Peavey 600 Stereo Mixer Owner Manual

Peavey 600 Stereo Mixer Owner Manual
OWNERS MANUAL
600 STEREO
600S Mixer
INPUT CIRCUITRY - It is absolutely neces-
sary for a mixer to be compatable in most ap-
plications and to have the capability of being able
to control the sensitivity of the input circuitry of
each channel. This requires an input attenuator,
(1) sometimes referred to as an input pad. Some
mics and signal sources can be at such a level as to
overdrive or clip the input circuitry of a mixer,
An input attenuator allows the operator to reduce
the input gain when input clipping occurs. Some
manufacturers put attenuators in their snake or
stage box to be able to control the sensitivity of
the mic or signal source. This is not the best ap-
proach if you are sending your signals through ca-
ble runs of any length. Many times it
would be impossible to make an adjustment on
one of the attenuators if necessary during the per-
formance. You shouldnt have to run up to the
stage and pick up the drummer's leg so you can ad-
just a mic input!
In use, the operator must adjust the input
attenuator in such a manner that input clipping is
avoided. This can easily be done by setting up the
channel with the highest expected input signal
level and adjusting the input attenuator so that no
clipping or distortion is heard from the speaker
system. After the mixer has been used several
times, the operator will have a very good idea of
the signal levels encountered and will be able to
set Up the attenuators accordingly. The different
types of microphones will have different output
levels and different performers will get widely
varying levels from mics depending on the strength
of their voices and/or their basic “mic techniques”,
The input attenuator should be operated in
the position yeilding the least attenuation required
to avoid clipping. Operation in this mode allows
maximum gain to be utilized in the input preamp
where it is most efficiently obtained. Excessive
input padding sometimes makes necessary higher
settings of the channel gain controls and/or master
control thus yeilding a less than optimum signal-to-
noise ratio for any given situation.
It is important to realize that not all “break-
up” is caused by the mic signal overloading the in-
put stage of the mixer. If the performers mic
technique includes very close and/or very loud
situations, the internal elements of the mic can
“bottom out” or distort just as a loudspeaker can
when it is overdriven. Quite a few of the mics now
used by performers lack the dynamic range re-
quired to adequately handle the tremendous sound
pressure levels encountered in a very loud rock
and roll concert situation, It is vital for the profes-
sional soundman and the musicians to be aware of
the limitations of the various links in the audio sys-
tem in order to correctly diagnose and solve the
various problems encountered in a sound rein-
forcement situation.
Overall, the input attenuator 15 the first
control in the circuit and must be set up properly
in order for the remaining circuits to function pro-
perly. “Common sense” and experience operating
the 600 Stereo Mixer on several jobs will allow the
operator to achieve superb results in virtually any
mixing situation. Our variable input attenuator
allows for much more fiexibility than some other
manufacturer's mixers that only have switchable
fixed attenuation of maybe 10 to 20 dB, where
sometimes 10 dB may not be enough and 20 dB
may be too much attenuation. The 600 Stereo
Mixers input attenuator is continuously variable
from 0 dB to —40 dB.
The MONITOR SEND CONTROL (2) is the
channel mixing element for determining the all im-
partant monitor mix. The signal for the monitor
send is obtained right after the input preamp and
before the channel EQ. This is referred to as a
Monitor Pre-send Control, i.e., it is before or pre
to the channel equalization and slider level control.
This makes it independent of these controls, mean-
ing that any changes made to the EC or channel le-
vel will not affect the monitor system, Having the
monitor send with the pre capability is absolutely
vital to avoid feedback of the monitor system
when EQ and normal incremental output varia-
tions are made in the channel fader during the
course of the performance,
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EQUALIZATION The equalization cir-
cuitry of the 600 Stereo Mixer is the latest active
type, utilizing negative feedback technology. We
selected circuitry that produces a “shelving” type
of action because the conventional type circuitry
used by some manufacturers tends to create
erratic or sometimes harsh sounding results when
in the near-maximum boost positions. These two
equalization controls will produce extremely
smooth action as well as giving effective tone
control. Experience will show their utility in
achieving professional channel equalization on the
job.
It should be remembered that these active
equalization circuits are a form of “electronic
crossover” in which the equalization controls are
similar to level controls for their respective fre-
guency bands.
