WatchGuard Fireware XTM Web UI v11.6.6 User Guide

WatchGuard Fireware XTM Web UI v11.6.6 User Guide
Fireware XTM Web UI 11.6 User Guide
Fireware XTM
Web UI
11.6 User Guide
WatchGuard XTM Devices
About this User Guide
The Fireware XTM Web UI User Guide is updated with each major product release. For minor product
releases, only the Fireware XTM Web UI Help system is updated. The Help system also includes
specific, task-based implementation examples that are not available in the User Guide.
For the most recent product documentation, see the Fireware XTM Web UI Help on the WatchGuard
web site at: http://www.watchguard.com/help/documentation/.
Information in this guide is subject to change without notice. Companies, names, and data used in
examples herein are fictitious unless otherwise noted. No part of this guide may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the
express written permission of WatchGuard Technologies, Inc.
Guide revised: 6/27/2012
Copyright, Trademark, and Patent Information
Copyright © 1998–2011 WatchGuard Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved. All trademarks or trade
names mentioned herein, if any, are the property of their respective owners.
Complete copyright, trademark, patent, and licensing information can be found in the Copyright and
Licensing Guide, available online at: http://www.watchguard.com/help/documentation/
Note This product is for indoor use only.
About WatchGuard
WatchGuard offers affordable, all-in-one network and content
security solutions that provide defense-in-depth and help meet
regulatory compliance requirements. The WatchGuard XTM line
combines firewall, VPN, GAV, IPS, spam blocking and URL
filtering to protect your network from spam, viruses, malware,
and intrusions. The new XCS line offers email and web content
security combined with data loss prevention. WatchGuard
extensible solutions scale to offer right-sized security ranging
from small businesses to enterprises with 10,000+ employees.
WatchGuard builds simple, reliable, and robust security
appliances featuring fast implementation and comprehensive
management and reporting tools. Enterprises throughout the
world rely on our signature red boxes to maximize security
without sacrificing efficiency and productivity.
Address
505 Fifth Avenue South
Suite 500
Seattle, WA 98104
Support
www.watchguard.com/support
U.S. and Canada +877.232.3531
All Other Countries +1.206.521.3575
Sales
U.S. and Canada +1.800.734.9905
All Other Countries +1.206.613.0895
For more information, please call 206.613.6600 or visit
www.watchguard.com.
ii
Fireware XTM Web UI
Table of Contents
Introduction to Network Security
About Networks and Network Security
1
1
About Internet Connections
1
About Protocols
2
About IP Addresses
3
IPv4 Addresses
3
IPv6 Addresses
4
About Slash Notation
5
About Entering Addresses
6
Static and Dynamic IP Addresses
6
About DNS (Domain Name System)
7
About Firewalls
About Services and Policies
8
9
About Ports
10
The XTM Device and Your Network
10
Introduction to Fireware XTM
About Fireware XTM
13
13
Fireware XTM Components
14
WatchGuard System Manager
14
WatchGuard Server Center
15
Fireware XTM Web UI and Command Line Interface
16
Fireware XTM with a Pro Upgrade
17
Fireware XTM on an XTMv Device
18
XTMv Device Limitations
18
XTMv Device Installation
18
VMware Virtual Switch Configuration
18
FIPS Support in Fireware XTM
19
About FIPS Mode
19
FIPS Mode Operation and Constraints
19
Service and Support
About WatchGuard Support
User Guide
21
21
iii
LiveSecurity Service
21
LiveSecurity Service Gold
22
Service Expiration
23
Getting Started
Before You Begin
25
Verify Basic Components
25
Get an XTM Device Feature Key
26
Gather Network Addresses
26
Select a Firewall Configuration Mode
27
About the Quick Setup Wizard
28
Run the Web Setup Wizard
29
Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI
32
Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI from an External Network
33
About Fireware XTM Web UI
34
Limitations of Fireware XTM Web UI
Complete Your Installation
35
36
Customize Your Security Policy
36
About LiveSecurity Service
36
Additional Installation Topics
37
Connect to an XTM Device with Firefox v3
37
Identify Your Network Settings
38
Set Your Computer to Connect to Your XTM Device
40
Disable the HTTP Proxy in the Browser
42
Configuration and Management Basics
iv
25
45
About Basic Configuration and Management Tasks
45
Make a Backup of the XTM Device Image
45
Restore an XTM Device Backup Image
46
Use a USB Drive for System Backup and Restore
47
About the USB Drive
47
Save a Backup Image to a Connected USB Drive
47
Restore a Backup Image from a Connected USB Drive
48
Automatically Restore a Backup Image from a USB Drive
48
USB Drive Directory Structure
51
Fireware XTM Web UI
Save a Backup Image to a USB Drive Connected to Your Computer
52
Use a USB Drive to Save a Support Snapshot
52
Reset an XTM Device to a Previous or New Configuration
54
Start an XTM Device in Safe Mode
54
Reset an XTM 2 Series or XTM 33 to Factory-Default Settings
54
Reset an XTMv to Factory Default Settings
55
Run the Quick Setup Wizard
55
About Factory-Default Settings
55
About Feature Keys
57
When You Purchase a New Feature
57
See Features Available with the Current Feature Key
57
Get a Feature Key for Your XTM Device
58
Add a Feature Key to Your XTM Device
60
Restart Your XTM Device
62
Restart the XTM Device Locally
62
Restart the XTM Device Remotely
62
Enable NTP and Add NTP Servers
63
Set the Time Zone and Basic Device Properties
64
About SNMP
65
SNMP Polls and Traps
65
Enable SNMP Polling
66
Enable SNMP Management Stations and Traps
67
About Management Information Bases (MIBs)
69
About WatchGuard Passphrases, Encryption Keys, and Shared Keys
70
Create a Secure Passphrase, Encryption Key, or Shared Key
70
XTM Device Passphrases
71
User Passphrases
71
Server Passphrases
71
Encryption Keys and Shared Keys
72
Change XTM Device Passphrases
73
Define XTM Device Global Settings
74
Define ICMP Error Handling Global Settings
75
Configure TCP Settings
76
User Guide
v
Enable or Disable Traffic Management and QoS
76
Change the Web UI Port
76
Enable the External Console on a Firebox X Edge e-Series Device
77
Automatic Reboot
77
About WatchGuard Servers
77
Manage an XTM Device From a Remote Location
79
Configure an XTM Device as a Managed Device
81
Edit the WatchGuard Policy
81
Set Up the Managed Device
82
Upgrade to a New Version of Fireware XTM
Install the Upgrade on Your Management Computer
84
Upgrade the XTM Device
84
Download or Show the XTM Device Configuration
85
Download the Configuration File
85
Show the XTM Configuration Report
85
About Upgrade Options
vi
84
87
Subscription Services Upgrades
87
Appliance and Software Upgrades
87
How to Apply an Upgrade
88
About Subscription Services Expiration
88
Subscription Renewal Reminders
88
Feature Key Compliance
89
Security Service Expiration Behavior
89
Gateway AntiVirus
89
Intrusion Prevention Service (IPS)
89
WebBlocker
90
spamBlocker
90
Reputation Enabled Defense
90
Application Control
90
LiveSecurity Service
91
Synchronize Subscription Renewals
91
Renew Subscription Services
91
Subscription Services Status and Manual Signatures Updates
91
Fireware XTM Web UI
Network Setup and Configuration
93
About Network Interface Setup
93
Network Modes
94
Interface Types
95
About Private IP Addresses
95
About IPv6 Support
96
Mixed Routing Mode
Configure an External Interface
97
97
Enable IPv6 for an External Interface
101
Enable IPv6 for a Trusted or Optional Interface
103
Configure DHCP in Mixed Routing Mode
108
About the Dynamic DNS Service
110
Configure Dynamic DNS
111
Drop-In Mode
112
Use Drop-In Mode for Network Interface Configuration
113
Configure Related Hosts
113
Configure DHCP in Drop-In Mode
115
Bridge Mode
Enable Bridge Mode
Common Interface Settings
118
119
120
Disable an Interface
121
Configure DHCP Relay
121
Restrict Network Traffic by MAC Address
121
Add WINS and DNS Server Addresses
122
Add a Secondary Network IP Address
124
About Advanced Interface Settings
127
Network Interface Card (NIC) Settings
127
Set DF Bit for IPSec
129
PMTU Setting for IPSec
129
Use Static MAC Address Binding
130
Find the MAC Address of a Computer
131
About LAN Bridges
Create a Network Bridge Configuration
User Guide
131
131
vii
Assign a Network Interface to a Bridge
About Routing
Add a Static Route
135
135
About Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs)
137
VLAN Requirements and Restrictions
137
About Tagging
138
About VLAN ID Numbers
138
Define a New VLAN
138
Assign Interfaces to a VLAN
141
Network Setup Examples
143
Configure Two VLANs on the Same Interface
143
Configure One VLAN Bridged Across Two Interfaces
147
Use the Broadband Extend or 3G Extend Wireless Bridge
151
Multi-WAN
About Using Multiple External Interfaces
153
153
Multi-WAN Requirements and Conditions
153
Multi-WAN and DNS
154
About Multi-WAN Options
155
Round-Robin Order
155
Failover
155
Interface Overflow
156
Routing Table
156
Serial Modem (XTM 2 Series and XTM 33 only)
156
Configure Round-Robin
157
Before You Begin
157
Configure the Interfaces
157
Find How to Assign Weights to Interfaces
158
Configure Failover
viii
134
158
Before You Begin
158
Configure the Interfaces
158
Configure Interface Overflow
160
Before You Begin
160
Configure the Interfaces
160
Fireware XTM Web UI
Configure Routing Table
161
Before You Begin
161
Routing Table mode and load balancing
161
Configure the Interfaces
161
About the XTM Device Route Table
162
When to Use Multi-WAN Methods and Routing
162
Serial Modem Failover
163
Enable Serial Modem Failover
163
Account Settings
164
DNS Settings
164
Dial-up Settings
165
Advanced Settings
165
Link Monitor Settings
166
About Advanced Multi-WAN Settings
167
Set a Global Sticky Connection Duration
167
Set the Failback Action
168
About WAN Interface Status
168
Time Needed for the XTM Device to Update its Route Table
169
Define a Link Monitor Host
169
Network Address Translation (NAT)
About Network Address Translation
Types of NAT
About Dynamic NAT
171
171
172
172
Add Firewall Dynamic NAT Entries
173
Configure Policy-Based Dynamic NAT
175
About 1-to-1 NAT
177
About 1-to-1 NAT and VPNs
178
Configure Firewall 1-to-1 NAT
178
Configure Policy-Based 1-to-1 NAT
181
Configure NAT Loopback with Static NAT
182
Add a Policy for NAT Loopback to the Server
183
NAT Loopback and 1-to-1 NAT
184
About SNAT
User Guide
187
ix
Configure Static NAT
187
Configure Server Load Balancing
190
1-to-1 NAT Example
196
Wireless Setup
About Wireless Configuration
197
About Wireless Access Point Configuration
198
Before You Begin
199
About Wireless Configuration Settings
200
Enable/Disable SSID Broadcasts
201
Change the SSID
201
Log Authentication Events
201
Change the Fragmentation Threshold
201
Change the RTS Threshold
203
About Wireless Security Settings
204
Set the Wireless Authentication Method
204
Use a RADIUS Server for Wireless Authentication
205
Use the XTM Device as an Authentication Server for Wireless Authentication
206
Set the Encryption Level
208
Enable Wireless Connections to the Trusted or Optional Network
210
Enable a Wireless Guest Network
212
Enable a Wireless Hotspot
215
Configure User Timeout Settings
216
Customize the Hotspot Splash Screen
216
Connect to a Wireless Hotspot
218
See Wireless Hotspot Connections
219
Configure Your External Interface as a Wireless Interface
221
Configure the Primary External Interface as a Wireless Interface
221
Configure a BOVPN tunnel for additional security
223
About Wireless Radio Settings
224
Country is Set Automatically
225
Select the Band and Wireless Mode
226
Select the Channel
226
Configure the Wireless Card on Your Computer
x
197
227
Fireware XTM Web UI
Rogue Access Point Detection
227
Enable Rogue Access Point Detection
228
Add an XTM Wireless Device as a Trusted Access Point
233
Find the Wireless MAC Address of a Trusted Access Point
236
Rogue Access Point Scan Results
236
Dynamic Routing
About Dynamic Routing
239
239
Dynamic Routing Protocols
239
Dynamic Routing Policies
239
Monitor Dynamic Routing
240
About Routing Daemon Configuration Files
240
About Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
240
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Commands
240
Configure the XTM Device to Use RIP
243
Sample RIP Routing Configuration File
245
About Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol
247
OSPF Commands
247
OSPF Interface Cost Table
250
Configure the XTM Device to Use OSPF
251
Sample OSPF Routing Configuration File
252
About Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
255
BGP Commands
256
Configure the XTM Device to Use BGP
258
Sample BGP Routing Configuration File
260
Authentication
About User Authentication
263
263
User Authentication Steps
264
Manage Authenticated Users
265
Use Authentication to Restrict Incoming Traffic
Use Authentication Through a Gateway Firebox
266
267
About the WatchGuard Authentication (WG-Auth) Policy
268
Set Global Firewall Authentication Values
268
Set Global Authentication Timeouts
269
User Guide
xi
Allow Multiple Concurrent Logins
270
Limit Login Sessions
270
Specify the Default Authentication Server in the Authentication Portal
272
Automatically Redirect Users to the Authentication Portal
272
Use a Custom Default Start Page
273
Set Management Session Timeouts
273
About Single Sign-On (SSO)
The WatchGuard SSO Solution
274
Example Network Configurations for SSO
276
Before You Begin
278
Set Up SSO
278
Install the WatchGuard Single Sign-On (SSO) Agent
278
Configure the SSO Agent
280
Use Telnet to Debug the SSO Agent
287
Install the WatchGuard Single Sign-On (SSO) Client
290
Enable Single Sign-On (SSO)
291
Install and Configure the Terminal Services Agent
294
About Single Sign-On for Terminal Services
295
Before You Begin
295
Install the Terminal Services Agent
296
Configure the Terminal Services Agent
297
Configure Terminal Services Settings
303
Authentication Server Types
305
About Third-Party Authentication Servers
305
Use a Backup Authentication Server
305
Configure Your XTM Device as an Authentication Server
306
Types of Firebox Authentication
306
Define a New User for Firebox Authentication
309
Define a New Group for Firebox Authentication
311
Configure RADIUS Server Authentication
xii
274
312
Authentication Key
312
RADIUS Authentication Methods
312
Before You Begin
312
Fireware XTM Web UI
Use RADIUS Server Authentication with Your XTM Device
312
How RADIUS Server Authentication Works
314
WPA and WPA2 Enterprise Authentication
317
Configure VASCO Server Authentication
317
Configure SecurID Authentication
320
Configure LDAP Authentication
322
About LDAP Optional Settings
324
Test the Connection to the Server
325
Configure Active Directory Authentication
326
Add an Active Directory Authentication Domain and Server
326
About Active Directory Optional Settings
330
Test the Connection to the Server
330
Edit an Existing Active Directory Domain
331
Delete an Active Directory Domain
332
Find Your Active Directory Search Base
332
Change the Default Port for the Active Directory Server
334
Use Active Directory or LDAP Optional Settings
334
Before You Begin
335
Specify Active Directory or LDAP Optional Settings
335
Use a Local User Account for Authentication
339
Use Authorized Users and Groups in Policies
339
Define Users and Groups for Firebox Authentication
339
Define Users and Groups for Third-Party Authentication
339
Add Users and Groups to Policy Definitions
340
Policies
About Policies
343
343
Packet Filter and Proxy Policies
343
Add Policies to Your XTM device
344
About the Policies Pages
345
About the Outgoing Policy
346
Add Policies to Your Configuration
348
Use Policy Checker to Find a Policy
348
Add a Policy from the List of Templates
348
User Guide
xiii
Disable or Delete a Policy
Use Policy Checker to Find a Policy
Read the Results
About Aliases
351
352
354
Alias Members
354
Create an Alias
355
About Policy Precedence
359
Automatic Policy Order
359
Policy Specificity and Protocols
359
Traffic Rules
360
Firewall Actions
360
Schedules
361
Policy Types and Names
361
Set Precedence Manually
361
Create Schedules for XTM Device Actions
Set an Operating Schedule
About Custom Policies
Create or Edit a Custom Policy Template
About Policy Properties
362
362
363
363
366
Policy Tab
366
Properties Tab
366
Advanced Tab
367
Proxy Settings
367
Set Access Rules for a Policy
367
Configure Policy-Based Routing
369
Set a Custom Idle Timeout
372
Set ICMP Error Handling
372
Apply NAT Rules
372
Set the Sticky Connection Duration for a Policy
373
Proxy Settings
About Proxy Policies and ALGs
Proxy Configuration
Add a Proxy Policy to Your Configuration
xiv
350
375
375
376
376
Fireware XTM Web UI
About Proxy Actions
377
Set the Proxy Action in a Proxy Policy
377
Clone, Edit, or Delete Proxy Actions
378
Proxy and AV Alarms
382
About Rules and Rulesets
382
About Working with Rules and Rulesets
383
Configure Rulesets
383
Add, Change, or Delete Rules
383
Cut and Paste Rule Definitions
385
Change the Order of Rules
385
Change the Default Rule
386
About Regular Expressions
387
About the DNS-Proxy
391
Action Settings
391
Policy Tab
391
Properties Tab
392
Advanced Tab
392
Configure the Proxy Action
392
DNS-Proxy: General Settings
393
DNS-Proxy: OPcodes
394
DNS-Proxy: Query Names
397
DNS-Proxy: Query Types
398
DNS-Proxy: Proxy Alarm
399
About MX (Mail eXchange) Records
400
About the FTP-Proxy
403
Action Settings
403
Policy Tab
403
Properties Tab
404
Advanced Tab
404
Configure the Proxy Action
404
FTP-Proxy: General Settings
405
FTP-Proxy: Commands
407
FTP-Proxy: Content
408
User Guide
xv
FTP-Proxy: Proxy and AV Alarms
About the H.323-ALG
410
VoIP Components
410
ALG Functions
410
Action Settings
411
Policy Tab
411
Properties Tab
411
Advanced Tab
411
Configure the Proxy Action
412
H.323-ALG: General Settings
412
H.323-ALG: Access Control
414
H.323-ALG: Denied Codecs
416
About the HTTP-Proxy
xvi
408
418
Action Settings
418
Policy Tab
419
Properties Tab
419
Advanced Tab
419
Configure the Proxy Action
420
HTTP Request: General Settings
420
HTTP Request: Request Methods
423
HTTP Request: URL Paths
424
HTTP Request: Header Fields
425
HTTP Request: Authorization
426
HTTP Response: General Settings
427
HTTP Response: Header Fields
428
HTTP Response: Content Types
429
HTTP Response: Cookies
431
HTTP Response: Body Content Types
431
HTTP-Proxy: Exceptions
432
HTTP-Proxy: Deny Message
434
HTTP-Proxy: Proxy and AV Alarms
435
Enable Windows Updates Through the HTTP-Proxy
437
Use a Caching Proxy Server
437
Fireware XTM Web UI
About the HTTPS-Proxy
439
Action Settings
439
Policy Tab
439
Properties Tab
440
Advanced Tab
440
Configure the Proxy Action
440
HTTPS-Proxy: General Settings
441
HTTPS-Proxy: Content Inspection
443
HTTPS-Proxy: Certificate Names
446
HTTPS-Proxy: Proxy Alarm
446
About the POP3-Proxy
448
Action Settings
448
Policy Tab
448
Properties Tab
449
Advanced Tab
449
Configure the Proxy Action
449
POP3-Proxy: General Settings
450
POP3-Proxy: Authentication
452
POP3-Proxy: Content Types
453
POP3-Proxy: Filenames
455
POP3-Proxy: Headers
456
POP3-Proxy: Deny Message
456
POP3-Proxy: Proxy and AV Alarms
457
About the SIP-ALG
459
VoIP Components
459
Instant Messaging Support
459
ALG Functions
460
Action Settings
460
Policy Tab
460
Properties Tab
461
Advanced Tab
461
Configure the Proxy Action
461
SIP-ALG: General Settings
462
User Guide
xvii
SIP-ALG: Access Control
464
SIP-ALG: Denied Codecs
465
About the SMTP-Proxy
Action Settings
467
Policy Tab
467
Properties Tab
468
Advanced Tab
468
Configure the Proxy Action
468
SMTP-Proxy: General Settings
469
SMTP-Proxy: Greeting Rules
472
SMTP-Proxy: ESMTP Settings
473
SMTP-Proxy: TLS Encryption
475
SMTP-Proxy: Authentication
478
SMTP-Proxy: Content Types
480
SMTP-Proxy: Filenames
483
SMTP-Proxy: Mail From/Rcpt To
484
SMTP-Proxy: Headers
486
SMTP-Proxy: Deny Message
487
SMTP-Proxy: Proxy and AV Alarms
488
Configure the SMTP-Proxy to Quarantine Email
489
Protect Your SMTP Server from Email Relaying
490
About the TCP-UDP-Proxy
491
Action Settings
491
Policy Tab
491
Properties Tab
491
Advanced Tab
492
Configure the Proxy Action
492
TCP-UDP-Proxy: General Settings
492
Traffic Management and QoS
About Traffic Management and QoS
xviii
467
495
495
Enable Traffic Management and QoS
495
Guarantee Bandwidth
496
Restrict Bandwidth
497
Fireware XTM Web UI
QoS Marking
497
Traffic priority
497
Set Outgoing Interface Bandwidth
498
Set Connection Rate Limits
499
About QoS Marking
499
Before you begin
499
QoS marking for interfaces and policies
500
QoS marking and IPSec traffic
500
Enable QoS Marking for an Interface
500
Enable QoS Marking or Prioritization Settings for a Policy
501
Traffic Control and Policy Definitions
503
Define a Traffic Management Action
503
Add a Traffic Management Action to a Policy
504
Default Threat Protection
507
About Default Threat Protection
507
About Default Packet Handling Options
508
About Spoofing Attacks
509
About IP Source Route Attacks
510
About Port Space and Address Space Probes
510
About Flood Attacks
512
About Unhandled Packets
514
About Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks
515
About Blocked Sites
516
Permanently Blocked Sites
516
Auto-Blocked Sites/Temporary Blocked Sites List
516
Blocked Site Exceptions
517
See and Edit the Sites on the Blocked Sites List
517
Block a Site Permanently
517
Create Blocked Site Exceptions
518
Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings
518
Change the Duration that Sites are Auto-Blocked
519
About Blocked Ports
Default Blocked Ports
User Guide
519
520
xix
Block a Port
Logging and Notification
About Logging, Log Files, and Notification
523
523
About Log Messages
523
Log Servers
523
Logging and Notification in Applications and Servers
524
System Status Syslog
524
Types of Log Messages
524
Send Log Messages to a WatchGuard Log Server
525
Add, Edit, or Change the Priority of Log Servers
526
Send Log Information to a Syslog Host
527
Configure Logging Settings
529
Set the Diagnostic Log Level
530
Configure Logging and Notification for a Policy
532
Set Logging and Notification Preferences
533
Use Syslog to See Log Message Data
534
View, Sort, and Filter Log Message Data
534
Refresh Log Message Data
536
Monitor Your Device
About the Dashboard and System Status Pages
537
537
The Dashboard
537
System Status Pages
539
ARP Table
540
Authentication List
541
Server Connection
542
Test the Server Connection
543
Read the Server Connection Results
545
Bandwidth Meter
545
Blocked Sites
546
Add or Edit Temporary Blocked Sites
xx
521
546
Checksum
547
Connections
548
Components List
548
Fireware XTM Web UI
CPU Usage
548
DHCP Leases
549
Diagnostics
550
Run a Basic Diagnostics Command
551
Use Command Arguments
551
Run a VPN Diagnostic Report
551
Dynamic DNS
553
Feature Key
554
When You Purchase a New Feature
554
See Features Available with the Current Feature Key
554
Interfaces
Release or Renew a DHCP Lease
555
556
LiveSecurity
557
Memory
557
Processes
558
Routes
558
Syslog
559
Traffic Management
559
VPN Statistics
560
Wireless Statistics
561
Wireless Hotspot Connections
562
Certificates
About Certificates
563
563
Use Multiple Certificates to Establish Trust
564
How the XTM device Uses Certificates
564
Certificate Lifetimes and CRLs
565
Certificate Authorities and Signing Requests
565
Certificate Authorities Trusted by the XTM Device
566
Manage XTM Device Certificates
578
Create a CSR with OpenSSL
581
Use OpenSSL to Generate a CSR
581
Sign a Certificate with Microsoft CA
581
Issue the Certificate
User Guide
582
xxi
Download the Certificate
Use Certificates for the HTTPS-Proxy
583
Protect a Private HTTPS Server
583
Examine Content from External HTTPS Servers
584
Import the Certificates on Client Devices
585
Troubleshoot Problems with HTTPS Content Inspection
585
Use Certificates for Mobile VPN With IPSec Tunnel Authentication
586
Certificates for Branch Office VPN (BOVPN) Tunnel Authentication
587
Verify the Certificate with FSM
587
Verify VPN Certificates with an LDAP Server
587
Configure the Web Server Certificate for Firebox Authentication
588
Import a Certificate on a Client Device
591
Import a PEM Format Certificate with Windows XP
591
Import a PEM format certificate with Windows Vista
591
Import a PEM Format Certificate with Mozilla Firefox 3.x
592
Import a PEM Format Certificate with Mac OS X 10.5
592
Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
593
Introduction to VPNs
593
Branch Office VPN
593
Mobile VPN
594
About IPSec VPNs
594
About IPSec Algorithms and Protocols
594
About IPSec VPN Negotiations
596
Configure Phase 1 and Phase 2 Settings
599
About Mobile VPNs
600
Select a Mobile VPN
600
Internet Access Options for Mobile VPN Users
602
Mobile VPN Setup Overview
603
Branch Office VPNs
xxii
582
605
What You Need to Create a Manual BOVPN
605
About Manual Branch Office VPN Tunnels
606
What You Need to Create a VPN
606
How to Create a Manual BOVPN Tunnel
607
Fireware XTM Web UI
One-Way Tunnels
607
VPN Failover
607
Global VPN Settings
607
BOVPN Tunnel Status
608
Rekey BOVPN Tunnels
608
Sample VPN Address Information Table
608
Branch Office VPN Terminology
609
Configure Gateways
611
Define Gateway Endpoints
613
Configure Mode and Transforms (Phase 1 Settings)
616
Edit and Delete Gateways
620
Disable Automatic Tunnel Startup
620
If Your XTM Device is Behind a Device That Does NAT
620
Make Tunnels Between Gateway Endpoints
622
Define a Tunnel
622
Add Routes for a Tunnel
624
Configure Phase 2 Settings
625
Add a Phase 2 Proposal
626
Change Order of Tunnels
628
About Global VPN Settings
629
Enable IPSec Pass-through
629
Enable TOS for IPSec
630
Enable the Use of Non-Default (Static or Dynamic) Routes to Determine if IPSec is Used 630
Disable or Enable the Built-in IPSec Policy
631
Enable LDAP Server for Certificate Verification
631
Configure Inbound IPSec Pass-through with SNAT
631
Disable the Built-in IPSec Policy
632
Add IPSec Policies
632
Configure a Branch Office VPN for Failover from a Leased Line
632
Requirements
632
Configuration Overview
633
How Failover to the Branch Office VPN Operates
633
Set Up Outgoing Dynamic NAT Through a Branch Office VPN Tunnel
User Guide
634
xxiii
Configure the Endpoint Where All Traffic Must Appear to Come from a Single Address
(Site A)
634
Configure the Endpoint that Expects All Traffic to Come from a Single IP Address (Site B) 636
Use 1-to-1 NAT Through a Branch Office VPN Tunnel
639
1-to-1 NAT and VPNs
639
Other Reasons to Use 1-to-1 NAT Through a VPN
639
Alternative to Using NAT
639
How to Set Up the VPN
640
Example
640
Configure the Local Tunnel
641
Configure the Remote Tunnel
643
Define a Route for All Internet-Bound Traffic
645
Configure the BOVPN Tunnel on the Remote XTM Device
645
Configure the BOVPN Tunnel on the Central XTM Device
646
Add a Dynamic NAT Entry on the Central XTM Device
647
Enable Multicast Routing Through a Branch Office VPN Tunnel
649
Enable an XTM Device to Send Multicast Traffic Through a Tunnel
649
Enable the Other XTM Device to Receive Multicast Traffic Through the Tunnel
652
Enable Broadcast Routing Through a Branch Office VPN Tunnel
Enable Broadcast Routing for the Local XTM device
653
Configure Broadcast Routing for the XTM Device at the Other End of the Tunnel
655
Configure VPN Failover
Define Multiple Gateway Pairs
656
657
See VPN Statistics
659
Rekey BOVPN Tunnels
659
Related Questions About Branch Office VPN Set Up
659
Why do I Need a Static External Address?
659
How do I Get a Static External IP Address?
659
How do I Troubleshoot the Connection?
660
Why is Ping not Working?
660
Troubleshoot Branch Office VPN Tunnels
xxiv
652
660
Use the VPN Diagnostic Report
660
Filter Branch Office VPN Log Messages
661
Fireware XTM Web UI
Improve Branch Office VPN Tunnel Availability
Mobile VPN with PPTP
663
669
About Mobile VPN with PPTP
669
Mobile VPN with PPTP Requirements
669
Encryption Levels
Configure Mobile VPN with PPTP
670
670
Authentication
671
Encryption Settings
671
Add to the IP Address Pool
671
Advanced Tab Settings
672
Configure WINS and DNS Servers
673
Add New Users to the PPTP-Users Group
675
Configure Policies to Allow Mobile VPN with PPTP Traffic
Configure Policies to Allow Mobile VPN with PPTP Traffic
676
677
Allow PPTP Users to Access a Trusted Network
677
Use Other Groups or Users in a PPTP Policy
678
Options for Internet Access Through a Mobile VPN with PPTP Tunnel
678
Default-Route VPN
678
Split Tunnel VPN
679
Default-Route VPN Setup for Mobile VPN with PPTP
679
Split Tunnel VPN Setup for Mobile VPN with PPTP
679
Prepare Client Computers for PPTP
680
Prepare a Windows NT or 2000 Client Computer: Install MSDUN and Service Packs
680
Configure the PPTP Connection
680
Create and Connect a PPTP Mobile VPN for Windows 7
681
Create and Connect a PPTP Mobile VPN for Windows Vista
682
Create and Connect a PPTP Mobile VPN for Windows XP
683
Create and Connect a PPTP Mobile VPN for Windows 2000
683
Make Outbound PPTP Connections from Behind an XTM Device
684
Mobile VPN with IPSec
About Mobile VPN with IPSec
685
685
Configure a Mobile VPN with IPSec Connection
685
System Requirements
686
User Guide
xxv
Options for Internet Access Through a Mobile VPN with IPSec Tunnel
687
About Mobile VPN Client Configuration Files
687
Configure the XTM Device for Mobile VPN with IPSec
688
Add Users to a Firebox Mobile VPN Group
695
Modify an Existing Mobile VPN with IPSec Group Profile
698
Configure WINS and DNS Servers
708
Lock Down an End User Profile
709
Generate Mobile VPN with IPSec Configuration Files
709
Configure Policies to Filter Mobile VPN Traffic
710
Distribute the Software and Profiles
712
Additional Mobile VPN Topics
713
Configure Mobile VPN with IPSec to a Dynamic IP Address
714
About the Mobile VPN with IPSec Client
717
Client Requirements
717
Install the Mobile VPN with IPSec Client Software
717
Connect and Disconnect the Mobile VPN Client
720
See Mobile VPN Log Messages
722
Secure Your Computer with the Mobile VPN Firewall
722
End-User Instructions for WatchGuard Mobile VPN with IPSec Client Installation
730
About the Shrew Soft VPN Client
735
Shrew Soft VPN Client Limitations
735
Shrew Soft VPN End-User Profile
736
Install the Shrew Soft VPN Client Software
736
Import Certificates to the Shrew Soft VPN Client
737
Use the Shrew Soft VPN Client to Connect
739
Troubleshoot the Shrew Soft VPN Client
740
Mobile VPN for Windows Mobile Setup
xxvi
742
Mobile VPN WM Configurator and Windows Mobile IPSec Client Requirements
742
Install the Mobile VPN WM Configurator Software
743
Select a Certificate and Enter the PIN
743
Import an End-User Profile
744
Install the Windows Mobile Client Software on the Windows Mobile Device
744
Upload the End-User Profile to the Windows Mobile Device
746
Fireware XTM Web UI
Connect and Disconnect the Mobile VPN for Windows Mobile Client
748
Secure Your Windows Mobile Device with the Mobile VPN Firewall
750
Stop the WatchGuard Mobile VPN Service
750
Uninstall the Configurator, Service, and Monitor
751
Use Mobile VPN with IPSec with a Mac OS X or iOS Device
751
Configure the XTM Device
751
Configure the VPN Client on a Mac OS X Device
756
Configure the VPN Client on an iOS Device
757
Mobile VPN with SSL
759
About Mobile VPN with SSL
759
Configure the XTM Device for Mobile VPN with SSL
759
Configure Connection Settings
759
Configure the Networking and IP Address Pool Settings
761
Configure Authentication Settings
762
Configure Advanced Settings for Mobile VPN with SSL
766
Configure Policies to Control Mobile VPN with SSL Client Access
768
Choose the Port and Protocol for Mobile VPN with SSL
769
Options for Internet Access Through a Mobile VPN with SSL Tunnel
770
Name Resolution for Mobile VPN with SSL
771
Install and Connect the Mobile VPN with SSL Client
775
Client Computer Requirements
775
Download the Client Software
775
Install the Client Software
776
Connect to Your Private Network
777
Mobile VPN with SSL Client Controls
778
Manually Distribute and Install the Mobile VPN with SSL Client Software and
Configuration File
779
Uninstall the Mobile VPN with SSL Client
780
WebBlocker
781
About WebBlocker
781
Configure a Local WebBlocker Server
782
Get Started with WebBlocker
782
Before You Begin
User Guide
782
xxvii
Create WebBlocker Profiles
782
Enable Local Override
786
Select Categories to Block
786
Use the WebBlocker Profile with HTTP and HTTPS Proxies
787
Add WebBlocker Exceptions
788
Use WebBlocker Local Override
788
About WebBlocker Categories
789
See Whether a Site is Categorized
790
Add, Remove, or Change a Category
791
About WebBlocker Exceptions
Define the Action for Sites that do not Match Exceptions
792
Components of Exception Rules
792
Exceptions with Part of a URL
792
Add WebBlocker Exceptions
792
Define WebBlocker Alarms
794
About WebBlocker Subscription Services Expiration
794
spamBlocker
About spamBlocker
795
795
spamBlocker Requirements
796
spamBlocker Actions, Tags, and Categories
796
Configure spamBlocker
799
Before You Begin
799
Configure spamBlocker for an SMTP or POP3 Proxy Action
799
About spamBlocker Exceptions
801
Configure Virus Outbreak Detection Actions for a Policy
803
Configure spamBlocker to Quarantine Email
804
About Using spamBlocker with Multiple Proxies
805
Set Global spamBlocker Parameters
805
Use an HTTP Proxy Server for spamBlocker
807
Add Trusted Email Forwarders to Improve Spam Score Accuracy
807
Enable and Set Parameters for Virus Outbreak Detection (VOD)
808
About spamBlocker and VOD Scan Limits
809
Create Rules for Your Email Reader
xxviii
791
809
Fireware XTM Web UI
Send Spam or Bulk Email to Special Folders in Outlook
Send a Report About False Positives or False Negatives
810
810
Use RefID Record Instead of Message Text
811
Find the Category a Message is Assigned To
812
Reputation Enabled Defense
About Reputation Enabled Defense
813
813
Reputation Thresholds
813
Reputation Scores
814
Reputation Lookups
814
Reputation Enabled Defense Feedback
815
Configure Reputation Enabled Defense
815
Before You Begin
815
Configure Reputation Enabled Defense for a Proxy Action
817
Configure the Reputation Thresholds
818
Send Gateway AV Scan Results to WatchGuard
Gateway AntiVirus
About Gateway AntiVirus
818
821
821
Install and Upgrade Gateway AV
821
About Gateway AntiVirus and Proxy Policies
822
Configure the Gateway AntiVirus Service
823
Before You Begin
823
Configure the Gateway AntiVirus Service
824
Configure Gateway AntiVirus Actions
824
Configure Gateway AntiVirus to Quarantine Email
829
About Gateway AntiVirus Scan Limits
829
Update Gateway AntiVirus Settings
830
If you Use a Third-Party Antivirus Client
830
Configure Gateway AV Decompression Settings
830
Configure the Gateway AV Update Server
831
Intrusion Prevention Service
About Intrusion Prevention Service
833
833
IPS Threat Levels
833
Add the IPS Upgrade
834
User Guide
xxix
Keep IPS Signatures Updated
834
See IPS Status
834
Configure Intrusion Prevention
Enable IPS and Configure IPS Actions
834
Configure other IPS Settings
836
Disable or Enable IPS for a Policy
836
Configure the IPS Update Server
837
Configure Automatic Signature Updates
837
Connect to the Update Server Through an HTTP Proxy Server
838
Block Access from the Trusted Network to the Update Server
838
Update Signatures Manually
838
Show IPS Signature Information
839
See IPS Signatures
839
Search, Sort and Filter the IPS Signatures
840
Add an IPS Exception
840
Configure IPS Exceptions
841
Find the IPS Signature ID
841
Add an IPS Signature Exception
841
Configure IPS Notification
843
Look Up IPS Signatures on the Security Portal
843
Application Control
About Application Control
845
845
Application Control Deny Message
845
Add the Application Control Upgrade
845
Keep Application Control Signatures Updated
846
Application Control — Begin with Monitoring
xxx
834
846
Monitor Application Use
846
Application Control Reports
847
Policy Guidelines for Application Control
848
Global Application Control Action
849
Configure Application Control Actions
849
Add or Edit Application Control Actions
850
Remove Configured Applications From an Application Control Action
853
Fireware XTM Web UI
Apply an Application Control Action to a Policy
854
Clone an Application Control Action
854
Remove Application Control Actions
855
Use Application Categories
856
Configure Application Control for Policies
858
Enable Application Control in a Policy
859
Get Information About Applications
859
Configure the Application Control Update Server
859
Configure Signature Updates
859
Connect to the Update Server Through an HTTP Proxy Server
860
Block Access from the Trusted Network to the Update Server
861
Update Signatures Manually
861
Application Control and Proxies
861
Application Control and WebBlocker
862
Manage SSL Applications
862
Manage Evasive Applications
862
Block User Logins to Skype
863
Manage Applications that Use Multiple Protocols
864
Example: Block FlashGet
864
File Transfer Applications and Protocols
864
Monitor Downloads and File Transfers
866
Manage Facebook Applications
866
Application Control Policy Examples
869
Allow an Application For a Group of Users
869
Block Applications During Business Hours
870
Quarantine Server
873
About the Quarantine Server
873
Configure the XTM Device to Quarantine Email
874
Define the Quarantine Server Location on the XTM Device
874
User Guide
xxxi
User Guide
xxxii
1
Introduction to Network
Security
About Networks and Network Security
A network is a group of computers and other devices that are connected to each other. It can be two
computers in the same room, dozens of computers in an organization, or many computers around the
world connected through the Internet. Computers on the same network can work together and share data.
Although networks like the Internet give you access to a large quantity of information and business
opportunities, they can also open your network to attackers. Many people think that their computers
hold no important information, or that a hacker is not interested in their computers. This is not correct. A
hacker can use your computer as a platform to attack other computers or networks. Information from
your organization, including personal information about users, employees, or customers, is also
valuable to hackers.
Your XTM device and LiveSecurity subscription can help you prevent these attacks. A good network
security policy, or a set of access rules for users and resources, can also help you find and prevent
attacks to your computer or network. We recommend that you configure your XTM device to match
your security policy, and think about threats from both inside and outside your organization.
About Internet Connections
ISPs (Internet service providers) are companies that give access to the Internet through network
connections. The rate at which a network connection can send data is known as bandwidth: for
example, 3 megabits per second (Mbps).
A high-speed Internet connection, such as a cable modem or a DSL (Digital Subscriber Line), is known
as a broadband connection. Broadband connections are much faster than dial-up connections. The
bandwidth of a dial-up connection is less than .1 Mbps, while a cable modem can be 5 Mbps or more.
Typical speeds for cable modems are usually lower than the maximum speeds, because each
computer in a neighborhood is a member of a LAN. Each computer in that LAN uses some of the
bandwidth. Because of this shared-medium system, cable modem connections can become slow
when more users are on the network.
User Guide
1
Introduction to Network Security
DSL connections supply constant bandwidth, but they are usually slower than cable modem
connections. Also, the bandwidth is only constant between your home or office and the DSL central
office. The DSL central office cannot guarantee a good connection to a web site or network.
How Information Travels on the Internet
The data that you send through the Internet is cut into units, or packets. Each packet includes the
Internet address of the destination. The packets that make up a connection can use different routes
through the Internet. When they all get to their destination, they are assembled back into the original
order. To make sure that the packets get to the destination, address information is added to the
packets.
About Protocols
A protocol is a group of rules that allow computers to connect across a network. Protocols are the
grammar of the language that computers use when they speak to each other across a network. The
standard protocol when you connect to the Internet is the IP (Internet Protocol). This protocol is the
usual language of computers on the Internet.
A protocol also tells how data is sent through a network. The most frequently used protocols are TCP
(Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol). TCP/IP is the basic protocol
used by computers that connect to the Internet.
You must know some of the TCP/IP settings when you set up your XTM device. For more information
on TCP/IP, see Find Your TCP/IP Properties on page 39.
2
Fireware XTM Web UI
Introduction to Network Security
About IP Addresses
To send ordinary mail to a person, you must know his or her street address. For one computer on the
Internet to send data to a different computer, it must know the address of that computer. A computer
address is known as an Internet Protocol (IP) address. All devices on the Internet have unique IP
addresses, which enable other devices on the Internet to find and interact with them.
Fireware XTM supports both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. IPv6 addresses are supported only when the
XTM device is configured in mixed routing mode.
For more information about Fireware XTM support for IPv6, see About IPv6 Support.
IPv4 Addresses
An IPv4 address consists of four octets (8-bit binary number sequences) expressed in decimal format
and separated by periods. Each number between the periods must be within the range of 0 and 255.
Some examples of IPv4 addresses are:
n
n
n
206.253.208.100
4.2.2.2
10.0.4.1
Private Addresses and Gateways
Many companies create private networks that have their own address space. The addresses 10.x.x.x
and 192.168.x.x are reserved for private IP addresses. Computers on the Internet cannot use these
addresses. If your computer is on a private network, you connect to the Internet through a gateway
device that has a public IP address.
Usually, the default gateway is the router that is between your network and the Internet. After you
install the XTM device on your network, it becomes the default gateway for all computers connected to
its trusted or optional interfaces.
About Subnet Masks
Because of security and performance considerations, networks are often divided into smaller portions
called subnets. All devices in a subnet have similar IP addresses. For example, all devices that have
IP addresses whose first three octets are 10.0.1 would belong to the same subnet.
The subnet mask for a network IP address, or netmask, is a series of bits that mask sections of the IP
address that identify which parts of the IP address are for the network and which parts are for the host.
A subnet mask can be written in the same way as an IP address, or in slash or CIDR notation.
User Guide
3
Introduction to Network Security
IPv6 Addresses
IPv6 increases the IP address size from the 32 bits found in IPv4 to 128 bits. This allows for a more
structured hierarchy in addresses, and supports a much larger total number of addresses.
IPv6 Address Format
An IPv6 address contains eight groups of 16-bit hexadecimal values, separated by colons (:). The
hexadecimal digits are not case-sensitive. Some examples of IPv6 addresses are:
n
2561:1900:4545:0003:0200:F8FF:FE21:67CF
2260:F3A4:32CB:715D:5D11:D837:FC76:12FC
n
FE80:0000:0000:0000:2045:FAEB:33AF:8374
n
The first four groups of 16-bit hexadecimal values represent the network. The last four groups of 16-bit
hexadecimal values are the interface ID that uniquely identifies each networked device. This value is
usually derived from the MAC address of the device.
Shorten an IPv6 Address
There are two ways you can shorten the notation of an IPv6 address:
n
Remove leading zeros — In each 16-bit hexadecimal address group, you can remove the
leading zeros. For example, these two IPv6 addresses are equivalent:
2561:1900:4545:0003:0200:F8FF:FE21:67CF
2561:1900:4545:3:200:F8FF:FE21:67CF
n
Remove groups of zeros — If an IPv6 address contains adjacent groups of 16-bit
hexadecimal values that are all zeros (0000), you can replace one group of adjacent blocks of
zeros with two colons (::). For example, these two IPv6 addresses are equivalent:
FE80:0000:0000:0000:2045:FAEB:33AF:8374
FE80::2045:FAEB:33AF:8374
You can use two colons (::) only once in an IPv6 address to represent adjacent groups with all
zeros.
IPv6 Prefix
The IPv6 prefix indicates the subnet associated with an IPv6 address. The prefix is expressed as a
slash (/) followed by the prefix size, which is a decimal number between 1 and 128. The prefix size
indicates how many bits of the address make up the network identifier prefix. Examples of IPv6
prefixes are:
n
n
4
/64 — The prefix used for a single subnet
/48 — Prefix used for a site that could have multiple subnets
Fireware XTM Web UI
Introduction to Network Security
About Slash Notation
Your XTM device uses slash notation, also known as CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing)
notation, for many purposes, such as policy configuration. You use slash notation differently for IPv4
and IPv6 addresses.
IPv4
Slash notation is a compact way to show or write an IPv4 subnet mask. When you use slash notation,
you write the IP address, a forward slash (/), and the subnet mask number.
To find the subnet mask number:
1. Convert the decimal representation of the subnet mask to a binary representation.
2. Count each “1” in the subnet mask. The total is the subnet mask number.
For example, to write the IPv4 address 192.168.42.23 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 in slash
notation:
1. Convert the subnet mask to binary.
In this example, the binary representation of 255.255.255.0 is:
11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000.
2. Count each 1 in the subnet mask.
In this example, there are twenty-four (24).
3. Write the original IP address, a forward slash (/), and then the number from Step 2.
The result is 192.168.42.23/24.
This table shows common network masks and their equivalents in slash notation.
Network Mask
Slash Equivalent
255.0.0.0
/8
255.255.0.0
/16
255.255.255.0
/24
255.255.255.128 /25
255.255.255.192 /26
255.255.255.224 /27
255.255.255.240 /28
255.255.255.248 /29
255.255.255.252 /30
User Guide
5
Introduction to Network Security
IPv6
In IPv6, slash notation is used to represent the network identifier prefix for an IPv6 network. The prefix
is expressed as a slash (/) followed by the prefix size, which is a decimal number between 1 and 128.
The CIDR notation works exactly the same as with IPv4, which means if you have a /48, that means
the first 48 bits of the address are the prefix.
This table shows common IPv6 network prefixes and the number of IPv6 subnets and IPv6 addresses
they support.
Prefix Number of Subnets
/64
1 IPv6 subnet with up to 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 IPv6 host addresses
/56
256 /64 subnets
/48
65,536 /64 subnets
A network site that is assigned a /48 prefix can use prefixes in the range /49 to /64 to define valid
subnets.
About Entering Addresses
IPv4 Addresses
When you type IPv4 addresses in the Quick Setup Wizard or dialog boxes, type the digits and
decimals in the correct sequence. Do not use the TAB key, arrow keys, spacebar, or mouse to put your
cursor after the decimals.
For example, if you type the IP address 172.16.1.10, do not type a space after you type 16. Do not try
to put your cursor after the subsequent decimal to type 1. Type a decimal directly after 16, and then
type 1.10. Press the slash (/) key to move to the netmask.
IPv6 Addresses
When you type IPv6 addresses in a text box, simply type the IP address with the colons to separate
each group of numbers in the address. To shorten an IP address, you can remove leading zeros in each
group of numbers and you can use a double colon (::) to replace adjacent groups of zeros in the
address.
For more information about IPv6 addresses, see About IP Addresses.
Static and Dynamic IP Addresses
ISPs (Internet service providers) assign an IP address to each device on their network. The IP address
can be static or dynamic.
6
Fireware XTM Web UI
Introduction to Network Security
Static IP Addresses
A static IP address is an IP address that always stays the same. If you have a web server, FTP
server, or other Internet resource that must have an address that cannot change, you can get a static
IP address from your ISP. A static IP address is usually more expensive than a dynamic IP address,
and some ISPs do not supply static IP addresses. You must configure a static IP address manually.
Dynamic IP Addresses
A dynamic IP address is an IP address that an ISP lets you use temporarily. If a dynamic address is
not in use, it can be automatically assigned to a different device. Dynamic IP addresses are assigned
using either DHCP or PPPoE.
About DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an Internet protocol that computers on a network use
to get IP addresses and other information such as the default gateway. When you connect to the
Internet, a computer configured as a DHCP server at the ISP automatically assigns you an IP address.
It could be the same IP address you had before, or it could be a new one. When you close an Internet
connection that uses a dynamic IP address, the ISP can assign that IP address to a different
customer.
You can configure your XTM device as a DHCP server for networks behind the device. You assign a
range of addresses for the DHCP server to use.
About PPPoE
Some ISPs assign IP addresses through Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE). PPPoE adds
some of the features of Ethernet and PPP to a standard dial-up connection. This network protocol
allows the ISP to use the billing, authentication, and security systems of their dial-up infrastructure
with DSL modem and cable modem products.
About DNS (Domain Name System)
You can frequently find the address of a person you do not know in the telephone directory. On the
Internet, the equivalent to a telephone directory is the DNS(Domain Name System). DNS is a network
of servers that translate numeric IP addresses into readable Internet addresses, and vice versa. DNS
takes the friendly domain name you type when you want to see a particular web site, such as
www.example.com, and finds the equivalent IP address, such as 203.0.113.2. Network devices need
the actual IP address to find the web site, but domain names are much easier for users to type and
remember than IP addresses.
A DNS server is a server that performs this translation. Many organizations have a private DNS server
in their network that responds to DNS requests. You can also use a DNS server on your external
network, such as a DNS server provided by your ISP (Internet Service Provider.)
User Guide
7
Introduction to Network Security
About Firewalls
A network security device, such as a firewall, separates your internal networks from external network
connections to decrease the risk of an external attack. The figure below shows how a firewall protects
the computers on a trusted network from the Internet.
Firewalls use access policies to identify and filter different types of information. They can also control
which policies or ports the protected computers can use on the Internet (outbound access). For
example, many firewalls have sample security policies that allow only specified traffic types. Users
can select the policy that is best for them. Other firewalls, such as XTM devices, allow the user to
customize these policies.
For more information, see About Services and Policies on page 9 and About Ports on page 10.
8
Fireware XTM Web UI
Introduction to Network Security
Firewalls can be in the form of hardware or software. A firewall protects private networks from
unauthorized users on the Internet. Traffic that enters or leaves the protected networks is examined by
the firewall. The firewall denies network traffic that does not match the security criteria or policies.
In some closed, or default-deny firewalls, all network connections are denied unless there is a specific
rule to allow the connection. To deploy this type of firewall, you must have detailed information about
the network applications required to meet needs of your organization. Other firewalls allow all network
connections that have not been explicitly denied. This type of open firewall is easier to deploy, but it is
not as secure.
About Services and Policies
You use a service to send different types of data (such as email, files, or commands) from one
computer to another across a network or to a different network. These services use protocols.
Frequently used Internet services are:
n
n
n
n
n
World Wide Web access uses Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
Email uses Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) or Post Office Protocol (POP3)
File transfer uses File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Resolve a domain name to an Internet address uses Domain Name Service (DNS)
Remote terminal access uses Telnet or SSH (Secure Shell)
When you allow or deny a service, you must add a policy to your XTM device configuration. Each
policy you add can also add a security risk. To send and receive data, you must open a door in your
computer, which puts your network at risk. We recommend that you add only the policies that are
necessary for your business.
As an example of how you can use a policy, suppose the network administrator of a company wants to
activate a Windows terminal services connection to the company’s public web server on the optional
interface of the XTM device. He or she routinely administers the web server with a Remote Desktop
connection. At the same time, he or she wants to make sure that no other network users can use the
Remote Desktop Protocol terminal services through the XTM device. The network administrator would
add a policy that allows RDP connections only from the IP address of his or her own desktop computer
to the IP address of the public web server.
User Guide
9
Introduction to Network Security
When you configure your XTM device with the Quick Setup Wizard, the wizard adds only limited
outgoing connectivity. If you have more software applications and network traffic for your XTM device
to examine, you must:
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Configure the policies on your XTM device to pass through necessary traffic
Set the approved hosts and properties for each policy
Balance the requirement to protect your network against the requirements of your users to get
access to external resources
About Ports
Although computers have hardware ports you use as connection points, ports are also numbers used
to map traffic to a particular process on a computer. These ports, also called TCP and UDP ports, are
where programs transmit data. If an IP address is like a street address, a port number is like an
apartment unit number or building number within that street address. When a computer sends traffic
over the Internet to a server or another computer, it uses an IP address to identify the server or remote
computer, and a port number to identify the process on the server or computer that receives the data.
For example, suppose you want to see a particular web page. Your web browser attempts to create a
connection on port 80 (the port used for HTTP traffic) for each element of the web page. When your
browser receives the data it requests from the HTTP server, such as an image, it closes the
connection.
Many ports are used for only one type of traffic, such as port 25 for SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol). Some protocols, such as SMTP, have ports with assigned numbers. Other programs are
assigned port numbers dynamically for each connection. The IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority) keeps a list of well-known ports. You can see this list at:
http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers
Most policies you add to your XTM device configuration have a port number between 0 and 1024, but
possible port numbers can be from 0 to 65535.
Ports are either open or closed. If a port is open, your computer accepts information and uses the
protocol identified with that port to create connections to other computers. However, an open port is a
security risk. To protect against risks created by open ports, you can block ports used by hackers to
attack your network. For more information, see About Blocked Ports on page 519.
The XTM Device and Your Network
Your XTM device is a powerful network security device that controls all traffic between the external
network and the trusted network. If computers with mixed trust connect to your network, you can also
configure an optional network interface that is separate from the trusted network. You can then
configure the firewall on your device to stop all suspicious traffic from the external network to your
trusted and optional networks. If you route all traffic for the mixed trust computers through your optional
network, you can increase the security for those connections to add more flexibility to your security
solution. For example, customers frequently use the optional network for their remote users or for
public servers such as a web server or an email server.
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Fireware XTM Web UI
Introduction to Network Security
Some customers who purchase an XTM device do not know a lot about computer networks or network
security. Fireware XTM Web UI (web-based user interface), provides many self-help tools for these
customers. Advanced customers can use the advanced integration and multiple WAN support features
of the Fireware XTM OS with a Pro upgrade to connect an XTM device to a larger wide area network.
The XTM device connects to a cable modem, DSL modem, or ISDN router.
You can use the Web UI to safely manage your network security settings from different locations at
any time. This gives you more time and resources to use on other components of your business.
User Guide
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Introduction to Network Security
User Guide
12
2
Introduction to Fireware XTM
About Fireware XTM
Fireware XTM gives you an easy and efficient way to view, manage, and monitor each XTM device in
your network. The Fireware XTM solution includes four software applications:
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WatchGuard System Manager (WSM)
Fireware XTM Web UI
Fireware XTM Command Line Interface (CLI)
WatchGuard Server Center
You can use one or more of the Fireware XTM applications to configure your network for your
organization. For example, if you have only one XTM 2 Series device, you can perform most
configuration tasks with Fireware XTM Web UI or Fireware XTM Command Line Interface. However,
for more advanced logging and reporting features, you must use WatchGuard Server Center. If you
manage more than one XTM device, or if you have purchased Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade, we
recommend that you use WatchGuard System Manager (WSM). If you choose to manage and monitor
your configuration with Fireware XTM Web UI, there are some features that you cannot configure.
For more information about these limitations, see Limitations of Fireware XTM Web UI on page 35.
For more information on how to connect to your XTM device with WatchGuard System Manager or
Fireware XTM Command Line Interface, see the Help or User Guide for those products. You can view
and download the most current documentation for these products on the Fireware XTM Product
Documentation page at http://www.watchguard.com/help/documentation/xtm.asp.
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Introduction to Fireware XTM
Fireware XTM Components
To start WatchGuard System Manager or WatchGuard Server Center from your Windows desktop,
select the shortcut from the Start Menu. You can also start WatchGuard Server Center from an icon in
the System Tray. From these applications, you can launch other tools that help you manage your
network. For example, from WatchGuard System Manager (WSM), you can launch Policy Manager or
HostWatch.
WatchGuard System Manager
WatchGuard System Manager (WSM) is the primary application for network management with your
XTM device. You can use WSM to manage many different XTM devices, even those that use different
software versions. WSM includes a comprehensive suite of tools to help you monitor and control
network traffic.
Policy Manager
You can use Policy Manager to configure your firewall. Policy Manager includes a full set of preconfigured packet filters, proxy policies, and application layer gateways (ALGs). You can also
make a custom packet filter, proxy policy, or ALG in which you set the ports, protocols, and
other options. Other features of Policy Manager help you to stop network intrusion attempts,
such as SYN Flood attacks, spoofing attacks, and port or address space probes.
Firebox System Manager (FSM)
Firebox System Manager gives you one interface to monitor all components of your XTM
device. From FSM, you can see the real-time status of your XTM device and its configuration.
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Fireware XTM Web UI
Introduction to Fireware XTM
HostWatch
HostWatch is a real-time connection monitor that shows network traffic between different XTM
device interfaces. HostWatch also shows information about users, connections, ports, and
services.
Log and Report Manager
Log and Report Manager is the web UI tool you use to see log file data and Available Reports,
and to generate On-Demand reports of the data collected from your Log Servers for all your XTM
devices.
CA Manager
The Certificate Authority (CA) Manager shows a complete list of security certificates installed
on your management computer with Fireware XTM. You can use this application to import,
configure, and generate certificates for use with VPN tunnels and other authentication
purposes.
WatchGuard Server Center
WatchGuard Server Center is the application where you configure and monitor all your WatchGuard
servers.
Management Server
The Management Server operates on a Windows computer. With this server, you can manage
all firewall devices and create virtual private network (VPN) tunnels using a simple drag-anddrop function. The basic functions of the Management Server are:
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Certificate authority to distribute certificates for Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) tunnels
VPN tunnel configuration management
Management for multiple XTM devices
Log Server
The Log Server collects log messages from each XTM device. These log messages are
encrypted when they are sent to the Log Server. The log message format is XML (plain text).
The information collected from firewall devices includes these log messages: traffic, event,
alarm, debug (diagnostic), and statistic.
Report Server
The Report Server periodically consolidates data collected by your Log Servers from your XTM
devices, and then periodically generates reports. Once the data is on the Report Server, you
can use Report Manager to generate and see reports.
Quarantine Server
The Quarantine Server collects and isolates email messages that spamBlocker suspects to be
email spam, or emails that are suspected to have a virus.
For more information, see About the Quarantine Server on page 873.
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Introduction to Fireware XTM
WebBlocker Server
The WebBlocker Server operates with the XTM device HTTP proxy to deny user access to
specified categories of web sites. When you configure your XTM device, you specify the
categories of web sites to allow or block.
For more information on WebBlocker and the WebBlocker Server, see About WebBlocker on
page 781.
Fireware XTM Web UI and Command Line Interface
Fireware XTM Web UI and Command Line Interface are alternative management solutions that can
perform most of the same tasks as WatchGuard System Manager and Policy Manager. Some
advanced configuration options and features, such as FireCluster settings, are not available in
Fireware XTM Web UI or Command Line Interface.
For more information, see About Fireware XTM Web UI on page 34.
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Fireware XTM Web UI
Introduction to Fireware XTM
Fireware XTM with a Pro Upgrade
The Pro upgrade to Fireware XTM provides several advanced features for experienced customers,
such as server load balancing and additional SSL VPN tunnels. The features available with a Pro
upgrade depend on the type and model of your XTM device.
If you have an XTM 330, 8 Series, 1050, or 2050 device, your device has Fireware XTM with a Pro
upgrade by default. If you have an XTM 2 Series, 33, or 5 Series device, you can purchase Fireware
XTM with a Pro upgrade for your device.
Feature
FireCluster
XTM 2
Series (Pro)
*
XTM 5
XTM 3 Series and
Series (Pro)
330 (Pro)*
*
XTM 8 Series, 1050,
and 2050 (Pro)
‡
Maximum VLANs
Dynamic Routing
(OSPF and BGP)
Policy-Based Routing
Server Load
Balancing
Maximum
SSL VPN Tunnels
Multi-WAN Failover
Multi-WAN Load
Balancing
* To purchase Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade for an XTM 2, 3, or 5 Series device, contact your
local reseller.
‡ The FireCluster feature is available for XTM 330 devices but not for XTM 33 devices.
User Guide
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Introduction to Fireware XTM
Fireware XTM on an XTMv Device
A WatchGuard XTMv device runs as a virtual machine in a VMware ESXi environment. It does not run
on WatchGuard XTM device hardware. You can use Fireware XTM Web UI, WatchGuard System
Manager, and Fireware XTM Command Line Interface (CLI) to configure and monitor your WatchGuard
XTMv device. When you want to change an XTMv device configuration file, you can use any of these
programs. There are, however, several Fireware XTM features you cannot use on a WatchGuard
XTMv device.
XTMv Device Limitations
These features are not supported on WatchGuard XTMv devices:
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FireCluster
Hardware diagnostics — The CLI diagnose hardware command
Connect a USB drive to automatically create a support snapshot
Connect a USB drive to automatically restore a saved backup image
Use of the device front panel buttons to start the device in safe mode or recovery mode
You can use the CLI command restore factory-default to start the device with factory
default settings.
For information, about CLI commands, see the Fireware XTM Command Line Interface Reference on
the Product Documentation page at http://www.watchguard.com/help/documentation/.
XTMv Device Installation
You must deploy the virtual appliance in the ESXi environment before you can configure the XTMv
virtual machine.
For detailed steps to set up an XTMv device, see the WatchGuard XTMv Setup Guide available on
the Product Documentation page at http://www.watchguard.com/help/documentation/.
VMware Virtual Switch Configuration
To work correctly, some Fireware XTM networking features require that you configure the virtual
switch (vSwitch) on your network in promiscuous mode. These features are:
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Bridge mode network configuration
Network/LAN bridge
Mobile VPN with SSL with the Routed VPN Traffic setting
Fireware XTM Web UI
Introduction to Fireware XTM
FIPS Support in Fireware XTM
The Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 140-2, Security Requirements for
Cryptographic Modules (FIPS 140-2), describes the United States Federal Government requirements
for cryptographic modules.
WatchGuard XTM devices are designed meet the overall requirements for FIPS 140-2 Level 2 security,
when configured in a FIPS-compliant manner.
About FIPS Mode
You must use the Command Line Interface (CLI) to enable FIPS mode on an XTM device. When the
XTM device operates in FIPS mode, each time the device is powered on, it runs a set of self-tests
required by the FIPS 140-2 specification. If any of the tests fail, the XTM device writes a message to
the log file and shuts down.
For more information about the CLI commands, see the Command Line Interface Reference at
http://www.watchguard.com/help/documentation.
If you start the device in safe mode or recovery mode, the device does not operate in FIPS mode.
FIPS Mode Operation and Constraints
The XTM device does not operate in FIPS mode by default.
To use your XTM device in FIPS mode:
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Type the CLI command fips enable to enable FIPS mode operation.
Configure the Admin and Status administrative accounts to use passwords with a minimum of 8
characters.
When you configure VPN tunnels, you must choose only FIPS-approved authentication and
encryption algorithms (SHA-1, SHA-256, SHA-512, 3DES, AES-128, AES-192, AES-256).
When you configure VPN tunnels, you must choose Diffie-Hellman Group 2 or Group 5 for IKE
Phase 1 negotiation. Use a minimum of 1024-bits for all RSA keys.
Do not configure FireCluster for high availability.
Do not use Mobile VPN with PPTP.
Do not use PPPoE.
Do not use WatchGuard System Manager to manage the XTM device.
For access to Fireware XTM Web UI, the web browser must be configured to use only TLS 1.0
and FIPS approved cipher suites.
For network access to the CLI, telnet and SSH clients must use SSH V2.0 protocol.
To determine if the XTM device has FIPS mode enabled, type the CLI command show fips .
When you use an XTM device in FIPS mode, your use of the device is subject to these limitations. We
recommend that you consider your requirements carefully before you decide to operate your
XTM device in FIPS mode. In some environments you could be required to use a FIPS-compliant
device, but you might not have to configure the device in a FIPS-compliant manner.
User Guide
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Introduction to Fireware XTM
User Guide
20
3
Service and Support
About WatchGuard Support
WatchGuard® knows just how important support is when you must secure your network with limited
resources. Our customers require greater knowledge and assistance in a world where security is
critical. LiveSecurity® Service gives you the backup you need, with a subscription that supports you
as soon as you register your XTM device.
LiveSecurity Service
Your XTM device includes a subscription to our ground-breaking LiveSecurity Service, which you
activate online when you register your product. As soon as you activate, your LiveSecurity Service
subscription gives you access to a support and maintenance program unmatched in the industry.
LiveSecurity Service comes with the following benefits:
Hardware Warranty with Advance Hardware Replacement
An active LiveSecurity subscription extends the one-year hardware warranty that is included
with each XTM device. Your subscription also provides advance hardware replacement to
minimize downtime in case of a hardware failure. If you have a hardware failure, WatchGuard
will ship a replacement unit to you before you have to send back the original hardware.
Software Updates
Your LiveSecurity Service subscription gives you access to updates to current software and
functional enhancements for your WatchGuard products.
Technical Support
When you need assistance, our expert teams are ready to help:
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User Guide
Representatives available from 6am - 6pm Monday through Friday your local time zone*
Access to online user forums moderated by senior support engineers
21
Service and Support
Support Resources and Alerts
Your LiveSecurity Service subscription gives you access to a variety of professionally produced
instructional videos, interactive online training courses, and online tools specifically designed to
answer questions you may have about network security in general or the technical aspects of
installation, configuration, and maintenance of your WatchGuard products.
Our Rapid Response Team, a dedicated group of network security experts, monitors the
Internet to identify emerging threats. They then deliver LiveSecurity Broadcasts to tell you
specifically what you can do to address each new menace. You can customize your alert
preferences to fine-tune the kind of advice and alerts the LiveSecurity Service sends you.
LiveSecurity Service Gold
LiveSecurity Service Gold is available for companies that require 24-hour availability. This premium
support service gives expanded hours of coverage and faster response times for around-the-clock
remote support assistance. LiveSecurity Service Gold is required on each unit in your organization for
full coverage.
Service Features
LiveSecurity Service
LiveSecurity Service
Gold
Technical Support hours
6AM–6PM, Monday–
Friday*
24/7
Number of support incidents
(online or by phone)
5 per year
Unlimited
Targeted initial response time
Support incidents are
handled in the order
received, with higher
priority given to higher
severity issues.
1 hour
Interactive support forum
Yes
Yes
Software updates
Yes
Yes
Online self-help and training tools
Yes
Yes
LiveSecurity broadcasts
Yes
Yes
Installation Assistance
Optional
Optional
Three-incident support package
Optional
N/A
One-hour, single incident
priority response upgrade
Optional
N/A
Single incident after-hours upgrade
Optional
N/A
* In the Asia Pacific region, standard support hours are 9AM–9PM, Monday–Friday (GMT +8).
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Fireware XTM Web UI
Service and Support
Service Expiration
To secure your organization, we recommend that you keep your LiveSecurity subscription active. When
your subscription expires, you lose up-to-the-minute security warnings and regular software updates.
This loss can put your network at risk. Damage to your network is much more expensive than a
LiveSecurity Service subscription renewal. If you renew within 30 days, there is no reinstatement fee.
User Guide
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Service and Support
User Guide
24
4
Getting Started
Before You Begin
Before you begin the installation process, make sure you complete the tasks described in the
subsequent sections.
Note In these installation instructions, we assume your XTM device has one trusted, one
external, and one optional interface configured. To configure additional interfaces on
your device, use the configuration tools and procedures described in the Network
Setup and Configuration topics.
Verify Basic Components
Make sure that you have these items:
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A computer with a 10/100BaseT Ethernet network interface card and a web browser installed
A WatchGuard XTM device
A serial cable (blue)
One crossover Ethernet cable (red)
One straight Ethernet cable (green)
Power cable or AC power adapter
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25
Getting Started
Get an XTM Device Feature Key
To enable all of the features on your XTM device, you must register the device on the WatchGuard web
site and get your feature key. If you register your XTM device before you use the Quick Setup Wizard,
you can paste a copy of your feature key in the wizard. The wizard then applies it to your device. If you
do not paste your feature key into the wizard, you can still finish the wizard. Until you add your feature
key, the XTM device allows only one connection to an external network, such as the Internet.
You also get a new feature key to enable optional products or services when you purchase them. After
you register your XTM device or any new feature, you can synchronize your XTM device feature key
with the feature keys kept in your registration profile on the WatchGuard web site. You can use
Fireware XTM Web UI at any time to get your feature key.
To learn how to activate your XTM device and get a feature key, see Get a Feature Key for Your
XTM Device on page 58.
Gather Network Addresses
We recommend that you record your network information before and after you configure your XTM
device. Use the first table below for your network IP addresses before you put the device into
operation. For information about how to identify your network IP addresses, see Identify Your Network
Settings on page 38.
WatchGuard uses slash notation to show the subnet mask. For more information, see About Slash
Notation on page 5. For more information on IP addresses, see About IP Addresses on page 3.
Table 1: Network IP addresses without the XTM device
Wide Area Network
_____._____._____._____ / ____
Default Gateway
_____._____._____._____
Local Area Network
_____._____._____._____ / ____
Secondary Network (if applicable) _____._____._____._____ / ____
Public Server(s) (if applicable)
_____._____._____._____
_____._____._____._____
_____._____._____._____
Use the second table for your network IP addresses after you put the XTM device into operation.
External interface
Connects to the external network (typically the Internet) that is not trusted.
Trusted interface
Connects to the private LAN (local area network) or internal network that you want to protect.
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Fireware XTM Web UI
Getting Started
Optional interface(s)
Usually connects to a mixed trust area of your network, such as servers in a DMZ (demilitarized
zone). You can use optional interfaces to create zones in the network with different levels of
access.
Table 2: Network IP addresses with the XTM device
Default Gateway
_____._____._____._____
External Interface
_____._____._____._____/ ____
Trusted Interface
_____._____._____._____ / ____
Optional Interface
_____._____._____._____ / ____
Secondary Network (if applicable) _____._____._____._____ / ____
Select a Firewall Configuration Mode
You must decide how you want to connect the XTM device to your network before you run the Quick
Setup Wizard. The way you connect the device controls the interface configuration. When you connect
the device, you select the configuration mode—routed or drop-in—that is best suited to your current
network.
Many networks operate best with mixed routing configuration, but we recommend the drop-in mode if:
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You have already assigned a large number of static IP addresses and do not want to change
your network configuration.
You cannot configure the computers on your trusted and optional networks that have public IP
addresses with private IP addresses.
This table and the descriptions below the table show three conditions that can help you to select a
firewall configuration mode.
Mixed Routing Mode
Drop-in Mode
All of the XTM device interfaces are on different
networks.
All of the XTM device interfaces are on
the same network and have the same IP
address.
Trusted and optional interfaces must be on different
networks. Each interface has an IP address on its
network.
