Westerbeke 20.0 WMF - 50Hz Diesel Generator Technical Manual

Westerbeke 20.0 WMF - 50Hz Diesel Generator Technical Manual
TECHNICAL MANUAL
WESTERBEKE 70 -1 00
Marine Diesel Engines
WESTERBEKE 25 - 32KW
Marine Diesel Generators
Publication no. 33355
Edition One
July 1983
~r-.v- 'WESTERBEKE
~
WESTERBEKECORPORATION
MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319
TECHNICAL MANUAL
WESTERBEKE 70 -1 00
Marine Diesel Engines
WESTERBEKE 25 - 32KW
Marine Diesel Generators
Publication no. 33355
Edition One
July 1983
~r-.v- 'WESTERBEKE
~
WESTERBEKECORPORATION
MYLES STANDISH INDUSTRIAL PARK
150 JOHN HANCOCK ROAD, TAUNTON, MA 02780-7319
SECTION INDEX
GENERAL
Introduction
Installation
Operation
Maintenance
ENGINE OVERHAUL
OTHER OVERHAUL
Marine Engine Electrical System
Cooling System (External)
Transmissions
GENERATOR SETS
HYDRAULIC CRANKING SYSTEM
SERVICE BULLETINS
IMPORTANT
PRODUCT SOFTWARE NOTICE
Product software of all kinds, such as brochures, drawings,
technical data, operator's and workshop manuals, parts lists
and parts price lists, and other information, instructions
and
specifications
provided
from
sources
other
than
Westerbeke, is not wi thin Westerbeke' s control and, accordingly, is provided to Westerbeke customers only as a courtesy and service.
WESTERBEKE CANNOT BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
CONTENT
OF
SUCH
SOFTWARE,
MAKES
NO
WARRANTIES
OR
REPRESENTATIONS WITH RESPECT THERETO, INCLUDING THE ACCURACY,
TIMELINESS OR COMPLETENESS THEREOF, AND WILL IN NO ~VENT BE
LIABLE FOR ANY TYPE OF DAMAGES OR INJURY INCURRED IN
CONNECTION WITH, OR ARISING OUT OF, THE FURNISHING OR USE OF
SUCH SOFTWARE.
For example, components and sub-assemblies incorporated in
Westerbeke's products and supplied by others (such as engine
blocks, fuel systems and components, transmissions, electrical components, pumps and other products) are generally supported by their manufacturers with their own software, and
Westerbeke must depend on such software for the design of
Westerbeke's own product software. Such software may be outdated and no longer accurate.
Routine changes made by
Westerbeke's suppliers, of which Westerbeke rarely has notice
in advance, are frequently not reflected in the supplier's
software until after such changes take place.
Westerbeke customers should also keep in mind the time span
between printings of Westerbeke product software, and the
unavoidable existence of earlier, non-current Westerbeke
software
editions
in
the
field.
Addi tionally,
most
Westerbeke
products
include
customer-requested
special
features that frequently do not. include complete documentation.
In sum, product software provided with Westerbeke products,
whether from Westerbeke or other suppliers, must not and cannot be relied upon exclusively as the definitive authority on
the respective product. It not only makes good sense, but is
imperative that appropriate representatives of Westerbeke or
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accuracy and currency of the product software being consulted
by the customer.
2
INTRODUCTION
IMPORTANT
THIS MANUAL IS A DETAILED GUIDE TO THE INSTALLATION,
START-UP, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF YOUR WESTERBEKE MARINE
DIESEL ENGINE.
THE INFORMATION IT CONTAINS IS VITAL TO THE
ENGINE'S DEPENDABLE, LONG TERM OPERATION.
READ IT
KEEP IT IN A SAFE PLACE !
KEEP IT HANDY FOR REFERENCE AT ALL TIMES !
FAILURE TO DO SO WILL INVITE SERIOUS RISK, NOT ONLY TO YOUR
INVESTMENT BUT YOUR SAFETY AS WELL.
UNDERSTANDING THE DIESEL ••••
The diesel engine closely resembles the gasoline engine inasmuch
as the mechanism is essentially the same.
Its cylinders are arranged
above its closed crankcase; its crankshaft is of the same general type
as that of a gasoline engine; it has the same sort of valves,
camshaft, pistons, connecting rods, lubricating system and reverse and
reduction gear.
Therefore, it follows to a great extent that a diesel eng ine
requires the same preventative maintenance as that which any intelligent operator would give to a gasoline engine.
The most important
factors are proper maintenance of the fuel, lubricating and cooling
systems.
Replacement of fuel and lubricating filter elements at the
time periods specified is a must, and frequent checking for contamination (i.e. water, sediment,etc.) in the fuel system is also
essential.
Another important factor is the use of the same brand of
"high detergent" diesel lubricating oil designed specifically for
diesel engines.
The diesel engine does differ from the gasoline engine, however,
in the method of handling and firing its fuel.
The carburetor and
igni tion systems are done away with and in their place is a single
component - the Fuel Injection Pump - which performs the function of
both.
Unremi tting care and attention at the factory have resulted in a
Westerbeke eng ine capable of many thousands of hours of dependable
service. What the manufacturer cannot control, however, is the treatment it receives in service. This part rests with you!
ORDERING PARTS
Whenever replacement parts are needed, always include the complete
part description and part number (see separate Parts List furnished,
if not part of this publication).
Be sure to include the engine's
model and serial number. Also, be sure to insist upon Westerbeke factory packaged parts, because "will fit" parts are frequently not made
to the same specifications as original equipment.
GENERATOR SETS
Westerbeke diesels are used for both the propulsion of boats and
for generating electrical power. For generator set applications, all
details of this Manual apply, except in regard to certain portions of
the' Installation, Operation and Maintenance sections.
Additional
information is provided in the section titled Generator Sets,
Section T.
3
YOUR NOTES
4
INSTALLATION
FOREWORD
Since the boats in which these engines are used are many
and var ied, details of eng ine installation are equally so.
It is not the purpose of this section to advise boatyards and
engine installers on the generally well understood and well
developed procedures for installation of engines.
However,
the following outline of general procedure is included
because it is valuable in explaining the functions of each
component, the reasons why, the precautions to be watched and
the relationship of the installation to the operation of the
engine.
There are details of the installation which should
have a periodic check and of which the operator should have a
thorough understanding to insure good operating conditions
for the engine and correct procedure for its servicing.
INSPECTION OF EQUIPMENT
The engine is shipped from the factory mounted securely and properly crated. Accessory equipment is shipped in a separate small box,
usually packed with the engine crate.
Before accepting shipment from the transportation company, the
crate should be opened and an inspection made for concealed damage.
If either visible or concealed damage is noted, you should require the
delivering agent to sign "Received in damaged condition". Also check
contents of the shipment against the packing list and make sure note
is made of any discrepancies. This is your protection against loss or
damage. Claims for loss or damage must be made to the carrier, not to
J. H. Westerbeke Corporation.
RIGGING AND LIFTING
The engine is fitted with lifting rings.
Rope or chain slings should be attached to the rings and the
engine lifted by means of tackle attached to this sling. The lifting
rings have been designed to carry the full weight of the engine~
therefore, auxiliary slings are not required or desired.
CAUTION:
Slings must not be so short as to place the engine
lifting eyes in significant sheer stress.
Strain on the engine
lifting eyes must not be in excess of 10· from the vertical.
The general rule in moving engines is to see that all equipment
used is amply strong and firmly fixed in place.
Move the engine a
Ii ttle at a time and see that it is firmly supported.
Eliminate
possibility of accidents by avoiding haste. Do not lift from the propeller coupling, or pry against this with a crowbar, as you may
distort the coupling.
In some cases it may be necessary to lift the engine in other than
the regular horizontal position.
It may be that the engine must be
lowered endwise through a small hatchway which cannot be made larger.
If the opening is extremely restricted, it is possible to reduce, to
some extent, the outside clearances such as alternator, cooling
piping, manifold, filters, mounting lugs, etc. This accessory equipment should be removed by a competent mechanic and special care should
be taken to avoid damage to any exposed parts and to avoid dirt
entering. openings.
The parts which have been removed should be
returned to position as soon as the restriction has been passed.
5
In case it is necessary to hoist the eng ine ei ther front end
upwards or reverse gear end upwards, the attachment of slings must be
done very carefully to avoid the possibility of damage to the parts on
which the weight may bear. It is best if special rigging work be done
by someone experienced and competent in the handling of heavy machinery.
ENGINE HOLD DOWN BOLTS
It is recommended that bronze or stainless steel hanger bolts of
appropr iate si ze be used through the eng ine flexible mounts.
Lag
screws are less preferred because their hold on the wood is weakened
every time they are moved, whereas the lag bolt stays in position and
the nut on top is used to tighten the engine down or is removed to
permit the engine to be lifted. The bolt itself stays in position at
all times, as a stud, and the bond between the bolt and the wood is
not weakened by its removal.
FOUNDATION FOR ENGINE
A good engine bed contributes much toward the satisfactory operation of the engine. The engine bed
must be of rigid construction and
neither deflect nor twist when subjected to the engine weight or the
position the boat may have to take
under the effects of rough seas.
The bed must keep the engine within
one or two thousandths of an inch
of this position at all times.
It
has to wi thstand the forward push
A
of the propeller which is applied
to the propeller shaft, to the
thrust washer bearing in the engine
and finally to the engine bolts and
engine bed.
In fiberglas hulls, we recommend that engine stringers be of
wood or preformed fiberglas and be
thoroughly glassed to the hull.
This should allow for the engine
isolator hold down bolts to be
firmly installed in the beds, thus
reducing
noise
and
transmitted
B
vibration.
The temptation to install the
engine on a pair of fiberglas
"angle irons n should be resisted. Such construction will allow engine
vibrations to pass through to the hull.
Flexible mounts require a
firm foundation against which to react if they are to do their job.
When possible, follow bed design nAn and avoid bed design nB".
PROPELLER COUPLING
Each Westerbeke Diesel engine is regularly fitted with a suitable
coupling connecting the propeller shaft to the engine.
The coupling must not only transmit the power of the engine to
6
turn the shaft, but must also transmit the thrust either ahead or
ast'ern from the shaft to the thrust bear ing which is built into the
reduction gear housing of the engine. This coupling is very carefully
machined for accurate fit.
For all engine models, a propeller half-coupling, bored to shaft
size for the specific order, is supplied.
The coupling either has a
keyway with set screws or is of the clamping type.
The forward end of the propeller shaft has a long straight keyway.
Any burrs should be removed from the shaft end.
The coupling should
be a light drive fit on the shaft and the shaft should not have to be
scraped down or filed in order to get a fit.
It is important that
the key be properly fitted both to the shaft and the coupling.
The
key should fit the side of the keyway very closely, but should not
touch the top of the keyway in the hub of the coupling.
If it seems difficult to drive the coupling over the shaft, the
coupling can be expanded by heating in a pail of boiling water.
The
face of the propeller coupling must be exactly perpendicular to the
centerline or axis of the propeller shaft.
The coupling set screw(s)
heads are drilled and should be lock-wired once secured to prevent
their loosening.
PROPELLER
The type and size of propeller varies with the gear ratio and must
be selected to fit the application based upon boat tests.
To utilize
the full power of the engine, and to achieve ideal loading conditions,
it is desirable to use a propeller which will permit the engine to
reach its full rated RPM at full throttle under normal load.
ALIGNMENT OF ENGINE
The engine must be properly and exactly aligned with the propeller
shaft.
No matter what material is used to build a boat it will be
found to be flexible to some extent and the boat hull will change its
shape to a greater extent than is usually realized when it is launched
and operated in the water.
It is therefore very important to check
the engine alignment at frequent intervals and to correct any errors
when they may appear.
Misalignment between the engine and the propeller shaft is the
cause of troubles which are often blamed on other causes.
It will
create excessive bearing wear, rapid shaft wear and will, in many
cases, reduce the life of the hull by loosening the hull fastenings.
A bent propeller shaft will have exactly the same effect and it is
therefore necessary that the propeller shaft itself be perfectly
straight.
One particularly annoying result of misalignment may be leakage of
transmission oil through the rear oil seal.
Check to make sure that
alignment is within the limits prescribed.
The engine should be moved around on the bed and supported on the
isolators until the two halves of the couplings can be brought
together without using force and so that the flanges meet evenly all
around.
It is best not to drill the foundation for the foundation
bolts until the approximate alignment has been accurately determined.
Never attempt a final alignment with the boat on land.
The boat
should be in the water and have had an opportunity to assume its final
water form.
It is best to do the alignment with the fuel and water
tanks about half full and all the usual equipment on board and after
7
the main mast
has
been
stepped
and final
rigging has been
accomplished.
Take plenty of time in making this alignment and do not be
satisfied with anything less than perfect results.
The alignment is correct when the shaft
can be slipped backward and forward into the
counterbore very easily and when a feeler
gauge indicates that the flanges come exactly
together at all points.
The two halves of
the propeller coupling should be parallel
within 0.001 inches (A) per inch of coupling
diameter.
In making the final check for alignment,
the engine half coupling should be held in
one position and the alignment with the propeller coupling tested with the propeller
coupling in each of four positions, rotated
90· between each position. This test will also check whether the propeller half coupling is in exact alignment on its shaft.
Then,
keeping the propeller coupling in one position, the alignment should
be checked rotating the engine half coupling to full position each 90·
from the next one.
The engine alignment should be rechecked after the boat has been
in service for one to three weeks and, if necessary, the alignment
remade.
It will usually be found that the engine is no longer in
alignment.
This is not because the work was improperly done at first
but because the boat has taken some time to take its final shape, and
the engine bed and engine stringers when made of wood have probably
absorbed some moisture.
It may even be necessary to re-align at a
further period.
The coupling should always be opened up and the bolts removed
whenever the boat is hauled out or moved from the land to the water,
and during storage in a cradle.
The flexibility of the boat often
puts a very severe strain on the shaft or the coupling or both when it
is being moved.
In some cases the shaft has actually been bent by
these strains. This does not apply to small boats that are hauled out
of the water when not in use, unless they are dry for a considerable
time.
EXHAUST SYSTEM
Exhaust line installations v~ry considerably and each must be
designed for the particular job. The general requirements are to provide an outlet line wi th a minimum of restr ictions and arranged so
that sea water, rain water or condensation cannot get back into the
engine.
There should be a considerable fall in the line between the
exhaust manifold flange and the discharge end. This slope in the pipe
makes it difficult for water to be driven in very far by a wave, and a
steep drop followed by a long slope is better than a straight gradual
slope.
Avoid any depression or trough to the line which would fill
with water and obstruct the flow of exhaust gas. Also avoid any sharp
bends or the use of 90· fittings.
Brass or copper is not acceptable for wet exhaust systems, as the
combination of salt water and diesel exhaust gas will cause rapid
deterioration.
Galvanized iron fittings and galvanized iron pipe are
recommended for the exhaust line.
The exhaust line must be at least
8
as large as the engine exhaust manifold flange and be increased in
size if there is an especially long run.
It should be increased by
1/2" in I.D. for every 10 feet beyond the first 10 feet.
Most exhaust systems today use a water lift type muffler such as
the Westerbeke "Hydro-Hush".
In most installations there is a dry,
insulated high loop after the engine manifold and before the muffler
to prevent water flowing backwards into the engine during cranking.
It is essential not to hang too much weight in the form of exhaust
system components rigidly from the engine manifold.
Generally, it is
permissible to directly connect a pipe nipple and a water jacketed
exhaust elbow, which two components weigh about 8 pounds (4 kg).
If
there are more components to be rigidly connected to each other than
will weigh 8 pounds, then a flexible exhaust section must be installed
between the manifold outlet and the exhaust system.
HYDRO-HUSH BELOW ENGI NE.
WATER LIFT EXHAUST SYSTEM WITH "HYDRO-HUSH MUFFLER"
The exhaust system must be supported or suspended independently of
the engine manifold, usually using simple metal hangers secured to the
overhead.
All dry portions of the exhaust system should be wrapped in
suitable insulation material to keep surface temperatures as low as
possible.
Many installations use flexible rubber exhaust hose for the water
cooled section of the exhaust line because of the ease of installation
and flexibility. Provide adequate support for the rubber hose to prevent sagging, bending and formation of water pockets.
Always arrange the rubber hose section so that water cannot
possibly flow back into the engine.
Also make sure that entering sea
water cannot spray directly against the inside of the exhaust piping.
Otherwise, excessive erosion will occur.
MEASURING EXHAUST GAS BACK PRESSURE
Back pressure must be measured on a straight section of the
exhaust line and as near as possible to the engine exhaust manifold.
The engine should be run at maximum load during the measurement
period. Set-up should be as shown below.
1. For normally aspirated engines:
Pressure Test
Mercury Test
Water Column
1-1/2" Max PSI
3" Mercury
= 39"
9
Checking The Back Pressure
1. Exhaust pipe flange
2. Exhaust line
3.
Transparent
plastic
hose,
partly filled with water.
Measurement "An may not exceed 39"
for normally aspirated engines.
WATER CONNECTIONS
Seacocks and strainers should be of the full flow type at least
one size greater than the inlet thread of the sea water pump.
The
strainer should be of the type which may be withdrawn for cleaning
while the vessel is at sea.
Water lines can be copper tubing or wire-wound, reinforced rubber
hose.
In any case, use a section of flexible hose that will not
collapse under suction, between the hull inlet and engine and between
the outlet and the exhaust system.
This takes up vibration and permits the engine to be moved slightly when it is being re-aligned. Do
not use street elbows in suction piping. All pipe and fittings should
be of bronze. Use sealing compound at all connections to prevent air
leaks. The neoprene impeller in the sea (raw) water pump should never
be run dry.
WlOO SEA WATER CONNECTIONS
This engine requires a 21.5 GPM sea water flow at 3400 RPM for
proper cooling.
In power boat applications with boat speeds over 10 knots, an
intake scoop MUST be installed to force cooling water through the seacock at high speeds.
The minimum seacock size is 1" and the minimum
1.0. of hose connecting the sea cock and sea water pump is 7/8". The
sea water pump MUST be connected directly to the intake (or strainer)
without restrictive reducers or elbows.
Sea water flow from the heat exchanger MUST be divided by a 1/2"
or larger tee at the inlet to the injected exhaust elbow so that only
the necessary portion flows through the exhaust and so that the
remaining portion has an unrestricted run back to the ocean.
It is
the installer's responsibili ty to balance these two flows so that
adequate cooling water flows through the exhaust to cool it at full
load and speed.
FUEL TANK AND FILTERS
Fuel tanks may be of fiberglas, monel, aluminum, plain steel or
terne plate.
If made of fiberglas, be certain that the interior is
gel coated to prevent fibers from contaminating the fuel system.
Copper or galvanized fuel tanks should not be used.
Fuel tanks (s)
should be located as close to the engine as possible. The addition of
an electric fuel pump to supply fuel to engines may be required when
tanks are below engine level such a being an integral part of the
vessel's keel or the tanks are distant from the engine
Plumbing for the fuel supply and fuel return should not restrict
fuel flow.
5/16" 0.0. tubing is mimimum and 3/8" 0.0. tubing is
10
'
generally preferred.
It is recommended that the fuel return be
returned to the tank and that the return connection at the tank be
extended down into the tank as if it were a fuel pick up.
This is
particularly important in those installations where tanks are below
engine level to prevent air from entering the fuel system via the
return system.
Return fuel carr ies wi th it heat removed from the
injection equipment on the engine during operation.
It is important
that this fuel be returned to the tank so that this heat carried by
the fuel will be dispersed by the cool fuel in the tank.
A primary fuel filter/separator should be installed between the
fuel tank and the eng ine.
A secondary fuel f il ter is fitted on the
engine and has a replaceable filter element.
To insure satisfactory operation, a diesel engine must have a
dependable supply of clean diesel fuel.
For this reason, cleanliness
and care are especially important at the time when the fuel tank is
installed, because dirt left anywhere in the fuel lines or tank will
certainly cause fouling of the inj ector nozzles when the eng ine is
started for the first time.
FUEL PIPING
Fuel supply and return lines should be fabricated of Coast Guard
approved hose material or copper tubing using flared connections. The
hose or tubing should be used in as long a length as possible to eliminate the use of unnecessary fittings and connections.
A fuel shut
off should be installed in the line between the fuel tank and primary
fuel filter/separator and should be of the fuel oil type.
The fuel line plumbing from the tank to the engine compartment
should be properly supported to prevent its chafing.
The final connection to the engine should be through flexible fuel
hose to absorb engine movement and vibration.
ELECTRIC PANEL - PROPULSION
The Westerbeke all-electric panel utilizes an electronic tachometer wi th a buil t- in hourmeter.
Mounted on the panel are a vol tmeter, water temperature gauge, oil pressure gauge and keyswitch.
Each instrument is lighted.
The all-electr ic panel is isolated from
ground and may be mounted where visible.
The generator panel in lieu of the tachometer has just an hourmeter along wi th the other gauges used in the propulsion panel and
three switches to activate the start or stop circuits.
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
All Westebeke engines are supplied pre-wired and with plug-in
connectors.
Never make or break connections while the engine is
running.
Carefully follow all instructions on the wir ing diagram
supplied, especially those relating to the wiring of loads to
generator.
Starter batteries should be located as close to the engine as
possible to avoid voltage drop through long leads. It is bad practfce
to use the starter batteries for other services unless they require
low amperage or are intermittent.
In cases where there are substantial loads (from lights, refrigerators, radios, depth sounders, etc.),
it is essential to have a complete, separate system and to provide
charging current for this by means of a second alternator or
nalternator output splittern.
11
Starter batteries must be of a type which permits a high rate of
discharge (Diesel starting).
Carefully follow the recommended wire sizes shown in the wir ing
diagrams. Plan installation so the battery is close to the engine and
use the following cable sizes:
#1
#1/0
#2/0
#3/0
for
for
for
for
distances
distances
distances
distances
up
up
up
up
to
to
to
to
8 feet
10 feet
13 feet
16 feet
CONTROLS
A keyswitch is used to start and stop propulsion engine models.
Toggle switches are used to start and stop generator models.
The throttle and shift lever should be connected to a Morse type
lever at the pilot's station by sheathed cables following cable
manufacturer's routine recommendations regarding bonds to insure
smooth cable operation.
The single-lever type control gives clutch and throttle control
with full throttle range in the neutral position. The two-lever type
provides clutch control with one lever and throttle control with the
other, each independent of the other.
Control connections at engine and transmission must be securely
mounted.
After linkages are completed, check the installation for
full travel, making sure that, when the transmission control lever at
the pilot station is in forward, neutral and reverse, the shift lever
on the transmission has sufficient travel to properly engage the
transmission in the gear selected.
Check the throttle control lever
fuel injection pump for full travel from idle to the full throttle
stop.
12
OPERATION
PREPARATION FOR FIRST START
The engine is shipped ndry" ••• with lubricating oil drained from
the engine crankcase, lubricants from the transmission and coolant
from the cooling system.
Therefore, be sure to follow these recommended procedures carefully before attempting to start the engine for
the first time.
1. Remove the oil fill cap and fill oil sump with a good grade of
diesel lubricating oil having an API Spec code of CC or CD.
Install
the correct amount of oil as specified in the engine technical manual
or Owner's/Operator's Manual.
NOTE:
Installation angles will effect the oil level readings on
the dipstick.
2.
Fill the marine transmission and V-drive when applicable with
the correct lubricant according to the gear model as specified in the
engine technical manual or Owner's/Operator's Manual.
3.
Fill the fresh water cooling system with a mixture of
antifreeze and fresh water; a 50-50 mixture is recommended for year
round use.
The mixture should be concentrated enough to prevent
freezing in your area of operation and during winter lay up.
The coolant level should be monitored once the engine is started
to insure that all air is purged from the cooling system and coolant
added as needed.
Domestic water heaters plumbed off the heaater
should be checked for good coolant circulation to and from the engine
and that all air has also been purged from the domestic water heater.
Failure to do so can result in an unexpected overheating.
The surge tank on the engine should be maintained to within 1-1/2 n
of the filler neck.
When the plastic recovery tank is used, the
engine surge tank should be completely filled and the cap installed
and the recovery tank filled half full.
4.
Ensure battery water level is at least 3/8 n above the battery
plates and battery is fully charged so that it is capable of the extra
effort that may be required on the first start.
5.
Fill fuel tank with clean diesel fuel oil; No. 2 diesel fuel
oil is recommended. The use of No. 1 is permissible but No. 2 is preferred because of its higher lubricant content.
FUEL SYSTEM
The fuel injection system of a compression ignition engine depends
upon very high fuel pressure during the injection stroke to function
correctly.
Relatively tiny movements of the pumping plungers produce
this pressure and, if any air is present inside the high pressure
line, then this air acts as a cushion and prevents the correct
pressure, and therefore fuel injection, from being properly achieved.
In consequence, it is essential that all air is bled from the
system whenever any part of the system has been opened for repair or
servicing.
13
BLEEDING PROCEDURES FOR WS2, lSKW, WS8, 20KW, W70, 2SKW, WIOO AND 32KW
Initial Engine Start-up (Engine stoppage due to lack of fuel)
1.
Insure that the fuel tank (s)
diesel fuel.
is filled with the proper grade of
2.
To attempt to fill any large primary filter/separator using the
manual priming pump on the engine-mounted secondary fuel filter
may prove futile and/or require a considerable amount of priming.
3.
Insure that the fuel selector valve is "ON".
Fuel systems wi th
more than one tank make certain that the tank feeding the engine
is the tank to which fuel is being returned.
The above procedures are basic for all initial engine start-ups or for
restarting engines stopping due to lack of fuel.
WESTERBEKE WS2, lSKW, WS8, 20KW, W70, 2SKW, WIOO AND 32KW
1.
Open the bleed screw on the top inboard side of the engine-mounted
secondary fuel filter one to two turns using a lOmm box wrench
(Bleed Point A).
This fuel filter is equipped with a handoperated priming pump.
with the palm of your hand, pump this
primer until fuel free of air
flows from this point.
Stop
pumping and tighten the bleed
screw.
2.
with bleed screw A tightened,
pump the hand primer several
more times.
This pr imes the
inj ection pump.
The inj ection
pump incorporates a fuel supply
pump
wh ich
keeps
the
fuel
system pr imed when the engine
is running.
3.
Loosen the four inj ector line
attaching nuts at the base of
each inj ector (Bleed Point B)
one to two turns with a 16mm
open end wrench.
Place the
throttle in the full open position and crank the engine over
with the starter until fuel spurts by
lines.
Stop cranking and tighten each
proceed with normal starting procedure.
14
the nut and injector
of the four nuts and
PREPARATION FOR STARTING
1.
Check water level in expansion tank.
below the top of the tank when cold.
It should be 1/2
to 1 inch
2.
Check the engine sump oil level.
3.
Check the transmission fluid level and V-drive when applicable.
4.
See that there is fuel in the tank and the fuel shut-off valve is
open.
5.
Check to see that the starting battery is fully charged, all
electr ical connections are properly made, all circui ts in order
and turn on the power at the battery disconnect switch.
6.
Check the seacock and ensure that it is open.
STARTING THE ENGINE (COLD)
Most Westerbeke marine diesel engines are equipped with
starting aid to ease in the starting of your cold engine.
a
cold
propulsion Engines:
1.
Check to see that the "STOP" lever (if installed) is in the "RUN"
position.
2.
Turn the keyswitch to the "ON" position.
This will activate the
instrument panel.
(Note:
Oil pressure and water temperature
gauges will zero, the voltmeter will show battery voltage, the
hourmeter will activate and the engine alarm will buzz.)
3.
Push the key in to preheat the engine 15 - 20 seconds or more if
ambient temperature requires.
(Note:
Do not use preheaters
longer than 60 seconds prior to starting.)
4.
Continuing to hold the key in for preheat, turn to the "START"
position.
This will energize the starter, cranking the engine
over to start. Once the engine starts, release the key which will
return to the on position and de-energize the preheat circui t.
Retard the throttle to 800 - 1000 RPM and check oil pressure and
raw water discharge.
The alarm buzzer should shut off once oil
pressure reaches 20 - 25 PSI.
5.
If the engine fails to start in 20 - 30 seconds, release the key
and turn it to the "OFF" posi tion.
Allow a few moments to pass
and then repeat steps 2 through 4.
Starter damage may occur from
excessive cranking with the starter motor and filling of the
exhaust system with raw water is possible.
Generator:
1.
Depress the preheat switch on the panel for 15 - 20 seconds or
more if ambient temperature requires.
(Note: Do not use preheaters longer than 60 seconds prior to starting.)
15
2.
Continuing to hold the preheat on, depress the start switch. When
the engine starts, release the start switch but continue to hold
the preheat switch on until gauge oil pressure reaches 20
25 PSI then release the preheat switch.
(Note: Should the
generator fail to start after 20 - 30 seconds of cranking, stop
cranking and release the preheat. Allow a few moments to pass and
repeat steps 1 and 2.
STARTING THE PROPULSION ENGINE (WARM)
I f the eng ine is warm and has only been stopped for a short time,
place the throttle in the partially open posi tion and engage the
starter as above, using preheat if necessary.
NOTE:
Always be sure that the starter pinion has stopped revolving
before again re-engaging the starter; otherwise, the flywheel ring
gear or starter pinion may be damaged.
Extended use of the preheater beyond the time periods stated should be
avoided to prevent damage to the glow plugs.
NEVER under any circumstances use or allow anyone to use ether to
start your engine.
If your engine will not start, have a qualified
Westerbeke marine mechanic check your engine.
STARTING THE GENERATOR (WARM)
For starting a generator whose engine has only been shut down for a
short period of time and is still warm:
1.
Depress the preheat switch on the panel; hold for 5 - 10 seconds.
2.
Continue
switch.
to
hold
the
preheat
switch
and
depress
the
starter
When the eng ine starts, release the starter swi tch but continue to
hold the preheat switch until oil pressure reaches 20 - 25 PSI, then
release it.
WHEN THE PROPULSION ENGINE AND GENERATOR START
1.
Check for normal oil presure immediately upon engine starting. Do
not continue to run engine if oil pressure is not present within
15 seconds of starting the engine.
On a generato.r unit, immediately release preheat switch and depress stop switch if
necessary.
2.
Check Sea Water Flow.
without delay.
3.
Recheck Crankcase Oil.
After the engine has run 3 or 4 minutes,
subsequent to an oil change or new installation, stop the engine
and check the crankcase oil level. This is important as it may be
Look for water at exhaust outlet.
16
Do this
necessary to add oil to compensate for the oil that is required to
fill the engine's internal oil passages and oil filter.
