Campbell Scientific SkyVUEPRO SkyVUEPRO LIDAR Ceilometer Owner Manual

Campbell Scientific SkyVUEPRO SkyVUEPRO LIDAR Ceilometer Owner Manual

Revision: 01/2020

Copyright © 2020 Campbell Scientific, Inc.

Limited warranty

“Products manufactured by CSI are warranted by CSI to be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal use and service for twelve months from the date of shipment unless otherwise specified in the corresponding product manual. (Product manuals are available for review online at www.campbellsci.com

.) Products not manufactured by CSI, but that are resold by CSI, are warranted only to the limits extended by the original manufacturer. Batteries, fine-wire thermocouples, desiccant, and other consumables have no warranty. CSI’s obligation under this warranty is limited to repairing or replacing (at CSI’s option) defective Products, which shall be the sole and exclusive remedy under this warranty. The Customer assumes all costs of removing, reinstalling, and shipping defective Products to CSI. CSI will return such Products by surface carrier prepaid within the continental United States of America. To all other locations, CSI will return such Products best way CIP (port of entry) per Incoterms ® 2010. This warranty shall not apply to any Products which have been subjected to modification, misuse, neglect, improper service, accidents of nature, or shipping damage. This warranty is in lieu of all other warranties, expressed or implied. The warranty for installation services performed by CSI such as programming to customer specifications, electrical connections to Products manufactured by CSI, and Product specific training, is part of CSI's product warranty. CSI EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS AND EXCLUDES ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. CSI hereby disclaims, to the fullest extent allowed by applicable law, any and all warranties and conditions with respect to the Products, whether express, implied or statutory, other than those expressly provided herein.”

Assistance

Products may not be returned without prior authorization. The following contact information is for US and international customers residing in countries served by Campbell Scientific, Inc.

directly. Affiliate companies handle repairs for customers within their territories. Please visit www.campbellsci.com

to determine which Campbell Scientific company serves your country.

To obtain a Returned Materials Authorization (RMA) number, contact CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC., phone (435) 227-9000. Please write the issued RMA number clearly on the outside of the shipping container. Campbell Scientific’s shipping address is: CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC, INC.

RMA#_____ 815 West 1800 North Logan, Utah 84321-1784 For all returns, the customer must fill out a “Statement of Product Cleanliness and Decontamination” form and comply with the requirements specified in it. The form is available from our website at www.campbellsci.com/repair . A completed form must be either emailed to repair@campbellsci.com

or faxed to (435) 227-9106. Campbell Scientific is unable to process any returns until we receive this form. If the form is not received within three days of product receipt or is incomplete, the product will be returned to the customer at the customer’s expense.

Campbell Scientific reserves the right to refuse service on products that were exposed to contaminants that may cause health or safety concerns for our employees.

Safety

DANGER — MANY HAZARDS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INSTALLING, USING, MAINTAINING, AND WORKING ON OR AROUND TRIPODS, TOWERS, AND ANY ATTACHMENTS TO TRIPODS AND TOWERS SUCH AS SENSORS, CROSSARMS, ENCLOSURES, ANTENNAS, ETC. FAILURE TO PROPERLY AND COMPLETELY ASSEMBLE, INSTALL, OPERATE, USE, AND MAINTAIN TRIPODS, TOWERS, AND ATTACHMENTS, AND FAILURE TO HEED WARNINGS, INCREASES THE RISK OF DEATH, ACCIDENT, SERIOUS INJURY, PROPERTY DAMAGE, AND PRODUCT FAILURE.

TAKE ALL REASONABLE PRECAUTIONS TO AVOID THESE HAZARDS. CHECK WITH YOUR ORGANIZATION'S SAFETY COORDINATOR (OR POLICY) FOR PROCEDURES AND REQUIRED PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT PRIOR TO PERFORMING ANY WORK.

Use tripods, towers, and attachments to tripods and towers only for purposes for which they are designed. Do not exceed design limits. Be familiar and comply with all instructions provided in product manuals. Manuals are available at www.campbellsci.com or by telephoning (435) 227-9000 (USA). You are responsible for conformance with governing codes and regulations, including safety regulations, and the integrity and location of structures or land to which towers, tripods, and any attachments are attached. Installation sites should be evaluated and approved by a qualified engineer. If questions or concerns arise regarding installation, use, or maintenance of tripods, towers, attachments, or electrical connections, consult with a licensed and qualified engineer or electrician.

General l Prior to performing site or installation work, obtain required approvals and permits. Comply with all governing structure-height regulations, such as those of the FAA in the USA.

l Use only qualified personnel for installation, use, and maintenance of tripods and towers, and any attachments to tripods and towers. The use of licensed and qualified contractors is highly recommended.

l Read all applicable instructions carefully and understand procedures thoroughly before beginning work.

l Wear a hardhat and eye protection, and take other appropriate safety precautions while working on or around tripods and towers.

l Do not climb tripods or towers at any time, and prohibit climbing by other persons. Take reasonable precautions to secure tripod and tower sites from trespassers.

l Use only manufacturer recommended parts, materials, and tools.

Utility and Electrical l You can be killed or sustain serious bodily injury if the tripod, tower, or attachments you are installing, constructing, using, or maintaining, or a tool, stake, or anchor, come in contact with overhead or underground utility lines.

l Maintain a distance of at least one-and-one-half times structure height, 20 feet, or the distance required by applicable law, whichever is greater, between overhead utility lines and the structure (tripod, tower, attachments, or tools).

l Prior to performing site or installation work, inform all utility companies and have all underground utilities marked.

l Comply with all electrical codes. Electrical equipment and related grounding devices should be installed by a licensed and qualified electrician.

Elevated Work and Weather l Exercise extreme caution when performing elevated work.

l Use appropriate equipment and safety practices.

l During installation and maintenance, keep tower and tripod sites clear of un-trained or non-essential personnel. Take precautions to prevent elevated tools and objects from dropping.

l Do not perform any work in inclement weather, including wind, rain, snow, lightning, etc.

Maintenance l Periodically (at least yearly) check for wear and damage, including corrosion, stress cracks, frayed cables, loose cable clamps, cable tightness, etc. and take necessary corrective actions.

l Periodically (at least yearly) check electrical ground connections.

WHILE EVERY ATTEMPT IS MADE TO EMBODY THE HIGHEST DEGREE OF SAFETY IN ALL CAMPBELL SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTS, THE CUSTOMER ASSUMES ALL RISK FROM ANY INJURY RESULTING FROM IMPROPER INSTALLATION, USE, OR MAINTENANCE OF TRIPODS, TOWERS, OR ATTACHMENTS TO TRIPODS AND TOWERS SUCH AS SENSORS, CROSSARMS, ENCLOSURES, ANTENNAS, ETC.

Table of contents

1. General information

1.1 Packing list 1.2 General safety

1.3 Sensor unit safety 1.4 Laser safety

1.5 Electrical safety

2. Product overview

2.1 Introduction

2.1.1 Cloud height detection 2.1.2 Sky condition

2.1.3 Backscatter profile reporting 2.1.4 Mixing layer height

2.2 Optical measurement 2.2.1 Optical arrangement 2.3 Internal monitoring

2.4 Specifications 2.4.1 Measurement specifications 2.4.2 Mechanical specifications

2.4.3 Electrical specifications

2.4.4 Optical specifications 2.4.5 Environmental specifications 2.4.6 Communications specifications

3. Initial preparation and checks

4. Installation

4.1 Location and orientation

4.2 Grounding 4.3 Mounting the SkyVUE PRO

4.4 Tilt angle

4.5 Connectors and wiring

4.5.1 Base connectors

4.5.2 Wiring using supplied Campbell Scientific cables

Table of Contents - iv

13

14

14

15 15

16

17

18

19

1

2 2

1 1

3

4

9 9

10

12 12 12

5

6 6

7 7

8 8 8

9

4.5.2.1 Power connections

4.5.2.2 Communications connections

4.5.3 USB connection 4.5.4 SDI-12 connection 4.6 Connecting the back-up battery

4.6.1 Removing the cover 4.6.2 Removing the enclosure lid

4.7 Bird spike kit

4.8 Storage information

5. Operation

5.1 Terminal mode 5.1.1 Entering/exiting the SkyVUE PRO terminal mode

5.1.2 Terminal mode commands general

5.1.3 Terminal mode command examples

5.1.4 Application command message types

5.1.5 MCFG command message types

5.1.6 Measurement and message intervals

5.1.7 Status command

5.1.8 Message polling

5.1.9 Loading a new operating system (OS)

5.1.10 Stratocumulus backscatter calibration

5.1.11 CRC-16 codes on terminal commands 5.1.12 Service command

5.1.13 Locked features 5.2 Restoring factory defaults

5.3 LED indicator

6. Messages

6.1 Data messages general 6.2 Checksums used in SkyVUE PRO messages

6.3 CS messages 6.3.1 MESSAGE 001 (no profile, no sky condition)

6.3.2 MESSAGE 002 (Profile, no sky condition)

6.3.3 MESSAGE 003 (no profile, sky condition)

6.3.4 MESSAGE 004 (profile, sky condition) — default message

6.3.5 MESSAGE 005 (no profile, sky condition, mixing layer heights)

Table of Contents - v

68

68 68

69 69

73

76

78

82

20

21

22 22 22

23 23

24

26

27

27 27

28

29

44

46

47

64 64

66 66

67

49

58

59

62

6.3.6 MESSAGE 006 (profile, sky condition, mixing layer heights)

6.4 CL31 messages 6.4.1 MESSAGES 101 - 106, (CL31 MESSAGE 1)

6.4.2 MESSAGE 005 (no profile, sky condition, mixing layer heights)

6.4.3 MESSAGES 107 - 112, CL31 Message 2

6.5 CT25K messages 6.5.1 MESSAGE 113, CT25K Data Message No. 1

6.5.2 MESSAGE 114, CT25K Data Message No. 6

7. Maintenance

7.1 General 7.2 Cleaning

7.3 Removing the cover

7.4 Removing the enclosure lid 7.5 Diagnostic LED indicators within the enclosure

7.6 Electrical safety testing

Appendix A. Measurement of the attenuated backscatter profile

A.1 Initial measurement A.2 Backscatter onset height detection

A.3 Produce attenuated backscatter output message

Appendix B. Cloud height calculation

Appendix C. Sky condition algorithm description

Appendix D. Replacing the SkyVUE PRO PSU

Appendix E. SkyVUE PRO Laser/APD module replacement

Appendix F. SkyVUE PRO TOP board replacement

Campbell Scientific regional offices

List of figures

FIGURE 2-1. Principle of operation

FIGURE 2-2. SkyVUE PRO dimensions

FIGURE 2-3. PSU types

FIGURE 4-1. Mounting base footprint

FIGURE 4-2. Setting the tilt angle

FIGURE 4-3. Connector layout

FIGURE 4-4. Cable connections

Table of Contents - vi

8

10

11

16

17

18

21

85

89 89

90

94

98 98

101

103

103 103

104

105 105

107

108

108 108

109

110

111

113

115

118

124

FIGURE 4-5. USB port FIGURE 4-6. Connecting battery

FIGURE 4-7. Removing the cover

FIGURE 4-8. Removing the enclosure lid

FIGURE 4-9. Ceilometer bird spike kit installed FIGURE 4-10. Preparing the SkyVUE PRO for installing the bird spikes

FIGURE 4-11. Attaching bird spikes to the SkyVUE PRO cowl

FIGURE 5-1. Restoring factory defaults FIGURE 5-2. LED indicator

FIGURE 7-1. Removing the cover

FIGURE 7-2. Removing the enclosure lid

FIGURE 7-3. Diagnostic LED indicators

List of tables

Table 1-1: Packing list

Table 4-1: Function of the connector pins for the mains connector

Table 4-2: Function of the connector pins for the blower/heater connector Table 4-3: Function of the connector pins for the communications connector

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available

Table 5-2: Summary of applications and applied settings for SkyVUE PRO

Table 5-3: Summary of message ID and descriptions

Table 6-1: Most significant alarm word for CS messages

Table 6-2: Middle alarm word for CS messages

Table 6-3: Least significant alarm word for CS messages

Table 6-4: Most significant alarm word for CS31 messages

Table 6-5: Middle alarm word for CS31 messages Table 6-6: Least significant alarm word for CS31 messages

Table 6-7: Most significant alarm word for CT25K messages

Table 6-8: Second alarm word for CT25K messages

22 22

23

24

25 25

26

67 67

104

105

106

30

45

46

70

1

18

19 19

71

72

91

92 92

99

100

Table of Contents - vii

1. General information

1.1 Packing list 1.2 General safety

1.3 Sensor unit safety 1.4 Laser safety

1.5 Electrical safety

1.1 Packing list

The following table lists the products shipped with the SkyVUE PRO.

Table 1-1: Packing list Description Ceilometer Power supply cable Data cable Bolt, sleeve anchor Cable, USB type A plug to type B plug, 2 m Quantity 1 1 1 4 1 4 mm Allen key Calibration plate 1 1

1 1

2 2

3

1.2 General safety

This manual provides important safety considerations for the installation, operation and maintenance of the SkyVUE™PRO. These safety considerations are classified into three levels: WARNING: Warnings alert the installer or user to serious hazards. Ignoring these warnings could result in injury or death and/or irrevocable damage to the sensor unit.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 1

CAUTION: Cautions warn of potential hazards. Ignoring these cautions could result in the sensor being damaged and data being lost.

NOTE: Notes highlight useful information in the installation, use and maintenance of this product.

These should be followed carefully in order to gain the maximum benefit from the use of this product.

1.3 Sensor unit safety

The SkyVUE PRO sensor has been checked for safety before leaving the factory and contains no internally replaceable or modifiable parts.

WARNING: Do not modify the SkyVUE PRO unit. Such modifications will lead to damage of the unit and could expose users to dangerous light levels and voltages.

WARNING: Do not attempt to repair the SkyVUE PRO unit without consulting Campbell Scientific.

CAUTION: Ensure that the correct voltage supply is provided to the sensor.

1.4 Laser safety

The SkyVUE PRO sensor incorporates an InGaAs laser diode which is rated as a class 3B device.

This is an embedded laser where the output from the sensor unit, through the optics, is minimized to class 1M. This classification indicates that viewing of the beam with the naked eye is safe but looking directly into the beam with optical instruments, e.g. binoculars can be dangerous.

From the laser head the output has the following characteristics: Maximum average power: 15.0 mW (through 50 mm) Maximum pulse energy: 1500 nJ (through 50 mm) Pulse duration: 100 ns Pulse frequency: 10 kHz Wavelength: 912 nm ± 5 nm SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 2

Tested to: EN 60825-1:2014 Half angle divergence: 0.44 mrad The sensor is marked with the following warning information: INVISIBLE LASER RADIATION DO NOT VIEW DIRECTLY WITH OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS CLASS 1M LASER PRODUCT WARNING: Removing the laser module with the power applied to the SkyVUE PRO may expose the user to hazardous class 3B laser radiation.

No attempt should be made to operate the laser module outside of the housing.

WARNING: Annually, check that the laser warning label on the sensor is still visible and can be clearly read.

When installing the sensor, avoid pointing the laser housing towards areas where binoculars are in common use.

WARNING: Use of controls or adjustments or performance of procedures other than those specified herein may result in hazardous radiation exposure.

1.5 Electrical safety

Because the sensor is powered from potentially hazardous mains voltages, the power-supply should be wired only by personnel qualified to install electrical equipment. For permanent outside installations, this usually requires a certified electrician who is also familiar with local electrical and safety legislation. Some general guidance is given in

Connectors and wiring (p. 17),

but the responsibility for the installation lies with the installer.

The unit is tested for electrical safety before dispatch but may need subsequent testing according to local practice.

NOTE: The unit should only be serviced by trained personnel.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 3

WARNING: Removal of electronic module covers or connectors while the unit is powered will expose the operator to potentially hazardous voltages and risk damage to the sensor.

The SkyVUE PRO has electrical and laser warning labels on the exterior and interior of the unit.

It is recommended that the hood and access panel door are not opened in conditions of rain, hail or snow.

Isolate the sensor before removing internal components, including the cover to the avalanche photodiode (APD) module. Only trained personnel should disassemble the instrument.

Mains connectors are shrouded to prevent touching of the contacts. The mains supply should be isolated when connecting and disconnecting the cables to the sensor.

Where an isolator switch is fitted, this shall be a two-pole isolator, located as near to the sensor as possible.

The SkyVUE PRO must be properly grounded by a licensed and qualified electrician to protect against voltage leakage shock risk (

Grounding (p. 15)).

Campbell Scientific recommends that RCD protection units be used with all sensors. See

Power connections (p. 20) for further information.

Mains powered heaters are enclosed to prevent contact.

CAUTION: When powered, the heaters may operate automatically and without warning. They may remain hot when not powered. Follow the isolation precautions, to avoid shock and burn hazards.

The sealed battery has cables and protected connectors to prevent shorts. Avoid shorting the battery to protect it from damage and to avoid burns to personnel through contact with hot surfaces.

2. Product overview

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Optical measurement 2.3 Internal monitoring

2.4 Specifications

5

8 8

9

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 4

2.1 Introduction

The SkyVUE PRO is a LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) that emits short pulses of near infrared light into the atmosphere from a semiconductor laser. The pulses of infrared light are scattered back by aerosols including cloud droplets. The time between transmission of the pulse and the return signal gives the range, and therefore height, of the scattering aerosols. The variation in the strength of the back-scattered light signal with height gives a profile of scatter coefficients and allows identification of cloud bases. If significant scattering is detected without a defined cloud base, then a vertical visibility can be calculated.

The control system of the SkyVUE PRO is divided into three modules, DSP, TOP and PSU as follows: DSP (Digital Signal Processor) is the main data processing and communications unit of the SkyVUE PRO. It hosts two separate time keeping circuits that are cross checked. An alarm is triggered if the circuits disagree.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 5

TOP (top of the unit) provides safety shutdown features such as over and under laser output level. It also contains the calibration circuitry and dirty windows system.

PSU (Power Supply Unit) controls the power supply including battery charging and deep discharge protection.

The SkyVUE PRO has a rugged environmental enclosure that protects the instrument from the harshest conditions and will measure the atmosphere with high stability and repeatability.

