Elenco | SCA200 | Owner Manual | Elenco SCA200 Snap Circuits® Arcade Owner Manual

Elenco SCA200 Snap Circuits® Arcade Owner Manual
Project 4
Copyright © 2016 by Elenco® Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced by
any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written permission from the publisher.
753077
U.S. Patents: 7,144,255; 7,273,377, & patents pending
Table of Contents
Basic Troubleshooting
Parts List
How to Use Snap Circuits®
About Your Snap Circuits® Parts
Summary of Games in the LED MC (U29)
Introduction to Electricity
!
!
1
2
3
4-6
7
8
WARNING: SHOCK HAZARD - Never connect
Snap Circuits® to the electrical outlets in your home
in any way!
WARNING: CHOKING HAZARD - Small parts. Not
for children under 3 years.
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan while it is spinning.
Basic Troubleshooting
Conforms to all applicable U.S.
government requirements and
CAN ICES-3 (B)/NMB-3 (B).
1. Most circuit problems are due to incorrect assembly, always
double-check that your circuit exactly matches the drawing for it.
2. Be sure that parts with positive/negative markings are
positioned as per the drawing.
3. Be sure that all connections are securely snapped.
4. Try replacing the batteries.
5. If the programmable fan (M8) does not display any messages,
then it could be because you erased them without
programming in new ones. See project 15 for instructions on
how to program it.
Elenco® is not responsible for parts damaged due to
incorrect wiring.
Note: If you suspect you have damaged parts, you can follow the
Advanced Troubleshooting procedure on page 10 to determine which
ones need replacing.
-1-
DOs and DON’Ts of Building Circuits
Advanced Troubleshooting
Project Listings
Projects 1 - 203
Notes
Other Snap Circuits® Projects
WARNING: Always check your
wiring before turning on a circuit.
Never leave a circuit unattended
while the batteries are installed.
Never connect additional batteries
or any other power sources to your
circuits. Discard any cracked or
broken parts.
Adult Supervision:
Because children’s abilities vary so
much, even with age groups, adults
should exercise discretion as to
which experiments are suitable and
safe (the instructions should
enable supervising adults to
!
Batteries:
Use only 1.5V AA type, alkaline
batteries (not included).
Insert batteries with correct
polarity.
Non-rechargeable
batteries
should not be recharged.
Rechargeable batteries should
only be charged under adult
supervision, and should not be
recharged while in the product.
Do not connect batteries or
battery holders in parallel.
9
10
11, 12
13-76
77
78
establish
the
experiment’s
suitability for the child). Make sure
your child reads and follows all of
the relevant instructions and safety
procedures, and keeps them at
hand for reference.
This product is intended for use by
adults and children who have
attained sufficient maturity to read
and follow directions and warnings.
Never modify your parts, as doing
so may disable important safety
features in them, and could put
your child at risk of injury.
Do not mix old and new batteries.
Do not mix alkaline, standard
(carbon-zinc), or rechargeable
(nickel-cadmium) batteries.
Remove batteries when they are
used up.
Do not short circuit the battery
terminals.
Never throw batteries in a fire or
attempt to open its outer casing.
Batteries are harmful if swallowed,
so keep away from small children.
Parts List (Colors and styles may vary) Symbols and Numbers
Important: If any parts are missing or damaged, DO NOT RETURN TO RETAILER. Call toll-free (800) 533-2441 or e-mail us at:
help@elenco.com. Customer Service ● 150 Carpenter Ave. ● Wheeling, IL 60090 U.S.A.
Qty.
ID
Name
r2
1
1-Snap Wire
r3
3
r1
r6
r1
r1
2
4
5
r1
B3
r1
D2
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
Base Grid
(11.0” x 7.7”)
2-Snap Wire
3-Snap Wire
4-Snap Wire
5-Snap Wire
Battery Holder - uses three (3)
1.5V type “AA” (not Included)
Symbol
Part #
Qty.
6SC01
r1
6SCBG
6SC02
6SC03
6SC04
6SC05
6SCB3
D1
Red Light Emitting
Diode (LED)
6SCD1
D10
Red/Yellow Bicolor Light
Emitting Diode (LED)
6SCD10
Support Bar for Disco
Covers
6SCDMSB
Disco Cover, Hexagon
6SCDMCH
DM
Green Light Emitting
Diode (LED)
Disco Motor
Disco Cover, Triangle
6SCD2
r1
ID
r1
M8
r1
Q2
r1
r1
r1
r1
Jumper Wire
(Black, 18”)
Symbol
Jumper Wire
(Red, 18”)
r1
r2
Name
Q1
S1
S2
S8
Part #
6SCJ1
6SCJ2
Jumper Wire
(Orange, 8”)
6SCJ3A
Programmable Fan
6SCM8
NPN Transistor
6SCQ2
Jumper Wire
(Blue, 4”)
PNP Transistor
Slide Switch
Press Switch
Selector
6SCJ4
6SCQ1
6SCS1
6SCS2
6SCS8
6SCDM
r1
SP2
Speaker
6SCSP2
6SCDMCT
r1
U29
LED Display and
Microcontroller
6SCU29
r1
U2
Alarm IC
You may order additional / replacement parts at our website: www.snapcircuits.net
6SCU2
-2-
How to Use Snap Circuits®
Snap Circuits® uses building blocks with snaps
to build the different electrical and electronic
circuits in the projects. Each block has a
function: there are switch blocks, light blocks,
battery blocks, different length wire blocks, etc.
These blocks are different colors and have
numbers on them so that you can easily
identify them. The blocks you will be using are
shown as color symbols with level numbers
next to them, allowing you to easily snap them
together to form a circuit.
You need a power source to build each circuit.
This is labeled B3 and requires three (3) 1.5V
“AA” batteries (not included).
For Example:
This is the slide switch, it is green and has the
marking S1 on it. The part symbols in this
booklet may not exactly match the appearance
of the actual parts, but will clearly identify them.
This is a wire block which is blue and comes
in different wire lengths.
This one has the number 2 , 3 , 4 ,
or 5 on it depending on the length of the wire
connection required.
There is also a 1-snap wire that is used as a
spacer or for interconnection between different
layers.
-3-
The programmable fan (M8) displays
messages. You can change the messages
displayed using project 15.
Most projects that use the LED MC (U29)
require that you select a game using the
selector (S8). This is explained in the projects,
but here are a few notes:
● There are 21 games available.
● If you try to select a game number higher
than 21 then the display will be reset to “00”.
● When the player wins, loses or finishes a
game, the display will say “Go” again and
the player can play the game again.
● The only way to select a different game is by
turning off the circuit and then turning it back
on so that “00” appears on the display again.
Some projects have you mount one of the
disco covers on the disco motor (DM):
A large clear plastic base grid is included with
this kit to help keep the circuit blocks properly
spaced. You will see evenly spaced posts that
the different blocks snap into. The base has
rows labeled A-G and columns labeled 1-10.
Next to each part in every circuit drawing is a
small number in black. This tells you which
level the component is placed at. Place all
parts on level 1 first, then all of the parts on
level 2, then all of the parts on level 3, etc.
Some circuits use the jumper wires to make
unusual connections. Just clip them to the
metal snaps or as indicated.
DM
shaft
Flat side
Flat side
Note: While building the projects, be careful not
to accidentally make a direct connection across
the battery holder (a “short circuit”), as this may
damage and/or quickly drain the batteries.
About Your Snap Circuits® Parts
(Part designs are subject to change without
notice).
BASE GRID
The base grid is a platform for mounting parts
and wires. It functions like the printed circuit
boards used in most electronic products, or like
how the walls are used for mounting the electrical
wiring in your home.
BATTERY HOLDER
The batteries (B3) produce an electrical voltage
using a chemical reaction. This “voltage” can be
thought of as electrical pressure, pushing
electricity through a circuit just like a pump
pushes water through pipes. This voltage is
much lower and much safer than that used in
your house wiring. Using more batteries
increases the “pressure”, therefore, more
electricity flows.
The jumper
wires
(red,
black, orange,
& blue) make
flexible connections for
times when using the snap
wires would be difficult. They also are used to
make connections off the base grid.
Wires transport electricity just like pipes are used
to transport water. The colorful plastic coating
protects them and prevents electricity from
getting in or out.
Selector (S8)
For people familiar with schematic diagrams, the
schematic for the selector looks like this:
SNAP WIRES & JUMPER WIRES
The blue snap wires
are wires used to
connect components.
They are used to
transport electricity and do
not affect circuit performance.
They come in different lengths to
allow orderly arrangement of connections
on the base grid.
The selector (S8) is a more complex switch that
will often be used with the LED MC (U29).
Battery Holder (B3)
SLIDE & PRESS SWITCHES
SPEAKER
The speaker (SP2)
converts electricity into
The slide & press switches (S1 & S2) connect sound
by
making
(pressed or “ON”) or disconnect (not pressed or mechanical vibrations.
“OFF”) the wires in a circuit. When ON they have no These vibrations create
effect on circuit performance. Switches turn on variations
in
air
electricity just like a faucet turns on water from a pipe. pressure, which travel
across the room. You
“hear” sound when your
Slide & Press ears feel these air
pressure variations.
Switches
(S1 & S2)
Speaker (SP2)
-4-
About Your Snap Circuits® Parts
TRANSISTORS
The PNP & NPN transistors (Q1 & Q2) are
components that use a small electric current to
control a large current, and are used in switching,
amplifier, and buffering applications. They are
easy to miniaturize, and are the main building
blocks of integrated circuits including the
microprocessor and memory circuits in
computers.
ALARM IC
The alarm IC (U2) contains a specialized soundgeneration integrated circuit (IC) and other
supporting components (resistors, capacitors,
and transistors) that are always needed with it.
A schematic for it is available at
www.snapcircuits.net/faq.
Alarm IC (U2)
IN1
IN2
(–)
PNP & NPN Transistors (Q1 & Q2)
Connections:
IN1, IN2, IN3 - control inputs
(–) - power return to batteries
OUT - output connection
The red & green LEDs (D1 & D2) are light
emitting diodes, and may be thought of as a
special one-way light bulb. In the “forward”
direction, (indicated by the “arrow” in the symbol)
electricity flows if the voltage exceeds a turn-on
threshold (about 1.5V for red and yellow, about
2.0V for green, and about 3.0V for blue;
brightness then increases. A high current will
burn out an LED, so your Snap Circuits® LEDs
have internal resistors to protect them. LEDs
block electricity in the “reverse” direction.
Red & Green LEDs (D1 & D2)
IN3
OUT
Connect control inputs to (+) power to make five
alarm sounds, see project 169 for an example
of proper connections.
-5-
LEDs
The red/yellow LED (D10) is like the others but
has red and yellow LEDs connected in opposite
directions.
Red/Yellow LED (D10)
About Your Snap Circuits® Parts
MOTOR MODULES
The programmable fan (M8) is a motor with an
LED circuit. A motor converts electricity into
mechanical motion, in the form of a spinning
shaft. In the light motor electricity is transported
through the motor shaft to power an LED circuit,
with LEDs mounted on the fan blade. The motor
spins in both directions, but the light circuit only
works in one direction.
The disco motor (DM) is a motor with a gearbox
attached to the shaft, and an LED module
mounted on it. The gearbox makes its shaft spin
slower but with more force than the shaft that is
directly attached to the motor, so it can spin the
disco covers. The LED module has red, green,
and blue LEDs, connected in parallel.
How does electricity turn the shaft in the motor?
Electricity is closely related to magnetism, and
an electric current flowing in a wire has a
magnetic field similar to that of a very, very tiny
magnet. Inside the motor are three coils of wire
with many loops. If a large electric current flows
through the loops, the magnetic effects become
concentrated enough to move the coils. The
motor has a magnet inside, so as the electricity
moves the coils to align them with the permanent
magnet, the shaft spins.
The LEDs in the fan blade are flashed in a pattern
based on the programmed phrase, and
synchronized with the motor speed. The flashes are
precisely timed and are very brief, but your eyes
can’t react fast enough and the flashed pattern
gives the illusion of words floating in space. You can
change the messages displayed;
see project 15. UP, MODE,
and DOWN are controlled
by connecting those
snaps to (-) using
switches or
the selector
(S8).
Programmable Fan (M8)
The Snap Circuits® Arcade page on our website
(www.snapcircuits.net/sca200) has additional
information about the LED MC, including a
schematic diagram, the program it is running,
links to software that will allow you to modify the
program or write your own programs for it, and
how to purchase a programming cable for it
(which is only needed if you want to reprogram
it). The microcontroller used is the PICAXE®
08M2, which has a special programming interface
that makes it easy to use. You can also find
information about the PICAXE® 08M2 from its
manufacturer at www.picaxe.co.uk.
Disco Motor (DM)
LED DISPLAY & MICROCONTROLLER
The LED MC module (U29) has a dual 7-segment
LED display, a microcontroller, and supporting
parts. The microcontroller is a mini computer
which can be programmed to perform different
tasks, including monitoring things and making
things happen. It is pre-programmed for use with
the games projects. See project 17 for how to
select games on it.
LED MC outputs cannot control the motors in the
disco motor (DM) or programmable fan (M8)
directly, so an interface transistor must be used.
LED MC outputs can control your speaker (SP2)
and LEDs (D1, D2, D10, and the LEDs in the
disco motor) directly.
LED MC (U29)
LED MC (U29):
(+) - Power from batteries
(—) - Power return to batteries
S-IN - Takes input from the selector (S8)
S-OUT - An output, often connected to an LED
1 - An output, often connected to an LED
2 - An output, usually connected to the speaker
3 - Takes input from the selector (S8)
4 - An output, often connected to an LED
D1 - Used to shut off the right LED display
D2 - Used to shut off the left LED display
-6-
Summary of Games in the LED MC (U29)
#
Name
1
Arcade
4
2
Fast Arcade
5
3
Faster Arcade
5
4
Lucky Doubles
18
5
6
7
Lucky Sixes,
Unlucky Ones
19
Risk & Reward
20
3 Second Hold
22
8
5 Second Hold
23
9
10 Second Hold
24
10
11
-7-
Sample
Project Description
20 Second Hold
Numbers &
Letters
25
26
Every few seconds it randomly turns on snaps
1, 4, & S-OUT, or plays a tune, or changes the
LED display. Used in many projects.
Same as Game 1 but changes
faster.
Same as Game 2 but changes
even faster.
Rolls dice on the display, doubles
plays a winning tune.
Rolls dice on the display, 66
plays a winning tune and 11
plays a losing tune.
Game based on rolling dice on
the display.
