Elenco | EDU61021 | Owner Manual | Elenco EDU61021 Great Kite Owner Manual

Elenco EDU61021 Great Kite Owner Manual
Genius is Timeless
Great Kite
Instruction manual
• About Leonardo Da Vinci
• Da Vinci’s Notebooks
• Components
• How To Assemble
• How to Operate the Great Kite
• Da Vinci Series Kit
(April 15, 1452 - May 2, 1519)
“Iron rusts from disuse; stagnant water
loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen;
even so does inaction sap the vigor of the mind.”
Leonardo da Vinci was born April 15, 1452 in Vinci, Italy. Da Vinci was
an artist, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, sculptor,
architect, botanist, musician and writer. He has often been described as a perfect
example of a Renaissance man, a man whose unquenchable curiosity was equaled
only by his powers of invention and observation. Da Vinci is widely considered
to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely
talented person to have ever lived.
At an early age, Da Vinci’s talent for drawing became evident, and his father
apprenticed his young son to a noted period artist, Andrea del Verrocchio.
Through the coming years, the young Leonardo learned much from his mentor and
at the age of thirty, Da Vinci left Florence and settled in Milan and established
a workshop. During the following years, he earned his living painting
commissioned pieces. He soon came to the conclusion that it was not possible for
him to earn steady income doing this and began his search for employment.
He began by writing a letter to the Duchy of Milan, Duke Ludovico Sforza,
known by the nickname, the Moor. In this correspondence, Da Vinci stated that
he had studied machines of war and had come up with improvements that would
strengthen the Moor’s position in battles. The letter hinted at inventions that
included portable lightweight bridges and improved designs for bombards, mortars,
catapults, covered assault vehicles and weapons. The Moor eventually became
Da Vinci’s patron and kept him busy with everything from designing a heating
system to painting portraits, to overseeing production of cannons and even
decorating the vaulted ceilings in his castle.
It was during this time that Da Vinci began writing and drawing in his journals.
These volumes became repositories of the outflow of Leonardo’s gifted mind.
He was a voracious student of the universe and his observations led to magnificent
plans and concepts. Da Vinci’s notebooks consist of more than 20,000 sketches,
copious notes and detailed drawings. Some of his conceptual designs led to the
greatest inventions of his day, while others came to fruition hundreds of years after
his initial concepts were penned, simply because the machinery needed to build
and power them were not yet invented. Leonardo’s notebooks clearly illustrate his
genius of not only improving upon existing inventions, but also
conceiving a myriad of new ideas and designs.
Ultimately, the Moor was captured by the French and
Da Vinci left Milan in search of a new patron. He traveled
through Italy for more than a decade, working for several
Dukes and rulers, including Cesare Borgia, a General
intent on conquering central Italy. Leonardo traveled with
Borgia as a military engineer, designing weapons, fortresses
and artillery, but became disillusioned and quickly left his
service with the General. It seems that despite Da Vinci’s
design for artillery and weaponry, he was actually a
pacifist and detested war and its destruction.
Da Vinci later took positions with King Louis XII and Pope Leo X and ultimately
with the King of France, Francis I. It was the King who offered Da Vinci the title,
Premier Painter and Engineer and Architect of the King. Francis I valued
Da Vinci’s great mind and his sole function was to engage in conversations about
Renaissance culture and art with the benevolent royal.
It is important to remember that Da Vinci is not only
a great inventor, but is considered to be one of the
most acclaimed artists to ever have lived, creating
such masterpieces as The Last Supper (c.1498) and the
Mona Lisa (c.1503). Leonardo's drawing of the
Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a masterpiece.
Unfortunately, only a small number of Da Vinci’s
paintings have survived. Leonardo experimented with
new techniques, most of which did not yield
Virtruvian Man (circa 1487)
long-lasting results. The master painter was also somewhat of a perfectionist
with fastidious attention to detail. It is believed that when painting the Mona
Lisa, the artist spent ten years perfecting the lips of this masterpiece.