Add oil
as necessary. Check oil level each day of operation.
4.
Recheck Transmission Fluid level.
(This applies only subsequent
to a fluid change or new installation.)
In such a case, stop the
engine after running for several minutes at 800 RPM with one shift
into forward and one into reverse, then add fluid as necessary.
Check fluid level each day of operation.
5.
Recheck Expansion Tank Water Level, if engine is fresh water
cooled.
(This applies after cooling system has been drained or
filled for the first time.)
Stop engine after it has reached
operating temperature of 170· - 190·F and add water to within one
half to one inch of top of tank.
WARNING:
The system is pressurized when overheated, and the pressure
must be released gradually if the filler cap is to be removed.
It is
advisable to protect the hands against escaping steam and turn the cap
slowly counter-clockwise until the resistance of the safety stops is
felt.
Leave the cap in this position until all pressure is released.
Press the cap downward against the spr ing to clear the safety stops
and continue turning until it can be lifted off.
6.
Warm-up Instructions. As soon as possible, get the boat underway,
but at reduced speed, until water temperature gauge indicates
l30-l50·F.
If necessary, engine can be warmed up wi th the
transmission in neutral at 1000 RPM.
7.
Reverse Operation.
Always reduce engine to idle speed when
shifting gears.
However, when the transmission is engaged, it
will carry full engine load.
STOPPING THE PROPULSION ENGINE
1.
position shift lever in neutral.
2.
Idle the engine for 2 to 4 minutes to avoid boiling and to dissipate some of the heat.
3.
Turn off the keyswitch. The injection pumps are equipped with an
electr ical shut-off solenoid.
When the key is turned off, the
engine will stop immediately.
(Note: Water temperature and oil
pressure gauges will continue to show a reading.)
STOPPING THE GENERATOR
1.
Remove the load from the generator.
2.
Allow the generator to operate
dissipate some of the heat.
3.
Depress the stop switch until the engine stops completely.
17
a
few minutes with no load
to
OPERATING PRECAUTIONS
1.
Never run the engine for extended periods when excessive overheating occurs, as extensive internal damage can be caused.
Engines operated in this manner will void the warranty.
2.
DO NOT put cold water in an overheated engine.
cylinder head, block or manifold.
3.
Keep intake silencer unobstructed.
4.
Do not run engine at high RPM without clutch engaged.
5.
Never Race a Cold Engine as internal damage can occur due to inadequate oil circulation.
6.
Keep the engine and accessories clean.
7.
Keep the fuel clean.
Handle it with extreme care because water
and dirt in fuel cause more trouble, and service life of the
injection system is reduced.
Maintain a good filter/separator
between the engine and fuel tanks. Monitor it for water.
8.
Do not allow fuel to run low, because fuel intake may be uncovered
long enough to allow air to enter the injection system, resulting
in engine stoppage requiring system bleeding.
9.
Do not operate the engine with low or no oil pressure.
Internal
damage will result. This will void your engine warranty.
It can crack the
10. Do not be alarmed if temperature gauges show a high reading
following a sudden stop after engine has been operating at full
load.
This is caused by the release of residual heat from the
heavy metal masses near the combustion chamber.
Prevention for
this is to run engine at idle for a short period before stopping
it.
High temperature reading after a stop does not necessarily
signal alarm against restarting.
If there is no functional difficulty, temperatures will quickly return to normal when engine is
operating.
ENGINE OPERATING RPM
1.
Idle range: 700 - 900 RPM
This will vary with installations due to harmonics and vibrations.
2.
Cruising range: 2000 - 2500 RPM
Hull shape, keel and hull displacement affect the horsepower
needed to move the hull efficiently through the water at or near
hull speed in a tolerable RPM range for lengthy cruising.
3.
Maximum RPM (under load): 3000 RPM
The propeller should be selected that will allow the engine to
achieve its maximum rated RPM + 100 RPM.
Transmission reduction
ratios will affect greatly the size propeller an engine can turn.
18
TEN MUST RULES
IMPORTANT
IMPORTANT
IMPORTANT
••• for your safety and your engine's dependability.
ALWAYS 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
NEVER 6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Keep this Manual handy and read it whenever in doubt.
Use only filtered fuel oil and check lube oil level daily.
Check cooling water temperature frequently to make sure it is
between 170· and 190·F.
Check engine coolant at least once daily.
Check transmission lubricant levels at least once daily.
Race a cold engine in neutral.
Run the engine unless the gauge shows proper oil pressure.
Break the injection pump seals.
Use cotton waste or fluffy cloth for cleaning or store diesel
fuel in a galvanized container.
Subject the engine to prolonged overloading or continue to
run it if excessive black smoke comes from the exhaust.
19
MAINTENANCE
PERIODIC ATTENTION:
After you have taken delivery of your engine, it is important that
you make the following checks right after the first fifty hours of its
operation.
Note:
Check engine belt tensions periodically after initial
engine start up. New belts will stretch.
FIFTY HOUR CHECKOUT (INITIAL)
Do the following:
1. Retorque
the
cylinder
head
bolts.
2. Retorque
the
rocker
bracket
nuts
and
adjust
valve
rocker
clearance.
3. Change engine fuel filter.
4. Change engine lubricating oil
and oil filter.
Use a good grade
of diesel oil, API Spec CC or
better.
5. Check for fuel and lubr icating
oil leaks. Correct if necessary.
6. Check cooling system for leaks
and inspect water level.
7. Check
for
loose
fittings,
clamps, connections, nuts, bolts,
vee belt tensions, etc.
Pay particular attention to loose engine mounts and engine mount fittings.
Check engine alignment and make sure the propeller shaft is secure in
the propeller shaft coupling.
8. Check the zinc anode (PN 11885) and replace as needed.
If
flaking, scrape down to solid zinc.
9. Check hose and electrical routing to and from the engine for
security and that these hoses or wiring are nor chafing on fiberglas
or when passing through bulkheads.
DAILY CHECKS
Do the following:
1. Check engine oil level with the dipstick. Maintain oil level between the low and the high mark on the dipstick.
2. Check engine coolant level.
Add as necessary.
Maintain coolant
level between 1/2 and 1 inch of filler neck.
Note: with plastic coolant recovery tank, keep level between ADD
and MAXI.)
3. Check transmission lubricant level and V-drive if applicable. Add
lubricant as needed.
Note: Checking these fluid levels once each day prior to initial
eng ine usage will help to spot losses before an unexpected problem
arises.
20
SEASONAL CHECKS
Do the following:
1. Change engine lube oil and lube oil filter at least once a season
or every 100 hours of engine operation.
2. Check belt tensions. Belts should be sufficiently tight when the
alternator pulley can be grasped with the hand and cannot be slipped
on the belt.
3. Check sea water pumps to insure no leakage is evident at the weep
holes.
Correct if leakage is noted.
(Sea water pump should be
visually checked as often as possible.)
4. Check fluid level in the battery (s) and insure connections are
secure and clean.
5. Check the zinc anode in the main engine heat exchanger. Clean and
replace as needed.
6. Check for loose fittings, clamps, electrical connections, nuts and
bolts and coolant circulating hoses for good condition.
7. Change fuel oil filters once a season or every 200 hours.
8. Engine alignment should be checked at the beginning of each
season, especially on those boats which are kept in dry storage during
winter months and then returned to the water.
Note: This alignment check should be done wi th the boat in the
water with mast stepped and rigging tuned.
9. Check condition and strength of antifreeze mixture in the engine
coolant.
Note color of coolant and, if scale or discoloration of
coolant is noted, drain coolant from block and replace.
10. Wash primary filter bowl and screen.
If filter bowl contains
water or sediment, filter bowl and secondary oil fuel filter need be
cleaned more frequently.
11. Check
air
intake
silencer
and
insure
that
the
inlet
is
unobstructed.
12. Change the transmission lubricant once a season or any time that
it becomes discolored or rancid smelling.
(Commercial or work vessels
require more frequent changes.)
Refer to the transmission section of this manual for details on
the correct lubricant for the different model gears.
END OF SEASON SERVICE (WINTERIZATION)
1. Check engine coolant for proper freeze protection.
Drain and add
antifreeze as needed.
Run engine to insure complete circulation of
antifreeze and recheck.
2. Check zinc anode (PN 11885) in heat exchanger and replace as
needed.
(Keep spares.)
3. Change and clean primary fuel filter/separators.
4. Replace secondary fuel filter mounted on engine.
5. Change engine lube oil and filter.
6. Flush raw water system with fresh water then run an antifreeze
mixture through the raw water system to protect it against freezing.
Note: Feed the raw water system out of a bucket to flush the raw
water system and to circulate antifreeze.
7. Remove the raw water pump impeller and examine it for cracks and
insure that it is in serviceable condition for next season. Leave the
impeller out of the pump until the engine is recommissioned.
(Keep
one or two spares.)
8. Close off the air intake to the engine with a well-oiled cloth.
21
Note:
In some instances the intake silencer will have to be
removed to accomplish this. Be sure to remove at recommissioning.
9. Check belts on engine for good condition.
Order replacements
and/or spares as needed.
10. Fill fuel tanks.
Add additives to combat algae growth and fuel
conditioners.
Note: Fuel additives with an alcohol base should not be used with
fuel systems having Racor fuel filters/separators.
11. Shut off the fuel supply.
12. Change transmission lubricant.
13. Boats being hauled for dry storage should have the propeller shaft
coupling disconnected from the transmission.
14. Check batteries for a full state of charge.
Batteries with a low
state of charge are susceptible to freezing.
Turn off battery power
to engine.
15. Close off exhaust openings on the outside of the hull.
16. Lubricate all linkage to throttle and shifting.
17. Remove starter and lubricate bendix drive and replace starter.
22
ENGINE OVERHAUL
The following sections contain detailed information
relating to the proper operation characteristics of
the major components and systems of the engine.
Included are disassembly, rework and reassembly
instructions for the guidance of suitable equipped
and staffed mar ine eng ine service and rebuilding
facili ties.
The necessary procedures should be
undertaken only by such facilities.
Additional operating characteristics are
in the Operation Section of this manual.
included
Any replacements should be made only with genuine
Westerbeke parts.
Engine Disassembly ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 25
Engine Inspection and Repair ••••••••••••••••••••• 34
Engine Assembly ••••••••.••.••••.••.••••••••.•.••• 53
Compression Pressure ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 68
Engine Lubricating System •••••••••••••••••••••••• 69
Fresh water Pump •••••••••••••••.••.•••••••••••••• 75
Fuel System ..•..•...•............................ 78
Injection Pump ................•....•.•.•......•.• 79
Fuel Injectors ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 8l
Fuel System Troubleshooting •••••••••••••••••••••• 85
Technical Data ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 88
23
YOUR NOTES
24
ENGINE DISASSEMBLY
PREPARATION FOR DISASSEMBLY
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
Clean the exterior of the engine of any deposits of dirt and oil.
Be careful not to damage each disassembled component part.
Arrange parts in the order of disassembly. Mark or label parts as
needed to insure proper mating and reassembly. Keep parts clean.
Drain all fluids and oil from engine block and transmission prior
to engine disassembly.
Place the engine on a suitable stand or bench for disassembly.
Remove the engine electr ical harness in its entirety.
Tag terminal ends to help insure proper refitting.
Metr ic threads are used for the W70 engine while inch threads
(unified threads) are used for the WlOO engine.
REMOVING ENGINE EQUIPMENT AND PARTS
Remove parts in the following order:
1.
Remove the engine starting motor.
2.
Remove the transmission and related hardware.
3.
Remove the transmission damper
plate from the engine flywheel.
25
4.
Remove the engine oil cooler and oil hoses. Note oil hose connections on oil filter engine mounting bracket.
5.
Remove engine heat exchanger.
6.
Remove the engine bellhousing and circuit breaker-preheat solenoid
mounting plate.
~
'-'_..6\_
_ olTe boll derlate6
7.
Remove the engine flywheel.
locKwilsher
NOTE: Loosen the front crankshaft pulley nut before removing the flywheel.
ring
)
flywheel bolt
ptJIJ.6rn
8.
Remove engine backplate.
9.
Remove the engine
adjusting strap.
alternator,
drive
belt,
support
bracket
and
10. Remove the engine mounted sea water pump, drive belt and support
bracket from the front cover.
o'isaOI7IT6t!f WU"II,
/Mye
sender (lnit
in the elbow
11. Remove the thermostat
hose and thermostat.
temperature switch in
cover,
Leave
place.
12. Remove the fresh water circulating pump with connecting hoses and
formed tube to the exhaust manifold/expansion tank.
26
13. Remove the exhaust manifold expansion tank in its entirety.
Remove
W100.
the
return pipe on the
14. Remove the air intake silencer.
15. Remove the high pressure injection lines.
16. Remove the engine dipstick tube from the block and sump.
17. Remove the air intake manifold and breather hose.
18. Remove the engine oil filter and mounting bracket from the engine
block.
19. Remove the engine mounted fuel filter with related lines.
Note
the posi tions of sealing washers that attach fuel lines to the
fuel filter and the injection pump.
20. Remove the fuel injection pump:
NOTE: Scribe mating marks on
pump body flange and the timing
gear
case
before
removal.
(a) Loosen the two injection pump hold down nuts.
Do not remove
entirely. The hold down nut on the engine side of the pump can be
gotten at by using a 1/4" universal socket and extension with
ratchet.
(b) Place the keyway on the injection pump shaft in the 12: 00
position with the aid of the front crankshaft pulley bolt before
attempting to remove the injection pump.
27
I?x,traator
;'0186
(c) With a suitable nylon drift and hammer, gently tap the injection pump shaft to dislodge it from the keyed dr i ve gear.
The
loose hold down nuts will prevent the pump from falling from the
engine.
(d) Once loosened, remove the hold down nuts and washers and
carefully withdraw the pump from the drive gear and engine so as
to avoid losing the injection pump dr i ve key inside the timing
case.
21. Removal of the fuel injectors:
(a)
Remove the fuel return line from the top of the injectors by
removing the four attaching bolts.
NOTE: There are sealing washers under these bolts which should be
replaced upon reassembling.
(b) With a suitable 27 mm deep socket, unscrew the injectors from
the cylinder head on the W70.
On the WlOO, remove the nuts from
the retaining flange and lift injectors out.
(c)
Remove the injector sealing washer from the head once the
injectors are removed.
NOTE:
These should be replaced upon reassembly.
DISASSEMBLING ENGINE
Disassemble in the following order:
1.
Cylinder head rocker cover
28
2.
Cylinder head bolts
NOTE: Loosen the cylinder head bolts equally and gradually in the
order shown in the figure.
7
11
15
18
14
10
6
2
4
9 13 17 21
25 28 24 20 16 12
8
5
3
6~?~~~~~~~~
81216
1713
10 14 18 22 26 27 23 19 15 11
95
-'""-- 2
7
1
3.
Rocker arm assembly
4.
Valve stem caps.
Label each cap as to which valve it belongs so
as not to lose them when removing the cylinder head.
5.
Push rods.
6.
Cylinder head
7.
Cylinder head gasket
8.
Disassembling rocker arm assembly
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Label each rod as to which valve it belongs.
Stop ring
Wave washer
Rocker arm
Rocker bracket
Rocker arm
Spring
29
9.
Intake and exhaust va'Ives
with the aid of a suitable
valve spring compressor tool,
remove
the
valves
from
the
cylinder head.
NOTE:
After removing the valve assemblies, arrange or label them
in the order of removal so that they can be reinstalled in their
original positions.
10. Crankshaft pulley using the taper ring remover
11. Timing gear cover
12. Injection pump drive gear
(a)
(b)
Friction gear
Drive gear
friction gear
injection pump drive gear
13. Camshaft gear
(a) Wedge a clean cloth between the camshaft gear and idler gear;
remove the retaining bolt.
(b) Retaining plate
(c) Friction gear
(d) Using a suitable bearing puller, remove the camshaft gear.
14. Idler gear
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Attaching nuts
Thrust plate
Idler gear
Idler gear hub
30
l5.~Crankshaft
(a)
(b)
(c)
gear
Wave washer
Friction gear
Using a suitable puller, remove the crankshaft gear and key.
16. Oil pan and oil pan upper block
17. Oil pump assembly
NOTE:
Remove the oil pump assembly after loosening the oil pump
set screw located on the side of the block.
18. Oil jets on the W70
19. Timing gear case
20. Camshaft
NOTE: Turn the engine upside down for removing the camshaft.
This will allow the valve lifters to seat on the block bosses away
from the cam lobes.
21. Rear oil seal assembly
22. Connecting rod bearing caps
31
23. Piston and connecting rod assemblies
NOTE:
After removing the piston and connecting rod assemblies,
install the connecting rod cap on the connecting rod temporarily.
Do not mix rods and caps.
24. Piston rings using a suitable ring expander
NOTE:
After removing the piston rings, note the order that they
are removed and which side of the ring faces the piston crown.
25. Piston pin
(a) Remove the wrist pin snap rings.
(b) Using a nylon drift, drive the wrist pin from the piston and
rod.
NOTE: If the piston pin is tightly fitted, heat the piston head
with the aid of a hot plate or similar device.
26. Main bearing caps
27. Main bearings
28. Thrust bearings
29. Crankshaft
32
30. Tappets
NOTE:
After removing the main bearings and bearing caps arrange
them in order of removal. Do not mix caps.
After removing the thrust bearings, note their positioning for
proper reinstallation.
33
ENGINE INSPECTION AND REPAIR
Checking Cylinder Head
1.
Check the cylinder head for damage or cracks.
replace the cylinder head.
2.
Check the cylinder head for distortion.
If it exceeds the limit,
replace the cylinder head with a new one.
®
If found, repair or
straight-edge
©
[email protected]
--~~~~~-&~r-~~~~--I®
®
Maximum permissible distortion:
"A, B
••••••••••••••••• 0.10 rom (0.004 in)
C, D, E, F ••••••••••••••••• 0.2S mm (0.010 in)
3. Check the insert for damage or cracks and, if detected, replace
with a new one.
Replacing Combustion Chamber Insert
1.
To remove the insert, place a
suitable drift into the glow
plug hole, then tap the drift
with a hammer.
2.
To install, set the insert in
posi tion and insert the welch
washer into the insert guide
hole.
Secure the welch washer
by tapping the raised center of
the welch washer.
34
NOTE:
(1) Use new welch washer.
(2)
Insert the welch washer so that its convex surface is toward
the cylinder head gasket side.
(3) After installation, check to see if the insert is completely
fixed in place.
Checking Valve Spring
1. Check the spring for corrosion or damage.
replace with a new one.
If it is defective,
2. Check the spring length and replace the spring if the free length
is less than the following dimension.
Free length limit:
W70:
Inner spring: 42.0mm (1.654in)
Outer spring: 52.9mm (2.083in)
WlOO:
Inner spring: 42.0mm (1.654 in)
Outer spring: 43.6mm (1.7l7in)
SflU8rel14SS
3.
li"'it
Check the squareness of valve
spring.
If it exceeds the
limit, replace with a new one.
Squareness Limit:
90"testal1g/e
Inner spring: 1.25mm (O.049in)
Outer spring: 1.37mm (O.054in)
35
4.
Check the fitting tension of
the valve spring as follows:
(a) Install the valve on a
valve spring tester.
(b) Measure the spring tension
at
the
specified
fi tting
length.
If it is not within
the specification, the spring
must be replaced.
valve spring tester
NOTE: Measure the spring tension
after
compressing
the
spring several times.
Fitting tension:
Fitting length
Fitting tension limit
Inner
37.8 mm
(1.488 in)
Outer
40.3 mm
(1.587 in)
11.3 kg
(24.92 lb)
30.1 kg
(66.36 lb)
Checking Valve
1.
Check all valves for bends, cracks or excessive
replace them if any of these conditions are found.
2.
Check the valve stem diameter with
exceeds the limit, replace the valve.
Valve stem diameter limit:
W70:
Intake valve:
8.904 mm
(0.351 in)
Exhaust valve: 8.884 mm
(0.350 in)
WlOO:
Intake valve:
7.867 mm
(0.310 In)
Exhaust valve: 7.854 mm
(0.309 in)
36
a
micrometer~
burning
if
the
and
wear
Checking Valve Guide
1.
Check the clearance between the
valve stem and guide with a
mounted
dial
indicator
by
moving the valve stem from side
to side.
If the clearance
exceeds the limi t, replace the
valve and guide.
Clearance Limit:
0.127 mm
2.
(0.0050
in)
Check the protruding length of
the valve guide.
If it is not
the specification, correct it.
he,gJrt above ~/11!J 5eJt
0.65 ,,/16Smm
protruding length:
16.5
mm
(0.65
in)
Replacing Valve Guide
1.
2.
To remove
the valve guide,
press out the guide with the
valve guide
installer,
tool
#49 0636 165 or its equivalent.
To install the valve guide
press fit a new guide in the
cylinder head with the valve
guide installer and adapter,
until the adapter comes in contact with the cylinder head.
NOTE:
After installing the
valve
guide,
check
the
protruding length of the valve
guide.
37
i"6talling too!
Checking Valve Seat
1.
Check the protruding length of the valve stem (dimension "L").
it exceeds the specification, correct it as follows.
If
Dimension "L" (standard):
W70: 48.05 mm (1.892 in)
WlOO: 48.04 mm (1.891 in)
When the dimension "L" is 0-0.5 mm (0 - 0.020 in) larger than the
standard, it may be used as is.
When the dimension "L" becomes 0.5-1.5 mm (0.020-0.059 in) larger
than the standard, replace the valve and adjust the dimension "L"
to the standard by adding some washers (12.8 mm 1.0. 39 mm O.D.)
between the lower spring seat and cylinder head.
t (Adjust to a proper size)
c:
-....
o
~
U"l•
'U"l
"
--c:
U"l
.e --=
E
~
E
E
en
'"
- '"
When the dimension "L" becomes more than 1.5 mm (0.059 in) larger
than the standard, replace both the valve and cylinder head.
2.
Check for contact between the valve and valve seat as follows:
a. Apply a thin coat of Pruss ian Blue (or Redlead) on the valve
seat contact face.
b. Insert the valve into the valve guide and press fit the valve
on the valve seat.
NOTE:
Do not rotate the valve.
c. Check if the valve seat contact face contacts the center position
of the valve contact face.
If the contact position is not
centered, recut and surface the valve seat and valve.
38
Refacing Valve and Valve Seat
Reface in the following order:
1.
Reface the valve with a valve grinder to the specified angle.
Valve face angle:
Intake valve
Exhaust valve
2.
Reface the valve seat with a valve seat cutter while checking the
contact between the valve and valve seat.
NOTE:
Reface the valve seat taking care that the valve seat contacts the center position of the valve.
Intake
45·
Valve seat angle
Valve seat width
Exhaust
30·
2.0 mm
2.0 mm
(0.079 in (0.079 in)
CONTACT WIDTH
exhaust
3.
Reface the
compound.
valve
and
valve
seat
with
a
good
valve
lapping
4.
Measure the dimension "L".
5.
Adjust the dimension ilL" to the standard by adding some washers
between the lower spring seat and cylinder head.
Checking Rocker Arm and Shaft
1.
Check each component part of the rocker arm assembly for damage or
cracks. If necessary, replace with a new one.
2.
Check to see that the oil passages of the rocker arm and shaft are
open. If any clogs are found, remove them or replace.
39
3.
Check the clearance between the rocker arm bore and shaft.
If it
exceeds the limit, replace the rocker arm bushing and shaft.
Clearance between rocker arm and shaft:
Standard
0.016 - 0.061 mm
(0.0006 - 0.0024 in)
Limit
0.07 mm (0.0028 in)
Replacing Rocker Arm Bushing
1.
To
remove
the
rocker
arm
bushing,
press
out
the old
bushing
with
a
suitable
mandrel.
2.
To
install
the
rocker
arm
bushing,
press
fit
a
new
bushing, aligning the oil holes
of the bushing and rocker arm.
3.
Finish
the
bushing
wi th
a
spiral expansion reamer or a
pin hole gr inder so that the
clearance between the bushing
and shaft becomes equal to the
standard clearance.
Checking Cylinder Block
1.
Check the cylinder block for damage
repair or replace the cylinder block.
or
cracks.
If
necessary,
2.
Check to see that the oil passages and coolant passages of the
cylinder block are open.
If clogged, remove with compressed air
or a wire probe.
3.
Check the cylinder block for distortion.
repair or replace the cylinder block.
If it exceeds the limit,
2
remove IOCl/ting dowels
IHfor~ lI&illg stJjiglrt-edge
~
,
:w
~ii'
40
Maximum permissible distortion:
0.10 mm (0.0039 in)
0.25 mm (0.0098 in)
1, 2
3, 4, 5, 6
Checking Cylinder Liner
1.
Check the cylinder liner bores
for stretching and waveness.
2.
Check the cylinder liner for
wear with an inside micrometer.
If
it
exceeds
the
limit,
replace the cylinder liner.
NOTE:
This measurement should
be taken in the x-x direction
and the Y-Y direction at each
of the three sections: upper,
middle
and
lower
of
each
cylinder.
X-X'i6 Me ti1rvst direotion
Cylinder liner bore:
3.
Standard W70:
95.025 - 95.050 mm
(3.7412 - 3.7422 in)
Standard WlOO:
92.025 - 92.050 mm
(3.6231 - 3.6241 in)
Wear Limit:
0.20 mm (0.0079 in)
Check the protruding height of
the liner with a straight edge
and a feeler gauge.
If it
exceeds the specified value,
correct as necessary.
Protruding length
protruding height:
-0.101 - 0 mm
(-0.0040 - 0 in)
Cylinder liner
41
Replacing Cylinder Liner
1.
Removal
(a) Press out the liner with the cylinder liner replacer.
(b) Check the cylinder block bore for any scratches.
If any
scratches are found, remove the scratches with oil soaked fine
emery paper.
2.
Installation
(a) Apply engine oil on the cylinder block bore and a new liner
outer surface and set the liner on the cylinder block.
(b) Press fi t the liner wi th the cylinder liner replacer taking
special care not to distort it.
When inserting the liner into the cylinder block, press fit
it within the limits of 1.0 - 3.0 tons (2000 - 6000 lbs). If the
pressing force required exceeds the limits, find the trouble and
correct it.
After installing the liner, check the protruding
height of the liner.
NOTE:
Checking Piston
1.
Check the piston carefully and
replace
if
it
is
severely
scored, scratched or burned.
2.
Check the clearance between the
piston and cylinder liner bore.
If it is excessive, the piston
and liner must be replaced.
Measure
the
piston
diameter
at
90
degrees
(perpendicular) to the pin bore
axis and 22 mm (0.866 in) for
the W70 or 23 mm (0.906 in) for
the
WlOO
from
the
piston
bottom.
NOTE:
t
n788SUre
ciiam(}t8r---'---~
here
t~
Piston Diameter:
W70:
94.967 - 94.993 mm
(3.7381 - 3.7399 in)
WlOO:
91.967 - 91.993 mm
(3.6208 - 3.6218 in)
Piston to Liner Clearance:
0.032 - 0.083 mm (0.0017 - 0.0028 in)
42
o
Checking Piston Rings
If any of
1.
Check the piston rings for cracks, burning or wear.
these conditions exist, replace the ring.
2.
Check the side clearance of the piston rings at several places.
If they exceed the limit, replace the piston rings or piston.
Side clearance limit:
3.
0.30 mm (0.0118 in)
Check the piston ring end gap
as follows:
(a)
Place the piston ring in
the cylinder liner bore
below the ring travel by
using a piston head to
push the ring in squarely.
(b)
Measure the piston ring
end gap.
If it exceeds
the
limit,
replace
the
piston ring.
End gap limit:
1.5 mm (0.0591 in)
Checking Piston Pin and Connecting Rod Bushing
1.
Check the clearance between
piston pin and connecting
bushing.
If it exceeds
limit, replace the piston
and bushing.
Clearance between
and bushing:
piston
the
rod
the
pin
pin
1
I
1
0.0/2 -10.aJ9 /I
o.aa05,o.OO/5mm
Standard W70:
1
0.012 - 0.039 mm
(0.0005 - 0.0015 in)
I
~~~~~~~~~~~~~i~~---==:.":~~i~:::::
Standard WlOO:
0.014 - 0.044 in
(0.0006 - 0.0020 in)
Limit:
0.05 mm (0.0020 in)
43
Replacing Connecting Rod Bushing
1.
To remove the connecting rod
bushing,
press out the old
bushing with suitable mandrel.
2.
To install the connecting rod
bushing,
press
fit
a
new
bushing aligning the oil holes
of the bushing and connecting
rod.
3.
Finish
the
bushing
with
a
spiral expansion reamer or a
pin hole grinder to the standard clearance specified.
NOTE: When reaming the bushing, correctly insert the reamer in
the bushing.
In order to prevent unevenness on the bushing surface, the reaming should always be made in the cutting direction.
Make sure that the reamer is stopped at different positions at all
times.
When correcting the smaller end bushing of the connecting rod with
a pin hole grinder, the hole is apt to become tapered. Therefore,
be sure to change the direction of the connecting rod several
times while honing until the specified size is obtained.
Checking Connecting Rod
1.
2.
Check the side of the connecting rod small end and large
end for cracks or damage.
If
necessary,
replace
the connecting rod.
Check the connecting rod for
bends or twists with a suitable
alignment fixture. If realignment is necessary, correct by
using a press and applying a
gradual pressure to the rod 'or
replace the connecting rod.
Permissible deflection:
:.
.
J
hend check
.:.
/,
I Jr
twist cheole
'.
a
0.05 mm per 100 mm (0.0020 in per 4 in)
44
3.
Check the connecting rod side
play with a dial indicator or a
feeler gauge as shown in the
figure.
If it exceeds the
limit, replace the connecting
rod or crankshaft.
End play limit:
donn~ctin!J rod
~/'rM pl8!/ test
0.4 mm (0.0157 in)
Checking Connecting Rod Bearing
1.
Check
the
connecting
rod
bearing carefully and replace
if
it
is
worn,
scored or
flaked.
2.
Check
the
connecting
rod
bearing
clearance
with
a
nplastigauge n •
If it exceeds
the limit, correct the crankpins with a suitable grinder
and use with suitable undersize
bearings.
NOTE:
Tighten the connecting
rod cap bolts to the specified
torque.