Timing game based on holding a
button down for 3 seconds.
Same as Game 7 but for 5
seconds.
Same as Game 7 but for 10
seconds.
Same as Game 7 but for 20
seconds.
Cycles through letters & numbers
that can be shown on the display.
Sample
Project Description
#
Name
12
Home Run Derby
Game
31
13
Baseball Game
32
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
Memory Game
(very easy)
Memory Game
(easy)
Memory Game
(medium)
Memory Game
(hard)
Memory Game
(progressive)
Twenty-One
Binary Coded
Decimal
Changing Speed
33
34
35
36
37
38
40
43
A baseball “pitch” occurs where
the red, yellow and then green
LEDs light up in sequence but at
different speeds. You try to press
a button at the right moment to
“hit” the pitch.
Same as game 12, but has
“outs”.
A sequence of lights flash, and
you try to repeat the order by
pressing buttons.
Same as game 14, but the
sequence is faster.
Same as game 14, but the
sequence is faster.
Same as game 14, but the
sequence is faster.
Same as game 14, but the
sequence gets faster as you play
it.
A game based on the card game
Blackjack.
Uses LEDs to show how
numbers 1-7 can be displayed in
binary, which has only 2 states.
Turns snaps 1 & 4 on/off at varying
speed. Snaps 1 & 4 are always in
opposite states. Used in many projects.
Introduction to Electricity
What is electricity? Nobody really knows. We only know how to produce it,
understand its properties, and how to control it. Electricity is the movement of subatomic charged particles (called electrons) through a material due to electrical
pressure across the material, such as from a battery.
There are two ways of arranging parts in a circuit, in series or
in parallel. Here are examples:
Power sources, such as batteries, push electricity through a circuit, like a pump
pushes water through pipes. Wires carry electricity, like pipes carry water. Devices
like LEDs, motors, and speakers use the energy in electricity to do things. Switches
and transistors control the flow of electricity like valves and faucets control water.
Resistors limit the flow of electricity.
The electrical pressure exerted by a battery or other power source is called
voltage and is measured in volts (V). Notice the “+” and “–” signs on the battery;
these indicate which direction the battery will “pump” the electricity.
The electric current is a measure of how fast electricity is flowing in a wire, just
as the water current describes how fast water is flowing in a pipe. It is expressed
in amperes (A) or milliamps (mA, 1/1000 of an ampere).
Series Circuit
The “power” of electricity is a measure of how fast energy is moving through a
wire. It is a combination of the voltage and current (Power = Voltage x Current). It
is expressed in watts (W).
The resistance of a component or circuit represents how much it resists the
electrical pressure (voltage) and limits the flow of electric current. The relationship
is Voltage = Current x Resistance. When the resistance increases, less current
flows. Resistance is measured in ohms (W), or kilo ohms (kW, 1000 ohms).
Nearly all of the electricity used in our world is produced at enormous generators
driven by steam or water pressure. Wires are used to efficiently transport this
energy to homes and businesses where it is used. Motors convert the electricity
back into mechanical form to drive machinery and appliances. The most important
aspect of electricity in our society is that it allows energy to be easily transported
over distances.
Note that “distances” includes not just large distances but also tiny distances. Try
to imagine a plumbing structure of the same complexity as the circuitry inside a
portable radio - it would have to be large because we can’t make water pipes so
small. Electricity allows complex designs to be made very small.
Parallel Circuit
Placing components in series increases the resistance; highest
value dominates. Placing components in parallel decreases the
resistance; lowest value dominates.
The parts within these series and parallel sub-circuits may be
arranged in different ways without changing what the circuit
does. Large circuits are made of combinations of smaller series
and parallel circuits.
-8-
DOs and DON’Ts of Building Circuits
After building the circuits given in this booklet, you may wish to experiment on
your own. Use the projects in this booklet as a guide, as many important design
concepts are introduced throughout them. Every circuit will include a power
source (the batteries), a resistance (which might be a speaker, LED (which has
an internal protection resistor), motor, integrated circuit, etc.), and wiring paths
between them and back. You must be careful not to create “short circuits” (very
low-resistance paths across the batteries, see examples below) as this will
damage components and/or quickly drain your batteries. Only connect the ICs
using configurations given in the projects, incorrectly doing so may damage them.
Only connect the programmable fan (M8) using the configurations shown in the
projects, otherwise you may damage it or unintentionally erase all messages.
Elenco® is not responsible for parts damaged due to incorrect wiring.
Here are some important guidelines:
ALWAYS USE EYE PROTECTION WHEN ExPERIMENTING ON YOUR OWN.
ALWAYS include at least one component that will limit the current
through a circuit, such as the speaker, an LED (which has an
internal protection resistor), ICs (which must be connected
properly), or motor (disco motor or programmable fan).
ALWAYS use switches in conjunction with other components that will
limit the current through them. Failure to do so will create a
short circuit and/or damage those parts.
ALWAYS disconnect your batteries immediately and check your wiring
if something appears to be getting hot.
ALWAYS check your wiring before turning on a circuit.
ALWAYS connect ICs and the programmable fan (M8) using configurations given
in the projects or as per the connection descriptions for the parts.
NEVER connect to an electrical outlet in your home in any way.
NEVER leave a circuit unattended when it is turned on.
NEVER touch the programmable fan when it is spinning at high speed.
For all of the projects given in this book, the parts may be arranged in
different ways without changing the circuit. For example, the order of
parts connected in series or in parallel does not matter — what matters
is how combinations of these sub-circuits are arranged together.
-9-
!
Warning to Snap Circuits® owners: Do not connect
additional voltage sources from other sets, or you may
damage your parts. Contact ELENCO® if you have questions
or need guidance.
Examples of SHORT CIRCUITS - NEVER DO THESE!!!
Placing a 3-snap wire directly
across the batteries is a
SHORT CIRCUIT.
!
NEVER
DO!
!
NEVER
DO!
This is also a
SHORT CIRCUIT.
When the slide switch (S1) is turned on, this large circuit has a SHORT
CIRCUIT path (as shown by the arrows). The short circuit prevents any
other portions of the circuit from ever working.
!
NEVER
DO!
!
NEVER
DO!
You are encouraged to tell us about new programs and circuits you create.
If they are unique, we will post them with your name and state on our
website at: www.snapcircuits.net/learning_center/kids_creation.
Send your suggestions to ELENCO®: elenco@elenco.com.
ELENCO® provides a circuit designer so that you can make your own Snap
Circuits® drawings. This Microsoft® Word document can be downloaded
from: www.snapcircuits.net/learning_center/kids_creation or through
the www.snapcircuits.net website.
WARNING: SHOCK HAZARD - Never connect Snap Circuits®
to the electrical outlets in your home in any way!
Advanced Troubleshooting (Adult supervision recommended)
Elenco® is not responsible for parts damaged due to incorrect
wiring.
If you suspect you have damaged parts, you can follow
this procedure to systematically determine which ones
need replacing:
1. Red LED (D1), green LED (D2), red/yellow LED (D10),
speaker (SP2), and battery holder (B3): Place batteries in
holder. Place the red/yellow LED directly across the battery
holder in both directions, it should light red or yellow depending
on which side was positioned towards the battery “+” side. Do
the same for the red and green LEDs, but be sure to position
their “+” side towards the battery “+” side. “Tap” the speaker
across the battery holder contacts, you should hear static as it
touches. If none work, then replace your batteries and repeat,
if still bad then the battery holder is damaged.
2. Jumper wires: Use this minicircuit to test each jumper wire,
the LED should light.
3. Snap wires: Use this minicircuit to test each of the snap
wires, one at a time. The LED
should light.
4. Slide switch (S1) and press switch (S2): Build project 1; if
the red LED (D1) doesn’t light then the slide switch is bad.
Replace the slide switch with the press switch to test it.
6. Alarm IC (U2): Build project 169; you should hear a siren.
Variants 1, 2, 3, and 4 should change the sound, but the sound
for variant 4 may be the same as one of the others.
7. PNP transistor (Q1): Use project 158 to test it.
8. NPN transistor (Q2): Use project 159 to test it.
9. Selector (S8): Use project 92 to test it.
10. Disco motor (DM): Build project 10. The shaft should spin,
and red, green, and blue LEDs should light.
11. Programmable fan (M8): Connect it as shown in project 15.
It should slowly cycle through 6 phrases (unless you erased
all messages without programming in new ones). You should
be able to change the messages displayed using the
instructions in project 15.
Warning: If you erased all messages, then the part will not
display any messages until you program in new ones, as per
the instructions in project 15.
Note: After several hours of continuous use, the fan message
may be erratic, not clear, or even have no display. Turn off for
5 minutes, and it will be back to normal again.
12. LED-MC (U29, the LED display & microcontroller): Use
project 98 to test it.
ELENCO®
150 Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090 U.S.A.
Phone: (847) 541-3800
Fax: (847) 520-0085
e-mail: help@elenco.com
Website: www.elenco.com
You may order additional / replacement parts at:
www.snapcircuits.net
-10-
Project Listings
Project #
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
-11-
Description
Page #
Red Light
13
Lights
13
Reverse Lights
13
Arcade
14
Fast Arcade
14
New Pattern Arcade
14
Arcade Dice
15
Word Fan
15
Just the Fan
15
Disco Ball
16
Disco Pattern
16
Reverse Disco Ball
16
Disco Ball with New Pattern
16
Just the Ball
16
Programmable Light Fan
17
Busy Circuit
18
Games Selector
19
Lucky Doubles
19
Lucky Sixes, Unlucky Ones
20
Risk & Reward
20
Enhanced Dice Game
21
3 Second Hold
22
5 Second Hold
22
10 Second Hold
22
20 Second Hold
23
Numbers & Letters
23
Red & Green
23
Red & Yellow
23
Red & Red
23
Green & Yellow
23
Home Run Derby Game
24
Baseball Game
25
Memory Game (very easy)
25
Memory Game (easy)
26
Project #
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
Description
Page #
Memory Game (medium)
26
Memory Game (hard)
26
Memory Game (progressive)
26
Twenty-One
27
Disco Twenty-One
27
Binary Coded Decimal
28
Blink Rate Changer
29
Click Rate Changer
29
Double Changing Blinker
29
Variable Disco Speed
30
Variable Disco Speed Variants
30
Loud Click Rate Changer
30
Two Speed Disco Ball
30
Bi-Color Light
31
Bi-Color Light & Sound
31
Dual Bi-Color Lights
32
Fast Phrase Changer
32
Funky Siren
33
Funky Siren (II)
33
Funky Siren (III)
33
Funky Siren (IV)
33
Funky Siren (V)
33
Funky Siren & Light
34
Funky Siren & Light (II)
34
Funky Siren & Light (III)
34
Funky Siren & Light (IV)
34
Funky Siren & Light (V)
34
Tri-Light Funky Siren
35
Tri-Light Funky Siren (II)
35
Tri-Light Funky Siren (III)
35
Tri-Light Funky Siren (IV)
35
Tri-Light Funky Siren (V)
35
Hex-Light Funky Siren
36
Pent-Light Funky Siren
36
Project #
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
Description
Page #
Hex/Pent Light Funky Siren (II) 36
Hex/Pent Light Funky Siren (III) 36
Hex/Pent Light Funky Siren (IV) 36
Random Funky Siren & Lights
36
Siren Arcade
37
Siren Arcade (II)
37
Siren Arcade (III)
37
Siren Arcade (IV)
37
Siren Arcade (V)
37
Fast Siren Arcade
37
Disco Siren
38
Disco Machine Gun
38
Disco Fire Engine
38
Disco European Siren
38
Slow Speed Disco Ball
38
Slow-Fast Disco
39
Not So Slow-Fast Disco
39
Dimmer Disco
39
Super-Slow Disco
39
Slow-Fast Word Fan
40
Not So Slow-Fast Word Fan
40
Slow-Fast Fan
40
Different Sounds
40
Selector
41
Red or Red
41
Green Selector
41
Triple Select
41
Red/Yellow Selector
41
Toggle 00
42
LED-MC Test
42
Green Light
43
Red/Yellow Light
43
Pop On, Pop Off
43
Alarm Circuit
44
Project Listings
Project #
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
Description
Page #
Machine Gun
44
Fire Engine
44
European Siren
44
Quieter Alarm Circuit
44
Quieter Machine Gun
44
Quieter Fire Engine
44
Quieter European Siren
44
Fan Flash Energy
45
Motor Flash Energy
45
Tri-Light Machine Gun
46
Hex-Light Machine Gun
46
Trip-Wire Alarm
47
Trip-Wire Alarm with Better Sound 47
Trip-Wire Machine Gun
47
Trip-Wire Fire Engine
47
Trip-Wire European Siren
47
Water Alarm
48
Human Alarm
48
Draw an Alarm
48
Water-Human-Drawn Machine Gun 49
Water-Human-Drawn Fire Engine 49
Water-Human-Drawn European Siren 49
Yellow & More
49
Red & More
49
Green & More
49
Random Siren Selector
50
Fast Random Siren Selector
50
LED Random Siren Selector
50
5-LED Random Siren Selector 50
Disco Arcade Show
51
Fast Disco Arcade Show
51
Word Fan Arcade Show
52
Fast Word Fan Arcade Show
52
Light Projecting Arcade Show
53
Project #
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
Description
Page #
Fast Light Projecting Arcade Show 53
Where’s the Blue Light?
54
There’s the Blue Light
54
No Blue Light
54
Dim Green Light
54
Slow Disco Ball
55
Slower Disco Ball
55
Selector with Disco Motor LEDs 55
Selector with Disco Ball?
