Elenco | XK700TK | Owner Manual | Elenco XK700TK Deluxe Digital / Analog Trainer Owner Manual

Elenco XK700TK Deluxe Digital / Analog Trainer Owner Manual
DIGITAL / ANALOG TRAINER
MODEL XK-700K
A COMPLETE MINI-LAB FOR BUILDING, TESTING
AND PROTOTYPING ANALOG AND DIGITAL CIRCUITS
Tools and meter shown not included.
Assembly & Instruction Manual
ELENCO
®
Copyright © 2013, 1996 by ELENCO® Electronics, Inc. All rights reserved.
Revised 2012
REV-G
No part of this book shall be reproduced by any means; electronic, photocopying, or otherwise without written permission from the publisher.
753029
PS-700-B
XK-700K POWER SUPPLY KIT (PS-700-B) PARTS LIST
Qty.
r
r
r
r
r
RESISTORS
Description
R1, R2
R50, R51
VR3
VR1, VR2
VR4
120W 5% 1/4W
1.2kW 5% 1/2W
1kW
2kW
100kW
3
5
4
1
C7-C9
C12, C14-C17
C1, C2, C4, C5
C3
.1mF 100V
100mF
1000mF 35V
2200mF 25V
19
1
1
1
1
1
D1-D15, D26-D29 1N4001 Diode
U1
LM317 Integrated circuit (IC)
U5
LM337 Integrated circuit (IC)
U3
LM7805 Integrated circuit (IC)
U2
LM7812 Integrated circuit (IC)
U4
LM7912 Integrated circuit (IC)
Qty.
r
r
r
r
r
r
Value
2
2
1
2
1
Qty.
r
r
r
r
Symbol
Qty.
r1
r1
r1
r1
r2
r1
r4
r1
r1
r4
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r9
r6
r2
r2
r4
r4
r4
r6
r2
r4
r4
Symbol
Symbol
Value
Description
Part #
(brown-red-brown-gold)
(black-red-red-gold)
Pot PC mount
Pot PC mount
Pot PC mount
131200
141201
192412
192421
192612
Mylar
Electrolytic (lytic)
Electrolytic (lytic)
Electrolytic (lytic)
251017
281045
291046
292225
CAPACITORS
Description
Part #
SEMICONDUCTORS
Part #
MISCELLANEOUS
Description
Part #
Transformer
44K500
PC board
514550
Fuse 1.25A
530125
Switch illuminated
541204
Connector 3-pin
591032
Connector 5-pin
591052
Bracket L 4-40 tap
613008
Panel top
614108
XK-700 Frame
614501PB
Knob
622009
Case
623051
Strain relief
624003
Spacer nylon 7/16” x 3/16” tap
624013
Connector receptacle
626020
Connector plug
626021
Screw 4-40 x 1/4” phillips, flat head
641431
Screw 4-40 x 1/4” phillips truss
641438
Screw 6-32 x 5/16” slotted
641641
Screw 8-32 x 3/8” phillips
641840
Screw #4 x 1/4” phillips AB
642430
Screw #6 x 1/2 phillips AB
642662
Screw #6 x 3/8” phillips thread cutting 643652
Nut 7mm
644101
Nut 6-32
644601
Nut 8-32
644800
Washer 8mm x 14mm (Pot)
645101
Washer #6 black
645400
Qty.
r4
r2
r1
r4
r2
r2
r1
r5
r5
r1
r 6”
r 2.5’
r1
r 3/4”
r 2”
r 1”
r 2”
r 2”
r1
-1-
Description
Washer fiber
Lockwasher #8 EXT
Fuse holder
Bredblox 4-pin
Terminal male crimp
Terminal female crimp
Manual
Insulator mica
Insulator washer
Silicon Grease
Wire #20 red stranded
Wire #22 bare wire
Line cord
Tubing #20 black
Shrink tubing 3/16”
Shrink tubing 1/4”
Shrink tubing 1/2”
Shrink tubing 3/4”
Solder tube lead-free
Phillips AB
screw
Screw Identification
314001
330317
330337
337805
337812
337912
Part #
645404
646828
663000
665204
666010
666011
753029
780002
780101
790004
813210
845000
862105
890020
890120
890701
891101-2
899110-2
LF99
Truss head
Standard
screw
screw
Flat head screw
PARTS VERIFICATION
Before beginning the assembly process, first familiarize yourself with the components and this instruction book.
Verify that all parts are present. This is done best by checking off each item in the parts list.
Carbon film
Integrated circuit (IC)
Electrolytic
(Lytic)
(Radial)
PC mount
trim pot
Mylar
Knob
Discap
IC socket
Diode
Transistor
Switches
PC mount potentiometer
Spacers
1/4” #8
7/16” x
3/16” tap
Rotary
Connectors
Semiconductors
Capacitors
Resistors
DPDT
Illuminated
IDENTIFYING RESISTOR VALUES
3-Pin
LED
Integrated circuit (IC)
5-Pin
4-Pin
Miscellaneous
Connector plug
Connector receptacle
Male crimp
terminal
Female crimp
terminal
Fuse assembly
Bredblox
Transformer
Use the following information as a guide in properly identifying the value of resistors.
BAND 1
1st Digit
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Gray
White
Digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
BAND 2
2nd Digit
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Gray
White
Digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Multiplier
Color
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Silver
Gold
Resistance
Tolerance
Color
Silver
Gold
Brown
Red
Orange
Green
Blue
Violet
Multiplier
1
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
0.01
0.1
Tolerance
±10%
±5%
±1%
±2%
±3%
±0.5%
±0.25%
±0.1%
1
BANDS
2
Multiplier
Tolerance
IDENTIFYING CAPACITOR VALUES
Capacitors will be identified by their capacitance value in pF (picofarads), nF (nanofarads), or mF (microfarads). Most
capacitors will have their actual value printed on them. Some capacitors may have their value printed in the following
manner. The maximum operating voltage may also be printed on the capacitor.
If
the
capacitor
is
connected with incorrect
polarity, it may heat up and
either leak, or cause the
capacitor to explode.
(+)
Axial
(–)
(+)
(–)
Radial
Polarity
marking
For the No.
Multiply By
0
1
CERAMIC DISC
Second digit
First digit
101K
50V
1
10
Multiplier
Tolerance*
Maximum working voltage
(may or may not appear
on the cap)
The value is 10 x 10 = 100pF, +10%, 50V
* The letter M indicates a tolerance of +20%
The letter K indicates a tolerance of +10%
The letter J indicates a tolerance of +5%
-2-
2
100
3
1k
4
5
8
10k 100k .01
MYLAR
Tolerance*
Multiplier
Second digit
First digit
9
0.1
100V
Warning:
Multiplier
2A222J
Electrolytic capacitors have a positive and
a negative electrode. The negative lead is
indicated on the packaging by a stripe with
minus signs and possibly arrowheads.
Also, the negative lead of a radial
electrolytic is shorter than the positive one.
The value is 22 x 100 =
2,200pF or .0022mF, +5%, 100V
Note: The letter “R” may be used at
times to signify a decimal point; as in
3R3 = 3.3
CONSTRUCTION
Introduction
• Turn off iron when not in use or reduce temperature setting when
using a soldering station.
The most important factor in assembling your XK-700K Digital/Analog
Trainer Kit is good soldering techniques. Using the proper soldering iron
is of prime importance. A small pencil type soldering iron of 25 watts is
recommended. The tip of the iron must be kept clean at all times
and well-tinned.
• Tips should be cleaned frequently to remove oxidation before it becomes
impossible to remove. Use Dry Tip Cleaner (Elenco® #SH-1025) or Tip
Cleaner (Elenco® #TTC1). If you use a sponge to clean your tip, then use
distilled water (tap water has impurities that accelerate corrosion).
Solder
Safety Procedures
For many years leaded solder was the most common type of solder
used by the electronics industry, but it is now being replaced by leadfree solder for health reasons. This kit contains lead-free solder, which
contains 99.3% tin, 0.7% copper, and has a rosin-flux core.
• Always wear safety glasses or safety goggles to
protect your eyes when working with tools or soldering
iron, and during all phases of testing.
• Be sure there is adequate ventilation when soldering.
Lead-free solder is different from lead solder: It has a higher melting
point than lead solder, so you need higher temperature for the solder to
flow properly. Recommended tip temperature is approximately 700OF;
higher temperatures improve solder flow but accelerate tip decay. An
increase in soldering time may be required to achieve good results.
Soldering iron tips wear out faster since lead-free solders are more
corrosive and the higher soldering temperatures accelerate corrosion,
so proper tip care is important. The solder joint finish will look slightly
duller with lead-free solders.
• Locate soldering iron in an area where you do not have to go around
it or reach over it. Keep it in a safe area away from the reach of
children.
• Do not hold solder in your mouth. Solder is a toxic substance.
Wash hands thoroughly after handling solder.
Assemble Components
In all of the following assembly steps, the components must be installed
on the top side of the PC board unless otherwise indicated. The top
legend shows where each component goes. The leads pass through the
corresponding holes in the board and are soldered on the foil side.
Use only rosin core solder.
Use these procedures to increase the life of your soldering iron tip when
using lead-free solder:
• Keep the iron tinned at all times.
• Use the correct tip size for best heat transfer. The conical tip is the
most commonly used.
DO NOT USE ACID CORE SOLDER!
What Good Soldering Looks Like
Types of Poor Soldering Connections
A good solder connection should be bright, shiny, smooth, and uniformly
flowed over all surfaces.
1. Solder all components from the
copper foil side only. Push the
soldering iron tip against both the
lead and the circuit board foil.
Soldering Iron
Component Lead
1. Insufficient heat - the solder will
not flow onto the lead as shown.
Foil
Soldering iron positioned
incorrectly.
Circuit Board
2. Apply a small amount of solder to
the iron tip. This allows the heat
to leave the iron and onto the foil.
Immediately apply solder to the
opposite side of the connection,
away from the iron. Allow the
heated component and the circuit
foil to melt the solder.
3. Allow the solder to flow around
the connection. Then, remove
the solder and the iron and let the
connection cool. The solder
should have flowed smoothly and
not lump around the wire lead.
Solder
Soldering Iron
2. Insufficient solder - let the
solder flow over the connection
until it is covered.
Use just enough solder to cover
the connection.
Foil
Solder
Rosin
3. Excessive solder - could make
connections that you did not
intend to between adjacent foil
areas or terminals.
Soldering Iron
Foil
4. Here is what a good solder
connection looks like.