Cap tightening torque:
W70:
7.8 - 8.0 kg-m (56.41 - 57.86 lb-ft)
WlOO:
7.6 - 8.3 kg-m (54.97 - 60.03 lb-ft)
Bearing clearance:
Standard W70:
0.012 - 0.031 mm (0.0005 - 0.0012 in)
WlOO:
0.014 - 0.044 mm (0.0006 - 0.0017 in)
Limit:
0.05 mm (0.0020 in)
45
Checking Crankshaft
1.
Check the crankshaft for cracks
or other damage. If necessary,
replace the crankshaft.
2.
Check
to see that the oil
passages of the crankshaft are
open.
I f any clogs are found,
remove them with compressed air
or a suitable wire.
3.
Check the crankshaft for wear.
If
it
exceeds
the
limit,
correct the crankshaft wi th a
sui table gr inder and use wi th
suitable undersize main bearings.
R1=O.l46/0./57"(.J, 'T1/3.99mm)
Rz ·O'/26/0'/42"(J.2()/~6/mm}
NOTE: Measure the diameter of each of the crankpins and main
journals at two points (the front and rear portions) at 90 degrees
to the crankshaft axis, as shown in figure.
W70 Main journal
75.812 - 75.825 rnrn
(2.9848-2.9853 in)
W70 Crankpin
61.112 - 61.125 rnrn
(2.4060-2.4065 in)
Undersize 0.254
75.558 - 75.571 rnrn
(2.9748-2.9753 in)
60.868 - 60.871 rnrn
(2.3964-2.3965 in)
Undersize 0.508
75.304 - 75.317 mm
(2.9648-2.9674 in)
60.604 - 60.617 rnrn
(2.3874-2.3865 in)
Undersize 0.762
75.050 - 75.063 rnrn
(2.9578-2.9554 in)
60.350 - 60.363 mm
(2.3760-2.3765 in)
W100 Main Journal
69.812 - 69.825 rnrn
(2.7485-2.7491 in)
W100 Crankpin
57.112 - 57.125 rnrn
(2.2485-2.2491 in)
Undersize 0.254
69.558 - 68.571 rnrn
(2.7385-2.7391 in)
56.868 - 56.871 mm
(2.2389-2.2391 in)
Undersize 0.508
69.0304- 69.317 rnrn
(2.7182-2.7291 in)
56.604 - 56.617 rnrn
(2.2285-2.2312 in)
Undersize 0.762
69.050 - 69.063 rnrn
(2.7185-2.7191 in)
56.350 - 56.363 rnrn
(2.2185-2.2191 in)
0.05 rnrn
(0.0020 in)
0.05 rnrn
(0.0020 in)
Standard
Standard
Wear limit
NOTE: When grinding
points.
the crankshaft,
46
take care of the following
(a) When grinding the crankshaft, finish the place of "R" as
shown in figure.
(b)
The crankshaft processing diameters are as shown in the table
above.
4.
Check the crankshaft alignment.
If
it
exceeds
the
limit,
replace with a new one.
Maximum allowable run-out:
cr~nks/7i1ft rlJl7O/./t
0.05 rom (0.0020 in)
5.
..... , ....
Check the crankshaft end play
with a dial indicator or a
feeler gauge as shown in the
figure.
If it exceeds the
limit,
replace
the
thrust
bearing
with
oversized
an
thrust
bearing of
0.178 rom
(0.007 in) •
End play limit:
~A0
n
• I
I
~
0.40 rom (0.0157 in)
Note: Any crankshaft
machine shop.
grinding
should
be
done
Checking Main Bearing
1.
2.
•
;
Check the main bearing carefully and replace if it is
worn, scored or flaked.
------
Check
the
main
bearing
clearance with a "plastigauge".
If
it
exceeds.
the
limit,
correct the main journals by
having the crankshaft ground
for undersized main bearings.
NOTE: Tighten the main bearing
cap bolts
to
the
specified
torque.
Cap tightening torque:
....'
11.0 - 11.7 kg-m (80 - 85 Ib-ft)
Bearing Clearance:
Standard:
0.059 - 0.090 rom (0.0023 - 0.0035 in)
Limit:
0.12 rom (0.0047 in)
47
at
a
qualified
Checking Camshaft
1.
Check the camshaft for damage
or
cracks.
If
necessary,
replace the camshaft.
NOTE:
If the damage is slight,
you may be able to correct the
camshaft with an oil soaked
fine emery grindstone.
Correct the camshaft wi th special care so as not to damage
the original cam form.
2.
Check the cam height and replace the camshaft if the wear exceeds
the limit.
Cam height limit
3.
4.
W70:
WlOO:
42.478 mm (1.6724 in)
42.485 mm (1.6727 in)
Check the camshaft journal for
replace the camshaft.
wear.
If it exceeds
Journal diameter
Wear limit
No. 1
51.910 - 51.940 mm
(2.0437 - 2.0449 in)
0.008 mm
(0.0003 in)
No.
2
51.660 - 51.690 mm
(2.0339 - 2.0350 in)
0.008 mm
(0.0003 in)
No.
3
51.410 - 51.440 mm
(2.0240 - 2.0252 in)
0.008 mm
(0.0003 in)
No. 4
51.160 - 51.190 mm
(2.0142 - 2.0154 in)
0.008 mm
(0.0003 in)
the limit,
Check the clearance between the camshaft journal and camshaft support bore as follows.
( a)
Measure the camshaft journal diameter and camshaft support
bore.
(b) Calculate the clearance and replace the camshaft or cylinder
block if the clearance exceeds the limit.
Clearance limit:
5.
0.145 mm (0.0057 in)
If it exceeds the limit,
Check the camshaft alignment.
with a new one.
Maximum allowable run-out:
0.08 mm (0.0031 in)
48
replace
6.
Check the camshaft end playas follows.
(a)
(b)
Install the thrust plate, camshaft gear, friction gear, lock
plate and camshaft gear lock bolt on the camshaft.
Tighten the lock bolt to the specified torque.
Tightening torque:
W70:
6.4 - 9.5 kg-m
46 - 69 Ib-ft)
WIOO: 6.2 - 7.0 kg-m
( 4 5 - 51 1 b- f t )
(c)
Measure the clearance between
the thrust plate
and
camshaft.
If
it
exceeds the limit, replace
the thrust plate.
End play limit:
0.30 rom (0.0118 in)
Checking Idler Gear Bushing and Spindle
1.
Check the bushing and spindle for wear or damage and replace if
necessary.
2.
Check the oil passages of the
spindle for clogging and, if
necessary, clean the passage
with compressed air or wire.
3.
Check the clearance between the
bushing
and
spindle
by
measuring the bushing bore and
spindle
diameter.
If
it
exceeds the limi,t, replace the
bushing or spindle.
Clearance between bushing and
spindle:
Standard: 0.034 - 0.084 mm
(0.0013 - 0.0034 in)
Limit:
0.15 mm (0.0059 in)
Replacing Idler Gear Bushing
1.
To remove the idler gear bushing, press out the old bushing with a
suitable mandrel.
49
2.
To install the idler gear bushing, press fit a new bushing with a
suitable mandrel.
3.
Finish the bushing with a spiral expansion reamer or a pin hole
grinder to assure the correct fit.
Checking Gears
1.
2.
Check the gears (idler gears,
injection
pump
drive
gear,
crankshaft gear, camshaft gear)
for
cracks or damage.
If
necessary, replace as required.
Check the idler gear end play
as shown in figure.
If it
exceeds the specified value,
replace the thrust plate or
idler gear.
NOTE: Measure
the
end play
after tightening the idler gear
attaching nuts to the specified
value.
Thrust plate tightening torque:
End play standard:
3.
2.3 - 3.2 kg-m (17 - 23 lb-ft)
0.15 - 0.30 mm (0.0059 - 0.0118 in)
Check the backlash of every gear with a dial indicator.
NOTE:
Check the backlash after assuring that the idler gear end
play and the clearance between the idler gear bushing and spindle
are within standard.
Backlash standard:
0.10 - 0.20 mm (0.0039 - 0.0079 in)
Backlash limit:
0.30 mm (0.0118 in)
Checking Push Rod
1.
Check the push rod ends for
damage.
If any damage is
found, replace it.
2.
Check the push rod for bends
with the corner of a surface of
a surface plate. If it exceeds
the limi t, replace wi th a new
one.
Bend Limit: 0.19 mm (0.0075 in)
50
Checking Tappet
1.
Check the tappet for cr acks or
damage.
If damaged, replace
the tappet.
2.
Check the contact surface of
the tappet with the cam for
wear.
If it is abnormal,
replace the tappet.
3.
limit:
-~~-II""I----17"~-:- O.()()4,,/O.10mm
Check the clearance between the
tappet and tappet guide. If it
exceeds the limi t, replace the
tappet or cylinder block.
Clearance limit:
0.10 rom (0.0039 in)
Checking the Timing Gear Cover Oil Seal
1.
Check the lip of
required.
the oil
seal for
wear or damage.
Replace as
Replacing Timing Gear Cover Oil Seal
1.
2.
To remove the timing gear cover
oil seal, press out the old
seal with a sui table oil seal
puller and installer.
OIL SEAL PULLER AND INSTALLER
To install
the
timing gear
cover oil seal, apply engine
oil onto the outside of a new
seal and press fit the seal
with an oil seal puller and
installer until the installer
comes in contact with cover.
Checking Rear Oil Seal
1.
Check the lip of
required.
the oil seal for
51
wear or damage.
Replace as
Replacing Rear Oil Seal
I
~
2.
To remove the rear oil seal,
strike out the old seal with a
suitable mandrel.
tap a/7d route ...
To install the rear oil seal,
apply engine oil onto the out. side of a new seal and press
fi t the seal in the rear oil
seal cap equally.
NOTE: In case the crankshaft
is worn, the oil seal must be
fitted on the oil seal cap with
its fitting position moved by
approximately 3 mm so that the
seal does not touch the worndown portion of the crankshaft.
52
removal
i"stallati<»t
ENGINE ASSEMBLY
Take the following precautions:
A.
B.
c.
D.
E.
F.
G.
Be careful not to mix nuts and bolts. Metric and S.A.E. bolts are
used on various engine assemblies.
During assembly, recheck clearances and insure parts are being
assembled in their proper order and facing in the correct direction in relation to the engine block, e.g., pistons, piston rings,
bearings and bearing caps.
Apply lubricating oil to moving parts during assembly.
Insure
that moving parts, when assembled on the engine, rotate or slide
and are not subject to binding or excessive tension.
If there are mating marks scribed during disassembly, reference
them correctly for assembly.
Use new gaskets, lockwashers, o-rings, etc.
Tighten the bolts and nuts on important parts of engine to specified torques using a reliable torque wrench.
Use liquid sealants when required on nuts, bolts and gaskets.
Refrain from using tape sealants.
Assembling Engine
Assemble in the following order:
1.
Intake and
compressor.
NOTE:
stem.
2.
exhaust
valves.
Use
a
suitable
valve
spring
Apply eng ine oil onto the sliding section of the valve
Insert the oil deflector on the intake valve only.
Rocker arm assembly.
Note that the front end of the rocker shaft
is identified by a pin protruding from the top and a larger oil
hole between the supply holes
serv ing #1 and 2 rocker arms.
This pin fits a slot in the #1
rocker shaft support -which prevents the shaft from turning
and cutting off the lube oil to
the rocker arms and valves.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Spring
Rocker arm
Rocker bracket
Rocker arm
Wave washer
Stop ring
53
3.
Piston and connecting rod.
a. Piston pin (wrist pin)
b. Snap ring
NOTE: Assure that the connecting
piston front as shown in figure.
rod
locking
groove
Sub-combustion
chamber
I
faces
the
WlOO
•
~ 3rd
Front
W70
4.
Piston rings.
Use a suitable piston ring expander.
NOTE:
Install the piston ring with the
towards the piston crown.
5.
inscr iption mark upward
Main Bearings.
NOTE:
Install the main bearings in their proper position.
Apply engine oil onto the surface of the main bearing.
Do not apply oil onto the back
side of the main bearing.
Insure that the bearing oil
ports are properly aligned and
that
the
lock
tab
of
the
bearing is mating properly with
the lock groove in the block.
6.
Thrustwashers.
NOTE:
ward.
7.
Fit the thrustwashers with the oil groove side facing out-
Crankshaft.
Be careful that the thrustwashers do not drop as the
crankshaft settles in place.
54
8.
Main bearing caps.
NOTE: Fit the thrust bearing
(with
flange)
with
the oil
groove side facing outward.
The arrow mark of the cap top
should face towards the front
of the engine.
9.
Cap bolts.
NOTE:
Make
installing.
sure
Tightening torque:
that
the
crankshaft
rotates
smoothly
after
11.0 - 11.7 kg-m (80 - 85 lb-ft)
10. Rear oil seal assembly.
NOTE: Apply engine oil onto the lip of the seal.
Install a gasket between the oil seal assembly and cylinder block.
Use a good quality gasket cement when installing this gasket.
11. Piston and connecting rod assemblies.
compressor.
Use a suitable piston ring
NOTE:
Install the piston and connecting rod assembly in the position as shown in figure.
Apply engine oil onto the sliding face of the piston and cylinder
bore.
NOTE:
Place the piston rings at about 90· apart as shown in
figure.
Place the top and second rings in the opposite direction against
the pre-combustion chamber.
set ring gaps
lit 90 "liTfervals
pllU:8 8 It"/ZI!!! hlr"'I11~r,
It,ntlI4 c/tlWl?, 011' tqtJ tJf
Ihe "C1/11f7~s:sedplsran
t'rOf1tofpi6ton
I~ if1d/cbtM by
il
Puss t1f1f;'~
""ttom "8aril;e
·r----
OI/iro/e
..... - - - . ...
\
12. Connecting rod caps.
55
NOTE: Apply engine oil onto
the surface of the connecting
rod bearing prior to installing.
Insure that the rod caps are
properly matched to the proper
rod.
13. Connecting rod cap bolts.
Tightening torque:
W70:
WlOO:
8.2 - 9.0 kg-m (59 - 65 lb-ft)
7.6 - 8.3 kg-m (55 - 60 lb-ft)
14. Tappets.
NOTE: Apply engine oil onto
the sliding face of the tappet.
15. Camshaft and thrust plate.
NOTE: Apply engine oil
the
camshaft
journal
bearing surfaces.
onto
and
Tightening torque:
1. 6 -
2. 4 kg-m
(12 - 17 lb-ft)
16. Idler gear spindle.
NOTE:
Align the oil holes.
56
17. Fuel injection pump.
NOTE:
It is easier to first install the injection pump to the
timing gear case and then the entire assembly onto the engine.
Install the injection pump aligning the identification marks.
18. Timing gear case
NOTE:
Align the end face of the timing gear case and cylinder
block.
Cut off the excess gasket.
Tightening torque:
1.6 - 2.4 kg-m (12 - 17 Ib-ft)
19. Gears.
a.
b.
c.
d.
Camshaft gear
Injection pump drive gear
Crankshaft gear
Idler gear
NOTE: Align the timing
marks of every gear.
gear
20. Idler gear thrust plates and attaching nuts
Tightening torque:
2.3 - 3.2 kg-m (17 - 23 Ib-ft)
57
21. Friction gears.
friction gear
injection pump drive gear
22. Camshaft gear lock bolt.
NOTE:
gear.
Wedge
a
clean
cloth between
the camshaft gear
and
idler
Tightening torque:
W70:
WlOO:
6.4 - 9.5 kg-m (46 - 69 lb-ft)
6.2 - 7.0 kg-m (45 - 51 lb-ft)
23. Injection pump drive gear lock nut.
NOTE:
Wedge a clean cloth between the injection pump drive gear
and idler gear.
Tightening torque:
4.0 - 7.0 kg-m (29 - 51 lb-ft)
24. Oil deflector on crankshaft.
25. Timing gear cover.
Use the oil seal puller and installer
timing gear front engine cover.
58
to aid in installing the
Tightening torque:
1.6 - 2.4 kg-m (12 - 17 lb-ft)
26. Oil pump assembly.
NOTE:
mesh.
Make sure that the oil pump drive gear and driven gear
27. Oil pan gaskets.
®
NOTE: Place the ends of gasket
(A) on the gaskets (B) and (C).
Apply gasket cement on the contact portions of the gaskets
and on the contact portions of
the
timing
gear
case
and
cylinder block.
©
28. Oil pan upper block.
NOTE: Make
sure
that
the
fitting surfaces of rear sides
of the cyliner block and oil
pan upper block are kept flush.
Arrange both faces
29. Oil pan.
Tightening torque:
1.6 - 2.3 kg-m
(12 - 17 lb-ft)
30. Back plate.
Tightening torque:
3.3 - 4.8 kg-m (24 - 35 lb-ft)
59
31. Flywheel.
NOTE: Install the flywheel by
placing it on the crankshaft
and rotating it to properly
align the mounting bolt holes.
Install the tabwasher and the
attaching bolts.
After torquing, bend one tab
against
a
flat
of
each
attaching bolt.
6\
_ one boltderlate6
5° from the
setup.
locKwasher
rill!!
o
Tightening torque:
\
o
o
)
rlywht:el bolt
~fiern
15.5 kg-m (112 lb-ft)
32. Crankshaft pulley.
NOTE: Apply engine oil onto the lip of oil seal.
Carefully slide the front crankshaft pulley onto the crankshaft
insuring that the key in the crankshaft and the keyway in the
pulley mate properly.
Apply Lockti te (high temperature) to the threads of the front
crankshaft pulley holddown bolt when installing it.
Insure that the flat washer is under the head of the bolt when
installed.
Tightening torque:
W70:
35 - 40 kg-m (253 - 289 lb-ft)
WIOO:
39 - 42 kg-m (282 - 304 lb-ft)
33. Tubular dowel pins.
34. Cylinder head gasket.
35. Cylinder head.
60
36. pushrods.
NOTE: Make
sure
that
the
pushrod seats securely in the
tappet concavity.
37. Valve caps on top of valve stems.
NOTE:
Make sure that the valve cap is installed squarely on the
valve stem.
38. Rocker arm assembly.
39. Cylinder head bolts.
NOTE: Tighten the cylinder head bolts in the order shown in the
figure.
After tightening the cylinder head bolts, make sure that the
rocker arms move smoothly.
Tightening torque (cold engine)
W70:
11.8 - 12.5 kg-m (85 - 90 lb-ft)
WlOO:
11.0 - 11.7 kg-m (80 - 85 lb-ft)
61
40. Adjust valve clearance.
W70:
Adjust the No.1, 2, 3 and 6
valves when the No. 1 piston is
coming
up
on
compression
stroke.
Next, when the No. 4 piston is
coming
up
on
compression
stroke, adjust the No.4, 5, 7
and 8 valves.
The valves are
numbered 1 - 8 from front of
engine.
When No.1 cylinder is at top dead center
WlOO:
Adjust the No.1, 2, 3, 6, 7
and 10 valves when the No. 1
piston
is
coming
up
on
compression stroke.
Next, when the No. 6 piston is
coming
up
on
compression
stroke, adjust the No.4, 5, 8,
9, 11 and 12 valves.
The
valves are numbered 1 - 12 from
the front of the engine.
NOTE: When
the
engine
is
overhauled,
run
the
engine
under load to check its performance.
Allow the eng ine to
cool to room temperature and
retorque
the
cylinder
head
holddown nuts and re-adjust
valves.
The
cylinder
head
holddown
bolts
and
valve
adjustment
should be rechecked again after
50
hours
and
periodically
thereafter.
"# t
5tlpport orilCltet.
rL_
0.012" 0,30mm cold
Valve Clearance (cold):
Intake
0.3 mm (0.012 in)
Exhaust
0.3 mm (0.012 in)
62
--~
Installing Engine Equipment Parts
Install in the following order:
1.
Fresh water pump assembly.
Tightening torque:
1.6 - 2.4 kg-m (12 - 17 lb-ft)
2.
Water return pipe on WlOO.
3.
Checking injection timing.
(a)
(b)
Remove the valve cover if already reinstalled.
Place piston No. 1 at T.D.C. of its compression stroke.
NOTE: No. 1 piston is the first piston from the front of the
engine.
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
Remove the snap circlip on the end of the rocker shaft.
Slacken the rocker arm adjusting nut to allow the rocker arm
to be removed from the shaft.
This will expose the No. 1
valve.
Remove the valve cap and keepers and springs.
This will
allow the valve to drop down on to the piston head which is
at top dead center of its compression stroke.
Attach a dial indicator
gauge to the engine and
zero it on the top flat
portion of the valve stem.
Find exact T.D.C. of No. 1
piston by carefully rocking the crankshaft back
and forth.
Once this is
found, re-zero the dial
indicator.
_ _ _----l...[ dt~tanae (see text)
1~
7f/'i'fWl
/b 81
Slowly turn the crankshaft in the opposite direction of normal rotation until the indicator reads 0.230 + .005 inches
B.T.D.C. for the WlOO or 0.180 + .005 inches-for the W70.
It is advisable to go slightly more than 0.230 (0.180) and
then return to that figure to remove gear lash.
The No. 1
piston is now at 30 degrees B.T.D.C.
The injection pump is already installed on the engine.
Ver ify that the scr ibe mark on the injection pump outboard
mounting flange is properly aligned with the scribe mark on
the engine mounting case.
Remove the plug and sealing washer from the aft center of the
63
(i)
injection pump.
(This is the plug located centrally where
the four high pressure injector lines attach to the pump.)
Install in the place of this plug the #49 9140 074 measuring
device.
Insure that the measuring device rod contacts the
plunger inside the pump and zero the gauge.
depthgqge
- head boll
NOTE: When setting the dial gauge, confirm that the dial
gauge pointer does not deviate from the scale mark of zero by
slightly turning the engine crankshaft from left to right.
(j)
4.
Turn the engine crankshaft in the normal direction of rotation to bring the No. 1 piston up to T.D.C. The dial indicator on the valve stem should zero and the indicator on the
injection pump should show 1 mm (0.039 inches) of movement.
Adjusting injection timing.
(a)
(b)
Loosen the nuts holding the injection pump to the engine.
(High pressure injector lines should not be attached to the
injection pump.)
Make the adjustment by moving the injection pump itself.
When the amount of movement of the measuring device indicator
on the injection pump is too large, first turn the injection
pump in the reverse direction of the engine rotation so that
the dial gauge pointer indicates less than the scale mark of
1 mm.
Then turn the injection pump in the direction of the
engine rotation so that the measuring device indicator points
to the scale mark of 1 mm.
NOTE: Above adjusting
backlash tight.
(c)
procedures
are
to
make
the
gear
When the amount of the measuring device indicator on the
injection pump is too small, turn the injection pump in the
direction of engine normal rotation so that the measuring
device
indicator
points
to
the
scale
mark
of
1 mm
(0.039 in.).
After the adjustment, tighten the injection pump holddown
nuts, and then confirm again that the adjustment has been
done correctly.
64
5.
Checking cam lift.
(a)
Turn the crankshaft in the normal direction of rotation and
read the maximum value which the dial indicator pointer on
the measuring device shows. This is the cam lift.
Amount of cam lift:
(b)
(c)
6.
2.2 rom
(0.08 in)
After this check, remove the measuring device and install the
plug and sealing washer.
When the injector high pressure lines are reinstalled, they
will have to be bled of air as well as the injection pump
itself.
Bleed the injection pump first by loosening the
return connection (a) and evacuating the air from the injection pump by supplying fuel to the injection pump by priming
with the lever on the engine mounted fuel filter until fuel
clear of air passes out this connection.
These high pressure lines are bled next by loosening them at
their attachment to the fuel injectors.
Loosen their
attaching nuts on all four lines one to two turns.
Turn the
key on and crank the engine over with the starter until fuel
spurts by the nuts and the lines.
Stop cranking and tighten
attaching nuts and start engine in the usual manner.
Intake manifold.
Tightening torque:
1.6 - 2.4 kg-m (12 - 17 Ib-ft)
7.
Fuel injectors and return lines.
NOTE:
The copper sealing washers should not be reused.
Injector tightening torque:
W70:
WIOO:
6.0 - 7.0 kg-m (43 - 51 Ib-ft)
1.6 - 2.4 kg-m ( 12 - 17 Ib-ft)
8.
Glow plugs.
9.
Rocker cover with new gasket.
NOTE:
Apply sealant to that portion of the gasket that contacts
the cover only.
10. Front engine mounts.
11. Oil filter and mounting bracket.
12. Fresh water circulating pump pulley.
13. Sea water pump, bracket and pulley.
65
14. Alternator and bracket.
15. Sea water pump belt.
16. Alternator belt.
17. High pressure fuel injector lines.
18. Bellhousing.
19. Starting motor.
20. Damper plate to flywheel.
21. Transmission and related coolers and hardware as applicable.
22. Adjust "V" belt tension.
"V"
belt deflection
(exerting
10 kg force):
For new belt:
For used belt:
9 - 11 mm
(0.35 - 0.43 in)
10 - 12 mm
0.39 - 0.47 in)
23. Install the exhaust manifold expansion tank in its entirety.
66
24~
Thermostat and thermostat housing.
25. Install engine heat exchanger and
bellhousing with related hardware.
lube
oil
cooler
on
engine
26. Replace preheat solenoid and circuit breaker and mounting bracket.
27. Crankcase vent hose.
28. Oil
and
switches.
water
senders
and
29. Engine wiring harness.
30. Engine mounted fuel filter and related lines.
31. Engine dipstick tube and dipstick.
32. Air intake silencer.
33. Install the preformed metal tube wi th supports from the exhaust
manifold/expansion tank to the inlet side of the fresh water circulating pump.
34. Install new hose connections and clamps for cooling system.
35. Fill transmission with proper lubricant.
36. Fill the engine cooling system with antifreeze mixture.
37. Fill engine oil sump with lube oil (A.P.I. Spec. CC or better).
The engine should be test run under load prior to reinstalling. Allow
the engine to cool to room temperature and retorque the cylinder head
bolts and check valve clearances.
67
CHECKING COMPRESSION PRESSURE
NOTE: Before measuring the compression pressure, check the valve
clearance and the charge of batteries and starting motor as well as
for proper cable sizes and connections to and from the engine.
1.
Warm up the engine.
2.
Remove all fuel injectors.
3.
Disconnect the fuel shut off solenoid wire.
4.
Install the adapter in the injector hole.
5.
Connect a compression tester on the adapter and crank the engine
with the starting motor until the pressure reaches a maximum
value.
Compression pressure:
6.
Standard
30.0 kg/cm 2
(427 lb/in 2 at 200 RPM)
Limit
27.0 kg/cm 2
(384 lb/in 2 at 200 RPM)
If the compression pressure is greater than the standard, but the
pressure
difference
between any pair of cylinders exceeds
3 kg/cm 2 (42.7 lb/in 2 ), disassembly and repair are necessary.
68
LUBRICATING SYSTEM
Operation
The lubricating system is a pressure feeding system using an oil pump.
The eng ine oil forced out of the oil pump is passed through the oil
filter. The oil passes through the oil filter and the engine lube oil
cooler and then to the various lubricating points in the engine and
then returns to the lube oil sump.
When the oil pressure exceeds the specified pressure, the oil pushes
open the relief valve in the oil pump and returns to the oil pan,
thereby keeping the oil pressure within its specified range.
Checking Engine Oil
1.
2.
3.
Check for any eng ine oil leakage.
Should leakage be detected,
correct as needed. Tightening of fittings and bolts is considered
normal maintenance and is the responsibility of the owner.
Check eng ine oil level with the lube oil dipstick at least once
daily prior to engine usage. Add oil as needed.
Make sure that the oil is higher than the mid point between the
"F" and ilL" marks of the dipstick.
If found lower than the ilL II
mark, replenish up to the "F" mark.
NOTE: Maintaining proper eng ine oil level is the responsibility
of the engine owner/operator.
Any damage to the engine due to
lack of adequate oil is the responsibility of the owner/operator.
Gauges and alarms are provided to warn against loss of proper
engine oil pressure. Monitoring of engine operating gauges is the
responsibility of the owner/operator.
Engine oil capacity:
Oil Sump
W70:
6.0 liters (6.3 U.S.quarts)
(5.3 Imp quarts)
11.3 liters (11.9 U.S.quarts)
(9.9 Imp quarts)
WlOO:
69
Checking Oil Pressure
1.
2.
3.
Warm up the engine.
Remove the oil pressure sender
and connect a mechanical oil
pressure gauge instead.
Set the engine speed at 3600
RPM
and
measure
the
oil
pressure.
I f the oil pressure
is less than the specification,
check the lubricating system.
Oil pressure:
Greater
than
3.8 kg/cm 2
(54.04 Ib/in 2 ) at 3600 RPM
NOTE: Insure proper oil is being used that meets
requirements and the A.P.I. spec. of CC or better.
4.
If the oil pressure drops below the specified safe minimum
pre s sur e of 0 • 3 + 0 • 1 kg / cm 2 ( 4 • 3 + 1. 4 1 b / in 2) , an immediate
check should be made.
Removing Oil Pump
Remove in the following order:
1.
2.
3.
4.
temperature
Oil
Oil
Oil
Oil
pan
pump set screw
pipe attaching bolts
pump
Disassembling Oil Pump
Disassemble in the following order:
W70:
1. Oil pipe and gasket
2. Oil strainer and gasket
3. Oil pump cover
4. Outer rotor
5. Pump body, inner rotor and gear assembly
6. Drive gear. Use a press and a suitable mandrel.
7. Inner rotor
8. Oil pump body
8. Relief valve assembly
(a) Screw
(b) a-ring
(c) Spring
(d) Steel ball
70
WlOO:
1. 'Oil pipe and gasket
2. Oil strainer and gasket
3. Drive gear
4. Pump cover
5. Drive shaft
6. Outer rotor
7. Relief valve assembly
Checking Oil Pump
1.
Check the clearance between the lobes of the rotors with a feeler
gauge. If the clearance exceeds the limit, replace both rotors.
Clearance limit:
2.
0.3 mm (0.0118 in)
Check the clearance between the
outer rotor and pump body with
a
feeler
gauge.
If
the
clearance
exceeds
the
limit
replace the rotor or pump body.
Clearance limit:
0.3 mm (0.0118 in)
3.
Check the end float of the
rotors.
Place a straight edge
across
the
pump
body
and
measure the clearance between
the rotor and straight edge
wi th a feeler gauge.
If the
clearance exceeds the limit,
replace the dr i ve gear, dr i ve
shaft, inner rotor, outer rotor
and pump body.
Clearance limit:
0.15 mm (0.0059 in)
4.
Then, place a straight edge across the pump cover and measure the
clearance between the straight edge and cover.
If the cover
exceeds the limit, correct the pump cover by grinding or replace
it.
Clearance limit:
0.15 mm (0.0059 in)
71
5.