2.1.1 Cloud height detection A scatter profile is measured as described in

Measurement of the attenuated backscatter profile (p. 108).

Cloud height detection is carried out as described in

Cloud height calculation (p. 110). Up to four

cloud heights can be detected.

If clouds are not detected, the SkyVUE PRO will give one of these reports: l No significant backscatter.

l Full obscuration determined but no cloud base detected. This is reported if the criteria for detecting cloud base is not met but the integrated scattering coefficient reaches the limit of vertical visibility below a set height limit. The default value is 2000 m (6560 ft) but can be changed by the user. The height at which this occurs is given as vertical visibility.

l Some obscuration detected but determined to be transparent is reported if scattering is detected but no cloud is detected and the calculated vertical visibility exceeds a set height limit.

If no cloud is detected but significant scattering is detected below 50 m (160 ft), then vertical visibility is set to 0.

2.1.2 Sky condition Sky condition is an assessment of cloud cover measured in units of eighths known as oktas. The number of oktas is the density of cloud in eighths of that layer. The SkyVUE PRO can report up to five layers of cloud when reporting sky condition. The algorithm used in the SkyVUE PRO follows guidance in the

ICAO 9837, Manual on Automatic Meteorological Observing Systems at Aerodromes

.

Sky condition is not an instantaneous measurement. It is based on cloud data for the previous 30 minutes, with cloud detection in the previous 10 minutes given an extra weighting. Therefore, sky condition is not available until sufficient data has been collected. See

Sky condition algorithm description (p. 111) for more detail.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 6

2.1.3 Backscatter profile reporting Several possible data messages give the two-way attenuated backscatter profile. This consists of 2048 groups of five-character values (10,240 characters in total). Each character is 4 bits long and therefore each 5 figure group is 20 bits. They are given as signed two complement integers and numbers greater than 2 19 –1 represent negative integers.

Therefore, each group actually represents negative, a value between –2 19 to +(2 19 –1), rather than 0 to (2 20 –1), which would be the case for unsigned, positive, 20-bit integers.

Apply the following two-stage process to correct the decimal value: 1. Convert the hexidecimal characters to a decimal number.

2. If the number resulting from this conversion is greater than 524287, subtract 1048576, which is 2 20 .

To use this backscatter coefficient in units of sr -1 m -1 , the sensor multiplies the calculated decimal number by a factor of 10 -8 . The values are scaled by the Attenuated_SCALE parameter, see

Table 5-1 (p. 30).

NOTE: The last two values of the profile will always be zero. They are beyond the 10 km (32,800 ft) range of the instrument.

NOTE: The profile is not corrected for tilt angle even if cloud heights are corrected.

2.1.4 Mixing layer height A Mixing Layer Height measurement option is available. This retrieves the height of the mixed aerosol layer by applying the gradient method to the ceilometer backscatter signal. This approach, based on the operational algorithm used by KNMI, searches for the drop in backscatter associated with the transition from boundary layer aerosols to free troposphere. Since the signals measured depend on the type and amount of aerosol present as well as the background light level, the accuracy of the method varies, and therefore a quality factor is assigned that indicates the confidence in the reported layer height. The module is also capable of indicating the top of residual layers and aerosol layers aloft. To activate this option please contact Campbell Scientific.

This is a guide to how well the mixing layer is defined on a scale 1 to 3 (3 is best). It is determined by the magnitude of the difference between the average backscatter over a distance below the MLH and the average backscatter over a distance above the MLH.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 7

Haij, M.J. de, H. Klein Baltink and W.M.F. Wauben: Continuous mixing layer height determination using the LD-40 ceilometer: a feasibility study, Scientific Report WR 2007-01, KNMI, De Bilt, 2007."

2.2 Optical measurement

FIGURE 2-1. Principle of operation

2.2.1 Optical arrangement The SkyVUE PRO uses a single split lens design that increases optical signal-to-noise ratio, while maintaining Class 1M eye safety by integrating larger optics into a compact package (see

FIGURE 2-1 (p. 8)). Half of the lens is used by the transmitter, and the other half is used by the receiver.

This design provides an alternative to traditional two lens or common-optics designs. The optical isolation of traditional biaxial systems is maintained to increase detector sensitivity, while the low overlap onset height of common-optics systems is incorporated to allow measurements at close ranges.

2.3 Internal monitoring

The SkyVUE PRO monitors window contamination, key voltages and currents, internal temperature and relative humidity, and other parameters relevant to its performance. Data SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 8

messages (see

Operation (p. 27)) include this information allowing remote diagnosis of the

SkyVUE PRO condition. In addition, a special status message can be polled.

2.4 Specifications

2.4.1 Measurement specifications 2.4.2 Mechanical specifications

2.4.3 Electrical specifications

2.4.4 Optical specifications 2.4.5 Environmental specifications 2.4.6 Communications specifications

2.4.1 Measurement specifications Maximum reporting range: 10 km (32800 ft) Minimum reporting resolution: Hard target range accuracy: Reporting cycle: Cloud layers reported: 5 m (15 ft) ± 0.25% ± 4.6 m (15 ft) 2 to 600 s Up to four layers reported 2.4.2 Mechanical specifications Height: 1000 mm (39.3 in) Width: Depth: Total weight: Shipping weight: 327 mm (12.8 in) 281 mm (11 in) 33 kg (72 lb), excluding cables 58 kg (128 lb)

9 9

10

12 12 12

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 9

FIGURE 2-2. SkyVUE PRO dimensions

2.4.3 Electrical specifications Power required: Nominal 115 VAC (106 to 137 VAC) or nominal 230 VAC (216 to 253 VAC) (automatic selection), 47 to 63 Hz, 470 W total maximum Heater: Hood heater: Internal heater: Supply voltage: Fuses: 270 W, maximum 120 W, maximum Specified at time of order Current models use HBC SA(T); older models used the following: AUX fuse: HBC 5A (T) SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 10

PSU fuse: HBC 500 mA (T) All fuses are 5 x 20 mm slow blow (T) and are the same for both 115 VAC and 230 VAC.

CAUTION: The fuse values used must match the design of power supply unit.

Battery: Internal 12 V, 7 Ah sealed lead-acid battery provides 2 hour measurement without the blower/heater. The power supply is equipped with a system to prevent deep discharge of the battery.

The SkyVUE PRO uses positive temperature coefficient (PTC) heaters within its design. These heaters are self-regulating, simplifying the internal design of the sensor and improving safety.

Due to the nature of these devices, the SkyVUE PRO takes a higher current during start up. The SkyVUE PRO takes up to 1 KW for the first few seconds of operation, dropping off quickly to its normal operating power after a minute. In cold environments, the power consumption of the SkyVUE PRO may be as high as 470 W. In warmer environments, it may be as low as 200 W.

The heaters are resistive, which is advantageous when connected to generators or when current consumption is important.

FIGURE 2-3. PSU types

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 11

2.4.4 Optical specifications Pulse duration: 100 ns Pulse frequency: Wavelength: Half-angle laser divergence: Field of view: Laser lifetime: 10 kHz 912 ± 5 nm 0.35 mrad 1.5 mrad 10 years typical Eye safety class: 1M 2.4.5 Environmental specifications Standard operating temperature range: –40 to 60 °C (excluding battery) Battery temperature range: Relative humidity range: IP rating: –20 to 50 °C (alternative battery types available) 0 to 100% IP 66 Maximum wind speed: 55 m/s 2.4.6 Communications specifications Supported serial settings: 8 bits, no parity, 1 stop bit (default) Supported data rates: 7 bits, even parity, 1 stop bit 7 bits, odd parity, 1 stop bit 300 baud 600 baud 1200 baud 2400 baud 4800 baud 9600 baud 19200 baud 38400 baud 57600 baud 76800 baud 115200 baud (default) Supported standards: RS-232 (default) RS-485 full duplex RS-485 half duplex SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 12

Signal voltage levels: RS-232 communications RS-232 input threshold low RS-232 input threshold high RS-232 input absolute maximum RS-232 input resistance RS-232 output voltage low RS-232 output voltage high (into 3 KΩ) Minimum value Nominal value Maximum value 0.8 V – –15 V 12 KΩ – 4.4 V 1.5 V 2.0 V – – – – – 2.4 V +15 V – 0.4 V – RS-485/422 communications RS-485/422 input threshold voltage RS-485/422 output (unloaded) RS-485/422 output (load 50 Ω) Maximum voltage at any terminal –0.2 V – 2 V –7 V USB Service Port USB1.1 and 2.0 compatible, fixed 115200 baud.

– – – – +0.2 V 5V – +7 V

3. Initial preparation and checks

The following steps will provide basic familiarization with the SkyVUE PRO and perform basic functionality checks. To do these, remove the cover and enclosure lid and connect the battery (see

Connecting the back-up battery (p. 22)). Connect the hood heater plug (

FIGURE 4-3 (p. 18)

WARNING: The laser begins operating as soon as the battery is connected. Do not point the laser in any direction where it could be viewed with magnifying optics.

The green LED visible from above should flash once every 10 seconds (see

FIGURE 5-2 (p. 67)).

Connect the SkyVUE PRO USB port (see

FIGURE 4-5 (p. 22)) to a computer and use a terminal

emulation program to set to 115200 baud, 8N1 bits/parity settings.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 13

The computer should identify the USB connection and allocate a port number. Enter the port setting in the terminal emulator program. Older computer operating systems may need upgrading or additional software.

The SkyVUE PRO will output message type 004 (default) every 30 seconds (see

CS messages (p.

69)).

Use the open 0 command to open the terminal mode. You should now see the prompt CS135>.

Type Status to see the sensor status information described in

Status command (p. 49). If using

date/time information, checked it since the date/time can drift up to ±14 seconds per day.

If the unit has been in storage or transit for more than a few months, the clock battery may be discharged. However, it will charge from the back-up battery or mains power.

Use the Close command to exit the terminal mode. It will close automatically after 10 minutes of inactivity.

If you are not installing the unit and connecting mains power, you should disconnect the battery to avoid it being discharged.

4. Installation

4.1 Location and orientation

4.2 Grounding 4.3 Mounting the SkyVUE PRO

4.4 Tilt angle

4.5 Connectors and wiring

4.6 Connecting the back-up battery

4.7 Bird spike kit

4.8 Storage information

14

15 15

16

17

22

24

26

4.1 Location and orientation

The SkyVUE PRO measures environmental variables and is designed to be located in harsh weather conditions. However, there are a few considerations to take into account if accurate and representative data from a site are to be obtained.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 14

To reduce the service frequency with the unit, place the SkyVUE PRO away from sources of contamination. More regular maintenance will be required when the instrument is placed in areas where contamination is unavoidable or where measurements may be safety related.

Take care that the orientation allows tilting in whatever direction is desired.

WARNING: If installing at an airport, check and follow local guidance for allowed locations for a non frangible object 1 m (3.2 ft) tall. Please contact Campbell Scientific if frangible fittings are required.

4.2 Grounding

The SkyVUE PRO must be properly grounded by taking a ground wire with a minimum cross sectional area of 16 mm 2 (0.62 in) and maximum length of 10 m (32.8 ft) from the brass grounding boss to an adequate grounding point.

FIGURE 2-2 (p. 10) shows the location of the

grounding boss.

4.3 Mounting the SkyVUE PRO

Mount the SkyVUE PRO by bolting to a firm, level foundation. When bolting down, ensure the SkyVUE PRO can tilt in all desired directions.

FIGURE 4-1 (p. 16) shows the mounting footprint. If

a suitable surface does not already exist, construct a concrete foundation, at least 600 mm (23.6 in) square and 600 mm (23.6 in) deep, by using the following procedure: 1. Drill four 12 mm (0.47 in) diameter holes using the mount base as a template (see

FIGURE 4-1 (p. 16)) to a depth of 77 mm (3.03 in).

2. Clean the holes of all debris.

3. Place washers and nuts on the ends of the wedge anchors supplied (to protect the threads during installation).

4. Hammer the wedge anchors into the holes until the start of the threads are below the surface.

5. Tighten the nuts until about 25 mm (0.98 in) of thread protrudes above the surface.

6. Remove the washers and nuts from the protruding length screw, then lower the SkyVUE PRO into place.

7. Secure the SkyVUE PRO with the washers and nuts.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 15

8. If the surface is not level and flat, add washers under the base on one or more of the foundation screws.

FIGURE 4-1. Mounting base footprint

4.4 Tilt angle

The SkyVUE PRO can be tilted 6°, 12°, 18° or 24° from vertical. In tropical regions, tilting the sensor north in the northern hemisphere and south in the southern hemisphere can prevent the sun from shining directly into the sensor. The tilt angle also can reduce problems caused by direct specular reflections from ice crystals, and prevent rain or snow from falling onto the window. To adjust the tilt angle, remove the bolts shown in

FIGURE 4-2 (p. 17), move the SkyVUE

PRO to the required tilt angle, and replace the bolts.

The SkyVUE PRO has tilt sensors in both axes to compensate the cloud height when the base is not level. Set or disable cloud height compensation by using the UNITS command (

Terminal mode command examples (p. 29)). This feature is useful for mobile or marine applications.

Profile data is NOT compensated but tilt angles are included in data messages.

NOTE: Increasing the tilt angle beyond 24° can cause significant errors in vertical visibility measurements if scatter coefficients vary significantly with height.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 16

FIGURE 4-2. Setting the tilt angle

4.5 Connectors and wiring

4.5.1 Base connectors

4.5.2 Wiring using supplied Campbell Scientific cables

4.5.3 USB connection 4.5.4 SDI-12 connection

18

19

22 22

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 17

4.5.1 Base connectors The SkyVUE PRO has three connectors on its base. One connector is for communications; another connector provides power to the unit and the last connector takes power from the unit to the hood heater and blower.

NOTE: Tilting the unit provides better access to these connectors.

FIGURE 4-3. Connector layout

The function of the connector pins is shown in

Table 4-1 (p. 18),

Table 4-2 (p. 19), and Table 4-3 (p. 19).

Table 4-1: Function of the connector pins for the mains connector Pin Function Color of supplied cable cores 1 2 Live Not connected Brown NA 3 4 Neutral Earth Blue Green/yellow SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 18

Table 4-2: Function of the connector pins for the blower/heater connector Pin Function Color of supplied cable cores 1 Neutral Black (1) 4 5 2 3 Fan + 12 VDC Thermistor Thermistor (0 V) Switched 230/115 AC live Black (2) Black (3) Black (4) Black (5) 6 E Fan on Earth Black (6) Green/yellow Table 4-3: Function of the connector pins for the communications connector Pin on connector on SkyVUE PRO Color of supplied cable cores 9-pin D connector RS-232 RS-485 half duplex 1 2 Red Yellow 8 7 B/D+ RS-485 full duplex/ RS-422 Y/TXD non-inverting B/RXD non-inverting 3 4 Green Black 5 Gnd Gnd 5 6 White Blue 2 3 RXD TXD A/D– Gnd Z/TXD inverting A/RXD inverting E Screen 4.5.2 Wiring using supplied Campbell Scientific cables Two cables are supplied, each 10 m (32.8 ft) long. One is for the mains power supply and the other is for communications.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 19

WARNING: Incorrectly wiring the power cable can cause irrevocable damage to the unit and can cause serious injury or death.

WARNING: The power cable must not be carrying mains voltage when it is being connected or disconnected.

4.5.2.1 Power connections The following is a guide for wiring and installing a permanent power supply.

As the sensor is used outside, a qualified electrician should install the power cables. Please check local safety regulations.

Ensure that the termination type, cable type, and cable run of the mains power source complies with local regulations and fits the installationrequirements.

The power source needs to provide the correct voltage, frequency, and current in excess of the power requirement of the system.

Voltage requirements: 106 to 137 VAC or 216 to 253 VAC (check power supply switch and fuses match the nominal 115/230V AC supply) Current requirements: 5 A Input frequency: 47 to 63 Hz The power source needs fuses with ratings of 5 A or larger and a slow-blow design. Cable extensions or replacement cables should be capable of carrying current in excess of that fuse rating.

Include a two-pole isolator as close to the sensor as is possible.

The power cable needs three conductors (live, neutral, and a protective earth), normally with IEC wiring colors to match those used.

The equipment requires the connection of earth ground using the earth wire of the power connector/cable or via the earth stud on the sensor base. Ensure the earth connection at the power source is suitable for this purpose.

This equipment also requires correct connection of the live and neutral conductors — make sure these are identified and wired correctly at the power source.

Normally, fit the power source with its own or system wide earth leakage breaker (also known as an RCD).

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 20

For short term testing of the sensor, fit the power cable with a suitable plug can be fitted to the end of the power cable and the sensor plugged into a standard mains supply capable of providing 5 A at the rated voltage. If this is done, the earth wire of the sensor must be connected to a suitable protective earth point.

For DC operation, the SkyVUE PRO requires a 10 to 40 VDC supply capable of 1 A at 12 VDC or 0.5 A at 24 VDC.

4.5.2.2 Communications connections The communications cable terminates at one end with a removable 9-pin, D-connector (DB9).

The D-connector connects directly to a computer or data logger such as the Campbell Scientific CR1000X using a suitable interconnecting cable such as the SC110.

FIGURE 4-4 (p. 21). The

connector can easily be removed for direct connection to screw terminals.

See www.campbellsci.com/downloads/skyvue-example-programs for CRBasic programs that connect the SkyVUE PRO to a Campbell Scientific data logger.

CAUTION: The supplied cable is not recommended for lengths greater than 10 m (32.8 ft). Longer RS-485 cables should incorporate twisted pairs. Contact Campbell Scientific if needing longer cable lengths.

FIGURE 4-4. Cable connections

Tilting the unit (

FIGURE 4-2 (p. 17)) will make wiring easier.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 21

4.5.3 USB connection The USB port provided inside the enclosure is for on-site maintenance. It supports communication of commands to the SkyVUE PRO and responses in the same form as the main serial port, except the baud rate is fixed at 115200 (see

FIGURE 4-5 (p. 22)).

FIGURE 4-5. USB port

4.5.4 SDI-12 connection An SDI-12 port is present but is only used for factory setting of the instrument.

4.6 Connecting the back-up battery

The SkyVUE PRO is shipped with the back-up battery disconnected and includes desiccant used for transport. Before using the unit, remove the cover and enclosure lid, connect the internal battery (

FIGURE 4-6 (p. 22), remove the desiccant, and replace the cover and enclosure lid.