-3-
4. Solder bridges - occur when
solder runs between circuit paths
and creates a short circuit. This is
usually caused by using too
much solder.
To correct this, simply drag your
soldering iron across the solder
bridge as shown.
Solder
Component Lead
Gap
Solder
Soldering Iron
Foil
Drag
INTRODUCTION
The XK-700K Digital/Analog Trainer is divided into four separate kits: BB-700-A, PS-700-B, AN-700-C and DG700D. Each bag of parts is clearly identified. Open only the kit called for in your procedure. DO NOT open any
other bag at this time. The first kit is the BB-700-A which contains only the breadboard. The breadboard will be
assembled to the front panel of the trainer during the assembly of the PS-700-B Power Supply. Read your
instructions carefully.
Power Supply
The XK-700K has five built-in power supplies which will satify most design needs. This includes two variable
power supplies giving up to +20 volts and –20 volts at 0.5 amp. Below 15V, the current available is 1 amp. Three
fixed power supplies give you +12VDC, –12VDC or +5VDC at 1 amp each. These fixed voltages are the most
commonly used voltages for design work. All supplies are regulated to within 150mV. This means that you can
increase the current draw from no load to 0.5 amp and the voltage will change less than 150mV. All supplies
are also short circuit protected by using integrated circuit regulator devices.
Analog Trainer Section Function Generator
The analog trainer contains a complete function generator capable of producing sine, square and triangle
waveforms. The frequency of the generator is continuously variable from one hertz to over 100,000 hertz in five
steps. A fine tuning control makes the selection of any frequency easy. The output voltage amplitude is variable
between 0 to 15Vpp. The output impedance is approximately 330 ohms.
Digital Trainer Section
The digital trainer has the necessary functions to do your digital experiments. They consist of a clock generator,
two no-bounce switches, eight LED indicator lamps and eight data switches.
POWER SUPPLY SPECIFICATIONS
Power Supplies:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
0V to 20VDC @ 0.5 amp (0V to 15V @ 1 amp).
0V to -20VDC @ 0.5 amp (0V to –15V @ 1 amp).
+12V +5% @ 1 amp.
–12V +5% @ 1 amp.
+5V +5% @ 1 amp.
30VAC center tapped @ 1 amp.
Load regulation - all DC supplies less than 0.2V no load to 0.5A.
Line regulation - all DC supplies less than 0.2V 105 to 135V.
Hum and ripple - all DC supplies less than 0.01V RMS.
Short protection - all DC supplies-internal IC thermal cutoff.
Fuse 1.25A 250V.
8
7
Variable Resistance (undedicated):
• 1kW Potentiometer
• 100kW Potentiometer
USERS DESCRIPTION OF FRONT PANEL CONTROLS
1) On/Off Switch - Allows power to be applied to all outputs. Switch will
light when on.
2) Fuse Holder - Easy access for replacement of 1.25A fuse.
3) Power Output Terminals - This provides 30VAC center tapped at
15 VAC; also provides output terminal for positive and negative
variable voltages.
4) Variable Positive Voltage Control - Varies positive voltage from 0V
to 20V at indicated output connector pin.
5) Variable Negative Voltage Control - Varies negative voltage from
0V to –20V at indicated output connector pin.
6) Power Output Bredblox - Output terminals for GND, –12, +12, and +5.
7) Output terminals for 1k and 100k undedicated potentiometers.
8) 1kW undedicated potentiometer.
9) 100kW undedicated potentiometer.
-4-
6
5
4
3
2
1
9
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Start Here
Bottom left corner of PC board
S1 - 5-pin connector
(see Figure A)
L-bracket
(see Figure B)
VR4 - 100kW pot
VR3 - 1kW pot
(see Figure C)
Top left corner of PC board
S3 - 3-pin connector
S2 - 3-pin connector
(see Figure A)
L-bracket
(see Figure B)
C8 - 0.1mF mylar (104)
(see Figure D)
Figure A
Mount the connector as shown and solder the
pins of the connector.
Figure B
Note: One side of the bracket
is longer. Mount this side to
the PC board. Mount the
bracket to the top legend side
of the PC board with a 4-40 x
1/4” screw and fiber washer.
Bracket
PC board
Fiber
washer
4-40 x 1/4”
Screw
-5-
Top legend
side of
PC board
Figure C
Cut off tab
Mount down flush with PC board. The
value may be marked on the on the
back side of pot.
Cut off excess lead length after
soldering.
Figure D
Bend the capacitor at a 45O
angle before soldering. Cut off
excess leads.
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Bottom left corner of PC board
Start Here
R1 - 120W 5% 1/4W resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
J28 - Jumper wire
(see Figure F)
J6 - Jumper wire
(see Figure F)
D12 - 1N4001 diode
D11 - 1N4001 diode
(see Figure G)
C14 - 100mF 25V lytic
C17 - 100mF 25V lytic
(see Figure E)
R2 - 120W 5% 1/4W resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
J2 - Jumper wire
(see Figure F)
J3 - Jumper wire
(see Figure F)
Figure E
These capacitors are polarized.
Be sure to mount them with the “+”
lead in the correct hole as marked
on the PC board. Mount the
capacitor lying flat on the PC board
as shown below.
(–)
Figure F
Cut a piece of the #22 bare wire
long enough so that 1/4” of wire
passes through each hole in the
PC board after the wire is formed.
(+)
Warning: If the capacitor is connected with
incorrect polarity, it may heat up and either leak
or cause the capacitor to explode.
-6-
Figure G
Diodes have polarity. Mount them
with the band as shown on the top
legend.
Band
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Start Here
VR1 - 2kW pot
VR2 - 2kW pot
(see Figure H)
B1
B2
B3
B4
-
4-pin bredblox
4-pin bredblox
4-pin bredblox
4-pin bredblox
(see Figure I)
C12 - 100mF 25V lytic
(see Figure E)
J26 - Jumper wire
J7 - Jumper wire
(see Figure F)
D15 - 1N4001 diode
D14 - 1N4001 diode
D13 - 1N4001 diode
(see Figure G)
C15 - 100mF 25V lytic
C16 - 100mF 25V lytic
(see Figure E)
J4 - Jumper wire
J1 - Jumper wire
(see Figure F)
R50 - 1.2kW 1/2W resistor
R51 - 1.2kW 1/2W resistor
(red-red-red-gold)
(see Figure H)
Bottom left corner of PC board
Figure H
1. VR1 and VR2 - Before installing the pot
into the PC board, bend the center lead
over to the right lead and solder. Cut off
the excess leads.
Cut off tab
2. Install the pots flush with the PC
board. The value may be marked on
the back of the pot. Cut off the excess
lead length after soldering.
3. Place the 3/4” tubing over one lead of
the 1.2kW 5% 1/2W (red-red-red-gold)
resistor. Postion the resistor as shown.
Solder the resistor from the bottom
hole of C10 to the right lead of VR1 as
shown.
Figure I
VR2
VR1
Solder a 1.2kW 5% 1/2W (red-red-red- Caution:
gold) resistor from jumper J1 to the Make sure
resistor lead does not
right lead of VR2 as shown.
short to jumper wire.
Solder
Hold the breadblock down
flush to the PC board from the
top legend side and solder the
metal pins in place. Then, melt
the plastic pins with your
soldering iron to hold the
plastic blocks in place, as
shown.
R51
-7-
R50
J1
Plastic Pins
Melt Pins
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Bottom right corner of PC board
Start Here
C2
C4
C1
C5
- 1,000mF 35V
- 1,000mF 35V
- 1,000mF 35V
- 1,000mF 35V
(see Figure J)
lytic
lytic
lytic
lytic
D1 - 1N4001 diode
D2 - 1N4001 diode
D3 - 1N4001 diode
D4 - 1N4001 diode
D5 - 1N4001 diode
D6 - 1N4001 diode
D7 - 1N4001 diode
D8 - 1N4001 diode
D9 - 1N4001 diode
D10 - 1N4001 diode
(see Figure K)
Figure J
These lytics must be mounted
horizontal to the PC board. Bend
the leads at right angles and then
insert the leads into the PC board
with the negative (–) lead and the
positive (+) lead in the correct
holes as marked on the PC board.
Figure K
Warning: If the capacitor is
connected with incorrect polarity,
it may heat up and either leak or
cause the capacitor to explode.
Start Here
C3 - 2200mF lytic
Mount on foil side of PC board
Note the polarity
(see Figure J)
Continue
Diodes have polarity. Mount them
with the band as shown on the
top legend.
Top right corner of PC board
Band
L-bracket
(see Figure B)
+
–
C7 - .1mF mylar (104)
(see Figure D)
J5 - Jumper wire *
(see Figure F)
C9 - .1mF (104) mylar
(see Figure D)
L-bracket
(see Figure B)
You need to install four diodes on the solder side of
the PC board for VR1 and VR2.
VR1 & VR2
1. Connect the anode side of one diode to the
cathode side of another by twisting the leads
together as shown in Figure L.
2. Cut the untwisted lead to 1/4” length (see Figure L).
3. Tack solder the diodes across the left lead and the
center hole of VR1 & VR2 as shown in Figure M.
Make sure the diodes are facing in the correct
position.
4. Solder the twisted leads and then cut off the excess
leads.
Continue
* Leftover wire will be used
in future sections.
VR1
VR2
Figure L
VR2
Note diode polarity.
-8-
VR1
Note diode polarity.
Figure M
MOUNTING THE PC BOARD
Note: The holes in the two side panels have been punched differently. Be sure that you have the correct side
panel when mounting them to the PC board.
IMPORTANT: Push the PC board up as far as possible before tightening the screws, as shown in Figure O.
r Mount the PC board to the side panels with four 4-40 x 1/4” screws (see Figure N).
Do not tighten the screws.
Adjust the PC board
height with a 4-40 x
1/4” screw
4-40 x 1/4” screws
Top legend side of PC board
Note: From the foil side of the PC
board, inspect the edges to be sure that
there are no component leads shorting
against the side panels.
4-40 x 1/4” screws
Figure N
r Place the top panel onto the unit and align the components with the holes in the top panel. Push the PC
board up until the components come through the top panel and tighten the screws.
Figure O
-9-
MOUNT COMPONENTS TO THE SIDE PANELS
Mount U1, U3 and U5 to the left side panel as shown in Figure Q. Insert the pins of each IC into the holes of
the PC board. Then, with the hardware shown in Figure P, attach each IC to the side panel. Solder the pins of
the ICs to the PC board.
r U3 - LM7805
r U1 - LM317
r U5 - LM337
6-32 x 5/16” Screw
* Silicone grease
6-23 Nut
IC
Insulator washer
Side panel
Mica
* Take a small amount of silicone grease from the
packet and apply it with a toothpick onto the back of
the ICs.