The computers on the trusted or optional
interfaces can have a public IP address.
Use static NAT (network address translation) to map
public addresses to private addresses behind the trusted
or optional interfaces.
NAT is not necessary because the
computers that have public access have
public IP addresses.
For more information about drop-in mode, see Drop-In Mode on page 112.
For more information about mixed routing mode, see Mixed Routing Mode on page 97.
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Getting Started
The XTM device also supports a third configuration mode called bridge mode. This mode is less
commonly used. For more information about bridge mode, see Bridge Mode on page 118.
Note You can use the Web Setup Wizard or the WSM Quick Setup Wizard to create your
initial configuration. When you run the Web Setup Wizard, the firewall configuration is
automatically set to mixed routing mode. When you run the WSM Quick Setup
Wizard, you can configure the device in mixed routing mode or drop-in mode.
You can now start the Quick Setup Wizard. For more information, see About the Quick Setup Wizard
on page 28.
About the Quick Setup Wizard
You can use the Quick Setup Wizard to create a basic configuration for your XTM device. The device
uses this basic configuration file when it starts for the first time. This enables it to operate as a basic
firewall. You can use this same procedure at any time to reset the device to a new basic configuration.
This is helpful for system recovery.
When you configure your XTM device with the Quick Setup Wizard, you set only the basic policies
(TCP and UDP outgoing, FTP packet filter, ping, and WatchGuard) and interface IP addresses. If you
have more software applications and network traffic for the device to examine, you must:
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Configure the policies on the XTM device to let the necessary traffic through
Set the approved hosts and properties for each policy
Balance the requirement to protect your network against the requirements of your users to
connect to external resources
For instructions to run the wizard from a web browser, see Run the Web Setup Wizard on page 29.
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Fireware XTM Web UI
Getting Started
Run the Web Setup Wizard
You can use the Web Setup Wizard to set up a basic configuration on any WatchGuard XTM device.
The Web Setup Wizard automatically configures the XTM device for mixed routing mode.
To use the Web Setup Wizard, you must make a direct network connection to the XTM device and use
a web browser to start the wizard. When you configure your XTM device, it uses DHCP to send a new
IP address to your computer.
Before you start the Web Setup Wizard, make sure you:
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Register your XTM device with LiveSecurity Service
Store a copy of your XTM device feature key in a text file on your computer
Start the Web Setup Wizard
1. Use the red crossover Ethernet cable that ships with your XTM device to connect the
management computer to interface number 1 of your XTM device. This is the trusted interface.
2. Connect the power cord to the XTM device power input and to a power source.
3. Start the XTM device in factory default mode. This is also known as safe mode.
For more information, see Reset an XTM Device to a Previous or New Configuration on page 54.
4. Make sure your computer is configured to accept a DHCP-assigned IP address.
If your computer uses Windows XP:
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In the Windows Start menu, select All Programs > Control Panel > Network
Connections > Local Area Connections.
Click Properties.
Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties.
Make sure Obtain an IP Address Automatically is selected.
For more detailed instructions, see Identify Your Network Settings on page 38.
5. If your browser uses an HTTP proxy server, you must temporarily disable the HTTP proxy
setting in your browser.
For more information, see Disable the HTTP Proxy in the Browser on page 42.
6. Open a web browser and type the factory default IP address of the trusted interface (interface
1), https://10.0.1.1:8080 .
If you use Internet Explorer, make sure you type https:// at the start of the IP address. This
opens a secure HTTP connection between your management computer and the XTM device.
The Web Setup Wizard starts automatically.
7. Log in with the default administrator account credentials:
Username: admin
Passphrase: readwrite
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29
Getting Started
8. Complete the subsequent screens of the wizard.
The Web Setup Wizard includes this set of dialog boxes. Some dialog boxes appear only if you
select certain configuration methods:
Login
Log in with the default administrator account credentials. For Username, select admin. For
Passphrase, use the passphrase: readwrite.
Welcome
The first screen tells you about the wizard.
Select a configuration type
Select whether to create a new configuration or restore a configuration from a saved
backup image.
License agreement
You must accept the license agreement to continue with the wizard.
Retrieve Feature Key, Apply Feature Key, Feature key options
If your XTM device does not already have a feature key the wizard provides options for you
to download or import a feature key. The wizard can only download a feature key if it has a
connection to the Internet. If you have downloaded a local copy of the feature key to your
computer, you can paste that into the setup wizard.
If the XTM device does not have an Internet connection while you run the wizard, and you
did not register the device and download the feature key to your computer before you
started the wizard, you can choose to not apply a feature key.
Note If you do not apply a feature key in the Web Setup Wizard you must register the
device and apply the feature key in the Fireware XTM Web UI. Functionality of the
device is limited until you apply a feature key.
Configure the External Interface of your Firebox
Select the method your ISP uses to assign your IP address. The choices are DHCP,
PPPoE or Static.
Configure the External Interface for DHCP
Type your DHCP identification as supplied by your ISP.
Configure the External Interface for PPPoE
Type your PPPoE information as supplied by your ISP.
Configure the External Interface with a static IP address
Type your static IP address information as supplied by your ISP.
Configure the DNS and WINS Servers
Type the Domain DNS and WINS server addresses you want the XTM device to use.
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Fireware XTM Web UI
Getting Started
Configure the Trusted Interface of the Firebox
Type the IP address of the trusted interface. Optionally, you can enable the DHCP server
for the trusted interface.
Create passphrases for your device
Type a passphrase for the status (read only) and admin (read/write) management accounts
on the XTM device.
Enable remote management
Enable remote management if you want to manage this device from the external interface.
Add contact information for your device
You can type a device name, location, and contact information to save management
information for this device. By default, the device name is set to the model number of your
XTM device. We recommend that you choose a unique name that you can use to easily
identify this device, especially if you use remote management.
Set the Time Zone
Select the time zone where the XTM device is located.
The Quick Setup Wizard is complete
After you complete the wizard, the XTM device restarts.
If you leave the Web Setup Wizard idle for 15 minutes or more, you must go back to Step 3 and start again.
Note If you change the IP address of the trusted interface, you must change your network
settings to make sure your IP address matches the subnet of the trusted network
before you connect to the XTM device. If you use DHCP, restart your computer. If you
use static addressing, see Use a Static IP Address on page 41.
After the Wizard Finishes
After you complete all screens in the wizard, the XTM device is configured with a basic configuration
that includes four policies (TCP outgoing, FTP packet filter, ping, and WatchGuard) and the interface
IP addresses you specified. You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to expand or change the configuration
for your XTM device.
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Wizard is finished, see Complete Your Installation on page 36.
For information about how to connect to Fireware XTM Web UI, see Connect to Fireware
XTM Web UI on page 32.
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Getting Started
If You Have Problems with the Wizard
If the Web Setup Wizard is unable to install the Fireware XTM OS on the XTM device, the wizard times
out. If you have problems with the wizard, check these things:
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The Fireware XTM OS file you downloaded from the LiveSecurity web site could be corrupted.
For an XTM 5 Series, 8 Series, or 1050 device, if the software image is corrupted, this message
can appear on the LCD interface: File Truncate Error.
If this message appears, download the software again and try the wizard once more.
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If you use Internet Explorer 6, clear the file cache in your web browser and try again.
To clear the cache, in Internet Explorer select Tools > Internet Options > Delete Files.
Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI
To connect to Fireware XTM Web UI, you use a web browser to go to the IP address of the XTM
device trusted or optional interface over the correct port number. Connections to the Web UI are
always encrypted with HTTPS; the same high-strength encryption used by banking and shopping web
sites. You must use https when you type the URL into your browser’s address bar instead of http.
By default, the port used for the Web UI is 8080. The URL to connect to the Web UI in your browser is:
https://<firebox-ip-address>:8080
Where <firebox-ip-address> is the IP address assigned to the trusted or optional interface. When you
make this connection, the browser loads the login prompt. The default URL for a WatchGuard XTM
device is:
https://10.0.1.1:8080
You can change the IP address of the trusted network to a different IP address. For more information,
see Common Interface Settings on page 120.
For example, to use the default URL to connect to an XTM 2 Series device:
1. Open your web browser and go to https://10.0.1.1:8080 .
A security certificate notification appears in the browser.
2. When you see the certificate warning, click Continue to this website (IE 7) or Add Exception
(Firefox 3).
This warning appears because the certificate the XTM device uses is signed by the
WatchGuard certificate authority, which is not in the list of trusted authorities on your browser.
Note This warning appears each time you connect to the XTM device unless you
permanently accept the certificate, or generate and import a certificate for the device
to use. For more information, see About Certificates on page 563.
3. From the Username drop-down list, select the user name.
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4. In the Passphrase text box, type the passphrase.
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If you selected the Username admin, type the configuration (read-write) passphrase.
If you selected the Username status, type the status (read-only) passphrase.
Note By default, the XTM device configuration only allows connections to Fireware
XTM Web UI from the trusted and optional networks. To change the configuration to
allow connections to the Web UI from the external network, see Connect to Fireware
XTM Web UI from an External Network on page 33.
Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI from an
External Network
The Fireware XTM device configuration has a policy called WatchGuard Web UI. This policy controls
which XTM device interfaces can connect to Fireware XTM Web UI. By default, this policy only allows
connections from Any-Trusted and Any-Optional networks. If you want to allow access to the Web
UI from the external network, you must edit the WatchGuard Web UI policy and add Any-External to
the From list.
In Fireware XTM Web UI:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
Double-click the WatchGuard Web UI policy to edit it.
Select the Policy tab.
In the From section, click Add.
Select Any-External.
Click OK.
Click Save.
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Getting Started
About Fireware XTM Web UI
With Fireware XTM Web UI, you can monitor and manage any device that runs Fireware XTM OS. You
do not have to install any extra software on your computer. The only software you must have is a
browser with support for Adobe Flash Player v9 or later.
Because there is no software to install, you can use the Web UI from any computer that has TCP/IP
connectivity and a supported browser. This means you can administer your XTM device from a
computer with Windows, Linux, Mac OS, or any other platform, as long as it has a supported browser
with Adobe Flash Player v9 or later and network connectivity.
The Web UI is a real-time management tool. This means that when you use the Web UI to make
changes to a device, the changes you make generally take effect immediately. With the Web UI, you
do not build a list of many changes in a locally-stored configuration file that are later sent to the device
all at once. This is different from Fireware XTM Policy Manager, which is an off-line configuration tool.
Changes you make to a locally-stored configuration file with Policy Manager do not take effect until you
save the configuration file to the device.
Note You must complete the Quick Setup Wizard before you can see Fireware XTM Web
UI. For more information, see Run the Web Setup Wizard on page 29. You must also
use an account with full administrative access privileges to see and change the
configuration pages.
At the left side of Fireware XTM Web UI is the main menu navigation bar that you use to select a set of
configuration pages.
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All items in the navigation bar contain secondary menu items that you use to configure the properties of
that feature.
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To see these secondary menu items, select a top level menu item.
For example, if you select Authentication, these secondary menu items appear: Servers,
Settings, Users and Groups, Web Server Certificate, Single Sign-On, and Terminal
Services.
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To hide the secondary menu items, select the top level menu item again.
The first item in the navigation bar is the Dashboard. The Dashboard menu includes two pages:
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System
Subscription Services
When you first connect to Fireware XTM Web UI, the System page automatically appears. To return to
the System page from another place in the Web UI, select Dashboard > System.
Limitations of Fireware XTM Web UI
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI, WatchGuard System Manager, and Fireware XTM Command
Line Interface (CLI) to configure and monitor your Fireware XTM device. When you want to change a
device configuration file, you can use any of these programs. There are, however, several device
configuration changes you cannot make with Fireware XTM Web UI.
Some of the tasks you can complete in Policy Manager, but not with the Web UI include:
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Export a certificate or see details about a certificate (You can only import certificates)
Enable diagnostic logging or change diagnostic log levels
Change the logging of default packet handling options
Enable or disable notification of branch office VPN events
Add or remove static ARP entries in the device ARP table
Manually get the Mobile VPN with SSL configuration file
Get the encrypted (.wgx) Mobile VPN with IPSec end-user client configuration (You can only
get the equivalent, but unencrypted, .ini file)
Edit the name of a policy
Add a custom address to a policy
Use a host name (DNS lookup) to add an IP address to a policy
Use role-based administration (also known as role-based access control, or RBAC)
View or change the configuration of a device that is a member of a FireCluster
The group of applications that comes with WatchGuard System Manager includes many other tools for
monitoring and reporting. Some of the functions provided by HostWatch, Log and Report Manager, and
WSM are also not available in the Web UI.
To use some Fireware XTM features related to WatchGuard servers, you must install WatchGuard
Server Center. You do not have to use WatchGuard System Manager to install WatchGuard Server
Center. You can use WatchGuard Server Center to configure these WatchGuard servers:
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Management Server
Log Server
Report Server
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Getting Started
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Quarantine Server
WebBlocker Server
To learn how to configure features not supported by the Web UI or how to use WatchGuard Server
Center, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager v11 Help at
http://www.watchguard.com/help/docs/wsm/11_5-XTM/en-US/index.html.
To learn more about the CLI, see the WatchGuard Command Line Interface Reference at
http://www.watchguard.com/help/documentation.
Complete Your Installation
After you are finished with the Web Setup Wizard , you must complete the installation of your XTM
device on your network.
1. Put the XTM device in its permanent physical location.
2. Make sure the gateway of management computer and the rest of the trusted network is the IP
address of the trusted interface of your XTM device.
3. To connect to your XTM device with Fireware XTM Web UI, open a web browser and type:
https://10.0.1.1:8080 . This is the default IP address of the trusted interface.
For more information, see Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI on page 32.
4. If you use a routed configuration, make sure you change the default gateway on all the
computers that connect to your XTM device to match the IP address of the XTM device trusted
interface.
5. Customize your configuration as necessary for the security purposes of your business.
For more information, see the subsequent Customize your security policy section.
Customize Your Security Policy
Your security policy controls who can get into and out of your network, and where they can go in your
network. The configuration file of your XTM device manages the security policies.
When you completed the Quick Setup Wizard, the configuration file that you made was only a basic
configuration. You can modify this configuration to align your security policy with the business and
security requirements of your company. You can add packet filter and proxy policies to set what you let
in and out of your network. Each policy can have an effect on your network. The policies that increase
your network security can decrease access to your network. And the policies that increase access to
your network can put the security of your network at risk. For more information on policies, see About
Policies on page 343.
For a new installation, we recommend that you use only packet filter policies until all your systems
operate correctly. As necessary, you can add proxy policies.
About LiveSecurity Service
Your XTM device includes a subscription to LiveSecurity Service. Your subscription:
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Makes sure that you get the newest network protection with the newest software upgrades
Gives solutions to your problems with full technical support resources
Fireware XTM Web UI
Getting Started
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Prevents service interruptions with messages and configuration help for the newest security
problems
Helps you to find out more about network security through training resources
Extends your network security with software and other features
Extends your hardware warranty with advanced replacement
For more information about LiveSecurity Service, see About WatchGuard Support on page 21.
Additional Installation Topics
Connect to an XTM Device with Firefox v3
Web browsers use certificates to ensure that the device on the other side of an HTTPS connection is
the device you expect. Users see a warning when a certificate is self-signed, or when there is a
mismatch between the requested IP address or host name and the IP address or host name in the
certificate. By default, your XTM device uses a self-signed certificate that you can use to set up your
network quickly. However, when users connect to the XTM device with a web browser, a Secure
Connection Failed warning message appears.
To avoid this warning message, we recommend that you add a valid certificate signed by a CA
(Certificate Authority) to your configuration. This CA certificate can also be used to improve the
security of VPN authentication. For more information on the use of certificates with XTM devices, see
About Certificates on page 563.
If you continue to use the default self-signed certificate, you can add an exception for the XTM device
on each client computer. Current versions of most Web browsers provide a link in the warning
message that the user can click to allow the connection. If your organization uses Mozilla Firefox v3,
your users must add a permanent certificate exception before they can connect to the XTM device.
Actions that require an exception include:
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About User Authentication
Install and Connect the Mobile VPN with SSL Client
Run the Web Setup Wizard
Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI
Common URLs that require an exception include:
https://IP address or host name of an XTM device interface:8080
https://IP address or host name of an XTM device interface:4100
https://IP address or host name of an XTM device:4100/sslvpn.html
Add a Certificate Exception to Mozilla Firefox v3
If you add an exception in Firefox v3 for the XTM device certificate, the warning message does not
appear on subsequent connections. You must add a separate exception for each IP address, host
name, and port used to connect to the XTM device. For example, an exception that uses a host name
does not operate properly if you connect with an IP address. Similarly, an exception that specifies port
4100 does not apply to a connection where no port is specified.
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Getting Started
Note A certificate exception does not make your computer less secure. All network traffic
between your computer and the XTM device remains securely encrypted with SSL.
There are two methods to add an exception. You must be able to send traffic to the XTM device to add
an exception.
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Click the link in the Secure Connection Failed warning message.
Use the Firefox v3 Certificate Manager to add exceptions.
In the Secure Connection Failed warning message:
1. Click Or you can add an exception.
2. Click Add Exception.
The Add Security Exception dialog box appears.
3. Click Get Certificate.
4. Select the Permanently store this exception check box.
5. Click Confirm Security Exception.
To add multiple exceptions:
1. In Firefox, select Tools > Options.
The Options dialog box appears.
2. Select Advanced.
3. Click the Encryption tab, then click View Certificates.
The Certificate Manager dialog box opens.
4. Click the Servers tab, then click Add Exception.
5. In the Location text box, type the URL to connect to the XTM device. The most common URLs
are listed above.
6. When the certificate information appears in the Certificate Status area, click Confirm
Security Exception.
7. Click OK.
8. To add more exceptions, repeat Steps 4–6.
Identify Your Network Settings
To configure your XTM device, you must know some information about your network. You can use this
section to learn how to identify your network settings.
For an overview of network basics, see About Networks and Network Security on page 1.
Network Addressing Requirements
Before you can begin installation, you must know how your computer gets an IP address. Your Internet
Service Provider (ISP) or corporate network administrator can give you this information. Use the same
method to connect the XTM device to the Internet that you use for your computer. For example, if you
connect your computer directly to the Internet with a broadband connection, you can put the XTM
device between your computer and the Internet and use the network configuration from your computer
to configure the XTM device external interface.
You can use a static IP address, DHCP, or PPPoE to configure the XTM device external interface. For
more information about network addressing, see Configure an External Interface on page 97.
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Your computer must have a web browser. You use the web browser to configure and manage the XTM
device. Your computer must have an IP address on the same network as the XTM device.
In the factory default configuration, the XTM device assigns your computer an IP address with DHCP
(Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol). You can set your computer to use DHCP and then you can
connect to the device to manage it. You can also give your computer a static IP address that is on the
same network as the trusted IP address of the XTM device. For more information, see Set Your
Computer to Connect to Your XTM Device on page 40.
Find Your TCP/IP Properties
To learn about the properties of your network, look at the TCP/IP properties of your computer or any
other computer on the network. You must have this information to install your XTM device:
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IP address
Subnet mask
Default gateway
Whether your computer has a static or dynamic IP address
IP addresses of primary and secondary DNS servers
Note If your ISP assigns your computer an IP address that starts with 10, 192.168, or
172.16 to 172.31, then your ISP uses NAT (Network Address Translation) and your IP
address is private. We recommend that you get a public IP address for your XTM
device external IP address. If you use a private IP address, you can have problems
with some features, such as virtual private networking.
To find the TCP/IP properties for your computer operating system, use the instructions in the
subsequent sections .
Find Your TCP/IP Properties on Microsoft Windows Vista
1. Select Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt.
The Command Prompt dialog box appears.
2. At the command prompt, type ipconfig /all and press Enter.
3. Write down the values that you see for the primary network adapter.
Find Your TCP/IP Properties on Microsoft Windows 2000, Windows 2003, and
Windows XP
1. Select Start > All Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt.
The Command Prompt dialog box appears.
2. At the command prompt, type ipconfig /all and press Enter.
3. Write down the values that you see for the primary network adapter.
Find Your TCP/IP Properties on Microsoft Windows NT
1. Select Start > Programs > Command Prompt.
The Command Prompt dialog box appears.
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Getting Started
2. At the command prompt, type ipconfig /all and press Enter.
3. Write down the values that you see for the primary network adapter.
Find Your TCP/IP Properties on Macintosh OS 9
1. Select the Apple menu > Control Panels > TCP/IP.
The TCP/IP dialog box appears.
2. Write down the values that you see for the primary network adapter.
Find Your TCP/IP Properties on Macintosh OS X 10.5
1. Select the Apple menu > System Preferences, or select the icon from the Dock.
The System Preferences dialog box appears.
2. Click the Network icon.
The Network preference pane appears.
3. Select the network adapter you use to connect to the Internet.
4. Write down the values that you see for the network adapter.
Find Your TCP/IP Properties on Other Operating Systems (Unix, Linux)
1. Read your operating system guide to find the TCP/IP settings.
2. Write down the values that you see for the primary network adapter.
Find PPPoE Settings
Many ISPs use Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) because it is easy to use with a dial-up
infrastructure. If your ISP uses PPPoE to assign IP addresses, you must get this information:
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Login name
Domain (optional)
Password
Set Your Computer to Connect to Your XTM Device
Before you can use the Web Setup Wizard, you must configure your computer to connect to your XTM
device. You can set your network interface card to use a static IP address, or use DHCP to get an IP
address automatically.
Use DHCP
If your computer does not use the Windows XP operating system, read the operating system help for
instructions on how to set your computer to use DHCP.
To configure a computer with Windows XP to use DHCP:
1. Select Start > Control Panel.
The Control Panel window appears.
2. Double-click Network Connections.
3. Double-click Local Area Connection.
The Local Area Connection Status window appears.
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Fireware XTM Web UI
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4. Click Properties.
The Local Area Connection Properties window appears.
5. Double-click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).
The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box appears.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Select Obtain an IP address automatically and Obtain DNS server address automatically.
Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.
Click OK to close the Local Area Network Connection Properties dialog box.
Close the Local Area Connection Status, Network Connections, and Control Panel
windows.
Your computer is ready to connect to the XTM device.
10. When the XTM device is ready, open a web browser.
11. In the browser address bar, type the IP address of your XTM device and press Enter.
12. If a security certificate warning appears, accept the certificate.
The Quick Setup Wizard starts.
Note The default IP address for a WatchGuard XTM device is https://10.0.1.1/ .
13. Run the Web Setup Wizard.
Use a Static IP Address
If your computer does not use the Windows XP operating system, read the operating system help for
instructions on how to set your computer to use a static IP address. You must select an IP address on
the same subnet as the trusted network.
To configure a computer with Windows XP to use a static IP address:
1. Select Start > Control Panel.
The Control Panel window appears.
2. Double-click Network Connections.
3. Double-click Local Area Connection.
The Local Area Connection Status window appears.
4. Click Properties.
The Local Area Connection Properties window appears.
5. Double-click Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).
The Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box appears.
6. Select Use the following IP address.
7. In the IP address field, type an IP address on the same network as the XTM device trusted
interface.
For example, you can set the IP address on your computer to 10.0.1.2 .
The default IP address for the XTM device trusted interface is 10.0.1.1.
8. In the Subnet Mask field, type 255.255.255.0 .
9. In the Default Gateway field, type the IP address of the XTM device trusted interface,
10.0.1.1 .
10. Click OK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties dialog box.
11. Click OK to close the Local Area Network Connection Properties dialog box.
12. Close the Local Area Connection Status, Network Connections, and Control Panel
windows.
Your computer is ready to connect to the XTM device.
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Getting Started
13. When the XTM device is ready, open a web browser.
14. In the browser address bar, type the IP address of your XTM device and press Enter.
Note The default IP address for a WatchGuard XTM device is https://10.0.1.1/ .
15. If a security certificate warning appears, accept the certificate.
The Quick Setup Wizard starts.
16. Run the Web Setup Wizard.
Disable the HTTP Proxy in the Browser
Many web browsers are configured to use an HTTP proxy server to increase the download speed of
web pages. To manage or configure the XTM device with the Web UI, your browser must connect
directly to the device. If you use an HTTP proxy server, you must temporarily disable the HTTP proxy
setting in your browser. You can enable the HTTP proxy server setting in your browser again after you
set up the XTM device.
Use these instructions to disable the HTTP proxy in Firefox, Safari, or Internet Explorer. For other
browsers, use the browser Help system to find the necessary information. Many browsers
automatically disable the HTTP proxy feature.
Disable the HTTP proxy in Internet Explorer 6.x, 7.x, or 8.x
1. Open Internet Explorer.
2. Select Tools > Internet Options.
The Internet Options dialog box appears.
3. Select the Connections tab.
4. Click LAN Settings.
The Local Area Network (LAN) Settings dialog box appears.
5. Clear the Use a proxy server for your LAN check box.
6. Click OK to close the Local Area Network (LAN) Settings dialog box.
7. Click OK to close the Internet Options dialog box.
Disable the HTTP proxy in Firefox 2.x or 3.x
1. Open Firefox.
2. Select Tools > Options.
The Options dialog box appears.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Click Advanced.
Select the Network tab.
Click Settings.
Click Connection Settings.
The Connection Settings dialog box appears.
7. For Firefox 2.x, make sure the Direct Connection to the Internet option is selected.
For Firefox 3.x, make sure the No proxy option is selected.
8. Click OK to close the Connection Settings dialog box.
9. Click OK to close the Options dialog box.
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Disable the HTTP proxy in Safari 2.0
1. Open Safari.
2. Select Preferences.
The Safari preferences dialog ox appears.
3. Click Advanced.
4. Click Change Settings.
The System Preference dialog box appears.
5. Clear the Web Proxy (HTTP) check box.
6. Click Apply Now.
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Getting Started
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5
Configuration and Management
Basics
About Basic Configuration and Management Tasks
After your XTM device is installed on your network and is set up with a basic configuration file, you can
start to add custom configuration settings. The topics in this section help you complete these basic
management and maintenance tasks.
Make a Backup of the XTM Device Image
An XTM device backup image is an encrypted and saved copy of the flash disk image from the XTM
device flash disk. It includes the XTM device OS, configuration file, licenses, passphrases,
DHCP leases, and certificates. The backup image also includes any event notification settings that
you configured in Traffic Monitor. You can save a backup image to your computer or to a directory on
your network or other connected storage device.
We recommend that you regularly make backup files of the XTM device image. We also recommend
that you create a backup image of the XTM device before you make significant changes to your
configuration file, or before you upgrade your XTM device or its OS. You can use Fireware XTM Web
UI to make a backup of your device image.
1. Select System > Backup Image.
2. Type and confirm an encryption key. This key is used to encrypt the backup file. If you lose or
forget this encryption key, you cannot restore the backup file.
3. Click Backup.
4. Select a location to save the backup image file and type a filename.
The backup image is saved to the location you specify.
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Restore an XTM Device Backup Image
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to restore a previously created backup image to your XTM device.
If your device is centrally managed, you must open Policy Manager for your device from your
Management Server to restore a backup image to your device.
For more information about Centralized Management and how to update a Fully Managed device, see
Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help.
Note After the backup image is successfully restored, the device must reboot.
To restore the backup image:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Select System > Restore Image.
Click Restore Image.
Click Browse.
Select the saved backup image file. Click Open.
Click Restore.
Type the encryption key you used when you created the backup image.
The XTM device restores the backup image. It restarts and uses the backup image.
Wait for two minutes before you connect to the XTM device again.
If you cannot successfully restore your XTM device image, you can reset the XTM device. Depending
on the XTM device model you have, you can reset a XTM device to its factory-default settings or rerun
the Quick Setup Wizard to create a new configuration.
For more information, see Reset an XTM Device to a Previous or New Configuration on page 54.
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Use a USB Drive for System Backup and Restore
A WatchGuard XTM device backup image is a copy of the flash disk image from the XTM device that
is encrypted and saved. The backup image file includes the XTM device OS, configuration file, feature
key, and certificates.
For XTM devices, you can attach a USB drive or storage device to the USB port on the XTM device for
system backup and restore procedures. When you save a system backup image to a connected USB
drive, you can restore your XTM device to a known state more quickly.
About the USB Drive
The USB drive must be formatted with the FAT or FAT32 file system. If the USB drive has more than
one partition, Fireware XTM only uses the first partition. Each system backup image can be as large as
30 MB. We recommend you use a USB drive large enough to store several backup images.
Save a Backup Image to a Connected USB Drive
For this procedure, a USB drive must be connected to your XTM device.
1. Select System > USB Drive.
The Backup/Restore to USB drive page appears.
2. In the New backup image section, type a Filename for the backup image.
3. Type and confirm an Encryption key. This key is used to encrypt the backup file. If you lose or
forget this encryption key, you cannot restore the backup file.
4. Click Save to USB Drive.
The saved image appears on the list of Available device backup images after the save is complete.
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Restore a Backup Image from a Connected USB Drive
For this procedure, a USB drive must be connected to your XTM device.
1. Select System > USB Drive.
The Backup/Restore to USB Drive page appears.
2.
3.
4.
5.
From the Available backup images list, select a backup image file to restore.
Click Restore Selected Image.
Type the Encryption key you used when you created the backup image.
Click Restore.
The XTM device restores the backup image. It restarts and uses the backup image.
Automatically Restore a Backup Image from a USB Drive
If a USB drive (storage device) is connected to a WatchGuard XTM device in recovery mode, the
device can automatically restore a previously backed up image from the USB drive. To use the autorestore feature, you must first select a backup image on the USB drive as the one you want to use for
the restore process. You must use Fireware XTM Web UI, Firebox System Manager, or Fireware XTM
command line interface to select this backup image.
You can use the same backup image for more than one device in the same WatchGuard XTM model
series. For example, you can use a backup image saved from an XTM 530 as the backup image for any
other XTM 5 Series device.
XTM Compatibility This feature is not supported on XTMv devices.
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Select the Backup Image to Auto-Restore
1. Select System > USB Drive.
The Backup/Restore to USB Drive page appears. The saved backup image files appear in a list at
the top of the page.
2. From the Available backup images list, select a backup image file.
3. Click Use Selected Image for Auto-Restore.
4. Type the Encryption key used to create the backup image. Click OK.
The XTM device saves a copy of the selected backup image on the USB drive.
If you had a previous auto-restore image saved, the auto-restore.fxi file is replaced with a copy of the
backup image you selected.
WarningIf your XTM device has used a version of the Fireware XTM OS before v11.3,
you must update the recovery mode software image on the device to v11.3 for
the auto-restore feature to operate. See the Fireware XTM 11.3 Release Notes
for upgrade instructions.
Restore the Backup Image for an XTM 330, 5 Series, 8 Series, or XTM
1050 Device
1. Connect the USB drive with the auto-restore image to a USB interface on the XTM device.
2. Power off the XTM device.
3. Press the up arrow on the device front panel while you power on the device.
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Configuration and Management Basics
4. Continue to hold down the up arrow button until Recovery Mode starting appears on the LCD
display.
The device restores the backup image from the USB drive, and automatically uses the restored
image after it reboots.
If the USB drive does not contain a valid auto-restore image for this XTM device model family, the
device does not reboot and is instead started in recovery mode. If you restart the device again, it uses
your current configuration. When the device is in recovery mode, you can use the WSM Quick Setup
Wizard to create a new basic configuration.
Restore the Backup Image for an XTM 33 or XTM 2 Series Device
1. Attach the USB drive with the auto-restore image to a USB interface on the XTM 2 Series
device.
2. Disconnect the power supply.
3. Press and hold the Reset button on the back of the device.
4. Continue to hold down the Reset button and connect the power supply.
5. After 10 seconds, release the Reset button.
The device restores the backup image from the USB drive and automatically uses the restored
image after it reboots.
If the USB drive does not contain a valid 2 Series auto-restore image, the auto-restore fails and the
device does not reboot. If the auto-restore process is not successful, you must disconnect and
reconnect the power supply to start the 2 Series device with factory-default settings.
For information about factory default settings, see About Factory-Default Settings.
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USB Drive Directory Structure
The USB drive contains directories for backup images, configuration files, feature key, certificates and
diagnostics information for your XTM device.
When you save a backup image to a USB drive, the file is saved in a directory on the USB drive with
the same name as the serial number of your XTM device. This means that you can store backup
images for more than one XTM device on the same USB drive. When you restore a backup image, the
software automatically retrieves the list of backup images stored in the directory associated with that
device.
For each device, the directory structure on the USB device is as follows, where sn is replaced by the
serial number of the XTM device:
\sn\flash-images\
\sn\configs\
\sn\feature-keys\
\sn\certs\
The backup images for a device is saved in the \sn\flash-images directory. The backup image file
saved in the flash-images directory contains the Fireware XTM OS, the device configuration, feature
keys, and certificates. The \configs , \feature-keys and \certs subdirectories are not used for any
USB drive backup and restore operations. You can use these to store additional feature keys,
configuration files, and certificates for each device.
There is also one directory at the root level of the directory structure which is used to store the
designated auto-restore backup image.
\auto-restore\
When you designate a backup image to use for automatic restore, a copy of the selected backup image
file is encrypted and stored in the \auto-restore directory with the file name auto-restore.fxi . You
can have only one auto-restore image saved on each USB drive. You can use the same auto-restore
backup image for more than one device, if both devices are the same WatchGuard XTM model family.
For example, you can use an auto-restore image saved from an XTM 530 as the auto-restore image for
any other XTM 5 Series device.
You must use the System > USB Drive command to create an auto-restore image. If you manually
copy and rename a backup image and store it in this directory, the automatic restore process does not
operate correctly.
There is also another directory at the root level of the directory structure which is used to store the
support snapshot that can be used by WatchGuard technical support to help diagnose issues with your
XTM device.
\wgdiag\
For more information about the support snapshot, see Use a USB Drive to Save a Support Snapshot
on page 52.
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Save a Backup Image to a USB Drive Connected to Your
Computer
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to save a backup image to a USB drive or storage device
connected to your computer. If you save the configuration files for multiple devices to the same USB
drive, you can attach the USB drive to any of those XTM devices for recovery.
If you use the System > USB Drive command to do this, the files are automatically saved in the
proper directory on the USB drive. If you use the System > Backup Image command, or if you use
Windows or another operating system to manually copy configuration files to the USB device, you
must manually create the correct serial number and flash-image directories for each device (if they do
not already exist).
Before You Begin
Before you begin, it important that you understand the USB Drive Directory Structure used by the USB
backup and restore feature. If you do not save the backup image in the correct location, the device
cannot find it when you attach the USB drive to the device.
Save the Backup Image
To save a backup image to a USB drive connected to your computer, follow the steps in Make a
Backup of the XTM Device Image. When you select the location to save the file, select the drive letter
of the USB drive attached to your computer. If you want the backup image you save to be recognized
by the XTM device when you attach the USB drive, make sure to save the backup in the \flashimages folder, in the directory that is named with the serial number of your XTM device.
For example, if your XTM device serial number is 70A10003C0A3D , save the backup image file to this
location on the USB drive:
\70A10003C0A3D\flash-images\
Designate a Backup Image for Auto-restore
To designate a backup image for use with the auto-restore feature, you must connect the USB drive to
the device and designate the backup image to use for auto-restore, as described in Use a USB Drive
for System Backup and Restore. If you manually save a backup image to the auto-restore directory,
the automatic restore process does not operate correctly.
Use a USB Drive to Save a Support Snapshot
A support snapshot is a file that contains a recent copy of your device configuration, log files, and other
information that can help WatchGuard technical support troubleshoot issues with your device. To use
the support snapshot feature, your device must use Fireware XTM v11.4 or later.
XTM Compatibility This feature is not supported on XTMv devices.
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If you connect a USB drive to one of the XTM device USB interfaces, the XTM device automatically
generates a new support snapshot and saves the snapshot to the USB drive as an encrypted file, with the
read-only passphrase for the device as the encryption key. This happens automatically when the device
is powered on and a USB drive is connected to the device. Any time you connect a USB drive, the XTM
device automatically saves a current support snapshot in the \wgdiag directory on the USB drive.
When the XTM device detects a connected USB drive, it automatically completes these actions:
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If the \wgdiag directory does not exist on the USB drive, the XTM device creates it.
If the \wgdiag directory already exists on the USB drive, the XTM device deletes and recreates it.
The XTM device saves the new support snapshot in the \wgdiag directory with the filename
support1.tgz .
Each time you connect the USB drive or restart the XTM device, any files in the \wgdiag directory are
removed and a new support snapshot is saved.
Note If you want to keep a support snapshot, you can either rename the \wgdiag directory
on the USB drive or copy the support1.tgz file from the USB drive to your computer
before you reconnect the USB drive to the XTM device.
Status messages about USB diagnostics file generation appear as Info level messages in the log file.
These log messages contain the text USB Diagnostic. For XTM 5 Series, 8 Series, and XTM 1050
devices, messages also appear on the LCD screen while the USB diagnostic file is written, and when
a USB drive is connected or removed.
By default, the XTM device saves only a single support snapshot per USB drive when the USB drive is
first detected. You can use the usb diagnostic command in the Command Line Interface to enable
the XTM device to automatically save multiple support snapshots to the USB drive periodically while
the device is in operation. If the XTM device is configured to save multiple support snapshots, the
number at the end of the file name is incrementally increased each time a new snapshot is saved, so
that you can see a sequence of support snapshots. For example, the file names for the first two
support snapshots would be support1.tgz and support2.tgz . If enabled, the USB diagnostics
stores a maximum of 48 support snapshots on the USB drive.
For more information about how to use the usb diagnostic command, see the Fireware
XTM Command Line Interface Reference.
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Reset an XTM Device to a Previous or New
Configuration
If your XTM device has a severe configuration problem, you can reset the device to its factory-default
settings. For example, if you do not know the configuration passphrase, or if a power interruption
causes damage to the Fireware XTM OS, you can use the Quick Setup Wizard to build your
configuration again or restore a saved configuration.
For a description of the factory-default settings, see About Factory-Default Settings on page 55.
You can also restore a system backup image from a USB storage device. For more information, see
Automatically Restore a Backup Image from a USB Drive.
Start an XTM Device in Safe Mode
To restore the factory-default settings for a WatchGuard XTM 330, 5 Series, 8 Series, 1050, or 2050
device, you must start the XTM device in safe mode.
1. Power off the XTM device.
2. Press the down arrow on the device front panel while you power on the XTM device.
3. Continue to press the down arrow button until the message Safe Mode Starting appears on
the LCD display.
When the device is started in safe mode, the display shows the model number followed by the word
safe. When you start a device in safe mode:
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The device temporarily uses the factory-default network and security settings.
The current feature key is not removed. If you run the Quick Setup Wizard to create a new
configuration, the wizard uses the feature key you previously imported.
Yourcurrent configurationis deletedonly whenyou savea new configuration. Ifyou restartthe XTM
devicebefore yousave anew configuration,the deviceuses yourcurrent configurationagain.
Reset an XTM 2 Series or XTM 33 to Factory-Default Settings
When you reset an XTM 2 Series or XTM 33 device, the original configuration settings are replaced by
the factory-default settings. To reset the device to factory-default settings:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Disconnect the power supply.
Press and hold the Reset button on the back of the device.
While you continue to press the Reset button, connect the power supply.
Continue to press the Reset button until the yellow Attn indicator stays lit. This shows that the
device successfully restored the factory-default settings.
This process can take 75 seconds or more.
5. Release the Reset button.
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Note You must start the device again before you can connect to it. If you do not restart,
when you try to connect to the device, a web page appears with this message: Your
device is running from a backup copy of firmware. You can also see this message if
the Reset button is stuck in the depressed position. If you continue to see this
message, check the Reset button and restart the device.
6. Disconnect the power supply.
7. Connect the power supply again.
The Power Indicator lights and your device is reset.
Reset an XTMv to Factory Default Settings
For an XTMv virtual machine, you cannot use the physical hardware to start the virtual machine in safe
mode. Instead, to reset the virtual machine to factory default settings, you must use the Fireware
XTM CLI command restore factory-default .
To launch the Fireware XTM command line interface from the vSphere client:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Log in to the vSphere client.
Select the XTM virtual machine from the inventory.
Select the Summary tab.
Click Open Console.
Log in with the admin account credentials.
Type the command restore factory-default .
For more information about how to use the command line interface, see the Fireware XTM Command
Line Interface Reference.
Run the Quick Setup Wizard
After you restore the factory-default settings, you can use the Quick Setup Wizard to create a basic
configuration or restore a saved backup image.
For more information, see About the Quick Setup Wizard on page 28.
About Factory-Default Settings
The term factory-default settings refers to the configuration on the XTM device when you first receive it
before you make any changes. You can also reset the XTM device to factory-default settings as
described in Reset an XTM Device to a Previous or New Configuration on page 54.
The default network and configuration properties for the XTM device are:
Trusted network
The default IP address for the trusted network is 10.0.1.1. The subnet mask for the trusted
network is 255.255.255.0.
The default IP address and port for the Fireware XTM Web UI is https://10.0.1.1:8080 .
The XTM device is configured to give IP addresses to computers on the trusted network through
DHCP. By default, these IP addresses can be from 10.0.1.2 to 10.0.1.254.
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External network
The XTM device is configured to get an IP address with DHCP.
Optional network
The optional network is disabled.
Administrator (read/write) account credentials
Username: admin
Passphrase: readwrite
Status (read-only) account credentials
Username: status
Passphrase: readonly
Firewall settings
All incoming traffic is denied. The outgoing policy allows all outgoing traffic. Ping requests
received from the external network are denied.
System Security
The XTM device has the built-in administrator accounts admin (read-write access) and status
(read-only access). When you first configure the device with the Quick Setup Wizard, you set
the status and configuration passphrases. After you complete the Quick Setup Wizard, you can
log in to Fireware XTM Web UI with the either the admin or status administrator accounts. For
full administrator access, log in with the admin user name and type the configuration
passphrase. For read-only access, log in with the status user name and type the read-only
passphrase.
By default, the XTM device is set up for local management from the trusted network only.
Additional configuration changes must be made to allow administration from the external
network.
Upgrade Options
To enable upgrade options such as WebBlocker, spamBlocker, and Gateway AV/IPS, you
must paste or import the feature key that enables these features into the configuration page or
use the Get Feature Key command to activate upgrade options. If you start the XTM device in
safe mode, you do not need to import the feature key again.
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About Feature Keys
A feature key is a license that enables you to use a set of features on your XTM device. You increase
the functionality of your device when you purchase an option or upgrade and get a new feature key.
When You Purchase a New Feature
When you purchase a new feature for your XTM device, you must:
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Get a Feature Key for Your XTM Device
Add a Feature Key to Your XTM Device
See Features Available with the Current Feature Key
Your XTM device always has one currently active feature key. To see the features available with this
feature key:
1. Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI.
2. Select System > Feature Key.
The Feature Key page appears.
The Summary section shows:
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The device model number and serial number
The licensed software edition (Fireware XTM or Fireware XTM Pro)
A signature that uniquely identifies the feature key
For some feature keys, an expiration date for the entire feature key
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Note If an expiration date appears in the Summary section, this is the date that the key
expires. When the feature key expires, some licensed features and capacities revert
back to the values they had before the feature key was applied, and the XTM device
allows only one connection to the external network.
The Features section shows:
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A list of available features
Whether the feature is enabled
Value assigned to the feature such as the number of VLAN interfaces allowed
Expiration date of the feature, if any
Current status on expiration, such as how many days remain before the feature expires
Get a Feature Key for Your XTM Device
Before you activate a new feature, or renew a subscription service, you must have a license key from
WatchGuard that is not already registered on the WatchGuard web site. When you activate the license
key, you receive the feature key that enables the activated feature on the XTM device. You can also
retrieve an existing feature key at a later time.
Activate the License Key for a Feature
To activate a license key and get the feature key for the activated feature:
1. Open a web browser and go to http://www.watchguard.com/.
2. Log in with your WatchGuard account user name and password.
3. On the Support Home tab, click Activate a Product.
The Activate Products page appears.
4. Type the serial number or license key for the product or service. Make sure to include any
hyphens.
Use the serial number to register a new XTM device, and the license key to register add-on
features.
5. Click Continue.
The Choose Product to Upgrade page appears.
6. In the drop-down list, select the device to upgrade or renew.
If you added a device name when you registered your XTM device, that name appears in the list.
7. Click Activate.
The Retrieve Feature Key page appears.
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8. Copy the full feature key to a text file and save it on your computer.
9. Click Finish.
Get a Current Feature Key
You can log in to the WatchGuard web site to get a current feature key, or you can use Fireware
XTM Web UI or Firebox System Manager to retrieve the current feature key and add it directly to your
XTM device.
To retrieve a current feature key from the WatchGuard web site:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Open a web browser and go to http://www.watchguard.com/.
Log in with your WatchGuard account user name and password.
On the Support Home tab, click My Products.
In the list of products, select your device.
Use the on-screen instructions to download and save a local copy of the feature key.
To use Fireware XTM Web UI to retrieve the current feature key:
1. Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI.
The Fireware XTM Web UI Dashboard appears.
2. Select System > Feature Key.
The Feature Key Summary page appears.
3. Click Get Feature Key.
Your feature key is downloaded from LiveSecurity and automatically updated on your XTM device.
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Add a Feature Key to Your XTM Device
If you purchase a new option or upgrade your XTM device, you can use Fireware XTM Web UI to add a
new feature key to enable the new features. Before you install the new feature key, you must
completely remove the old feature key.
Note For detailed steps to update the feature keys for a FireCluster, see About Feature
Keys and FireCluster.
1. Select System > Feature Keys.
The Firebox Feature Key page appears.
The features that are available with this feature key appear on this page. This page also
includes:
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Whether each feature is enabled
A value assigned to the feature, such as the number of VLAN interfaces allowed
The expiration date of the feature
The amount of time that remains before the feature expires
2. To remove the current feature key, click Remove.
All feature key information is cleared from the page.
3. Click Update.
The Add Firebox Feature Key page appears.
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4. Copy the text of the feature key file and paste it in the text box.
5. Click Save.
The Feature Key page reappears with the new feature key information.
Remove a Feature Key
1. Select System > Feature Keys.
The Firebox Feature Key page appears.
2. Click Remove.
All feature key information is cleared from the page.
3. Click Save.
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Restart Your XTM Device
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to restart your XTM device from a computer on the trusted
network. If you enable external access, you can also restart the XTM device from a computer on the
Internet. You can set the time of day at which your XTM device reboots automatically.
Restart the XTM Device Locally
To restart the XTM device locally, you can use Fireware XTM Web UI or you can power cycle the
device.
Reboot from Fireware XTM Web UI
To reboot the XTM device from Fireware XTM Web UI, you must log in with read-write access.
1. Select Dashboard > System.
2. In the Device Information section, click Reboot.
Power Cycle
On the XTM 2 Series:
1. Disconnect the 2 Series device power supply.
2. Wait for a minimum of 10 seconds.
3. Connect the power supply again.
On the XTM 5 Series, 8 Series and XTM 1050:
1. Use the power switch to power off the device.
2. Wait for a minimum of 10 seconds.
3. Power on the device.
Restart the XTM Device Remotely
Before you can connect to your XTM device to manage or restart it from a remote computer external to
the XTM device, you must first configure the XTM device to allow management from the external
network.
For more information, see Manage an XTM Device From a Remote Location on page 79.
To restart the XTM device remotely from Fireware XTM Web UI:
1. Select Dashboard > System.
2. In the Device Information section, click Reboot.
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Enable NTP and Add NTP Servers
Network Time Protocol (NTP) synchronizes computer clock times across a network. Your XTM device
can use NTP to get the correct time automatically from NTP servers on the Internet. Because the XTM
device uses the time from its system clock for each log message it generates, the time must be set
correctly. You can change the NTP server that the XTM device uses. You can also add more
NTP servers or delete existing ones, or you can set the time manually.
To use NTP, your XTM device configuration must allow DNS. DNS is allowed in the default
configuration by the Outgoing policy. You must also configure DNS servers for the external interface
before you configure NTP.
For more information about these addresses, see Add WINS and DNS Server Addresses.
1. Select System > NTP.
The NTP Setting dialog box appears.
2. Select the Enable NTP Server check box.
3. To add an NTP server, select Host IP or Host name (lookup) in the Choose Type drop-down
list, then type the IP address or host name of the NTP server you want to use in the adjacent
text box.
You can configure up to three NTP servers.
4. To delete a server, select the server entry and click Remove.
5. Click Save.
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Set the Time Zone and Basic Device Properties
When you run the Web Setup Wizard, you set the time zone and other basic device properties.
To change the basic device properties:
1. Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI.
2. Select System > System.
The Device Configuration settings appear.
3. Configure these options:
Firebox model
The XTM device model number, as determined by Quick Setup Wizard.If you add a new
feature key to the XTM device with a model upgrade, the XTM device model in the device
configuration is automatically updated.
Name
The friendly name of the XTM device. You can give the XTM device a friendly name that
appears in your log files and reports. Otherwise, the log files and reports use the IP address
of the XTM device external interface. Many customers use a Fully Qualified Domain Name
as the friendly name if they register such a name with the DNS system. You must give the
XTM device a friendly name if you use the Management Server to configure VPN tunnels
and certificates.
Location, Contact
Type any information that could be helpful to identify and maintain the XTM device. These
fields are filled in by the Quick Setup Wizard if you entered this information there.
Time zone
Select the time zone for the physical location of the XTM device. The time zone setting
controls the date and time that appear in the log file and in tools such as Log and Report
Manager Web UI, and WebBlocker.
4. Click Save.
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About SNMP
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is used to monitor devices on your network. SNMP
uses management information bases (MIBs) to define what information and events are monitored. You
must set up a separate software application, often called an event viewer or MIB browser, to collect
and manage SNMP data.
There are two types of MIBs: standard and enterprise. Standard MIBs are definitions of network and
hardware events used by many different devices. Enterprise MIBs are used to give information about
events that are specific to a single manufacturer.
Your XTM device supports these MIBs:
Standard MIBs
Enterprise MIBs
IF-MIB
IPSEC-ISAKMP-IKE-DOI-TC
IP-MIB
WATCHGUARD-CLIENT-MIB
RFC1155 SMI-MIB
WATCHGUARD-INFO-SYSTEM-MIB
RFC1213-MIB
WATCHGUARD-IPSEC-ENDPOINT-PAIR-MIB
SNMPv2-MIB
WATCHGUARD-IPSEC-SA-MON-MIB-EXT
SNMPv2-SMI
WATCHGUARD-IPSEC-TUNNEL-MIB
TCP-MIB
WATCHGUARD-POLICY-MIB
UDP-MIB
WATCHGUARD-PRODUCTS-MIB
WATCHGUARD-SMI
WATCHGUARD-SYSTEM-CONFIG-MIB
WATCHGUARD-SYSTEM-STATISTICS-MIB
SNMP Polls and Traps
You can configure your XTM device to accept SNMP polls from an SNMP server. The XTM device
reports information to the SNMP server, such as the traffic count from each interface, device uptime,
the number of TCP packets received and sent, and when each network interface on the XTM device
was last modified.
An SNMP trap is an event notification your XTM device sends to an SNMP management station. The
trap identifies when a specific condition occurs, such as a value that is more than its predefined
threshold. Your XTM device can send a trap for any policy in Policy Manager. A trap is sent only once,
and the receiver does not send any acknowledgement when it gets the trap.
An SNMP inform request is similar to a trap, but the receiver sends a response. If your XTM device
does not get a response, it sends the inform request again until the SNMP manager sends a response.
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Enable SNMP Polling
You can configure your XTM device to accept SNMP polls from an SNMP server. Your XTM device
reports information to the SNMP server such as the traffic count from each interface, device uptime,
the number of TCP packets received and sent, and when each network interface was last modified.
1. Select System > SNMP.
The SNMP page appears.
2. To enable SNMP, from the Version drop-down list, select v1/v2c or v3.
3. If you selected v1/v2c type the Community String the SNMP server uses when it contacts the
XTM device.
The community string is like a user ID or password that allows access to the statistics of a
device.
If you selected v3, type the User name the SNMP server uses when it contacts the XTM
device.
4. If you selected v3 and your SNMP server uses authentication, from the Authentication
Protocol drop-down list, select MD5 or SHA1.
In the adjacent Password and Confirm text boxes, type the authentication password.
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5. If you selected v3 and your SNMP server uses encryption, from the Privacy Protocol dropdown list, select DES.
In the adjacent Password and Confirm text boxes, type the encryption password.
6. Click Save.
To enable your XTM device to receive SNMP polls, you must also add an SNMP packet filter policy.
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
2. Click .
3. Expand the Packet Filters list and select SNMP. Click Add policy.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
4. In the From section, click Add.
The Add Member dialog box appears.
5. From the Member Type drop-down list, select Host IP.
6. In the Member Type text box, type the IP address of your SNMP server. Click OK.
The IP address of the SNMP server appears in the From list.
7. From the From list, select Any-Trusted. Click Remove.
8. In the To section, click Add.
The Add Member dialog box appears.
9. From the Select Members list, select Firebox. Click OK.
Firebox appears in the To list.
10. From the To list, select Any-External. Click Remove.
11. Click Save.
Enable SNMP Management Stations and Traps
An SNMP trap is an event notification your XTM device sends to an SNMP management station. The
trap identifies when a specific condition occurs, such as a value that is more than its predefined
threshold. Your XTM device can send a trap for any policy.
An SNMP inform request is similar to a trap, but the receiver sends a response. If your XTM device
does not get a response, it sends the inform request again until the SNMP manager sends a response.
A trap is sent only once, and the receiver does not send any acknowledgement when it gets the trap.
An inform request is more reliable than a trap because your XTM device knows whether the inform
request was received. However, inform requests consume more resources. They are held in memory
until the sender gets a response. If an inform request must be sent more than once, the retries increase
traffic. Because each sent receipt increases the amount of memory in use on the router and the amount
of network traffic, we recommend that you consider whether it is necessary to send a receipt for every
SNMP notification.
To enable SNMP inform requests, you must use SNMPv2 or SNMPv3. SNMPv1 supports only traps,
not inform requests.
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Configure SNMP Management Stations
1. Select System > SNMP.
The SNMP page appears.
2. From the SNMP Traps drop-down list, select a trap or inform.
SNMPv1 supports only traps, not inform requests.
3. In the SNMP Management Stations text box, type the IP address of your SNMP server. Click
Add.
The IP address appears in the SNMP Management Stations list.
4. To remove a server from the list, select the entry and click Remove.
5. Click Save.
Add an SNMP Policy
To enable your XTM device to receive SNMP polls, you must also add an SNMP policy.
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
2. Click .
3. Expand the Packet Filters category and select SNMP. Click Add Policy.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
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4. In the Name text box, type a name for the policy.
5. Select the Enable check box.
6. In the From section, click Add.
The Add Member dialog box appears.
7.
8.
9.
10.
From the Member Type drop-down list, select Host IP.
In the Member Type text box, type the IP address of your SNMP server. Click OK.
From the From list, select Any-Trusted. Click Remove.
In the To section, click Add.
The Add Member dialog box appears.
11. From the Select Members list, select Firebox. Click OK.
12. From the To list, select Any-External. Click Remove.
13. Click Save.
Send an SNMP Trap for a Policy
Your XTM device can send an SNMP trap when traffic is filtered by a policy. You must have at least
one SNMP management station configured to enable SNMP traps.
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
2. Double-click a policy.
Or, select a policy and click Edit.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
3. Select the Properties tab.
4. In the Logging section, select the Send SNMP Trap check box.
5. Click Save.
About Management Information Bases (MIBs)
Fireware XTM supports two types of Management Information Bases (MIBs).
Standard MIBs
Standard MIBs are definitions of network and hardware events used by many different devices.
Your XTM device supports these standard MIBs:
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IF-MIB
IP-MIB
RFC1155 SMI-MIB
RFC1213-MIB
SNMPv2-MIB
SNMPv2-SMI
TCP-MIB
UDP-MIB
These MIBs include information about standard network information, such as IP addresses and
network interface settings.
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Enterprise MIBs
Enterprise MIBs are used to give information about events that are specific to a single
manufacturer. Your XTM device supports these enterprise MIBs:
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IPSEC-ISAKMP-IKE-DOI-TC
WATCHGUARD-CLIENT-MIB
WATCHGUARD-INFO-SYSTEM-MIB
WATCHGUARD-IPSEC-ENDPOINT-PAIR-MIB
WATCHGUARD-IPSEC-SA-MON-MIB-EXT
WATCHGUARD-IPSEC-TUNNEL-MIB
WATCHGUARD-POLICY-MIB
WATCHGUARD-PRODUCTS-MIB
WATCHGUARD-SMI
WATCHGUARD-SYSTEM-CONFIG-MIB
WATCHGUARD-SYSTEM-STATISTICS-MIB
These MIBs include more specific information about device hardware.
If you want to install all MIBs, you must run the Fireware XTM OS installer for all XTM models you use.
You can find the Fireware XTM OS installer on the WatchGuard Portal.
About WatchGuard Passphrases, Encryption Keys,
and Shared Keys
As part of your network security solution, you use passphrases, encryption keys, and shared keys.
This topic includes information about most of the passphrases, encryption keys, and shared keys you
use for WatchGuard products. It does not include information about third-party passwords or
passphrases. Information about restrictions for passphrases, encryption keys, and shared keys is also
included in the related procedures.
Create a Secure Passphrase, Encryption Key, or Shared Key
To create a secure passphrase, encryption key, or shared key, we recommend that you:
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Use a combination of uppercase and lowercase ASCII characters, numbers, and special
characters (for example, [email protected]).
Do not use a word from standard dictionaries, even if you use it in a different sequence or in a
different language.
Do not use a name. It is easy for an attacker to find a business name, familiar name, or the
name of a famous person.
As an additional security measure, we recommend that you change your passphrases, encryption
keys, and shared keys at regular intervals.
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XTM Device Passphrases
An XTM device uses two passphrases:
Status passphrase
The read-only password or passphrase that allows access to the XTM device. When you log in
with this passphrase, you can review your configuration, but you cannot save changes to the
XTM device. The status passphrase is associated with the user name status.
Configuration passphrase
The read-write password or passphrase that allows an administrator full access to the XTM
device. You must use this passphrase to save configuration changes to the XTM device. This is
also the passphrase you must use to change your XTM device passphrases. The configuration
passphrase is associated with the user name admin.
Each of these XTM device passphrases must be at least 8 characters.
User Passphrases
You can create user names and passphrases to use with Firebox authentication and role-based
administration.
User Passphrases for Firebox authentication
After you set this user passphrase, the characters are masked and it does not appear in simple
text again. If the passphrase is lost, you must set a new passphrase. The allowed range for this
passphrase is 8–32 characters.
User Passphrases for role-based administration
After you set this user passphrase, it does not appear again in the User and Group Properties
dialog box. If the passphrase is lost, you must set a new passphrase. This passphrase must be
at least 8 characters.
Server Passphrases
Administrator passphrase
The Administrator passphrase is used to control access to the WatchGuard Server Center. You
also use this passphrase when you connect to your Management Server from WatchGuard
System Manager (WSM). This passphrase must be at least 8 characters. The Administrator
passphrase is associated with the user name admin.
Authentication server shared secret
The shared secret is the key the XTM device and the authentication server use to secure the
authentication information that passes between them. The shared secret is case-sensitive and
must be the same on the XTM device and the authentication server. RADIUS, SecurID, and
VASCO authentication servers all use a shared key.
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Encryption Keys and Shared Keys
Log Server encryption key
The encryption key is used to create a secure connection between the XTM device and the Log
Servers, and to avoid man-in-the-middle attacks. The allowed range for the encryption key is 8–
32 characters. You can use all characters except spaces and slashes (/ or \).
Backup/Restore encryption key
This is the encryption key you create to encrypt a backup file of your XTM device configuration.
When you restore a backup file, you must use the encryption key you selected when you
created the configuration backup file. If you lose or forget this encryption key, you cannot
restore the backup file. The encryption key must be at least 8 characters, and cannot be more
than 15 characters.
VPN shared key
The shared key is a passphrase used by two devices to encrypt and decrypt the data that goes
through the tunnel. The two devices use the same passphrase. If the devices do not have the
same passphrase, they cannot encrypt and decrypt the data correctly.
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Change XTM Device Passphrases
An XTM device uses two passphrases:
Status passphrase
The read-only password or passphrase that allows access to the XTM device.
Configuration passphrase
The read-write password or passphrase that allows an administrator full access to the XTM
device.
For more information about passphrases, see About WatchGuard Passphrases, Encryption Keys, and
Shared Keys on page 70.
To change the passphrases:
1. Select System > Passphrase.
The Passphrase page appears.
2. Type and confirm the new status (read-only) and configuration (read/write) passphrases. The
status passphrase must be different from the configuration passphrase.
3. Click Save.
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Define XTM Device Global Settings
From Fireware XTM Web UI, you can specify the settings that control the actions of many XTM device
features. You can configure the basic parameters for:
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ICMP error handling
TCP SYN checking
TCP connection idle timeout
TCP maximum size adjustment
Traffic management and QoS
Web UI port
External console connections through the serial port
Automatic device reboot
To configure the global settings:
1. Select System > Global Settings.
The Global Settings dialog box appears.
2. Configure the different categories of global settings as described in the subsequent sections.
3. Click Save.
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Define ICMP Error Handling Global Settings
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) settings control errors in connections. You can use it to:
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Tell client hosts about error conditions
Probe a network to find general characteristics about the network
The XTM device sends an ICMP error message each time an event occurs that matches one of the
parameters you selected. These messages are good tools to use when you troubleshoot problems, but
can also decrease security because they expose information about your network. If you deny these
ICMP messages, you can increase security if you prevent network probes, but this can also cause
timeout delays for incomplete connections, which can cause application problems.
Settings for global ICMP error handling are:
Fragmentation Req (PMTU)
Select this check box to allow ICMP Fragmentation Req messages. The XTM device uses
these messages to find the MTU path.
Time Exceeded
Select this check box to allow ICMP Time Exceeded messages. A router usually sends these
messages when a route loop occurs.
Network Unreachable
Select this check box to allow ICMP Network Unreachable messages. A router usually sends
these messages when a network link is broken.
Host Unreachable
Select this check box to allow ICMP Host Unreachable messages. Your network usually sends
these messages when it cannot use a host or service.
Port Unreachable
Select this check box to allow ICMP Port Unreachable messages. A host or firewall usually
sends these messages when a network service is not available or is not allowed.
Protocol Unreachable
Select this check box to allow ICMP Protocol Unreachable messages.
To override these global ICMP settings for a specific policy, from Fireware XTM Web UI:
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
2. Double-click the policy to edit it.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
3.
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5.
6.
Select the Advanced tab.
Select the Use policy-based ICMP error handling check box.
Select only the check boxes for the settings you want to enable.
Click Save.
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Configure TCP Settings
Enable TCP SYN checking
To enable TCP SYN checking to make sure that the TCP three-way handshake is completed
before the XTM device allows a data connection, select this option.
TCP connection idle timeout
The amount of time that the TCP connection can be idle before a connection timeout occurs.
Specify a value in seconds, minutes, hours, or days. The default setting is 1 hour.
You can also configure a custom idle timeout for an individual policy. For more information, see
Set a Custom Idle Timeout on page 372.
If you configure this global idle timeout setting and also enable a custom idle timeout for a
policy, the custom idle timeout setting takes precedence over the global idle timeout setting for
only that policy.
TCP maximum segment size control
The TCP segment can be set to a specified size for a connection that must have more TCP/IP
layer 3 overhead (for example, PPPoE, ESP, or AH). If this size is not correctly configured,
users cannot get access to some web sites.
The global TCP maximum segment size adjustment settings are:
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Auto Adjustment— This option enables the XTM device to examine all maximum
segment size (MSS) negotiations and changes the MSS value to the applicable one.
No Adjustment— The XTM device does not change the MSS value.
Limit to— Type or select a size adjustment limit.
Enable or Disable Traffic Management and QoS
For performance testing or network debugging purposes, you can disable the Traffic Management and
QoS features.
To enable these features:
Select the Enable all traffic management and QoS features check box.
To disable these features:
Clear the Enable all traffic management and QoS features check box.
Change the Web UI Port
By default, Fireware XTM Web UI uses port 8080.
To change the default port:
1. In the Web UI Port text box, type or select a different port number.
2. Use the new port to connect to Fireware XTM Web UI and test the connection with the new port.
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Enable the External Console on a Firebox X Edge e-Series Device
By default, the serial port on a Firebox X Edge e-Series device is used for Modem Dial-up Backup. You
can also use the serial port for console connections. After you enable this feature, you must reboot
your device before you can use this feature.
To use the serial port for console connections:
1. Select the Enable the external console check box.
2. Click OK to save your changes.
3. Reboot your Edge device.
Automatic Reboot
You can schedule your XTM device to automatically reboot at the day and time you specify.
To schedule an automatic reboot for your device:
1. Select the Schedule time for reboot check box.
2. In the adjacent drop-down list, select Daily to reboot at the same time every day, or select a day
of the week for a weekly reboot.
3. In the adjacent text boxes, type or select the hour and minute of the day (in 24-hour time format)
that you want the reboot to start.
About WatchGuard Servers
When you install the WatchGuard System Manager software, you can choose to install one or more of
the WatchGuard servers. You can also run the installation program and select to install only one or
more of the servers, without WatchGuard System Manager. When you install a server, the
WatchGuard Server Center program is automatically installed. WatchGuard Server Center is a single
application you can use to set up and configure all your WatchGuard System Manager servers. You
can also use WatchGuard Server Center to backup and restore your Management Server.
When you use Fireware XTM Web UI to manage your XTM devices, you can choose to also use
WatchGuard servers and WatchGuard Server Center. For more information about WatchGuard
System Manager, WatchGuard servers, and WatchGuard Server Center, see the Fireware
XTM WatchGuard System Manager v11.x Help and the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager
v11.x User Guide.
The five WatchGuard servers are:
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Management Server
Log Server
Report Server
Quarantine Server
WebBlocker Server
For more information about WatchGuard System Manager and WatchGuard servers, see the Fireware
XTM WatchGuard System Manager v11.x Help or v11.x User Guide.
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Each server has a specific function:
Management Server
The Management Server operates on a Windows computer. With this server, you can manage
all firewall devices and create virtual private network (VPN) tunnels with a simple drag-and-drop
function. The basic functions of the Management Server are:
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Certificate authority to distribute certificates for Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) tunnels
VPN tunnel configuration management
Management for multiple XTM devices
For more information about the Management Server, see About the WatchGuard Management
Server the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager v11.x Help or v11.x User Guide.
Log Server
The Log Server collects log messages from each XTM device and stores them in a PostgreSQL
database. The log messages are encrypted when they are sent to the Log Server. The log
message format is XML (plain text). The types of log message that the Log Server collects
include traffic log messages, event log messages, alarms, and diagnostic messages. You can
view the log messages from your XTM devices with FSM Traffic Monitor and in Log and Report
Manager.
For more information about Log Servers, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager
v11.x Help or v11.x User Guide.
For more information about how to view log messages, see Syslog.
Report Server
The Report Server periodically consolidates data collected by your Log Servers from your XTM
devices, and stores them in a PostgreSQL database. The Report Server then generates the
reports you specify. When the data is on the Report Server, you can review it with Log and
Report Manager.
For more information about the Report Server, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System
Manager v11.x Help or v11.x User Guide.
Quarantine Server
The Quarantine Server collects and isolates email messages that spamBlocker identifies as
possible spam.
For more information on the Quarantine Server, see About the Quarantine Server on page 873.
WebBlocker Server
The WebBlocker Server operates with the HTTP-proxy to deny user access to specified
categories of web sites. When you configure an XTM device, you set the web site categories
you want to allow or block.
For more information about WebBlocker and the WebBlocker Server, see About WebBlocker on
page 781.
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Manage an XTM Device From a Remote Location
When you configure an XTM device with the Quick Setup Wizard, the WatchGuard policy is created
automatically. This policy allows you to connect to and administer the XTM device from any computer
on the trusted or optional networks. To manage the XTM device from a remote location (any location
external to the XTM device), then you must modify the WatchGuard policy to allow administrative
connections from the IP address of your remote location.
The WatchGuard policy controls access to the XTM device on these TCP ports: 4105, 4117, 4118.
When you allow connections in the WatchGuard policy, you allow connections to each of these ports.
Before you modify the WatchGuard policy, we recommend that you consider connecting to the XTM
device with a VPN. This greatly increases the security of the connection. If this is not possible, we
recommend that you allow access from the external network to only certain authorized users and to the
smallest number of computers possible. For example, your configuration is more secure if you allow
connections from a single computer instead of from the alias Any-External.
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
2. Double click the WatchGuard policy.
Or, select the WatchGuard policy and click
.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
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3. In the From section, click Add.
The Add Member dialog box appears.
4. To add the IP address of the external computer that connects to the XTM device, from the
Member Type drop-down list, select Host IP, and click OK. Type the IP address.
5. To give access to an authorized user, from the Member Type drop-down list, select Alias.
For information about how to create an alias, see Create an Alias on page 355.
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Configure an XTM Device as a Managed Device
If your XTM device has a dynamic IP address, or if the Management Server cannot connect to it for
another reason, you can configure the XTM device as a managed device before you add it to the
Management Server.
If your Management Server is not behind a gateway Firebox, you must configure the firewall that is
between the Management Server and the Internet to allow connections to the Management Server
public IP address over TCP ports 4110, 4112, and 4113.
Edit the WatchGuard Policy
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall policies page appears.
2. Double-click the WatchGuard policy to open it.
The Policy Configuration page for the WatchGuard policy appears.
3. In the Connections are drop-down list, make sure Allowed is selected.
4. In the From section, click Add.
The Add Member dialog box appears.
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5. In the Member Type drop-down list, select Host IP.
6. In the Member type text box, type the IP address of the external interface of the gateway
Firebox.
If you do not have a gateway Firebox that protects the Management Server from the Internet,
type the static IP address of your Management Server.
7. Click OK to close the Add Member dialog box.
8. Make sure the To section includes an entry of either Firebox or Any.
9. Click Save.
You can now add the device to your Management Server configuration. When you add this XTM device
to the Management Server configuration, the Management Server automatically connects to the static
IP address and configures the XTM device as a managed device.
Set Up the Managed Device
(Optional) If your XTM device has a dynamic IP address, or if the Management Server cannot find the
IP address of the XTM device for any reason, you can use this procedure to prepare your XTM device
to be managed by the Management Server.
1. Select System > Managed Device.
The Managed Device page appears.
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2. To set up an XTM device as a managed device, select the Centralized Management check box.
3. In the Managed Device Name text box, type the name you want to give the XTM device when
you add it to the Management Server configuration.
This name is case-sensitive and must match the name you use when you add the device to the
Management Server configuration.
4. In the Management Server IP Address(es) list, select the public IP address of the
Management Server.
Or, if the Management Server is behind a gateway Firebox, select the public IP address of the
gateway Firebox for the Management Server.
5. To add an address, type the IP address in the text box and click Add.
The XTM device that protects the Management Server automatically monitors all ports used by
the Management Server and forwards any connection on these ports to the configured
Management Server. When you use the Management Server Setup Wizard, the wizard adds a
WG-Mgmt-Server policy to your configuration to handle these connections. If you did not use
the Management Server Setup Wizard on the Management Server, or, if you skipped the
Gateway Firebox step in the wizard, you must manually add the WG-Mgmt-Server policy to the
configuration of your gateway Firebox. When you add this policy, communication to the
Management Server over TCP ports 4110, 4112, and 4113 is automatically allowed.
If your Management Server is not behind a gateway Firebox, make sure to configure the firewall
that is between the Management Server and the Internet to allow connections to the
Management Server public IP address over TCP ports 4110, 4112, and 4113.