The Mona Lisa (circa 1503)
The Last Supper (circa 1498)
Da Vinci’s Notebooks
Da Vinci’s notebooks are now more than 500 years old.
Most of them are not bound the way a typical book would be
today, but rather comprised of loose sheets of paper
gathered into collections and wrapped with fabric.
Paper was scarce in Da Vinci’s time, so he used
every available space in a page for drawings,
observations, even recipes and shopping lists, making
them somewhat difficult to interpret. Adding to the
difficulty in deciphering his works was the fact that
Da Vinci’s scripted notes were written backwards, or in
a mirror image, and read from right to left. His reason for
this remains a mystery, but it is thought that Leonardo’s
theories sometimes went against church teachings and his secret writing could
have been a way to avoid scrutiny. Da Vinci also might have feared that someone
would steal his designs and publish them under
their own name. Ironically, Da Vinci addressed
an imaginary readership in the margins of his
notebooks urging the reader to make sure his work
was printed into a proper book. It is presumed that
he meant for the notebooks
to be published after
his death.
Da Vinci’s Notebooks
Several common themes recur in the now fragile
notebooks: nature, technology (including gears,
cogwheels, screws and pulleys), aviation and vision,
to name a few. Upon the death of Leonardo Da
Vinci, the notebooks were given to his long-time
friend, Count Francesco Melzi. After his death, Melzi's heirs did not fully
comprehend the value of the information and the manuscripts were dispersed.
They placed the notebooks in an attic where they were viewed by guests
who sometimes took pages with them as souvenirs.In a few years Melzi's family lost
all the manuscripts and soon pages were scattered across Europe.
Da Vinci’s notebook extracts were published in
1883 and about half of them have not yet resurfaced
so far. It is easy to imagine that had the notebooks
been published earlier, the history of science might
have been completely changed.
In his drawings, Leonardo strived for
saper vedere or “knowing how to see.”
Da Vinci’s illustrations are unparalleled
and some experts believe that no one has
since been better.
Codex on Flight
Da Vinci was a prolific inventor; he designed hundreds of war machines for work but
also for the theatre and world of music. Of all the machines he invented, the flying
machines are the most incredible, and not a single book in the world on the history of
aviation fails to recognise Leonardo Da Vinci as the forerunner in studies of human
The Codex on Flight, preserved in the Royal Library of Turin represents the most
advanced and organic state of Da Vinci’s studies on flight. The genius Da Vinci drew
inspiration for his work from his direct observation of the flight of a bird; the kite. By
analysing the Turin notebook carefully, the Leonardo3 research centre discovered that
the design for the “Codex on Flight flying machine” is described with extreme
Da Vinci described its dimensions, the materials with which it is to be built, its shape
and how it works; the whole notebook revolves precisely around the construction and
use of the machine. Da Vinci also imparted some “flying lessons” on how the pilot
should operate the machine. The piloting must have been complex. He would use his
hands and feet to activate ropes and could rotate, move and open and close the wings
with his own movements. Da Vinci’s design is not drawn in its entirety. We must
therefore reconstruct the indispensable parts. These include: the canvas to cover the
wings, some articulations and pulleys, and the tail, which Da Vinci knew was
indispensable for controlling the machine. Da Vinci’s instructions for building the
machine are extremely precise and even regard the materials to be used. He also
advised which ones to avoid.
On folio 7r of the Codex on Flight, he wrote:
… not one single piece of metal must be used in the construction, because this
material breaks or wears away under stress, so there is no need to complicate the job.