Figure P
Left Side
U5
LM337
U1
LM317
U3
7805
Figure Q
-10-
Mount U2 and U4 to the right side panel as shown in Figure S.
Insert the pins of each IC into the holes in the PC board. Then,
with the hardware shown in Figure R, attach each IC to the
side panel. Solder the pins of the ICs to the PC board.
r U4 - LM7912
Figure R
r Transformer mounted
* Take a small amount of silicone grease from the packet
and apply it with a toothpick onto the back of the ICs.
Note: Make sure that
the transformer does
not touch U4.
U4
7912
8-32 Nuts
Right Side
U2
7812
WIRE THE TRANSFORMER TO THE PC BOARD
Solder the wires to the PC board starting with the top yellow wire as shown in Figure U.
r Yellow wire to point F on the PC board
r Blue wire to point A on the PC board
r Red wire to point C on the PC board
r White wire to point E on the PC board
r Red wire to point D on the PC board
r Blue wire to point B on the PC board
r Yellow wire to point G on the PC board
Mica
#8-32 x 3/8” Screws
Transformer
#8 Lockwashers
IC
Side Panel
Mount the transformer with the black wires as shown in Figure S.
Use the two 8-32 x 3/8” screws, #8 lockwashers, and 8-32 nuts.
Black wires
6-23 Nut
Insulator Washer
r U2 - LM7812
Figure S
* Silicone Grease
6-32 x 5/16” Screw
Blue (A)
Blue (B)
Red (C)
Red (D)
White (E)
Yellow (F)
Yellow (G)
Figure U
-11-
Yellow (F)
Blue (A)
Red (C)
White (E)
Red (D)
Blue (B)
Yellow (G)
HOW TO INSTALL CONNECTORS ONTO TRANSFORMER WIRES
A connector will be placed onto the primary wires of the transformer. This will allow you to remove the top panel
from the trainer. Follow the procedures below.
r Cut a six inch length off of each black primary wire.
r Strip the insulation off of each end of the six inch wires to expose 1/4” of bare wire.
r Place one wire onto the female pin and crimp the outer crimp tabs with pliers over the insulation as shown
in Figure 1A.
r Crimp the inner tabs with pliers onto the bare wire as shown in Figure 1B.
r Solder the wire to the pin as shown in Figure 1C.
r Connect the other female pin to the other wire using the same procedures above.
r Insert the two pin/wire assemblies into the female housing as shown in Figure 2. Pull on the wire to check
that the pin is inserted all the way in. It should not pull out of the housing. The locking tabs should be bent
outward to hold the pin in the housing.
Female Pin
Outer
Crimp Tab
Locking Tab
Inner
Crimp Tab
A
Solder
Figure 1
Transformer Wires
Female Housing
B
C
Figure 2
r Strip the insulation off of each of the black primary wires to expose 1/4” of bare wire.
r Place the wire onto the male pin and crimp the outer crimp tabs with pliers over the insulation as shown in
Figure 3A.
r Crimp the inner tabs with pliers onto the bare wire as shown in Figure 3B.
r Solder the wire to the pin as shown in Figure 3C.
r Connect the other male pin to the other primary wire using the same procedures above.
r Insert the two pin/wire assemblies into the male housing as shown in Figure 4. Pull on the wire to check that
the pin is inserted all the way in. It should not pull out of the housing.
r Connect the male and female housing as shown in Figure 5. Note that the connector only fits together one way.
r To detach the connector, push down on the end of the lock arm and pull the two apart.
Male Pin
Outer
Crimp Tab
Locking Tab
Inner
Crimp Tab
A
Figure 5
Male Housing
Solder
Figure 3
B
C
Lock Arm
-12-
Figure 4
MOUNT COMPONENTS TO PANEL
r Push the illuminated switch into the hole in the top
panel with the lugs as shown in Figure V.
r Install the fuse holder with the side lug in the position
shown in Figure V. Fasten the fuse holder in place with
the nut as shown in Figure V. Unscrew the cap and
insert the fuse into the holder.
r There is a raised area on the back side of the top
panel. Screw the spacer to the raised area by inserting
a 4-40 x 1/4” flat head screw into the hole in the raised
area from the top side of the panel (see Figure W).
r When mounting the breadboard, use the holes shown
in Figure X. Mount the breadboard with two #4 x 1/4”
AB black screws from the back side of the top panel as
shown in Figure W. The negative (blue) stripe should
be on top and the numbers reading from left to right
should start with number 1 (see Figure Y). CAUTION:
Do not remove the paper backing from the back of
the breadboards. Do not over-tighten the black
screws.
4-40 x 1/4”
Flat head
screw
Back Side - Lower
Right Corner
Illuminated switch
Nut
Top panel
Plastic washer
Figure V
Fuse holder
Breadboard
Figure X
Figure W
-13-
10
1
f g h i j
Figure Y
a b c d e
#4 x 1/4” AB screws
Spacer
5
Top panel
Side lug
WIRE SWITCH AND FUSE HOLDER (see Figure Z)
Line Cord
r Slide the line cord through the frame as shown.
r Spread the three line cord wires apart 6” from the end.
r Mount the solder lug to the side panel using a 6-32 x 5/16” screw and 6-32 nut.
Fuse
r Strip the insulation off of both ends of the 6” red wire to expose 1/4” of bare wire. Pass the wire through the
1/2” diameter shrink tubing. Attach one end to the side lug on the fuse holder and then solder into place.
r Pass the smooth edged line cord wire through the 1/2” diameter shrink tubing and attach to the end lug on
the fuse holder, solder into place.
r Slide the shrink tubing over the fuse holder covering both lugs. Shrink the tubing for a snug fit. You may use
a hair dryer, heat gun (at lowest setting or you will melt the tubing) or the heat emitting from your soldering
iron (do not touch the tubing or the wires with the iron).
Switch
Disconnect the connector for the transformer.
r Pass the 6” strip of red wire (leading from the side lug of the fuse holder), the (A) and (B) black transformer
wire, and the ribbed line cord wire through the 3/4” diameter piece of shrink tubing.
r Cut the 2” section of 3/16” diameter shrink tubing in half to create two 1” sections. Slide a 3/16” diameter
piece of shrink tubing over the loose end of the red wire. Attach the red wire to lug 1 on the switch and
then solder into place.
r Pass the black transformer wire labeled (B) through a 3/16” diameter piece of shrink tubing. Attach the wire
to lug 2 on the switch and then solder into place.
r Slide the shrink tubing over lug 1 and lug 2 on the switch. Shrink the tubing into place.
r Strip the insulation off of the black transformer wire (A) and the ribbed edged line cord wire to expose 1/2” of
bare wire. Twist the two bare wires together. Pass the wires through the 1/4” diameter piece of shrink tubing.
Attach the wires to lug 3 on the switch and solder into place. Slide the tubing over the lug. Shrink the tubing
into place.
r Slide the 3/4” diameter shrink tubing over the switch and shrink into place.
r Reconnect the connector for the transformer.
6-32 x 5/16”
Screw
1/4” Dia. shrink tubing
1
Switch Pin-out
1/2” Dia.
shrink tubing
3/16” Dia.
shrink tubing
Green line
cord wire
Smooth line
cord wire
2
6” Red wire
Female connector
Figure Z
3
3/4” Dia. shrink tubing
Ribbed line cord wire
(A) Black
transformer wire
(B) Black
transformer wire
Side lug
Solder lug
Switch
-14-
Fuse holder
6-32 Nut
RESISTANCE ANALYSIS OF POWER SUPPLY
Static testing of the power supply circuits. Do not plug the power supply into the 120VAC power supply
source until all resistance readings check out. The values given below are approximate.
See Figure AA for locations of testing points.
From
1
2
2
4
6
8
10
11 (com)
12
13
14 (com)
25 (com)
26
27
28
29
10
11
12
13
14
20
20
20
21
22
22
23
23
24
24
5
4
+30%
To
Right Side Panel
3
3
5
7
9
GND 5-pin connector
GND (VW) (5-pin connector)
GND (B1)
GND (B1)
GND (VW) (5-pin connector)
GND (VW) (5-pin connector)
GND (VW) (5-pin connector)
GND (5-pin connector)
GND (5-pin connector)
GND (5-pin connector)
15
16
17
18
19
14
+20 (5-pin connector)
13
–20 (5-pin connector)
GND (5-pin connector)
B4
GND (5-pin connector)
B3
GND (5-pin connector)
B2
15VAC (5-pin connector right)
15VAC (5-pin connector left)
Note: meter lead polarity
Circuit
Earth Ground
On/Off Switch, Fuse
On/Off, Fuse
12V Secondary
5V Secondary
Variable Voltage
+12V Regulator Input
–12V Regulator Input
+5V Regulator Input
+Variable Regulator Input
–Variable Regulator Input
Voltage ADJ +20V Regulator
Voltage ADJ -20V Regulator
+5V Regulator GND
+12V Regulator GND
–12V Regulator GND
+12V Regulator Input
–12V Regulator Input
+5V Regulator Input
+Variable Regulator Input
–Variable Regulator Input
Voltage ADJ +20V Regulator
+Variable Regulator Output
Voltage ADJ –20V Regulator
–Variable Regulator Output
+5V Regulator Output
+5V Regulator Output
+12V Regulator Output
+12V Regulator Output
–12V Regulator Output
–12V Regulator Output
15VAC
15VAC
less than 1W
Infinite (SW1 Off)
7W (SW1 On)
1.5W
1.2W
1.6W
greater than 20kW
greater than 20kW
greater than 20kW
greater than 20kW
greater than 20kW
CCW <1W CW >1.4kW
greater than 1.4kW
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
CCW 1.2kW CW 3.3kW
less than 1W
CCW 1.2kW CW 3.3kW
less than 1W
greater than 5kW
less than 1W
greater than 5kW
less than 1W
greater than 5kW
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
CCW - Counter Clockwise CW - Clockwise
20A 2A COM VW
VW
COM
Ohms
-15-
Resistance
Measured
VR1 & VR2 Adjustment
Locations for Testing Points
29
3
16
24
15
28
23
LM-7912
•••
LM-7812
Plug of line cord
1
2
•••
9
8
7
14
13
12
11
10
4
6
5
On test points 4 - 14
use the leads of the
diodes.