6. In the Shared Secret and Confirm text boxes, type the shared secret.
The shared secret you type here must match the shared secret you type when you add the XTM
device to the Management Server configuration.
7. Copy the text of your Management Server CA certificate file, and paste it in the Management
Server Certificate text box.
8. Click Save.
When you save the configuration to the XTM device, the XTM device is enabled as a managed device.
The managed XTM device tries to connect to the IP address of the Management Server on TCP port
4110. Management connections are allowed from the Management Server to this managed XTM
device.
You can now add the device to your Management Server configuration. For more information, see the
WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide.
You can also use WSM to configure the management mode for your device. For more information, see
the WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide.
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Upgrade to a New Version of Fireware XTM
Periodically, WatchGuard makes new versions Fireware XTM OS available to XTM device users with
active LiveSecurity subscriptions. To upgrade from one version of Fireware XTM OS to a new version
of Fireware XTM OS, use the procedures in the subsequent sections.
Install the Upgrade on Your Management Computer
1. Download the updated Fireware XTM OS installer file from the WatchGuard Portal on the
WatchGuard web site at http://www.watchguard.com.
2. Start the installer file that you downloaded from the LiveSecurity web site and follow the
instructions in the installer to install the Fireware XTM upgrade file on your management
computer.
By default, the file is installed in the C:\Program Files\Common
Files\WatchGuard\resources\FirewareXTM\11.x folder.
Upgrade the XTM Device
1. Select System > Backup Image to save a backup image of your XTM device.
For more information, see Make a Backup of the XTM Device Image on page 45.
2. Select System > Upgrade OS.
The Upgrade OS page appears.
3. In the Select file text box, type the path and filename or click Browse to select the upgrade file
from the directory where you installed it.
The name of the upgrade file appears on the Upgrade OS page. The file name ends with .sysa_dl.
4. Click Upgrade.
The upgrade procedure can take up to 15 minutes and automatically reboots the XTM device.
If your XTM device has been in operation for some time before you upgrade, you might have to restart
the device before you start the upgrade to clear the temporary memory.
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Download or Show the XTM Device Configuration
From the Fireware XTM Web UI, you can download the complete XTM device configuration to a file
that can be opened by Policy Manager, or you can generate an XTM Configuration Report to browse
and print most configuration settings from a single browser page.
For more information about how to download the configuration file, see Download the Configuration File.
For more information about the XTM Configuration Report, see Show the XTM Configuration Report.
Download the Configuration File
From the Fireware XTM Web UI, you can download your XTM device configuration to a compressed
file. This can be useful if you want to open the same configuration file in Fireware XTM Policy Manager
but are unable to connect to the device from Policy Manager. This can also be useful if you want to
send your configuration file to a WatchGuard technical support representative.
1. Select System > Configuration File.
2. Click Download the configuration file.
The Select location for download dialog box appears.
3. Select a location to save the configuration file.
The configuration file is saved in a compressed (.tgz) file format. Before you can use this file with
Fireware XTM Policy Manager, you must extract the zipped file to a folder on your computer.
For more information about Policy Manager see the WatchGuard System Manager Help.
See Also
Show the XTM Configuration Report
Show the XTM Configuration Report
From the Fireware XTM Web UI, you can generate an XTM Configuration Report to show many
XTM device configuration settings in an easy to read, printable format. The XTM Configuration Report
opens in a separate browser window.
The XTM Configuration Report gives you an overview of your device configuration. It can be a useful
tool if you want to review your security policy implementation with your organization’s management
team. While it includes configuration information for many Fireware XTM features, it does not include
all configuration details. For example, it does not include:
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Multi-WAN details
Dynamic routing
Wireless
IPv6, secondary networks, MAC access control, PPPoE, DHCP client, DHCP server, and
advanced interface settings
Some policy and proxy settings such as policy based routing, IPS, Application Control, logging,
and notification
Proxy action configuration details
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Note To see the XTM Configuration Report, you must configure your browser to allow
popups for Fireware XTM Web UI.
To show the XTM Configuration Report:
1. Select System > Configuration File.
2. Click XTM Configuration Report.
The XTM Configuration Report opens in a new browser window or tab.
The XTM Configuration Report is divided into five main sections:
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Network — Network configuration settings
Setup — System configuration, aliases, logging, NTP, SNMP, and global settings
Firewall Policy — Firewall policies and proxy action settings
VPN — Branch Office VPN and Mobile VPN settings
Security — Security services settings
To move to a section of the report, click a section link in the Contents list.
To print the XTM Configuration Report, click [Print] at the top-right corner of the page.
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About Upgrade Options
You can add upgrades to your XTM device to enable additional subscription services, features, and
capacity.
For a list of available upgrade options, see www.watchguard.com/products/options.asp.
Subscription Services Upgrades
Application Control
Enables you to monitor and control the use of applications on your network.
For more information, see About Application Control.
WebBlocker
Enables you to control access to web content based on content categories.
For more information, see About WebBlocker on page 781.
spamBlocker
Enables you to filter spam and bulk email.
For more information, see About spamBlocker on page 795.
Intrusion Prevention Service (IPS)
Enables you to prevent intrusion attempts by hackers.
For more information, see About Intrusion Prevention Service.
Gateway AntiVirus
Enables you to identify and block known spyware and viruses.
For more information, see About Gateway AntiVirus on page 821.
Reputation Enabled Defense
Enables you to control access to web sites based on their reputation score.
For more information, see About Reputation Enabled Defense.
Appliance and Software Upgrades
Pro
The Pro upgrade to Fireware XTM provides several advanced features for experienced
customers, such as server load balancing and additional SSL VPN tunnels. The features
available with a Pro upgrade depend on the type and model of your XTM device.
For more information, see Fireware XTM with a Pro Upgrade on page 17.
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Model upgrades
For some XTM device models, you can purchase a license key to upgrade the device to a higher
model in the same product family. A model upgrade gives your XTM device the same functions
as a higher model.
To compare the features and capabilities of different XTM device models, go to
http://www.watchguard.com/products/compare.asp.
How to Apply an Upgrade
When you purchase an upgrade, you register the upgrade on the WatchGuard LiveSecurity web site.
Then you download a feature key that enables the upgrade on your XTM device.
For information about feature keys, see About Feature Keys on page 57.
About Subscription Services Expiration
The WatchGuard subscription services need regular updates to operate effectively. The subscription
services are:
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Gateway AntiVirus
Intrusion Prevention Service
WebBlocker
spamBlocker
Reputation Enabled Defense
Application Control
In addition, an initial LiveSecurity subscription is activated when you register your product. Your
LiveSecurity subscription gives you access to technical support, software updates, and feature
enhancements. It also extends the hardware warranty of your WatchGuard device and provides
advance hardware replacement.
We recommend that you renew your subscription services before they expire. WatchGuard charges a
reinstatement fee for any subscriptions that are allowed to lapse.
Subscription Renewal Reminders
The Firebox or XTM device sends you reminders to renew your subscriptions. When you save a
configuration to your Firebox or XTM device, Policy Manager warns you if a subscription will expire.
These warnings appear 60 days before, 30 days before, 15 days before, and one day before the
expiration date.
You can also use Firebox System Manager to monitor your subscription services. If a subscription
service is about to expire or is expired, a warning appears on the front panel of Firebox System
Manager and Renew Now appears at the upper-right corner of the window. Click Renew Now to go to
the LiveSecurity Service web site to renew the subscription.
In the Fireware XTM Web UI, you can see the subscription service expiration dates in the License
Information section of the System page.
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Feature Key Compliance
When you save a configuration to the device from Policy Manager (File > Save > To Firebox), Policy
Manager checks to see if any configured services are expired. You cannot save any configuration
changes from Policy Manager to the Firebox or XTM device when a configured subscription service is
expired. If you try to save a configuration to the device, the Feature Key Compliance dialog box
appears, with a list of all configured services that are expired. You must either add a feature key with a
later expiration date for the expired services, or you must select each service and click Disable to
disable the service. After you disable the expired services, Policy Manager saves the updated
configuration to the device.
If the LiveSecurity subscription on your device is expired, you can save configuration changes to the
device, but you cannot upgrade or reinstall any version of Fireware XTM OS on the device.
Security Service Expiration Behavior
When a subscription service expires, that service does not operate, and the configuration options are
disabled. The specific expiration behaviors for each subscription service are described below.
Gateway AntiVirus
When the Gateway AntiVirus subscription expires:
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Gateway AntiVirus signature updates stop immediately.
Gateway AntiVirus stops detecting and blocking viruses immediately. If the device attempts a
Gateway AV scan when Gateway AV is enabled but expired, the device takes the same action
as when a scan error occurs, as configured in the AntiVirus proxy action settings. A scan error
is also sent to the log file.
Gateway AntiVirus configuration options are disabled in Policy Manager, except for the ability to
disable Gateway AntiVirus for a policy that has it enabled.
Gateway AntiVirus configuration options are disabled in the Fireware XTM Web UI.
Intrusion Prevention Service (IPS)
When the IPS subscription expires:
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IPS signature updates stop immediately.
IPS stops detecting and blocking intrusions immediately.
For Fireware XTM v11.0 - v11.3.x, if the device attempts an IPS scan when IPS is enabled but
expired, the device allows the content and sends a scan error to the log file.
For Fireware XTM v11.4 and later, IPS configuration options are disabled in Policy Manager
For Fireware XTM v11.0 - v11.3.x, IPS configuration options are disabled in Policy Manager,
except for the ability to disable IPS for a policy that has it enabled.
IPS configuration options are disabled in the Fireware XTM Web UI.
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WebBlocker
When the WebBlocker subscription expires:
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Updates to the WebBlocker Server stop immediately.
WebBlocker stops scanning web content immediately.
The License Bypass setting in the WebBlocker configuration controls whether policies that
have WebBlocker enabled allow or deny access to all web sites when WebBlocker is expired.
By default, policies that have WebBlocker enabled deny access to all web sites when the
WebBlocker service is expired.
If your WebBlocker subscription expires, and you did not change the default License Bypass
setting before the service expired, WebBlocker blocks access to all web sites. You cannot
change the License Bypass setting after the service has expired. If your service is expired and
WebBlocker blocks access to all web sites, you must either disable WebBlocker for each policy
that had it enabled, or renew the WebBlocker service and import an updated feature key.
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WebBlocker configuration options are disabled in Policy Manager, except for the ability to
disable WebBlocker for a policy that has it enabled.
WebBlocker configuration options are disabled in the Fireware XTM Web UI.
spamBlocker
When the spamBlocker subscription expires:
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spamBlocker stops blocking spam immediately.
spamBlocker configuration options are disabled in Policy Manager, except for the ability to
disable spamBlocker for a policy that has it enabled.
spamBlocker configuration options are disabled in the Fireware XTM Web UI.
Reputation Enabled Defense
When the Reputation Enabled Defense subscription expires:
n
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Reputation Enabled Defense stops checking reputation immediately.
Reputation Enabled Defense configuration options are disabled in Policy Manager, except for
the ability to disable Reputation Enabled Defense for a policy that has it enabled.
Reputation Enabled Defense configuration options are disabled in the Fireware XTM Web UI,.
Application Control
When the Application Control subscription expires:
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Application Control signature updates stop immediately.
Application Control stops identifying and blocking applications immediately.
Application Control configuration options are disabled in Policy Manager.
Application Control configuration options are disabled in the Fireware XTM Web UI.
Fireware XTM Web UI
Configuration and Management Basics
LiveSecurity Service
When the LiveSecurity subscription expires:
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n
You cannot upgrade or reinstall Fireware XTM OS on your device, even if it is a Fireware
XTM OS version that was released before the LiveSecurity expiration date.
WatchGuard does not provide telephone and web-based support, software updates and
enhancements, or hardware replacement (RMA).
All other functionality, including Fireware XTM Pro upgrade features, VPN features, logging,
and management functions, continue to operate.
You can manage your device and save configuration changes to your device from Policy
Manager or the Web UI.
You can save a backup image of your configuration from Policy Manager or the Web UI.
Synchronize Subscription Renewals
If you have many subscriptions with different expiration dates, your WatchGuard reseller can create a
custom renewal quote that synchronizes the renewal dates for multiple subscription services. Contact
WatchGuard or your WatchGuard reseller for details.
Renew Subscription Services
Your WatchGuard subscription services (Gateway AntiVirus, Intrusion Prevention Service, Application
Control, WebBlocker, and spamBlocker) must get regular updates to operate effectively.
To see the expiration date of your subscription services, from Fireware XTM Web UI, select System
> Feature Key. The Expiration column shows when the subscription expires. You can also see the
number of days until each service expires on the system Dashboard. Select Dashboard > System to
see the system Dashboard.
When you renew the security subscription, you must update the feature key on the XTM device. To
update the feature key, from Fireware XTM Web UI, select System > Feature Key.
For more information about feature keys, see About Feature Keys on page 57.
Subscription Services Status and Manual
Signatures Updates
The Gateway AntiVirus, Intrusion Prevention Service, and Application Control security services use a
frequently-updated set of signatures to identify the latest viruses, threats, and applications. You can
configure these services to update signatures automatically. For information about signature update
settings see:
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Configure the Gateway AV Update Server
Configure the IPS Update Server
Configure the Application Control Update Server
You can also update signatures manually. If the signatures on the XTM device are not current, you are
not protected from the latest viruses and intrusions.
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The Subscription Services status page shows statistics about the subscription services activity, and
shows the status of signature updates. For each signature-based service, you can see the current
signature version installed and whether a newer version of signatures is available.
To see the status of Subscription Services:
1. Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI for your device.
2. Select Dashboard > Subscription Services.
The Subscription Services status page appears.
3. To manually update signatures for a service, click Update for each service you want to update.
The XTM device downloads the most recent available signature update.
For more information about the statistics on this page, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
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6
Network Setup and
Configuration
About Network Interface Setup
A primary component of your XTM device setup is the configuration of network interface IP addresses.
When you run the Quick Setup Wizard, the external and trusted interfaces are set up so traffic can flow
from protected devices to an outside network. You can use the procedures in this section to change the
configuration after you run the Quick Setup Wizard, or to add other components of your network to the
configuration. For example, you can set up an optional interface for public servers such as a web
server.
Your XTM device physically separates the networks on your Local Area Network (LAN) from those on
a Wide Area Network (WAN) like the Internet. Your device uses routing to send packets from networks
it protects to networks outside your organization. To do this, your device must know what networks are
connected on each interface.
We recommend that you record basic information about your network and VPN configuration in the
event that you need to contact technical support. This information can help your technician resolve
your problem quickly.
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Network Modes
Your XTM device supports several network modes:
Mixed routing mode
In mixed routing mode, you can configure your XTM device to send network traffic between a
wide variety of physical and virtual network interfaces. This is the default network mode, and
this mode offers the greatest amount of flexibility for different network configurations. However,
you must configure each interface separately, and you may have to change network settings for
each computer or client protected by your XTM device. The XTM device uses Network Address
Translation (NAT) to send information between network interfaces.
For more information, see About Network Address Translation on page 171.
The requirements for mixed routing mode are:
n
n
All interfaces of the XTM device must be configured on different subnets. The minimum
configuration includes the external and trusted interfaces. You also can configure one or
more optional interfaces.
All computers connected to the trusted and optional interfaces must have an IP address
from that network.
Drop-in mode
In a drop-in configuration, your XTM device is configured with the same IP address on all
interfaces. You can put your XTM device between the router and the LAN and not have to
change the configuration of any local computers. This configuration is known as drop-in
because your XTM device is dropped in to an existing network. Some network features, such as
bridges and VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks), are not available in this mode.
For drop-in configuration, you must:
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Assign a static external IP address to the XTM device.
Use one logical network for all interfaces.
Not configure multi-WAN in Round-robin or Failover mode.
For more information, see Drop-In Mode on page 112.
Bridge mode
Bridge mode is a feature that allows you to place your XTM device between an existing network
and its gateway to filter or manage network traffic. When you enable this feature, your XTM
device processes and forwards all incoming network traffic to the gateway IP address you
specify. When the traffic arrives at the gateway, it appears to have been sent from the original
device. In this configuration, your XTM device cannot perform several functions that require a
public and unique IP address. For example, you cannot configure an XTM device in bridge mode
to act as an endpoint for a VPN (Virtual Private Network).
For more information, see Bridge Mode on page 118.
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Interface Types
You use three interface types to configure your network in mixed routing or drop-in mode:
External Interfaces
An external interface is used to connect your XTM device to a network outside your
organization. Often, an external interface is the method by which you connect your XTM device
to the Internet. You can configure a maximum of four (4) physical external interfaces.
When you configure an external interface, you must choose the method your Internet service
provider (ISP) uses to give you an IP address for your XTM device. If you do not know the
method, get this information from your ISP or network administrator.
Trusted Interfaces
Trusted interfaces connect to the private LAN (local area network) or internal network of your
organization. A trusted interface usually provides connections for employees and secure
internal resources.
Optional Interfaces
Optional interfaces are mixed-trust or DMZ environments that are separate from your trusted
network. Examples of computers often found on an optional interface are public web servers,
FTP servers, and mail servers.
For more information on interface types, see Common Interface Settings on page 120.
If you have an XTM 2 Series or XTM 33 device, you can use Fireware XTM Web UI to configure
failover with an external modem over the serial port.
For more information, see Serial Modem Failover on page 163.
When you configure the interfaces on your XTM device, you must use slash notation to denote the
subnet mask. For example, you would enter the network range 192.168.0.0 subnet mask
255.255.255.0 as 192.168.0.0/24. A trusted interface with the IP address of 10.0.1.1/16 has a subnet
mask of 255.255.0.0.
For more information on slash notation, see About Slash Notation on page 5.
About Private IP Addresses
When you configure a trusted or optional interface, we recommend that you use an IP address in one of
the three IP address ranges reserved by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) for private
networks on LANs.
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192.168.0.0/16
172.16.0.0/12
10.0.0.0/8
By default, the XTM device enables dynamic NAT for outbound traffic from addresses in these ranges
to any external interface.
For more information about dynamic NAT, see About Dynamic NAT.
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About IPv6 Support
Fireware XTM supports a limited set of IPv6 features.
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IPv6 addressing — You can add a static IPv6 address to the External, Trusted, or Optional
interfaces when the device is configured in mixed routing mode.
For more information, see Enable IPv6 for an External Interface, and Enable IPv6 for a Trusted
or Optional Interface.
IPv6 DNS servers — You can use an IPv6 address to specify a DNS server.
IPv6 static routes — You can add an IPv6 host or network static route.
IPv6 management — You can use the static IPv6 address to connect to Fireware XTM Web UI
or the CLI for device management. You cannot use the static IPv6 address to connect to the
XTM device from WatchGuard System Manager.
IPv6 diagnostic logging — You can set the diagnostic log level for IPv6 advertisements.
For information about how to configure diagnostic log levels, see Set the Diagnostic Log Level.
IPv6 Limitations
All other networking and security features are not yet supported for IPv6 traffic. This includes:
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Firewall policies and proxies
Default threat protection
Authentication
Application Control
Multi-WAN
VLAN interface
Bridge interface
Drop-in mode
Bridge mode
Dynamic routes
FireCluster
Any other feature not in the list of supported IPv6 features
WatchGuard continues to add more IPv6 support to Fireware XTM for all XTM device models. For
more information about the WatchGuard IPv6 roadmap, see
http://www.watchguard.com/ipv6/index.asp.
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Mixed Routing Mode
In mixed routing mode, you can configure your XTM device to send network traffic between many
different types of physical and virtual network interfaces. Mixed routing mode is the default network
mode. While most network and security features are available in this mode, you must carefully check
the configuration of each device connected to your XTM device to make sure that your network
operates correctly.
A basic network configuration in mixed routing mode uses at least two interfaces. For example, you
can connect an external interface to a cable modem or other Internet connection, and a trusted
interface to an internal router that connects internal members of your organization. From that basic
configuration, you can add an optional network that protects servers but allows greater access from
external networks, configure VLANs, and other advanced features, or set additional options for
security like MAC address restrictions. You can also define how network traffic is sent between
interfaces.
To get started on interface configuration in mixed routing mode, see Common Interface Settings on
page 120.
It is easy to forget IP addresses and connection points on your network in mixed routing mode,
especially if you use VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks), secondary networks, and other advanced
features. We recommend that you record basic information about your network and VPN configuration
in the event that you need to contact technical support. This information can help your technician
resolve your problem quickly.
Configure an External Interface
An external interface is used to connect your XTM device to a network outside your organization.
Often, an external interface is the method by which you connect your device to the Internet. You can
configure a maximum of four (4) physical external interfaces.
When you configure an external interface, you must choose the method your Internet service provider
(ISP) uses to give you an IPv4 address for your device. If you do not know the method, get this
information from your ISP or network administrator. In addition to the IPv4 address, you can optionally
configure an IPv6 address.
For information about methods used to set and distribute IP addresses, see Static and Dynamic IP
Addresses on page 6.
For information about IPv6 configuration, see Enable IPv6 for an External Interface.
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Use a Static IPv4 Address
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select an external interface. Click Configure.
From the Configuration Mode drop-down list, select Static IP.
In the IP address text box, type the IP address of the interface.
In the Gateway text box, type the IP address of the default gateway.
6. Click Save.
Use PPPoE Authentication to get an IPv4 Address
If your ISP uses PPPoE, you must configure PPPoE authentication before your device can send traffic
through the external interface.
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
2. Select an external interface. Click Configure.
3. From the Configuration Mode drop-down list, select PPPoE.
4. Select an option:
n Obtain an IP address automatically
n Use this IP address (supplied by your Internet Service Provider)
5. If you selected Use this IP Address, in the adjacent text box, type the IP address.
6. Type the User Name and Password. Type the password again.
ISPs use the email address format for user names, such as [email protected]
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7. To configure additional PPPoE options, click Advanced PPPoE Settings.
Your ISP can tell you if you must change the timeout or LCP values.
8. If your ISP requires the Host-Uniq tag for PPPoE discovery packets, select the Use Host-Uniq
tag in PPPoE discovery packets check box.
9. Select when the device connects to the PPPoE server:
n Always-on — The XTM device keeps a constant PPPoE connection. It is not necessary for
network traffic to go through the external interface.
If you select this option, type or select a value in the PPPoE initialization retry every text
box to set the number of seconds that PPPoE tries to initialize before it times out.
n Dial-on-demand — The XTM device connects to the PPPoE server only when it gets a
request to send traffic to an IP address on the external interface.
If your ISP regularly resets the connection, select this option.
If you select this option, in the Idle timeout in text box, set the length of time a client can
stay connected when no traffic is sent.
If you do not select this option, you must manually restart the XTM device each time the
connection resets.
10. In the LCP echo failure in text box, type or select the number of failed LCP echo requests
allowed before the PPPoE connection is considered inactive and closed.
11. In the LCP echo timeout in text box, type or select the length of time, in seconds, that the
response to each echo timeout must be received.
12. To configure the XTM device to automatically restart the PPPoE connection on a daily or
weekly basis, select the Schedule time for auto restart check box.
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13. From the Schedule time for auto restart drop-down list, select Daily to restart the connection
at the same time each day, or select a day of the week to restart weekly. Select the hour and
minute of the day (in 24 hour time format) to automatically restart the PPPoE connection.
14. In the Service Name text box, type a PPPoE service name.
This is either an ISP name or a class of service that is configured on the PPPoE server.
Usually, this option is not used. Select it only if there is more than one access concentrator, or
you know that you must use a specified service name.
15. In the Access Concentrator Name text box, type the name of a PPPoE access concentrator,
also known as a PPPoE server. Usually, this option is not used. Select it only if you know there
is more than one access concentrator.
16. In the Authentication retries text box, type or select the number of times that the XTM device
can try to make a connection.
The default value is three (3) connection attempts.
17. In the Authentication timeout text box, type a value for the amount of time between
connection attempt retries.
The default value is 20 seconds between each connection attempt.
18. Configure PPPoE IP address negotiation. There are two settings:
n Send PPPoE client static IP address during PPPoE negotiation — If you configured
the PPPoE settings to use a static IP address, this option enables the XTM device to send
the PPPoE client IP address to the PPPoE server during PPPoE negotiation. This option is
enabled by default when you configure a static IP address for PPPoE. Clear this check box
if you want the XTM device to accept a different public IP address from the PPPoE server.
n Negotiate DNS with PPPoE Server — Select this option to enable the XTM device to
negotiate DNS with the PPPoE server. This is enabled by default. Clear this check box if
you do not want the XTM device to negotiate DNS.
19. Click Return to Main PPPoE Settings.
20. Save your configuration changes.
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Use DHCP to Get an IPv4 IP Address
1. From the Configuration Mode drop-down list, select DHCP.
2. If your ISP or external DHCP server requires a client identifier, such as a MAC address, in the
Client text box, type this information.
3. To specify a host name for identification, type it in the Host Name text box.
4. To manually assign an IP address to the external interface, type it in the Use this IP address
text box.
To configure the external interface to obtain an IP address automatically, clear the Use this IP
address text box.
5. To change the lease time, select the Leasing Time check box and specify the value in the
adjacent text box and drop-down list.
IP addresses assigned by a DHCP server have an eight hour lease by default; each address is
valid for eight hours.
Enable IPv6 for an External Interface
If your device uses Fireware XTM OS v11.5.1 or later, you can configure the external interface with an
IPv6 address in addition to the IPv4 address. IPv6 is not enabled on any interface by default.When you
enable IPv6 for an interface, you can configure the interface with one or more static IPv6
addresses.You can also choose to enable IP address autoconfiguration.
Use a Static IPv6 IP Address
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
2. Select an external interface. Click Configure.
The Interface Settings dialog box appears.
3. Select the IPv6 tab.
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4. Select the Enable IPv6 check box.
5. Click Add.
The Add Static IPv6 Address dialog box appears.
6. Type the IPv6 IP address and the subnet mask. Click OK.
The IP address is added to the list
7. In the Default Gateway text box, type the IPv6 address of the default gateway.
Use IPv6 Address Autoconfiguration
To enable the XTM device to automatically assign an IPv6 link-local address to this interface, select
the IP Address Autoconfiguration check box in the IPv6 tab. You can enable this even if you do not
configure a static IPv6 address.
When you enable IP address autoconfiguration, the external interface is automatically enabled to
receive IPv6 router advertisements.
For more information about IPv6 stateless address autoconfiguration, see RFC 4862.
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Configure Other IPv6 Connection Settings
On the IPv6 tab, you can also configure other IPv6 connection settings. The default values are
appropriate for most networks. We recommend that you do not change them unless your network
requires it.
1. In the Link MTU text box, type or select the maximum packet size, in bytes, that can be sent
through this IPv6 link.
The default value is 1500 bytes.
2. In the Hop Limit text box, type or select the IPv6 hop limit.
The hop limit is the number of network segments a packet can travel over before it is discarded
by a router.
The default value is 64.
3. In the DAD Transmits text box, type or select the number of DAD (Duplication Address
Detection) transmits for this link.
The default value is 1. If you set this value to 0, duplicate address detection is not performed.
Enable IPv6 for a Trusted or Optional Interface
If your device uses Fireware XTM OS v11.5.1 or later, you can configure the trusted or optional
interfaces with an IPv6 address in addition to the IPv4 address. IPv6 is not enabled on any interface by
default. When you enable IPv6, you can configure the interface with one or more static IPv6
addresses.You can also configure router advertisement of the IP address prefix.
Add a Static IPv6 IP Address
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
2. Select a trusted or optional interface. Click Configure.
The Interface Settings dialog box appears.
3. Select the IPv6 tab.
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4. Select the Enable IPv6 check box.
5. Click Add.
6. Type the IPv6 IP address and the subnet mask.
7. To add the prefix for this IP address to the Prefix Advertisement list, select the Add Prefix
Advertisement check box.
You can select this option only if the subnet mask is /64.
8. Click OK.
The IP address is added to the list
Configure Other IPv6 Connection Settings
On the IPv6 tab, you can also configure other IPv6 connection settings. The default values are
appropriate for most networks. We recommend that you do not change them unless your network
requires it.
1. In the Link MTU text box, type or select the maximum packet size, in bytes, that can be sent
through this IPv6 link.
The default value is 1500 bytes.
2. In the Hop Limit text box, type or select the IPv6 hop limit.
The hop limit is the number of network segments a packet can travel over before it is discarded
by a router.
The default value is 64.
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3. In the DAD Transmits text box, type or select the number of DAD (Duplication Address
Detection) transmits for this link.
The default value is 1. If you set this value to 0, duplicate address detection is not performed.
Configure Router Advertisement
When you enable IPv6 for a trusted or optional interface, you can enable the interface to send Router
Advertisement messages. When you enable Router Advertisement, the interface sends the configured
IP address prefixes in router advertisements on the local network. Router Advertisement is used for
IPv6 neighbor discovery and IPv6 address autoconfiguration.
The Router Advertisement settings appear in the Router Advertisement section of the IPv6 tab.
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Router Advertisement Settings
Select the Send Advertisement checkbox to enable the XTM device to send periodic router
advertisements and respond to router solicitations. If you select the Add Prefix Advertisement check
box for any IPv6 IP address, the Send Advertisement check box is automatically selected.
The Router Advertisement section has three others settings that appear in all router advertisement
messages:
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n
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Default Lifetime — The lifetime associated with the default router. The default value is 30
minutes. The maximum is 150 minutes.
Maximum Interval — The maximum time allowed between unsolicited multicast router
advertisements sent from the interface. It must be a value from 4 to 1800 seconds. The default
value is 10 minutes.
Minimum Interval — The minimum time allowed between unsolicited multicast router
advertisements sent from the interface. It must be a value from 3 to 1350 seconds. The default
value is 200 seconds.
Add a Prefix Advertisement
To add a Prefix Advertisement prefix for a static IPv6 address:
In the Static IPv6 Addresses list, select the Add Prefix Advertisement check box adjacent
to a configured static IP address. You can also select this check box when you add the static
IP address. In either case, the prefix for the static IP address is added to the Prefix
Advertisement list.
For example, if the static IP address is 2001:db8::2/64 , when you select Add Prefix
Advertisement, the prefix 2001:db8:: is added to the Prefix Advertisement list.
To add a Prefix Advertisement that is not associated with a static IPv6 address:
1. In the Router Advertisement section, select the Send Advertisement check box.
2. Click Add.
The Add Prefix Advertisement dialog box appears.
3. In the Prefix text box, type the IPv6 prefix.
The prefix must be a network IP address in the format x:x::/64.
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4. (Optional) Change the other prefix advertisement settings:
n Valid Lifetime — The length of time after the packet is sent that the prefix is valid for the
purpose of onlink determination.
n Preferred Lifetime — The length of time after the packet is sent that addresses generated
from the prefix through stateless address autoconfiguration remain preferred.
n Onlink — If enabled, a host can use this prefix to determine whether a destination is onlink
as opposed to reachable only through a router.
n Autonomous — If enabled, a host can use this prefix for stateless autoconfiguration of the
link-local address.
5. Click OK.
Edit a Prefix Advertisement
1. To change the Autonomous and Online settings, select or clear the check box in the adjacent
column.
2. To edit other settings, select the Prefix Advertisement and click Edit.
Remove a Prefix Advertisement
1. To remove the prefix advertisement associated with a configured static IP address, clear the
Add Prefix Advertisement check box adjacent to the static IP address in the Static IPv6
Addresses table.
2. To remove any other prefix advertisement, select the prefix in the Prefix Advertisement list.
Then click Remove.
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Configure DHCP in Mixed Routing Mode
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a method to assign IP addresses automatically to
network clients. You can configure your XTM device as a DHCP server for the networks that it
protects. If you have a DHCP server, we recommend that you continue to use that server for DHCP.
If your XTM device is configured in drop-in mode, see Configure DHCP in Drop-In Mode on page 115.
Configure DHCP
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
2. Select a trusted or an optional interface. Click Configure.
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3. In the Configuration Mode drop-down list, select Use DHCP Server.
4. To add a group of IP addresses to assign to users on this interface, type a Starting IP address
and an Ending IP address from the same subnet, then click Add.
The address pool must belong either to the interface’s primary or secondary IP subnet.
You can configure a maximum of six address ranges. Address groups are used from first to last.
Addresses in each group are assigned by number, from lowest to highest.
5. To change the default lease time, select a different option in the Leasing Time drop-down list.
This is the time interval that a DHCP client can use an IP address that it receives from the DHCP
server. When the lease time is about to expire, the client sends data to the DHCP server to get a new
lease.
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Configure DHCP Reservations
To reserve a specific IP address for a client:
1. In the Reserved Addresses section, type a name for the reservation, the IP address you want
to reserve, and the MAC address of the client’s network card.
2. Click Add.
Configure Per-Interface WINS/DNS
By default, when it is configured as a DHCP server your XTM device gives out the DNS and WINS
server information configured on the Network Configuration > WINS/DNS tab. To specify different
information for your device to assign when it gives out IP addresses, you can add a DNS server for the
interface.
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To change the default DNS domain, type a Domain Name.
To create a new DNS server entry, in the DNS Server text box, type an IP address, and click Add.
Tocreateanew WINS serverentry,intheWINS Servertextbox,typeanIP address andclick Add.
To remove the selected server from the adjacent list, click Remove.
About the Dynamic DNS Service
You can register the external IP address of your XTM device with the dynamic Domain Name System
(DNS) service DynDNS.org. A dynamic DNS service makes sure that the IP address attached to your
domain name changes when your ISP gives your device a new IP address. This feature is available in
either mixed routing or drop-in network configuration mode.
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If you use this feature, your XTM device gets the IP address of members.dyndns.org when it starts up.
It makes sure the IP address is correct every time it restarts and at an interval of every twenty days. If
you make any changes to your DynDNS configuration on your XTM device, or if you change the IP
address of the default gateway, it updates DynDNS.com immediately.
For more information on the Dynamic DNS service or to create a DynDNS account, go to
http://www.dyndns.com.
Note WatchGuard is not affiliated with DynDNS.com.
Configure Dynamic DNS
1. Select Network > Dynamic DNS.
The Dynamic DNS client page appears.
2. Select a network interface, then click Configure.
The Dynamic DNS configuration page appears.
3. Select the Enable Dynamic DNS check box.
4. Type the Username , Password, and Domain name you used to set up your dynamic DNS
account.
5. From the Service Type drop-down list, select the system to use for Dynamic DNS:
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dyndns — Sends updates for a Dynamic DNS host name. Use the dyndns option when
you have no control over your IP address (for example, it is not static, and it changes on a
regular basis).
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custom — Sends updates for a custom DNS host name. This option is frequently used by
businesses that pay to register their domain with dyndns.com.
For an explanation of each option, see http://www.dyndns.com/services/.
6. In the Options text box, type one or more of these options:
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mx=mailexchanger& — Specifies a Mail eXchanger (MX) for use with the hostname.
backmx=YES|NO& — Requests that the MX in the previous parameter is set up as a backup
MX (includes the host as an MX with a lower preference value).
wildcard=ON|OFF|NOCHG& — Enables or disables wildcards for this host (ON to enable).
offline=YES|NO — Sets the hostname to offline mode. One or more options can be
chained together with the ampersand character. For example:
&mx=backup.kunstlerandsons.com&backmx=YES&wildcard=ON
For more information, see http://www.dyndns.com/developers/specs/syntax.html.
7. Click Save.
Drop-In Mode
In a drop-in configuration, your XTM device is configured with the same IP address on all interfaces.
The drop-in configuration mode distributes the network’s logical address range across all available
network interfaces. You can put your XTM device between the router and the LAN and not have to
change the configuration of any local computers. This configuration is known as drop-in mode because
your XTM device is dropped in to a previously configured network.
In drop-in mode:
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You must assign the same primary IP address to all interfaces on your XTM device (external,
trusted, and optional).
You can assign secondary networks on any interface.
You can keep the same IP addresses and default gateways for hosts on your trusted and
optional networks, and add a secondary network address to the primary external interface so
your XTM device can correctly send traffic to the hosts on these networks.
The public servers behind your XTM device can continue to use public IP addresses. Network
address translation (NAT) is not used to route traffic from outside your network to your public
servers.
The properties of a drop-in configuration are:
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You must assign and use a static IP address on the external interface.
You use one logical network for all interfaces.
You cannot configure more than one external interface when your XTM device is configured in
drop-in mode. Multi-WAN functionality is automatically disabled.
It is sometimes necessary to Clear the ARP Cache of each computer protected by the XTM device,
but this is not common.
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Note If you move an IP address from a computer located behind one interface to a computer
located behind a different interface, it can take several minutes before network traffic
is sent to the new location. Your XTM device must update its internal routing table
before this traffic can pass. Traffic types that are affected include logging, SNMP, and
XTM device management connections.
You can configure your network interfaces with drop-in mode when you run the Quick Setup Wizard. If
you have already created a network configuration, you can use Policy Manager to switch to drop-in
mode.
For more information, see Run the Web Setup Wizard on page 29.
Use Drop-In Mode for Network Interface Configuration
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces dialog box appears.
2. From the Configure Interfaces in drop-down list, select Drop-In Mode.
3. In the IP Address text box, type the IP address you want to use as the primary address for all
interfaces on your XTM device.
4. In the Gateway text box, type the IP address of the gateway. This IP address is automatically
added to the Related Hosts list.
5. Click Save.
Configure Related Hosts
In a drop-in or bridge configuration, the XTM device is configured with the same IP address on each
interface. Your XTM device automatically discovers new devices that are connected to these
interfaces and adds each new MAC address to its internal routing table. If you want to configure device
connections manually, or if the Automatic Host Mapping feature does not operate correctly, you can
add a related hosts entry. A related hosts entry creates a static route between the host IP address and
one network interface. We recommend that you disable Automatic Host Mapping on interfaces for
which you create a related hosts entry.
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
2. Configure network interfaces in drop-in or bridge mode. Click Properties.
The Drop-In Mode Properties page appears.
3. Clear the check box for any interface for which you want to add a related hosts entry.
4. In the Host text box, type the IP address of the device for which you want to build a static route
from the XTM device. Select the Interface from the adjacent drop-down list, then click Add.
Repeat this step to add additional devices.
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5. At the top of the page, click Return.
6. Click Save.
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Configure DHCP in Drop-In Mode
When you use drop-in mode for network configuration, you can optionally configure the XTM device as
a DHCP server for the networks it protects, or make the XTM device a DHCP relay agent. If you have
a configured DHCP server, we recommend that you continue to use that server for DHCP.
Use DHCP
When you use drop-in mode for network configuration, you can optionally configure the XTM device as
a DHCP server for networks it protects, or make the XTM device a DHCP relay agent. If you have a
configured DHCP server, we recommend that you continue to use that server for DHCP.
By default, your XTM device gives out the configure DNS/WINS server information when it is
configured as a DHCP server. You can configure DNS/WINS information on this page to override the
global configuration. For more information, see the instructions in Add WINS and DNS Server
Addresses on page 122.
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
2. If your XTM device is not already configured in drop-in mode, from the Configure Interfaces in
drop-down list select Drop-In Mode.
3. Click Properties.
4. Select the DHCP Settings tab.
5. From the drop-down list, select Use DHCP Server.
The DHCP configuration settings appear.
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6. To change the DHCP lease time, select a different option in the Leasing Time drop-down list.
7. To add an address pool from which your XTM device can give out IP addresses: in the Starting
IP and Ending IP text boxes, type a range of IP addresses that are on the same subnet as the
drop-in IP address. Click Add.
Repeat this step to add more address pools.
You can configure a maximum of six address pools.
8. To reserve a specific IP address from an address pool for a device or client, in the Reserved
Addresses section:
n Type a Reservation Name to identify the reservation.
n Type the Reserved IP address you want to reserve.
n Type the MAC address for the device.
n Click Add.
Repeat this step to add more DHCP reservations.
9. If necessary, Add WINS and DNS Server Addresses.
10. At the top of the page, click Return.
11. Click Save.
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Use DHCP Relay
To configure DHCP relay for an XTM device in drop-in mode:
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
2. Click Properties.
3. Select the DHCP Settings tab.
4. From the drop-down list, select Use DHCP Relay.
5. Type the IP address of the DHCP server in the related field. Make sure to Add a Static Route to
the DHCP server, if necessary.
6. At the top of the page, click Return.
7. Click Save.
Specify DHCP Settings for a Single Interface
You can specify different DHCP settings for each trusted or optional interface in your configuration. To
modify these settings:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Scroll to the bottom of the Network Configuration dialog box.
Select an interface.
Click Configure.
To use the same DHCP settings that you configured for drop-in mode, select Use System
DHCP Setting.
To disable DHCP for clients on that network interface, select Disable DHCP.
To configure different DHCP options for clients on a secondary network, select Use
DHCP Server for Secondary Network.
To configure DHCP relay for clients on a secondary network, select Use DHCP Relay for
Secondary Network. Specify the IP address of the DHCP server to use for the secondary
network.
5. To add IP address pools, set the default lease time, and manage DNS/WINS servers, complete
Steps 3–6 of the Use DHCP section.
6. Click OK.
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Bridge Mode
Bridge mode is a feature that allows you to install your XTM device between an existing network and
its gateway to filter or manage network traffic. When you enable this feature, your XTM device
processes and forwards all network traffic to other gateway devices. When the traffic arrives at a
gateway from the XTM device, it appears to have been sent from the original device.
To use bridge mode, you must specify an IP address that is used to manage your XTM device. The
device also uses this IP address to get Gateway AV/IPS updates and to route to internal DNS, NTP, or
WebBlocker servers as necessary. Because of this, make sure you assign an IP address that is
routable on the Internet.
In bridge mode, L2 and L3 headers are not changed. If you want traffic on the same physical interface
of an XTM device to pass through the device, you cannot use bridge mode. In this case, you must use
drop-in or mixed routing mode, and set the default gateway of those computers to be the XTM device
itself.
When you use bridge mode, your XTM device cannot complete some functions that require the device
to operate as a gateway. These functions include:
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Multi-WAN
VLANs (Virtual Local Area Networks)
Network bridges
Static routes
FireCluster
Secondary networks
DHCP server or DHCP relay
Serial modem failover
1-to-1, dynamic, or static NAT
Dynamic routing (OSPF, BGP, or RIP)
Any type of VPN for which the XTM device is an endpoint or gateway
Some proxy functions, including HTTP Web Cache Server
If you have previously configured these features or services, they are disabled when you switch to
bridge mode. To use these features or services again, you must use a different network mode. If you
return to drop-in or mixed routing mode, you might have to configure some features again.
Note When you enable bridge mode, any interfaces with a previously configured network
bridge or VLAN are disabled. To use those interfaces, you must first change to either
drop-in or mixed routing mode, and configure the interface as External, Optional, or
Trusted, then return to bridge mode. Wireless features on XTM wireless devices
operate correctly in bridge mode.
Note When you configure an XTMv virtual machine in bridge mode, you must enable
promiscuous mode on the attached virtual switch (vSwitch) in VMware.
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Enable Bridge Mode
To configure the XTM device in bridge mode:
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
2. From the Configure Interfaces In drop-down list, select Bridge Mode.
3. If you are prompted to disable interfaces, click Yes to disable the interfaces, or No to return to
your previous configuration.
4. Type the IP Address of your XTM device in slash notation.
For more information on slash notation, see About Slash Notation on page 5.
5. Type the Gateway IP address that receives all network traffic from the device.
6. Click Save.
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Common Interface Settings
When the XTM device is in mixed routing mode, you can configure it to send network traffic between a
wide variety of physical and virtual network interfaces. Mixed routing mode is the default network mode
and offers the greatest amount of flexibility for different network configurations. However, you must
configure each interface separately, and you might need to change network settings for each computer
or client protected by your XTM device.
For all of the supported network modes, you can configure common settings for each interface. The
interface configuration options available depend on the network mode and interface type.
To configure a network interface:
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces dialog box appears.
2. Select an interface and click Configure.
The Interface Configuration dialog box appears.
3. In the Interface Name (Alias) text box, you can use the default name or change it to one that
more closely reflects your own network and its own trust relationships.
Make sure the name is unique among interface names, as well as all Mobile VPN group names
and tunnel names. You can use this alias with other features, such as proxy policies, to manage
network traffic for this interface.
4. (Optional) In the Interface Description text box, type a description of the interface.
5. From the Interface Type drop-down list, select the value of the interface type: External,
Trusted, Optional, Bridge, Disabled, or VLAN. Some interface types have additional
settings.
6. Configure the interface settings.
n To set the IP address of a trusted or optional interface, type the IP address in slash
notation.
n For information about IP addresses to use for trusted and optional networks, see About
Private IP Addresses.
n For information about how to assign an IPv4 address to an external interface for a
device in mixed routing mode, see Configure an External Interface on page 97.
n To automatically assign IPv4 addresses to clients that connect to a trusted or optional
interface, see Configure DHCP in Mixed Routing Mode on page 108 or Configure
DHCP Relay on page 121.
n To use more than one IP address on a single physical network interface, see Add a
Secondary Network IP Address on page 124.
n To configure an interface to use an IPv6 address for a device in mixed routing mode,
see Enable IPv6 for an External Interface and Enable IPv6 for a Trusted or Optional
Interface.
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For more information about VLAN configurations, see About Virtual Local Area
Networks (VLANs) on page 137.
n For information about how to configure a network bridge, see Create a Network Bridge
Configuration.
n To disable an interface from your configuration, see Disable an Interface on page 121.
7. Click Save.
n
Disable an Interface
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
2. Select the interface you want to disable. Click Configure.
The Interface Configuration page appears.
3. From the Interface Type drop-down list, select Disabled. Click Save.
In the Network Interfaces page, the interface now appears as type Disabled.
Configure DHCP Relay
One way to get IP addresses for the computers on the trusted or optional networks is to use a DHCP
server on a different network. You can use DHCP relay to get IP addresses for the computers on the
trusted or optional network. With this feature, the XTM device sends DHCP requests to a server on a
different network.
If the DHCP server you want to use is not on a network protected by your XTM device, you must set
up a VPN tunnel between your XTM device and the DHCP server for this feature to operate correctly.
To configure DHCP relay:
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
2. Select a trusted or an optional interface and click Configure.
3. From the drop-down list at the bottom of the page, select Use DHCP Relay.
4. Type the IP address of the DHCP server in the related field. Make sure to Add a Static Route to
the DHCP server, if necessary.
5. Click Save.
Restrict Network Traffic by MAC Address
You can use a list of MAC addresses to manage which devices are allowed to send traffic on the
network interface you specify. When you enable this feature, your XTM device checks the
MAC address of each computer or device that connects to the specified interface. If the MAC address
of that device is not on the MAC Access Control list for that interface, the device cannot send traffic.
This feature is especially helpful to prevent any unauthorized access to your network from a location
within your office. However, you must update the MAC Address Control list for each interface when a
new, authorized computer is added to the network.
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Note If you choose to restrict access by MAC address, you must include the MAC address
for the computer you use to administer your XTM device.
To enable MAC Access Control for a network interface:
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
2. Select the interface on which you want to enable MAC Access Control, then click Configure.
The Interface Configuration page appears.
3. Select the MAC Access Control tab.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Select the Restrict access by MAC address check box.
Type the MAC address of the computer or device to give it access to the specified interface.
(Optional) Type a Name for the computer or device to identify it in the list.
Click Add.
Repeat steps 5 - 7 to add more computers or devices to the MAC Access Control list.
Add WINS and DNS Server Addresses
Your XTM device shares Windows Internet Name Server (WINS) and Domain Name System (DNS)
server IP addresses for some features. These features include DHCP and Mobile VPN. The WINS
and DNS servers must be accessible from the XTM device trusted interface.
This information is used for two purposes:
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The XTM device uses the DNS server to resolve names to IP addresses for IPSec VPNs and
for the spamBlocker, Gateway AV, and IPS features to operate correctly.
The WINS and DNS entries are used by DHCP clients on the trusted or optional networks, and
by Mobile VPN users to resolve DNS queries.
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Make sure that you use only an internal WINS and DNS server for DHCP and Mobile VPN. This is to
make sure that you do not create policies with configuration properties that make it difficult for your
users to connect to the DNS server.
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
2. In the DNS Server or WINS Server text box, type the primary and secondary address for each
DNS or WINS server.
3. Click Add.
4. (Optional) Repeat Steps 2–3 to specify up to three DNS servers.
5. (Optional) In the Domain Name text box, type a domain name for a DHCP client to use with
unqualified names such as watchguard_mail.
6. Click Save.
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Add a Secondary Network IP Address
When you configure an XTM device interface, you can add secondary network IP addresses to the
interface. Each IP address you add can be on the same subnet or on a different subnet from the
primary IP address of the interface.
Secondary network IP address on the same subnet
For an internal interface, you can use a secondary IP address on the same subnet if an internal
host must use that IP address as its default gateway.
For an external interface, a common reason to use a secondary IP address on the same subnet
is when you want to forward traffic to multiple internal servers. When outgoing traffic, such as
traffic from an SMTP server, must appear to come from the same secondary IP address, use
the policy-based dynamic NAT Set source IP option in an outgoing policy.
For an example of this type of configuration, see the configuration example Use NAT for Public
Access to Servers with Private IP Addresses, available at
http://www.watchguard.com/help/configuration-examples/.
Formoreinformationaboutpolicy-baseddynamic NAT,seeConfigurePolicy-BasedDynamicNAT.
Secondary network IP address on a different subnet
If the secondary IP address is on a different subnet from the primary IP address of the interface,
it tells the XTM device that there is one more network on the XTM device interface. When you
add a secondary network on a different subnet, the XTM device creates a route from any IP
address on the secondary network to the IP address of the XTM device interface.
For an external interface, you would use a secondary network on a different subnet if your ISP
gives you multiple IP addresses on different subnets, and the ISP gateway can route traffic to
and from the different subnets.
For a trusted or optional interface, you would define a secondary network on a different subnet
when you want to connect the interface to more than one internal network. An example is
described in the subsequent section.
If you configure an XTM device in drop-in mode, each XTM device interface uses the same
primary IP address. However, you probably use a different set of IP addresses on your trusted
network. You can add this private network as a secondary network to the trusted interface of
your XTM device.
For you to configure a secondary network IP address for an interface, your XTM device must use a
routed or drop-in network configuration. You can add secondary network IP addresses to an external
interface of an XTM device even if that external interface is configured to get its primary IP address
through PPPoE or DHCP.
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Configure a Secondary Network
Use these steps to add a secondary network. In this example, the secondary network is on a trusted
interface.
To define a secondary network address, you must have an unused IP address on the secondary
network to assign to the XTM device interface.
To define a secondary network:
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
2. Select the interface for the secondary network and click Configure, or double-click an
interface.
The Interface Configuration page appears.
3. In the Secondary Networks section, type an unassigned host IP address in slash notation from
the secondary network. Click Add. Repeat this step to add additional secondary networks.
4. Click Save.
5. Click Save again.
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Note Make sure to add secondary network addresses correctly. The XTM device does not
tell you if the address is correct. We recommend that you do not create a subnet as a
secondary network on one interface that is a component of a larger network on a
different interface. If you do this, the XTM device could identify this traffic as spoofing
a network that it expects to exist on another interface, and the network could fail to
operate correctly. The XTM device might not ARP to the same network on multiple
interfaces (with the exception of drop-in mode, bridged interfaces, and bridged
VLANs).
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About Advanced Interface Settings
You can use several advanced settings for XTM device interfaces:
Network Interface Card (NIC) Settings
Configures the speed and duplex parameters for XTM device interfaces to automatic or manual
configuration. We recommend you keep the link speed configured for automatic negotiation. If
you use the manual configuration option, you must make sure the device the XTM device
connects to is also manually set to the same speed and duplex parameters as the XTM device.
Use the manual configuration option only when you must override the automatic XTM device
interface parameters to operate with other devices on your network.
Set Outgoing Interface Bandwidth
When you use Traffic Management settings to guarantee bandwidth to policies, this setting
makes sure that you do not guarantee more bandwidth than actually exists for an interface. This
setting also helps you make sure the sum of guaranteed bandwidth settings does not fill the link
such that non-guaranteed traffic cannot pass.
Enable QoS Marking for an Interface
Creates different classifications of service for different kinds of network traffic. You can set the
default marking behavior as traffic goes out of an interface. These settings can be overridden by
settings defined for a policy.
Set DF Bit for IPSec
Determines the setting of the Don’t Fragment (DF) bit for IPSec.
PMTU Setting for IPSec
(External interfaces only) Controls the length of time that the XTM device lowers the MTU for an
IPSec VPN tunnel when it gets an ICMP Request to Fragment packet from a router with a lower
MTU setting on the Internet.
Use Static MAC Address Binding
Uses computer hardware (MAC) addresses to control access to an XTM device interface.
Network Interface Card (NIC) Settings
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
2. Select the interface you want to configure. Click Configure.
3. Click Advanced General Settings.
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4. In the Link Speed drop-down list, select Auto Negotiate if you want the XTM device to select
the best network speed. You can also select one of the half-duplex or full-duplex speeds that
you know is compatible with your other network equipment.
Auto Negotiate is the default setting. We strongly recommend that you do not change this
setting unless instructed to do so by Technical Support. If you set the link speed manually and
other devices on your network do not support the speed you select, this can cause a conflict
that does not allow your XTM device interface to reconnect after failover.
5. In the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) text box, select the maximum packet size, in
bytes, that can be sent through the interface. We recommend that you use the default, 1500
bytes, unless your network equipment requires a different packet size.
You can set the MTU from a minimum of 68 to a maximum of 9000.
6. To change the MAC address of the external interface, select the Override MAC Address
check box and type the new MAC address.
For more information about MAC addresses, see the subsequent section.
7. Click Save.
8. Click Save again.
About MAC Addresses
Some ISPs use a MAC address to identify the computers on their network. Each MAC address gets
one static IP address. If your ISP uses this method to identify your computer, then you must change
the MAC address of the XTM device external interface. Use the MAC address of the cable modem,
DSL modem, or router that connected directly to the ISP in your original configuration.
The MAC address must have these properties:
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The MAC address must use 12 hexadecimal characters. Hexadecimal characters have a value
between 0 and 9 or between “a” and “f.”
The MAC address must operate with:
o One or more addresses on the external network.
o The MAC address of the trusted network for the device.
o The MAC address of the optional network for the device.
The MAC address must not be set to 000000000000 or ffffffffffff.
If the Override MAC Address check box is not selected when the XTM device is restarted, the device
uses the default MAC address for the external network.
To decrease problems with MAC addresses, the XTM device makes sure that the MAC address you
assign to the external interface is unique on your network. If the XTM device finds a device that uses
the same MAC address, the XTM device changes back to the standard MAC address for the external
interface and starts again.
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Set DF Bit for IPSec
When you configure the external interface, select one of the three options to determine the setting for
the Don’t Fragment (DF) bit for IPSec section.
Copy
Select Copy to apply the DF bit setting of the original frame to the IPSec encrypted packet. If a
frame does not have the DF bits set, Fireware XTM does not set the DF bits and fragments the
packet if needed. If a frame is set to not be fragmented, Fireware XTM encapsulates the entire
frame and sets the DF bits of the encrypted packet to match the original frame.
Set
Select Set if you do not want your XTM device to fragment the frame regardless of the original
bit setting. If a user must make IPSec connections to a XTM device from behind a different
XTM device, you must clear this check box to enable the IPSec pass-through feature. For
example, if mobile employees are at a customer location that has a XTM device, they can make
IPSec connections to their network with IPSec. For your local XTM device to correctly allow the
outgoing IPSec connection, you must also add an IPSec policy.
Clear
Select Clear to break the frame into pieces that can fit in an IPSec packet with the ESP or AH
header, regardless of the original bit setting.
PMTU Setting for IPSec
This advanced interface setting applies to external interfaces only.
The Path Maximum Transmission Unit (PMTU) setting controls the length of time that the XTM device
lowers the MTU for an IPSec VPN tunnel when it gets an ICMP Request to Fragment packet from a
router with a lower MTU setting on the Internet.
We recommend that you keep the default setting. This can protect you from a router on the Internet
with a very low MTU setting.
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Use Static MAC Address Binding
You can control access to an interface on your XTM device by computer hardware (MAC) address.
This feature can protect your network from ARP poisoning attacks, in which hackers try to change the
MAC address of their computers to match a real device on your network. To use MAC address binding,
you must associate an IP address on the specified interface with a MAC address. If this feature is
enabled, computers with a specified MAC address can only send and receive information with the
associated IP address.
You can also use this feature to restrict all network traffic to devices that match the MAC and IP
addresses on this list. This is similar to the MAC access control feature.
For more information, see Restrict Network Traffic by MAC Address on page 121.
Note If you choose to restrict network access by MAC address binding, make sure that you
include the MAC address for the computer you use to administer your XTM device.
To configure the static MAC address binding settings:
1. Select Network > Interfaces. Select an interface, then click Configure.
2. Click Advanced.
3. Type an IP address and MAC address pair. Click Add. Repeat this step to add additional pairs.
4. If you want this interface to pass only traffic that matches an entry in the Static MAC/IP
Address Binding list, select the Only allow traffic sent from or to these MAC/IP
addresses check box.
If you do not want to block traffic that does not match an entry in the list, clear this check box.
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Find the MAC Address of a Computer
A MAC address is also known as a hardware address or an Ethernet address. It is a unique identifier
specific to the network card in the computer. A MAC address is usually shown in this form: XX-XX-XXXX-XX-XX, where each X is a digit or letter from A to F. To find the MAC address of a computer on your
network:
1. From the command line of the computer whose MAC address you want to find, type ipconfig
/all (Windows) or ifconfig (OS X or Linux).
2. Look for the entry for the computer’s “physical address.” This value is the MAC or hardware
address for the computer.
About LAN Bridges
A network bridge makes a connection between multiple physical network interfaces on your XTM
device. A bridge can be used in the same ways as a normal physical network interface. For example,
you can configure DHCP to give IP addresses to clients on a bridge, or use it as an alias in firewall
policies.
To use a bridge you must assign one or more interfaces to type Bridge. Then you can Create a Network
Bridge Configuration
If you want to bridge all traffic between two interfaces, we recommend that you use bridge mode for
your network configuration.
Create a Network Bridge Configuration
Note To use a network bridge on an XTMv virtual machine, you must enable promiscuous
mode on the attached virtual switch (vSwitch) in VMware.
Before you can configure a bridge, you must first set one or more interfaces to type Bridge.
1. Select Network > Bridge.
The Bridge page appears. Bridge interfaces are listed at the top of the page.
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
To configure an interface as type Bridge, click Configure.
The network Interfaces page appears.
Select the interface you want to use as a bridged interface. Click Configure.
Set the Interface Type to Bridge.
Repeat Steps 4 and 5 for each interface you want to bridge.
Click Save.
After you configure at least one bridge interface, you can create the bridge.
1. Select Network > Bridge.
The Bridge page appears.
2. Click New.
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3. On the Bridge Settings tab, type a Name and Description (optional) for the bridge
configuration.
4. Select a Security Zone from the drop-down list and type an IP Address in slash notation for
the bridge.
The bridge is added to the alias of the security zone you specify.
5. To add network interfaces, select the check box adjacent to each network interface you want to
add to the bridge configuration.
6. To configure DHCP settings, select the DHCP tab. Select DHCP Server or DHCP Relay from
the DHCP Mode drop-down list.
For more information on DHCP configuration, see Configure DHCP in Mixed Routing Mode on
page 108 or Configure DHCP Relay on page 121.
7. If you want to add secondary networks to the bridge configuration, select the Secondary tab.
Type an IP address in slash notation and click Add.
For more information on secondary networks, see Add a Secondary Network IP Address on
page 124.
8. Click Save.
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Assign a Network Interface to a Bridge
To assign additional interfaces to an existing bridge, edit the bridge.
1. Select Network > Bridge.
The Bridge page appears.
2. Select a bridge configuration in the Bridge Settings list, then click Configure.
3. Select the check box next to each network interface that you want to add to the bridge.
4. Click Save.
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About Routing
A route is the sequence of devices through which network traffic is sent. Each device in this sequence,
usually called a router, stores information about the networks it is connected to inside a route table.
This information is used to forward the network traffic to the next router in the route.
Your XTM device automatically updates its route table when you change network interface settings,
when a physical network connection fails, or when it is restarted. To update the route table at other
times, you must use dynamic routing or add a static route. Static routes can improve performance, but
if there is a change in the network structure or if a connection fails, network traffic cannot get to its
destination. Dynamic routing ensures that your network traffic can reach its destination, but it is more
difficult to set up.
Add a Static Route
A route is the sequence of devices through which network traffic must go to get from its source to its
destination. A router is the device in a route that finds the subsequent network point through which to
send the network traffic to its destination. Each router is connected to a minimum of two networks. A
packet can go through a number of network points with routers before it gets to its destination.
You can create static routes to send traffic to specific hosts or networks. The router can then send the
traffic from the specified route to the correct destination. If you have a full network behind a router on
your local network, add a network route. If you do not add a route to a remote network, all traffic to that
network is sent to the XTM device default gateway.
Before you begin, you must understand the difference between a network route and a host route. A
network route is a route to a full network behind a router located on your local network. Use a host route
if there is only one host behind the router, or if you want traffic to go to only one host.
To add an IPv4 or IPv6 static route:
1. Select Network > Routes.
The Routes page appears.
2. Click Add.
The Add Route dialog box appears.
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3. From the Choose Type drop-down list, select an option:
n Host IPv4 — Select this option if only one IPv4 host is behind the router or you want
traffic to go to only one host.
n Network IPv4 — Select this option if you have a full IPv4 network behind a router on
your local network.
n Host IPv6 — Select this option if only one IPv6 host is behind the router or you want
traffic to go to only one host.
n Network IPv6 — Select this option if you have a full IPv6 network behind a router on
your local network.
4. In the Route To text box, type the host address or network address. If you type a network
address, use slash notation.
For more information about slash notation, see About Slash Notation on page 5.
5. In the Gateway text box, type the IP address of the router.
Make sure that you type an IP address that is on one of the same networks as the XTM device.
6. In the Metric text box, type or select a metric value for the route. Routes with lower metrics
have higher priority.
7. If this is a Host IPv6 or Network IPv6 route, you can select the Specify interface check box
to select which interface this route applies to.
From the adjacent drop-down list, select an IPv6-enabled interface.
8. Click OK to close the Add Route dialog box.
The configured network route appears in the Setup Routes dialog box.
9. Click Save
Note If the XTM device is configured in drop-in mode, the route table on the XTM device
might or might not immediately show the correct interface for a static route after you
restart the device, or after you move the gateway associated with a static route to a
different interface. The XTM device cannot update the route table with the correct
interface for a static route until it receives network traffic through the gateway for that
static route. The XTM device updates the internal route table on demand when traffic
is received from the gateway.
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About Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs)
An 802.1Q VLAN (virtual local area network) is a collection of computers on a LAN or LANs that are
grouped together in a single broadcast domain independent of their physical location. This enables you
to group devices according to traffic patterns, instead of physical proximity. Members of a VLAN can
share resources as if they were connected to the same LAN. You can also use VLANs to split a switch
into multiple segments. For example, suppose your company has full-time employees and contract
workers on the same LAN. You want to restrict the contract employees to a subset of the resources
used by the full-time employees. You also want to use a more restrictive security policy for the contract
workers. In this case, you split the interface into two VLANs.
VLANs enable you to divide your network into groups with a logical, hierarchical structure or grouping
instead of a physical one. This helps free IT staff from the restrictions of their existing network design
and cable infrastructure. VLANs make it easier to design, implement, and manage your network.
Because VLANs are software-based, you can quickly and easily adapt your network to additions,
relocations, and reorganizations.
VLANs use bridges and switches, so broadcasts are more efficient because they go only to people in
the VLAN, not everyone on the wire. Consequently, traffic across your routers is reduced, which
means a reduction in router latency. You can configure your XTM device to act as a DHCP server for
devices on the VLAN, or use DHCP relay with a separate DHCP server.
You assign a VLAN to the Trusted, Optional, or External security zone. VLAN security zones
correspond to aliases for interface security zones. For example, VLANs of type Trusted are handled by
policies that use the alias Any-Trusted as a source or destination. VLANs of type External appear in
the list of external interfaces when you configure policy-based routing.
VLAN Requirements and Restrictions
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The WatchGuard VLAN implementation does not support the spanning tree link management
protocol.
If your XTM device is configured to use drop-in network mode, you cannot use VLANs.
A VLAN interface can send and received untagged traffic for only one trusted or optional VLAN.
For example, if a VLAN interface is configured to send and receive untagged traffic for VLAN10, it cannot also send and receive VLAN traffic for any other VLAN at the same time. Also, a
VLAN interface cannot be configured to send and receive untagged traffic for an external VLAN.
Your multi-WAN configuration settings are applied to VLAN traffic. However, it can be easier to
manage bandwidth when you use only physical interfaces in a multi-WAN configuration.
Your device model and license controls the number of VLANs you can create.
To see the number of VLANs you can add to your configuration, select System Status
> License.
Find the row labeled Total number of VLAN interfaces.
We recommend that you do not create more than 10 VLANs that operate on external interfaces.
Too many VLANs on external interfaces affect performance.
All network segments you want to add to a VLAN must have IP addresses on the VLAN
network.
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Note If you define VLANs, you can ignore messages with the text 802.1d unknown version.
These occur because the WatchGuard VLAN implementation does not support
spanning tree link management protocol.
About Tagging
To enable VLANs, you must deploy VLAN-capable switches in each site. The switch interfaces insert
tags at layer 2 of the data frame that identify a network packet as part of a specified VLAN. These tags,
which add an extra four bytes to the Ethernet header, identify the frame as belonging to a specific
VLAN. Tagging is specified by the IEEE 802.1Q standard.
The VLAN definition includes disposition of tagged and untagged data frames. You must specify
whether the VLAN receives tagged, untagged, or no data from each interface that is enabled. Your
XTM device can insert tags for packets that are sent to a VLAN-capable switch. Your device can also
remove tags from packets that are sent to a network segment that belongs to a VLAN that has no
switch.
An XTM device interface can handle traffic for multiple tagged VLANs. This allows the interface to
function as a VLAN trunk. The XTM device supports the 802.1Q standard.
About VLAN ID Numbers
By default, on most new switches that are not configured, each interface belongs to VLAN number 1.
Because this VLAN exists on every interface of most switches by default, the possibility exists that
this VLAN can accidentally span the entire network, or at least very large portions of it.
We recommend you use a VLAN ID number that is not 1 for any VLAN that passes traffic to the
XTM device.
Define a New VLAN
Before you create a new VLAN, make sure you understand all the VLAN concepts and restrictions, as
described in About Virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs) on page 137.
Before you can create a VLAN configuration, you must change at least one interface to be of type VLAN.
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
2. Select the interface that is connected to your VLAN switch. Click Configure.
3. From the Interface Type drop-down list, select VLAN.
When you define a new VLAN, you add an entry in the VLAN Settings table. To change the view of
this table:
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Click a column header to sort the table based on the values in that column.
Sort the table in descending or ascending order.
The values in the Interfaces column show the physical interfaces that are members of this VLAN. The
interface number in bold is the interface that sends untagged data to that VLAN.
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To create a new VLAN:
1. Select Network > VLAN.
The VLAN page appears, with a list of existing user-defined VLANs and their settings.
You can also configure network interfaces from the Interfaces list.
2. Click New.
The VLAN Settings page appears.
3.
4.
5.
6.
In the Name text box, type a name for the VLAN. The name cannot contain spaces.
(Optional) In the Description text box, type a description of the VLAN.
In the VLAN ID text box, or type or select a value for the VLAN.
In the Security Zone text box, select Trusted, Optional, or External.
Security zones correspond to aliases for interface security zones. For example, VLANs of type
Trusted are handled by policies that use the alias Any-Trusted as a source or destination.
7. In the IP Address text box, type the address of the VLAN gateway.
Any computer in this new VLAN must use this IP address as its default gateway.
Use DHCP on a VLAN
You can configure the XTM device as a DHCP server for the computers on your VLAN network.
1. On the Network tab, from the DHCP Mode drop-down list, select DHCP Server. If necessary,
type your domain name to supply it to the DHCP clients.
2. To add an IP address pool, type the first and last IP addresses in the pool. Click Add.
You can configure a maximum of six address pools.
3. To reserve a specific IP address for a client, type the IP address, reservation name, and
MAC address for the device. Click Add.
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4. To change the default lease time, from the drop-down list at the top of the page, select a
different time interval.
This is the time interval that a DHCP client can use an IP address that it receives from the DHCP
server. When the lease time is about to expire, the client sends a request to the DHCP server to get a
new lease.
5. To add DNS or WINS servers to your DHCP configuration, type the server address in the text
box adjacent to the list. Click Add.
6. To delete a server from the list, select the server from the list and click Remove.
Use DHCP Relay on a VLAN
1. On the Network tab, from the DHCP Mode drop-down list, select DHCP Relay.
2. Type the IP address of the DHCP server. Make sure to add a route to the DHCP server, if
necessary.
Apply Firewall Policies to Intra-VLAN Traffic
You can configure more than one XTM device interface as a member of the same VLAN.To apply
firewall policies to VLAN traffic between local interfaces, select the Apply firewall policies to intraVLAN traffic check box.
Intra-VLAN traffic is traffic from a VLAN on one interface that is destined for the same VLAN on
another interface. When you enable this feature, the XTM device applies policies to traffic that passes
through the firewall between hosts on different interfaces that are on the same VLAN. If you want to
apply policies to intra-VLAN traffic, make sure that no alternate path exists between the source and
destination. The VLAN traffic must go through the XTM device in order for firewall policies to apply.
Intra-VLAN policies are applied by IP address, user, or alias. If the intra-VLAN traffic does not match
any defined policy, the traffic is denied as unhandled packets. Intra-VLAN non-IP packets are allowed.
Configure Network Settings for a VLAN on the External Interface
When you configure a VLAN on the external interface, you must configure how the VLAN gets the
external IP address.
1. On the VLAN Settings tab, from the Security Zone drop-down list, select External.
2. Select the Network tab.
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3. From the Configuration Mode drop-down list, select Static IP, DHCP, or PPPoE.
4. Configure the network settings with the same method you use for other external interfaces.
For more information, see Configure an External Interface on page 97.
Note If you configure an external VLAN interface to get an IP address through DHCP, you
can release or renew the VLAN interface IP address in Fireware XTM Web UI on the
System Status > Interfaces page. For more information, see Interfaces on page 555.
Before you can save this VLAN, you must Assign Interfaces to a VLAN on page 141.
Assign Interfaces to a VLAN
When you create a new VLAN, you specify the type of data it receives from XTM device interfaces.
However, you can also make an interface a member of a VLAN that is currently defined, or remove an
interface from a VLAN.
Note You must change an interface type to VLAN before you can use it in a
VLAN configuration.
To assign a network interface to a VLAN:
1. Select Network > VLAN.
The VLAN page appears.
2. Click New, or select a VLAN interface and click Configure.
3. In the Select a VLAN tag setting for each interface list, click the Tagged/Untagged column
adjacent to an interface and select an option in the drop-down list:
n Tagged traffic — The interface sends and receives tagged traffic.
n Untagged traffic — The interface sends and receives untagged traffic.
n No traffic — Remove the interface from this VLAN configuration.
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4. Click Save.
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Network Setup Examples
Configure Two VLANs on the Same Interface
A network interface on a XTM device is a member of more than one VLAN when the switch that
connects to that interface carries traffic from more than one VLAN. This example shows how to
connect one switch that is configured for two different VLANs to a single interface on the XTM device.
The subsequent diagram shows the configuration for this example.