56
Selector with Disco Ball - NPN 56
Selector with Disco Ball - PNP
57
Slower & Dimmer Disco
57
Selector with Word Fan
58
Select the Fan
58
Word Fan PNP
59
Fan PNP
59
Bi-Color Swing Circuit
59
Adjusting Disco Cover Focus
60
Diffused Light
60
Your Light Patterns
60
Pressure Circuit
60
PNP Transistor
61
NPN Transistor
61
6-Sided Dice Game: Race to the Finish 62
6-Sided Dice Game: Difference Maker 62
6-Sided Dice Game: Don’t Go Low 62
6-Sided Dice Game: Free the Frogs 63
6-Sided Dice Game: Free the Fish 63
6-Sided Dice Game: Free the Foxes 63
6-Sided Dice Game: Squares
64
6-Sided Dice Game: Coin Dice 64
6-Sided Dice Game: Baseball
65
Simple Alarm Sounds
65
Green & Lots More
66
Project #
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
Description
Page #
Red or Yellow & Lots More
66
Vibrato 2
66
Vibrato 21
66
Random Bi-Color Light
67
Random Bi-Color Lights
67
Arcade Blinking Display
68
Blink One
68
Triple Light Blink One
68
Disco with Sound
69
Disco with Sound (II)
69
Disco with Sound (III)
69
Disco with Sound (IV)
69
Disco with Sound (V)
69
Weird Sound
70
Weird Sound (II)
70
Weird Sound (III)
70
Thyristor Start Disco Ball
70
Start Stop Ball
71
Sound On by Thyristor
71
Sound On by Thyristor (II)
71
Sound On by Thyristor (III)
71
Sound and Light On-Off Thyristor 72
Fan On-Off
72
Add One
73
Add 10
73
Add One at a Time
73
+1 Beeper
74
Counting Sound
74
Another Counting Sound
74
Push-Start Disco
75
Faster Push-Start Disco
75
Medium Speed Disco
75
Finale
76
-12-
Project 1
+
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and the red LED (D1) lights.
Project 2
-13-
Snap Circuits® uses electronic blocks that snap onto a clear plastic grid
to build different circuits. These blocks have different colors and
numbers on them so you can easily identify them.
Build the circuit shown on the left by placing all the parts with a black 1
next to them on the board first. Then, assemble parts marked with a 2.
Install three (3) “AA” batteries (not included) into the battery holder (B3)
if you have not done so already.
Placement
Level
Numbers
+
Red Light
YELLOW
Placement Level Numbers
Snappy says when you
turn on the slide switch,
electricity flows from the
batteries, through the red
LED and back to the
battery through the switch.
If the switch is off, the flow
of electricity is blocked, and
the red LED won’t light.
Lights
Build the circuit shown here and turn on the
slide switch (S1). The red, green, and yellow
LEDs (D1, D2, & D10) light.
LEDs are light emitting
diodes, which convert
electrical energy into
light. The color of the
light depends on the
characteristics of the
material used in them.
NOTE: this circuit (and many others in this
book) have an LED being used without a
resistor or other component to limit the
electric current through it. Normally this
could damage an LED but your Snap
Circuits® LEDs include internal protection
resistors, and will not be damaged. Be
careful if you later use other electrical sets
with unprotected LEDs.
Project 3
Reverse Lights
Try reversing the position of the slide switch
(S1), 2-snap wire, and each of the LEDs (D1,
D2, & D10), separately.
Reversing the slide switch
and 2-snap wire has no
effect. LEDs only work in
one direction, so the red &
green LEDs do not work in
reverse, but the yellow
LED (D10) is a bi-color
LED, with separate red &
yellow LEDs in opposite
directions, as shown in its
symbol.
+
Project 4
Arcade
Placement Level Numbers
This circuit is shown on the
front of the Snap Circuits®
Arcade box. Use that
picture to help in building it.
YELLOW
Disco Cover
Disco Cover Assembly
Flat side (“D-fit”)
!
Support Bar
DM
shaft
Disco Cover
Note: this is a 3-snap wire
connecting these points.
Build the circuit shown above by placing all the parts
with a black 1 next to them on the board first. Then,
place parts marked with a 2, and then parts with a
3. Connect the jumper wires (red, black, orange, and
blue) as shown in the drawing. Install three (3) “AA”
batteries (not included) into the battery holder (B3)
if you have not done so already. Place the disco
cover support bar on the disco motor (DM) shaft,
and place one of the disco covers on it; note that
both sides of the support bar are “D-fit”.
Turn on the slide switch (S1). The programmable fan
(M8) spins, the red & green LEDs (D1 & D2) light, and
the display on the LED-MC (U29) displays “00”. Push
SUPPORT BAR
the press switch (S2) to light the yellow LED (D10).
Make the display on the LED-MC show “01” by
pressing the A button on the selector (S8) to
increase the ones digit on the display. Press the B
button on the selector to select the game (now
game 1), and a mini arcade show begins.
Every few seconds the speaker plays a tune while
the disco motor spins & lights, and/or the U29 LED
display shows a random pattern.
If you want to change games then turn off S1 to
reset the circuit. You can make the sound louder by
removing the disco motor and NPN transistor (Q2).
Flat side (“D-fit”)
WARNING:
Moving parts.
Do not touch
the fan during
operation.
Project 5
Fast Arcade
Use the project 4 circuit but select game 2 or
3 (instead of game 1). Some parts of the
arcade show happen faster now, such as the
changing random pattern on the U29 LED
display.
Project 6
New Pattern Arcade
Use the project 4 circuit (with game 1, 2, or
3), but replace the disco cover with the other
one that is included. Place the circuit in a dark
room for best effects.
-14-
Project 7
Arcade Dice
Use the project 4 circuit but select game 4 (instead of
game 1), then press button B. When the display
shows “Go” press button B to start the game.
● Hold down button C for a few seconds and then
release it.
● Two random digits from 1 to 6 will be shown on
the display (like rolling 2 dice).
● If the player rolls “doubles” (i.e. the two digits are
the same), a winning song will be played, the
disco motor (DM) spins & lights, and the game
starts over (“Go” is shown on the display again).
● If the player does not roll “doubles”, then they
can keep trying by pressing button C again.
Project 9
Project 8
Word Fan
Turn on the slide switch (S1). The programmable fan (M8) spins and slowly displays messages.
See project 15 if you want to change the messages.
!
Just the Fan
Turn on the slide switch (S1). The programmable fan (M8) just spins,
without displaying any messages.
This circuit is like the Word Fan circuit
except the voltage to the programmable
fan is reversed. The motor works but
spins the fan in the opposite direction. The
lights on the fan are off, because the
microcircuit controlling them doesn’t
function when the voltage to it is reversed.
-15-
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan while it is spinning.
WARNING:
Moving parts.
Do not touch
the fan while it
is spinning.
Project 10
Disco Cover Disco Cover
Assembly
Disco Cover
Support
Bar
DM
shaft
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Ball
Placement Level
Numbers
Build the circuit shown on the left by
placing all the parts with a black 1 next
to them on the board first. Then,
assemble parts marked with a 2.
Connect the two blue jumper wires to
the snaps on top of the disco motor
(DM). Install three (3) “AA” batteries
(not included) into the battery holder
(B3) if you have not done so already.
Place one of the disco covers on the
disco motor shaft. Note that both sides
of the support bar are “D-fit”.
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and watch the
show. Place in a dark room for best effects.
Flat side
(“D-fit”)
You can make the disco cover spin
more slowly in projects 83-87, 142,
and 200-202.
Flat side
(“D-fit”)
Project 12 Reverse Disco Ball
Disco Cover
SUPPORT BAR
This circuit is like project 10, but the disco cover spins
in the opposite direction.
In this circuit we
reversed the battery
connections to the
disco motor (DM), so its
shaft spins in the
opposite direction now.
The connections to the
LEDs in the disco motor
were not changed.
Project 11
Disco
Pattern
Use the preceding
circuit, but remove
the
2-snap
wire
between the slide
switch (S1) and disco
motor (DM); connect
the end of the blue
jumper wire directly to
S1. Place in a dark
room and look at the
pattern on the ceiling.
The disco cover does
not spin.
Project 13
Disco Ball with
New Pattern
Use any of the three preceding circuits, but
replace the disco cover with the other one
included in this set. Compare the patterns on
the ceiling. Place in a dark room for best effects.
Project 14
Just the Ball
Use any of the project 10, 12, or 13 circuits, but
remove the two blue jumper wires. Now the lights do
not work, so you just have a spinning disco cover.
-16-
Project 15
Programmable Light Fan
Note that there is a 3-snap wire under the selector (S8) that is partially hidden. Turn on
the slide switch (S1). The programmable fan (M8) spins and slowly displays messages.
Button
A (on S8)
S2
C (on S8)
Controls
UP
MODE
DOWN
Description
Press & hold to ERASE ALL MESSAGES.
Press & hold to enter PROGRAM MODE.
Press to move to the next message.
Button Functions in NORMAL MODE:
Button B (on S8) does nothing.
Erased messages can only be restored by re-entering them.
Button Functions in PROGRAM MODE:
Button
A (on S8)
S2
C (on S8)
Controls
UP
MODE
DOWN
Description
Press to find the letter you want upwards. Press & hold to find quickly.
Press to move to the next space. Press & hold to save ready letters or exit.
Press to find the letter you want downward. Press & hold to find quickly.
Button B (on S8) does nothing.
Operation:
1. Use the slide switch (S1) to turn it on. The fan will display the message set last time.
If it’s the first time, the fan will display the initial set (these are subject to change):
1 SNAP CIRCUITS
4 LEARN BY DOING
2 ARCADE
5 FUN ELECTRONICS
3 BY ELENCO
6 YOUR PHRASE
2. To program the messages, press the “DOWN” button to select the phase and
program the message as per the following steps:
● Press & hold the “MODE” button to enter the “PROGRAM MODE”. When the
cursor is blinking, you can edit the first letter.
● Press the “UP” or “DOWN” button to find the letter you want. Hold the button
down to change letters faster.
● Each phase can contain 15 letters. Press the “MODE” button to edit the next space.
● Press & hold the “MODE” button to save the message and exit from editing mode.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan while it is spinning.
3. If you want to edit another message, press the “DOWN” button and select the phase and repeat the above steps.
4. In NORMAL MODE, press & hold the “UP” button to ERASE ALL MESSAGES. Turn off and on, it will not display any message until you program one.
5. Letters and marks available:
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
 ★ , : !? . () @ ◦ # + — × ÷ = ≠ $ ¥ € ₵ ₤ £ & 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ◼ Remark: “◼” means space.
Note: After several hours of continuous use, the fan message may be erratic, not clear, or even have no display. Turn off for 5 minutes, and it will be back to normal again.
-17-
Project 16
Busy Circuit
This circuit has a lot
going on.
!
Disco Cover
SUPPORT BAR
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan while it is spinning.
Place one of the disco covers on the disco motor (DM) shaft. Note that both sides
of the support bar are “D-fit”. Turn on the slide switch (S1). An alarm sounds, the
disco motor spins & lights, the LEDs (D1, D2, & D10) light, and the programmable
fan spins and displays a message. Push the press switch (S2) several times to
display different messages. Place the circuit in a dimly lit room for best effects.
Variants:
1. Change the alarm sound by connecting the red jumper wire across points X
& Y, or X & Z.
2. Make the disco cover spin faster by shifting the 2-snap wire across points A &
B to points B & C or points B & D. The blue, orange, & black jumper wires
must stay connected to the 2-snap wire.
-18-
Project 17
Games Selector
This simple circuit is intended as an introduction for how to select games
on the LED-MC (U29).
Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on the LED-MC shows “00”. Press the
A button on the selector (S8) to increase the ones digit on the display, and press
the C button on the selector to increase the tens digit on the display. When the
display shows the game number you want, press the B button on the selector
to select it; you hear a beep and the display shows “Go” for most games.
Project 18
Notes:
● There are 21 games available, but most cannot be played with this
simple circuit, or would only have limited features.
● If you try to select a game number higher than 21, then the display will
be reset to “00”.
● When the player wins, loses, or finishes a game, the display will say
“Go” again and the player can play the game again.
● The only way to select a different game is by turning off the circuit and
then turning it back on so that “00” appears on the display again.
Now you are ready to play games!
Lucky Doubles
Use this circuit but select Game 4 using the game
selection procedure in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 4 and sees “Go” on the
display, then:
This is a dice
game.
● Hold down button C for a few seconds and then
release it.
● Two random digits from 1 to 6 will be shown on the
display (like rolling 2 dice).
● If the player rolls “doubles” (i.e. the two digits are the
same), a winning song will be played and the game
starts over (“Go” is shown on the display again).
● If the player does not roll “doubles”, then they can
keep trying by pressing button C again.
-19-
● Have multiple people play to see who is the first to
roll “doubles”, or who can roll the most “doubles” in
10 tries.
Project 19
This circuit uses the PNP
transistor (Q1) to amplify the
signal to the speaker (SP2),
making the sound louder.
Project 20
Use the Project 18 or Project 19 circuit but select Game 6 using the game
selection procedure in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 6 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Hold down button C for a period of time and then release it.
● When button C is released, two random digits from 1 to 6 will be shown on
the display (like rolling 2 dice).
● If either of the digits is a 1, then a losing sound will be played and the player
gets 0 points for that turn. “Go” is then displayed for the next players turn.
● If neither of the digits is a 1, then the player has two options:
◆ Player can press button A and score the sum of the two digits on the display.
A winning song will be played and the players score will be displayed for a
few seconds. “Go” is then displayed for the next players turn.
OR
Lucky Sixes,
Unlucky Ones
Use the Project 18 circuit or this one (which is louder), but select Game
5 using the game selection procedure in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 5 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Hold down button C for a period of time and then release it.
● When button C is released, two random digits from 1 to 6 will be
shown on the display (like rolling 2 dice).
● If the player rolls “double sixes” (i.e. 66 on the display), a winning
song will be played and the game starts over (“Go” is shown on
the display again).
● If the player rolls “double ones” (i.e. 11 on the display), a losing
song will be played and the game starts over (“Go” is shown on
the display again).
● If the player does not roll 66 or 11, then they can keep playing by
pressing button C again.
● Have multiple people play to see who is the first to roll 66, with
those rolling 11 being eliminated from the game.
Risk & Reward
◆ Player can decide to go for more points by holding button C again for a
period of time. After releasing button C again:
► If the player rolled a 1 in either digit, then a losing song will be played
and the player gets 0 points for that turn (they lose all the points from
their previous rolls). “Go” is then displayed for the next players turn.
► If the player again did not roll a 1 in either of the digits, then the sum
of the digits will be added to the players score from previous rolls and
they will again have a chance to decide whether to take the points they
have accumulated (by pressing button A) or go for even more points
(by holding button C again for a period of time).
► When the player decides to hit button A after multiple rolls, a winning song
will be played and the sum of the players previous rolls will be displayed
for a few seconds. “Go” is then displayed for the next players turn.
● See how few turns you need to get 50 points. Are you lucky enough to get
50 in one turn?
● Have multiple people play. Write down your scores after each turn and see
who is the first one to get to 100.
-20-
Project 21
Enhanced Dice Game
Use this circuit but select Game 4 using the game
selection procedure in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 4 and sees “Go” on
the display, then
● Hold down button C for a few seconds and
then release it.
● Two random digits from 1 to 6 will be shown
on the display (like rolling 2 dice).