Check the clearance between the
pump body and shaft using a
dial
indicator
and
magnetic
base.
If the clearance exceeds
the limit,
replace the pump
drive shaft, inner rotor, pump
body and drive gear.
Clearance limit:
rnrn
0.1
6.
(0.0039
in)
Check the relief valve for worn
plunger and fatigued spring.
Spring free length:
40.0 rnrn (1.61 in)
Assembling Oil Pump
Assemble in the reverse order of disassembling.
NOTE:
When installing the rotors into the body, be sure
tally marks on the rotors are positioned toward the cover.
that
the
OUTER ROTOR
INNER ROTOR
~~~~17~ TALLY MARKS
o
Cover
tightening
torque:
0.8
72
1. 2
kg-m
(5.8
8.7
lb-ft)
Installing Oil Pump
Install in the reverse order of removal.
Oil Pan
Before installing oil pan:
1.
2.
Scrape any dirt or metal particles from the inside of the oil
pan.
Check the oil pan for cracks and damaged drain plug threads.
Check for damage (uneven surface) at the bolt holes caused by
overtorquing the bolts.
Straighten surfaces as required.
Repair
any damage or replace the oil pan if repairs cannot be made
satisfactorily.
Oil Cooler
Removal:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Drain the cooling water.
Remove
the oil filter
body
(W70)
and oil cooler cover
(WlOO) from the cylinder block.
Remove the gasket.
Remove the oil cooler from the
oil cooler cover and oil filter
body (W70).
Installation:
Install in
removal.
the
reverse
order
of
NOTE: After installing the oil
cooler, start the engine and
check for oil and water leaks.
Replace the o-r ing and gasket
with new ones.
Checking:
Check
the oil cooler core for
clogs, cracks and any damage.
If
necessary, correct or replace them.
Oil Filter
Removal:
Remove the oil filter with a suitable wrench.
73
Installation:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Apply engine oil on the oil filter o-ring.
Fully tighten the oil filter by hand.
Supply the specified amount of engine oil.
While operating the engine, make sure that oil is not leaking from
the filter installed section.
NOTE:' Do not use a tool to tighten.
Oil Jet (W70)
Remove in the following order:
1.
2.
3.
Oil
Oil
Oil
Oil
pan
pan upper block
jet valve
jet
(4r----<.t7'ii-__+_~
Checking:
1.
2.
cr~~~~~
Make sure that the oil passage
is not clogged.
Check
and
ensure
that
the
spring incorporated in the oil
jet valve
is not stuck or
damaged.
Installation:
Install in the reverse order of removal.
74
FRESH WATER CIRCULATING PUMP
Removing Fresh Water Pump
Remove in the following order:
I.' Coolant (drain as needed)
2.
3.
4.
5.
belt
Water hoses
Water pump attaching nuts
Water pump
nV n
Disassembling Water Pump
Disassemble in the following order:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Pulley boss, using a support and press.
Snap ring.
Impeller, shaft, bearings and spacer assembly.
Use a support block and a suitable mandrel.
Water seal. Use a suitable mandrel.
Snap ring.
Bearings and spacer. Use a suitable mandrel.
tubular
.r~'i
/ •....
,,) . ...
SlIPport(j_
.'.
_.'
~. :,-'
,.'
8S,
:f
~
~:.
Checking Water Pump
1.
2.
Check the bearings for roughness or excessive end play.
Check the water pump body and impeller for cracks and damage.
Assembling Water Pump
Assemble in the following order:
1.
2.
Snap ring
Bearings and spacer
NOTE: Install the bearings so that the sealed sides face outward.
Make sure that the front side of the bearing touches the snap
75
ring.
After installing the bearings
bearings rotate smoothly.
3.
4.
and
spacer,
make
sure
that
the
Dust seal plate and baffle plate.
Shaft assembly. Use the Support Block and a suitable pipe.
NOTE:
Fill one-third of the space between the two bear ings wi th
lithium grease.
After press fitting the shaft assembly, make sure that the shaft
rotates smoothly.
5.
6.
Snap ring
Water seal
NOTE:
7.
Use a new water seal.
Pulley boss
NOTE: Press the pulley boss onto the shaft until it is flush with
the front end of the shaft.
8.
Impeller
NOTE: Apply a slight amount of
eng ine oil on the contact surface between the water seal and
impeller.
Press the impeller onto the
shaft until it is flush with
the rear end of the shaft.
DO NOT ALLOW OIL OR GREASE TO
CONTAMINATE THE SURFACES OF THE
CERAMIC RING OR THE GRAPHITE
(SMALL END)
OF THE SPRINGLOADED SEAL.
Installing Water Pump
Install in the reverse order of removal.
NOTE:
Use a new gasket.
After installing the water pump, fill
operate the engine to check for leaks.
Adjust the "V" belt.
76
the
system with
coolant
and
Excessive amount of tension on the alternator "V" belt is frowned on.
This can result in shortening belt life and that of the fresh water
circulating pump.
77
FUEL SYSTEM
Points
The injection pump is Diesel Kiki's Bosch-VE-distributor type which is
compact, light and of simple design that provides high performance.
By turning off the engine switch key, the supply of fuel int'o the combustion chamber is cut off to stop engine dieseling.
When the engine is run in reverse, the fuel injection pressure does
not develop and therefore the fuel is not injected.
The engine never
runs in reverse.
In addi tion to an engine mounted fuel filter, a sedimentor may be
installed to help in the removal of water contained in the fuel.
These filters should be monitored and serviced regularly.
Operation
The fuel in the fuel tank is introduced into the fuel lines by the
injection pump's integral feed pump.
Any water in the fuel is
extracted by the sedimentor when installed. The fuel is then filtered
by the fuel filter before it reaches the injection pump.
The fuel
supplied to the injection pump is sent into the plunger by the control
sleeve, linked with the throttle lever, in an amount proportionate to
the degree of lever depression.
(The pressure of the fuel in the
injection pump will be controlled in accordance with the engine RPM by
the operation of the feed pump and the regulating valve built in the
pump. )
The fuel sent to the plunger is highly pressur ized and is forced
through the delivery valve, injection line, injection nozzle, and is
injected into each cylinder in the proper injection order.
Any fuel
time of
will be
surplus
cool the
leaking at the sliding section of the nozzle~s valve at the
injection and any surplus fuel in the injection pump housing
returned to the fuel tank through the overflow pipe.
(The
fuel will circulate in the injection pump to lubricate and
pump.)
The fuel cut solenoid interrupts the fuel flow on the distributor side
of the injection pump which closes the intake port of the plunger.
NOTE: Water in the fuel system reaching the injection pump and
injectors is highly detrimental to their operation.
78
INJECTION PUMP
Should the injection pump require servicing, it should be removed and
brought to a qualified injection pump servicing facility. Disassembly
and repairs in the field should not be attempted.
Checking and Adjusting Injection Pump
1.
Checking Idle Speed
(a)
(b)
Warm up the engine.
With the aid of the
observe engine RPM.
tachometer
in
the
instrument
panel,
NOTE: Should the panel tachometer be in question, verify its
readings with the use of a photoelectric or hand-held tachometer taking readings off the front crankshaft pulley.
(c)
2.
Adjust the idle speed as needed.
Idle Speed:
580 - 630 RPM
NOTE: This
peller.
speed
may
vary
depending
on
transmission
and
pro-
Adjusting Idle Speed
(a)
(b)
With the engine at rest, inspect the throttle cable for
proper travel.
Insure it will move the throttle lever on the
injection pump from the stop on the idle screw to the stop on
the high speed screw.
Adjust the throttle cable
as needed to insure these
stops are contacted.
Loosen the lock nut of the
idle adjusting screw and
adjust by turning the idle
adjusting screw.
NOTE:
Idle
speed
will
increase when the adjusting screw is turned to the
right and decrease when
turned to the left.
(c)
3.
After the adjustment, race the engine two or three times and
recheck the idle speed.
Engine Stopping Solenoid Troubleshooting
NOTE: This solenoid is installed on the top rear of the injection
pump and is activated by 12 VDC electrical current.
In the case
of a generator set, refer also to the Generator Control Section of
this book.
79
(a)
The solenoid does not operate when the keyswi tch is turned
"ON".
(1) Are the engine batteries turned "ON"?
(2)
Is the 20 amp circuit breaker set?
(3)
Is 12 VDC present at the solenoid connection?
(b)
The solenoid does not stop the engine when the keyswitch is
shut "OFF".
(1) Check to see if 12 VDC is still present at the
solenoid electrical lead with the key off.
(2) Remove solenoid from injection pump and insure
plunger and spring in the solenoid are not sticking.
80
FUEL INJECTORS
Removing Injectors
Remove in the following order:
W70:
1. Fuel injection lines
2. Fuel return line attaching nuts and sealing washers
3. Fuel return line
4. Injectors
5. Copper sealing washers
WlOO:
1. Fuel return line
2. Fuel injection lines
3. Injectors
4. Gasket and dust seal
NOTE: Clean the area around the base of the injector pr ior to
lifting it out of the cylinder head to help prevent any rust or
debris from falling down into the injector hole.
If the injector
will not lift out easily and is held in by carbon build up or the
like, work the injector side to side with the aid of an adjustable
or open end wrench to free it and then lift it out.
Testing Injection Nozzle
NOTE: Test the nozzles using
perature at 20· C (6a·F).
1.
diesel
fuel
at
approximate
tem-
Checking Injection Starting Pressure
(a)
Install the nozzle on a nozzle tester and operate the hand
lever a few times to remove air.
CAUTION: When using nozzle tester, the spray injected from
the nozzle is of such velocity that it may penetrate deeply
into the skin of fingers and hands, destroying tissue.
If it enters the bloodstream, it may cause blood poisoning.
(b)
Operate the hand lever at 60
injection starting pressure.
strokes/minute and check the
Injection starting pressure:
135 kg/cm 2 (1,920 lb/in 2 )
(c)
If the fuel injection starting pressure
specification, adjust it.
al
is not wi thin
the
NOTE:
W70: Adjust the starting pressure by replacing or adding shims.
There are 27 shims available in increments of 0.04 mm from 0.5 mm
to 1.45 mm.
An increment of 0.04 mm causes the starting pressure
to rise by approximately 4.8 kg/cm 2 (68.26 lb/in 2 ).
W100: Loosen the cap nut on the injector body and adjust
turning the pressure adjusting screw with a screwdriver.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
2.
Tncrease the starting pressure to about 200 kg/cm 2 (2844
lb/in 2 ) once.
Gradually lower the starting pressure to the specified
value.
When the pressure is properly adjusted,
keep the
adjusting screw stationary with a screwdriver passed
through the cap nut bolt hole and tighten the cap nut to
4-5 kg/m (9-11 lb/ft).
Check the injection starting pressure again.
Check Fuel Injection
Operate the hand lever quickly
and
verify
that
fuel
is
injected correctly
from
the
nozzle orifice in the direction
of the nozzle axis.
A nozzle is defective if it
injects
fuel
in an oblique
direction
or
in
several
separate strips. Also, a spray
in the form of particles indicates a defect.
These defects
may sometimes be caused by
clogging with dust and, therefore, all parts should be carefully cleaned before reassembly.
Also inspect the nozzle tip
after several injections.
If
it drips or has a large accumulation of fuel on the bottom,
it is considered defective and
should be repaired or replaced.
A very small amount of fuel may
sometimes remain on the tip of
the nozzle; however, this does
not indicate a defect.
3.
by
Good
8ad
u u
~
Good
8ad
w
Bad
Checking Oil Tightness of Needle Valve Set
Operate the hand lever to raise the pressure up to 115 kg/cm 2
(1635 lb/in 2 ), which is 20 kg/cm 2 (280 lb/in 2 ) lower than the
injection starting pressure.
If fuel does not drip from the
nozzle orifice under the pressure, oil tightness is satisfactory.
Dripping of fuel, on the other hand, is indicative of damage on
82
the needle valve or the valve body, or poor contact between both.
In that event, both needle valve and valve body must be replaced.
Disassembling Injector
Disassemble in the following order:
W70:
1. Nozzle body
2. Adjusting seat
3. Spring
4. Magnetic filter
5. Spacer
6. Nozzle
7. Nozzle holder
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
WlOO:
1. Cap nut
(Ref. 3)
2. Gasket
3. Pressure adjusting screw
4. Adjusting seat
5. Spring
6. Pushrod
7. Connector and washer
8. Nozzle nut
9. Nozzle
NOTE:
Greatest possible care should be taken in handling the
nozzles as they are very precisely machined.
The nozzle and the needle valve are matched pairs.
Do not mix
their original combinations.
Disassemble and wash each nozzle
assembly separately.
Carbon deposits on the nozzle body must be removed with a piece of
hard wood.
However, it would be advisable not to clean the
surrounding area of the nozzle orifice to avoid possible damage to
the orifice.
Iron dust on the magnetic filter top must be removed completely.
Checking Injector Nozzle
Assure that the needle valve comes down into the valve seat by its
weight when it is pushed in the nozzle body about 18 mm (0.708 in).
If it does not, replace the assembly.
If any defect is found, always replace the needle valve and the nozzle
body as a unit.
83
Assembling Injector
Assemble in the reverse order of disassembling.
NOTE: After assembling the injector, test it.
W70: Tighten the nozzle body on the nozzle holder
cified torque.
to the spe-
Nozzle body tightening torque (24 mm socket):
8.0 - 10.0 kg-m (58 - 72 lb-ft)
WlOO:
Tighten the nozzle and cap nut to the specified torque.
Nozzle nut torque:
6.0 - 10.0 kg-m
(43 - 72 lb-ft)
Cap nut torque:
4.0 - 5.0 Kg-m
(29 - 36 lb-ft)
Installing Injector
Install in the reverse order of removal.
NOTE:
The copper washers should not be reused.
Replace with new
washers.
W70: Tighten the nozzle on the cylinder head to the specified
torque.
Nozzle tightening torque (27 mm socket):
6.0 - 7.0 kg-m (43 - 51 lb-ft)
WlOO injector holder tightening torque:
1.6 - 2.4 kg-m )12 - 17 lb-ft)
84
FUEL SYSTEM TROUBLESHOOTING
SYMPTOM
1. Engine hard to
start or fails
to start.
PROBABLE CAUSE
REPAIR
a) No fuel at injectors. Check causes b) thru f).
b) Fuel in fuel tank
Fill tank. Open shut off
and/or fuel shut off. and bleed system.
c) Fuel filter clogged.
Replace filter and bleed.
d) Air in injection
pump.
Bleed pump. Check fittings
for suction leak on fuel
supply.
e) Fuel shut off
Troubleshoot as described
solenoid not working. in previous section.
2. Engine idling
too low.
f) Injection pump
faulty.
Inspect pump and repair or
replace as needed.
g) Fuel injectors
faulty.
Remove and test nozzles
and repair as needed.
h) Water and/or air in
fuel filters.
Remove water and/or bleed
air. Check system for
leaks and fuel tank for
water contamination.
i) Injection timing
incorrect.
Check and adjust timing.
j) Glow plugs not
operating.
Check glow plug circuit
and repair as needed.
a) Idle speed too low.
Adjust idle stop as
needed.
b) Fuel filter clogged.
Replace filter and bleed.
c) Incorrect injection
pump timing.
Check timing and adjust
as needed.
d) High pressure injector line leaking.
Slacken attaching nut and
retighten.
e) Fuel injector leaking at sealing
gasket in head.
Retighten injector and/or
replace sealing washer.
f) Injection nozzle not
operating properly.
Check nozzle and adjust as
needed.
85
3. Fuel consumption too high.
g} Engine air intake
obstructed.
Check air intake silencer
and air flow into engine
compartment.
a} Idle speed too high.
Check engine speed.
b} Engine air intake
restricted.
Check intake and correct.
c} Injection timing
incorrect.
Check timing and readjust
pump.
d} Injector nozzle
leaking.
Tighten nozzle or replace
sealing gasket.
e} Injector not operating properly.
Remove injector and adjust
nozzle spray pressure.
f} Engine overloaded.
Check propeller size and
engine performance at
rated RPM.
4. Engine output
a} Contaminated or
and performance
inferior fuel.
poor.
b) Fuel filter
obstructed.
c} Air in fuel system.
d)
Injection pump
timing incorrect.
Purge fuel system and
replace with quality fuel.
Remove and replace filter
element.
Bleed and check for
source.
Check timing and adjust
pump as needed.
e} Injector high pressure lines leaking.
Loosen and then retighten
injector line attachment
nut or replace the complete line.
f} Injectors not
operating properly.
Remove injectors and
adjust spray pressure to
proper set-ting.
g} Shaft stuffing box
nut too tight.
Check shaft free movement
and for heat. Adjust gland
nut as needed.
h} Valves improperly
adjusted.
Check valve adjustment
and maintain.
5. Large amount of a} Clogged fuel filter.
black exhaust
smoke.
86
Replace fuel filter and
bleed.
6. Abnormal noise
from engine.
b) Restricted air
intake.
Remove air obstruction.
c) Engine overloaded.
Check engine propeller
size and engine performance no load - fully
loaded.
d) Injection timing.
Check injection pump
timing and adjust as
needed.
e) Fuel injectors not
operating properly.
Check nozzle spray
pressure.
a) Poor quality and/or
incorrect fuel.
Use No. 2 diesel fuel.
b) Incorrect injection
timing. Timing too
advanced.
Check injection timing.
c) Fuel injector stuck
open.
Locate injector and remove, replace or rebuild.
87
W70 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS
Type
Bore
Stroke
Piston displacement
Compression ratio
Compression pressure
(at 200 rpm)
Standard
Limit
Limit of difference
between cylinders
Valve clearance
(Cold Eng ine)
Intake
Exhaust
Cylinder head
Permissible distortion
of cylinder head surface
Valve timing
Intake valve opens
Intake valve closes
Exhaust valve opens
Exhaust valve closes
Valve seat
Valve seat angle
Intake
Exhaust
Valve seat width
Intake
Exhaust
Dimension "L"
(Valve sinking)
Standard
Limit
Valve guide
Protrusion from cylinder
head
Stem to guide clearance
Standard intake
Standard exhaust
Limit
Guide inner diameter
Valve-Intake
Head diameter
Head thickness
Standard
Limit
Face angle
Stem diameter
Standard
Limit
Four cylinder four stroke engine in line,
water cooled, overhead valve
95.0 mm (3.74 in)
105.0 mm (4.13 in)
2977 cc (181.7 cu in)
21:1
30.0 kg/cm 2 (427 lb/in 2 )
27.0 kg/cm 2 (384 lb/in 2 )
3.0 kg/cm 2 (42.7 lb/in 2 )
0.30 mm(0.012 in)
0.30 mm(0.012 in)
0.10 mm (0.004 in)
17·
47·
51·
13·
BTDC
ABDC
BBDC
ATDC
45·
30·
2.0 mm (0.079 in)
2.0 mm (0.079 in)
48.05 mm (1.892 in)
49.55 mm (1.949 in)
16.5 mm (0.65 in)
0.038
0.058
0.127
9.018
- 0.085 mm
- 0.105 mm
mm (0.0050
- 9.040 mm
(0.0015 - 0.0033 in)
(0.0023 - 0.0041 in)
in)
(0.355 - 0.356 in)
40.4 - 40.6 mm (1.59 - 1.60 in)
1.5 mm (0.059 in)
1.0 mm (0.039 in)
45·
8.955 - 8.980 mm (0.353 - 0.354 in)
8.904 mm (0.351 in)
88
Valve-Exhaust
Head diameter
Head thickness
Standard
Limit
Face angle
Stem diameter
Standard
Limit
Valve spring-outer
Free length
Standard
Limit
Fitting length
Fitting load
Standard
Limit
Squareness limit
Spring constant
Valve spring-Inner
Free length
Standard
Limit
Fitting length
Fitting load
Standard
Limit
Squareness limit
Spring constant
Rocker arm bore
Rocker arm shaft
Outer diameter
Clearance in rocker arm
Standard
Limit
Tappet
Outer diameter
Bore in cylinder block
Clearance in cylinder
block bore
Standard
Limit
Camshaft
Journal diameter
No. 1 (Front)
No. 2
No. 3
No.4 (Rear)
Wear Limit of
journal
Cam elevation
Intake
Standard
Limit
37.40 - 37.60 mm (1.47 - 1.48 in)
1.5 mm (0.059 in)
1.0 mm (0.039 in)
30·
8.935 - 8.960 mm (0.352 - 0.353 in)
8.884 mm (0.350 in)
55.7 mm (2.193 in)
52.9 mm (2.083 in)
40.3 mm (1.587in)
32.4
30.1
1.37
2.16
- 34.2 kg (71.43 - 75.40 lb)
kg (66.36 lb)
mm (0.054 in)
kg/mm (121 lb/in)
44.1 mm (1.736 in)
42.0 mm (1.654 in)
37.8 mm (1.488 in)
12.1 - 13.3 kg (26.68 - 29.32 lb)
11.3 kg (24.92 lb)
1.25 mm (0.049 in)
2.02 kg/mm (113 lb/in)
15.876 - 15.896 mm (0.625 - 0.626 in)
15.835 - 15.860 mm (0.6234 - 0.6244 in)
0.016 - 0.061 mm (0.0006 - 0.0024 in)
0.07 mm (0.0028 in)
14.224 - 14.249 mm (0.5600 - 0.5610 in)
14.288 - 14.319 mm (0.5630 - 0.5640 in)
0.039 - 0.095 mm (0.0015 - 0.0037 in)
0.10 mm (0.0039 in)
51.910
51.660
51.410
51.160
-
51.940
51.690
51.440
51.190
mm
mm
mm
mm
(2.0437
(2.0339
(2.0240
(2.0142
0.008 mm (0.0003 in)
42.580 mm (1.676 in)
42.478 mm (1.672 in)
89
-
2.0449
2.0351
2.0250
2.0154
in)
in)
in)
in)
Exhaust
Standard
Limit
Camshaft end play
Standard
Limit
Camshaft run-out
Limit
Camshaft support bore
Bore in cylinder
block
No. 1 (Front)
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4 (Rear)
Oil Clearance
Standard
Limit
Backlash between gears
Standard
Limit
Idler gear end play
Idler gear bushing
Inner diameter
Idler gear spindle
Outer diameter
Spindle and bushing
Clearance
Standard
Limit
Connecting rod
Permissible bend or twist
Side clearance
Standard
Limit
Small end bore
Piston pin and
small end bushing
clearance
Standard
Limit
Connecting rod bearing
Bearing clearance
Standard
Limit
Available undersize
bearing
Piston
Diameter
Distance from bottom to
take measurement
Piston pin hole bore
42.580 mm (1.676 in)
42.478 mm (1.672 in)
0.020 - 0.180 mm (0.0008 - 0.0071 in)
0.30 mm (0.0118 in)
0.08 mm (0.0031 in)
52.000
51.750
51.500
51.250
-
52.030
51.780
51.530
21.280
mm
mm
mm
mm
(2.0473
(2.0374
(2.0280
(2.0177
-
2.0485
2.0386
2.0290
2.0189
in)
in)
in)
in)
0.060 - 0.120 mm (0.0024 - 0.0047 in)
0.145 mm (0.0057 in)
0.10 - 0.17 mm (0.0039 - 0.0067 in)
0.30 mm (0.0118 in)
0.15 - 0.28 mm (0.0059 - 0.0118 in)
44.009 - 44.034 mm (1.7327 - 1.7336 in)
43.950 - 43.975 mm (1.7303 - 1.7313 in)
0.034 - 0.084 mm (0.0013 - 0.0033 in)
0.15 mm (0.0059 in)
0.05 mm per 100 mm (0.0020 in per 4 in)
0.239 - 0.340 mm (0.0094 - 0.0134 in)
0.40 mm (0.0157 in)
30.012 - 30.033 mm (1.1816 - 1.1824 in)
0.012 - 0.039 mm (0.0005 - 0.0015 in)
0.05 mm (0.0020 in)
0.036 - 0.076 mm (0.0014 - 0.0030 in)
0.10 mm (0.0039 in)
0.254 mm (0.01 in)
0.508 mm (0.02 in)
0.762 mm (0.03 in)
94.967 - 94.993 mm (3.7381 - 3.7399 in)
22.0 mm (0.866 in)
29.996 - 30.008 mm (1.1809 - 1.1814 in)
90
Ring groove width
Top
Second
Oil
Piston and liner
clearance
Piston ring
Thickness
Top
Second
Oil
Side clearance
Top
Second
Oil
Side clearance limit
End gap
Top
Second
Oil
End gap limit
Piston pin
Diameter
Clearance between
piston and pin
Crankshaft
Main journal diameter
Standard
Wear limit
Grinding limit
Crankpin diameter
Standard
Wear limit
Grinding limit
Crankshaft end play
Standard
Limit
Crankshaft run out
Limit
Main bearing
Bearing clearance
Standard
Limit
Available undersize
bearing
Cylinder block
Distortion limit
Cylinder liner
Inner diameter
Standard
Wear limit
Liner protrusion
above cylinder block
2.433 - 2.453 mm (0.0958 - 0.0966 in)
2.423 - 2.443 mm (0.0954 - 0.0962 in)
4.793 - 4.813 mm (0.1887 - 0.1895 in)
0.032 - 0.083 mm (0.0017 - 0.0028 in)
2.363 - 2.383 mm (0.0920 - 0.0938 in. )
2.363 - 2.383 mm (0.0930 - 0.0938 in. )
4.743 - 4.763 mm (0.1867 - 0.1875 in.)
0.050 0.040 0.030 0.30 mm
0.40 0.40 0.40 1.5 mm
0.180 mm (0.0020 - 0.0070 in)
0.080 mm (0.0016 - 0.0031 in)
0.070 mm (0.0012 - 0.0028 in)
(0.118 in)
0.60 mm
0.60 mm
0.60 mm
(0.0591
(0.0157 - 0.0240 in)
(0.0157 - 0.0240 in)
(0.0157 - 0.0240 in)
in)
29.994 - 30.000 mm (1.1809 - 1.1811 in)
o-
0.016 mm (0 - 0.0006 in)
75.812 - 75.825 mm (2.9848 - 2.9853 in)
0.05 mm (0.0020 in)
75.05 mm (2.955 in)
61.112 - 61.125 mm (2.4060 - 2.4065 in)
0.05 mm (0.0020 in)
60.35 mm (2.376 in)
0.140 - 0.390 mm (0.0055 - 0.0154 in)
0.40 mm (0.0157 in)
0.05 mm (0.0020 in)
0.059 - 0.090 mm (0.0020 - 0.0037 in)
0.12 mm (0.0047 in)
0.254 mm (0.010 in)
0.508 mm (0.020 in)
0.762 mm (0.030 in)
0.10 mm (0.004 in)
95.025 - 95.050 mm (3.7412 - 3.7422 in)
0.20 mm (0.0079 in)
-0.101 - 0.000 mm (-0.0040 - 0.0000 in)
91
Flywheel to crankshaft
Run-out limit (static)
0.20 rom (0.0079 in)
LUBRICATING SYSTEM
Oil pressure
Safe minimum pressure
at idle
Oil capacity (sump)
Lubricant
Classification
Weight
27·C (80·F) or over
-1 - 27·C (30 - 80·F)
-18 - -l·C (0 - 30·F)
Oil pump
Outer rotor and
body clearance
Standard
Limit
Clearance between
rotor lobes
Standard
Limit
Rotor end float
Standard
Limit
Clearance between
pump shaft and body
Standard
Limit
3.8 kg/cm 2 (54 lb/in 2 )
and more at 3600 rpm
0.3 + 0.1 kg/cm 2
(4.3-+ 1.4 lb/in 2 )
6.0 lIters
(6.3 U.S. quarts)
(5.3 Imp. quarts)
A.P.I. Service CC.
SAE 30
SAE 20W
SAE lOW
0.14 - 0.25 mm (0.0055 - 0.0100 in)
0.30 mm (0.0118 in)
0.04 - 0.15 mm (0.0016 - 0.0059 in)
0.30 rom (0.0118 in)
0.04 - 0.10 mm (0.0016 - 0.0039 in)
0.15 rom (0.0059 in)
0.06 - 0.15 mm (0.0024 - 0.0079 in)
0.10 rom (0.0039 in)
FUEL SYSTEM
Idle speed
Fuel injection pump
Type
Plunger diameter
Cam lift
Governor
Injection timing
Injection order
Injection nozzle
Type
Nozzle diameter
Injection pressure
Glow plug
Type
Pre-heating method
600 - 650 rpm
Distributor type
10.0 rom (0.393 in)
2.2 mm (0.0866 in)
Mechanical type
O· T.D.C.
