Rane DEQ 60L Manual
21600
40
50
63
80
(in order of appearance)
B
31.5
100
125
160
200
250
315
400
500
630
800
1.0k 1.25k 1.6k
2.0k
2.5k 3.15k 4.0k
5.0k
6.3k
8.0k
10k 12.5k 16k
20k
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
LOW
MID HIGH
TONE
7k
120
10k
14k
20k
60
30
∞ 15
0
5k
20k
∞ 15
+
6 240
14k
30
LOW HIGH
10k
7k
60
0
120
CUT FILTERS
+
6 240
5k
12
0
+
12
12
0
+
12
IN
OUT
LEVEL
12
+
0
12
12
+
0
12
-6
-3
B
A
0
+3
-12
-3
B
A
CUT-ONLY
-6
EQ
BYPASS
0
+3
±6
POWER
+6 +12 OL
PROPORT-Q
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
±6
+6 +12 OL
PROPORT-Q
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
DEQ 60L
-12
EQ
BYPASS
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
B
A
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
25
Important Safety Instructions
DEQ 60L Manual
DEQ 60L Data Sheet
Perfect-Q: The Next Step
Sound System Interconnection
DEQ 60L Fader Setting Records
Warranty
Declaration of Conformity
A
CONTENTS
CUT +
0 6
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DEQ 60L
IMPORTANT SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
1. Read these instructions.
2. Keep these instructions.
3. Heed all warnings.
4. Follow all instructions.
5. Do not use this apparatus near water.
6. Clean only with a dry cloth.
7. Do not block any ventilation openings. Install in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.
8. Do not install near any heat sources such as radiators, registers, stoves, or other apparatus (including amplifiers) that produce heat.
9. Do not defeat the safety purpose of the polarized or grounding-type plug. A polarized plug has two blades with one wider than the other. A
grounding-type plug has two blades and a third grounding prong. The wide blade or third prong is provided for your safety. If the provided plug
does not fit into your outlet, consult an electrician for replacement of the obsolete outlet.
10. Protect the power cord and plug from being walked on or pinched particularly at plugs, convenience receptacles, and the point where it exits from
the apparatus.
11. Only use attachments and accessories specified by Rane.
12. Use only with the cart, stand, tripod, bracket, or table specified by the manufacturer, or sold with the apparatus. When a cart is used, use caution
when moving the cart/apparatus combination to avoid injury from tip-over.
13. Unplug this apparatus during lightning storms or when unused for long periods of time.
14. Refer all servicing to qualified service personnel. Servicing is required when the apparatus has been damaged in any way, such as power supply
cord or plug is damaged, liquid has been spilled or objects have fallen into the apparatus, the apparatus has been exposed to rain or moisture, does
not operate normally, or has been dropped.
15. The plug on the power cord is the AC mains disconnect device and must remain readily operable. To completely disconnect this apparatus from
the AC mains, disconnect the power supply cord plug from the AC receptacle.
16. This apparatus shall be connected to a mains socket outlet with a protective earthing connection.
17. When permanently connected, an all-pole mains switch with a contact separation of at least 3 mm in each pole shall be incorporated in the
electrical installation of the building.
18. If rackmounting, provide adequate ventilation. Equipment may be located above or below this apparatus, but some equipment (like large power
amplifiers) may cause an unacceptable amount of hum or may generate too much heat and degrade the performance of this apparatus.
19. This apparatus may be installed in an industry standard equipment rack. Use screws through all mounting holes to provide the best support.
WARNING: To reduce the risk of fire or electric shock, do not expose this apparatus to rain or moisture. Apparatus shall not be exposed to dripping
or splashing and no objects filled with liquids, such as vases, shall be placed on the apparatus.
WARNING
CAUTION
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
ATTENTION: RISQUE DE CHOCS ELECTRIQUE - NE PAS OUVRIR
To reduce the risk of electrical shock, do not open the unit. No user
serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to qualified service personnel.
The symbols shown below are internationally accepted symbols
that warn of potential hazards with electrical products.
This symbol indicates that a dangerous voltage
constituting a risk of electric shock is present
within this unit.
This symbol indicates that there are important
operating and maintenance instructions in the
literature accompanying this unit.
WARNING: This product may contain chemicals known to the State of California to cause cancer, or birth defects or other reproductive harm.
NOTE: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules.
These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses
and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio
communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful
interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct
the interference by one or more of the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
• Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.
• Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
• Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
CAUTION: Changes or modifications not expressly approved by Rane Corporation could void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
CAN ICES-3 (B)/NMB-3(B)
INSTRUCTIONS DE SÉCURITÉ
1. Lisez ces instructions.
2. Gardez précieusement ces instructions.
3. Respectez les avertissements.
4. Suivez toutes les instructions.
5. Ne pas utiliser près d’une source d’eau.
6. Ne nettoyer qu’avec un chiffon doux.
7. N’obstruer aucune évacuation d’air. Effectuez l’installation en suivant les instructions du fabricant.
8. Ne pas disposer près d’une source de chaleur, c-à-d tout appareil produisant de la chaleur sans exception.
9. Ne pas modifier le cordon d’alimentation. Un cordon polarisé possède 2 lames, l’une plus large que l’autre. Un cordon avec tresse de masse possède
2 lames plus une 3è pour la terre. La lame large ou la tresse de masse assurent votre sécurité. Si le cordon fourni ne correspond pas à votre prise,
contactez votre électricien.
10. Faites en sorte que le cordon ne soit pas piétiné, ni au niveau du fil, ni au niveau de ses broches, ni au niveau des connecteurs de vos appareils.
11. N’utilisez que des accessoires recommandés par Rane.
12. N’utilisez que les éléments de transport, stands, pieds ou tables spécifiés par le fabricant ou vendu avec l’appareil. Quand vous utlisez une valise de
transport, prenez soin de vous déplacer avec cet équipement avec prudence afin d’éviter tout risque de blessure.
13. Débranchez cet appareil pendant un orage ou si vous ne l’utilisez pas pendant un certain temps.
14. Adressez-vous à du personnel qualifié pour tout service après vente. Celui-ci est nécessaire dans n’importe quel cas où l’appareil est abimé : si le
cordon ou les fiches sont endommagés, si du liquide a été renversé ou si des objets sont tombés sur l’appareil, si celui-ci a été exposé à la pluie ou
l’humidité, s’il ne fonctionne pas correctement ou est tombé.
15. La fiche du cordon d’alimentation sert à brancher le courant alternatif AC et doit absolument rester accessible. Pour déconnecter totalement
l’appareil du secteur, débranchez le câble d’alimentation de la prise secteur.
16. Cet appareil doit être branché à une prise terre avec protection.
17. Quand il est branché de manière permanente, un disjoncteur tripolaire normalisé doit être incorporé dans l’installation électrique de l’immeuble.
18. En cas de montage en rack, laissez un espace suffisant pour la ventilation. Vous pouvez disposer d’autres appareils au-dessus ou en-dessous de celuici, mais certains (tels que de gros amplificateurs) peuvent provoquer un buzz ou générer trop de chaleur au risque d’endommager votre appareil et
dégrader ses performances.
19. Cet appareil peut-être installé dans une baie standard ou un chassis normalisé pour un montage en rack. Visser chaque trou de chaque oreille de
rack pour une meilleure fixation et sécurité.
ATTENTION: afin d’éviter tout risque de feu ou de choc électrique, gardez cet appareil éloigné de toute source d’humidité et d’éclaboussures quelles
qu’elles soient. L’appareil doit également être éloigné de tout objet possédant du liquide (boisson en bouteilles, vases,…).
ATTENTION
CAUTION
RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK
DO NOT OPEN
ATTENTION: RISQUE DE CHOCS ELECTRIQUE - NE PAS OUVRIR
Afin d’éviter tout risque de choc électrique, ne pas ouvrir l’appareil.
Aucune pièce ne peut être changée par l’utilisateur. Contactez un
SAV qualifié pour toute intervention.
Les symboles ci-dessous sont reconnus internationalement
comme prévenant tout risque électrique.
Ce symbole indique que cette unité utilise un
voltage élevé constituant un risque de choc
électrique.
Ce symbole indique la présence d’instructions
d’utilisation et de maintenance importantes dans le
document fourni.
REMARQUE: Cet équipement a été testé et approuvé conforme aux limites pour un appareil numérique de classe B, conformément au chapitre 15
des règles de la FCC. Ces limites sont établis pour fournir une protection raisonnable contre tout risque d’interférences et peuvent provoquer une
énergie de radiofréquence s'il n'est pas installé et utilisé conformément aux instructions, peut également provoquer des interférences aux niveaux
des équipements de communication. Cependant, il n'existe aucune garantie que de telles interférences ne se produiront pas dans une installation
particulière. Si cet équipement provoque des interférences en réception radio ou télévision, ceci peut être detecté en mettant l'équipement sous/hors
tension, l'utilisateur est encouragé à essayer de corriger cette interférence par une ou plusieurs des mesures suivantes:
• Réorienter ou déplacer l'antenne de réception.
• Augmenter la distance entre l'équipement et le récepteur.
• Connecter l'équipement à une sortie sur un circuit différent de celui sur lequel le récepteur est branché.
• Consulter un revendeur ou un technicien radio / TV expérimenté.
ATTENTION: Les changements ou modifications non expressément approuvés par Rane Corporation peuvent annuler l'autorité de l'utilisateur à
manipuler cet équipement et rendre ainsi nulles toutes les conditions de garantie.
CAN ICES-3 (B)/NMB-3(B)
Cartons et papier à recycler.
OPERATORS MANUAL
DEQ 60L
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
A
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
25
B
TONE
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
31.5
40
50
63
80
100
125
160
200
250
315
400
500
630
800
1.0k 1.25k 1.6k
2.0k
2.5k 3.15k 4.0k
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
5.0k
6.3k
8.0k
10k 12.5k 16k
20k
0
∞
LOW
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
CUT FILTERS
+
6 240
5k
120
7k
60
10k
30
14k
15
MID HIGH
20k
+
12
0
5k
120
7k
60
10k
30
14k
15
20k
BYPASS
A
EQ
B
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
PROPORT-Q
±6
IN
-12 -6
-3
0
+3
A
+6 +12 OL
OUT
12
12
+
IN
+
6 240
∞
12
0
LOW HIGH
0
LEVEL
+
12
0
DEQ 60L
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
OUT
12
0
BYPASS
A
EQ
B
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
PROPORT-Q
±6
IN
-12 -6
-3
0
+3
B
+6 +12 OL
OUT
12
12
+
CUT-ONLY
POWER
QUICK START
We know you know how to use an equalizer. Just read this section for the unique things to be aware of in the DEQ 60L.