Generally, it is poor operating practice to
use both equalizer controls in the deep cut
(counter-clockwise) positions since this results in
substantially lower gain from the channel. |1
should be remembered that the balance of highs
and lows is a relative situation, and cutting over-
all channel gain should properly be done by the
output slide attenuator or input attenuator.
The LOW FREQUENCY EQUALIZER (4)
is capable of better than 15 dB boost or cut @
100 Hz with a sloping characteristic exhibited up
to the crossover point. The shelving action of this
control has proven to yeild a much more satisfying
and effective equalization characteristic than same
of the “wide open” equalization circuits claiming
20 - 25 dB boost and cut. The action of this
equalization control is conventional and should
present no problem in operation. Boost is
obtained in the righthand (clockwise) position
while cut is obtained in the lefthand (counter-
clockwise) position. The vertical (12 o'clock)
position veilds a flat (no boost or cut) response
and is the position from which all tonal balancing
should be started.
The HIGH FREQUENCY EQUALIZER (3)
is capable of 15 dB boost or cut O 5 kHz with a
shelving characteristic sloping down ta the cross-
over point, The boost or cut action of this control
is very similar to that of the low equalizer with the
exception of its high frequency effect. Boost is ob-
tained to the right of center position while cut is
obtained to the left of the center position. Flat
response is obtained in the center (12 o'clock) po-
sition.
Caution should be exercised in using ex-
treme low-frequency boost to avoid emphasing
objectionable wind noises or rumble from the mi-
crophone as well as any hum that might enter the
mixer from external sources. Excessive treble
boost should be avoided to keep residual noise
from the amplification circuitry to reasonable |e-
vel as well as to avoid a strident or screeching
tonality in the output program material.
The EFFECTS SEND CONTROL (5) is the
channel level for determining the amount of signal
from each respective channel to be sent to the ef-
fects output or to be mixed into the reverb sum-
ming buss. The effects send circuit has been de-
signed to provide multiple functions which will be
explained further in the master control section.
The STEREO PAN (6) is the control used to
achieve the desired balance from each individual
channel into the A and B main output mixing buss-
es. The Pan control may be thought of as a kind of
balance control determining the signal sent to
either of the stereo outputs of the 600 Stereo.
This Pan control is present on all professional
multi-channel mixers, and is useful in achieving
many special effects in sound reinforcement as
well as being absolutely necessary in stereo tape
recording. Again, experimentation and “hands
on” experience with the 600 Stereo Mixer are key
factors in the use of the Pan control. The Pan is
capable of assigning the channel output to either
A or B main channels or any combination in
between. [tis important to remember that the Pan
control follows (post) the channel output fader.
The CHANNEL ATTENUATOR SLIDER (7)
15 the ouput level control that determines the mix
into the main summing buss. lts calibration is
in decibels of attenuation and this is why the num-
bering sequence goes from off (infinity = <2 ),or
maximum attenuation to zero (0), or no attenua-
tion. Remember that attenuation is the cutting or
reduction of the signal level i.e., the more attenua-
tion, the more you have cut down the signal level.
The output fader is calibrated in accordance with
standard practice for professional audio equip-
ment.
Proper setting of the input attenuator (pad)
should produce adequate gain within the input pre-
amp to allow slider settings approximately in the
center (approximately —40 to —20 dB). You
should remember that the input attenuator is a
kind of pre gain control and its settings will most
definitely influence the settings for the output
slider with any given input signal. The input atten-
uator should be adjusted for the maximum gain
that will allow distortion free performance, then
the output slider level should be adjusted for
proper mix.
It is very poor operating practice to use the
input pads in the extreme cut positions and then
have to set the output sliders in their close to max-
imum positions to obtain adequate channel output.
This type of operation results in less than optimum
signal-to-noise ratios as well as contributing to
headroom problems. As with any system, “com-
mon sense” must be combined with operating
knowledge to produce satisfactory results. Qver-
all, the channel controls should be set to provide
a reasonable amount of “adjustment” i.e., none of
the gain controlling elements (input attenua-
tor/output slider) should be operated near their ex-
treme up or down positions. After several hours
usage, the operator will have acquired a good
“feel” for the characteristics of the controls and
should be able to suitably handle any mixdown
situation encountered in the field with satisfactory
results.
MASTER AREA - The master area of the
600 Stereo Mixer contains all the master or final
output controls for the mixing busses. The main
mixing buss equalization features shelving type
high and low EQ. The Effects level (17) is the
master control for the effects mixing buss.