● If the player rolls “doubles” (i.e. the two digits
are the same), a winning song will be played
and the game starts over (“Go” is shown on
the display again).
Alternate circuit (a little louder):
● If the player does not roll “doubles”, then they
can keep trying by pressing button C again.
● Have multiple people play to see who is the
first to roll “doubles”, or who can roll the most
“doubles” in 10 tries.
This circuit is like project 18
(Lucky Doubles), but adds more
LEDs for extra effects, and the
sound is not as loud.
-21-
Project 22
3 Second Hold
Use this circuit but select Game 7 using the game selection procedure
in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 7 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Try to hold down button C for exactly 3 seconds, then release button C.
● The display will show the number of seconds the player held button C down.
● If the player held button C down for 3 seconds, a winning song will
play while the disco cover spins, and the game starts over (“Go” is
displayed to play the game again). The disco cover will stop
spinning when you press C again.
● If the player held button C down for less than 3 seconds or more
than 3 seconds, a losing song will play and the game starts over
(“Go” is displayed to play the game again).
● Play with multiple people to see who is the first to hold the button
for exactly 3 seconds.
SUPPORT BAR
Project 23 5 Second Hold
Use the Project 22 circuit, but select Game 8 using the game selection
procedure in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 8 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Try to hold down button C for exactly 5 seconds, then release button C.
● The display will show the number of seconds the player held button C down.
● If the player held button C down for 5 seconds, a winning song will play while
the disco cover spins, and the game starts over (“Go” is displayed to play
the game again). The disco cover will stop spinning when you press C again.
● If the player held button C down for less than 5 seconds or more than
5 seconds, a losing song will play and the game starts over (“Go” is
displayed to play the game again).
● Play with multiple people to see who is the first to hold the button for
exactly 5 seconds.
Disco Cover
This is a timing game.
Project 24 10 Second Hold
Use the Project 22 circuit, but select Game 9 using the game selection
procedure in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 9 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Try to hold down button C for exactly 10 seconds, then release button C.
● The display will show the number of seconds the player held button C down.
● If the player held button C down for 10 seconds, a winning song will play while
the disco cover spins, and the game starts over (“Go” is displayed to play the
game again). The disco cover will stop spinning when you press C again.
● If the player held button C down for less than 10 seconds or more
than 10 seconds, a losing song will play and the game starts over
(“Go” is displayed to play the game again).
● Play with multiple people to see who is the first to hold the button for
exactly 10 seconds.
-22-
Project 25
20 Second Hold
Project 26 Numbers & Letters
Use the Project 22 circuit, but select Game 10 using
the game selection procedure in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 10 and sees “Go” on
the display, then:
● Try to hold down button C for exactly 20 seconds,
then release button C.
● The display will show the number of seconds the
player held button C down.
● If the player held button C down for 20 seconds,
a winning song will play while the disco cover
spins, and the game starts over (“Go” is
displayed to play the game again). The disco
cover will stop spinning when you press C again.
● If the player held button C down for less than 20
seconds or more than 20 seconds, a losing song
will play and the game starts over (“Go” is
displayed to play the game again).
● Play with multiple people to see who is the first
to hold the button for exactly 20 seconds.
Project 27
Red & Green
Turn on the slide switch (S1) to light the LEDs (D1 & D2).
-23-
Use this circuit but select Game 11 using the game selection procedure in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 11 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Press button C, and a 0 is shown on the display.
● Press button C again, and a 1 is shown on the display.
● Continuing to press button C will cycle through the typical numbers and letters that can
be shown on the display.
● Not all the letters in the alphabet can be easily created on the display since they are only
7-segment displays…can you identify which letters are missing? One letter is skipped
because a certain number looks the same…can you identify what letter/number this is?
Project 28
Red &
Yellow
Use the preceding circuit,
but replace the green LED
(D2) with the red/yellow
LED (D10) yellow “+” on
the right.
Project 29
Red &
Red
Use the preceding circuit,
but reverse the red/yellow
LED (D10), so the red “+”
is on the right.
Project 30
Green &
Yellow
Use the project 27 circuit,
but replace the red LED
(D1) with the red/yellow
LED (D10), yellow “+” on
top.
Project 31
Home Run Derby Game
Use this circuit but select Game 12 using the game selection procedure
in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 12 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Press & release button B, and the derby will begin.
● A baseball pitch occurs where the red, yellow, and then green LEDs
light up in sequence but at different speeds.
● The player needs to press button B at just the right time (after the
green LED is displayed) to hit a home run.
● If the player presses button B at just the right time, a winning song
will play, the crowd will cheer, and the display will increase to
indicate the number of home runs the player has. The next pitch
will come automatically.
● If the player presses button B at the wrong time (either too late or too
early), then a losing song will play and the display will flash the
number of outs (or misses) the player has for a few seconds, and then
go back to displaying the number of home runs the player has so far.
The next pitch will come automatically.
● Once the player gets 10 outs, a losing song will play, the total
number of home runs the player got is displayed for a few seconds,
then the game starts over (“Go” is displayed until the next player
presses button B).
Alternate connections for
speaker (a little louder):
● See who can get the most home runs before getting 10 outs!
-24-
Project 32
Use the Project 31 circuit but select Game 13 using the game selection
procedure in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 13 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Press & release button B, and the derby will begin.
● A baseball pitch occurs where the red, yellow, and then green LEDs
light up in sequence but at different speeds.
● The player needs to press button B at just the right time (after the green
LED is displayed) to hit a home run.
● If the player presses button B at just the right time, a winning song will
play, the crowd will cheer, and the display will increase to indicate the
number of home runs the player has in the current inning. The next
pitch will come automatically.
Project 33
Baseball Game
● If the player presses button B at the wrong time (either too late or too
early), then a losing song will play and the display will flash the number
of outs the player has for a few seconds, and then go back to displaying
the number of home runs the player has so far in the inning. The next
pitch will come automatically.
● Once the player gets 3 outs, a losing song will play, the total number of
home runs the player got in the inning is displayed for a few seconds,
then the game starts over to go to the next inning (“Go” is displayed
until the next player presses button B).
● Write down your scores after each inning and play a 9 inning game to
see who scores the most runs!
Memory Game
(very easy)
Use this circuit but select Game 14 using the game selection procedure
in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 14 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Press button B and the game will begin.
● A random sequence of lights will slowly flash and then the player
has to repeat that sequence in the correct order by pressing button
A for the Red LED, button B for the Yellow LED, and button C for
the Green LED.
● If the player gets 3 in a row right, the winning song will play, LEDs
will flash, the U29 LED display will say “oh YA”, and the game will
start over (“Go” will appear on the display).
● If the player enters the wrong sequence at any point, the losing
song will play and the U29 LED display will say “oh no”, and the
game will start over (“Go” will appear on the display).
-25-
Project 34
Memory Game (easy)
Use the Project 33 circuit, but select Game 15 using the game selection
procedure in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 15 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Press button B and the game will begin.
● A random sequence of lights will slowly flash and then the player has to
repeat that sequence in the correct order by pressing button for the
Red LED, button B for the Yellow LED, and button C for the Green LED.
● If the player gets 8 in a row right, the winning song will play, LEDs will
flash, the U29 LED display will say “oh YA”, and the game will start
over (“Go” will appear on the display).
● If the player enters the wrong sequence at any point, the losing song
will play and the U29 LED display will say “oh no”, and the game will
start over (“Go” will appear on the display).
Project 36
Memory Game (hard)
Use the Project 33 circuit, but select Game 17 using the game selection
procedure in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 17 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Press button B and the game will begin.
● A random sequence of lights will quickly flash and then the player has
to repeat that sequence in the correct order by pressing button A for the
Red LED, button B for the Yellow LED, and button C for the Green LED.
● If the player gets 12 in a row right, the winning song will play, LEDs
will flash, the U29 LED display will say “oh YA”, and the game will
start over (“Go” will appear on the display).
● If the player enters the wrong sequence at any point, the losing song
will play and the U29 LED display will say “oh no”, and the game will
start over (“Go” will appear on the display).
Project 35
Memory Game (medium)
Use the Project 33 circuit, but select Game 16 using the game selection
procedure in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 16 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Press button B and the game will begin.
● A random sequence of lights will quickly flash and then the player has
to repeat that sequence in the correct order by pressing button A for the
Red LED, button B for the Yellow LED, and button C for the Green LED.
● If the player gets 8 in a row right, the winning song will play, LEDs will
flash, the U29 LED display will say “oh YA”, and the game will start
over (“Go” will appear on the display).
● If the player enters the wrong sequence at any point, the losing song
will play and the U29 LED display will say “oh no”, and the game will
start over (“Go” will appear on the display).
Project 37
Memory Game (progressive)
Use the Project 33 circuit, but select Game 18 using the game selection procedure
in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 18 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Press button B and the game will begin.
● A random sequence of lights will flash and then the player has to repeat that
sequence in the correct order by pressing button A for the Red LED, button
B for the Yellow LED, and button C for the Green LED.
● The random sequence of lights will start out slowly flashing, but the speed at
which they flash will increase progressively the further into the game the
player gets.
● If the player gets 12 in a row right, the winning song will play, LEDs will flash,
the U29 LED display will say “oh YA”, and the game will start over (“Go” will
appear on the display).
● If the player enters the wrong sequence at any point, the losing song will play
and the U29 LED display will say “oh no”, and the game will start over (“Go”
will appear on the display).
-26-
Project 38
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan while it is spinning.
Twenty-One
Use this circuit and select Game 19 using the game selection
procedure in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 19 and sees “Go” on the display,
then:
● Press button C to get a first playing card (all jacks, queens, and
kings are displayed as a 10). An Ace is displayed as an 11.
● The player then has the option to either:
◆ Press A to Stand – a winning or losing song will then play
depending on what the computer player gets:
► If the computer player “busts” (i.e. goes over 21), then a
winning song will play and the display will flash “Co” and
then 22 indicating that the computer player went over 21.
Then the game starts over by displaying a new card.
► If the computer player has more points than the player,
but not greater than 21, then a losing song will be played
and the display will flash “Co” and the total points the
computer player had. Then the game starts over by
displaying a new card.
► If the computer player has equal or less points than the
player, then a winning song will be played and the display
will flash “Co” and the total points the computer player
had. Then the game starts over by displaying a new card.
This game is based on the
card game “Blackjack”. You
can use project 15 to program
a Blackjack-related phrase into
the programable fan (M8).
Project 39 Disco Twenty-One
In the preceding circuit
you can replace the
programmable fan (M8)
with the disco motor
(DM), as shown here.
-27-
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Cover
OR
◆ Press C to Hit – Another card will be drawn and the value
will be added to the previous card(s) value, and then:
► If the player “busts” (i.e. goes over 21), then a losing
song will play and the display will show the total value of
all cards for a few seconds. Then the game starts over
by displaying a new card.
► If the total value of all player cards is still 21 or less, then
the player must decide whether to Stand (press A) or
take another Hit (press C again).
► Note that Aces are treated as 11 points, unless the total
value of the cards exceeds 21, in which case Aces are
treated as 1 point. Sometimes you may see that your
total reduced after you take a Hit, which means you had
an Ace that was being treated as 11, but now is treated
as a 1.
Project 40
Binary Coded Decimal
Use this circuit and select Game 20 using the game selection procedure
in project 17.
Once the player selects Game 20 and sees “Go” on the display, then:
● Press button C and the LEDs will all go off and 0 will be on the U29
LED display.
● Continue to press button C and the 7-segment LED will increase
by 1 each time you press button C, and the LEDs will go through a
sequence as shown below. These sequences correspond to the
binary coded decimal representation of the number in the first
column.
Most computers store numbers in binary, which
represents a number using only two states, typically
0 or 1 (because the simple electronic memory circuit
actually storing it can only be on or off). Binary uses
several 2-state numbers to represent a single
number with more states, such as an octal number
with 8 states or a decimal number with 10 states.
This circuit uses the U29 LED display to show an
octal number with 8 states (0-7) and the same
number in binary using 3 LEDs (red, yellow, & green).
U29 LED Display
0
Green LED
Yellow LED
Red LED
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
-28-
Project 41
Blink Rate Changer
Project 43
Turn on the slide switch (S1);
the display on the LED-MC
(U29) shows “00”. Press the
A button on the selector (S8)
to increase the ones digit on
the display, and press the C
button on the selector to
increase the tens digit on the
display. When the display
shows “21”, press the B
button on the selector to
start.
The red LED (D1) will be
blinking, and its blink rate will
be changing.
Project 42
Click Rate
Changer
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the red LED (D1) with the
speaker (SP2). The circuit works the
same way expect that it is clicks at
different rates instead of flashing.
Double Changing
Blinker
Modify the project 41 circuit to be this one. It works the same way,
except there are two blinking LEDs.
The red & yellow LEDs (D1 &
D10) are alternating, and are
never on at the same time.
-29-
Project 44 Variable Disco Speed
Turn on the slide switch
(S1); the display on the LEDMC (U29) shows “00”. Press
the A button on the selector
(S8) to increase the ones
digit on the display, and
press the C button on the
selector to increase the tens
digit on the display. When
the display shows “21”,
press the B button on the
selector to start.
The red/yellow LED (D10)
will be blinking at varying
speed, and the disco motor
(DM) will be spinning at
varying speed. For best
effects, view in a dark room.
SUPPORT BAR
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Cover
Disco Cover
Project 45
Variable Disco
Speed Variants
Use the preceding circuit, but reverse
the red/yellow LED (D10), or replace
it with the red LED (D1, “+” on right),
green LED (D2, “+” on right), or the
speaker (SP2).
Project 46
Loud Click
Rate Changer
Use the project 44 circuit, but replace
the disco motor (DM), including the
blue jumper wires to it, with the
speaker (SP2).
Project 47
Two Speed Disco Ball
Build the circuit as shown, place one of the disco covers on the disco
motor (DM), and turn the slide switch (S1). The disco cover rotates as the
LEDs in the disco motor light. You can change the speed by pushing the
press switch (S2). The speaker (SP2) is used here as a resistor to limit
the current and will not produce any sound.
-30-
Project 48
Bi-Color Light
Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on the LED-MC (U29) shows
“00”. Press the A button on the selector (S8) to increase the ones digit
on the display, and press the C button on the selector to increase the
tens digit on the display. When the display shows “21”, press the B
button on the selector to start.
The red/yellow LED (D10) will be on continuously, but changing colors
at varying speed.
The red/yellow LED (D10) is a bi-color LED, which
means it has two LEDs (red & yellow) inside,
connected in opposite directions.