We know you know how to use a realtime analyzer, but using
PERFECT-Q mode will make that job a lot easier. Since there is
no interaction between filters, the multiple adjustments through
all the bands just to get the analyzer to read flat is a thing of the
past. One pass should do the trick. Then use the TONE controls
or CUT FILTERS for general sweetening. We know your sound
is important and your time is valuable.
If you want to compare the sound of your old (non-Rane) EQ
to this one, and you are used to the way the slider bands interact,
then use PROPORTIONAL-Q mode.
Activating the CUT-ONLY switch puts both equalizer channels in the high resolution CUT 0 to -12 dB (gray number scale).
To prevent unwanted sudden volume shifts when switched, the
outputs mute for a moment, then slowly increases in volume.
The A and B switches are like memories or control assigns.
Normal stereo use would set the top row A (Left), and the bottom row to B (Right). But if you are running in stereo, and both
WEAR PARTS: This product contains no wear parts.
sides use the same EQ curve, you can set both switches to A.
Now the top EQ curve controls both left and right channels.
Switching these to B will use the bottom EQ curve for both
channels. This is great for switching EQ when a source changes.
Just be aware of where these switches are, an unassigned EQ row
will have no audible effect. These switches also affect the CUT
FILTERS, TONE CONTROLS, and LEVELS.
The channel BYPASS switches have two modes, set by the
rear panel switch. When set to FILTERS, the BYPASS switch
only bypasses the EQ, TONE and CUT FILTERS. The LEVEL
controls and other switches remain active. When set to ALL,
the BYPASS switches ignore everything including the LEVEL
controls.
You have several connector choices on the rear. However, use
only ONE type of INPUT on each channel. These Inputs do not
sum. But you may use any combination of OUTPUTS simultaneously if desired. Polarity convention on the XLR jacks is pin 2
positive, pin 3 negative and pin 1 shield (chassis ground).
Manual-1
FRONT PANEL DESCRIPTION
5 6 7 8 9
A
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
25
B
TONE
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
31.5
40
50
63
80
100
125
160
200
250
315
400
500
630
800
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
1.0k 1.25k 1.6k
2.0k
2.5k 3.15k 4.0k
5.0k
6.3k
8.0k
10k 12.5k 16k
20k
0
120
7k
60
10k
30
14k
15
LOW
MID HIGH
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
1
CUT FILTERS
+
6 240
5k
12
0
5k
120
7k
60
10k
30
14k
15
20k
BYPASS
A
EQ
B
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
PROPORT-Q
±6
IN
-12
-6
-3
0
+3
A
+6 +12 OL
OUT
12
12
+
IN
+
6 240
3
LEVEL
0
LOW HIGH
0
2
20k
+
12
DEQ 60L
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
OUT
+
12
12
0
0
BYPASS
A
EQ
B
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
PROPORT-Q
±6
IN
-12
-6
-3
0
+3
B
+6 +12 OL
OUT
12
12
+
4
CUT-ONLY
11
POWER
10
1 Graphic EQ controls: Thirty bands are provided for each channel. Each EQ slider has a resolution of 256 steps. The center detent
position guarantees a flat response. Slide control travel is 45mm with easy-to-read soft-touch handles.
2 LOW, MID, and HIGH TONE controls: Independent, Accelerated-slope™, 3-band TONE controls allow easy, intuitive
adjustment of tone response without the hassle of adjusting 30 bands. The TONE controls use 12 dB per octave Linkwitz-Riley
filters. The Low/Mid crossover point is 300 Hz. The Mid/High crossover point is 4 kHz. As with the EQ sliders, center detent
provides a guaranteed flat response. The range of control is +6 dB to off. Control resolution is 256 steps.
3 LOW CUT and HIGH CUT FILTERS: The LOW Cut Filter is adjustable over four octaves in 64 steps with a frequency range of 15 Hz to
240 Hz. The HIGH Cut Filter is adjustable over two octaves in 64 steps from 5 kHz to 20 kHz.
4 LEVEL controls serve two purposes, when used with the Meters (9):
1) Adjust the INPUT signal level to 0 dBu for good headroom and signal to noise.
2) Compensate for changes in signal level due to filter boost/cut settings by adjusting the OUTPUT signal level to 0 dBu.
The operation of the OUTPUT LEVEL control is reversed. Pushing the control up reduces gain. Pushing the control down
increases the gain. This allows the user to easily adjust sensitivity without affecting the output signal level. Simply grasp both input
and output controls and move together. The ranges of both controls is ±12 dB with a resolution of 256 steps.
5 BYPASS switches have two possible modes of operation. If the rear panel switch is set to BYPASS ALL, all filters and level
controls are bypassed. If the rear panel switch is set to BYPASS FILTERS, only the filters are bypassed. Filters include EQ, TONE
and CUT. Automatic relay bypass hardwires Inputs to Outputs in the event of a power failure.
6 A / B switches determine which set of controls is used by the A-channel or B-channel. Controls affected by the A / B switch are
EQ, TONE, CUT FILTERS, LEVEL, Q switches and ±12 / ±6 dB switches. Bypass switches are not affected.
7 PERFECT-Q™: What you see is what you get. PROPORTional-Q: Classic smooth response. Most users will prefer the
PERFECT-Q position. Some users may prefer the PROPORT-Q setting. See Graphic EQ Controls on page Manual-4.
8 ±12 / ±6 dB switch changes the boost / cut of the Graphic EQ (1) for each channel. Use the ±6 dB unless you really need ±12
dB, the resolution is better.
9 Input and Output Meters are peak responding and indicate the signal level in dBu. Peak-dBu is held and displayed for 1.5
seconds. Attack is instantaneous. Decay is 500 ms for a 20 dB step.
0 When the POWER indicator is on, it indicates that power is turned on. This works with 4 on the Rear Panel (next page).
q CUT-ONLY mode switch: when pressed in, as shown by the LED, sets the range of the EQ sliders 0 to -12 dB (gray number
scale). When the switch is actuated, the output audio is muted and slowly increased to prevent volume surprises.
Manual-2
REAR PANEL DESCRIPTION
DEQ60L
OUTPUT B
OUTPUT A
INPUT B
INPUT A
CLASS 2 WIRING
TIP / PIN 2 = POSITIVE
RING / PIN 3 = NEGATIVE
SLEEVE = SIGNAL GROUND
PIN 1 = CHASSIS GROUND
MADE IN U.S.A.
COMMERCIAL AUDIO
EQUIPMENT 24TJ
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
+ -
R
U.S. PATENT 7,266,205
FOR CONTINUED
GROUNDING
PROTECTION
DO NOT REMOVE
SCREW
100-240V
50/60 Hz 20 WATTS
4
This device complies with Part
15 of the FCC Rules. Operation
is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may
not cause harmful interference,
and (2) this device must accept
any interference received,
including interference that may
cause undesired operation.
CAN ICES-3 (B)/NMB-3(B)
BYPASS
ALL
FILTERS
3
2
1
1 Channel A and B INPUTS: Plug the outputs of the mixer or other source to these Inputs. Choose between the XLR, the ¼" TRS,
or the Euroblock Input jack—use only one—they do not sum.
Rane adheres to the international and U.S. standard for balanced pin configurations: Pin 1 is chassis ground (neutral), pin 2 is hot
(positive), and pin 3 is signal return (negative).
Avoid the temptation to use unbalanced tip-sleeve ¼" TS plugs, but if you must, keep them short as possible, 10 feet (3 meters)
maximum. Long unbalanced cables invite hum, noise and other undesirables. Balanced TRS ¼" are much better at rejecting noise.
The Euroblocks normally connect the cable shield to the ground terminal. For those installations where the internal shield-tochassis connection causes interference, connect each shield directly to the chassis grounding screw located above each Euroblock
connector, keeping the shield wrapped around the audio conductors as much as possible. For optimum Electromagnetic
Interference (EMI) immunity, connect the shields at both ends of the cable to chassis ground.
See the RaneNote “Sound System Interconnection” for more information on system connections and proper grounding practices.
2 Channel A and B OUTPUTS: Any Output can be used simultaneously with the others, take your pick. Same wiring as above...
keep cables short, always wire balanced when possible, eat your vegetables, yadda yadda.
3 BYPASS mode switch: See 5 on the Front Panel, previous page.
4 Power connector: Uses the standard cord provided. Inside the DEQ 60L is a universal internal switching power supply that
accepts 100 to 240 VAC at 50 to 60 Hz, allowing it to work in most countries.
Manual-3
Feature
Benefit
­1) Perfect-Q™ : What you see is what you get
1) No EQ filter interaction. Response matches slider settings.
2) Proportional-Q: Classic smooth response
2) Familiar response. Smooth tone contouring.
3) Independent Accelerated-Slope™ 3-band tone controls
3) Adjust Tone response without moving a dozen EQ sliders.
4) Low-cut and High-cut filters
4) Band limit for application: Voice, Music, Headphones, etc.
5) Input and Output level controls
5) Optimize dynamic range. Match the level after the EQ.
6) Eight segment metering for each input and output
6) Allows accurate use of the level controls.
7) Two Boost / Cut ranges: ± 6 dB or ± 12 dB
7) Select control resolution and range for the application.
8) Each audio channel may use A or B controls
8) Stereo Linking; Two “analog memories”; A-curve / B-curve comparison.
9) Analog controls
9) Quick control access with one control, one function, no confusion.
10) XLR, TRS and Euroblock Phoenix connectors
10) Connector matches your cables.
11) Bypass switch (DSP)
11) EQ in/out compare. Bypass Filters only or bypass Filters and Level controls.
12) Bypass relay (power failure)
12) No pops on turn-on or turn-off. Passes signal when power is off.
13) Exceptional RF and Magnetic immunity
13) Works in high RF environments. Works next to power amps.
14) Universal switching power supply
14) Works virtually anywhere in the world.
15) Cut-Only mode
15) Maximum level of precision.
­ raphic EQ Controls
G
Control each of the thirty bands of EQ with high resolution, 256
step slide controls. The center detent position guarantees a flat
response. Perfect-Q™ filters guarantee accurate graphic response
and no band interaction.
The elimination of band interaction means the DEQ filters
are suitable for “ringing out a room” and capable of the very
subtle adjustments required by the most demanding user. Unlike
previous designs that act upon a bandwidth of up to one octave
when cut 12 dB, Perfect-Q only affects the intended 1/3 octave.
For the first time, the user is able to adjust a single 1/3 octave
band with no affect on adjacent bands. The lack of band interaction guarantees slider settings accurately indicate frequency
response.
For full details and comparisons to previous EQs, see
“Perfect-Q: The Next Step in EQ Design” included with this
manual.