Figure AA
-16-
5-pin connector –20
GND
5-pin connector +20
5-pin connector left
21
19
26
18
20
25
22
27
•••
17
•••
LM-317
5-pin connector right
•••
LM-7805
+20V
Pot
–20V
Pot
Ground
B1
LM-337
VOLTAGE ANALYSIS OF POWER SUPPLY
Proceed with the voltage analysis only if the resistance readings were satisfactory.
Place the top panel on the unit. If any capacitors are inserted backwards, the panel will shield you if
they explode. Make sure that the ON/OFF switch is in the OFF position. Plug the line cord into the 120VAC
power source. Turn the unit on and let it sit for a few minutes. Turn OFF the ON/OFF switch and remove the
top panel, placing it along the left side of the trainer. Turn ON the ON/OFF switch and measure the voltage point
as listed in the chart below. The values given are approximate.
See Figure AA for locations of the testing points.
From
15
B3
16
B2
17
B4
18
+20 5-pin connector
+20 5-pin connector
19
–20 5-pin connector
–20 5-pin connector
15VAC
5-pin
connector
left
+30%
To
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
15VAC
5-pin
connector
right
Circuit
+12V Regulator Input
+12V Regulator Output
–12V Regulator Input
–12V Regulator Output
+5V Regulator Input
+5V Regulator Output
+20V Regulator Input
Voltage ADJ +20V Regulator
+20V Output
–20 Regulator Input
Voltage ADJ -20V Regulator
–20V Output
30VAC
Volts
+21V
+12V
–21V
–12V
+12.5V
+5V
+28V
CCW 0V CW +20V
CCW +1.25V CW +20V
–28V
CCW 0V CW –20V
CCW –1.25V CW –20V
30VAC
Volts Measured
CCW - Counter-Clockwise CW - Clockwise
r Turn unit off.
Place the top panel on top of the unit.
FUSE REPLACEMENT
1. Turn the trainer off and unplug it from 120VAC power source.
2. Unscrew fuse holder cap and remove fuse.
3. Use only a 1.25A fuse. Larger fuses or other fuse bypass will void the
warranty of the trainer.
4. Place the new fuse into the fuse holder cap and screw it back into the holder.
5. Plug trainer into 120VAC power source and turn the unit on.
-17-
POWER SUPPLY TESTING
Plug the trainer into a 120VAC outlet and switch to
the “ON” position (the power switch should light).
With a digital voltmeter, measure the voltage
outputs at the power blocks. The +12V should
measure between 11.4 and 12.6 volts. The 5V
supply should read between 4.75 and 5.25 volts.
The –12V supply should read between –11.4 and
12.6 volts.
work, but use it only for a few seconds). The output
of the 12V supply should not change more than 0.20
volts. Do the same on the 5V supply using a 10W 5
watt resistor. Again, the output should not change
more than 0.20 volts. In making this test, the
voltmeter leads should be clipped to the terminal
directly and no to the load leads. This is to prevent
errors due to voltage drop from contact resistance
of the load.
Do not short the 15VAC output to ground.
Short the +12V, –12V and +5V supply to ground.
They should turn off and recover when the short is
removed. If you have a 25W 10 watt resistor, place
it across the output terminal (2 watt resistor will
Check the variable voltage supplies in the same
manner. Set the output voltage between 10-15
volts. Place the 25W 10 watt resistor across the
output terminal. The voltage should stay within 0.20
TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
This chart lists the condition and possible causes of several malfunctions. If a particular part is mentioned as a
possible cause, check that part to see if it was installed correctly. Also, check it and the parts connected to it for
good solder connections. Note: The values given in this troubleshooting chart are an approximation.
PROBLEM
Switch doesn’t light.
Fuse blows when the unit is turned on.
No or low voltage at positive variable
output.
No or low voltage at positive variable
output with load.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
1. Check fuse and line cord.
1. Voltage supply shorted to GND. Use resistance analysis
chart to find short.
1. Measure for an AC voltage of 18VAC at anode of D7 & D9.
A. Transformer and/or secondary connection to PC
board defective
2. Measure for a DC voltage of 28VDC at pin 3 of U1 LM317.
A. Diodes D7, D9 in backwards or defective, check
capacitor C1.
3. Set the voltage for minimum and measure pin 2
of U1.
A. Voltage adjusts only from 7.8 - 9.8V R1 open or
defective.
B. Voltage 27V, check VR1 connections.
1. Check that capacitor C1 1000mF is inserted in the correct
polarity.
2. Check ripple on pin 3 of U1. 8VP-P Max.
A. Capacitor C1, and/or diodes D7, D9 defective.
-18-
PROBLEM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
No or low voltage at negative variable
output with load.
1. Check to see if capacitor C5 1000mF is inserted in the
correct polarity.
2. Check ripple on pin 2 of U5. 6VP-P max.
A. Capacitor C5 and/or diodes D8, D10 defective.
No voltage at negative variable output.
No +12V at output.
No +12V at output with load.
No –12V at output.
No –12V at output with load.
No +5VDC at output
No +5VDC at output with load.
1. Measure for an AC voltage of 18VAC at cathode of D8, D10.
A. Transformer and/or secondary connection to PC board
defective.
2. Measure DC voltage of –28VDC at pin 2 of U5 LM337.
3. Set voltage for minimum and measure pin 3 of U5.
A. Voltage adjusts only from –7.8 to –9.8V R2 open or
defective.
B. Voltage –27V, check VR2 connections.
1. Measure an AC voltage of 15VAC at anode of D1, D3.
A. Transformer and/or secondary connection to PC board
defective.
2. Measure for a DC voltage of 21VDC at pin 1 of U2 LM7812.
A. Diodes D1, D3 in backwards or defective, check
capacitor C1.
3. Measure for a DC voltage of 12VDC on pin 3 of U2.
A. U2 LM7812 defective or open ground.
1. Check capacitor C2 1000mF is inserted in the correct
polarity.
2. Check ripple on pin 1 of U2. 7VP-P Max.
A. Capacitor C2 or diodes D1, D3 defective.
1. Measure an AC voltage of 15VAC at anode of D2, D4.
A. Transformer and/or secondary connection to PC board
defective.
2. Measure for a DC voltage of -21VDC at pin 2 of U4 LM7912.
A. Diodes D2, D4 in backwards or defective, check
capacitor C4.
3. Measure for a –12VDC voltage on pin 3 of U4.
A. U4 LM7912 defective or open ground.
1. Check capacitor C4 is inserted in the correct polarity.
2. Check ripple on pin 2 of U3. 7VP-P Max.
A. Capacitor C4 and/or diodes D1, D3 defective.
1. Measure an AC voltage of 9VAC at anode of D5, D6.
A. Transformer and/or secondary connection to PC board
defective.
2. Measure for a DC voltage of 12VDC at pin 1 of U3 LM7805.
A. Diodes D5, D6 in backwards or defective, check
capacitor C3.
3. Measure for a 5VDC voltage on pin 3 of U3 LM7805.
A. U3 LM7805 defective or open ground.
1. Check that capacitor C3 is inserted in the correct polarity.
2. Check ripple on pin 1 of U3. 4VP-P Max.
A. Capacitor C3 and/or diodes D5, D6 defective.
-19-
FINAL ASSEMBLY
If you are immediately going to build the remaining sections, do not continue with the instructions on
this page and proceed to page 22.
r Fasten the front panel in
place with four #6 x 3/8”
thread cutting screws, as
shown in Figure BB.
Knobs
r Fasten the PC board to the
spacer on the front panel
with a fiber washer and a
4-40 x 1/4” screw (from
Power Supply Section)
from the foil side of the PC
board, in the location
shown in Figure CC.
Washers 8mm
Nuts 7mm
Washers 8mm
r Fasten the pots to the front
panel with an 8mm washer
and a 7mm nut, as shown
in Figure BB.
r Turn the shafts on the two
switches fully counter-clockwise. Push the knobs onto
the shafts so that the line on
the knob is in line with the
end of the circle on the front
panel (see Figure DD). If the
knob is loose on the shaft,
insert a screwdriver into the
slot and expand the slot
slightly (see Figure EE).
4-40 x 1/4” Screw
Nuts 7mm
#6 x 3/8” Thread
Cutting Screws
#6 x 3/8” Thread
Cutting Screws
Figure BB
Fiber Washer
Figure CC
-20-
Figure DD
Figure EE
INSTALL COMPLETED UNIT INTO CASE
r Place the strain relief onto the line cord as shown in Figure FF.
r Squeeze the two sections together with pliers as shown in Figure GG. Then, insert the strain relief into the
hole.
r Lay the trainer inside of the case as shown in Figure HH.
r Align the holes in the bottom case with those in the trainer and secure it into place with four #6 x 1/2” AB
screws and four #6 washer as shown in Figure II.
Back panel
Back panel
Figure FF
Figure GG
#6 x 1/2” AB Screw
#6 Washer
Figure II
Figure HH
-21-
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
The power supply features two variable output voltages and three fixed 12V, –12V and 5V variable output
voltages are 0V to 20V and 0 to –20V at up to 1 ampere maximum current. All supplies are regulated to better
than 0.2V when going from no load to full load. Varying the input AC voltage from 105 to 135V will have
practically no effect on the output voltages. This is because of the specially designed ICs used in the XK-700
Digital/Analog Trainer. Severe overloading or even shorting the output circuits will not damage the supplies.
Special turn-off circuits in the ICs sense the overload and turn off the output.
THE POSITIVE 0 TO 20V POWER SUPPLY
Figure 1 shows a simplified circuit diagram of the positive supply. It consists of a power transformer, a DC
rectifier stage and the regulator stage.
120VAC
input
Transformer
120V to 17V
TRANSFORMER
17VAC
AC to DC
converter
28VDC
Simplified diagram of positive power supply
Figure 1
The transformer T1 serves two purposes. First, it reduces the 120VAC
input to 17VAC to allow the proper voltage to enter the rectifier stages.
Second, it isolates the power supply output from the 120VAC line. This
prevents the user from dangerous voltages should he or she be standing
in a grounded area.
AC TO DC CONVERTER
The AC to DC converter consists of diodes D1, D3 and capacitor C1.
Transformer T1 has two secondary windings which are 180 degrees out of
phase. The output at each winding is shown in Figure 2A and 2B.
