Elenco | XK700K | Owner Manual | Elenco XK700K Deluxe Digital / Analog Trainer Kit Version Owner Manual

Elenco XK700K Deluxe Digital / Analog Trainer Kit Version Owner Manual
150 Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090
(847) 541-3800
Website: www.elenco.com
e-mail: elenco@elenco.com
ELENCO®
Revised 2013
REV-G
No part of this book shall be reproduced by any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written permission from the publisher.
Copyright © 2013, 1996 by ELENCO® Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved.
®
ELENCO
Assembly & Instruction Manual
Tools and meter shown not included.
A COMPLETE MINI-LAB FOR BUILDING, TESTING
AND PROTOTYPING ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS
MODEL XK-700K
DIGITAL / ANALOG TRAINER
753029
Symbol
Symbol
Qty.
Qty.
r1
r1
r1
r1
r2
r1
r4
r1
r1
r4
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r9
r6
r2
r2
r4
r4
r4
r6
r2
r4
r4
r 19
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r3
r5
r4
r1
RESISTORS
SEMICONDUCTORS
Mylar
Electrolytic (lytic)
Electrolytic (lytic)
Electrolytic (lytic)
Description
CAPACITORS
(brown-red-brown-gold)
(black-red-red-gold)
Pot PC mount
Pot PC mount
Pot PC mount
Description
-1-
Screw Identification
Standard
screw
Part #
645404
646828
663000
665204
666010
666011
753029
780002
780101
790004
813210
845000
862105
890020
890120
890701
891101-2
899110-2
LF99
314001
330317
330337
337805
337812
337912
Part #
251017
281045
291046
292225
Part #
Part #
131200
141201
192412
192421
192612
Truss head
screw
Flat head screw
Description
Washer fiber
Lockwasher #8 EXT
Fuse holder
Bredblox 4-pin
Terminal male crimp
Terminal female crimp
Manual
Insulator mica
Insulator washer
Silicon Grease
Wire #20 red stranded
Wire #22 bare wire
Line cord
Tubing #20 black
Shrink tubing 3/16”
Shrink tubing 1/4”
Shrink tubing 1/2”
Shrink tubing 3/4”
Solder tube lead-free
Phillips AB
screw
Qty.
r4
r2
r1
r4
r2
r2
r1
r5
r5
r1
r 6”
r 2.5’
r1
r 3/4”
r 2”
r 1”
r 2”
r 2”
r1
MISCELLANEOUS
1N4001 Diode
LM317 Integrated circuit (IC)
LM337 Integrated circuit (IC)
LM7805 Integrated circuit (IC)
LM7812 Integrated circuit (IC)
LM7912 Integrated circuit (IC)
Description
.1mF 100V
100mF
1000mF 35V
2200mF 25V
Value
120W 5% 1/4W
1.2kW 5% 1/2W
1kW
2kW
100kW
Value
Description
Part #
Transformer
44K500
PC board
514550
Fuse 1.25A
530125
Switch illuminated
541204
Connector 3-pin
591032
Connector 5-pin
591052
Bracket L 4-40 tap
613008
Panel top
614108
XK-700 Frame
614501PB
Knob
622009
Case
623051
Strain relief
624003
Spacer nylon 7/16” x 3/16” tap
624013
Connector receptacle
626020
Connector plug
626021
Screw 4-40 x 1/4” phillips, flat head
641431
Screw 4-40 x 1/4” phillips truss
641438
Screw 6-32 x 5/16” slotted
641641
Screw 8-32 x 3/8” phillips
641840
Screw #4 x 1/4” phillips AB
642430
Screw #6 x 1/2 phillips AB
642662
Screw #6 x 3/8” phillips thread cutting
643652
Nut 7mm
644101
Nut 6-32
644601
Nut 8-32
644800
Washer 8mm x 14mm (Pot)
645101
Washer #6 black
645400
D1-D15, D26-D29
U1
U5
U3
U2
U4
C7-C9
C12, C14-C17
C1, C2, C4, C5
C3
R1, R2
R50, R51
VR3
VR1, VR2
VR4
Qty.
r2
r2
r1
r2
r1
Symbol
Qty.
XK-700K POWER SUPPLY KIT (PS-700-B) PARTS LIST
PS-700-B
-50-
1. The logic switches consist of . . .
r A. two NAND gates and an SPST switch.
r B. three OR gates.
r C. two NAND gates and a DPDT switch.
r D. one OR gate.
2. When the logic switch is thrown . . .
r A. the contacts do not bounce.
r B. a single transition is produced at the NAND gate output.
r C. a multiple transition is produced at the NAND gate output.
r D. none of the above.
3. If the X output is high, opening and closing the ground at X switch will . . .
r A. cause the X output to go low.
r B. cause the X output to go high.
r C. cause the X output to go from high to low.
r D. none of the above.
4. The logic indicator LED lights up when . . .
r A. input voltage is 2V.
r B. input voltage is greater than 2.8.
r C. the IC output is high.
r D. all of the above.
5. The logic switches use . . .
r A. single pole single throw switches.
r B. double pole double throw switches wires as single pole double throw switches.
r C. two pole 5 position rotary switches.
r D. 4 pole 3 position rotary switches.
6. The 100kW resistor on the logic indicator input . . .
r A. divides the input voltage in half.
r B. bias the input to +5V.
r C. bias the input to GND.
r D. turn on the LED.
7. When the logic switch is in the X position . . .
r A. X is high, X is low.
r B. X is high, X is high.
r C. X is low, X is high.
r D. X is low, X is low.
8. When the data switch is up and connected to the logic indicator . . .
r A. the switch output is greater than 2.8V.
r B. the switch output is GND.
r C. the LED will be out.
r D. none of the above.
9. The +5VDC power for the digital section comes from a . . .
r A. 7805 IC.
r B. 7905 IC.
r C. 5V battery.
r D. 7812 IC.
10. If pin 4 on U7B is high . . .
r A. pin 3 is low.
r B. pin 1 is low.
r C. pin 2 and 6 are high.
r D. pin 5 is high.
INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following examination, check your answers carefully.
QUIZ - DIGITAL SECTION
Answers: 1. C; 2. B; 3. D; 4. B; 5. B; 6. C; 7. A; 8. A; 9. A; 10. B
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
-49-
Spacers
1/4” #8
7/16” x
3/16” tap
PC mount potentiometer
Rotary
Electrolytic
(Lytic)
(Radial)
Mylar
IC socket
DPDT
Diode
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
Digit
0
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Gray
White
Digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
BAND 2
2nd Digit
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Silver
Gold
Color
Silver
Gold
Brown
Red
Orange
Green
Blue
Violet
Tolerance
±10%
±5%
±1%
±2%
±3%
±0.5%
±0.25%
±0.1%
Resistance
Tolerance
Female crimp
terminal
Connector receptacle
0
1
1
2
2
3
Multiplier
BANDS
4
5
Tolerance
Transformer
5-Pin
8
9
Bredblox
Fuse assembly
4-Pin
Connectors
(+)
Axial
(–)
If
the
capacitor
is
connected with incorrect
polarity, it may heat up and
either leak, or cause the
capacitor to explode.
Warning:
Radial
(+)
(–)
Polarity
marking
Electrolytic capacitors have a positive and a
negative electrode. The negative lead is
indicated on the packaging by a stripe with
minus signs and possibly arrowheads. Also,
the negative lead of a radial electrolytic is
shorter than the positive one.
1
Tolerance*
(may or may not appear
on the cap)
Maximum working voltage
50V
101K
-2-
The letter K indicates a tolerance of +10%
The letter J indicates a tolerance of +5%
* The letter M indicates a tolerance of +20%
The value is 10 x 10 = 100pF, +10%, 50V
First digit
10
Multiplier
CERAMIC DISC
Multiply By
Second digit
Multiplier
Multiplier
Tolerance*
MYLAR
10k 100k .01
0.1
Note: The letter “R” may be used at
times to signify a decimal point; as in
3R3 = 3.3
First digit
Second digit
1k
The value is 22 x 100 =
2,200pF or .0022mF, +5%, 100V
100
Capacitors will be identified by their capacitance value in pF (picofarads), nF (nanofarads), or mF (microfarads). Most
capacitors will have their actual value printed on them. Some capacitors may have their value printed in the following manner.
The maximum operating voltage may also be printed on the capacitor.
For the No.
Multiplier
1
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
0.01
0.1
Multiplier
IDENTIFYING CAPACITOR VALUES
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Gray
White
BAND 1
1st Digit
3-Pin
Miscellaneous
LED
Use the following information as a guide in properly identifying the value of resistors.
Male crimp
terminal
Connector plug
Integrated circuit (IC)
Semiconductors
Transistor
Illuminated
Integrated circuit (IC)
Switches
Discap
Capacitors
IDENTIFYING RESISTOR VALUES
Knob
PC mount
trim pot
Carbon film
Resistors
Before beginning the assembly process, first familiarize yourself with the components and this instruction book.
Verify that all parts are present. This is done best by checking off each item in the parts list.
PARTS VERIFICATION
100V
2A222J
4. Here is what a good solder
connection looks like.
3. Allow the solder to flow around the
connection. Then, remove the
solder and the iron and let the
connection cool. The solder
should have flowed smoothly and
not lump around the wire lead.
2. Apply a small amount of solder to
the iron tip. This allows the heat to
leave the iron and onto the foil.
Immediately apply solder to the
opposite side of the connection,
away from the iron. Allow the
heated component and the circuit
foil to melt the solder.
1. Solder all components from the
copper foil side only. Push the
soldering iron tip against both the
lead and the circuit board foil.
Foil
Solder
Foil
Solder
Foil
Soldering Iron
Soldering Iron
Circuit Board
Component Lead
Soldering Iron
A good solder connection should be bright, shiny, smooth, and uniformly
flowed over all surfaces.
What Good Soldering Looks Like
• Use the correct tip size for best heat transfer. The conical tip is the
most commonly used.
• Keep the iron tinned at all times.
Use these procedures to increase the life of your soldering iron tip when
using lead-free solder:
Lead-free solder is different from lead solder: It has a higher melting point
than lead solder, so you need higher temperature for the solder to flow
properly. Recommended tip temperature is approximately 700OF; higher
temperatures improve solder flow but accelerate tip decay. An increase
in soldering time may be required to achieve good results. Soldering iron
tips wear out faster since lead-free solders are more corrosive and the
higher soldering temperatures accelerate corrosion, so proper tip care is
important. The solder joint finish will look slightly duller with lead-free
solders.