Control Surface
All graphics are screened on the reverse side of a durable Lexan
surface. The graphics remain clear even after years of life on the
road.
Universal Switching Power Supply
The DEQ 60L operates on any AC mains from 100 VAC to 240
VAC, 50 Hz or 60 Hz. The line cord attaches to a standard IEC
appliance inlet, shipped with each unit.
Security
An optional 5.2" security cover is available as an accessory for
the DEQ 60L.
©Rane Corporation 10802 47th Ave. W., Mukilteo WA 98275-5000 USA TEL 425-355-6000 FAX 425-347-7757 WEB rane.com
Manual-4
106692
DATA SHEET
DEQ 60L
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
General Description
When the term “graphic equalizer” was first coined, the intent
was to provide a device that allowed the user to “draw” the desired
frequency response using slider controls on the unit’s front panel.
Thus, the Holy Grail of graphic equalizers is a device with a
response that truly matches the slider settings. For years, this
seemingly unobtainable goal resulted in products based on the
fine art of compromise … until the DEQ 60L.
It’s not Constant—not Proportional—It’s Perfect! Digital
Signal Processing (DSP) allows filter technology not possible with
analog designs. Rane coined the term Perfect-Q™ to describe the
results (U.S. patent 7,266,205). The DEQ 60L is the first true
graphic equalizer (i.e., one providing real mechanical front panel
slide controls) whose output response precisely matches its front
panel settings. Perfect-Q features virtually no band interaction
and extremely low ripple between adjacent bands. To keep things
flexible, fear not proportional-Q lovers, each channel of the DEQ
60L is selectable between Perfect-Q or Proportional-Q response.
For all the details, read the RaneNote “Perfect-Q, the Next
Step in Graphic EQ Design” available at rane.com.
The DEQ 60L features 45 mm sliders, a switchable Cut-Only
mode, additional Cut filters, and additional 3-band Tone controls. The DEQ 60L provides the most complete set of pure EQ
functions ever offered in an analog controlled equalizer.
Rane Perfect-Q™
4 dB
error
Proportional-Q
3 dB
error
6 dB
error
31.5
40
50
63
80
100
125
160
200
250
315
400
500
630
800
1.0k 1.25k 1.6k 2.0k
2.5k 3.15k 4.0k 5.0k 6.3k 8.0k
10k 12.5k 16k
20
Typical PA adjustment showing the difference between Perfect-Q and
Proportional-Q. Which curve matches the slider positions?
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
Perfect-Q™: What You See Is What You Get (No filter interaction)
Proportional-Q: Classic smooth response
Independent Accelerated-Slope™ 3-band full-cut tone controls
Low-Cut and High-Cut Filters
Input and Output Level controls
Each channel may use A or B channel controls:
· Stereo Linking
· Two “analog memories”
· A-curve / B-curve comparison
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
45 mm sliders with center detents
Two Boost / Cut ranges: ±6 dB or ±12 dB
Switchable Cut-Only mode
Eight segment metering for each Input and Output
Analog controlled DSP
XLR, TRS and Euroblock connectors
Bypass switch (DSP), Bypass relay (power failure)
Exceptional RF and magnetic immunity
Universal internal switching power supply (100-240 VAC)
Data Sheet-1
DEQ 60L
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
Features and Specifications
Parameter
Inputs: Type
..........Connectors
..........Maximum Input
..........Common Mode Rejection
..........Impedance
DSP Block: Dynamic Range
24-bit Converters: Sample Rate
Propagation Delay
Input Level: Range
Output Level: Range
Graphic EQ: Bands
..........Type
..........Range
..........Slider Travel
Tone Controls
..........Range
..........Low/Mid Crossover Point
..........Mid/High Crossover Point
Low-Cut Filter
High-Cut Filter
Meters
..........Type
..........Attack/Decay
Bypass: Power Failure
Bypass Switch Mode
..........Rear switch: Bypass All
..........Rear switch: Bypass Filters
A/B Switches
Outputs:
..........Connectors
..........Impedance
..........Maximum Output
EMI Filters
Frequency Response
THD+Noise
THD+Noise
Crosstalk
Power Supply Requirement
Unit: Conformity
Unit: Construction
..........Size
..........Weight
..........Shipping: Size
..........Weight
Note: 0 dBu=0.775 Vrms
Data Sheet-2
Specification
Active Balanced
XLR, ¼" TRS, Euroblock
+22
60
14.6k
106
48
1.29
±12
±12
30 ⅓-octave ISO spacing
Perfect-Q or Proportional-Q
±6 or ±12
45
3-band; Accelerated Slope™
+6 to off
300
4
15-240
5-20
Input and Output
Peak responding
0/500
Automatic relay bypass
Filters and levels bypassed
Filters bypassed
Determine controls to channel
Active Balanced
XLR, ¼" TRS, Euroblock
100
+22
Yes
15 Hz to 20 kHz
.02
.006
<-100
100 to 240 VAC
FCC, CULUS
All Steel
5.25" H x 19" W x 8.25" D (3U)
11 lb
11" x 23" x 16"
18 lb
Limit
1
typ.
1%
typ.
typ.
Units
dBu
dB
Ω
dB
kHz
ms
dB
dB
Hz
dB
mm
dB
Hz
kHz
Hz
kHz
typ.
dBu
ms
1%
1
Ω
dBu
+0/-3
typ.
typ.
typ.
dB
%
%
dB
Conditions/Comments
XLR pin 2 hot per AES standards
1 kHz
1 kHz
Each leg to ground @ 1 kHz
A-weighted (input to output); unity
25 Hz to 20 kHz
Switchable, each channel
Switchable, each channel
Center detent = 0 dB
2nd-order, phase 0 º @ unity gain
Center detent = 0 dB
Each channel
Peak-dBu is displayed for 1.5 sec
per 20 dB step
Input wired to Output
Each channel
By front panel bypass
By front panel bypass
Bypass and A/B not affected
XLR pin 2 hot per AES standards
Each leg to ground
600 Ω or greater
Inputs and Outputs
+4 dBu, 20-20 kHz, 20 kHz BW
+4 dBu, 1 kHz, 20 kHz BW
2 kHz
50/60 Hz, 20 W
(13.3 cm x 48.3 cm x 21 cm)
(5 kg)
(27.9 cm x 58.4 cm x 40.6 cm)
(8.1 kg)
DEQ 60L
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
Block Diagram
INPUT A
2
OUTPUT A
+ 2
- 3
+
3 -
1
1
A
A
B
CONTROL
A/B
B
VC
+
FAIL-SAFE RELAY
DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
(EACH CHANNEL)
ADC
INPUT B
+
2
3 -
DAC
OUTPUT B
BYPASS ALL
1
C
D
INPUT
OUTPUT
dBFS
OL
+12
+6
+3
0
-3
-6
-12
dBFS
OL
+12
+6
+3
0
-3
-6
-12
+ 2
- 3
1
C
D
Vc
+
FAIL-SAFE RELAY
BYPASS FILTERS
BOOST / CUT
Perfect-Q Proport-Q
±6 ±12
CUT-ONLY
INPUT
LEVEL
30 BAND GRAPHIC
WITH
PERFECT-Q
25 Hz
SPLIT-BAND
FULL-CUT
TONE CONTROL
20 kHz
LOW MID HIGH
12 dB / OCT.
LOW
CUT
OUTPUT
LEVEL
HIGH
CUT
Architectural Specifications
The equalizer shall be analog-controlled, with all control provided
on the front panel using 45 mm DEQ 60L linear sliders with dust
dams. A detented and guaranteed 0 dB point shall be provided on
these linear sliders. All signal processing shall be accomplished using high accuracy digital signal processing. The equalizer shall be
a two channel model, and each channel shall have thirty (30) frequency bands located on standard ISO center frequencies. Each
band shall have a bandwidth of 1/3-octave. The equalizer shall be
front-panel switchable between two modes, Proportional-Q or
Perfect-Q. The equalizer shall have a front panel switch selecting
cut-only or boost/cut operation.
Low and high cut filters shall be provided with 12 dB/octave
slopes and adjustable corner frequencies. Tone controls shall be
provided for low, mid and high frequencies. The tone controls
shall have a range of +6 dB to off.
Input and output level controls shall be provided for each
channel. Input and output peak dBu meters shall be provided.
The unit shall provide an automatic passive bypass feature when
power is not available, and active bypass switches for each channel
when the unit is operating.
The inputs and outputs shall be active balanced/unbalanced
designs terminated with XLR, 1/4" TRS (tip-ring-sleeve), and
Euroblock terminals. The outputs shall have equal output impedances. RFI filters shall be provided.
The unit shall meet UL agency safety requirements and be
powered from an internal universal power supply (100 to 240
VAC) via a rear panel IEC connector. The unit enclosure shall be
constructed entirely from cold-rolled steel. The unit shall be supplied with ears for mounting into a standard 3U EIA rack.
The unit shall be a Rane DEQ 60L Graphic Equalizer.
Data Sheet-3
DEQ 60L
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
Rear Panel
+12
+14
+12
+10
combined response
showing effects of
band interaction
+8
+6
+4
+10
+8
+2
d
B +0
u -2
+6
individual responses
(actual slider settings)
-4
-6
+4
-8
-10
+2
-12
-14
-2
-1.75
-1.5
-1.25
-1
-0.75
-0.5
-0.25
+0
+0.25
+0.5
+0.75
+1
+1.25
+1.5
+1.75
+2
octaves
0
-4
Figure 1. Band interaction of 1/3-octave Proportional-Q filters
+12
no band interaction or ripple
+10
-1
0
1
2
3
4
Low +6, Mid ‘0’, Hi +6
Low ‘0’, Mid +6, Hi ‘0’
5
0
+8
+6
combined response
is perfect
+4
+2
d
B +0
u -2
-5
-10
-15
individual responses
(actual slider settings)
-4
-6
-20
-25
-8
Low Off,
Mid ‘0’,
Hi Off
-30
-10
-35
-12
-14
-2
-2
Figure 3. Phase response of Figures 1 and 2.
10
+14
-3
-1.75
-1.5
-1.25
-1
-0.75
-0.5
-0.25
+0
+0.25
+0.5
+0.75
+1
+1.25
+1.5
+1.75
+2
octaves
Figure 2. Graphic response of Perfect-Q filters
Low ‘0’,
Mid Off,
Hi ‘0’
-40
20
100
1k
10k
20k
Figure 5. The interactive operation of the 3 Tone controls
References
Accessory
1. R. Miller, R. Jeffs, S. Radford, D. Bohn, “Perfect-Q, the Next
Step in Graphic EQ Design,” RaneNote, (2003).
The model SC 5.2 Security Cover is available as an option.