FIGURE 4-6. Connecting battery

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 22

4.6.1 Removing the cover 1. Remove four screws (

FIGURE 4-7 (p. 23)).

FIGURE 4-7. Removing the cover

2. Lift the cover off the base.

CAUTION: The cover contains a flying lead used to take power to the hood heater and blower. Be careful not to trap and damage this when lifting the cover clear.

4.6.2 Removing the enclosure lid 1. Remove the four screws (

FIGURE 4-8 (p. 24))

2. Pull the enclosure lid away from the electronic unit.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 23

FIGURE 4-8. Removing the enclosure lid

WARNING: Opening the access door MUST be carried out by a competent person, who has sufficient training, experience and knowledge both in electrical safety and the detail and operation of the sensor.

WARNING: Removing the enclosure lid may expose hot surfaces.

4.7 Bird spike kit

The optional bird spike kit deters birds from sitting on the SkyVUE PRO. It includes four stainless steel spikes with rounded ends and a small reel of stainless-steel wire. The following figure shows installed bird spikes.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 24

FIGURE 4-9. Ceilometer bird spike kit installed

To install the bird spikes, remove the cowl and blanking plugs from the cowl (

FIGURE 4-10 (p.

25). If the SkyVUE PRO is an older unit without pre-existing holes, then drill four holes each

4.5 mm (0.17 in) diameter, evenly spaced around the aperture and 10 mm (0.39 in) in from the edge. For each hole, place a nut and washer then thread the spike into the hole. Tighten the nuts and washers (see

FIGURE 4-11 (p. 26)). Replace the cowl on the SkyVUE PRO.

FIGURE 4-10. Preparing the SkyVUE PRO for installing the bird spikes

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 25

FIGURE 4-11. Attaching bird spikes to the SkyVUE PRO cowl

Wrap the stainless steel wire around each spike using the grooves in the spike then wrap it back on itself.

CAUTION: Do not tighten the wire too much as it may pull the spikes inwards and obscure the field of view of the SkyVUE PRO optics.

Only use one strand of wire to reduce the possibility of water drops being collected.

Check the wire during maintenance and replace if necessary.

4.8 Storage information

Store the SkyVUE PRO in a dry place at –40 to 70 °C, preferably with the enclosures securely fastened. Protect the optics from possible accidental damage. Disconnect the back-up battery when storing the SkyVUE PRO.

NOTE: If the battery remains connected during storage, the unit will be powered until the battery voltage falls below a shut-down threshold.

NOTE: Storing the SkyVUE PRO below 0.0 °C will increase the start-up time by up to ten minutes. At –20 °C, the SkyVUE PRO will not achieve full accuracy for an hour.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 26

NOTE: Remove the battery if the SkyVUE PRO is to be stored outside the –20 to 50 °C temperature range.

5. Operation

5.1 Terminal mode

5.2 Restoring factory defaults

5.3 LED indicator

27

66

67

5.1 Terminal mode

5.1.1 Entering/exiting the SkyVUE PRO terminal mode

5.1.2 Terminal mode commands general

5.1.3 Terminal mode command examples

5.1.4 Application command message types

5.1.5 MCFG command message types

5.1.6 Measurement and message intervals

5.1.7 Status command

5.1.8 Message polling

5.1.9 Loading a new operating system (OS)

5.1.10 Stratocumulus backscatter calibration

5.1.11 CRC-16 codes on terminal commands 5.1.12 Service command

5.1.13 Locked features

5.1.1 Entering/exiting the SkyVUE PRO terminal mode Use the OPEN Sensor_ID Password command to enter the menu system. The menu will time out and close automatically if not used for ten minutes.

Sensor_ID is the SkyVUE PRO identification, a single character 0-9, a-f, A-F case sensitive.

Default is 0. Enter the password if using one. The following text should be displayed:

27

28

29

44

46

47

49

58

59

62

64 64

66

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 27

CS135>. The SkyVUE PRO is now ready for terminal mode commands.

The SkyVUE PRO commands are not case sensitive, but the parameters and password are case sensitive.

Example of the open command followed by the 0 parameter: OPEN 0 Example of the open command with the password Secret : OPEN 0 Secret 5.1.2 Terminal mode commands general

Table 5-1 (p. 30) provides a summary of the terminal mode commands.

To send commands that setup and control the SkyVUE PRO, use the terminal interface, data logger, or terminal emulators built into many Campbell Scientific software products.

NOTE: To load an operating system (OS), you need a terminal emulator with XMODEM protocol such as Tera Term.

Use the following settings: Setting Baud rate Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control RS-232/422/485 interface (default) USB service port RS-232 handshaking 115200 8 none 1 none 115200 8 none 1 none The baud rate of the SkyVUE PRO must match the port setting baud rate in the terminal emulator. The SkyVUE PRO should now be ready to accept commands.

NOTE: Commands will always output all parameters on a new line after a CR LF (carriage return and line feed) and then the SkyVUE PRO prompt CS135>. If you only want to see parameter values without changing them, then enter the command without parameters. If a particular parameter did not need changing, then the parameter can be replaced with a comma (,).

Back space will abort the command.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 28

5.1.3 Terminal mode command examples How to enter a command Example 1 The following text shows an example of setting up the SkyVUE PRO serial port. This example sets the serial port to RS-232 hand shaking at 115200 bps, 8 data bits, no parity and if it was in RS-485 mode, then a 100 ms turn around delay.

serial 0 10 0 100 You could also type the following to obtain the same results as the RS-485 turn around delay is not needed: serial 0 10 0 To change only the data baud rate, you can replace mode parameter, with a comma (,) as shown below.

serial , 10 Alternatively if you just wished to change the parity to 8-bits no parity, then type the following: serial , , 0 You do not need to replace the remaining parameters with a comma (,); you only need to replace the ones up to the parameter you wish to edit.

NOTE: Leave a space character between the command and the parameters as shown in the examples.

Example 2 Entering the MCFG command, as shown below, will set the sensor to send messages at 10 second intervals and to send one message only with the message number 112.

MCFG 10 112 0 0 0 0 (return) The four zeros indicate that no other message outputs have been set. The MCFG command is described in

Table 5-1 (p. 30).

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 29

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command ALARMS Parameter/ parameter block Angle Description Angle is the threshold tilt angle of the sensor beyond which an alarm will be flagged. The settable range is 0 to 90.0 degrees tilt and the default is 45.0 degrees.

APPLICATION Application_n Application_n selects pre-configured user settings optimized for a specific application. For the following values of n: 0 = Help 10 = Aviation 20 = Research 40 = Meteorology BS (see

Measurement and message intervals (p. 47)

for more information on compatibility of different parameters) Attenuated_ SCALE ,  BS_Av_Time , Noise_Gate , Measurement_ Period , Rolling_ Average , Message_ Interval BS_Temporal_ Filter_Mode 225 = User defaults The default application for the SkyVUE PRO is 40, Meteorology. Settings adjusted by the APPLICATION command include settings in BS , MCFG , and UNITS .

Rules for BS command are: BS_Av_Time <= Measurement_Period-1s .

Message_Interval must be a multiple of Measurement_Period .

Attenuated_SCALE is the scalar for the attenuated backscatter percent. 0.001 to 1000% (default 100%) BS_Av_Time is the backscatter average time in seconds. 1 to 30 (default 2).

Note: Must not be greater than Measurement_ Period – 1.0

Noise_Gate controls the noise threshold applied to back-scatter.

Noise_Gate = -1000, all backscatter range is corrected.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 30

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description Noise_Gate = 0.0 to 1000.0, standard deviation (default 2) for noise threshold. Only backscatter above this is range corrected.

Measurement_Period = 0 or 2 to 600 seconds (default 10). If set to 0 and the SkyVUE PRO is polled, it will output the last measurement made. If between 2 and 600 seconds, the SkyVUE PRO continually outputs messages. For sky condition output, Campbell Scientific recommends setting the measurement_ Period ≤ 30 seconds. If a measurement_Period is greater than 30 seconds, the sky condition algorithm will be less able to resolve coverage for higher layers.

Note: Must be a sub multiple of Message_ Interval Rolling_Average = 1 to 29 (default 1). This is the number of measurement_periods to use in a rolling average of the backscatter.

Message_Interval is the message interval in seconds. Range is 2 to 600 seconds (default 10 s); 0 gives polled messages.

Note: Must be a multiple of Measurement_ Period BS_Temporal_ Filter_Mode allows the selection of backscatter filtering modes.

0 = Averaging CLOSE CLOUDMODE No parameters CloudMode_A 1 = Median signal processing Default setting is 1, the median mode for aviation.

Closes the terminal interface to allow normal message output and saves new settings to flash non-volatile storage.

CloudMode_A turns on a filter that reports the SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 31

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description highest cloud during precipitation to avoid precipitation from being reported as low cloud.

0 = Filter Off 1 = Filter On (default). Reports the highest cloud during precipitation DEFAULTS GETUSER No parameters Loads factory defaults Reads all user settings as a string of text. Parameters are read in the following order: user = text user volVer = user volume version OS_VER = DSP OS version PsuOsVer = PSU OS version TopOsVer = TOP OS version Id = SkyVUE PRO ID Pw = SkyVUE PRO password terminalCrc = terminal crc mode terminalTimeout = terminal timeout unitsTiltMode = units and tilt mode hoodHBMode = hood heater / fan heater mode hoodHBTestInt = hood heater / blower test interval in hours battBoost_mV = boost voltage used for battery charging mV battCharge_mA = battery charge current mA psuPresent = PSU present switch hoodHBNormSpeed = fan voltage for normal speed mV hoodHBHighSpeed = fan voltage for high speed SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 32

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description mV hoodHBLowSpeed = fan voltage for low speed mV intHMode = internal heater mode message[0] = fields for message 0 message[1] = fields for message 1 message[2] = fields for message 2 message[3] = fields for message 3 message[4] = fields for message 4 messagePeriod = output message period in seconds heightOffset = height offset meters bsAvTime = backscatter average time in seconds laserMode = laser operation mode laserPower = laser power laserHeater = laser heater mode attenuatedSCALE = attenuated backscatter scaling factor logInterval = debug logging interval measurementPeriod = measurement interval in seconds serMode = serial port mode baudSel = serial port baud rate mode dataParityStop = serial port parity mode rx2txTimeout = serial port RX to TX turnaround time snrMarginBoundary = onset of backscatter detection threshold snrMarginDetector = cloud detection threshold SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 33

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description alphaGuessEnd = cloud alpha guess at boundary alphaMin = cloud detection alpha minimum Vcld_D = cloud detection delta_Vcld_D = cloud detection vis_Av_T = cloud detection alphaGuess = visibility initial alpha guess ratioLevel = visibility ratio alphaMin = visibility alpha minimum cap = visibility cap in meters tiltLimit = tilt limit in degrees used by alarms noiseGate = attenuated backscatter noise gate mode vvLimit_percent = sky condition report vertical visibility % alphaGuessStart = cloud detection alpha guess at lowest height bin dt = mixing layer height temporal filter in minutes dr = mixing layer height range filter in meters q1threshold = mixing layer height quality threshold 1 q2threshold = mixing layer height quality threshold 2 q3threshold = mixing layer height quality threshold 3 stdWidth = mixing layer height standard deviation width meters cloudMode = cloud detector mode parameter (03072019a) SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 34

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description CRC = 4-digit character. CRC calculated from the u up to but not including the CRC using the standard CRC 16.

Note: Many parameters are not adjusted. This command allows a reliable technique for copying full settings from one SkyVUE PRO to another with the SETUSER command.

A typical response to the GETUSER command is: HEATERS Hood Internal Laser Test_interval >>>>> COPY FROM START OF NEXT LINE >>>>> user 7 007638-6da 106 510 0 , 0 10 2 0 1 14520 400 1 1000 1000 2000 0 1 0 0 0 0 10 0.000E+00 2.000E+00 1 1.000E+00 0 1.000E+00 0 10 1 0 10 0 100 4.000E+00 6.000E+00 2.000E-03 2.500E-04 1.000E+03 2.200E+01 4.800E+03 1.000E-01 9.000E-01 2.500E-04 2.000E+03 4.500E+01 2.000E+00 50 2.00E-03 3.000E+01 1.500E+02 1.800E+00 5.000E+00 1.000E+01 150 98b2 <<<<< TO START OF THIS LINE <<<<< Sets or reads heater settings as follows: Hood = 0, Hood blower and heater OFF Hood = 1, Hood blower ON and heater OFF Hood = 2, Hood blower ON and heater ON Hood = 3, Hood blower and heater AUTO (default) – (see note (1) below).

Internal = 0, Internal heater OFF Internal = 1, Internal heater ON Internal = 2, Internal heater AUTO (default) Laser = 0, laser heater off Laser = 1, laser heater on (default) Test_interval = 1 to 168 hours (default 24 hours). Heater/Blower test interval SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 35

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description HELP No parameters HOFFSET Height_offset Calls up a list of user commands with brief descriptions Height_offset is the offset to be added or subtracted in the range of ±1000 m (±3281 ft). Positive values are added to measured height and negative values are subtracted from measured height. The default is 0.

ID Sensor_ID Reads or sets the sensor ID, a single character, 0-9, a z or A - Z, case sensitive. Default ID = 0.

Note: Lower case letters are not allowed if using a CT25K message.

LASER Laser Laser_Power Laser laser on) = 0, laser off after power up (user must switch Laser = 1, laser on after power up (default) Laser_Power = 20% to 100%, default 100% LASEROFF No parameters LASERON LOADOS No parameters Module Instructs the SkyVUE PRO to turn the laser off until either a power cycle or the sensor is instructed to turn the laser back on.

Instructs the SkyVUE PRO to try and turn the laser on Loads new operating system into modules as follows: Module =1, DSP.

Note: Operating systems earlier than 4 will need the boot loader updating. Refer to

Loading a new operating system (OS) (p. 59) for more information.

Module =2 Module =3, PSU Module =4, DSP, TOP, and PSU as one file. Only supported from operating system.

MCFG Message_ Interval Set or read message configuration SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 36

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description MLH (if available) Message_ID_A Message_ID_B Message_ID_C Message_ID_D Message_ID_E Message_Interval is the message interval in seconds. Range is 2 to 600 s (default 10); 0 gives polled messages.

Note: This command may affect measurement parameters within the BS command. See

Measurement and message intervals (p. 47).

Message_ID is the message type to output between 0 and 999 (default 001). If Message_ID = 0, no message type is output. Up to five messages can be set (refer to

MCFG command message types (p. 46)).

Temporal_Filter Range_Filter Sets or reads parameters used in identifying mixing layer heights Std_Width Q1_Threshold Q2_Threshold Temporal_Filter = temporal filter half width used to filter data used by mixing layer height algorithm in minutes. Range is 1 to 40 minutes (default 30 minutes) Q3_Threshold Range_Filter = range filter half width used to smooth data used by mixing layer height algorithm in meters or feet. Range is 15 m to 600 m or 49 ft to 1969 ft (default 150 m or 492 ft).

Std_Width = range half width used to calculate standard deviation of the slope in meters or feet.

Range is 10 m to 400 m or 33 ft to 1312 ft (default 150 m or 492 ft).

Q1_Threshold = SNR threshold for quality level 1 mixing layer height output. Range is 1.0 to 30.0

(default 1.8) Q2_Threshold = SNR threshold for quality level 2 mixing layer height output. Range is 1.0 to 30.0

(default 5.0).

Q3_Threshold = SNR threshold for quality level 3 mixing layer height output. Range is 1.0 to 30.0

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 37

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description OPEN ID Password (default 10.0).

Opens the SkyVUE PRO terminal mode ID = Sensor ID as per the terminal ID command.

AnySkyVUE PRO with firmware OS2 or newer will respond to global ID = 99, regardless of its own ID number.

Password = The sensors user password as per the terminal PASSWORD command. The default is no password.

PASSWORD Password POLL POWEROFF REBOOT Sensor_ID Message_ID No parameters No parameters Sets or clears a password from 1 to 10 characters in length. Valid characters, 0-9, a - z or A – Z, and letters are case sensitive. Typing the PASSWORD command without any parameters clears the password. The default is no password.

Requests Message_ID from Sensor_ID .

Refer to

Message polling (p. 58) for more information

on this command Note: If Message_ID is omitted, the SkyVUE PRO outputs the message configured by MCFG .

Prepares the PSU to power down the SkyVUE PRO even if the battery is connected. As soon as the mains supply is disconnected, the SkyVUE PRO will power off and NOT run on battery back-up. The SkyVUE PRO can be re-activated with battery back-up enabled by reconnecting the mains supply. You will be asked to confirm.

Forces a system reboot. This will restore previously saved user settings. Any unsaved changes will be lost.

(Settings are saved in the terminal mode when the CLOSE command is typed, which exits the terminal mode).

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 38

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description SCCAL No parameters but user interaction required Stratocumulus backscatter calibration.

This requires a human observer to confirm a stable Stratocumulus cloud layer between 250 m to 2500 m without holes, precipitation or reduced visibility and has been stable for at least 10 minutes prior to running this command. See

Stratocumulus backscatter calibration (p. 62) for more information.

SERIAL Mode Baud Bits_Parity Delay Set or read the serial port.

Mode = 0, RS-232, full duplex (default) Mode = 1, RS-232, half duplex Mode = 2, RS-485, full duplex Mode = 3, RS-485, half duplex Mode = 4, reserved Mode = 5, RS-422, full duplex Baud = 0, 300 baud Baud = 1, 600 baud Baud = 2, 1200 baud Baud = 3, 2400 baud Baud = 4, 4800 baud Baud = 5, 9600 baud Baud = 6, 19200 baud Baud = 7, 38400 baud Baud = 8, 57600 baud Baud = 9, 76800 baud Baud = 10, 115200 baud (default) Bits_Parity = 0, 8 bits, no parity, 1 stop bit (default) Bits_Parit y = 1, 7 bits, even parity, 1 stop bit SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 39

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description Bits_Parity = 2, 7 bits, odd parity, 1 stop bit Delay = delay time, in milliseconds, before transmitting (RS-485 half-duplex mode only). Range: 0 to 100 ms (default 100 ms).