1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Throttle type
0.8 rom (0.0315 in)
135 +5/-0 kg/cm 2 (1920 + 71/-0 lb/in 2 )
Sheathed type
Pre-combustion chamber pre-heating type
92
W70 TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
kg-m
Cylinder head
Cylinder head cover (rocker cover)
Connecting rod cap
Main bearing cap
Camshaft thrust plate
Camshaft gear
Idler gear
Injection pump drive gear
Rocker arm assembly
Timing gear case
Timing gear cover
Rear oil seal cap
Oil pan
Oil pump cover
Oil pump pipe
Fresh water pump
Crankshaft pulley
Glow plug
Injector to head
Injection nozzle to body
Injection pipe flare nut
Intake manifold
Exhaust manifold
Back plate
Flywheel
Damper
11.8
0.3
8.2
11.0
1.6
6.4
2.3
4.0
11. 0
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.6
0.8
0.8
1.6
35.0
1.0
6.0
8.0
2.5
1.6
1.6
3.3
13.1
1.9
1b-ft
- 12.5
0.45
9.0
- 11.7
2.4
9.5
3.2
7.0
- 11.7
2.4
2.4
2.0
2.3
1.2
- 1.2
2.4
- 40.0
- 1.5
7.0
- 10.0
3.0
2.4
2.4
4.8
- 19.0
2.7
85
2
59
80
12
46
17
29
80
12
12
11
12
6
6
12
253
7
43
58
18
12
12
24
95
14
-
90
3
65
85
17
69
23
51
85
17
17
- 15
- 17
- 9
- 9
- 17
-289
- 11
- 51
- 72
- 22
- 17
- 17
- 35
-137
- 20
5
12
23
41
56
-
UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED
Grade 6T
6mm bolt/nut
8mm bolt/nut
10mm bolt/nut
12mm bolt/nut
14mm bolt/nut
Grade 8T and 8.8
6mm bolt/nut
8mm bolt/nut
10mm bolt/nut
12mm bolt/nut
14mm bolt/nut
Grade 5 capscrew
1/4 UNC
1/4 UNF
5/16 UNC
5/16 UNF
3/8 UNC
3/8 UNF
7/16 UNC
7/16 UNF
1/2 UNC
1/2 UNF
-
0.7
1.0
1.6
2.3
4.7
3.2 8.2
5.6 7.7 - 10.5
93
7
17
34
59
76
.8
1.8
3.7
6.4
10.4
- 1.2
2.7
5.5
9.5
- 14.0
6
13
27
46
75
- 9
- 20
- 40
- 69
-101
1.2
1.5
2.5
2.9
3.7
4.1
6.1
6.9
9.4
10.1
-
1.5
1.8
2.8
3.2
4.6
4.8
6.8
7.6
- 10.1
- 11.1
9
11
18
21
28
30
44
50
68
73
-
-
11
13
20
23
33
35
49
55
73
80
WIOO ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS
Type
Bore
Stroke
Piston displacement
Compression ratio
Compression pressure
(at 200 rpm)
Standard
Limit
Limit of difference
between cylinders
Valve clearance
(Cold Engine)
Intake
Exhaust
Cylinder head
Permissible distortion
of cylinder head surface
Valve timing
Intake valve opens
Intake valve closes
Exhaust valve opens
Exhaust valve closes
Valve seat
Valve seat angle
Intake
Exhaust
Valve seat width
Intake
Exhaust
Dimension "L"
(Valve sinking)
Standard
Limit
Valve guide
Protrusion from cylinder
head
Stem to guide clearance
Standard intake
Standard exhaust
Limit
Guide inner diameter
Valve-Intake
Head diameter
Head thickness
Standard
Limit
Face angle
Stem diameter
Standard
Limit
Valve-Exhaust
Six cylinder four stroke engine in line,
water cooled, overhead valve
92.0 rom (3.62 in)
101.6 mm (4.00 in)
4052 cc (247.3 cu-in)
21:1
30.0 kg/cm 2 (427 Ib/in 2 )
27.0 kg/cm 2 (384 Ib/in 2 )
3.0 kg/cm 2 (42.7 Ib/in 2 )
0.30 rom(0.012 in)
0.30 mm(0.012 in)
0.10 mm (0.004 in)
14'
44'
48'
10'
BTDC
ABDC
BBDC
ATDC
45'
30'
2.0 mm (0.079 in)
2.0 rom (0.079 in)
48.04 rom (1.891 in)
49.54 rom (1.950 in)
16.5 mm (0.65 in)
0.038
0.051
0.127
7.988
- 0.089 mm
- 0.102 rom
rom (0.0050
- 8.014 mm
(0.0015 - 0.0035 in)
(0.0020 - 0.0040 in)
in)
(0.315 - 0.316 in)
40.4 - 40.6 rom (1.59 - 1.60 in)
1.7 rom (0.067 "in)
1.0 rom (0.039 in)
45'
7.925 - 7.950 rom (0.312 - 0.313 in)
7.867 mm (0.310 in)
94
Head diameter
Head thickness
Standard
Limit
Face angle
Stem diameter
Standard
Limit
Valve spring-outer
Free length
Standard
Limit
Fitting length
Fitting load
Standard
Limit
Squareness limit
Spring constant
Valve spring-Inner
Free length
Standard
Limit
Fitting length
Fitting load
Standard
Limit
Squareness limit
Spring constant
Rocker arm bore
Rocker arm shaft
Outer diameter
Clearance in rocker arm
Standard
Limit
Tappet
Outer diameter
Bore in cylinder block
Clearance in cylinder
block bore
Standard
Limit
Camshaft
Journal diameter
No. 1 (Front)
No. 2
No. 3
No.4 (Rear)
Wear Limit of
journal
Cam elevation
Intake
Standard
Limit
35.87 - 36.13 mm (1.41 - 1.42 in)
1.5 mm (0.059 in)
1.0 rom (0.039 in)
30·
7.912 - 7.937 mm (0.311 - 0.312 in)
7.854 mm (0.309 in)
45.9 mm (1.807 in)
43.6 rom (1.717 in)
40.3 mm (1.587 in)
32.4
30.1
1. 37
3.20
- 34.2 kg (71.43 - 75.40 Ib)
kg (66.36 Ib)
mm (0.054in)
kg/mm (179 Ib/in)
44.1 mm (1.736 in)
42.0 rom (1.654 in)
37.8 mm (1.488 in)
12.1 - 13.3 kg (26.68 - 29.32 Ib)
11.3 kg (24.92 Ib)
1.25 mm (0.049 in)
2.02 kg/mm (113 Ib/in)
15.876 - 15.896 mm (0.625 - 0.626 in)
15.835 - 15.860 mm (0.6234 - 0.6244 in)
0.016 - 0.061 mm (0.0006 - 0.0024 in)
0.07 mm (0.0028 in)
14.224 - 14.249 mm (0.5600 - 0.5610 in)
14.288 - 14.319 mm (0.5630 - 0.5640 in)
0.039 - 0.095 mm (0.0015 - 0.0037 in)
0.10 mm (0.0039 in)
51.910
51. 660
51.410
51.160
-
51.940
51.690
51. 440
51.190
rom
rom
mm
mm
(2.0437
(2.0339
(2.0240
(2.0142
0.008 mm (0.0003 in)
42.587 mm (1.677 in)
42.585 mm (1.677 in)
95
-
2.0449
2.0351
2.0250
2.0154
in)
in)
in)
in)
Exhaust
Standard
Limit
Camshaft end play
Standard
Limit
Camshaft run-out
Limit
Camshaft support bore
Bore in cylinder
block
No. 1 (Front)
No. 2
No. 3
No. 4 (Rear)
Oil Clearance
Standard
Limit
Backlash between gears
Standard
Limit
Idler gear end play
Idler gear bushing
Inner diameter
Idler gear spindle
Outer diameter
Spindle and bushing
Clearance
Standard
Limit
Connecting rod
Permissible bend or twist
Side clearance
Standard
Limit
Small end bore
Piston pin and
small end bushing
clearance
Standard
Limit
Connecting rod bearing
Bearing clearance
Standard
Limit
Available undersize
bearing
Piston
Diameter
Distance from bottom to
take measurement
Piston pin hole bore
42.587 mm (1.677 in)
42.485 mm (1.673 in)
0.020 - 0.180 mm (0.0008 - 0.0071 in)
0.30 mm (0.0118 in)
0.08 mm (0.0031 in)
52.000
51.750
51.500
51.250
-
52.030
51.780
51. 530
21.280
mm
mm
mm
mm
(2.0473
(2.0374
(2.0280
(2.0177
-
2.0485
2.0386
2.0290
2.0189
in)
in)
in)
in)
0.060 - 0.120 mm (0.0024 - 0.0047 in)
0.145 mm (0.0057 in)
0.10 - 0.20 mm (0.0039 - 0.0079 in)
0.30 mm (0.0118 in)
0.15 - 0.28 mm (0.0059 - 0.0118 in)
44.009 - 44.034 mm (1.7327 - 1.7336 in)
43.950 - 43.975 mm (1.7303 - 1.7313 in)
0.034 - 0.084 mm (0.0013 - 0.0033 in)
0.15 mm (0.0059 in)
0.05 mm per 100 mm (0.0020 in per 4 in)
0.239 - 0.340 mm (0.0094 - 0.0134 in)
0.40 mm (0.0157 in)
31.763 - 31.788 mm (1.2505 - 1.2515 in)
0.014 - 0.044 mm (0.0006 - 0.0017 in)
0.05 mm (0.0020 in)
0.036 - 0.076 mm (0.0014 - 0.0030 in)
0.10 mm (0.0039 in)
0.254 mm (0.01 in)
0.508 mm (0.02 in)
0.762 mm (0.03 in)
91.967 - 91.993 mm (3.6207 - 3.6218 in)
23.0 mm (0.9055 in)
31.745 - 31.757 mm (1.2498 - 1.2503 in)
96
Ring groove width
Top
Second
Oil
Piston and liner
clearance
Piston ring
Thickness
Top
Second
Oil
Side clearance
Top
Second
Oil
Side clearance limit
End gap
Top
Second
Oil
End gap limit
Piston pin
Diameter
Clearance between
piston and pin
Crankshaft
Main journal diameter
Standard
Wear limit
Grinding limit
Crankpin diameter
Standard
Wear limit
Grinding limit
Crankshaft end play
Standard
Limit
Crankshaft run out
Limit
Main bearing
Bearing clearance
Standard
Limit
Available undersize
bearing
Cylinder block
Distortion limit
Cylinder liner
Inner diameter
Standard
Wear limit
Liner protrusion
above cylinder block
2.433 - 2.453 mm (0.0958 - 0.0966 in)
2.423 - 2.443 mm (0.0954 - 0.0962 in)
4.793 - 4.813 mm (0.1887 - 0.1895 in)
0.032 - 0.083 mm (0.0017 - 0.0028 in)
2.363 - 2.383 mm (0.0920 - 0.0938 in. )
2.363 - 2.383 mm (0.0930 - 0.0938 in.)
4.743 - 4.763 mm (0.1867 - 0.1875 in. )
0.050 0.040 0.030 0.30 mm
0.35 0.35 0.35 1.5 mm
0.180 mm (0.0020 - 0.0070 in)
0.080 mm (0.0016 - 0.0031 in)
0.070 mm (0.0012 - 0.0028 in)
(0.118 in)
0.55 mm
0.55 mm
0.55 mm
(0.0591
(0.0138 - 0.0217 in)
(0.0138 - 0.0217 in)
(0.0138 - 0.0217 in)
in)
31.744 - 31.749 mm (1.2498 - 1.2500 in)
o-
0.016 mm (0 - 0.0006 in)
69.812 - 69.825 mm (2.7485 - 2.7491 in)
0.05 mm (0.0020 in)
69.05 mm (2.718 in)
57.112 - 57.125 mm (2.2485 - 2.2491 in)
0.05 mm (0.0020 in)
56.35 mm ( 2.218 in)
0.140 - 0.390 mm (0.0055 - 0.0154 in)
0.40 mm (0.0157 in)
0.05 mm (0.0020 in)
0.059 - 0.090 mm (0.0020 - 0.0037 in)
0.12 mm (0.0047 in)
0.254 mm (0.010 in)
0.508 mm (0.020 in)
0.762 mm (0.030 in)
0.10 mm (0.004 in)
92.025 - 92.050 mm (3.6231 - 3.6241 in)
0.20 mm (0.0079 in)
-0.101 - 0.000 mm (-0.0040 - 0.0000 in)
97
Flywheel to crankshaft
Run-out limit (static)
0.20 mm (0.0079 in)
LUBRICATING SYSTEM
Oil pressure
Safe minimum pressure
at idle
Oil capacity (sump)
Lubricant
Classification
Weight
27·C (80·F) or over
-1 - 27·C {30 - 80·F}
-18 - -I·e (0 - 30·F)
Oil pump
Outer rotor and
body clearance
Standard
Limit
Clearance between
rotor lobes
Standard
Limit
Rotor end float
Standard
Limit
Clearance between
pump shaft and body
Standard
Limit
3.8 kg/cm 2 (54 Ib/in 2 )
and more at 3600 rpm
0.3 + 0.1 kg/cm 2
(4.3-+ 1.4 Ib/in 2 )
11.3 liters
(11.9 U.S. quarts)
(9.9 Imp. quarts)
A.P.I. Service CC.
SAE 30
SAE 20W
SAE lOW
0.14 - 0.25 mm (0.0055 - 0.0100 in)
0.30 mm (0.0118 in)
0.04 - 0.20 mm (0.0016 - 0.0079 in)
0.30 mm (0.0118 in)
0.04 - 0.10 mm (0.0016 - 0.0039 in)
0.15 mm (0.0059 in)
0.06 - 0.15 mm (0.0024 - 0.0079 in)
0.10 mm (0.0039 in)
FUEL SYSTEM
Idle speed
Fuel injection pump
Type
Plunger diameter
Cam lift
Governor
Injection timing
Injection order
Injection nozzle
Type
Nozzle diameter
Injection pressure
Glow plug
Type
Pre-heating method
550 - 600 rpm
Distributor type
11.0 mm (0.433 in)
2.0 mm (0.0787 in)
Mechanical type
O· T.D.C.
1 - 5 - 3 - 6 - 2 - 4
Throttle type
0.8 mm (0.0315 in)
135 +5/-0 kg/cm 2 (1920 + 71/-0 Ib/in 2 )
Sheathed type
Pre-combustion chamber pre-heating type
98
W100 TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
kg-m
Cylinder head
Cylinder head cover (rocker cover)
Connecting rod cap
Main bearing cap
Camshaft thrust plate
Camshaft gear
Idler gear
Injection pump drive gear
Rocker arm assembly
Timing gear case
Timing gear cover
Rear oil seal cap
Oil pan
Oil pump cover
Oil pump pipe
Fresh water pump
Crankshaft pulley
Glow plug
Injector to head
Injector cap nut
Injection nozzle to body
Injection pipe flare nut
Intake manifold
Exhaust manifold
Back plate
Flywheel
Damper
UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED
Grade 6T
6mm bolt/nut
8mm bolt/nut
10mm bolt/nut
12mm bolt/nut
14mm bolt/nut
Grade 8T and 8.8
6mm bolt/nut
8mm bolt/nut
10mm bolt/nut
12mm bolt/nut
14mm bolt/nut
Grade 5 capscrew
1/4 UNC
1/4 UNF
5/16 UNC
5/16 UNF
3/8 UNC
3/8 UNF
7/16 UNC
7/16 UNF
1/2 UNC
1/2 UNF
lb-ft
11.0
0.3
7.6
11.0
1.6
6.2
2.3
4.0
11.0
1.6
1.6
1.5
1.6
0.8
0.8
1.6
39.0
1.0
1.6
4.0
6.0
2.5
1.6
1.6
3.3
13.1
1.9
-
11.7
0.45
8.3
11.7
2.4
7.0
3.2
7.0
11.7
2.4
2.4
2.0
2.3
1.2
1.2
2.4
42.0
1.5
2.4
5.0
10.0
3.0
2.4
2.4
4.8
19.0
2.7
0.7
1.6
3.2
5.6
7.7
-
1.0
2.3
4.7
8.2
10.5
5
7
12
17
23
34
41 - 59
56 - 76
1.2
2.7
5.5
9.5
14.0
6
9
13
20
27
40
46
69
75 -101
.8
1.8
3.7
6.4
10.4
-
-
-
1.2
1.5
1.5
1.8
2.5
2.8
2.9 - 3.2
3.7 - 4.6
4.8
4.1 6.8
6.1 6.9 - 7.6
9.4
10.1
10.1 - 11.1
-
99
80
2
55
80
12
45
17
29
80
12
12
11
12
6
-
85
3
60
85
17
51
23
51
85
17
17
15
17
9
6 -
9
12
282
7
12
29
43
18
12
12
24
95
14
- 17
-304
- 11
- 17
- 36
- 72
- 22
- 17
- 17
- 35
-137
- 20
-
9
11
18
21
28
30
44
50
68
73
-
11
- 13
20
- 23
- 33
35
49
- 55
- 73
- 80
-
YOUR NOTES
100
OTHER OVERHAUL
CONTENTS
SECTION
PAGE
MARINE ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ••••••••• Q
Activation by Keyswitch (1980 onwards) ••••••••• 102
COOLING SYSTEM EXTERNAL ••••••••••••••••• R
107
TRANSMISSIONS ••••••••••••••••••••••••••• S
Type HBW Short Profile Sailing Gear •••••••••••• 113
Warner Hydraulic ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 122
Paragon Hydraulic •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 127
Walter V-drive ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 13l
101
SECTION Q
MARINE ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
ACTIVATION BY KEYSWITCH
This
system is
supplied on most Westerbeke engines beginning
May, 1980.
Essentially, activation of the circuit is accomplished by
the ignition position of the keyswi tch.
No oil pressure switch is
required.
The eng ine is preheated by turning the keyswi tch to the
ON position, then depressing the key.
The engine is cranked by
turning the keyswitch to the right-most momentary position.
Voltage is maintained to the instruments, fuel solenoid or fuel lift
pump, if supplied, and to other electrical devices via the ON position
of the keyswitch.
Models which have a fuel solenoid may be turned off via the keyswitch.
Models with mechanical fuel lift pumps or no fuel solenoid are stopped
by pulling a stop cable. Some models have a combined throttle/shut-off
control.
The circuit is protected by a circuit breaker located on the engine.
Any time excessive current flows, the circuit breaker will trip. This
is a manual reset breaker which must be reset before the engine will
operate electrically again.
CAUTION:
The builder/owner must ensure that the instrument panel,
wiring and engine are installed so that electrical devices cannot come
in contact with sea water.
The latest information regarding your engine IS electr ical system is
included on the wiring diagram shipped with the engine.
Be sure to
study this wiring diagram and all notes thereon.
102
SECTION Q
ACTIVATION BY KEYSWITCH
SCHEMATIC
+ 12VDC
WI RI N G
DI AGRAM
Rev. F
@SEE NOTE-
eo
w T.5ENOER
WATER
TEMPT.
OIL PRES5uRE
SwriCI1
®
@ ALTERNATOR
®~WITCH
rr--4
-
@
<!) A:ARM
-
-
I
I
I
I
I
1--f
~-
I
-FUEL
I
I
I
I
SOL. W'!:JB.W'j2.W70.W100
_
(w~~.LW~:~~Z ;~:;3) @
I'
w ~2,
W~8. W70. wtOO
IF eQuIPPED.
,------':,-0
I
IL __
,,'2
'
)
, __
~
@
@SEENOTE-e
~
PRE-HEATER
~
PUA "12
BLK I/O
NOT USED
ORN
SERIE:S '"15" ALTERNATOR
12V'OLT ~OAMP"-
.
103
OPTIONAL
SPLITTER
~~T.;';~""CE
OPTION"L
@AMMETER
PRE-HEAT SOL
O.P.SENOER
'-:[email protected]
8A,TERY
DIAGRAM
8ATTERY RETURN
GLOWPLUG
A glowplug can be checked for
an open circuit fault by using a
circuit tester and checking the
continui ty
between
the
posi ti ve
terminal on top of the glowplug and
the cylinder head.
If there is no
continuity, the glowplug should be
replaced.
FUEL SHUT-OFF SOLENOID
The solenoid is located on the
injection pump top near the rear.
When the keyswitch is off, the
solenoid releases the plunger and a
spr ing forces the plunger down to
stop the flow of fuel through the
injection pump. When the switch is
on, the solenoid is activated and
pulls the plunger up to allow fuel
to be inj ected.
I f the solenoid
does not appear to operate properly, check the wiring connections
and check for the flow of current
to the solenoid.
If the circuit
checks normal, then the solenoid is
probably defective and should be
replaced as a unit.
Magnet valve
O-ring
Spring
VOLTMETER
The voltmeter can be a useful instrument in determining the status of
your electrical system and warn you when an abnormality occurs.
The
voltmeter will indicate differently, depending when the readings are
taken.
Fully charged batteries that are in a static state should read between
12.3 and 12.6 volts on the dial.
The term static means that the battery has not been charged or discharged for at least 2 hours.
If the
reading is between 11 and 11.5 volts, then the battery is about half
discharged and should be charged to insure its usefulness.
I f the
engine is started and the needle does not go up, this would indicate
that no charge is being delivered to the battery.
When the battery is being charged, the needle should be between 12.6
and 13 volts.
The needle may move up to about the 14.6 volt range
toward the end of the charge cycle, at which time the needle drops
back to the 12.6 to 13 volt range, as voltage regulation controls this
function.
If the battery voltage exceeds 15 volts, this indicates
104
that the battery is being overcharged and will damage the battery if
left unchecked. The voltage regulator is most likely at fault.
When the battery is being charged, (having electrical loads placed
upon it and no charging current applied), it is normal for the needle
to indicate between 11.4 and 12.6 volts.
TACHOMETER
The tachometer is operated by pulses generated from anyone of the
al ternator phases.
The pulse frequency is determined by the rotational speed of the alternator rotor.
The rotor speed is dependent
upon the engine crankshaft speed and the RATIO of the alternator
pulley to the crankshaft pulley.
The tachometer in an instrument
panel is calibrated by Westerbeke for the standard alternator; if an
optional alternator (i.e., 90 amp) is used to operate the tachometer,
the calibration should be checked.
Also, when a tachometer is
replaced, the new instrument must be calibrated.
CAUTION
WHEN CALIBRATING THE TACHOMETER, USE A PHILLIPS SCREWDRIVER WITH AN INSULATED SHAFT.
1.
Use a motor tester with an RPM indicator, another tachometer or a
strobo-tach to determine the speed of the crankshaft turning.
2.
Remove the plastic plug and flatwasher located on the rear of the
tachometer.
3.
Insert an insulated Phillips screwdriver into the calibration
control slot and slowly turn counterclockwise to increase the RPM
reading, clockwise to decrease reading (direction of screw as
viewed from the rear of the tachometer case).
An accurate
calibration setting is more easily achieved at the higher side of
the dial scale.
4.
Replace plastic plug and flatwasher.
SERVICE BULLETINS
Please refer to the Service Bulletin Section at the rear of the manual
as there are several that relate to the electrical system.
105
WIRING DIAGRAM 90 AMP ALTERNATOR
WHITE
(LINE "f)
~----------~E~~C~I~T~A~T~IO~N~------------~~"TO~)tERMINAL
I
or
IGN. SWITCH ..
~TO
VOLT.
RUN SWITCt-1
FOR DIESEL ENGI NE.5.
SENSE
----~TO!
BATTERY + TERMINAL ONLY
BEING CHARGE!>. (SEE NOTE.)
OUTPUT
TERMINAL
NOTE: IT IS MANDATORY FOR THIS
VOLTAGE SENSING WIRE TO BE CONNECTED DIRECTLY AND PHYSICALLY
TO THE POSITIVE TERMINAL OF THE
BATTERY BEING CHARGED. IT MUST
NOT BE CONNECTED TO ANY OTHER
CONNECTION POINT.
OTHERWISE,
THE ALTERNATOR WILL NOT OPERATE
PROPERLY.
LOAD
CHECKING ALTERNATOR AFTER HOOK-UP
LINE #1
LINE #2
OUTPUT
12.2 - 12.8V
12.2 - 12.8V
14.0 - 15.0V
5.0V
14.0 - 15.0V
12.2 - 12.8V
12.2 - 12.8V
14.0 - 15.0V
IGN OFF
ENGINE NOT
RUNNING
ENGINE NOT
RUNNING
IGN ON
ENGINE RUNNING
(1500 RPM)
0
3.0 -
106
SECTION R
COOLING SYSTEM (EXTERNAL)
1.
DESCRIPTION
Westerbeke marine diesel engines are equipped with fresh water
cooling.
Transfer of heat from engine fresh water to sea water is
accomplished by a heat exchanger, similar in function to an automotive
radiator.
Sea water flows through the tubes of the heat exchanger
while fresh water flows around the tubes.
The sea water and fresh
water never mix with the result that the cooling water passages in the
engine stay clean.
2.
FRESH WATER CIRCUIT
Heat rejected during combustion, as well as heat developed by friction, is absorbed by the fresh water whose flow is created by a fresh
water circulating pump. The fresh water flows from the engine through
a fresh water cooled exhaust manifold, a heat exchanger, in most cases
an oil cooler, and returns to the suction side of the fresh water circulating pump.
The flow is not necessar ily in this order in every
model. When starting a cold engine, most of the external flow to the
heat exchanger is prevented by the closed thermostat.
Some amount of
by-pass is maintained to prevent overheating in the exhaust manifold.
As the engine warms up, the thermostat begins to open up allowing full
flow of engine fresh water through the external cooling system.
3.
SEA WATER CIRCUIT
The sea water flow is created by a positive displacement neoprene
impeller pump (gear pump in certain special cases). Normally the pump
draws sea water directly from the ocean via the seacock and sea water
strainer.
Sometimes a transmission oil cooler, or perhaps a V-drive,
will be piped on the suction side of the sea water pump.
Generally,
it is better to have as few devices on the suction side of the sea
water pump as possible to preclude priming difficulties.
Usually sea
water flows directly from the discharge of the sea water pump to the
heat exchanger sea water inlet.
After passing through the tubes of
the heat exchanger, the sea water may enter a transmission oil cooler,
if present and if sea water cooled.
Ultimately, the sea water enters
a water injected, wet exhaust system, the most popular type of exhaust
system in use.
In the case of larger eng ines the sea water flow is
divided prior to entering the exhaust systems so that a portion is
used to cool the exhaust system.
Full sea water flow would create
unnecessary exhaust back pressure.
4.
SEA WATER PUMP
The sea water pump is self pr~m~ng and positive displacement. It is a
rotary pump with a non-ferrous housing and a neoprene impeller.
The
impeller has flexible vanes which wipe against a curved cam plate
wi thin the impeller housing, producing the pumping action.
On no
account should this pump be run dry.
There should always be a spare
impeller and impeller cover gasket aboard.
107
5.
SEA WATER PUMP IMPELLER REPLACEMENT
The following instructions are general and indicative only.
Specific
instructions where applicable may be packaged with your replacement
impeller.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
6.
Remove the front cover gasket taking care to salvage the gasket.
Remove the impeller by pulling straight outwards, parallel to the
pump shaft.
This is best done with a pair of pliers applied to
the impeller hub.
Coat the replacement impeller and the chamber into which it mounts
with grease.
Carefully align the impeller key way, or other locking mechanism,
wi th the shaft.
Take care that all the impeller blades bend in
the same direction and trailing.
Inspect the front cover for wear. A worn front cover should ultimately be replaced.
Sometimes it can be reversed as an emergency
measure, but not when stamped markings would break the seal between the cover and the impeller blades.
Reinstall the end cover with a new gasket.
Be doubly sure to check quickly for sea water flow when starting
the engine.
The absence of flow indicates that the pump may not
be pr iming itself properly.
This situation must be investigated
immediately or damage to the new impeller will result from
overheating.
ENGINE FRESH WATER
It is preferable to fill your engine with a 50% antifreeze-water mixture. This precludes the necessity of draining coolant in the winter.
Since most antifreezes contain preservative agents of one kind or
another, rusting within the engine is minimized. Also, the antifreeze
mixture boils at a higher temperature than water, giving cooling
system "head room".
When draining the engine, open the pressure cap first to relieve the
vacuum created by draining.
7.
FILLING THE FRESH WATER SYSTEM
It is very important to completely fill the fresh water system before
starting the engine.
It is normal for air to become trapped in
various passages so all high points must be opened to atmosphere to
bleed entrapped air.
When an engine is started after filling wi th
coolant, the system may look deceptively full until the thermostat
opens.
At this time when water flows through the external cooling
circuit for the first time, pockets of air can be exposed and rise to
the fill point. Be sure to add coolant at this time.
8.
THERMOSTAT
Generally, thermostats are of two types.
One is simply a choking
device which opens and closes as the engine temperature rises and
falls.
The second type has a by-pass mechanism.
Usually this is a
108
disc on the bottom of the thermostat which moves downward to close off
an internal by-pass passage wi thin the head.
Both types of thermostats, from 1980 onwards, have a hole punched through them to serve
as a by-pass while the engine is warming up.
This prevents
overheating
in
the
exhaust
manifold
during
engine
warm-up.
Replacement thermostats must be equal in this design characteristic.
When replacing a thermostat, be sure that it is rotated so as to not
strike the thermostat housing, projections inside the head, temperature senders or temperature switches which may be installed close
to the thermostat. Also insure the by-pass hole is not blocked by any
part of the housing.
A thermostat can be checked for proper operation by placing it in a
pan of cold water and then raising the temperature of the water to a
boil. The thermostat should open noticeably (with travel on the order
of 114ft - 112ft) and be fully opened when the water is boiling.
9.
ENGINE LUBE OIL COOLER
Lubricating oil carries heat away from the engine bearings and other
friction surfaces. The oil circulates from the lube oil pump, through
the engine, through the engine oil cooler, and back to the oil pump.
The oil cooler may be cooled either by engine fresh water or by sea
water.
10. TRANSMISSION OIL COOLER
Certain transmissions require oil cooling.
In these
transmission oil cooler is usually cooled by sea water.
Normally, sea water enters
exchanger, but not always.
this
cooler
after
exiting
cases,
the
the
heat
11. EXHAUST MANIFOLD - EXTRUDED TYPE
REMOVAL
Removal of the exhaust manifold from the engine should be done as a
complete assembly in the following manner.
a. Drain the engine and cooling system of all coolant.
b. Remove the exhaust connection.
c. Loosen and remove all hose connections to the manifold.
d. Loosen and remove the nuts or bolts attaching the manifold
assembly to the cylinder head.
e. Remove the manifold from the cylinder head as a complete unit.
SERVICING
a. Remove the exhaust elbows from the lower surface of the manifold.
Clean and inspect for cracks and defects. Replace as needed.
b. Remove exhaust nipples, elbows and plugs from the manifold.
c. Remove water connectors from the ends of the manifold and the end
plates.
Be sure to note the proper location and arrangement of
each for proper replacement.
d. Examine all parts for defects, corrosion and wear and replace as
needed.
109
REASSEMBLY
a. If the manifold was removed as an assembly and left intact, it can
be replaced on the cylinder head in the reverse order of removal.
Do not reuse the gaskets; install new ones and torque the bolts or
nuts to the proper specification (10-12 lb-ft).
b. If the manifold has been disassembled, follow the steps below.
1.
Loosely attach the elbows to the cylinder head and the manifold using new gaskets. Do not use any gasket sealant.
2.
Gradually tighten each fitting to make sure of proper alignment of all the parts.
This should be done in three steps.
Torque to 10-12 lb-ft.
3.
Reassemble the end plates, connectors on the manifold.
Be
sure to use new gaskets and coat the gasket surfaces with a
suitable gasket cement such as "High Tack". Torque the nuts
to 8-10 lb-ft.
4.
Reinstall the exhaust connections and plug into the manifold
using "Locktite-Anti-Seize" on the threads.
5.
Reconnect all hoses, replacing them as needed.
6.
Refill the system with coolant as detailed above.
7.
Pressure test system and check for leaks.
TWO PASS MANIFOLD
Note: Drawing is indicative only.
Specific models may vary in detail.
~OGXHAlJ5T
Sn;TEM
to
,, ,,
o
'r&'
,, ,
,-'
•....
..l
--+, ,,-KG/KG OIL
=-""".~SEA WA'1"GR
=:t>rRS'H m4'1"E.R
110
SINGLE PASS MANIFOLD
Note: Drawing is indicative only.