Notice that when D10 is changing colors quickly,
its red and yellow colors tend to blend into orange.
Project 49
Bi-Color Light
& Sound
Modify the preceding circuit to include the speaker (SP2), as shown.
The circuit works the same way but now includes sound. The sound will
not be very loud.
-31-
Project 50
Dual Bi-Color Lights
Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on the LED-MC (U29) shows
“00”. Press the A button on the selector (S8) to increase the ones digit
on the display, and press the C button on the selector to increase the
tens digit on the display. When the display shows “21”, press the B
button on the selector to start.
The red/yellow LED (D10) will be on continuously, but changing colors
at varying speed. The red & green LEDs (D1 & D2) will be alternately
between on and off, opposite each other, and synchronized with D10.
The red & green
LEDs together
act as a bi-color
LED. Compare
them to the
red/yellow LED,
which is a true
bi-color LED.
Project 51
Fast Phrase Changer
Turn on the slide switch (S1). The programmable fan (M8) spins,
and changes the phrase displayed about once a second. See
project 15 to change the phrases displayed.
This circuit uses the alarm IC (U2) to
control the programmable fan (M8),
cycling through the six phrases stored in
it faster than normal.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan while it is spinning.
-32-
Project 52
Funky Siren
Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on the LED-MC (U29) shows
“00”. Press the A button on the selector (S8) to increase the ones digit
on the display, and press the C button on the selector to increase the
tens digit on the display. When the display shows “21”, press the B
button on the selector to start.
Strange sounds will be heard on the speaker (SP2).
The LED MC (U29) is turning on
the alarm IC (U2) in short bursts,
and varying their duration.
Project 53
Funky Siren
(II)
Project 54
Funky Siren
(III)
Project 55
Funky Siren
(IV)
Project 56
Funky Siren
(V)
Use the preceding circuit, but add
a connection between the points
marked B & C using a 1-snap and
a 2-snap. The sound is different
now.
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the connection between B
& C, and add a connection
between C & D. The sound is
different now.
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the connection between C
& D, and add a connection
between A & D. The sound is
different now.
Use the project 52 circuit, but
remove the connection between
C & E, and add a connection
between D & E using a blue
jumper wire. The sound is
different now.
-33-
Project 57
Funky Siren & Light
Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on the LED-MC (U29) shows
“00”, and you hear a siren. Press the A button on the selector (S8) to
increase the ones digit on the display, and press the C button on the
selector to increase the tens digit on the display. When the display
shows “21”, press the B button on the selector to start.
Strange sounds will be heard on the speaker (SP2), and the red LED
(D1) changes in sync with the sound.
The sound is not as loud as in
project 52, because the red LED
is in series with the speaker,
reducing the voltage to it.
Project 58
Funky Siren
& Light (II)
Project 59
Funky Siren
& Light (III)
Project 60
Funky Siren
& Light (IV)
Project 61
Funky Siren
& Light (V)
Use the preceding circuit, but add
a connection between the points
marked B & C using a jumper
wire. The sound is different now.
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the connection between B
& C, and add a connection
between C & D. The sound is
different now.
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the connection between C
& D, and add a connection
between A & D. The sound is
different now.
Use the project 57 circuit, but
connect the end of the black
jumper wire to point D instead of
point C. The sound is different
now.
-34-
Project 62
Tri-Light Funky Siren
Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on the LED-MC (U29) shows
“00”. Press the A button on the selector (S8) to increase the ones digit
on the display, and press the C button on the selector to increase the
tens digit on the display. When the display shows “21”, press the B
button on the selector to start.
Strange sounds will be heard on the speaker (SP2), and three LEDs
(D1, D2, & D10) change in sync with the sound.
Two of the LEDs are on or off at
the same time, and the other one
is opposite them - can you tell
which?
Project 63
Project 64
Project 65
Project 66
Tri-Light
Tri-Light
Tri-Light
Tri-Light
Funky Siren (II) Funky Siren (III) Funky Siren (IV) Funky Siren (V)
Use the preceding circuit, but add
a connection between the points
marked B & C using a jumper
wire. The sound is different now.
-35-
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the connection between B
& C, and add a connection
between C & D. The sound is
different now.
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the connection between C
& D, and add a connection
between A & D. The sound is
different now.
Use the project 62 circuit, but
connect the end of the black
jumper wire to point D instead of
point C. The sound is different
now.
Project 67 Hex-Light Funky Siren
Turn on the slide switch (S1);
the display on the LED-MC
(U29) shows “00”. Press the A
button on the selector (S8) to
increase the ones digit on the
display, and press the C button
on the selector to increase the
tens digit on the display. When
the display shows “21”, press
the B button on the selector to
start.
Strange sounds will be heard
on the speaker (SP2), and six
LEDs (D1, D2, D10, and three
in the disco motor (DM))
change in sync with the sound.
Project 69
Project 70
Project 71
Hex/Pent
Hex/Pent
Hex/Pent
Light Funky Light Funky Light Funky
Siren (II)
Siren (III)
Siren (IV)
Use either of the preceding
circuits,
but
add
a
connection between the
points marked B & C using a
blue jumper wire. The sound
is different now.
Use the preceding circuit,
but remove the connection
between B & C, and add a
connection between C & D.
The sound is different now.
Use the preceding circuit,
but remove the connection
between C & D, and add a
connection between A & D.
The sound is different now.
Project 68
Pent-Light
Funky Siren
Use the preceding circuit, but
move the end of the red jumper
wire from point C to point Z
(between the speaker and D10).
The LEDs on the disco motor
(DM) are dimmer now, and the
blue LED may not be on at all.
In this circuit the LEDs in the disco
motor get less voltage. This
affects the blue LED the most,
since it needs more voltage to
function than red & green LEDs.
Project 72
Random Funky
Siren & Lights
Use any of the five preceding circuits. Turn on the
slide switch (S1); the display on the LED-MC
(U29) shows “00”. Press the A button on the
selector (S8) twice to increase the ones digit on
the display. When the display shows “02”, press
the B button on the selector to start.
There will be a random display of lights and a
siren. The display on U29 also changes randomly.
-36-
Project 73
Siren Arcade
Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on the
LED-MC (U29) shows “00” and you hear a siren.
Press the A button on the selector (S8) once to
make the display show “01”, then press the B
button on the selector to start.
Every few seconds one or more of the following will
happen, randomly changing: the red LED (D1)
lights, the yellow LED (D10) lights, the speaker
plays a tune, the speaker plays a siren, the green
LED (D2) lights, and the U29 LED display shows a
random pattern.
Project 74
Siren Arcade (II)
Use the preceding circuit (no need to reset the
LED-MC), but add a connection between the
points marked B & C using a blue jumper wire.
The sound is different now.
Project 75
Project 76
Project 77
Project 78
Siren
Siren
Siren
Fast Siren Arcade
Arcade (III) Arcade (IV) Arcade (V) Use any of the five preceding circuits, but turn off
Use the preceding circuit,
but remove the connection
between B & C, and add a
connection between C & D.
The sound is different now.
-37-
Use the preceding circuit,
but remove the connection
between C & D, and add a
connection between A & D.
The sound is different now.
Use the project 73 circuit,
but connect the end of the
black jumper wire to point D
instead of point C. The
sound is different now.
the slide switch (S1) to reset the LED-MC (U29).
Turn on the slide switch; the display on the LEDMC shows “00”. Press the A button on the selector
(S8) two or three times to increase the ones digit
on the display. When the display shows “02” or
“03”, press the B button on the selector to start.
The circuit works the same, except that it changes
faster (“03” is faster than “02”).
Project 79
Disco Siren
Place one of the disco covers onto the disco motor (DM).
Turn on the slide switch (S1). The disco cover spins, lights
project on the ceiling, and you hear a siren.
Project 80
Disco Machine Gun
Use the preceding circuit, but add a connection between
the points marked B & C using a 1-snap and a 2-snap.
Now it sounds like a machine gun.
Project 81
Disco Fire Engine
Disco Cover
Use the preceding circuit, but remove the connection
between B & C, and add a connection between A & B.
Now it sounds like a fire engine.
SUPPORT BAR
Project 82
Disco
European
Siren
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove
the
connection
between A & B, and add a
connection between A & D.
Now it sounds like a European
siren.
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Cover
Project 83
Slow Speed
Disco Ball
Build the circuit as shown, place one of
the disco covers on the disco motor
(DM), and turn on the slide switch (S1).
The disco cover rotates slowly as the
color LEDs in the disco motor light. To
make the disco cover rotate faster push
the press switch (S2).
-38-
Project 84
Slow-Fast Disco
SUPPORT BAR
Place one of the disco covers onto the disco
motor (DM). Turn on the slide switch (S1). The
disco cover spins and lights project onto the
ceiling. Push the press switch (S2) to speed up
the disco cover. You can also tilt the circuit so
the lights shine on a wall. The effects are best
viewed in a dark room.
Disco Cover
Project 86
Dimmer Disco
Use either of the two preceding
circuits but move the end of the
blue jumper wire from point B to
point A. Now the lights are dimmer.
In the preceding two projects, the
LEDs on top of the disco motor
were always connected to the full
battery voltage, keeping them
brightest. This circuit connects
them to the “speed bump”, reducing
the voltage to them and making
them dimmer. The blue light is
affected the most by this change.
-39-
Are the patterns more impressive when the
disco cover is spinning slower or faster?
When connected as shown in this
circuit, the Q1 & Q2 transistors act
as a “speed bump” to reduce the
voltage to the disco motor a little,
slowing it down. Pressing S2
bypasses this speed bump so the
disco motor spins at full speed.
Project 87
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Cover
The speaker (SP2) is
used here as a
resistor to slow down
the disco motor, and
will not make sound.
Project 85
Not So
Slow-Fast
Disco
Add a 2-snap wire across
points B & C, on level 3.
Now it is a little faster when
S2 is not pressed.
This change bypasses Q1,
so there is less voltage drop
and a smaller “speed bump”.
Super-Slow Disco
Place one of the disco covers onto
the disco motor (DM) and turn on
the slide switch (S1). The LEDs in
the disco motor are on, but the
disco cover won’t move. Push the
press switch (S2) and the disco
cover spins, and keeps spinning
after you release S2. The light
patterns are best in a dark room.
Compare the patterns when the
disco is spinning fast (with S2
pressed) and slow (S2 released). Try
both disco covers, and try holding
the circuit at an angle near a wall.
If the motor does not continue spinning
after you released S2, then replace
your batteries, or place the orange
jumper wire across points A & B.
Project 88
Slow-Fast Word Fan
Turn on the slide switch (S1). The
programmable fan (M8) spins and may slowly
display messages. Push the press switch (S2)
to speed up the fan and slowly display
messages.
!
Project 90
Slow-Fast
Fan
Use either of the two preceding
circuits, but reverse the connection
to the programmable fan (M8). The
fan still spins, but it does not
display any messages.
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan while it is spinning.
When connected as shown
in this circuit, the Q1 & Q2
transistors act as a “speed
bump” to reduce the voltage
to the programmable fan,
slowing it down and making
the messages it can display
dim or off. Pressing S2
bypasses this speed bump
so the fan spins at full speed
and its message circuit can
operate properly.
Project 91
Project 89
Not So
Slow-Fast
Word Fan
Add a blue jumper wire
across points A & B. Now it
is a little faster when S2 is
not pressed, and messages
on it are brighter.
This change bypasses Q2,
so there is less voltage drop
and a smaller “speed bump”.
Different Sounds
Build the circuit as shown and turn the slide
switch (S1) on. Press the A, B, and C buttons on
the selector (S8) to make different sounds.
-40-
Project 92
+
YELLOW
Project 95
Selector
Turn on the slide switch
(S1). Press button C on
the selector (S8) to light
the red LED (D1), press
button A on the selector to
light the yellow LED (D10),
or press button B on the
selector to light both LEDs.
Triple Select
Use the project 92 circuit,
but add the green LED
(D2) and press switch (S2)
as shown. Press buttons
on S2 and S8 to light the
LEDs.
-41-
Project 93
Red or Red
Use the preceding circuit, but reverse the
orientation of the yellow bi-color LED (D10),
to make it red.
Project 94
Green Selector
Use the project 92 circuit, but replace either
of the LEDs (D1 or D10) with the green LED
(D2).
Project 96
Red/Yellow
Selector
Use the preceding circuit, but re-arrange the
LEDs, so that the red & yellow ones get a
turn with the S2 switch.
The buttons in the selector
(S8) have more electrical
resistance than the button
in the press switch (S2), so
the LEDs controlled by S8
may not be as bright as the
one controlled by S2.
Project 97
Toggle 00
Turn on the slide switch (S1). The
LED display on the LED-MC
(U29) toggles between on and off.
Project 98
LED-MC Test
Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on the LED
MC (U29) should show “00”. Select game 1 by
pressing the A button on the selector (S8), then the
B button.
Every 2 seconds one or more of the following will
happen, randomly changing: D1 lights, D2 lights,
D10 lights, SP2 plays a tune, the U29 LEDs display
a random pattern. Make sure that eventually all
these parts are being controlled. If not, something is
wrong. Also, pushing the press switch (S2) should
turn off the LED display on U29 until you release S2.
If desired, you can speed things up by turning S1 off
and on (to reset the circuit), then selecting game 2
or game 3 by pressing the A button on S8, then the
B button. The tunes played on the speaker (SP2) will
play at the same speed as before.
-42-
Project 99
Green Light
+
Turn on the slide switch (S1),
and the green LED (D2) lights.
Project 101
Project 100
Red/Yellow Light
Replace the green LED (D2) with the red/yellow bicolor LED
(D10); try it in both directions (red on right, and yellow on right).
LEDs are light emitting diodes, which
convert electrical energy into light. The
color of the light depends on the
characteristics of the material used in
them. The red/yellow bicolor LED is
actually a red LED and a yellow LED
connected in opposite directions inside
the same part.
LEDs are much more energy-efficient
than incandescent light bulbs, and can be
made very small.
Pop On, Pop Off
Turn the slide switch (S1) on and off several times. You hear static from
the speaker (SP2) when you turn the switch on or off.
The speaker uses electromagnetism to create
changes in air pressure, which your ears feel
and interpret as sound. Think of the speaker
as creating pressure waves in the air just like
waves in a pool. You only see waves in the
pool when you disturb the water, so the
speaker only makes sound when the voltage
changes.
-43-
Project 102
Alarm Circuit
Build the circuit shown. When you turn on the slide switch (S1), the
circuit produces a very loud alarm sound and also lights the green LED
(D2). This circuit is designed to sweep through all the frequencies so
even hard of hearing people can be warned by the alarm.