SERVICE SETUSER No parameters but user intervention required String Performs a service procedure Load all user settings as a string of text.

(not changed) = parameter will not be updated and the previously set value will persist.

String = user (not changed) volVer = user volume version (not changed) OS_VER = DSP OS version (not changed) PsuOsVer = PSU OS version (not changed) TopOsVer = TOP OS version (not changed) Id = SkyVUE PRO ID (not changed) Pw = SkyVUE PRO password (not changed) terminalCrc = terminal crc mode terminalTimeout = terminal timeout unitsTiltMode = units and tilt mode hoodHBMode = hood heater / fan heater mode hoodHBTestInt = hood heater / blower test interval in hours battBoost_mV = boost voltage used for battery charging mV battCharge_mA = battery charge current mA psuPresent = PSU present switch hoodHBNormSpeed = Fan voltage for normal SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 40

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description speed, mV hoodHBHighSpeed = Fan voltage for high speed, mV hoodHBLowSpeed = Fan voltage for low speed, mV intHMode = internal heater mode message[0] = fields for message 0 message[1] = fields for message 1 message[2] = fields for message 2 message[3] = fields for message 3 message[4] = fields for message 4 messagePeriod = output message period in seconds heightOffset = height offset meters bsAvTime = backscatter average time in seconds laserMode = laser operation mode laserPower = laser power laserHeater = laser heater mode attenuatedSCALE = attenuated backscatter scaling factor logInterval = debug logging interval measurementPeriod = measurement interval in seconds serMode = serial port mode baudSel = serial port baud rate mode dataParityStop = serial port parity mode rx2txTimeout = serial port RX to TX turnaround time snrMarginBoundary = onset of back-scatter SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 41

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description detection threshold snrMarginDetector = cloud detection threshold alphaGuessEnd = cloud alpha guess at boundary alphaMin = cloud detection alpha minimum Vcld_D = cloud detection delta_Vcld_D = cloud detection vis_Av_T = cloud detection alphaGuess = visibility initial alpha guess ratioLevel = visibility ratio alphaMin = visibility alpha minimum cap = visibility cap in meters tiltLimit = tilt limit in degrees used by alarms noiseGate = attenuated backscatter noise gate mode vvLimit_percent = sky condition report vertical visibility % alphaGuessStart = cloud detection alpha guess at lowest height bin dt dr q1threshold = mixing layer height quality threshold 1 q2threshold = mixing layer height quality threshold 2 q3threshold = mixing layer height quality threshold 3 stdWidth = mixing layer height standard deviation width in meters SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 42

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description cloudMode = cloud detector mode parameter (03072019a) CRC = 4-digit character. CRC calculated from the u up to but not including the CRC using the standard CRC 16-CCITT.

Note: String is added as text and should be cut and pasted from a stored file.

STATUS No parameters TERMINAL Terminal Timeout Outputs SkyVUE PRO, serial number, ID, DSP OS version, Time and Date, DSP version, TOP OS version, PSU OS version, watch dog counts, serial parameters, blower heater mode, internal heater mode, message parameters, tilt angle, units, temperature/humidity, temperatures, supply voltages, height offset, visibility cap, laser run days, window parameters, backscatter parameters, MLH parameters, features, alarms, warnings, and status.

Note: Refer to

Status command (p. 49) for more

information on this command Sets CRC-16-CCITT checking and the user terminal time out Terminal = 0, CRC-16-CCITT off (default) Terminal = 1, CRC-16-CCITT on (all terminal commands need a CRC See

CRC-16 codes on terminal commands (p. 64) for details).

Timeout is the delay in minutes from 1 to 15 where the terminal will automatically close if no characters are sent to the SkyVUE PRO. The default is 10 minutes.

TIME Date_Time Date is in the format yyyy/mm/dd Time is in the format hh:mm:ss yyyy=year, mm=month, dd=day hh=hours, mm=minutes, ss=seconds SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 43

Table 5-1: Summary of the terminal mode commands available Command Parameter/ parameter block Description For example: time 2013/05/25 10:00:00, sets the date and time to May 25th 2013 at 10:00:00) Note: The set time could drift by up to ±14 seconds a day.

UNITS Units UNLOCK Key Sets measurement units and tilt correction Units = 0, meters corrected by tilt Units = 1, meters not corrected by tilt Units = 2, feet corrected by tilt (default) Units = 3, feet not corrected by tilt Key = a 12 digit key purchased from Campbell Scientific. The key unlocks features such as Mixing Layer Height assessment.

The key is specific to the individual SkyVUE PRO and only has to be entered once.

VIS Cap Cap is the vertical visibility maximum range 100 to 10000 in meters or 328 to 32808 in feet (default 2000 m or 6561 ft).

NOTE: If AUTO is set, then the heater / blower will heat to 80 °C if (sky condition > 1 okta coverage) or (cloud height < 3 km (9842 ft) AND sky condition > 1 okta coverage) OR window Tx < 80% OR precipitation detected. When the event has passed, the blower/heater will remain active at 80 °C for a further 15 minutes before going into a fan-off state and the heater temperature drops to an average of approximately 40 °C, ready to be activated again.

5.1.4 Application command message types The Application_n parameter for the APPLICATION command defines settings to optimize the ceilometer for a range of applications, Aviation, Research and Meteorology. The default application setting for the SkyVUE PRO is Meteorology, but this can be changed, or returned to, using the Application_n command.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 44

Users can adjust any element of these settings once an application has been applied through the following individual commands:  ALARMS , BS , CLOUDMODE , MCFG and UNITS .

Table 5-2: Summary of applications and applied settings for SkyVUE PRO Settings ALARMS (tilt degs) Application modes for SkyVUE PRO Aviation 30 using OS13 and newer Research 45 Air quality Meteorology (default) 45 45 APPLICATION: Application n (sets user application settings) Application 10 Application 20 Application 30 Application 40 BS: Attenuated scale (%) BS: Backscatter averaging time (s) BS: Noise Gate 100 2 2 (ON) 100 7 -1000 (OFF) 100 7 2 (ON) 100 7 -1000 (OFF) BS: Measurement Period (s) BS: Rolling Averages (sets the number of readings for averaging. Alternative description: Backscatter temperal filter rolling samples BS: Message Interval (s) BS: BS_Temporal_ Filter_ Mode (Sets Averaging or Median Mode.) CLOUDMODE: CloudMode_A (Reports highest cloud only during precipitation) 10 3 30 ON 10 6 30 OFF 10 6 30 OFF 10 3 30 1 (Median) 0 (Average) 0 (Average) 0 (Average) ON Defaults using OS12 and older General application 45 N/A 100 7 -1000 (OFF) 10 3 30 N/A (Average) N/A SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 45

Table 5-2: Summary of applications and applied settings for SkyVUE PRO Application modes for SkyVUE PRO using OS13 and newer MCFG: Message ID UNITS Settings Aviation Research 4 (CB,SC,BS) 6 (CB,SC, MLH,BS) 2 (Feet, tilt corrected) 0 (Meters, tilt corrected) Air quality Meteorology (default) 6 (CB,SC, MLH,BS) 4 (CB,SC,BS) 0 (Meters, tilt corrected) 0 (Meters, tilt corrected) Defaults using OS12 and older General application 4 CB,SC,BS) 0 (Meters, tilt corrected) 5.1.5 MCFG command message types The Message_ID_x parameter for the MCFG commands defines the output types. Refer to

Messages (p. 68) for further information on message output types.

Table 5-3: Summary of message ID and descriptions Message_ID_x type Description 000 001 No message Campbell Scientific Message 1, no sky condition, no profile data 002 003 004 (default) 005 006 101 102 1 1 Campbell Scientific Message 2, no sky condition, profile data, 2048 range bins, 5 m resolution Campbell Scientific Message 3, sky condition, no profile data Campbell Scientific Message 4, sky condition and profile data, 1600 range bins, 5 m resolution Campbell Scientific Message 5, sky condition, no profile data, mixing layer height Campbell Scientific Message 6, sky condition, profile data, 2048 range bins, 5 m resolution, mixing layer height CL31 Message 1, 770 range bins, 10 m resolution CL31 Message 1, 385 range bins, 20 m resolution SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 46

Table 5-3: Summary of message ID and descriptions Message_ID_x type Description 103 104 105 106 CL31 Message 1, 1500 range bins, 5 m resolution CL31 Message 1, 770 range bins, 5 m resolution CL31 Message 1, No profile data CL31 Message 1, Full SkyVUE PRO output, 2048 range bins, 5 m resolution 107 108 109 110 CL31 Message 2, 770 range bins, 10 m resolution CL31 Message 2, 385 range bins, 20 m resolution CL31 Message 2, 1500 range bins, 5 m resolution CL31 Message 2, 770 range bins, 5 m resolution 111 112 CL31 Message 2, No profile data CL31 Message 2, Full SkyVUE PRO output, 2048 range bins, 5 m resolution 113 CT25K Message 1 114 CT25K Message 6 1 Only available if MLH option is active.

5.1.6 Measurement and message intervals The message interval is the time, in seconds, between the automatic message transmissions. It can be set between 2 to 600 s ( 0 gives polled messages). The default is 10, meaning a message will be sent automatically every 10 seconds. The message interval must be a multiple of the measurement period.

The backscatter average time, BS_Av_Tim e, is the period over which the laser is firing and taking measurements.

The measurement period is the time interval between the start of backscatter average time ( BS_ Av_Time ), during which the laser fires, and the start of the next measurement period. The measurement period must be long enough to include the backscatter average time and some processing time. The minimum measurement period is 2 seconds, which assumes the backscatter average time is 1 second. The measurement period can be set between 2 to 600 s (default is 10 s).

If it is set to 0, then measurements must be polled.

The rolling average (1 to 29, default 1) is the number of periods used to calculate each scatter value that is either used in a profile message or in a calculation of cloud height.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 47

The message interval chosen may affect measurement parameters allowed within the BS command, which can be used to set non-standard measurement parameters) as follows: If message interval = measurement period = 2 (the lowest values allowed), then the backscatter average time (BS_Av_Time) must equal 1 and the rolling average must equal 1.

If the message interval is between 3 and 9 s, then the measurement period must be the same as the message interval.

In the following examples, yellow means laser firing.

To comply with the requirements for Sky Condition the total measurement period for rolling averages should not exceed 30 seconds.

In this case, the SkyVUE PRO sends a message every 2 seconds based on one measurement averaged over 1 second. Therefore, each message is based on a single 1 second period of backscatter average data.

Laser firing (yellow) ( BS_AV_Time ) = 1 s 1 s Measurement Period = 2 s 2 s Message Interval = 2 s 2 s In this case, with the rolling average set to 1, the SkyVUE PRO sends a message every 30 seconds.

It takes three, 2 second, measurements at 10 second intervals. Only the last measurement is used in the output message but all three are used for calculating sky condition. Therefore, each message is based on a single 2 second period of backscatter average data.

Laser firing (yellow) ( BS_AV_Time ) = 2 s 2 s Measurement Period = 10 s 10 s Message Interval = 30 s 30 s 10 s 10 s In this case, with the rolling average set to 3, the SkyVUE PRO sends a message every 30 seconds that contains the average of the latest three measurements. Therefore, each message is based on three, 10 second measurement periods, with each containing 2 seconds of backscatter average data.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 48

Laser firing (yellow) ( BS_AV_Time ) = 2 s 2 s Measurement Period = 10 s 10 s Message Interval = 30 s 30 s 10 s 10 s In this case, with the rolling average set to 3 (default), the SkyVUE PRO sends a message every 10 seconds that contains the average of the latest three measurements. Therefore, each message is based on three, 10 second measurement periods, with each containing 2 seconds of backscatter average data.

Laser firing (yellow) ( BS_AV_Time ) = 2 s 2 s Measurement Period = 10 s 10 s Message Interval = 10 s 10 s 10 s 10 s 10 s 10 s In this case, the SkyVUE PRO sends a message every 14 seconds based on one measurement taking 4 seconds over a 14 second interval. Therefore, each message is based on a single 4 second period of average data.

Laser firing (yellow) ( BS_AV_Time ) = 4 s Measurement Period = 14 s Message Interval = 14 s 14 s 14 s 14 s 14 s 14 s 14 s This message cannot be set up using the MCFG command alone.

The BS command has to be used as follows: BS_Av_Time (averaging period) has to be set to 4, not the default value.

14 s 14 s 5.1.7 Status command The STATUS command returns the following information: SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 49

Line 1 Example line output Identification CS135 SN1000 ID 0 Description of the line sections Section Description CS135 SN1000 ID 0 Product name Sensor serial number Sensor identification number Line 2 Example line output Date Time 2012/01/10 11:39:46 Description of the line sections Section Description 2012/01/10 11:39:46 Date in the format yyyy/mm/dd Time in the format hh:mm:ss Line 3 Example line output DSP_OS A Description of the line sections Section A Description DSP OS revision number Line Example line output 4 TOP_OS 1 Description of the line sections Section A Description TOP board OS revision number SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 50

Line 5 Example line output PSU_OS 1 Description of the line sections Section Description A PSU board OS revision number Line 6 Description of the line sections Section Description A Example line output Watchdog A Watchdog counter for unscheduled system resets A B C Line 7 Example line output Serial A B C D Description of the line sections Section Description D Serial mode (Note: Refer to the SERIAL command) Serial baud rate (Note: Refer to the SERIAL command) Parity and stop bits (Note: Refer to the SERIAL command) Receive to transmit delay time in RS-485 mode (Note: Refer to the SERIAL command) SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 51

A B C D Line 8 Example line output Heaters A B C D Description of the line sections Section Description Hood blower mode Internal heater mode Laser heater mode Heater/blower test interval in hours C D E Line Example line output 9 MCFG   X A B C D E Description of the line sections Section X A B Description Message interval (Note: Refer to the MCFG command) Message ID A (Note: Refer to the MCFG command) Message ID B (Note: Refer to the MCFG command) Message ID C (Note: Refer to the MCFG command) Message ID D (Note: Refer to the MCFG command) Message ID E (Note: Refer to the MCFG command) A B C Line 10 Example line output Angle   A B C Description of the line sections Section Description X axis tilt Y axis tilt Beam angle from vertical SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 52

Line 11 Example line output Units A Description of the line sections Section Description A Measurement units and tilt correction. (Note: Refer to the UNITS command) Line 12 B C Example line output TRH   A B C Description of the line sections Section A Description Sensor internal temperature reading in degrees Celsius Sensor internal humidity reading as a percentage Sensors internal dew point value in degrees Celsius D E F Line 13 B C Example line output T   A B C D E F Description of the line sections Section A Description External fan blower assembly temperature in degrees Celsius PSU internal temperature in degrees Celsius TOP board laser monitor temperature in degrees Celsius TOP board calibration LED temperature in degrees Celsius Laser module temperature in degrees Celsius Photo diode module temperature in degrees Celsius SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 53

A B C Line 14 Example line output SupplyVoltage A B Description of the line sections Section Description DSP board supply voltage PS135E internal supply voltage Cyclic power cycle counter. Resets after 31 cycles Line 15 Example line output HOffset A Description of the line sections Section Description A Height offset reported in feet or meters dependent upon the UNITS command Line 16 Example line output Visibility Cap A Description of the line sections Section A Description Vertical visibility maximum range Line Example line output 17 LaserRunDays   A Description of the line sections Section A Description Number of days that the laser module has been active for SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 54

Line 18 Example line output WindowTX A Description of the line sections Section Description A Window transmittance % E F C D Line 19 A B Example line output BS A B C D E F (Note: refer to the BS command) Description of the line sections Section Description Attenuated scale Averaging time Noise Gate Measurement period Rolling average Message interval D E F Line Example line output 20 MLH A B C D E F (Note: refer to the MLH command) Description of the line sections Section A B C Description Temporal filter Range filter STD width Q1 threshold Q2 threshold Q3 threshold SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 55

Line 21 Example line output Features A Description of the line sections Section Description A List of features enabled Line 22 Example line output Flags 0000 0000 0000 Description of the most significant alarm word (left side, bits going left to right). Each alarm word is a hexadecimal sum of all the error bits.

Bit 8000 XXXX XXXX 4000 XXXX XXXX 2000 XXXX XXXX 1000 XXXX XXXX 0800 XXXX XXXX Description Units. feet = 0, meters = 8 Reserved for future use Reserved for future use Reserved for future use DSP clock out of specification 0400 XXXX XXXX 0200 XXXX XXXX 0100 XXXX XXXX 0080 XXXX XXXX 0040 XXXX XXXX 0020 XXXX XXXX 0010 XXXX XXXX 0008 XXXX XXXX 0004 XXXX XXXX 0002 XXXX XXXX 0001 XXXX XXXX Laser shut down due to operating temperature out of range The lead acid battery voltage is reading low Mains supply has failed (requires a PSU to be present) The external heater blower assembly temperature is out of bounds External heater blower failure The PSUs internal temperature is high PSU OS has failed its signature check No communications between DSP and PSU Photo diode and Laser windows are dirty. This can only be set if the laser is on Tilt beyond limit set by user, default 45 degrees No communications between DSP and inclinometer board SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 56

Description of the middle alarm word (middle word, bits going left to right) Bit Description XXXX 8000 XXXX XXXX 4000 XXXX The sensors internal humidity is high Communications to the DSP boards temperature and humidity chip have failed XXXX 2000 XXXX XXXX 1000 XXXX XXXX 0800 XXXX DSP input supply voltage is low Self-test active Watch dog counter updated XXXX 0400 XXXX XXXX 0200 XXXX XXXX 0100 XXXX XXXX 0080 XXXX XXXX 0040 XXXX XXXX 0020 XXXX XXXX 0010 XXXX XXXX 0008 XXXX XXXX 0004 XXXX XXXX 0002 XXXX XXXX 0001 XXXX User setting stored in flash failed their signature checks DSP factory calibration stored in flash has failed its signature check DSP board OS signature test failed DSP board RAM test failed DSP boards on board PSUs are out of bounds TOP board non-volatile storage is corrupt TOP board OS signature test has failed TOP boards ADC and DAC are not within specifications TOP boards on board PSUs are out of bounds Communications have failed between TOP board and the DSP Photo diode background radiance is out of range SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 57

Description of the least significant alarm word (right side, bits going left to right) Bit Description XXXX XXXX 8000 XXXX XXXX 4000 Photo diode temperature is out of range Photo diode is saturated XXXX XXXX 2000 XXXX XXXX 1000 XXXX XXXX 0800 XXXX XXXX 0400 Photo diode calibrator temperature is out of range Photo diode calibrator has failed The sensor could not reach the desired gain levels Laser run time has been exceeded XXXX XXXX 0200 XXXX XXXX 0100 XXXX XXXX 0080 XXXX XXXX 0040 XXXX XXXX 0020 XXXX XXXX 0010 XXXX XXXX 0008 XXXX XXXX 0004 XXXX XXXX 0002 XXXX XXXX 0001 Laser temperature out of range Laser thermistor failure Laser is obscured. This can only be set if the laser is on Laser did not achieve significant output power Laser max power exceeded Laser max drive current exceeded Laser power monitor temperature out of range Laser power monitor test fail Laser shutdown by top board Laser is off 5.1.8 Message polling The POLL Sensor_ID Message_ID command requests the Message_ID from the Sensor_ID . Where Message_ID is a SkyVUE PRO message type as defined in

MCFG command message types (p. 46).