Specific models may vary in detail.
r
,",I""
- - - . . E,vGlN&OU.
C!CI"""oC~~.$EA IVA!I'&R
====!>FRaH WA~&R.
III
SECTION S
TRANSMISSIONS
112
HBW SHORT PROFILE SAILING GEAR
DESCRIPTION
1.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION
The Type HBW Short Profile Sailing Gears are equipped with a positively driven, mechanically operated helical gearing system.
The servooperated multiple-disc clutch requires only minimum effort for gear
changing, making the transmission sui table for single-lever remote
control via a rod linkage, Morse or Bowden cable.
The torque transmission capacity of the clutch is exactly rated, preventing shock loads from exceeding a predetermined value and thus
ensuring maximum protection of the engine.
The transmission units are characterized by low weight and small
overall dimensions. The gearbox castings are made of a high-strength,
corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy, chromized for improved sea water
resistance and optimum adhesion of paint.
The transmissions are immersion-lubricated.
to oil level checks (see "Maintenance").
Maintenance is restricted
flYWHEEL ERD
PROPELLER END
2.
GEAR CASING
The rotating parts of the HBW transmission are accomodated in an oiltight casing divided into two halves in the plane of the vertical
113
axis. Amply dimensioned cooling ribs ensure good heat dissipation and
mechanical rigidity.
An oil filler screw wi th dipstick and an oil drain plug are screwed
into the gear casing.
The filler screw is provided with a breather
hole.
The shaft for actuating the multiple-disc clutch extends
cover on the side of the gear casing.
3.
through a
GEAR SETS
The transmission is equipped with shaved, casehardened helical gears
made of forged low-carbon alloy steel. The multi-spline driving shaft
connecting the transmission with the engine is hardened as well.
The driven shaft (propeller side) of the transmission is fitted with a
forged coupling flange, except on the V-drive model.
4.
MULTIPLE-DISC CLUTCH INCLUDING OPERATION - POWER TRAIN
The engine torque is applied to the input shaft (36) in the specified
direction of rotation and, IN SHIFTING POSITION A (forward), via
gear (44), the frictionally engaged clutch discs (51 and 52) to the
external disc carrier (57) and from there via the guide sleeve (59)
to the output shaft (66).
114
IN SHIFTING POSITION B (reverse), the torque is transmitted from the
gear (65),
clutch
input
shaft (36)
via
intermediate gear (26),
discs (51 and 52) to the external disc carrier (57), the guide
sleeve (59) and the output shaft (66).
- FUNCTION
The transmission uses a positively driven, mechanically
multiple-disc clutch system mounted on the output shaft.
operated
The thrust force required for obtaining positive frictional engagement
between the clutch discs is provided by a servo system.
This essentially compr ises a number of balls which, by the rotary movement of
the external disc carrier, are urged against inclined surfaces provided in pockets between the guide sleeve and the external disc
carrier and in this manner exert axial pressure.
The thrust force
and, as a result, the transmittable friction torque are thus proportional to the input torque applied.
Due to the cup springs (48) supporting the clutch disc stack and a limitation of the range of axial
travel of the external disc carrier (57), the thrust force cannot
exceed a predetermined value.
The actuating sleeve (60) is held in the middle position by spr ingloaded pins.
To initiate the shifting operation, the actuating
sleeve (60) need merely be displaced axially by a shifting fork until
the arresting force has been overcome. Then the actuating sleeve (60)
is moved automatically by the spring-loaded pins, while the external
disc carrier, which follows this movement, is rotated by the frictional forces exerted by the clutch discs, and the shifting operation
is completed as described above.
Power flow in lever position
--~ B
115
5.
SHAFT BEARINGS
Both the input and the output shafts are carried in amply dimensioned
taper roll bearings.
The intermediate gear and
needle roller bearings.
6.
the movable gears
are
carried
in
sturdy
SHAFT SEALS
External sealing of the input and output shafts is provided by radial
sealing rings. The running surface on the shafts is casehardened.
7.
LUBRICATION
The
transmissions
are
immersion-lubricated.
generously supplied with splash oil and oil mist.
The
bearings
are
INSTALLATION
1.
DELIVERY CONDITION
For safety reasons, the gearbox is NOT filled with oil for shipment.
The actuating lever is mounted on the actuating shaft.
Before leaving the factory, each transmission is subjected to a test
run with the prescribed ATF oil.
The residual oil remaining in the
116
transmission after draining acts as a preservative and provides
reliable protection against corrosion for at least 1 year if the units
are properly stored.
2.
PAINTING THE GEARBOX
ALWAYS COVER THE RUNNING SURFACES AND SEALING LIPS OF THE RADIAL
SEALING RINGS ON BOTH SHAFTS BEFORE PAINTING.
Make certain that the
breather hole on the oil filler screw is not closed by the paint.
Indicating plates should remain clearly legible.
3.
CONNECTION OF GEARBOX WITH ENGINE
A torsio-elastic damping plate between the engine and the transmission
is to compensate for minor alignment errors and to protect the input
shaft from external forces and loads.
Radial play should be at least
0.5 mm.
4.
SUSPENSION OF ENGINE-GEARBOX ASSEMBLY IN THE BOAT
To protect the gearbox from detrimental stresses and loads, provlslon
should be made for elastic suspension of the engine-gearbox assembly
in the boat or craft.
The oil drain plug of the gearbox should be conveniently accessible.
5.
POSITION OF GEARBOX IN THE BOAT
The inclination of the gearbox uni t in the direction of the shafts
should not permanently exceed an angle of 20 degrees (15 degrees for
the V-drive model).
(See illustration.)
The gearbox can also be mounted wi th the output shaft in the UPWARD
position.
Interchange the oil dipstick and the oil drain plug in this
case.
117
6.
OPERATION OF GEARBOX
Gear changing requires only minimum effort.
The gearbox is suitable
for single lever remote control.
Upon loosening the retaining screw,
the actuating lever (see illustration) can be moved to any posi tion
required for the control elements (cable or rod linkage).
Make certain that the lever does not contact the actuating lever cover
plate (9): the minimum distance between lever and cover should be
0.5 rnrn.
The control cable or rod should be arranged at right angles to the
actuating lever in the neutral position of the lever.
A larger amount of lever travel is in no way
detrime~tal.
However, if the lever travel is shorter, proper gear engagement might
be impeded which, in turn, would mean premature wear, excessive heat
generation and resulting damage.
Do not remcve
loosen scralJll'$.
Oil c.nps;tlCi<
o~
11 mm width across flats
8
di$1tam::e of
"""""" ... ".><> iwar 0.0 mm
118
The position of the cover plate underneath the actuating lever is
factory-adjusted to ensure equal lever travel from neutral position to
A and B.
Therefore, do not loosen the capscrews mounting this
assembly.
Removal or disturbing of the shift cover will void all
warranty responsibilities by Westerbeke.
When installing the gearbox, make certain that shifting is not impeded
e.g. by restricted movability of the cable or rod linkage, by
unsuitably positioned guide sheaves, too small bending radius, etc.
7.
ENGINE-GEARBOX COMPARTMENT
Care should be taken that the engine-gearbox compartment is properly
ventilated.
OPERATION
1.
INITIAL OPERATION
Fill the gearbox wi th automatic transmission fluid.
The oil level
should be the index mark on the dipstick (see illustration).
Do not screw in for
oil level checks
Casing surface
Dipstick
Correct readings up to
200 inclination in
direction of shafts
(15 0 for HBW150 V)
Oil level
- - ATF, Type A
or
Dexron II
To check the oil level, just insert the dipstick: DO NOT SCREW IN.
Retighten the hex screw with the dipstick after the oil level check.
Do not omit the o-ring seal.
2.
OPERATING TEMPERATURE
The maximum permissible temperature of the transmission oil is l30·C.
I f this temperature is to be exceeded, an optional oil cooler is
available.
119
3.
OPERATION OF GEARBOX
The zero position of the operating lever on the control console must
coincide with the zero position of the actuating lever on the
transmission. Shifting is initiated by a cable or rod linkage via the
actuating lever and an actuating cam.
The completion of the gear
changing operation is servo-automatically controlled.
Gear changing should be smooth, not too slow, and continuous (without
interruption).
Direct changes from forward to reverse are permissible, since the multiple-disc clutch permits gear changing at high
RPM, including sudden reversing at top speeds in the event of danger.
4.
OPERATION WITHOUT LOAD
Rotation of the propeller without load, e.g. while the boat is
sailing, being towed, or anchored in a river, as well as idling of the
engine with the propeller stopped, will have no detrimental effects on
the gearbox.
Locking of the propeller shaft by an additional brake is not required,
since locking is possible by engaging the reverse gear.
Do not sail
while engaged in forward.
5.
LAY-UP PERIODS
I f the transmission is not used for per iods of more than 1 year, it
should be COMPLETELY filled with oil of the same grade to prevent
corrosion.
Protect the input shaft and the output flange by means of
an anticorrosive coating if required.
6.
PREPARATION FOR RE-USE
Drain the transmission of all oil and refill to the proper level with
the prescribed oil.
MAINTENANCE
1.
TRANSMISSION OIL
To ensure trouble-free operation of
transmission fluid (ATF).
the clutch,
use only automatic
Under no circumstances should the oil contain any addi tives such as
molybdenum sulphite.
We recommend commercial Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF), Type A or
Dexron II.
120
2.
OIL QUANTITY
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
HBW
5 approximately 0.4 liter
10 approximately 0.6 liter
20 approximately 0.8 liter
50 approximately 0.3 liter
100 approximately 0.35 liter
150 approximately 0.55 liter
150V approximately 1.0 liter
220 approximately 0.75 liter
250 approximately 0.75 liter
360 approximately 1.40 liter
360A approximately 1.50 liter
400 approximately 2.00 liter
450 approximately 1.80 liter
Use the index mark on the dipstick as a reference.
3.
OIL LEVEL CHECKS
Check the oil level in the transmission daily.
Correct oil level is
the index mark on the dipstick (see item 1 under OPERATION).
Always
use the same oil grade when topping up.
4.
OIL CHANGE
Change the oil for the first time after about 25 hours of operation,
then at intervals of at least onceaper year.
5.
CHECKING THE CABLE OR ROD LINKAGE
The cable or rod linkage should be checked at shorter time intervals.
Check the zero position of the operating lever (on the control
console) and of the actuating lever (on the gearbox) on this occasion.
The minimum lever travel from the neutral position to the operating
positions (O-A = O-B) should be 35 mm for the outer and 30 mm for the
inner pivot point. Make certain that these minimum values are safely
reached.
Check the cable or rod linkage for easy movabili ty (see
item 6 under INSTALLATION).
6.
OVERHAUL
Disassembly of the transmission in the field is not recommended.
If
an overhaul or repair is needed, the work should be done by Westerbeke
or an authorized Westerbeke service center.
121
WARNER HYDRAULIC
1.
DESCRIPTION
Westerbeke engines are also furnished
drive and reduction gear assemblies.
wi th Warner
hydraulic
direct
The direct drive transmission consists of a planetary gear set, a forward clutch, a reverse clutch, an oil pump and a pressure regulator
and rotary control valve.
All of these are contained in a cast iron
housing along wi th necessary shafts and connectors, to provide forward, reverse and neutral operation. A direct drive ratio is used for
all forward operation.
In reverse, the speed of the output shaft is
equal to the input shaft speed, but in the opposite direction.
Helical gear ing is used to provide quieter operation that can be
obtained with spur gearing.
Oil pressure is provided by the crescent type pump, the drive gear of
which is keyed to the drive shaft and operates at transmission input
speed to provide screened oil to the pressure regulator.
From the regulator valve the oil is directed through the proper circui ts to the bushings and anti-fr iction bear ings requir ing lubr ication.
A flow of lubricant is present at the required parts whenever
the front pump is turning and, it should be noted that supply is positive in forward, neutral and reverse conditions.
The unit has seals to prevent the escape of oil.
Both the input and output shafts are coaxial, with the input shaft
splined for the installation of a drive damper, and the output shaft
provided with a flange for connecting to the propeller shaft.
2.
CONTROL LEVER POSITION
The posi tion of the control lever on transmission when in forward
should be shifted to the point where it covers the letter "Fa on the
case casting, and is located in its proper position by the poppet
ball.
The Warranty is cancelled if the shift lever poppet spring
and/or ball is permanently removed, or if the the control lever is
changed in any manner, or repositioned, or if linkage between remote
control and transmission shift lever does not have sufficient travel
in both directions.
This does not apply to transmissions equipped
with Warner Gear electrical shift control.
3.
LUBRICATION
The properties of the oil used in the transmission are extremely
important to the proper function of the hydraulic system.
Therefore,
it is extremely important that the recommended oil, automatic
transmission fluid (ATF) , Type A be used.
122
NOTE: Be sure the cooler is properly installed and the transmission
contains oil before cranking or starting the engine.
4.
CHECKING OIL LEVEL
The oil level should be maintained at the full mark on the dipstick.
Check oil level prior to starting engine.
5.
FILLING AND CHECKING THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Check daily before starting engine.
The hydraulic circui t includes
the transmission, oil cooler, cooler lines and any gauge lines connected to the circuit.
The complete hydraulic circuit must be filled
when filling the transmission and this requires purging the system of
air before the oil level check can be made.
The air will be purged
from the system if the oil level is maintained above the pump suction
opening while the engine is running at approximately 1500 RPM.
The
presence of air bubbles on the dipstick indicates that the system has
not been purged of air.
New applications or a problem installation should be checked to insure
that the oil does not drain back into the transmission from the cooler
and cooler lines. Check the oil level for this drain back check only,
immediately after the engine has been shut off and again after the
engine has been stopped for more than one hour
(overnight is
excellent). A noticeable increase in the oil level after this waiting
period indicates that the oil is draining from the cooler and cooler
lines.
The external plumbing should be changed to prevent any drain
back.
6.
STARTING ENGINE
Place transmission selector in neutral before starting engine. Shifts
from any selector position to any other selector position may be made
at any time and in any order if the engine speed is below 1000 RPM~
however, it is recommended that all shifts be made at the lowest
feasible engine speed.
7.
NEUTRAL
Move the shift lever to the center position where the spr ing-loaded
ball enters the chamfered hole in the side of the shift lever and properly locates lever in neutral posi tion.
With shift lever so positioned, flow of oil to clutches is blocked at the control valve. The
clutches are exhausted by a portion of the valve and complete
interruption of power transmission is insured.
8.
FORWARD
Move the shift lever to the extreme forward position where the springloaded ball enters the chamfered hole in the side of the shift lever
and properly locates lever in forward position.
123
9.
REVERSE
Move transmission shift lever to the extreme rearward position where
the spr ing-loaded ball enters the chamfered hole in the side of the
shift lever and properly locates it in the reverse position.
10. FREEWHEELING
Under sail with the propeller turning, or at trolling speeds with one
of two engines shut down, the design of the gear maintains adequate
cooling and lubrication.
11. COOLING PROBLEMS
Water passages inside of the cooler will sometimes become clogged, and
this will reduce cooling capaci ty and cause overpressur ing.
Back
flushing of the cooler will sometimes help to flush the foreign
material from the cooler passages.
The cooler and hose should be
thoroughly flushed or replaced in the event a failure has occurred.
Metallic particles from the failure tend to collect in the case of the
cooler and gradually flow back into the lube system.
Replace oil
cooler to prevent contamination of the new transmission.
Water hoses may collapse and reduce or completely shut off all flow to
the cooler.
Collapsed hoses are usually caused by aging of the hoses
or improper hose installation.
Hose installation should be made with
no sharp bends. Hoses should be routed so there is no possibility for
eng ine shifting to cause hoses to pull loose or become pinched.
A
visual inspection of hoses while under way will sometimes allow detection of faulty hoses.
Reduction or complete loss of water flow can be caused by a faulty
water pump.
A rubber water pump impeller will sometimes fail and
after such a failure the cooler passages may be restricted by the particles of rubber from the failed impeller. Water pump cavitation may
be caused by improper or faulty plumbing or an air leak on the inlet
side of the pump. The water pump may not prime itself or may lose its
prime when inlet plumbing is not properly installed.
It is possible for cross leaks to occur inside the cooler, permitting
oil to flow into the water or water flow into the oil.
124
ROUTINE CHECKS AND MAINTENANCE
ANNUAL CHECKS
1.
PROPELLER AND OUTPUT SHAFT ALIGNMENT:
This check should also be
made any time the propeller strikes a heavy object and after any accident where the boat is stopped suddenly.
Shaft alignment should also
be checked after the boat has been lifted by a hoist or moved on a
trailer.
2.
SHIFT LEVER POSITIONING:
The selector controls must position the
shift lever exactly in F, Nand R selection positions with the ball
poppet centered in the shift lever hole for each position.
3.
BOLT TORQUE:
Check all bolts for tightness.
4.
COOLER CONNECTIONS:
Check water lines, oil lines and connections
for leakage.
Make sure lines are securely fastened to prevent
shifting.
5.
CHANGING OIL:
A seasonal oil change is recommended in pleasure
boats. Work boats require more frequent changes. Change oil any time
the oil becomes contaminated,
changes color or becomes rancid
smelling.
6. TRANSMISSION FLUID: Automatic transmission fluids are recommended
for use in all transmissions.
DAILY CHECKS
1.
Check transmission oil level.
2.
Check for any signs of oil leakage in the bellhousing, at gasket
sealing surfaces or at the output shaft oil seal.
3.
A quick visual check of the general condition of the equipment may
cause faulty equipment to be detected.
4.
Listen for any unusual noises and
cause of any such noises.
investigate to determine
the
WINTER STORAGE
1.
Drain water from transmission oil cooler.
This will prevent
freezing in cooler climates, and prevent harmful deposits from
collecting.
GENERAL CHECKS
1.
Check coupling alignment each time a transmission is replaced in
the boat.
125
2.
Check shift linkage adjustment to insure that the transmission
shift lever is posi tioned so that the spr ing loaded ball enters
the chamfered hole in the side of the shift lever.
3.
Connect an oil cooler into the cooler circuit before cranking or
starting the engine.
Various cooler circui ts have been used and
the correct cooler connections should be found from service
literature prior to making the cooler installation.
4.
Use a cooler of sufficient size to insure proper cooling.
5.
Check engine rotation and transmission pump setting and the propeller rotation prior to assembling the transmission to engine.
6.
Check oil pressure and temperature
indicates that a problem exists.
7.
Use the recommended fluid for filling the transmission.
8.
Fill the transmission prior to starting the engine.
9.
Check oil level immediately after the engine has been shut off.
when
transmission
function
10. Use a clean container for handling transmission fluid.
11. Replace cooler line after a transmission
installing a new or rebuilt transmission.
12. Check fluid level at operating temperature.
126
failure,
prior
to
PARAGON HYDRAULIC
1.
INSTALLATION
The installation instructions below are for use when the original
transmission has been removed for servicing and must be reinstalled,
or when the transmission unit is to be adapted as non-original equipment to a marine engine.
It is important that the engine and transmission rotations are
matched.
The direction of rotation of an engine is defined in this
manual as the direction of rotation of the engine crankshaft as viewed
from the output end of the transmission. A clockwise rotation of the
engine is a right hand rotation and a counter-clockwise rotation of
the engine is a left hand rotation.
A letter "R" or "L" appearing on the transmission serial number plate
indicates whether the transmission is for use wi th a right or left
hand rotating engine.
The hydraulic transmission is attached to the engine in the following
manner:
A.
Insert two 3-1/2" studs in opposite transmission mounting holes in
the flywheel housing.
B.
Place the transmission against the
through two of the matching holes
flange.
C.
Slide the transmission along the studs toward the engine so that
the spline on the shaft at the front of the transmission enters
the matching splined hole in the engine vibration dampener.
D.
Install and tighten four bolts with lockwashers through the
transmission housing flange into the flywheel housing. Remove the
3-1/2" studs.
Install and tighten the two remaining bolts with
lockwashers through the transmission housing flange.
studs so that the studs go
in the transmission housing
The transmission and propeller shaft coupling must be carefully
aligned before the propeller shaft is connected to the transmission,
in order to avoid vibration and consequent damage to the transmission,
engine and boat hull during operation.
To align the coupling, move
the propeller shaft, with attached coupling flange,
toward the
transmission so that the faces of the propeller shaft coupling flange
and transmission shaft coupling flange are in contact.
The coupling
flange faces should be in contact throughout their entire circumference.
The total runout or gap between the faces should not exceed
.002" at any point.
If the runout exceeds .002n, reposition the
engine and attached transmission by loosening the engine support bolts
and adding or removing shims to raise or lower ei ther end of the
engine.
If necessary, move the engine sideways to adjust the runout
or to align the coupling flange faces laterally.
Tighten the engine
support bolts and recheck the alignment of the coupling before bolting
127
the coupling flanges together.
bolts, lockwashers and nuts.
Connect
the
coupling
flanges
wi th
Connect the oil cooler lines to the transmission.
Connect the shift control cable from the cockpi t control station to
the transmission control valve lever.
Place the transmission control
valve lever in the neutral position and adjust the shaft control cable
length until the cockpit control station hand lever is in the neutral
position.
Move the cockpit control hand lever to forward and reverse
positions several times while observing the transmission control valve
lever motion.
The transmission control valve lever should move fully
into forward or reverse posi tion when the hand lever is moved into
forward or reverse position, and should return exactly to the neutral
position when the hand lever is in the neutral position.
Remove the oil dipstick and fill the transmission with Type A
transmission fluid to the mark on the dipstick.
Replace the dipstick
in the transmission housing.
2.
OPERATION
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:
The transmission forward and reverse drives
are operated by transmission oil under pressure.
An internal gear
type oil pump delivers the transmission oil, under pressure to the
external oil cooler.
The transmission oil is returned, still under
pressure, to the oil distr ibution tube and relief valve.
The relief
valve maintains the oil pressure by remaining closed until the oil
pressure reaches 60 PSI.
When the control lever is shifted to the
forward position, oil under pressure is delivered to the mUltiple disc
clutch piston, which moves to clamp the clutch discs and planetary
reverse gear case together.
The discs and case then revolve as a
solid coupling in the direction of engine rotation. The reverse drive
is engaged by shifting the control lever to the reverse position, so
that oil under pressure is delivered to the reverse piston.
The
reverse piston moves to clamp the reverse band around the planetary
gear case, preventing the planetary gear case from moving but allowing
the planetary gears to revolve to drive the output or propeller shaft
in a direction opposi te to the rotation of the engine.
Wi th the
control lever in the neutral posi tion, pressur ized oil is prevented
from entering the clutch piston or reverse band piston and the propeller shaft remains stationary.
STARTING PROCEDURE:
A.
Always start the engine with the tranmission in NEUTRAL to avoid
moving the boat suddenly forward or back.
B.
When the engine is first started, allow it to idle for a few
moments.
Stop the engine and check the transmission oil level.
Add oil if necessary to bring the oil level up to the mark on the
transmission dipstick.
NOTE: ON SUBSEQUENT START-UPS, THE TRANSMISSION OIL LEVEL
MAY BE CHECKED BEFORE RUNNING THE ENGINE, WHEN ENGINE OIL IS
CHECKED.
128
C.
Start the engine again, with the transmission in NEUTRAL,
allow the engine to warm up to operating temperature.
and
D.
Shift the transmission into FORWARD or REVERSE as desired.
If the
engine should stall when the transmission is shifted to FORWARD or
REVERSE, place the transmission in neutral before restarting the
engine.
It is recommended that shifting be done at speeds below 1000 RPM,
and preferably in the 800 RPM or idle engine range, to prolong the
life of the engine, transmission and boat.
EMERGENCY shifts may
be made at higher eng ine speeds, but this is not a recommended
practice.
3.
MAINTENANCE
LUBRICATION:
The transmissions are self-contained units, independent
of the engine lubricating systems.
The units are lubricated by
pressure and by splash from its own oil.
The type of oil recommended
is
"Transmission
Fluid,
Type An,
commonly
used
for
automatic
transmissions in automobiles.
The quantity of oil depends upon the angle of installation as well as
the reduction model.
The level must be maintained at the mark on the
dipstick and should be checked per iodically to ensure satisfactory
operation.
When filling for the first time or refilling after an oil change,
check the level after running for a few minutes to make certain that
the oil cooler and the var ious passages are full.
I f necessary,
refill to the mark on the dipstick to ensure proper operation of the
transmission.
The transmission oil level should be checked each time
the engine oil level is checked, before running the engine.
The oil in the transmission should be changed every 100 hours, or each
season under normal conditions. However, the number of hours that can
be run between oil changes varies with the operating conditions.
Drain plugs are located at the bottom of the reverse gear housing and
the reduction gear housing.
ADJUSTMENTS: No adjustment
is necessary for
the FORWARD drive
multiple disc clutches, and the reverse band is self-adjusting to compensate for lining wear, so that no external reverse band adjustment
is necessary.
129
YOUR NOTES
130
WALTER V-DRIVES
FLANGE ALIGNMENT - DIRECT COUPLED MODELS
Install the propeller shaft flange on
to the propeller shaft and tighten the two
clamping bolts on the spl.i t hub (none on
CHECKRV-lOD). A self-locking set screw is provided for the propeller shaft flange.
(,EAR SHAFT
FLANGE
spot drill the propeller shaft and then
securely tighten the set screw. Many good
installations are ruined by improper shaft
flange alignment. Accurate alignment will
FEELER
GAGE
ensure a smooth operating drive train and
eliminate many problems that arise due to
misalignment.
Final alignment should not
be attempted until the boat has been
allowed to nsettle n in the water.
After
the engine has been installed, adjust the
CLAMPING
BOLTS
mounts per manufacturer's instructions
FLANGE ALIGNMENT
until the pilot diameters of the gear
shaft flange and the propeller shaft
flange engage freely.
Butt the flange
faces together.
without rotating either flange, check with a feeler
gauge in at least four places as shown in the illustration.
If the
maximum feeler gauge that can slip between the flange faces at any
point is .003-, the unit is properly aligned. If a thicker gauge can
be inserted at any point, the engine must be readjusted until proper
alignment is obtained. Turn the propeller shaft flange 1/4 of a turn
without moving the gear shaft change. Try inserting the .003 n feeler
gauge as described above.
The gap will not change if the propeller
shaft is straight.
If it increases, the shaf~ or flange is bent and
must be removed and straightened. Rotate the propeller shaft flange
in two more 1/4 turn increments and repeat the procedure. The pilot
diameters must be rechecked to ensure that they still engage freely.
Secure the two flanges together with the heat treated bolts and special high collared lockwashers supplied.
ENGINE ALIGNMENT - INDEPENDENT MODELS
The engine must be adjusted so that the alignment of the flexible
joint is within 3·.
An accurate steel rule should be used for this
purpose as shown in the illustration. On short installations using a
flexible joint assembly, the faces of the flexible joint must be
parallel within l/S-. Measure this in at least four places around the
diameter without rotating the assembly. with long installations using
the 136 tubular drive shaft (also on all RV-lOD's) the distance from
the 133A spool adapter to the bores in the universal joint which is
welded to the tubular shaft must be measured on both sides of the
joint. Rotate the shaft exactly 1/4 of a turn and measure to the same
joint. The four distances must be equal within l/S-.
(Do not measure
131
to the joint end that is
on the spool adapter.
This distance will not
vary with misalignment
since
the
joint
is
'3~:fr'~"~ bol ted and cannot move.)
ARC....,
Put the 13lA alignment
gauge on the machined
·Z7
diameter
of
the
124
cover and slide it completely around. It will
indicate how the engine
must be moved to center
the spline shaft in the
oil seal.
Re-measure
the joints to see if
they are still parallel within l/S-.
It is
important
that
both
alignments
be
checked
thoroughly.
It is possible for the spline shaft
to be perfectly centered and the flexible joint
to be out more than 3·. Premature failure of the
126 self-aligning bearing and seals may occur due
to misalignment.
The zerk fitting (located on
the cross of the universal joint) should be
greased with a light alemite lubricant.
The
above procedure should be repeated after the boat
has been placed in operation. It is possible for
the engine to slightly shift and settle, especially if it has rubber mounts.
SPlINEO
Cc:N£CTING
SHAFT
IEPTH THAT SPLINE SHAFT
ENTERS V-DRIVE
lCJ:§
INSTALLATION
~
FLANGE ALIGNMENT - INDEPENDENT MODELS
Install the propeller shaft flange on to the
propeller shaft and tighten the two clamping bolts
on the split hub (none on RV-lO).
A self-locking
ADJUSTING SCkEW
LOCKING NUT
set screw is provided for the propeller shaft
LOOSEN
TO
flange. spot drill the propeller shaft and secureADJUST BRACKETS
ly tighten the set screws.
All V-drives are supplied with 3-way adjustable
mounting brackets (2-way on the RV-lO and RV-20) as
standard equipment.
The brackets must face downward as shown in the illustration to properly
absorb propeller thrust.
The mounting plates can
be removed and reversed to fit wider engine bed
centers. Before installing the V-drive, loosen all
the nuts on the mounting brackets and check to see
that the studs are in the center of the slots. Retighten the nuts.
Place the V-drive on the engine bed, lining it up
-by eye- to tQe propeller shaft flange as closely as possible. Firmly
bolt it down through the holes provided in the mounting plates.
Loosen the locking nuts on the adjusting screws. Slightly loosen the
nuts on the mounting brackets just enough to be able to move the Vdrive.
Many good installations are ruined by improper propeller shaft
~
132
flange alignment.
Accurate alignment will ensure a smooth operating
drive train and eliminate many problems that arise due to misalignment. Final alignment should not be attempted until the boat has been
allowed to "settle" in the water. Adjust the V-drive until the pilot
diameters of the gear shaft flange and the propeller shaft flange
engage freely.
Butt the flange faces together.
Without rotating
either flange, check with a feeler gauge in at least four places as
shown in the illustration.
If the maximum feeler gauge that can slip
between the flange faces at any point is .003", the unit is properly
aligned. If a thicker gauge can be inserted at any point, the V-drive
must be readjusted until proper alignment is obtained. Turn the propeller shaft flange 1/4 of a turn without moving the gear shaft
flange. Try inserting the .003 n feeler gauge as described above. The
gap will not change if the propeller shaft is straight.
If it
increases, the shaft or flange is bent and must be removed and
straightened.
Rotate the propeller shaft flange in two more 1/4 turn
increments and repeat the procedure.
The pilot diameters must be
rechecked to ensure that they still engage freely.
Tighten the nuts
on the mounting brackets and the locking nuts on the adjusting screws.