For many years leaded solder was the most common type of solder used
by the electronics industry, but it is now being replaced by lead-free
solder for health reasons. This kit contains lead-free solder, which
contains 99.3% tin, 0.7% copper, and has a rosin-flux core.
Solder
The most important factor in assembling your XK-700K Digital/Analog
Trainer Kit is good soldering techniques. Using the proper soldering iron
is of prime importance. A small pencil type soldering iron of 25 watts is
recommended. The tip of the iron must be kept clean at all times and
well-tinned.
Introduction
CONSTRUCTION
-3-
4. Solder bridges - occur when
solder runs between circuit paths
and creates a short circuit. This is
usually caused by using too much
solder.
To correct this, simply drag your
soldering iron across the solder
bridge as shown.
3. Excessive solder - could make
connections that you did not
intend to between adjacent foil
areas or terminals.
2. Insufficient solder - let the solder
flow over the connection until it is
covered.
Use just enough solder to cover
the connection.
1. Insufficient heat - the solder will
not flow onto the lead as shown.
Foil
Solder
Gap
Drag
Soldering Iron
Component Lead
Solder
Soldering iron positioned
incorrectly.
Rosin
Types of Poor Soldering Connections
DO NOT USE ACID CORE SOLDER!
In all of the following assembly steps, the components must be installed
on the top side of the PC board unless otherwise indicated. The top
legend shows where each component goes. The leads pass through the
corresponding holes in the board and are soldered on the foil side.
Use only rosin core solder.
Assemble Components
• Do not hold solder in your mouth. Solder is a toxic substance.
Wash hands thoroughly after handling solder.
• Locate soldering iron in an area where you do not have to go around
it or reach over it. Keep it in a safe area away from the reach of
children.
• Be sure there is adequate ventilation when soldering.
• Always wear safety glasses or safety goggles to protect
your eyes when working with tools or soldering iron,
and during all phases of testing.
Safety Procedures
• Tips should be cleaned frequently to remove oxidation before it becomes
impossible to remove. Use Dry Tip Cleaner (Elenco® #SH-1025) or Tip
Cleaner (Elenco® #TTC1). If you use a sponge to clean your tip, then use
distilled water (tap water has impurities that accelerate corrosion).
• Turn off iron when not in use or reduce temperature setting when
using a soldering station.
-48-
There are eight logic indicators. Figure S shows the circuit. It consists of a
74HC04 IC. When the input is over 2.8V, the output of the IC will be low,
drawing current through the LED indicator. The 120W resistor limits the
current in the LED to less than 20mA. When there is no connection to the
input of the logic indicators, the two 100kW resistor bias the input to GND.
This insures that the LED will be off.
THE LOGIC INDICATORS
In the logic switches, only one pulse is produced at the IC output no
matter how many times the contacts bounce. This is extremely important
if you are producing pulses for counting circuits. Figure R shows the
wiring of the logic switch. The two NAND gates are connected so that
when the X input is grounded, the X output goes high. Opening and
closing the ground at X will not change the output. Only when X is
grounded will the output change to low. Thus, only one output change is
produced with one movement of the X switch. There are two outputs from
each logic switch, X and X or Y and Y.
100k
X
X
IC7
IC7
6
100k
120
3
Figure S
74HC04
Figure R
4
5
2
1
LED 5V
X
X
The logic switches are also DPDT switches wired as SPST switches. The logic switches perform the same
function as the data switches. That is, they produce high or low states. But there is one big difference. When
switching the data switches, many pulses may be produced due to bouncing of the contacts.
THE LOGIC SWITCHES
There are eight data switches labeled SW1 through SW8. The circuit is very simple. To perform the desired
functions, there is a double throw double pole switch, wired as a single pole double throw. One end is connected
to the 5V, the other to ground and the center lug is connected to the output.
THE DATA SWITCHES
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION - DIGITAL SECTION
Figure P
Figure N
Back Panel
-47-
Figure O
Back Panel
Figure Q
#6 x 1/2” AB Screw
#6 Washer
r Align the holes in the bottom case with those in the trainer and secure it into place with four #6 x 1/2” AB
screws and four #6 washer as shown in Figure Q.
r Lay the trainer inside of the case as shown in Figure P.
r Squeeze the two sections together with pliers as shown in Figure O. Then, insert the strain relief into the hole.
r Place the strain relief onto the line cord as shown in Figure N.
INSTALL COMPLETED UNIT INTO CASE
-4-
1) On/Off Switch - Allows power to be applied to all outputs. Switch will
light when on.
2) Fuse Holder - Easy access for replacement of 1.25A fuse.
3) Power Output Terminals - This provides 30VAC center tapped at
15 VAC; also provides output terminal for positive and negative
variable voltages.
4) Variable Positive Voltage Control - Varies positive voltage from 0V
to 20V at indicated output connector pin.
5) Variable Negative Voltage Control - Varies negative voltage from
0V to –20V at indicated output connector pin.
6) Power Output Bredblox - Output terminals for GND, –12, +12, and +5.
7) Output terminals for 1k and 100k undedicated potentiometers.
8) 1kW undedicated potentiometer.
9) 100kW undedicated potentiometer.
USERS DESCRIPTION OF FRONT PANEL CONTROLS
• 1kW Potentiometer
• 100kW Potentiometer
Variable Resistance (undedicated):
• 0V to 20VDC @ 0.5 amp (0V to 15V @ 1 amp).
• 0V to -20VDC @ 0.5 amp (0V to –15V @ 1 amp).
• +12V +5% @ 1 amp.
• –12V +5% @ 1 amp.
• +5V +5% @ 1 amp.
• 30VAC center tapped @ 1 amp.
• Load regulation - all DC supplies less than 0.2V no load to 0.5A.
• Line regulation - all DC supplies less than 0.2V 105 to 135V.
• Hum and ripple - all DC supplies less than 0.01V RMS.
• Short protection - all DC supplies-internal IC thermal cutoff.
• Fuse 1.25A 250V.
Power Supplies:
POWER SUPPLY SPECIFICATIONS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
The digital trainer has the necessary functions to do your digital experiments. They consist of a clock generator,
two no-bounce switches, eight LED indicator lamps and eight data switches.
Digital Trainer Section
The analog trainer contains a complete function generator capable of producing sine, square and triangle
waveforms. The frequency of the generator is continuously variable from one hertz to over 100,000 hertz in five
steps. A fine tuning control makes the selection of any frequency easy. The output voltage amplitude is variable
between 0 to 15Vpp. The output impedance is approximately 330 ohms.
Analog Trainer Section Function Generator
The XK-700K has five built-in power supplies which will satify most design needs. This includes two variable
power supplies giving up to +20 volts and –20 volts at 0.5 amp. Below 15V, the current available is 1 amp. Three
fixed power supplies give you +12VDC, –12VDC or +5VDC at 1 amp each. These fixed voltages are the most
commonly used voltages for design work. All supplies are regulated to within 150mV. This means that you can
increase the current draw from no load to 0.5 amp and the voltage will change less than 150mV. All supplies are
also short circuit protected by using integrated circuit regulator devices.
Power Supply
The XK-700K Digital/Analog Trainer is divided into four separate kits: BB-700-A, PS-700-B, AN-700-C and DG700D. Each bag of parts is clearly identified. Open only the kit called for in your procedure. DO NOT open any
other bag at this time. The first kit is the BB-700-A which contains only the breadboard. The breadboard will be
assembled to the front panel of the trainer during the assembly of the PS-700-B Power Supply. Read your
instructions carefully.
INTRODUCTION
PC board
Mount the connector as shown and solder the pins
of the connector.
Figure A
C8 - 0.1mF mylar (104)
(see Figure D)
L-bracket
(see Figure B)
S3 - 3-pin connector
S2 - 3-pin connector
(see Figure A)
VR4 - 100kW pot
VR3 - 1kW pot
(see Figure C)
L-bracket
(see Figure B)
S1 - 5-pin connector
(see Figure A)
Start Here
Figure B
-5-
4-40 x 1/4”
Screw
Fiber
washer
Bracket
Top legend
side of
PC board
Bend the capacitor at a 45O
angle before soldering. Cut off
excess leads.
Figure D
Cut off excess lead length after
soldering.
Cut off tab
Mount down flush with PC board. The
value may be marked on the on the
back side of pot.
Figure C
Top left corner of PC board
Bottom left corner of PC board
Note: One side of the bracket
is longer. Mount this side to
the PC board. Mount the
bracket to the top legend side
of the PC board with a 4-40 x
1/4” screw and fiber washer.
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Washers 8mm
Nuts 7mm
1k
#6 x 3/8” Thread
cutting screws
Knobs
Nuts 8mm
Nut 7mm
#6 x 3/8” Thread
cutting screws
Washer 8mm
Washers 9mm
Figure I
Figure J
4-40 x 1/4” Screw
Fiber washer
-46-
10k
100k
Figure L
COARSE FREQ
Figure K
WAVE FORM
10
100
Figure M
r Turn the shafts on the pots fully counter-clockwise. Push the knobs onto the shafts so that the line on the knob
is in line with the end of the circle on the front panel, as shown in Figure L.
If the knobs are loose on the shafts, insert a screwdriver into the slot and expand the slot slightly (see Figure M).
r Turn the shafts on the two
switches fully counterclockwise. Push the knobs
onto the shafts so that the
line on the knob is in line
with the “Squarewave” on
the waveform control and
“10” on the Coarse
Frequency control (see
Figure K).
If the knobs are loose on
the shafts, insert a
screwdriver into the slot
and expand the slot slightly
(see Figure M).
r Fasten the pots to the front
panel with an 8mm washer
and a 7mm nut, as shown
in Figure I.
r Fasten the PC board to the
spacer on the front panel
with a fiber washer and a
4-40 x 1/4” screw (from
Power Supply Section)
from the foil side of the PC
board, in the location
shown in Figure J.
r Fasten the front panel in
place with four #6 x 3/8”
thread cutting screws, as
shown in Figure I.