©Rane Corporation 10802 47th Ave. W., Mukilteo WA 98275-5000 USA TEL 425-355-6000 FAX 425-347-7757 WEB rane.com
Data Sheet-4
All features & specifications subject to change without notice. 10-2014
RaneNote
PERFECT-Q™, THE NEXT STEP IN GRAPHIC EQ DESIGN
Perfect-Q™, the Next Step in
Graphic EQ Design
• What You See Is (Really) What You Get
• Independent Band Adjustment
• Constant Bandwidth For All Sliders
• Minimum Phase Response
• Eliminates Band Interaction Overload
Ray Miller
Rick Jeffs
Dennis Bohn
RaneNote 154
© 2005 Rane Corporation
Pursuit of the Unreachable Star
The quest for absolute truth in graphic equalizer slider
position has a long history and recently took a giant
step forward. Using advanced DSP algorithms, Rane
Corporation introduced an entirely new generation of
graphic equalizers that realize the dream of having the
output magnitude response correspond exactly to the
front panel settings.* Extensive development resulted in
this new technology trademarked “Perfect-Q,” because
that is what it does: calculates the perfect Q required
to create the exact response dictated by the front panel
slider positions.
*Acknowledgement is given to the first products addressing this
issue: the IEQ Smartcurve by ART and the TC 1128 by T.C. Electronics both introduced in 1987, and to the latest work achieving similar results by Lake Technology in 2002 as part of their
proprietary loudspeaker processor designed for Clair Brothers,
named Clair iO, and available now to the general public as the
Lake Contour loudspeaker processor. This processor exhibits true
arbitrary magnitude response for all equalizer types. Rane's unique
technology is developed specifically for graphic equalizer use (i.e.,
one providing real mechanical front panel slide controls), to faithfully duplicate the front panel fixed-frequency slider positions.
Perfect-Q-1
There is irony in knowing that improving Rane’s
much praised constant-Q technology required switching to variable-Q technology to perfect the response vs.
slider position problem. The popularity of Q-terminology is unfortunate since what is meant is bandwidth.
In hindsight, naming the complementary technologies
“constant bandwidth” and “proportional bandwidth”
would have been better choices, because these terms
identify the solutions more accurately.
Rane championed constant-Q designs beginning in
1982 as a better solution to the problem of slider-based
graphic equalizers. Constant-Q gave a more honest
front panel representation than proportional-Q. It minimized what Rane called “equalizing the equalizer,” i.e.,
having to go back and readjust adjacent sliders to counteract the problem of interaction between bands. This
is the phenomena where adjusting one band causes
similar, but reduced, adjustment to adjacent (and even
further out) bands. For example, if you boosted 800 Hz
by a couple of dB, you would inadvertently boost the
energy centered at 630 Hz and 1000 Hz. Constant-Q
interacted less than proportional-Q and now Perfect-Q
eliminates this problem.
Perfect-Q Advantages
The advantages of the Perfect-Q design go far beyond
yielding a more accurate picture; it provides a degree of
adjustment never before possible. Crucial subtle refinements of frequency response are for the first time possible, allowing for an unequaled ease of operation and
clarity of sound reproduction. Changing a 1/3-octave
setting changes only that setting. This is unlike any other
graphic EQ available (i.e., one providing real mechanical front panel slide controls as of January, 2003).
Perfect-Q-2
DSP Provides the Solution
DSP allows more flexible processing than analog and
permits delaying final filter parameters until the actual
user settings are known – something not possible with
analog. This gives the power to build an EQ that has an
ideal response. The idea driving development of Perfect-Q is the same as constant-Q: constant bandwidth
for each EQ band no matter what the setting, but DSP
allows doing things that aren’t practical (or in some
cases even possible) in analog circuits, producing an
even better outcome as demonstrated by these PerfectQ characteristics:
• What you see is (really) what you get.
• Constant bandwidth for all slider settings.
• Adjusting one band does not change neighboring
bands.
• Improved phase response due to eliminated
interactions.
• No band interaction overload problems.
Graphic Details
Early EQs used passive analog networks resulting in
a proportional-Q (also known as variable-Q; “Q” is
inversely proportional to filter bandwidth) response,
that is, the filter bandwidth became wider or narrower
depending upon the slider setting. While producing
smooth alteration of frequency response, proportionalQ designs have significant interaction between adjacent
bands. For certain applications this interaction results
in a “sound” some listeners grew to appreciate, even at
the expense of poor correlation between overall response and slider position. Figure 1 shows two adjacent
sliders boosted 6 dB, with the resultant proportionalQ response. As shown the proportional-Q graphic
equalizer’s front panel is a poor representation of the
true frequency response curve. Front panel says +6 dB,
but the real output is +9 dB.
By the 1970s it was clear that a constant-Q design
would come a lot closer to the ideal. The use of active
filters greatly increased the designer’s ability to realize
new filter topologies and, in 1981, three constant-Q,
one-third-octave graphic equalizers were concurrently
designed. While a significant improvement, the results
were not ideal. Figure 2 shows the response of a constant-Q design with two adjacent sliders boosted 6 dB.
While band interaction is significantly reduced, ripple
between bands is increased.
+14
+12
+10
combined response
showing effects of
band interaction
+8
+6
+4
+2
d
B +0
u -2
individual responses
(actual slider settings)
-4
-6
-8
Interpolating Constant-Q, developed to reduce the
ripple, works quite well, however band interaction is
increased, and the overall output amplitude is nearly as
bad as proportional-Q. Figure 3 shows it is narrower,
more closely approximating the front panel’s 2/3-octave
width, but the amplitude is nearly +9 dB.
It’s not Constant – It’s not Proportional –
It’s Perfect!
As stated earlier, DSP allows filter technology not
possible with analog designs. Ray Miller, one of Rane’s
distinguished DSP engineers extensively researched
filter band interaction and developed new ways of
preventing it.
Perfect-Q features virtually no band interaction
and extremely low ripple between adjacent bands. The
result: the world’s first graphic equalizer whose output
response precisely matches the front panel slider settings dramatically shown in Figures 4 and 6.
-10
-12
-14
-2
-1.75
-1.5
-1.25
-1
-0.75
-0.5
-0.25
+0
+0.25
+0.5
+0.75
+1
+1.25
+1.5
+1.75
+2
octaves
Figure 1. Band interaction of 1/3-octave Proportional-Q filters
+90
+14
+80
+12
increased ripple
+10
+8
+70
+60
combined response
showing reduced
band interaction
+6
+4
+2
d
B +0
u -2
-6
+30
+20
Perfect-Q
-20
-30
-40
-8
-50
-60
-10
-70
-12
-80
-14
-2
+40
d+10
B +0
u -10
individual responses
(actual slider settings)
-4
Proportional-Q
+50
-1.75
-1.5
-1.25
-1
-0.75
-0.5
-0.25
+0
+0.25
+0.5
+0.75
+1
+1.25
+1.5
+1.75
+2
octaves
+90
-2
-1.5
Figure 2. Band interaction of 1/3-octave Constant-Q filters
+14
+12
+10
+8
+8
+6
+6
+4
+4
+2
+2
-6
+1
+1.5
+2
combined response
is perfect
individual responses
(actual slider settings)
-4
-6
-8
-8
-10
-10
-12
-12
-14
-2
+0.5
no band interaction or ripple
d
B +0
u -2
individual responses
(actual slider settings)
-4
-0
octaves
+14
+10
d
B +0
u -2
-0.5
Figure 5. Phase response of Figures 1 and 4.
decreased ripple
+12
-1
-14
-1.75
-1.5
-1.25
-1
-0.75
-0.5
-0.25
+0
+0.25
+0.5
+0.75
+1
+1.25
+1.5
+1.75
+2
octaves
Figure 3. Band interaction of Interpolating Constant-Q filters
-2
-1.75
-1.5
-1.25
-1
-0.75
-0.5
-0.25
+0
+0.25
+0.5
+0.75
+1
+1.25
+1.5
+1.75
+2
octaves
Figure 4. Graphic response of Perfect-Q filters
Perfect-Q-3
+10
+9
+8
+7
+6
3 dB error
+4
+3
+2
A
4 dB error
d +1
B
r -0
-1
-2
-3
6 dB error
+5
Perfect-Q™
-4
Proportional-Q
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
20
A
50
200
500
1k
2k
5k
10k
20k
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
TONE
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
25
B
100
What you see is what you’ve cut…
or boosted
If all that doesn’t impress you, look at this
example where DEQ 60 slider positions
are lined up with the frequency responses
corresponding to the Perfect-Q and
Proportional-Q settings. There’s a scoop
around 250 Hz to remove some low-mid
woof, a few notches around 1 kHz and
2 kHz for feedback control, and a dip in
the 8 kHz region to tame a pesky high
frequency hot spot. Note the difference
between the two curves, especially the
interactions between adjacent bands in
the low-mids and the 6 dB offset at 1.25
kHz. Which EQ curve looks more like the
front panel slider positions? Which one is
perfect?
31.5
40
50
63
80
100
125
160
200
250
315
400
500
630
800
1.0k 1.25k 1.6k
2.0k
2.5k 3.15k 4.0k
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
5.0k
6.3k
8.0k
10k 12.5k 16k
20k
CUT FILTERS
+
6 240
5k
0
∞
LOW
120
7k
60
10k
30
14k
15
MID HIGH
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
20k
+
12
0
5k
120
7k
60
10k
30
14k
15
20k
BYPASS
A
EQ
B
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
PROPORT-Q
±6
IN
-12
-6
-3
0
+3
A
+6 +12 OL
OUT
12
12
+
IN
+
6 240
∞
12
0
LOW HIGH
0
LEVEL
+
12
0
DEQ 60L
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
OUT
12
0
BYPASS
A
EQ
B
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
PROPORT-Q
±6
IN
-12
-6
-3
0
+3
B
+6 +12 OL
OUT
12
12
+
CUT-ONLY
POWER
Figure 6. Perfect-Q versus Proportional-Q settings
Getting From There to Here
Condensed to its essence, Perfect-Q is a proprietary
method for linearizing filter band interaction using
variable-Q techniques, which makes getting from settings to response very accurate.
With that as the end, let’s go back to the beginning
and see how we got here:
Graphic equalizers are constructed from a set of
filters evenly spaced on a logarithmic frequency scale,
providing a relatively narrow-band adjustment of the
audio spectrum. Typically there is a one-third-octave
spacing. Each filter affects a band of frequencies centered about the specified center frequency, and is set
flat, having no effect, or adjusted to boost or cut, amplifying or attenuating its frequency band.
Graphic equalizers suffer from overlapping band
problems, where adjusting one band adjusts adjacent
bands to a lesser, but significant extent, resulting in a
frequency response not matching the settings. Creat-
Perfect-Q-4
ing a response matching the settings makes equalizers
easier to use.