Diodes are semiconductor devices that allow current to flow in only one
direction. The arrow in Figure 3 points to the direction that the current will
flow. Only when the transformer voltage is positive will current flow through
the diodes. Figure 3 shows the simplest possible rectifier circuit. This
circuit is known as a half-wave rectifier. Here the diode conducts only half
of the time when the AC wave is positive as shown in Figure 2C. Use of
this circuit is simple but inefficient. The big gap between cycles require
much more filtering to obtain a smooth DC voltage.
By the addition of a second diode and transformer winding we can fill in
the gap between cycles as shown in Figure 4. This circuit is called fullwave rectification. Each diode conducts when the voltage is positive. By
adding the two outputs, the voltage presented to capacitor C1 is more
complete, thus easier to filter, as shown in Figure 2E. When used in 60
cycles AC input power, the output of a full wave rectifier will be 120 cycles.
Capacitor C1 is used to store the current charges, thus smoothing the DC
voltage. The larger the capacitor, the more current is stored. In this design,
1000mF capacitors are used, which allows about 5 volts AC ripple when
one amp is drawn.
-22-
Voltage
regulator
0 - 20V
Regulated
output
Voltage Waveform for Supply
A) Transformer
winding AB
B) Transformer
winding BC
C) Output of
diode D1.
D) Output of
diode D2.
E) Total of diodes
D1 & D2.
20V
F) Output of capacitor C1
Ripple depends on load
current (expanded).
Figure 2
Half wave rectifier
Figure 3
Full wave rectifier
Figure 4
In practice, the current through the diodes is not as
shown in Figure 2C. Because capacitor C1 has a
charge after the first cycle, the diode will not conduct
until the positive AC voltage exceeds the positive
charge in the capacitor. Figure 5 shows a better
picture of what the current flow looks like assuming
no loss in the diode. It takes a few cycles for the
voltage to build up on the capacitor. This depends
on the resistance of the winding and the diode. After
the initial start-up, there will be a charge and
discharge on the capacitor depending on the current
drawn by the output load. Remember, current only
flows through the diode when the anode is more
positive than the cathode. Thus, current will flow in
short bursts as shown in Figure 5.
A) Transformer
winding
collector of transistor Q2 is connected to a current
source. This basically is a PNP transistor biased to
draw about 1mA of current. Transistor Q2 sees the
current source as a very high resistor of about 1 meg
ohms. Thus, the gain of transistor Q2 is extremely
high.
Transistor Q5 is called the pass transistor. It controls
the current reaching the output. Transistor Q3 and
Q4 are emitter followers. Their function is to raise the
impedance of the pass transistor. Note that
transistors Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5 and resistor R1 form a
closed loop. Also, note that the feedback to the base
of Q2 is negative, that is, when the base of Q2 goes
positive, the output at emitter Q5 goes negative. Now
if the 2 volt output voltage goes down because of
current drain at the output, the base of Q2 will drop,
forcing the collector voltage to go higher. This will
bring the output voltage back to 2 volts. This is the
basis of all negative feedback regulators.
20V
Peak
B) Voltage C1
20V
C) Current
through diodes
Another feature of the LM-317 regulator if to protect
the IC against overload and output shorts. If the IC is
overloaded, the junction of an overload transistor will
overheat. A transistor will sense this overheating and
shut down transistor Q5.
Figure 5
The DC load current may be one ampere, but the
peak diode current may be three times that.
Therefore, the diode rating must be sufficient to
handle the peak current. The 1N4001 has a peak
current rating of 10 amps.
The LM-317 IC is basically a 1.25 volt regulator. To
be able to vary the output from 0V to 20V, you stack
the IC on the negative 1.25VDC voltage as shown in
Figure 7. When VR1 equals 0, the output voltage is
0 volts.
REGULATOR CIRCUIT
The regulator circuit in the power supply consists of
a LM-317 integrated circuit. This IC is specially
designed to perform the regulation function. Figure 6
shows a simplified circuit of how the LM-317 IC
works.
Current
source
equalized
to 1 meg.
1.5V
Q3
Q2
Q5
Q4
LM-317
2V
Output
–DC
R1
THE NEGATIVE VOLTAGE REGULATOR
Divider
The theory of the negative regulator is the same as
the previously discussed positive regulator. The
basic difference is that diodes D1 and D3 are
reversed, producing a negative voltage across
capacitor C1. The LM-317 IC is designed to operate
from a negative supply.
Figure 6
Transistors Q1 and Q2 form a circuit known as a
differential amplifier. The base of transistor Q1 is
connected to a stable 1.5V reference voltage. The
base of Q2 is connected to the regulator output
circuit through a voltage divider network. The
VR1
Figure 7
R2
Q1
R1
0V - 20V
-23-
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM - POWER SUPPLY SECTION
-24-
QUIZ - POWER SUPPLY SECTION
INSTRUCTIONS - Complete the following examination and check your answers carefully.
1. AC voltage is supplied to the rectifier stages by the . . .
r A. step-up transformer.
r B. step-down transformer.
r C. 1 to 1 transformer.
r D. AC to DC transformer.
2. The secondary windings of the transformer are . . .
r A. 90O out of phase.
r B. 180O out of phase.
r C. 270O out of phase.
r D. 320O out of phase.
3. Diodes allow current to flow . . .
r A. when the anode is more negative than the cathode.
r B. when the cathode is more positive than the anode.
r C. in one direction.
r D. when a negative or positive voltage is on the anode.
4. What circuit is more efficient for rectifying AC to DC?
r A. Hartley oscillator.
r B. Half-wave.
r C. Schmitt trigger.
r D. Full wave.
5. The DC voltage is smoothed by using a . . .
r A. half-wave rectification circuit.
r B. small value capacitor with a high voltage value.
r C. Large value capacitor.
r D. 90O out of phase.
6. An inefficient rectification circuit usually contains . . .
r A. large gaps between cycles.
r B. twice the AC voltage needed.
r C. more diodes.
r D. all of the above.
7. The maximum current that a diode can handle is determined by . . .
A. the transformer’s current rating.
B. the amount of AC ripple.
C. three times the diode rating.
D. peak current rating.
8. The LM-317 will shut down when . . .
r A. the output voltage is too high.
r B. no current is being drawn.
r C. the junction overheats.
r D. the output voltage drops to 1.25V.
9. The LM-317 regulator contains . . .
r A. a pass transistor.
r B. a constant current source.
r C. a differential amplifier.
r D. all of the above.
10. The LM-317 is basically . . .
r A. a 1.25V regulator.
r B. a 6.25V regulator.
r C. a 2.5V regulator.
r D. a negative voltage regulator.
Answers: 1. B; 2. B; 3. C; 4. D; 5. C; 6. D; 7. D; 8. C; 9. D; 10. A
-25-
AN-700-C
XK-700 ANALOG KIT (AN-700-C) PARTS LIST
Qty.
r2
r1
r2
r1
r1
r2
r1
r1
r1
r1
r3
r1
r1
r1
r1
r2
Symbol
R14, R44
R5
R46, R47
R12
R49
R7, R11
R3
R13
R10
R6
R4, R45, R48
R9
R8
VR8
VR5
VR6, VR7
Value
100W 5% 1/4W
200W 5% 1/4W
330W 5% 1/4W
1kW 5% 1/4W
2kW 5% 1/4W
4.7kW 5% 1/4W
6.8kW 5% 1/4W
8.2kW 5% 1/4W
10kW 5% 1/4W
12kW 5% 1/4W
22kW 5% 1/4W
47kW 5% 1/4W
51kW 5% 1/4W
100kW Trim Pot
10kW Pot
100kW Pot
Qty.
r2
r2
r1
r1
r1
Symbol
D16, D17
Q1, Q3
Q2
U10
U6
Value
1N4148
2N3904
2N3906
LM318
XR2206
Qty.
r1
r1
r5
r3
r2
r3
r2
r1
r1
r2
r1
Symbol
SW2
SW3
Qty.
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r1
r2
Symbol
C27
C26
C23
C18
C25
C19
C20
C21
C22, C24
U10
U6
B5, B6
Value
5pF (5)
22pF (22)
100pF (101)
.001mF (102)
.0022mF (222)
.01mF (103)
.1mF (104)
1mF 50V
10mF 25V
Description
Switch rotary 12-pin
Switch rotary 16-pin
Knob push-on
Nut 7mm
Nut 9mm
Washer flat 8mm
Washer flat 9mm
IC socket 8-pin
IC socket 16-pin
4-Pin Bredblox
Solder lead-free
RESISTORS
Color Code
brown-black-brown-gold
red-black-brown-gold
orange-orange-brown-gold
brown-black-red-gold
red-black-red-gold
yellow-violet-red-gold
blue-gray-red-gold
gray-red-red-gold
brown-black-orange-gold
brown-red-orange-gold
red-red-orange-gold
yellow-violet-orange-gold
green-brown-orange-gold
CAPACITORS
Part #
131000
132000
133300
141000
142000
144700
146800
148200
151000
151200
152200
154700
155100
191610
192531
192612
Description
Discap
Discap
Discap
Mylar
Discap
Mylar
Mylar
Electrolytic
Electrolytic
Part #
205010
212210
221017
231017
232216
241019
251017
261047
271045
Description
Diode
Transistor PNP
Transistor NPN
Integrated circuit
Integrated circuit
Part #
314148
323904
323906
330357
332206
SEMICONDUCTORS
MISCELLANEOUS
-26-
Part #
542206
542405
622009
644101
644102
645101
645103
664008
664016
665204
9LF99
INTRODUCTION - ANALOG SECTION
The Analog Section of your trainer contains a
complete function generator capable of producing
sine, square, and triangle waveforms. The frequency
of this generator can be continuously varied from 1
hertz to over 100,000 hertz in five steps: 10, 100, 1k,
10k, and 100k. A fine frequency control makes
selection of any frequency in between easy. The
amplitude of the waveforms are adjustable from 015Vpp. A waveform of function generator capable of
producing sine, square and triangle waveform
outputs has a wide range of applications in electrical
measurements and laboratory instrumentation. This
complete function generator system is suitable for
experimentation and applications by the student. The
entire function generator is comprised of a single XR2206 monolithic IC and a limited number of passive
circuit components.
SPECIFICATIONS
Waveforms - Sine, square, triangle and complementary square.
Frequency - 1Hz to 100kHz in 5 steps continuously variable.
Fine frequency adjust - 10:1 approximate.
Amplitude variable 0-15 Vpp.
Output impedance 330 ohms: short protected.
DC offset change 10V from zero crossing.