FINAL ASSEMBLY
-45-
1. Check that input resistor is grounded.
A. Bad ground connection or switch.
2. Measure for +5V on R16 - R19.
A. Check resistor.
3. Defective IC.
Logic switch terminal always high
1. Measure for zero voltage voltage at input pin.
A. Pin shorted or defective IC
2. Measure voltage to output pin for +5V.
A. Pin shorted or defective IC.
LED always on
1. Check that the LED is in correctly.
2. Check the input and output resistors.
3. Measure input for +5V and output at ground.
A. Short to ground or defective IC.
LED doesn’t light
1. Measure for a DC voltage of +5V across R15.
A. Check R15, J19, J23 and J13.
B. Switch shorted to ground.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
r Unplug the unit from the AC outlet.
There are eight data switches to be checked. The
output of the switches are 5V or ground depending on
the position. Connect a wire to the SW1 test pin and
the “A” test pin. The “A” LED should light when the
switch is placed toward the top of the case. Repeat
the same test on SW2, SW3, SW4, SW5, SW6, SW7
and SW8.
TESTING THE DATA SWITCHES
No +5V on data switch terminals.
PROBLEM
DIGITAL TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
Apply power and note that the “A” LED indicator
should be lit when the logic switch is in the “X” position
and the “B” LED should light and the “A” LED not light.
Check the “Y” logic switch in the same manner.
There are two logic switches and four conditions to
be checked out. Connect a wire from the “X” test pin
to the “A” logic indicator test pin. Connect another wire
to the “X” test pin to the “B” test pin.
TESTING THE LOGIC SWITCHES
There are eight logic indicators which you will be
checking out. Put a wire to the 5V power supply and
touch the “A” logic indicator test pin. The “A” LED
should light up. Remove the wire and the LED should
go out. Do the same for the B, C, D, E, F, G and H
pins.
TESTING THE LOGIC INDICATOR FUNCTION
TESTING THE DIGITAL SECTION
Figure E
(–)
(+)
-6-
Warning: If the capacitor is connected with
incorrect polarity, it may heat up and either leak
or cause the capacitor to explode.
These capacitors are polarized. Be
sure to mount them with the “+” lead
in the correct hole as marked on the
PC board. Mount the capacitor lying
flat on the PC board as shown
below.
J3 - Jumper wire
(see Figure F)
J2 - Jumper wire
(see Figure F)
R2 - 120W 5% 1/4W resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
C14 - 100mF 25V lytic
C17 - 100mF 25V lytic
(see Figure E)
D12 - 1N4001 diode
D11 - 1N4001 diode
(see Figure G)
J6 - Jumper wire
(see Figure F)
J28 - Jumper wire
(see Figure F)
R1 - 120W 5% 1/4W resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
Start Here
Figure F
Band
Diodes have polarity. Mount them
with the band as shown on the top
legend.
Figure G
Cut a piece of the #22 bare wire
long enough so that 1/4” of wire
passes through each hole in the PC
board after the wire is formed.
Bottom left corner of PC board
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
short to jumper wire.
-7-
Cut off tab
Solder a 1.2kW 5% 1/2W (red-red-red- Caution:
gold) resistor from jumper J1 to the right Make sure
resistor lead does not
lead of VR2 as shown.
3. Place the 3/4” tubing over one lead of
the 1.2kW 5% 1/2W (red-red-red-gold)
resistor. Postion the resistor as shown.
Solder the resistor from the bottom hole
of C10 to the right lead of VR1 as
shown.
2. Install the pots flush with the PC board.
The value may be marked on the back
of the pot. Cut off the excess lead
length after soldering.
VR1
Figure H
1. VR1 and VR2 - Before installing the pot
into the PC board, bend the center lead
over to the right lead and solder. Cut off
the excess leads.
Bottom left corner of PC board
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
R50
R51
VR2
J1
Solder
Melt pins
Plastic pins
Hold the breadblock down flush
to the PC board from the top
legend side and solder the
metal pins in place. Then, melt
the plastic pins with your
soldering iron to hold the plastic
blocks in place, as shown.
Figure I
R50 - 1.2kW 1/2W resistor
R51 - 1.2kW 1/2W resistor
(red-red-red-gold)
(see Figure H)
J4 - Jumper wire
J1 - Jumper wire
(see Figure F)
C15 - 100mF 25V lytic
C16 - 100mF 25V lytic
(see Figure E)
D15 - 1N4001 diode
D14 - 1N4001 diode
D13 - 1N4001 diode
(see Figure G)
J26 - Jumper wire
J7 - Jumper wire
(see Figure F)
C12 - 100mF 25V lytic
(see Figure E)
B1 - 4-pin bredblox
B2 - 4-pin bredblox
B3 - 4-pin bredblox
B4 - 4-pin bredblox
(see Figure I)
VR1 - 2kW pot
VR2 - 2kW pot
(see Figure H)
Start Here
X
SW8
SW7
SW6
SW5
SW4
SW3
SW2
SW1
Y
Y
X
X
SW8
SW7
SW6
SW5
SW4
SW3
SW2
SW1
Y
Y
X
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
X
X
To
From
X X
Y Y
LOGIC SW
Y
DATA SWITCHES
SW1-8
less than 1V
less than 1V
less than 1V
less than 1V
less than 1V
less than 1V
less than 1V
less than 1V
5V
less than 1V
5V
less than 1V
5V
5V
5V
5V
5V
5V
5V
5V
less than 1V
5V
less than 1V
5V
Volts
Volts Measured
-44-
SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4 SW5 SW6 SW7 SW8
Y
High Positions
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
Switch Position
Plug the power supply into a 117 volt power source. The values given below are approximate.
VOLTAGE ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL SECTION
SW8
SW7
SW6
SW5
SW4
SW3
SW2
SW1
SW8
SW7
SW6
SW5
SW4
SW3
SW2
SW1
SW8
SW7
SW6
SW5
SW4
SW3
+5V
+5V
+5V
+5V
+5V
+5V
+5V
+5V
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
SW2
SW1
To
From
X X
Y Y
LOGIC SW
DATA SWITCHES
less than 300W
less than 300W
less than 300W
less than 300W
less than 300W
less than 300W
less than 300W
less than 300W
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
Ohms
Resistance Measured
-43-
SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4 SW5 SW6 SW7 SW8
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
Switch Position
Place the top panel onto the unit. Static testing of the digital section circuits. Do not plug the power supply into
a 117 volt power source until all of the resistance readings check out. The values given below are approximate.
RESISTANCE ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL SECTION
Band
+
–
4. Solder the twisted leads and then cut off the excess
leads.
3. Tack solder the diodes across the left lead and the
center hole of VR1 & VR2 as shown in Figure M.
Make sure the diodes are facing in the correct
position.
2. Cut the untwisted lead to 1/4” length (see Figure L).
VR1 & VR2
1. Connect the anode side of one diode to the cathode
side of another by twisting the leads together as
shown in Figure L.
-8-
D1 - 1N4001 diode
D2 - 1N4001 diode
D3 - 1N4001 diode
D4 - 1N4001 diode
D5 - 1N4001 diode
D6 - 1N4001 diode
D7 - 1N4001 diode
D8 - 1N4001 diode
D9 - 1N4001 diode
D10 - 1N4001 diode
(see Figure K)
Continue
VR1
Note diode polarity.
Figure M
* Leftover wire will be used
in future sections.
L-bracket
(see Figure B)
C9 - .1mF (104) mylar
(see Figure D)
J5 - Jumper wire *
(see Figure F)
C7 - .1mF mylar (104)
(see Figure D)
L-bracket
(see Figure B)
Continue
Top right corner of PC board
VR2
Note diode polarity.
VR2
Figure L
VR1
Diodes have polarity. Mount them
with the band as shown on the top
legend.
Figure K
Bottom right corner of PC board
You need to install four diodes on the solder side of
the PC board for VR1 and VR2.
C3 - 2200mF lytic
Mount on foil side of PC board
Note the polarity
(see Figure J)
Start Here
Warning:
If the capacitor is
connected with incorrect polarity, it
may heat up and either leak or
cause the capacitor to explode.
These lytics must be mounted
horizontal to the PC board. Bend
the leads at right angles and then
insert the leads into the PC board
with the negative (–) lead and the
positive (+) lead in the correct
holes as marked on the PC board.
Figure J
C2 - 1,000mF 35V lytic
C4 - 1,000mF 35V lytic
C1 - 1,000mF 35V lytic
C5 - 1,000mF 35V lytic
(see Figure J)
Start Here
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Adjust the PC board
height with a 4-40 x
1/4” screw
Figure N
4-40 x 1/4” screws
-9-
Figure O
r Place the top panel onto the unit and align the components with the holes in the top panel. Push the PC board
up until the components come through the top panel and tighten the screws.
Note: From the foil side of the PC board,
inspect the edges to be sure that there
are no component leads shorting against
the side panels.
Top legend side of PC board
4-40 x 1/4” screws
r Mount the PC board to the side panels with four 4-40 x 1/4” screws (see Figure N).
Do not tighten the screws.
IMPORTANT: Push the PC board up as far as possible before tightening the screws, as shown in Figure O.
Note: The holes in the two side panels have been punched differently. Be sure that you have the correct side
panel when mounting them to the PC board.
MOUNTING THE PC BOARD
-42-
Note: The 9418 and the power strip 9408 make
up the 9426 breadboard.
Use these holes
Figure G
#4 x 1/4” Screws
Top panel
Breadboards
Figure H
9426
9830
r Interlock the breadboard to the bottom edge of the existing breadboard on the top panel as shown in Figure H.
Fasten the breadboards in place with two #4 x 1/4” AB black screws from the back side of the panel. Use the
holes on the 9426 breadboard as shown in Figure G. CAUTION: Do not remove the paper backing from the
breadboard.
Solder
Foil side of
PC board
Switch
Legend side
of PC board
B15 - 4-pin Bredblox
B16 - 4-pin Bredblox
B17 - 4-pin Bredblox
B18 - 4-pin Bredblox
SW10 - Slide switch
SW11 - Slide switch
SW12 - Slide switch
SW13 - Slide switch
Mount the switch onto the legend side
of the PC board as shown. Flip the
board over and solder the part into
place. Be sure to keep the three
soldered sets of leads separate as
shown.
Figure F
B11 - 4-pin Bredblox
B12 - 4-pin Bredblox
B13 - 4-pin Bredblox
B14 - 4-pin Bredblox
(see Figure E)
SW7 - Slide switch
SW8 - Slide switch
SW9 - Slide switch
(see Figure F)
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO FRONT PANEL
Melt Pins
Plastic Pins
B7 - 4-pin Bredblox
B8 - 4-pin Bredblox
B9 - 4-pin Bredblox
B10 - 4-pin Bredblox
Hold the bredblox down flush to the PC
board from the top legend side and solder
the metal pins into place. Then, melt the
plastic pins with your soldering iron to hold
the plastic blocks in place as shown.