Project 103 Machine Gun
Use the preceding circuit, but add a
connection between the points marked B &
C using a 1-snap and a 2-snap. Now it
sounds like a machine gun.
Project 104 Fire Engine
Project 106
Use the preceding circuit, but remove the
connection between B & C, and add a
connection between A & B. Now it sounds
like a fire engine.
Project 105
European
Siren
Use the preceding
circuit, but remove the
connection between A
& B and add a
connection between A
& D. Now it sounds
like a European siren.
Quieter Alarm Circuit
Use the project 102 circuit but reposition the green LED (D2) so that it is
in series with the speaker (SP2), as shown. Now the circuit is not as loud.
Project 107 Quieter Machine Gun
Use the preceding circuit, but add a
connection between the points marked B &
C using a 1-snap and a 2-snap. Now it
sounds like a machine gun.
Project 108 Quieter Fire Engine
Use the preceding circuit, but remove the
connection between B & C, and add a
connection between A & B. Now it sounds
like a fire engine.
Project 109
Quieter
European
Siren
Use the preceding
circuit, but remove the
connection between A
& B and add a
connection between A
& D. Now it sounds
like a European siren.
-44-
Project 110
Fan Flash Energy
Hold down the press switch (S2) for a few seconds and then watch the
red LED (D1) as you release the switch. The LED flashes briefly but
only after the batteries (B3) are disconnected from the circuit. This effect
is much easier to see in a dimly lit room.
Do you know why the red LED
flashes? It flashes because the
motor in the programmable fan
(M8) uses a magnetic field to
spin the shaft. When the switch
is released this energy creates
a brief current through the LED.
+
Project 111
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan while it is spinning.
Motor Flash Energy
Hold down the press switch (S2) for a few seconds and then watch the
LEDs on the disco motor (DM) as you release the switch. The LEDs
flash briefly but only after the batteries (B3) are disconnected from the
circuit. This effect is much easier to see in a dimly lit room.
Do you know why the LEDs
flash? They flash because the
motor in the disco motor (DM)
uses a magnetic field to spin the
shaft. When the switch is
released this energy creates a
brief current through the LEDs.
-45-
Project 112
Tri-Light Machine Gun
Turn on the slide switch (S1). Three LEDs are flashing and you hear a
machine gun sound.
The lower-right snap of the alarm IC is like an
electrical gate, opening and closing quickly to
let small bursts of electric current flow in. The
bursts of electric current also flow through the
green, yellow, & red LEDs (lighting them) and
the speaker (which produces sound). The
alarm IC produces the different siren sounds
by adjusting the pattern of current bursts
through the speaker.
Project 113
Hex-Light Machine Gun
Turn on the slide switch (S1). Six LEDs (including three in
the disco motor (DM)) are flashing and you hear a machine
gun sound.
The blue LED in the disco motor may be dim.
-46-
Project 114
Trip-Wire Alarm
Turn on the slide switch (S1). The green LED (D2) comes on (indicating
the circuit is ready), but otherwise nothing happens. Break the black
jumper wire connection and an alarm sounds, lights shine, and things
spin. You could replace the black jumper wire with a longer wire and
run it across a doorway to signal an alarm when someone enters.
Disco Cover
Project 115
SUPPORT BAR
The siren sounds in this
project may seem distorted
compared to other projects.
This is because electrical
noise generated by the
motor in the disco motor
(DM) disrupts the alarm IC
(U2). Compare this circuit to
following one.
Trip-Wire Alarm with Better Sound
This circuit is like the preceding one, except with better sound and without the disco
motor (DM). Turn on the slide switch (S1). The green LED (D2) comes on (indicating
the circuit is ready), but otherwise nothing happens. Break the black jumper wire
connection and an alarm sounds. You could replace the black jumper wire with a
longer wire and run it across a doorway to signal an alarm when someone enters.
Project 116 Trip-Wire Machine Gun
Use either of the preceding circuits, but connect
the red jumper wire between the points marked
B & C. Now it sounds like a machine gun.
Project 117 Trip-Wire Fire Engine
-47-
Use either of the preceding circuits, but connect
the red jumper wire between the points marked
A & B. Now it sounds like a fire engine.
Project 118
Trip-Wire
European Siren
Use either of the
preceding circuits,
but connect the red
jumper wire between
the points marked A &
D. Now it sounds like
a European siren.
Project 119
Water Alarm
Build the circuit shown, but initially leave the red & black jumper wires
outside the cup. Turn on the slide switch (S1); nothing happens.
Place the jumper wires into a cup of water and an alarm sounds!
Variants:
1. Change the sound by using a 1-snap wire and a 2-snap wire
to make a connection across points A & B, or A & D, or B & C.
2. Remove the NPN transistor (Q2) and instead connect the black
jumper wire at point B.
Don’t drink any water used here.
Water has some electrical resistance, but much
less than air. The NPN transistor acts as an
amplifier, to help overcome water’s resistance.
Project 120
Human Alarm
Use the preceding circuit, but instead of putting the
red & black jumper wires in the water, touch the metal
ends of them with your fingers. You may have to hold
them tightly or wet your fingers to make this work.
Your body is mostly water, so it
also has some electrical
resistance, but much less than
air.
You could use longer wires and lay them on your
basement floor, if your basement floods during
a storm, then this circuit will sound an alarm!
Project 121
Draw an Alarm
Use the circuit from project 119, but omit the cup of water and leave
the loose ends of the jumpers unconnected for now. There is one
more part you need and you are going to draw it. Take a pencil (No.
2 lead is best but other types will also work). SHARPEN IT, and fill
in the shape below. You will get better results if you place a hard,
flat surface directly beneath this page while you are drawing. Press
hard (but don’t rip the paper), and fill in the shape several times
to be sure you have a thick, even layer of pencil lead.
Press the metal ends of the jumper wires on the shape and move
them around over the drawing. If you don’t hear any sound then
move the ends closer together and move over the drawing, add
another layer of pencil lead, or put a drop of water on the jumper
ends to get better contact with your fingers.
The black core of
pencils is graphite, the
same material used in
resistors
(electronic
components that limit
and control the flow of
electricity).
-48-
Project 122
WaterHuman-Drawn
Machine Gun
Use any of the projects 119-121 circuits, but add
a connection between the points marked B & C
using a 1-snap and a 2-snap. Now it sounds like
a machine gun.
Project 125
YELLOW
Project 123
Project 124
Water-Human- Water-HumanDrawn Fire
Drawn
Engine
European Siren
Use any of the projects 119-121 circuits, but
remove the connection between B & C, and add
a connection between A & B. Now it sounds like
a fire engine.
Use any of the projects 119-121 circuits, but
remove the connection between A & B, and add
a connection between A & D. Now it sounds like
a European siren.
Turn on the slide switch (S1).
The yellow LED (D10) and
some LEDs on the disco
motor (DM) light. The disco
motor shaft will not spin.
Use the preceding circuit, but reverse the yellow
LED (D10) or replace it with the red LED (D1),
“+” on the right.
Yellow & More
Electric current flows from the batteries, through the yellow
LED, divides among the LEDs on the disco motor, then
flows through the slide switch and back to the batteries.
On the disco motor, the red LED is brightest because it
needs less voltage to turn on than the green & blue LEDs.
The blue LED is dimmest (or off) because it needs more
voltage to turn on than red or green.
-49-
Project 126
Red & More
Project 127
Green & More
Use the project 125 circuit, but replace the
yellow LED (D10) with the green LED (D2), “+”
is on the right.
The green LED (D2) takes more voltage to turn
on than yellow or red, leaving less voltage for
the LEDs on the disco motor, making them
dimmer.
Project 128
Random Siren Selector
Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on the LED-MC (U29) shows
“00”. Press the A button on the selector (S8) once to make the display
show “01”, then press the B button on the selector to start.
Every few seconds the speaker (SP2) randomly plays one of three siren
sounds, and the U29 LED display shows a random pattern.
Project 129
Fast Random Siren
Selector
Use the preceding circuit. Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on
the LED-MC (U29) shows “00”. Press the A button on the selector (S8)
two or three times to increase the ones digit on the display. When the
display shows “02” or “03”, press the B button on the selector to start.
Project 130
LED Random Siren
Selector
Modify the project 128 circuit by
adding the red & red/yellow LEDs
(D1 & D10) as shown. It works the
same way, but has more lights and
the sound is not as loud.
The circuit works the same, except that it changes faster. “03” is faster
than “02”.
Project 131
5-LED Random Siren
Selector
Modify the preceding
circuit by adding the
LEDs in the disco motor
(DM) using blue & red
jumper wires as shown. It
works the same way, but
has more lights.
-50-
Project 132
Disco Arcade Show
Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on the LED-MC
(U29) shows “00”. Press the A button on the selector (S8)
once to make the display show “01”, then press the B
button on the selector to start.
Every few seconds one or more of the following will
happen, randomly changing: the red LED (D1) lights, the
disco cover spins, the lights on the disco motor (DM)
light, the speaker plays a tune, and the U29 LED display
shows a random pattern.
SUPPORT BAR
Alternate connections
for speaker
(a little louder):
Disco Cover
Project 133
Fast Disco
Arcade Show
Use the preceding circuit. Turn on the slide switch (S1);
the display on the LED-MC (U29) shows “00”. Press the
A button on the selector (S8) two or three times to
increase the ones digit on the display. When the display
shows “02” or “03”, press the B button on the selector to
start.
-51-
The circuit works the same, except that it changes faster.
“03” is faster than “02”.
Project 134
Word Fan Arcade Show
Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on the LED-MC
(U29) shows “00”. Press the A button on the selector (S8)
once to make the display show “01”, then press the B
button on the selector to start.
Every few seconds one or more of the following will
happen, randomly changing: the red LED (D1) lights, the
yellow LED (D10) lights, the programmable fan (M8)
spins and displays a phrase, the speaker plays a tune,
and the U29 LED display pattern changes.
!
Alternate connections
for speaker
(a little louder):
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan during operation.
Project 135
Fast Word Fan
Arcade Show
Use the preceding circuit. Turn on the slide switch (S1);
the display on the LED-MC (U29) shows “00”. Press the
A button on the selector (S8) two or three times to
increase the ones digit on the display. When the display
shows “02” or “03”, press the B button on the selector to
start.
The circuit works the same, except that it changes faster
(“03” is faster than “02”).
-52-
Project 136
Light Projecting
Arcade Show
Build the circuit as shown. Note that there is a 3-snap wire
under the NPN transistor (Q2) that is partially hidden, and
a 5-snap wire under the disco motor (DM), partially hidden.
Turn on the slide switch (S1). The display on the LED-MC
(U29) displays “00”, the programmable fan (M8) spins &
lights, and the disco motor (DM) spins & lights. Press the
A button on the selector (S8) once to make the display
show “01”, then press the B button on the selector to start.
Every few seconds one or more of the following will
happen, randomly changing: the yellow LED (D10) lights,
the programmable fan spins & lights, the disco motor spins
& lights, the speaker plays a tune, and the U29 LED
display shows a random pattern.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan while it is spinning.
SUPPORT BAR
Project 137
Disco Cover
Fast Light Projecting
Arcade Show
Use the preceding circuit. Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on
the LED-MC (U29) shows “00”. Press the A button on the selector (S8)
two or three times to increase the ones digit on the display. When the
display shows “02” or “03”, press the B button on the selector to start.
-53-
The circuit works the same, except that it changes faster. “03” is faster
than “02”.
Project 138
YELLOW
Project 139
There’s the
Blue Light
Use the preceding circuit, but add the press
switch (S2) across the points marked A & B.
Turn on S1 and push S2. With S2 pressed, the
LEDs on the disco motor all shine brightly, but
the others are off.
Pressing S2 bypasses the D1,
D2, & D10 LEDs, so the LEDs
on the disco motor get the full
battery voltage, making them
brighter. This really helps the
blue LED on the disco motor,
because it needs lots of
voltage to operate properly.
Where’s the Blue Light?
Turn on the slide switch (S1). The red, green, and yellow LEDs (D1, D2,
& D10) should be on, along with the red, green, and possibly the blue
LEDs on the disco motor (DM). The blue LED on the disco motor may
be dim or off.
The battery voltage is split between two groups
of LEDs - the D1/D2/D10 LEDs, and the
red/green/blue LEDs in the disco motor. The blue
LED in the disco motor needs more voltage to
operate properly than the other colors, and the
reduced voltage to it may not be enough to light
it. The red & green LEDs in the disco motor may
be brighter than the D1 & D2 LEDs of the same
color, due to the quality an style of the actual
LEDs used.
Project 140
No Blue Light
Use the preceding circuit, but place the S2
across points A & C instead of across points A
& B. Turn on S1 and push S2. With S2
pressed, the LEDs on the disco motor are off,
but the others are shining brightly.
Pressing S2 bypasses the
LEDs in the disco motor, so the
D1, D2, & D10 LEDs, get the
full battery voltage, making
them brighter.
Project 141
Dim Green Light
Use the project 138 circuit, but remove 2 of the 3
LEDs (leaving D1, D2, or D10), in the 4 combinations
shown below. Compare the brightness of the different
LEDs in the disco motor (DM).
A. D1 in, D2 & D10 out.
B. D2 in, D1 & D10 out.
C. D10 in, D1 & D2 out.
D. D10 in but reversed (so it is red), D1 & D2 out.
Here the battery voltage is split between the
remaining LED (D1, D2, or D10) and the group of 3
LEDs in the disco motor. Green LEDs take a little
more voltage to operate properly than red or yellow
LEDs, so the green LED in the disco motor will be
dimmer than the red LED there (but not as dim as the
blue LED there). This effect is more apparent when
the green D2 LED is in the circuit (combination B).
-54-
Project 142
SUPPORT BAR
Slow Disco Ball
Place one of the disco covers on
the disco motor (DM) shaft. Turn on
the slide switch (S1), then push
and release the press switch (S2).
The disco motor (DM) spins, but is
not as fast as in project 10.
The resistance of the speaker
(SP2) reduces the voltage to the
disco motor (DM), slowing it down.
The disco motor needs more power
to get started than it needs to keep
spinning, so the press switch is
used to get it started.
Disco Cover
Project 144
Project 143
Slower
Disco Ball
Use the preceding circuit but replace
the speaker (SP2) with the red LED
(D1, “+” on right). Turn on the slide
switch (S1), then push and release
the press switch (S2). The disco
motor (DM) should be spinning
slowly. If it does not continue
spinning, then add the red/yellow
LED (D10) across points A & B.