The following example uses the SkyVUE PRO POLL command to request preconfigured message outputs.

First configure the SkyVUE PRO to use polling mode from the terminal interface via the MCFG command as follows: CS135> MCFG 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 58

This configures the SkyVUE PRO into polling mode leaving your message output configurations unchanged. Exit the terminal by typing the CLOSE command. This will save the changes you just made.

CS135> CLOSE COMMAND CLOSED Automatic message outputs should continue. Type the POLL command as shown below to verify that the system is working as expected.

NOTE: Once exited, the terminal characters will not be automatically echoed back to you.

POLL 0 This should return all messages you have set via the MCFG command. In this example, only default message output was set. Therefore, the POLL command returns text similar to the following.

NOTE: If you have no message configured, the MCFG command returns 0 0 0 0 0, then nothing will be returned from the command you just typed.

CS0100001 10 100 12345 ///// ///// ///// 000000000000 abcd The following example shows how to use the POLL command to request a specific message output type.

To poll the SkyVUE PRO for a particular message type, enter the following.

POLL 0 113 This command requests CT25K Message 1 and should look similar to the following.

CT00010 10 12345 ///// ///// 00000f80 5.1.9 Loading a new operating system (OS) A new OS can be entered with the LOADOS module command. The three different modules have their own OS. The parameter module loads a new operating system into different modules as follows: Module =1, DSP (file type *. ldr) SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 59

Module =2, TOP (file type *. hex) Module =3, PSU (file type*. hex) Module =4, DSP, TOP, and PSU as one file type *.ldr. This is the usual method.

NOTE: The new OS must be sent using xmodem protocol using Tera Term. See

Terminal mode commands general (p. 28).

To load a new operating system: Enter terminal mode by typing Open 0 (for a sensor with the default ID 0) This will return the prompt: CS135> Type the command: LOADOS 4 Or, type the command: LOADOS The SkyVUE PRO will respond: Load OS into DSP DO NOT REMOVE POWER DURING OS UPDATE!!!

Waiting for xmodem At this point, use your terminal emulator to send the appropriate file. Loading the OS could take a few minutes.

When the process is complete the SkyVUE PRO will return the message: Wait 40 sec for OS to restart Afterwards, the SkyVUE PRO will resume operation according to the previously set operating parameters. It will no longer be in terminal mode.

To load a new operating system into a SkyVUE PRO with an OS between 4 and 7: Enter terminal mode by typing: Open 0 (for a sensor with the default ID of 0) This will return the prompt CS135> Type the command LOADOS 1 The SkyVUE PRO will respond: Load OS into DSP DO NOT REMOVE POWER DURING OS UPDATE!!!

Waiting for xmodem SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 60

At this point, use your terminal emulator to send the *.ldr file using xmodem protocol. Loading the OS could take a few minutes. When the process is complete the SkyVUE PRO will return the message: Wait 40 sec for OS to restart. Afterwards, the SkyVUE PRO will resume operation according to the previously set operating parameters. It will no longer be in terminal mode.

CAUTION: Do not reboot the SkyVUE PRO at this point.

Again enter terminal mode by typing Open 0 (for a sensor with the default ID 0) This will return the prompt: CS135> Type the command: LOADOS 4 The SkyVUETMPRO will respond: Load OS into DSP DO NOT REMOVE POWER DURING OS UPDATE!!!

Waiting for xmodem At this point, use your terminal emulator to send the *.ldr file using xmodem protocol.

Loading the OS could take a few minutes.

When the process is complete the SkyVUE PRO will return the message: Wait 40 sec for OS to restart. Afterwards, the SkyVUE PRO will resume operation according to the previously set operating parameters. It will no longer be in terminal mode.

To load a new operating system into a SkyVUE PRO with an OS between 1 and 3 Operating systems earlier than 4 will need the boot loader updating, use the LOADOS 1 command, not LOADOS 4, before a new DSP OS can be uploaded. You will get the following verify error code the first time the OS is loaded: Error writing word 32768 Verify OS Error verifying word 327680 37020 4236 Reboot then load the OS using the terminal command LOADOS 4 to correctly load the OS without errors.

The process is as follows: Enter terminal mode by typing Open 0 (for a sensor with the default ID 0) This will return the prompt: CS135> Type the command: LOADOS 1 The SkyVUETMPRO will respond: SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 61

Load OS into DSP DO NOT REMOVE POWER DURING OS UPDATE!!!

Waiting for xmodem At this point, use your terminal emulator to send the *.ldr file using xmodem protocol.

Loading the OS could take a few minutes.

When the process is complete the SkyVUE PRO will return the message: Error writing word 32768 Verify OS Error verifying word 327680 37020 4236 Use the REBOOT command. Wait 40 sec for OS to restart after which it will resume operation according to the previously set operating parameters. It will no longer be in terminal mode.

Enter terminal mode by typing Open 0 (for a sensor with the default ID 0).

This will return the prompt: CS135> Type LOADOS 4 The SkyVUE PRO will respond: Load OS into DSP DO NOT REMOVE POWER DURING OS UPDATE!!!

Waiting for xmodem At this point, use your terminal emulator to send the *.ldr file again using xmodem protocol.

Loading the OS could take a few minutes.

When the process is complete the SkyVUETMPRO will return the message: Wait 40 sec for OS to restart.

The SkyVUE PRO will resume operation according to the previously set operating parameters. It will no longer be in terminal mode.

It is good practice to reboot the sensor after loading a new OS.

5.1.10 Stratocumulus backscatter calibration The SCCAL command allows a simple stratocumulus backscatter calibration of the scatter coefficient measurements. This requires a human observer to confirm a stable Stratocumulus cloud layer between 250 m (820 ft) to 2500 m (8202 ft) without holes, precipitation or reduced visibility, and has been stable for at least 10 minutes prior to running this command.

Set the Measurement_Period to 10 (see

Table 5-1 (p. 30)).

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 62

A detailed description of this technique is given in: Ewan J. O’Connor, Anthony J. Illingworth, and Robin J. Hogan, 2004: A Technique for Autocalibration of Cloud Lidar.

Journal of Atmospheric and Ocean Technology

, 21, pp 777 – 786.

Enter terminal mode by typing Open 0 (for a sensor with an ID of 0) This will return the prompt: CS135> Type SCCAL The SkyVUE PRO will respond: Stratocumulus calibration.

Enter height above sea level (m)? Press enter to continue: Enter the sensor height above sea level, for example 70 m then type return.

The SkyVUE PRO will respond: 70 m entered, is this correct? “Y”, “N” or “Q” Type Y to confirm. If you have entered an incorrect number, type N and you will be able to replace it. Type Q to quit the calibration and return to the terminal command prompt.

The SkyVUE PRO will respond: For correct calibration a trained human observer must confirm that the layer is between 250 m (820 ft) to 2500 m (8200 ft) and has been stable for at least 10 minutes without drizzle. Has the Stratocumulus been stable for at least 10 minutes? “Y” or “N” To confirm, type Y and the SkyVUE PRO will respond: Old Stratocumulus calibration = 0.0282

New Stratocumulus calibration parameters = 0.0258 70 1328 Do you want to apply this calibration? “Y” or “N” In this example, 70 is the height of the sensor above sea level previously entered and 1210 is the cloud base in meters above the sensor.

As a rough guide, if the calibration factor has changed by less than 20%, there is no need to change. If it has changed by a factor of 2, it is wise to run the service routine on the sensor (see

Service command (p. 64)).

Type Y to confirm and the SkyVUE PRO will respond: Calibration saved.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 63

The following error messages may appear during the process.

l Error ... Time out l Error ... Cloud not detected or height not within limits (250 m to 2500 m / 820 ft to 8200 ft) l Try again when layer is stable l Error ... Not enough data available try again in 10 minutes.

5.1.11 CRC-16 codes on terminal commands If CRC-16 on mode is set using the Terminal command, all terminal commands need a CRC 16. A semi-colon is used to indicate start of the CRC-16 in 4-byte character, for example open 0;d2d5 . The CRC-16 is calculated either from the start of a new line or after a [STX] up to but not including the semi-colon. ETX can follow the CRC-16 if required.

To find the valid CRC-16 for a command, type the 4-character CRC-16 then type: ;????. For example, typing open 0;????

gives the response [CRLF]CRC>D2D5

The CRC-16 is not case sensitive.

The table below gives some commonly used CRC-16 codes.

Terminal command Open 0 Close Status Password Terminal 0 (this command will remove CRC-16 checking) D94E 7CE5 DF20 B576 Defaults Serial CRC-16 233A 7D8E 7FCE 5.1.12 Service command The service command triggers the SkyVUE PRO to go through a series of tests including tests that require the white test surface (ceilometer calibration plate supplied) to be placed on the SkyVUE PRO windows.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 64

The service command results in the following procedures: l l l l l l l l l l l l l System noise level including noise spike test Detector maximum gain test Simulates a clear night sky for calibration offset Window contamination functionality test Laser function and monitoring alarm check Thermistor fault alarm check Calibrator LED alarm check PSU supply alarm check Temperature RH% sensor alarm check Inclinometer alarm check Heater/blower alarm check Internal clocks alarm check Top board and PSU communications alarm check.

If any test or check has failed, then full instrument status and debug information is output with a fault summary at the end.

The response is similar to the following: Initially the SkyVUE PRO outputs a STATUS message, then goes through various self-test routines before requesting a white test surface to be placed over each of the windows in turn. This process is as follows: self test, please wait wait for new measurement..................

Place white test surface onto detector window (left side fan at the top) Press Enter to continue Cover the detector window and press Enter . The computer will respond: wait for new measurement.............

Place white test surface onto laser window (right side fan at the top) Press Enter to continue Cover the laser window and press Enter . The computer will respond: wait for new measurement.......................

Remove white test surface from laser window. Press Enter to continue.

When this is complete, the SkyVUE PRO will output a string of diagnostic data similar. This is useful for a Campbell Scientific engineer investigating problems with the SkyVUE PRO.

Finally, the SkyVUE PRO will list any faults found as shown below: SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 65

******** CS135 FAULT list ******** FAULT - external heater/blower thermistor FAULT - detector dirty windows with white test surface FAULT - max APD gain not achieved Otherwise it will report the following message: ******** CS135 has PASSED all tests ******** 5.1.13 Locked features Optional features such as Mixing Layer Height assessment are protected by a key. They are enabled by typing UNLOCK followed by entering the key. This is specific to the individual SkyVUE PRO and only has to be entered once.

5.2 Restoring factory defaults

Restore factory defaults by using the DEFAULTS command in the terminal mode.

Hard Reset Alternatively, use the RESET push switch on the DSP to restore factory defaults (

FIGURE 5-1 (p.

67).

Remove the cover and enclosure lid. See

Removing the cover (p. 104) and

Removing the enclosure lid (p. 105).

WARNING: Opening the access lid MUST be carried out by a competent person, who has sufficient training, experience and knowledge both in electrical safety and the detail and operation of the sensor.

WARNING: Opening the access lid may expose hot surfaces.

Use a narrow tool such as a screw driver to reach the reset switch.

If the reset switch is pushed for four seconds, the SkyVUE PRO will reboot in exactly the same way as the REBOOT terminal command. If it is held closed while the SkyVUE PRO is powered off and on again, it will return to factory defaults. To power cycle the SkyVUE PRO, disconnect the battery and switch the main power off and on.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 66

FIGURE 5-1. Restoring factory defaults

5.3 LED indicator

FIGURE 5-2. LED indicator

A green LED is visible through the window, see

FIGURE 5-2 (p. 67). It will give 0.5 second flashes

as follows: 1 flash every 10 seconds = OK, no fault 2 flashes every 10 seconds = warning (possible degraded performance) 3 flashes every 10 seconds = alarm (measurements not possible) SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 67

6. Messages

6.1 Data messages general 6.2 Checksums used in SkyVUE PRO messages

6.3 CS messages

6.4 CL31 messages

6.5 CT25K messages

68 68

69

89

98

6.1 Data messages general

The SkyVUE PRO can provide a variety of data message types to allow efficient output of data.

Not all messages provide the full information available, but these messages may be more efficient in terms of data storage and transmission.

CL31 and CT25K messages follow formats used by common existing CL31 and CT25K sensors allowing easier replacement or network expansion.

6.2 Checksums used in SkyVUE PRO messages

This is based on the CCITT-16 CRC-16 with the output XOR’d with Hex 0xFFFF and outputs a two byte CRC-16 character. The CRC-16 is calculated on all characters after the SOH character up to and including the ETX character.

The following example uses the C code to calculate the SkyVUE PRO checksum.

NOTE: Shorts are 16 bits long and ints are 32 bits long.

// --------------------------------------------------------------- // Calculate CRC-16 // buf is a pointer to the input string // len is the length of the input string // --------------------------------------------------------------- unsigned short crc16(char *buffer, int length) {   unsigned short crc;   unsigned short m;   int i, j; SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 68

  crc = 0xFFFF;   for (i=0; i < length; ++i) {     crc ^= buffer[i] << 8;     for (j=0; j<8; ++j){       m = (crc & 0x8000) ? 0x1021 : 0;       crc <<= 1;       crc ^= m;     }   }   crc ^= 0xFFFF;   return crc; }

6.3 CS messages

6.3.1 MESSAGE 001 (no profile, no sky condition) Example message line outputs CS0001001 10 087 00139 ///// ///// ///// 800000000000 942f LINE 1 SOH CS ID OS N STX CR LF where SOH = Start-of-Heading character CS = Always "CS" ID (1 character) = A single character, 0 to 9, a to z or A to Z, case sensitive. Default ID = 0 OS (3 characters) = Operating system, 001 to 999 N (3 characters) = Message number STX = Start-of-Text Character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 2 S WA V tr V h1 V h2 V h3 V h4 V flags CR LF SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 69

where S (1 character) = detection status: 0 = No significant backscatter 1 = One cloud base detected 2 = Two cloud bases detected 3 = Three cloud bases detected 4 = Four cloud bases detected 5 = Full obscuration determined but no cloud base detected 6 = Some obscuration detected but determined to be transparent / = Raw data input to algorithm missing or suspect WA (1 character) = Warning or alarm status: 0 = No alarm or warning W = Warning A = Alarm tr (3 characters) = Window transmission, % h1 (5 characters) = 1st Height If detection status is 1, 2, 3, or 4 h1 = Lowest cloud base reported If detection status is 5 h1 = Vertical visibility as calculated If detection status is 0 or 6 h1 = ///// h2 (5 characters) = 2nd Height If detection status is 2, 3, or 4 h2 = Second cloud base reported If detection status is 5 h2 = Highest signal received If detection status is 0, 1, or 6 h2 = ///// h3 (5 characters) = 3rd Height If detection status is 3 or 4 h3 = Third cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 5, or 6 h3 = ///// h4 (5 characters) = 4th Height If detection status is 4 h4 = Fourth cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 5 h4 = ///// flags (12 characters in 3 groups of 4) = Alarm or warning information Table 6-1: Most significant alarm word for CS messages Bit 1 Description 8000 XXXX XXXX 4000 XXXX XXXX Units. Feet = 0, meter = 1.

Reserved for future use SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 70

Table 6-1: Most significant alarm word for CS messages Bit 1 Description 2000 XXXX XXXX 1000 XXXX XXXX 0800 XXXX XXXX 0400 XXXX XXXX 0200 XXXX XXXX 0100 XXXX XXXX 0080 XXXX XXXX Reserved for future use Reserved for future use DSP clock out of specification Laser shut down due to operating temperature out of range The lead acid battery voltage is reading low Mains supply has failed (requires a PSU to be present) The external heater blower assembly temperature is out of bounds 0040 XXXX XXXX 0020 XXXX XXXX 0010 XXXX XXXX 0008 XXXX XXXX 0004 XXXX XXXX External heater blower failure The PSUs internal temperature is high PSU OS has failed its signature check No communications between DSP and PSU Photo diode and Laser windows are dirty. This can only be set if the laser is on 0002 XXXX XXXX Tilt beyond limit set by user, default 45 degrees 0001 XXXX XXXX No communications between DSP and inclinometer board 1 Alarm words are sum of error bits.

Table 6-2: Middle alarm word for CS messages Bit 1 XXXX 8000 XXXX XXXX 4000 XXXX XXXX 2000 XXXX XXXX 1000 XXXX XXXX 0800 XXXX XXXX 0400 XXXX Description The sensors internal humidity is high Communications to the DSP board temperature and humidity chip have failed DSP input supply voltage is low Self-test active Watch dog counter updated User setting stored in flash failed their signature checks SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 71

Table 6-2: Middle alarm word for CS messages Bit 1 Description XXXX 0200 XXXX XXXX 0100 XXXX XXXX 0080 XXXX XXXX 0040 XXXX XXXX 0020 XXXX XXXX 0010 XXXX XXXX 0008 XXXX DSP factory calibration stored in flash has failed its signature check DSP board OS signature test failed DSP board RAM test failed DSP boards on board PSUs are out of bounds TOP board non-volatile storage is corrupt TOP board OS signature test has failed TOP boards ADC and DAC are not within specifications XXXX 0004 XXXX XXXX 0002 XXXX TOP boards on board PSUs are out of bounds Communications have failed between TOP board and the DSP XXXX 0001 XXXX Photo diode background radiance is out of range 1 Alarm words are sum of error bits.