Figure E
Continue
Start Here
SW4 - Slide switch
SW5 - Slide switch
SW6 - Slide switch
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Top legend side of PC board
Mount spacer and LED flush to the PC board,
with the flat side of the LED in the same
direction as the marking on the top legend side
of the PC board.
Flat
Spacer
Flat
Figure B
J24 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure C)
U7 - IC socket 14-pin
U7 - 7403 IC
(see Figure D)
R18 - 1kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
J20 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure C)
J21 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure C)
J22 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure C)
R15 - 220W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-brown-gold)
J19 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure C)
U8 - 14-pin IC socket
U8 - 74HC04 IC
(see Figure D)
Continue
U9 - IC socket 14-pin
U9 - 74HC04 IC
(see Figure D)
Start Here
Figure C
-41-
Cut a piece of bare wire long
enough so that 1/4” of wire
passes through each hole in
the PC board after the wire is
formed (provided in the
second package).
Jumper wire
Top legend side of PC board
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
IC socket
IC
Insert the IC socket into the PC
board with the notch in the
direction shown on the top legend.
Solder the IC socket into place.
Insert the IC into the socket with
the notch in the same direction as
the notch on the socket.
Notch
Figure D
R17 - 1kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
R16 - 1kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
R19 - 1kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
D18 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
D19 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
D20 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
D21 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
D22 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
D23 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
D24 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
J27 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure C)
D25 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
Continue
Figure P
IC
Mica
6-23 Nut
* Silicone grease
Figure Q
7805
U3
* Take a small amount of silicone grease from the
packet and apply it with a toothpick onto the back of
the ICs.
Side panel
Insulator washer
6-32 x 5/16” Screw
r U3 - LM7805
r U1 - LM317
r U5 - LM337
-10-
U1
LM317
U5
LM337
Left Side
Mount U1, U3 and U5 to the left side panel as shown in Figure Q. Insert the pins of each IC into the holes of the
PC board. Then, with the hardware shown in Figure P, attach each IC to the side panel. Solder the pins of the
ICs to the PC board.
MOUNT COMPONENTS TO THE SIDE PANELS
7912
U4
r Yellow wire to point G on the PC board
r Blue wire to point B on the PC board
r Red wire to point D on the PC board
r White wire to point E on the PC board
r Red wire to point C on the PC board
r Blue wire to point A on the PC board
7812
U2
-11-
Figure U
Yellow (G)
Yellow (F)
White (E)
Red (D)
Red (C)
Blue (B)
Blue (A)
Mica
Yellow (G)
Blue (B)
Red (D)
White (E)
Red (C)
Blue (A)
Yellow (F)
Right Side
Note: Make sure that
the transformer does
not touch U4.
Solder the wires to the PC board starting with the top yellow wire as shown in Figure U.
r Yellow wire to point F on the PC board
IC
6-23 Nut
* Silicone Grease
* Take a small amount of silicone grease from the packet and
apply it with a toothpick onto the back of the ICs.
Figure R
Side Panel
Insulator Washer
6-32 x 5/16” Screw
#8-32 x 3/8” Screws
WIRE THE TRANSFORMER TO THE PC BOARD
8-32 Nuts
#8 Lockwashers
Transformer
Black wires
Figure S
r Transformer mounted
Mount the transformer with the black wires as shown in Figure S.
Use the two 8-32 x 3/8” screws, #8 lockwashers, and 8-32 nuts.
r U2 - LM7812
r U4 - LM7912
Mount U2 and U4 to the right side panel as shown in Figure S.
Insert the pins of each IC into the holes in the PC board. Then,
with the hardware shown in Figure R, attach each IC to the side
panel. Solder the pins of the ICs to the PC board.
PC Board
-40-
Mount the connector as shown and solder the pins
of the connector.
Figure A
R36 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
R37 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
S4 - 4-pin connector
(see Figure A)
R38 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
R39 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
R40 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
R41 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
S5 - 4-pin connector
(see Figure A)
R42 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
R43 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
Start Here
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
R25 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R23 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R21 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R24 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R22 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R20 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R26 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R29 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R31 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R30 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R27 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R28 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R32 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R33 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R35 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R34 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
Start Here
-39-
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
A
Figure 1
Inner
Crimp Tab
B
Solder
C
Figure 2
Female Housing
Locking Tab
Outer
Crimp Tab
Male Pin
Figure 5
A
Lock Arm
Figure 3
Inner
Crimp Tab
B
-12-
Solder
C
Figure 4
Male Housing
r Strip the insulation off of each of the black primary wires to expose 1/4” of bare wire.
r Place the wire onto the male pin and crimp the outer crimp tabs with pliers over the insulation as shown in
Figure 3A.
r Crimp the inner tabs with pliers onto the bare wire as shown in Figure 3B.
r Solder the wire to the pin as shown in Figure 3C.
r Connect the other male pin to the other primary wire using the same procedures above.
r Insert the two pin/wire assemblies into the male housing as shown in Figure 4. Pull on the wire to check that
the pin is inserted all the way in. It should not pull out of the housing.
r Connect the male and female housing as shown in Figure 5. Note that the connector only fits together one way.
r To detach the connector, push down on the end of the lock arm and pull the two apart.
Transformer Wires
Locking Tab
Outer
Crimp Tab
Female Pin
r Cut a six inch length off of each black primary wire.
r Strip the insulation off of each end of the six inch wires to expose 1/4” of bare wire.
r Place one wire onto the female pin and crimp the outer crimp tabs with pliers over the insulation as shown in
Figure 1A.
r Crimp the inner tabs with pliers onto the bare wire as shown in Figure 1B.
r Solder the wire to the pin as shown in Figure 1C.
r Connect the other female pin to the other wire using the same procedures above.
r Insert the two pin/wire assemblies into the female housing as shown in Figure 2. Pull on the wire to check that
the pin is inserted all the way in. It should not pull out of the housing. The locking tabs should be bent outward
to hold the pin in the housing.
A connector will be placed onto the primary wires of the transformer. This will allow you to remove the top panel
from the trainer. Follow the procedures below.
HOW TO INSTALL CONNECTORS ONTO TRANSFORMER WIRES
Figure W
#4 x 1/4” AB screws
Top panel
4-40 x 1/4”
Flat head
screw
Spacer
Breadboard
-13-
Figure Y
r When mounting the breadboard, use the holes shown
in Figure X. Mount the breadboard with two #4 x 1/4”
AB black screws from the back side of the top panel as
shown in Figure W. The negative (blue) stripe should
be on top and the numbers reading from left to right
should start with number 1 (see Figure Y). CAUTION:
Do not remove the paper backing from the back of
the breadboards. Do not over-tighten the black
screws.
r There is a raised area on the back side of the top panel.
Screw the spacer to the raised area by inserting a 4-40
x 1/4” flat head screw into the hole in the raised area
from the top side of the panel (see Figure W).
r Install the fuse holder with the side lug in the position
shown in Figure V. Fasten the fuse holder in place with
the nut as shown in Figure V. Unscrew the cap and
insert the fuse into the holder.
Figure V
Top panel
Figure X
Fuse holder
Plastic washer
Illuminated switch
Back Side - Lower
Right Corner
1
f g h i j
a b c d e
r Push the illuminated switch into the hole in the top
panel with the lugs as shown in Figure V.
5
MOUNT COMPONENTS TO PANEL
10
Side lug
Nut
2
7
6
5
4
3
-38-
7. Breadboard - One breadboard containing 730 tie points.
6. Output Terminal - For all functions as stated. 4 pins per block.
5. Eight Data Switches - Lets output of 5V or 0V depending on position.
4. Logic Indictators - Eight LEDs.
3. Input Terminals for Logic Indicator LEDs - “A” input corresponds with “A” lamp, etc.
2. Two Logic Switches - These are no bounce logic switches. Give one signal state change per movement of
switch.
1. Output Terminals - For all functions as stated. 4 pins per block.
1
USERS DESCRIPTION OF FRONT PANEL
Symbol
U7
D18 - D25
U8, U9
Symbol
SW4 - SW13
S4, S5
Qty.
r1
r8
r2
Qty.
r 10
r2
r8
r2
r3
r 12
r1
74HC04
Value
SN7403
Color Code
brown-red-brown-gold
red-red-brown-gold
brown-black-red-gold
brown-black-yellow-gold
RESISTORS
Description
Slide switch SPDT
Connector 4-pin
Spacer 1/4” #8
Screw
Socket IC 14-Pin
Breadboard
Bredblox
MISCELLANEOUS
Description
Integrated circuit (IC)
Light emitting diode (LED), red
Integrated circuit (IC)
SEMICONDUCTORS
Value
120W 5% 1/4W
220W 5% 1/4W
1kW 5% 1/4W
100kW 5% 1/4W
Part #
541009
591042
624124
642430
664014
665204
99426
Part #
337403
350002
39HC04
Part #
131200
132200
141000
161000
-37-
• Data switches, eight DPDT, Hi 5V, low 0V.
• Logic switches, two no bounce with complementary output.
“On” voltage level 2.8V min., “Off” voltage level 1V max.
Input impedance 100kW.
• Eight LED readouts, 100kW input impedance.
• Clock frequency, 1Hz to 100kHz in 5 steps continuously variable.
• Clock amplitude, 5Vpp squarewave.
• Clock rise time, better than 100 nsec.
• Breadboard 730 tie points.
SPECIFICATIONS
The Digital Section is the fourth package of the XK-700K kit that you are building. The Digital Section of your
trainer contains all of the necessary functions to do your digital designs. They consist of a clock generator, two
no bounce logic switches, 8 LED indicator lamps and 8 data switches. We have also added a 730 tie point
Breadblox to your already existing 830 tie points, giving you a total of 1560 tie points to handle complex circuit
designs.