Various techniques exist to achieve this aim: you
can use complex filters, which have negligible effect on
adjacent bands, however narrow bandwidths require
lots of expensive computing power. Alternatively, adding extra filters can compensate for the interaction. Or
most commonly, adjusting the filter settings on the fly
to approximately yield the desired response.
Several techniques can accomplish this last method.
Different iterative methods exist, where adjustments
are made, the error analyzed, then adjustments are
made again and so forth, until the error is sufficiently
small. This is what a person who could see the amplitude vs. frequency response would do. Although a computer does it much faster, this equalizing-the-equalizer procedure still results in an undesirable time lag
between changing settings and the desired response.
+12
+12
+10
+10
+8
+8
+6
+6
+4
+4
+2
+2
0
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
Figure 7. Constant-Q Nonlinear Response.
The setting is adjusted in linear steps: 4, 8, and 12 dB, and
we see the resulting response curves. Symbols are shown at
1/3-octave intervals. For a constant-Q filter, the level 1/3-octave
away (shown as 1) is not a linear function of the setting, as
we see by the uneven spacing.
0
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
Figure 8. Perfect-Q Linear Response.
The Q has been adjusted such that the level 1/3-octave away
(shown as 1) is a linear function of the setting.
Linear Response Changes
Although not particularly obvious, graphic equalizer
bandpass response is, in general, not linear. This means
that when the center frequency amplitude is changed,
the filter skirts do not necessarily change in a linear
manner. If it were a linear response then boosting the
center frequency amplitude would result in a boosting of the skirts a known and predictable (key words)
amount that was a linear factor of the amount of center
boost. Figure 7 shows boosting the center in 4-dB
steps results in points located 1/3-octave away being
boosted, first around 1-dB, then about 2-dB and for
the last 4-dB step nearly 3-dB. Contrast this with the
Perfect-Q linear response shown in Figure 8, where the
same points increase the same amount for each 4-dB
increase.
In previous graphic equalizer designs the interaction
acts like a linear system for small settings, but not for
large ones. The results are good as long as the filters are
not boosted or cut by large amounts; in that case the
result is a compromise, but it is better than uncorrected. To linearize the system the filters must be cascaded.
This results in the dB (logarithmic level) responses of
the filters summing together to form the composite
response; otherwise phase shifts between filter sections
complicate things.
Perfect-Q takes a different approach. It adjusts
the filter Q, or bandwidth, as a function of boost/cut
amount, in such a way as to make the interaction
linear, and thereby much easier to correct. The frequencies of the two filters directly adjacent to a given
filter are given priority. The interactions at those two
frequencies are made perfectly linear, which makes the
interactions at more distant frequencies more nearly
linear, and so on. Once the response is linear it is a
straightforward, although complex, mathematical matter to check the user setting and subtract the resultant
interaction so only the intended change is made.
Perfect-Q Availability
First use of this technology was the DEQ 60 Digital
Graphic Equalizer — a 2-channel 30-band 1/3-octave
design with conventional slider controls (part of Rane’s
analog-controlled digital series). Perfect-Q is employed
in these fine products:
• DEQ 60L Graphic Equalizer
• Halogen software for the HAL Multiprocessors
Proprietary Rights
All techniques and algorithms discussed in this
article are covered by U.S. Patent 7,266,205 granted to
inventor Ray Miller and assigned to Rane Corporation.
International patent pending.
Perfect-Q-5
©Rane Corporation 10802 47th Ave. W., Mukilteo WA 98275-5098 USA TEL 425-355-6000 FAX 425-347-7757 WEB www.rane.com
Perfect-Q-6
106685
RaneNote
SOUND SYSTEM INTERCONNECTION
Sound System
Interconnection
• Cause & prevention of ground loops
• Interfacing balanced & unbalanced
• Proper pin connections and wiring
• Chassis ground vs. signal ground
• Ground lift switches
Rane Technical Staff
Introduction
This note, originally written in 1985, continues to be
one of our most useful references. It’s popularity stems
from the continual and perpetual difficulty of hooking
up audio equipment without suffering through all sorts
of bizarre noises, hums, buzzes, whistles, etc.— not to
mention the extreme financial, physical and psychological price. As technology progresses it is inevitable that
electronic equipment and its wiring should be subject
to constant improvement. Many things have improved
in the audio industry since 1985, but unfortunately
wiring isn’t one of them. However, finally the Audio
Engineering Society (AES) has issued a standards
document for interconnection of pro audio equipment. It is AES48, titled “AES48-2005: AES standard
on interconnections —Grounding and EMC practices
— Shields of connectors in audio equipment containing
active circuitry.”
Rane’s policy is to accommodate rather than dictate. However, this document contains suggestions for
external wiring changes that should ideally only be
implemented by trained technical personnel. Safety
regulations require that all original grounding means
provided from the factory be left intact for safe operation. No guarantee of responsibility for incidental
or consequential damages can be provided. (In other
words, don’t modify cables, or try your own version of
grounding unless you really understand exactly what
type of output and input you have to connect.)
RaneNote 110
© 1985, 1995, 2006, 2007, 2011 Rane Corporation
Interconnection-1
Ground Loops
Almost all cases of noise can be traced directly to
ground loops, grounding or lack thereof. It is important
to understand the mechanism that causes grounding
noise in order to effectively eliminate it. Each component of a sound system produces its own ground internally. This ground is usually called the audio signal
ground. Connecting devices together with the interconnecting cables can tie the signal grounds of the two
units together in one place through the conductors in
the cable. Ground loops occur when the grounds of the
two units are also tied together in another place: via
the third wire in the line cord, by tying the metal chassis together through the rack rails, etc. These situations
create a circuit through which current may flow in a
closed “loop” from one unit’s ground out to a second
unit and back to the first. It is not simply the presence
of this current that creates the hum—it is when this
current flows through a unit’s audio signal ground that
creates the hum. In fact, even without a ground loop, a
little noise current always flows through every interconnecting cable (i.e., it is impossible to eliminate these
currents entirely). The mere presence of this ground
loop current is no cause for alarm if your system uses
properly implemented and completely balanced interconnects, which are excellent at rejecting ground loop
and other noise currents. Balanced interconnect was
developed to be immune to these noise currents, which
can never be entirely eliminated. What makes a ground
loop current annoying is when the audio signal is affected. Unfortunately, many manufacturers of balanced
audio equipment design the internal grounding system
improperly, thus creating balanced equipment that is
not immune to the cabling’s noise currents. This is one
reason for the bad reputation sometimes given to balanced interconnect.
A second reason for balanced interconnect’s bad
reputation comes from those who think connecting
unbalanced equipment into “superior” balanced equipment should improve things. Sorry. Balanced interconnect is not compatible with unbalanced. The small
physical nature and short cable runs of completely
unbalanced systems (home audio) also contain these
ground loop noise currents. However, the currents in
unbalanced systems never get large enough to affect
the audio to the point where it is a nuisance. Mixing
balanced and unbalanced equipment, however, is an
entirely different story, since balanced and unbalanced
interconnect are truly not compatible. The rest of this
note shows several recommended implementations for
all of these interconnection schemes.
The potential or voltage which pushes these noise
currents through the circuit is developed between the
independent grounds of the two or more units in the
system. The impedance of this circuit is low, and even
though the voltage is low, the current is high, thanks to
Mr. Ohm, without whose help we wouldn’t have these
problems. It would take a very high resolution ohm
meter to measure the impedance of the steel chassis or
the rack rails. We’re talking thousandths of an ohm. So
trying to measure this stuff won’t necessarily help you.
We just thought we’d warn you.
BALANCED OUTPUTS
+
–
BALANCED INPUTS
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
+
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
–
G
MALE
G
FEMALE
RED
2
BLACK
3 C 3
SHIELD
1
1
2
T
R
S
CHASSIS
GROUND
Interconnection-2
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
Figure 1a. The right way to do it.
MALE
2
1
3
FEMALE
2
C 3
1
T
R
S
CHASSIS SIGNAL
GROUND GROUND
The Absolute Best Right Way To Do It
The method specified by AES48 is to use balanced lines
and tie the cable shield to the metal chassis (right where
it enters the chassis) at both ends of the cable.
A balanced line requires three separate conductors, two of which are signal (+ and –) and one shield
(see Figure 1a). The shield serves to guard the sensitive
audio lines from interference. Only by using balanced
line interconnects can you guarantee (yes, guarantee)
hum-free results. Always use twisted pair cable. Chassis tying the shield at each end also guarantees the best
possible protection from RFI [radio frequency interference] and other noises [neon signs, lighting dimmers].
Neil Muncy1, an electroacoustic consultant and
seasoned veteran of years of successful system design,
chairs the AES Standards Committee (SC-05-05)
working on this subject. He tirelessly tours the world
giving seminars and dispensing information on how to
successfully hook-up pro audio equipment2. He makes
the simple point that it is absurd that you cannot go
out and buy pro audio equipment from several different
manufacturers, buy standard off-the-shelf cable assemblies, come home, hook it all up and have it work hum
and noise free. Plug and play. Sadly, almost never is
this the case, despite the science and rules of noise-free
interconnect known and documented for over 60 years
(see References for complete information).
It all boils down to using balanced lines, only balanced lines, and nothing but balanced lines. This is why
they were developed. Further, that you tie the shield to
the chassis, at the point it enters the chassis, and at both
ends of the cable (more on ‘both ends’ later).
Since standard XLR cables come with their shields
tied to pin 1 at each end (the shells are not tied, nor
need be), this means equipment using 3-pin, XLR-type
connectors must tie pin 1 to the chassis (usually called
chassis ground) — not the audio signal ground as is
most common.
Not using signal ground is the most radical departure from common pro-audio practice. Not that there
is any argument about its validity. There isn’t. This is
the right way to do it. So why doesn’t audio equipment
come wired this way? Well, some does, and since 1993,
more of it does. That’s when Rane started manufacturing some of its products with balanced inputs and
outputs tying pin 1 to chassis. So why doesn’t everyone
do it this way? Because life is messy, some things are
hard to change, and there will always be equipment in
use that was made before proper grounding practices
were in effect.
Unbalanced equipment is another problem: it is
everwhere, easily available and inexpensive. All those
RCA and ¼" TS connectors found on consumer equipment; effect-loops and insert-points on consoles; signal
processing boxes; semi-pro digital and analog tape
recorders; computer cards; mixing consoles; et cetera.
The next several pages give tips on how to successfully address hooking up unbalanced equipment.
Unbalanced equipment when “blindly” connected with
fully balanced units starts a pattern of hum and undesirable operation, requiring extra measures to correct
the situation.