Table 6-3: Least significant alarm word for CS messages Bit 1 Description XXXX XXXX 8000 XXXX XXXX 4000 XXXX XXXX 2000 XXXX XXXX 1000 XXXX XXXX 0800 XXXX XXXX 0400 XXXX XXXX 0200 XXXX XXXX 0100 XXXX XXXX 0080 XXXX XXXX 0040 XXXX XXXX 0020 XXXX XXXX 0010 Photo diode temperature is out of range Photo diode is saturated Photo diode calibrator temperature is out of range Photo diode calibrator has failed The sensor could not reach the desired gain levels Laser run time or maximum laser drive current has been exceeded Laser temperature out of range Laser thermistor failure Laser is obscured. This can only be set if the laser is on Laser did not achieve significant output power Laser max power exceeded Laser max drive current exceeded SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 72

Table 6-3: Least significant alarm word for CS messages Bit 1 Description XXXX XXXX 0008 XXXX XXXX 0004 XXXX XXXX 0002 Laser power monitor temperature out of range Laser power monitor test fail Laser shutdown by top board XXXX XXXX 0001 Laser is off 1 Alarm words are sum of error bits.

CR LF = Carriage Return and Line Feed LINE 3 ETX CRC-16 EOT CR LF where ETX = End-of-Text character CRC-16 (4 characters) = CRC-16 Checksum EOT = End-of-Transmission character CRLF = Carriage Return + Line Feed 6.3.2 MESSAGE 002 (Profile, no sky condition) Example message line outputs CS0001002 10 085 01123 ///// ///// ///// 800000000000 00100 05 2048 100 +40 02 0074 0070 30 000 0c5df047……………………00000         (Line output cropped for clarity) 9f68 LINE 1 SOH CS ID OS N STX CR LF where SOH = Start-of-Heading character CS = Always CS ID (1 character) = A single character, 0 to 9, a to z or A to Z, case sensitive. Default ID = 0 OS (3 characters) = Operating system, 001 to 999 SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 73

N (3 characters) = Message number STX = Start-of-Text Character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 2 S WA V tr V h1 V h2 V h3 V h4 V flags CR LF where S (1 character) = detection status: 0 = No significant backscatter 1 = One cloud base detected 2 = Two cloud bases detected 3 = Three cloud bases detected 4 = Four cloud bases detected 5 = Full obscuration determined but no cloud base detected 6 = Some obscuration detected but determined to be transparent / = Raw data input to algorithm missing or suspect WA (1 character) = Warning or alarm status: 0 = No alarm or warning W = Warning A = Alarm tr (3 characters) = Window transmission, % h1 (5 characters) = 1st Height If detection status is 1, 2, 3, or 4 h1 = Lowest cloud base reported If detection status is 5 h1 = Vertical visibility as calculated If detection status is 0 or 6 h1 = ///// h2 (5 characters) = 2nd Height If detection status is 2, 3, or 4 h2 = Second cloud base reported If detection status is 5 h2 = Highest signal received If detection status is 0, 1, or 6 h2 = ///// h3 (5 characters) = 3rd Height If detection status is 3 or 4 h3 = Third cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 5, or 6 h3 = ///// h4 (5 characters) = 4th Height If detection status is 4 h4 = Fourth cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 5 h4 = ///// SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 74

flags (12 characters in 3 groups of 4) = Alarm or warning information.

Refer to Message 001 for a breakdown of the flags.

CR LF = Carriage Return and Line Feed LINE 3 scale V res V n V energy V lt V ti_bl V pulse V rate V sum CR LF where scale (5 characters) = Attenuated_SCALE parameter, %, 0 to 99999. 100% is default res (2 characters) = Backscatter profile resolution in meters n (4 characters) = Profile length energy (3 characters) = Laser pulse energy, %.

lt (3 characters including leading +/-) = Laser temperature, degrees C ti (2 characters) = Total tilt angle, degrees bl (4 characters) = Background light, millivolts at internal ADC input (0 to 2500) pulse (4 characters) = Pulse quantity x 1000 (0000 to 9999) rate (2 characters) = Sample rate, MHz, (00 to 99) sum (3 characters) = Sum of detected and normalized backscatter, 0 to 999. Multiplied by scaling factor times 10 4 . At scaling factor 100 the SUM range 0 to 999 corresponds to integrated backscatter 0 to 0. srad -1 .

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 4 SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS........(2048 x 5 bytes) CR LF The two-way attenuated normalized backscatter profile (

Backscatter profile reporting (p. 7)

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 5 ETX CRC-16 EOT CR LF where ETX = End-of-Text character CRC-16 (4 characters) = CRC-16 Checksum EOT = End-of-Transmission character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 75

6.3.3 MESSAGE 003 (no profile, sky condition) Example message line outputs CS0001003 10 091 00828 ///// ///// ///// 800000000000 99 //// 0 //// 0 //// 0 //// 0 //// f62a LINE 1 SOH CS ID OS N STX CR LF where SOH = Start-of-Heading character CS = Always CS ID (1 character) = A single character, 0 to 9, a to z or A to Z, case sensitive. Default ID = 0 OS (3 characters) = Operating system, 001 to 999 N (3 characters) = Message number STX = Start-of-Text Character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 2 S WA V tr V h1 V h2 V h3 V h4 V flags CR LF where S (1 character) = detection status: 0 = No significant backscatter 1 = One cloud base detected 2 = Two cloud bases detected 3 = Three cloud bases detected 4 = Four cloud bases detected 5 = Full obscuration determined but no cloud base detected 6 = Some obscuration detected but determined to be transparent / = Raw data input to algorithm missing or suspect SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 76

WA (1 character) = Warning or alarm status: 0 = No alarm or warning W = Warning A = Alarm tr (3 characters) = Window transmission, % h1 (5 characters) = 1st Height If detection status is 1, 2, 3, or 4 h1 = Lowest cloud base reported If detection status is 5 h1 = Vertical visibility as calculated If detection status is 0 or 6 h1 = ///// h2 (5 characters) = 2nd Height If detection status is 2, 3, or 4 h2 = Second cloud base reported If detection status is 5 h2 = Highest signal received If detection status is 0, 1, 5, or 6 h2 = ///// h3 (5 characters) = 3rd Height If detection status is 3 or 4 h3 = Third cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 5, or 6 h3 = ///// h4 (5 characters) = 4th Height If detection status is 4 h4 = Fourth cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 5 h4 = ///// flags (12 characters in 3 groups of 4) = Alarm or warning information.

Refer to Message 001 for a breakdown of the flags.

CR LF = Carriage Return and Line Feed LINE 3 _d_h1__d2_h2__d3_h3__d4_h4__d5_h5 CR LF (note spaces) where d (2 characters) = Data available _0 to _8  Amount of lowest layer in oktas _9  Vertical visibility only available -1  No sky condition data available 99  Insufficient data h1 (4 characters) = Height of the lowest cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet d2 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 2nd layer in oktas SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 77

h2 (4 characters) = Height of the 2nd cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 2nd layer is reported h2 = ////.

d3 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 3rd layer in oktas h3 (4 characters) = Height of the 3rd cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 3rd layer is reported h3 = ////.

d4 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 4th layer in oktas h4 (4 characters) = Height of the 4th cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 4th layer is reported h4 = ////.

d5 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 5th layer in oktas h5 (4 characters) = Height of the 5th cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 5th layer is reported h5 = ////.

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed NOTE: Cloud amounts and heights cannot be reported until the SkyVUE PRO has been in operation for 30 minutes.

LINE 4 ETX CRC-16 EOT CR LF where ETX = End-of-Text character CRC-16 (4 characters) = CRC-16 Checksum EOT = End-of-Transmission character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed 6.3.4 MESSAGE 004 (profile, sky condition) — default message Example message line outputs CS0001004 10 092 00698 ///// ///// ///// 800000000000 99 //// 0 //// 0 //// 0 //// 0 //// 00100 05 2048 100 +40 02 0074 0070 30 000 071fc024d………………….000 (Line output cropped for clarity) 6212 SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 78

LINE 1 SOH CS ID OS N STX CR LF where SOH = Start-of-Heading character CS = Always CS ID (1 character) = A single character, 0 to 9, a to z or A to Z, case sensitive. Default ID = 0 OS (3 characters) = Operating system, 001 to 999 N (3 characters) = Message number STX = Start-of-Text Character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 2 S WA V tr V h1 V h2 V h3 V h4 V flags CR LF where S (1 character) = detection status: 0 = No significant backscatter 1 = One cloud base detected 2 = Two cloud bases detected 3 = Three cloud bases detected 4 = Four cloud bases detected 5 = Full obscuration determined but no cloud base detected 6 = Some obscuration detected but determined to be transparent / = Raw data input to algorithm missing or suspect WA (1 character) = Warning or alarm status: 0 = No alarm or warning W = Warning A = Alarm Tr (3 characters) = Window transmission, % h1 (5 characters) = 1st Height If detection status is 1, 2, 3, or 4 h1 = Lowest cloud base reported If detection status is 5 h1 = Vertical visibility as calculated If detection status is 0 or 6 h1 = ///// SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 79

h2 (5 characters) = 2nd Height If detection status is 2, 3, or 4 h2 = Second cloud base reported If detection status is 5 h2 = Highest signal received If detection status is 0, 1, or 6 h2 = ///// h3 (5 characters) = 3rd Height If detection status is 3 or 4 h3 = Third cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 5, or 6 h3 = ///// h4 (5 characters) = 4th Height If detection status is 4 h4 = Fourth cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 5 h4 = ///// flags (12 characters in 3 groups of 4) = Alarm or warning information.

Refer to Message 001 for a breakdown of the flags.

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed.

LINE 3 _d_h1h1h1__d2_h2h2h2__d3_h3h3h3__d4_h4h4h4__d5_h5h5h5 CR LF (note spaces) where d (2 characters) = Data available _0 to _8  Amount of lowest layer in oktas _9  Vertical visibility only available -1  No sky condition data available 99  Insufficient data h1 (4 characters) = Height of the lowest cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet d2 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 2nd layer in oktas h2 (4 characters) = Height of the 2nd cloud layer in 10s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 2nd layer is reported h2 = ////.

d3 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 3rd layer in oktas h3 (4 characters) = Height of the 3rd cloud layer in 10s of meters or 100s of feet, if no 3rd layer is reported h3 = ////.

d4 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 4th layer in oktas h4 (4 characters) = Height of the 4th cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100s of feet, if no 4th layer is reported h4 = ////.

d5 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 5th layer in oktas SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 80

h5 (4 characters) = Height of the 5th cloud layer in 10s of meters or 100s of feet, if no 5th layer is reported h5 = ////.

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed NOTE: Cloud amounts and heights cannot be reported until the SkyVUE PRO has been operating for 30 minutes.

LINE 4 scale V res V n V energy V lt V tr V ti_bl V pulse V rate V sum CR LF where scale (5 characters) = Scale parameter,%, 0 to 99999. 100% is default res (2 characters) = Backscatter profile resolution in meters n (4 characters) = Profile length energy (3 characters) = Laser pulse energy, %.

lt (3 characters including leading +/-) = Laser temperature, degrees C ti (2 characters) = Total tilt angle, degrees bl (4 characters) = Background light, millivolts at internal ADC input (0 to 2500) pulse (4 characters) = Pulse quantity x 1000 (0000 to 9999) rate (2 characters) = Sample rate, MHz, (00 to 99) sum = (3 characters) Sum of detected and normalized backscatter, 0 to 999. Multiplied by scaling factor times 10 4 . At scaling factor 100 the SUM range 0 to 999 corresponds to integrated backscatter 0 to 0. srad -1 .

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 5 SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS........(2048 x 5 bytes) CR LF The two-way attenuated normalized backscatter profile (

Backscatter profile reporting (p. 7)

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 6 ETX CRC-16 EOT CR LF SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 81

where ETX = End-of-Text character CRC-16 (4 characters) = CRC-16 Checksum EOT = End-of-Transmission character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed 6.3.5 MESSAGE 005 (no profile, sky condition, mixing layer heights) Only available if an unlock key is entered (

Locked features (p. 66))

Example message line outputs CS0001005 10 092 00499 ///// ///// ///// 800000000000 99 //// 0 //// 0 //// 0 //// 0 //// ///// ///// ///// ///// ///// ///// b4b6 LINE 1 SOH CS ID OS N STX CR LF where SOH = Start-of-Heading character CS = Always CS ID (1 character) = A single character, 0 to 9, a to z, or A to Z, case sensitive. Default ID = 0 OS (3 characters) = Operating system, 001 to 999 N (3 characters) = Message number STX = Start-of-Text Character CR LF= Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 2 S WA V tr V h1 V h2 V h3 V h4 V flags CR LF where S (1 character) = detection status: 0 = No significant backscatter 1 = One cloud base detected 2 = Two cloud bases detected 3 = Three cloud bases detected 4 = Four cloud bases detected SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 82

5 = Full obscuration determined but no cloud base detected 6 = Some obscuration detected but determined to be transparent / = Raw data input to algorithm missing or suspect WA (1 character) = Warning or alarm status: 0 = No alarm or warning W = Warning A = Alarm tr (3 characters) = Window transmission, % h1 (5 characters) = 1st Height If detection status is 1, 2, 3, or 4 h1 = Lowest cloud base reported If detection status is 5 h1 = Vertical visibility as calculated If detection status is 0 or 6 h1 = ///// h2 (5 characters) = 2nd Height If detection status is 2, 3, or 4 h2 = Second cloud base reported If detection status is 5 h2 = Highest signal received If detection status is 0, 1, 5, or 6 h2 = ///// h3 (5 characters) = 3rd Height If detection status is 3 or 4 h3 = Third cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 5, or 6 h3 = ///// h4 (5 characters) = 4th Height If detection status is 4 h4 = Fourth cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, or 6 h4 = ///// flags (12 characters in 3 groups of 4) = Alarm or warning information.

Refer to Message 001 for a breakdown of the flags.

CR LF = Carriage Return and Line Feed LINE 3 d_h1__d2_h2__d3_h3__d4_h4__d5_h5 CR LF (note spaces) where d (2 characters) = Data available _0 to _8 Amount of lowest layer in oktas _9 Vertical visibility only available -1 No sky condition data available 99 Insufficient data h1 (4 characters) = Height of the lowest cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 83

d2 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 2nd layer in oktas h2 (4 characters) = Height of the 2nd cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100s of feet, if no 2nd layer is reported h2 = ////.

d3 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 3rd layer in oktas h3 (4 characters) = Height of the 3rd cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 3rd layer is reported h3 = ////.

d4 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 4th layer in oktas h4 (4 characters) = Height of the 4th cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100ss of feet, if no 4th layer is reported h4 = ////.

d5 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 5th layer in oktas h5 (4 characters) = Height of the 5th cloud layer in 10,s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 5th layer is reported h5h = ////.

CR LF= Carriage Return + Line Feed NOTE: The SkyVUE PRO must be operating for 30 minutes before cloud amounts and heights are reported.

LINE 4 mh1_q1_mh2_q2_ mh3_q3 where mh1 (5 characters) = height of the 1st MLH in meters q1 (5 characters) = quality parameter of the 1st MLH mh2 (5 characters) = height of the 2nd MLH in meters q2 (5 characters) = quality parameter of the 2nd MLH mh3 (5 characters) = height of the 3rd MLH in meters q3 (5 characters) = quality parameter of the 3rd MLH If there are no mixing layers detected, or less than 3, then missing data is shown as /////. If the MLH option is not activated then all fields in line 4 are /////.

LINE 5 ETX CRC-16 EOT CR LF where ETX = End-of-Text character CRC-16 (4 characters) = CRC-16 Checksum SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 84

EOT= End-of-Transmission character CR LF= Carriage Return + Line Feed 6.3.6 MESSAGE 006 (profile, sky condition, mixing layer heights) Only available if a key is entered (see

Locked features (p. 66))

Example message line outputs CS0001006 10 095 01732 ///// ///// ///// 800000000000 99 //// 0 //// 0 //// 0 //// 0 //// 00100 05 2048 100 +40 02 0054 0070 30 000 ///// ///// ///// ///// ///// ///// 04ae3015fe………………..0000 (Line output message cropped for clarity) fe91 LINE 1 OH CS ID OS N STX CR LF where SOH = Start-of-Heading character CS = Always CS ID (1 character) = A single character, 0 to 9, a to z, or A to Z, case sensitive. Default ID = 0 OS (3 characters) = Operating system, 001 to 999 N (3 characters) = Message number STX = Start-of-Text Character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 2 S WA V tr V h1 V h2 V h3 V h4 V flags CR LF where S (1 character) = detection status: 0 = No significant backscatter 1 = One cloud base detected 2 = Two cloud bases detected 3 = Three cloud bases detected 4 = Four cloud bases detected SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 85

5 = Full obscuration determined but no cloud base detected 6 = Some obscuration detected but determined to be transparent / = Raw data input to algorithm missing or suspect WA (1 character) = Warning or alarm status: 0 = No alarm or warning W = Warning A = Alarm tr (3 characters) = Window transmission, % h1 (5 characters) = 1st Height If detection status is 1, 2, 3, or 4 h1 = Lowest cloud base reported If detection status is 5 h1 = Vertical visibility as calculated If detection status is 0 or 6 h1 = ///// h2 (5 characters) = 2nd Height If detection status is 2, 3, or 4 h2 = Second cloud base reported If detection status is 5 h2 = Highest signal received If detection status is 0, 1, 5, or 6 h2 = ///// h3 (5 characters) = 3rd Height If detection status is 3 or 4 h3 = Third cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 5, or 6 h3 = ///// h4 (5 characters) = 4th Height If detection status is 4 h4 = Fourth cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, or 6 h4 = ///// flags (12 characters in 3 groups of 4) = Alarm or warning information.

Refer to Message 001 for a breakdown of the flags.