INTRODUCTION
U7 - U9
B7 - B18
Symbol
R36 - R43
R15
R16 - R19
R20 - R35
Qty.
r8
r1
r4
r 16
XK-700 DIGITAL KIT (DG-700-D) PARTS LIST
DG-700-D
Figure Z
Smooth line
cord wire
Green line
cord wire
Solder lug
Ribbed line cord wire
(A) Black
transformer wire
(B) Black
transformer wire
Female connector
6-32 x 5/16”
Screw
1/4” Dia. shrink tubing
-14-
Switch
1
6-32 Nut
Fuse holder
1/2” Dia.
shrink tubing
Switch Pin-out
2
3
Side lug
3/16” Dia.
shrink tubing
6” Red wire
3/4” Dia. shrink tubing
Disconnect the connector for the transformer.
r Pass the 6” strip of red wire (leading from the side lug of the fuse holder), the (A) and (B) black transformer
wire, and the ribbed line cord wire through the 3/4” diameter piece of shrink tubing.
r Cut the 2” section of 3/16” diameter shrink tubing in half to create two 1” sections. Slide a 3/16” diameter
piece of shrink tubing over the loose end of the red wire. Attach the red wire to lug 1 on the switch and
then solder into place.
r Pass the black transformer wire labeled (B) through a 3/16” diameter piece of shrink tubing. Attach the wire
to lug 2 on the switch and then solder into place.
r Slide the shrink tubing over lug 1 and lug 2 on the switch. Shrink the tubing into place.
r Strip the insulation off of the black transformer wire (A) and the ribbed edged line cord wire to expose 1/2” of
bare wire. Twist the two bare wires together. Pass the wires through the 1/4” diameter piece of shrink tubing.
Attach the wires to lug 3 on the switch and solder into place. Slide the tubing over the lug. Shrink the tubing
into place.
r Slide the 3/4” diameter shrink tubing over the switch and shrink into place.
r Reconnect the connector for the transformer.
Switch
r Strip the insulation off of both ends of the 6” red wire to expose 1/4” of bare wire. Pass the wire through the
1/2” diameter shrink tubing. Attach one end to the side lug on the fuse holder and then solder into place.
r Pass the smooth edged line cord wire through the 1/2” diameter shrink tubing and attach to the end lug on the
fuse holder, solder into place.
r Slide the shrink tubing over the fuse holder covering both lugs. Shrink the tubing for a snug fit. You may use
a hair dryer, heat gun (at lowest setting or you will melt the tubing) or the heat emitting from your soldering iron
(do not touch the tubing or the wires with the iron).
Fuse
r Slide the line cord through the frame as shown.
r Spread the three line cord wires apart 6” from the end.
r Mount the solder lug to the side panel using a 6-32 x 5/16” screw and 6-32 nut.
Line Cord
WIRE SWITCH AND FUSE HOLDER (see Figure Z)
-15-
Resistance
Measured
VR1 & VR2 Adjustment
less than 1W
Infinite (SW1 Off)
7W (SW1 On)
1.5W
1.2W
1.6W
greater than 20kW
greater than 20kW
greater than 20kW
greater than 20kW
greater than 20kW
CCW <1W CW >1.4kW
greater than 1.4kW
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
CCW 1.2kW CW 3.3kW
less than 1W
CCW 1.2kW CW 3.3kW
less than 1W
greater than 5kW
less than 1W
greater than 5kW
less than 1W
greater than 5kW
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
Ohms
CCW - Counter Clockwise CW - Clockwise
Earth Ground
On/Off Switch, Fuse
On/Off, Fuse
12V Secondary
5V Secondary
Variable Voltage
+12V Regulator Input
–12V Regulator Input
+5V Regulator Input
+Variable Regulator Input
–Variable Regulator Input
Voltage ADJ +20V Regulator
Voltage ADJ -20V Regulator
+5V Regulator GND
+12V Regulator GND
–12V Regulator GND
+12V Regulator Input
–12V Regulator Input
+5V Regulator Input
+Variable Regulator Input
–Variable Regulator Input
Voltage ADJ +20V Regulator
+Variable Regulator Output
Voltage ADJ –20V Regulator
–Variable Regulator Output
+5V Regulator Output
+5V Regulator Output
+12V Regulator Output
+12V Regulator Output
–12V Regulator Output
–12V Regulator Output
15VAC
15VAC
Circuit
COM
VW
Note: meter lead polarity
Right Side Panel
3
3
5
7
9
GND 5-pin connector
GND (VW) (5-pin connector)
GND (B1)
GND (B1)
GND (VW) (5-pin connector)
GND (VW) (5-pin connector)
GND (VW) (5-pin connector)
GND (5-pin connector)
GND (5-pin connector)
GND (5-pin connector)
15
16
17
18
19
14
+20 (5-pin connector)
13
–20 (5-pin connector)
GND (5-pin connector)
B4
GND (5-pin connector)
B3
GND (5-pin connector)
B2
15VAC (5-pin connector right)
15VAC (5-pin connector left)
To
20A 2A COM VW
+30%
1
2
2
4
6
8
10
11 (com)
12
13
14 (com)
25 (com)
26
27
28
29
10
11
12
13
14
20
20
20
21
22
22
23
23
24
24
5
4
From
See Figure AA for locations of testing points.
Static testing of the power supply circuits. Do not plug the power supply into the 120VAC power supply
source until all resistance readings check out. The values given below are approximate.
RESISTANCE ANALYSIS OF POWER SUPPLY
-36-
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM - ANALOG SECTION
Timing
Capacitor
6
5
VCO
+1
Multiplier
and
Sine
Shaper
11
12
13
14
15
16
FKS
Input
Bypass
Sync
Output
Ground
Waveform
ADJ.
Symmetry
ADJ.
10. The sync output produces . . .
r A. a sine wave.
r B. a saw wave.
r C. voltage spikes.
r D. a square wave.
9. Clipping of the sine wave outputs can be
corrected by . . .
r A. P5.
r B. the DC offset pot.
r C. lowering the +5V power supply.
r D. none of the above.
8. The square wave and CLK output are 180O out
of phase because . . .
r A. Q2 inverts the CLK output.
r B. Q1 inverts the square wave output.
r C. a negative voltage is applied to P5.
r D. pin 12 is tied to –12V.
7. A 1 volt DC level on the FM input will . . .
r A. shift the frequency 1kHz.
r B. shift the frequency to DC.
r C. have no effect.
r D. shift the frequency 1MHz.
6. Coarse frequency is set by . . .
r A. P6.
r B. capacitor C11 through C15.
r C. C21.
r D. P1 and SW9.
-35-
Answers: 1. C; 2. D; 3. D; 4. C; 5. D; 6. B; 7. C; 8. A; 9. D; 10. D
5. Adjusting P4 from +12V to –12V effects . . .
r A. sine wave amplitude.
r B. modulation.
r C. frequency stability.
r D. DC offset.
4. What pins on the 2206 IC are used to change the
sine wave to a saw wave?
r A. 5, 6
r B. 15, 16
r C. 13, 14
r D. 4, 12
3. The RC time constant is determined by . . .
r A. pins 5 and 6.
r B. voltage controlled oscillator.
r C. pin 7 and a variable resistor.
r D. components on pins 5, 6, and 7.
2. Increasing the current of the VCO will effect the . . .
r A. amplitude.
r B. DC offset.
r C. AM modulation.
r D. frequency.
1. The analog multiplier is part of . . .
r A. the voltage controlled oscillator.
r B. unity gain buffer amplifier.
r C. four function blocks.
r D. timing capacitor circuit.
INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following examination and check your answers carefully.
QUIZ - ANALOG SECTION
The VCO produces a square wave signal. This square wave is sent to a shaper and converted into a sine wave.
7
10
Current
The VCO actually produces an output frequency proportional to an Timing
Switches
Resistor
input current. Across pins 5 and 6, a timing capacitor is switched in
8
9
to give 5 different ranges of frequencies via COARSE FREQ switch.
Figure P
On pin 7, the FINE FREQ ADJ variable resistor controls the actual
frequency output. These two components form the RC time constants for the oscillator frequency.
The XR2206 is comprised of four functions blocks, a voltage
controlled oscillator (VCO), an analog multiplier and sine shaper, a
unity gain buffer amplifier, and a set of current switches.
4
3
V+
Mult. Out
2
1
Sine/Saw
Output
AM Input
LM-7812
23
LM-7805
17
The function generator frequencies are produced by an XR2206
integrated circuit. This IC is capable of producing high quality sine,
square and triangle waveforms of high stability and accuracy. The
output waveform can be both amplitude and frequency modulated
by an external voltage. Figure P shows the block diagram of the
XR2206 IC.
LM-7912
Locations for Testing Points
28
27
24
16
Functional Block Diagram
15
•••
22
5
-16-
Figure AA
LM-317
11
29
Ground
25
20
6
12
–20V
Pot
4
18
•••
•••
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
3
LM-337
2
5-pin connector left
5-pin connector right
5-pin connector –20
GND
5-pin connector +20
B1
On test points 4 - 14
use the leads of the
diodes.
1
Plug of line cord
26
13
19
10
7
8
+20V
Pot
9
14
21
•••
•••
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
15VAC
5-pin
connector
right
To
+12V Regulator Input
+12V Regulator Output
–12V Regulator Input
–12V Regulator Output
+5V Regulator Input
+5V Regulator Output
+20V Regulator Input
Voltage ADJ +20V Regulator
+20V Output
–20 Regulator Input
Voltage ADJ -20V Regulator
–20V Output
30VAC
Circuit
-17-
5. Plug trainer into 120VAC power source and turn the unit on.
4. Place the new fuse into the fuse holder cap and screw it back into the holder.
3. Use only a 1.25A fuse. Larger fuses or other fuse bypass will void the
warranty of the trainer.
2. Unscrew fuse holder cap and remove fuse.
Volts Measured
CCW - Counter-Clockwise CW - Clockwise
+21V
+12V
–21V
–12V
+12.5V
+5V
+28V
CCW 0V CW +20V
CCW +1.25V CW +20V
–28V
CCW 0V CW –20V
CCW –1.25V CW –20V
30VAC
Volts
1. Turn the trainer off and unplug it from 120VAC power source.
FUSE REPLACEMENT
Place the top panel on top of the unit.
r Turn unit off.
+30%
15
B3
16
B2
17
B4
18
+20 5-pin connector
+20 5-pin connector
19
–20 5-pin connector
–20 5-pin connector
15VAC
5-pin
connector
left
From
See Figure AA for locations of the testing points.
Place the top panel on the unit. If any capacitors are inserted backwards, the panel will shield you if they
explode. Make sure that the ON/OFF switch is in the OFF position. Plug the line cord into the 120VAC power
source. Turn the unit on and let it sit for a few minutes. Turn OFF the ON/OFF switch and remove the top panel,
placing it along the left side of the trainer. Turn ON the ON/OFF switch and measure the voltage point as listed
in the chart below. The values given are approximate.