The master level controls (8) (9) (10) of the
600 Stereo Mixer should be set in such a manner
that they are close to the center of their travel
to take advantage of maximum control action.
It is poor practice to run the channel faders up
near maximum and then run the main faders near
the low end to achieve the desired output levels.
Operation in this manner will cause the operator
to loose his “range” in control action with all the
gain located in one element while the other is near
its stop position, Best practice calls for most
controls to be operated in their middle or slightly
higher positions to allow maximum mixing control
margins (travel). Remember, when mixing, you
MUST allow yourself adequate margins within
which to operate and by using any of the faders in
their extreme (close to the stop) positions, you
ance,
should be practiced on and learned. To properly
have effectively reduced your range of control.
This manner of operation also tends to create
“headroom” problems.
These master controls allow the operator
complete flexibility for functions and should allow
almost any mixing situation to be handled by the
600 Stereo. As with any reasonably complex
system, experience and operator knowledge of the
equipment are essential for satisfactory perform-
The mixer, like the musician's instrument,
operate a mixer during a performance requires
thorough knowledge and trained reflexes to allow
proper responses under the stress of demanding
and sometimes sudden situations. The musician
should know his mixer almost as well as he knows
his instrument, so that his reactions will be both
smooth and proper to correct whatever problem or
requirement that should arise during a perform-
ance. . . a professional must work at it! |
The MASTER OUTPUT FADERS (8) (9) are
the controls that determine the main output level
for the output connectors located on the rear pa-
nel. The main summing amps, as well as the other
summing busses, are of the very latest “zero null”
type using negative feedback to achieve maximum
dynamic range, lowest noise, and crosstalk. The
master faders should be operated in accord with
the proper operating practices as outlined above.
Experimentation and experience on several jobs
will allow the operator to achieve a "feel” for
the right settings for his requirements.
The MASTER LOW FREQUENCY EQUAL-
IZERS (11) (12) are capable of 15 dB boost or
cut @ 50 Hz. These equalizers are similar to those
used in the individual channels and are designed
to exhibit a “shelving” characteristic which has
proven to yeild the best results in this type ap-
plication. The controls are “flat” with no boost
or cut in the straight up (12 o'clock) position with
boost being obtained in the righthand (clockwise)
position. Care should be taken NOT to over-boost
with the master EQ controls. Since each channel
is equipped with equalization, it is poor practice
to use too much additional boost in this master
section. Over-boosting on low frequencies will im-
part a boomy and muffled tonality to the program
material and will substantially decrease the intelli-
gibility of voices being mixed through the console.
The MASTER HIGH FREQUENCY EQUAL-
IZERS (13) (14) are capable of 15 dB boost or cut
@ 10 kHz and are designed to exhibit a “shelving”
characteristic. The operation of these EQ controls
is similar to the low EQ with the exception of the
fact that they control the high frequency portion
of the audio spectrum on their respective channels.
Care should be taken not to over-boost the high
frequencies to avoid undue amplification of resi-
dual system noise (hiss) as well as creating a
“strident’’ or screechy sounding system. High fre-
quency over-boost also tends to create undue
acoustic feedback. When balancing ANY of the
equalizers for proper tonality, you always start
with ALL equalizers in their flat (12 o'clock) po-
sitions and work from there. After you have spent
several hours working with any particular setup
of mics, performers, etc., you will acquire a good
working equalization setup and be able to achieve
the desired tonality.
The important thing to keep in mind about
the equalization on the 600 Stereo Mixer is that
each channel is provided with its own set of EQ
controls to correct problems in that particular
channel, while Master EQ is provided to allow for
overall tonal balance and feedback control. We
have not included this equalization system to allow
tremendous boost or cut but rather to allow in-
cremental EQ where it is needed. You must use
common sense in the use of these controls in arder
to achieve satisfactory tonal balance and intelli-
gibility.
In sound reinforcement, there is nothing
holy about an entirely flat equalization setting. If
it is necessary to use moderate amounts of equal-
ization, then you should be willing to do so, con-
sidering that the “ideal” flat settings are almost
never used, even in the recording studio, and even
less often in most sound reinforcement applica-
tions.
The EFFECTS RETURN (15) is the gain con-
trol for the effects return jack located on the rear
panel. This effects return input enables the signal
from an external source to be mixed back into the
main (A and B) mixing busses. This Effects return
is similar to an auxiliary input and actually may be
used as such. This feature is intended to be used
with effects or other devices that are used in con-
junction with the effects output, and the signal
return from the external unit should be brought
into the effects return whose level is controlled by
the Effects Return Control.
