Rane AC 22 Manual
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AC 22 and AC 23
ACTIVE CROSSOVERS
OPERATING
AND
SERVICE
MANUAL
I I A N E]
C OR P OR A T
I
O N
AC 22 2-Channel 2-Way Installation
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Observe the labels ABOVE the inputs and outputs for 2-channel operation.
1. CHANNEL 1 INPUT: Use this input only if you are running true stereo: two separate
channels from the mixer or other source. Connect this input to the left channel output of the
mixer, equalizer or other signal source. If you are running two speaker systems from a single
mono signal, omit this input and use only Channel 2 input. See #2 below.
2. CHANNEL 2 INPUT: For true stereo operation, connect this input to the right channel
output of the mixer, equalizer or other signal source. NOTE: Two separate speaker systems
may be independently operated from a single mono source by using only the Channel 2 input
and omitting the Channel 1 input. As long as nothing is plugged into the Channel 1 input,
Channel 2 will drive BOTH channels of the AC 22 internally, eliminating the need for an
external "Y" adapter to run both channels from a single input.
3. HIGH FREQUENCY OUTPUTS: Connect the Channel 1 High output to the left channel
input of the high frequency amplifier, and the Channel 2 High output to the right channel input
of the high frequency amp.
4. LOW FREQUENCY OUTPUTS: Connect the Channel 1 Low output to the left channel
input of the low frequency amplifier and the Channel 2 Low output to the right channel input
of the low frequency amp.
5. AC POWER LINE CORO:
Plug this into a 120 VAC wall outlet .
6. EXTERNAL POWER JACK: Use only with Rane RS 10 Power Supply (See Rane Note 118 for
details). Cannot be used to power other units. -WARN I NG: DO NOT PLUG ANY TYPE OF
TELEPHONE EQUIPMENT TO THIS JACK.-
5
•
AC 22:
1. POWER SWITCH:
Mono 3-Way Configuration
Self-evident.
2. POWER INDICATOR: When this yellow LED is lit, all output muting circuits are fully"on"
and the unit is ready to operate.
3. CH. 1 MASTER LEVEL CONTROL: This controls the overall level without altering the
relative settings of the Hi, Mid and Low outputs.
4. LOW FREQUENCY LEVEL CONTROL: This controls the level of signal going to the Low
Frequency driver.
5. LOW FREQUENCY MUTE SWITCH: When pressed to the IN pos1t1on, all signal is
removed from the Low Frequency output. This eases tune-up procedure, as described in
Section 111-4.
6. LOW FREQUENCY TIME DELAY CONTROL: This control adds from Oto 2mS of time
delay to the Low Frequency output only. This allows a low frequency driver to be electronically
phase-aligned with a high frequency driver whose diaphragm is situated BEHIND the low
frequency diaphragm. Refer to Section 111-3 for alignment procedure.
7. CROSSOVER FREQUENCY SELECTOR: This 41-detent selector determines the cross­
over frequency between low and mid frequency drivers. The detents will assure maximum
accuracy and consistency between channels. Refer to Section 111-2 to determine proper
crossover frequency for your particular system.
8. MID FREQUENCY LEVEL CONTROL:
Frequency driver.
This controls the level of signal going to the Mid
* NOTE:
The Ch. 1 High frequency level control and the Ch. 2 Master level control are
automatically bypassed internally when the AC 22 is connected as shown by the diagram on the
�p�ge. Adjusting these controls will have no effect in the Mono mode.
�/'....>
9. MID FREQUENCY MUTE SWITCH: When pressed to the IN position, all signal is removed
from the Mid Frequency output. This eases tune-up procedures, as described in Section 111-4.
10. MIO FREQUENCY TIME DELAY CONTROL: This control adds from Oto 2mS of time
delay to the Mid Frequency output only. This allows a mid frequency driver to be electronically
phase-aligned with a high frequency driver whose diaphragm is situated BEHIND the mid
frequency diaphragm. Refer to Section 111-3 for alignment procedure.
11. CROSSOVER FREQUENCY SELECTOR: This sets the crossover frequency between the
Mid and High Frequency drivers. Refer to Section 111-2.