The red LED reduces the power
to the disco motor more than
the speaker did, so the disco
motor spins even slower now.
Selector with Disco
Motor LEDs
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and press buttons on the selector (S8) to
light LEDs in the disco motor (DM). Then push the press switch (S2) to
make all the LEDs brighter.
The buttons in the selector (S8) have more electrical
resistance than the button in the press switch (S2),
so pressing S2 makes the LEDs brighter than
pressing the S8 buttons (the difference may be small).
-55-
Also, the green LED needs more voltage to operate
than the red LED, and the blue LED needs more
voltage than the green one, so the green & blue LEDs
are more affected by the resistance in the S8 buttons
than the red LED, and may be dimmer. S2 has almost
no resistance, so it makes all the LEDs bright.
Project 145
Selector with
Disco Ball?
Turn on the slide switch (S1). Press buttons on the selector
(S8); the disco motor (DM) may spin slowly, and its LEDs may
light Then push the press switch (S2); the disco motor spins
faster and its LEDs are brighter.
The buttons in the selector (S8) have more
electrical resistance than the button in the
press switch (S2), and the disco motor
needs a lot of power to operate, so the
selector buttons cannot make the disco
motor work as well as the S2 button can.
Disco Cover
SUPPORT BAR
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Cover
Project 146
The selector needs help to control the disco
motor - see the next project for the solution.
Selector with Disco
Ball - NPN
Note that the 5-snap wire is under the disco motor
(DM), partially hidden. Place one of the disco covers
on the disco motor shaft. Turn on the slide switch
(S1), then push the any button on the selector (S8).
The disco motor spins and its LEDs light.
The selector (S8) may not be able
to properly control the disco motor
directly, so this circuit uses the NPN
transistor (Q2) to help. A small
electric current flowing into the
transistor through the selector
controls a larger current flowing into
the transistor through the disco
motor.
-56-
Project 147
Selector with Disco
Ball - PNP
This circuit is just like the preceding one, but uses the PNP transistor
(Q1) instead of the NPN transistor (Q2). Note that the 5-snap wire is
under the disco motor (DM), partially hidden. Place one of the disco
covers on the disco motor shaft. Turn on the slide switch (S1), then push
the any button on the selector (S8). The disco motor spins and its LEDs
light.
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Cover
Project 148
PNP and NPN transistors are
similar, but current flows
through them in the opposite
direction.
Slower & Dimmer Disco
Place one of the disco covers on the disco motor (DM) shaft. Turn on
the slide switch (S1), then push and release the press switch (S2). The
disco motor (DM) spins and its LEDs light, but it is not as fast and the
LEDs are not as bright as in project 10.
With S2 pressed, the disco motor spins faster but the LEDs do not light.
This can help the disco motor to start spinning.
Disco Cover
-57-
SUPPORT BAR
This circuit has the LEDs connected in series
with the motor, while project 10 has the LEDs
connected in parallel with the motor. Connecting
parts in series reduces the power to them, but
makes the batteries last longer.
Project 149
Selector with Word Fan
Note that the 5-snap wire is under the programmable fan (M8),
partially hidden. Push any button on the selector (S8). The
programmable fan spins and displays a message.
The selector (S8) cannot control the
programmable fan directly, so this circuit
uses the NPN transistor (Q2) to help. A
small electric current flowing into the
transistor through the selector controls a
larger current flowing into the transistor
through the programmable fan.
Project 150
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan while it is spinning.
Select the Fan
Note that the 5-snap wire is under the programmable fan (M8),
partially hidden. Push any button on the selector (S8). The
programmable fan spins.
This circuit is like the preceding one,
except the programmable fan is
reversed. The motor inside it spins the
opposite direction, but the LED circuit in
it does not function when reversed.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan while it is spinning.
-58-
Project 151
Word Fan PNP
Note that the 5-snap wire is
under the programmable fan
(M8), partially hidden. Push any
button on the selector (S8). The
programmable fan spins and
displays a message.
PNP and NPN transistors are
similar, but current flows through
them in the opposite direction.
Project 153
!
Project 152
Fan PNP
Use the preceding circuit but
reverse the programable fan
(M8). The circuit works the same,
except that the fan does not
display a message.
WARNING:
Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan while it
is spinning.
Bi-Color Swing Circuit
Build the circuit as shown, but note that two 2-snap wires are not
snapped at one end but are left to swing between connections. Touch
both of the loose 2-snaps to either the A or the B points on each side to
complete the circuit and light the red/yellow LED (D10). The LED will
be either red or yellow, depending on whether you touched it to the A or
B points.
The red/yellow LED has
separate red & yellow LEDs
connected
in
opposite
directions.
-59-
Project 154 Adjusting Disco
Cover Focus
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and place the circuit in
a dimly lit room with a flat ceiling. Hold one of the
disco covers over the LEDs on the disco motor (DM),
without using its support bar. Vary the height over the
LEDs and see how it affects the focus.
You can also try holding the circuit at an angle near
a wall, and see how the pattens look on the wall.
The disco covers are lenses, and
changing their distance above the
LEDs changes the focus of the light.
Project 156
Your Light Patterns
Take a small flashlight in your home and hold one of the disco
covers over it. View it in a dimly lit room with a flat ceiling, or
point it towards a wall. Vary the height over the flashlight and
see how it affects the pattern and focus.
Try this with both an incandescent light bulb flashlight, and
with an LED flashlight if you have one.
Results will depend on the light source
used, but generally LEDs will produce better
patterns than incandescent light bulbs. Light
from LEDs tends to be more focused
forward, while light from incandescent bulbs
goes in all directions (and is usually
reflected forward with a mirror).
Project 155
Diffused Light
Use the preceding circuit but remove the disco
motor (DM) and place the red, green, or yellow
LEDs (D1, D2, or D10) across points A & B in
the circuit (“+” on LED to point B).
Turn on the slide switch (S1), and place the
circuit in a dimly lit room with a flat ceiling. Hold
one of the disco covers over the LED. Vary the
height and see how it affects the focus.
The LEDs in the disco motor are brighter than
D1/D2/D10 LEDs, and also have there focused
more directly upward. The D1/D2/D10 LEDs
spread their light over a wider viewing angle,
so they can be easily seen from the side.
Project 157
Pressure Circuit
Build the circuit as shown, then push on point A with your
finger to complete the circuit.
It may appear that the
3-snap and 5-snap
wires are touching, but
they do not actually
touch unless you push
them together.
-60-
Project 158
PNP Transistor
Turn on the slide switch (S1) - nothing happens. Now push the press
switch (S2) and the red LED (D1) lights, but the green LED (D2) stays
off.
A transistor uses a small electric current to
control a large electric current. Here
pressing S2 makes a small current flow out
of the PNP transistor (Q1) through the
green LED, which triggers a large current
out of the transistor through the red LED.
The green LED is actually turned on, but
is so dim you may not be able to see it
even in a dark room.
Project 159
NPN Transistor
Turn on the slide switch (S1) - nothing happens. Now push the press
switch (S2) and the red LED (D1) lights but the green LED (D2) stays
off.
The NPN transistor (Q2) is just like the
PNP transistor (Q1) in preceding circuit,
except that the electric currents flow in the
opposite direction. Here pressing S2
makes a small current flow into the
transistor through the green LED, which
triggers a large current into the transistor
through the red LED. The green LED is
actually turned on, but is so dim you may
not be able to see it even in a dark room.
-61-
Project 160
6-Sided Dice Game:
Race to the Finish
Use this circuit and select Game 5 using the game selection procedure
in project 17. The game begins when you see “Go” in the display.
This game is for 2 or more players where each player has a number
track as shown below (draw one track for each player). Players take
turns rolling the six-sided dice by pressing button C for a period of time
and then releasing it. The object of the game is to be the first player to
reach the end of the track. Each player moves along the track by
successfully rolling the next number on their track. For instance, at the
start of the game a player needs to roll a 0, and then they can cross off
the number 0 on the left and on their next turn try to roll a 1. If on their
first turn they roll a 0 and a 1, then they can cross off both numbers and
try to get a 2 on their next turn. The game continues until one player
has crossed off all the numbers, thus reaching the finish line and
winning the game.
First Player – 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Second Player – 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Project 161
6-Sided Dice Game: Difference Maker
Use the Project 160 circuit and select Game 5 using the game selection procedure in
project 17. The game begins when you see “Go” in the display.
This game is for 2 or more players where each player starts with 500 points. Players should
sit in a circle and take turns in a clockwise fashion rolling the six-sided dice by pressing
button C for a period of time and then releasing it. Each player compares their roll to the
previous players roll. If the current players roll is higher than the previous players roll, then
the current player takes points away from the previous player based on the difference
between their rolls. If the current player’s roll is lower than the previous player’s roll, then
the current player gives points to the previous player based on the difference between
their rolls. For instance, if Player 1 rolls a 35 and then Player 2 rolls a 50, then Player 2
takes 15 points away from Player 1 (so Player 1 is left with 485 points and Player 2 now
has 515 points). If a player runs out of points, then they are out. Note that if Player 1 only
has say 10 points left and then Player 2 rolls a number 20 points higher than Player 1,
then Player 1 is out and Player 2 gets 10 more points (not 20 more points because Player
1 only had 10 points to give Player 2). The last person to not run out of points is the winner.
Project 162
6-Sided Dice Game:
Don’t Go Low
Use the Project 160 circuit and select Game 5 using the
game selection procedure in project 17. The game begins
when you see “Go” in the display.
This game is for 2 or more players where each player
starts with 5 lives. Players should sit in a circle and take
turns in a clockwise fashion rolling the six-sided dice by
pressing button C for a period of time and then releasing
it. Each player decides whether they want to keep their
first roll or roll the dice again, but if they decide to roll the
dice again, they must stay with the number from their
second roll. After each player has rolled, the player with
the lowest score loses a life. The last player with lives
remaining is the winner.
-62-
Project 163
6-Sided Dice Game:
Free the Frogs
Use the Project 160 circuit and select Game 5 using the game selection
procedure in project 17. The game begins when you see “Go” in the
display.
This game is for 2 or more players where each player starts with 6 frog
cages labeled 1 through 6. Every player also has 6 frogs. Before play
begins, each player decides where to place their frogs. They could put 1
frog in each of the 6 cages, or they could put all their frogs in one cage, or
anything in between (for example: two frogs in cage 1, three frogs in cage
4 and one frog in cage 6). Once every player has decided where to place
their frogs, then the players should sit in a circle and take turns in a
clockwise fashion rolling the dice by pressing button C for a period of time
and then releasing it. If a player has a frog in the cage labeled by one of the
numbers rolled, then they can release a frog from that cage. For example,
if a player rolls 36, they can release one frog from cage 3 and one frog from
cage 6 if they have frogs in those cages. If a player rolls doubles, for
example 66, then they can remove two frogs from cage 6 if they have at
least two frogs in cage 6. The first player to release all their frogs wins.
Project 165
Use the Project 160 circuit and select Game 5 using the game selection
procedure in project 17. The game begins when you see “Go” in the display.
This game is for 2 or more players and is very similar to the Free the Frogs
and Free the Fish games. Each player starts with 11 barns labeled 2 through
12. Every player also has 11 foxes. Before play begins, each player decides
where to place their foxes. They could put 1 fox in 11 different barns, or they
could put all their foxes in one barn, or anything in between (for example:
two foxes in barn 3, five foxes in barn 8 and four foxes in barn 11). Once
every player has decided where to place their foxes, then the players should
sit in a circle and take turns in a clockwise fashion rolling the six-sided dice
by pressing button C for a period of time and then releasing it. After rolling
-63-
Project 164
6-Sided Dice Game:
Free the Fish
Use the Project 160 circuit and select Game 5 using the game selection
procedure in project 17. The game begins when you see “Go” in the
display.
This game is for 2 or more players and is very similar to the Free the Frogs
game. Each player starts with 6 fishbowls labeled 0 through 5. Every
player also has 6 fish. Before play begins, each player decides where to
place their fish. They could put 1 fish in each of the 6 bowls, or they could
put all their fish in one bowl, or anything in between (for example: two fish
in bowl 1, three fish in bowl 4 and one fish in bowl 5). Once every player
has decided where to place their fish, then the players should sit in a circle
and take turns in a clockwise fashion rolling the dice by pressing button C
for a period of time and then releasing it. After rolling the dice, the player
computes the difference between the two dice and can take one fish out
of the bowl labeled with the difference of the two dice. For example if a
player rolls 36, then 6 - 3 = 3 so the player can release one fish from bowl
3 if they have fish in this bowl. The first player to release all their fish wins.
6-Sided Dice Game:
Free the Foxes
the dice, the player computes the sum between the two dice and can take
one fox out of the barn labeled with the sum of the two dice. For example if
a player rolls 36, then 3 + 6 = 9 so the player can release one fox from barn
9 if they have a fox in this barn. The first player to release all their foxes
wins.
After playing all three games for a while (Free the Frogs, Free the Fish and
Free the Foxes), do you see different strategies in where best to place the
animals across the three different games? There are definitely different
strategies that give you the best chance to win based on the probabilities of
the dice numbers, differences, or sums being certain values.
Project 166
6-Sided Dice Game:
Squares
Project 167
6-Sided Dice Game:
Coin Dice
Use the Project 160 circuit and select Game 5 using the game selection
procedure in project 17. The game begins when you see “Go” in the
display.
This game is for 2 or more players. Players should sit in a circle and take
turns in a clockwise fashion rolling the dice by pressing button C for a
period of time and then releasing it. After rolling the dice, take the
difference between the two numbers. Then in the grid below, the player
can shade in a line adjacent to the difference between the two dice. For
instance, if a player rolled 36, then 6 - 3 = 3 so the player can shade in
one of the dotted lines above, below, to the left, or to the right of the
number 3 in the grid below. If the player is able to shade in the last dotted
line around a box, then that player gets the number of points in the box.
For instance, if one of the boxes with a 5 in it already has the top, bottom,
and left sides shaded in, and then a player rolls a 61 (difference of 5), the
player can then shade in the right side of the box and get 5 points. If a
player rolls a difference for which there are no more dotted lines adjacent
to the difference number, then the player loses their turn. After all dotted
lines have been shaded in, the player with the most points wins.
1
4
3
0
2
3
0
2
4
5
2
5
1
4
1
5
2
1
5
3
0
2
0
4
3
0
3
4
4
1
5
1
3
1
2
3
0
5
3
4
2
5
0
2
5
4
1
5
4
0
3
1
0
3
2
3
5
2
4
5
2
0
1
1
0
4
5
1
3
2
4
0
You need a coin for this game. Use the Project 160 circuit and select Game
5 using the game selection procedure in project 17. The game begins
when you see “Go” in the display.