In this example, computers on both VLANs connect to the same 802.1Q switch, and the switch
connects to interface 3 on the XTM device.
The subsequent instructions show you how to configure these VLANs.
Configure Interface 3 as a VLAN Interface
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select Network > Interfaces.
In the Interface Name (Alias) text box type vlan.
Select Interface number 3.
Click Configure.
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5. From the Interface Type drop-down list, select VLAN.
6. Click Save.
Define the Two VLANs and Assign Them to the VLAN Interface
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select Network > VLAN.
Click New.
In the Name (Alias) text box, type a name for the VLAN. For this example, type VLAN10 .
In the Description text box, type a description. For this example, type Accounting .
In the VLAN ID text box, type the VLAN number configured for the VLAN on the switch. For
this example, type 10 .
6. From the Security Zone drop-down list, select the security zone. For this example, select
Trusted.
7. In the IP Address text box, type the IP address to use for the XTM device on this VLAN. For
this example, type 192.168.10.1/24 .
8. In the Select a VLAN tag setting for each interface list, click the Tagged/Untagged column
adjacent to an interface and select Tagged traffic in the drop-down list.
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9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Click Save.
Click New to add the second VLAN.
In the Name (Alias) text box, type VLAN20 .
In the Description text box, type Sales .
In the VLAN ID text box, type 20 .
From the Security Zone drop-down list, select Optional.
In the IP Address text box, type the IP address to use for the XTM device on this VLAN. For
this example, type 192.168.20.1/24 .
16. In the Select a VLAN tag setting for each interface list, click the Tagged/Untagged column
adjacent to an interface and select Tagged in the drop-down list.
17. Click Save.
18. Both VLANS now appear in the list, and are configured to use the defined VLAN interface.
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Configure One VLAN Bridged Across Two Interfaces
You can configure a VLAN to bridge across two interfaces of the XTM device. You might want to bridge
one VLAN across two interfaces if your organization is spread across multiple locations. For example,
suppose your network is on the first and second floors in the same building. Some of the computers on
the first floor are in the same functional group as some of the computers on the second floor. You want
to group these computers into one broadcast domain so that they can easily share resources, such as
a dedicated file server for their LAN, host-based shared files, printers, and other network accessories.
This example shows how to connect two 802.1Q switches so that both switches can send traffic from
the same VLAN to two interfaces on the same XTM device.
In this example, two 802.1Q switches are connected to XTM device interfaces 3 and 4, and carry
traffic from the same VLAN.
Note Any computer in this new VLAN must use this IP address as its default gateway.
Configure Interfaces 3 and 4 as VLAN Interfaces
1. Select Network > Interfaces.
2. In the Interface Name (Alias) text box, type a name. For this example, typevlanfloor1.
3. Select Interface number 3. Click Configure.
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4. From the Interface Type drop-down list, select VLAN.
5. Click Save.
6. Repeat the same steps to configure Interface 4 as a VLAN interface.
Configure the VLAN
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select Network > VLAN.
Click New.
In the Name (Alias) text box, type a name for the VLAN. For this example, type VLAN10 .
In the Description text box, type a description. For this example, type Accounting .
In the VLAN ID text box, type the VLAN number configured for the VLAN on the switch. For
this example, type 10 .
6. From the Security Zone drop-down list, select the security zone. For this example, select
Trusted.
7. In the IP Address text box, type the IP address to use for the XTM device on this VLAN. For
this example, type 192.168.10.1/24 .
8. In the Select a VLAN tag setting for each interface list, click the Tagged/Untagged column
adjacent to each interface and select Tagged traffic from the drop-down list.
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9. Click Save.
Configure the Switches
Configure each of the switches that connect to interfaces 3 and 4 of the XTM device. Refer to the
instructions from your switch manufacturer for details about how to configure your switches.
Configure the Switch Interfaces Connected to the XTM Device
The physical segment between the switch interface and the XTM device interface is a tagged data
segment. Traffic that flows over this segment must use 802.1Q VLAN tagging.
Note Some switch manufacturers refer to an interface configured in this way as a trunk port
or a trunk interface.
On each switch, for the switch interface that connects to the XTM device:
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Disable Spanning Tree Protocol.
Configure the interface to be a member of VLAN10.
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Configure the interface to send traffic with the VLAN10 tag.
If necessary for your switch, set the switch mode to trunk.
If necessary for your switch, set the encapsulation mode to 802.1Q.
Configure the Other Switch Interfaces
The physical segments between each of the other switch interfaces and the computers (or other
networked devices) that connect to them are untagged data segments. Traffic that flows over these
segments does not have VLAN tags.
On each switch, for the switch interfaces that connect computers to the switch:
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Configure these switch interfaces to be members of VLAN10.
Configure these switch interfaces to send untagged traffic for VLAN10.
Physically Connect All Devices
1. Use an Ethernet cable to connect XTM device interface 3 to the Switch A interface that you
configured to tag for VLAN10 (the VLAN trunk interface of Switch A).
2. Use an Ethernet cable to connect the XTM device interface 4 to the Switch B interface that you
configured to tag for VLAN10 (the VLAN trunk interface of Switch B).
3. Connect a computer to the interface on Switch A that you configured to send untagged traffic for
VLAN10.
4. Configure the network settings on the connected computer. The settings depend on whether
you configured the XTM device to act as a DHCP server for the computers on VLAN10 in Step
9 of Define the VLAN on the XTM Device.
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If you configured the XTM device to act as a DHCP server for the computers on VLAN10,
configure the computer to use DHCP to get an IP address automatically. See Step 9 in the
procedure Define the VLAN, above.
If you did not configure the XTM device to act as a DHCP server for the computers on
VLAN10, configure the computer with an IP address in the VLAN subnet 192.168.10.x.
Use subnet mask 255.255.255.0 and set the default gateway on the computer to the XTM
device VLAN IP address 192.168.10.1
5. Repeat the previous two steps to connect a computer to Switch B.
Test the Connection
After you complete these steps, the computers connected to Switch A and Switch B can communicate
as if they were connected to the same physical local area network. To test this connection you can:
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Ping from a computer connected to Switch A to a computer connected to Switch B.
Ping from a computer connected to Switch B to a computer connected to Switch A.
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Use the Broadband Extend or 3G Extend Wireless Bridge
You can use the WatchGuard Broadband Extend USB or 3G Extend USB wireless bridge to add
cellular connectivity to your WatchGuard XTM 2 Series or 3 Series device. When you connect the
external interface of your XTM device to the wireless bridge, computers on your network can connect
wirelessly to the Internet through the cellular network.
To connect your XTM device to the cellular network you need:
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An XTM 2 Series or 3 Series device
A Broadband Extend USB (for 4G/3G connectivity) or a 3G Extend USB (for 3G connectivity)
A compatible wireless broadband data card
Use the Broadband Extend USB / Cradlepoint CBR450 Device
Follow these steps to use the Broadband Extend Cradlepoint cellular broadband adapter with your
WatchGuard XTM device.
1. Use the instructions in the Cradlepoint CBA450 Setup Guide to set up the Cradlepoint device
and update the device firmware.
2. Configure the external interface on your XTM device to get its address with DHCP. To learn
how to configure your external interface, see Configure an External Interface on page 97.
3. Use an Ethernet cable to connect the Cradlepoint device to the external interface of the XTM
device.
4. Start (or restart) the XTM device.
When the XTM device starts, it gets a DHCP address from the Cradlepoint device. After an
IP address is assigned, the XTM device can connect to the Internet via the cellular broadband
network.
The CBR450 supports a large number of popular 4G/3G USB modems. For a list of supported devices,
see http://www.cradlepoint.com/products/machine-to-machine-routers/cbr450-compact-broadbandrouter-without-wifi.
Use the 3G Extend USB / Cradlepoint CBA250 Device
Follow these steps to use the 3G Extend Cradlepoint cellular broadband adapter with your WatchGuard
XTM device.
1. Use the instructions in the Cradlepoint CBA250 Quick Start Guide to set up the Cradlepoint
device and update the device firmware. If you have a newer modem that is not supported by the
firmware version that ships on the device, you must use different steps to upgrade your
firmware to the latest version:
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Download the latest firmware for the CBA250 to your computer from the Cradlepoint
support site at http://www.cradlepoint.com/support/cba250.
Use these instructions to update your firmware: Updating the Firmware on your Cradlepoint
Router.
2. Configure the external interface on your XTM device to get its address with DHCP. To learn
how to configure your external interface, see Configure an External Interface on page 97.
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3. Use an Ethernet cable to connect the Cradlepoint device to the external interface of the XTM
device.
4. Start (or restart) the XTM device.
When the XTM device starts, it gets a DHCP address from the Cradlepoint device. After an
IP address is assigned, the XTM device can connect to the Internet via the cellular broadband
network.
The CBA250 supports a large number of USB or ExpressCard broadband wireless modems. For a list
of supported devices, see http://www.cradlepoint.com/support./cba250.
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About Using Multiple External Interfaces
You can use your XTM device to create redundant support for the external interface. This is a helpful
option if you must have a constant Internet connection.
With the multi-WAN feature, you can configure up to four external interfaces, each on a different
subnet. This allows you to connect your XTM device to more than one Internet Service Provider (ISP).
When you configure a second interface, the multi-WAN feature is automatically enabled.
Multi-WAN Requirements and Conditions
You must have a second Internet connection and more than one external interface to use most multiWAN configuration options.
Conditions and requirements for multi-WAN use include:
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If you have a policy configured with an individual external interface alias in its configuration, you
must change the configuration to use the alias Any-External, or another alias you configure for
external interfaces. If you do not do this, some traffic could be denied by your firewall policies.
Multi-WAN settings do not apply to incoming traffic. When you configure a policy for inbound
traffic, you can ignore all multi-WAN settings.
To override the multi-WAN configuration in any individual policy, enable policy-based routing for
that policy. For more information on policy-based routing, see Configure Policy-Based Routing
on page 369.
Map your company’s Fully Qualified Domain Name to the external interface IP address of the
lowest order. If you add a multi-WAN XTM device to your Management Server configuration,
you must use the lowest-ordered external interface to identify it when you add the device.
To use multi-WAN, you must use mixed routing mode for your network configuration. This
feature does not operate in drop-in or bridge mode network configurations.
To use the Interface Overflow method, you must have Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade. You
must also have a Fireware XTM Pro license if you use the Round-robin method and configure
different weights for the XTM device external interfaces.
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To use multi-WAN options except serial modem failover on an XTM 2 Series device, you must
have Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade.
You can use one of four multi-WAN configuration options to manage your network traffic.
For configuration details and setup procedures, see the section for each option.
When you enable multi-WAN the XTM device monitors the status of each external interface. Make
sure that you define a link monitor host for each interface. We recommend that you configure two link
targets for each interface.
For more information, see About WAN Interface Status.
Multi-WAN and DNS
Make sure that your DNS server can be reached through every WAN. Otherwise, you must modify
your DNS policies such that:
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The From list includes Firebox.
The Use policy-based routing check box is selected.
If only one WAN can reach the DNS server, select that interface in the adjacent drop-down list.
If more than one WAN can reach the DNS server, select any one of them, select Failover,
select Configure, and select all the interfaces that can reach the DNS server. The order does
not matter.
Note You must have Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade to use policy-based routing.
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About Multi-WAN Options
When you configure multiple external interfaces, you have several options to control which interface an
outgoing packet uses.
Note XTM 2 Series devices must have Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade to use any of the
multi-WAN methods except serial modem failover. All other XTM devices must have
Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade to use the weighted round robin or interface overflow
multi-WAN methods.
Round-Robin Order
When you configure multi-WAN with the Round-robin method, the XTM device looks at its internal
route table to check for specific static or dynamic routing information for each connection. The route
table includes dynamic routes as well as static routes you configure on the device. If no specified route
is found, the XTM device distributes the traffic load among its external interfaces. The XTM device
uses the average of sent (TX) and received (RX) traffic to balance the traffic load across all external
interfaces you specify in your round-robin configuration.
If you have Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade, you can assign a weight to each interface used in your
round-robin configuration. By default and for all Fireware XTM users, each interface has a weight of 1.
The weight refers to the proportion of load that the XTM device sends through an interface. If you have
Fireware XTM Pro and you assign a weight of 2 to an interface, you double the portion of traffic that will
go through that interface compared to an interface with a weight of 1.
As an example, if you have three external interfaces with 6M, 1.5M, and .075M bandwidth and want to
balance traffic across all three interfaces, you would use 8, 2, and 1 as the weights for the three
interfaces. Fireware XTM will try to distribute connections so that 8/11, 2/11, and 1/11 of the total
traffic flows through each of the three interfaces.
For more information, see Configure Round-Robin on page 157.
Failover
When you use the failover method to route traffic through the XTM device external interfaces, you select
one external interface to be the primary external interface. Other external interfaces are backup
interfaces, and you set the order for the XTM device to use the backup interfaces. The XTM device
monitors the primary external interface. If it goes down, the XTM device sends all traffic to the next
external interface in its configuration. While the XTM device sends all traffic to the backup interface, it
continues to monitor the primary external interface. When the primary interface is active again, the XTM
device immediately starts to send all new connections through the primary external interface again.
You control the action for the XTM device to take for existing connections; these connections can
failback immediately, or continue to use the backup interface until the connection is complete. MultiWAN failover and FireCluster are configured separately. Multi-WAN failover caused by a failed
connection to a link monitor host does not trigger FireCluster failover. FireCluster failover occurs only
when the physical interface is down or does not respond. FireCluster failover takes precedence over
multi-WAN failover.
For more information, see Configure Failover on page 158.
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Interface Overflow
When you use the Interface Overflow multi-WAN configuration method, you select the order you want
the XTM device to send traffic through external interfaces and configure each interface with a
bandwidth threshold value. The XTM device starts to send traffic through the first external interface in
its Interface Overflow configuration list. When the traffic through that interface reaches the bandwidth
threshold you have set for that interface, the XTM device starts to send traffic to the next external
interface you have configured in your Interface Overflow configuration list.
This multi-WAN configuration method allows the amount of traffic sent over each WAN interface to be
restricted to a specified bandwidth limit. To determine bandwidth, the XTM device examines the
amount of sent (TX) and received (RX) packets and uses the higher number. When you configure the
interface bandwidth threshold for each interface, you must consider the needs of your network for this
interface and set the threshold value based on these needs. For example, if your ISP is asymmetrical
and you set your bandwidth threshold based on a large TX rate, interface overflow will not be triggered
by a high RX rate.
If all WAN interfaces have reached their bandwidth limit, the XTM device uses the ECMP (Equal Cost
MultiPath Protocol) routing algorithm to find the best path.
For more information, see Configure Interface Overflow on page 160.
Routing Table
When you select the Routing Table option for your multi-WAN configuration, the XTM device uses the
routes in its internal route table or routes it gets from dynamic routing processes to send packets
through the correct external interface. To see whether a specific route exists for a packet’s destination,
the XTM device examines its route table from the top to the bottom of the list of routes. You can see
the list of routes in the route table on the Status tab of Firebox System Manager. The Routing Table
option is the default multi-WAN option.
If the XTM device does not find a specified route, it selects the route to use based on source and
destination IP hash values of the packet, using the ECMP (Equal Cost Multipath Protocol) algorithm
specified in:
http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2992.txt
With ECMP, the XTM device uses an algorithm to decide which next-hop (path) to use to send each
packet. This algorithm does not consider current traffic load.
For more information, see When to Use Multi-WAN Methods and Routing on page 162.
Serial Modem (XTM 2 Series and XTM 33 only)
If your organization has a dial-up account with an ISP, you can connect an external modem to the USB
port on your XTM 2 Series or XTM 33 device and use that connection for failover when all other external
interfaces are inactive.
For more information, see Serial Modem Failover on page 163.
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Configure Round-Robin
Before You Begin
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To use the multi-WAN feature, you must have more than one external interface configured. If
necessary, use the procedure described in Configure an External Interface on page 97.
Make sure you understand the concepts and requirements for multi-WAN and the method you
choose, as described in About Using Multiple External Interfaces on page 153 and About MultiWAN Options on page 155.
Configure the Interfaces
1. Select Network > Multi-WAN.
2. From the Multi-WAN Mode drop-down list, select Round Robin.
3. If you have Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade, you can modify the weight associated with each
interface. Choose an interface, then type or select a new value in the adjacent Weight field. The
default value is 1 for each interface.
For information on interface weight, see Find How to Assign Weights to Interfaces on page 158.
4. To assign an interface to the multi-WAN configuration, select an interface and click Configure.
5. Select the Participate in Multi-WAN check box and click OK.
6. To complete your configuration, you must add link monitor information as described in About
WAN Interface Status on page 168.
7. Click Save.
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Find How to Assign Weights to Interfaces
If you use Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade, you can assign a weight to each interface used in your
round-robin multi-WAN configuration. By default, each interface has a weight of 1. The weight refers to
the proportion of load that the XTM device sends through an interface.
You can use only whole numbers for the interface weights; no fractions or decimals are allowed. For
optimal load balancing, you might have to do a calculation to know the whole-number weight to assign
for each interface. Use a common multiplier so that the relative proportion of the bandwidth given by
each external connection is resolved to whole numbers.
For example, suppose you have three Internet connections. One ISP gives you 6 Mbps, another ISP
gives you 1.5 Mbps, and a third gives you 768 Kbps. Convert the proportion to whole numbers:
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First convert the 768 Kbps to approximately .75 Mbps so that you use the same unit of
measurement for all three lines. Your three lines are rated at 6, 1.5, and .75 Mbps.
Multiply each value by 100 to remove the decimals. Proportionally, these are equivalent: [6 : 1.5
: .75] is the same ratio as [600 : 150 : 75]
Find the greatest common divisor of the three numbers. In this case, 75 is the largest number
that evenly divides all three numbers 600, 150, and 75.
Divide each of the numbers by the greatest common divisor.
The results are 8, 2, and 1. You could use these numbers as weights in a round-robin multiWAN configuration.
Configure Failover
Before You Begin
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To use the multi-WAN feature, you must have more than one external interface configured. If
necessary, use the procedure described in Configure an External Interface on page 97.
Make sure you understand the concepts and requirements for multi-WAN and the method you
choose, as described in About Using Multiple External Interfaces on page 153 and About MultiWAN Options on page 155.
Configure the Interfaces
1. Select Network > Multi-WAN.
2. In the Multi-WAN Mode drop-down list, select Failover.
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3. Select an interface in the list and click Up or Down to set the order for failover. The first
interface in the list is the primary interface.
4. To complete your configuration, you must add link monitor information as described in About
WAN Interface Status on page 168.
For information on advanced multi-WAN configuration options, see About Advanced Multi-WAN
Settings on page 167.
5. Click Save.
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Configure Interface Overflow
Before You Begin
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To use the multiple WAN feature, you must have more than one external interface configured. If
necessary, use the procedure described in Configure an External Interface on page 97.
Make sure you understand the concepts and requirements for multi-WAN and the method you
choose, as described in About Using Multiple External Interfaces on page 153 and About MultiWAN Options on page 155.
Configure the Interfaces
1. Select Network > Multi-WAN.
2. From the Multi-WAN Mode drop-down list, select Interface Overflow.
3. In the Threshold field for each interface, type or select the amount of network traffic in
megabits per second (Mbps) that the interface must carry before traffic is sent on other
interfaces.
4. To set the order of interface operation, select an interface in the table and click Up and Down to
change the order. The interfaces are used from first to last in the list.
5. To complete your configuration, you must add information as described in About WAN Interface
Status on page 168.
For information on advanced multi-WAN configuration options, see About advanced multi-WAN
settings.
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Configure Routing Table
Before You Begin
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To use the multi-WAN feature, you must have more than one external interface configured. If
necessary, use the procedure described in Configure an External Interface on page 97.
You must decide whether the Routing Table method is the correct multi-WAN method for your
needs. For more information, see When to Use Multi-WAN Methods and Routing on page 162
Make sure you understand the concepts and requirements for multi-WAN and the method you
choose, as described in About Using Multiple External Interfaces on page 153 and About MultiWAN Options on page 155.
Routing Table mode and load balancing
It is important to note that the Routing Table option does not do load balancing on connections to the
Internet. The XTM device reads its internal route table from top to bottom. Static and dynamic routes
that specify a destination appear at the top of the route table and take precedence over default routes.
(A default route is a route with destination 0.0.0.0/0.) If there is no specific dynamic or static entry in
the route table for a destination, the traffic to that destination is routed among the external interfaces of
the XTM device through the use of ECMP algorithms. This may or may not result in even distribution of
packets among multiple external interfaces.
Configure the Interfaces
1. Select Network > Multi-WAN.
2. In the Multi-WAN Mode drop-down list, select Routing Table.
3. To add interfaces to the multi-WAN configuration, select an interface and click Configure.
4. Select the Participate in Multi-WAN check box. Click OK.
5. To complete your configuration, you must add link monitor information as described in About
WAN Interface Status on page 168.
For information on advanced multi-WAN configuration options, see Advanced Multi-WAN Settings.
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About the XTM Device Route Table
When you select the Routing Table configuration option, it is a good idea to know how to look at the
routing table that is on your XTM device.
From Fireware XTM Web UI:
Select System Status > Routes.
This shows the internal route table on your XTM device.
Routes in the internal route table on the XTM device include:
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Routes the XTM device learns from dynamic routing processes running on the device (RIP,
OSPF, and BGP) if you enable dynamic routing
Permanent network routes or host routes you add
Routes the XTM device automatically creates based on the network configuration information
If your XTM device detects that an external interface is down, it removes any static or dynamic routes
that use that interface. This is true if the hosts specified in the Link Monitor become unresponsive and
if the physical Ethernet link is down.
For more information on interface status and route table updates, see About WAN Interface Status on
page 168.
When to Use Multi-WAN Methods and Routing
If you use dynamic routing, you can use either the Routing Table or Round-Robin multi-WAN
configuration method. Routes that use a gateway on an internal (optional or trusted) network are not
affected by the multi-WAN method you select.
When to Use the Routing Table Method
The Routing Table method is a good choice if:
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You enable dynamic routing (RIP, OSPF, or BGP) and the routers on the external network
advertise routes to the XTM device so that the device can learn the best routes to external
locations.
You must get access to an external site or external network through a specific route on an
external network. Examples include:
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You have a private circuit that uses a frame relay router on the external network.
You want all traffic to an external location to always go through a specific XTM device
external interface.
The Routing Table method is the fastest way to load balance more than one route to the Internet. After
you enable this option, the ECMP algorithm manages all connection decisions. No additional
configuration is necessary on the XTM device.
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When to Use the Round-Robin Method
Load balancing traffic to the Internet using ECMP is based on connections, not bandwidth. Routes
configured statically or learned from dynamic routing are used before the ECMP algorithm. If you have
Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade, the weighted round-robin option gives you options to send more
traffic through one external interface than another. At the same time, the round-robin algorithm
distributes traffic to each external interface based on bandwidth, not connections. This gives you more
control over how many bytes of data are sent through each ISP.
Serial Modem Failover
You can configure your XTM 2 Series or XTM 33 device to send traffic through a serial modem when it
cannot send traffic with any external interface. You must have a dial-up account with an ISP (Internet
Service Provider) and an external modem connected on the USB port (2 Series) to use this option.
Serial modem failover has been tested with these modems:
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Zoom FaxModem 56K model 2949
MultiTech 56K Data/Fax Modem International
OMRON ME5614D2 Fax/Data Modem
Hayes 56K V.90 serial fax modem
For a serial modem, use a USB to serial adapter to connect the modem to the XTM device.
Enable Serial Modem Failover
1. Select Network > Modem.
The Modem page appears.
2. Select the Enable Modem for Failover when all External interfaces are down check box.
3. Complete the Account, DNS, Dial-Up, and Link Monitor settings, as described in the
subsequent sections.
4. Click Save.
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Account Settings
1. Select the Account tab.
2. In the Telephone number text box, type the telephone number of your ISP.
3. If you have another number for your ISP, the Alternate Telephone number text box, type that
number.
4. In the Account name text box, type your dial-up account name.
5. If you log in to your account with a domain name, in the Account domain text box, type the
domain name.
An example of a domain name is msn.com.
6. In the Account password text box, type the password you use to connect to your dial-up
account.
7. If you have problems with your connection, select the Enable modem and PPP debug trace
check box. When this option is selected, the XTM device sends detailed logs for the serial
modem failover feature to the event log file.
DNS Settings
If your dial-up ISP does not give DNS server information, or if you must use a different DNS server,
you can manually add the IP addresses for a DNS server to use after failover occurs.
1. Select the DNS tab.
The DNS Settings page appears.
2. Select the Manually configure DNS server IP addresses check box.
3. In the Primary DNS Server text box, type the IP address of the primary DNS server.
4. If you have a secondary DNS server, in the Secondary DNS server text box, type the IP
address for the secondary server.
5. In the MTU text box, for compatibility purposes, you can set the Maximum Transmission Unit
(MTU) to a different value. Most users can keep the default setting.
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Dial-up Settings
1. Select the Dial Up tab.
The Dialing Options page appears.
2. In the Dial up timeout text box, type or select the number of seconds before a timeout occurs if
your modem does not connect. The default value is two (2) minutes.
3. In the Redial attempts text box, type or select the number of times the XTM device tries to
redial if your modem does not connect. The default is to wait for three (3) connection attempts.
4. In the Inactivity Timeout text box, type or select the number of minutes to wait if no traffic goes
through the modem before a timeout occurs. The default value is no timeout.
5. From the Speaker volume drop-down list, select your modem speaker volume.
Advanced Settings
Some ISPs require that you specify one or more ppp options in order to connect. In China, for example,
some ISPs require that you use the ppp option receive-all. The receive-all option causes ppp to accept
all control characters from the peer.
1. Select the Advanced tab.
2. In the PPP options text box, type the required ppp options. To specify more than one ppp
option, separate each option with a comma.
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Link Monitor Settings
You can set options to test one or more external interfaces for an active connection. When an external
interface becomes active again, the XTM device no longer sends traffic over the serial modem and
uses the external interface or interfaces instead. You can configure the Link Monitor to ping a site or
device on the external interface, create a TCP connection with a site and port number you specify, or
both. You can also set the time interval between each connection test, and configure the number of
times a test must fail or succeed before an interface is activated or deactivated.
To configure the link monitor settings for an interface:
1. Select the Link Monitor tab.
The ping and TCP connection options you set for each external interface appear.
2. To configure an interface, select it from the list and click Configure.
The Link Monitor Details dialog box appears.
3. To ping a location or device on the external network, select the Ping check box and type an
IP address or host name in the adjacent text box.
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4. To create a TCP connection to a location or device on the external network, select the
TCP check box and type an IP address or host name in the adjacent text box. You can also type
or select a Port number.
The default port number is 80 (HTTP).
5. To require successful ping and TCP connections before an interface is marked as active, select
the Both Ping and TCP must be successful check box.
6. To change the time interval between connection attempts, in the Probe interval text box, type
or select a different number.
The default setting is 15 seconds.
7. To change the number of failures that mark an interface as inactive, in the Deactivate after text
box, type or select a different number .
The default value is three (3) connection attempts.
8. To change the number of successful connections that mark an interface as active, in the
Reactivate after text box, type or select a different number.
The default value is three (3) connection attempts.
9. Click OK.
About Advanced Multi-WAN Settings
You can configure sticky connections, failback, and notification of multi-WAN events. Not all
configuration options are available for all multi-WAN configuration options. If a setting does not apply to
the multi-WAN configuration option you selected, those fields are not active.
To configure multi-WAN settings:
1. Select Network > Multi-WAN.
2. Select the Advanced Settings tab.
3. Configure Sticky Connection Duration and Failback for Active Connections as described
in the subsequent sections.
4. Click Save.
Set a Global Sticky Connection Duration
A sticky connection is a connection that continues to use the same WAN interface for a defined period
of time. You can set sticky connection parameters if you use the Routing Table, Round-robin, or
Interface Overflow options for multi-WAN. Stickiness makes sure that, if a packet goes out through an
external interface, any future packets between the source and destination IP address pair use the
same external interface for a specified period of time. By default, sticky connections use the same
interface for 3 minutes.
If a policy definition contains a sticky connection setting, the policy setting is used instead of the global
setting.
To change the global sticky connection duration for a protocol or set of protocols:
1. In the text box for the protocol, type or select a number.
2. In the adjacent drop-down list, select a time duration.
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If you set a sticky connection duration in a policy, you can override the global sticky connection
duration. For more information, see Set the Sticky Connection Duration for a Policy on page 373.
Set the Failback Action
You can set the action you want your XTM device to take when a failover event has occurred and the
primary external interface becomes active again. When this occurs, all new connections immediately
fail back to the primary external interface. You select the method you want to use for connections in
process at the time of failback.
In the Failback for Active Connections drop-down list:
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Immediate failback — Select this option if you want the XTM device to immediately stop all
existing connections.
Gradual failback — Select this option if you want the XTM device to continue to use the
failover interface for existing connections until each connection is complete.
This failback setting also applies to any policy-based routing configuration you set to use failover
external interfaces.
About WAN Interface Status
You can choose the method and frequency you want the XTM device to use to check the status of
each WAN interface. If you do not configure a specified method for the XTM device to use, it pings the
interface default gateway to check interface status.
We recommend that you configure one or two link monitor hosts for each external interface. Select
targets that have a record of high uptime, such as servers hosted by your ISP. If there is a remote site
that is critical to your business operations, such as a credit card processing site or business partner, it
may be worthwhile to ask the administrator at that site if they have a device that you can use as a
monitoring target to verify connectivity to their site.
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Time Needed for the XTM Device to Update its Route Table
If a link monitor host does not respond, it can take from 40–60 seconds for the XTM device to update
its route table. When the same Link Monitor host starts to respond again, it can take from 1–60
seconds for your XTM device to update its route table.
The update process is much faster when your XTM device detects a physical disconnect of the
Ethernet port. When this happens, the XTM device updates its route table immediately. When your
XTM device detects the Ethernet connection is back up, it updates its route table within 20 seconds.
Define a Link Monitor Host
1. Select Network > Multi-WAN.
2. Select the interface and click Configure.
The Link Monitor Details dialog box appears.
3. Select the check boxes for each link monitor method you want the XTM device to use to check
status of each external interface:
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Ping — Add an IP address or domain name for the XTM device to ping to check for
interface status.
TCP — Add the IP address or domain name of a computer that the XTM device can
negotiate a TCP handshake with to check the status of the WAN interface.
Both ping and TCP must be successful — The interface is considered inactive unless
both a ping and TCP connection complete successfully.
If an external interface is a member of a FireCluster configuration, a multi-WAN failover caused
by a failed connection to a link monitor host does not trigger FireCluster failover. FireCluster
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failover occurs only when the physical interface is down or does not respond. If you add a
domain name for the XTM device to ping and any one of the external interfaces has a static IP
address, you must configure a DNS server, as described in Add WINS and DNS Server
Addresses.
4. To configure the frequency you want the XTM device to use to check the status of the interface,
type or select a Probe after setting.
The default setting is 15 seconds.
5. To change the number of consecutive probe failures that must occur before failover, type or
select a Deactivate after setting.
The default setting is three (3). After the selected number of failures, the XTM device starts to send
traffic through the next specified interface in the multi-WAN failover list.
6. To change the number of consecutive successful probes through an interface before an
interface that was inactive becomes active again, type or select a Reactivate after setting.
7. Repeat these steps for each external interface.
8. Click Save.
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Network Address Translation
(NAT)
About Network Address Translation
Network Address Translation (NAT) is a term used to describe any of several forms of IP address and
port translation. At its most basic level, NAT changes the IP address of a packet from one value to a
different value.
The primary purposes of NAT are to increase the number of computers that can operate off a single
publicly routable IP address, and to hide the private IP addresses of hosts on your LAN. When you use
NAT, the source IP address is changed on all the packets you send.
You can apply NAT as a general firewall setting, or as a setting in a policy. Firewall NAT settings do
not apply to BOVPN policies.
If you have Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade, you can configure server load balancing as part of an
SNAT rule. The server load balancing feature is designed to help you increase the scalability and
performance of a high-traffic network with multiple public servers protected by your XTM device. With
server load balancing, you can have the XTM device control the number of sessions initiated to
multiple servers for each firewall policy you configure. The XTM device controls the load based on the
number of sessions in use on each server. The XTM device does not measure or compare the
bandwidth that is used by each server.
For more information on server load balancing, see Configure Server Load Balancing on page 190.
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Types of NAT
The XTM device supports three different types of NAT. Your configuration can use more than one type
of NAT at the same time. You apply some types of NAT to all firewall traffic, and other types as a
setting in a policy.
Dynamic NAT
Dynamic NAT is also known as IP masquerading. The XTM device can apply its public IP
address to the outgoing packets for all connections or for specified services. This hides the real
IP address of the computer that is the source of the packet from the external network. Dynamic
NAT is generally used to hide the IP addresses of internal hosts when they get access to public
services.
For more information, see About Dynamic NAT on page 172.
Static NAT
Also known as port forwarding, you configure static NAT in an SNAT action and then use that
action when you configure policies. Static NAT is a port-to-host NAT. A host sends a packet
from the external network to a port on an external interface. Static NAT changes this IP address
to an IP address and port behind the firewall.
For more information, see Configure Static NAT on page 187.
1-to-1 NAT
1-to-1 NAT creates a mapping between IP addresses on one network and IP addresses on a
different network. This type of NAT is often used to give external computers access to your
public, internal servers.
For more information, see About 1-to-1 NAT on page 177.
About Dynamic NAT
Dynamic NAT is the most frequently used type of NAT. It changes the source IP address of an
outgoing connection to the public IP address of the XTM device. Outside the XTM device, you see only
the external interface IP address of the XTM device on outgoing packets.
Many computers can connect to the Internet from one public IP address. Dynamic NAT gives more
security for internal hosts that use the Internet, because it hides the IP addresses of hosts on your
network. With dynamic NAT, all connections must start from behind the XTM device. Malicious hosts
cannot start connections to the computers behind the XTM device when the XTM device is configured
for dynamic NAT.
In most networks, the recommended security policy is to apply NAT to all outgoing packets. With
Fireware, dynamic NAT is enabled by default in the Network > NAT dialog box. It is also enabled by
default in each policy you create. You can override the firewall setting for dynamic NAT in your
individual policies, as described in Apply NAT Rules on page 372.
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Add Firewall Dynamic NAT Entries
The default configuration of dynamic NAT enables dynamic NAT from all private IP addresses to the
external network. The default entries are:
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192.168.0.0/16 – Any-External
172.16.0.0/12 – Any-External
10.0.0.0/8 – Any-External
These three network addresses are the private networks reserved by the Internet Engineering Task
Force (IETF) and usually are used for the IP addresses on LANs. To enable dynamic NAT for private
IP addresses other than these, you must add an entry for them. The XTM device applies the dynamic
NAT rules in the sequence that they appear in the Dynamic NAT Entries list. We recommend that you
put the rules in a sequence that matches the volume of traffic the rules apply to.
1. Select Network > NAT.
The NAT settings page appears.
2. In the Dynamic NAT section, click Add.
The Dynamic NAT configuration page appears.
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3. In the From section, click the Member Type drop-down list to select the type of address to use
to specify the source of the outgoing packets: Host IP, Network IP, Host Range, or Alias.
4. In the From section, below the Member Type drop-down list, type the host IP address,
network IP address, or host IP address range, or select an alias in the drop-down list.
You must type a network address in slash notation.
For more information on built-in XTM device aliases, see About Aliases on page 354.
5. In the To section, click the Member Type drop-down list to select the type of address to use to
specify the destination of the outgoing packets.
6. In the To section, below the Member Type drop-down list, type the host IP address, network
IP address, or host IP address range, or select an alias in the drop-down list.
7. Click Save.
The new entry appears in the Dynamic NAT Entries list.
Delete a Dynamic NAT Entry
You cannot change an existing dynamic NAT entry. If you want to change an existing entry, you must
delete the entry and add a new one.
To delete a dynamic NAT entry:
1. Select the entry to delete.
2. Click Remove.
A warning message appears.
3. Click Yes.
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Reorder Dynamic NAT Entries
To change the sequence of the dynamic NAT entries:
1. Select the entry to change.
2. Click Up or Down to move it in the list.
Configure Policy-Based Dynamic NAT
In policy-based dynamic NAT, the XTM device maps private IP addresses to public IP addresses.
Dynamic NAT is enabled in the default configuration of each policy. You do not have to enable it unless
you previously disabled it.
For policy-based dynamic NAT to work correctly, use the Policy tab of the Edit Policy Properties
dialog box to make sure the policy is configured to allow traffic out through only one XTM device
interface.
1-to-1 NAT rules have higher precedence than dynamic NAT rules.
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall Policies list appears.
.
2. Select a policy and click
The Policy Configuration page appears.
3. Click the Advanced tab.
4. Select the Dynamic NAT check box.
5. Select Use Network NAT Settings if you want to use the dynamic NAT rules set for the XTM
device.
Select All traffic in this policy if you want to apply NAT to all traffic in this policy. You can set
a dynamic NAT source IP address for any policy that uses dynamic NAT. Select the Set
source IP check box.
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When you select a source IP address, any traffic that uses this policy shows a specified
address from your public or external IP address range as the source. This is most often used to
force outgoing SMTP traffic to show the MX record address for your domain when the IP
address on the XTM device external interface is not the same as your MX record IP address.
This source address must be on the same subnet as the interface you specified for outgoing
traffic.
We recommend that you do not use the Set source IP option if you have more than one
external interface configured on your XTM device.
If you do not select the Set source IP check box, the XTM device changes the source IP
address for each packet to the IP address of the interface from which the packet is sent.
6. Click Save.
Disable Policy-Based Dynamic NAT
Dynamic NAT is enabled in the default configuration of each policy. To disable dynamic NAT for a
policy:
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall Policies list appears.
2. Select a policy and click Edit.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
3. Click the Advanced tab.
4. To disable NAT for the traffic controlled by this policy, clear the Dynamic NAT check box.
5. Click Save.
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About 1-to-1 NAT
When you enable 1-to-1 NAT, your XTM device changes the routes for all incoming and outgoing
packets sent from one range of addresses to a different range of addresses. A 1-to-1 NAT rule always
has precedence over dynamic NAT.
1-to-1 NAT is frequently used when you have a group of internal servers with private IP addresses that
must be made public. You can use 1-to-1 NAT to map public IP addresses to the internal servers. You
do not have to change the IP address of your internal servers. When you have a group of similar
servers (for example, a group of email servers), 1-to-1 NAT is easier to configure than static NAT for
the same group of servers.
To understand how to configure 1-to-1 NAT, we give this example:
Company ABC has a group of five privately addressed email servers behind the trusted interface of
their XTM device. These addresses are:
10.0.1.1
10.0.1.2
10.0.1.3
10.0.1.4
10.0.1.5
Company ABC selects five public IP addresses from the same network address as the external
interface of their XTM device, and creates DNS records for the email servers to resolve to.
These addresses are:
203.0.113.1
203.0.113.2
203.0.113.3
203.0.113.4
203.0.113.5
Company ABC configures a 1-to-1 NAT rule for their email servers. The 1-to-1 NAT rule builds a static, bidirectional relationship between the corresponding pairs of IP addresses. The relationship looks like this:
10.0.1.1 <--> 203.0.113.1
10.0.1.2 <--> 203.0.113.2
10.0.1.3 <--> 203.0.113.3
10.0.1.4 <--> 203.0.113.4
10.0.1.5 <--> 203.0.113.5
When the 1-to-1 NAT rule is applied, your XTM device creates the bi-directional routing and NAT
relationship between the pool of private IP addresses and the pool of public addresses. 1-to-1 NAT also
operates on traffic sent from networks that your XTM device protects.
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About 1-to-1 NAT and VPNs
When you create a VPN tunnel, the networks at each end of the VPN tunnel must have different
network address ranges. You can use 1-to-1 NAT when you must create a VPN tunnel between two
networks that use the same private network address. If the network range on the remote network is the
same as on the local network, you can configure both gateways to use 1-to-1 NAT.
1-to-1 NAT for a VPN tunnel is configured when you configure the VPN tunnel and not in the Network
> NAT page.
For more detailed information, and an example, see Use 1-to-1 NAT Through a Branch Office VPN
Tunnel on page 639.
Configure Firewall 1-to-1 NAT
1. Select Network > NAT.
The NAT settings page appears.
2. In the 1-to-1 NAT section, click Add.
The 1-to-1 NAT configuration page appears.
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3. In the Map Type drop-down list, select Single IP (to map one host), IP range (to map a range
of hosts), or IP subnet (to map a subnet).
If you select IP range or IP subnet, do not specify a subnet or range that includes more than
256 IP addresses. If you want to apply 1-to-1 NAT to more than 256 IP addresse, you must
create more than one rule.
4. Complete all the fields in the Configuration section.
For more information about how to use these fields, see the subsequent Define a 1-to-1
NAT rule section.
5. Click Save.
6. Add the NAT IP addresses to the appropriate policies.
n For a policy that manages outgoing traffic, add the Real Base IP addresses to the From
section of the policy configuration.
n For a policy that manages incoming traffic, add the NAT Base IP addresses to the To
section of the policy configuration.
In the previous example, where we used 1-to-1 NAT to give access to a group of email servers
described in About 1-to-1 NAT on page 177, we must configure the SMTP policy to allow SMTP traffic.
To complete this configuration, you must change the policy settings to allow traffic from the external
network to the IP address range 10.1.1.1–10.1.1.5.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Add a new policy, or modify an existing policy.
Adjacent to the From list, click Add.
Select the alias Any-External and click OK.
Adjacent to the To list, click Add.
To add one IP address at a time, select Host IP from the drop-down list and type the IP address
in the adjacent text box. Click OK.
6. Repeat Steps 3–4 for each IP address in the NAT address range.
To add several IP addresses at once, select Host Range in the drop-down list. Type the first
and last IP addresses from the NAT Base range and click OK.
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Note To connect to a computer located on a different interface that uses 1-to-1 NAT, you
must use that computer’s public (NAT base) IP address. If this is a problem, you can
disable 1-to-1 NAT and use static NAT.
Define a 1-to-1 NAT Rule
In each 1-to-1 NAT rule, you can configure a host, a range of hosts, or a subnet. You must also
configure:
Interface
The name of the Ethernet interface on which 1-to-1 NAT is applied. Your XTM device applies 1to-1 NAT for packets sent in to, and out of, the interface. In our example above, the rule is
applied to the external interface.
NAT base
When you configure a 1-to-1 NAT rule, you configure the rule with a from and a to range of IP
addresses. The NAT base is the first available IP address in the to range of addresses. The
NAT base IP address is the address that the real base IP address changes to when the 1-to-1
NAT is applied. You cannot use the IP address of an existing Ethernet interface as your NAT
base. In our example above, the NAT base is 203.0.113.11.
Real base
When you configure a 1-to-1 NAT rule, you configure the rule with a from and a to range of IP
addresses. The Real base is the first available IP address in the from range of addresses. It is
the IP address assigned to the physical Ethernet interface of the computer to which you will
apply the 1-to-1 NAT policy. When packets from a computer with a real base address go
through the specified interface, the 1-to-1 action is applied. In the example above, the Real base
is 10.0.1.11.
Number of hosts to NAT (for ranges only)
The number of IP addresses in a range to which the 1-to-1 NAT rule applies. The first real base
IP address is translated to the first NAT Base IP address when 1-to-1 NAT is applied. The
second real base IP address in the range is translated to the second NAT base IP address when
1-to-1 NAT is applied. This is repeated until the Number of hosts to NAT is reached. In the
example above, the number of hosts to apply NAT to is 5.
You can also use 1-to-1 NAT when you must create a VPN tunnel between two networks that use the
same private network address. When you create a VPN tunnel, the networks at each end of the VPN
tunnel must have different network address ranges. If the network range on the remote network is the
same as on the local network, you can configure both gateways to use 1-to-1 NAT. Then, you can
create the VPN tunnel and not change the IP addresses of one side of the tunnel. You configure 1-to-1
NAT for a VPN tunnel when you configure the VPN tunnel and not in the Network > NAT dialog box.
For an example of how to use 1-to-1 NAT, see 1-to-1 NAT Example.
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Configure Policy-Based 1-to-1 NAT
In policy-based 1-to-1 NAT, your XTM device uses the private and public IP ranges that you set when
you configured global 1-to-1 NAT, but the rules are applied to an individual policy. 1-to-1 NAT is
enabled in the default configuration of each policy. If traffic matches both 1-to-1 NAT and dynamic NAT
policies, 1-to-1 NAT takes precedence.
Enable Policy-Based 1-to-1 NAT
Because policy-based 1-to-1 NAT is enabled by default, you do not need to do anything else to enable
it. If you have previously disabled policy-based 1-to-1 NAT, select the check box inStep 4 of the
subsequent procedure to enable it again.
Disable Policy-Based 1-to-1 NAT
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall Policies list appears.
2. Select a policy and click Edit.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
3. Click the Advanced tab.
4. Clear the 1-to-1 NAT check box to disable NAT for the traffic controlled by this policy.
5. Click Save.
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Configure NAT Loopback with Static NAT
Fireware XTM includes support for NAT loopback. NAT loopback allows a user on the trusted or
optional networks to get access to a public server that is on the same physical XTM device interface
by its public IP address or domain name. For NAT loopback connections, the XTM device changes the
source IP address to the IP address of the internal XTM device interface (the primary IP address for the
interface where the client and server both connect to the XTM device).
To understand how to configure NAT loopback when you use static NAT, we give this example:
Company ABC has an HTTP server on the XTM device trusted interface. The company uses static
NAT to map the public IP address to the internal server. The company wants to allow users on the
trusted network to use the public IP address or domain name to get access to this public server.
For this example, we assume:
n
n
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The trusted interface is configured with an IP address on the 10.0.1.0/24 network
The HTTP server is physically connected to the trusted 10.0.1.0/24 network.
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Add a Policy for NAT Loopback to the Server
In this example, to allow users on your trusted and optional networks to use the public IP address or
domain name to access a public server that is on the trusted network, you must create an SNAT action
and add it to an HTTP policy. The policy addresses could look like this:
The To section of the policy contains an SNAT action that defines a static NAT route from the public
IP address of the HTTP server to the real IP address of that server.
For more information about static NAT, see Configure Static NAT on page 187.
If you use 1-to-1 NAT to route traffic to servers inside your network, see NAT Loopback and 1-to-1
NAT on page 184.
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NAT Loopback and 1-to-1 NAT
NAT loopback allows a user on the trusted or optional networks to connect to a public server with its
public IP address or domain name if the server is on the same physical XTM device interface. If you
use 1-to-1 NAT to route traffic to servers on the internal network, use these instructions to configure
NAT loopback from internal users to those servers. If you do not use 1-to-1 NAT, see Configure NAT
Loopback with Static NAT on page 182.
To help you understand how to configure NAT loopback when you use 1-to-1 NAT, we give this
example:
Company ABC has an HTTP server on the XTM device trusted interface. The company uses a 1-to-1
NAT rule to map the public IP address to the internal server. The company wants to allow users on the
trusted interface to use the public IP address or domain name to access this public server.
For this example, we assume:
n
A server with public IP address 203.0.113.5 is mapped with a 1-to-1 NAT rule to a host on the
internal network.
In the 1-to-1 NAT section of the NAT configuration page, select these options:
Interface — External, NAT Base — 203.0.113.5, Real Base — 10.0.1.5
n
n
n
The trusted interface is configured with a primary network, 10.0.1.0/24
The HTTP server is physically connected to the network on the trusted interface. The Real
Base address of that host is on the trusted interface.
The trusted interface is also configured with a secondary network, 192.168.2.0/24.
For this example, to enable NAT loopback for all users connected to the trusted interface, you must:
1. Make sure that there is a 1-to-1 NAT entry for each interface that traffic uses when internal
computers get access to the public IP address 203.0.113.5 with a NAT loopback connection.
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You must add one more 1-to1 NAT mapping to apply to traffic that starts from the trusted
interface. The new 1-to-1 mapping is the same as the previous one, except that the Interface is
set to Trusted instead of External.
After you add the second 1-to-1 NAT entry, the 1-to-1 NAT section on the NAT page shows two
1-to-1 NAT mappings: one for External and one for Trusted.
Interface — External, NAT Base — 203.0.113.5, Real Base — 10.0.1.5
Interface — Trusted, NAT Base — 203.0.113.5, Real Base — 10.0.1.5
2. Add a Dynamic NAT entry for every network on the interface that the server is connected to.
The From field for the Dynamic NAT entry is the network IP address of the network from which
computers get access to the 1-to-1 NAT IP address with NAT loopback.
The To field for the Dynamic NAT entry is the NAT base address in the 1-to-1 NAT mapping.
For this example, the trusted interface has two networks defined, and we want to allow users on
both networks to get access to the HTTP server with the public IP address or host name of the
server. We must add two Dynamic NAT entries.
In the Dynamic NAT section of the NAT configuration page, add:
10.0.1.0/24 - 203.0.113.5
192.168.2.0/24 - 203.0.113.5
3. Add a policy to allow users on your trusted network to use the public IP address or domain name
to get access to the public server on the trusted network. For this example:
From
Any-Trusted
To
203.0.113.5
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The public IP address that users want to connect to is 203.0.113.5. This IP address is
configured as a secondary IP address on the external interface.
For more information about configuring static NAT, see Configure Static NAT on page 187.
For more information about how to configure 1-to-1 NAT, see Configure Firewall 1-to-1 NAT on page 178.
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About SNAT
An SNAT action is a user-defined action that includes static NAT or server load balancing members
which can be referenced by a policy. An SNAT action is a NAT mapping which replaces the original
destination IP address (and optionally, port) with a new destination. For a server load balancing SNAT
action, the original destination is mapped to multiple server IP addresses, which the XTM device can
load balance between.
You can create SNAT actions and apply them to one or more policies in your configuration. To
reference an SNAT object in a policy, you add it to the To (destination) list in the policy. If you add a
server load balancing SNAT action to a policy, it must be the only destination in the policy.
For more information about static NAT and server load balancing, see Configure Static NAT and
Configure Server Load Balancing.
Configure Static NAT
Static NAT, also known as port forwarding, is a port-to-host NAT. A host sends a packet from the
external network to a port on an external interface. Static NAT changes the destination IP address to
an IP address and port behind the firewall. If a software application uses more than one port and the
ports are selected dynamically, you must either use 1-to-1 NAT, or check whether a proxy on your
XTM device manages this kind of traffic. Static NAT also operates on traffic sent from networks that
your XTM device protects.
When you use static NAT, you use an external IP address from your XTM device instead of the IP
address from a public server. You could do this because you choose to, or because your public server
does not have a public IP address. For example, you can put your SMTP email server behind your XTM
device with a private IP address and configure static NAT in your SMTP policy. Your XTM device
receives connections on port 25 and makes sure that any SMTP traffic is sent to the real SMTP server
behind the XTM device.
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Add a Static NAT Action
Before you can configure a policy to use static NAT, you must define the static NAT action. After you
add a static NAT action, you can use it in one or more policies.
1. Select Firewall > SNAT.
The SNAT page appears.
2. Click Add.
The Add SNAT page appears.
3. In the Name text box, type a name for this SNAT action.
4. (Optional) In the Description text box, type a description for this SNAT action.
5. To specify a static NAT action, select Static NAT.
This is the default selection.
6. Click Add.
The Add Member dialog box appears.
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7. From the External IP address drop-down list, select the external IP address or alias you want
to use in this action.
For example, you can use static NAT for packets received on only one external IP address. Or,
you can use static NAT for packets received on any external IP address if you select the AnyExternal alias.
8. In the Internal IP Address text box, type the destination on the trusted or optional network.
9. (Optional) Select the Set internal port to a different port check box. This enables port
address translation (PAT).
This feature enables you to change the packet destination not only to a specified internal host
but also to a different port. If you select this check box, type or select the port number to use.
Note If you use static NAT in a policy that allows traffic that does not have ports (traffic
other than TCP or UDP), the internal port setting is not used for that traffic.
10. Click OK.
The static NAT route appears in the SNAT Members list.
11. Click Save.
The new SNAT action appears in the SNAT page.
Add a Static NAT Action to a Policy
After you create a static NAT action, you can add it to one or more policies.
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
2. Double-click a policy to edit it.
3. In the Connections are drop-down list, select Allowed.
To use static NAT, the policy must allow incoming traffic.
4. In the To section, click Add.
The Add Member dialog box appears.
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5. From the Member Type drop-down list, select Static NAT.
A list of the configured Static NAT Actions appears.
6. Select the Static NAT action to add to this policy. Click OK.
The static NAT route appears in the To section of the policy configuration.
7. Click Save.
Edit or Remove a Static NAT Action
To edit an SNAT action:
1. Select Firewall > SNAT.
The SNAT page appears.
2. Select an SNAT action.
3. Click Edit.
The Edit SNAT page appears.
4. Modify the SNAT action.
When you edit an SNAT action, any changes you make apply to all policies that use that SNAT
action.
5. Click Save.
To remove an SNAT action:
1. Select Firewall > SNAT.
The SNAT page appears.
2. Select an SNAT action.
3. Click Remove.
You cannot remove an SNAT action that is used by a policy. A confirmation dialog box appears.
4. Click Yes to confirm that you want to remove the SNAT action.
Configure Server Load Balancing
Note To use the server load balancing feature your XTM device must have an XTM 5
Series, 8 Series, or XTM 1050 device and Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade.
The server load balancing feature in Fireware XTM is designed to help you increase the scalability and
performance of a high-traffic network with multiple public servers. With server load balancing, you can
enable the XTM device to control the number of sessions initiated to as many as 10 servers for each
firewall policy you configure. The XTM device controls the load based on the number of sessions in use
on each server. The XTM device does not measure or compare the bandwidth that is used by each
server.
You configure server load balancing as an SNAT action. The XTM device can balance connections
among your servers with two different algorithms. When you configure server load balancing, you must
choose the algorithm you want the XTM device to apply.
Round-robin
If you select this option, the XTM device distributes incoming sessions among the servers you
specify in the policy in round-robin order. The first connection is sent to the first server specified
in your policy. The next connection is sent to the next server in your policy, and so on.
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Least Connection
If you select this option, the XTM device sends each new session to the server in the list that
currently has the lowest number of open connections to the device. The XTM device cannot tell
how many connections the server has open on other interfaces.
You can add any number of servers to a server load balancing action. You can also add a weight to
each server to make sure that your most powerful servers are given the heaviest load.. By default,
each server has a weight of 1. The weight refers to the proportion of load that the XTM device sends to
a server. If you assign a weight of 2 to a server, you double the number of sessions that the XTM
device sends to that server, compared to a server with a weight of 1.
When you configure server load balancing, it is important to know:
n
n
n
n
n
You can configure server load balancing for any policy to which you can apply static NAT.
If you apply server load balancing to a policy, you cannot set policy-based routing or other NAT
rules in the same policy.
The XTM device does not modify the sender, or source IP address, of traffic sent to these
devices. While the traffic is sent directly from the XTM device, each device that is part of your
server load balancing configuration sees the original source IP address of the network traffic.
If you use server load balancing in an active/passive FireCluster configuration, real-time
synchronization does not occur between the cluster members when a failover event occurs.
When the passive backup master becomes the active cluster master, it sends connections to
all servers in the server load balancing list to see which servers are available. It then applies the
server load balancing algorithm to all available servers.
If you use server load balancing for connections to a group of RDP servers, you must configure
the firewall on each RDP server to allow ICMP requests from the XTM device.
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Add a Server Load Balancing SNAT Action
Before you can configure a policy to use server load balancing, you must define the server load
balancing in an SNAT action. After you define a Server Load Balancing SNAT action, you can use it in
one or more policies.
1. Select Firewall > SNAT.
The SNAT page appears.
2. Click Add.
The Add SNAT page appears.
3. In the Name text box, type a name for this action. Optionally, type a Description.
4. Select the Server Load Balancing radio button to configure a Server Load Balancing SNAT
action.
5. From the External IP address drop-down list, select the external IP address or alias you want
to use in this server load balancing action.
For example, you can have the XTM device apply server load balancing for this action to
packets received on only one external IP address. Or, you can have the XTM device apply
server load balancing for packets received on any external IP address if you select the AnyExternal alias.
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6. From the Method drop-down list, select the algorithm you want the XTM device to use for
server load balancing: Round-robin or Least Connection.
7. Click Add to add the IP address of an internal server to this action.
The Add Member dialog box appears.
8. In the Internal IP Address text box, type the IP address of the server to add.
9. In the Weight text box. select the weight for this server for load balancing.
10. If necessary, select the Set internal port to a different port check box. This enables port
address translation (PAT).
This feature enables you to change the packet destination not only to a specified internal host
but also to a different port. If you select this check box, type the port number or click the up or
down arrow to select the port you want to use.
Note If you use static NAT in a policy that allows traffic that does not have ports (traffic
other than TCP or UDP), the internal port setting is not used for that traffic.
11. Click OK.
The server is added to the Server Load Balance Members for this action.
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12. Click Add to add another server to this action.
13. To set sticky connections for your internal servers, select the Enable sticky connection check
box and set the time period in the Enable sticky connection text box and drop-down list.
A sticky connection is a connection that continues to use the same server for a defined period of
time. Stickiness makes sure that all packets between a source and destination address pair are
sent to the same server for the time period you specify.
14. Click Save.
Add a Server Load Balancing SNAT Action to a Policy
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies. Select the policy you want to modify and click Edit.
Or, add a new policy.
2. In the To section, click Add.
The Add Member dialog box appears.
3. From the Member Type drop-down list, select Server Load Balancing.
The list of server load balancing actions appears.
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4. Select the server load balancing action to use. Click OK.
The server load balancing action is added to the To section of the policy.
5. Click Save.
Edit or Remove a Server Load Balancing SNAT Action
To edit an SNAT action:
1. Select Firewall > SNAT.
The SNAT page appears.
2. Select an SNAT action.
3. Click Edit.
The Edit SNAT page appears.
4. Modify the SNAT action.
When you edit an SNAT action, any changes you make apply to all policies that use that SNAT
action.
5. Click Save.
To remove an SNAT action:
1. Select Firewall > SNAT.
The SNAT page appears.
2. Select an SNAT action.
3. Click Remove.
You cannot remove an SNAT action that is used by a policy. A confirmation dialog box appears.
4. Click Yes to confirm that you want to remove the SNAT action.
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1-to-1 NAT Example
When you enable 1-to-1 NAT, the XTM device changes and routes all incoming and outgoing packets
sent from one range of addresses to a different range of addresses.
Consider a situation in which you have a group of internal servers with private IP addresses that must
each show a different public IP address to the outside world. You can use 1-to-1 NAT to map public IP
addresses to the internal servers, and you do not have to change the IP addresses of your internal
servers. To understand how to configure 1-to-1 NAT, consider this example:
A company has a group of three privately addressed servers behind an optional interface of their XTM
device. The addresses of these servers are:
10.0.2.11
10.0.2.12
10.0.2.13
Theadministrator selects three public IP addresses from thesame network address as the external
interfaceof theirXTM device,and creates DNS records for theservers toresolve to.These addresses are:
203.0.113.11
203.0.113.12
203.0.113.13
Now the administratorconfigures a1-to-1 NATrule forthe servers.The 1-to-1NAT rulebuilds astatic,
bidirectionalrelationship betweenthe correspondingpairs ofIP addresses.The relationshiplooks likethis:
10.0.2.11 <--> 203.0.113.11
10.0.2.12 <--> 203.0.113.12
10.0.2.13 <--> 203.0.113.13
When the 1-to-1 NAT rule is applied, the XTM device creates the bidirectional routing and NAT
relationship between the pool of private IP addresses and the pool of public addresses.
For the instructions to define a 1-to-1 NAT rule, see Configure Firewall 1-to-1 NAT on page 178.
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Wireless Setup
About Wireless Configuration
When you enable the wireless feature of the XTM wireless device, you can configure the external
interface to use wireless, or you can configure the XTM device as a wireless access point for users on
the trusted, optional, or guest networks.
Before you set up wireless network access, see Before You Begin on page 199.
To enable the wireless feature on your XTM device:
1. Select Network > Wireless.
The Wireless page appears.
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2. In the Wireless page, select a wireless configuration option:
Enable wireless client as external interface
This setting allows you to configure the external interface of the XTM wireless device to
connect to a wireless network. This is useful in areas with limited or no existing network
infrastructure.
For information about how to configure the external interface as wireless, see Configure
Your External Interface as a Wireless Interface on page 221.
Enable wireless access points
This setting allows you to configure the XTM wireless device as an access point for users
on the trusted, optional or guest networks.
For more information, see About Wireless Access Point Configuration on page 198.
3. In the Radio Settings section, select your wireless radio settings.
For more information, see About Wireless Radio Settings on page 224.
4. Select the Enable rogue access point detection check box to enable the device to scan for
untrusted wireless access points.
For more information, see Enable Rogue Access Point Detection on page 228.
5. Click Save.
About Wireless Access Point Configuration
Any XTM wireless device can be configured as a wireless access point with three different security
zones. You can enable other wireless devices to connect to the XTM wireless device as part of the
trusted network or part of the optional network. You can also enable a wireless guest services network
for XTM device users. Computers that connect to the guest network connect through the XTM wireless
device, but do not have access to computers on the trusted or optional networks.
Before you enable the XTM wireless device as a wireless access point, you must look carefully at the
wireless users who connect to the device and determine the level of access you want for each type of
user. There are three types of wireless access you can allow:
Allow Wireless Connections to a Trusted Interface
When you allow wireless connections through a trusted interface, wireless devices have full
access to all computers on the trusted and optional networks, and full Internet access based on
the rules you configure for outgoing access on your XTM device. If you enable wireless access
through a trusted interface, we strongly recommend that you enable and use the MAC
restriction feature to allow access through the XTM device only for devices you add to the
Allowed MAC Address list.
For more information about restricting access by MAC addresses, see Use Static MAC
Address Binding on page 130.
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Allow Wireless Connections to an Optional Interface
When you allow wireless connections through an optional interface, those wireless devices
have full access to all computers on the optional network, and full Internet access based on the
rules you configure for outgoing access on your XTM wireless device.
Allow Wireless Guest Connections Through the External Interface
Computers that connect to the wireless guest network connect through the XTM wireless
device to the Internet based on the rules you configure for outgoing access on your XTM device.
These wirelessly connected computers do not have access to computers on the trusted or
optional network.
For more information about how to configure a wireless guest network, see Enable a Wireless
Guest Network on page 212.
Before you set up wireless network access, see Before You Begin on page 199.
To allow wireless connections to your trusted or optional network, see Enable Wireless Connections to
the Trusted or Optional Network on page 210.
Before You Begin
WatchGuard XTM wireless devices adhere to 802.11n, 802.11b and 802.11g guidelines set by the
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). When you install an XTM wireless device:
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Make sure that the wireless device is installed in a location more than 20 centimeters from all
persons. This is an FCC requirement for low power transmitters.
It is a good idea to install the wireless device away from other antennas or transmitters to
decrease interference
The default wireless authentication algorithm configured for each wireless security zone is not
the most secure authentication algorithm. If you the wireless devices that connect to your XTM
wireless device can operate correctly with WPA2, we recommend that you increase the
authentication level to WPA2.
A wireless client that connects to the XTM wireless device from the trusted or optional network
can be a part of any branch office VPN tunnels in which the local network component of the
Phase 2 settings includes optional or trusted network IP addresses. To control access to the
VPN tunnel, you can force XTM device users to authenticate.
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About Wireless Configuration Settings
When you enable wireless access to the trusted, optional, or wireless guest network, some
configuration settings are defined the same way for each of the three security zones. These can be set
to different values for each zone.
For information about the Broadcast SSID and respond to SSID queries setting, see
Enable/Disable SSID Broadcasts on page 201.
For information about setting the Network Name (SSID), see Change the SSID on page 201.
ForinformationabouttheLog Authentication Eventssetting,seeLogAuthenticationEvents onpage201.
For information about the Fragmentation Threshold, see Change the Fragmentation Threshold on
page 201.
For information about the RTS Threshold, see Change the RTS Threshold on page 203.
For information about the Encryption (Authentication) setting, see Set the Wireless Authentication
Method on page 204.
For information about the Encryption algorithm setting, see Set the Encryption Level on page 208.
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Enable/Disable SSID Broadcasts
Computers with wireless network cards send requests to see whether there are wireless access points
to which they can connect.
To configure an XTM device wireless interface to send and answer these requests, select the
Broadcast SSID and respond to SSID queries check box. For security, enable this option only
while you configure computers on your network to connect to the XTM wireless device. Disable this
option after all your clients are configured. If you use the wireless guest services feature, it can be
necessary to allow SSID broadcasts in standard operation.
Change the SSID
The SSID (Service Set Identifier) is the unique name of your wireless network. To use the wireless
network from a client computer, the wireless network card in the computer must have the same SSID
as the WatchGuard wireless network to which the computer connects.
The Fireware XTM OS automatically assigns an SSID to each wireless network. This SSID uses a
format that contains the interface name and the 5th-9th digits from the XTM wireless device serial
number. To change the SSID, type a new name in the SSID field to uniquely identify your wireless
network.
Log Authentication Events
An authentication event occurs when a wireless computer tries to connect to the wireless interface of a
WatchGuard XTM wireless device. To include these events in the log file, select the Log
Authentication Events check box.
Change the Fragmentation Threshold
Fireware XTM allows you to set the maximum frame size the XTM wireless device can send and not
fragment the frame. This is called the fragmentation threshold. This setting is rarely changed. The
default setting is the maximum frame size of 2346, which means that it will never fragment any frames
that it sends to wireless clients. This is best for most environments.
When to Change the Default Fragmentation Threshold
A collision happens when two devices that use the same medium transmit packets at exactly the
same time. The two packets can corrupt each other, and the result is a group of unreadable pieces of
data. If a packet results in a collision, the packet is discarded and it must be transmitted again. This
adds to the overhead on the network and can reduce the throughput or speed of the network.
Larger frames are more likely to collide with each other than smaller frames. To make the wireless
packets smaller, you lower the fragmentation threshold on the XTM wireless device. If you lower the
maximum frame size, it can reduce the number of repeat transmissions caused by collisions, and
lower the overhead caused by repeat transmissions.
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Smaller frames introduce more overhead on the network. This is especially true on a wireless network,
because every fragmented frame sent from one wireless device to another requires the receiving
device to acknowledge the frame. When packet error rates are high (more than five or ten percent
collisions or errors), you can help improve the performance of the wireless network if you lower the
fragmentation threshold. The time that is saved when you reduce repeat transmissions can be enough
to offset the extra overhead added with smaller packets. This can result in higher throughput.
If the rate of packet error is low and you lower the fragmentation threshold, wireless network
performance decreases. This occurs because when you lower the threshold, protocol overhead is
added and protocol efficiency is reduced.
If you want to experiment, start with the default maximum 2346, and lower the threshold a small
amount at a time. To get the most benefit, you must monitor the network for packet errors at different
times of the day. Compare the effect that a lower threshold has on network performance when errors
are very high with the effect on performance when errors are moderately high.
In general, we recommend that you leave this setting at its default of 2346.
Change the Fragmentation Threshold
1. Select Network > Wireless.
2. Select the wireless network to configure.
3. Adjacent to Access point 1 or Access point 2 or Wireless Guest, click Configure.
The wireless configuration settings for that wireless network appear.
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4. To change the fragmentation threshold, in the Fragmentation Threshold text box, type or
select a value between 256 and 2346.
5. Click Return to Main Page.
6. Click Save.
Change the RTS Threshold
RTS/CTS (Request To Send / Clear To Send) helps prevent problems when wireless clients can
receive signals from more than one wireless access point on the same channel. The problem is
sometimes known as hidden node.
We do not recommend that you change the default RTS threshold. When the RTS Threshold is set to
the default of 2346, RTS/CTS is disabled.
If you must change the RTS threshold, adjust it incrementally. Lower it a small amount at a time. After
each change, allow enough time to decide whether the change in network performance is positive
before you change it again. If you lower this value too much, you can introduce more latency into the
network, as Requests to Send are increased so much that the shared medium is reserved more often
than necessary.
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About Wireless Security Settings
WatchGuard XTM wireless devices use three security protocol standards to protect your wireless
network: WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy), WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access), and WPA2. Each protocol
standard can encrypt the transmissions on the wireless LAN between the computers and the access
points. They also can prevent unauthorized access to the wireless access point.
To protect privacy, you can use these features together with other LAN security mechanisms such as
password protection, VPN tunnels, and user authentication.
Set the Wireless Authentication Method
From the Encryption (Authentication) drop-down list in the wireless access point configuration,
select the level of authentication method for your wireless connections. The eight available
authentication methods, from least secure to most secure, are listed below. Select the most secure
authentication method that is supported by your wireless network clients.
Open System and Shared Key
The Open System and Shared Key authentication methods use WEP encryption. WEP is not as
secure as WPA2 and WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access). We recommend you do not use these less
secure methods unless your wireless clients do not support WPA or WPA2.
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Open System — Open System authentication allows any user to authenticate to the access
point. This method can be used with no encryption or with WEP encryption.
Shared Key — In Shared Key authentication, only those wireless clients that have the shared
key can connect. Shared Key authentication can be used only with WEP encryption.
WPA and WPA2 with Pre-Shared Keys
WPA (PSK) and WPA2 (PSK) Wi-Fi Protected Access methods use pre-shared keys for
authentication. WPA (PSK) and WPA2 (PSK) are more secure than WEP shared key authentication.
When you choose one of these methods, you configure a pre-shared key that all wireless devices must
use to authenticate to the wireless access point.
The XTM wireless device supports three wireless authentication settings that use pre-shared keys:
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WPA ONLY (PSK) — The XTM wireless device accepts connections from wireless devices
configured to use WPA with pre-shared keys.
WPA/WPA2 (PSK) — The XTM wireless device accepts connections from wireless devices
configured to use WPA or WPA2 with pre-shared keys.
WPA2 ONLY (PSK) — The XTM wireless device accepts connections from wireless devices
configured to use WPA2 with pre-shared keys authentication. WPA2 implements the full
802.11i standard; it does not work with some older wireless network cards.
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WPA and WPA2 with Enterprise Authentication
The WPA Enterprise and WPA2 Enterprise authentication methods use the IEEE 802.1X standard for
network authentication. These authentication methods use the EAP (Extensible Authentication
Protocol) framework to enable user authentication to an external RADIUS authentication server or to
the XTM device (Firebox-DB). The WPA Enterprise and WPA2 Enterprise authentication methods are
more secure than WPA/WPA2 (PSK) because users authenticate with their own credentials instead of
a shared key.
Fireware XTM v11.4 and later supports three WPA and WPA2 Enterprise wireless authentication
methods:
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WPA Enterprise — The XTM wireless device accepts connections from wireless devices
configured to use WPA Enterprise authentication.
WPA/WPA2 Enterprise — The XTM wireless device accepts connections from wireless
devices configured to use WPA Enterprise or WPA2 Enterprise authentication.
WPA2 Enterprise — The XTM wireless device accepts connections from wireless devices
configured to use WPA2 Enterprise authentication. WPA2 implements the full 802.11i standard;
it does not work with some older wireless network cards.
For more information about these authentication methods, see WPA and WPA2 Enterprise
Authentication.
To use the Enterprise authentication methods, you must configure an external RADIUS authentication
server or configure the XTM device as an authentication server.
For more information about how to configure the settings for these authentication methods, see
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Use a RADIUS Server for Wireless Authentication
Use the XTM Device as an Authentication Server for Wireless Authentication
Use a RADIUS Server for Wireless Authentication
If you select the WPA Enterprise, WPA2 Enterprise, or WPA/WPA2 Enterprise authentication
methods in your wireless configuration, you can use a RADIUS server for wireless authentication.