Proceed with the voltage analysis only if the resistance readings were satisfactory.
VOLTAGE ANALYSIS OF POWER SUPPLY
Figure K
Washers 8mm
Nuts 7mm
#6 x 3/8” Thread
cutting screws
Knobs
Nuts 8mm
Nut 7mm
#6 x 3/8” Thread
cutting screws
Washer 8mm
Washers 9mm
Figure L
4-40 x 1/4” Screw
Fiber washer
-34-
10k
100k
Figure N
AMPLITUDE
COARSE FREQ
1k
Figure M
WAVE FORM
10
100
Figure O
r Turn the shafts on the pots fully counter-clockwise. Push the knobs onto the shafts so that the line on the knob
is in line with the end of the circle on the front panel, as shown in Figure N.
If the knobs are loose on the shafts, insert a screwdriver into the slot and expand the slot slightly (see Figure O).
r Turn the shafts on the two
switches fully counterclockwise. Push the knobs
onto the shafts so that the
line on the knob is in line
with the “Squarewave” on
the waveform control and
“10”
on
the
Coarse
Frequency control (see
Figure M).
If the knobs are loose on the
shafts, insert a screwdriver
into the slot and expand the
slot slightly (see Figure O).
r Fasten the pots to the front
panel with an 8mm washer
and a 7mm nut, as shown in
Figure K.
r Fasten the PC board to the
spacer on the front panel
with a fiber washer and a 440 x 1/4” screw from the foil
side of the PC board, in the
location shown in Figure L.
r Fasten the front panel in
place with four #6 x 3/8”
thread cutting screws, as
shown in Figure K.
If you are immediately going to build the remaining section, do not continue with the instructions on this
page, proceed to page 35.
FINAL ASSEMBLY
Trim pot adjustment
1. Check pin 11 of U6 for square wave.
A. Check Q2 shorted to ground.
B. Check R10, R12 and Q3.
C. Defective IC.
1. Check C18-22, C24, R13, SW2 and VR7.
Outputs wrong frequency
DC offset not working
No square wave or low amplitude
(FREQ output)
-33-
1. Check voltage on VR6 for +12V and –12V; check R8.
1. Check pin 11 of U6 for square wave.
A. Check Q2 shorted to ground.
B. Check R3, R49, SW3.
C. Defective IC.
1. Measure voltage at pins 7 (+12V) and 4 (–12V).
2. Adjust VR8.
3. Check R7, R9, R11, R14, R44-49, D16-17 and Q2-3.
1. R5 wrong value.
No CLK wave output or low amplitude
Wave forms clip top or bottom
Saw wave in sine position
1. Check U6 pin 2 for wave form.
A. Check VR8, voltage to IC.
1. Check voltage at pins 4 (+12V) and 12 (–12V) of U6.
2. Check for wave forms at pin 2 of U6 and pin 3 of U10.
A. Check R3-4, R7, R13, C18-22, C24, SW2-3, VR5 & VR7.
3. Measure voltage at pins 7 (+12V) and 4 (–12V) of U10.
4. Check R8, R9, R11, R14, R44-48, D16, D17, Q1 and Q2.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
No sine, triangle or low amplitude
No wave form at FREQ
PROBLEM
This chart lists the condition and possible causes of several malfunctions. If a particular part is mentioned as a
possible cause, check that part to see if it was installed correctly. Also, check it and the parts connected to it for
good solder connections.
TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
Turn the unit off and unplug it from the AC outlet.
TESTING THE SQUARE WAVEFORM
1. Switch the WAVEFORM knob to its square wave setting.
2. Set your meter to the 20 volts AC range, you should now read about 12.5 volts AC.
TESTING THE TRIANGLE WAVEFORM
1. Switch the WAVEFORM knob to its triangle wave setting.
2. With the meter set to the 20 volts AC range, you should read about
6.3 volts AC.
Note: Adjusting the DC offset will affect the VAC readings.
7. Set the meter to the 20 volts AC range and slowly turn VR8
clockwise until the meter reads 5.8 volts AC.
6. Adjust the DC OFFSET knob until the meter reads 0 volts DC.
5. Set VR8 fully counter-clockwise.
Check the variable voltage supplies in the same
manner. Set the output voltage between 10-15 volts.
Place the 25W 10 watt resistor across the output
terminal. The voltage should stay within 0.20 volts of
the no load voltage.
12V supply should not change more than 0.20 volts.
Do the same on the 5V supply using a 10W 5 watt
resistor. Again, the output should not change more
than 0.20 volts. In making this test, the voltmeter
leads should be clipped to the terminal directly and
no to the load leads. This is to prevent errors due to
voltage drop from contact resistance of the load.
No or low voltage at positive variable
output with load.
No or low voltage at positive variable
output.
Fuse blows when the unit is turned on.
Switch doesn’t light.
PROBLEM
-18-
1. Check that capacitor C1 1000mF is inserted in the correct
polarity.
2. Check ripple on pin 3 of U1. 8VP-P Max.
A. Capacitor C1, and/or diodes D7, D9 defective.
1. Voltage supply shorted to GND. Use resistance analysis
chart to find short.
1. Measure for an AC voltage of 18VAC at anode of D7 & D9.
A. Transformer and/or secondary connection to PC
board defective
2. Measure for a DC voltage of 28VDC at pin 3 of U1 LM317.
A. Diodes D7, D9 in backwards or defective, check
capacitor C1.
3. Set the voltage for minimum and measure pin 2
of U1.
A. Voltage adjusts only from 7.8 - 9.8V R1 open or
defective.
B. Voltage 27V, check VR1 connections.
1. Check fuse and line cord.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
This chart lists the condition and possible causes of several malfunctions. If a particular part is mentioned as a
possible cause, check that part to see if it was installed correctly. Also, check it and the parts connected to it for
good solder connections. Note: The values given in this troubleshooting chart are an approximation.
TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
Do not short the 15VAC output to ground.
Short the +12V, –12V and +5V supply to ground.
They should turn off and recover when the short is
removed. If you have a 25W 10 watt resistor, place it
across the output terminal (2 watt resistor will work,
but use it only for a few seconds). The output of the
Plug the trainer into a 120VAC outlet and switch to
the “ON” position (the power switch should light).
With a digital voltmeter, measure the voltage outputs
at the power blocks. The +12V should measure
between 11.4 and 12.6 volts. The 5V supply should
read between 4.75 and 5.25 volts. The –12V supply
should read between –11.4 and 12.6 volts.
POWER SUPPLY TESTING
1. Check capacitor C4 is inserted in the correct polarity.
2. Check ripple on pin 2 of U3. 7VP-P Max.
A. Capacitor C4 and/or diodes D1, D3 defective.
1. Check that capacitor C3 is inserted in the correct polarity.
2. Check ripple on pin 1 of U3. 4VP-P Max.
A. Capacitor C3 and/or diodes D5, D6 defective.
No +5VDC at output with load.
No +5VDC at output
-19-
1. Measure an AC voltage of 9VAC at anode of D5, D6.
A. Transformer and/or secondary connection to PC board
defective.
2. Measure for a DC voltage of 12VDC at pin 1 of U3 LM7805.
A. Diodes D5, D6 in backwards or defective, check
capacitor C3.
3. Measure for a 5VDC voltage on pin 3 of U3 LM7805.
A. U3 LM7805 defective or open ground.
1. Measure an AC voltage of 15VAC at anode of D2, D4.
A. Transformer and/or secondary connection to PC board
defective.
2. Measure for a DC voltage of -21VDC at pin 2 of U4 LM7912.
A. Diodes D2, D4 in backwards or defective, check
capacitor C4.
3. Measure for a –12VDC voltage on pin 3 of U4.
A. U4 LM7912 defective or open ground.
No –12V at output with load.
No –12V at output.
1. Check capacitor C2 1000mF is inserted in the correct
polarity.
2. Check ripple on pin 1 of U2. 7VP-P Max.
A. Capacitor C2 or diodes D1, D3 defective.
No +12V at output with load.
1. Measure an AC voltage of 15VAC at anode of D1, D3.
A. Transformer and/or secondary connection to PC board
defective.
2. Measure for a DC voltage of 21VDC at pin 1 of U2 LM7812.
A. Diodes D1, D3 in backwards or defective, check
capacitor C1.
3. Measure for a DC voltage of 12VDC on pin 3 of U2.
A. U2 LM7812 defective or open ground.
No +12V at output.
1. Check to see if capacitor C5 1000mF is inserted in the
correct polarity.
2. Check ripple on pin 2 of U5. 6VP-P max.
A. Capacitor C5 and/or diodes D8, D10 defective.
No or low voltage at negative variable
output with load.
1. Measure for an AC voltage of 18VAC at cathode of D8, D10.
A. Transformer and/or secondary connection to PC board
defective.
2. Measure DC voltage of –28VDC at pin 2 of U5 LM337.
3. Set voltage for minimum and measure pin 3 of U5.
A. Voltage adjusts only from –7.8 to –9.8V R2 open or
defective.
B. Voltage –27V, check VR2 connections.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
No voltage at negative variable output.
PROBLEM
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
GND
GND (B1)
GND (B1)
GND (B1)
GND (B1)
To
7
12
Figure J
U6 Vcc
U6 GND
U10 Vcc
U10 Vcc–
Circuit
+12V
–12V
+12V
–12V
4
Volts
Volts Measured
4
-32-
4. Set the DC offset to the middle position. Then, turn on the trainer.
3. Set the WAVEFORM knob to SINE, COARSE FREQUENCY knob to 1k and the FINE ADJ and AMPLITUDE
knobs fully clockwise.
2. Connect the red meter lead to the 4-pin breadblock marked FREQ and the black lead wire to the 4-pin
breadblock marked GND.
1. Set your meter to the 200mV DC range.
TESTING THE SINE WAVE
Note: Use the knobs when turning the switches.
TESTING THE FUNCTION GENERATOR
Turn unit right side up.
1
2
3
4
U10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
U6
Pin 4 (U6)
Pin 12 (U6)
Pin 7 (U10)
Pin 4 (U10)
From
Proceed with the voltage analysis only if the resistance readings were satisfactory. The values given below are
approximate.
The following measurements will be taken from the copper side of the PC board. Turn the unit on and place it
upside down.
See Figure J for locations of the testing points.