Remove the set screws from the brackets (none on RV-lO or RV-20), spot
drill and securely tighten. Recheck the flange alignment to make sure
the V-dr i ve did not move out of alignment.
Secure the two flanges
together with the heat treated bolts and special high collared lockwashers supplied.
ADJUSTING SCREW
LOCKING NUT
CHECKGEAR SHAFT
FLANGE
LOOSEN SLIGHTLY
TO ADJUST
BRACKETS
FEELER
GAGE
CLAMPING
BOLTS
FLANGE ALIGNMENT
MOUNTING PLATE
RV-30. RV-40 & RV-48
WATER AND SWITCH CONNECTIONS
Hook up the water lines to the two pipe connections on the V-drive
(intake and exhaust lines are interchangeable).
Generally, one line
from the seacock to the V-drive and another from the V-drive to the
intake of the engine water circulating pump are utilized.
In some
cases, scuppers through the hull are connected to and from the V-drive
to provide independent water-cooling and are actuated by the movement
of the water.
Wi th closed cooling systems, the V-dr i ve should be
133
incorporated into the system between the cooler and the suction side
of the water pump.
Proper operating temperatures are from 140· to
l80·F, although safe operating temperatures may be as high as 2l0·F.
On the models equipped wi th an oil circulating pump, the #49 oil
pressure drop switch and the 12 volt #49A warning light should be
hooked up per the wiring diagram.
The switch may be grounded to any
part of the V-drive or engine (either terminal may be used for the
ground) •
OIL FILL
Pullout the #21 oil level gauge.
Unscrew the #12 breather cap and fill the
~.M~T,o.E'R/ DRAIN
V-drive with SAE #30 motor oil through the
~
OIL LEVEL
#12A breather elbow.
On the RV-lO only,
r
GAGE
I
(PULL UP TO
the oil may be added by removing the plug
j
REMOVE)
in the #6D top cover. See table below for
approximate oil capacities.
The amount
varies with the angle of installation.
The oil level should be checked with the
oil level gauge fully inserted in the
unit. The proper level is between the "H"
and "L" marks on the gauge. Add a 2 ounce
tube of Molykote (molybdenum disulfide),
which is supplied with each V-drive for
K J \ WATERLINE
extra lubrication and break-in. It provi"'\- WATER DRAIN
des protection against scoring or galling
of gears, bearings and other moving parts.
Addi tional Molykote after break-in is not required.
Reinstall the
breather cap.
The oil level should be rechecked after the uni t has
been run and allowed to sit for about a minute. Add oil if necessary.
RV-lO
Oil capacity
(Approx. )
1 pint
RV-20
RV-30
RV-40
RV-48
2 pints
3 pints
4 pints
4 pints
DEALER PREPARATION
The propeller shaft and engine alignment must be checked and
corrected, if necessary, before the boat is delivered.
Final alignment should not be attempted until the boat is allowed to "settle" in
the water.
The oil level must be checked and oil added if required.
While the boat is being run, the water connections should be checked
for leaks.
The oil pressure drop switch and warning light (if the
V dr i ve is equipped with an oil circulating pump) should be checked
for proper operation.
Do not transport the boat with the propeller
shaft coupling connected. Damage to the shaft, shaft log and V-drive
can result.
134
OPERATION
A pressure drop warning light is
mounted on the instrument panel on
V-drives equipped with an oil cirWATER LINE
OIL LEVEL
culating pump. The warning light will
GAGE
(PL,tL uP TO
stay on until the boat gets under way
REMOVE)
and the engine speed increases to sufficient RPM for the pump to maintain
pressure.
This normally occurs at
approximately 1200 RPM, but the actual
speed may vary by as much as 400 RPM.
Extended cruising at low RPM, such as
when trolling, is not harmful to the
V-drive, even though the warning light
may stay lit.
Normal operation is
between 6 to 12 PSI.
The light will
go on when the oil pressure drops
below 2 PSI.
Loss of oil and/or
R49 PRESSURE
insufficient oil level are the major
[)<OP SWITCH
causes of pressure drop.
The oil
level should immediately be restored,
and while running the boat, the unit should be checked for leaks. If
the oil level is normal and the light stays lit when the boat reaches
normal cruising speed, the wiring should be checked for loose and/or
corroded connections.
If the wiring is correct and the light remains
lit, the 149 pressure drop switch, which is mounted on the side of the
V-dr ive (see illustration), should be checked for proper operation.
The switch can easily be removed and an accurate oil pressure gauge
installed in its place.
If the pressure is normal, the switch should
be replaced. If the pressure is below normal, the oil lines should be
checked for blockage.
The pump should be inspected and replaced if
necessary. The pump is standard on the RV-48 and an optional feature
on other models (not available on the RV-lO).
The oil level should be checked several times during the season,
especially on V-drives whitout pumps (see OIL FILL).
A clatter or rattle in the V-drive at low RPM is due to the overriding of the propeller during the compression stroke of the engine.
Although annoying, it is not harmful.
It may be reduced by adjusting
the idle speed and/or tuning up the engine for smoother operation.
MAINTENANCE
1.
OIL CHANGE AND JOINT LUBE
After the first 100 hours of operation and every season and/or
500 hours thereafter, the oil should be changed. Run the boat to warm
up the V-drive to operating temperature. Turn off the engine. Remove
the plug in the i6B bottom cover that is opposite the 143S oil
strainer.
Reinstall after draining.
Disconnect the oil hose leading
from the 143S strainer (leave the elbow on the strainer). Unscrew the
strainer and clean the outside surface.
Reinstall the strainer and
reconnect the oil hose.
Unscrew the two #22 magnetic plugs that are
located on diagonally opposite corners of the tIC main housing.
135
The plugs can be checked to see if
they are magnetic only after removal.
Touch the inside face with a metallic
object, such as a screwdriver.
Clean
them and reinstall.
Usually, there
are four plugs in the bottom part of
the main housing.
Only two of these
are magnetic.
The other two need not
be removed (see illustration). Refill
wi th SAE 30 motor oil to the proper
level (see INSTALLATION - OIL FILL).
The Zerk fitting on the external universal joint should be greased with a
light alemite lubricant (see ENGINE
ALI GNMENT) •
2.
..,C HOUSING
STAND<lRD PlUG
(NOT MAGNETIC)
~~j
Oil DRAIN
WATER DRAIN
For protection from freezing during winter lay-up, remove the
small pipe plugs (located diagonally opposite) on the front and back
of the housing marked "Water Drain" (see illutration).
On the RV-lO
only, one of the water lines going into the #6 water-cooled bottom
cover must be disconnected to drain the water.
3.
FLANGE AND ENGINE REALIGNMENT
When the boat is launched after being in drydock, the line-up of
the V-drive to the propeller shaft flange and the engine to the Vdrive should be rechecked and corrected if necessary.
Some engines
wi th rubber mounts may sag and must be raised with adj ustments or
shims for proper alignment (see "Flange Alignment" and "Engine
Alignment").
136
SECTION T
GENERATOR SETS
CONTENTS
PAGE
Controls:
Manual Starter Disconnect (Toggle Switches) •• 138
Generator -
25KW •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 144
Generator -
32KW •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 155
137
MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT (TOGGLE SWITCHES)
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
+
IZI/DC ,,"'TTEl'lf
t-_____"_"-tT
@
t---"""'-----"-"'-.."'-"-j
WI RI NG
~1.
!>fARTE~
®
""E-H("'[email protected]
DIAGRAM.
SEC NO'rE-e
e
W,T.,SENOCR
fUEL
SOt...
@
l.lfT PUMP
~~
@
PRE-HEAT SOL.
@saNO'rI!-e
@
o.P.~ENOER
PRE-HEATCR
PUR"I
01 L PRESSURE
[email protected]
'"
SERIES 'IS" ALTERNATOR
IZVOLT !>OA""".
@
138
REMOTE
CONTROL F" .... NEL ,(!![AII
view)
MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT (TOGGLE SWITCHES)
GENERAL:
This manually controlled series of Westerbeke marine diesel generators
is equipped with toggle switches on the engine control panel and,
optionally, at remote panels.
The following instructions and methods
of correcting minor problems apply only to such toggle switch
controls.
All three switches are momentary contact type and serve the following
functions:
1.
Preheat:
The PREHEAT/DEFEAT toggle switch is a double pole,
. single throw swi tch.
The switch serves two purposes: preheating the engine for easy starting and defeating or
bypassing the eng ine protective oil pressure switch.
The
defeat function turns on the fuel solenoid, instrument power,
alternator excitation and provides power to the start switch.
2.
Start:
The START toggle switch is a double pole, single
throw switch.
The switch, when activated, energizes the
starter solenoid for starting the engine.
This switch will
not operate electrically unless the preheat switch is also
depressed and held.
3.
Stop: The STOP toggle switch is a single pole, single throw,
normally closed swi tch.
This switch provides power to the
fuel solenoid, instrument cluster and alternator excitation,
after the oil pressure switch has closed upon starting.
Opening of this switch opens the power circuit to the fuel
solenoid, thus stopping the flow of fuel to the engine and
stopping the engine.
ENGINE OPERATION:
1.
Preheat:
Depress the PREHEAT switch.
The voltmeter, panel
lights, gauges and meters and fuel solenoid will activate.
The PREHEAT switch should be depressed for twenty seconds in
conjunction with thermostarts (installed in intake manifold)
and forty to sixty seconds in conjunction with glowplugs.
2.
Start:
While still depressing the PREHEAT swi tch, depress
the START swi tch.
This will engage the start solenoid.
Panel power and the fuel solenoid will be activated.
Upon
engine firing, release the start switch. Do not release the
PREHEAT switch until oil pressure reaches 15 psi.
Then as
long as the high water temperature and low oil pressure protective circuit does not activate, the set will remain
energized and continue to run.
3.
Stop:
Depress the STOP swi tch to stop the eng ine.
This
opens the power feed to the fuel solenoid, stopping the fuel
139
flow to the engine.
stops rotating.
It must be depressed until the generator
REMOTE ENGINE OPERATION:
For remote operation of the generator system, the same three switches
are used.
The PREHEAT and START swi tches are connected in parallel
with the local panel switches and serve the same functions as in the
local panel.
The STOP switch is in series with the local panel STOP
swi tch, and serves the same functions as in the local panel. The
generator may be stopped from local or remote positions.
AC GENERATORS:
Once the diesel generator sets have been placed in operation, there is
little or no control adjustment required by the A.C. Generator. When
starting the generator, it is always a good plan to switch off all
A.C. loads, especially large motors, until the engine has come up to
speed and, in cold climates, starts to warm up.
These precautions
will prevent damage by unanticipated operation of A.C. machinery and
prevent a cold engine from being stalled.
OVERSPEED (If equipped with this option):
If the engine governor loses control and the engine speed accelerates,
a relay is actuated that de-energizes the fuel solenoid and stops the
engine. A red light on the panel illuminates and remains lighted. To
extinguish the light, reset the overspeed relay by depressing the
eng ine STOP swi tch.
When the reason for the overspeed shutdown is
corrected, the engine is ready to be restarted.
140
TROUBLESHOOTING
MANUAL STARTER DISCONNECT (TOGGLE SWITCHES)
CIRCUIT PROTECTION:
The engine control system is protected by a 20 amp manual reset circuit breaker located on the engine as close as possible to the power
source. An additional circuit breaker is located at the fuel solenoid
(P/N 23041) when this solenoid is used.
(This solenoid is not used on
mode.ls which have a solenoid built into the injection pump.)
Manual Control (toggle switch) troubleshooting.
Problem
Probable Cause
Verification
Preheat depressed,
no panel indications,
fuel solenoid not
energized.
Battery switch or
power not on
Check switch and/or battery connections.
20 amp circuit
breaker tripped
Reset breaker if opens
again, check preheat
~olenoid circuit and
"run" circuit for shorts
to ground.
Preheat and start
depressed, panel
indications O.K.
Start solenoid O.K.
Fuel solenoid not
functioning.
Fuel solenoid
(P/N 23041) circuit
breaker tripped
1. Check mechanical
positioning of fuel
solenoid for plunger
bottoming.
2. Reset breaker and
repeat start cycle.
3. If repeated trip-:ng, check for defective breaker or fuel
"lenoid.
No ignition, cranks,
does not start. Fuel
solenoid energized.
Faulty fueling system
1. Check for fuel to
generator system.
2. Check for air in
fuel system (bleed
system).
3. Fuel lift pump
failure.
141
Failure to stop.
Engine stops.
Not charging battery.
Battery runs down
Fuel solenoid
(PiN 23041) return
spring
Stop engine by freeing
fuel pump lever. That
failing, shut off fuel.
Check fuel solenoid
linkage and repair for
-ree movement.
Stop switch failure
Disconnect power leads
thru stop switch. Test
switch for proper operby continuity test.
Fuel injection pump
failure
Stop engine with fuel
line shut off.
Low oil pressure or
overheated
Check oil, fresh water
and sea water cooling.
Low oil pressure
switch fails to close
Check for satisfactory
operation with switch
hvpassed.
High water temperature switch open at
too low a temperature
Same as above.
Switch and wiring
Inspect all wiring for
loose connections and
short circuits.
Alternator drive
Check drivebelt and its
tension. Be sure alternator turns freely.
~heck for loose connections.
Regulator unit and
alternator
("MA" series only)
With engine running, momentarily connect B+ to
field. A good alternator
will produce a high
charge (50 amps). If no
response, replace alternator. Check for shorting of alternator output
connections to ground.
Oil pressure switch
Observe if gauges and
light are on when engine
is not running. Test the
normally open oil
pressure switch by disconnecting one lead. If
lights go out, replace
oil
pressure
switch.
142
Battery runs down
High resistance leak
to ground
Check wiring. Insert
sensitive (0-.25 amp)
meter in battery lines.
100 not start engine.)
Remove connections and
reolace until short is
~ocated.
Low resistance leak
to ground
Check all wires for temperature rise to locate
fault.
Alternator
Disconnect alternator at
output, after a good
battery charging. If
leakage stops, replace
alternator protective
diode plate. That failing, replace alternator.
143
25KW OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS
60 HZ SINGLE BEARING ALTERNATORS
SINGLE AND THREE PHASE
GENERAL
The solid state voltage regulated alternators described herein have
been built to give lasting and reliable maintenance free service in
their intended application(s) and are SCA certified.
Should a
situation arise where the alternator fails to operate properly and all
mechanical conditions are found to be satisfactory, refer to the
electrical section of this manual as an aid in analyzing the cause and
effecting a repair.
INSTALLATION
1.
The alternator intake and exhaust airways must be kept free of
obstructions during operation of the alternator.
If the flow of
cooling intake air or heated exhaust air is inhibited, eventual
alternator overheating and subsequent failure of the alternator to
operate may occur.
2.
Care should be execised during the electrical hookup to the alternator output, so as not to damage the voltage regulating circuits
found within the control box. See figure 4 for alternator connection diagram.
OPERATION
NOTE:
1.
Do not exceed the maximum alternator shaft speed of 2200 RPM as
permanent alternator damage may result.
2.
If there are unusual noises from the alternator at any time during
its operation, shut it down and check for internal mechanical wear
and/or damage.
3.
For the protection of line frequency sensitive loads that may be
connected to the alternator, only operate at an alternator shaft
speed of 1800 RPM (60 Hz).
These alternators are classed drip proof.
The air intake and outlets
are covered with an expanded metal screen to protect against the
ingestion of airborne litter.
These screens need not be removed for
cleaning.
DO NOT operate the alternator without these screens in
place.
There are no set up adjustments for the alternator.
However, if the
value of the output voltage is inconsistent with given specific
requirements, then it may be adjusted over a narrow ± 5% range and
will not normally require readjustment.
144
To adjust the output voltage, remove the cover from the control box
and locate the voltage setting control per figure 1.
Using an insulated tool, operate this control to obtain the desired output voltage.
Right hand rotation of this control increases the output voltage.
i:::r
o
"9
~--~--Voltage
Adjust
CMIOO
-en-.
~
VR301
~
¢-n::J-
1
~
Voltage
Adjust
Figure 1
CAUTION
TERMINALS AND COMPONENTS CARRYING LINE VOLTAGE MAY
BE EXPOSED WITHIN THE CONTROL BOX AND VOLTAGE
REGULATING
CIRCUITS
WHEN
THE
ALTERNATOR
IS
OPERATING.
THEREFORE THE USE OF NON-CONDUCTING
TOOLS IS ESSENTIAL FOR SAFETY REASONS.
ONLY
QUALIFIED
ELECTRICIANS
OR
PERSONS
THOROUGHLY
FAMILIAR WITH ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT SHOULD ATTEMPT
THIS ADJUSTMENT.
PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE - MECHANICAL
The alternator is virtually maintenance free and is designed to give
5000 hours of trouble free service. Periodic inspection is suggested
to assure the alternator airways do not become obstructed.
CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE
The alternator can be dismantled from the engine using standard hand
tools. See figure 2 for dismantling information.
Some minor repairs and tests can be done without dismantling the
alternator. One example is the shaft mounted rectifier. See figure 3
for the checking and/or replacing procedure.
145
INSTALL RECTIFIER
with heatsink compound (DC #340
or equivalent) tighten to maximum
torque of 30 inch pounds.
RECTIFIER ACCESS HOLE.
BEND TERMINAL
To clear alternator
housing if required.
SPOT-----------1~~~~~~-
RED
Identifies rectifier
output terminal
RECTIFIER OUTPUT
Only this lead has twin solid magnet
wire and tan colored insulation sleeve
and will show a low electrical resistance
when measured to shaft.
1.
Remove the hole cover
alternator.
2.
Crank engine until the rectifier comes into view and lock to
prevent engine from turning the shaft.
3.
Unsolder the four wires from the rectifier.
4.
Remove the rectifier by unscrewing in counter-clockwise
direction then follow testing and replacement procedures
described under alternator "disassembly above.
5.
Replace or reinstall the rectifier reversing the above procedure.
FIGURE 3.
(item 10) on top anti-drive end of the
BRIDGE RECTIFIER ACCESS
146
ELECTRICAL FAULT ANALYSIS
An understanding of the alternator's principle of operation may be
useful before attempting to analyze an electrical failure; therefore a
brief description follows. See figure 4, Schematic Diagram.
The alternator
driving force.
is
a
brushless,
self-excited
type
requiring
only
One permanent magnet in the six pole exciter stator is responsible for
the self-exciting feature of the alternator.
Its magnetic field
causes a voltage to be induced into the associated exciter rotor coils
during rotation.
This AC voltage is full wave rectified and applied
to the main rotating field coil. The resulting electro-magnetic field
induces an alternating voltage into the associated main stator coils
and a resulting current will flow to the output terminals.
Simultaneously, an auxiliary coil on the main stator generates an AC
voltage which is full wave rectified and employed as a source of
supply for the remaining five electro-magnetic poles on the exciter
stator.
The voltage regulator controls the current flow to these
poles, thereby effecting voltage regulation.
FAULT ANALYSIS
SYMPTOM
1. Mechanical
Noise
2. No Output
PROBABLE CAUSE
REPAIR PROCEDURE
a) Defective bearing.
Replace bearing.
b) Worn bearing.
Replace bearing.
c) Loose or misaligned
coupling.
Align and/or tighten.
d) Foreign objects within.
Remove and check further
for possible damage.
a) Short or open circuits
in any stator or rotor
coil, or associated
leads.
Contact Westerbeke if
repair is beyond local
facilities. Check grounding lead and terminal on
shaft behind main rotor
coil.
Replace if faulty and
check further for cause.
., Defective bridge
rectifier on shaft (see
figure 3).
c) Faulty voltage regulating Repair or replace if
faulty and check further
circuit.
for cause.
3. High Output a) Misadjusted output volVoltage
tage control (see
figure 1).
147
Set output voltage to
desired value. CAUTION:
SOME COMPONENTS CARRY LIVE
VOLTAGE AND THE USE OF
TNSULATED TOOLS IS
RECOMMENDED.
b) Wire T2 (120/240V) or T6 Clean and/or remake this
(120/208) or T12 (120/208 ground connection.
/416 - 120/240) unground.
c) Faulty voltage regulating Repair or replace if
circuit
faulty and check further
for cause.
4. Low Output
Voltage
a) Misadjusted output
voltage control (see
figure 1).
Set output voltage to
desired value. CAUTION:
SOME COMPONENTS CARRY LIVE
VOLTAGE AND THE USE OF
INSULATED TOOLS IS
RECOMMENDED.
b) High line loss if.
voltage is low only at
load(s).
Increase the size of the
wiring leading to the
load(s) as required. Load
wires should not run hot
at continuous full load if
properly sized. Do not run
a greater length of wire
than required as losses
increase with distance. If
wire is correctly sized
and run is not too long,
check for poor connections
and/or partly broken wires
that may be indicated by
hot spots in the wire or
at terminals of switches,
etc.
c) Partially shorted main
rotor field coil.
Contact Westerbeke if
repair is beyond local
facilities.
d) Electrical overload, and/ The total load at the preor poor power factor
scribed power factor (see
identification plate on
connected to alternator
alternator) should not be
exceeded.
e) Alternator shaft RPM too
low.
Check engine speed.
f) Faulty voltage
regulating circuit.
Repair or replace if
faulty and check further
for cause.
148
5. Unstable
Output
Voltage
a) Irregular engine speed.
Check engine and loads for
transient operation and/or
overloads.
b) Loose electrical
connections.
Tighten connections as
required in load wiring
and voltage regulating
connector.
c) Faulty voltage
regulating circuit or
connector
Repair or replace if
faulty and check further
for cause.
d) Higher than required
engine speed.
Check speed is 1800 RPM.
6. Overheating a) Airways blocked.
Remove obstruction.
b) High ambient temperature. Do not permit ambient temperature to exceed 40·C
tl04·F) and operate in a
well ventilated and shaded
area if necessary.
7. Alternator
Housing
Live
c) Electrical overload and/
or poor power factor
connected to alternator.
The total load at the prescribed power factor (see
identification plate on
alternator) should not be
fOxceeded.
d) Engine exhaust being
drawn into alternator
air intake.
Redirect engine exhaust as
required to prevent this
from happening.
a) Static charge.
Properly ground frame of
alternator.
b) Open circuit at ground
bar in control box.
Ensure alternator neutral
has continuity from stator
to ground bar. CAUTION:
SOME ELEMENTS WITHIN THE
CONTROL BOX CARRY LIVE
VOLTAGE WHEN ALTERNATOR
IS RUNNING.
149
RESISTANCE VALUES FOR 25KW SINGLE PHASE GENERATOR
Main Stator
Tl - T2
T3 - T4
0.053
0.054
Auxiliary Coils
Al - A2
A2 - A3
Al - A3
0.169
0.092
0.091
Exciter Stator
Fl - F3
F2 - F4
2.3
3.5
Main Rotor*
3.2
Exciter Rotor*
0.56
NOTES
*These values represent measurements taken with leads connected to
bridge rectifier. Measurements for main rotor are taken from red dot
terminal on rectifier to ground.
Exciter measurements can be taken
from terminal to terminal. Refer to Figure 3 for rectifier testing.
(1) The above chart is intended for reference use only, as a
Commpar i son of
10 percent tolerance on these figures is common.
ratios of actual readings to the above figures is often a more
accurate method of troubleshooting.
(2)
If any abnormal variations cannot be isolated and symptoms are
still evident, contact Westerbeke.
150
DIODES MOUNTED
I N HOUSING
BASIC
,MAIN STATOR
SCHEMATIC
:f
EXC ITER ROTOR
II
TI
T2
T3
T4
*
0-:---+-----...
~
__________________
~*
+
I
_ _- J II
I
I I
I
I
_
I I
I
L -7 - - - - J I
L - - -3-P- ---i L- -e-R-'I
DGE
H AS E
RECTIFIER ITEM 2-6
USER TO INSURE THIS
GROUND CONNECTION IS MADE.
SINGLE PHASE (ALL)
I
I
I
L--------J!;.~I~ER
r
TI
T4
T5
~
STATOR
MAIN STATOR
~--~~----------------------------------4-2
MAIN ROTOR
VR301
ITEM27
~~~<tJJ~-,{ ~~~~-,'b1r
{
r
I
----,
tI
r - -+ --,I : ~ II I1 ---"1~
..-~3
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I I
I I
I I
I
T2
I I
I I
L __
I
, I
1 I
I
I I
1____ -1
~--.J
I
USED
10-G12
ONLY
I
I
I
I:
:.J
'-.--:-I---&-
I 3 PHASE BRIDGE...3
I
I RECTIFIER
L __ - - L __ J
~~IT~E~M~2~0~______________________~4
16
*1
L
z
VR301
ITEM 27
I
II~_ _ _ _......,
I I
II
I
2
4
3
"'----'-----'----'
II
DIODES MOUNTED ______
IN HOUSINGr- - -,I/>
-f
...ow
~
I
I
~ I:
I
______________
ir_LlMrA~~ :~~~:
II
~~
~~
_______
120V FROM
13 OR TAP
-.J
THREE PHASE (TYPICAL 6 WIRE)
• USER TO ENSURE THIS
GROUND CONNECTION IS MADE.
EXCEPT -200 SERlE S 60 H %. SEE NOTE
MAIN STA~O_R.=\ ______ ,
I
I
I ~------------~1----------------------~------~2
TI
14
T7
TlO
Til
T8
:
:
:
~------------~1------------~~~~~~~----~5
I' ,
I
I
~ MAIN
ROTOR
~X~ITER ROTOR
I~ --l r - -of --I
4
II
,II
I'
II
I1
II
Ii
I
CM 100
ITEM27
,..----=-;----+6
~-----'r--I
:
I
: :
~
I
~
~~--f.-(
_II
I '
IS)
I
I:
I
I
I
I
I
I 1
I
II ___ JI IL _____
- ~J
I
~----...:.'----+7
,L
I I
I
J
'·2 o------.:-------...J 13PHASE BRIDGE~ L----·-.Jt.--USED
Tl2
I RECTIFIER ITE~ 20
EXCITER
°INS_G2
19 O*==j:!=====~
~~ST~A~1~O=R~~S
T6 G:
3
120V FROM
~--~
:r3 . I
T9 OR TAP
T5
___-f_____________
L
'I
_______ - '
*USER TO ENSURE THIS
GROUND CONNECTION IS MADE.
THREE PHASE (TYPICAL 12 WIRE)
151
Figure 4
6 WIRE
12 WI RE 3 PHASE ALTER NATO R
3 PHASE ALTERNATOR
------------------~----------------~----------------~Irl--------------------------_.------------.------120-240 V
120-2<40 V
120/208 V
120/208 V
240/4'6 V
3 PHASE
3 PHASE
SINGLE PHASE
3 PHASE
SINGLE PHASE
!l>'
TI
LI
T2
0..:
T3
Ooc:
I TI
IL-o
~'
..J-21
~
::J.21 ~
I 1 :J-31
~
~3
0<;:
I ~,I
:J-I
I TI
T2
L2
T2
0
>L3
T3
t"'I
t-3
t>:l
1I
---0
:>
---0
Iz:}211 T3
TI
>1I
0
>
~
!l>'
t-3
o:;t1
::.L2
o
8
z
Z
t>:l
T4
T4
T4
T4
~
()
T4
t-3
H
o
T5
T6
I-'
~
.!Lo-
T5
T5
T6
T6
U1
'"
T7
~
T7
~
T8
/
T9
!L...o--
19
TIO
TIO
TlO
... fRAME
TI
T2
T3
Til
120-240V
0
>LI
y___
PHASE
H
!l>'
G1
~
ALTERNATOR
120 V
TI
---(00::
T2
....::I>
.. N
T3
Til
Til
:-:~-f,RAM~N
N
SINGLE
T8
Z
o
:.L
1
I
>N
~~~fRAME
\fRAME
ill/'
~ I112 c/
?>N
fRAME
~ fRAME
"!!e"
"iF
TI2
/
-=...
_ N
fRAME
T4
0
.,L2
T4
~
,*
--4-\,j/RE .3 'PHASE ALTERNATOR FRMII~N
Ti ~72 913
FA( TORY CONNECTED FOR:
120/20Bi oR 27~4S0oR~
N
L I L2 L3
J
.J
Figure 2
153
PARTS IDENTIFICATION
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Stator Housing
Drip Shroud - Exhaust Air
Exhaust Air Screen (4)
Helical Lockwasher, 0.25 (3)
Round Head Screw, 0.25-20 x 0.5"
(3)
Eyebolt
Nut, 0.375-16 UNC
Main Stator
Excitor Stator
Snap Cover 2.25" Dia.
Snap Cover 3.00" Dia.
Belleville Washer
Retaining Ring
Cap Screw, 0.312-18 UNC x 1.25" (6)
Lockwasher Split, 0.313 (6)
Clamping Ring
Inlet Air Screen (4)
Drip Shroud - Inlet Air
Ball Bearing (Anti-drive End)
Bridge Rectifier
Complete Rotor/Shaft Assembly
Disc Drive (4) or (5)
Fan
Continuous Grommet
Steel Control Box (incl. Cover)
Neutral (Ground) Terminal Strip
Voltage Regulator
NOTE:
When ordering spare parts, please give reference number,
- description, model and serial number of both engine and
generator.
DETAIL A
154
30 AND 32KW GENERATORS
DESCRIPTION SUMMARY
Construction type
Speed:
Rotating Field Brushless,
Single Bearing
1800 RPM
1500 RPM
1 or 3
Self-ventilated (fan cooled)
40·C
Class F
4
4 or 12
4 only
60Hz
50Hz
Phase
ventilation
Ambient Temp., Max.
Insulation
Number of poles
Stator Leads: 3-phase
I-phase
PRESTART INSPECTION
1.
Check for tightness of all threaded connections.
2.
Check load leads for correct connection as specified in diagram.
3.
Examine air inlet and outlet for air flow obstructions.
4.
Examine generator armature and fan.
Are they tight on shaft?
there clearance around entire circumference of each?
5.
Be sure no other generator or utility power is connected to load
lines.
6.
Be sure that in power systems with a neutral line that the neutral
is properly grounded (or ungrounded) as the system requires, and
that generator neutral is properly connected to the load neutral.
In single phase and some 3-phase systems an incomplete or open
neutral can supply the wrong line-to-neutral voltage on unbalanced
loads.
.
7.
Make sure mounting is secure.
Is
INITIAL STARTUP
1.
After the prestart inspection has been performed, the unit is
ready for startup. When driving the generator, observe vibration.
If excessive, study possible procedures for correction.
2.
The speed of the generator set is adjusted at the factorY1
however, it is advisable to verify upon installation.