To configure your wireless access point to use RADIUS authentication:
1. Select Network > Wireless.
2. Click Configure adjacent to the Access point 1, Access point 2, or Wireless Guest
configuration.
3. Select the Wireless tab.
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4. From the Encryption (Authentication) drop-down list, select WPA Enterprise, WPA2
Enterprise, or WPA/WPA2 Enterprise.
The Encryption, Authentication server, and EAP authentication timeout settings appear.
5. From the Encryption algorithm drop-down list, select the encryption method. For more
information, see Set the Encryption Level.
6. From the Authentication server drop-down list, select RADIUS.
The authentication and protocol configuration settings are disabled. You must configure these
settings on your RADIUS server.
7. In the EAP authentication timeout text box, you can change the timeout value for
authentication. The default is 3600 seconds.
8. Click Return to Main Page.
9. Click Save.
If you have not previously configured a RADIUS server, you are prompted to do this when you click
Save. For more information, see Configure RADIUS Server Authentication.
Use the XTM Device as an Authentication Server for Wireless
Authentication
If you select the WPA Enterprise, WPA2 Enterprise, or WPA/WPA2 Enterprise authentication
methods in your wireless configuration, you can use the XTM device as the authentication server for
wireless authentication.
1. Select Network > Wireless.
2. Click Configure adjacent to the Access point 1, Access point 2, or Wireless Guest
configuration.
3. Select the Wireless tab.
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4. From the Encryption (Authentication) drop-down list, select WPA Enterprise, WPA2
Enterprise or WPA/WPA2 Enterprise.
5. From the Encryption algorithm drop-down list, select the encryption method to use. For more
information, see Set the Encryption Level.
6. From the Authentication server drop-down list, select Firebox-DB.
7. In the EAP authentication timeout text box, you can change the timeout value for
authentication. The default is 3600 seconds.
8. From the EAP protocol drop-down list, select the EAP protocol wireless clients must use to
connect to the access point.
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EAP-PEAP — EAP Protected Extensible Authentication Protocol
EAP-TTLS — EAP Tunneled Transport Layer Security
EAP-TLS — EAP Transport Layer Security
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9. From the EAP tunnel protocol drop-down list, select the EAP tunnel protocol to use. The
available tunnel protocols depend on the selected EAP protocol.
10. Select the certificate type to use for authentication.
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Default certificate signed by Firebox — This is the default.
Third party certificates — Select from a list of installed third party certificates.
11. If you selected Third party certificates, select a certificate from the Certificate drop-down list.
12. If you want to use a certificate authority (CA) to validate the client certificate, select the
Validate client certificate check box and select a CA certificate from the CA Certificate dropdown list.
For more information about certificates, see About Certificates.
13. Click Return to Main Page.
14. Click Save.
To use this authentication method, you must configure your XTM device as an authentication server.
For more information, see Configure Your XTM Device as an Authentication Server.
Set the Encryption Level
From the Encryption algorithm drop-down list in the wireless access point configuration, select the
level of encryption for your wireless connections. The available selections change when you use
different authentication mechanisms. The Fireware XTM OS automatically creates a random
encryption key for you when a key is required. You can use this key or change it to a different key.
Each wireless client must use this same key when they connect to the XTM wireless device.
Encryption for Open System and Shared Key Authentication
Encryption options for Open System and Shared Key authentication are WEP 64-bit hexadecimal,
WEP 40-bit ASCII, WEP 128-bit hexadecimal, and WEP 128-bit ASCII. If you select Open System
authentication, you can also select No encryption.
1. If you use WEP encryption, in the Key text boxes, type hexadecimal or ASCII characters. Not
all wireless adapter drivers support ASCII characters. You can have a maximum of four keys.
n A WEP 64-bit hexadecimal key must have 10 hexadecimal (0-f) characters.
n A WEP 40-bit ASCII key must have 5 characters.
n A WEP 128-bit hexadecimal key must have 26 hexadecimal (0-f) characters.
n A WEP 128-bit ASCII key must have 13 characters.
2. If you typed more than one key, from the Key Index drop-down list, select the key to use as the
default key.
The XTM wireless device can use only one wireless encryption key at a time. If you select a key
other than the first key in the list, you also must set your wireless client to use the same key.
Encryption for WPA and WPA2 Authentication
The encryption options for Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2) authentication methods are:
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TKIP — Use only TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) for encryption. This option is not
available for wireless modes that support 802.11n.
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AES — Use only AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) for encryption.
TKIP or AES — Use either TKIP or AES.
We recommend that you select TKIP or AES. This allows the XTM wireless device to accept
connections from wireless clients configured to use TKIP or AES encryption. For 802.11n wireless
clients, we recommend you configure the wireless client to use AES encryption.
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Enable Wireless Connections to the Trusted or
Optional Network
To allow wireless connections to your trusted or optional network:
1. Select Network > Wireless.
The Wireless configuration page appears.
2. Select Enable wireless access points.
3. Adjacent to Access point 1 or Access point 2, click Configure.
The Wireless Access Point configuration dialog box appears.
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4. Select the Enable wireless bridge to a Trusted or Optional interface check box.
5. In the drop-down list adjacent to Enable wireless bridge to a Trusted or Optional interface,
select a trusted or optional interface.
Trusted
Any wireless clients on the trusted network have full access to computers on the trusted
and optional networks, and access to the Internet as defined in the outgoing firewall rules
on your XTM device.
If the wireless client sets the IP address on its wireless network card with DHCP, the DHCP
server on the optional network of the XTM device must be active and configured.
Optional
Any wireless clients on the optional network have full access to computers on the optional
network, and access to the Internet as defined in the outgoing firewall rules on your XTM
device.
If the wireless client sets the IP address on its wireless network card with DHCP, the DHCP
server on the optional network of the XTM device must be active and configured.
6. To configure the wireless interface to send and answer SSID requests, select the Broadcast
SSID and respond to SSID queries check box.
For information about this setting, see Enable/Disable SSID Broadcasts on page 201.
7. Select the Log Authentication Events check box if you want the XTM device to send a log
message to the log file each time a wireless computer tries to connect to the interface.
For more information about logging, see Log Authentication Events on page 201.
8. To require wireless users to use the Mobile VPN with IPSec client, select the Require
encrypted Mobile VPN with IPSec connections for wireless clients check box.
When you select this check box, the only packets the XTM device allows over the wireless
network are DHCP, ICMP, IKE (UDP port 500), ARP and IPSec (IP protocol 50). If you require
wireless users to use the Mobile VPN with IPSec client, it can increase the security for wireless
clients if you do not select WPA or WPA2 as the wireless authentication method.
9. In the Network name (SSID) text box, type a unique name for your wireless optional network or
use the default name.
For information about changing the SSID, see Change the SSID on page 201.
10. To change the fragmentation threshold, in the Fragmentation Threshold text box, type a
value: 256–2346. We do not recommend you change this setting.
For more information about this setting, see Change the Fragmentation Threshold on page 201.
11. In the Encryption (Authentication) drop-down list, select the encryption and authentication to
enable for wireless connections to the optional interface. We recommend that you use WPA2 if
the wireless devices in your network can support WPA2.
For more information about this setting, see Set the Wireless Authentication Method.
12. In the Encryption algorithm drop-down list, select the type of encryption to use for the
wireless connection and add the keys or passwords required for the type of encryption you
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select. If you select an encryption option with pre-shared keys, a random pre-shared key is
generated for you. You can use this key or type your own.
For more information, see Set the Encryption Level on page 208.
13. Save the configuration.
Note If you enable wireless connections to the trusted interface, we recommend that you
restrict access by MAC address. This prevents users from connecting to the XTM
wireless device from unauthorized computers that could contain viruses or spyware.
Click the MAC Access Control tab to enable MAC access control. You use this tab
the same way as when you restrict network traffic on an interface as described in
Restrict Network Traffic by MAC Address on page 121.
To configure a wireless guest network with no access to the computers on your trusted or optional
networks, see Enable a Wireless Guest Network on page 212.
Enable a Wireless Guest Network
You can enable a wireless guest network to give a guest user wireless access to the Internet without
access to computers on your trusted and optional networks.
To set up a wireless guest network:
1. Select Network > Wireless.
The Wireless Configuration page appears.
2. Select Enable wireless access points.
3. Adjacent to Wireless guest, click Configure.
The Wireless Guest Configuration dialog box appears.
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4. Select the Enable Wireless Guest Network check box.
Wireless connections are allowed through the XTM device to the Internet based on the rules you
have configured for outgoing access on your device. These computers have no access to
computers on the trusted or optional network.
5. In the IP Address text box, type the private IP Address to use for the wireless guest network.
The IP address you type must not already in use on one of your network interfaces.
6. In the Subnet Mask text box, type the subnet mask. The correct value is usually
255.255.255.0.
7. To configure the XTM device as a DHCP server when a wireless device tries to make a
connection, select the Enable DHCP Server on Wireless Guest Network check box.
For more information about how to configure the settings for the DHCP Server, see Configure
DHCP in Mixed Routing Mode on page 108.
8. Click the Wireless tab to see the security settings for the wireless guest network.
The Wireless settings appear.
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9. Select the Broadcast SSID and respond to SSID queries check box to make your wireless
guest network name visible to guest users.
For information about this setting, see Enable/Disable SSID Broadcasts on page 201.
10. To send a log message to the log file each time a wireless computer tries to connect to the
guest wireless network, select the Log Authentication Events check box.
For more information about logging, see Log Authentication Events on page 201.
11. To allow wireless guest users to send traffic to each other, clear the Prohibit client to client
wireless network traffic check box.
12. In the Network name (SSID)) text box, type a unique name for your wireless guest network or
use the default name.
For information about changing the SSID, see Change the SSID on page 201.
13. To change the fragmentation threshold, in the Fragmentation Threshold text box, type a
value: 256–2346. We do not recommend you change this setting.
For more information about this setting, see Change the Fragmentation Threshold on page 201.
14. In the Authentication drop-down list, select the type of authentication to enable for connections
to the wireless guest network. The setting you choose depends on the type of guest access you
want to provide, and whether you want to require your guests to enter a passphrase to use the
network.
For more information about this setting, see Set the Wireless Authentication Method on page 204.
15. In the Encryption / Authentication drop-down list, select the type of encryption to use for the
wireless connection and add the keys or passwords required for the type of encryption you
select. If you select an authentication option that uses pre-shared keys, a random pre-shared
key is generated for you. You can use this key or type your own.
For more information, see Set the Encryption Level on page 208.
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16. Click Return to Main Page.
17. Click Save.
Optionally, you can configure your wireless guest network as a wireless hotspot. Click the Hotspot tab
to enable a wireless hotspot. For more information, see Enable a Wireless Hotspot.
You can also restrict access to the Guest network by MAC address. Click the MAC Access Control
tab to enable MAC access control. You use this tab the same way as when you restrict network traffic
on an interface as described in Restrict Network Traffic by MAC Address on page 121.
Enable a Wireless Hotspot
You can configure your WatchGuard XTM wireless guest network as a wireless hotspot to give
wireless Internet connectivity to your visitors or customers. When you enable the hotspot feature, you
have more control over connections to your wireless guest network.
When you configure your device as a wireless hotspot you can customize:
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A splash screen that users see when they connect
Terms and conditions that users must accept before they can browse to a web site
Maximum length of time a user can be continuously connected
When you enable the wireless hotspot feature, the Allow Hotspot-Users policy is automatically
created. This policy allows connections from the wireless guest interface to your external interfaces.
This gives wireless hotspot users wireless access to the Internet without access to computers on your
trusted and optional networks.
Before you set up a wireless hotspot, you must configure the settings for your wireless guest network
as described in Enable a Wireless Guest Network.
To set up the wireless hotspot:
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2.
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4.
Select Network > Wireless.
Adjacent to Wireless guest, click Configure.
On the Wireless page, select the Hotspot tab.
Select the Enable hotspot check box.
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Configure User Timeout Settings
You can configure timeout settings to limit the amount of time that users can continuously use your
hotspot. When the timeout period expires, the user is disconnected. When a user is disconnected, the
user loses all Internet connectivity but is still connected to the wireless network. The hotspot splash
screen reappears, and the user must accept the Terms and Conditions again before they can continue
to use the wireless hotspot.
1. In the Session timeout text box, specify the maximum amount of time a user can remain
continuously connected to your hotspot. You can specify the unit of time with the adjacent dropdown list. If the Session timeout is set to 0 (the default value), wireless guest users are not
disconnected after a specified time interval.
2. In the Idle timeout text box, specify the amount of time that a user must be idle for the
connection to time out. You can specify the unit of time with the adjacent drop-down list. If the
Idle timeout is set to 0, users are not disconnected if they do not send or receive traffic.
Customize the Hotspot Splash Screen
When users connect to your hotspot, they see a splash screen, or a web site they must visit before
they can browse to other web sites. You can configure the text that appears on this page, and the
appearance of the page. You can also redirect the user to a specified web page after they accept the
terms and conditions.
At a minimum, you must specify the Page title and the Terms and Conditions to enable this feature.
1. In the Page title text box, type the title text you want to appear on the hotspot splash screen.
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2. To include a welcome message:
n Select the Welcome Message check box.
n In the Welcome Message text box, type the message your users see when they connect to
the hotspot.
3. (Optional) To use a custom logo in the splash screen:
n Select the Use a custom logo check box.
n Click Upload to upload your custom logo file.
The file must be in .jpg, .gif or .png format. We recommend that the image be no larger than
90 x 50 (width x height) pixels, or 50 kB.
4. In the Terms and Conditions text box, type or paste the text you want your users to agree to
before they can use the hotspot. The maximum length is 20,000 characters.
5. To automatically redirect users to a web site after they accept the Terms and Conditions, in the
Redirect URL text box, type the URL of the web site.
6. You can customize the fonts and colors for your Welcome page:
n Font — Select the font from the Font drop-down list. If you do not specify a font, the
Welcome page uses the browser default font for each user.
n Size — Select the text size from the Size drop-down list. The default text size is Medium.
n Text Color — This is the color for the text on the hotspot splash screen. The default color is
#000000 (black). The configured color appears in a square adjacent to the Text Color text
box. Click the colored square to select a different color from a color palette. Or, type the
HTML color code in the Text Color text box.
n Background Color — This is the color to use for the background of the hotspot splash
screen. The default color is #FFFFFF (white). The configured color appears in a square
adjacent to the Background Color text box. Click the colored square to select a different
color from a color palette. Or, type the HTML color code in the Background Color text box.
7. Click Preview Splash Screen.
A preview of the splash screen appears in a new browser window.
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8. Close the preview browser window.
9. When you are finished with your hotspot settings, click Return to Main Page.
10. Click Save to save the settings.
Connect to a Wireless Hotspot
After you configure your wireless hotspot, you can connect to it to see the hotspot splash screen.
1. Use a wireless client to connect to your wireless guest network. Use the SSID and other
settings that you configured for the wireless guest network.
2. Open a web browser. Browse to any web site.
The wireless hotspot splash screen appears in the browser.
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3. Select the I have read and accept the terms and conditions check box.
4. Click Continue.
The browser displays the original URL you requested. Or, if the hotspot is configured to automatically
redirect the browser to a URL, the browser goes to the web site.
The content and appearance of the hotspot splash screen can be configured with the hotspot settings
for your wireless guest network.
The URL of the wireless hotspot splash screen is:
http://<IP address of the wireless guest network>:4106/hotspot .
See Wireless Hotspot Connections
When you enable the wireless hotspot feature, you can see information about the number of wireless
clients that are connected. You can also disconnect wireless clients.
To see the list of connected wireless hotspot clients:
1. Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI on your wireless device.
2. Select System Status > Wireless Hotspot.
The IP address and MAC address for each connected wireless client appears.
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To disconnect a wireless hotspot client, from the Wireless Hotspot Clientspage:
1. Select one or more connected wireless hotspot clients.
2. Click Disconnect.
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Configure Your External Interface as a Wireless
Interface
In areas with limited or no existing network infrastructure, you can use your XTM wireless device to
provide secure network access. You must physically connect your network devices to the XTM
device. Then you configure your external interface to connect to a wireless access point that connects
to a larger network.
Note When the external interface is configured with a wireless connection, the XTM
wireless device can no longer be used as a wireless access point. To provide wireless
access for users, connect a wireless access point device to the XTM wireless device.
Configure the Primary External Interface as a Wireless
Interface
1. Select Network > Wireless.
The Wireless Configuration page appears.
2. Select Enable wireless client as external interface.
3. Click Configure.
The external interface settings appear.
4. In the Configuration Mode drop-down list, select an option:
Manual Configuration
To use a static IP address, select this option. Type the IP Address, Subnet Mask, and
Default Gateway you use to connect to the wireless network.
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DHCP Client
To configure the external interface as a DHCP client, select this option. Type the DHCP
configuration settings.
For more information about how to configure the external interface to use a static IP address or
DHCP, see Configure an External Interface on page 97.
5. Click the Wireless tab.
The wireless client configuration settings appear.
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6. In the Network name (SSID) text box, type the name of the external wireless network this
device connects to.
7. In the Encryption (Authentication) drop-down list, select the encryption and authentication
method to use for the wireless connection. We recommend that you use WPA2 if the wireless
device you connect to supports it.
For more information about wireless authentication methods, see About Wireless Security
Settings on page 204.
8. In the Encryption algorithm drop-down list, select the type of encryption to use for the
wireless connection. Add the passphrase or keys required for the type of encryption you select.
9. Click Save.
Configure a BOVPN tunnel for additional security
To create a wireless bridge and provide additional security, you can add a BOVPN tunnel between your
XTM device and the external gateway. You must set the mode to Aggressive Mode in the Phase 1
settings of your BOVPN configuration on both devices.
For information about how to set up a BOVPN tunnel, see About Manual Branch Office VPN Tunnels
on page 606.
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About Wireless Radio Settings
WatchGuard XTM wireless devices use radio frequency signals to send and receive traffic from
computers with wireless Ethernet cards.
To view or change the radio settings:
1. Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI.
2. Select Network > Wireless.
The Wireless page appears.
The Radio Settings appear at the bottom of this page.
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Country is Set Automatically
Due to regulatory requirements in different parts of the world, you cannot use all wireless radio settings
in every country. Each time you power on the XTM wireless device, the device contacts a WatchGuard
server to determine the country and the allowed wireless radio settings for that country. To do this, the
device must have an Internet connection. Once the country is determined, you can configure all
supported wireless radio settings that can be used in that country.
In the Wireless Configuration dialog box, the Country setting shows which country the device detects
it is in. You cannot change the Country setting. The available options for the other radio settings are
based on the regulatory requirements of the country the device detects it is located in.
Note If the XTM wireless device cannot connect to the WatchGuard server, the country is
unknown. In this case, you can only select from the limited set of wireless radio
settings that are allowed in all countries. The XTM wireless device periodically
continues to retry to connect to the WatchGuard server to determine the country and
allowed wireless radio settings.
If the XTM wireless device does not have a country set yet, or if the country is not up to date, you can
force the device to update the wireless country information.
To update the Wireless Radio Region:
1. Select System Status > Wireless Statistics.
2. Click Update Country Info.
The XTM wireless device contacts a WatchGuard server to determine the current operating region.
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Select the Band and Wireless Mode
The WatchGuard XTM wireless device supports two different wireless bands, 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz.
The the band you select and the country determine the wireless modes available. Select the Band that
supports the wireless mode you want to use. Then select the mode from the Wireless mode dropdown list.
The 2.4 GHz band supports these wireless modes:
802.11n, 802.11g and 802.11b
This is the default mode in the 2.4 GHz band, and is the recommended setting. This mode
allows the XTM wireless device to connect with devices that use 802.11n, 802.11g, or 802.11b.
802.11g and 802.11b
This mode allows the XTM wireless device to connect to devices that use 802.11g or 802.11b.
802.11b ONLY
This mode allows the XTM wireless device to connect only to devices that use 802.11b.
The 5 GHz band supports these wireless modes:
802.11a and 802.11n
This is the default mode in 5 GHz band. This mode allows the XTM wireless device to connect
to devices that use 802.11a or 802.11n.
802.11a ONLY
This mode allows the XTM wireless device to connect only to devices that use 802.11a.
Note If you choose a wireless mode that supports multiple 802.11 standards, the overall
performance can drop considerably. This is partly because of the need for backward
compatibility when devices that use slower modes are connected. The slower devices
tend to dominate the throughput because it can take much longer to send or receive
the same amount of data to devices that use a slower mode.
The 5 GHz band provides greater performance than the 2.4 GHz band, but is not compatible with all
wireless devices. Select the band and mode based on the wireless cards in the devices that will
connect to the XTM wireless device.
Select the Channel
The available channels depend on the country and the wireless mode you select. By default, the
Channel is set to Auto. When the channel is set to Auto, the XTM wireless device automatically
selects a quiet channel from the available list in the band you have selected. Or you can select a
specific channel from the Channel drop-down list.
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Configure the Wireless Card on Your Computer
These instructions are for the Windows XP with Service Pack 2 operating system. For installation
instructions for other operating systems, see your operating system documentation or help files.
1. Select Start > Settings > Control Panel > Network Connections.
The Network Connections dialog box appears.
2. Right-click Wireless Network Connection and select Properties.
The Wireless Network Connection dialog box appears.
3. Select the Wireless Networks tab.
4. Below Preferred Networks, click Add.
The Wireless Network Properties dialog box appears.
5. Type the SSID in the Network Name (SSID) text box.
6. Select the network authentication and data encryption methods in the drop-down lists. If
necessary, clear The key is provided for me automatically check box and type the network
key two times.
7. Click OK to close the Wireless Network Properties dialog box.
8. Click View Wireless Networks.
All available wireless connections appear in the Available Networks text box.
9. Select the SSID of the wireless network and click Connect.
If the network uses encryption, type the network key twice in the Wireless Network Connection
dialog box and click Connect again.
10. Configure the wireless computer to use DHCP.
Rogue Access Point Detection
You can configure your XTM wireless device to detect (unknown) wireless access points that operate
in the same area. A rogue access point is any wireless access point within range of your network that
is not recognized as an authorized access point. When you enable rogue access point detection on
your XTM wireless device, the wireless radio in the device scans wireless channels to identify
unknown wireless access points. You can configure the scan to run continuously, or to run at a
scheduled interval and time of day.
When a rogue access point scan begins, the XTM wireless device scans the airwaves within range for
other radio broadcasts.The device scans for wireless access points in 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, and
802.11n wireless modes on all available wireless channels for the country where the device is located.
The scan is not limited to the wireless mode and channel settings configured in the radio settings of
your device.
When the XTM wireless device detects the signal of another wireless access point, it compares the
characteristics of the access point to a list of trusted access points that you configure. If the
discovered access point does not match any trusted access point, the XTM device reports the device
as a potential rogue access point. You can configure the device to send an alarm when a rogue access
point is detected. If you enable logging, you can run a report of all scans and scan results.
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Enable Rogue Access Point Detection
To configure rogue access point detection on your XTM wireless device, you need to know the
configuration of the other wireless access points on your network; this enables you to identify them as
trusted in your configuration. You can then set up a schedule for rogue access point detection scans.
Configure Rogue Access Point Detection
1. Select Network > Wireless.
The Wireless page appears.
2. Select the Enable rogue access point detection check box.
3. Adjacent to the Enable rogue access point detection check box, click Configure.
The Trusted Access Point Configuration page appears.
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On the Access Points tab you can add information about all other trusted wireless access
points on your network so the rogue access point scan does not identify them as potential rogue
access points.
Add a Trusted Access Point
1. To add a trusted access point to the list, click Add.
The Trusted access point dialog box appears.
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In the Trusted access point dialog box, provide as much information as you can to identify
your trusted access point. The more information you provide, the more likely it is that a rogue
access point detection scan can correctly identify a trusted access point.
2. In the Network name (SSID) text box, type the SSID of the trusted access point.
3. In the MAC address (Optional) text box, type the wireless MAC address of the trusted access
point.
If your trusted access point is an XTM wireless device, see Find the Wireless MAC Address of
a Trusted Access Point.
4. From the Channel drop-down list, select the channel used by the trusted access point. If the
trusted access point is a WatchGuard device and the Channel in the radio settings of that
trusted wireless device is set to Auto, select Any.
5. From the Encryption drop-down list, select the encryption method used by the trusted access
point.
The WPA or WPA2 authentication and encryption settings that apply to the encryption method you
select are enabled.
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6. If you select WPA or WPA/WPA2 as the encryption method, configure the WPA settings to
match the configuration of your trusted access point.
Or, if you do not know these settings, select the Match any authentication and encryption
algorithms check box.
7. If you selected WPA2 or WPA/WPA2 as the encryption method, configure the WPA settings to
match the configuration of your trusted access point.
Or, if you do not know these settings, select the Match any authentication and encryption
algorithms check box.
8. Click OK.
The trusted access point is added to the list of trusted access points.
For information about how to add an XTM wireless device as a trusted access point, see Add an
XTM Wireless Device as a Trusted Access Point.
Edit or Remove a Trusted Access Point
To edit a trusted access point:
1. Select the access point in the list.
2. Click Edit.
3. Edit the information used to identify the trusted access point as described in the previous
section.
To remove a trusted access point, select the access point in the list and click Remove.
Configure Logging and Notification
You must enable logging to see information about rogue access point scans in a report. When you
enable logging, the log records the start and stop time, and the results of each scan. To enable logging,
select the Enable logging for reports check box.
You can also configure the device to notify you when a rogue access point is detected. To configure
notification:
1. Click the Notification tab.
2. Select a notification method: SNMP trap, email message, or pop-up window.
Formoreinformationaboutnotificationsettings,seeSetLoggingandNotificationPreferences onpage533.
Set the Scan Frequency
If you enable rogue access point detection on an XTM wireless device that is also configured as a
wireless access point, the device alternates between the two functions. When a rogue access point
scan is not in progress, the device operates as wireless access point. When a rogue access point scan
begins, the XTM device access point functionality is temporarily disabled, and wireless clients cannot
connect to the XTM wireless device until the scan completes. You cannot set the scan frequency to
Always scan if your device is also configured as a wireless access point.
If your XTM wireless device is configured to operate as a wireless client, the rogue access point scan
does not interrupt the wireless connection, but it does decrease the throughput of the wireless
connection while the scan is in progress.
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To set the scan frequency:
1. In the Trusted Access Point Configuration dialog box, select the Schedules tab.
2. Select the scan frequency.
n Select Always scan to automatically scan for rogue access points every 15 minutes.
n Select Schedule a scan to scan on a periodic schedule.
3. If you selected Schedule a scan, select how often the scan should run (daily, weekly, or
monthly) and select the time of day to start the scan.
4. Click Return to Main Page.
5. Click Save.
If you have added information about some trusted access points but still need to collect information
about other trusted access points, you might not be ready to enable the rogue access point scan. To
disable rogue access point detection scans, in the Wireless Configuration page, clear the Enable
rogue access point detection check box. When you disable rogue access point detection, your
trusted access point information is saved, but the device does not scan for rogue access points.
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Add an XTM Wireless Device as a Trusted Access Point
If you have multiple wireless access points, you must add their information to the rogue access point
detection configuration's trusted access points list. The wireless settings you can select to identify a
trusted wireless access point are similar to the settings you use to configure an XTM wireless device
as a wireless access point. Use these steps to find the settings for your XTM wireless device so you
can add it to the trusted access point list.
Find the Settings for Your XTM Trusted Access Points
To find the required settings to identify a trusted access point:
1. Select Network > Wireless.
The Wireless Configuration dialog box appears.
2. In the Radio Settings section, make a note of the Channel.
3. Click Configure adjacent to the enabled wireless access point name.
The Wireless settings for this access point appear.
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4. Make a note of these settings:
n Network name (SSID)
n Encryption / Authentication
n Encryption algorithm
5. Find the wireless MAC address. For an XTM 2 Series wireless device, the wireless
MAC address is six higher than the MAC address of the Eth0 interface.
For more information, see Find the Wireless MAC Address of a Trusted Access Point.
An XTM wireless device can have up to three enabled wireless access points with different settings. If
the XTM wireless device has multiple enabled access points, repeat these steps to get the information
about each enabled access point. Repeat these steps for any other trusted access points on your
network.
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Add the Trusted Access Points to the Trusted Access Point List
On the wireless device that performs the rogue access point scan:
1. Select Network > Wireless.
2. Adjacent to Enable rogue access point detection, click Configure.
The list of trusted access points appears.
3. Click Add.
The Trusted access point page appears.
4. Type or select the information to match the configuration of your trusted access point.
For more information about these settings, see Enable Rogue Access Point Detection.
Note The Encryption / Authentication setting in the wireless network configuration
corresponds to two settings (Encryption and Authentication) in the Trusted Access
Point configuration.
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5. Click OK to add the trusted access point.
Repeat these steps to add other trusted wireless access points.
Find the Wireless MAC Address of a Trusted Access Point
When you enable rogue access point detection, you can specify the wireless MAC address of your
other trusted wireless access points so they can be identified as trusted.
For an XTM 2 Series wireless device, the wireless MAC address is six higher than the MAC address of
the Eth0 interface. So, for example, if the Eth0 Interface on the 2 Series wireless device has a MAC
address of 00:90:7F:80:1A:61 , the wireless MAC address for that device is 00:90:7F:80:1A:67 .
To see the Eth0 interface MAC address, select System Status > Interfaces.
You can also see the wireless MAC address of a WatchGuard wireless device in the Status Report in
Firebox System Manager. For more information, see the WatchGuard System Manager User Guide or
online help system.
Rogue Access Point Scan Results
You can see the results of a wireless rogue access detection point scan in the Rogue Access Point
Detection (Wireless Intrusion Detection System) page. This page displays a list of untrusted wireless
access points found by the most recent rogue access point detection scan. This list does not include
access points that match the trusted access points defined in your wireless rogue access point
detection configuration.
To see and update the list:
1. Select System Status > Rogue AP Detection.
The Rogue Access Point Detection system status page appears.
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2. To start an immediate scan for rogue access points, click Scan now.
The wireless access point starts a rogue access point detection scan and updates the list of
untrusted access points.
If a trusted access point appears on this list, it is because you have not yet added it as a trusted
access point. For information about how to add an access point to the trusted access point list, see
Enable Rogue Access Point Detection.
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10
Dynamic Routing
About Dynamic Routing
A routing protocol is the language a router speaks with other routers to share information about the
status of network routing tables. With static routing, routing tables are set and do not change. If a router
on the remote path fails, a packet cannot get to its destination. Dynamic routing makes automatic
updates to route tables as the configuration of a network changes.
Note Support for some dynamic routing protocols is available only for Fireware XTM with a
Pro upgrade.
Dynamic Routing Protocols
Fireware XTM supports the RIP v1 and RIP v2 protocols. Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade supports
the RIP v1, RIP v2, OSPF, and BGP v4 protocols.
For more information about each of the supported routing protocols, see:
n
n
n
About Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
About Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol
About Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
Dynamic Routing Policies
When you enable a dynamic routing protocol, Fireware XTM Web UI automatically adds the required
dynamic routing policy. The automatically added policies are called:
n
n
n
DR-RIP-Allow
DR-OSPF-Allow
DR-BGP-Allow
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Monitor Dynamic Routing
In the Fireware XTM Web UI, select System Status > Routes to see the current static and dynamic
routes.
To troubleshoot dynamic routing, you can change the diagnostic log level setting for dynamic routing to
generate more log messages about dynamic routing traffic. You do this in the diagnostic log level
settings for the Networking category.
For more information about how to set the diagnostic log level, see Set the Diagnostic Log Level.
About Routing Daemon Configuration Files
To use any of the dynamic routing protocols with Fireware XTM, you must type a dynamic routing
configuration file for the routing daemon you choose. This configuration file includes information such
as a password and log file name. To see sample configuration files for each of the routing protocols,
see these topics:
n
n
n
Sample RIP Routing Configuration File
Sample OSPF Routing Configuration File
Sample BGP Routing Configuration File
Notes about configuration files:
n
n
The "!" and "#" characters are placed before comments, which are lines of text in configuration
files that explain the function of subsequent commands. If the first character of a line is a
comment character, then the rest of the line is interpreted as a comment.
You can use the word "no" at the beginning of the line to disable a command. For example: "no
network 10.0.0.0/24 area 0.0.0.0" disables the backbone area on the specified network.
About Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is used to manage router information in a self-contained network,
such as a corporate LAN or a private WAN. With RIP, a gateway host sends its routing table to the
closest router each 30 seconds. This router, then sends the contents of its routing tables to neighboring
routers.
RIP is best for small networks. This is because the transmission of the full routing table each 30
seconds can put a large traffic load on the network, and because RIP tables are limited to 15 hops.
OSPF is a better alternative for larger networks.
There are two versions of RIP. RIP v1 uses a UDP broadcast over port 520 to send updates to routing
tables. RIP v2 uses multicast to send routing table updates.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Commands
The subsequent table is a catalog of supported routing commands for RIP v1 and RIP v2 that you can
use to create or modify a routing configuration file. If you use RIP v2, you must include the subnet
mask with any command that uses a network IP address or RIP v2 will not operate. The sections must
appear in the configuration file in the same order they appear in this table.
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Section
Command
Description
Set simple password or MD5 authentication on an interface
interface eth [N]
Begin section to set
Authentication type for interface
ip rip authentication string
[PASSWORD]
Set RIP authentication password
key chain [KEY-CHAIN]
Set MD5 key chain name
key [INTEGER]
Set MD5 key number
key-string [AUTH-KEY]
Set MD5 authentication key
ip rip authentication mode md5
Use MD5 authentication
ip rip authentication mode keychain [KEY-CHAIN]
Set MD5 authentication key-chain
Configure interfaces
ip rip send version [1/2]
Set RIP to send version 1 or 2
ip rip receive version [1/2]
Set RIP to receive version 1 or 2
no ip rip split-horizon
Disable split-horizon; enabled by default
Configure RIP routing daemon
router rip
Enable RIP daemon
version [1/2]
Set RIP version to 1 or 2 (default version 2)
Configure interfaces and networks
no network eth[N]
passive-interface eth[N]
passive-interface default
network [A.B.C.D/M]
neighbor [A.B.C.D/M]
Distribute routes to RIP peers and inject OSPF or BGP routes to RIP routing table
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Share route of last resort (default route) with
RIP peers
redistribute kernel
Redistribute firewall static routes to RIP peers
redistribute connected
Redistribute routes from all interfaces to
RIP peers
redistribute connected route-
Redistribute routes from all interfaces to
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Section
Command
Description
map [MAPNAME]
RIP peers, with a route map filter (mapname)
redistribute ospf
Redistribute routes from OSPF to RIP
redistribute ospf route-map
[MAPNAME]
Redistribute routes from OSPF to RIP, with a
route map filter (mapname)
redistribute bgp
Redistribute routes from BGP to RIP
redistribute bgp route-map
[MAPNAME]
Redistribute routes from BGP to RIP, with a route
map filter (mapname)
Configure route redistribution filters with route maps and access lists
access-list [PERMIT|DENY]
[LISTNAME] [A,B,C,D/M |
ANY]
Create an access list to allow or deny
redistribution of only one IP address or for all
IP addresses
route-map [MAPNAME] permit
[N]
Create a route map with a name and allow with a
priority of N
match ip address [LISTNAME]
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Configure the XTM Device to Use RIP
1. Select Network > Dynamic Routing.
The Dynamic Routing Setup page appears.
2. Select the Enable Dynamic Routing check box.
3. Select the RIP tab.
4. Select the Enable check box.
5. Copy and paste the text of your routing daemon configuration file in the window.
6. Click Save.
If necessary, Fireware XTM automatically adds the required dynamic routing policy or enables an
existing RIP dynamic routing policy, if one exists.
For RIP, the automatically created dynamic routing policy is called DR-RIP-Allow. You can edit this
policy to add authentication and restrict the policy to listen on only the correct interfaces. The DR-RIPAny policy is configured to allow RIP multicasts to the reserved multicast address for RIP v2.
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If you use RIP v1, you must configure the RIP policy to allow RIP broadcasts from the network
broadcast IP address to the XTM device. For example, if your external interface IP address is
203.0.113.2/24, the RIP policy must allow traffic from the broadcast address 203.0.113.255 to the
XTM device.
After you configure the XTM device and the RIP router, select System Status > Routes and verify
that the XTM device has received route updates from the RIP router.
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Sample RIP Routing Configuration File
To use any of the dynamic routing protocols with Fireware XTM, you must copy and paste a
configuration file for the dynamic routing daemon. This topic includes a sample configuration file for the
RIP routing daemon. If you want to use this configuration file as a base for your own configuration file,
copy the text into an application such as Notepad or Wordpad and save it with a new name. You can
then edit the parameters to meet the requirements of your organization.
Optional commands are commented with the "!" character. To enable a command, delete the "!" and
modify variables as necessary.
!! SECTION 1: Configure MD5 authentication keychains.
! Set MD5 authentication key chain name (KEYCHAIN), key number (1),
! and authentication key string (AUTHKEY).
! key chain KEYCHAIN
! key 1
! key-string AUTHKEY
!! SECTION 2: Configure interface properties.
! Set authentication for interface (eth1).
! interface eth1
!
! Set RIP simple authentication password (SHAREDKEY).
! ip rip authentication string SHAREDKEY
!
! Set RIP MD5 authentication and MD5 keychain (KEYCHAIN).
! ip rip authentication mode md5
! ip rip authentication key-chain KEYCHAIN
!
!! SECTION 3: Configure global RIP daemon properties.
! Set RIP to send or received to version 1; default is version 2.
! ip rip send version 1
! ip rip receive version 1
!
! Enable RIP daemon. Must be enabled for all RIP configurations.
! router rip
!
! Set RIP version to 1; default is version 2.
! version 1
!
! Disable split-horizon to prevent routing loop. Default is enabled.
! no ip split-horizon
!
!! SECTION 4: Configure interfaces and networks.
! Disable RIP send and receive on interface (eth0).
! no network eth0
!
! Set RIP to receive-only on interface (eth2).
! passive-interface eth2
!
! Set RIP to receive-only on all interfaces.
! passive-interface default
!
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! Enable RIP broadcast (version 1) or multicast (version 2) on
! network (192.168.253.0/24)
! network 192.168.253.0/24
!
! Set unicast routing table updates to neighbor (192.168.253.254).
! neighbor 192.168.253.254
!! SECTION 5: Redistribute RIP routes to peers and inject OSPF or BGP
!! routes to RIP routing table.
! Share route of last resort (default route) from kernel routing table
! with RIP peers.
! default-information originate
!
! Redistribute firewall static routes to RIP peers.
! redistribute kernel
!
! Set route maps (MAPNAME) to restrict route redistribution in Section 6.
! Redistribute routes from all interfaces to RIP peers or with a route map
! filter (MAPNAME).
! redistribute connected
! redistribute connected route-map MAPNAME
!
! Redistribute routes from OSPF to RIP or with a route map filter (MAPNAME).
! redistribute ospf !redistribute ospf route-map MAPNAME
!
! Redistribute routes from BGP to RIP or with a route map filter (MAPNAME).
! redistribute bgp !redistribute bgp route-map MAPNAME
!! SECTION 6: Configure route redistribution filters with route maps and
!! access lists.
! Create an access list to only allow redistribution of 172.16.30.0/24.
! access-list LISTNAME permit 172.16.30.0/24
! access-list LISTNAME deny any
!
! Create a route map with name MAPNAME and allow with a priority of 10.
! route-map MAPNAME permit 10
! match ip address LISTNAME
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About Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol
Note Support for this protocol is available only on Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade.
OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is an interior router protocol used in larger networks. With OSPF, a
router that sees a change to its routing table or that detects a change in the network immediately sends
a multicast update to all other routers in the network. OSPF is different from RIP because:
n
n
OSPF sends only the part of the routing table that has changed in its transmission. RIP sends
the full routing table each time.
OSPF sends a multicast only when its information has changed. RIP sends the routing table
every 30 seconds.
Also, note the following about OSPF:
n
n
If you have more than one OSPF area, one area must be area 0.0.0.0 (the backbone area).
All areas must be adjacent to the backbone area. If they are not, you must configure a virtual
link to the backbone area.
OSPF Commands
To create or modify a routing configuration file, you must use the correct routing commands. The
subsequent table is a catalog of supported routing commands for OSPF. The sections must appear in
the configuration file in the same order they appear in this table. You can also use the sample text
found in the Sample OSPF Routing Configuration File on page 252.
Section
Command
Description
Configure Interface
User Guide
ip ospf authentication-key
[PASSWORD]
Set OSPF authentication password
interface eth[N]
Begin section to set properties for interface
ip ospf message-digest-key
[KEY-ID] md5 [KEY]
Set MD5 authentication key ID and key
ip ospf cost [1-65535]
Set link cost for the interface (see OSP Interface
Cost table below)
ip ospf hello-interval [165535]
Set interval to send hello packets; default is 10
seconds
ip ospf dead-interval [165535]
Set interval after last hello from a neighbor before
declaring it down; default is 40 seconds
ip ospf retransmit-interval [165535]
Set interval between link-state advertisements
(LSA) retransmissions; default is 5 seconds
ip ospf transmit-delay [13600]
Set time required to send LSA update; default is 1
second
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Section
Command
Description
ip ospf priority [0-255]
Set route priority; high value increases eligibility to
become the designated router (DR)
Configure OSPF Routing Daemon
router ospf
Enable OSPF daemon
ospf router-id [A.B.C.D]
set router ID for OSPF manually; router
determines its own ID if not set
ospf rfc1583compatibility
Enable RFC 1583 compatibility (can lead to route
loops)
ospf abr-type
More information about this command can be
[cisco|ibm|shortcut|standard] found in draft-ietf-abr-o5.txt
passive-interface eth[N]
Disable OSPF announcement on interface eth[N]
auto-cost referencebandwidth[0-429495]
Set global cost (see OSPF cost table below); do
not use with "ip ospf [COST]" command
timers spf [0-4294967295][04294967295]
Set OSPF schedule delay and hold time
Enable OSPF on a Network
*The "area" variable can be typed in two
formats: [W.X.Y.Z]; or as an integer [Z].
network [A.B.C.D/M] area
[Z]
Announce OSPF on network
A.B.C.D/M for area 0.0.0.Z
Configure Properties for Backbone area or Other Areas
The "area" variable can be typed in two formats: [W.X.Y.Z]; or as an integer [Z].
area [Z] range [A.B.C.D/M]
Create area 0.0.0.Z and set a classful network for
the area (range and interface network and mask
setting should match)
area [Z] virtual-link
[W.X.Y.Z]
Set virtual link neighbor for area 0.0.0.Z
area [Z] stub
Set area 0.0.0.Z as a stub
area [Z] stub no-summary
area [Z] authentication
Enable simple password authentication for area
0.0.0.Z
area [Z] authentication
message-digest
Enable MD5 authentication for area 0.0.0.Z
Redistribute OSPF Routes
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Section
Command
Description
default-information originate
Share route of last resort (default route) with
OSPF
default-information originate
metric [0-16777214]
Share route of last resort (default route) with
OSPF, and add a metric used to generate the
default route
default-information originate
always
Always share the route of last resort (default route)
default-information originate
always metric [0-16777214]
Always share the route of last resort (default
route), and add a metric used to generate the
default route
redistribute connected
Redistribute routes from all interfaces to OSPF
redistribute connected
metrics
Redistribute routes from all interfaces to OSPF,
and a metric used for the action
Configure Route Redistribution with
Access Lists and Route Maps
access-list [LISTNAME]
permit [A.B.C.D/M]
Create an access list to allow distribution of
A.B.C.D/M
access-lists [LISTNAME]
deny any
Restrict distribution of any route map not specified
above
route-map [MAPNAME]
permit [N]
Create a route map with name [MAPNAME] and
allow with a priority of [N]
match ip address
[LISTNAME]
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OSPF Interface Cost Table
The OSPF protocol finds the most efficient route between two points. To do this, it looks at factors
such as interface link speed, the number of hops between points, and other metrics. By default, OSPF
uses the actual link speed of a device to calculate the total cost of a route. You can set the interface
cost manually to help maximize efficiency if, for example, your gigabyte-based firewall is connected to
a 100M router. Use the numbers in this table to manually set the interface cost to a value different than
the actual interface cost.
Interface
Type
Bandwidth in
bits/second
Bandwidth in
bytes/second
OSPF Interface
Cost
Ethernet
1G
128M
1
Ethernet
100M
12.5M
10
Ethernet
10M
1.25M
100
Modem
2M
256K
500
Modem
1M
128K
1000
Modem
500K
62.5K
2000
Modem
250K
31.25K
4000
Modem
125K
15625
8000
Modem
62500
7812
16000
Serial
115200
14400
10850
Serial
57600
7200
21700
Serial
38400
4800
32550
Serial
19200
2400
61120
Serial
9600
1200
65535
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Configure the XTM Device to Use OSPF
1. Select Network > Dynamic Routing.
The Dynamic Routing Setup page appears.
2. Select the Enable Dynamic Routing check box.
3. Select the OSPF tab.
4. Select the Enable check box.
5. Copy and paste your routing daemon configuration file in the text box.
For more information, see About Routing Daemon Configuration Files on page 240.
To get started, you must have only two commands in your OSPF configuration file. These two
commands, in this order, start the OSPF process:
router ospf
network <network IP address of the interface you want the process to listen on and distribute
through the protocol>
area <area ID in x.x.x.x format, such as 0.0.0.0>
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6. Click Save.
If necessary, Fireware XTM automatically adds the required dynamic routing policy or enables an
existing OSPF dynamic routing policy, if one exists.
For OSPF, the automatically created dynamic routing policy is called DR-OSPF-Allow. You can edit this
policy to add authentication and restrict the policy to listen on only the correct interfaces. The DR-OSPFAny policy is configured to allow OSPF multicasts to the reserved multicast addresses for OSPF.
After you configure the XTM device and the BGP router, select System Status > Routes and verify
that the XTM device has received route updates from the OSPF router.
Sample OSPF Routing Configuration File
To use any of the dynamic routing protocols with Fireware XTM, you must copy and paste a
configuration file for the dynamic routing daemon. This topic includes a sample configuration file for the
OSPF routing daemon. To use this configuration file as a base for your own configuration file, copy the
text into a new text file and save it with a new name. You can then edit the parameters to meet the
requirements of your organization.
Optional commands are commented with the "!" character. To enable a command, delete the "!" and
modify variables as necessary.
!! SECTION 1: Configure interface properties.
! Set properties for interface eth1.
! interface eth1
!
! Set simple authentication password (SHAREDKEY).
! ip ospf authentication-key SHAREDKEY
!
! Set MD5 authentication key ID (10) and MD5 authentication key (AUTHKEY).
! ip ospf message-digest-key 10 md5 AUTHKEY
!
! Set link cost to 1000 (1-65535) on interface eth1.
! for OSPF link cost table.
! ip ospf cost 1000
!
! Set hello interval to 5 seconds (1-65535); default is 10 seconds.
! ip ospf hello-interval 5
!
! Set dead-interval to 15 seconds (1-65535); default is 40 seconds.
! ip ospf dead-interval 15
!
! Set interval between link-state advertisements (LSA) retransmissions
! to 10 seconds (1-65535); default is 5 seconds.
! ip ospf retransmit-interval 10
!
! Set LSA update interval to 3 seconds (1-3600); default is 1 second.
! ip ospf transmit-delay 3
!
! Set high priority (0-255) to increase eligibility to become the
! designated router (DR).
! ip ospf priority 255
!! SECTION 2: Start OSFP and set daemon properties.
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! Enable OSPF daemon. Must be enabled for all OSPF configurations.
! router ospf
!
! Set the router ID manually to 100.100.100.20. If not set, the firewall will
! set its own ID based on an interface IP address.
! ospf router-id 100.100.100.20
!
! Enable RFC 1583 compatibility (increases probability of routing loops).
! ospf rfc1583compatibility
!
! Set area border router (ABR) type to cisco, ibm, shortcut, or standard.
! More information about ABR types is in draft-ietf-ospf-abr-alt-05.txt.
! ospf abr-type cisco
!
! Disable OSPF announcement on interface eth0.
! passive interface eth0
!
! Set global cost to 1000 (0-429495).
! auto-cost reference bandwidth 1000
!
! Set SPF schedule delay to 25 (0-4294967295) seconds and hold time to
! 20 (0-4294967295) seconds; default is 5 and 10 seconds.
! timers spf 25 20
!! SECTION 3: Set network and area properties. Set areas with W.X.Y.Z
!! or Z notation.
! Announce OSPF on network 192.168.253.0/24 network for area 0.0.0.0.
! network 192.168.253.0/24 area 0.0.0.0
!
! Create area 0.0.0.1 and set a classful network range (172.16.254.0/24)
! for the area (range and interface network settings must match).
! area 0.0.0.1 range 172.16.254.0/24
!
! Set virtual link neighbor (172.16.254.1) for area 0.0.0.1.
! area 0.0.0.1 virtual-link 172.16.254.1
!
! Set area 0.0.0.1 as a stub on all routers in area 0.0.0.1.
! area 0.0.0.1 stub
!
! area 0.0.0.2 stub no-summary
!
! Enable simple password authentication for area 0.0.0.0.
! area 0.0.0.0 authentication
!
! Enable MD5 authentication for area 0.0.0.1.
! area 0.0.0.1 authentication message-digest
!! SECTION 4: Redistribute OSPF routes
! Share route of last resort (default route) from kernel routing table
! with OSPF peers.
! default-information originate
!
! Redistribute static routes to OSPF.
! redistribute kernel
!
! Redistribute routes from all interfaces to OSPF.
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! redistribute connected
! redistribute connected route-map
!!Redistribute routes from RIP and BGP to OSPF.
! redistribute rip
! redistribute bgp
!! SECTION 5: Configure route redistribution filters with access lists
!! and route maps.
! Create an access list to only allow redistribution of 10.0.2.0/24.
! access-list LISTNAME permit 10.0.2.0/24
! access-list LISTNAME deny any
!
! Create a route map with name MAPNAME and allow with a
! priority of 10 (1-199).
! route-map MAPNAME permit 10
! match ip address LISTNAME
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About Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
Note Support for this protocol is available only in Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a scalable dynamic routing protocol used on the Internet by groups
of routers to share routing information. BGP uses route parameters or attributes to define routing
policies and create a stable routing environment. This protocol allows you to advertise more than one
path to and from the Internet to your network and resources, which gives you redundant paths and can
increase your uptime.
Hosts that use BGP use TCP to send updated routing table information when one host finds a change.
The host sends only the part of the routing table that has the change. BGP uses classless interdomain
routing (CIDR) to reduce the size of the Internet routing tables. The size of the BGP routing table in
Fireware XTM is set at 32K.
The size of the typical WatchGuard customer wide area network (WAN) is best suited for OSPF
dynamic routing. A WAN can also use external border gateway protocol (EBGP) when more than one
gateway to the Internet is available. EBGP allows you to take full advantage of the redundancy
possible with a multi-homed network.
To participate in BGP with an ISP you must have a public autonomous system number (ASN). You
must get an ASN from one of the regional registries in the table below. After you are assigned your own
ASN, you must contact each ISP to get their ASNs and other necessary information.
Region
Registry Name Web Site
North America RIN
www.arin.net
Europe
RIPE NCC
www.ripe.net
Asia Pacific
APNIC
www.apnic.net
Latin America
LACNIC
www.lacnic.net
Africa
AfriNIC
www.afrinic.net
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BGP Commands
To create or modify a routing configuration file, you must use the correct routing commands. The
subsequent table is a catalog of supported BGP routing commands. The sections must appear in the
configuration file in the same order they appear in this table.
Do not use BGP configuration parameters that you do not get from your ISP.
Section Command
Description
Configure BGP Routing Daemon
router bgp [ASN]
Enable BGP daemon and set autonomous system number
(ASN); this is supplied by your ISP
network [A.B.C.D/M]
Announce BGP on network
A.B.C.D/M
no network [A.B.C.D/M]
Disable BGP announcements on network A.B.C.D/M
Set Neighbor Properties
neighbor [A.B.C.D] remoteas [ASN]
Set neighbor as a member of remote ASN
neighbor [A.B.C.D] ebgpmultihop
Set neighbor on another network using EBGP multi-hop
neighbor [A.B.C.D] version
[4|4-]
Set BGP version (4, 4-) for communication with neighbor;
default is 4
neighbor [A.B.C.D] updatesource [WORD]
Set the BGP session to use a specific interface for TCP
connections
neighbor [A.B.C.D] defaultoriginate
Announce default route to BGP neighbor [A,B,C,D]
neighbor [A.B.C.D] port 189
Set custom TCP port to communicate with BGP neighbor
[A,B,C,D]
neighbor [A.B.C.D] sendcommunity
Set peer send-community
neighbor [A.B.C.D] weight
1000
Set a default weight for neighbor's [A.B.C.D] routes
neighbor [A.B.C.D]
Set maximum number of prefixes allowed from this
maximum-prefix [NUMBER] neighbor
Community Lists
ip community-list [<199>|<100-199>] permit
AA:NN
256
Specify community to accept autonomous system number
and network number separated by a colon
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Dynamic Routing
Section Command
Description
Peer Filtering
neighbor [A.B.C.D]
distribute-list [LISTNAME]
[IN|OUT]
Set distribute list and direction for peer
neighbor [A.B.C.D] prefixlist [LISTNAME] [IN|OUT]
To apply a prefix list to be matched to incoming
advertisements or outgoing advertisements to that neighbor
neighbor [A.B.C.D] filter-list
[LISTNAME] [IN|OUT]
To match an autonomous system path access list to
incoming routes or outgoing routes
neighbor [A.B.C.D] routemap [MAPNAME] [IN|OUT]
To apply a route map to incoming or outgoing routes
Redistribute Routes to BGP
redistribute kernel
Redistribute static routes to BGP
redistribute rip
Redistribute RIP routes to BGP
redistribute ospf
Redistribute OSPF routes to BGP
Route Reflection
bgp cluster-id A.B.C.D
To configure the cluster ID if the BGP cluster has more
than one route reflector
neighbor [W.X.Y.Z] routereflector-client
To configure the router as a BGP route reflector and
configure the specified neighbor as its client
Access Lists and IP Prefix Lists
User Guide
ip prefix-lists PRELIST
permit A.B.C.D/E
Set prefix list
access-list NAME
[deny|allow] A.B.C.D/E
Set access list
route-map [MAPNAME]
permit [N]
In conjunction with the "match" and "set" commands, this
defines the conditions and actions for redistributing routes
match ip address prefix-list
[LISTNAME]
Matches the specified access-list
set community [A:B]
Set the BGP community attribute
match community [N]
Matches the specified community_list
set local-preference [N]
Set the preference value for the autonomous system path
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Configure the XTM Device to Use BGP
To participate in BGP with an ISP you must have a public autonomous system number (ASN). For
more information, see About Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) on page 255.
1. Select Network > Dynamic Routing.
The Dynamic Routing Setup page appears.
2. Select the Enable Dynamic Routing check box.
3. Select the BGP tab.
4. Select the Enable check box.
5. Copy and paste your routing daemon configuration file in the text box.
For more information, see About Routing Daemon Configuration Files on page 240.
To get started, you need only three commands in your BGP configuration file. These three
commands start the BGP process, set up a peer relationship with the ISP, and create a route for
a network to the Internet. You must use the commands in this order.
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router BGP: BGP autonomous system number supplied by your ISP
network: network IP address that you want to advertise a route to from the Internet
neighbor: <IP address of neighboring BGP router> remote-as <BGP autonomous number>
6. Click Save.
If necessary, Fireware XTM automatically adds the required dynamic routing policy or enables an
existing BGP dynamic routing policy, if one exists.
For BGP, the automatically created dynamic routing policy is called DR-BGP-Allow. You can edit this
policy to add authentication and restrict the policy to listen on only the correct interfaces.
After you configure the XTM device and the BGP router, select System Status > Routes and verify
that the XTM device has received route updates from the BGP router.
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Sample BGP Routing Configuration File
To use any of the dynamic routing protocols with Fireware XTM, you must import or type a
configuration file for the dynamic routing daemon. This topic includes a sample configuration file for the
BGP routing daemon. If you want to use this configuration file as a base for your own configuration file,
copy the text into an application such as Notepad or Wordpad and save it with a new name. You can
then edit the parameters to meet your own business requirements.
Optional commands are commented with the "!" character. To enable a command, delete the "!" and
modify variables as necessary.
!! SECTION 1: Start BGP daemon and announce network blocks to BGP neighbors
! Enable BGP and set local ASN to 100 router bgp 100
! Announce local network 64.74.30.0/24 to all neighbors defined in section 2
! network 64.74.30.0/24
!! SECTION 2: Neighbor properties
! Set neighbor (64.74.30.1) as member of remote ASN (200)
! neighbor 64.74.30.1 remote-as 200
! Set neighbor (208.146.43.1) on another network using EBGP multi-hop
! neighbor 208.146.43.1 remote-as 300
! neighbor 208.146.43.1 ebgp-multihop
! Set BGP version (4, 4-) for communication with a neighbor; default is 4
! neighbor 64.74.30.1 version 4! Announce default route to BGP neighbor (64.74.30.1)
! neighbor 64.74.30.1 default-originate
! Set custom TCP port 189 to communicate with BGP neighbor (64.74.30.1). Default
port is TCP 179
! neighbor 64.74.30.1 port 189
! Set peer send-community
! neighbor 64.74.30.1 send-community
! Set a default weight for neighbors (64.74.30.1) routes
! neighbor 64.74.30.1 weight 1000
! Set maximum number of prefixes allowed from this neighbor
! neighbor 64.74.30.1 maximum-prefix NUMBER
!! SECTION 3: Set community lists ! ip community-list 70 permit 7000:80
!! SECTION 4: Announcement filtering
! Set distribute list and direction for peer
! neighbor 64.74.30.1 distribute-list LISTNAME [in|out] ! To apply a prefix list
to be matched to incoming or outgoing advertisements to that neighbor
! neighbor 64.74.30.1 prefix-list LISTNAME [in|out
! To match an autonomous system path access list to incoming or outgoing routes
! neighbor 64.74.30.1 filter-list LISTNAME [in|out]
! To apply a route map to incoming or outgoing routes
! neighbor 64.74.30.1 route-map MAPNAME [in|out]
!! SECTION 5: Redistribute routes to BGP
! Redistribute static routes to BGP
! Redistribute kernel
! Redistribute rip routes to BGP
! Redistribute rip
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! Redistribute ospf routes to BGP
! Redistribute ospf
!! SECTION 6: Route reflection
! Set cluster ID and firewall as a client of route reflector server 51.210.0.254
! bgp cluster-id A.B.C.D
! neighbor 51.210.0.254 route-reflector-client
!! SECTION 7: Access lists and IP prefix lists
! Set prefix list
! ip prefix-list PRELIST permit 10.0.0.0/8
! Set access list!access-list NAME deny 64.74.30.128/25
! access-list NAME permit 64.74.30.0/25
! Create a route map with name MAPNAME and allow with a priority of 10
! route-map MAPNAME permit 10
! match ip address prefix-list LISTNAME
! set community 7000:80
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11
Authentication
About User Authentication
User authentication is a process that finds whether a user is who he or she is declared to be and
verifies the privileges assigned to that user. On the XTM device, a user account has two parts: a user
name and a passphrase. Each user account is associated with an IP address. This combination of
user name, passphrase, and IP address helps the device administrator to monitor connections through
the device. With authentication, users can log in to the network from any computer, but access only
the network ports and protocols for which they are authorized. The XTM device can then map the
connections that start from a particular IP address and also transmit the session name while the user is
authenticated.
You can create firewall polices to give users and groups access to specified network resources. This is
useful in network environments where different users share a single computer or IP address.
You can configure your XTM device as a local authentication server, or use your existing Active
Directory or LDAP authentication server, or an existing RADIUS authentication server. When you use
Firebox authentication over port 4100, account privileges can be based on user name. When you use
third-party authentication, account privileges for users that authenticate to the third-party
authentication servers are based on group membership.
The WatchGuard user authentication feature allows a user name to be associated with a specific IP
address to help you authenticate and track user connections through the device. With the device, the
fundamental question that is asked and answered with each connection is, Should I allow traffic from
source X to go to destination Y? For the WatchGuard authentication feature to work correctly, the IP
address of the user's computer must not change while the user is authenticated to the device.
In most environments, the relationship between an IP address and the user computer is stable enough
to use for authentication. Environments in which the association between the user and an IP address is
not consistent, such as kiosks or networks where applications are run from a terminal server, are
usually not good candidates for the successful use of the user authentication feature.
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Authentication
WatchGuard supports Authentication, Accounting, and Access control (AAA) in the firewall products,
based on a stable association between IP address and person.
The WatchGuard user authentication feature also supports authentication to an Active Directory
domain with Single Sign-On (SSO), as well as other common authentication servers. In addition, it
supports inactivity settings and session time limits. These controls restrict the amount of time an IP
address is allowed to pass traffic through the XTM device before users must supply their passwords
again (reauthenticate).
If you control SSO access with a white list and manage inactivity timeouts, session timeouts, and who
is allowed to authenticate, you can improve your control of authentication, accounting, and access
control.
To prevent a user from authenticating, you must disable the account for that user on the authentication
server.
User Authentication Steps
After you configure your XTM device as a local authentication server, the HTTPS server on the XTM
device accepts authentication requests. To authenticate, a user must connect to the authentication
portal web page on the XTM device.
1. Go to either:
https://[device interface IP address]:4100/
or
https://[device hostname]:4100
An authentication web page appears.
2. Type a user name and password.
3. Select the authentication server from the drop-down list, if more than one type of authentication
is configured.
The XTM device sends the name and password to the authentication server using PAP (Password
Authentication Protocol).
When authenticated, the user is allowed to use the approved network resources.
Note Because Fireware XTM uses a self-signed certificate by default for HTTPS, you see a
security warning from your web browser when you authenticate. You can safely ignore
this security warning. If you want to remove this warning, you can use a third-party
certificate or create a custom certificate that matches the IP address or domain name
used for authentication.
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Manually Close an Authenticated Session
Users do not have to wait for the session timeout to close their authenticated sessions. They can
manually close their sessions before the timeout occurs. The Authentication web page must be open
for a user to close a session. If it is closed, the user must authenticate again to log out.
To close an authenticated session:
1. Go to the Authentication portal web page:
https://[device interface IP address]:4100/
or
https://[device host name]:4100
2. Click Logout.
Note If the Authentication portal web page is configured to automatically redirect to another
web page, the portal is redirected just a few seconds after you open it. Make sure you
logout before the page redirects.
Manage Authenticated Users
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to see a list of all the users authenticated to your XTM device and
close sessions for those users.
See Authenticated Users
To see the users authenticated to your XTM device:
1. Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI.
2. Select System Status > Authentication List.
A list of all users authenticated to the Firebox appears.
Close a User Session
From Fireware XTM Web UI:
1. Select System Status > Authentication List.
A list of all users authenticated to the Firebox appears.
2. Select one or more user names from the list.
3. Right-click the user name(s) and select Log Off User.
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Use Authentication to Restrict Incoming Traffic
One function of the authentication tool is to restrict outgoing traffic. You can also use it to restrict
incoming network traffic. When you have an account on the XTM device and the device has a public
external IP address, you can authenticate to the device from a computer external to the device.
For example, you can type this address in your web browser: https://<IP address of XTM device
external interface>:4100/ .
After you authenticate, you can use the policies that are configured for you on the device.
To enable a remote user to authenticate from the external network:
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall Polices Page appears.
.
2. Select the WatchGuard Authentication policy and click
Or, double-click the policy. This policy appears after you add a user or group to a policy
configuration.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
3. From the Connections are drop-down list, make sure Allowed is selected.
4. In the From section, click Add.
The Add Member dialog box appears.
5. From the Select Members list, select Any.
6. Click OK.
Any appears in the From list.
7. In the To section, click Add.
8. From the Select Members list, select Firebox.
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9. Click OK.
Firebox appears in the To list.
10. Click Save.
Use Authentication Through a Gateway Firebox
The gateway Firebox is the XTM device that you place in your network to protect your Management
Server from the Internet.
To send an authentication request through a gateway Firebox to a different device, you must have a
policy that allows the authentication traffic on the gateway device. If authentication traffic is denied on
the gateway device, add the WG-Auth policy. This policy controls traffic on TCP port 4100. You must
configure the policy to allow traffic to the IP address of the destination device.
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About the WatchGuard Authentication (WG-Auth)
Policy
The WatchGuard Authentication (WG-Auth) policy is automatically added to your XTM device
configuration when you add the first policy that has a user or group name in the From list on the Policy
tab of the policy definition. The WG-Auth policy controls access to port 4100 on your XTM device. Your
users send authentication requests to the device through this port. For example, to authenticate to an
XTM device with an IP address of 10.10.10.10, your users type https://10.10.10.10:4100 in the
web browser address bar.
If you want to send an authentication request through a gateway device to a different device, you might
have to add the WG-Auth policy manually. If authentication traffic is denied on the gateway device, you
must use Policy Manager to add the WG-Auth policy. Modify this policy to allow traffic to the IP
address of the destination device.
For more information on when to modify the WatchGuard Authentication policy, see Use
Authentication to Restrict Incoming Traffic on page 266.
Set Global Firewall Authentication Values
When you configure your global authentication settings, you can configure the global values for firewall
authentication, such as timeout values, user login session limits, and authentication page redirect
settings. You can also enable Single Sign-On (SSO), and configure settings for Terminal Services. For
more information, see the topics Enable Single Sign-On (SSO) and Configure Terminal Services
Settings.
XTM Compatibility If your device runs Fireware XTM v11.0–v11.3.x, the
Authentication Settings for Terminal Services are not available.
To configure Firewall Authentication settings:
1. Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI.
2. Select Authentication > Settings.
The Authentication Settings page appears.
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3. Configure authentication settings as described in the subsequent sections.
4. Click Save.
Set Global Authentication Timeouts
You can set the time period that users remain authenticated after they close their last authenticated
connection. This timeout is set either in the Authentication Settings dialog box, or on the Setup
Firebox User page.
For more information about user authentication settings and the Setup Firebox User page, see Define
a New User for Firebox Authentication on page 309.
For users authenticated by third-party servers, the timeouts set on those servers also override the
global authentication timeouts.
Authentication timeout values do not apply to Mobile VPN with PPTP users.
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Session Timeout
The maximum length of time the user can send traffic to the external network. If you set this
field to zero (0) seconds, minutes, hours, or days, the session does not expire and the user can
stay connected for any length of time.
Idle Timeout
The maximum length of time the user can stay authenticated when idle (not passing any traffic
to the external network). If you set this field to zero (0) seconds, minutes, hours, or days, the
session does not time out when idle and the user can stay idle for any length of time.
Allow Multiple Concurrent Logins
You can allow more than one user to authenticate with the same user credentials at the same time, to
one authentication server. This is useful for guest accounts or in laboratory environments. When the
second user logs in with the same credentials, the first user authenticated with the credentials is
automatically logged out. If you do not allow this feature, a user cannot authenticate to the
authentication server more than once at the same time.
On the Authentication Settings page:
Select the Allow multiple concurrent firewall authentication logins from the same
account option.
For Mobile VPN with IPSec and Mobile VPN with SSL users, concurrent logins from the same account
are always supported regardless of whether this option is selected. These users must log in from
different IP addresses for concurrent logins, which means that they cannot use the same account to
log in if they are behind an XTM device that uses NAT. Mobile VPN with PPTP users do not have this
restriction.
Limit Login Sessions
From the Authentication Settings page, you can limit your users to a single authenticated session. If
you select this option, your users cannot login to one authentication server from different IP addresses
with the same credentials. When a user is authenticated, and tries to authenticate again, you can
select whether the first user session is terminated when the subsequent session is authenticated, or if
the subsequent session is rejected.
1. Select Limit users to a single login session.
2. From the drop-down list, select an option:
n Reject subsequent login attempts, when the user is already logged in
n Logoff first session, when user logs in the second time.
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Specify the Default Authentication Server in the
Authentication Portal
When your users log in to the Authentication Portal, they must select which authentication server to
use for authentication. Users can select from any of the authentication servers you have enabled. By
default, the first server in the list is Firebox-DB. You can change this setting so another enabled
authentication server is first in the list of authentication servers. This is helpful if you want your users to
authenticate with a server other than Firebox-DB.
To select the default authentication server:
From the Default authentication server on the authentication page drop-down list, select an
authentication server.
For example, if you want your users to authenticate to your Active Directory server named
Home AD, select Home AD from the drop-down list.
Automatically Redirect Users to the Authentication Portal
If you require your users to authenticate before they can get access to the Internet, you can choose to
automatically send users who are not already authenticated to the authentication portal, or have them
manually navigate to the portal. This applies only to HTTP and HTTPS connections.
Automatically redirect users to the authentication page
When you select this check box, all users who have not yet authenticated are automatically
redirected to the authentication portal when they try to get access to the Internet. If you do not
select this checkbox, unauthenticated users must manually navigate to the authentication
portal to log in.
For more information about user authentication, see User Authentication Steps on page 264.
Redirect traffic sent to the IP address of the XTM device to this host name
Select this check box to specify a host name for the page where your users are redirected,
when you choose to automatically redirect users to the authentication portal. Type the host
name in the text box.
Make sure that the host name matches the Common Name (CN) from the web server
certificate. This host name must be specified in the DNS settings for your organization and the
value of the host name must be the IP address of your XTM device.
If you have users who must manually authenticate to the authentication portal, and you use SSO, you
can add an SSO exception for those users to reduce the amount of time it takes for them to
authenticate. For more information about SSO exceptions, see Enable Single Sign-On (SSO).
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Use a Custom Default Start Page
When you select the Auto redirect users to authentication page for authentication check box to
require your users to authenticate before they can get access to the Internet, the Authentication portal
appears when a user opens a web browser. If you want the browser to go to a different page after your
users successfully log in, you can define a redirect.
From the Authentication Settings page:
1. Select the Send a redirect to the browser after successful authentication check box.
2. In the text box, type the URL of the web site to which users are redirected.
Set Management Session Timeouts
Use these options to set the time period that a user who is logged in with read/write privileges remains
authenticated before the XTM device terminates the session.
Session Timeout
The maximum length of time the user can send traffic to the external network. If you select zero
(0) seconds, minutes, hours, or days, the session does not expire and the user can stay
connected for any length of time.
Idle Timeout
The maximum length of time the user can stay authenticated when idle (not passing any traffic
to the external network). If you select zero (0) seconds, minutes, hours, or days, the session
does not expire when the user is idle, and the user can stay idle for any length of time.
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About Single Sign-On (SSO)
When users log on to the computers in your network, they must give a user name and password. If you
use Active Directory authentication on your XTM device to restrict outgoing network traffic to specified
users or groups, your users must also complete an additional step: they must manually log in again to
authenticate to the XTM device and get access to network resources or the Internet. To simplify the log
in process for your users, you can use Single Sign-On (SSO). With SSO, your users on the trusted or
optional networks provide their user credentials one time (when they log on to their computers) and are
automatically authenticated to your XTM device.
The WatchGuard SSO Solution
The WatchGuard SSO solution includes the SSO Agent, the SSO Client, and the Event Log Monitor.
About the SSO Agent
To use SSO, you install the SSO Agent on one computer in your domain. This enables the SSO Agent
to run as a domain user account with domain admin privileges. With these privileges, when users try to
authenticate to your domain, the SSO Agent can query the client computer for the correct user
credentials and provide those user credentials to your XTM device.