The EFFECTS PAN (16) is the control that
enables the operator to place the signal from the
effects level return contral on either, bath, ar any
combination in between the A and B main chan-
nels. This panning capability MUST be present to
retain true stereo capability for the 600 Stereo.
The action of this pan control is similar to those on
the individual channels and should present no pro-
blem in operation.
The EFFECTS LEVEL (17) is the control
that determines the overall signal output level for
the effects send buss. This effects buss has two
output connectors associated with it, one is a high
level output that can be used to drive a power amp-
lifier for an additional monitor system and the
other is a low level output designed to drive the in-
put of an effects device such as an echo unit,
phasor, digital delay line, etc. In addition to
driving the high and low level effects outputs, the
effects level control also determines the drive to
the internal reverb delay lines. This effects level
control must be adjusted so that the output level
from the jack on the rear panel does not overload
the input circuitry of the effects unit you are
driving, thus causing clipping or other forms of
distortion. This is especially critical on some of
the special effects units that are designed to work
with guitars or other instruments with relatively
low output levels.
The REVERB CONTOUR (18) is the соп-
trol used to vary the tonality of the reverb signal
and is a low cut type equalizer. This contour con-
trol is very useful in tailoring the reverb sound and
in controlling reverb induced feedback. Balancing
these reverb controls will yeild many combinations
of reverb delay, tonality, and sustain.
The MONITOR MASTER FADER (10) is
the output level control for the main monitor sys-
tem. The same operating practices should be ob-
served when using this control as when using the
main channel controls. The individual channel
monitor send controls should be set in such a man-
ner that will allow the monitor master slider (fa-
der) to be operated somewhere in the middle of its
travel to allow yourself adequate control margins,
up or down, as might be required on the job. The
monitor output signal is flat, that is, we did not
include equalization for the monitor in the 600
Stereo Mixer since this equalization is usually ex-
ternal to the mixer and is best performed on the
stage itself, which is generally at some considerable
distance from the mixer. It is because the mixer
is usually located remotely from the performing
area that it is sometimes difficult for the monitor
equalization to be performed at the mixer.
The METER SET CONTROLS (19) (21)
enables the VU meters (20) (22) to be adjusted for
proper indication with any power amplifier, tape
recorder, or other equipment driven by the mixer.
If your power amp, tape recorder, etc... has VU
meters, the level set control can be adjusted to
track the 600's VU meters with a constant input
signal, i.e., set the 600's meters to read “0 VU at
the same level as the external equipments VU
does. With equipment that has LED overload in-
dicators, the 600's meters should be set to zero VU
at the point where the LED peak indicator initially
lights up.
If the equipment being fed by the 600 has
no maximum level indicator, you should refer any
adjustment of VU meters to a properly equipped
sound technician to avoid problems in matching
VU readings with maximum output and/or modu-
lation.
You should be aware that we have designed
the 600 Stereo Mixer to be able to drive power
amplifiers with very low input sensitivities of 2
volts or higher. Because of the high output capa-
bility of the 600 Stereo, it may appear that the
600 is excessively noisy when plugged into power
amplifiers with high input sensitivity such as the
Peavey 260 or 800 Boosters which require only 2
volt for FULL output. The extra gain designed
into the 600 to allow use with the less sensitive
power amps should NOT be interpreted as poor
design but as additional gain capability. It is pos-
sible to use “high gain” power amps with very
good results by generally using less channel and
master gain, or by decreasing the power amps sensi-
tivity by turning down the power amps level con-
trol.
The 600 Stereo Mixer rear panel features a
complete patching panel for various output and in-
out functions, as well as the microphone input con-
nectors for each channel.
Each channel's input connectors are labeled
with its identification number, as well as an indica-
tion of whether the input is for high (23) or low
(24) impedance. The high impedance connectors
are standard phone jacks. The low impedance con-
nectors are of the cannon type, three conductor
connector to be used for low impedance micro-
phones only, and will accept 150 to 600 ohm mies.
CAUTION SHOULD BE USED NEVER
TO USE THE LOW IMPEDANCE INPUT AND
THE HIGH IMPEDANCE INPUTS OF ANY ONE
CHANNEL SIMULTANEOUSLY.