To supply
60Hz, the speed should be 1800 to 1860 RPM at no load, and should
not fall below 1800 RPM by more than 1 percent at full load. To
supply 50Hz, speed should be 1500 to 1550 RPM at no load, and
1500 RPM at full load.
Generator voltage should build to its
rated value wi thin 5 seconds after rated speed is attained.
If
155
voltage does not build, the cause may be loss of residual magnetism in the exciter field, as a result of generator disassembly
and reassembly or some other cause.
In such a case (if generator
is not defective) voltage build can be achieved by flashing the
field as described below.
To be assured that a reassembled
generator will always build a voltage when placed in service, it
should be operated at full rated load before installing in the
boat.
3.
Record or observe voltage of generator at no load and at full
load.
Observe vol tage immediately after ini tial startup (cold)
and desirably after 30 minutes of operation at full load (hot).
The voltages are easily adjusted to optimum values at no load and
full load (refer to Regulator section).
Voltage is a few volts
higher when cold than when hot and reaches equilibrium (hot) after
running at full load for 30 minutes.
Full load voltage at unity
power factor load (incandescent lights and resistor type heating
elements) is also a few volts higher than full load voltage with
lower power factor loads such as motors, fluorescent lights and
mercury lights.
I f possible, apply actual service load or test
load of same power factor as load to be used in service.
4.
I f voltage cannot be adj usted to sui table values and some fault
seems evident, follow the troubleshooting procedure.
5.
After running the generator for 30 minutes at full load, observe
temperature rise.
I f smell, touch or temperature measurements
indicate excessive temperature rise, examine the generator for
obstructed air flow, hot air feeding into cold air inlet of
generator or bypassed air (air not pulled through generator)
because of air opening into unbaffled fan at engine side of
generator fan.
Also, carefully examine ratings and actual load
applied to determine if generator rating may be too low for the
load which is applied.
Also, be sure ambient temperature" is not
over 40·C (104 ·F) •
FOR OPERATION AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURES ABOVE
40·C, DERATE KW RATING 1 PERCENT FOR EACH ·C ABOVE 40·C.
FOR
OPERATION AT HIGH ALTITUDES ABOVE SEA LEVEL, RATINGS MUST BE
DEGRADED 2 PERCENT FOR EACH 1000 FEET ABOVE SEA LEVEL. Frame temperatures above 60·C (140 ·F) are too high and indicate a temperature rise in the copper windings of 105·C (22l·F) or higher.
FLASHING THE FIELD - VOLTAGE REGULATOR 32012
With electronic voltage regulation, a 12 volt battery across F (+)
and C (-) behaves as a short across the DC output of the regulator.
If the generator is spinning at or near rated speed and the regulator
starts to deliver a DC current to the field, the current passing
through the battery will be so high that the electronic regulator will
probably be damaged. Flash field either by disconnecting F and C from
regulator when generator is not turning or flash (while turning) only
if rectified diode is in the battery circuit.
(See Regulator section
or figure below.)
156
F-
F+
RECTIFIER
DIODE
SA, 200 VOLT
BATTERY 12 VOLT
To flash the field while spinning at 1800 RPM, diode must be in
+ lead of battery as shown here.
MAINTENANCE
1.
Maintaining reasonable cleanliness is important.
Connections of
terminal boards and rectifiers may become corroded, and insulation
surfaces may start conducting if salts, dust, engine exhaust, carbon, etc., are allowed to build up.
Clogged ventilation openings
may cause excessive heating and reduced life of windings.
2.
For unusually severe conditions,
base coatings should be sprayed
reduce rusting and corrosion.
Ashland "Tectyle 506" and Daubert
3.
In addition to periodic cleaning,
the generator should be
inspected for (a) tightness of all connections, (b) evidence of
overheated terminals and (c) loose or damaged wires.
4.
The drive discs on single bearing generators should be checked
periodically if possible for tightness of screws and for any evidence of incipient cracking failure.
Discs should not be allowed
to become rusty because rust may accelerate cracking.
The bolts
which fasten the drive disc to the generator shaft must be hardened steel SAE grade 8, identified by 6 radial marks, one at each
of the 6 corners of the head.
5.
Examine bearings at periodic intervals. No side movement of shaft
should be detected when force is applied.
If side motion is
detectable, bearings are wearing or wear on shaft of bearing
socket outside bearing has occurred.
Repair must be made quickly
or major components will rub and cause major damage to generator.
6.
Examine control box at per iodic intervals to detect cracks from
engine and generator vibration. If cracks in box are seen, engine
vibration may be severe and require bracing in box for additional
strength to resist vibration.
157
thin rust-inhibi ting petroleumor brushed over all surfaces to
Typical materials suggested are
Chemical Co. "Nox-Rust AC-4l0".
TROUBLESHOOTING
This section is intended to give helpful hints on finding the
cause of any malfunction of the generator, exci ter or regulator by
doing basic testing and checking.
Follow troubleshooting procedures
with the aid of the proper generator diagram.
1.
VISUAL EXAMINATION
The first step in investigating any generator failure or trouble
should be to look for obvious evidence: burned areas, loose or open
connections, wrong speed, incorrect reassembly and reconnection, etc.
2.
OBSERVE VOLTAGE OF DEFECTIVE GENERATOR
The next step is to carefully measure line-to-line voltage. A voltage
at about 10 percent of rated voltage (at rated RPM) is probably the
residual voltage (determined by residual magnetism in exciter field).
A normal residual voltage indicates exciter armature, rotor and stator
are all good and that the trouble is probably in the excitation circuit.
A very low voltage, or no voltage, indicates a more serious
generator defect (voltage less than 10 volts across a normal 240 volt
line).
3.
BATTERY EXCITATION
The behavior of the generator, when the exciter field is connected to
a 12 volt battery for excitation current, is a useful guide for
locating the generator fault.
Disconnect F(+) from all other generator connections and connect F(+) to (+) of battery.
Connect (-) of
battery to C(-). Spin generator at 1800 RPM.
(a) If residual voltage is normal, 12 volts across the leads F+ and Cshould cause the generator to deliver a voltage near rated voltage
with no load. If 12 volt excitation produces near normal voltage,
failure of voltage regulator to provide voltage could mean a
defective voltage regulator, or an open circuit in leads to ter~
minals 3 or 4 of electronic regulator.
Check switch or circuit
breaker in these leads. with 12 volt excitation connect voltmeter
across terminals 3 and 4. Voltage should be the same as generator
line-to-line voltage across normal 240 volt lines.
(b) If 12 volt excitation produces no voltage, check exciter field
resistance.
It should normally be 24 ohms.
If field is open or
shorted, then the exciter field is defective. An open or short in
the main rotor behaves similarly, but is also accompanied by a
very low line-to-line voltage (residual voltage) without 12 volt
battery excitation.
(c) If 12 volt excitation causes the engine to growl and load the
engine with no or very low generator output voltage, the stator
could be grounded or shorted. Or, a short or ground in the wiring
of the generator power circuit could be the main fault. In either
case, the stator will develop hot spots or could even smoke after
158
running a few minutes.
Run generator until a hot smell is
detected, or stop in 5 minutes (whichever occurs first). Feel the
stator winding. If it is hot, the stator or power wiring contains
a short circuit. Examine the stator for burned (black) insulation
which indicates a defective or damaged stator.
Measure stator
resistance Tl to T2 and T3 to T4 (half the value listed in 6).
Measure stator resistance to ground or hi-pot test at 1500 volts.
(d) If 12 volt excitation causes an increase in voltage but the output
voltage is less than 60 percent of rated voltage, the rectifier
(see 4) in the exciter armature could be defective, the exciter
armature could be shorted to ground or one phase of the armature
winding could have an open circuit.
Also, one pole of the main
field (rotor) could be shorted or grounded.
If any of these
defects exist, failure of the electronic regulator will occur.
Replacement of regulator alone will be followed by failure of the
new regulator.
If electronic regulator has failed, it is wise to
check exciter current by placing a DC ammeter in the F(+) lead to
field.
Normal exciter current at no-load rated volage is 0.65 to
0.95 ampere. A higher current is another indication of a generator defect (described above), which could cause a new voltage
regulator to fail.
4.
RECTIFIER CHECKING
(a) Each armature full-wave bridge rectifier has 5 terminals and
6 rectifying junctions.
Rectifiers may be readily checked on the
low range of an ohmeter.
From the "+" tab to "AC" tab, the
ohmeter should show a high resistance with one polar i ty of the
ohmeter leads and a low (about half scale deflection) resistance
when polar i ty of the ohmeter leads is reversed.
The same conditions should be found from the "+" tab to any other "AC" tab and
from "-" to "AC" tabs.
If a zero resistance reading is found,
this junction of the rectifier --rs-shorted and the rectifier must
be replaced.
If a high resistance is found with both polarities
of the ohmeter, this junction of the rectifier is "open" and the
rectifier must be replaced.
(b) Armatures with 3-phase full-wave bridge rectifier
The three phase full-wave rectifier is now standard on most armatures used in generators. This 3-phase (full-wave rectifier) is a
single unit with 6 diodes in a special case.
The (+) terminal is
identified by a red dot on the case and is connected by a short
lead to the "+" terminal of armature to which the (+) rotor lead
and suppressor lead are connected.
The other 3 terminals at the
top of the rectifier are AC connections to each of the armature
phase leads.
The case is the (grounded) (-) lead to the rotor.
To test the diodes disconnect the rectifier positive lead at the
armature (+) terminal. Test between rectifier (+) lead and any AC
terminal.
Make the test also between rectifier (-) lead (ground
or case) to any AC lead. The tests determine that all diodes are
good or that one or more is defective. Since a grounded armature
winding gives the same test results as a bad diode, it is
159
necessary to disconnect all AC rectifier connections and test
armature winding for a short to ground before a fault can be positively identified. Also test each diode separately (+) to each AC
terminal, and case to each AC terminal to positively identify
which diode is bad.
(See figure.)
Ohm Meter
o
Connection to test
top 3 diodes
7
Remove (+) lead and test (+) to any AC
terminal. (Identifies top 3 diodes as
good or 1 or more bad.
Armature
Coils
Suppressor
Rotor
AC
Q
Ohm Meter
5.
o
Connection to test
bottom 3 diodes
(+ lead must be disconnected)
VOLTAGE SUPPRESSORS
Voltage suppressors are similar to rectifiers in that they contain in
effect a single semiconductor one-way junction.
A suppressor should
have a high resistance with one polarity of test leads and low but not
zero resistance in the opposi te direction.
Resistance measurements
sometimes fail to identify a defective suppressor.
The best test is
to remove suppressor from circuit.
I f an obvious improvement in
generator is observed, suppressor is bad.
6.
RESISTANCE OF WINDINGS
Frequently in troubleshooting a generator, a defective component can
be identified by measuring the resistance of a winding.
Resistance values are as follows:
Exciter field F to C
Armature AC lead to AC lead
Stator 30KW I-PH (Tl to T4)
Rotor 30KW I-PH or 3-PH
160
25 to 28 ohms
.500 to .550 ohms
0.60 to 0.66 ohms
2.60 ro 2.90 ohms
Exciter field, armature, rotor and stator should withstand 1500 volts
between winding and ground with less than 0.002 ampere of current between winding and ground.
All electronic components such- as rectifiers, suppressors and resistors must be disconnected.
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY
To remove the rotating field, it is necessary to remove the end cover
by unscrewing the sheet metal screws.
Remove the armature fastening
bolt at the center of the shaft and detach ground lead "Q" and + lead
"R" of the rotor. Mark position of armature so it can be replaced in
the same position (armature rotation of 180· is the only other
possible position to replace armature).
Remove armature from shaft.
If a puller is used, pull only on hub.
Do not exert excessive force
on laminations, since they are soft and easily bent.
After armature
is removed, rotor and drive disc assembly may be pulled out of generator frame at open end.
Do not lose bearing anchor when bearing is
removed from exciter end bracket.
As rotor is removed, be careful not to allow rotor to scratch or cut
stator copper winding.
The rotor and drive disc may now be bolted to
engine flywheel.
Make sure the right type lockwasher is used and tighten the bolts (SAE
grade 8) well. Locate the bearing anchor and move the generator frame
assembly carefully over the rotor.
Carefully align the groove in the
bearing with the bearing anchor before the bearing enters the bearing
bracket.
(See figure for clarification.)
Fasten the frame assembly
to the engine flywheel housing with the proper hardware.
EXCITER - END
BRACKET
RETAINING RING
BEARING
GROOVE
BEARING ANCHOR
EXCITER - END
BRACKET GROOVE
EXCITER - END BRACKET, BEARING AND BEARING ANCHOR ASSEMBLY
161
with two screws, lockwashers and nuts reassemble the drive-end cover
and hood, using a large screwdriver and a 7/16 wrench.
To reassemble the exci ter armature, first pull the two rotor leads
through the opening in the armature spider nearest the two terminal
points.
Turn the armature until it slips over the two pins in the
shaft, making sure that the rotor leads are not stretched or bent
sharply.
Assemble the armature to the shaft with the mounting screw
and lockwasher using thread-locking compound.
Use a 9/16 socket on
the torque wrench and torque the mounting screw to 25 lb-ft. Connect
the two rotor leads, one to each terminal (polarity is unimportant).
162
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. . AIrS £ ,..,.
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Z
30 AND 32KW VOLTAGE REGULATOR
Electronic regulators hold voltage regulation to wi thin + 2 percent
from no-load to rated full load at rated power factor and rated speed.
The electronic regulator #32012 used with the 30 and 32KW generators
provides high reliability and good voltage regulation.
It provides a
constant output voltage at all RPM's.
SPECIFICATIONS
DC Output Power
(To Exciter Field)
2.S ADC @ 63 VDC (160W) Maximum continuous
3. S ADC @ 90 VDC (3lSW) Forcing, 1 minute
(with 240 VAC input)
Exciter field DC resistance - Minimum 2S ohms
- Maximum 100 ohms
AC Input Power
Operating range 190 VAC - 240 VAC -10% to +10%
(From Generator Output) 1 phase, SO/60 Hz.
Refer to the interconnection diagram Figure 1 for operation at other
generator voltages.
AC Sensing Voltage
Nominal 190-200-208-240 VAC, 1 phase, SO/60
Hz, -10% to +10%.
Refer to the interconnection diagram figure 1 for operation at other
generator voltages
BURDEN:
Regulator #32012
- 2.0VA
Voltage Adjust Range
Internal Adjustment from 10% below 190 VAC to
10% above 240 VAC.
(External adjustment when
provided is ± 10% of nominal voltage.)
Regulation Accuracy
Less than +1% when no load to full load excitation ratio is not more than S.
Voltage Drift
(Temp. Coefficient)
Less than 1% voltage variation
(90·F) temperature change.
Response Time
Less than 2 cycles.
EMI Suppression
Standard Internal Electromagnetic Interference
(EMI Filter).
Voltage Build Up
Internal provisions
for
automatic voltage
build up from generator residual voltages as
low as S VAC.
Power Dissipation
20 watts maximum.
Operating Temperature
-40·C (-40·F) to 60·C (140·F)
Storage Temperature
-6S·C (-8S·F) to 8S·C (18S·F)
164
for
a
SO·C
INSTALLATION
1.
MOUNTING
The regulator can be mounted in any posi tion without affecting its
operating characteristics.
Its rugged construction permits mounting
directly on the generator set.
2.
SENSING CIRCUIT (TERMINALS El AND 4)
The voltage that the regulator senses and regulates is applied between
terminals El and 4.
This sensing voltage must be in the range of 170
through 264 VAC. Typical sensing voltages are 190-208-240.
3.
EMI FILTER (TERMINAL GND)
A standard internal Electro-Magnetic Interference filter circuit
suppresses noise particularly in the AM radio band. For effective EMI
suppression it is important that a good low impedance connection be
maintained between the voltage regulator ground terminal and earth
ground. On most applications, acceptable EMI reduction is achieved by
simply connecting the EMI ground terminal to the regulator mounting
bolt.
4.
FIELD POWER (TERMINALS F+ AND F-)
The power is supplied to the generator exciter by Terminals F+ and F-.
The DC resistance of the exciter field to which the voltage regulator
is connected (terminals F+ and F-) must be between 25 and 100 ohms.
If the DC resistance is less, a resistor of sufficient wattage must be
added in series with the field.
When selecting this resistor, care
must be exercised not to exceed the regulator maximum continuous output at full load (not more than 63 VDC).
5.
GENERATOR VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT
An internal control R5 provides adjustment of the generator output
voltage.
When this control is adjusted as indicated by the arrow on
the cover, generator output voltage increases.
OPERATION
1.
VOLTAGE SHUTDOWN
The system should be equipped with a double pole switch to allow
removal of excitation in an emergency or when the generator pr ime
mover must be operated at reduced speed. When used, this switch must
always be installed in the AC input power lines of the regulator
(Terminals 3 and 4). A dangerously high flyback voltage could develop
if this switch is installed in the field circuit (Terminals F+ and
F-).
165
CAUTION
TO PREVENT POSSIBLE HIGH VOLTAGE ARCING, THE FIELD CIRCUIT
MUST NEVER BE OPENED DURING
OPERATION.
SHUTDOWN CAN BE
SAFELY
ACCOMPLISHED
WITH
A
VOLTAGE
SHUTDOWN
SWITCH
AS
DISCUSSED ABOVE.
2.
OPERATION AT REDUCED SPEEDS
Prolonged operation at speeds lower than normal can cause damage to
the voltage regulator and/or exciter field.
If operation at reduced
speed is essential, AC input power should be removed from the regulator.
3.
FIELD FLASHING
Field flashing is rarely necessary. However, if required, the machine
must be at rest and the regulator terminals 3, 4 and El disconnected
and a DC source of not more than 48 VDC applied to terminals F+ and
F-.
The positive terminal of the DC source must be connected to F+
and the negative terminal to F-.
Allow approximately 30 seconds
before removing the DC source and reconnect terminals 3, 4 and El to
the voltage regulator.
System start-up can be accomplished at this
point.
If field flashing is required while the machine is rotating,
contact Westerbeke for further information.
166
190-208-240/380-416-480V
Reconnectable Generator / '
/
---~
'1
'"
"\
\
I
~
I
\
Voltage \
Shut
Down
Switch
J
5
"-
- ---
5A
F-
/
/
/
TO
LOAD
/
3
Exciter
Field
F+
GENERATOR WYE
CONNECTIONS
For 208-240V Output
1 to 7
2 to 8
3 to 9
7
Gnd
4 to 10
5 to 10
Voltage Regulator
6 to 10
For 416-480V Output
4 to 7
5 to 8
6 to 9
Note:
Never connect terminal E1 to terminal 4.
Loss of sensing voltage and maximum generator voltage would
result.
167
0.187
dia.
0.10 (2.54)
1.27
(32.26)
t
t
7.06
6-32
(179.32) 6.56 Terminal
(166.62) Screws
(4.74'9)
+:
+
I
GNDJ-
E1
:J-
4
3
J-
EMI
Sensing Input
Power Input
F+]- dc Output
F- :J- Boost Input
BN
0.70
(17.78)
~]-
Volt Adjust
Increase
~
~.J.13
0.25+0.015
~.70)
(6.35~0.381)
1'.79
(45.66)
Note:
Numbers in parentheses are in millimeters.
Tolerance + 0.03 (0.762) unless otherwise noted.
Weight:
1 lb. Net (Approximately)
168
SECTION V
SERVICE BULLETINS
The following Bulletins contain supplementary and
updated information about various components and
service pro~edures which are important to the
proper functioning of your eng ine and its support
systems.
You should familiar ize yourself wi th the subjects
and make sure that you consult the appropriate
Bulletin (s) whenever your engine requires service
or overhaul.
169
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
6/15/79
MODEL:
All engines
SUBJECT:
Connecting Pressure Sensing Devices to Oil Galleries
BULLETIN NUMBER:
20
Oil pressure sensing devices, such as senders and switches, must
never be connected directly to any oil gallery of an engine.
The
reason is simply that continued engine vibration causes fatigue of the
fittings used to make such a connection.
If these fittings fail, the
engine loses its oil pressure and very quickly seizes.
Such pressure sensing devices must be bulkhead mounted and connected to the oil gallery using an appropr iate grade of lubricating
oil hose.
Any fittings used to connect the hose to the gallery must
be of steel or malleable iron.
Brass must not be used for this purpose.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. OZ3ZZ· (11171588-7700
CABLE: WESTCORP, AVOII·TELEX: 8Z-4444
PIN:
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
5/6/74
MODEL:
All Marine Generators and Marine Engines
SUBJECT:
Exhaust System Failures
BULLETIN NUMBER:
69
When engine sea water is fed into an exhaust system so that the
full stream strikes a surface, erosion may cause premature failures.
Proper design of either a water jacketed or a water injected
("wet") exhaust system to prevent this problem requires that the sea
water inlet be posi tioned so that the enter ing stream of water does
not strike a surface directly. Also, the velocity of the entering sea
water stream should be as low as possible which is achieved by having
inlet fittings as big in diameter as possible.
In addition to the above design considerations, it is usually advantageous to divide the sea water flow at the point of entry to the
exhaust system so that only a portion of it enters the exhaust system.
The remainder is normally piped directly over the side.
The proper
proportion of the sea water flow to pass through the exhaust system
can only be determined by trial and error.
The goal is to prevent
excessive exhaust temperatures with the least amount of sea water.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· 1617J 566-7700
CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 112 -4444
PIN:
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
4/4/83
MODEL:
All
SUBJECT:
Battery Recommendations
MODEL
BULLETIN NUMBER:
82
BATTERY AMPERE HOURS
VOLTAGE
W7, WPD4
60-90
12 V.D.C.
W10Two, 3KW
90-125
12 V.D.C.
W13, 4KW
90-125
12 V.D.C.
W21, 7.7KW
90-125
12 V.D.C.
W27, llKW
90-125
12 V.D.C.
W33, 12.5KW
90-125
12 V.D.C.
W30
125-150
12 V.D.C.
W40, WPDI0-15
125-150
12 V.D.C.
W50
125-150
12 V.D.C.
W52, 15KW
125-150
12 V.D.C.
W58, 20KW
125-150
12 V.D.C.
W60, WBO-20KW
150-170
12 V.D.C.
W70, 25KW
170-200
12 V.D.C.
W80, 30KW
170-200
12 V.D.C.
W100, 32KW
200 minimum
12 V.D.C.
W120, 45KW
200 minimum
12 V.D.C.
The ampere hour range shown is minimum.
There is no real maximum.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INOUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· (617} SBB-7700
CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 92- ••••
PIN:
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
April 4, 1983
MODEL:
All Marine Engines
SUBJECT:
Alternator Output Splitter
BULLETIN NUMBER:
87
GENERAL DESCRIPTION:
The spli tter is a solid state device which
allows two batteries to be recharged and brought to the same ultimate
voltage from a single alternator as large as 120 amp and, at the same
time, isolates each battery so that discharg ing one will have no
effect on the other.
Charging rates are in proportion to the batteries' voltage (state of discharge).
This method precludes the
necessity, and even the desirability, of a rotary switch for selecting
which battery is to be charged.
It also assures that ships services
cannot drain the engine starting battery.
INSTALLATION:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Mount splitter on a metal surface other than the engine, preferably in an air stream if available. Do not install near engine
exhaust system. Install with cooling fins aligned vertically.
Be sure to use a wire size appropriate to the output of the associated alternator.
In full power systems number 4 wire is recommended from the alternator to the spli tter and from the spli tter
to the batteries.
Connect the alternator output terminal to the center splitter terminal.
Connect one splitter side terminal to one battery (s).
Connect the other splitter side terminal to the other battery (s).
When the splitter is installed, both batteries will see a charging
voltage 8/10 volts less than usual. This voltage can be regained,
if desired, by connecting the regulator wire directly to the
alternator output terminal instead of the regulator terminal.
TEST INFORMATION:
When the engine is not running, the side splitter
terminals should read the voltage of the respective battery.
The
center splitter should read zero voltage.
With the engine running and alternator charging, the side splitter
terminals should read the same voltage which should be the voltage of
the regulator or somewhat less.
The center splitter terminal should
read .82 volts higher than the readings of the side terminals.
Continued •••••••••••
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· (6f7) 588-7700
CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 82-4444
PIN:
SERVICE BULLETIN i87 (Continued)
(Alternator Output Splitter)
This unit is sealed for maximum life and is not repairable.
BYPASSING SPLITTER: In the event of failure, batteries may be charged
directly from alternator by connecting either splitter terminal #1 or
#2 to terminal A, bypassing the splitter itself.
This should not be
done simultaneously for both batteries unless they are, and will
remain at, the same voltage (state of charge).
E~~~SI'-C-.
S PLIT)-T_E-tRt----+e:w
REGULATOR
-+!( P
-
START1'NG
BATTERY(S)
WitT
ART E R
-S-W-.
.--
POWER DISCONNECT
SWITCH.
SHI pi'S
SERVICE
PN20.6S4
LOADS
13+
2 u--t---+Q.5ERVI CE
BATTERY(S)
SEE NOTE
DRVJG Jl 20 70 I
-
NOTE: On Alternators which have an isolation diode between their output and regulator terminals, such as the Motorola units used with most
WESTERBEKE engines, the regulator wire should be removed from the REG
terminal and reconnected to the OUTPUT terminal as shown.
The diode
in the splitter will provide an equivalent voltage drop.
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
April 28, 1976
MODEL:
All
SUBJECT:
Troubleshooting Water Temperature and Oil Pressure Gauges
BULLETIN NUMBER:
92
Given a presumably faulty gauge indication with the instrument panel
energized, the first step is to check for 12 VDC between the ign. (B+)
and neg. (B-) terminals of the gauge.
Assuming there are 12 volts as required,
energized and perform the following steps.
leave the instrument panel
1.
Disconnect the sender wire at the gauge and see if
the gauge reads zero, the normal reading for this
situation.
2.
Connect the sender terminal at the gauge to ground
and see if the gauge reads full scale, the normal
reading for this situation.
If both of the above gauge tests are positive, the gauge is undoubtedly O.K. and the problem lies either with the conductor from the sender
to the gauge, or with the sender.
If either of the above gauge tests is negative, the gauge is probably
defective and should be replaced.
Assuming the gauge is O.K., proceed as follows.
Check the conductor
from the sender to the sender terminal at the gauge for continuity.
Check that the engine block is connected to ground.
Some starters
have isolated ground terminals and if the battery is connected to the
starter (both plus and minus) the ground side will not necessarily be
connected to the block.
If the sender to gauge conductor is O.K. and the engine block
grounded, the sender is probably defective and should be replaced.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322· (617} 566-7700
CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 92-4444
PIN:
is
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
May 20, 1980
MODEL:
All
SUBJECT:
Ammeter Wire Sizes
BULLETIN NUMBER:
110
Ammeters may be installed in conj unction wi th any Westerbeke mar ine
diesel engine or diesel generator set.
The range of the ammeter must
be appropriate for the maximum output of the alternator.
Additionally,
the wire size for
the alternator output circuit,
including the ammeter, varies with the total length of that circuit.
The table below shows the maximum current that can be carried various
total distances by various wire sizes, to and from source to load.
WIRE SIZE TABLE
System
Volts
Total Length
of wire in
feet
MAXIMUM CURRENT
35
40
55
60
70
85
120
5
12
12
12
8
8
8
6
12
12
5 to 10
10 to 20
10
10
8
6
6
6
4
6
6
6
6
3
3
1
12
12
20 to 30
30 to 40
6
4
2
4
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
4
o
o
5
14
14
12
12
10
10
8
24
24
5 to 10
10 to 20
12
10
12
8
10
10
8
6
6
8
4
6
8
24
24
20 to 30
30 to 40
8
6
6
4
6
4
4
4
2
2
6
4
2
o
5
14
14
12
12
10
10
8
32
32
5 to 10
10 to 20
12
10
12
8
10
8
10
8
8
6
6
4
6
4
32
32
20 to 30
30 to 40
8
6
6
4
4
2
6
6
4
4
4
2
2
o
12
24
32
1 to
1 to
1 to
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AIION INDUSTRIAL PARK, A liON , MASS. 02322 'Its17} 588-7700
CABLE: WESTCORP, AIION· TELEX: 82-4444
PIN:
4
SERVICE BULLETIN
DATE:
May 6, 1982
MODEL:
All Marine Engines
SUBJECT:
Domestic Water Heater Installation
Using Westerbeke FLOWCONTROLLER
BULLETIN NUMBER:
114
Principle: There are two 7/8" hose connections at the end of the manifold
which provide a parallel flow of engine cooling water to and from the
heater.
These connections are part of the FLOWCONTROLLER which assures a
flow of hot water through the heater at all times and yet precludes
excessive restriction of engine cooling water flow caused by the heater all simply and automatically.
Installation:
Remove the returnbend which normally connects the 7/8" hose
spuds on engines as shipped from the factory.
Connect these spuds to the
heater with 7/8" ID wire inserted hose.
The spud marked "out" indicates
the flow from the engine and the spud marked "in" indicates the flow returning to the engine.
Hoses should rise continuously from their low point at the heater and to
the engine so that trapped air will rise naturally from the heater to the
engine.
If trapped air can rise to the heater, then an air bleed petcock
must be installed at the higher fitting at the heater for bleeding the air
while filling the system. Avoid loops in hose runs which will trap air.
If any portion of the engine cooling water circuit to or from the heater
rises above the engine's own pressure cap, then the pressurized remote
expansion tank must be installed in the circui t to be the highest point.
The tank kit Part Number is 24177.
Install the remote expansion tank in a
convenient location such as a sail locker for ease of checking fresh water
coolant level.
The cap on the engine mounted expansion tank/manifold should not be opened
once the system is installed and filled.
The hose connection from the heater to the remote expansion tank should be
routed and supported so as to rise continuously from the heater to the tank
enabling any air in the system to rise.
FLOWCONTROLLER kits are available for retro-fit to late 1980, 1981 and 1982
Westerbeke mar ine eng ines which employ the "two-pass" exhaust mani fold.
The kit numbers are:
Kit #32276 for engines whose exhaust manifold is on the left side of
the cylinder head (W2l, RD60, W27, RD80, W33).
Kit #32274 for W13 and Kit #32275 for W52 and W58 engines
exhaust manifold is on the right side of the cylinder head.
J. H. WESTERBEKE CORP.
AVON INDUSTRIAL PARK, AVON, MASS. 02322 • (617} 568-7700
CABLE: WESTCORP, AVON· TELEX: 112-4444
PIN:
whose
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