Da Vinci suggested using resistant leather for the joints and silk for the ropes. The
canvas could be taffeta, a very thick silk, or a linen canvas that is starched so any
holes are sealed to prevent air from passing through. Also with regards to the canvas
that would cover the wings he suggested referring to the wing membrane of a bat
since, unlike bird feathers, air does not pass through it:
Remember that your bird must only copy the bat because the membranes act as a
framework, connecting the major articulations of the wings. If you wanted to copy
the wings of feathered birds you would have to remember that they have stronger
bones and quills because they are permeable; the feathers are divided and the air
passes through them. On the other hand, the bat is held up by its membranes, which
connect everything together and are not permeable.
We can presume the rest of the machine was to be made of wood, using different
species based on their properties: ash wood for the wings, because it’s flexible; beech
wood for the pulleys, since it’s easy to polish; and walnut wood or something else
more resistant for the structural parts. The Great Kite, described and drawn in the
Codex on Flight, is one of the most complex flying machines that Da Vinci designed.
It’s likely that Da Vinci never finished building it, but he profoundly believed that his
project was worthwhile and fervently desired to test it, launching it, with a pilot, on
the edge of a mountain top. In fact, in one of the most famous phrases from the Codex
on Flight, Da Vinci wrote:
The first great bird will make its first flight, launched from the peak of Mount Cecero
and will fill the universe with amazement and all the reports of its great fame will
confer eternal glory upon the places where it was conceived.
H X2
How to Assemble
How to Assemble
How to Assemble
How to Assemble
How to Operate the Great Kite
The scientific genius of Leonardo Da Vinci is brought to life through
articulated models offered by Edu-Science. The inventions that inspired
these snap-together replicas are taken from the pages of Da Vinci’s
priceless and awe-inspiring notebooks.
Edu-Science Da Vinci Series Kits
Mechanical Drum
Leonardo da Vinci’s mechanical drum was
designed as a cart equipped with an amply
sized drum. When pulled by its handle,
the gears turn the two lateral drums,
which are fitted with pegs. The pegs move
a total of ten drumsticks that cause
them to beat the large drum.
Aerial Screw
The Aerial Screw design is a precursor
of the modern day helicopter.
The drawing of Da Vinci’s concept
illustrated the compression of air
that was intended to lift
the upper part (propeller or screw)
the device off the ground.
Swing Bridge
This arched bridge built on a river turns on
a central pivot to let boats pass.
It is counterbalanced by a case of stones and
turns by winches set on the river bank.
Printing Press
Leonardo da Vinci studied the Guttenberg
printing press and finely-tuned it for greater
efficiency. In his design, he used a hand press
with an automatic system that moved
the type-saddle forward and back along
a tilted surface, making printing faster and easier.
Multi-barreled Canon
The 10-barreled gun carriage was developed to give
the traditional canon additional firepower and was
a potentially effective weapon against a line
of advancing troops.
Armored Car
A precursor to the modern-day tank,
the armored car was capable of multi-directional
movement and was equipped with
cannons arranged in a 360-degree
firing range around its circumference.
In Da Vinci’s time, nautical expedition was
the most expedient method of communicating
with the world and his design for a boat
with large wheel-shaped paddles that
would propel it through water offered a faster
and easier method of water transportation.
Self-Propelled Cart
Da Vinci’s self-propelled cart was the first
to be capable of moving without being
pushed or pulled manually.
But it is not a car! It is a king of robot,
designed to take by self-movement a puppet on
the stage of a teather. And probably with
a programmed path.
Improvements were made to the age-old military
launching device called a catapult.
The new design employed a hand-crank that
caused tension on the throw arm.
The spring design produced a large amount
of energy in order to propel stone projectiles or
incendiary materials over great distances.
This improved cannon was designed to
include projectiles that contained a quantity
of mini gunpowder shots packed into petal-shaped
iron pieces that formed a ball.
The device exploded into fragments that had greater
range and impact than a single cannonball.
Mechanical Butterfly
Leonardo da Vinci himself advised
where one can admire these
incredible flying insects:
To see four-winged flying, look near
ditches and you will see dragonflies.