2
1
6
3
4
5
7
USERS DESCRIPTION OF FRONT PANEL CONTROLS
6. CLK - A 4-pin output block for function
generator’s square wave. The amplitude of the
signal is 5Vpp and frequency is dependent on
WAVEFORM selection.
1. WAVEFORM - Selects square, triangle or sine
waveform at the FREQ output.
2. COURSE FREQUENCY - Selects five ranges of
frequencies 10, 100, 1k, 10k and 100k hertz.
7. FREQ - A 4-pin output block for function
generator’s signals, output is dependent on
WAVEFORM selection and frequency is set by
COURSE FREQ control. The amplitude of the
output is variable from 0-15Vpp.
3. FINE FREQUENCY - Allows easy selection of
desired frequency according to the frequency
range.
4. AMPLITUDE - Controls the amplitude of the
FREQ output signal from 0-15Vpp.
5. DC OFFSET - Controls the DC level of the FREQ
output signal. The DC level may be varied 10
volts from zero level.
-27-
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Start Here
Continue
J9 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
R5 - 200W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-black-brown-gold)
J10 - Jumper Wire
J25 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
R3 - 6.8kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(blue-gray-red-gold)
C25 - .0022mF (222) Discap
J8 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
VR8 - 100kW Trim Pot
(see Figure E)
R4 - 22kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-orange-gold)
C26 - 22pF (22) Discap
U6 - IC socket 16-pin
U6 - XR2206 IC
(see Figure B)
C23 - 100pF (101) Discap
J11 - Jumper Wire
J12 - Jumper Wire
J13 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
R49 - 2kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-black-red-gold)
Q3 - 2N3904 Transistor
(see Figure C)
U10 - IC socket 8-pin
U10 - LM318 IC
(see Figure B)
R10 - 10kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-orange-gold)
R11 - 4.7kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(yellow-violet-red-gold)
R7 - 4.7kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(yellow-violet-red-gold)
R8 - 51kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(green-brown-orange-gold)
C24 - 10mF 25V Lytic
(see Figure D)
C27 - 5pF (5) Discap
R9 - 47kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(yellow-violet-orange-gold)
Figure A
Cut a piece of bare wire long
enough so that 1/4” of wire
passes through each hole in
the PC board after the wire is
formed (provided in the
second package).
Figure B
Notch
IC
Figure C
Socket
Flat
Insert the IC socket into the PC
board with the notch in the
direction shown on the top
legend. Solder the IC socket
into place. Insert the IC into the
socket with the notch in the
same direction as the notch on
the socket.
-28-
Mount the transistor
with the flat side in
the direction shown
on the top legend.
Figure D
Electrolytics have a polarity
marking on them indicating
the negative (–) lead. The
PC board is marked to show
the lead positions.
Mount the capacitors horizontal to the PC
board.
Bend the leads
at right angles
and then insert
the leads into
the PC board.
Polarity mark
(–)
(+)
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Continue
Start Here
R48 - 22kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-orange-gold)
B6 - 4-pin Bredblox
(see Figure F)
D16 - 1N4148 Diode
(see Figure G)
Q1 - 2N3904 Transistor
(see Figure C)
R14 - 100W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-brown-gold)
R47 - 330W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(orange-orange-brown-gold)
R12 - 1kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
R45 - 22kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-orange-gold)
B5 - 4-pin Bredblox
(see Figure F)
R46 - 330W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(orange-orange-brown-gold)
R44 - 100W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-brown-gold)
J16 - Jumper Wire
J15 - Jumper Wire
J14 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
D17 - 1N4148 Diode
(see Figure G)
Q2 - 2N3906 Transistor
(see Figure C)
J23 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
Figure E
Mount the trim pot to the PC board as
shown below.
Figure F
Hold the bredblox down flush to the PC board from the top legend side
and solder the metal pins in place. Then, melt the plastic pins with your
soldering iron to hold the bredblox down as shown. Re-tin the solder tip
afterwards.
Plastic Pins
Figure EA
Bend the capacitors at a 45o angle before
soldering it to the PC board.
Melt Pins
Figure G
Diodes have polarity. Mount with
band in the direction shown on the
PC board.
Band
-29-
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Start Here
J18 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
Figure H
Cut off
tab
Mount down flush with
PC board. The value
may be marked on the
back side of pot.
Cut off excess lead
length after soldering.
R13 - 8.2kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(gray-red-red-gold)
Potentiometers
J17 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure A)
C18 - .001mF (102) Mylar
(see Figure EA)
Switches
R6 - 12kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-orange-gold)
Cut off
tab
Figure I
Mount down flush with PC board.
Note: SW2 has 12 pins and SW3
has 16 pins.
Continue
C21 - 1mF 50V Electrolytic
(see Figure D)
C22 - 10mF 25V Electrolytic
(see Figure D)
VR6 - 100kW Pot
(see Figure H)
C20 - .1mF (104) Mylar
(see Figure EA)
VR5 - 10kW Pot
(see Figure H)
C19 - .01mF (103) Mylar
(see Figure EA)
VR7 - 100kW Pot
(see Figure H)
SW2 - SW Rotary 12-Pin
(see Figure I)
SW3 - SW Rotary 16-Pin
(see Figure I)
-30-
RESISTANCE ANALYSIS OF ANALOG SECTION
Static testing of the analog circuits. Do not plug in the power supply into 120VAC power source until all
resistance readings check out. The values given below are approximated.
SET SW3 TO SQUARE WAVE (refer to top panel)
From
Pin 11 (U6)
Pin 11 (U6)
To
Pin 3 (U10)
Pin 3 (U10)
SET SW3 TO TRIANGLE WAVE
From
Pin 2 (U6)
Pin 2 (U6)
Pin 13 (U6)
To
Pin 3 (U10)
Pin 3 (U10)
Pin 14 (U6)
SET SW3 TO SINE WAVE
From
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
2 (U6)
2 (U6)
13 (U6)
3 (U6)
3 (U6)
4 (U6)
7 (U6)
7 (U6)
12 (U6)
30%
To
Pin 3 (U10)
Pin 3 (U10)
Pin 14 (U6)
GND (B1)
GND (B1)
+12V (B3)
–12V (B2)
–12V (B2)
–12V (B2)
Circuit
Ohms
Resistance Measured
Circuit
Ohms
Resistance Measured
Circuit
Ohms
Resistance Measured
Square Wave
Square Wave
VR5 CCW 12.3kW
VR5 CW 6.7kW
Triangle Wave
Triangle Wave
Triangle Wave
VR5 CCW 14.7kW
VR5 CW 4.7kW
Greater than 1kW
Sine Wave
Sine Wave
Sine Wave
Mult
Mult
VCC
Fine Freq Adj
Fine Freq Adj
GND
VR5 CCW 14.7kW
VR5 CW 4.7kW
200W
VR8 CCW < 10W
VR8 CW 100kW
Less than 3W
VR7 CCW 108.2kW
VR7 CW 8.2kW
Less than 3W
CCW - Counter-Clockwise
VR8
CW - Clockwise
1
2
3
4
U10
-31-
8
7
6
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
U6
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
VOLTAGE ANALYSIS OF ANALOG SECTION
Proceed with the voltage analysis only if the resistance readings were satisfactory. The values given below
are approximate.
The following measurements will be taken from the copper side of the PC board. Turn the unit on and place it
upside down.
See Figure J for locations of the testing points.
From
Pin
Pin
Pin
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
4 (U6)
12 (U6)
7 (U10)
4 (U10)
GND
GND
GND
GND
(B1)
(B1)
(B1)
(B1)
Circuit
Volts
U6 Vcc
U6 GND
U10 Vcc
U10 Vcc–
Volts Measured
+12V
–12V
+12V
–12V
U6
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
U10
1
2
3
4
To
8
7
6
5
12
GND
4
7
Turn unit right side up.
4
Figure J
TESTING THE FUNCTION GENERATOR
Note: Use the knobs when turning the switches.
TESTING THE SINE WAVE
1. Set your meter to the 200mV DC range.
2. Connect the red meter lead to the 4-pin breadblock marked FREQ and the black lead wire to the 4-pin
breadblock marked GND.
3. Set the WAVEFORM knob to SINE, COARSE FREQUENCY knob to 1k and the FINE ADJ and AMPLITUDE
knobs fully clockwise.
4. Set the DC offset to the middle position. Then, turn on the trainer.
-32-
5. Set VR8 fully counter-clockwise.
6. Adjust the DC OFFSET knob until the meter reads 0 volts DC.
7. Set the meter to the 20 volts AC range and slowly turn VR8
clockwise until the meter reads 5.8 volts AC.
Note: Adjusting the DC offset will affect the VAC readings.
TESTING THE TRIANGLE WAVEFORM
1. Switch the WAVEFORM knob to its triangle wave setting.
2. With the meter set to the 20 volts AC range, you should read about
6.3 volts AC.
TESTING THE SQUARE WAVEFORM
1. Switch the WAVEFORM knob to its square wave setting.
2. Set your meter to the 20 volts AC range, you should now read about 12.5 volts AC.
Trim pot adjustment
Turn the unit off and unplug it from the AC outlet.
TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
This chart lists the condition and possible causes of several malfunctions. If a particular part is mentioned as a
possible cause, check that part to see if it was installed correctly. Also, check it and the parts connected to it for
good solder connections.
PROBLEM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
No sine, triangle or low amplitude
1. Check U6 pin 2 for wave form.
A. Check VR8, voltage to IC.
No wave form at FREQ
Saw wave in sine position
Wave forms clip top or bottom
No CLK wave output or low amplitude
No square wave or low amplitude
(FREQ output)
Outputs wrong frequency
DC offset not working
1. Check voltage at pins 4 (+12V) and 12 (–12V) of U6.
2. Check for wave forms at pin 2 of U6 and pin 3 of U10.
A. Check R3-4, R7, R13, C18-22, C24, SW2-3, VR5 & VR7.
3. Measure voltage at pins 7 (+12V) and 4 (–12V) of U10.
4. Check R8, R9, R11, R14, R44-48, D16, D17, Q1 and Q2.
1. R5 wrong value.
1. Measure voltage at pins 7 (+12V) and 4 (–12V).
2. Adjust VR8.
3. Check R7, R9, R11, R14, R44-49, D16-17 and Q2-3.
1. Check pin 11 of U6 for square wave.
A. Check Q2 shorted to ground.
B. Check R10, R12 and Q3.
C. Defective IC.
1. Check pin 11 of U6 for square wave.
A. Check Q2 shorted to ground.
B. Check R3, R49, SW3.
C. Defective IC.
1. Check C18-22, C24, R13, SW2 and VR7.
1. Check voltage on VR6 for +12V and –12V; check R8.
-33-
FINAL ASSEMBLY
If you are immediately going to build the remaining section, do not continue with the instructions on
this page, proceed to page 35.
r Fasten the front panel in
place with four #6 x 3/8”
thread cutting screws, as
shown in Figure K.
r Fasten the PC board to the
spacer on the front panel
with a fiber washer and a 440 x 1/4” screw from the foil
side of the PC board, in the
location shown in Figure L.
r Fasten the pots to the front
panel with an 8mm washer
and a 7mm nut, as shown
in Figure K.
r Turn the shafts on the two
switches fully counterclockwise. Push the knobs
onto the shafts so that the
line on the knob is in line
with the “Squarewave” on
the waveform control and
“10” on the Coarse
Frequency control (see
Figure M).
