Elenco | K24 | Owner Manual | Elenco K24 Whooper Alarm Owner Manual

Elenco K24 Whooper Alarm Owner Manual
10. The speaker is driven by transistors ________ and ________.
9. The frequency of oscillation of Q3 and Q4 is about ____________ cycles per second.
8. Capacitor C3 causes transistor Q3 and Q4 to _____________.
7. The charge to discharged ratio on C1 is ___________.
6. Capacitor C1 charges through resistor _______ and discharges through resistor __________.
5. When the power is first turned on, the voltage across C1 is ___________.
4. When the power is first turned on, the voltage at the base of Q2 is ___________.
3. The high frequency oscillations are generated by transistors __________ and __________.
2. The low frequency oscillations are generated by transistors __________ and __________.
1. The Whooper Alarm has ___________ oscillators.
QUIZ
150 Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090
(847) 541-3800
Website: www.elenco.com
e-mail: elenco@elenco.com
Elenco® Electronics, Inc.
Answers: 1) two; 2) Q1, Q2; 3) Q3, Q4; 4) 5.4V; 5) zero; 6) R2, R8; 7) 22:1; 8) oscillate; 9) 1,000; 10) Q4, Q5
Revised 2009
REV-F
No part of this book shall be reproduced by any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written permission from the publisher.
Copyright © 2009, 1989 by Elenco® Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved.
®
Elenco Electronics, Inc.
Instruction & Assembly Manual
MODEL K-24
WHOOPER ALARM KIT
753224
Symbol
Q1, Q3, Q4
Q2
Q5
Symbol
Qty.
r3
r1
r1
Qty.
r1
r1
r1
Battery Snap
Transistor
• Insert battery with correct polarity.
• Use only 9V type (not included).
Qty.
r1
r1
r2
Symbol
B1
SPK1
-1-
Speaker
Switch
Description
Battery Snap 9V
Speaker 8Ω
Wire 4” Blue
not
be
Part #
590098
590102
814620
Part #
323904
323906
326531
Part #
244780
281044
Part #
131000
141000
142200
146800
151500
152200
152700
• Batteries are harmful if swallowed, so keep away
from small children.
• Non-rechargeable batteries should
recharged.
• Remove battery when it is used up.
Discap Electrolytic
Capacitors
• Never throw battery in a fire or attempt to open it.
• Do not short circuit the battery terminals.
BATTERIES
Part #
518000
541102
551124
MISCELLANEOUS
Description
Transistor
Transistor
Transistor
SEMICONDUCTORS
Description
Discap
Electrolytic
CAPACITORS
Color Code
brown-black-brown-gold
brown-black-red-gold
red-red-red-gold
blue-gray-red-gold
brown-green-orange-gold
red-red-orange-gold
red-violet-orange-gold
PARTS IDENTIFICATION
Description
PC Board
Switch Slide SPDT
Solder Roll 24”
Value
2N3904
2N3906
MPS6531
Value
.047μF (473)
100μF
Description
100Ω 5% 1/4W
1kΩ 5% 1/4W
2.2kΩ 5% 1/4W
6.8kΩ 5% 1/4W
15kΩ 5% 1/4W
22kΩ 5% 1/4W
27kΩ 5% 1/4W
Resistor
Symbol
C2, C3
C1, C4
Qty.
r2
r2
S1
Symbol
R8
R3, R6
R2
R5
R1, R9
R4
R7
Qty.
r1
r2
r1
r1
r2
r1
r1
RESISTORS
Consult your instructor or contact Elenco® Electronics if you have any problems. DO NOT contact your place of
purchase as they will not be able to help you.
If you are a student, and any parts are missing or damaged, please see instructor or bookstore.
If you purchased this Whooper Alarm Kit from a distributor, catalog, etc., please contact Elenco® Electronics
(address/phone/e-mail is at the back of this manual) for additional assistance, if needed. DO NOT contact your
place of purchase as they will not be able to help you.
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
-6-
5. Read the circuit operation lesson manual to familiarize yourself with the workings of the circuit.
4. Use a fresh 9 volt battery.
3. Be sure that transistors Q1 - Q5 have been installed correctly. The flat side should be in the same direction
as shown on the top legend.
2. Be sure that the electrolytic capacitors C1 and C4 have been installed correctly. These capacitors have
polarity, the negative and positive leads must be in the correct holes, as shown on the top legend of the PC
board.
1. Be sure that all of the components have been mounted in their correct places.
COMPONENT CHECK
d) Have any solder bridges formed? A solder bridge may occur if you accidentally touch an adjacent foil
by using too much solder or by dragging the soldering iron across adjacent foils. Break the bridge with
your soldering iron.
c) Solder should flow into a smooth puddle rather than a round ball. Resolder any connection that has
formed into a ball.
b) All solder connections should be shiny. Resolder any that are not.
a) Tug slightly on all parts to make sure that they are indeed soldered.
1. One of the most frequently occurring problems is poor solder connections.
TROUBLESHOOTING
PARTS LIST
R5 - 6.8kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(blue-gray-red-gold)
C3 - .047μF (473) Discap
B1 - Battery Snap
(see Figure D)
R2 - 2.2kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-red-gold)
Q4 - 2N3904 Transistor
(see Figure A)
C2 - .047μF (473) Discap
PC board
Figure D
Insert the red and black wires
through the hole in the PC board
as shown. Insert the red wire into
the positive (+) hole and the black
wire into the negative hole. Solder
and cut off the excess leads.
Flat
-5-
Red
Speaker lugs
Battery snap
Black
4” Wires
Cut two 4” wires and strip 1/8” of
insulation off of both wires. Solder a
wire to each lug of the speaker and then
insert the other end of the wires through
the hole in the PC board, and solder in
the place shown on the top legend.
Mount the transistor with the
flat side in the same direction
as shown on the PC board.
Solder and cut off the excess
leads.
PC board
Figure B
Figure A
C1 - 100μF Electrolytic Cap.
(see Figure C)
R7 - 27kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-violet-orange-gold)
Polarity
marking
Foil Side of PC Board
Marking on legend side of PC board
If the capacitor is
connected
with
incorrect polarity, it
may heat up and
either leak, or cause
the capacitor to
explode.
Warning:
Electrolytic capacitors have polarity. Be
sure to mount them with the negative (–)
lead (marked on side) in the correct
hole.
Figure C
Q2 - 2N3906 Transistor
(see Figure A)
R4 - 22kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-orange-gold)
C4 - 100μF Electrolytic Cap.
(see Figure C)
R9 - 15kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-green-orange-gold)
R8 - 100Ω 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-brown-gold)
S1 - Slide Switch
Q5 - MPS 6531 Transistor
(see Figure A)
R1 - 15kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-green-orange-gold)
Q1 - 2N3904 Transistor
(see Figure A)
SPK - Speaker
(see Figure B)
R6 - 1kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
R3 - 1kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
Q3 - 2N3904 Transistor
(see Figure A)
ASSEMBLE COMPONENTS TO THE PC BOARD
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
Digit
0
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Gray
White
Digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
BAND 2
2nd Digit
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Silver
Gold
Multiplier
1
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
0.01
0.1
Multiplier
Color
Silver
Gold
Brown
Red
Orange
Green
Blue
Violet
Tolerance
±10%
±5%
±1%
±2%
±3%
±0.5%
±0.25%
±0.1%
Resistance
Tolerance
1
2
Multiplier
BANDS
Tolerance
Polarity
Marking
Abbreviation
p
n
μ
m
–
k
M
Means
pico
nano
micro
milli
unit
kilo
mega
100V
10
1
2
100
-2-
Or
10-12
10-9
10-6
10-3
100
103
106
5
0.1
9
= 1 micro unit
= 1 nano unit
Note: The letter “R”
may be used at times
to signify a decimal
point; as in 3R3 = 3.3
= 1 kilo unit
5. 1,000 units
= 1 mega unit
= 1 unit
4. 1,000 milli units
6. 1,000 kilo units
8
10k 100k .01
4
3. 1,000 micro units = 1 milli unit
2. 1,000 nano units
1. 1,000 pico units
The letter K indicates a tolerance of +10%
The letter J indicates a tolerance of +5%
* The letter M indicates a tolerance of +20%
Multiply Unit By
.000000000001
.000000001
.000001
.001
1
1,000
1,000,000
1k
3
Maximum Working Voltage
Tolerance*
Multiplier
1
0
The value is 10 x 1,000 =
10,000pF or .01μF 100V
First Digit
103K
Multiply By
For the No.
Second Digit
Multiplier
METRIC UNITS AND CONVERSIONS
If the capacitor
is connected
with incorrect
polarity, it may
heat up and
either leak, or
cause the
capacitor to
explode.
Warning:
Electrolytic capacitors have a positive
and a negative electrode. The
negative lead is indicated on the
packaging by a stripe with minus
signs and possibly arrowheads.
Capacitors will be identified by their capacitance value in pF (picofarads), nF (nanofarads), or μF (microfarads).
Most capacitors will have their actual value printed on them. Some capacitors may have their value printed in
the following manner. The maximum operating voltage may also be printed on the capacitor.
IDENTIFYING CAPACITOR VALUES
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Gray
White
BAND 1
1st Digit
Use the following information as a guide in properly identifying the value of resistors.
IDENTIFYING RESISTOR VALUES
Figure 3
-3-
The circuit of the high frequency oscillator is shown in Figure 3.
Transistors Q3 and Q4 are wired as amplifier stages. The bias for these
amplifiers are controlled by the sawtooth of Figure 2. These amplifiers
normally would amplify the low frequency pulses, except for the addition of
capacitor C3. This capacitor takes the output of Q4 and feeds it in phase
to the input of Q3. This causes the circuit to oscillate. The frequency of
oscillation is controlled by the RC time constants of C3 and R6. The
frequency of oscillation is about 1,000 cycles per second. This frequency
is modulated with the low frequency oscillations to produce the Whooper
Alarm sounds. Transistor Q5 further amplifies the signals and drives the
speaker.
HIGH FREQUENCY OSCILLATOR
A current is flowing in resistor R2 charging capacitor C1. When the voltage
across C1 reaches 6V, transistor Q2 starts sending a current in the
collector of Q1. The current in the collector of Q1 is mulitplied by the gain
of transistor Q1 and this rapidly turns on transistor Q2. Capacitor C1
quickly discharges through resistor R8 as shown in Figure 2. Note that C1
charges through a 2200Ω resistor R2, but discharges through a 100Ω
resistor R8. Thus, the charge to discharge ratio is 22:1. When C1 is
discharged, Q1 and Q2 turn off and the whole cycle repeats itself.
Figure 1 shows the circuits of the low frequency oscillator. When the
power is first applied to this circuit, transistors Q1 and Q2 will not conduct.
This is because the base of transistor Q2 is about 5.4V while the emitter
is at zero volts.
CIRCUIT OPERATION
The Whooper Alarm circuit consists of two oscillators, a low frequency
oscillator which drives a higher frequency unit at a predetermined rate.
The high frequency oscillator drives an output transistor which powers the
speaker.
The Whooper Alarm puts out a wavering sound that is sure to startle an
intruder. It can be used independently or as an accessory to the Burglar
Alarm Kit K-23.
MINIATURE RADIO TRANSMITTER
Volts
Figure 2
Time
Figure 1
4. Here is what a good solder
connection looks like.
3. Allow the solder to flow around
the connection. Then, remove
the solder and the iron and let the
connection cool. The solder
should have flowed smoothly and
not lump around the wire lead.
2. Apply a small amount of solder to
the iron tip. This allows the heat to
leave the iron and onto the foil.
Immediately apply solder to the
opposite side of the connection,
away from the iron. Allow the
heated component and the circuit
foil to melt the solder.
1. Solder all components from the
copper foil side only. Push the
soldering iron tip against both the
lead and the circuit board foil.
Foil
Solder
Foil
Solder
Foil
Soldering Iron
Soldering Iron
Circuit Board
Component Lead
Soldering Iron
A good solder connection should be bright, shiny, smooth, and uniformly
flowed over all surfaces.
What Good Soldering Looks Like
• Use the correct tip size for best heat transfer. The conical tip is the
most commonly used.
• Keep the iron tinned at all times.
Use these procedures to increase the life of your soldering iron tip when
using lead-free solder:
Lead-free solder is different from lead solder: It has a higher melting
point than lead solder, so you need higher temperature for the solder to
flow properly. Recommended tip temperature is approximately 700OF;
higher temperatures improve solder flow but accelerate tip decay. An
increase in soldering time may be required to achieve good results.
Soldering iron tips wear out faster since lead-free solders are more
corrosive and the higher soldering temperatures accelerate corrosion,
so proper tip care is important. The solder joint finish will look slightly
duller with lead-free solders.
For many years leaded solder was the most common type of solder
used by the electronics industry, but it is now being replaced by leadfree solder for health reasons. This kit contains lead-free solder, which
contains 99.3% tin, 0.7% copper, and has a rosin-flux core.
Solder
The most important factor in assembling your K-24 Whooper Alarm Kit
is good soldering techniques. Using the proper soldering iron is of prime
importance. A small pencil type soldering iron of 25 - 40 watts is
recommended. The tip of the iron must be kept clean at all times and
well tinned.
Introduction
CONSTRUCTION
-4-
'
4. Solder bridges - occur when
solder runs between circuit paths
and creates a short circuit. This is
usually caused by using too much
solder.
To correct this, simply drag your
soldering iron across the solder
bridge as shown.
3. Excessive solder - could make
connections that you did not
intend to between adjacent foil
areas or terminals.
2. Insufficient solder - let the
solder flow over the connection
until it is covered.
Use just enough solder to cover
the connection.
1. Insufficient heat - the solder will
not flow onto the lead as shown.
Foil
Solder
Gap
Drag
Soldering Iron
Component Lead
Solder
Soldering iron positioned
incorrectly.
Rosin
Types of Poor Soldering Connections
DO NOT USE ACID CORE SOLDER!
In all of the following assembly steps, the components must be installed
on the top side of the PC board unless otherwise indicated. The top
legend shows where each component goes. The leads pass through the
corresponding holes in the board and are soldered on the foil side.
Use only rosin core solder.
Assemble Components
• Do not hold solder in your mouth. Solder is a toxic substance.
Wash hands thoroughly after handling solder.
• Locate soldering iron in an area where you do not have to go around
it or reach over it. Keep it in a safe area away from the reach of
children.
• Be sure there is adequate ventilation when soldering.
• Always wear safety glasses or safety goggles to
protect your eyes when working with tools or
soldering iron, and during all phases of testing.
Safety Procedures
• Tips should be cleaned frequently to remove oxidation before it becomes
impossible to remove. Use Dry Tip Cleaner (Elenco® #SH-1025) or Tip
Cleaner (Elenco® #TTC1). If you use a sponge to clean your tip, then use
distilled water (tap water has impurities that accelerate corrosion).
• Turn off iron when not in use or reduce temperature setting when
using a soldering station.
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