CR LF = Carriage Return and Line Feed LINE 3 _d_h1__d2_h2__d3_h3__d4_h4__d5_h5 CR LF (note spaces) where d (2 characters) = Data available _0 to _8 Amount of lowest layer in oktas _9 Vertical visibility only available -1 No sky condition data available 99 Insufficient data h1 (4 characters) = Height of the lowest cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 86

d2 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 2nd layer in oktas h2 (4 characters) = Height of the 2nd cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 2nd layer is reported h2 = ////.

d3 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 3rd layer in oktas h3 (4 characters) = Height of the 3rd cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 3rd layer is reported h3 = ////.

d4 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 4th layer in oktas h4 (4 characters) = Height of the 4th cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 4th layer is reported h4 = ////.

d5 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 5th layer in oktas h5 (4 characters) = Height of the 5th cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 5th layer is reported h5 = ////.

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed NOTE: The SkyVUE PRO must be operating for 30 minutes before cloud amounts and heights are reported.

LINE 4 scale V res V n V energy V lt V tr V ti V bl V pulse V rate V sum CR LF where scale (5 characters) = Scale parameter,%, 0 to 99999. 100% is default res (2 characters) = Backscatter profile resolution in meters.

n (4 characters) = Profile length energy (3 characters) = Laser pulse energy, %.

lt (3 characters including leading +/-) = Laser temperature, degrees C ti (2 characters) = Total tilt angle, degrees bl (4 characters) = Background light, millivolts at internal ADC input (0 to 2500) pulse (4 characters) = Pulse quantity x 1000 (0000 to 9999) rate (2 characters) = Sample rate, MHz, (00 to 99) sum = (3 characters) Sum of detected and normalized backscatter, 0 to 999. Multiplied by scaling factor times 10 4 . At scaling factor 100 the SUM range 0 to 999 corresponds to integrated backscatter 0 to 0. srad -1 CR LF= Carriage Return + Line Feed SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 87

LINE 5 mh1_q1_mh2_q2_ mh3_q3 where mh1 (5 characters) = height of the 1st MLH in meters q1 (5 characters) = quality parameter of the 1st MLH mh2 (5 characters) = height of the 2nd MLH in meters q2 (5 characters) = quality parameter of the 2nd MLH mh3 (5 characters) = height of the 3rd MLH in meters q3 (5 characters) = quality parameter of the 3rd MLH If there are no mixing layers detected, or less than 3, then missing data is shown as /////. If the MLH option is not activated then all fields in Line 5 are /////.

LINE 6 SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS........(2048 x 5 bytes) CR LF The two-way attenuated normalized backscatter profile (

Backscatter profile reporting (p. 7))

CR LF= Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 7 ETX CRC-16 EOT CR LF where ETX = End-of-Text character CRC-16 (4 characters) = CRC-16 Checksum EOT = End-of-Transmission character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 88

6.4 CL31 messages

6.4.1 MESSAGES 101 - 106, (CL31 MESSAGE 1) Example message 101 line outputs CL017011 10 01128 ///// ///// 00000000E080 00100 10 0770 100 +40 094 02 0032 L0112HN30 000 036B200CC1002………………..EEFFB3F          (Line output cropped for clarity) e515 LINE 1 SOH CL ID OS 1 Samples STX CR LF where SOH = Start-of-Heading character CL = Always CL ID = A single character, 0 to 9, a to z or A to Z, case sensitive. Default ID = 0 OS = Operating system, 100 to 999 1 = Always 1 Samples = backscatter resolution and number of samples 1 = MESSAGE 101, 10 m x 770 samples, range 7700 m 2 = MESSAGE 102, 20 m x 385 samples, range 7700 m 3 = MESSAGE 103, 5 m x 1500 samples, range 7500 m 4 = MESSAGE 104, 5 m x 770 samples, range 3850 m 5 = MESSAGE 105, no backscatter profile 0 = MESSAGE 106, extended range, 5 m x 2048 samples, range 10,240 m STX = Start-of-Text Character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 2 S WA V h1 V h2 V h3 V flags CR LF SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 89

6.4.2 MESSAGE 005 (no profile, sky condition, mixing layer heights) Available only when a key is entered (see

Locked features (p. 66))

LINE 1 SOH CS ID OS N STX CR LF where SOH = Start-of-Heading character CS = Always C ID (1 character) = A single character, 0 to 9, a to z or A to Z, case sensitive. Default ID = 0 OS (3 characters) = Operating system, 001 to 999 N (3 characters) = Message number STX = Start-of-Text Character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 2 S WA V tr V h1 V h2 V h3 V h4 V flags" where S (1 character) = detection status: 0 = No significant backscatter 1 = One cloud base detected 2 = Two cloud bases detected 3 = Three cloud bases detected 4 = Full obscuration determined but no cloud base detected 5 = Some obscuration detected but determined to be transparent / = Raw data input to algorithm missing or suspect WA (1 character) = Warning or alarm status: 0 = No alarm or warning W = Warning A = Alarm h1 (5 characters) = 1st Height If detection status is 1, 2, 3 or 4 h1 = Lowest cloud base reported If detection status is 5 h1 = Vertical visibility as calculated If detection status is 0 or 6 h1 = ///// SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 90

h2 (5 characters) = 2nd Height If detection status is 2 or 3 h2 = Second cloud base reported If detection status is 4 h2 = Highest signal received If detection status is 0, 1, or 5 h2 = ///// h3 (5 characters) = 3rd Height If detection status is 3 h3 = Third cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 4, or 5 h3 = ///// flags (12 characters) = Alarm or warning information (refer to

Table 6-4 (p. 91),

Table 6-5 (p. 92),

and

Table 6-6 (p. 92) for a breakdown of flags)

Table 6-4: Most significant alarm word for CS31 messages Bit 1 Description 8000 XXXX XXXX 4000 XXXX XXXX 2000 XXXX XXXX 1000 XXXX XXXX 0800 XXXX XXXX 0400 XXXX XXXX 0200 XXXX XXXX 0100 XXXX XXXX Transmitter shut-off Transmitter failure Receiver failure Reserved for future use Reserved for future use Memory error Light path obstruction Receiver saturation 0080 XXXX XXXX 0040 XXXX XXXX 0020 XXXX XXXX 0010 XXXX XXXX Reserved for future use Reserved for future use Reserved for future use Reserved for future use 0008 XXXX XXXX 0004 XXXX XXXX Reserved for future use Reserved for future use 0002 XXXX XXXX Reserved for future use 0001 XXXX XXXX Ceilometer engine board failure 1 Alarm words are sum of error bits.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 91

Table 6-5: Middle alarm word for CS31 messages Bit 1 Description XXXX 8000 XXXX XXXX 4000 XXXX XXXX 2000 XXXX XXXX 1000 XXXX XXXX 0800 XXXX XXXX 0400 XXXX XXXX 0200 XXXX Window contamination Battery voltage low Transmitter expires High humidity Reserved for future use Blower failure Reserved for future use XXXX 0100 XXXX XXXX 0080 XXXX XXXX 0040 XXXX XXXX 0020 XXXX Humidity sensor failure Heater fault High background radiance Ceilometer engine board failure XXXX 0010 XXXX XXXX 0008 XXXX Reserved for future use Laser monitor failure XXXX 0004 XXXX XXXX 0002 XXXX Receiver warning Tilt beyond limit set by user, default 45 degrees XXXX 0001 XXXX Reserved for future use 1 Alarm words are sum of error bits.

Table 6-6: Least significant alarm word for CS31 messages Bit 1 Description XXXX XXXX 8000 XXXX XXXX 4000 XXXX XXXX 2000 XXXX XXXX 1000 XXXX XXXX 0800 XXXX XXXX 0400 Blower is on Blower heater is on Internal heater is on Working from battery Reserved for future use Self test in progress SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 92

Table 6-6: Least significant alarm word for CS31 messages Bit 1 Description XXXX XXXX 0200 XXXX XXXX 0100 XXXX XXXX 0080 XXXX XXXX 0040 XXXX XXXX 0020 XXXX XXXX 0010 XXXX XXXX 0008 Reserved for future use Reserved for future use Units are meters if on, else feet Reserved for future use Polling mode is on Reserved for future use Reserved for future use XXXX XXXX 0004 XXXX XXXX 0002 Reserved for future use Reserved for future use XXXX XXXX 0001 Reserved for future use 1 Alarm words are sum of error bits.

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 3 scale V res V n V energy V lt V tr V ti_bl V L0112HN15 V sum CR LF where, scale (5 characters) = Scale parameter,%, 0 to 99999. 100% is typical res (2 characters) = Backscatter profile resolution in meters n (4 characters) = Profile length 385, 770, 1400, or 1500 samples energy (3 characters) = Laser pulse energy, % lt (3 characters including leading +/-) = Laser temperature, degrees C tr (3 characters) = Window transmission, % ti (2 characters) = Total tilt angle, degrees bl (4 characters) = Background light, millivolts at internal ADC input (0 to 2500) "L0112HN15" (9 characters) = Reserved, defaults shown sum = (3 characters) Sum of detected and normalized backscatter, 0 to 999.

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 93

NOTE: This line is omitted from message 105.

LINE 4 SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS........(5 x 770 bytes) CR LF The two-way attenuated normalize backscatter profile; see

Backscatter profile reporting (p. 7).

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed NOTE: This line is omitted from message 105.

LINE 5 ETX CRC-16 EOT CR LF where ETX = End-of-Text character CRC-16 (4 characters) = CRC-16 Checksum EOT = End-of-Transmission character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed 6.4.3 MESSAGES 107 - 112, CL31 Message 2 Example message 107 line outputs CL017021 10 01407 ///// ///// 00000000E080 99 /// 0 /// 0 /// 0 /// 0 /// 00100 10 0770 100 +40 095 02 0031 L0112HN30 000 03301009……………………..027F         (Line output cropped for clarity) e669 LINE 1 SOH CL ID OS 2 Samples STX CR LF where SOH = Start-of-Heading character CL = Always CL ID = A single character, 0 to 9, a to z or A to Z, case sensitive. Default ID = 0 SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 94

OS = Operating system, 100 to 999 2 = Always 2 Samples = backscatter resolution and number of samples 1 = MESSAGE 107, 10 m x 770 samples, range 7700 m 2 = MESSAGE 108, 20 m x 385 samples, range 7700 m 3 = MESSAGE 109, 5 m x 1500 samples, range 7500 m 4 = MESSAGE 110, 5 m x 770 samples, range 3850 m 5 = MESSAGE 111, no backscatter profile 0 = MESSAGE 112, extended range, 5 m x 2048 samples, range 10240 m STX = Start-of-Text Character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 2 S WA V h1 V h2 V h3 V flags CR LF where S (1 character) = detection status: 0 = No significant backscatter 1 = One cloud base detected 2 = Two cloud bases detected 3 = Three cloud bases detected 4 = Full obscuration determined but no cloud base detected 5 = Some obscuration detected but determined to be transparent / = Raw data input to algorithm missing or suspect WA (1 character) = Warning or alarm status: 0 = No alarm or warning W = Warning A = Alarm h1 (5 characters) = 1st Height If detection status is 1, 2, or 3 h1 = Lowest cloud base reported If detection status is 4 h1 = Vertical visibility as calculated If detection status is 0 or 5 h1 = ///// h2 (5 characters) = 2nd Height If detection status is 2 or 3 h2 = Second cloud base reported If detection status is 4 h2 = Highest signal received If detection status is 0, 1, or 5 h2 = ///// SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 95

h3 (5 characters) = 3rd Height If detection status is 3 h3 = Third cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 4, or 5 h3 = ///// flags (12 characters) = Alarm or warning information.

Same as for messages 101 to 106 CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 3 __d_h1h1h1__d2_h2h2h2__d3_h3h3h3__d4_h4h4h4__d5_h5h5h5 CR LF (note spaces) where d (1 character) = Data available 0 to 8  Amount of lowest layer in oktas 9 Vertical visibility only available -1  No sky condition data available 99 Insufficient data h1h1h1 (3 characters) = Height of the lowest cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet d2 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 2nd layer in oktas h2h2h2 (3 characters) = Height of the 2nd cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 2nd layer is reported h2h2h2 = ///.

d3 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 3rd layer in oktas h3h3h3 (3 characters) = Height of the 3rd cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 3rd layer is reported h3h3h3 = ///.

d4 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 4th layer in oktas h4h4h4 (3 characters) = Height of the 4th cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 4th layer is reported h4h4h4 = ///.

d5 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 5th layer in oktas h5h5h5 (3 characters) = Height of the 5th cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 5th layer is reported h5h5h5 = ///.

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed NOTE: Cloud amount and height cannot be reported until the SkyVUE PRO has been operating for 30 minutes.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 96

LINE 4 scale V res V n V energy V lt V tr V ti_bl V L0112HN15 V sum CR LF where scale (5 characters) = Scale parameter,%, 0 to 99999. 100% is typical res (2 characters) = Backscatter profile resolution in meters n (4 characters) = Profile length 385, 770, 1400, or 1500 samples energy (3 characters) = Laser pulse energy, % lt (3 characters including leading +/-) = Laser temperature, degrees C tr (3 characters) = Window transmission, % ti (2 characters) = Total tilt angle, degrees bl (4 characters) = Background light, millivolts at internal ADC input (0 to 2500) L0112HN15 (9 characters) = Reserved, defaults shown sum = (3 characters) Sum of detected and normalized backscatter, 0 to 999. Not used in Operating System 1.

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed NOTE: This line is omitted from message 111.

LINE 5 SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS........(5 x 770 bytes) CR LF The two-way attenuated normalized backscatter profile; see

Backscatter profile reporting (p. 7).

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed NOTE: This line is omitted from message 111.

LINE 6 ETX CRC-16 EOT CR LF ETX = End-of-Text Character CRC-16 (4 characters) = CRC-16 Checksum EOT = End-of-Transmission character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 97

6.5 CT25K messages

6.5.1 MESSAGE 113, CT25K Data Message No. 1 Example message line outputs CT02010 20 01333 01523 ///// 00000F00 LINE 1 SOH CT ID 20 10 STX CR LF where SOH = Start-of-Heading character CT = Always CT ID (1 character) = Unit number 0 to 9, A to Z (capitals only) Default ID = 0 20 = Always 20 10 = Always 10 STX = Start-of-Text Character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 2 S WA V h1 V h2 V h3 V flags CR LF where S (1 character) = detection status: 0 = No significant backscatter 1 = One cloud base detected 2 = Two cloud bases detected 3 = Three cloud bases detected 4 = Full obscuration determined but no cloud base detected 5 = Some obscuration detected but determined to be transparent / = Raw data input to algorithm missing or suspect WA (1 character) = Warning or alarm status: 0 = No alarm or warning W = Warning A = Alarm SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 98

h1 (5 characters) = 1st Height If detection status is 1, 2, or 3 h1 = Lowest cloud base reported If detection status is 4 h1 = Vertical visibility as calculated If detection status is 0 or 5 h1 = ///// h2 (5 characters) = 2nd Height If detection status is 2 or 3 h2 = Second cloud base reported If detection status is 4 h2 = Height of highest signal detected If detection status is 0, 1, or 5 h2 = ///// h3 (5 characters) = 3rd Height If detection status is 3 h3 = Third cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 4, or 5 h3 = ///// flags (8 characters) = Alarm or warning information 4-byte hex coded Table 6-7: Most significant alarm word for CT25K messages Bit 1 Description 8000 XXXX Transmitter shut-off 4000 XXXX 2000 XXXX 1000 XXXX 0800 XXXX 0400 XXXX 0200 XXXX Transmitter failure Receiver failure DSP, voltage or memory failure Reserved for future use Reserved for future use Reserved for future use 0100 XXXX 0080 XXXX 0040 XXXX 0020 XXXX Reserved for future use Window contaminated Battery low Transmitter expire warning 0010 XXXX 0008 XXXX Heater or humidity sensor failure High radiance warning, also XXXX 0004 0004 XXXX 0002 XXXX DSP, receiver, or laser monitor failure warning Relative humidity > 85 % 0001 XXXX Light path obstruction, receiver saturation or receiver failure 1 Alarm words are sum of error bits.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 99

Table 6-8: Second alarm word for CT25K messages Bit 1 Description XXXX 8000 XXXX 4000 XXXX 2000 XXXX 1000 XXXX 0800 XXXX 0400 XXXX 0200 XXXX 0100 XXXX 0080 XXXX 0040 XXXX 0020 XXXX 0010 XXXX 0008 Blower failure Reserved for future use Reserved for future use Reserved for future use Blower on Blower heater on Internal heater on Units meters if on, feet if off Polling mode on Working from battery Always 0 Always 0 Tilt beyond limit set by user, default 45 degrees XXXX 0004 XXXX 0002 High radiance warning, also 0008 XXXX Reserved for future use XXXX 0001 Reserved for future use 1 Alarm words are sum of error bits.

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 3 ETX CR LF ETX = End-of-Text Character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 100

6.5.2 MESSAGE 114, CT25K Data Message No. 6 Example message line outputs CT02060 10 01767 ///// ///// 00000F00 99 /// 0 /// 0 /// 0 /// LINE 1 SOH CT ID 20 60 STX CR LF where SOH = Start-of-Heading character CT = Always CT ID (1 character) = Unit number 0 to 9, A to Z (capitals only) Default ID = 0 20 = always 20 60 = always 60 STX = Start-of-Text Character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 2 S WA V h1 V h2 V h3 V flags CR LF where S (1 character) = detection status: 0 = No significant backscatter 1 = One cloud base detected 2 = Two cloud bases detected 3 = Three cloud bases detected 4 = Full obscuration determined but no cloud base detected 5 = Some obscuration detected but determined to be transparent / = Raw data input to algorithm missing or suspect WA (1 character) = Warning or alarm status: 0 = No alarm or warning W = Warning A = Alarm SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 101

h1 (5 characters) = 1st Height If detection status is 1, 2, or 3 h1 = Lowest cloud base reported If detection status is 4 h1 = Vertical visibility as calculated If detection status is 0 or 5 h1 = ///// h2 (5 characters) = 2nd Height If detection status is 2 or 3 h2 = Second cloud base reported If detection status is 4 h2 = Height of highest signal detected If detection status is 0, 1, or 5 h2 = ///// h3 (5 characters) = 3rd Height If detection status is 3 h3 = Third cloud base reported If detection status is 0, 1, 2, 4, or 5 h3 = ///// flags (8 characters) = Alarm or warning information 4-byte hex coded As for CT25K message 1.