The Next Best Right Way To Do It
The quickest, quietest and most foolproof method to
connect balanced and unbalanced is to transformer
isolate all unbalanced connections. See Figure 2.
Many manufacturers provide several tools for this
task, including Rane. Consult your audio dealer to explore the options available.
The goal of these adaptors is to allow the use of
standard cables. With these transformer isolation
boxes, modification of cable assemblies is unnecessary.
Virtually any two pieces of audio equipment can be
successfully interfaced without risk of unwanted hum
and noise.
UNBALANCED
COMMON (WRONG) PRACTICE
(+)
CASE
RECOMMENDED PRACTICE
2
2
3
(–)
3
1
CHASSIS
GROUND
(+)
CASE
OPTIONAL
(–)
NOT CONNECTED
AT CHASSIS
(PLASTIC JACK)
TRANSFORMER
1/4”
TIP-SLEEVE
1
SIGNAL
GROUND
CHASSIS
GROUND
CHASSIS
GROUND
Figure 1b. Recommmended practice.
BALANCED
2
3
1
EARTH GROUNDED
METAL ENCLOSURE
CASE LUG MAY
CONNECT TO
CHASSIS
(NOT REQUIRED)
CHASSIS IS
GROUNDED TO PIN 1
Figure 2. Transformer Isolation
Interconnection-3
Another way to create the necessary isolation is to
use a direct box. Originally named for its use to convert
the high impedance, high level output of an electric
guitar to the low impedance, low level input of a recording console, it allowed the player to plug “directly”
into the console. Now this term is commonly used to
describe any box used to convert unbalanced lines to
balanced lines.
The Last Best Right Way To Do It
If transformer isolation is not an option, special
cable assemblies are a last resort. The key here is to
prevent the shield currents from flowing into a unit
whose grounding scheme creates ground loops (hum)
in the audio path (i.e., most audio equipment).
It is true that connecting both ends of the shield is
theoretically the best way to interconnect equipment
–though this assumes the interconnected equipment is
internally grounded properly. Since most equipment is
not internally grounded properly, connecting both ends
of the shield is not often practiced, since doing so usually creates noisy interconnections.
A common solution to these noisy hum and buzz
problems involves disconnecting one end of the shield,
even though one can not buy off-the-shelf cables with
the shield disconnected at one end. The best end to disconnect is the receiving end. If one end of the shield is
disconnected, the noisy hum current stops flowing and
away goes the hum — but only at low frequencies. A
ground-sending-end-only shield connection minimizes
the possibility of high frequency (radio) interference
since it prevents the shield from acting as an antenna
to the next input. Many reduce this potential RF interference by providing an RF path through a small capacitor (0.1 or 0.01 microfarad ceramic disc) connected
from the lifted end of the shield to the chassis. (This is
referred to as the “hybrid shield termination” where the
sending end is bonded to the chassis and the receiving
end is capacitively coupled. See Neutrik’s EMC-XLR
for example.) The fact that many modern day installers still follow this one-end-only rule with consistent
success indicates this and other acceptable solutions to
FEMALE
2
C
3
1
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
RF issues exist, though the increasing use of digital and
wireless technology greatly increases the possibility of
future RF problems.
If you’ve truly isolated your hum problem to a specific unit, chances are, even though the documentation
indicates proper chassis grounded shields, the suspect
unit is not internally grounded properly. Here is where
special test cable assemblies, shown in Figure 3, really
come in handy. These assemblies allow you to connect
the shield to chassis ground at the point of entry, or to
pin 1, or to lift one end of the shield. The task becomes
more difficult when the unit you’ve isolated has multiple inputs and outputs. On a suspect unit with multiple
cables, try various configurations on each connection
to find out if special cable assemblies are needed at
more than one point.
See Figure 4 for suggested cable assemblies for your
particular interconnection needs. Find the appropriate output configuration (down the left side) and then
match this with the correct input configuration (across
the top of the page.) Then refer to the following pages
for a recommended wiring diagram.
Ground Lifts
Many units come equipped with ground lift switches.
In only a few cases can it be shown that a ground lift
switch improves ground related noise. (Has a ground
lift switch ever really worked for you?) In reality, the
presence of a ground lift switch greatly reduces a unit’s
ability to be “properly” grounded and therefore immune to ground loop hums and buzzes. Ground lifts
are simply another Band-Aid® to try in case of grounding problems. It is true that an entire system of properly grounded equipment, without ground lift switches,
is guaranteed (yes guaranteed) to be hum free. The
problem is most equipment is not (both internally and
externally, AC system wise) grounded properly.
Most units with ground lifts are shipped so the unit
is “grounded” — meaning the chassis is connected to
audio signal ground. (This should be the best and is
the “safest” position for a ground lift switch.) If after
hooking up your system it exhibits excessive hum or
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
MALE
2
3
1
TEST
WIRE
Figure 3. Test cable
Interconnection-4
GROUND CLIP
buzzing, there is an incompatibility somewhere in the
system’s grounding configuration. In addition to these
special cable assemblies that may help, here are some
more things to try:
1. Try combinations of lifting grounds on units supplied with lift switches (or links). It is wise to do this
with the power off!
2. If you have an entirely balanced system, verify all
chassis are tied to a good earth ground, for safety’s
sake and hum protection. Completely unbalanced
systems never earth ground anything (except cable
TV, often a ground loop source). If you have a mixed
balanced and unbalanced system, do yourself a favor
and use isolation transformers or, if you can’t do
that, try the special cable assemblies described here
and expect it to take many hours to get things quiet.
May the Force be with you.
3. Balanced units with outboard power supplies (wall
warts or “bumps” in the line cord) do not ground the
chassis through the line cord. Make sure such units
are solidly grounded by tying the chassis to an earth
ground using a star washer for a reliable contact.
(Rane always provides this chassis point as an external screw with a toothed washer.) Any device with
a 3-prong AC plug, such as an amplifier, may serve
as an earth ground point. Rack rails may or may not
serve this purpose depending on screw locations and
paint jobs.
Floating, Pseudo, and Quasi-Balancing
During inspection, you may run across a ¼" output
called floating unbalanced, sometimes also called psuedo-balanced or quasi-balanced. In this configuration,
the sleeve of the output stage is not connected inside
the unit and the ring is connected (usually through a
small resistor) to the audio signal ground. This allows
the tip and ring to “appear” as an equal impedance,
not-quite balanced output stage, even though the output circuitry is unbalanced.
Floating unbalanced often works to drive either a
balanced or unbalanced input, depending if a TS or
TRS standard cable is plugged into it. When it hums, a
special cable is required. See drawings #11 and #12, and
do not make the cross-coupled modification of tying
the ring and sleeve together.
Winning the Wiring Wars
• Use balanced connections whenever possible, with
the shield bonded to the metal chassis at both ends.
• Transformer isolate all unbalanced connections
from balanced connections.
• Use special cable assemblies when unbalanced lines
cannot be transformer isolated.
• Any unbalanced cable must be kept under 10 feet
(3 m) in length. Lengths longer than this will amplify all the nasty side effects of unbalanced circuitry's
ground loops.
Summary
If you are unable to do things correctly (i.e. use fully
balanced wiring with shields tied to the chassis at both
ends, or transformer isolate all unbalanced signals
from balanced signals) then there is no guarantee that
a hum-free interconnect can be achieved, nor is there a
definite scheme that will assure noise-free operation in
all configurations.
References
1. Neil A. Muncy, “Noise Susceptibility in Analog and Digital Signal Processing Systems,” presented at the 97th AES
Convention of Audio Engineering Society in San Francisco, CA, Nov. 1994.
2. Grounding, Shielding, and Interconnections in Analog
& Digital Signal Processing Systems: Understanding the
Basics; Workshops designed and presented by Neil Muncy
and Cal Perkins, at the 97th AES Convention of Audio
Engineering Society in San Francisco, CA, Nov. 1994.
3. The entire June 1995 AES Journal, Vol. 43, No. 6, available
$6 members, $11 nonmembers from the Audio Engineering Society, 60 E. 42nd St., New York, NY, 10165-2520.
4. Phillip Giddings, Audio System Design and Installation
(SAMS, Indiana, 1990).
5. Ralph Morrison, Noise and Other Interfering Signals
(Wiley, New York, 1992).
6. Henry W. Ott, Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic
Systems, 2nd Edition (Wiley, New York, 1988).
7. Cal Perkins, “Measurement Techniques for Debugging
Electronic Systems and Their Instrumentation,” The Proceedings of the 11th International AES Conference: Audio
Test & Measurement, Portland, OR, May 1992, pp. 82-92
(Audio Engineering Society, New York, 1992).
8. Macatee, RaneNote: “Grounding and Shielding Audio
Devices,” Rane Corporation, 1994.
9. Philip Giddings, “Grounding and Shielding for Sound and
Video,” S&VC, Sept. 20th, 1995.
10. AES48-2005: AES standard on interconnections —
Grounding and EMC practices — Shields of connectors
in audio equipment containing active circuitry (Audio
Engineering Society, New York, 2005).
Band-Aid is a registered trademark of Johnson & Johnson
Interconnection-5
To Input
CABLE
CONNECTORS
MALE
BALANCED XLR
FEMALE BALANCED XLR
(NOT A TRANSFORMER,
NOR A CROSS-COUPLED
OUTPUT STAGE)
From Output
FEMALE BALANCED XLR
(EITHER A TRANSFORMER
OR A CROSS-COUPLED
OUTPUT STAGE)
¼” BALANCED TRS
(NOT A TRANSFORMER,
NOR A CROSS-COUPLED
OUTPUT STAGE)
¼” BALANCED TRS
(EITHER A TRANSFORMER
OR A CROSS-COUPLED
OUTPUT STAGE)
¼” FLOATING UNBALANCED
TRS (TIP-RING-SLEEVE)
(SLEEVE IN UNIT = NC)
¼” OR 3.5 mm
UNBALANCED
TS (TIP-SLEEVE)
UNBALANCED RCA
(TIP-SLEEVE)
BALANCED
EUROBLOCK
¼" BALANCED
TRS (TIP-RING-SLEEVE)
¼" OR 3.5mm
UNBALANCED
TS (TIP-SLEEVE)
UNBALANCED RCA
1
2
3
4
1
2
5
6
B
B
BALANCED
EUROBLOCK
+ to +
– to –
SHIELD NC
+ to +
– to –
SHIELD NC
+ to +
– to –
7
8
9
10
7
8
11
12
21
22
11
12
GROUND to GROUND
13
14
15
16
23
17
18
19
20
23
+ to +
– to –
+ to +
– to –
24
+ to +
– to –
A
SHIELD ONLY
TO XLR PIN 1
A
SHIELD ONLY
TO TRS SLEEVE
B
A
A
24
B
A
A
SHIELD ONLY
TO EUROBLOCK
+ to +
– to –
SHIELD NC
+ to +
– to –
GROUND to GROUND
Figure 4. Interconnect chart for locating correct cable assemblies on the following pages.