12. HIGH FREQUENCY LEVEL CONTROL:
Frequency driver only.
This controls the level of signal going to the High
6
AC 22 Mono 3-Way Installation
AC22
Observe the labels BELOW the inputs and outputs for Mono operation.
1. MONO (CH. 1) INPUT: Plug the output of the mixer, equalizer or other signal source into
this input for mono operation. DO NOT PLUG INTO THE CHANNEL2 INPUT: THIS INPUT
IS USED TO DRIVE TWO CHANNELS WITH THE SAME MONO INPUT. Refer to"AC 22 2Channel 2-Way Installation".
*DO NOT USE THIS INPUT FOR3-WAY MONO OPERATION. USE THE CHANNEL 1 INPUT
ONLY.
2. HIGH FREQUENCY OUTPUT:. Connect this output to the input(s) of the high frequency
amplifier.
3. MID FREQUENCY OUTPUT:
amplifier.
Connect this output to the input(s) of the mid frequency
4. LOW FREQUENCY OUTPUT:
amplifier.
Connect this output to the input(s) of the low frequency
**This output is not used in the Mono 3-Way mode.
5. AC POWER LINE CORD:
Plug this into a 120 VAC wall outlet.
6. EXTERNAL POWER JACK: Use only with Rane RS 10 Power Supply (See Rane Note 118 for
details). Cannot be used to power other units. -WARNING: DO NOT PLUG ANY TYPE OF
TELEPHONE EQUIPMENT TO THIS JACK.-
7
AC 23:
2-Channel 3-Way Configuration
1 23 4 5 6 7 891011 12 13 4 5 6 7 891011 12
1. POWER SWITCH:
Two guesses.
2. POWER INDICATOR: When this yellow LED is lit, all output muting circuits are fully"on"
and the unit is ready to operate.
3. CH. 1 MASTER LEVEL CONTROL: This controls the overall level of Channel 1 without
altering the relative settings of the High/Mid/Low frequency outputs.
4. LOW FREQUENCY LEVEL CONTROL:
Frequency driver only in this channel.
This controls the level of signal going to the Low
5. LOW FREQUENCY MUTE SWITCH: When pressed to the IN position, all signal is
removed from the Low Frequency output. This eases tune-up procedures as described in
Section 111-4.
6. LOW FREQUENCY TIME DELAY CONTROL: This control adds from Oto 2mS of time
delay to the Low Frequency output only. This allows a low frequency driver to be electronically
phase-aligned with a mid frequency driver whose diaphragm is situated BEHIND the low
frequency diaphragm. Refer to Section 111-3 for alignment procedure.
7. LOW/MIO CROSSOVER FREQUENCY SELECTOR: This 41-detent selector sets the
crossover frequency between the Low and Mid frequency drivers. Refer to Section 111-2.
8. MIO FREQUENCY LEVEL CONTROL:
Frequency driver in this channel only.
9. MIO FREQUENCY MUTE SWITCH:
when pressed to the IN position.
This controls the level of signal going to the Mid
Removes all signal from the Mid Frequency output
10. MIO FREQUENCY TIME DELAY CONTROL: This control adds from Oto 2mS of time
delay to the Mid Frequency output only. Refer to Section 111-3 for alignment procedure.
11. MIO/HIGH CROSSOVER FREQUENCY SELECTOR: This control sets the crossover
frequency between the mid and high frequency drivers in this channel. Refer to Section 111-2.
12. HIGH FREQUENCY LEVEL CONTROL:
Frequency driver only.
This controls the level of signal going to the High
13. CH. 2 MASTER LEVEL CONTROL: This controls the overall level of Channel 2 without
altering the relative settings of the High/Mid/Low outputs.
9
AC 23 2-Channel 3-Way Installation
Observe the labels ABOVE the inputs and output for 2-channel operation.
1. CHANNEL 1 INPUT: Use this input only if you are running true stereo: two separate
channels from the mixer or other source. Connect this input to the left channel output of the
mixer, equalizer or other signal source. If you are running two speaker systems from a single
mono signal, omit this input and use only the Channel 2 input. See #2 below.