The STEREO TAPE OUTPUT JACK (25)
is to allow simultaneous tape recording during a
performance when the 600 Stereo is used as a
sound reinforcement mixer,
The MAIN AUXILIARY INPUTS A and B
(26) are inputs to the main A and B mixing busses
of the 600 Stereo Mixer. These inputs are used
when patching another mixer to the 600 Stereo or
any time a signal source is to be placed either on
the main A or B mixing buss.
The MONITOR AUXILIARY INPUT (29)
is an input to the monitor mixing buss and is to
be used when patching another mixer to the 600
Stereo or anytime a signal is to be placed on the
monitor mixing buss.
The EFFECTS AUXILIARY INPUT (27) is
the input to the effects mixing buss of the 600.
This input mixes a signal with the effects buss
at the same point as the individual channels and is
to be used when patching two mixers together or
any time access is needed to the effects mixing
buss.
The EFFECTS RETURN JACK (39) is where
the signal returning from an effects device patches
into the 600 Stereo Mixer.
The MONITOR OUTPUT (32) is unbalanced
and is capable of 5 volts RMS into 10K ohms load
impedance.
The A € B MAIN OUTPUTS (30) (31) are
located on the rear panel and are standard 4 phone
jacks. The outputs are unbalanced and are capable
of 5 volts RMS into 10 K ohms load impedance.
These levels are capable of driving most commer-
cial power amplifiers or other auxiliary equipment
to full performance by a wide margin and should
allow a more than adeguate amount of headroom
in nearly any application.
The EFFECTS HIGH OUTPUT (33) is capa-
ble of 2 volts RMS into 10K ohms load and can be
used to drive an additional power amplifier and
speaker system from the effects buss to obtain an
additional monitor.
The EFFECTS LOW OUTPUT (34) is a lower
level signal than the effects high and 1$ intended
to drive the input of an effects device such as an
echo unit, phasor, etc. lt is capable of 0.4 volts
RMS into TOK ohms.
Both the effects high and effects low out-
puts are controlled by the effects level control and
both jacks can be used simultaneously.
The REVERB FOOTSWITCH JACK (35) is
used with an auxiliary footswitch to enable the
operator to defeat the reverb function of the mixer
remotely.
The POWER SWITCH (36) is the type that
enables the operator to easily reverse the polarity
of the line (mains) cable, thus veilding the abili-
ty to minimize hum by proper polarization of the
power supply (mains) connection.
SPECIAL NOTE... Some export versions
of the 600 Stereo Mixer do not have the two-way
switch, and this information should be disregarded
for those models.
A HEAVY-DUTY POWER (MAINS) CABLE
(37) is provided for durability under road condi-
tions. This is a three wire approved cord, and it is
MOT advisable to remove the ground pin under
ANY circumstances. IT vou should find it neces
sary to operate the system where the proper three
wire receptacles are NOT available, you should use
a three-to-two wire adapter.
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SPECS
Frequency Response:
20 Hz - 20 kHz + 2 dB @ 2v rms output (+8 dBm)
Total Harmonic Distortion:
0.1% THD 20 Hz - 10 kHz @ 2v rms output (+8 dBm)
Equivalent Input Noise:
Low Z input, -123 dBv 6 150 ohms (0.7 wuV)
High Z input, -80 dB below 2v rms @ 20 dB gain
Crosstalk:
—50 dB e 1 kHz (between A and B mains)
-70 dB 6 1 kHz (between mains and monitor or effects)
Inputs:
Low impedance unbalanced microphone 600 ohm (cannon plug)
High impedance unbalanced line 50 K ohm (phono plug)
Input Attenuator:
Continuously variable from 0 dB to —40 dB operational on mic or line inputs
Total gain of mixer @ 0 dB attenuation =60 dB
Outputs:
À and B main and monitor
Unbalanced 5v rms into 10 K ohms, 2v rms inte 600 ohms (+8 dBm)
Effects High:
Unbalanced, 2v rms into 10 K ohms
Effects Low:
Unbalanced, 0.4v rms into 10 K ohms
Equalization:
Infinitely variable boost and cut, +15 dB @ 100 Hz and 5 kHz ea channel
+15 dB @ 50 Hz and 10 kHz Master
Effects:
Built-in reverb unit with contour control, effects out and return capability
for external effects units
Cue System:
Stereo tape output - 2v rms into 10 K ohms
PEAVEY ELECTRONICS CORP.
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