinci’s Notebooks
• Cannons and Bombards
• Da Vinci’s Bombard
• Components
• How To Assemble
• How to Operate the Bombard
• Da Vinci Series Kit
(April 15, 1452 - May 2, 1519)
“Iron rusts from disuse; stagnant water
loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen;
even so does inaction sap the vigor of the mind.”
Leonardo da Vinci was born April 15, 1452 in Vinci, Italy. Da Vinci was
an artist, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, sculptor,
architect, botanist, musician and writer. He has often been described as a perfect
example of a Renaissance man, a man whose unquenchable curiosity was equaled
only by his powers of invention and observation. Da Vinci is widely considered
to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely
talented person to have ever lived.
At an early age, Da Vinci’s talent for drawing became evident, and his father
apprenticed his young son to a noted period artist, Andrea del Verrocchio.
Through the coming years, the young Leonardo learned much from his mentor and
at the age of thirty, Da Vinci left Florence and settled in Milan and established
a workshop of his own. During the following years, he earned his living painting
commissioned pieces. He soon came to the conclusion that it was not possible for
him to earn steady income doing this and began his search for employment.
He began by writing a letter to the Duchy of Milan, Duke Ludovico Sforza,
known by the nickname, the Moor. In this correspondence, Da Vinci stated that
he had studied machines of war and had come up with improvements that would
strengthen the Moor’s position in battles. The letter hinted at inventions that
included portable lightweight bridges and improved designs for bombards, mortars,
catapults, covered assault vehicles and weapons. The Moor eventually became
Da Vinci’s patron and kept him busy with everything from designing a heating
system to painting portraits, to overseeing production of cannons and even
decorating the vaulted ceilings in his castle.
It was during this time that Da Vinci began writing and drawing in his journals.
These volumes became repositories of the outflow of Leonardo’s gifted mind.
He was a voracious student of the universe and his observations led to magnificent
plans and concepts. Da Vinci’s notebooks consist of more than 20,000 sketches,
copious notes and detailed drawings. Some of his conceptual designs led to the
greatest inventions of his day, while others came to fruition hundreds of years after
his initial concepts were penned, simply because the machinery needed to build
and power them were not yet invented. Leonardo’s notebooks clearly illustrate his
genius of not only improving upon existing inventions, but also
conceiving a myriad of new ideas and designs.
Ultimately, the Moor was captured by the French and
Da Vinci left Milan in search of a new patron. He traveled
through Italy for more than a decade, working for several
Dukes and rulers, including Cesare Borgia, a General
intent on conquering central Italy. Leonardo traveled with
Borgia as a military engineer, designing weapons, fortresses
and artillery, but became disillusioned and quickly left his
service with the General. It seems that despite Da Vinci’s
design for artillery and weaponry, he was actually a
pacifist and detested war and its destruction.
Da Vinci later took positions with King Louis XII and Pope Leo X and ultimately
with the King of France, Francis I. It was the King who offered Da Vinci the title,
Premier Painter and Engineer and Architect of the King. Francis I valued
Da Vinci’s great mind and his sole function was to engage in conversations about
Renaissance culture and art with the benevolent royal.
It is important to remember that Da Vinci is not only
and great inventor, but is considered to be one of the
most acclaimed artists to ever have lived, creating
such masterpieces as The Last Supper (c.1498) and the
Mona Lisa (c.1503). Leonardo's drawing of the
Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a masterpiece.
Unfortunately, only a small number of Da Vinci’s
paintings have survived. Leonardo experimented with
new techniques, most of which did not yield
Virtruvian Man (circa 1487)
long-lasting results. The master painter was also somewhat of a perfectionist
with fastidious attention to detail. It is believed that when painting the Mona
Lisa, the artist spent ten years perfecting the lips of this masterpiece.
The Mona Lisa (circa 1503)
The Last Supper (circa 1498)
Da Vinci’s notebooks are now more than 500 years old.
They are not bound the way a typical book would be
today, but rather comprised of loose sheets of paper
gathered into collections and wrapped with fabric.
Paper was scarce in Da Vinci’s time, so he used
every available space in a page for drawings,
observations, even recipes and shopping lists, making
them somewhat difficult to interpret. Adding to the
difficulty in deciphering his works was the fact that
Da Vinci’s scripted notes were written backwards, or in
a mirror image, and read from right to left. His reason for
this remains a mystery, but it is thought that Leonardo’s
theories sometimes went against church teachings and his secret writing could
have been a way to avoid scrutiny. Da Vinci also might have feared that someone
would steal his designs and publish them under
their own name. Ironically, Da Vinci addressed
an imaginary readership in the margins of his
notebooks urging the reader to make sure his work
was printed into a proper book. It is presumed that
he meant for the notebooks
to be published after
his death.
Several common themes recur in the now fragile
notebooks: Nature, Technology (including gears,
cogwheels, screws and pulleys), aviation and vision,
to name a few. Upon the death of Leonardo Da
Vinci, the notebooks were given to his long-time
friend, Count Francesco Melzi. Melzi did not fully comprehend the value of the
information and published only a portion of the volumes. He placed the notebooks
in his home where they were viewed by guests who sometimes took pages with
them as souvenirs.After Melzi’s death, an additional 13 Da Vinci notebooks
disappeared and soon pages were scattered across Europe. Da Vinci’s notebook
extracts were published in 1883 and about half of
them have not yet resurfaced so far. It is easy to
imagine that had the notebooks been published
earlier, the history of science might have been
completely changed.