If the knobs are loose on
the
shafts,
insert
a
screwdriver into the slot
and expand the slot slightly
(see Figure O).
Nuts 8mm
Knobs
Washers 9mm
Nut 7mm
Washer 8mm
Nuts 7mm
Washers 8mm
#6 x 3/8” Thread
Cutting Screws
#6 x 3/8” Thread
Cutting Screws
Figure K
r Turn the shafts on the pots fully counter-clockwise. Push the knobs onto the shafts so that the line on the
knob is in line with the end of the circle on the front panel, as shown in Figure N.
If the knobs are loose on the shafts, insert a screwdriver into the slot and expand the slot slightly (see Figure O).
4-40 x 1/4” Screw
Fiber washer
10
WAVE FORM
Figure L
100
1k
COARSE FREQ
Figure M
AMPLITUDE
-34-
10k
100k
Figure N
Figure O
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
The function generator frequencies are produced by an XR2206
integrated circuit. This IC is capable of producing high quality sine,
square and triangle waveforms of high stability and accuracy. The
output waveform can be both amplitude and frequency modulated
by an external voltage. Figure P shows the block diagram of the
XR2206 IC.
The XR2206 is comprised of four functions blocks, a voltage
controlled oscillator (VCO), an analog multiplier and sine shaper, a
unity gain buffer amplifier, and a set of current switches.
Functional Block Diagram
AM Input
Sine/Saw
Output
Mult. Out
V+
Timing
Capacitor
1
2
+1
3
4
5
6
Multiplier
and
Sine
Shaper
VCO
16
15
14
13
12
11
Symmetry
ADJ.
Waveform
ADJ.
Ground
Sync
Output
7
10
Current
The VCO actually produces an output frequency proportional to an Timing
Switches
Resistor
FKS
input current. Across pins 5 and 6, a timing capacitor is switched in
8
9
Input
to give 5 different ranges of frequencies via COARSE FREQ
Figure P
switch. On pin 7, the FINE FREQ ADJ variable resistor controls the
actual frequency output. These two components form the RC time constants for the oscillator frequency.
Bypass
The VCO produces a square wave signal. This square wave is sent to a shaper and converted into a sine wave.
QUIZ - ANALOG SECTION
INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following examination and check your answers carefully.
1. The analog multiplier is part of . . .
r A. the voltage controlled oscillator.
r B. unity gain buffer amplifier.
r C. four function blocks.
r D. timing capacitor circuit.
6. Coarse frequency is set by . . .
r A. P6.
r B. capacitor C11 through C15.
r C. C21.
r D. P1 and SW9.
3. The RC time constant is determined by . . .
r A. pins 5 and 6.
r B. voltage controlled oscillator.
r C. pin 7 and a variable resistor.
r D. components on pins 5, 6, and 7.
8. The square wave and CLK output are 180O out
of phase because . . .
r A. Q2 inverts the CLK output.
r B. Q1 inverts the square wave output.
r C. a negative voltage is applied to P5.
r D. pin 12 is tied to –12V.
2. Increasing the current of the VCO will effect the . . .
r A. amplitude.
r B. DC offset.
r C. AM modulation.
r D. frequency.
4. What pins on the 2206 IC are used to change the
sine wave to a saw wave?
r A. 5, 6
r B. 15, 16
r C. 13, 14
r D. 4, 12
5. Adjusting P4 from +12V to –12V effects . . .
r A. sine wave amplitude.
r B. modulation.
r C. frequency stability.
r D. DC offset.
7. A 1 volt DC level on the FM input will . . .
r A. shift the frequency 1kHz.
r B. shift the frequency to DC.
r C. have no effect.
r D. shift the frequency 1MHz.
9. Clipping of the sine wave outputs can be
corrected by . . .
r A. P5.
r B. the DC offset pot.
r C. lowering the +5V power supply.
r D. none of the above.
10. The sync output produces . . .
r A. a sine wave.
r B. a saw wave.
r C. voltage spikes.
r D. a square wave.
Answers: 1. C; 2. D; 3. D; 4. C; 5. D; 6. B; 7. C; 8. A; 9. D; 10. D
-35-
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM - ANALOG SECTION
-36-
DG-700-D
XK-700 DIGITAL KIT (DG-700-D) PARTS LIST
Qty.
r8
r1
r4
r 16
Symbol
R36 - R43
R15
R16 - R19
R20 - R35
Value
120W 5% 1/4W
220W 5% 1/4W
1kW 5% 1/4W
100kW 5% 1/4W
Qty.
r1
r8
r2
Symbol
U7
D18 - D25
U8, U9
Value
SN7403
Qty.
r 10
r2
r8
r2
r3
r 12
r1
Symbol
SW4 - SW13
S4, S5
U7 - U9
B7 - B18
74HC04
RESISTORS
Color Code
brown-red-brown-gold
red-red-brown-gold
brown-black-red-gold
brown-black-yellow-gold
SEMICONDUCTORS
Description
Integrated circuit (IC)
Light emitting diode (LED), red
Integrated circuit (IC)
MISCELLANEOUS
Description
Slide switch SPDT
Connector 4-pin
Spacer 1/4” #8
Screw
Socket IC 14-Pin
Breadboard
Bredblox
INTRODUCTION
Part #
131200
132200
141000
161000
Part #
337403
350002
39HC04
Part #
541009
591042
624124
642430
664014
665204
99426
The Digital Section is the fourth package of the XK-700K kit that you are building. The Digital Section of your
trainer contains all of the necessary functions to do your digital designs. They consist of a clock generator, two
no bounce logic switches, 8 LED indicator lamps and 8 data switches. We have also added a 730 tie point
Breadblox to your already existing 830 tie points, giving you a total of 1560 tie points to handle complex circuit
designs.
SPECIFICATIONS
• Data switches, eight DPDT, Hi 5V, low 0V.
• Logic switches, two no bounce with complementary output.
“On” voltage level 2.8V min., “Off” voltage level 1V max.
Input impedance 100kW.
• Eight LED readouts, 100kW input impedance.
• Clock frequency, 1Hz to 100kHz in 5 steps continuously variable.
• Clock amplitude, 5Vpp squarewave.
• Clock rise time, better than 100 nsec.
• Breadboard 730 tie points.
-37-
USERS DESCRIPTION OF FRONT PANEL
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
1. Output Terminals - For all functions as stated. 4 pins per block.
2. Two Logic Switches - These are no bounce logic switches. Give one signal state change per movement
of switch.
3. Input Terminals for Logic Indicator LEDs - “A” input corresponds with “A” lamp, etc.
4. Logic Indictators - Eight LEDs.
5. Eight Data Switches - Lets output of 5V or 0V depending on position.
6. Output Terminal - For all functions as stated. 4 pins per block.
7. Breadboard - One breadboard containing 730 tie points.
-38-
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Start Here
R34 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R35 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R33 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R32 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R28 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R27 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R30 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R31 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R29 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R26 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R20 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R22 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R24 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R21 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R23 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
R25 - 100kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-yellow-gold)
-39-
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Start Here
R43 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
R42 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
S5 - 4-pin connector
(see Figure A)
R41 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
R40 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
R39 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
R38 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
S4 - 4-pin connector
(see Figure A)
R37 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
R36 - 120W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-red-brown-gold)
Figure A
Mount the connector as shown and solder the
pins of the connector.
PC Board
-40-
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Continue
Start Here
D25 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
U9 - IC socket 14-pin
U9 - 74HC04 IC
(see Figure D)
J27 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure C)
D24 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
D23 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
Continue
D22 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
U8 - 14-pin IC socket
U8 - 74HC04 IC
(see Figure D)
D21 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
D20 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
J19 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure C)
D19 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
R15 - 220W 5% 1/4W Resistor
(red-red-brown-gold)
D18 - LED and Spacer
(see Figure B)
J22 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure C)
R19 - 1kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
J21 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure C)
R16 - 1kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
J20 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure C)
R17 - 1kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
R18 - 1kW 5% 1/4W Resistor
(brown-black-red-gold)
U7 - IC socket 14-pin
U7 - 7403 IC
(see Figure D)
J24 - Jumper Wire
(see Figure C)
Figure B
Flat
Spacer
Figure D
Figure C
Top legend side of PC board
Jumper wire
Top legend side of PC board
Flat
Mount spacer and LED flush to the PC board,
with the flat side of the LED in the same
direction as the marking on the top legend
side of the PC board.
Cut a piece of bare wire long
enough so that 1/4” of wire
passes through each hole in
the PC board after the wire is
formed (provided in the
second package).
-41-
Notch
IC
IC socket
Insert the IC socket into the PC
board with the notch in the
direction shown on the top legend.
Solder the IC socket into place.
Insert the IC into the socket with
the notch in the same direction as
the notch on the socket.
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO PC BOARD
Start Here
Continue
SW4 - Slide switch
SW5 - Slide switch
SW6 - Slide switch
SW7 - Slide switch
SW8 - Slide switch
SW9 - Slide switch
(see Figure F)
SW10 - Slide switch
SW11 - Slide switch
SW12 - Slide switch
SW13 - Slide switch
B7 - 4-pin Bredblox
B8 - 4-pin Bredblox
B9 - 4-pin Bredblox
B10 - 4-pin Bredblox
B11 - 4-pin Bredblox
B12 - 4-pin Bredblox
B13 - 4-pin Bredblox
B14 - 4-pin Bredblox
(see Figure E)
B15
B16
B17
B18
Figure E
Hold the bredblox down flush to the PC
board from the top legend side and
solder the metal pins into place. Then,
melt the plastic pins with your soldering
iron to hold the plastic blocks in place as
shown.