This is an individual game of player versus the house where the player
starts out with 200 points. The player flips a coin and rolls the dice by
pressing button C for a period of time and then releasing it. If the player
flips a heads, then the player wins the number of points in the 2nd column
of the table below depending on what number they rolled. If the player flips
a tails, then the player loses the number of points in the 3rd column of the
table below depending on what number they rolled. The player wins if they
can get to 400 points, but lose if they lose all their points.
Dice Roll
Heads (player wins)
Tails (House wins)
31, 32, 34 through 36
10 points
-11 points
61 through 65
20 points
12 through 16
21, 23 through 26
41 through 43, 45, 46
51 through 54, 56
Doubles (11,…55, 66)
2 points
6 points
-7 points
-9 points
14 points
-13 points
30 points
-25 points
18 points
-15 points
-16 points
-64-
Project 168
6-Sided Dice Game:
Baseball
Project 169
Simple Alarm Sounds
Use the Project 160 circuit and select Game 5 using the game selection
procedure in project 17. The game begins when you see “Go” in the display.
This game can be played in solitaire or with 2 people. Start by having the
visitor team roll the six-sided dice by pressing button C for a period of time
and then releasing it. The first number is then used in the lookup table
below to determine whether the batter got a Hit (if the first number is 0, 1
or 2) or an Out (if the first number is 3 or higher).
First number in dice roll
0, 1, or 2
3 through 6
Result
Hit
Out
If the first number in the roll was a Hit, then use the second number in the
roll to lookup the hit result in the table below. Note that runners only
advance 1 base on a single and walk, and only advance 2 bases on a
double unless indicated otherwise in the table.
Second number in dice roll
1
2
3
4
5
6
Result
Single
Walk
Double
Triple
Single, runner on 2nd base scores
Home run
If the first number in the roll was an Out, then use the second number in
the roll to lookup the hit result in the table below.
Second number in dice roll
Result
1
Strikeout
2
Groundout, all runners advance
3
Shallow Flyout, all runners hold
4
Deep Flyout, runners on 2nd base or 3rd base advance
5
Groundout, double play if runner on 1st base, all other runners advance
6
Error, runner safe at 1st base, all other runners advance
-65-
Turn on the slide switch (S1) to hear an alarm.
Variants:
1. Connect a blue jumper wire between points A & B.
2. Move the blue jumper wire to points E & F.
3. Move the blue jumper wire to points B & G.
4. Remove the blue jumper wire. Remove the 3-snap wire between
points C & D, and connect it between points A & B.
Project 170
Green & Lots More
Turn on the slide switch (S1). The green
LED (D2) and all LEDs on the disco
motor (DM) light.
Compare this circuit to project 159. Here
the current through the green LED (D2)
controls the current through the LEDs on
the disco motor (DM) using the NPN
transistor (Q2), making all the LEDs on
the disco motor bright.
Project 172
Vibrato 2
Turn on the slide switch (S1);
the display on the LED-MC
(U29) shows “00”. Press the A
button on the selector (S8) to
increase the ones digit on the
display, and press the C
button on the selector to
increase the tens digit on the
display. When the display
shows “21”, press the B
button on the selector to start.
The “2” in the display will be
toggling on/off at a varying
rate.
Project 171
Red or
Yellow &
Lots More
Use the preceding circuit, but
replace the green LED (D2) with
the red LED (D1, “+” on left) or the
red/yellow LED (D10, in either
direction).
Project 173
Vibrato 21
Use the preceding circuit, but add a
second blue jumper between points
A & B. Now both digits on the
display are toggling, but opposite to
each other.
-66-
Project 174
Random Bi-Color Light
Turn on the slide switch (S1); the display on the LED-MC (U29) shows
“00”. Press the A button on the selector (S8) three times to make the
display show “03”, then press the B button on the selector to start.
Every few seconds the speaker (SP2) randomly plays one of three siren
sounds, the U29 LED display shows a random pattern, and the
red/yellow LED (D10) will be either red, yellow, or off.
You can slow this circuit down by selecting game “01” or “02” on the
display instead of game “03”.
The red/yellow LED (D10) is a bi-color
LED, which means it has two LEDs
(red & yellow) inside, connected in
opposite directions.
Project 175
Notice that when D10 is changing
colors quickly, its red and yellow colors
tend to blend into orange.
Random Bi-Color Lights
This circuit works the same as the preceding one, but adds more lights.
The red & green LEDs (D1 &
D2) are connected in opposite
directions between the same
points in the circuit, simulating a
second bi-color LED.
-67-
Project 176 Arcade Blinking Display
Turn on the slide switch (S1);
the display on the LED-MC
(U29) shows “00”. Press the A
button on the selector (S8)
three times to make the display
show “03”, then press the B
button on the selector to start.
Every half second the speaker
(SP2) randomly plays one of
three siren sounds, the U29
LED display shows a random
pattern, and the red LED (D1)
will be on, the green LED (D2)
will be on, or the display on
U29 will be blinking.
Project 178
Project 177
Blink One
Use the preceding circuit,
but remove either one of the
red & orange jumper wires.
Now only one digit of the
LED display blinks.
You can slow this circuit down
by selecting game “01” on the
display instead of game “02”.
Triple Light Blink One
Modify the project 176 circuit to match this one, which adds the
red/yellow LED (D10). It works the same way, but has three LEDs and
only the left digit on the display will blink.
-68-
Project 179
Disco with Sound
Build the circuit as shown, place of the disco
covers on the disco motor (DM), and turn on
the slide switch (S1). The speaker (SP2) plays
an alarm as the disco cover rotates.
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Cover
Project 180
Disco with
Sound (II)
Use the preceding circuit, but
connect points A & B using a 2snap wire and a 1-snap wire. The
sound is different now.
-69-
Project 181
Disco with
Sound (III)
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the connection between
points A & B and instead make a
connection between points B & C.
The sound is different now.
Project 182
Disco with
Sound (IV)
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the connection between
points B & C and instead make a
connection between points A & D.
The sound is different now.
Project 183
Disco with
Sound (V)
Use any of the four preceding
circuits, but add one of the LEDs
(D1, D2, or D10) across points E
& F. on level 4 (“+” side to point
E). The LED lights, and the sound
is not as loud now.
Project 184
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Cover
Weird Sound
Build the circuit as shown, place of the disco covers on the disco
motor (DM), and turn the slide switch (S1). The speaker (SP2)
makes sound and the disco cover may rotate.
Project 185
Project 186
Weird
Weird
Sound (II)
Sound (III)
Project 187
Use the preceding circuit, but
add the red/yellow LED (D10,
in either direction) across
points A & B.
Use the preceding circuit but
move the red/yellow LED (D10)
from points A & B to points C &
D (in either direction). The LED
will be on level 4, so you need
to stack an extra 2-snap wire
on point C.
Thyristor Start Disco Ball
Build the circuit as shown, place one of the disco covers on the disco motor
(DM), and turn on the slide switch (S1). Nothing happens. Push & release
the press switch (S2); the green LED (D2) flashes once, turning on PNP
& NPN transistors (Q1 and Q2), so now the disco motor and the LEDs on
it turn on. The circuit will continue to run until switch S1 is turned off.
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Cover
Transistors Q1 and Q2 act as a
thyristor
bistable
switch,
conducting electricity when
their gate (the left side of Q2) is
triggered (by pressing S2), and
continuing to conduct until the
circuit is turned off.
-70-
Project 188
Start Stop Ball
Build the circuit as shown, place one of the disco covers on the disco
motor (DM), and turn on the slide switch (S1). Nothing happens. Press
& release one of the buttons on the selector (S8) to start the circuit. To
stop the circuit, push the press switch (S2) to reset it.
SUPPORT BAR
Project 189
Disco Cover
Sound On by Thyristor
Build the circuit as shown and turn the slide switch (S1). Push & release
the press switch (S2), the green LED (D2) flashes once, the red LED
(D1) lights, and the speaker sounds. Set S1 to off to turn off the circuit.
Project 190
Project 191
Sound On by Sound On by
Thyristor (II) Thyristor (III)
-71-
Use the preceding circuit, but
add a 2-snap wire between the
points marked A & B. The
sound is different now.
Use the preceding circuit, but
remove the 2-snap wire between
points A & B, and add a blue
jumper wire between points B &
C. The sound is different now.
Project 192
Sound and Light OnOff Thyristor
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Cover
Project 193
Build the circuit as shown, place one of the
disco covers on the disco motor (DM).
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and then turn
it off (keep it off). The green LED (D2)
flashes once, the red LED (D1) lights, and
the speaker (SP2) sounds. Push the press
switch (S2) to reset the circuit.
Variants:
1. Change the sound by placing the red
jumper wire between points A & B.
2. Change the sound by placing the red
jumper wire between points B & C.
Fan On-Off
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and then turn it off. The green LED (D2)
lights while S1 is on. The red LED (D1) stays on and the programmable
fan (M8) spins and displays a message. Push the press switch (S2) and
the circuit stops.
!
WARNING: Moving parts. Do not
touch the fan while it is spinning.
-72-
Project 194
Add One
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and the LED-MC (U29) shows only a “0”
in the left display. Press S2 and the number 1 shows. Every time you
press S2 the number increases by 1, up to number 9. Then the LEDMIC (U29) resets to “0” again.
Project 195
Add 10
Turn on the slide switch
(S1) and the LED-MC (U29)
shows “0 ” in the display.
Push the press switch (S2)
and the display doesnt
change. You need to press
S2 ten times for the number
to change.
-73-
Project 196
Add One at a
Time
Remove the 2-snap wire at points A & B. Turn
on the slide switch (S1) and the LED-MC
(U29) shows only “00”. Pressing S2
increases the number by 1, up to 99. Holding
down S2 will automatically advance the
number.
Play a guessing game. Cover the display and
press down S2 for a few short time and stop.
Guess a number and then uncover the
display.
Project 197
+1 Beeper
Turn on the slide switch (S1) and the LED-MC (U29) shows “00” in the
display. Push the press switch (S2) and the number 1 shows and the
speaker sounds. Every time you press S2 the number increases by 1.
Project 198
Counting Sound
Turn on the slide switch
(S1) and push the press
switch (S2) several times
or hold it down for short
periods. A sound plays as
the display counts how
many times you pressed
S2 (holding S2 down
makes
it
count
automatically).
Project 199
Another
Counting
Sound
Move the 2-snap wire from points A & B
to points B & C. The sound is different
now.
-74-
Project 200
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Cover
Project 201
Faster PushStart Disco
Use the preceding circuit, but add the
green LED (D2) across the points
marked A & B (“+” side of D2 to point
A). Now the disco motor (DM) starts
easier and spins faster.
Adding the green LED
in parallel with the red
LED increases the
power to the disco
motor, helping it to
start and spin faster.
-75-
Push-Start Disco
The disco motor needs a lot
of power to start up, then
less to continue spinning.
The red LED (D1) limits the
power to the disco motor,
usually preventing it from
starting up. Pressing S2
bypasses the red LED and
gets the disco motor
spinning.
Place one of the disco covers on the disco
motor (DM) and turn on the slide switch
(S1). The LEDs in the disco motor are on,
but the disco cover probably won’t move.
Push the press switch (S2) and the disco
cover spins, and keeps spinning after you
release S2. The light patterns are best in a
dark room.
Compare the patterns when the disco is
spinning fast (with S2 pressed) and slow
(S2 released). Try both disco covers, and try
holding the circuit at an angle near a wall.
If the motor does not continue spinning after
you released S2 then replace your batteries,
or go to the next project.
Project 202 Medium Speed Disco
Modify the preceding circuit to match this one. Place
one of the disco covers on the disco motor (DM), and
turn on the slide switch (S1). Push the press switch
(S2) if the disco motor is not spinning.
Compare the patterns when the disco is spinning fast
(with S2 pressed) and medium speed (S2 released).
The light patterns are best in a dark room. Try both
disco covers, and try holding the circuit at an angle
near a wall.
Do you see the light from the red, green, and yellow
LEDs (D1, D2, & D10) on the ceiling or wall? Try
covering them with your hand to see how much they
affect what you see.
The red, green, yellow LEDs (D1, D2, & D10) spread their
light over a wide angle, to make them easier to see from
the sides.
The LEDs in the disco motor concentrate their light,
making them much brighter when you look at them
directly, They are also brighter due to the quality of their
LEDs, and because they are moving.
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Cover
Project 203
Finale
SUPPORT BAR
Disco Cover
!
WARNING:
Moving parts.
Do not touch
the fan while it
is spinning.
Build the circuit as shown; note that the 5-snap
wire is partialy covered by the NPN transistor
(Q2), and a 3-snap wire is partially covered by the
green LED (D2). Place one of the disco covers on
the disco motor (DM).
Turn on the slide switch (S1). A siren sounds, the
disco motor spins & lights, and the display on the
LED-MC (U29) displays “00”. Push and hold down
the press switch (S2) to spin the programmable
fan (M8); if you hold it down long enough then it
cycles through 6 messages.
Make the display on the LED-MC show “02” or
“03” by pressing the A button on the selector (S8)
to increase the ones digit on the display. Press the
B button on the selector. The LEDs (D1, D2, &
D10) will flash while the discplay on U29 displays
a random pattern; sometimes they will be rapidly
changing, and sometimes they will stop for a few
seconds.
This circuit uses all
the parts in your set.
-76-
Notes
-77-
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(SC-500)!
Contains Over 80 Parts
Including:
● Solar Cell
● Electromagnet
● Vibration Switch
● Two-spring Socket
● CI-73 Downloadable Software
Snap Circuits® Light Model SCL-175
Features:
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with over 175 projects
Contains over 55 parts
Infrared detector
Strobe light
Color changing LED
Glow-in-the-dark fan
Strobe integrated circuit (IC)
Fiber optic communication
Color organ controlled by
iPod® or other MP3 player,
voice, and fingers.
iPod® shown
not included.
-78-
SCA-200 ARCADE Block Layout
Important: If any parts are missing or damaged, DO NOT RETURN TO RETAILER.
Call toll-free (800) 533-2441 or e-mail us at: help@elenco.com. Customer Service ● 150 Carpenter Ave.
Wheeling, IL 60090 U.S.A. Note: A complete parts list is on page 2 in this manual.
Disco Cover
Disco Cover
SUPPORT BAR
Base Grid (11.0” x 7.7”) overlays many parts
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