About the SSO Client
When you install the SSO Client software on your client computers, the SSO Client receives the call
from the SSO Agent and returns accurate information about the user who is currently logged in to the
computer. The SSO Agent does not have to contact the client computer directly for the Active
Directory credentials for the user, because when it contacts the SSO Client, it receives the correct
information about who is currently logged in to the computer and to which Active Directory groups the
user belongs.
About the Event Log Monitor
If you do not want to install the SSO Client on each client computer, you can instead install the Event
Log Monitor on your domain controller, and configure the SSO Agent to get user login information from
the Event Log Monitor. This is known as clientless SSO. With clientless SSO, the Event Log Monitor
collects login information from the domain controller for users that have already logged on to the
domain. It then stores the user credentials and user group information for each user.
When the SSO Agent contacts the Event Log Monitor for user credentials, the Event Log Monitor
contacts the client computer over TCP port 445 to get the user logon credentials, retrieves the stored
user group membership information from the domain controller, and provides this information to the
SSO Agent. The Event Log Monitor continues to poll the client computer every five seconds to monitor
logon and logoff events, and connection abort issues. Any connection errors are recorded in the
eventlogmonitor.log file in the WatchGuard > Authentication Gateway directory on the computer
where the Event Log Monitor is installed.
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If you have one domain that you use for SSO, you can install the Event Log Monitor on the same
domain controller computer where you install the SSO Agent. If you have more than one domain, you
must install the Event Log Monitor on one domain controller in each domain, but you only install the
SSO Agent on one computer in your network. The Event Log Monitor must run as a user account in the
Domain Admins group.
When you configure the clientless SSO settings for the SSO Agent, you can specify whether the SSO
Agent queries the SSO Client or the Event Log Monitor first. If neither option responds, the SSO Agent
tries to get the Active Directory credentials for all users logged on to the client computer.
For more information about how to configure the SSO Agent to use the Event Log Monitor, see
Configure the SSO Agent on page 280.
How SSO Works
For SSO to work, you must install the SSO Agent software. The SSO Client software is optional and is
installed on each client computer. The Event Log Monitor is also optional, and is installed on each of
your domain controllers. When the SSO Client software or the Event Log Monitor software is installed
and the SSO Agent contacts a client computer for user credentials, either the SSO Client or the Event
Log Monitor sends the correct user credentials to the SSO Agent.
If you install only the SSO Agent, and do not use either the SSO Client or the Event Log Monitor, the
SSO Agent can get more than one answer when it queries the client computer. This can occur if more
than one user logs on to the same computer, or because of service or batch logons that occur on the
computer, and can result in the use of incorrect login information for the user. We recommend that you
do not use the SSO Agent without either the SSO Client or the Event Log Monitor.
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To get the user credentials, the SSO Agent makes a call to the client computer over TCP port 4116 to
verify who is currently logged in. If there is no response, the SSO Agent makes a NetWkstaUserEnum
call to the client computer. It then uses the information it gets to authenticate the user for Single SignOn. The SSO Agent uses only the first answer it gets from the computer. It reports that user to the
XTM device as the user that is logged on. The XTM device checks the user information against all the
defined policies for that user and/or user group at one time. The SSO Agent caches this data for about
10 minutes by default, so that a query does not have to be generated for every connection.
Example Network Configurations for SSO
This first diagram shows a network with a single domain. The SSO Agent is installed on a different
computer than the domain controller, the SSO Client is installed on the client computer, and the Event
Log Monitor is installed on the domain controller. With this configuration, you can specify whether the
SSO Agent contacts the SSO Client or the Event Log Monitor first. If the SSO Client is not available,
the SSO Agent contacts the Event Log Monitor for the user credentials and group information.
The second diagram shows the configuration of a network with two domains. The SSO Agent is
installed on one computer in the domain, the SSO Client is installed on the client computers, and the
Event Log Monitor is installed on the domain controller in each domain. With this configuration, you can
specify whether the SSO Agent contacts the SSO Clients or the Event Log Monitors first. If the SSO
Client is not available, the SSO Agent contacts the Event Log Monitor in the same domain as the client
computer for the user credentials and group information.
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In your network environment, if more than one person uses the same computer, we recommend that
you install the SSO Client software on each client computer and do not use clientless SSO. There are
access control limitations if you do not use the SSO Client. For example, for services installed on a
client computer (such as a centrally administered antivirus client) that have been deployed so that
users log on with domain account credentials, the XTM device gives all users access rights as defined
by the first user that is logged on (and the groups of which that user is a member), and not the
credentials of the individual users that log on interactively. Also, all log messages generated from user
activity show the user name of the service account, and not the individual user.
Note If you do not install the SSO Client, we recommend you do not use SSO for
environments where users log on to computers with service or batch logons. When
more than one user is associated with an IP address, network permissions might not
operate correctly. This can be a security risk.
If you configure multiple Active Directory domains, you can choose to use either the SSO Client or the
Event Log Monitor. For more information about how to configure the SSO Client when you have
multiple Active Directory domains, see Configure Active Directory Authentication on page 326 and
Install the WatchGuard Single Sign-On (SSO) Client on page 290.
If you enable Single Sign-On, you can also use Firewall authentication to log in to the Firewall
authentication page and authenticate with different user credentials. For more information, see Firewall
Authentication on page 307.
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You configure Single Sign-On (SSO) separately for the Terminal Services Agent. For more information
about the Terminal Services Agent, see Install and Configure the Terminal Services Agent on page 294.
Note SSO is not supported for remote desktop sessions or for terminal sessions.
Before You Begin
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You must have an Active Directory server configured on a trusted or optional network.
Your XTM device must be configured to use Active Directory authentication.
Each user must have an account set up on the Active Directory server.
Each user must log on to a domain account for Single Sign-On (SSO) to operate correctly. If
users log on to an account that exists only on their local computers, their credentials are not
checked and the XTM device does not recognize that they are logged in.
If you use third-party firewall software on your network computers, make sure that TCP port 445
(Samba/ Windows Networking) is open on each client.
Make sure that TCP port 445 (port for SMB) is open on the client computers.
Make sure that TCP port 4116 is open on the client computers.
Make sure that TCP port 4114 is open on the computer where you install the SSO Agent.
Make sure that TCP port 4135 is open on the domain controller computer where you install the
Event Log Monitor.
Make sure that the Microsoft .NET Framework 2.0 or higher is installed on the computer where
you install the SSO Agent and the Event Log Monitor.
Make sure that all computers from which users authenticate with SSO are members of the
domain with unbroken trust relationships.
Set Up SSO
To use SSO, you must install the SSO Agent software. We recommend that you also install the Event
Log Monitor on your domain controller or the SSO Client on your users' computers. Though you can
use SSO with only the SSO Agent, you increase your security and access control when you also use
the SSO Client or the Event Log Monitor.
To set up SSO, follow these steps:
1. Install the WatchGuard Single Sign-On (SSO) Agent.
2. Install the WatchGuard Single Sign-On (SSO) Client (optional, but recommended).
3. Enable Single Sign-On (SSO).
Install the WatchGuard Single Sign-On (SSO) Agent
To use Single Sign-On (SSO), you must install the WatchGuard Authentication Gateway, which
includes two components: the SSO Agent (mandatory) and the Event Log Monitor (optional).
The SSO Agent is a service that receives requests for Firebox authentication and checks user status
with the Active Directory server. The service runs with the name WatchGuard Authentication Gateway
on the computer where you install the SSO Agent software. This computer must have the Microsoft
.NET Framework 2.0 or later installed. You must install the SSO Agent to use Single Sign-On.
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The Event Log Monitor is an optional component of the WatchGuard Authentication Gateway. If you do
not install the SSO Client on all of your client computers, we recommend that you install the Event Log
Monitor. When a logon event occurs, the Event Log Monitor polls the destination IP address (the client
computer) for the user name and domain name that was used to log in. Based on the user name
information, the Event Log Monitor gets the user groups to which the user belongs from the domain
controller and sends that information to the SSO Agent. This enables the SSO Agent to correctly
identify a user and make sure that each user can only log on from one computer at a time.
If you have more than one domain, install the SSO Agent on only one computer or domain controller in
your network, and install the Event Log Monitor on each of your domain controllers. The SSO Agent
then contacts each Event Log Monitor to get information for the users on that domain.
When you run the installer to install only the Event Log Monitor, make sure to clear the check box for
the SSO Agent component.
To install an additional WatchGuard Authentication Gateway component on a computer where you
have already installed one component, run the installer again and select the check boxes for both the
new component you want to install and for the previously installed component. If you do not select the
check box for the previously installed component, that component will be uninstalled.
For example, if you have already installed the SSO Agent on your domain controller and want to add
the Event Log Monitor, run the installer again and make sure that both SSO Agent and the Event Log
Monitor check boxes are selected. If you clear the check box for the SSO Agent, it is uninstalled.
Download the SSO Agent Software
1. Open a web browser and go to http://www.watchguard.com/.
2. Log in with your WatchGuard account user name and password.
The Partner Portal appears with the Partner Home page selected.
3. Select the Articles & Software tab.
The Articles & Software page appears.
4. In the Search text box, type the name of the software you want to install or the model of your
XTM device.
5. Clear the Article check box and make sure the Software Downloads check box is selected.
6. Click Go.
The Search Results page appears with a list of the available WatchGuard device models.
7. Select your XTM device model.
The Software Downloads page for the device you selected appears.
8. Download the WatchGuard Single Sign-On Agent software and save the file to a convenient
location.
Before You Install
The WatchGuard Authentication Gateway service must run as a user who is a member of the Domain
Admins group. We recommend that you create a new user account for this purpose and then add the
new user to the Domain Admins group. For the service to operate correctly, make sure you configure
this Domain Admin user account with a password that never expires.
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Install the SSO Agent and the Event Log Monitor Service
If you have more than one domain, make sure to install the Event Log Monitor on each of your domain
controllers.
1. Double-click WG-Authentication-Gateway.exe to start the Authentication Gateway Setup
Wizard.
To run the installer on some operating systems, you might need to type a local administrator
password, or right-click and select Run as administrator.
2. To install the software, follow the instructions on each page and complete the wizard.
3. On the Select Components page, make sure to select the check box for each component you
want to install:
n WatchGuard Authentication Single Sign-On Agent
n WatchGuard Authentication Event Log Monitor
4. On the Domain User Login page, make sure to type the user name in the form:
domain\username . Do not include the .com or .net part of the domain name.
For example, if your domain is example.com and you use the domain account ssoagent, type
example\ssoagent .
You can also use the UPN form of the user name: [email protected] . If you use the UPN
form of the user name, you must include the .com or .net part of the domain name.
5. Click Finish to close the wizard.
When the wizard completes, the WatchGuard Authentication Gateway service starts automatically.
Each time the computer starts, the service starts automatically.
After you complete the Authentication Gateway installation, you must configure the domain settings for
the SSO Agent and Event Log Monitor. For more information, see Configure the SSO Agent on page 280.
Configure the SSO Agent
If you use multiple Active Directory domains, you must specify the domains to use for SSO (Single
Sign-On). After you have installed the SSO Agent, you can specify the domains to use for
authentication and synchronize the domain configuration with the SSO Agent. You can also specify
options to use SSO without the SSO Client. This is known as clientless SSO. You configure settings
for clientless SSO when you configure the SSO Agent. To configure the SSO Agent settings, you must
have administrator privileges on the computer where the SSO Agent is installed.
When you first launch the SSO Agent, it generates the Users.xml and AdInfos.xml configuration files.
These configuration files are encrypted and store the domain configuration details you specify when
you configure the SSO Agent.
The SSO Agent has two default accounts, administrator and status, that you can use to log in to the
SSO Agent. To make changes to the SSO Agent configuration, you must log in with the administrator
credentials. After you log in for the first time, we recommend you change the passwords for the default
accounts. The default credentials (username/password) for these accounts are:
n
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Administrator — admin/readwrite
Status — status/readonly
For more information about Active Directory, see Configure Active Directory Authentication.
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Log In to the SSO Agent Configuration Tool
1. Select Start > WatchGuard > WatchGuard SSO Agent Configuration Tool.
The SSO Agent Configuration Tool login dialog box appears.
2. In the User Name text box, type the administrator user name: admin .
3. In the Password text box, type the administrator password: readwrite .
The SSO Agent Configuration Tools dialog box appears.
4. Configure your SSO Agent as described in the subsequent sections.
Changes to the configuration are automatically saved.
Manage User Accounts and Passwords
After you log in for the first time, you can change the password for the default accounts. Because you
must log in with the administrator credentials to change the SSO Agent settings, make sure you
remember the password specified for the administrator account. You can also add new user accounts
and change the settings for existing user accounts. You can also use both the admin and status
accounts to open a telnet session to configure the SSO Agent.
Formore informationabout how to usetelnet withthe SSOAgent, seeUse Telnetto Debugthe SSOAgent.
Change a User Account Password
For the admin and status accounts, you can only change the password for the account; you cannot
change the user name.
From the SSO Agent Configuration Tools dialog box:
1. Select Edit > User Management.
The User Management Form dialog box appears.
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2. Select the account to change.
For example, select admin.
3. Click Change Password.
The Change Password dialog box appears.
4. In the Password and Confirm Password text boxes, type the new password for this user
account.
5. Click OK.
Add a New User Account
From the SSO Agent Configuration Tools dialog box:
1. Select Edit > User Management.
The User Management Form appears.
2. Click Add User.
The Add User dialog box appears.
3. In the User Name text box, type the name for this user account.
4. In the Password and Confirm Password text boxes, type the password for this user account.
5. Select an access option for this account:
n Read-Only
n Read-Write
6. Click OK.
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Edit a User Account
When you edit a user account, you can change only the access option. You cannot change the user
name or password for the account. To change the user name, you must add a new user account and
delete the old user account.
From the SSO Agent Configuration Tools dialog box:
1. Select Edit > User Management.
The User Management Form appears.
2. Select the account to change.
3. Click Edit User.
The Edit User dialog box appears.
4. Select a new access option for this account:
n Read-Only
n Read-Write
5. Click OK.
Delete a User Account
From the SSO Agent Configuration Tools dialog box:
1. Select Edit > User Management.
The User Management Form appears.
2. Select the account to delete.
3. Click Delete User.
The Delete User dialog box appears.
4. Verify the User Name is for the account you want to delete.
5. Click OK.
Configure the SSO Agent
To configure your SSO Agent, you can add, edit, and delete information about your Active Directory
domains. When you add or edit a domain, you must specify a user account to use to search your
Active Directory server. We recommend that you create a specific user account on your server with
permissions to search the directory and with a password that never expires.
Add a Domain
From the SSO Agent Configuration Tools dialog box:
1. Select Edit > Add Domain.
The Add Domain dialog box appears.
2. In the Domain Name text box, type the name of the domain.
For example, type my-example.com .
The domain name of your Active Directory server is case-sensitive. Make sure you type the
domain name exactly as it appears on the Active Directory tab in the Authentication Server
settings on your XTM device. For more information, see Configure Active Directory
Authentication.
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3. In the NetBIOS Domain Name text box, type the first part of your domain name, without the
top level extension (such as, .com).
For example, type my-example .
4. In the IP Address of Domain Controller text box, type the IP address of the Active Directory
server for this domain.
5. In the Port text box, type the port to use to connect to this server.
The default setting is 389.
6. In the Searching User section, select an option:
n Distinguished Name (DN) (cn=ssouser,cn=users,dc=domain,dc=com)
n User Principal Name (UPN) ([email protected]
n Pre-Windows 2000 (netbiosDomain\ssouser)
7. In the corresponding text box, type the user information for the option you selected.
Make sure to specify a user who has permissions to search the directory on your Active
Directory server.
8. In the Password of Searching User and Confirm password text boxes, type the password
for the user you specified.
This password must match the password for this user account on your Active Directory server.
9. To add another domain, click OK & Add Next. Repeat Steps 2–8.
10. Click OK.
The domain name appears in the SSO Agent Configuration Tools list.
Edit a Domain
When you edit an SSO domain, you can change all the settings except the domain name. If you want
to change the domain name, you must delete the domain and add a new domain with the correct name.
From the SSO Agent Configuration Tools dialog box:
1. Select the domain to change.
2. Select Edit > Edit Domain.
The Edit Domain dialog box appears.
3. Update the settings for the domain.
4. Click OK.
Delete a Domain
From the SSO Agent Configuration Tools dialog box:
1. Select the domain to delete.
2. Select Edit > Delete Domain.
A confirmation message appears.
3. Click Yes.
Configure Clientless SSO
If the SSO Client is not installed or is not available, you can configure the SSO Agent to use clientless
SSO to get user login information from the Event Log Monitors, which are installed on your domain
controllers. When a user tries to authenticate, the SSO Agent sends the user name and IP address of
the client computer to the Event Log Monitor. The Event Log Monitor then uses this information to
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query the client computer over TCP port 445 and retrieve the user credentials from the logon events on
the client computer. The Event Log Monitor the user credentials from the client computer and contacts
the domain controller to get the user group information for the user. The Event Log Monitor then
provides this information to the SSO Agent.
If you do not install the SSO Client on your user's computers, make sure the Event Log Monitor is the
first entry in the SSO Agent Contacts list. If you specify the SSO Client as the primary contact, but
the SSO Client is not available, the SSO Agent queries the Event Log Monitor next, but this can cause
a delay.
After you install the SSO Agent, you must add the domain information of the domains where the Event
Log Monitors are installed to the SSO Agent configuration in the Event Log Monitor Contact
Domains list. If you have only one domain and the SSO Agent is installed on the domain controller, or
if you have more than one domain and the Event Log Monitor is on the same domain as the SSO Agent,
you do not have to specify the domain information for the domain controller in the SSO Agent
configuration Event Log Monitor Contact Domains list.
For more information about how to install the Event Log Monitor, see Install the WatchGuard Single
Sign-On (SSO) Agent on page 278.
Before you configure and enable the settings for clientless SSO, you must make sure the client
computers on your domain have TCP 445 port open, or have File and printer sharing enabled, and have
the correct group policy configured to enable the Event Log Monitor to get information about user login
events. If this port is not open and the correct policy is not configured, the Event Log Monitor cannot
get group information and SSO does not work properly.
On your domain controller computer:
1. Open the Group Policy Object Editor and edit the Default Domain Policy.
2. Make sure the Audit Policy (Computer Configuration > Windows Settings > Security
Settings > Local Policies > Audit Policy) has the Audit account logon events and Audit
logon events policies enabled.
3. At the command line, run the command gpupdate/force /boot .
When the command runs, this message string appears:
Updating Policy… User Policy update has completed successfully. Computer
Policy update has completed successfully.
4. Reboot the domain controller computer.
You can add, edit, and delete domain information for clientless SSO.
From the SSO Agent Configuration Tools dialog box:
1. Select Edit > Clientless Settings.
The Clientless Settings dialog box appears.
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2. In the SSO Agent Contact list, select the check box for each contact for the SSO Agent:
n SSO Client
n Event Log Monitor
n Active Directory Server
Active Directory Server is always enabled but cannot be the first option in the list.
3. To change the order of the SSO Agent Contacts, select a contact and click Up or Down.
4. Add, edit, or delete a domain.
5. Click OK to save your settings.
Add a Domain
You can specify one or more domains for the Event Log Monitor to contact for user login information.
From the Clientless Settings dialog box:
1. Click Add.
The Event Log Monitor Settings dialog box appears.
2. In the Domain Name text box, type the name of the domain that you want the Event Log
Monitor to contact for login credentials.
3. In the IP Address of Domain Controller text box, type the IP address for the domain.
4. Click OK.
The domain information you specified appears in the Event Log Monitor Contact Domains list.
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Edit a Domain
From the Clientless Settings dialog box:
1. Select the domain to change.
2. Click Edit.
The Event Log Monitor Settings dialog box appears.
3. Update the settings for the domain.
4. Click OK.
Delete a Domain
From the Clientless Settings dialog box:
1. Select the domain to delete.
2. Click Delete.
The domain is removed from the list.
Use Telnet to Debug the SSO Agent
To debug your SSO Agent, you can use Telnet to connect to the SSO Agent on TCP port 4114 and run
commands to review information in the connection cache. You can also enable advanced debug
options. A list of the commands you can use in Telnet is available in the Telnet Help and in the
subsequent Telnet Commands List section.
Note We recommend that you only use these commands with direction from a WatchGuard
support representative.
To connect to your SSO Agent with Telnet, you must use a user account that is defined in the SSO Agent
Configuration Tool User Management settings. For more information, see Configure the SSO Agent.
Before you begin, make sure that the Telnet Client is installed and enabled on your computer.
Open Telnet and Run Commands
To run Telnet commands, you can either open Telnet on the computer on which the SSO Agent is
installed, or use Telnet to make a remote connection to the SSO Agent over TCP port 4114. Make sure
that the SSO Agent service is started before you try to connect to it with Telnet.
1. Open a command prompt.
2. At the command prompt, type telnet <IP address of SSO Agent computer> 4114 .
3. Press Enter on your keyboard.
The connection message appears.
4. To see a list of commands, type help and press Enter on your keyboard.
The list of common commands appears.
5. To run a command, type a command and press Enter on your keyboard.
Output for the command appears.
For more information about the commands you can use in Telnet, see the Telnet Commands List.
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Enable Debug Logging
To send debug log messages to the log file, you must set the debug status to ON.
1. In the Telnet window, type set debug on .
2. Press Enter on your keyboard.
The message "41 OK — (verbose = False, logToFile=True)" appears.
When you enable debug logging for the SSO Agent, debug log messages for the SSO Clients
connected to the SSO Agent are also generated and sent to separate log files. After the debug log
messages have been sent to the log files, you can view them to troubleshoot any issues.
For the SSO Agent:
1. Go to the debug log file directory: \Program Files\WatchGuard\WatchGuard
Authentication Gateway
2. Open the debug log file: wagsrvc.log
For the SSO Client:
1. Go to the debug log file directory: \Program Files\WatchGuard\WatchGuard
Authentication Client
2. Open a debug log file: wgssoclient_logfile.log or wgssoclient_errorfile.log
Make sure to disable debug logging when you are finished.
1. In the Telnet window, type set debug off .
2. Press Enter on your keyboard.
Telnet Commands List
This table includes commands that you can run to help you debug the SSO Agent.
Command
Telnet Message
Description
help
Show help
Shows the list of all Telnet commands.
login <user>
<password>
Login user. Quote if
space in credentials.
Type the user credentials to use to log in to the SSO
Agent with Telnet.
logout
Log out.
Log out of the SSO Agent.
get user <IP>
Show all users
logged in to <IP
address> address.
Ex: get user
192.168.203.107
Shows a list of all users logged in to the selected IP
address.
get timeout
Show the current
timeout.
get status
Show status about
the connections.
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Shows connection information used to analyze the overall
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Command
Telnet Message
Description
get status detail
Show connected
SSO clients,
pending, and
processing IPs.
Shows detailed connection information used to analyze
the overall load in your SSO environment.
get domain
Show the current
domain filter.
Gets information about the current domain filters from
which the SSO Agent accepts authentication attempts.
set domainfilter
on
Turn on domain filter. Permanently sets the domain filter to ON.
set domainfilter
off
Turn off domain filter. Permanently sets the domain filter to OFF.
set user
Set artificial user
information (for
debugging).
Changes the user information in the debug log files to a
user name you select. This enables you to clearly track
user information when you review debug log messages.
Sets debug logging on the SSO Agent to ON. This setting
sends debug log messages to the log file, which provides
detailed information for troubleshooting.
set debug on
Save debug
messages to a file in
the same location as
the .exe.
Log file location:
SSO Agent — \Program Files\WatchGuard\WatchGuard
Authentication Gateway\wagsrvc.log
SSO Client — \Program Files\WatchGuard\WatchGuard
Authentication Client\wgssoclient_logfile.log and
wgssoclient_errorfile.log
set debug
verbose
Enable additional log
messages.
set debug off
Includes additional log messages in the debug log files.
Sets debug logging on the SSO Agent to OFF.
flush <ip>
Clear cache of <ip>
address.
Deletes all authentication information about the specified
IP address from the SSO Agent cache.
flush all
Clear cache of all
<ip> addresses.
Deletes all authentication information currently available
on the SSO Agent.
list
Return list of all IP in
cache with
expiration.
Shows a list of all authentication information currently
available on the SSO Agent.
list config
Return list of all
monitoring domain
configurations.
Shows a list of all domains the SSO Agent is connected
to.
list user
Return list of all
registered users.
Shows a list of all user accounts included in the SSO
Agent configuration.
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Command
Telnet Message
Return list of all
list
registered Event Log
eventlogmonitors
Monitors.
quit
Terminate the
connection.
Description
Shows a list of all instances of the Event Log Monitor and
the version of each instance.
Closes the Telnet connection to the SSO Agent.
Install the WatchGuard Single Sign-On (SSO) Client
As a part of the WatchGuard Single Sign-On (SSO) solution, you can install the WatchGuard
SSO Client. The SSO Client installs as a Windows service that runs under the Local System account
on a workstation to verify the credentials of the user currently logged in to that computer. When a user
tries to authenticate, the SSO Agent sends a request to the SSO Client for the user's credentials. The
SSO Client then returns the credentials of the user who is logged in to the workstation.
The SSO Client listens on TCP port 4116. When you install the SSO Client, port 4116 is automatically
opened on the workstation firewall.
If you configure multiple Active Directory domains, your users must install the SSO Client. For more
information, see Configure Active Directory Authentication on page 326.
Because the SSO Client installer is an MSI file, you can choose to automatically install it on your
users' computers when they log on to your domain. You can use an Active Directory Group Policy to
automatically install software when users log on to your domain. For more information about software
installation deployment for Active Directory group policy objects, see the documentation for your
operating system.
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Download the SSO Client Software
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Open a web browser and go to http://www.watchguard.com/.
Log in with your WatchGuard account user name and password.
Click the Articles & Software tab.
Find the Software Downloads for your XTM device.
Download the WatchGuard Single Sign-On Client software and save the file to a convenient
location.
Install the SSO Client Service
1. Double-click WG-Authentication-Client.msi to start the Authentication Client Setup Wizard.
On some operating systems, you might need to type a local administrator password to run the
installer.
2. To install the software, follow the instructions on each page and complete the wizard.
3. To see which drives are available to install the client, and how much space is available on each
of these drives, click Disk Cost.
4. Click Close to exit the wizard.
After the wizard completes, the WatchGuard Authentication Client service starts automatically.
Each time the computer starts, the service starts automatically.
Enable Single Sign-On (SSO)
Before you can configure SSO, you must:
n
n
n
Configure your Active Directory server
Install the WatchGuard Single Sign-On (SSO) Agent
Install the WatchGuard Single Sign-On (SSO) Client (Optional)
XTM Compatibility If your device runs Fireware XTM v11.0–v11.3.x, the
Authentication Settings for Terminal Services are not available.
Enable and Configure SSO
To enable and configure SSO from Fireware XTM Web UI:
1. Select Authentication > Single Sign-On.
The Authentication Single Sign-On page appears.
2. Select the Enable Single Sign-On (SSO) with Active Directory check box.
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3. In the SSO Agent IP address text box, type the IP address of your SSO Agent.
4. In the Cache data for text box, type or select the amount of time the SSO Agent caches data.
5. In the SSO Exceptions list, add or remove the IP addresses or ranges to exclude from SSO
queries.
For more information about SSO exceptions, see the Define SSO Exceptions on page 292
section.
6. Click Save to save your changes.
Define SSO Exceptions
If your network includes devices with IP addresses that do not require authentication, such as network
servers, print servers, or computers that are not part of the domain, or if you have users on your internal
network who must manually authenticate to the authentication login portal, we recommend that you
add their IP addresses to the SSO Exceptions list. Each time a connection attempt occurs from an IP
address that is not in the SSO Exceptions list, the XTM device contacts the SSO Agent to try to
associate the IP address with a user name. This takes about 10 seconds. You can use the SSO
Exceptions list to prevent this delay for each connection, to reduce unnecessary network traffic, and
enable users to authenticate and connect to your network without delay.
When you add an entry to the SSO Exceptions list, you can choose to add a host IP address, network
IP address, subnet, or a host range.
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To add an entry to the SSO Exceptions list:
1. From the Choose Type drop-down list, select the type of entry to add to the SSO Exceptions list:
n Host IP
n Network IP
n Host Range
The text boxes that appear change based on the type you select.
2. Type the IP address for the type you selected.
If you selected the type Host Range, type the start and end IP addresses for the range.
3. (Optional) In the Description text box, type a description to include with this exception in the
SSO Exceptions list.
4. Click Add.
The IP address or range appears in the SSO Exceptions list.
5. Click Save.
To remove an entry from the SSO Exceptions list:
1. From the SSO Exceptions list, select an entry.
2. Click Remove.
The selected entry is removed from the SSO Exceptions list.
3. Click Save.
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Install and Configure the Terminal Services Agent
When you have more than one user who connects to your Terminal Server or Citrix server and then
connects to your network or the Internet, it can be difficult to control the individual traffic flows from
these users based on their user names or group memberships. This is because when one user
authenticates to the XTM device, the XTM device maps that user to the IP address of the Terminal
Server or Citrix server. Then, when another user sends traffic from the Terminal Server or Citrix server
IP address, it appears to the XTM device that this traffic also came from the first user that
authenticated. There is no way for the XTM device to distinguish which of the several users who are
concurrently logged on to your Terminal Server or Citrix server generated any particular traffic.
XTM Compatibility If your device runs Fireware XTM v11.0–v11.3.x, terminal
services support is not available and the configuration settings do not appear in the Web UI.
To make sure that your users are correctly identified, you must:
1. Install the WatchGuard Terminal Services Agent on your Terminal Server (2003 or 2008) or
Citrix server.
2. Configure your XTM device to authenticate users to the authentication portal over port 4100.
3. Enable Terminal Services settings in your XTM device configuration file.
After you complete these configuration settings, when each Terminal Server or Citrix server user
authenticates to your XTM device, the XTM device sends the Terminal Services Agent (TO Agent) a
user session ID for each user who logs in. The Terminal Services Agent monitors traffic generated by
individual users and reports the user session ID to the XTM device for each traffic flow generated by a
Terminal Server or Citrix server client. Your XTM device can then correctly identify each user and
apply the correct security policies to the traffic for each user, based on user or group names.
For more information about how to enable your XTM device to authenticate users over port 4100, see
Configure Your XTM Device as an Authentication Server on page 306 and About the WatchGuard
Authentication (WG-Auth) Policy on page 268.
When you use the Terminal Services Agent, your XTM device can enforce policies based on user or
group names only for traffic that is authenticated. If traffic comes to the XTM device without session ID
information, the XTM device manages the traffic in the same way it manages any other traffic for which
it does not have the username mapped to an IP address. If there is a policy in your configuration file
that can process traffic from that IP address, the XTM device uses that policy to process the traffic. If
there is no policy that matches the source IP address of the traffic, the XTM device uses the unhandled
packet rules to process the traffic.
For more information about how to configure settings for unhandled packets, see About Unhandled
Packets on page 514.
If you use the Terminal Services Agent, your XTM device cannot automatically redirect users to the
authentication portal.
To enable your XTM device to correctly process system related traffic from the Terminal Server or
Citrix server, the Terminal Services Agent uses a special user account named Backend-Service,
which is part of the Terminal Services Agent. The Terminal Services Agent identifies the traffic
generated by system processes (instead of user traffic) with the Backend-Service user account. You
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can add this user to the Authorized Users and Groups list in your XTM device configuration and then
use it in a policy to allow traffic to and from your server. For example, you can add a custom packet
filter policy that is similar to the default Outgoing policy. Configure the policy to use the TCP-UDP
protocol and allow traffic from the Backend-Service user account to Any-External.
For more information about how to add the Backend-Service user account to your XTM device
configuration, see Use Authorized Users and Groups in Policies on page 339. Make sure to select Any
from the Auth Server drop-down list.
For more information about how to add a policy, see Add Policies to Your Configuration on page 348.
Make sure the updates on your Terminal Server or Citrix server are scheduled to run as the system,
local service, or network service user account. The Terminal Services Agent recognizes these user
accounts as the Backend-Service account and allows the traffic. If you schedule updates to run as a
different user account, that user must manually authenticate to the application portal for the server to
receive the updates. If that user is not authenticated to the authentication portal, the traffic is not
allowed and the server does not receive the update.
The Terminal Services Agent cannot control ICMP, NetBIOS, or DNS traffic. It also does not control
traffic to port 4100 for Firebox Authentication. To control these types of traffic, you must add specific
policies to your XTM device configuration file to allow the traffic.
About Single Sign-On for Terminal Services
Terminal services also supports Single Sign-On (SSO) with the Terminal Services Agent. When a user
logs in to the domain, the Terminal Services Agent collects the user information (user credentials, user
groups, and domain name) from the Windows user logon event and sends it to the XTM device. The
XTM device then creates the authentication session for the user and sends the user session ID to the
Terminal Services Agent, so the user does not have to manually authenticate to the Authentication
Portal. When the user logs off, the Terminal Services Agent automatically sends the logoff information
to the XTM device, and the XTM device closes the authenticated session for that user.
Terminal Services SSO enables your users to log in once and automatically have access to your
network without additional authentication steps. With SSO for terminal services, users do not have to
manually authenticate to the Authentication Portal. Users who are logged in through terminal services
can, however, still manually authenticate with different user credentials. Manual authentication always
overrides SSO authentication.
If the Terminal Services Agent cannot get the user credentials from the user logon event on the
Windows computer, it contacts your Active Directory server for the necessary user credentials. For
detailed steps to configure the domain settings for the Terminal Services Agent, see the Specify the
Active Directory Domain Settings for Single Sign-On section.
Before You Begin
Before you install the Terminal Services Agent on your Terminal Server or Citrix server, make sure that:
n
n
n
The server operating system is Windows Server 2003 R2 or later
Terminal services or remote desktop services is enabled on your server
Ports 4131–4134 are open
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Install the Terminal Services Agent
You can install the Terminal Services Agent on a Terminal Server or Citrix server with either a 32-bit or
a 64-bit operating system. There are two versions of the Terminal Services Agent installer available:
one for a 32-bit operating system and one for a 64-bit operating system. Make sure you select the
correct installer for your operating system:
n
n
32-bit installer — TO_AGENT_32.exe
64-bit installer — TO_AGENT_64.exe
To install the Terminal Services Agent on your server:
1. Log in to the WatchGuard web site and select the Articles & Software tab.
2. Find the Software Downloads for your XTM device.
3. Get the latest version of the TO Agent Installer (TO_AGENT_32.exe or TO_AGENT_64.exe)
and copy it to the server where you have installed Terminal Services or a Citrix server.
4. Double-click the installer file to start the installer.
The TO Agent wizard appears.
5. To start the wizard, click Next.
6. Complete the wizard to install the Terminal Services Agent on your server.
7. Reboot your Terminal Server or Citrix server.
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Configure the Terminal Services Agent
After you install the Terminal Services Agent on your Terminal Server or Citrix server, you can use the
TO Settings tool to configure the settings for the Terminal Services Agent.
1. Select Start > All programs > WatchGuard > TO Agent > Set Tool.
The TO Setting Tool dialog box appears, with the XTM Device Setting tab selected.
2. To configure settings for the Terminal Services Agent, follow the instructions in the subsequent
sections.
3. Click Close.
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Manage the Destination Exception List
Because it is not necessary for the Terminal Services Agent to monitor traffic that is not controlled by
the XTM device, you can specify one or more destination IP addresses, or a range of destination IP
addresses, for traffic that you do not want the Terminal Services Agent to monitor. This is usually
traffic that does not go through your XTM device, such as traffic that does not include a user account
(to which authentication policies do not apply), traffic within your network intranet, or traffic to your
network printers.
You can add, edit, and delete destinations for traffic that you do not want the Terminal Services Agent
to monitor.
To add a destination:
1. Select the Destination Exception List tab.
2. Click Add.
The Add Destination Exception dialog box appears.
3. From the Choose Type drop-down list, select an option:
n Host IP Address
n Network IP Address
n IP Address Range
4. If you select Host IP Address, type the IP Address for the exception.
If you select Network IP Address, type the Network Address and Mask for the exception.
If you select IP Address Range, type the Range start IP address and Range end IP address
for the exception.
5. Click Add.
The information you specified appears in the Destination Exception List.
6. To add more addresses to the Destination Exception List, repeat Steps 4–7.
To edit a destination in the list:
1. From the Destination Exception List, select a destination.
2. Click Edit.
The Destination Exception dialog box appears.
3. Update the details of the destination.
4. Click OK.
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To delete a destination from the list:
1. From the Destination Exception List, select a destination.
2. Click Delete.
The selected address is removed from the list.
Specify Programs for the Backend-Service User Account
The Terminal Services Agent identifies traffic generated by system processes with the BackendService user account. By default, this includes traffic from SYSTEM, Network Service, and Local
Service programs.You can also specify other programs with the EXE file extension that you want the
Terminal Services Agent to associate with the Backend-Service account so that they are allowed
through your firewall. For example, clamwin.exe, SoftwareUpdate.exe, Safari.exe, or ieexplore.exe.
The Backend-Service
To specify the programs for the Terminal Services Agent to associate with the Backend-Service user
account:
1. Select the Backend-Service tab.
2. Click Add.
The Open dialog box appears.
3. Browse to select a program with an EXE extension.
The path to the program appears in the Backend-Service list.
4. To remove a program from the Backend-Service list, select the program and click Delete.
The program path is removed from the list.
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Set the Diagnostic Log Level and View Log Messages
You can configure the diagnostic log level for the Terminal Services Agent (TO Agent) and the TO Set
Tool applications. The log messages that are generated by each application are saved in a text file. To
see the log messages generated for the TO Agent or the TO Set Tool, you can open the log file for each
application from the Diagnostic Log Level tab.
1. Select the Diagnostic Log Level tab.
2. From the Set the diagnostic log level for drop-down list, select an application:
n TOAgent (This is the Terminal Services Agent.)
n TO Set Tool
3. Move the Settings slider to set the diagnostic log level for the selected application.
4. To see the available log files for the selected application, click View Log.
A text file opens with the available log messages for the selected application.
5. To configure settings and view log messages for the other application, repeat Steps 2–4.
For detailed steps on how to complete the Terminal Services configuration for your XTM device, see
Configure Terminal Services Settings on page 303.
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Specify the Active Directory Domain Settings for Single Sign-On
To successfully authenticate users, the Terminal Services Agent (TO Agent) must collect the correct
user credentials. If it cannot get the necessary credentials from user logon events, the TO Agent
contacts the Active Directory server that you specify on the Domain Setting tab to get the user
credentials from the server LDAP store.
To configure the Active Directory server domain settings for the TO Agent:
1. In the TO Agent Settings dialog box, select the Domain Setting tab.
The Domain Settings appear.
2. In the Domain Name text box, type the name of your Active Directory domain in the standard
domain format.
For example, exampledomain.com .
The domain name of your Active Directory server is case-sensitive. Make sure you type the
domain name exactly as it appears on the Active Directory tab in the Authentication Server
settings on your XTM device. For more information, see Configure Active Directory
Authentication.
3. In the IP Address of the Domain Controller text box, type the IP address of the domain
controller for your Active Directory server.
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4. In the Port text box, 389 appears by default. This is the default port for Active Directory
authentication.
We recommend that you do not change this port unless you specified a different port for
connections to your Active Directory server. If you did specify a different port, make sure to
type that port number here.
Note Do not specify the port for LDAPS, port 636. Only Active Directory LDAP stores are
supported.
5. In the Searching User Name text box, type the user name in plain user name format for any
user that has privileges to search your Active Directory server.
For example, type adminuser1 .
6. In the Searching User Password and Confirm Password text boxes, type the password for
the user you specified.
7. Click Apply.
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Configure Terminal Services Settings
To enable your users to authenticate to your XTM device over a Terminal Server or Citrix server, you
must configure the authentication settings for terminal services. When you configure these settings,
you set the maximum length of time a session can be active and specify the IP address of your
Terminal Server or Citrix server.
XTM Compatibility If your device runs Fireware XTM v11.0–v11.3.x, terminal
services is not available and the configuration settings do not appear in Policy Manager.
When you configure the Terminal Services settings, if your users authenticate to your XTM device, the
XTM device reports the actual IP address of each user who logs in. This enables your XTM device to
correctly identify each user who logs in to your network, so the correct security policies can be applied
to each user's traffic.
You can use any of your configured authentication server methods (for example, Firebox
authentication, Active Directory, or RADIUS) with terminal services. For Single Sign-On to work with
terminal services, you must use an Active Directory server.
To configure Authentication Settings for terminal services:
1. Select Authentication > Terminal Services.
The Authentication Terminal Services page appears.
2. Select the Enable Terminal Services Support check box.
The terminal services settings are enabled.
3. In the Session Timeout text box, type or select the maximum length of time in seconds that
the user can send traffic to the external network.
If you select zero (0) seconds, the session does not expire and the user can stay connected for
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any length of time.
4. To add a Terminal Server or Citrix server to the Agent IP list list, in the text box, type the
IP address of the server and click Add.
The IP address appears in the Terminal Services Agent IPs List list.
5. To remove a server IP address from the Agent IP list list, select an IP address in the list and
click Remove.
6. Click Save.
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Authentication Server Types
The Fireware XTM OS supports six authentication methods:
n
n
n
n
n
n
XTM Device Authentication
RADIUS Server Authentication
VASCO Server Authentication
SecurID Authentication
LDAP Authentication
Active Directory Authentication
You can configure one or more authentication server types for an XTM device. If you use more than
one type of authentication server, users must select the authentication server type from a drop-down
list when they authenticate.
About Third-Party Authentication Servers
If you use a third-party authentication server, you do not have to keep a separate user database on the
XTM device. You can configure a third-party server, install the authentication server with access to
your XTM device, and put the server behind the device for security. You then configure the device to
forward user authentication requests to that server. If you create a user group on the XTM device that
authenticates to a third-party server, make sure you create a group on the server that has the same
name as the user group on the device.
For detailed information about how to configure an XTM device for use with third-party authentication
servers, see:
n
n
n
n
n
Configure RADIUS Server Authentication
Configure VASCO Server Authentication
Configure SecurID Authentication
Configure LDAP Authentication
Configure Active Directory Authentication
Use a Backup Authentication Server
You can configure a primary and a backup authentication server with any of the third-party
authentication server types. If the XTM device cannot connect to the primary authentication server
after three attempts, the primary server is marked as inactive and an alarm message is generated. The
device then connects to the backup authentication server.
If the XTM device cannot connect to the backup authentication server, it waits ten minutes, and then
tries to connect to the primary authentication server again. The inactive server is marked as active
after the specified time interval is reached.
For detailed procedures to configure primary and backup authentication servers, see the configuration
topic for your third-party authentication server.
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Configure Your XTM Device as an Authentication
Server
If you do not use a third-party authentication server, you can use your XTM device as an authentication
server, also known as Firebox authentication. When you configure Firebox authentication, you create
users accounts for each user in your company, and then divide these users into groups for
authentication. When you assign users to groups, make sure to associate them by their tasks and the
information they use. For example, you can have an accounting group, a marketing group, and a
research and development group. You can also have a new employee group with more controlled
access to the Internet.
When you create a group, you set the authentication procedure for the users, the system type, and the
information they can access. A user can be a network or one computer. If your company changes, you
can add or remove users from your groups.
The Firebox authentication server is enabled by default. You do not have to enable it before you add
users and groups.
For detailed instructions to add users and groups, see Define a New User for Firebox Authentication on
page 309 and Define a New Group for Firebox Authentication on page 311.
After you add users and groups, the users you added can connect to the Authentication Portal from a
web browser on a computer or smart phone and authenticate over port 4100 to get access to your
network. For more information about how to use Firebox authentication, see Firewall Authentication.
Types of Firebox Authentication
You can configure your XTM device to authenticate users with four different types of authentication:
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Mobile VPN with PPTP Connections
Mobile VPN with IPSec Connections
Mobile VPN with SSL Connections
When authentication is successful, the XTM device links these items:
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User name
Firebox User group (or groups) of which the user is a member
IP address of the computer used to authenticate
Virtual IP address of the computer used to connect with Mobile VPN
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Firewall Authentication
To enable your users to authenticate, you create user accounts and groups. When a user connects to
the authentication portal with a web browser on a computer or smart phone and authenticates to the
XTM device, the user credentials and computer IP address are used to find whether a policy applies to
the traffic that the computer sends and receives.
To create a Firebox user account:
1. Define a New User for Firebox Authentication.
2. Define a New Group for Firebox Authentication and put the new user in that group.
3. Createa policy that allows traffic only to orfrom alist ofFirebox usernames or groups.
This policy is applied only if apacket comes from orgoes tothe IPaddress ofthe authenticateduser.
After you have added a user to a group and created policies to manage the traffic for the user, the user
can open a web browser on a computer or smart phone to authenticate to the XTM device.
To authenticate with an HTTPS connection to the XTM device over port 4100:
1. Open a web browser and go to https://<IP address of a XTM device interface>:4100/
The login page appears.
2. Type the Username and Password.
3. From the Domain drop-down list, select the domain to use for authentication.
This option only appears if you can choose from more than one domain.
4. Click Login.
If the credentials are valid, the user is authenticated.
Firewall authentication takes precedence over Single Sign-On, and replaces the user credentials and
IP address from your Single Sign-On session with the user credentials and IP address you select for
Firewall authentication. For more information about how to configure Single Sign-On, see About Single
Sign-On (SSO) on page 274.
Mobile VPN with PPTP Connections
When you activate Mobile VPN with PPTP on your XTM device, users included in the Mobile VPN with
PPTP group can use the PPTP feature included in their computer operating system to make a PPTP
connection to the device.
Because the XTM device allows the PPTP connection from any Firebox user that gives the correct
credentials, it is important that you make a policy for PPTP sessions that includes only users you want
to allow to send traffic over the PPTP session. You can also add a group or individual user to a policy
that restricts access to resources behind the XTM device. The XTM device creates a pre-configured
group called PPTP-Users for this purpose.
To configure a Mobile VPN with PPTP connection:
1. From Fireware XTM Web UI, select VPN > Mobile VPN with PPTP.
2. Select the Activate Mobile VPN with PPTP check box.
3. Make sure the Use Radius authentication for PPTP users check box is not selected.
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If this check box is selected, the RADIUS authentication server authenticates the PPTP
session.
If you clear this check box, the XTM device authenticates the PPTP session.
The XTM device checks to see whether the user name and password the user types in the VPN
connection dialog box match the user credentials in the Firebox User database that is a member
of the PPTP-Users group.
If the credentials supplied by the user match an account in the Firebox User database, the user is
authenticated for a PPTP session.
4. Create a policy that allows traffic only from or to a list of Firebox user names or groups.
The XTM device does not look at this policy unless traffic comes from or goes to the IP address of the
authenticated user.
Mobile VPN with IPSec Connections
When you configure your XTM device to host Mobile VPN with IPSec sessions, you create policies on
your device and then use the Mobile VPN with IPSec client to enable your users to access your
network. After the XTM device is configured, each client computer must be configured with the Mobile
VPN with IPSec client software.
When the user's computer is correctly configured, the user makes the Mobile VPN connection. If the
credentials used for authentication match an entry in the Firebox User database, and if the user is in
the Mobile VPN group you create, the Mobile VPN session is authenticated.
To set up authentication for Mobile VPN with IPSec:
1. Configure a Mobile VPN with IPSec Connection.
2. Install the Mobile VPN with IPSec Client Software.
Mobile VPN with SSL Connections
You can configure the XTM device to host Mobile VPN with SSL sessions. When the XTM device is
configured with a Mobile VPN with SSL connection, users included in the Mobile VPN with SSL group
can install and use the Mobile VPN with SSL client software to make an SSL connection.
Because the XTM device allows the SSL connection from any of your users who give the correct
credentials, it is important that you make a policy for SSL VPN sessions that includes only users you
want to allow to send traffic over SSL VPN. You can also add these users to a Firebox User Group and
make a policy that allows traffic only from this group. The XTM device creates a pre-configured group
called SSLVPN-Users for this purpose.
To configure a Mobile VPN with SSL connection:
1. From Fireware XTM Web UI, select VPN > Mobile VPN with SSL.
The Mobile VPN with SSLVPN page appears.
2. Configure the XTM Device for Mobile VPN with SSL.
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Define a New User for Firebox Authentication
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to specify which users can authenticate to your XTM device.
1. Select Authentication > Servers.
The Authentication Servers page appears.
2. On the Firebox tab, in the Users section, click Add.
The Setup Firebox User dialog box appears.
3. Type the Name and (optional) a Description of the new user.
4. Type and confirm the Passphrase you want the person to use to authenticate.
Note When you set this passphrase, the characters are masked and it does not appear in
simple text again. If you lose the passphrase, you must set a new passphrase.
5. In the Session Timeout text box, type or select the maximum length of time the user can send
traffic to the external network.
The minimum value for this setting is one (1) seconds, minutes, hours, or days. The maximum
value is 365 days.
6. In the Idle Timeout text box, type or select the length of time the user can stay authenticated
when idle (not passing any traffic to the external network).
The minimum value for this setting is one (1) seconds, minutes, hours, or days. The maximum
value is 365 days.
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7. To add a user to a Firebox Authentication Group, select the user name in the Available list.
8. Click to move the name to the Member list.
Or, you can double-click the user name in the Available list.
The user is added to the user list. You can then add more users.
9. To close the Setup Firebox User dialog box, click OK.
The Firebox Users tab appears with a list of the new users.
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Define a New Group for Firebox Authentication
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to specify which user groups can authenticate to your XTM device.
1. Select Authentication > Servers.
The Authentication Servers page appears.
2. Select the Firebox tab.
3. In the Groups section, click Add.
The Setup Firebox Group dialog box appears.
4. Type a name for the group.
5. (Optional) Type a description for the group.
6. To add a user to the group, select the user name in the Available list. Click to move the name
to the Member list.
You can also double-click the user name in the Available list.
7. After you add all necessary users to the group, click OK.
You can now configure policies and authentication with these users and groups, as described in Use
Authorized Users and Groups in Policies on page 339.
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Configure RADIUS Server Authentication
RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service) authenticates the local and remote users on a
company network. RADIUS is a client/server system that keeps the authentication information for
users, remote access servers, VPN gateways, and other resources in one central database.
For more information on RADIUS authentication, see How RADIUS Server Authentication Works on
page 314.
Authentication Key
The authentication messages to and from the RADIUS server use an authentication key, not a
password. This authentication key, or shared secret, must be the same on the RADIUS client and
server. Without this key, there is no communication between the client and server.
RADIUS Authentication Methods
For web and Mobile VPN with IPSec or SSL authentication, RADIUS supports only PAP (Password
Authentication Protocol) authentication.
For authentication with PPTP, RADIUS supports only MSCHAPv2 (Microsoft Challenge-Handshake
Authentication Protocol version 2).
For authentication with WPA Enterprise and WPA2 Enterprise authentication methods, RADIUS
supports the EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) framework.
Before You Begin
Before you configure your XTM device to use your RADIUS authentication server, you must have this
information:
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Primary RADIUS server — IP address and RADIUS port
Secondary RADIUS server (optional) — IP address and RADIUS port
Shared secret — Case-sensitive password that is the same on the XTM device and the
RADIUS server
Authentication methods — Set your RADIUS server to allow the authentication method your
XTM device uses: PAP, MS CHAP v2, WPA Enterprise, WPA2 Enterprise, or WPA/WPA2
Enterprise
Use RADIUS Server Authentication with Your XTM Device
To use RADIUS server authentication with your XTM device, you must:
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Add the IP address of the XTM device to the RADIUS server as described in the documentation
from your RADIUS vendor.
Enable and specify the RADIUS server in your XTM device configuration.
Add RADIUS user names or group names to your policies.
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To enable and specify the RADIUS server(s) in your configuration, from Fireware XTM Web UI:
1. Select Authentication > Servers.
The Authentication Servers page appears.
2. Select the RADIUS tab.
3. Select the Enable RADIUS Server check box.
4. In the IP Address text box, type the IP address of the RADIUS server.
5. In the Port text box, make sure that the port number RADIUS uses for authentication appears.
The default port number is 1812. Older RADIUS servers might use port 1645.
6. In the Passphrase text box, type the shared secret between the XTM device and the RADIUS
server.
The shared secret is case-sensitive, and it must be the same on the XTM device and the
RADIUS server.
7. In the ConfirmPassphrase text box, type the shared secret again.
8. Type or select the Timeout value.
The timeout value is the amount of time the XTM device waits for a response from the
authentication server before it tries to connect again.
9. In the Retries text box, type or select the number of times the XTM device tries to connect to
the authentication server (the timeout is specified above) before it reports a failed connection for
one authentication attempt.
10. In the Group Attribute text box, type or select an attribute value. The default group attribute is
FilterID, which is RADIUS attribute 11.
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The group attribute value is used to set the attribute that carries the User Group information.
You must configure the RADIUS server to include the Filter ID string with the user
authentication message it sends to the XTM device. For example, engineerGroup or
financeGroup. This information is then used for access control. The XTM device matches the
FilterID string to the group name configured in the XTM device policies.
11. In the Dead Time text box, type or select the amount of time after which an inactive server is
marked as active again. Select minutes or hours from the drop-down list to change the
duration.
After an authentication server has not responded for a period of time, it is marked as inactive.
Subsequent authentication attempts will not try this server until it is marked as active again.
12. To add a backup RADIUS server, select the Secondary Server Settings tab, and select the
Enable Secondary RADIUS Server check box.
13. Repeat Steps 4–11 to configure the backup server. Make sure the shared secret is the same on
the primary and backup RADIUS server.
For more information, see Use a Backup Authentication Server on page 305.
14. Click Save.
How RADIUS Server Authentication Works
RADIUS is a protocol that was originally designed to authenticate remote users to a dial-in access
server. RADIUS is now used in a wide range of authentication scenarios. RADIUS is a client-server
protocol, with the XTM device as the client and the RADIUS server as the server. (The RADIUS client
is sometimes called the Network Access Server or NAS.) When a user tries to authenticate, the XTM
device sends a message to the RADIUS server. If the RADIUS server is properly configured to have
the XTM device as a client, RADIUS sends an accept or reject message back to the XTM device (the
Network Access Server).
When the XTM device uses RADIUS for an authentication attempt:
1. The user tries to authenticate, either through a browser-based HTTPS connection to the XTM
device over port 4100, or through a connection using Mobile VPN with PPTP or IPSec. The
XTM device reads the user name and password.
2. The XTM device creates a message called an Access-Request message and sends it to the
RADIUS server. The XTM device uses the RADIUS shared secret in the message. The
password is always encrypted in the Access-Request message.
3. The RADIUS server makes sure that the Access-Request message is from a known client (the
XTM device). If the RADIUS server is not configured to accept the XTM device as a client, the
server discards the Access-Request message and does not send a message back.
4. If the XTM device is a client known to the RADIUS server and the shared secret is correct, the
server looks at the authentication method requested in the Access-Request message.
5. If the Access-Request message uses an allowed authentication method, the RADIUS server
gets the user credentials from the message and looks for a match in a user database. If the user
name and password match an entry in the database, the RADIUS server can get additional
information about the user from the user database (such as remote access approval, group
membership, logon hours, and so on).
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6. The RADIUS server checks to see whether it has an access policy or a profile in its
configuration that matches all the information it has about the user. If such a policy exists, the
server sends a response.
7. If any of the previous conditions fail, or if the RADIUS server has no matching policy, it sends
an Access-Reject message that shows authentication failure. The RADIUS transaction ends
and the user is denied access.
8. If the Access-Request message meets all the previous conditions, RADIUS sends an AccessAccept message to the XTM device.
9. The RADIUS server uses the shared secret for any response it sends. If the shared secret does
not match, the XTM device rejects the RADIUS response.
To see diagnostic log messages for authentication, Set the Diagnostic Log Level and change
the log level for the Authentication category.
10. The XTM device reads the value of any FilterID attribute in the message. It connects the user
name with the FilterID attribute to put the user in a RADIUS group.
11. The RADIUS server can put a large amount of additional information in the Access-Accept
message. The XTM device ignores most of this information, such as the protocols the user is
allowed to use (such as PPP or SLIP), the ports the user can access, idle timeouts, and other
attributes.
12. The XTM device only requires the FilterID attribute (RADIUS attribute number 11). The FilterID
is a string of text that you configure the RADIUS server to include in the Access-Accept
message. This attribute is necessary for the XTM device to assign the user to a RADIUS group,
however, it can support some other Radius attributes such as Session-Timeout (RADIUS
attribute number 27) and Idle-Timeout (RADIUS attribute number 28).
For more information on RADIUS groups, see the subsequent section.
About RADIUS Groups
When you configure RADIUS authentication, you can set the Group Attribute number. Fireware XTM
reads the Group Attribute number from Fireware XTM Web UI to tell which RADIUS attribute carries
RADIUS group information. Fireware XTM recognizes only RADIUS attribute number 11, FilterID, as
the Group Attribute. When you configure the RADIUS server, do not change the Group Attribute
number from its default value of 11.
When the XTM device gets the Access-Accept message from RADIUS, it reads the value of the
FilterID attribute and uses this value to associate the user with a RADIUS group. (You must manually
configure the FilterID in your RADIUS configuration.) Thus, the value of the FilterID attribute is the
name of the RADIUS group where the XTM device puts the user.
The RADIUS groups you use in Fireware XTM Web UI are not the same as the Windows groups
defined in your domain controller, or any other groups that exist in your domain user database. A
RADIUS group is only a logical group of users the XTM device uses. Make sure you carefully select
the FilterID text string. You can make the value of the FilterID match the name of a local group or
domain group in your organization, but this is not necessary. We recommend you use a descriptive
name that helps you remember how you defined your user groups.
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Practical Use of RADIUS Groups
If your organization has many users to authenticate, you can make your XTM device policies easier to
manage if you configure RADIUS to send the same FilterID value for many users. The XTM device
puts those users into one logical group so you can easily administer user access. When you make a
policy in Fireware XTM Web UI that allows only authenticated users to access a network resource,
you use the RADIUS Group name instead of adding a list of many individual users.
For example, when Mary authenticates, the FilterID string RADIUS sends is Sales, so the XTM device
puts Mary in the Sales RADIUS group for as long as she is authenticated. If users John and Alice
subsequently authenticate, and RADIUS puts the same FilterID value Sales in the Access-Accept
messages for John and Alice, then Mary, John, and Alice are all in the Sales group. You can make a
policy in Fireware XTM Web UI that allows the group Sales to access a resource.
You can configure RADIUS to return a different FilterID, such as IT Support, for the members of your
internal support organization. You can then make a different policy to allow IT Support users to access
resources.
For example, you might allow the Sales group to access the Internet using a Filtered-HTTP policy.
Then you can filter their web access with WebBlocker. A different policy in Policy Manager can allow
the IT Support users to access the Internet with the Unfiltered-HTTP policy, so that they access the
web without WebBlocker filtering. You use the RADIUS group name (or user names) in the From field
of a policy to show which group (or which users) can use the policy.
Timeout and Retry Values
An authentication failure occurs when no response is received from the primary RADIUS server. After
three authentication attempts fail, Fireware XTM uses the secondary RADIUS server. This process is
called failover.
Note This number of authentication attempts is not the same as the Retry number. You
cannot change the number of authentication attempts before failover occurs.
The XTM device sends an Access-Request message to the first RADIUS server in the list. If there is
no response, the XTM device waits the number of seconds set in the Timeout box, and then it sends
another Access-Request. This continues for the number of times indicated in the Retry box (or until
there is a valid response). If there is no valid response from the RADIUS server, or if the RADIUS
shared secret does not match, Fireware XTM counts this as one failed authentication attempt.
After three authentication attempts fail, Fireware XTM uses the secondary RADIUS server for the next
authentication attempt. If the secondary server also fails to respond after three authentication
attempts, Fireware XTM waits ten minutes for an administrator to correct the problem. After ten
minutes, Fireware XTM tries to use the primary RADIUS server again.
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WPA and WPA2 Enterprise Authentication
To add another layer of security when your users connect to your wireless network, you can enable
enterprise authentication methods on your XTM wireless device. When you configure an enterprise
authentication method, the client must have the correct authentication method configured to
successfully connect to the XTM device. The XTM wireless device then sends authentication requests
to the configured authentication server (RADIUS server or Firebox-DB). If the authentication method
information is not correct, the user cannot connect to the device, and is not allowed access to your
network.
XTM Compatibility If your device runs Fireware XTM v11.0-v11.3.x, the
authentication methods based on the IEEE 802.1X standard are not available.
In Fireware XTM v11.4 and later, the available enterprise authentication methods are WPA Enterprise
and WPA2 Enterprise. These authentication methods are based on the IEEE 802.1X standard, which
uses the EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) framework to enable user authentication to an
external RADIUS server or to your XTM device (Firebox-DB). The WPA Enterprise and WPA2
Enterprise authentication methods are more secure than WPA/WPA2 (PSK) because users must first
have the correct authentication method configured, and then authenticate with their own enterprise
credentials instead of one shared key that is known by everyone who uses the wireless access point.
You can use the WPA Enterprise and WPA2 Enterprise authentication methods with XTM wireless
devices. For more information about how to configure your XTM wireless device to use enterprise
authentication, see Set the Wireless Authentication Method on page 204.
Configure VASCO Server Authentication
VASCO server authentication uses the VACMAN Middleware software to authenticate remote users
on a company network through a RADIUS or web server environment. VASCO also supports multiple
authentication server environments. The VASCO one-time password token system enables you to
eliminate the weakest link in your security infrastructure—the use of static passwords.
To use VASCO server authentication with your XTM device, you must:
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Add the IP address of the XTM device to the VACMAN Middleware server, as described in the
documentation from your VASCO vendor.
Enable and specify the VACMAN Middleware server in your XTM device configuration.
Add user names or group names to the policies in Policy Manager.
To configure VASCO server authentication, use the RADIUS server settings. The Authentication
Servers dialog box does not have a separate tab for VASCO servers.
From Fireware XTM Web UI:
1. Select Authentication > Servers.
The Authentication Servers page appears.
2. Select the RADIUS tab.
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3. To enable the VACMAN Middleware server, select the Enable RADIUS Server check box.
4. In the IP Address text box, type the IP address of the VACMAN Middleware server.
5. In the Port text box, make sure that the port number VASCO uses for authentication appears.
The default port number is 1812.
6. In the Passphrase text box, type the shared secret between the XTM device and the VACMAN
Middleware server.
The shared secret is case-sensitive, and it must be the same on the XTM device and the server.
7. In the Confirm text box, type the shared secret again.
8. In the Timeout text box, type or select the amount of time the XTM device waits for a response
from the authentication server before it tries to connect again.
9. In the Retries text box, type or select the number of times the XTM device tries to connect to
the authentication server before it reports a failed connection for one authentication attempt.
10. Type or select the Group Attribute value. The default group attribute is FilterID, which is
VASCO attribute 11.
The group attribute value is used to set which attribute carries the user group information. You
must configure the VASCO server to include the Filter ID string with the user authentication
message it sends to the XTM device. For example, engineerGroup or financeGroup. This
information is then used for access control. The XTM device matches the FilterID string to the
group name configured in the XTM device policies.
11. In the Dead Time text box, type or select the amount of time after which an inactive server is
marked as active again. Select minutes or hours from the drop-down list to change the
duration.
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After an authentication server has not responded for a period of time, it is marked as inactive.
Subsequent authentication attempts do not try to connect to this server until it is marked as
active again.
12. To add a backup VACMAN Middleware server, select the Secondary Server Settings tab, and
select the Enable Secondary RADIUS Server check box.
13. Repeat Steps 4–11 to configure the backup server. Make sure the shared secret is the same on
the primary and secondary VACMAN Middleware server.
For more information, see Use a Backup Authentication Server on page 305.
14. Click Save.
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Configure SecurID Authentication
To use SecurID authentication, you must configure the RADIUS, VASCO, and ACE/Server servers
correctly. The users must also have an approved SecurID token and a PIN (personal identification
number). Refer to the RSA SecurID documentation for more information.
From Fireware XTM Web UI:
1. Select Authentication > Servers.
The Authentication Servers page appears.
2. Select the SecurID tab.
3. Select the Enable SecurID Server check box.
4. In the IP Address text box, type the IP address of the SecurID server.
5. Click the Port field up or down arrow to set the port number to use for SecurID authentication.
The default number is 1812.
6. In the Passphrase text box, type the shared secret between the XTM device and the SecurID
server. The shared secret is case-sensitive and must be the same on the XTM device and the
SecurID server.
7. In the Confirm text box, type the shared secret again.
8. In the Timeout text box, type or select the amount of time that the XTM device waits for a
response from the authentication server before it tries to connect again.
9. In the Retriestext box, type or select the number of times the XTM device tries to connect to the
authentication server before it reports a failed connection for one authentication attempt.
10. In the Group Attribute text box, type or select the group attribute value. We recommend that
you do not change this value.
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The group attribute value is used to set the attribute that carries the user group information.
When the SecurID server sends a message to the XTM device that a user is authenticated, it
also sends a user group string. For example, engineerGroup or financeGroup. This information
is then used for access control.
11. In the Dead Time text box, type or select the amount of time after which an inactive server is
marked as active again. Select minutes or hours from the adjacent drop-down list to change
the duration.
After an authentication server has not responded for a period of time, it is marked as inactive.
Subsequent authentication attempts do not use this server until it is marked as active again,
after the dead time value is reached.
12. To add a backup SecurID server, select the Secondary Server Settings tab, and select the
Enable Secondary SecurID Server check box.
13. Repeat Steps 4–11 to configure the backup server. Make sure the shared secret is the same on
the primary and backup SecurID servers.
For more information, see Use a Backup Authentication Server on page 305.
14. Click Save.
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Configure LDAP Authentication
You can use an LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) authentication server to authenticate
your users with the XTM device. LDAP is an open-standard protocol for using online directory services,
and it operates with Internet transport protocols, such as TCP. Before you configure your XTM device
for LDAP authentication, make sure you check the documentation from your LDAP vendor to see if
your installation supports the memberOf (or equivalent) attribute. When you configure your primary and
backup LDAP server settings, you can select whether to specify the IP address or the DNS name of
your LDAP server.
If your users authenticate with the LDAP authentication method, their distinguished names (DN) and
passwords are not encrypted. To use LDAP authentication and encrypt user credentials, you can select
the LDAPS (LDAP over SSL) option. When you use LDAPS, the traffic between the LDAP client on your
XTM device and your LDAP server is secured by an SSL tunnel. When you enable this option, you can
also choose whether to enable the LDAPS client to validate the LDAP server certificate, which prevents
man-in-the-middle attacks. If you choose to use LDAPS and you specify the DNS name of your server,
make sure the search base you specify includes the DNS name of your server. The standard LDAPS
port is 636. For Active Directory Global Catalog queries, the SSL port is 3269.
When you configure the LDAP authentication method, you set a search base to specify where in the
authentication server directories the XTM device can search for an authentication match. For example,
if your user accounts are in an OU (organizational unit) you refer to as accounts and your domain name
is example.com, your search base is ou=accounts,dc=example,dc=com .
From Fireware XTM Web UI:
1. Select Authentication > Servers.
The Authentication Servers page appears.
2. Select the LDAP tab.
3. Select the Enable LDAPServer check box
The LDAP server settings are enabled.
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4. From the IP Address/DNS Name drop-down list, select whether to use the IP address or DNS
name to contact your primary LDAP server.
5. In the IP Address/DNS Name text box, type the IP address or DNS name of the primary LDAP
server for the XTM device to contact with authentication requests.
The LDAP server can be located on any XTM device interface. You can also configure your
device to use an LDAP server on a remote network through a VPN tunnel.
6. In the Port text box, select the TCP port number for the XTM device to use to connect to the
LDAP server. The default port number is 389.
If you enable LDAPS, you must select port 636.
7. In the Search Base text box, type the search base settings in the standard format:
ou=organizational unit,dc=first part of distinguished server name,dc=any part of the
distinguished server name that appears after the dot.
For example: ou=accounts,dc=example,dc=com
8. In the Group String text box, type the group string attribute.
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This attribute string holds user group information on the LDAP server. On many LDAP servers,
the default group string is uniqueMember; on other servers, it is member.
9. In the DN of Searching User text box, type the distinguished name (DN) for a search
operation.
You can add any user DN with the privilege to search LDAP/Active Directory, such as an
administrator. Some administrators create a new user that only has searching privileges.
For example, cn=Administrator,cn=Users,dc=example,dc=com .
10. In the Password of Searching User text box, type the password associated with the
distinguished name for a search operation.
11. In the Login Attribute text box, select a LDAP login attribute to use for authentication from the
drop-down list.
The login attribute is the name used for the bind to the LDAP database. The default login
attribute is uid. If you use uid, the DN of Searching User and the Password of Searching
User text boxes can be empty.
12. In the Dead Time text box, type or select the amount of time after which an inactive server is
marked as active again. Select minutes or hours from the adjacent drop-down list to set the
duration.
After an authentication server has not responded for a period of time, it is marked as inactive.
Subsequent authentication attempts do not try this server until it is marked as active again.
13. To enable secure SSL connections to your LDAP server, select the Enable LDAPS check box.
14. If you enable LDAPS but did not set the Port value to the default port for LDAPS, a port
message dialog box appears. To use the default port, click Yes. To use the port you specified,
click No.
15. To verify the certificate of the LDAP server is valid, select the Validate server certificate
check box.
16. To specify optional attributes for the primary LDAP server, click Optional Settings.
For more information about how to configure optional settings, see the subsequent section.
17. To add a backup LDAP server, select the Secondary Server Settings tab, and select the
Enable Secondary LDAP Server check box.
18. Repeat Steps 3–14 to configure the backup server. Make sure the shared secret is the same on
the primary and backup LDAP servers.
For more information, see Use a Backup Authentication Server on page 305.
19. Click Save.
About LDAP Optional Settings
Fireware XTM can get additional information from the directory server (LDAP or Active Directory) when
it reads the list of attributes in the server’s search response. This lets you use the directory server to
assign extra parameters to the authenticated user sessions, such as timeouts and Mobile VPN with
IPSec address assignments. Because the data comes from LDAP attributes associated with
individual user objects, you are not limited to the global settings in Fireware XTM Web UI. You can set
these parameters for each individual user.
For more information, see Use Active Directory or LDAP Optional Settings on page 334.
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Test the Connection to the Server
To make sure that your XTM device can connect to your LDAP server and successfully authenticate
your users, you can test the connection to your authentication server. You can also use this feature to
determine if a specific user is authenticated and to get authentication group information for that user.
You can test the connection to your authentication server from the Authentication Servers page for
your server, or you can navigate directly to the Server Connection page in Fireware XTM Web UI.
To navigate to the Server Connection page from the Authentication Servers page:
1. Click Test Connection.
The Server Connection page appears.
2. Follow the instructions in the Server Connection topic to test the connection to your server.
For instructions to navigate directly to the Server Connection page in Fireware XTM Web UI, see
Server Connection on page 542.
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Configure Active Directory Authentication
Active Directory is the Microsoft® Windows-based application of an LDAP directory structure. Active
Directory lets you expand the concept of domain hierarchy used in DNS to an organizational level. It
keeps information and settings for an organization in a central, easy-to-access database. You can use
an Active Directory authentication server to enable your users to authenticate to the XTM device with
their current network credentials. You must configure both your XTM device and the Active Directory
server for Active Directory authentication to work correctly.
When you configure Active Directory authentication, you can specify one or more Active Directory
domains that your users can select when they authenticate. For each domain, you can add up to two
Active Directory servers: one primary server and one backup server. If the first server you add fails, the
second server is used to complete authentication requests. When you add an Active Directory server,
you can select whether to specify the IP address or the DNS name of each server.