Note: (A) This configuration uses an “off-the-shelf” cable.
Note: (B) This configuration causes a 6 dB signal loss. Compensate by “turning the system up” 6 dB.
Interconnection-6
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
2
FEMALE
1=SHIELD
RED
2
2=RED
BLACK
C 3
3=BLACK
SHIELD
1
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
3
FEMALE
1=SHIELD
RED
2
2=RED
C 3
B 3=NC
SHIELD
1
1-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
4
FEMALE
1=SHIELD
RED
2
2=RED
C 3
B 3=NC
SHIELD
1
1-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
From Output
5
6
FEMALE
1=SHIELD
RED
2
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
2=RED
BLACK
C 3
3=BLACK
SHIELD
1
CROSS-COUPLED OUTPUT ONLY: CONNECT PIN 1 TO PIN 3 AT THIS END
AND SET GROUND LIFT SWITCH TO ‘GROUNDED’ (IF PRESENT).
7
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
8
T=RED
R=BLACK
S=SHIELD
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
9B
T=RED
R=NC
S=SHIELD
T=RED
10B R=NC
S=SHIELD
T=RED
R=BLACK
S=SHIELD
RED
1-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
RED
SHIELD
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
1
3
1=NC
2=RED
3=BLACK
RED
T=RED
S=SHIELD
SHIELD
RED
T=RED
S=SHIELD
SHIELD
RED
BLACK
T=RED
S=BLACK
RED
BLACK
RED
BLACK
N/C
T=RED
S=BLACK
MALE
2
1
3
1=NC
2=RED
3=BLACK
RED
BLACK
N/C
T=RED
R=BLACK
S=NC
RED
T=RED
S=BLACK
RED
1-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
2
T=RED
R=BLACK
S=NC
SHIELD
SHIELD
MALE
RED
BLACK
N/C
FEMALE
1=SHIELD
RED
2
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
BLACK
2=RED
C 3
SHIELD
3=BLACK
1
CROSS-COUPLED OUTPUT ONLY: CONNECT PIN 1 TO PIN 3 AT THIS END
AND SET GROUND LIFT SWITCH TO ‘GROUNDED’ (IF PRESENT).
T=RED
R=BLACK
S=SHIELD
11
RED
BLACK
N/C
SHIELD
RED
BLACK
To Input
1
FEMALE
1=SHIELD
RED
2
2=RED
BLACK
C 3
3=BLACK
SHIELD
1
T=RED
S=SHIELD
T=RED
S=BLACK
CROSS-COUPLED OUTPUT ONLY: CONNECT RING TO SLEEVE
AT THIS END AND SET GROUND LIFT SWITCH TO ‘GROUNDED’ (IF PRESENT).
12
T=RED
R=BLACK
S=SHIELD
RED
RED
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
BLACK
BLACK
SHIELD
CROSS-COUPLED OUTPUT ONLY: CONNECT RING TO SLEEVE
AT THIS END AND SET GROUND LIFT SWITCH TO ‘GROUNDED’ (IF PRESENT).
T=RED
S=BLACK
Interconnection-7
From Output
14
RED
BLACK
N/C
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
T=RED
S=BLACK
RED
BLACK
N/C
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
15A
T=RED
S=SHIELD
16A
T=RED
S=SHIELD
17
18
T=RED
S=BLACK
T=RED
S=BLACK
19A
T=RED
S=SHIELD
20A
T=RED
S=SHIELD
RED
SHIELD
RED
SHIELD
RED
BLACK
1-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
RED
1-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
SHIELD
1=SHIELD
3 2=RED
3=BLACK
1
2
T=RED
R=BLACK
S=SHIELD
RED
T=RED
S=SHIELD
SHIELD
RED
1-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
MALE
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
T=RED
S=SHIELD
SHIELD
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
RED
BLACK
MALE
2
1
3
RED
T=RED
S=SHIELD
RED
1-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
SHIELD
T=RED
R=BLACK
A S=SHIELD
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
22A
T=RED
R=BLACK
S=SHIELD
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
23
(ANY UNBALANCED CONNECTOR)
RED
BLACK
T=RED
S=BLACK
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
T=RED
S=SHIELD
SHIELD
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
1=SHIELD
2=RED
3=BLACK
T=RED
R=BLACK
S=SHIELD
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
SHIELD
RED
21
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
To Input
13
T=RED
S=BLACK
MALE
2
1
3
1=SHIELD
2=RED
3=BLACK
T=RED
R=BLACK
S=SHIELD
(CHECK: NO STANDARD POLARITY ON EUROBLOCKS)
RED
+
BLACK
SHIELD
–
(CHECK: NO STANDARD POLARITY ON EUROBLOCKS)
24
–
+
RED
BLACK
SHIELD
RED (ANY UNBALANCED CONNECTOR)
T=RED
BLACK
S=BLACK
CROSS-COUPLED OUTPUT ONLY: CONNECT BLACK TO SHIELD AT THIS END
AND SET GROUND LIFT SWITCH TO ‘GROUNDED’ (IF PRESENT).
2-CONDUCTOR SHIELDED CABLE
©Rane Corporation 10802 47th Ave. W., Mukilteo WA 98275-5000 USA TEL 425-355-6000 FAX 425-347-7757 WEB www.rane.com
Interconnection-8
DOC 102907
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3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
LOW
LOW
MID HIGH
TONE
MID HIGH
TONE
10k
14k
20k
60
30
15
0
10k
14k
20k
60
30
15
7k
120
20k
15
5k
14k
30
LOW HIGH
10k
60
7k
+
6 240
0
120
CUT FILTERS
+
6 240
5k
0
7k
120
20k
15
5k
14k
30
LOW HIGH
10k
60
7k
+
6 240
0
120
CUT FILTERS
+
6 240
5k
12
0
+
12
12
0
+
12
12
0
+
12
12
0
+
12
OUT
IN
OUT
LEVEL
IN
LEVEL
12
+
0
12
12
+
0
12
12
+
0
12
12
+
0
12
-6
-3
B
A
0
+3
-3
B
A
0
0
+3
-12
-3
B
CUT-ONLY
-6
EQ
A
0
±6
+3
±6
POWER
+6 +12 OL
PROPORT-Q
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
+6 +12 OL
PROPORT-Q
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
BYPASS
POWER
+6 +12 OL
±6
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
+3
PROPORT-Q
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
DEQ 60L
-6
EQ
-12
-3
B
A
CUT-ONLY
-6
BYPASS
-12
EQ
BYPASS
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
±6
+6 +12 OL
PROPORT-Q
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
DEQ 60L
-12
EQ
BYPASS
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
25
31.5
40
50
50
63
63
80
80
100
100
125
125
160
160
200
200
250
250
315
315
400
400
500
500
630
630
800
800
1.0k 1.25k 1.6k
1.0k 1.25k 1.6k
2.0k
2.0k
2.5k 3.15k 4.0k
2.5k 3.15k 4.0k
5.0k
5.0k
6.3k
6.3k
8.0k
8.0k
10k 12.5k 16k
10k 12.5k 16k
20k
20k
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
40
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
31.5
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
25
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
LOW
LOW
MID HIGH
TONE
MID HIGH
TONE
10k
14k
20k
60
30
15
0
10k
14k
20k
60
30
15
7k
120
20k
15
5k
14k
30
LOW HIGH
10k
60
7k
+
6 240
0
120
CUT FILTERS
+
6 240
5k
0
7k
120
20k
15
5k
14k
30
LOW HIGH
10k
60
7k
+
6 240
0
120
CUT FILTERS
+
6 240
5k
12
0
+
12
12
0
+
12
12
0
+
12
12
0
+
12
OUT
IN
OUT
LEVEL
IN
LEVEL
12
+
0
12
12
+
0
12
12
+
0
12
12
+
0
12
-6
-3
B
A
0
+3
-3
B
A
0
0
+3
-12
-3
B
CUT-ONLY
-6
EQ
A
0
±6
+3
±6
POWER
+6 +12 OL
PROPORT-Q
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
+6 +12 OL
PROPORT-Q
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
BYPASS
POWER
+6 +12 OL
±6
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
+3
PROPORT-Q
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
DEQ 60L
-6
EQ
-12
-3
B
A
CUT-ONLY
-6
BYPASS
-12
EQ
BYPASS
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
±6
+6 +12 OL
PROPORT-Q
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
DEQ 60L
-12
EQ
BYPASS
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
25
31.5
40
50
50
63
63
80
80
100
100
125
125
160
160
200
200
250
250
315
315
400
400
500
500
630
630
800
800
1.0k 1.25k 1.6k
1.0k 1.25k 1.6k
2.0k
2.0k
2.5k 3.15k 4.0k
2.5k 3.15k 4.0k
5.0k
5.0k
6.3k
6.3k
8.0k
8.0k
10k 12.5k 16k
10k 12.5k 16k
20k
20k
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
40
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
31.5
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
25
+ CUT
12 0
10 1
8 2
6 3
4 4
2 5
0 6
2 7
4 8
6 9
8 10
10 11
12 12
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
CUT +
0 6
• 5
1 4
• 3
2 2
• 1
3 0
• 1
4 2
• 3
5 4
• 5
6 6
LOW
LOW
MID HIGH
TONE
MID HIGH
TONE
10k
14k
20k
60
30
15
0
10k
14k
20k
60
30
15
7k
120
20k
15
5k
14k
30
LOW HIGH
10k
60
7k
+
6 240
0
120
CUT FILTERS
+
6 240
5k
0
7k
120
20k
15
5k
14k
30
LOW HIGH
10k
60
7k
+
6 240
0
120
CUT FILTERS
+
6 240
5k
12
0
+
12
12
0
+
12
12
0
+
12
12
0
+
12
OUT
IN
OUT
LEVEL
IN
LEVEL
12
+
0
12
12
+
0
12
12
+
0
12
12
+
0
12
-6
-3
B
A
0
+3
-3
B
A
0
0
+3
-12
-3
B
CUT-ONLY
-6
EQ
A
0
±6
+3
±6
POWER
+6 +12 OL
PROPORT-Q
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
+6 +12 OL
PROPORT-Q
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
BYPASS
POWER
+6 +12 OL
±6
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
+3
PROPORT-Q
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
DEQ 60L
-6
EQ
-12
-3
B
A
CUT-ONLY
-6
BYPASS
-12
EQ
BYPASS
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
±6
+6 +12 OL
PROPORT-Q
PERFECT-Q™ ±12
DEQ 60L
-12
EQ
BYPASS
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
OUT
IN
B
A
B
A
WARRANTY
FACTORY AUTHORIZED SERVICE
Your unit may someday need to be serviced by the Rane Factory if you live in the USA. International customers should contact your
dealer or distributor for service. You must call the Rane factory before shipping. Please do not return your unit to Rane without prior
authorization.