VOLTAGE ANALYSIS OF ANALOG SECTION
Pin 3 (U10)
Pin 3 (U10)
To
Pin 3 (U10)
Pin 3 (U10)
Pin 14 (U6)
To
30%
Pin 2 (U6)
Pin 2 (U6)
Pin 13 (U6)
Pin 3 (U6)
Pin 3 (U6)
Pin 4 (U6)
Pin 7 (U6)
Pin 7 (U6)
Pin 12 (U6)
From
Sine Wave
Sine Wave
Sine Wave
Mult
Mult
VCC
Fine Freq Adj
Fine Freq Adj
GND
Circuit
Triangle Wave
Triangle Wave
Triangle Wave
Circuit
Square Wave
Square Wave
Circuit
VR8
CCW - Counter-Clockwise
Pin 3 (U10)
Pin 3 (U10)
Pin 14 (U6)
GND (B1)
GND (B1)
+12V (B3)
–12V (B2)
–12V (B2)
–12V (B2)
To
SET SW3 TO SINE WAVE
Pin 2 (U6)
Pin 2 (U6)
Pin 13 (U6)
From
SET SW3 TO TRIANGLE WAVE
Pin 11 (U6)
Pin 11 (U6)
From
SET SW3 TO SQUARE WAVE (refer to top panel)
1
2
3
4
-31-
8
7
6
5
U10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
U6
CW - Clockwise
VR5 CCW 14.7kW
VR5 CW 4.7kW
200W
VR8 CCW < 10W
VR8 CW 100kW
Less than 3W
VR7 CCW 108.2kW
VR7 CW 8.2kW
Less than 3W
Ohms
VR5 CCW 14.7kW
VR5 CW 4.7kW
Greater than 1kW
Ohms
VR5 CCW 12.3kW
VR5 CW 6.7kW
Ohms
Resistance Measured
Resistance Measured
Resistance Measured
Static testing of the analog circuits. Do not plug in the power supply into 120VAC power source until all
resistance readings check out. The values given below are approximated.
RESISTANCE ANALYSIS OF ANALOG SECTION
4-40 x 1/4” Screw
Washers 8mm
Nuts 7mm
Fiber Washer
Figure BB
Figure CC
r Turn the shafts on the two
switches fully counter-clockwise. Push the knobs onto
the shafts so that the line on
the knob is in line with the
end of the circle on the front
panel (see Figure DD). If the
knob is loose on the shaft,
insert a screwdriver into the
slot and expand the slot
slightly (see Figure EE).
r Fasten the pots to the front
panel with an 8mm washer
and a 7mm nut, as shown in
Figure BB.
r Fasten the PC board to the
spacer on the front panel
with a fiber washer and a 440 x 1/4” screw (from
Power Supply Section)
from the foil side of the PC
board, in the location
shown in Figure CC.
r Fasten the front panel in
place with four #6 x 3/8”
thread cutting screws, as
shown in Figure BB.
-20-
Figure DD
#6 x 3/8” Thread
Cutting Screws
Knobs
Figure EE
#6 x 3/8” Thread
Cutting Screws
Washers 8mm
Nuts 7mm
If you are immediately going to build the remaining sections, do not continue with the instructions on this
page and proceed to page 22.
FINAL ASSEMBLY
Figure HH
Figure FF
Back panel
-21-
Figure GG
Back panel
Figure II
#6 x 1/2” AB Screw
#6 Washer
r Align the holes in the bottom case with those in the trainer and secure it into place with four #6 x 1/2” AB
screws and four #6 washer as shown in Figure II.
r Lay the trainer inside of the case as shown in Figure HH.
r Squeeze the two sections together with pliers as shown in Figure GG. Then, insert the strain relief into the hole.
r Place the strain relief onto the line cord as shown in Figure FF.
INSTALL COMPLETED UNIT INTO CASE
SW3 - SW Rotary 16-Pin
(see Figure I)
SW2 - SW Rotary 12-Pin
(see Figure I)
VR7 - 100kW Pot
(see Figure H)
VR5 - 10kW Pot
(see Figure H)
VR6 - 100kW Pot
(see Figure H)
R6 - 12kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-orange-gold)
C18 - .001mF (102) Mylar
(see Figure EA)
J17 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
R13 - 8.2kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(gray-red-red-gold)
J18 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
Start Here
-30-
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Figure I
Switches
Cut off
tab
Cut off
tab
C19 - .01mF (103) Mylar
(see Figure EA)
C20 - .1mF (104) Mylar
(see Figure EA)
C22 - 10mF 25V Electrolytic
(see Figure D)
C21 - 1mF 50V Electrolytic
(see Figure D)
Continue
Mount down flush with PC board.
Note: SW2 has 12 pins and SW3
has 16 pins.
Potentiometers
Cut off excess lead
length after soldering.
Mount down flush with
PC board. The value
may be marked on the
back side of pot.
Figure H
R45 - 22kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-orange-gold)
Bend the capacitors at a 45o angle before
soldering it to the PC board.
Figure EA
Mount the trim pot to the PC board as
shown below.
Figure E
J23 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
D17 - 1N4148 Diode
(see Figure G)
R44 - 100W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-brown-gold)
Figure G
Band
-29-
Diodes have polarity. Mount with
band in the direction shown on the
PC board.
Melt Pins
Plastic Pins
Hold the bredblox down flush to the PC board from the top legend side
and solder the metal pins in place. Then, melt the plastic pins with your
soldering iron to hold the bredblox down as shown. Re-tin the solder tip
afterwards.
Figure F
Q2 - 2N3906 Transistor
(see Figure C)
J16 - Jumper Wire
J15 - Jumper Wire
J14 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
R46 - 330W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(orange-orange-brown-gold)
R12 - 1kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
B5 - 4-pin Bredblox
(see Figure F)
R47 - 330W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(orange-orange-brown-gold)
Q1 - 2N3904 Transistor
(see Figure C)
R48 - 22kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-orange-gold)
Continue
R14 - 100W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-brown-gold)
D16 - 1N4148 Diode
(see Figure G)
B6 - 4-pin Bredblox
(see Figure F)
Start Here
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Transformer
120V to 17V
AC to DC
converter
28VDC
Figure 1
Simplified diagram of positive power supply
17VAC
-22-
Capacitor C1 is used to store the current charges, thus smoothing the DC
voltage. The larger the capacitor, the more current is stored. In this design,
1000mF capacitors are used, which allows about 5 volts AC ripple when
one amp is drawn.
By the addition of a second diode and transformer winding we can fill in the
gap between cycles as shown in Figure 4. This circuit is called full-wave
rectification. Each diode conducts when the voltage is positive. By adding
the two outputs, the voltage presented to capacitor C1 is more complete,
thus easier to filter, as shown in Figure 2E. When used in 60 cycles AC
input power, the output of a full wave rectifier will be 120 cycles.
Diodes are semiconductor devices that allow current to flow in only one
direction. The arrow in Figure 3 points to the direction that the current will
flow. Only when the transformer voltage is positive will current flow through
the diodes. Figure 3 shows the simplest possible rectifier circuit. This circuit
is known as a half-wave rectifier. Here the diode conducts only half of the
time when the AC wave is positive as shown in Figure 2C. Use of this circuit
is simple but inefficient. The big gap between cycles require much more
filtering to obtain a smooth DC voltage.
The AC to DC converter consists of diodes D1, D3 and capacitor C1.
Transformer T1 has two secondary windings which are 180 degrees out of
phase. The output at each winding is shown in Figure 2A and 2B.
AC TO DC CONVERTER
The transformer T1 serves two purposes. First, it reduces the 120VAC input
to 17VAC to allow the proper voltage to enter the rectifier stages. Second,
it isolates the power supply output from the 120VAC line. This prevents the
user from dangerous voltages should he or she be standing in a grounded
area.
TRANSFORMER
120VAC
input
Regulated
output
0 - 20V
Figure 4
Full wave rectifier
Figure 3
Half wave rectifier
Figure 2
F) Output of capacitor C1
Ripple depends on load
current (expanded).
20V
E) Total of diodes
D1 & D2.
C) Output of
diode D1.
D) Output of
diode D2.
B) Transformer
winding BC
A) Transformer
winding AB
Voltage Waveform for Supply
Voltage
regulator
Figure 1 shows a simplified circuit diagram of the positive supply. It consists of a power transformer, a DC rectifier
stage and the regulator stage.
THE POSITIVE 0 TO 20V POWER SUPPLY
The power supply features two variable output voltages and three fixed 12V, –12V and 5V variable output voltages
are 0V to 20V and 0 to –20V at up to 1 ampere maximum current. All supplies are regulated to better than 0.2V
when going from no load to full load. Varying the input AC voltage from 105 to 135V will have practically no effect
on the output voltages. This is because of the specially designed ICs used in the XK-700 Digital/Analog Trainer.
Severe overloading or even shorting the output circuits will not damage the supplies. Special turn-off circuits in
the ICs sense the overload and turn off the output.
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
20V
Q1
Divider
Q4
Figure 6
Q2
Q3
Q5
2V
Output
R2
R1
differential amplifier. The base of transistor Q1 is
connected to a stable 1.5V reference voltage. The
base of Q2 is connected to the regulator output circuit
through a voltage divider network. The collector of
transistor Q2 is connected to a current source. This
1.5V
Current
source
equalized
to 1 meg.
The regulator circuit in the power supply consists of a
LM-317 integrated circuit. This IC is specially
designed to perform the regulation function. Figure 6
shows a simplified circuit of how the LM-317 IC works.
Transistors Q1 and Q2 form a circuit known as a
REGULATOR CIRCUIT
The DC load current may be one ampere, but the
peak diode current may be three times that.
Therefore, the diode rating must be sufficient to
handle the peak current. The 1N4001 has a peak
current rating of 10 amps.
Figure 5
C) Current
through diodes
B) Voltage C1
A) Transformer
winding
20V
Peak
In practice, the current through the diodes is not as
shown in Figure 2C. Because capacitor C1 has a
charge after the first cycle, the diode will not conduct
until the positive AC voltage exceeds the positive
charge in the capacitor. Figure 5 shows a better
picture of what the current flow looks like assuming
no loss in the diode. It takes a few cycles for the
voltage to build up on the capacitor. This depends on
the resistance of the winding and the diode. After the
initial start-up, there will be a charge and discharge
on the capacitor depending on the current drawn by
the output load. Remember, current only flows
through the diode when the anode is more positive
than the cathode. Thus, current will flow in short
bursts as shown in Figure 5.