It is extremely difficult to create a
mechanical replica of the natural
movement of an animal. The beating of the dragonfly’s four wings is
particularly complex and Da Vinci was well aware of how difficult it would
be to create this machine, he himself described it in great detail. It is not
simply wings beating up and down; it’s a jointed motion. Whilst beating
down the wings are “flat” in order to push as much air as possible, whereas
when they are raised, they are angled so that they create less resistance.
Giant Crossbow
The structure of the crossbow is
relatively simply. It has a rigid
wooden body, on which the stock and
a bow are mounted. Compared to a
traditional bow, the crossbow is very
compact; the bow of more modern
crossbows is made from metal, is not
very long, but very thick. This is why
the bow of the crossbow is less
flexible than that of a traditional
bow, and the string is much tauter. The
distinguishing feature of the crossbow
is a launching mechanism similar to a trigger on modern weapons. The project
follows a rather typical pattern, seen in Leonardo da Vinci’s other projects –
making an existing weapon more powerful by making it bigger and in some
cases making it multiple launch (as in the cases of the Multiple Sling, the
Armoured Tank, the Multiple Bombard and other drawings).
Leonardo da Vinci himself said that
because it was a lethal weapon it
must not fall into enemy hands, and
this may be another reason why,
instead of drawing the final project,
he drew it disassembled and in a
way that makes it difficult to
understand. A boat with sails has a
part which is submerged in the
water and invisible to enemies. The pilot uses a passage to get into the lower
part undercover: the Mechanical Submarine. A pulley and rope system lowers
the submarine which can unhook itself underwater and proceed invisibly
towards the enemy. The submarine has two air chambers which can be used
for steering and also for air needed by the pilot, who has a mouthpiece.
Steering underwater is done by means of a mechanical system.
Great Kite
The genius Da Vinci drew
inspiration for his work from
his direct observation of the
flight of a bird. Da Vinci
described its dimensions, the
materials with which it is to be
built, its shape and how it works;
the whole notebook revolves precisely
around the construction and use of the
machine. Da Vinci also imparted some
“flying lessons” on how the pilot should operate the machine. The piloting
must have been complex. He would use his hands and feet to activate ropes
and could rotate, move and open and close the wings with his own
movements. Da Vinci’s design is not drawn in its entirety. We must therefore
reconstruct the indispensable parts. These include: the canvas to cover the
wings, some articulations and pulleys, and the tail, which Da Vinci knew was
indispensable for controlling the machine.
Multiple Sling
Leonardo da Vinci’s idea was to
build a very powerful machine
which could throw eight large
projectiles at the same time.
He positioned eight long arms in a
circle around a central pin, each of
which had a sling capable of
throwing a projectile attached to it.
This kind of project, where weapons
were developed to hurl multiple
projectiles to be more powerful, was common in Da Vinci’s time, because
doing this meant creating more powerful weapons, simply by increasing their
number and power, without the need to develop new building techniques and
using familiar materials. They were therefore potentially attractive weapons
because they were powerful, but they were also relatively inexpensive.
Ship’s Cannon with Shield
The prow of the ship and the cannon are
protected by a wooden shield. Leonardo
da Vinci studied this subject closely,
identified the weak points and
invented his own version with
many more functions. First, he
concentrated on the structure of
the vessel which needed to be
reinforced and keep the cannon
firmly in the middle. The shield,
which previous engineers had
shown as being immobile and almost temporary, in Da Vinci’s drawing was
split in two and became part of the structure and mobile. A system of ropes
and pulleys keeps the shields raised to protect the ship. Once the winches are
locked, the weight of the shields themselves causes them to rotate outwards to
uncover the cannon which can then fire.
hazard - Small parts. Entanglement or
WARNING! Choking
Strangulation Hazard - Long cords. Not suitable
for children under 3 years.
Interpretation of the original Leonardo da Vinci’s design/
copyright by Leonardo 3 - www.leonardo3.net - All rights reserved
Printed in China
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