2. CHANNEL 2 INPUT: For true stereo operation, connect this input to the right channel
output of the mixer, equalizer or other signal source. NOTE: Two separate speaker systems
may be independently operated from a single mono source by using only the Channel 2 input
and omitting the Channel 1 input. As long as nothing is plugged into the Channel 1 input,
Channel 2 will drive BOTH channels of the AC 23 internally, eliminating the need for an
external "Y" adapter.
3. HIGH FREQUENCY OUTPUTS: Connect the Channel 1 High Out to the left channel
input of the high frequency amplifier, and the Channel 2 High Out to the right channel input of
the high frequency amp.
4. MID FREQUENCY OUTPUT: Connect the Channel 1 Mid Out to the left channel of the
mid frequency amplifier, and the Channel 2 Mid Out to the right channel of the mid amp.
5. LOW FREQUENCY OUTPUTS: Connect the Channel 1 and 2 Low Outs to the left and
right channels of the low frequency amplifier, respectively.
6. AC POWER LINE CORD:
Plug this into a 120 VAC wall outlet I
7. EXTERNAL POWER JACK: Use only with Rane RS 10 Power Supply (See Rane Note 118 for
details). Cannot be used to power other units. -WARN I NG: DO NOT PLUG ANY TYPE OF
TELEPHONE EQUIPMENT TO THIS JACK.-
10
AC 23:
Mono 4-Way and 5-Way Configuration
*
13
*
10
8 9
1 23 4 5 6 7 12 14 15
11
17
19
Observe the labels screened BELOW the knobs for Mono 4-way operation.
1. POWER SWITCH:
Two guesses.
2. POWER INDICATOR: When this yellow LED is lit, all output muting circuits are fully"on"
and the unit is ready to operate.
3. MASTER LEVEL CONTROL: This controls the overall level of the entire unit in the Mono
configuration, without changing the relative settings of the individual Sub/Low/Mid/High
outputs.
4. SUB-WOOFER LEVEL CONTROL:
woofer only.
This controls the level of signal going to the Sub­
5. SUB-WOOFER MUTE SWITCH: Removes all signal from the Sub-woofer output when
pressed to the IN position. This eases the system tune-up procedure, as described in Section
111-4.
6. TIME DELAY CONTROL: This control exists primarily for 3-way applications of the AC 23.
In Sub-woofer applications this control will normally be set to minimum (MIN). Refer to
Section 111-3.
7. SUB/LOW CROSSOVER FREQUENCY SELECTOR: This 41-detent selector sets the
crossover frequency between the Sub-woofer and Low frequency drivers. The detents will
assure accuracy and consistency. Refer to Section 111-2 to determine the proper crossover
frequency points for the particular drivers in your system.
8. LOW FREQUENCY LEVEL CONTROL:
Frequency driver only.
9. LOW FREQUENCY MUTE SWITCH:
when pressed to the IN position.
This controls the level of signal going to the Low
Removes all signal from the Low Frequency output
10. LOW FREQUENCY TIME DELAY CONTROL: This control adds from Oto 2mS of time
delay to the Low Frequency output only. This allows a low frequency driver to be electronically
phase-aligned with a mid frequency driver whose diaphragm is situated BEHIND the low
frequency diaphragm. Refer to Section 111-3 for alignment procedure.
11. LOW/MID CROSSOVER FREQUENCY SELECTOR: This control sets the crossover
frequency between the Low and Mid frequency drivers. Refer to Section 111-2.
11
This controls the level of signal going to the Mid
12. MID FREQUENCY LEVEL CONTROL:
Frequency driver only.
13. MID FREQUENCY MUTE SWITCH:
when pressed to the IN position.
Removes all signal from the Mid Frequency output
14. MID FREQUENCY TIME DELAY CONTROL: This control adds from Oto 2mS of time
delay to the Mid Frequency output only. This allows a mid frequency driver to be electronically
phase-aligned with a high frequency driver whose diaphragm is situated BEHIND the mid
frequency diaphragm. Refer to Section 111-3 for alignment procedure.