-
4-pin
4-pin
4-pin
4-pin
Bredblox
Bredblox
Bredblox
Bredblox
Figure F
Plastic Pins
Melt Pins
INSTALL COMPONENTS TO FRONT PANEL
Mount the switch onto the legend side
of the PC board as shown. Flip the
board over and solder the part into
place. Be sure to keep the three
soldered sets of leads separate as
shown.
Switch
Legend side
of PC board
Foil side of
PC board
Solder
r Interlock the breadboard to the bottom edge of the existing breadboard on the top panel as shown in Figure H.
Fasten the breadboards in place with two #4 x 1/4” AB black screws from the back side of the panel. Use the
holes on the 9426 breadboard as shown in Figure G. CAUTION: Do not remove the paper backing from the
breadboard.
Figure H
Figure G
Use these holes
Breadboards
Note: The 9418 and the power strip 9408 make
up the 9426 breadboard.
-42-
Top panel
#4 x 1/4” Screws
9426
9830
RESISTANCE ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL SECTION
Place the top panel onto the unit. Static testing of the digital section circuits. Do not plug the power supply into
a 117 volt power source until all of the resistance readings check out. The values given below are
approximate.
From
To
SW1
GND
SW4
GND
SW2
SW3
SW5
SW6
SW7
SW8
SW1
SW2
SW3
SW4
SW5
SW6
SW7
SW8
SW1
SW2
SW3
SW4
SW5
SW6
SW7
SW8
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
+5V
+5V
+5V
+5V
+5V
+5V
+5V
+5V
Switch Position
Ohms
In down position
less than 1W
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
LOGIC SW
X X
Y Y
less than 1W
Resistance Measured
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
less than 1W
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
greater than 3kW
less than 300W
less than 300W
less than 300W
less than 300W
less than 300W
less than 300W
less than 300W
less than 300W
DATA SWITCHES
SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4 SW5 SW6 SW7 SW8
-43-
VOLTAGE ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL SECTION
Plug the power supply into a 117 volt power source. The values given below are approximate.
From
To
X
GND
Y
GND
X
Y
SW1
SW2
SW3
SW4
SW5
SW6
SW7
SW8
X
X
Y
Y
SW1
SW2
SW3
SW4
SW5
SW6
SW7
SW8
X
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
GND
Switch Position
Volts
In up position
less than 1V
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In up position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
In down position
X
Y
High Positions
LOGIC SW
X X
Y Y
Y
5V
Volts Measured
5V
less than 1V
5V
5V
5V
5V
5V
5V
5V
5V
less than 1V
5V
less than 1V
5V
less than 1V
less than 1V
less than 1V
less than 1V
less than 1V
less than 1V
less than 1V
less than 1V
SW1-8
DATA SWITCHES
SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4 SW5 SW6 SW7 SW8
-44-
TESTING THE DIGITAL SECTION
TESTING THE LOGIC INDICATOR
FUNCTION
TESTING THE DATA SWITCHES
TESTING THE LOGIC SWITCHES
r Unplug the unit from the AC outlet.
There are eight data switches to be checked. The
output of the switches are 5V or ground depending
on the position. Connect a wire to the SW1 test pin
and the “A” test pin. The “A” LED should light when
the switch is placed toward the top of the case.
Repeat the same test on SW2, SW3, SW4, SW5,
SW6, SW7 and SW8.
There are eight logic indicators which you will be
checking out. Put a wire to the 5V power supply and
touch the “A” logic indicator test pin. The “A” LED
should light up. Remove the wire and the LED should
go out. Do the same for the B, C, D, E, F, G and H
pins.
There are two logic switches and four conditions to
be checked out. Connect a wire from the “X” test pin
to the “A” logic indicator test pin. Connect another
wire to the “X” test pin to the “B” test pin.
Apply power and note that the “A” LED indicator
should be lit when the logic switch is in the “X”
position and the “B” LED should light and the “A”
LED not light. Check the “Y” logic switch in the same
manner.
DIGITAL TROUBLESHOOTING CHART
PROBLEM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
LED doesn’t light
1. Check that the LED is in correctly.
2. Check the input and output resistors.
3. Measure input for +5V and output at ground.
A. Short to ground or defective IC.
No +5V on data switch terminals.
LED always on
Logic switch terminal always high
1. Measure for a DC voltage of +5V across R15.
A. Check R15, J19, J23 and J13.
B. Switch shorted to ground.
1. Measure for zero voltage voltage at input pin.
A. Pin shorted or defective IC
2. Measure voltage to output pin for +5V.
A. Pin shorted or defective IC.
1. Check that input resistor is grounded.
A. Bad ground connection or switch.
2. Measure for +5V on R16 - R19.
A. Check resistor.
3. Defective IC.
-45-
FINAL ASSEMBLY
r Fasten the front panel in
place with four #6 x 3/8”
thread cutting screws, as
shown in Figure I.
r Fasten the PC board to
the spacer on the front
panel with a fiber washer
and a 4-40 x 1/4” screw
(from
Power
Supply
Section) from the foil side
of the PC board, in the
location shown in Figure J.
r Fasten the pots to the
front panel with an 8mm
washer and a 7mm nut, as
shown in Figure I.
Nuts 8mm
Knobs
Washers 9mm
Figure I
Nut 7mm
Washer 8mm
Nuts 7mm
Washers 8mm
r Turn the shafts on the two
switches fully counterclockwise. Push the knobs
onto the shafts so that the
line on the knob is in line
with the “Squarewave” on
the waveform control and
“10” on the Coarse
Frequency control (see
Figure K).
If the knobs are loose on
the shafts, insert a
screwdriver into the slot
and expand the slot
slightly (see Figure M).
#6 x 3/8” Thread
cutting screws
#6 x 3/8” Thread
cutting screws
r Turn the shafts on the pots fully counter-clockwise. Push the knobs onto the shafts so that the line on the
knob is in line with the end of the circle on the front panel, as shown in Figure L.
If the knobs are loose on the shafts, insert a screwdriver into the slot and expand the slot slightly (see Figure M).
4-40 x 1/4” Screw
Fiber washer
10
WAVE FORM
Figure J
-46-
100
1k
10k
100k
COARSE FREQ
Figure K
Figure L
Figure M
INSTALL COMPLETED UNIT INTO CASE
r Place the strain relief onto the line cord as shown in Figure N.
r Squeeze the two sections together with pliers as shown in Figure O. Then, insert the strain relief into the
hole.
r Lay the trainer inside of the case as shown in Figure P.
r Align the holes in the bottom case with those in the trainer and secure it into place with four #6 x 1/2” AB
screws and four #6 washer as shown in Figure Q.
Back Panel
Back Panel
Figure N
Figure O
#6 x 1/2” AB Screw
#6 Washer
Figure Q
Figure P
-47-
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION - DIGITAL SECTION
THE DATA SWITCHES
There are eight data switches labeled SW1 through SW8. The circuit is very simple. To perform the desired
functions, there is a double throw double pole switch, wired as a single pole double throw. One end is
connected to the 5V, the other to ground and the center lug is connected to the output.
THE LOGIC SWITCHES
The logic switches are also DPDT switches wired as SPST switches. The logic switches perform the same
function as the data switches. That is, they produce high or low states. But there is one big difference. When
switching the data switches, many pulses may be produced due to bouncing of the contacts.
In the logic switches, only one pulse is produced at the IC output no
matter how many times the contacts bounce. This is extremely
important if you are producing pulses for counting circuits. Figure R
shows the wiring of the logic switch. The two NAND gates are
connected so that when the X input is grounded, the X output goes high.
Opening and closing the ground at X will not change the output. Only
when X is grounded will the output change to low. Thus, only one output
change is produced with one movement of the X switch. There are two
outputs from each logic switch, X and X or Y and Y.
X
X
THE LOGIC INDICATORS
There are eight logic indicators. Figure S shows the circuit. It consists of
a 74HC04 IC. When the input is over 2.8V, the output of the IC will be low,
drawing current through the LED indicator. The 120W resistor limits the
current in the LED to less than 20mA. When there is no connection to the
input of the logic indicators, the two 100kW resistor bias the input to GND.
This insures that the LED will be off.
-48-
100k
1
2
4
5
IC7
IC7
3
6
X
Figure R
100k
74HC04
X
120
Figure S
LED 5V
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
-49-
QUIZ - DIGITAL SECTION
INSTRUCTIONS: Complete the following examination, check your answers carefully.
1. The logic switches consist of . . .
r A. two NAND gates and an SPST switch.
r B. three OR gates.
r C. two NAND gates and a DPDT switch.
r D. one OR gate.
2. When the logic switch is thrown . . .
r A. the contacts do not bounce.
r B. a single transition is produced at the NAND gate output.
r C. a multiple transition is produced at the NAND gate output.
r D. none of the above.
3. If the X output is high, opening and closing the ground at X switch will . . .
r A. cause the X output to go low.
r B. cause the X output to go high.
r C. cause the X output to go from high to low.
r D. none of the above.
4. The logic indicator LED lights up when . . .
r A. input voltage is 2V.
r B. input voltage is greater than 2.8.
r C. the IC output is high.
r D. all of the above.
5. The logic switches use . . .
r A. single pole single throw switches.
r B. double pole double throw switches wires as single pole double throw switches.
r C. two pole 5 position rotary switches.
r D. 4 pole 3 position rotary switches.
6. The 100kW resistor on the logic indicator input . . .
r A. divides the input voltage in half.
r B. bias the input to +5V.
r C. bias the input to GND.
r D. turn on the LED.
7. When the logic switch is in the X position . . .
r A. X is high, X is low.
r B. X is high, X is high.
r C. X is low, X is high.
r D. X is low, X is low.
8. When the data switch is up and connected to the logic indicator . . .
r A. the switch output is greater than 2.8V.
r B. the switch output is GND.
r C. the LED will be out.
r D. none of the above.
9. The +5VDC power for the digital section comes from a . . .
r A. 7805 IC.
r B. 7905 IC.
r C. 5V battery.
r D. 7812 IC.
10. If pin 4 on U7B is high . . .
r A. pin 3 is low.
r B. pin 1 is low.
r C. pin 2 and 6 are high.
r D. pin 5 is high.
Answers: 1. C; 2. B; 3. D; 4. B; 5. B; 6. C; 7. A; 8. A; 9. A; 10. B
-50-
ELENCO®
150 Carpenter Avenue
Wheeling, IL 60090
(847) 541-3800
Website: www.elenco.com
e-mail: elenco@elenco.com
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