In his drawings, Leonardo strived for
saper vedere or “knowing how to see.”
Da Vinci’s illustrations are unparalleled
and some experts believe that no one has
since been better.
The word Cannon is derived from the Old Italian word “Cannone,” meaning large tube.
A cannon is any piece of artillery that uses gunpowder or other explosive-based
propellants to launch a projectile. Cannons vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate and
angle of fire, and firepower. Different forms of cannons combine and balance these
attributes in varying degrees, depending on their intended use on the battlefield.
First used in China, the cannon was among the earliest forms of gunpowder artillery,
and over time replaced siege weapons of the day (including catapults) for breaking
through fortressed walls.
Da Vinci’s Bombard
A bombard is a large-caliber, front-loading medieval cannon, used chiefly in sieges
for throwing heavy stone balls into enemy fortifications.
In 1346, the English first used cannons, which fired stone balls propelled by exploding
gunpowder. Hundreds of years later, Leonardo Da Vinci made the bombard (or cannon),
even more effective by designing large projectiles, comprised of round shells fitted around
iron spacers and stitched inside a pliable casing. Once fired, the device exploded into
fragments, which had greater range and impact than a single cannonball.
Leonardo also designed the breech-loading cannon, an improvement of muzzle-loading
cannons that required a fast means cooling before another firing. Da Vinci planned for
the use of several cannons in rotation so one could be fired and one loaded while the
third one cooled.
Da Vinci also measured the penetrating power of a missile, and varied it by changing
the attitude. During these tests he launched a rocket-powered cannonball that is
thought to have shot ten thousand feet into the air.
Da Vinci also made improvements to the steam cannon and in his new design, had
the breech of the canon built into a brazier of burning coals, heating it to very high
temperatures. Following this, a small amount of water would be added just behind
the iron ball. When the water turned to steam, it would drive the ball out under
pressure. In his handwritten notes, Leonardo quoted how large a cannonball this
weapon could fire, and how far it would travel. It is quite quite possible that the
inventor actually built and test-fired this cannon.
When it came to projectiles, Leonardo wanted to have more effective ones and designed
shells filled with gunpowder which exploded upon impact; others contained projectiles
which would scatter over the area. One design sees a large ball split into two pieces as
it leaves the mortar. This sends smaller balls in all directions and they, in turn, explode
upon contact.
Cannons have been used for military purposes throughout the centuries, but have now
been adapted to two unusual civilian purpose:
Pyotr IIyich Tchaikovksy’s 1812 Overture is performed using an artillery section, along
with the orchestra. The real cannon fire simulates Russian artillery bombardments of
the Battle of Borodino, a critical battle in Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia, whose defeat
the piece celebrates.
Ski resorts sometimes employ cannons to fire into snow-covered mountainsides to
intentionally trigger avalanches in hazardous areas.
E x2
J x2
How to Assemble
How to Assemble
How to Operate the Bombard
The scientific genius of Leonardo Da Vinci is brought to life through
articulated models offered by Edu-Science. The inventions that inspired
these snap-together replicas are taken from the pages of Da Vinci’s
priceless and awe-inspiring notebooks.
Edu-Science Da Vinci Series Kits
Mechanical Drum
Leonardo da Vinci’s mechanical drum was
designed as a cart equipped with an amply
sized drum. When pulled by its handle,
the gears turn the two lateral drums,
which are fitted with pegs. The pegs move
a total of ten drumsticks that cause
them to beat the large drum.
Aerial Screw
The Aerial Screw design is a precursor
of the modern day helicopter.
The drawing of Da Vinci’s concept
illustrated the compression of air that
was intended to lift the device off the ground.
Swing Bridge
The Swing Bridge was a portable,
lightweight bridge intended to span a body
of water for armies to cross, and then quickly
disassemble in order to tow away. Equipped with
a rope and wheels, the lightweight bridge
was designed for easy transport.
Printing Press
Leonardo da Vinci studied the Guttenberg
printing press and finely-tuned it for greater
efficiency. In his design, he used a hand press
with an automatic system that moved
the type-saddle forward and back along
a tilted surface, making printing faster and easier.
Multi-barreled Canon
The 12-barreled gun carriage was developed to give
the traditional canon additional firepower and was
a potentially effective weapon against a line
of advancing troops.
Armored Car
A precursor to the modern-day tank,
the armored car was capable of multi-directional
movement and was equipped with
cannons arranged in a 360-degree
firing range around its circumference.
In Da Vinci’s time, nautical expedition was
the most expedient method of communicating
with the world and his design for a boat
with large wheel-shaped paddles that
would propel it through water offered a faster
and easier method of water transportation.
Self-Propelled Cart
Da Vinci’s self-propelled cart was the first
to be capable of moving without being
pushed or pulled manually. This precursor to
the automobile was one of the many inventions
that Leonardo created dealing with locomotion and
Improvements were made to the age-old military
launching device called a catapult.
The new design employed a hand-crank that
caused tension on the throw arm.
The spring design produced a large amount
of energy in order to propel stone projectiles or
incendiary materials over great distances.
This improved cannon was designed to
include projectiles that contained a quantity
of mini gunpowder shots packed into petal-shaped
iron pieces that formed a ball.
The device exploded into fragments that had greater
range and impact than a single cannonball.
Interpretation of the original Leonardo da Vinci’s design/
copyright by Leonardo 3 - www.leonardo3.net - All rights reserved
Printed in China
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