15. MID/HI MID CROSSOVER FREQUENCY SELECTOR: This control sets the crossover
frequency between the Mid and Hi Mid frequency drivers.
*NOTE: Both the Ch.1 High frequency level control and Ch.2 Master level control are
automatically bypassed internally when the AC 23 is connected as shown by the diagram on
facing page. Adjusting these controls will have no effect in the Mono mode.
16. HI MID FREQUENCY LEVEL CONTROL:
Mid frequency driver only.
I
17. HI MID FREQUENCY MUTE SWITCH:
output when pressed to the IN position.
This controls the level of signal going to the Hi
Removes all signal from the Hi Mid Frequency
18. HI MID FREQUENCY TIME DELAY CONTROL: This control adds from Oto 2mS of time
delay to the Hi Mid Frequency output only. Refer to Section 111-3 for atignment procedure.
19. HI MID/HIGH CROSSOVER FREQUENCY SELECTOR: This control sets the crossover
frequency between the Hi Mid and High Frequency drivers.
20. HIGH FREQUENCY LEVEL CONTROL:
Frequency driver only.
This controls the level of signal going to the High
**NOTE: When the AC 23 is connected for Mono4-way operation as shown by the diagram on
the facing page ( with no connection made to the Hi Mid output on the rear panel), the entire Hi
Mid section is bypassed automatically through internal switching. The Hi Mid level control, Hi
Mid mute switch, Hi Mid time delay control and Hi Mid/High crossover frequency selector are
out of circuit and will have no effect regardless of their settings.
12
AC 23 Mono 4-Way or Mono 5-Way Installation
Observe the labels BELOW the inputs and outputs for mono operation.
1. MONO INPUT: Use only this input for mono operation; do not use the Channel 2 input.
As long as no plug is inserted into the Channel 2 input the AC 23 will internally switch itself to
mono operation. Refer to the AC 23 block diagram for further details.
2. SUB WOOFER OUTPUT:
bass bin amp).
Connect this output to the input of the sub-woofer amplifier (or
3. LOW FREQUENCY OUTPUT:
mid-bass) amplifier.
Connect this output to the input of the low frequency (or
4. MIO FREQUENCY OUTPUT:
amplifier.
Connect this output to the input of the mid frequency
5. HI MID FREQUENCY OUTPUT (FOR MONO 5-WAY ONLY): Use this output only fo1
mono 5-way applications. OMIT THIS OUTPUT WHEN USING THE AC 23 AS A MONO 4WAY CROSSOVER. AS LONG AS NO PLUG IS INSERTED INTO THIS JACK THE AC 23
INTERNALLY BYPASSES THE HI MIO SECTION AND DEFEATS ALL FRONT PANEL HI MIO
CONTROLS. For mono 5-way connect this output to the input of the Hi Mid frequency
amplifier.
6. HIGH FREQUENCY OUTPUT:
tweeter) amplifier.
7. AC POWER LINE CORO:
Connect this output to the input of the high frequency (or
Plug this into a 120 VAC wall outlet .
8. EXTERNAL POWER JACK: Use only with Rane RS 10 Power Supply (See Rane Note 118 for
details). Cannot be used to power other units. -WARNING: DO NOT PLUG ANY TYPE OF
TELEPHONE EQUIPMENT TO THIS JACK.**DO NOT INSERT ANY PLUG INTO THIS OUTPUT FOR 4-WAY MONO OPERATION.
13
AC 23 BLOCK DIAGRAM
DELAY
LF LEVEL
(0-2ms) (Off to +6<f8)
'i.7J
� n�o�1\
(nc)
fREOUENCY
(450-71<Hz)
CH. 1 LEVEL
(Off to +6d8)
(M4W: SUB OVT)
(M5W: sue OVT)
CH.ln�
INPUT
�
L_
OELAY
lF LEVEL
(0-2ms) (Off to +6<F.l)
fREO\JENCY
(450-71<Hz)
CH. 2 LEVEL
(Off to +6d8)
Rfl
FILl£R
CH. 2
INPUT
I
I
I
L ___________
FREQUENCY
(70Hz-1kHz)
L __
I
J
NOT(: ALL $"'1TCHES SHO\\N "'1lH PLUCS NOT lNSERTEO
HF LE\ltl
(Off to +6<f8)
RANE l/4 K IN (BAU
3-PIN BALANCED
See Rane Note 11 O for other configurations.
DIAGRAM 11-1.
Wiring connections for balanced input or floating output operation.
15
111-3. Time Delay Adjustment Procedures.
Before jumping feet first into the realm of time delay and how to adjust it, it might help to
spend a moment here to re-affirm why on earth this delay is really necessary. For a detailed and
enjoyable short course on time delay, Linkwitz-Riley and other mouth-watering details, we
urge you to pick up a free copy of Rane Note 107. Ask your dealer or write to us here at the
factory. In the way of summary, a few words are in order here to outline the basic effects of time
delay in crossovers.
Problems pop up when two different speakers emit the same frequency as occurs in the
crossover regions of two, three, four and five way systems. Because the two drivers are
displaced vertically, cancellation occurs somewhere off-axis because the sound waves have to
travel different distances from the two speakers and hence, will arrive out of phase. This forms
a "lobe" or radiation pattern, bounded on either side by cancellation lines or axes, which
narrow the dispersion pattern or listening area of the speaker.
Fine. So we put up with it. But to make matters worse, when the two drivers are horizontally
displaced -- that is, one is in the front of or behind the other, this" lobe" or dispersion patte·rn
gets Tl L TED (usually upward) toward the driver that is further behind. This gets hard to put up
with, because the end result is that your speaker system will have two, three, four or more tilted
radiation patterns and only two or three people in the house will have decent seats. And we're
not talking trivial pursuits here -- this rampant lobing error can make a sound system a real
headache, to listener and operator alike.
The idea, then, is to be sure that all drivers are vertically aligned and that all components are
always in phase. Then all the main lobes are on-axis, well behaved, and the system enjoys the
widest possible dispersion pattern so that everyone gets good sound. The one catch is that in
many cases it is physically or otherwise impossible to get all the drivers vertically lined up at the
sound source. TH IS is where time delay comes in.
By electronically delaying the signal going to the driver up front enough time is allowed for the
sound from the rear driver to literally catch up to the forward driver's voice coil, so that signal
from both drivers is emitted in phase. And it works! Time delay can make an appreciable
improvement in overall sound. The trick is finding the proper amount of time delay: hence the
rest of this section.
Unfortunately the amount of time delay is a function of TWO factors (life ceased to be simple
after age 9, right?): the amount of horizontal displacement between driver voice coils, AND
the actual crossover frequency involved. Setting delay controls by ear is supposedly possible,
but VERY tricky and unreliable. The following methods are a couple of (but by no means all)
means of setting time delay.
111-3.1. Time Delay Adjustment Using Realtime Analyzer and Pink Noise.
This method outlines the use of a realtime analyzer, pink noise generator and flat response
microphone to set crossover time delay. Some references will be made to Rane Models RE 27,
RE 14 and RA 27 analyzer systems for those with the intelligence and good taste to use one of
these regularly. The procedure applies to virtually any analyzer system. We recommend using
a one-third or two-thirds octave analyzer as either of these is more likely to match your specific
crossover points than a one-octave analyzer. And it IS important to match the analyzer to the
crossover point as closely as possible for proper phase alignment otherwise the analyzer
readings may be misleading.
17
DELAY VS. FREQUENCY TABLE
If you do not have the equipment necessary to electronically align the system as described in sections 111-3.1 and 1113.2, you may use the table below to obtain a ROUGH AND APPROXIMATE phase alignment of your drivers. Measure
the horizontal displacement between the voice coils of the two adjacent drivers sharing the same crossover point.
then find the column in the table nearest your actual displacement Move down this column to the proper crossover
frequency as indicated on the left of the table: the corresponding delay knob setting will then be the closest for your
system. For example, if you have a two-way system crossed over at 800 Hz with the compression driver voice coil
located about 9" behind the woofer voice coil, the delay knob setting corresponding to a 9" displacement at 800 Hz
on the table would be S as indicated on the front panel.