If you configure more than one Active Directory domain and you use Single Sign-On (SSO), to enable
your users to select from the available Active Directory domains and authenticate, your users must
install the SSO client. For more information, see About Single Sign-On (SSO) on page 274 and Install
the WatchGuard Single Sign-On (SSO) Client on page 290.
If your users authenticate with the Active Directory authentication method, their distinguished names
(DN) and passwords are not encrypted. To use Active Directory authentication and encrypt user
credentials, you can select the LDAPS (LDAP over SSL) option. When you use LDAPS, the traffic
between the LDAPS client on your XTM device and your Active Directory server is secured by an SSL
tunnel. When you enable this option, you can also choose whether to enable the LDAPS client to
validate the Active Directory server certificate. If you choose to use LDAPS and you specify the
DNS name of your server, make sure the search base you specify includes the DNS name of your
server.
The Active Directory server can be located on any XTM device interface. You can also configure your
XTM device to use an Active Directory server available through a VPN tunnel.
Before you begin, make sure your users can successfully authenticate to your Active Directory server.
You can then use Fireware XTM Web UI to configure your XTM device. You can add, edit, or delete the
Active Directory domains and servers defined in your configuration.
Add an Active Directory Authentication Domain and Server
1. Select Authentication > Servers.
The Authentication Servers page appears.
2. Select the Active Directory tab.
The Active Directory settings appear.
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3. Click Add.
The Active Directory Domain page appears.
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4. In the Domain Name text box, type the domain name to use for this Active Directory server.
5. Click Add.
The Add IP/DNS Name page appears.
6. From the Choose Type drop-down list, select IP Address or DNS Name.
7. In the Host IP or Host Name text box, type the IP address or DNS name of this Active
Directory server.
8. In the Port text box, type or select the TCP port number for the device to use to connect to the
Active Directory server.
The default port number is 389. If you enable LDAPS, you must select port 636.
If your Active Directory server is a global catalog server, it can be useful to change the default port.
For more information, see Change the Default Port for the Active Directory Server on page 334.
9. Click OK.
The IP address or DNS name you added appears in the Add Active Directory Domain page.
10. To add another Active Directory server to this domain, repeat Steps 3–9. You can add up to two
servers.
Make sure the shared secret is the same on all the Active Directory servers you specify.
For more information, see Use a Backup Authentication Server on page 305.
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11. In the Search Base text box, type the location in the directory to begin the search.
The standard format for the search base setting is: ou=<name of organizational unit>,dc=<first
part of the distinguished server name>,dc=<any part of the distinguished server name that
appears after the dot>.
To limit the directories on the authentication server where the XTM device can search for an
authentication match, you can set a search base. We recommend that you set the search base
to the root of the domain. This enables you to find all users and all groups to which those users
belong.
For more information, see Find Your Active Directory Search Base on page 332.
12. In the Group String text box, type the attribute string that is used to hold user group information
on the Active Directory server. If you have not changed your Active Directory schema, the
group string is always memberOf .
13. In the DN of Searching User text box, type the distinguished name (DN) for a search
operation.
If you keep the login attribute of sAMAccountName , you do not have to type anything in this text box.
If you change the login attribute, you must add a value in the DN of Searching User text box.
You can use any user DN with the privilege to search LDAP/Active Directory, such as an
administrator. However, a weaker user DN with only the privilege to search is usually sufficient.
For example, cn=Administrator,cn=Users,dc=example,dc=com .
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14. In the Password of Searching User text box, type the password associated with the
distinguished name for a search operation.
15. In the Login Attribute drop-down list, select an Active Directory login attribute to use for
authentication.
The login attribute is the name used for the bind to the Active Directory database. The default
login attribute is sAMAccountName. If you use sAMAccountName, you do not have to specify
a value for the DN of Searching User and Password of Searching User settings.
16. In the Dead Time text box, type or select a time after which an inactive server is marked as
active again.
17. From the Dead Time drop-down list, select minutes or hours to set the duration.
After an authentication server has not responded for a period of time, it is marked as inactive.
Subsequent authentication attempts do not try this server until it is marked as active again.
18. To enable secure SSL connections to your Active Directory server, select the Enable LDAPS
check box.
19. If you enable LDAPS but did not set the Port value to the default port for LDAPS, a port
message dialog box appears. To use the default port, click Yes. To use the port you specified,
click No
20. To verify the certificate of the Active Directory server is valid, select the Validate server
certificate check box.
21. To specify optional attributes for the primary LDAP server, click Optional Settings.
For more information about how to configure optional settings, see the subsequent section.
22. To add another Active Directory domain, repeat Steps 3–20. Make sure the shared secret is the
same on all the Active Directory domains you specify.
23. Click Save.
About Active Directory Optional Settings
Fireware XTM can get additional information from the directory server (LDAP or Active Directory) when
it reads the list of attributes in the server’s search response. This lets you use the directory server to
assign extra parameters to the authenticated user sessions, such as timeouts and Mobile VPN with
IPSec address assignments. Because the data comes from LDAP attributes associated with
individual user objects, you are not limited to the global settings in Fireware XTM Web UI. You can set
these parameters for each individual user.
For more information, see Use Active Directory or LDAP Optional Settings on page 334.
Test the Connection to the Server
To make sure that your XTM device can connect to your Active Directory server and successfully
authenticate your users, you can test the connection to your authentication server. You can also use
this feature to determine if a specific user is authenticated and to get authentication group information
for that user.
You can test the connection to your authentication server from the Authentication Servers page for
your server, or you can navigate directly to the Server Connection page in Fireware XTM Web UI.
To navigate to the Server Connection page from the Authentication Servers page:
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1. Click Test Connection.
The Server Connection page appears.
2. Follow the instructions in the Server Connection topic to test the connection to your server.
For instructions to navigate directly to the Server Connection page in Fireware XTM Web UI, see
Server Connection on page 542.
Edit an Existing Active Directory Domain
When you edit an Active Directory domain, you cannot change the details of the Active Directory
servers configured in the domain. Instead, you must add a new server. If there are two servers in the
list, you must remove one of the servers before you can add a new one.
From the Authentication Servers page:
1. In the Active Directory domains list, select the server to change.
2. Click Edit.
The Edit Active Directory Domain page appears.
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3. To add an IP address or DNS name to the server for this domain, click Add and follow the
instructions in Steps 5–9 of the previous section.
4. To remove an IP address or DNS name from the server for this domain, select the entry in the
IP Address / DNS Name list and click Remove.
5. Update the settings for your Active Directory server.
Delete an Active Directory Domain
From the Authentication Servers page:
1. In the Active Directory domains list, select the domain to delete.
2. Click Remove.
The server is removed from the list.
Find Your Active Directory Search Base
When you configure your XTM device to authenticate users with your Active Directory server, you add
a search base. The search base is the place the search starts in the Active Directory hierarchical
structure for user account entries. This can help to make the authentication procedure faster.
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Before you begin, you must have an operational Active Directory server that contains account
information for all users for whom you want to configure authentication on the XTM device.
From your Active Directory server:
1. Select Start > Administrative Tools > Active Directory Users and Computers.
2. In the Active Directory Users and Computers tree, find and select your domain name.
3. Expand the tree to find the path through your Active Directory hierarchy.
Domain name components have the format dc=domain name component, are appended to the
end of the search base string, and are also comma-delimited.
For each level in your domain name, you must include a separate domain name component in
your Active Directory search base. For example, if your domain name is prefix.example.com,
the domain name component in your search base is DC=prefix,DC=example,DC=com .
To make sure that the Active Directory search can find any user object in your domain, specify the root
of the domain. For example, if your domain name is kunstlerandsons.com, and you want the Active
Directory search to find any user object in the entire domain, the search base string to add is:
dc=kunstlerandsons,dc=com .
If you want to limit the search to begin in some container beneath the root of the domain, specify the
fully-qualified name of the container in comma-delimited form, starting with the name of the base
container and progressing toward the root of the domain. For example, assume your domain in the tree
looks like this after you expand it:
Also assume that you want the Active Directory search to begin in the Sales container that appears in
the example. This enables the search to find any user object inside the Sales container, and inside any
containers within the Sales container.
The search base string to add in the XTM device configuration is:
ou=sales,ou=accounts,dc=kunstlerandsons,dc=com
The search string is not case-sensitive. When you type your search string, you can use either
uppercase or lowercase letters.
This search does not find user objects inside the Development or Admins containers, or inside the
Builtin, Computers, Domain Controllers, ForeignSecurityPrincipals, or Users containers.
DN of Searching User and Password of Searching User Fields
You must complete these fields only if you select an option for the Login Attribute that is different
from the default value, sAMAccountName. Most organizations that use Active Directory do not change
this. When you leave this field at the default sAMAccountName value, users supply their usual Active
Directory login names for their user names when they authenticate. This is the name you see in the
User logon name text box on the Account tab when you edit the user account in Active Directory
Users and Computers.
If you use a different value for the Login Attribute, a user who tries to authenticate gives a different
form of the user name. In this case, you must add Searching User credentials to your XTM device
configuration.
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Change the Default Port for the Active Directory Server
If your WatchGuard device is configured to authenticate users with an Active Directory (AD)
authentication server, it connects to the Active Directory server on the standard LDAP port by default,
which is TCP port 389. If the Active Directory servers that you add to your WatchGuard device
configuration are set up to be Active Directory global catalog servers, you can tell the
WatchGuard device to use the global catalog port—TCP port 3268—to connect to the Active Directory
server.
A global catalog server is a domain controller that stores information about all objects in the forest. This
enables the applications to search Active Directory, but not have to refer to specific domain controllers
that store the requested data. If you have only one domain, Microsoft recommends that you configure
all domain controllers as global catalog servers.
If the primary or secondary Active Directory server you use in your WatchGuard device configuration is
also configured as a global catalog server, you can change the port the WatchGuard device uses to
connect to the Active Directory server to increase the speed of authentication requests. However, we
do not recommend that you create additional Active Directory global catalog servers just to speed up
authentication requests. The replication that occurs among multiple global catalog servers can use
significant bandwidth on your network.
Configure the XTM Device to Use the Global Catalog Port
1. From Fireware XTM Web UI, select Authentication > Servers.
The Authentication Servers page appears.
2. Select the Active Directory tab.
3. In the Port text box, clear the contents and type 3268.
4. Click Save.
Find Out if Your Active Directory Server is Configured as a Global
Catalog Server
1. Select Start > Administrative Tools > Active Directory Sites and Services.
2. Expand the Sites tree and find the name of your Active Directory server.
3. Right-click NTDS Settings for your Active Directory server and select Properties.
If the Global Catalog check box is selected, the Active Directory server is configured to be a
global catalog.
Use Active Directory or LDAP Optional Settings
When Fireware XTM contacts the directory server (Active Directory or LDAP) to search for information,
it can get additional information from the list of attributes in the search response returned by the server.
This enables you to use the directory server to assign extra parameters to the authenticated user
session, such as timeouts and Mobile VPN address assignments. Because the data comes from LDAP
attributes associated with individual user objects, you can set these parameters for each individual user
and you are not limited to the global settings in Fireware XTM Web UI.
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Before You Begin
To use these optional settings you must:
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Extend the directory schema to add new attributes for these items.
Make the new attributes available to the object class that user accounts belong to.
Give values to the attributes for the user objects that should use them.
Make sure you carefully plan and test your directory schema before you extend it to your directories.
Additions to the Active Directory schema, for example, are generally permanent and cannot be undone.
Use the Microsoft® web site to get resources to plan, test, and implement changes to an Active
Directory schema. Consult the documentation from your LDAP vendor before you extend the schema
for other directories.
Specify Active Directory or LDAP Optional Settings
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to specify the additional attributes Fireware XTM looks for in the
search response from the directory server.
1. Select Authentication > Servers.
The Authentication Servers page appears.
2. Select the LDAP or Active Directory tab and make sure the server is enabled.
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3. Click Optional Settings.
The Server Optional Settings page appears.
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4. Type the attributes you want to include in the directory search in the string fields.
IP Attribute String
This setting applies only to Mobile VPN clients.
Type the name of the attribute for Fireware XTM to use to assign a virtual IP address to the
Mobile VPN client. This must be a single-valued attribute and an IP address in decimal
format. The IP address must be within the pool of virtual IP addresses you specify when
you create the Mobile VPN Group.
If the XTM device does not see the IP attribute in the search response or if you do not specify
an attribute in Fireware XTM Web UI, it assigns the Mobile VPN client a virtual IP address
from the virtual IP address pool you create when you make the Mobile VPN Group.
Netmask Attribute String
This setting applies only to Mobile VPN clients.
Type the name of the attribute for Fireware XTM to use to assign a subnet mask to the
Mobile VPN client’s virtual IP address. This must be a single-valued attribute and a subnet
mask in decimal format.
The Mobile VPN software automatically assigns a netmask if the XTM device does not see
the netmask attribute in the search response or if you do not specify one in Fireware XTM
Web UI.
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DNS Attribute String
This setting applies only to Mobile VPN clients.
Type the name of the attribute Fireware XTM uses to assign the Mobile VPN client one or
more DNS addresses for the duration of the Mobile VPN session. This can be a multivalued attribute and must be a normal dotted-decimal IP address. If the XTM device does
not see the DNS attribute in the search response, or if you do not specify an attribute in
Fireware XTM Web UI, it uses the WINS addresses you enter when you Configure WINS
and DNS Servers.
WINS Attribute String
This setting applies only to Mobile VPN clients.
Type the name of the attribute Fireware XTM should use to assign the Mobile VPN client
one or more WINS addresses for the duration of the Mobile VPN session. This can be a
multi-valued attribute and must be a normal dotted-decimal IP address. If the XTM device
does not see the WINS attribute in the search response or if you do not specify an attribute
in Fireware XTM Web UI, it uses the WINS addresses you enter when you Configure
WINS and DNS Servers.
Lease Time Attribute String
This setting applies to Mobile VPN clients and to clients that use Firewall Authentication.
Type the name of the attribute for Fireware XTM to use to control the maximum duration a
user can stay authenticated (session timeout). After this amount of time, the user is
removed from the list of authenticated users. This must be a single-valued attribute.
Fireware XTM interprets the attribute’s value as a decimal number of seconds. It interprets
a zero value as never time out.
Idle Timeout Attribute String
This setting applies to Mobile VPN clients and to clients that use Firewall Authentication.
Type the name of the attribute Fireware XTM uses to control the amount of time a user can
stay authenticated when no traffic is passed to the XTM device from the user (idle timeout). If
no traffic passes to the device for this amount of time, the user is removed from the list of
authenticated users. This must be a single-valued attribute. Fireware XTM interprets the
attribute’s value as a decimal number of seconds. It interprets a zero value as never time out.
5. Click Save.
The attribute settings are saved.
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Use a Local User Account for Authentication
Any user can authenticate as a Firewall user, PPTP user, or Mobile VPN user, and open a PPTP or
Mobile VPN tunnel if PPTP or Mobile VPN is enabled on the XTM device. However, after
authentication or a tunnel has been successfully established, users can send traffic through the VPN
tunnel only if the traffic is allowed by a policy on the XTM device. For example, a Mobile VPN-only user
can send traffic through a Mobile VPN tunnel. Even though the Mobile VPN-only user can authenticate
and open a PPTP tunnel, he or she cannot send traffic through that PPTP tunnel.
If you use Active Directory authentication and the group membership for a user does not match your
Mobile VPN policy, you can see an error message that says Decrypted traffic does not match any
policy. If you see this error message, make sure that the user is in a group with the same name as your
Mobile VPN group.
Use Authorized Users and Groups in Policies
You can use specified user and group names when you create policies in Fireware XTM Web UI. For
example, you can define all policies to only allow connections for authenticated users. Or, you can limit
connections on a policy to particular users.
The term authorized users and groups refers to users and groups that are allowed to access network
resources.
Define Users and Groups for Firebox Authentication
If you use your XTM device as an authentication server and want to define users and groups that
authenticate to the XTM device, see Define a New User for Firebox Authentication on page 309 and
Define a New Group for Firebox Authentication on page 311.
Define Users and Groups for Third-Party Authentication
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to define the users and groups to use for third-party authentication.
When you create a group, if you use more than one Active Directory domain for authentication, you
must specify the domain that you want users in the group to use to authenticate.
1. Create a group on your third-party authentication server that contains all the user accounts on
your system.
2. Select Authentication > Users and Groups.
The Authentication Users and Groups page appears.
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3.
4.
5.
6.
Type a user or group name you created on the authentication server.
(Optional) Type a description for the user or group.
Select Group or User.
From the Auth Server drop-down list, select your authentication server type.
Available options include Any, Firebox-DB, RADIUS , SecurID, LDAP, or Active Directory.
For authentication through a RADIUS or VACMAN Middleware server, select RADIUS. For
Active Directory authentication, select the specific domain to use for this user or group.
7. Click Add.
8. Click Save.
Add Users and Groups to Policy Definitions
Any user or group that you want to use in your policy definitions must be added as an authorized user.
All users and groups you create for Firebox authentication, and all Mobile VPN users, are automatically
added to the list of authorized users and groups on the Authorized Users and Groups dialog box.
You can add any users or groups from third-party authentication servers to the authorized user and
group list with the previous procedure. You are then ready to add users and groups to your policy
configuration.
1. From Fireware XTM Web UI, select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall Policies page appears.
2. Select a policy from the list and click Edit.
Or, double-click a policy.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
3. On the Policy tab, below the From box, click Add.
The Add Address dialog box appears.
4. Click Add User.
The Add Authorized Users or Groups dialog box appears.
5. From the left Type drop-down list, select whether the user or group is authorized as a Firewall,
PPTP, or SSL VPN user.
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For more information on these authentication types, see Types of Firebox Authentication on
page 306.
6. From the right Type drop-down list, select either User or Group.
7. If your user or group appears in the Groups list, select the user or group and click Select.
The Add Address dialog box reappears with the user or group in the Selected Members or
Addresses box.
Click OK to close the Edit Policy Properties dialog box.
8. If your user or group does not appear in the Groups list, see Define a New User for Firebox
Authentication on page 309, Define a New Group for Firebox Authentication on page 311, or the
previous Define users and groups for third-party authentication procedure, and add the user or
group.
After you add a user or group to a policy configuration, Fireware XTM Web UI automatically adds a
WatchGuard Authentication policy to your XTM device configuration. Use this policy to control access
to the authentication portal web page.
For instructions to edit this policy, see Use Authentication to Restrict Incoming Traffic on page 266.
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About Policies
The security policy of your organization is a set of definitions to protect your computer network and the
information that goes through it. The XTM device denies all packets that are not specifically allowed.
When you add a policy to your XTM device configuration file, you add a set of rules that tell the XTM
device to allow or deny traffic based upon factors such as source and destination of the packet or the
TCP/IP port or protocol used for the packet.
As an example of how a policy could be used, suppose the network administrator of a company wants
to log in remotely to a web server protected by the XTM device. The network administrator manages
the web server with a Remote Desktop connection. At the same time, the network administrator wants
to make sure that no other network users can use Remote Desktop. To create this setup, the network
administrator adds a policy that allows RDP connections only from the IP address of the network
administrator's desktop computer to the IP address of the web server.
A policy can also give the XTM device more instructions on how to handle the packet. For example,
you can define logging and notification settings that apply to the traffic, or use NAT (Network Address
Translation) to change the source IP address and port of network traffic.
Packet Filter and Proxy Policies
Your XTM device uses two categories of policies to filter network traffic: packet filters and proxies. A
packet filter examines each packet’s IP and TCP/UDP header. If the packet header information is
legitimate, then the XTM device allows the packet. Otherwise, the XTM device drops the packet.
A proxy examines both the header information and the content of each packet to make sure that
connections are secure. This is also called deep packet inspection. If the packet header information is
legitimate and the content of the packet is not considered a threat, then the XTM device allows the
packet. Otherwise, the XTM device drops the packet.
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Add Policies to Your XTM device
The XTM device includes many pre-configured packet filters and proxies that you can add to your
configuration. For example, if you want a packet filter for all Telnet traffic, you add a pre-defined Telnet
policy that you can modify for your network configuration. You can also make a custom policy for
which you set the ports, protocols, and other parameters.
When you configure the XTM device with the Quick Setup Wizard, the wizard adds several packet
filters: Outgoing (TCP-UDP), FTP, ping, and up to two WatchGuard management policies. If you have
more software applications and network traffic for the XTM device to examine, you must:
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Configure the policies on your XTM device to let the necessary traffic through
Set the approved hosts and properties for each policy
Balance the requirement to protect your network against the requirements of your users to get
access to external resources
We recommend that you set limits on outgoing access when you configure your XTM device.
Note In all documentation, we refer to both packet filters and proxies as policies.
Information on policies refers to both packet filters and proxies unless otherwise
specified.
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About the Policies Pages
The policies included in your current XTM device configuration appear on the Firewall Policies and
Mobile VPN Policies pages. From these pages you can see configuration information, such as
source and destination addresses, assigned ports, policy-based routing, and application control
settings, as well as whether notification, scheduling, and QoS/Traffic Management are configured. You
can also add, edit, and delete policies on these pages.
By default, Fireware XTM Web UI sorts policies from the most specific to the most general. The order
determines how traffic flows through the policies.
To set the policy order manually, adjacent to Auto-Order mode is enabled, click Disable.
For more information on policy order, see About Policy Precedence.
For more information about how to add policies, see Add Policies to Your Configuration on page 348.
This information appears for each policy:
Action
The action taken by the policy for traffic that matches the policy definition. The symbols in this
column also indicate whether the policy is a packet filter policy or a proxy policy, and the
settings that are configured for the policy:
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— Packet filter policy; traffic is allowed
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— Packet filter policy; traffic is denied
— Disabled packet filter policy
n
— Proxy policy; traffic is allowed
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— Proxy policy; traffic is denied
n
— Disabled proxy policy
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— Application Control is configured
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—Traffic Management/ QoS is configured
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— Scheduling is configured
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— Logging is enabled
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— Notification is enabled
Policy Name
Name of the policy, as defined in the Name text box on the Policy Configuration page.
Policy Type
The protocol that the policy manages. Packet filters include the protocol name only. Proxies
include the protocol name and -proxy. ALGs include the protocol name and -ALG.
From
The source addresses for this policy.
To
The destination addresses for this policy.
Port
Protocols and ports used by the policy.
PBR
The interface numbers that are used for failover in the policy-based routing settings for the
policy.
Application Control
The Application Control action enabled for the policy.
For more information, see Enable Application Control in a Policy.
About the Outgoing Policy
The Outgoing policy is a packet filter policy that is automatically added to your XTM device
configuration when you run the Quick Setup Wizard to set up your device and create a basic device
configuration file. The Outgoing policy allows all TCP and UDP connections from any trusted or
optional source on your network to any external network. Because it is a packet filter policy, not a
proxy policy, the Outgoing policy does not filter content when it examines the traffic through your XTM
device.
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If you remove the Outgoing policy from your device configuration file, you must add policies to your
configuration that allow outbound traffic. You can either add a separate policy for each type of traffic
that you want to allow out through your firewall, or you can add the TCP-UDP packet filter or TCPUDP-proxy policy.
For more information about the TCP-UDP proxy, see About the TCP-UDP-Proxy.
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Add Policies to Your Configuration
To add a firewall or Mobile VPN policy:
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies or Firewall > Mobile VPN Policies.
The Policies page you selected appears.
2. Click .
3. Expand the list of packet filters or policies to find a protocol or port.
4. For a packet filter, select a policy type.
For a proxy, select a policy type and from the Proxy action drop-down list, select the Client or
Server option.
For a Mobile VPN policy, first select a Mobile VPN group, then select the policy type.
5. Click Add policy
For more information about Mobile VPN Policies, see Configure Policies to Filter Mobile VPN Traffic
on page 710.
The XTM device includes a default definition for each policy included in the XTM device configuration
file. The default definition consists of settings that are appropriate for most installations. However, you
can modify them for your particular business purposes, or if you want to include special policy
properties such as Traffic Management actions and operating schedules.
After you add a policy to your configuration, you define rules to:
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Set allowed traffic sources and destinations
Make filter rules
Enable or disable the policy
Configure properties such as Traffic Management, NAT, and logging
For more information on policy configuration, see About Policy Properties on page 366.
Use Policy Checker to Find a Policy
To determine how your XTM device manages traffic for a particular protocol between a source and
destination you specify, you can use Policy Checker in Fireware XTM Web UI.
For more information about Policy Checker, see Use Policy Checker to Find a Policy on page 351.
Add a Policy from the List of Templates
Your XTM device includes a default definition for each policy included in the XTM device configuration.
The default definition settings are appropriate for most installations, however, you can modify them to
include special policy properties, such as QoS actions and operating schedules.
On the Add Policy page:
1. Expand the Packet Filters, Proxies, or Custom folder.
A list of templates for packet filter or proxy policies appears.
2. Select a policy and click Add Policy.
The Policy Configuration page appears, with the Policy tab selected.
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3. To change the name of the policy, in the Name text box, type a new name.
4. Configure the access rules and other settings for the policy.
5. Click Save.
For more information on policy properties, see About Policy Properties on page 366.
For more information about how to add Mobile VPN Policies, see Configure Policies to Filter Mobile
VPN Traffic on page 710.
For more information about how to configure proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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For more information about how to configure application control actions, see Configure Application
Control Actions.
When you configure the access rules for your policy, you can choose to use an alias. For more
information about aliases, see About Aliases on page 354 and Create an Alias on page 355.
Disable or Delete a Policy
As your network security requirements change, you can disable or delete the policies in your
configuration.
To disable a policy:
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies or Firewall > Mobile VPN Policies.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
2. Select the policy and click .
3. Clear the Enable check box.
4. Click Save.
Delete a Policy
To delete a policy:
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies or Firewall > Mobile VPN Policies.
2. Select the policy and click .
A confirmation message appears.
3. Click Yes.
Your configuration changes are saved automatically.
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Use Policy Checker to Find a Policy
You can use Policy Checker to determine how your XTM device manages traffic for a particular
protocol between a source and destination you specify. This can be a useful troubleshooting tool if your
XTM device allows or denies traffic unexpectedly, or if you want to make sure your policies manage
traffic the way you expect. Based on the parameters you specify, Policy Checker sends a test packet
through your XTM device to see how the device manages the packet. If there is a policy that manages
the traffic, Policy Checker highlights that policy in the Firewall Policies list.
When you run Policy Checker, you must specify these parameters:
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An interface — Any active device interface (physical, VLAN, or bridge), or SSL-VPN, AnyBOVPN, Any-MUVPN, or PPTP
A protocol — Ping, TCP, or UDP
Source and destination IP address
Source and destination port — Only applies if you select TCP or UDP as the Protocol
The results can include any of these details:
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Policy type
Policy name
An action
An interface
Source or destination NAT IP address
Source or destination NAT port
Note You cannot use Policy Checker in Fireware XTM Web UI for a FireCluster. Instead,
use the policy-check command in the Command Line Interface. For more information,
see the Command Line Interface Reference.
To run Policy Checker:
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall Policies page appears.
2. Click Show policy checker.
The policy checker section appears.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
From the Interface drop-down list, select an active interface on your XTM device.
From the Protocol drop-down list, select an option: Ping, TCP, or UDP.
In the Source IP text box, type the source IP address for the traffic.
In the Destination IP text box, type the destination IP address for the traffic.
If you selected TCP or UDP for the Protocol, in the Source Port text box, type or select the
port for the traffic source.
If you selected Ping as the Protocol, the port text box is disabled.
8. If you selected TCP or UDP for the Protocol, in the Destination Port text box, type or select
the port for the traffic destination.
If you selected Ping as the Protocol, the port text box is disabled.
9. Click Run policy checker.
The results appear in the Results section.
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Read the Results
If the packet was managed by a policy, the policy details appear in the Results section, and the policy
is highlighted in the Firewall Policies list.
If the packet was not managed by a policy, but by another means (such as a hostile site match), that
information appears in the Results section, but nothing is highlighted in the Firewall Policies list.
The only elements that always include a value in the Results section are the Name and Type
elements. Values for all other elements are only present if their values are established.
Element
Value
Description
Type
Policy
The packet was allowed or denied by a policy.
Security
The packet was dropped by something other than a policy (for
example, a blocked site match) and a security measure was
triggered.
Inconclusive
There was an error in the interpretation of the disposition of
the packet.
Name
Depends on
the Type
value
If the type was Policy, the name of the policy appears.
Not all configured policies are exposed. If the policy name is
unfamiliar, you can examine the configuration file for more
information about the policy.
If the type was Security, the security function appears (for
example, Blocked Sites). The set of supported security
functions can be different from one release to the next.
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ICMP Flood Attack
IKE Flood Attack
IPSec Flood Attack
TCP SYN Flood Attack
UDP Flood Attack
TCP SYN check
Broadcast
DNS forward inactive
FWSPEED license
Blocked Ports
Blocked Sites
Blocked connection — The packet matched an
existing connection that was blocked by a policy.
Unit not activated
DDoS Client Quota
DDoS Server Quota
User count exceeded
IP source route
Spoofing Attack
Wireless Guest
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Element
Value
Description
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Wireless MVPN
MAC Access Control
MAC/IP Address Binding
If the type was Inconclusive the name is Unspecified.
Action
Allow
The packet was allowed.
Deny
The packet was denied. This is always the result when the
type is Security.
Interface
Interface
name
The egress interface. This is the user-defined name (for
example, External), not the system name (for example, eth0).
Source NAT IP
IP address
The IP address to which the original source IP address was
changed by NAT.
Source NAT Port
TCP/UDP
port
The TCP or UDP port to which the original source port was
changed by NAT.
Destination NAT IP
IP address
The IP address to which the original destination IP address
was changed by NAT.
Destination NAT Port
TCP/UDP
port
The TCP or UDP port to which the original destination port
was changed by NAT.
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About Aliases
An alias is a shortcut that identifies a group of hosts, networks, or interfaces. When you use an alias, it
is easy to create a security policy because the XTM device allows you to use aliases when you create
policies.
Default aliases in Fireware XTM Web UI include:
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Any — Any source or destination aliases that correspond to XTM device interfaces, such as
Trusted or External.
Firebox — An alias for all XTM device interfaces.
Any-Trusted — An alias for all XTM device interfaces configured as Trusted interfaces, and
any network you can get access to through these interfaces.
Any-External — An alias for all XTM device interfaces configured as External, and any network
you can get access to through these interfaces.
Any-Optional — Aliases for all XTM device interfaces configured as Optional, and any network
you can get access to through these interfaces.
Any-BOVPN — An alias for any BOVPN (IPSec) tunnel.
When you use the BOVPN Policy wizard to create a policy to allow traffic through a BOVPN
tunnel, the wizard automatically creates .in and .out aliases for the incoming and outgoing
tunnels.
Alias names are different from user or group names used in user authentication. With user
authentication, you can monitor a connection with a name and not as an IP address. The person
authenticates with a user name and a password to get access to Internet protocols.
For more information about user authentication, see About User Authentication on page 263.
Alias Members
You can add these objects to an alias:
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Host IP
Network IP
A range of host IP addresses
DNS name for a host
Tunnel address — defined by a user or group, address, and name of the tunnel
Custom address — defined by a user or group, address, and XTM device interface
Another alias
An authorized user or group
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Create an Alias
To create an alias to use with your security policies:
1. Select Firewall > Aliases.
The Aliases page appears.
2. Click Add.
The Add Alias page appears.
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3. In the Alias Name text box, type a unique name to identify the alias.
This name appears in lists when you configure a security policy.
4. In the Description text box, type a description of the alias.
5. Click Save.
Add an Address, Address Range, DNS Name, User, Group, or Another
Alias to the Alias
1. In the Add Alias dialog box, click Add Member.
The Add Member dialog box appears.
2. From the Member type drop-down list, select the type of member you want to add.
3. Type the address or name in the adjacent text box, or select the user or group.
4. Click OK.
The new member appears in the Alias Members section of the Add Alias page.
5. To add more members, repeat Steps 1–4.
6. Click Save.
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Edit an Alias
You can edit user-defined aliases from the Aliases page.
To edit an alias from the Aliases page:
1. Select Firewall > Aliases.
The Aliases page appears.
2. From the Aliases list, select the user-defined alias to change.
3. Click Edit.
The Edit Alias page appears.
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4. To add a member to the Alias Members list, click Add Member.
For more information, see the previous sections.
To remove a member from the Alias Members list, select the entry and click Remove Member
5. Click Save.
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About Policy Precedence
Precedence is the sequence in which the XTM device examines network traffic and applies a policy
rule. The XTM device automatically sorts policies from the most detailed to the most general. It
compares the information in the packet to the list of rules in the first policy. The first rule in the list to
match the conditions of the packet is applied to the packet. If the detail level in two policies is equal, a
proxy policy always takes precedence over a packet filter policy.
Automatic Policy Order
The XTM device automatically gives the highest precedence to the most specific policies and the
lowest to the least specific. The XTM device examines specificity of the subsequent criteria in the
following order. If it cannot determine the precedence from the first criterion, it moves to the second,
and so on.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Policy specificity
Protocols set for the policy type
Traffic rules of the To list
Traffic rules of the From list
Firewall action (Allowed, Denied, or Denied (send reset)) applied to the policies
Schedules applied to the policies
Alphanumeric sequence based on policy type
Alphanumeric sequence based on policy name
The subsequent sections include more details about what the XTM device does within these eight steps.
Policy Specificity and Protocols
The XTM device uses these criteria in sequence to compare two policies until it finds that the policies
are equal, or that one is more detailed than the other.
1. An Any policy always has the lowest precedence.
2. Check for the number of TCP 0 (any) or UDP 0 (any) protocols. The policy with the smaller
number has higher precedence.
3. Check for the number of unique ports for TCP and UDP protocols. The policy with the smaller
number has higher precedence.
4. Add up the number of unique TCP and UDP ports. The policy with the smaller number has
higher precedence.
5. Score the protocols based on their IP protocol value. The policy with the smaller score has
higher precedence.
If the XTM device cannot set the precedence when it compares the policy specificity and protocols, it
examines traffic rules.
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Traffic Rules
The XTM device uses these criteria in sequence to compare the most general traffic rule of one policy
with the most general traffic rule of a second policy. It assigns higher precedence to the policy with the
most detailed traffic rule.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Host address
IP address range (smaller than the subnet being compared to)
Subnet
IP address range (larger than the subnet being compared to)
Authentication user name
Authentication group
Interface, XTM device
Any-External, Any-Trusted, Any-Optional
Any
For example, compare these two policies:
(HTTP-1) From: Trusted, user1
(HTTP-2) From: 10.0.0.1, Any-Trusted
Trusted is the most general entry for HTTP-1. Any-Trusted is the most general entry for HTTP-2.
Because Trusted is included in the Any-Trusted alias, HTTP-1 is the more detailed traffic rule. This is
correct despite the fact that HTTP-2 includes an IP address, because the XTM device compares the
most general traffic rule of one policy to the most general traffic rule of the second policy to set
precedence.
If the XTM device cannot set the precedence when it compares the traffic rules, it examines the
firewall actions.
Firewall Actions
The XTM device compares the firewall actions of two policies to set precedence. Precedence of
firewall actions from highest to lowest is:
1. Denied or Denied (send reset)
2. Allowed proxy policy
3. Allowed packet-filter policy
If the XTM device cannot set the precedence when it compares the firewall actions, it examines the
schedules.
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Schedules
The XTM device compares the schedules of two policies to set precedence. Precedence of schedules
from highest to lowest is:
1. Always off
2. Sometimes on
3. Always on
If the XTM device cannot set the precedence when it compares the schedules, it examines the policy
types and names.
Policy Types and Names
If the two policies do not match any other precedence criteria, the XTM device sorts the policies in
alphanumeric sequence. First, it uses the policy type. Then, it uses the policy name. Because no two
policies can be the same type and have the same name, this is the last criteria for precedence.
Set Precedence Manually
You can disable Auto-Order mode to change to manual-order mode and set the policy precedence for
your XTM device.
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall Policies page appears.
2. Adjacent to Auto-Order mode is enabled, click Disable.
A confirmation message appears.
3. Click Yes to confirm that you want to switch to manual-order mode.
4. To change the order of a policy, select it and drag it to the new location.
Or, select a policy and click Move Up or Move Down to move it higher or lower in the list.
5. Click Save.
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Create Schedules for XTM Device Actions
A schedule is a set of times for which a feature is active or disabled. You must use a schedule if you
want a policy or WebBlocker action to automatically become active or inactive at the times you
specify. You can apply a schedule you create to more than one policy or WebBlocker action if you want
those policies or actions to be active at the same times.
For example, an organization wants to restrict certain types of network traffic during normal business
hours. The network administrator could create a schedule that is active on weekdays, and set each
policy in the configuration to use the same schedule.
To create a schedule:
1. Select Firewall > Scheduling.
The Scheduling page appears.
2. To create a new schedule, click Add.
To modify a schedule, select the schedule and click Edit.
The Schedule Settings page appears.
3. For a new schedule, in the Name text box, type a descriptive name for the schedule.
You cannot modify the name of a saved schedule.
4. Select the times for the schedule to operate for each day of the week.
5. Click Save.
Set an Operating Schedule
You can set an operating schedule for a policy so that the policy takes effect only at the times you
specify. Schedules can be shared by more than one policy.
To modify a policy schedule:
1. Select Firewall > Scheduling.
The Scheduling page appears.
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2. In the Scheduling Policies list, adjacent to the Policy Name that you want to create a
schedule for, select a predefined schedule from the Schedule drop-down list.
3. Click Save.
About Custom Policies
If you need to allow for a protocol that is not included by default as a XTM device configuration option,
you must define a custom traffic policy. You can add a custom policy that uses:
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TCP ports
UDP ports
An IP protocol that is not TCP or UDP, such as GRE, AH, ESP, ICMP, IGMP, and OSPF. You
identify an IP protocol that is not TCP or UDP with the IP protocol number.
To create a custom policy, you must first create or edit a custom policy template that specifies the
ports and protocols used by policies of that type. Then, you create one or more policies from that
template to set access rules, logging, QoS, and other settings.
Create or Edit a Custom Policy Template
To add specialized policies to your configuration files, you can create custom policy templates. These
templates can be packet filter or proxy policies and use any available protocol. When you add a custom
policy template to your configuration file, make sure to specify a unique name for the policy. A unique
name helps you to find the policy when you want to change or remove it. This name must not be the
same as any other policy name in the policies list for your device.
From Fireware XTM Web UI:
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1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
.
2. Click
3. Click Custom.
Or, select an existing custom policy template and click
.
4. In the Name text box, type the name of the custom policy.
The name appears in the policies list in the Policy Name column.
5. In the Description text box, type a description of the policy.
This appears in the Details section when you click the policy name in the list of User Filters.
6. Select the type of policy: Packet Filter or Proxy.
7. If you select Proxy, choose the proxy protocol from the adjacent drop-down list.
8. To add protocols for this policy, click Add.
The Add Protocol dialog box appears.
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9. From the Type drop-down list, select Single Port or Port Range.
10. From the Protocol drop-down list, select the protocol for this new policy.
If you select Single Port, you can select TCP, UDP, GRE, AH, ESP, ICMP, IGMP, OSP, IP,
or Any.
If you select Port Range, you can select TCP or UDP. The options below the drop-down list
change for each protocol.
Note Fireware XTM does not pass IGMP multicast traffic through the XTM device, or
between XTM device interfaces. It passes IGMP multicast traffic only between an
interface and the XTM device.
11. If you selected Single Port, in the Port Number text box, type or select the port for this new
policy.
If you selected Port Range, in the First port number and Last port number text boxes, type
or select the starting server port and the ending server port.
12. Click Save.
The policy template is added to the Custom policies folder.
You can now use the policy template you created to add one or more custom policies to your
configuration. Use the same procedure as you would for a predefined policy.
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About Policy Properties
Each policy type has a default definition, which consists of settings that are appropriate for most
organizations. However, you can modify policy settings for your particular business purposes, or add
other settings such as traffic management and operating schedules.
Mobile VPN policies are created and operate in the same way as firewall policies. However, you must
specify a Mobile VPN group to which the policy applies.
At the top of the policy configuration page, you can change the policy name. If the policy is a proxy policy,
you can also change the proxy action. For more information, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
To set properties for an existing policy, on the Firewall Policies page, double-click the policy to open
the Policy Configuration page. When you add a new policy to your configuration, the Policy
Configuration page automatically appears.
Policy Tab
Use the Policy tab to set basic information about a policy, such as whether it allows or denies traffic,
and which devices it manages. You can use the Policy tab settings to create access rules for a policy,
or configure policy-based routing, static NAT, or server load balancing.
For more information on the options for this tab, see the following topics:
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Set Access Rules for a Policy on page 367
Configure Policy-Based Routing on page 369
Configure Static NAT on page 187
Configure Server Load Balancing on page 190
Properties Tab
The Properties tab shows the port and protocol to which the policy applies, as well as a description of
the policy that you set. You can use the settings on this tab to set logging, notification, automatic
blocking, and timeout preferences.
For more information on the options for this tab, see the following topics:
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Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533
Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings on page 518
Set a Custom Idle Timeout on page 372
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Advanced Tab
The Advanced tab includes settings for NAT and Traffic Management (QoS), as well as multi-WAN
and ICMP options.
For more information on the options for this tab, see the following topics:
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Set an Operating Schedule on page 362
Add a Traffic Management Action to a Policy on page 504
Set ICMP Error Handling on page 372
Apply NAT Rules on page 372
Enable QoS Marking or Prioritization Settings for a Policy on page 501
Set the Sticky Connection Duration for a Policy on page 373
Proxy Settings
Each proxy policy has connection-specific settings that you can customize. To learn more about the
options for each proxy, see the About topic for that protocol.
About the DNS-Proxy on page 391
About the FTP-Proxy on page 403
About the H.323-ALG on page 410
About the HTTP-Proxy on page 418
About the HTTPS-Proxy on page 439
About the POP3-Proxy on page 448
About the SIP-ALG on page 459
About the SMTP-Proxy on page 467
About the TCP-UDP-Proxy on page 491
Set Access Rules for a Policy
To configure access rules for a policy, select the Policy tab of the Policy Configuration dialog box.
The Connections are drop-down list defines whether traffic that matches the rules in the policy is
allowed or denied. To configure how traffic is handled, select one of these settings:
Allowed
The XTM device allows traffic that uses this policy if it matches the rules you set in the policy.
You can configure the policy to create a log message when network traffic matches the policy.
Denied
The XTM device denies all traffic that matches the rules in this policy and does not send a
notification to the device that sent the traffic. You can configure the policy to create a log
message when a computer tries to use this policy. The policy can also automatically add a
computer or network to the Blocked Sites list if it tries to start a connection with this policy.
For more information, see Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings on page 518.
Denied (send reset)
The XTM device denies all traffic that matches the rules in this policy. You can configure it to
create a log message when a computer tries to use this policy. The policy can also
automatically add a computer or network to the Blocked Sites list if it tries to start a connection
with this policy.
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For more information, see Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings on page 518.
With this option, the XTM device sends a packet to tell the device which sent the network traffic
that the session is refused and the connection is closed. You can set a policy to return other
errors instead, which tell the device that the port, protocol, network, or host is unreachable. We
recommend that you use these options with caution to ensure that your network operates
correctly with other networks.
The Policy tab also includes:
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A From list (or source) that specifies who can send (or cannot send) network traffic with this
policy.
A To list (or destination) that specifies who the XTM device can route traffic to if the traffic
matches (or does not match) the policy specifications.
For example, you could configure a ping packet filter to allow ping traffic from all computers on the
external network to one web server on your optional network. However, when you open the destination
network to connections over the port or ports that the policy controls, you can make the network
vulnerable. Make sure you configure your policies carefully to avoid vulnerabilities.
To add members to your access specifications:
1. Adjacent to the From or the To member list, click Add .
The Add Member dialog box appears.
The list contains the members you can add to the From or To lists. A member can be an alias,
user, group, IP address, or range of IP addresses.
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2. In the Member Type drop-down list, specify the type of member you want to add to the box.
3. Select a member you want to add and click Add, or double-click an entry in this list.
4. To add other members to the From or To list, repeat the previous steps.
5. Click OK.
The source and destination can be a host IP address, host range, host name, network address, user
name, alias, VPN tunnel, or any combination of those objects.
For more information on the aliases that appear in the From and To list, see About Aliases on page 354.
For more information about how to create a new alias or edit a user-defined alias, see Create an Alias
on page 355.
Configure Policy-Based Routing
To send network traffic, a router usually examines the destination address in the packet and looks at
the routing table to find the next-hop destination. In some cases, you want to send traffic to a different
path than the default route specified in the routing table. You can configure a policy with a specific
external interface to use for all outbound traffic that matches that policy. This technique is known as
policy-based routing. Policy-based routing takes precedence over other multi-WAN settings.
Policy-based routing can be used when you have more than one external interface and have configured
your XTM device for multi-WAN. With policy-based routing, you can make sure that all traffic for a
policy always goes out through the same external interface, even if your multi-WAN configuration is
set to send traffic in a round-robin configuration. For example, if you want email to be routed through a
particular interface, you can use policy-based routing in the SMTP-proxy or POP3-proxy definition.
Note To use policy-based routing, you must have Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade. You
must also configure at least two external interfaces.
Policy-Based Routing, Failover, and Failback
When you use policy-based routing with multi-WAN failover, you can specify whether traffic that
matches the policy uses another external interface when failover occurs. The default setting is to drop
traffic until the interface is available again.
Failback settings (defined on the Multi-WAN tab of the Network Configuration dialog box) also apply
to policy-based routing. If a failover event occurs, and the original interface later becomes available,
the XTM device can send active connections to the failover interface, or it can fail back to the original
interface. New connections are sent to the original interface.
Restrictions on Policy-Based Routing
n
n
n
Policy-based routing is available only if multi-WAN is enabled. If you enable multi-WAN, the
Edit Policy Properties dialog box automatically includes fields to configure policy-based
routing.
By default, policy-based routing is not enabled.
Policy-based routing does not apply to IPSec traffic, or to traffic destined for the trusted or
optional network (incoming traffic).
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Add Policy-Based Routing to a Policy
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
2. Select a policy and click .
Or, double-click a policy.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
3. Select the Use policy-based routing check box.
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4. To specify the interface to send outbound traffic that matches the policy, select the interface
name from the adjacent drop-down list. Make sure that the interface you select is a member of
the alias or network that you set in the To list for your policy.
5. (Optional) Configure policy-based routing with multi-WAN failover as described below. If you do
not select Failover and the interface you set for this policy is becomes inactive, traffic is
dropped until the interface becomes available again.
6. Click Save.
Configure Policy-Based Routing with Failover
You can set the interface you specified for this policy as the primary interface, and define other external
interfaces as backup interfaces for all non-IPSec traffic. If the primary interface you set for a policy is
not active, traffic is sent to the backup interface or interfaces you specify.
1. On the Policy Configuration page, select Use Failover.
2. In the adjacent list, select the check box for each interface you want to use in the failover
configuration.
3. To set the order for failover, click Move Up and Move Down.
The first interface in the list is the primary interface.
4. Click Save.
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Set a Custom Idle Timeout
Idle timeout is the maximum length of time that a connection can stay active when no traffic is sent
through the connection. You can configure the global idle timeout setting that applies to all policies.
You can also configure a custom idle timeout setting for an individual policy.
For more information about how to configure the global idle timeout setting, see Define XTM Device
Global Settings on page 74.
For an individual policy, you can enable and configure a custom idle timeout that applies only to that
policy. You can then specify the length of time (in seconds) that can elapse before the XTM device
closes the connection. The default custom idle timeout setting is 180 seconds (3 minutes).
If you configure the global idle timeout setting and also enable a custom idle timeout for a policy, the
custom idle timeout setting takes precedence over the global idle timeout setting.
To specify the custom idle timeout value for a policy:
1. On the Policy Configuration page, select the Properties tab.
2. Selectthe Specify Custom Idle Timeout check box.
The idle timeoutsetting isenabled and the defaultvalue of180 secondsappears in the adjacenttext box.
3. In the adjacent text box, type or select the number of seconds before a timeout occurs.
Set ICMP Error Handling
You can set the ICMP error handling settings associated with a policy. These settings override the
global ICMP error handling settings.
To change the ICMP error handling settings for the current policy:
1. Select the Advanced tab.
2. Select the Use policy based ICMP error handling check box.
3. Select one or more check boxes to override the global ICMP settings for that parameter.
For more information on global ICMP settings, see Define XTM Device Global Settings on page 74.
Apply NAT Rules
You can apply Network Address Translation (NAT) rules to a policy. You can select 1-to-1 NAT or
Dynamic NAT.
1. On the Policy Configuration page, select the Advanced tab.
2. Select one of the options described in the subsequent sections.
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1-to-1 NAT
With this type of NAT, the XTM device uses private and public IP ranges that you set, as described in
About 1-to-1 NAT on page 177.
Dynamic NAT
With this type of NAT, the XTM device maps private IP addresses to public IP addresses. All policies
have dynamic NAT enabled by default.
Select Use Network NAT Settings if you want to use the dynamic NAT rules set for the XTM device.
Select All traffic in this policy if you want to apply NAT to all traffic in this policy.
In the Set Source IP field, you can select a dynamic NAT source IP address for any policy that uses
dynamic NAT. This makes sure that any traffic that uses this policy shows a specified address from
your public or external IP address range as the source. This is helpful if you want to force outgoing
SMTP traffic to show your domain’s MX record address when the IP address on the XTM device
external interface is not the same as your MX record IP address.
1-to-1 NAT rules have higher precedence than dynamic NAT rules.
Set the Sticky Connection Duration for a Policy
The sticky connection setting for a policy overrides the global sticky connection setting. You must
enable multi-WAN to use this feature.
1. On the Policy Properties page, select the Advanced tab.
2. To use the global multi-WAN sticky connection setting, clear the Override Multi-WAN sticky
connection setting check box.
3. To set a custom sticky connection value for this policy, select the Enable sticky connection
check box.
4. In the Enable sticky connection text box, type the amount of time in minutes to maintain the
connection.
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About Proxy Policies and ALGs
All WatchGuard policies are important tools for network security, whether they are packet filter
policies, proxy policies, or application layer gateways (ALGs). A packet filter examines each packet’s
IP and TCP/UDP header, a proxy monitors and scans whole connections, and an ALG provides
transparent connection management in addition to proxy functionality. Proxy policies and ALGs
examine the commands used in the connection to make sure they are in the correct syntax and order,
and use deep packet inspection to make sure that connections are secure.
A proxy policy or ALG opens each packet in sequence, removes the network layer header, and
examines the packet’s payload. A proxy then rewrites the network information and sends the packet to
its destination, while an ALG restores the original network information and forwards the packet. As a
result, a proxy or ALG can find forbidden or malicious content hidden or embedded in the data payload.
For example, an SMTP proxy examines all incoming SMTP packets (email) to find forbidden content,
such as executable programs or files written in scripting languages. Attackers frequently use these
methods to send computer viruses. A proxy or ALG can enforce a policy that forbids these content
types, while a packet filter cannot detect the unauthorized content in the packet’s data payload.
If you have purchased and enabled additional subscription services (Gateway AntiVirus, Intrusion
Prevention Service, spamBlocker, WebBlocker), WatchGuard proxies can apply these services to
network traffic.
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Proxy Configuration
Like packet filters, proxy policies include common options to manage network traffic, including traffic
management and scheduling features. However, proxy policies also include settings that are related to
the specified network protocol. These settings are configured with rulesets, or groups of options that
match a specified action. For example, you can configure rulesets to deny traffic from individual users
or devices, or allow VoIP (Voice over IP) traffic that matches the codecs you want. When you have set
all of the configuration options in a proxy, you can save that set of options as a user-defined proxy
action and use it with other proxies.
Fireware XTM supports proxy policies for many common protocols, including DNS, FTP, H.323,
HTTP, HTTPS, POP3, SIP, SMTP, and TCP-UDP. For more information on a proxy policy, see the
section for that policy.
About the DNS-Proxy on page 391
About the FTP-Proxy on page 403
About the H.323-ALG on page 410
About the HTTP-Proxy on page 418
About the HTTPS-Proxy on page 439
About the POP3-Proxy on page 448
About the SIP-ALG on page 459
About the SMTP-Proxy on page 467
About the TCP-UDP-Proxy on page 491
Add a Proxy Policy to Your Configuration
When you add a proxy policy or ALG (application layer gateway) to your Fireware XTM configuration
file, you specify types of content that the XTM device must find as it examines network traffic. If the
content matches (or does not match) the criteria you set in the proxy or ALG definition, the traffic is
either allowed or denied, based on the criteria and settings you specify.
You can use the default settings of the proxy policy or ALG, or you can change these settings to match
network traffic in your organization. You can also create additional proxy policies or ALGs to manage
different parts of your network.
It is important to remember that a proxy policy or ALG requires more processor power than a packet
filter. If you add a large number of proxy policies or ALGs to your configuration, network traffic speeds
might decrease. However, a proxy or ALG uses methods that packet filters cannot use to catch
dangerous packets. Each proxy policy includes several settings that you can adjust to create a
balance between your security and performance requirements.
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to add a proxy policy.
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
2. Click .
3. From the Select a Policy Type list, select a packet filter, proxy policy, or ALG (application
layer gateway). Click Add Policy.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
For more information on the basic properties of all policies, see About Policy Properties on page 366.
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Proxy policies and ALGs have default proxy action rulesets that provide a good balance of security and
accessibility for most installations. If a default proxy action ruleset does not match the network traffic
you want to examine, you can add a new proxy action, or clone an existing proxy action to modify the
rules. You cannot modify a default predefined proxy action. For more information, see About Rules and
Rulesets on page 382 and the About topic for the type of policy you added.
About the DNS-Proxy on page 391
About the FTP-Proxy on page 403
About the H.323-ALG on page 410
About the HTTP-Proxy on page 418
About the HTTPS-Proxy on page 439
About the POP3-Proxy on page 448
About the SIP-ALG on page 459
About the SMTP-Proxy on page 467
About the TCP-UDP-Proxy on page 491
About Proxy Actions
A proxy action is a specific group of settings, sources, or destinations for a type of proxy. Because
your configuration can include several proxy policies of the same type, each proxy policy uses a
different proxy action. Each proxy policy has predefined, or default, proxy actions for clients and
servers. For example, you can use one proxy action for packets sent to a POP3 server protected by
the XTM device, and a different proxy action to apply to email messages retrieved by POP3 clients.
You can clone, edit, and delete proxy actions in your XTM device configuration.
Fireware XTM proxy actions are divided into two categories: predefined proxy actions , and userdefined proxy actions. The predefined proxy actions are configured to balance the accessibility
requirements of a typical company, with the need to protect your computer assets from attacks. You
cannot change the settings of predefined proxy actions. Instead, you must clone (copy) the existing
predefined proxy action definition and save it as a new, user-defined proxy action. You cannot
configure subscription services, such as Gateway AntiVirus, for predefined proxy actions. For
example, if you want to change a setting in the POP3-Client proxy action, you must save it with a
different name, such as POP3-Client.1.
You can create many different proxy actions for either clients or servers, or for a specified type of proxy
policy. However, you can assign only one proxy action to each proxy policy. For example, a POP3
policy is linked to a POP3-Client proxy action. If you want to create a POP3 proxy action for a POP3
server, or an additional proxy action for POP3 clients, you must add new POP3 proxy policies to Policy
Manager that use those new proxy actions.
Set the Proxy Action in a Proxy Policy
To set the proxy action for a proxy policy when you add a new policy:
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall Policies page appears.
2. Click
.
The Select a policy type page appears.
3. Expand the Proxies list and select a proxy policy.
4. From the Proxy Action drop-down list, select the action to use with this policy.
5. Click Add policy.
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To change a proxy action for an existing proxy policy:
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall Policies page appears.
2. Select the proxy policy you want to change.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
3. From the Proxy Action drop-down list, select the proxy action to use with this policy.
4. Click Save.
Clone, Edit, or Delete Proxy Actions
To manage the proxy actions for your XTM device, you can clone, edit, and delete proxy actions. You
can clone, edit, or delete any user-defined proxy action. You cannot make changes to predefined proxy
actions, or delete them. You also cannot delete user-defined proxy actions that are used by a policy.
If you want to change the settings in a predefined proxy action, you can clone it and create a new, userdefined proxy action with the same settings. You can then edit the proxy action to modify the settings
as necessary. If you choose to edit a predefined proxy action, you cannot save your changes. Instead,
you are prompted to clone the changes you have made to a new, user-defined proxy action.
When you edit a proxy action, you can change the rules and rulesets, and the associated actions. Each
proxy action includes proxy action rules, which are organized into categories. Some categories are
further subdivided into subcategories of rules.
The available categories of settings for each proxy action appear in an accordion list, with section
headers that are always visible. When you select the section header for a category, the category
section expands and the settings and rules for each category appear on the category panel. If the
category includes more than one subcategory of settings, a link bar navigation menu appears at the top
of the category panel.
Formoreinformationontheavailableproxy actionsettings foreachproxy,seetheAbouttopic forthatproxy.
About the DNS-Proxy on page 391
About the FTP-Proxy on page 403
About the H.323-ALG on page 410
About the HTTP-Proxy on page 418
About the HTTPS-Proxy on page 439
378
About the POP3-Proxy on page 448
About the SIP-ALG on page 459
About the SMTP-Proxy on page 467
About the TCP-UDP-Proxy on page 491
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Proxy Settings
Clone or Edit a Proxy Action
You can clone both predefined and user-defined proxy actions. But, you can only edit a user-defined
proxy action.
1. Select Firewall > Proxy Actions.
The Proxy Actions page appears.
2. Select the proxy action to clone or edit.
3. Click Clone or Edit.
If you selected to clone a proxy action, the Clone Proxy Action page appears, with the available
categories displayed in an accordion list.
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If you selected to edit a proxy action, the Edit Proxy Action page appears, with the available
categories displayed in an accordion list.
4. Select a category section header to expand the panel for that category.
The panel for the selected category appears. If the category you selected includes subcategories,
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the link bar also appears.
5. If necessary, from the link bar, select a subcategory to edit.
6. Edit the rules and settings for the proxy action for all the necessary categories.
7. Click Save.
Delete a Proxy Action
You cannot delete predefined proxy actions. You can only delete user-defined proxy actions that are
not used by a policy.
1. Select Firewall > Proxy Actions.
The Proxy Actions page appears.
2. Select the proxy action to delete.
3. Click Remove.
A confirmation dialog box appears.
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4. To delete the proxy action, click Yes.
The proxy action is removed from your device configuration.
Proxy and AV Alarms
An alarm is an event that triggers a notification, which is a mechanism to tell a network administrator
about a condition in the network. In a proxy definition, an alarm might occur when traffic matches, or
does not match, a rule in the proxy. An alarm might also occur when the Actions to take selections are
set to an action other than Allow.
For example, the default definition of the FTP-proxy has a rule that denies the download of files whose
file types match any of these patterns: .cab, .com, .dll, .exe, and .zip. You can specify that an alarm is
generated whenever the XTM device takes the Deny action because of this rule.
For each proxy action, you can define what the XTM device does when an alarm occurs.
AV alarm settings are only available if Gateway AntiVirus applies to the proxy. Gateway AntiVirus is
available for the SMTP, POP3, HTTP, FTP, or TCP-UDP proxies. For all other proxies, you can only
configure the proxy alarm settings.
From the Edit Proxy Action page:
1. Expand the Proxy and AV Alarms category.
2. Configure the XTM device to send an SNMP trap, a notification to a network administrator, or
both. The notification can either be an email message to a network administrator or a pop-up
window on the administrator's management computer.
For more information on the Proxy and AV alarms settings, see Set Logging and Notification
Preferences on page 533.
3. To change settings for one or more other categories in this proxy, go to the topic on the next
category you want to modify.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
About Rules and Rulesets
When you configure a proxy policy or ALG (application layer gateway), you must select a proxy action
to use. You can use either a predefined proxy action or create a new proxy action. Each proxy action
contains rules. Rules are sets of criteria to which a proxy compares traffic.
A rule consists of a type of content, pattern, or expression, and the action of the XTM device when a
component of the packet’s content matches that content, pattern, or expression. Rules also include
settings for when the XTM device sends alarms or creates a log entry. A ruleset is a group of rules
based on one feature of a proxy such as the content types or filenames of email attachments. The
process to create and modify rules is consistent for each type of proxy action.
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Your XTM device configuration includes default sets of rules in each proxy actions used by each proxy
policy. Separate sets of rules are provided for clients and servers, to protect both your trusted users
and your public servers. You can use the default configuration for these rules, or you can customize
them for your particular business purposes. You cannot modify or delete predefined proxy actions. If
you want to make changes to a predefined proxy action, you can clone it a new proxy action and then
make the necessary changes in the new proxy action.
About Working with Rules and Rulesets
When you edit a proxy action, you can see the list of rulesets that apply to that proxy action. You can
expand each ruleset to see and edit the rules for that proxy action.
WatchGuard provides a set of predefined rulesets that provide a good balance of security and
accessibility for most installations. If a default ruleset does not meet all of your business needs, you
can Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
Configure Rulesets
To configure rulesets for a proxy action:
1. Select Firewall > Proxy Actions.
The Proxy Actions page appears.
2. Double-click a proxy action to edit it.
The Edit Proxy Action page appears,with an expandable list of rulesets.
3. Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
Add, Change, or Delete Rules
When you configure rules, you can use wildcard pattern matches, exact matches, and Perl-compatible
regular expressions to identify content. When you add rules, you select the action for each rule, and
you can edit, clone (use an existing rule definition to create a new rule), delete, or reset rules.
For more information, see About Rules and Rulesets on page 382 and About Regular Expressions on
page 387.
When you configure a rule, you select the actions the proxy takes for each packet. Different actions
appear for different proxies or for different features of a particular proxy. This list includes all possible
actions:
Allow
Allows the connection.
Deny
Denies a specific request but keeps the connection if possible. Sends a response to the client.
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Drop
Denies the specific request and drops the connection. Does not send a response to the sender.
The XTM device sends only a TCP reset packet to the client. The client’s browser might display
“The connection was reset” or “The page cannot be displayed” but the browser does not tell the
user why.
Block
Denies the request, drops the connection, and blocks the site. For more information on blocked
sites, see About Blocked Sites on page 516.
All traffic from this site's IP address is denied for the amount of time specified in the Firewall >
Blocked Sites page on the Auto-Blocked tab. Use this action only if you want to stop all
traffic from the offender for this time.
Strip
Removes an attachment from a packet and discards it. The other parts of the packet are sent
through the XTM device to its destination.
Lock
Locks an attachment, and wraps it so that it cannot be opened by the user. Only the
administrator can unlock the file.
AV Scan
Scans the attachment for viruses. If you select this option, Gateway AntiVirus is enabled for the
policy.
Add Rules
For information on how to work with regular expressions, see About Regular Expressions on page 387.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, in the list of rules for a ruleset, click Add.
The Add Rule dialog box appears.
2. In the Rule Name text box, type the name of the rule.
This text box is blank when you add a rule, and cannot be changed when you edit a rule.
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3. In the Match Type drop-down list, select an option:
n Exact Match — Select when the contents of the packet must match the rule text exactly.
n Pattern Match — Select when the contents of the packet must match a pattern of text, can
include wildcard characters.
n Regular Expression — Select when the contents of the packet must match a pattern of
text with a regular expression.
4. In the Value text box, type the text of the rule.
If you selected Pattern Match as the rule setting, use an asterisk (*), a period (.), or a question
mark (?) as wildcard characters.
5. In the Rule Actions section, in the Action drop-down list, select the action the proxy takes for
this rule.
6. To create an alarm for this event, select the Alarm check box. An alarm tells users when a
proxy rule applies to network traffic.
7. To create a message for this event in the traffic log, select the Log check box.
Cut and Paste Rule Definitions
You can copy and paste content in text boxes from one proxy definition to another. For example,
suppose you write a custom deny message for the POP3 proxy. You can select the deny message,
copy it, and paste it into the Deny Message text box for the SMTP proxy.
When you copy between proxy definitions, you must make sure the text box you copy from is
compatible with the proxy you paste it into. You can copy rulesets only between proxies or categories
within these four groups. Other combinations are not compatible.
Content Types
Filenames
Addresses
Authentication
HTTP Content Types
FTP Download
SMTP Mail From
SMTP Authentication
SMTP Content Types
FTP Upload
SMTP Mail To
POP3 Authentication
POP3 Content Types
HTTP URL Paths
SMTP Filename
POP3 Filenames
Change the Order of Rules
The order that rules are listed in a proxy action category is the same as the order in which traffic is
compared to the rules. The proxy compares traffic to the first rule in the list and continues in sequence
from top to bottom. When traffic matches a rule, the XTM device performs the related action. It
performs no other actions, even if the traffic matches a rule later in the list.
To change the sequence of rules in a proxy action:
1. Select the rule to change.
2. Click Up or Down to move the rule up or down in the list.
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Change the Default Rule
If traffic does not match any of the rules you have defined for a proxy category, the XTM device uses
the default rule. The action for the default rule appears in a drop-down list below the rule list.
To modify the default rule:
1. From the Action to take if no rule above is matched drop-down list, select the default rule.
2. Select the adjacent Alarm check box to send an alarm for the default rule.
3. Select the Log check box to save a log message for the default rule.
4. Click Save.
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About Regular Expressions
A regular expression is a group of letters, numbers, and special characters used to match data. You
can use Perl-compatible regular expressions (PCRE) in your XTM device configuration to match
certain types of traffic in proxy actions. For example, you can use one regular expression to block
connections to some web sites and allow connections to other web sites. You can also deny SMTP
connections when the recipient is not a valid email address for your company. For example, if you want
to block parts of a web site that violate your company’s Internet use policy, you can use a regular
expression in the URL Paths category of the HTTP proxy configuration.
General Guidelines
n
n
Regular expressions in Fireware are case-sensitive — When you create a regular expression,
you must be careful to match the case of the letters in your regular expression to the letters of
the text you want to match. You can change the regular expression to not be case-sensitive
when you put the (?i) modifier at the start of a group.
Regular expressions in Fireware are different from MS-DOS and Unix wildcard characters —
When you change files using MS-DOS or the Windows Command Prompt, you can use ? or * to
match one or more characters in a file name. These simple wildcard characters do not operate
the same way in Fireware.
For more information on how wildcard characters operate in Fireware, see the subsequent
sections.
How to Build a Regular Expression
The most simple regular expression is made from the text you want to match. Letters, numbers, and
other printable characters all match the same letter, number, or character that you type. A regular
expression made from letters and numbers can match only a character sequence that includes all of
those letters and numbers in order.
Example: fat matches fat, fatuous, and infatuated, as well as many other sequences.
Note Fireware accepts any character sequence that includes the regular expression. A
regular expression frequently matches more than one sequence. If you use a regular
expression as the source for a Deny rule, you can block some network traffic by
accident. We recommend that you fully test your regular expressions before you save
the configuration to your XTM device.
To match different sequences of characters at the same time, you must use a special character. The
most common special character is the period (.), which is similar to a wildcard. When you put a period
in a regular expression, it matches any character, space, or tab. The period does not match line breaks
(\r\n or \n).
Example: f..t matches foot, feet, f&#t, f -t, and f\t3t.
To match a special character, such as the period, you must add a backslash (\) before the character. If
you do not add a backslash to the special character, the rule may not operate correctly. It is not
necessary to add a second backslash if the character usually has a backslash, such as \t (tab stop).
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You must add a backslash to each of these special characters to match the real character: ? . * | + $ \ ^ ( ) [
Example: \$9\.99 matches $9.99
Hexadecimal Characters
To match hexadecimal characters, use \x or %0x%. Hexadecimal characters are not affected by the
case-insensitive modifier.
Example: \x66 or %0x66% matches f, but cannot match F.
Repetition
To match a variable amount of characters, you must use a repetition modifier. You can apply the
modifier to a single character, or a group of characters. There are four types of repetition modifiers:
n
n
n
n
Numbers inside curly braces (such as {2,4}) match as few as the first number, or as many as
the second number.
Example: 3{2,4} matches 33, 333, or 3333. It does not match 3 or 33333.
The question mark (?) matches zero or one occurrence of the preceding character, class, or
group.
Example: me?et matches met and meet.
The plus sign (+) matches one or more occurrences of the preceding character, class, or group.
Example: me+t matches met, meet, and meeeeeeeeet.
The asterisk (*) matches zero or more occurrences of the preceding character, class, or group.
Example: me*t matches mt, met, meet, and meeeeeeeeet.
To apply modifiers to many characters at once, you must make a group. To group a sequence of
characters, put parentheses around the sequence.
Example: ba(na)* matches ba, bana, banana, and banananananana.
Character Classes
To match one character from a group, use square brackets instead of parentheses to create a
character class. You can apply repetition modifiers to the character class. The order of the characters
inside the class does not matter.
The only special characters inside a character class are the closing bracket (]), the backslash (\), the
caret (^), and the hyphen (-).
Example: gr[ae]y matches gray and grey.
To use a caret in the character class, do not make it the first character.
To use a hyphen in the character class, make it the first character.
A negated character class matches everything but the specified characters. Type a caret (^) at the
beginning of any character class to make it a negated character class.
Example: [Qq][^u] matches Qatar, but not question or Iraq.
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Ranges
Character classes are often used with character ranges to select any letter or number. A range is two
letters or numbers, separated by a hyphen (-), that mark the start and finish of a character group. Any
character in the range can match. If you add a repetition modifier to a character class, the preceding
class is repeated.
Example: [1-3][0-9]{2} matches 100 and 399, as well as any number in between.
Some ranges that are used frequently have a shorthand notation. You can use shorthand character
classes inside or outside other character classes. A negated shorthand character class matches the
opposite of what the shorthand character class matches. The table below includes several common
shorthand character classes and their negated values.
ClassEquivalent to
NegatedEquivalent to
\w Any letter or number [A-Za-z09]
\W Not a letter or number
\s Any whitespace character [
\t\r\n]
\S Not whitespace
\d Any number [0-9]
\D Not a number
Anchors
To match the beginning or end of a line, you must use an anchor. The caret (^) matches the beginning
of a line, and the dollar sign ($) matches the end of a line.
Example: ^am.*$ matches ampere if ampere is the only word on the line. It does not match dame.
You can use \b to match a word boundary, or \B to match any position that is not a word boundary.
There are three kinds of word boundaries:
n
n
n
Before the first character in the character sequence, if the first character is a word character (\w)•
After the last character in the character sequence, if the last character is a word character (\w)•
Between a word character (\w) and a non-word character (\W)
Alternation
You can use alternation to match a single regular expression out of several possible regular
expressions. The alternation operator in a regular expression is the pipe character (|). It is similar to the
boolean operator OR.
Example: m(oo|a|e)n matches the first occurrence of moon, man, or men.
Common Regular Expressions
Match the PDF content type (MIME type)
^%PDF-
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Match any valid IP address
(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9] [0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[09][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]? [0-9][0-9]?)
Match most email addresses
[A-Za-z0-9._-][email protected][A-Za-z0-9.-]+\.[A-Za-z]{2,4}
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About the DNS-Proxy
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a network system of servers that translates numeric IP
addresses into readable, hierarchical Internet addresses, and vice versa. DNS enables your computer
network to understand, for example, that you want to reach the server at 200.253.208.100 when you
type a domain name into your browser, such as www.example.com. With Fireware XTM, you have two
methods to control DNS traffic: the DNS packet filter and the DNS-proxy policy. The DNS-proxy is
useful only if DNS requests are routed through your XTM device.