Rane Corporation
To obtain service or a Return Authorization in the USA, please phone 425-355-6000
or Fax 425-347-7757
LIMITED DOMESTIC WARRANTY
RANE CORPORATION WARRANTS ALL RANE PRODUCTS (EXCEPT THOSE ITEMS CLASSIFIED AS WEAR PARTS, AND LISTED ON THE
MANUAL-1 PAGE OF EACH OPERATORS MANUAL) PURCHASED IN THE U.S. AGAINST DEFECTS IN MATERIAL OR WORKMANSHIP
FOR A PERIOD OF TWO (2) YEARS. WEAR PARTS ARE LIMITED TO A PERIOD OF NINETY (90) DAYS FROM THE INITIAL DATE OF
RETAIL PURCHASE FROM AN AUTHORIZED RANE DEALER—WEAR PARTS REQUIRE PROOF OF PURCHASE DATE. This limited
warranty extends to all purchasers or owners of the product during the warranty period beginning with the original retail purchase. Rane Corporation
does not, however, warrant its products against any and all defects: 1) arising out of material or workmanship not provided or furnished by Rane, or
2) resulting from abnormal use of the product or use in violation of instructions, or 3) in products repaired or serviced by other than the Rane Factory,
or 4) in products with removed or defaced serial numbers, or 5) in components or parts or products expressly warranted by another manufacturer. Rane
agrees to supply all parts and labor to repair or replace defects covered by this limited warranty with parts or products of original or improved design, at
its option in each respect, if the defective product is shipped prior to the end of the warranty period to the Rane Factory in the original packaging or a
replacement supplied by Rane, with all transportation costs and full insurance paid each way by the purchaser or owner.
LIMITED WARRANTY OUTSIDE THE U.S.A.
RANE PRODUCTS ARE WARRANTED ONLY IN THE COUNTRY WHERE PURCHASED, THROUGH THE AUTHORIZED RANE
DISTRIBUTOR IN THAT COUNTRY, AGAINST DEFECTS IN MATERIAL OR WORKMANSHIP, THE SPECIFIC PERIOD OF THIS
LIMITED WARRANTY SHALL BE THAT WHICH IS DESCRIBED TO THE ORIGINAL RETAIL PURCHASER BY THE AUTHORIZED
RANE DEALER OR DISTRIBUTOR AT THE TIME OF PURCHASE. Rane Corporation does not, however, warrant its products against any and
all defects: 1) arising out of materials or workmanship not provided or furnished by Rane, or 2) resulting from abnormal use of the product or use in
violation of instructions, or 3) in products repaired or serviced by other than authorized Rane repair facilities, or 4) in products with removed or defaced
serial numbers, or 5) in components or parts or products expressly warranted by another manufacturer. Rane agrees, through the applicable authorized
distributor, to repair or replace defects covered by this limited warranty with parts or products of original or improved design, at its option in each respect,
if the defective product is shipped prior to the end of the warranty period to the designated authorized Rane warranty repair facility in the country
where purchased, or to the Rane factory in the U.S., in the original packaging or a replacement supplied by Rane, with all transportation costs and full
insurance paid each way by the purchaser or owner.
ALL REMEDIES AND THE MEASURE OF DAMAGES ARE LIMITED TO THE ABOVE SERVICES, IT IS POSSIBLE THAT ECONOMIC
LOSS OR INJURY TO PERSON OR PROPERTY MAY RESULT FROM THE FAILURE OF THE PRODUCT; HOWEVER, EVEN IF RANE
HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THIS POSSIBILITY, THIS LIMITED WARRANTY DOES NOT COVER ANY SUCH CONSEQUENTIAL OR
INCIDENTAL DAMAGES. SOME STATES OR COUNTRIES DO NOT ALLOW THE LIMITATIONS OR EXCLUSION OF INCIDENTAL
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU.
ANY AND ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ARISING BY LAW, COURSE OF DEALING, COURSE OF PERFORMANCE, USAGE
OF TRADE, OR OTHERWISE, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE LIMITED TO A PERIOD OF TWO (2) YEARS FROM EITHER THE DATE OF ORIGINAL RETAIL
PURCHASE OR, IN THE EVENT NO PROOF OF PURCHASE DATE IS AVAILABLE, THE DATE OF MANUFACTURE, SOME STATES
OR COUNTRIES DO NOT ALLOW LIMITATIONS ON HOW LONG AN IMPLIED WARRANTY LASTS, SO THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS
MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. THIS LIMITED WARRANTY GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL RIGHTS, AND YOU MAY ALSO HAVE OTHER
RIGHTS WHICH VARY FROM STATE TO STATE, COUNTRY TO COUNTRY.
Warranty-1
WARRANTY PROCEDURE - Valid in USA only
NOTICE! You must complete and return the warranty card or register your
product online to extend the Warranty from 2 years to 3 years!
TO VALIDATE YOUR EXTENDED WARRANTY: Use the postcard that came in the box with your unit, or go to www.rane.com and
click on New Product Registration. Fill out the warranty completely, being sure to include the model and serial number of the unit
since this is how warranties are tracked. If your Rane product was purchased in the U.S.A., mail the completed card or register online
with to Rane Corporation within 10 days from the date of purchase. If you purchased the product outside the U.S.A. you must file
your warranty registration with the Rane Distributor in that country. It is advised that you keep your bill of sale as proof of purchase,
should any difficulties arise concerning the registration of the warranty card. NOTICE: IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO REGISTER IN
ORDER TO RECEIVE RANE CORPORATION’S STANDARD TWO YEAR LIMITED WARRANTY.
WARRANTY REGISTRATION is made and tracked by MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBERS ONLY, not by the purchaser’s or owner’s
name. Therefore any warranty correspondence or inquires MUST include the model and serial number of the product in question. Be
sure to fill in the model and serial number in the space provided below and keep this in a safe place for future reference.
WARRANTY SERVICE MUST BE PERFORMED ONLY BY AN AUTHORIZED RANE SERVICE FACILITY LOCATED IN
THE COUNTRY WHERE THE UNIT WAS PURCHASED, OR (if product was purchased in the U.S.) AT THE RANE FACTORY
IN THE U.S.. If the product is being sent to Rane for repair, please call the factory for a Return Authorization number. We recommend
advance notice be given to the repair facility to avoid possible needless shipment in case the problem can be solved over the phone.
UNAUTHORIZED SERVICE PERFORMED ON ANY RANE PRODUCT WILL VOID ITS EXISTING FACTORY WARRANTY.
FACTORY SERVICE: If you wish your Rane product to be serviced at the factory, it must be shipped FULLY INSURED, IN THE
ORIGINAL PACKING OR EQUIVALENT. This warranty will NOT cover repairs on products damaged through improper packaging.
If possible, avoid sending products through the mail. Be sure to include in the package:
1. Complete return street shipping address (P.O. Box numbers are NOT acceptable).
2. A detailed description of any problems experienced, including the make and model numbers of any other system equipment.
3. Remote power supply, if applicable.
Repaired products purchased in the U.S. will be returned prepaid freight via the same method they were sent to Rane. Products purchased
in the U.S., but sent to the factory from outside the U.S. MUST include return freight funds, and the sender is fully responsible for all
customs procedures, duties, tariffs and deposits.
In order to qualify for Rane’s one year extended warranty (for a total of 3
years parts and labor), the warranty must be completely filled out and sent to
us immediately. Valid in USA only.
We recommend you write your serial number here in your owners
manual and on your sales receipt for your records.
SERIAL NUMBER:______________________________________PURCHASE DATE:_____________________________
©Rane Corporation 10802 47th Ave. W., Mukilteo WA 98275-5000 TEL 425-355-6000 FAX 425-347-7757 WEB www.rane.com
Warranty-2
Declaration of Conformity
Application of
Council Directive(s):
Standard(s) to which
conformity is declared:
2002/96/EC
2011/65/EU
EN60065:2002/A1:2006/A11:2008
EN50581:2012
SERIAL NUMBERS 900000 - 999999
Manufacturer:
Rane Corporation
10802 47th Avenue West
Mukilteo WA 98275-5000 USA
High quality shielded cable must be used for interconnection to other equipment. Modification of the equipment, other
than that expressly outlined by the manufacturer, is not allowed. This declaration of conformity is issued under the sole
responsibility of Rane Corporation.
Type of Equipment: Professional Audio Signal Processing
Brand: Rane
Model: DEQ 60L
Immunity Results:
Test Description
RF Electromagnetic Fields Immunity
80 MHz -1000 MHz, 1 kHz AM, 80% depth, 3V/m
Conducted RF Disturbances Immunity
150 kHz - 80 MHz, 1 kHz AM, 80% depth, 3V RMS
Magnetic Fields Immunity
50Hz - 10kHz, 4.0 - 0.4 A/m
A-weighted quasi-peak noise (AC 24 tested)
Results
Conditions
< -70 dBu
80 Mhz -1000 MHz
< -67 dBu
< -62 dBu
Power Lines, 150 kHz - 80 MHz
Signal & Control Lines, 80 MHz
< -68 dBu
50 Hz - 10 kHz
I, the undersigned, hereby declare that the equipment specified above conforms
to the Directive(s) and Standard(s) shown above.
(Signature)
Roy G. Gill
Compliance Engineer
(Full Name)
(Position)
December 16, 2010
Mukilteo WA USA
(Date)
(Place)
106219
DEQ60L
100-240V
50/60 Hz 20 WATTS
U.S. PATENT 7,266,205
R
COMMERCIAL AUDIO
EQUIPMENT 24TJ
RANE CORPORATION
FOR CONTINUED
GROUNDING
PROTECTION
DO NOT REMOVE
SCREW
ALL
FILTERS
BYPASS
OUTPUT B
+ -
+ -
OUTPUT A
+ -
+ -
INPUT B
+ -
+ -
INPUT A
+ -
+ -
This device complies with Part
15 of the FCC Rules. Operation
is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may
not cause harmful interference,
and (2) this device must accept
any interference received,
including interference that may
cause undesired operation.
CAN ICES-3 (B)/NMB-3(B)
TIP / PIN 2 = POSITIVE
RING / PIN 3 = NEGATIVE
SLEEVE = SIGNAL GROUND
PIN 1 = CHASSIS GROUND
CLASS 2 WIRING
DEQ 60L
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
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