-23-
0V - 20V
VR1
R1
The theory of the negative regulator is the same as
the previously discussed positive regulator. The basic
difference is that diodes D1 and D3 are reversed,
producing a negative voltage across capacitor C1.
The LM-317 IC is designed to operate from a negative
supply.
Figure 7
–DC
LM-317
THE NEGATIVE VOLTAGE REGULATOR
The LM-317 IC is basically a 1.25 volt regulator. To
be able to vary the output from 0V to 20V, you stack
the IC on the negative 1.25VDC voltage as shown in
Figure 7. When VR1 equals 0, the output voltage is 0
volts.
Another feature of the LM-317 regulator if to protect
the IC against overload and output shorts. If the IC is
overloaded, the junction of an overload transistor will
overheat. A transistor will sense this overheating and
shut down transistor Q5.
Transistor Q5 is called the pass transistor. It controls
the current reaching the output. Transistor Q3 and Q4
are emitter followers. Their function is to raise the
impedance of the pass transistor. Note that transistors
Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5 and resistor R1 form a closed loop.
Also, note that the feedback to the base of Q2 is
negative, that is, when the base of Q2 goes positive,
the output at emitter Q5 goes negative. Now if the 2
volt output voltage goes down because of current
drain at the output, the base of Q2 will drop, forcing
the collector voltage to go higher. This will bring the
output voltage back to 2 volts. This is the basis of all
negative feedback regulators.
basically is a PNP transistor biased to draw about
1mA of current. Transistor Q2 sees the current source
as a very high resistor of about 1 meg ohms. Thus,
the gain of transistor Q2 is extremely high.
Notch
Figure B
IC
Figure C
Cut a piece of bare wire long
enough so that 1/4” of wire
passes through each hole in
the PC board after the wire is
formed (provided in the
second package).
Figure A
C27 - 5pF (5) Discap
R11 - 4.7kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(yellow-violet-red-gold)
R8 - 51kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(green-brown-orange-gold)
U10 - IC socket 8-pin
U10 - LM318 IC
(see Figure B)
J11 - Jumper Wire
J12 - Jumper Wire
J13 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
C23 - 100pF (101) Discap
C26 - 22pF (22) Discap
-28-
Insert the IC socket into the PC
board with the notch in the
direction shown on the top
legend. Solder the IC socket
into place. Insert the IC into the
socket with the notch in the
same direction as the notch on
the socket.
Socket
Mount the transistor
with the flat side in
the direction shown
on the top legend.
Flat
R4 - 22kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-orange-gold)
Polarity mark
(–)
(+)
Mount the capacitors horizontal to the PC
board.
Bend the leads
at right angles
and then insert
the leads into
the PC board.
Electrolytics have a polarity
marking on them indicating
the negative (–) lead. The PC
board is marked to show the
lead positions.
Figure D
R9 - 47kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(yellow-violet-orange-gold)
R7 - 4.7kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(yellow-violet-red-gold)
C24 - 10mF 25V Lytic
(see Figure D)
R10 - 10kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-orange-gold)
Q3 - 2N3904 Transistor
(see Figure C)
R49 - 2kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-black-red-gold)
U6 - IC socket 16-pin
U6 - XR2206 IC
(see Figure B)
R3 - 6.8kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(blue-gray-red-gold)
VR8 - 100kW Trim Pot
(see Figure E)
J10 - Jumper Wire
J25 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
J8 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
R5 - 200W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-black-brown-gold)
Continue
C25 - .0022mF (222) Discap
J9 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
Start Here
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
3
4
7
2
5. DC OFFSET - Controls the DC level of the FREQ
output signal. The DC level may be varied 10 volts
from zero level.
4. AMPLITUDE - Controls the amplitude of the
FREQ output signal from 0-15Vpp.
3. FINE FREQUENCY - Allows easy selection of
desired frequency according to the frequency
range.
2. COURSE FREQUENCY - Selects five ranges of
frequencies 10, 100, 1k, 10k and 100k hertz.
1. WAVEFORM - Selects square, triangle or sine
waveform at the FREQ output.
6. CLK - A 4-pin output block for function generator’s
square wave. The amplitude of the signal is 5Vpp
and frequency is dependent on WAVEFORM
selection.
-27-
7. FREQ - A 4-pin output block for function
generator’s signals, output is dependent on
WAVEFORM selection and frequency is set by
COURSE FREQ control. The amplitude of the
output is variable from 0-15Vpp.
USERS DESCRIPTION OF FRONT PANEL CONTROLS
6
1
5
producing sine, square and triangle waveform outputs
has a wide range of applications in electrical
measurements and laboratory instrumentation. This
complete function generator system is suitable for
experimentation and applications by the student. The
entire function generator is comprised of a single XR2206 monolithic IC and a limited number of passive
circuit components.
Waveforms - Sine, square, triangle and complementary square.
Frequency - 1Hz to 100kHz in 5 steps continuously variable.
Fine frequency adjust - 10:1 approximate.
Amplitude variable 0-15 Vpp.
Output impedance 330 ohms: short protected.
DC offset change 10V from zero crossing.
SPECIFICATIONS
The Analog Section of your trainer contains a
complete function generator capable of producing
sine, square, and triangle waveforms. The frequency
of this generator can be continuously varied from 1
hertz to over 100,000 hertz in five steps: 10, 100, 1k,
10k, and 100k. A fine frequency control makes
selection of any frequency in between easy. The
amplitude of the waveforms are adjustable from 015Vpp. A waveform of function generator capable of
INTRODUCTION - ANALOG SECTION
-24-
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM - POWER SUPPLY SECTION
1. AC voltage is supplied to the rectifier stages by the . . .
r A. step-up transformer.
r B. step-down transformer.
r C. 1 to 1 transformer.
r D. AC to DC transformer.
2. The secondary windings of the transformer are . . .
r A. 90O out of phase.
r B. 180O out of phase.
r C. 270O out of phase.
r D. 320O out of phase.
3. Diodes allow current to flow . . .
r A. when the anode is more negative than the cathode.
r B. when the cathode is more positive than the anode.
r C. in one direction.
r D. when a negative or positive voltage is on the anode.
4. What circuit is more efficient for rectifying AC to DC?
r A. Hartley oscillator.
r B. Half-wave.
r C. Schmitt trigger.
r D. Full wave.
5. The DC voltage is smoothed by using a . . .
r A. half-wave rectification circuit.
r B. small value capacitor with a high voltage value.
r C. Large value capacitor.
r D. 90O out of phase.
6. An inefficient rectification circuit usually contains . . .
r A. large gaps between cycles.
r B. twice the AC voltage needed.
r C. more diodes.
r D. all of the above.
7. The maximum current that a diode can handle is determined by . . .
A. the transformer’s current rating.
B. the amount of AC ripple.
C. three times the diode rating.
D. peak current rating.
8. The LM-317 will shut down when . . .
r A. the output voltage is too high.
r B. no current is being drawn.
r C. the junction overheats.
r D. the output voltage drops to 1.25V.
9. The LM-317 regulator contains . . .
r A. a pass transistor.
r B. a constant current source.
r C. a differential amplifier.
r D. all of the above.
10. The LM-317 is basically . . .
r A. a 1.25V regulator.
r B. a 6.25V regulator.
r C. a 2.5V regulator.
r D. a negative voltage regulator.
INSTRUCTIONS - Complete the following examination and check your answers carefully.
QUIZ - POWER SUPPLY SECTION
-25-
Answers: 1. B; 2. B; 3. C; 4. D; 5. C; 6. D; 7. D; 8. C; 9. D; 10. A
Qty.
r1
r1
r5
r3
r2
r3
r2
r1
r1
r2
r1
U10
U6
B5, B6
Symbol
SW2
SW3
Symbol
D16, D17
Q1, Q3
Q2
U10
U6
Symbol
C27
C26
C23
C18
C25
C19
C20
C21
C22, C24
Qty.
r2
r2
r1
r1
r1
Qty.
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r2
Symbol
R14, R44
R5
R46, R47
R12
R49
R7, R11
R3
R13
R10
R6
R4, R45, R48
R9
R8
VR8
VR5
VR6, VR7
Qty.
r2
r1
r2
r1
r1
r2
r1
r1
r1
r1
r3
r1
r1
r1
r1
r2
Description
Switch rotary 12-pin
Switch rotary 16-pin
Knob push-on
Nut 7mm
Nut 9mm
Washer flat 8mm
Washer flat 9mm
IC socket 8-pin
IC socket 16-pin
4-Pin Bredblox
Solder lead-free
Value
1N4148
2N3904
2N3906
LM318
XR2206
Value
5pF (5)
22pF (22)
100pF (101)
.001mF (102)
.0022mF (222)
.01mF (103)
.1mF (104)
1mF 50V
10mF 25V
Value
100W 5% 1/4W
200W 5% 1/4W
330W 5% 1/4W
1kW 5% 1/4W
2kW 5% 1/4W
4.7kW 5% 1/4W
6.8kW 5% 1/4W
8.2kW 5% 1/4W
10kW 5% 1/4W
12kW 5% 1/4W
22kW 5% 1/4W
47kW 5% 1/4W
51kW 5% 1/4W
100kW Trim Pot
10kW Pot
100kW Pot
-26-
MISCELLANEOUS
Description
Diode
Transistor PNP
Transistor NPN
Integrated circuit
Integrated circuit
SEMICONDUCTORS
Description
Discap
Discap
Discap
Mylar
Discap
Mylar
Mylar
Electrolytic
Electrolytic
CAPACITORS
Color Code
brown-black-brown-gold
red-black-brown-gold
orange-orange-brown-gold
brown-black-red-gold
red-black-red-gold
yellow-violet-red-gold
blue-gray-red-gold
gray-red-red-gold
brown-black-orange-gold
brown-red-orange-gold
red-red-orange-gold
yellow-violet-orange-gold
green-brown-orange-gold
RESISTORS
XK-700 ANALOG KIT (AN-700-C) PARTS LIST
AN-700-C
Part #
542206
542405
622009
644101
644102
645101
645103
664008
664016
665204
9LF99
Part #
314148
323904
323906
330318
332206
Part #
205010
212210
221017
231017
232216
241019
251017
261047
271045
Part #
131000
132000
133300
141000
142000
144700
146800
148200
151000
151200
152200
154700
155100
191610
192531
192612
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