VOICE COIL DISPLACEMENT (INCHES)
(Hz)
• 7 5 II 1.5 II 3 II
6 II
9 II
12 II
15 11
18 II
2 1 II
24 11
70
1
1. 5
2
2.5
3.5
5
6
7
8
MAX
80
1
1.5
2
2.5
3.5
5
6
7
8
MP.X
100
1
1.5
2
2.5
3.5
5
6
7
8
MAX
150
1
1.5
2
2.5
3.5
5
6
7
MAX
200
1
1.5
2.
2.5
3.5
5
6
7
MAX
250
1
1. 5
2
2.5
3.5
5
7
8
MAX
300
1
1. 5
2
2.5
3.5
5.5
7
MAX
400
1
1.5
2
2.5
4
6
8
MAX
450
1
1.5
2
2.5
4
6
8
MAX
500
1
1.5
2
2.5
4
6
8
MAX
800
1
1.5
2
3
5
7
MAX
lk
1
1. 5
2.2
3
6
MAX
1.2k
1
1.5
2.2
3.5
MAX
1. 5k
1
1.5
2.3
3.5
MAX
2k
1
1.5
2.3
MAX
2.5k
1
1.5
2.3
MAX
3k
1
1. 7
2.4
MAX
3.6k
1
1. 7
MAX
4k
1
1.8
MAX
6k
1
2
MAX
7k
1.2
MAX
18
lower frequency driver to electronically move backward until the SPL meter reads +3dB; then
the two drivers are electronically aligned and the on-axis cancellation is eliminated. This
procedure is then repeated for the next lower crossover point(s).
STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE:*
1. Set the tone generator to the highest crossover frequency and plug it into the input of the
crossover. Turn all crossover level controls fully down.
2. Position the SPL meter (microphone) about 15 feet in front of the speakers and at a height
about midway between the Hi and Mid drivers. It is very important that the meter remain in
exactly the same position throughout the test so affix it to a mic stand, small tree or other
stable object
3. Slowly turn up both the crossover input control and the Mid frequency level control until
the tone is heard through the Mid driver. Adjust the SPL meter control and/or the crossover
level controls until you obtain a OdB reading on the meter. Verify that no sound is coming from
any other speakers except the Mid driver.
4. Now press in the Mid frequency Mute switch on the crossover so that the tone is removed
from the Mid driver. Without re-adjusting either the meter or the crossover input or Mid
frequency level controls, turn up the Hi level control until the tone coming from only the Hi
driver reads OdB on the SPL meter.
*A three-way mode consisting of Hi, Mid and Low drivers is used as an example in this
procedure. For other configurations, use the same procedure starting with the highest
crossover point and repeating steps 2 through 5 for each lower crossover point.
5. Now release the Mid Mute switch so that the tone is emitted from BOTH the Hi and Mid
drivers. Check the reading on the SPL meter:
A If the meter reads +3dB, then ·the drivers are properly phase aligned and no delay is
necessary; leave the Mid delay control at full minimum.
8. If the meter reads LESS THAN +JdB, slowly turn up the Mid frequency delay control
until the meter just read:. +-3dB. Now the drivers are electronically phase aligned and the delay
control should be left in this position at all times, unless the speaker system is physically
altered.
C. If you have turned the Mid Delay control all the way up and still do not obtain a +3dB
reading, you will have to physically move the Hi driver farther forward until the SPL meter reads
+JdB. The amount of displacement corrections available from the delay depends on the
actual crossover frequency: the higher the frequency the less amount of correction capability.
Refer to Diagram 111-3. If the drivers are built into a single cabinet and/or it is impossible to
change relative positions, then you will have to obtain additional delay to achieve proper
phase alignment. Rane' s Model CD 48 Delay Console or other delay source should be used -­
consult your local dealer.
0. If turning the Mid delay control up makes the SPL reading DECREASE instead of
increase, this means that the Hi driver is actually IN FRONT of the Mid driver; adding delay to
the Mid driver then only worsens the situation. There are a couple of ways to deal with this:
21
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