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed LINE 3 (Sky CONDITION) __d_h1h1h1__d2_h2h2h2__d3_h3h3h3__d4_h4h4h4 CR LF (note spaces) where d (1 character) = Data available 0 to 8  Amount of lowest layer in oktas 9  Vertical visibility only available -1  No sky condition data available 99  Insufficient data h1h1h1 (3 characters) = Height of the lowest cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet d2 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 2nd layer in oktas h2h2h2 (3 characters) = Height of the 2nd cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 2nd layer is reported h2h2h2 = ///.

d3 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 3rd layer in oktas h3h3h3 (3 characters) = Height of the 3rd cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 3rd layer is reported h3h3h3 = ///.

d4 (1 character) = Cloud amount of the 4th layer in oktas h4h4h4 (3 characters) = Height of the 4th cloud layer in 10 s of meters or 100 s of feet, if no 4th layer is reported h4h4h4 = ///.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 102

CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed NOTE: Cloud amount and height cannot be reported until the SkyVUE PRO has been operating for 30 minutes.

LINE 4 ETX CR LF ETX = End-of-Text Character CR LF = Carriage Return + Line Feed

7. Maintenance

7.1 General 7.2 Cleaning

7.3 Removing the cover

7.4 Removing the enclosure lid 7.5 Diagnostic LED indicators within the enclosure

7.6 Electrical safety testing

103 103

104

105 105

107

7.1 General

The SkyVUE PRO is a robust weather resistant instrument and there is no need for routine maintenance other than cleaning. The instrument performance is monitored, and any potential problems are indicated by error messages.

7.2 Cleaning

The SkyVUE PRO window will require cleaning from time to time. The frequency of required cleaning depends on the exposure of the instrument to contaminants such as salt and dust. This will vary depending on the site location. The SkyVUE PRO is capable of self diagnosing dirty lenses and will indicate in its output when the lenses are contaminated.

In any case, we suggest six monthly intervals for locations not prone to contaminants and monthly intervals for those prone to contamination (coastal, roadside or airport use). In some SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 103

cases, more frequent cleaning may be required where there are high levels of contaminants and high dependency on the instrument output.

CAUTION: If the window requires cleaning, it is very important that only a proper lens cloth or lens tissue is used. The use of inappropriate materials to clean the windows can permanently damage or reduce their effectiveness leading to reduced performance.

Use an air duster to blow any loose dust and dirt from the window as a first step. Use a lint free lens cloth or lens tissue impregnated with a non-aggressive standard window cleaner. Clean the surface by dragging the cloth across it being careful not to apply excessive pressure.

Excessive pressure may lead to some types of contaminants scratching the window surface. Over time such scratches can lead to reduced sensitivity.

When the cowl is removed, avoid spraying the heater/fan assembly with liquids.

7.3 Removing the cover

1. Remove four screws (

FIGURE 7-1 (p. 104)).

FIGURE 7-1. Removing the cover

2. Lift the cover off the base.

CAUTION: The cover contains a flying lead used to take power to the hood heater and blower. Be careful not to trap and damage this when lifting the cover clear.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 104

7.4 Removing the enclosure lid

1. Remove the four screws (

FIGURE 7-2 (p. 105))

2. Pull the enclosure lid away from the electronic unit.

FIGURE 7-2. Removing the enclosure lid

WARNING: Opening the access door MUST be carried out by a competent person, who has sufficient training, experience and knowledge both in electrical safety and the detail and operation of the sensor.

WARNING: Removing the enclosure lid may expose hot surfaces.

7.5 Diagnostic LED indicators within the enclosure

The LASER ON and STATUS green LEDs are visible on the DSP (see

FIGURE 7-3 (p. 106)). Their

function is as follows: LASER ON LED: Off = laser off Flashing = laser fault On = laser on SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 105

STATUS LED: 1 flash every 10 seconds = OK 2 flashes every 10 seconds = warning (possible degraded performance) 3 flashes every 10 seconds = alarm (measurements not possible) The DSP STATUS LED provides the same function as the LED visible through the top window.

The red LED on the PSU flashes for 0.5 seconds: Permanently on = PSU firmware fault 1 flash every 10 seconds = PSU OK 2 flashes every 10 seconds = running in battery mode 3 flashes every 10 seconds = no communications to the DSP. This takes 60 seconds to start after a communications failure.

FIGURE 7-3. Diagnostic LED indicators

The red LED on the laser module indicates: Off = Laser off On = Laser on SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 106

7.6 Electrical safety testing

NOTE: If carrying out insulation tests, do not use test voltages above 300 V RMS because the sensor is designed to clamp any mains input voltages above this level. Voltage clamping can result in a false failure being detected.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 107

Appendix A. Measurement of the attenuated backscatter profile

A.1 Initial measurement A.2 Backscatter onset height detection

A.3 Produce attenuated backscatter output message

108 108

109

A.1 Initial measurement

l Pulse the laser and measure the backscatter at optimal gains.

l Derive the impulse response and impulse correct the backscatter signal using the inverse filter derived.

l Remove the residual offset and slope from the impulse corrected backscatter.

l Apply an overlap correction based on the known generic overlap function of the SkyVUE PRO.

l Apply the backscatter calibration constants.

l Remove the laser and electronic artefact signature. This is specific to the individual SkyVUE PRO and determined during calibration.

A.2 Backscatter onset height detection

l Filter the backscatter with 20 m (65.6 ft) and 300 m (984 ft) width filters.

l Look for a 1500 m (4921 ft) block width where the standard deviation is at a minimum for both the 20 m (65.6 ft) and 300 m (984 ft) width filtered backscatters.

l Create a detection threshold by multiplying the 20 m (65.6 ft) and 300 m (984 ft) standard deviations by a constant.

l Find the onset of backscatter height by working from the highest height bin downwards until the backscatter is above one or both of the two detection thresholds.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 108

A.3 Produce attenuated backscatter output message

l Range correct the backscatter to produce the attenuated backscatter.

l Attenuated backscatter (output), calibrated, range corrected but not tilt corrected.

l Smooth with a 20 m (65.6 ft) width running average.

l A noise gate can be applied based on a multiple of the 20 m (65.6 ft) detection threshold — this is customer configurable.

l The lower height range bins do not gate noise until the backscatter reaches zero. This allows the full extent of mixing layers to be viewed in gating mode.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 109

Appendix B. Cloud height calculation

The scatter profile is inverted (using the Klett inversion technique) and an extinction profile is calculated.

Cloud base heights are identified using two criteria as follows (cloud is detected if either of them is met).

Criterion 1: likely cloud bases are estimated based on increasing slope of the extinction profile of at least 7 m (22.9 ft) per bin (bin width is 5 m (16.4 ft) and an extinction threshold. This threshold is based on an extinction coefficient (EXCO) of 3, equivalent to a horizontal visibility (MOR) of 1000 m (3280 ft). This results in a number of possible cloud bases at different heights.

Criterion 2: horizontal visibility falls below an average of 4800 m (15,748 ft) over 300 m (984 ft) starting at an altitude of 1000 m (3280 ft).

To report a cloud layer above a lower one the scatter coefficient first has to fall below the extinction threshold used for cloud definitions (less a small hysteresis offset). The scatter profile must then again meet the criteria above.

If rain is detected, the sensitivity of detection is increased by a factor of 3.

To avoid many very narrow close layers being reported when they have little significance a minimum separation based on WMO reporting intervals is applied. The separation is ± 30 m (98 ft) below 1500 m (4921 ft) and 300 m (984 ft) above 1500 m (4921 ft). The lowest cloud height is used. If a thin cloud identified by Criterion 2 above is within ±150 m (492 ft) of a cloud identified by criterion 1, then the thin cloud is ignored.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 110

Appendix C. Sky condition algorithm description

The SkyVUE PRO sky condition algorithm follows guidance from ICAO and WMO documents 1 and is based on 30 minutes of data. For this reason, sky condition is not available for 30 minutes after power cycling the sensor, a reboot, or changing measurement parameters. The sky condition algorithm is as follows: Each measured hit comprising the lowest cloud height, (vertical visibility + onset of backscatter) / 2 and a weighting of 1 or 2 is stored in a running half hour buffer.

The weighting is 2 for hits in the last 10 minutes and 1 for hits in the previous 20 minutes.

If >50% of the hits in the latest 10 minutes are vertical visibility, then the vertical visibility averaged over the last 10 minutes is reported. Only hits below the vertical visibility height limit set are used.

The buffer is sorted in height order and hits combined into bins with the following widths: Height 0 – 5000 ft (0 – 1524 m) 5000 – 15,000 ft (1524 – 4572 m) 15,000 – 26,250 ft (4572 – 8000 m) Bin width 100 ft (30.5 m) 200 ft (61 m) 500 ft (152 m) For each bin a mean height is calculated by the following: Hi = ∑(h i w i )/∑(wi) Where w i is the weight (1 or 2) of the hit with height h i Bins are then reduced. A distance (D) between adjacent bins is calculated by the following equation: D = N i N j (H i -H j )2/N i +N j 1 ICAO 9837 Manual on Automatic Meteorological Observing Systems at Aerodromes.

WMO – No. 306 Manual on Codes SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 111

Where N i and N j are the sum of hits of each bin and H i and H j the respective heights.

Find the pair with the minimum distance D and combine into one bin with the height of the lowest and number of hits of the combined total.

This process is repeated until 5 or less bins remain. These are now taken as cloud layers.

Finally, if cloud layers are closer than the distances below, then they are merged with the height of the lowest and combined total number of hits.

Height range Height ≤ 300 m (1000 ft) 300 m < Height ≤ 900 m (1000 ft < Height ≤ 3000 ft) 900 m < Height ≤ 1500 m (3000 ft < Height ≤ 5000 ft) 1500 m < Height ≤ 2400 m (5000 ft < Height ≤ 8000 ft) Height > 2400 m (8000 ft) Distance (D) ≤ 90 m (300 ft) ≤ 120 m (400 ft) ≤ 180 m (600 ft) ≤ 300 m (1000 ft) ≤ 480 m (1600 ft) Weights per layer are used to calculate number of oktas per layer.

If the total possible is W max , then the cover is (W i /W max ) x 8.

Cloud amounts are rounded up to the next highest whole oktas.

For layers above the lowest this is based on the maximum possible weights. If the lower layers have W 1 hits and the next layer has W 2 hits, then the cover of the higher layer is given by: (W 2 /(W max -W 1 )) x 8 For example, taking weighting into account, if lower layers of cloud only allow 4/8 of clear sky above and the cover is 2/8 out of those 4/8, then the layer above is taken as 4/8.

Finally, only layers meeting the following criteria are reported: Layer 1 ≥ 1/33 oktas Layer 2 ≥ 3 oktas Layer 3 ≥ 5 oktas Layer 4 ≥ 7 oktas Layer 5 ≥ 7 oktas Any layer > (8 – 1/33) oktas is reported as 8 oktas SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 112

Appendix D. Replacing the SkyVUE PRO PSU

The Power Supply Unit (PSU) can be replaced in the SkyVUE PRO as follows: 1. Disconnect the power to the SkyVUE PRO and open the housing.

2. Disconnect all the plugs from the PSU including the battery.

3. Use a 3 mm ball-end hexagonal-key to remove the two M4 x 12 socket head screws on the chassis plate that are on the bent-up tabs on the left and right hand sides.

4. Pull the PSU forward removing the PSU and battery carrier.

5. Loosen the four screws holding the PSU in place and slide off the PSU.

6. Re-insert the new PSU and push back into position.

7. Replace the two screws on the chassis plate.

8. Re-attach the cable plugs into the correct sockets on the new PSU ensuring that each is connected properly.

9. Ensure that the battery (if used) is reconnected to the PSU.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 113

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 114

Appendix E. SkyVUE PRO Laser/APD module replacement

Basic procedure: 1. Isolate the SkyVUE PRO from AC mainspower.

2. Remove the outer enclosure.

3. Remove the access door using the supplied key.

4. Disconnect the cables from the Power Supply Unit (PSU) including the battery.

NOTE: It is very important to disconnect the battery from the SkyVUE PRO to ensure that the laser is not powered.

5. Unscrew the two securing screws from the PSU chassis plate so it can be pulled out to gain better access to the Laser and APD module.

6. Now the Laser module and avalanche photo diode (APD) module will be visible.

7. Disconnect the ribbon cable and SMB connector from the module that is being replaced.

To avoid damage only pull the gold metal part of the SMB connector.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 115

8. The laser module and APD module have four M4 x 14 mm long socket cap screws with a plain and spring washer securing them. Two of the screws are visible and the other two cannot be seen; they are at the back and directly across from the front screws. Feel for these screws or use a mirror to help locate and loosen them.

WARNING: Do not loosen any other screws.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 116

WARNING: Do not replace screws with different length screws.

9. Remove any protective film from the filters of the new APD and laser modules before mounting them.

10. Once the screws have been removed pull the module off the locating pins. Fit the new module by pushing it onto the locating pins and then re-assembling, in reverse order, using the original screws, spring washers and plain washers.

11. Reconnect the ribbon cable and SMB connector to the module before closing and securing the access door.

NOTE: Make sure the module sits flat against the plate before tightening the four screws.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 117

Appendix F. SkyVUE PRO TOP board replacement

1. Isolate the SkyVUE PRO from AC mainspower.

2. Remove the outer enclosure.

3. Remove the access door using the supplied key.

4. Disconnect the cables from the Power Supply Unit (PSU) including the battery.

NOTE: It is very important to disconnect the battery from the SkyVUE PRO to ensure that the laser is not powered.

5. Use a 4 mm ball-end hexagon-key to remove 3 screws from each side of the inner enclosure as shown.

6. Use antistatic precautions. The electronics are sensitive to static discharge.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 118

7. Carefully lift the inner enclosure upward until it is clear of the lens and TOP board assembly as shown.

This will expose the lens and the TOP board. Do not touch the lens.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 119

8. Disconnect the ribbon cable from the TOP board by pulling the two levers back towards the TOP board PCB as shown.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 120

9. Remove TOP board grounding wire from under screw. Keep the screw in a secure place.

10. Observe and note the orientation and position of the rubber seal from the top edge of the board. There is a lip on the lower edge of the seal which, when reinstalled, should be on the same side of the board.

11. Remove the seal by gripping at the bottom of the lower flat sides and pulling it away from the board starting at one end. Do not pull the strip by gripping the top, soft part of the seal. The seal is not glued on, but grips the board using an internal spring. Put the strip in a secure place for reuse.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 121

12. Remove the TOP board by pulling the black anodized aluminium plate away from the back of the board. Use your thumb to pull the plate, at the same time, push the top of the TOP board with you index finger. The TOP board should then move forward and up out of its slot. Do not lift until the top board has moved forward enough to unhook the front.

13. Carefully feed the TOP board ground cable through the ribbon cable slot.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 122

14. Now the TOP board is completely removed.

15. To fit the new TOP board reverse the procedure above. Clip the board in the vertical aluminium plate making sure to position the ribbon cable so the connector can plug into the socket on the new board. Attach the ground wire of the new board to the back of the unit using the screw as shown in step 9 above. Then refit the rubber seal to the top edge of the board by pushing it on, starting at one end and working along to the other end. Make sure the seal is in the same orientation and position as before so it does not overhang the end of the board and the lower lip of the seal do not obscure the lens closest to the board.

16. Check that there is no dirt or grit on the silicone rubber foam seal which sits around the edge of the base plate.

17. Check for and carefully remove any dust or marks on the top lenses.

18. Refit the internal enclosure.

19. Replace the screws which hold the enclosure down to the plate and make sure they are tight enough to push enclosure edges flat to the base plate. This ensures correct seal compression.

20. Look into the top window to make sure the rubber seal on the TOP board sits beneath the central bar of the metal window frame and, as far as is visible, has formed a light tight seal between the two sides of the top circuit board. If not, remove the inner enclosure and refit the seal.

21. Reconnect the battery.

22. Replace the outer enclosure.

23. Close and secure the access door.

24. Reconnect the sensor leads then connect to the sensor using a computer or data logger and power-on the sensor. Check the SkyVUE PRO is operating correctly by observing the response to the status command or looking at the status flags in messages.

SkyVUE™PRO (CS135) LIDAR Ceilometer 123

INFO

Global Sales & Support Network

A worldwide network to help meet your needs Australia Location:

Garbutt, QLD Australia

Phone:

61.7.4401.7700

Email:

info@campbellsci.com.au

Website:

www.campbellsci.com.au

Brazil Location:

São Paulo, SP Brazil

Phone:

11.3732.3399

Email:

vendas@campbellsci.com.br

Website:

www.campbellsci.com.br

Canada Location:

Edmonton, AB Canada

Phone:

780.454.2505

Email:

dataloggers@campbellsci.ca

Website:

www.campbellsci.ca

China Location:

Beijing, P. R. China

Phone:

86.10.6561.0080

Email:

info@campbellsci.com.cn

Website:

www.campbellsci.com

Costa Rica Location:

San Pedro, Costa Rica

Phone:

506.2280.1564

Email:

info@campbellsci.cc

Website:

www.campbellsci.cc

France Location:

Vincennes, France

Phone:

0033.0.1.56.45.15.20

Email:

info@campbellsci.fr

Website:

www.campbellsci.fr

Germany Location:

Bremen, Germany

Phone:

49.0.421.460974.0

Email:

info@campbellsci.de

Website:

www.campbellsci.de

India Location:

New Delhi, DL India

Phone:

91.11.46500481.482

Email:

info@campbellsci.in

Website:

www.campbellsci.in

South Africa Location:

Stellenbosch, South Africa

Phone:

27.21.8809960

Email:

sales@campbellsci.co.za

Website:

www.campbellsci.co.za

Spain Location:

Barcelona, Spain

Phone:

34.93.2323938

Email:

info@campbellsci.es

Website:

www.campbellsci.es

Thailand Location:

Bangkok, Thailand

Phone:

66.2.719.3399

Email:

info@campbellsci.asia

Website:

www.campbellsci.asia

UK Location:

Shepshed, Loughborough, UK

Phone:

44.0.1509.601141

Email:

sales@campbellsci.co.uk

Website:

www.campbellsci.co.uk

USA Location:

Logan, UT USA

Phone:

435.227.9120

Email:

info@campbellsci.com

Website:

www.campbellsci.com

Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement