Elenco | K29 | Owner Manual | Elenco K29 TV/FM Oscillator Owner Manual

Elenco K29 TV/FM Oscillator Owner Manual
TV/FM OSCILLATOR KIT
MODEL K-29
Assembly and Instruction Manual
Elenco Electronics, Inc.
Copyright © 1989 Elenco Electronics, Inc.
Revised 2001
REV-D
753229
PARTS LIST
If any parts are missing or damaged, see instructor or bookstore. DO NOT contact your place of purchase as
they will not be able to help you.
Contact Elenco Electronics (address/phone/e-mail is at the back of this manual) for additional assistance, if
needed.
RESISTORS
Qty.
1
1
1
Symbol
R3
R2
R1
Description
1kΩ 5% 1/4W
10kΩ 5% 1/4W
22kΩ 5% 1/4W
Color Code
brown-black-red-gold
brown-black-orange-gold
red-red-orange-gold
Part #
141000
151000
152200
CAPACITORS
Qty.
1
1
1
Symbol
C2
C3
C1
Description
4-45pF Trimmer Cap
10pF (10) Discap
.001µF (102) Discap
Part #
201088
211011
231036
SEMICONDUCTORS
Qty.
1
Symbol
Q1
Description
Transistor 2N3904 NPN
Qty.
2
1
1
1
1
1
Symbol
L1, L2
Description
Coil Form 3-Turn
PC Board
Switch
Solder Roll 24”
Battery Snap 9V
Wire 4”
Part #
323904
MISCELLANEOUS
S1
BT1
ANT
Part #
462203
518029
541102
551135
590098
814620
PARTS IDENTIFICATION
Resistor
Transistor
Capacitor
Coil
Battery Snap
Discap
-1-
Trimmer Cap
Switch
IDENTIFYING RESISTOR VALUES
Use the following information as a guide in properly identifying the value of resistors.
BAND 1
1st Digit
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Gray
White
Multiplier
BAND 2
2nd Digit
Digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Gray
White
Resistance
Tolerance
Color
Multiplier
Black
1
Brown
10
Red
100
Orange
1,000
Yellow
10,000
Green
100,000
Blue
1,000,000
Silver
0.01
Gold
0.1
Digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Color
Silver
Gold
Brown
Red
Orange
Green
Blue
Violet
Tolerance
+10%
+5%
+1%
+2%
+3%
+0.5%
+0.25%
+0.1%
BANDS
1
2
Multiplier
Tolerance
IDENTIFYING CAPACITOR VALUES
Capacitors will be identified by their capacitance value in pF (picofarads), nF (nanofarads), or µF (microfarads). Most
capacitors will have their actual value printed on them. Some capacitors may have their value printed in the following
manner. The maximum operating voltage may also be printed on the capacitor.
Multiplier
For the No.
0
1
2
3
Multiply By
1
10
100
1k
4
5
8
10k 100k 0.01
10µF 16V
First Digit
9
0.1
Note: The letter “R” may be used at times
to signify a decimal point; as in 3R3 = 3.3
Second Digit
Multiplier
103K
Tolerance
100V
The letter M indicates a tolerance of +20%
The letter K indicates a tolerance of +10%
The letter J indicates a tolerance of +5%
Maximum Working Voltage
The value is 10 x 1,000 = 10,000pF or .01µF 100V
METRIC UNITS AND CONVERSIONS
Abbreviation
p
n
µ
m
–
k
M
Means
Pico
nano
micro
milli
unit
kilo
mega
Multiply Unit By
.000000000001
.000000001
.000001
.001
1
1,000
1,000,000
Or
10-12
10-9
10-6
10-3
100
103
106
-2-
1,000 pico units = 1 nano unit
1,000 nano units = 1 micro unit
1,000 micro units = 1 milli unit
1,000 milli units
= 1 unit
1,000 units
1,000 kilo units
= 1 kilo unit
= 1 kilo unit
MINIATURE RADIO TRANSMITTER
The TV/FM Oscillator is really a miniature radio transmitter. The oscillator transmits an unmodulated (no audio
message) carrier frequency between 50MHz - 200MHz, to a distance of 5 to 30 feet. Your TV/FM is designed
to receive a signal in this frequency range. While your miniature radio transmitter puts out a very weak signal
at close range, it is strong enough to override the standard broadcast stations. Therefore, your television set
gets the regular broadcast station plus your oscillator signal. The results will be an interference signal on the
TV set. By varying the trimmer capacitor slightly, the interference pattern will vary, giving interesting results.
With the addition of an ordinary speaker, the oscillator can be used as an FM transmitter that will send your
voice to a nearby FM receiver. To operate the device in this manner, see the instructions presented in the
assembly section of this kit.
THE BASIC TRANSMITTER
This kit is basically an RF oscillator which produces high frequency alternating
currents. These currents are sent up and down an antenna wire and converted
into electromagnetic radiation, more commonly known as radio waves.
The heart of the oscillator is the tune circuit, see Figure 1. This circuit consists of
capacitor C2 and two coils, L1 and L2. You may consider L1 and L2 as a single
coil with its center tapped.
ANT
Figure 1
All LC circuits have a resonance frequency, that is, a frequency where the resistance of the coil and capacitor
are equal. At this frequency, there is a build-up of current between the coil and capacitor. By varying the
capacitor (adjusting the trimmer) or coil (squeezing the coil) you will change the resonance frequency. By
tightening the trimmer or squeezing the coil the resonance frequency will go down. The reverse is true if you
loosen the trimmer or coil. The capacitance in the trimmer varies between 4 and 45 pico farads (pF). At the
4pF, the LC frequency will be at its maximum or around 200MHz. At the 45pF setting, the LC setting, the LC
frequency will be at minimum or around 50MHz.
THE TRANSISTOR LC CIRCUIT
In order to get any power out of a LC circuit, we need a transistor amplifier stage. The transistor will amplify the
weak currents of the LC circuit and send it to the antenna.
To get a transistor to operate, it must be properly biased. The collector must be connected to a positive voltage.
The emitter connected to a negative voltage and the base to a slightly less positive voltage than the collector.
To get the transistor to oscillate, you need positive feedback. This means that the signal at the collector LC
circuit must be fed back to the base-emitter junction “in phase” to build up oscillation. Normally a signal on the
base is 180O out of phase with the collector, while a signal on the emitter is in phase. Therefore, for positive
feedback we must couple the collector signal to the emitter. This is done with capacitor C3. With this feedback,
the circuit will oscillate at the resonance frequency of the LC circuit.
Other components used are resistors R1 and R2 to bias on the transistor. Capacitor C1 is a bypass capacitor
used to remove the signal from the base. Resistor R3 is a load resistor to allow the feedback signal to appear
at the emitter-base junction.
-3-
CONSTRUCTION
Introduction
The most important factor in assembling your K-29 TV/FM Oscillator Kit is good soldering techniques. Using
the proper soldering iron is of prime importance. A small pencil type soldering iron of 25 - 40 watts is
recommended. The tip of the iron must be kept clean at all times and well tinned.
Safety Procedures
• Wear eye protection when soldering.
• Locate soldering iron in an area where you do not have to go around it or reach over it.
• Do not hold solder in your mouth. Solder contains lead and is a toxic substance. Wash your hands
thoroughly after handling solder.
• Be sure that there is adequate ventilation present.
Assemble Components
In all of the following assembly steps, the components must be installed on the top side of the PC board unless
otherwise indicated. The top legend shows where each component goes. The leads pass through the
corresponding holes in the board and are soldered on the foil side.
Use only rosin core solder of 63/37 alloy.
DO NOT USE ACID CORE SOLDER!
What Good Soldering Looks Like
Types of Poor Soldering Connections
A good solder connection should be bright, shiny,
smooth, and uniformly flowed over all surfaces.
1.
Solder all components from
the copper foil side only.
Push the soldering iron tip
against both the lead and
the circuit board foil.
1. Insufficient heat - the
solder will not flow onto the
lead as shown.
Soldering Iron
Component Lead
Foil
Soldering iron positioned
incorrectly.
Circuit Board
2.
3.
4.
Apply a small amount of
solder to the iron tip. This
allows the heat to leave the
iron and onto the foil.
Immediately apply solder to
the opposite side of the
connection, away from the
iron.
Allow the heated
component and the circuit
foil to melt the solder.
Allow the solder to flow
around the connection.
Then, remove the solder
and the iron and let the
connection cool.
The
solder should have flowed
smoothly and not lump
around the wire lead.
Rosin
2. Insufficient solder - let the
solder flow over the
connection until it is
covered. Use just enough
solder
to
cover
the
connection.
Soldering Iron
Solder
Foil
Solder
Gap
Component Lead
Solder
3. Excessive solder - could
make connections that you
did not intend to between
adjacent foil areas or
terminals.
Soldering Iron
Solder
Foil
4. Solder bridges - occur
when solder runs between
circuit paths and creates a
short circuit. This is usually
caused by using too much
solder.
To correct this,
simply drag your soldering
iron across the solder
bridge as shown.
Here is what a good solder
connection looks like.
-4-
Soldering Iron
Foil
Drag
ASSEMBLE COMPONENTS TO THE PC BOARD
C1 - .001µF (102) Discap
L1 - Coil form 3 turn
C2 - 4-45pF Trimmer Cap
L2 - Coil form 3 turn
R1 - 22kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-orange-gold)
ANT - Antenna - 4 inch wire
Q1 - 2N3904 Transistor
(see Figure A)
S1 - Slide switch
C3 - 10pF (10) Discap
R2 - 10kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-orange-gold)
R3 - 1kΩ 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
9V - Battery Snap - Solder the
red wire to the positive (+) hole
on the PC board and the black
wire to the negative (–) hole.
JUMPER - Jumper wire
(see Figure B)
Figure A
Mount the transistor with the
flat side in the same direction
as shown on the PC board.
Solder and cut off the excess
leads.
Figure B
Flat
Use a discarded resistor lead
to form a jumper wire.
OPERATING PROCEDURES
Attach a fresh 9 volt battery to the battery snap. Turn on your FM radio or TV and adjust the adjusting screw on
the variable capacitor C2. Use a non-conductive tuning tool or a piece of plastic to tune the capacitor. Slowly
turn the adjusting screw until you see or hear a disturbance in the television or radio. Then, with careful
adjustment, you will completely blank out reception. If you do not blank out reception, slightly separate the turns
of the wire in the two coils L1 and L2. Try adjusting the capacitor again. Each station requires a different setting
of the variable capacitor.
To use this circuit as an FM transmitter, desolder the jumper and solder the leads from the 8Ω speaker into the
PC board. Use C2 for coarse adjustment and the tuning knob on the radio for fine adjustment, then speak into
the speaker and hear yourself on the radio.
8Ω Speaker
R2
B1
R2
R3
R3
Speaker
-5-
TROUBLESHOOTING
Consult your instructor or contact Elenco Electronics if you have any problems. DO NOT contact your place of
purchase as they will not be able to help you.
1. One of the most frequently occurring problems is poor solder connections. Tug slightly on all parts to make
sure that they are indeed soldered.
2. All solder connections should be shiny. Resolder any that are not.
3. Solder should flow into a smooth puddle rather than a round ball. Resolder any connection that has formed
into a ball.
4. Have any solder bridges formed? A solder bridge may occur if you accidentally touch an adjacent foil by
using too much solder or by dragging the soldering iron across adjacent foils. Break the bridge with your
soldering iron.
COMPONENT CHECK
1. Be sure that all of the components have been mounted in their correct places.
2. Use a fresh 9 volt battery.
3. Be sure that transistor Q1 has been mounted with the flat side in the correct direction, as shown on the PC
board.
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
ANT
QUIZ
6. The tuned circuit consists of a __________ and
___________.
1. The TV/FM oscillator is really a miniature
______________ ________________.
7. All tuned circuits have a __________ frequency.
2. The oscillator transmits a frequency range from
__________MHz to __________MHz.
3. The oscillator transmits an ____________
carrier frequency.
8. To get a transistor to operate, the collector must
be connected to a __________ voltage. The
emitter to a _________ voltage and the base to
a slightly less __________ voltage.
4. Electromagnetic radiation is more commonly
known as ___________ ___________.
9. To get a transistor to oscillate, you need
____________ feedback.
5. The heart of the oscillator is the ____________
____________.
10. In our oscillator, the feedback is between the
collector and the ___________.
Answers: 1. radio, transmitter; 2. 50, 200; 3. unmodulated; 4. radio waves; 5. tune circuit; 6. capacitor, coil; 7. resonance;
8. positive, negative, positive; 9. positive; 10. emitter
-6-
Elenco Electronics, Inc.
150 W. Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090
(847) 541-3800
http://www.elenco.com
e-mail: elenco@elenco.com
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