When you create a new configuration file, the file automatically includes an Outgoing packet filter
policy that allows all TCP and UDP connections from your trusted and optional networks to external.
This allows your users to connect to an external DNS server with the standard TCP 53 and UDP 53
ports. Because Outgoing is a packet filter, it is unable to protect against common UDP outgoing
trojans, DNS exploits, and other problems that occur when you open all outgoing UDP traffic from your
trusted networks. The DNS-proxy has features to protect your network from these threats. If you use
external DNS servers for your network, the DNS-Outgoing ruleset offers additional ways to control the
services available to your network community.
To add the DNS-proxy to your XTM device configuration, see Add a Proxy Policy to Your Configuration
on page 376.
If you must change the proxy definition, you can use the New/Edit Proxy Policies page to modify the
definition. This page has three tabs: Policy, Properties, and Advanced.
Action Settings
At the top of the Policy Configuration page, you can set these actions:
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Application Control Action — If Application Control is enabled on your device, specify the
application control action to use for this policy. For more information, see Enable Application
Control in a Policy.
Proxy action — Select the proxy action to use for this policy. For information about proxy
actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
Policy Tab
To set access rules and other options, select the Policy tab.
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Connections are— Specify whether connections are Allowed, Denied, or Denied (send
reset) and define who appears in the From and To list (on the Policy tab of the proxy definition).
See Set Access Rules for a Policy on page 367.
Use policy-based routing — See Configure Policy-Based Routing on page 369.
You can also configure static NAT or configure server load balancing. See Configure Static
NAT on page 187 and Configure Server Load Balancing on page 190.
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Properties Tab
On the Properties tab, you can configure these options:
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To edit or add a comment to this policy configuration, type the comment in the Comment text box.
To define the logging settings for the policy, configure the settings in the Logging section.
For more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
If you set the Connections are drop-down list (on the Policy tab) to Denied or Denied (send
reset), you can block sites that try to use DNS.
For more information, see Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings on page 518.
To change the idle timeout that is set by the XTM device or authentication server, see Set a
Custom Idle Timeout.
Advanced Tab
You can also configure these options in your proxy definition:
n
n
n
n
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n
Set an Operating Schedule
Add a Traffic Management Action to a Policy
Set ICMP Error Handling
Apply NAT Rules (Both 1-to-1 NAT and dynamic NAT are enabled by default in all policies.)
Enable QoS Marking or Prioritization Settings for a Policy
Set the Sticky Connection Duration for a Policy
Configure the Proxy Action
You can choose a predefined proxy action or configure a user-defined proxy action for this proxy. For
more information about how to configure proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
For the DNS-proxy, you can configure these categories of settings for a proxy action:
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n
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DNS-Proxy: General Settings
DNS-Proxy: OPcodes
DNS-Proxy: Query Types
DNS-Proxy: Query Names
DNS-Proxy: Proxy Alarm
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DNS-Proxy: General Settings
In the General section of the Edit Proxy Action page for a DNS-proxy action, you can change the
settings of the two protocol anomaly detection rules. We recommend that you do not change the
default rule settings. You can also select whether to create a traffic log message for each transaction.
Not of class Internet
Select the action when the proxy examines DNS traffic that is not of the Internet (IN) class. The
default action is to deny this traffic. We recommend that you do not change this default action.
Badly formatted query
Select the action when the proxy examines DNS traffic that does not use the correct format.
Alarm
An alarm is a mechanism to tell users when a proxy rule applies to network traffic.
To configure an alarm for this event, select the Alarm check box.
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To set the options for the alarm, expand the Proxy Action accordion. Alarm notifications are
sent in an SNMP trap, email, or a pop-up window.
For more information about proxy alarms, see Proxy and AV Alarms.
For more information about notification messages, see Set Logging and Notification
Preferences.
Log
To send a log message to the traffic log for this event, select this check box.
Enable logging for reports
Select this check box to create a traffic log message for each transaction. This option creates a
large log file, but this information is very important if your firewall is attacked. If you do not
select this check box, detailed information about DNS-proxy connections does not appear in
your reports.
Override the diagnostic log level for proxy policies that use this proxy action
To specify the diagnostic log level for all proxy polices that use this proxy action, select this
check box. Then, from the Diagnostic log level for this proxy action drop-down list, select a
log level:
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n
n
Error
Warning
Information
Debug
The log level you select overrides the diagnostic log level that is configured for all log messages
of this proxy policy type.
For more information about the diagnostic log level, see Set the Diagnostic Log Level on page 530.
DNS-Proxy: OPcodes
DNS OPcodes (operation codes) are commands given to the DNS server that tell it to do some action,
such as a query (Query), an inverse query (IQuery), or a server status request (STATUS). They
operate on items such as registers, values in memory, values stored on the stack, I/O ports, and the
bus. You can add, delete, or modify rules in the default ruleset. You can allow, deny, drop, or block
specified DNS OPcodes.
1. In the Edit Proxy Action page for a DNS-proxy action, select the OPCodes category.
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2. To enable a rule in the list, select the adjacent Enabled check box.
To disable a rule, clear the Enabled check box.
Note If you use Active Directory and your Active Directory configuration requires dynamic
updates, you must allow DNS OPcodes in your DNS-Incoming proxy action rules.
This is a security risk, but can be necessary for Active Directory to operate correctly.
Add a New OPcodes Rule
1. Click Add.
The New OPCodes Rule dialog box appears.
2. Type a name for the rule.
Rule names can have no more than 200 characters.
3. Click the arrows to set the OPCode value. DNS OPcodes have an integer value.
For more information on the integer values of DNS OPcodes, see RFC 1035.
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Delete or Modify Rules
1. Add, delete, or modify rules, as described in Add, Change, or Delete Rules on page 383.
2. To change settings for one or more other categories in this proxy, go to the topic on the next
category you want to modify.
3. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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DNS-Proxy: Query Names
A DNS query name refers to a specified DNS domain name, shown as a fully qualified domain name
(FQDN). You can add, delete, or modify rules.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Query Names category.
2. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
3. To change settings for other categories in this proxy, go to the topic for the next category you
want to modify and follow the instructions.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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DNS-Proxy: Query Types
A DNS query type can configure a resource record by type (such as a CNAME or TXT record) or as a
custom type of query operation (such as an AXFR Full zone transfer). You can add, delete, or modify
rules. You can allow, deny, drop, or block specified DNS query types.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Query Types category.
2. To enable a rule, select the Enabled check box adjacent to the action and name of the rule.
Add a New Query Types Rule
1. To add a new query types rule, click Add.
The New Query Types Rule dialog box appears.
2. Type a name for the rule.
Rules can have no more than 200 characters.
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3. In the Query Type Value text box, type or select the resource record (RR) value for this DNS
query type.
For more information on the values of DNS query types, see RFC 1035.
4. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
5. To change settings for other categories in this proxy, go to the topic for the next category you
want to modify and follow the instructions.
6. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
DNS-Proxy: Proxy Alarm
You can configure how the DNS-proxy sends messages for alarm events that occur through the DNSproxy. You can define the proxy to send an SNMP trap, a notification to a network administrator, or
both. The notification can either be an email message to a network administrator or a pop-up window on
the management computer.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Proxy Alarm category.
The Proxy Alarm settings appear.
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2. Configure the notification settings for the DNS-proxy action.
For more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
3. To change settings for other categories in this proxy, see the topic for the next category you
want to modify.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
About MX (Mail eXchange) Records
An MX (Mail eXchange) record is a type of DNS record that gives one or more host names of the email
servers that are responsible for and authorized to receive email for a given domain. If the MX record
has more than one host name, each name has a number that tells which is the most preferred host and
which hosts to try next if the most preferred host is not available.
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MX Lookup
When an email server sends email, it first does a DNS query for the MX record of the recipient’s
domain. When it gets the response, the sending email server knows the host names of authorized mail
exchangers for the recipient’s domain. To get the IP addresses associated with the MX host names, a
mail server does a second DNS lookup for the A record of the host name. The response gives the IP
address associated with the host name. This lets the sending server know what IP address to connect
to for message delivery.
Reverse MX Lookup
Many anti-spam solutions, including those used by most major ISP networks and web mail providers
such as AOL, MSN, and Yahoo!, use a reverse MX lookup procedure. Different variations of the
reverse lookup are used, but the goals are the same: the receiving server wants to verify that the email
it receives does not come from a spoofed or forged sending address, and that the sending server is an
authorized mail exchanger for that domain.
To verify that the sending server is an authorized email server, the receiving email server tries to find
an MX record that correlates to the sender’s domain. If it cannot find one, it assumes that the email is
spam and rejects it.
The domain name that the receiving server looks up can be:
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Domain name in the email message’s From: header
Domain name in the email message’s Reply-To: header
Domain name the sending server uses as the FROM parameter of the MAIL command. (An
SMTP command is different from an email header. The sending server sends the MAIL FROM:
command to tell the receiving sender who the message is from.)
Domain name returned from a DNS query of the connection’s source IP address. The receiving
server sometimes does a lookup for a PTR record associated with the IP address. A PTR DNS
record is a record that maps an IP address to a domain name (instead of a normal A record,
which maps a domain name to an IP address).
Before the receiving server continues the transaction, it makes a DNS query to see whether a valid MX
record for the sender’s domain exists. If the domain has no valid DNS MX record, then the sender is
not valid and the receiving server rejects it as a spam source.
MX Records and Multi-WAN
Because outgoing connections from behind your XTM device can show different source IP addresses
when your XTM device uses multi-WAN, you must make sure that your DNS records include MX
records for each external IP address that can show as the source when you send email. If the list of
host names in your domain’s MX record does not include one for each external XTM device interface, it
is possible that some remote email servers could drop your email messages.
For example, Company XYZ has an XTM device configured with multiple external interfaces. The XTM
device uses the Failover multi-WAN method. Company XYZ’s MX record includes only one host
name. This host name has a DNS A record that resolves to the IP address of the XTM device primary
external interface.
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When Company XYZ sends an email to [email protected], the email goes out through the primary
external interface. The email request is received by one of Yahoo’s many email servers. That email
server does a reverse MX lookup to verify the identify of Company XYZ. The reverse MX lookup is
successful, and the email is sent.
If a WAN failover event occurs at the XTM device, all outgoing connections from Company XYZ start
to go out the secondary, backup external interface. In this case, when the Yahoo email server does a
reverse MX lookup, it does not find an IP address in Company XYZ’s MX and A records that matches,
and it rejects the email. To solve this problem, make sure that:
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The MX record has multiple host names, at least one for each external XTM device interface.
At least one host name in the MX record has a DNS A record that maps to the IP address
assigned to each XTM device interface.
Add Another Host Name to an MX Record
MX records are stored as part of your domain’s DNS records. For more information on how to set up
your MX records, contact your DNS host provider (if someone else hosts your domain’s DNS service)
or consult the documentation from the vendor of your DNS server software.
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About the FTP-Proxy
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is used to send files from one computer to a different computer over a
TCP/IP network. The FTP client is usually a computer. The FTP server can be a resource that keeps
files on the same network or on a different network. The FTP client can be in one of two modes for data
transfer: active or passive. In active mode, the server starts a connection to the client on source port
20. In passive mode, the client uses a previously negotiated port to connect to the server. The FTPproxy monitors and scans these FTP connections between your users and the FTP servers they
connect to.
With an FTP-proxy policy, you can:
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Set the maximum user name length, password length, file name length, and command line
length allowed through the proxy to help protect your network from buffer overflow attacks.
Control the type of files that the FTP-proxy allows for downloads and uploads.
The TCP/UDP proxy is available for protocols on non-standard ports. When FTP uses a port other than
port 20, the TCP/UDP proxy relays the traffic to the FTP-proxy. For information on the TCP/UDP
proxy, see About the TCP-UDP-Proxy on page 491.
For detailed instructions on how to add the FTP-proxy to your XTM device configuration, see Add a
Proxy Policy to Your Configuration on page 376.
If you must change the proxy definition, you can use the Policy Configuration page to modify the
definition. This page has three tabs: Policy, Properties, and Advanced.
Action Settings
At the top of the Policy Configuration page, you can set these actions:
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Application Control Action — If Application Control is enabled on your device, specify the
application control action to use for this policy. For more information, see Enable Application
Control in a Policy.
Proxy action — Select the proxy action to use for this policy. For information about proxy
actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
You can also configure Gateway AntiVirus service settings for the FTP-proxy. For more information,
see Configure the Gateway AntiVirus Service.
Policy Tab
To set access rules and other options, select the Policy tab.
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Connections are — Specify whether connections are Allowed, Denied, or Denied (send
reset). Define who appears in the From and To lists.
For more information, see Set Access Rules for a Policy.
Use policy-based routing — For information about how to use policy-based routing in your
proxy definition, see Configure Policy-Based Routing.
You can also configure static NAT or configure server load balancing.
For more information, see Configure Static NAT on page 187 or Configure Server Load
Balancing on page 190.
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Properties Tab
On the Properties tab, you can configure these options:
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To edit or add a comment to this policy configuration, type the comment in the Comment text box.
To define the logging settings for the policy, configure the settings in the Logging section. For
more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
If you set the Connections are drop-down list (on the Policy tab) to Denied or Denied (send
reset), you can block sites that try to use FTP.
For more information, see Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings on page 518.
To change the idle timeout that is set by the XTM device or authentication server, follow the
instructions in Set a Custom Idle Timeout.
Advanced Tab
You can also configure these options in your proxy definition:
n
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Set an Operating Schedule
Add a Traffic Management Action to a Policy
Set ICMP Error Handling
Apply NAT Rules (Both 1-to-1 NAT and dynamic NAT are enabled by default in all policies.)
Enable QoS Marking or Prioritization Settings for a Policy
Set the Sticky Connection Duration for a Policy
Configure the Proxy Action
You can choose a predefined proxy action or configure a user-defined proxy action for this proxy. For
more information about how to configure proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
For the FTP-proxy, you can configure these categories of settings for a proxy action:
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FTP-Proxy: General Settings
FTP-Proxy: Commands
FTP-Proxy: Content
FTP-Proxy: Proxy and AV Alarms
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FTP-Proxy: General Settings
In the General section of the Edit Proxy Action page for an FTP-proxy action, you can set basic FTP
parameters including maximum user name length.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the General category.
The General settings appear.
2. To set limits for FTP parameters, select the applicable check boxes. These settings help to
protect your network from buffer overflow attacks.
Set the maximum user name length to
Sets a maximum length for user names on FTP sites.
Set the maximum password length to
Sets a maximum length for passwords used to log in to FTP sites.
Set the maximum file name length to
Sets the maximum file name length for files to upload or download.
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Set the maximum command line length to
Sets the maximum length for command lines used on FTP sites.
Set the maximum number of failed logins per connection to
Allows you to limit the number of failed connection requests to your FTP site. This can
protect your site against brute force attacks.
3. In the text box for each setting, type or select the limit for the selected parameter.
4. For each setting, select or clear the Auto-block check box.
If someone tries to connect to an FTP site and exceeds a limit that you have selected to autoblock, the computer that sent the commands is added to the temporary Blocked Sites List.
5. To create a log message for each transaction, select the Enable logging for reports check
box.
You must select this option to get detailed information on FTP traffic.
6. To specify the diagnostic log level for all proxy polices that use this proxy action, select the
Override the diagnostic log level for proxy policies that use this proxy action check box.
From the Diagnostic log level for this proxy action drop-down list, select a log level:
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Error
Warning
Information
Debug
The log level you select overrides the diagnostic log level that is configured for all log messages
of this proxy policy type.
For more information about the diagnostic log level, see Set the Diagnostic Log Level on page 530.
7. To change settings for other categories in this proxy, see the topic for the next category you
want to modify.
8. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
To see IP addresses that are blocked when the limits you set on FTP parameters have been exceeded,
you can review your log messages, or you can connect to your device with Firebox System
Manager and view the Blocked Sites list and Traffic Monitor. From there you can see which IP
addresses were blocked and why, and unblock the sites as appropriate. For more information about the
Blocked Sites list and Traffic Monitor, see Manage the Blocked Sites List (Blocked Sites) and Blocked
Sites and Traffic Monitor.
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FTP-Proxy: Commands
There are a number of commands that FTP uses to manage files. You can configure rules to put limits
on some FTP commands.
To control the commands that can be used on an FTP server protected by your XTM device, you can
configure the FTP-Server proxy action. By default, the FTP-Server proxy action configuration allows
these commands:
ABOR* HELP*
PASS* REST*
APPE*
PASV* RETR* STOR* XCUP*
LIST*
STAT*
USER*
CDUP* MKD*
PORT* RMD*
STOU* XCWD*
CWD*
NLST*
PWD*
RNFR* SYST*
XMKD*
DELE*
NOOP* QUIT*
RNTO* TYPE*
XRMD*
The FTP-Server proxy action denies all other FTP commands by default.
To put limits on the commands that users protected by the XTM device can use when they connect to
external FTP servers, modify the FTP-Client proxy action. The default configuration of the FTP-Client
is to allow all FTP commands.
You can add, delete, or modify rules. We recommend that you do not block these commands, because
they are necessary for the FTP protocol to work correctly:
Protocol
Client
Description
Command Command
USER
n/a
Sent with login name
PASS
n/a
Sent with password
PASV
pasv
Select passive mode for data transfer
SYST
syst
Print the server's operating system and version. FTP clients use this
information to correctly interpret and show a display of server responses.
To add, delete, or modify rules:
1.
2.
3.
4.
On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Commands category.
Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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FTP-Proxy: Content
You can control the type of files that the FTP-proxy allows for downloads and uploads. For example,
because many hackers use executable files to deploy viruses or worms on a computer, you could deny
requests for *.exe files. Or, if you do not want to let users upload Windows Media files to an FTP
server, you could add *.wma to the proxy definition and specify that these files are denied. Use the
asterisk (*) as a wildcard character.
To define rules for an FTP server protected by the XTM device, modify the FTP-Server proxy action.
To define rules for users who connect to external FTP servers, modify the FTP-Client proxy action.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Upload or Download category.
2. Add, delete, or modify rules, as described in Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
3. If you want uploaded files to be scanned for viruses by Gateway AntiVirus, from the Action
drop-down list, select AV Scan for one or more rules.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. When you are finished with your changes to this proxy action definition, click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
FTP-Proxy: Proxy and AV Alarms
You can configure how the FTP-proxy sends messages for alarm and antivirus events that occur
through the FTP-proxy. You can define the proxy to send an SNMP trap, a notification to a network
administrator, or both. The notification can either be an email message to a network administrator or a
pop-up window on the management computer.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Proxy Alarm category.
The Proxy Alarm settings appear.
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2. Configure the notification settings for the FTP-proxy action.
For more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
3. To change settings for other categories in this proxy, see the topic for the next category you
want to modify.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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About the H.323-ALG
If you use Voice-over-IP (VoIP) in your organization, you can add an H.323 or SIP (Session Initiation
Protocol) ALG (Application Layer Gateway) to open the ports necessary to enable VoIP through your
XTM device. An ALG is created in the same way as a proxy policy and offers similar configuration
options. These ALGs have been created to work in a NAT environment to maintain security for
privately addressed conferencing equipment protected by your XTM device.
H.323 is commonly used on videoconferencing equipment. SIP is commonly used with IP phones. You
can use both H.323 and SIP ALGs at the same time, if necessary. To determine which ALG to add,
consult the documentation for your VoIP devices or applications.
VoIP Components
It is important to understand that you usually implement VoIP by using either:
Peer-to-peer connections
In a peer-to-peer connection, each of the two devices knows the IP address of the other device
and connects to the other directly, without the use of a proxy server to route their calls.
Host-based connections
Connections managed by a call management system (PBX). The call management system can
be self-hosted, or hosted by a third-party service provider.
With H.323, the key component of call management is known as a gatekeeper. A gatekeeper manages
VoIP calls for a group of users, and can be located on a network protected by your XTM device or at an
external location. For example, some VoIP providers host a gatekeeper on their network that you must
connect to before you can place a VoIP call. Other solutions require you to set up and maintain a
gatekeeper on your network.
Coordination of the many components of a VoIP installation can be a difficult task. We recommend you
make sure that VoIP connections work successfully before you add an H.323 or SIP ALG. This can
help you to troubleshoot any problems.
ALG Functions
When you use an H.323-ALG, your XTM device:
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Routes traffic for VoIP applications
Opens the ports necessary to make and receive calls, and to exchange audio and video media
Makes sure that VoIP connections use standard H.323 protocols
Generates log messages for auditing purposes
Many VoIP devices and servers use NAT (Network Address Translation) to open and close ports
automatically. The H.323 and SIP ALGs also perform this function. You must disable NAT on your
VoIP devices if you configure an H.323 or SIP ALG.
To change the ALG definition, you can use the Policy Configuration page. This page has three
tabs: Policy, Properties, and Advanced.
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For more information on how to add a proxy to your configuration, see Add a Proxy Policy to Your
Configuration on page 376.
Action Settings
At the top of the Policy Configuration page, you can set these actions:
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n
Application Control Action — If Application Control is enabled on your device, specify the
application control action to use for this policy. For more information, see Enable Application
Control in a Policy.
Proxy action — Select the proxy action to use for this policy. For information about proxy
actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
Policy Tab
To set access rules and other options, select the Policy tab.
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Connections are — Specify whether connections are Allowed, Denied, or Denied (send
reset)and define who appears in the From and To lists.
For more information, see Set Access Rules for a Policy on page 367.
Use policy-based routing — If you want to use policy-based routing in your proxy definition,
see Configure Policy-Based Routing on page 369.
You can also configure static NAT or configure server load balancing.
For more information, see Configure Static NAT on page 187 and Configure Server Load
Balancing on page 190.
Properties Tab
On the Properties tab, you can configure these options:
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To edit or add a comment to this policy configuration, type the comment in the Comment text box.
To define the logging settings for the policy, configure the settings in the Logging section. For
more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
If you set the Connections are drop-down list (on the Policy tab) to Denied or Denied (send
reset), you can block sites that try to use H.323. For more information, see Block Sites
Temporarily with Policy Settings on page 518.
To change the idle timeout that is set by the XTM device or authentication server, see Set a
Custom Idle Timeout.
Advanced Tab
You can also configure these options in your proxy definition:
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Set an Operating Schedule
Add a Traffic Management Action to a Policy
Set ICMP Error Handling
Apply NAT Rules (Both 1-to-1 NAT and dynamic NAT are enabled by default in all policies.)
Enable QoS Marking or Prioritization Settings for a Policy
Set the Sticky Connection Duration for a Policy
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Configure the Proxy Action
You can choose a predefined proxy action or configure a user-defined proxy action for this proxy. For
more information about how to configure proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
For the H.323-ALG, you can configure these categories of settings for a proxy action:
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H.323-ALG: Access Control
H.323-ALG: Denied Codecs
H.323-ALG: General Settings
On the Edit Proxy Action page for an H.323-ALG, in the General section, you can set security and
performance options for the H.323-ALG (Application Layer Gateway).
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Enable directory harvesting protection
Select this check box to prevent attackers from stealing user information from
VoIP gatekeepers protected by your XTM device. This option is enabled by default.
Set the maximum number of sessions allowed per call
Use this feature to restrict the maximum number of audio or video sessions that can be created
with a single VoIP call. For example, if you set the number of maximum sessions to one and
participate in a VoIP call with both audio and video, the second connection is dropped. The
default value is two sessions, and the maximum value is four sessions. The XTM device
creates a log message when it denies a media session above this number.
User agent information
To have outgoing H.323 traffic identify as a client you specify, in the Rewrite user agent as
text box, type a new user agent string. To remove the false user agent, clear the text box.
Idle media channels
When no data is sent for a specified amount of time on a VoIP audio, video, or data channel,
your XTM device closes that network connection. The default value is 180 seconds (three
minutes) and the maximum value is 3600 seconds (sixty minutes).
To specify a different time interval, in the Idle media channels text box, type or select the
amount of time in seconds.
Enable logging for reports
To send a log message for each connection request managed by the H.323-ALG, select this
check box. This option is necessary to create accurate reports on H.323 traffic.
Override the diagnostic log level for proxy policies that use this proxy action
To specify the diagnostic log level for all proxy polices that use this proxy action, select this
check box. Then, from the Diagnostic log level for this proxy action drop-down list, select a
log level:
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Error
Warning
Information
Debug
The log level you select overrides the diagnostic log level that is configured for all log messages
of this proxy policy type.
For more information about the diagnostic log level, see Set the Diagnostic Log Level on page 530.
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H.323-ALG: Access Control
On the Edit Proxy Action page for an H.323-ALG proxy action, in the General section, you can create
a list of users who are allowed to send VoIP network traffic.
Enable access control for VoIP
Select this check box to enable the access control feature. When enabled, the H.323-ALG
allows or restricts calls based on the options you set.
Default Settings
To enable all VoIP users to start calls by default, select the Start VoIP calls check box.
To enable all VoIP users to receive calls by default, select the Receive VoIP calls check box.
To create a log message for each H.323 VoIP connection started or received, select the
adjacent Log check box.
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Access Levels
To create an exception to the default settings you specified, in the Address of Record text
box, type the address that shows up in the TO and FROM headers of the packet for the
exception. This is usually an H.323 address in the format [email protected], such as
[email protected] .
From the Access Levels drop-down list, select an access level and click Add.
You can allow users to Start calls only, Receive calls only, Start and receive calls, or give
them No VoIP access. These settings apply only to H.323 VoIP traffic.
To delete an exception, select it in the list and click Remove.
Connections made by users who have an access level exception are logged by default. If you
do not want to log connections made by a user with an access level exception, clear the Log
check box adjacent to the exception name in the list.
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H.323-ALG: Denied Codecs
You can use the H.323-ALG Denied Codecs feature to specify one or more VoIP voice, video, or data
transmission codecs to deny on your network. When an H.323 VoIP connection is opened that uses a
codec specified in this list, your XTM device reads the value from the H.323 header in the "a=rtpmap"
field and strips the codec information from the connection negotiation.
The Denied Codecs list is empty by default. We recommend that you add a codec to this list if the codec:
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Consumes too much bandwidth and causes excessive data usage across trunks or between
network elements
Presents a security risk
Is necessary for your VoIP solution to operate correctly
For example, you might choose to deny the G.711 or G.726 codecs because they use more than 32
Kb/sec of bandwidth, or you might choose to deny the Speex codec because it is used by an
unauthorized VoIP application.
For a list of codecs and the name or text pattern associated with each codec, see
http://www.iana.org/assignments/rtp-parameters/rtp-parameters.xml. When you add a codec to the
Denied Codecs list, make sure to specify the value in the Encoding Name column for that codec.
To configure the denied codecs settings for an H.323-ALG:
1. On the H.323-Client Edit Proxy Action page, select Denied Codecs.
The Denied Codecs section appears.
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2. To add a codec to the list, in the Denied Codecs text box, type the codec name or unique text
pattern in the text box.
Do not use wildcard characters or regular expression syntax. Codec patterns are case
sensitive.
3. Click Add
4. To delete a codec from the list, select the codec and click Remove.
5. To create a log message when your XTM device strips the codec information from H.323 traffic
that matches a codec in this list, select the Log each transaction that matches a denied
codec pattern check box.
6. Click Save.
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About the HTTP-Proxy
Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a request/response protocol between clients and servers. The
HTTP client is usually a web browser. The HTTP server is a remote resource that stores HTML files,
images, and other content. When the HTTP client starts a request, it establishes a TCP (Transmission
Control Protocol) connection on Port 80. An HTTP server listens for requests on Port 80. When it
receives the request from the client, the server replies with the requested file, an error message, or
some other information.
The HTTP-proxy is a high-performance content filter. It examines Web traffic to identify suspicious
content that can be a virus or other type of intrusion. It can also protect your HTTP server from attacks.
With an HTTP-proxy filter, you can:
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Adjust timeout and length limits of HTTP requests and responses to prevent poor network
performance, as well as several attacks.
Customize the deny message that users see when they try to connect to a web site blocked by
the HTTP-proxy.
Filter web content MIME types.
Block specified path patterns and URLs.
Deny cookies from specified web sites.
You can also use the HTTP-proxy with the WebBlocker security subscription. For more information,
see About WebBlocker on page 781.
To enable your users to downloads Windows updates through the HTTP-proxy, you must change your
HTTP-proxy settings. For more information, see Enable Windows Updates Through the HTTP-Proxy.
The TCP/UDP proxy is available for protocols on non-standard ports. When HTTP uses a port other
than Port 80, the TCP/UDP proxy sends the traffic to the HTTP-proxy. For more information on the
TCP/UDP proxy, see About the TCP-UDP-Proxy on page 491.
To add the HTTP-proxy to your XTM device configuration, see Add a Proxy Policy to Your
Configuration on page 376.
If you must change the proxy definition, you can use the Policy Configuration page to modify the
definition. This page has three tabs: Policy, Properties, and Advanced.
You can also configure subscription service settings for the HTTP-proxy. For more information, see:
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Configure the Gateway AntiVirus Service
Configure Gateway AntiVirus Actions
Configure Reputation Enabled Defense
Configure Application Control for Policies
Action Settings
At the top of the Policy Configuration page, you can set these actions:
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Application Control Action — If Application Control is enabled on your device, specify the
application control action to use for this policy. For more information, see Enable Application
Control in a Policy.
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Proxy action — Select the proxy action to use for this policy. For information about proxy
actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
Policy Tab
To set access rules and other options, select the Policy tab.
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Connections are — Specify whether connections are Allowed, Denied, or Denied (send
reset) and select the users, computers, or networks that appear in the From and To lists. For
more information, see Set Access Rules for a Policy on page 367.
Use policy-based routing — To specify settings for policy-based routing in your proxy
definition, see Configure Policy-Based Routing on page 369.
You can also configure static NAT or configure server load balancing.
For more information, see Configure Static NAT on page 187 and Configure Server Load
Balancing on page 190.
Properties Tab
On the Properties tab, you can configure these options:
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To define the logging settings for the policy, configure the settings in the Logging section. For
more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
If you set the Connections are drop-down list (on the Policy tab) to Denied or Denied (send
reset), you can block devices that try to connect on port 80.
For more information, see Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings on page 518.
To change the idle timeout that is set by the XTM device or authentication server, follow the
instructions in Set a Custom Idle Timeout.
Advanced Tab
You can also configure these options in your proxy definition:
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Set an Operating Schedule
Add a Traffic Management Action to a Policy
Set ICMP Error Handling
Apply NAT Rules (Both 1-to-1 NAT and dynamic NAT are enabled by default in all policies.)
Enable QoS Marking or Prioritization Settings for a Policy
Set the Sticky Connection Duration for a Policy
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Configure the Proxy Action
You can choose a predefined proxy action or configure a user-defined proxy action for this proxy. For
more information about how to configure proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
For the HTTP-proxy, you can configure these categories of settings for a proxy action:
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HTTP Request: General Settings on page 420
HTTP Request: Request Methods on page 423
HTTP Request: URL Paths on page 424
HTTP Request: Header Fields on page 425
HTTP Request: Authorization on page 426
HTTP Response: General Settings on page 427
HTTP Response: Header Fields on page 428
HTTP Response: Content Types on page 429
HTTP Response: Cookies on page 431
HTTP Response: Body Content Types on page 431
Use a Caching Proxy Server on page 437
HTTP-Proxy: Exceptions on page 432
HTTP-Proxy: Deny Message on page 434
HTTP-Proxy: Proxy and AV Alarms on page 435
HTTP Request: General Settings
On the Edit Proxy Action page for an HTTP-proxy action, in the General Settings section, you can
set basic HTTP parameters such as idle time out and URL length.
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Idle Timeout
This option controls performance.
To close the TCP socket for the HTTP connection when no packets have passed through the TCP
socket in the amount of time you specify, select the Set the connection idle timeout to check
box. In the adjacent text box, type or select the number of minutes before the proxy times out.
Because every open TCP session uses a small amount of memory on the XTM device, and
browsers and servers do not always close HTTP sessions cleanly, we recommend that you
keep this check box selected. This makes sure that stale TCP connections are closed and
helps the XTM device save memory. You can lower the timeout to five minutes and not reduce
performance standards.
URL Path Length
To set the maximum number of characters allowed in a URL, select the Set the maximum
URL path link to check box.
In this area of the proxy, URL includes anything in the web address after the top-level-domain.
This includes the slash character but not the host name (www.myexample.com or
myexample.com). For example, the URL www.myexample.com/products counts nine
characters toward this limit because /products has nine characters.
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The default value of 2048 is usually enough for any URL requested by a computer behind your
XTM device. A URL that is very long can indicate an attempt to compromise a web server. The
minimum length is 15 bytes. We recommend that you keep this setting enabled with the default
settings. This helps protect against infected web clients on the networks that the HTTP-proxy
protects.
Range Requests
To allow range requests through the XTM device, select this check box. Range requests allow a
client to request subsets of the bytes in a web resource instead of the full content. For example, if
you want only some sections of a large Adobe file but not the whole file, the download occurs more
quickly and prevents the download of unnecessary pages if you can request only what you need.
Range requests introduce security risks. Malicious content can hide anywhere in a file and a
range request makes it possible for any content to be split across range boundaries. The proxy
can fail to see a pattern it is looking for when the file spans two GET operations.
We recommend that you do not select this check box if the rules you add in the Body Content
Types section of the proxy are designed to identify byte signatures deep in a file, instead of just
in the file header.
To add a traffic log message when the proxy takes the action indicated in the check box for
range requests, select the Log this action check box.
Safe Search
To enable the HTTP-Client proxy action to enforce Safe Search for search engines, select the
Enforce safe search for major search engines such as Google, Bing, Yahoo and
YouTube check box.
Safe Search is a feature included in web browser search engines that enables users to specify
what level of potentially inappropriate content can be returned in search results. When you
enable Safe Search in the HTTP-Client proxy action, the strictest level of Safe Search rules are
enforced regardless of the settings configured in the client web browser search engines.
Enable logging for reports
To create a traffic log message for each transaction, select this check box. This option creates
a large log file, but this information can be very important if your firewall is attacked. If you do
not select this check box, you do not see detailed information about HTTP-proxy connections in
reports.
To generate log messages for both Web Audit and WebBlocker reports, you must select this
option. For more information about how to generate reports for the log messages from your
device, see Configure Report Generation Settings.
Override the diagnostic log level for proxy policies that use this proxy action
To specify the diagnostic log level for all proxy polices that use this proxy action, select this
check box. Then, from the Diagnostic log level for this proxy action drop-down list, select a
log level:
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Information
Debug
The log level you select overrides the diagnostic log level that is configured for all log messages
of this proxy policy type.
For more information about the diagnostic log level, see Set the Diagnostic Log Level on page 530.
HTTP Request: Request Methods
Most browser HTTP requests are in one of two categories: GET or POST operations. Browsers usually
use GET operations to download objects such as a graphic, HTML data, or Flash data. More than one
GET is usually sent by a client computer for each page, because web pages usually contain many
different elements. The elements are put together to make a page that appears as one page to the end
user.
Browsers usually use POST operations to send data to a web site. Many web pages get information
from the end user such as location, email address, and name. If you disable the POST command, the
XTM device denies all POST operations to web servers on the external network. This feature can
prevent your users from sending information to a web site on the external network.
Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning (webDAV) is a set of HTTP extensions that allows
users to edit and manage files on remote web servers. WebDAV is compatible with Outlook Web
Access (OWA). If webDAV extensions are not enabled, the HTTP proxy supports these request
methods: HEAD, GET, POST, OPTIONS, PUT, and DELETE. For HTTP-Server, the proxy supports
these request methods by default: HEAD, GET, and POST. The proxy also includes these options
(disabled by default): OPTIONS, PUT, and DELETE.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the HTTP Request category.
The HTTP Request panel expands.
2. In the link bar, select Request Methods .
The Request Methods settings appear.
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3. To enable your users to use these extensions, select the Enable webDAV check box.
Many extensions to the base webDAV protocol are also available. If you enable webDAV, from
the adjacent drop-down list, select whether you want to enable only the extensions described in
RFC 2518 or if you want to include an additional set of extensions to maximize interoperability.
4. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
5. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
6. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
HTTP Request: URL Paths
A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) identifies a resource on a remote server and gives the network
location on that server. The URL path is the string of information that comes after the top level domain
name. You can use the HTTP-proxy to block web sites that contain specified text in the URL path. You
can add, delete, or modify URL path patterns. Here are examples of how to block content with HTTP
request URL paths:
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To block all pages that have the host name www.test.com, type the pattern: www.test.com*
To block all paths containing the word sex, on all web sites: *sex*
To block URL paths ending in *.test, on all web sites: *.test
Note If you filter URLs with the HTTP request URL path ruleset, you must configure a
complex pattern that uses full regular expression syntax from the advanced view of a
ruleset. It is easier and gives better results to filter based on header or body content
type than it is to filter by URL path.
To block web sites with specific text in the URL path:
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the HTTP Request category.
The HTTP Request panel expands.
2. In the link bar, select URL paths.
The URL Paths settings appear.
3. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
HTTP Request: Header Fields
This ruleset supplies content filtering for the full HTTP header. By default, the HTTP-proxy uses exact
matching rules to strip Via and From headers, and allows all other headers. This ruleset matches the
full header, not only the name.
To match all values of a header, type the pattern: [header name]:* . To match only some values of a
header, replace the asterisk (*) wildcard with a pattern. If your pattern does not start with an asterisk (*)
wildcard, include one space between the colon and the pattern when you type in the Pattern text box.
For example, type: [header name]: [pattern] , not [header name]:[pattern] .
The default rules do not strip the Referer header, but do include a disabled rule to strip this header. To
enable the rule to strip the header, select Change View. Some web browsers and software
applications must use the Referer header to operate correctly.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the HTTP Request category.
The HTTP Request category expands.
2. In the link bar, select Header Fields.
The Header Fields settings appear.
3. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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HTTP Request: Authorization
This rule sets the criteria for content filtering of HTTP Request Header authorization fields. When a
web server starts a WWW-Authenticate challenge, it sends information about which authentication
methods it can use. The proxy puts limits on the type of authentication sent in a request. It uses only
the authentication methods that the web server accepts. With a default configuration, the XTM device
allows Basic, Digest, NTLM, and Passport1.4 authentication, and strips all other authentication. You
can add, delete, or modify rules in the default ruleset.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the HTTP Request category.
The HTTP Request category expands.
2. In the link bar, select Authorization.
The Authorization settings appear.
3. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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HTTP Response: General Settings
On the General Settings page, you can configure basic HTTP parameters such as idle time out, and
limits for line and total length.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the HTTP Response category.
The HTTP Response category expands.
2. In the link bar, select General Settings.
The General Settings page appears.
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3. To set limits for HTTP parameters, select the applicable check boxes. Type or select a value for
the limits.
Set the timeout to
Controls how long the HTTP proxy waits for the web server to send the web page. When a
user clicks a hyperlink or types a URL in a web browser, it sends an HTTP request to a
remote server to get the content. In most browsers, a message similar to Contacting site...,
appears in the status bar. If the remote server does not respond, the HTTP client continues
to send the request until it receives an answer or until the request times out. During this
time, the HTTP proxy continues to monitor the connection and uses valuable network
resources.
Set the maximum line length to
Controls the maximum allowed length of a line of characters in HTTP response headers.
Use this property to protect your computers from buffer overflow exploits. Because URLs
for many commerce sites continue to increase in length over time, you may need to adjust
this value in the future.
Set the maximum total length to
Controls the maximum length of HTTP response headers. If the total header length is more
than this limit, the HTTP response is denied.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
HTTP Response: Header Fields
This ruleset controls which HTTP response header fields the XTM device allows. You can add, delete,
or modify rules. Many of the HTTP response headers that are allowed in the default configuration are
described in RFC 2616. For more information, see http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2616.txt.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the HTTP Response category.
The HTTP Response category expands.
2. In the link bar, select Header Fields.
The Header Fields settings appear.
3. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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HTTP Response: Content Types
When a web server sends HTTP traffic, it usually adds a MIME type, or content type, to the packet
header that shows what kind of content is in the packet. The HTTP header on the data stream contains
this MIME type. It is added before the data is sent.
Certain kinds of content that users request from web sites can be a security threat to your network.
Other kinds of content can decrease the productivity of your users. By default, the XTM device allows
some safe content types, and denies MIME content that has no specified content type. The HTTPproxy includes a list of commonly used content types that you can add to the ruleset. You can also
add, delete, or modify the definitions.
The format of a MIME type is type/subtype. For example, if you wanted to allow JPEG images, you
would add image/jpg to the proxy definition. You can also use the asterisk (*) as a wildcard. To allow
any image format, you add image/* .
For a list of current, registered MIME types, see http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types.
Add, Delete, or Modify Content Types
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the HTTP Request category.
The HTTP Response panel expands.
2. In the link bar, select Content Types.
The Content Types settings appear.
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3. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
Allow Web Sites with a Missing Content Type
By default, the XTM device denies MIME content that has no specified content type. In most cases,
we recommend that you keep this default setting. Sites that do not supply legitimate MIME types in
their HTTP responses do not follow RFC recommendations and could pose a security risk. However,
some organizations need their employees to get access to web sites that do not have a specified
content type.
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You must make sure that you change the proxy action used by the correct policy or policies. You can
apply the change to any policy that uses an HTTP-Client proxy action. This could be an HTTP-proxy
policy, the Outgoing policy (which also applies an HTTP-Client proxy action), or the TCP-UDP policy.
To allow web sites with a missing content type:
1. In the Content Types list, select the Enabled check box adjacent to the Allow (none) rule.
2. Click Save.
HTTP Response: Cookies
HTTP cookies are small files of alphanumeric text that web servers put on web clients. Cookies monitor
the page a web client is on, to enable the web server to send more pages in the correct sequence. Web
servers also use cookies to collect information about an end user. Many web sites use cookies for
authentication and other legitimate functions, and cannot operate correctly without cookies.
The HTTP proxy gives you control of the cookies in HTTP responses. You can configure rules to strip
cookies, based on your network requirements. The default rule for the HTTP-Server and HTTP-Client
proxy action allows all cookies. You can add, delete, or modify rules.
The proxy looks for packets based on the domain associated with the cookie. The domain can be
specified in the cookie. If the cookie does not contain a domain, the proxy uses the host name in the
first request. For example, to block all cookies for nosy-adware-site.com, use the pattern: *.nosyadware-site.com . If you want to deny cookies from all subdomains on a web site, use the wildcard
symbol (*) before and after the domain. For example, *example.com* blocks all subdomains of
example.com, such as images.example.com and mail.example.com.
Change Settings for Cookies
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the HTTP Request category.
The HTTP Response panel expands.
2. In the link bar, select Cookies.
The Cookies settings appear.
3. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
HTTP Response: Body Content Types
This ruleset gives you control of the content in an HTTP response. The XTM device is configured to
deny Java bytecodes, Zip archives, Windows EXE/DLL files, and Windows CAB files. The default
proxy action for outgoing HTTP requests (HTTP-Client) allows all other response body content types.
You can add, delete, or modify rules. We recommend that you examine the file types that are used in
your organization and allow only those file types that are necessary for your network.
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1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the HTTP Response category.
The HTTP Response panel expands.
2. In the link bar, select Body Content Types.
The Body Content Types settings appear.
3. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
HTTP-Proxy: Exceptions
For certain web sites, you can use HTTP-proxy exceptions to bypass HTTP-proxy rules, but not
bypass the proxy framework. Traffic that matches HTTP-proxy exceptions is still handled by the
HTTP-proxy, but, when a match occurs, some proxy settings are not included.
Excluded Proxy Settings
These settings are not included:
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HTTP request — Range requests, URL path length, all request methods, all URL paths,
request headers, authorization pattern matching
HTTP response — Response headers, content types, cookies, body content types
Request headers and response headers are parsed by the HTTP-proxy even when the traffic matches
the HTTP-proxy exception. If a parsing error does not occur, all headers are allowed. Antivirus
scanning and WebBlocker are not applied to traffic that matches an HTTP-proxy exception.
Included Proxy Settings
These settings are included:
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HTTP request — Idle timeout
HTTP response — Idle timeout, maximum line length limit, maximum total length limit
All transfer-encoding parsing is still applied to allow the proxy to determine the encoding type. The
HTTP-proxy denies all invalid or malformed transfer encoding.
Define Exceptions
You can add host names or patterns as HTTP-proxy exceptions. For example, if you block all web
sites that end in .test but want to allow your users to go to the site www.example.test, you can add
www.example.test as an HTTP-proxy exception.
When you define exceptions, you specify the IP address or domain name of sites to allow. The domain
(or host) name is the part of a URL that ends with .com, .net, .org, .biz, .gov, or .edu. Domain names
can also end in a country code, such as .de (Germany) or .jp (Japan).
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To add a domain name, type the URL pattern without the leading http://. For example, to allow your
users to go to the Example web site, http://www.example.com, type www.example.com . If you want to
allow all subdomains that contain example.com, you can use the asterisk (*) as a wildcard character.
For example, to allow users to go to www.example.com, and support.example.com type
*.example.com .
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the HTTP Proxy Exceptions category.
The HTTP Proxy Exceptions settings appear.
2. In the text box, type the host name or host name pattern. Click Add.
3. Repeat this process to add more exceptions.
4. To add a traffic log message each time the HTTP-proxy takes an action on a proxy exception,
select the Log each transaction that matches an HTTP proxy exception check box.
5. To change settings for other categories in this proxy, see the topic for the next category you
want to modify.
6. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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HTTP-Proxy: Deny Message
When content is denied, the XTM device sends a default deny message that replaces the denied
content. You can change the text of that deny message. You can customize the deny message with
standard HTML. You can also use Unicode (UTF-8) characters in the deny message. The first line of
the deny message is a component of the HTTP header. You must include an empty line between the
first line and the body of the message.
You get a deny message in your web browser from the XTM device when you make a request that the
HTTP-proxy does not allow. You also get a deny message when your request is allowed, but the
HTTP-proxy denies the response from the remote web server. For example, if a user tries to download
an .exe file and you have blocked that file type, the user sees a deny message in the web browser. If
the user tries to download a web page that has an unknown content type and the proxy policy is
configured to block unknown MIME types, the user sees an error message in the web browser.
The default deny message appears in the Deny Message text box. To change this to a custom
message, scroll to the <body> element of the message code and use these variables:
%(transaction)%
Select Request or Response to show which side of the transaction caused the packet to be
denied.
This variable also appears in the <title> element of the deny message.
%(reason)%
Includes the reason the XTM device denied the content.
%(method)%
Includes the request method from the denied request.
%(url-host)%
Includes the server host name from the denied URL. If no host name was included, the IP
address of the server is included.
%(url-path)%
Includes the path component of the denied URL.
To configure the Deny Message:
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Deny Message category.
The Deny Message panel expands.
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2. In the Deny Message text box, type the deny message.
3. To change settings for other categories in this proxy, see the topic for the next category you
want to modify.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
HTTP-Proxy: Proxy and AV Alarms
You can configure how the HTTP-proxy sends messages for alarm and antivirus events that occur
through the HTTP-proxy. You can define the proxy to send an SNMP trap, a notification to a network
administrator, or both. The notification can either be an email message to a network administrator or a
pop-up window on the management computer.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Proxy Alarm category.
The Proxy Alarm settings appear.
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2. Configure the notification settings for the HTTP-proxy action.
For more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
3. To change settings for other categories in this proxy, see the topic for the next category you
want to modify.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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Enable Windows Updates Through the HTTP-Proxy
Windows Update servers identify the content they deliver to a computer as a generic binary stream
(such as octet stream), which is blocked by the default HTTP proxy rules. To allow Windows updates
through the HTTP-proxy, you must edit your HTTP-Client proxy ruleset to add HTTP-proxy exceptions
for the Windows Update servers.
1. Make sure that your XTM device allows outgoing connections on port 443 and port 80.
These are the ports that computers use to contact the Windows Update servers.
2. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the HTTP Proxy Exceptions category.
3. In the text box, type or paste each of these domains, and click Add after each one:
windowsupdate.microsoft.com
download.windowsupdate.com
update.microsoft.com
download.microsoft.com
ntservicepack.microsoft.com
wustat.windows.com
v4.windowsupdate.microsoft.com
v5.windowsupdate.microsoft.com
4. Click Save.
If You Still Cannot Download Windows Updates
If you have more than one HTTP-proxy policy, make sure that you add the HTTP exceptions to the
correct policy and proxy action.
Microsoft does not limit updates to only these domains. Examine your log messages for denied traffic
to a Microsoft-owned domain. Look for any traffic denied by the HTTP-proxy. The log message details
should include the domain. Add any new Microsoft domain to the HTTP-proxy exceptions list, and then
run Windows Update again.
Use a Caching Proxy Server
Because your users can look at the same web sites frequently, a caching proxy server increases the
traffic speed and decreases the traffic volume on the external Internet connections. Although the
HTTP-proxy on the XTM device does not cache content, you can use a caching proxy server with the
HTTP proxy. All XTM device proxy and WebBlocker rules continue to have the same effect.
The XTM device connection with a proxy server is the same as with a client. The XTM device changes
the GET function to: GET / HTTP/1.1 to GET www.mydomain.com / HTTP/1.1 and sends it to a
caching proxy server. The proxy server moves this function to the web server in the GET function.
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Use an External Caching Proxy Server
To set up your HTTP-proxy to work with an external caching proxy server:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Configure a proxy server, such as Microsoft Proxy Server 2.0.
Select Firewall > Proxy Actions.
Select the HTTP-Client proxy action used by your HTTP-proxy policy. Click Edit.
On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Use Web Cache Server category.
The Use Web Cache Server page appears.
5. Select the Use external caching proxy server for HTTP traffic check box.
6. In the IP address and Port text boxes, type the IP address and port for the external caching
proxy server.
7. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
8. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
Use an Internal Caching Proxy Server
You can also use an internal caching proxy server with your XTM device.
To use an internal caching proxy server:
1. Configure the HTTP-proxy action with the same settings as for an external proxy server.
2. In the same HTTP-proxy policy, allow all traffic from the users on your network whose web
requests you want to route through the caching proxy server.
3. Add an HTTP packet filter policy to your configuration.
4. Configure the HTTP packet filter policy to allow traffic from the IP address of your caching
proxy server to the Internet.
5. If necessary, manually move this policy up in your policy list so that it has a higher precedence
than your HTTP-proxy policy.
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About the HTTPS-Proxy
HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer, or HTTP over SSL) is a
request/response protocol between clients and servers used for secure communications and
transactions. You can use the HTTPS-proxy to secure a web server protected by your XTM device, or
to examine HTTPS traffic requested by clients on your network. By default, when an HTTPS client
starts a request, it establishes a TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) connection on port 443. Most
HTTPS servers listen for requests on port 443.
HTTPS is more secure than HTTP because HTTPS uses a digital certificate to encrypt and decrypt
user page requests as well as the pages that are returned by the web server. Because HTTPS traffic is
encrypted, the XTM device must decrypt it before it can be examined. After it examines the content,
the XTM device encrypts the traffic with a certificate and sends it to the intended destination.
You can export the default certificate created by the XTM device for this feature, or import a certificate
for the XTM device to use instead. If you use the HTTPS-proxy to examine web traffic requested by
users on your network, we recommend that you export the default certificate and distribute it to each
user so that they do not receive browser warnings about untrusted certificates. If you use the HTTPSproxy to secure a web server that accepts requests from an external network, we recommend that you
import the existing web server certificate for the same reason.
When an HTTPS client or server uses a port other than port 443 in your organization, you can use the
TCP/UDP proxy to relay the traffic to the HTTPS-proxy. For information on the TCP/UDP proxy, see
About the TCP-UDP-Proxy on page 491.
To add the HTTPS-proxy to your XTM device configuration, see Add a Proxy Policy to Your
Configuration on page 376.
If you must change the proxy definition, you can use the Policy Configuration page to modify the
definition. This page has three tabs: Policy, Properties, and Advanced.
Action Settings
At the top of the Policy Configuration page, you can set these actions:
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Application Control Action — If Application Control is enabled on your device, specify the
application control action to use for this policy. For more information, see Enable Application
Control in a Policy.
Proxy action — Select the proxy action to use for this policy. For information about proxy
actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
You can also configure WebBlocker service actions for the HTTPS proxy. For more information, see
Get Started with WebBlocker
Policy Tab
To set access rules and other options, select the Policy tab.
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Connections are — Specify whether connections are Allowed, Denied, or Denied (send
reset). Define who appears in the From and To lists.
For more information, see Set Access Rules for a Policy on page 367.
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Use policy-based routing — To use policy-based routing in your proxy definition, follow the
instructions in Configure Policy-Based Routing on page 369.
You can also configure static NAT or configure server load balancing.
For more information, see Configure Static NAT on page 187 and Configure Server Load
Balancing on page 190.
Properties Tab
On the Properties tab, you can configure these options:
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To edit or add a comment to this policy configuration, type the comment in the Comment text box.
To define the logging settings for the policy, configure the settings in the Logging section.
For more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
If you set the Connections are drop-down list (on the Policy tab) to Denied or Denied (send
reset), you can block sites that try to use HTTPS. For more information, see Block Sites
Temporarily with Policy Settings on page 518.
To change the idle timeout that is set by the XTM device or authentication server, see Set a
Custom Idle Timeout.
Advanced Tab
You can also configure these options in your proxy definition:
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Set an Operating Schedule
Add a Traffic Management Action to a Policy
Set ICMP Error Handling
Apply NAT Rules (Both 1-to-1 NAT and dynamic NAT are enabled by default in all policies.)
Enable QoS Marking or Prioritization Settings for a Policy
Set the Sticky Connection Duration for a Policy
Configure the Proxy Action
You can choose a predefined proxy action or configure a user-defined proxy action for this proxy. For
more information about how to configure proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
For the HTTPS-proxy, you can configure these categories of settings for a proxy action:
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HTTPS-Proxy: General Settings
HTTPS-Proxy: Content Inspection
HTTPS-Proxy: Certificate Names
HTTPS-Proxy: Proxy Alarm
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Proxy Settings
HTTPS-Proxy: General Settings
On the Edit Proxy Action page, in the General section, you can configure basic HTTPS parameters
such as ,connection timeout, and logging.
Connection Timeout
Configure these settings to specify how long the HTTPS-proxy waits for the web client to make
a request from the external web server after it starts a TCP/IP connection, or after an earlier
request for the same connection. If the time period exceeds this setting, the HTTPS-proxy
closes the connection.
To enable this feature, select the Connection timeout check box. In the adjacent text box,
type or select the number of minutes before the proxy times out.
Enable logging for reports
To create a traffic log message for each transaction, select this check box. This option
increases the size of your log file, but this information is very important if your firewall is
attacked. If you do not select this check box, you do not see detailed information about HTTPSproxy connections in reports.
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Override the diagnostic log level for proxy policies that use this proxy action
To specify the diagnostic log level for all proxy polices that use this proxy action, select this
check box. Then, from the Diagnostic log level for this proxy action drop-down list, select a
log level:
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Error
Warning
Information
Debug
The log level you select overrides the diagnostic log level that is configured for all log messages
of this proxy policy type.
For more information about the diagnostic log level, see Set the Diagnostic Log Level on page 530.
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HTTPS-Proxy: Content Inspection
You can enable and configure deep inspection of HTTPS content on the HTTPS Proxy Action
Configuration Content Inspection section.
XTM Compatibility If your device runs Fireware XTM v11.0–v11.3.x, the Content
Inspection settings for your device do not include the Allow SSLv2 (insecure) option.
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Enable deep inspection of HTTPS content
When this check box is selected, the XTM device decrypts HTTPS traffic, examines the
content, and encrypts the traffic again with a new certificate. The content is examined by the
HTTP-proxy policy that you choose on this page.
Note If you have other traffic that uses the HTTPS port, such as SSL VPN traffic, we
recommend that you evaluate this option carefully. The HTTPS-proxy attempts to
examine all traffic on TCP port 443 in the same way. To ensure that other traffic
sources operate correctly, we recommend that you add those sources to the Bypass
List. See the subsequent section for more information.
By default, the certificate used to encrypt the traffic is generated automatically by the XTM
device. You can also upload your own certificate to use for this purpose. If the original web site
or your web server has a self-signed or invalid certificate, or if the certificate was signed by a
CA the XTM device does not recognize, clients are presented with a browser certificate
warning. Certificates that cannot be properly re-signed appear to be issued by Fireware HTTPSproxy: Unrecognized Certificate or simply Invalid Certificate.
We recommend that you import the certificate you use, as well as any other certificates
necessary for the client to trust that certificate, on each client device. When a client does not
automatically trust the certificate used for the content inspection feature, the user sees a
warning in their browser, and services like Windows Update do not operate correctly.
Some third-party programs store private copies of necessary certificates and do not use the
operating system certificate store, or transmit other types of data over TCP port 443. These
programs include:
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Communications software, such as AOL Instant Messenger and Google Voice
Remote desktop and presentation software, such as LiveMeeting and WebEx
Financial and business software, such as ADP, iVantage, FedEx, and UPS
If these programs do not have a method to import trusted CA certificates, they do not operate
correctly when content inspection is enabled. Contact your software vendor for more
information about certificate use or technical support, or add the IP addresses of computers that
use this software to the Bypass list.
For more information, see About Certificates on page 563 or Use Certificates for the HTTPSProxy on page 583.
Note If you enable deep inspection of HTTPS content in the Content Inspection settings
of an HTTPS proxy action, IPS does not scan the decrypted content. Because IPS
scans content before the HTTPS traffic is decrypted, IPS cannot detect or block
intrusion attempts that your XTM device receives within an encrypted HTTPS stream.
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Allow SSLv2 (insecure)
SSLv3, SSLv2, and TLSv1 are protocols used for HTTPS connections. SSLv2 is not as secure
as SSLv3 and TLSv1. By default, the HTTPS-proxy only allows connections that negotiate the
SSLv3 and TLSv1 protocols. If your users connect to client or server applications that only
support SSLv2, you can allow the HTTPS-proxy to use the SSLv2 protocol for connections to
these web sites.
To enable this option, select the Allow SSLv2 (insecure) check box. This option is disabled by
default.
Proxy Action
Select an HTTP-proxy policy for the XTM device to use when it inspects decrypted HTTPS
content.
When you enable content inspection, the HTTP proxy action WebBlocker settings override the
HTTPS-proxy WebBlocker settings. If you add IP addresses to the bypass list for content
inspection, traffic from those sites is filtered with the WebBlocker settings from the HTTPS-proxy.
For more information on WebBlocker configuration, see About WebBlocker on page 781.
Use OCSP to confirm the validity of certificates
Select this check box to have the XTM device automatically check for certificate revocations
with OCSP (Online Certificate Status Protocol). When this feature is enabled, the XTM device
uses information in the certificate to contact an OCSP server that keeps a record of the
certicate status. If the OCSP server responds that the certificate has been revoked, the XTM
device disables the certificate.
If you select this option, there can be a delay of several seconds as the XTM device requests a
response from the OCSP server. The XTM device keeps between 300 and 3000 OCSP
responses in a cache to improve performance for frequently visited web sites. The number of
responses stored in the cache is determined by your XTM device model.
Treat certificates whose validity cannot be confirmed as invalid
When this option is selected and an OCSP responder does not send a response to a revocation
status request, the XTM device considers the original certificate as invalid or revoked. This
option can cause certificates to be considered invalid if there is a routing error or a problem with
your network connection.
Bypass list
The XTM device does not inspect content sent to or from IP addresses on this list. To add a
web site or hostname, type the IP address in the text box and click Add.
When you enable content inspection, the HTTP proxy action WebBlocker settings override the
HTTPS-proxy WebBlocker settings. If you add IP addresses to the Bypass List for content
inspection, traffic from those sites is filtered with the WebBlocker settings from the HTTPS-proxy.
For more information on WebBlocker configuration, see About WebBlocker on page 781.
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HTTPS-Proxy: Certificate Names
Certificate names are used to filter content for an entire site. The XTM device allows or denies access
to a site if the domain of an HTTPS certificate matches an entry in this list.
For example, if you want to deny traffic from any site in the example.com domain, add a Certificate
Names rule with the pattern *.example.com and set the If matched action to Deny.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Certificate Names category.
The Certificate Names panel expands.
2. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
3. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
HTTPS-Proxy: Proxy Alarm
You can configure how the HTTPS-proxy sends messages for alarm events that occur through the
HTTPS-proxy. You can define the proxy to send an SNMP trap, a notification to a network
administrator, or both. The notification can either be an email message to a network administrator or a
pop-up window on the management computer.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Proxy Alarm category.
The Proxy Alarm settings appear.
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2. Configure the notification settings for the HTTPS-proxy action.
For more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
3. To change settings for other categories in this proxy, see the topic for the next category you
want to modify.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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About the POP3-Proxy
POP3 (Post Office Protocol v.3) is a protocol that moves email messages from an email server to an
email client on a TCP connection over port 110. Most Internet-based email accounts use POP3. With
POP3, an email client contacts the email server and checks for any new email messages. If it finds a
new message, it downloads the email message to the local email client. After the message is received
by the email client, the connection is closed.
With a POP3-proxy filter you can:
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Adjust timeout and line length limits to make sure the POP3-proxy does not use too many
network resources, and to prevent some types of attacks.
Customize the deny message that is sent to a user when content or attachments are stripped
from an email sent to that user.
Filter content embedded in email with MIME types.
Block specified path patterns and URLs.
To add the POP3-proxy to your XTM device configuration, see Add a Proxy Policy to Your
Configuration on page 376.
If you must change the proxy definition, you can use the Policy Configuration page to modify the
definition. This page has three tabs: Policy, Properties, and Advanced.
You can also configure subscription service settings for the POP3-proxy. For more information, see
Get Started with WebBlocker and Configure the Gateway AntiVirus Service.
Action Settings
At the top of the Policy Configuration page, you can set these actions:
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Application Control Action — If Application Control is enabled on your device, specify the
application control action to use for this policy. For more information, see Enable Application
Control in a Policy.
Proxy action — Select the proxy action to use for this policy. For information about proxy
actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
Policy Tab
To set access rules and other options, select the Policy tab.
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Connections are — Specify whether connections are Allowed, Denied, or Denied (send
reset). Define who appears in the From and To lists.
For more information, see Set Access Rules for a Policy on page 367.
Use policy-based routing — To use policy-based routing in your proxy definition, see
Configure Policy-Based Routing on page 369.
You can also configure static NAT or configure server load balancing.
For more information, see Configure Static NAT on page 187 and Configure Server Load
Balancing on page 190.
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Properties Tab
On the Properties tab, you can configure these options:
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To edit or add a comment to this policy configuration, type the comment in the Comment text box.
To define the logging settings for the policy, configure the settings in the Logging section. For
more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
If you set the Connections are drop-down list (on the Policy tab) to Denied or Denied (send
reset), you can block sites that try to use POP3.
For more information, see Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings on page 518.
To change the idle timeout that is set by the XTM device or authentication server, see Set a
Custom Idle Timeout.
Advanced Tab
You can also configure these options in your proxy definition:
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Set an Operating Schedule
Add a Traffic Management Action to a Policy
Set ICMP Error Handling
Apply NAT Rules (Both 1-to-1 NAT and dynamic NAT are enabled by default in all policies.)
Enable QoS Marking or Prioritization Settings for a Policy
Set the Sticky Connection Duration for a Policy
Configure the Proxy Action
You can choose a predefined proxy action or configure a user-defined proxy action for this proxy. For
more information about how to configure proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
For the POP3-proxy, you can configure these categories of settings for a proxy action:
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POP3-Proxy: General Settings
POP3-Proxy: Authentication
POP3-Proxy: Content Types
POP3-Proxy: Filenames
POP3-Proxy: Headers
POP3-Proxy: Deny Message
POP3-Proxy: Proxy and AV Alarms
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POP3-Proxy: General Settings
On the Edit Proxy Action page for a POP3-proxy action, in the Generalcategory, you can adjust time
out and line length limits as well as other general parameters for the POP3-proxy.
Set the timeout to
To limit the number of minutes that the email client tries to open a connection to the email server
before the connection is closed, select this check box. In the adjacent text box, type or select
the number of minutes for the timeout value. This makes sure the proxy does not use too many
network resources when the POP3 server is slow or cannot be reached.
Set the maximum email line length to
To prevent some types of buffer overflow attacks, select this check box. In the adjacent text
box, type or select the limit of the line length. Very long line lengths can cause buffer overflows
on some email systems. Most email clients and systems send relatively short lines, but some
web-based email systems send very long lines. However, it is unlikely that you will need to
change this setting unless it prevents access to legitimate mail.
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Hide server replies
To replace the POP3 greeting strings in email messages, select this check box. These strings
can be used by hackers to identify the POP3 server vendor and version.
Allow uuencoded attachments
To enable the POP3-proxy to allow uuencoded attachments in email messages, select this
check box. Uuencode is an older program used to send binary files in ASCII text format over the
Internet. UUencoded attachments can be security risks because they appear as ASCII text
files, but can actually contain executable files.
Allow BinHex attachments
To enable the POP3-proxy to allow BinHex attachments in email messages, select this check
box. BinHex, which is short for binary-to-hexadecimal, is a utility that converts a file from binary
format to ASCII text format.
Enable logging for reports
To enable the POP3-proxy to send a log message for each POP3 connection request, select
this check box. To use WatchGuard Reports to create reports of POP3 traffic, you must select
this check box.
Override the diagnostic log level for proxy policies that use this proxy action
To specify the diagnostic log level for all proxy polices that use this proxy action, select this
check box. Then, from the Diagnostic log level for this proxy action drop-down list, select a
log level:
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Error
Warning
Information
Debug
The log level you select overrides the diagnostic log level that is configured for all log messages
of this proxy policy type.
For more information about the diagnostic log level, see Set the Diagnostic Log Level on page 530.
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POP3-Proxy: Authentication
A POP3 client must authenticate to a POP3 server before they exchange information. You can set the
types of authentication for the proxy to allow and the action to take for types that do not match the
criteria. You can add, delete, or modify rules.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the POP3 Protocol category.
The POP3 authentication rules appear.
2. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
3. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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POP3-Proxy: Content Types
The headers for email messages include a Content Type header to show the MIME type of the email
and of any attachments. The content type or MIME type tells the computer the types of media the
message contains. Certain kinds of content embedded in email can be a security threat to your
network. Other kinds of content can decrease the productivity of your users.
You can enable the POP3-proxy to automatically detect the content type of an email message and any
attachments. If you do not enable this option, the POP3-proxy uses the value stated in the email
header, which clients sometimes set incorrectly. Because hackers often try to disguise executable
files as other content types, we recommend that you enable content type auto detection to make your
installation more secure.
For example, a .pdf file attached to an email might have a content type stated as application/octetstream. If you enable content type auto detection, the POP3-proxy recognizes the .pdf file and uses
the actual content type, application/pdf. If the proxy does not recognize the content type after it
examines the content, it uses the value stated in the email header, as it would if content type auto
detection were not enabled.
You can add, delete, or modify rules. You can also set values for content filtering and the action to take
for content types that do not match the criteria. For the POP3-Server proxy action, you set values for
incoming content filtering. For the POP3-Client action, you set values for outgoing content filtering.
When you specify the MIME type, make sure to use the format type/subtype. For example, if you want
to allow JPEG images, you add image/jpg . You can also use the asterisk (*) as a wildcard. To allow
any image format, add image/* to the list.
To specify the content types for automatic detection:
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Attachments category.
The Attachments category expands.
2. In the link bar, select Content Types.
The Content Types page appears.
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3. To enable the POP3 proxy to examine content and determine the content type, select the
Enable content type auto detection check box.
If you do not select this option, the POP3 proxy uses the value stated in the email header.
4. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
5. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
6. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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POP3-Proxy: Filenames
To put limits on file names for incoming email attachments, you can use the Filenames ruleset in a
POP3-Server proxy action. Or, you can use the ruleset for the POP3-Client proxy action to put limits on
file names for outgoing email attachments. You can add, delete, or modify rules.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Attachments category.
The Attachments category expands.
2. In the link bar, select Filenames.
The Filenames page appears.
3. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
4. To change settings for other categories in this proxy, see the topic for the next category you
want to modify.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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POP3-Proxy: Headers
The POP3-proxy examines email headers to find patterns common to forged email messages, as well
as those from legitimate senders. You can add, delete, or modify rules.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Headers category.
The Headers category expands.
2. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
3. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
POP3-Proxy: Deny Message
When content is denied, the XTM device sends a default deny message that replaces the denied
content. This message appears in a recipient's email message when the proxy blocks an email. You
can change the text of that deny message. The first line of the deny message is a section of the HTTP
header. You must include an empty line between the first line and the body of the message.
The default deny message appears in the Deny Message text box. To change this to a custom
message, use these variables:
%(reason)%
Includes the reason the XTM device denied the content.
%(filename)%
Includes the file name of the denied content.
%(virus)%
Includes the name or status of a virus for Gateway AntiVirus users.
%(action)%
Includes the name of the action taken. For example, lock or strip.
%(recovery)%
Includes whether you can recover the attachment.
To configure the deny message:
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Deny Message category.
The Deny Message category expands.
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2. In the Deny Message text box, type a custom plain text message in standard HTML.
3. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
POP3-Proxy: Proxy and AV Alarms
You can configure how the POP3-proxy sends messages for alarm and antivirus events that occur
through the POP3-proxy. You can define the proxy to send an SNMP trap, a notification to a network
administrator, or both. The notification can either be an email message to a network administrator or a
pop-up window on the management computer.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Proxy Alarm category.
The Proxy Alarm settings appear.
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2. Configure the notification settings for the POP3-proxy action.
For more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
3. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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About the SIP-ALG
If you use Voice-over-IP (VoIP) in your organization, you can add a SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) or
H.323 ALG (Application Layer Gateway) to open the ports necessary to enable VoIP through your XTM
device. An ALG is created in the same way as a proxy policy and offers similar configuration options.
These ALGs have been created to work in a NAT environment to maintain security for privatelyaddressed conferencing equipment behind the XTM device.
H.323 is commonly used on videoconferencing equipment. SIP is commonly used with IP phones. You
can use both H.323 and SIP-ALGs at the same time, if necessary. To determine which ALG you need
to add, consult the documentation for your VoIP devices or applications.
VoIP Components
It is important to understand that you usually implement VoIP with either:
Peer-to-peer connections
In a peer-to-peer connection, each of the two devices knows the IP address of the other device
and connects to the other directly without the use of a proxy server to route their calls.
Host-based connections
Connections managed by a call management system (PBX). The call management system can
be self-hosted, or hosted by a third-party service provider.
In the SIP standard, two key components of call management are the SIP Registrar and the SIP
Proxy. Together, these components manage connections hosted by the call management system. The
WatchGuard SIP-ALG opens and closes the ports necessary for SIP to operate. The WatchGuard SIPALG supports SIP trunks. It can support both the SIP Registrar and the SIP Proxy when used with a
call management system that is external to the XTM device.
It can be difficult to coordinate the many components of a VoIP installation. We recommend you make
sure that VoIP connections work successfully before you add an H.323 or SIP-ALG. This can help you
to troubleshoot any problems.
Instant Messaging Support
The SIP-ALG supports page-based instant messaging (IM) as part of the default SIP protocol. You do
not have to complete any additional configuration steps to use IM with the SIP-ALG.
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ALG Functions
When you use a SIP-ALG, your XTM device:
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Routes traffic for VoIP applications
Opens the ports necessary to make and receive calls, and to exchange audio and video media
Makes sure that VoIP connections use standard SIP protocols
Generates log messages for auditing purposes
Supports SIP presence through the use of the SIP Publish method. This allows softphone users
to see peer status.
Many VoIP devices and servers use NAT (Network Address Translation) to open and close ports
automatically. The H.323 and SIP-ALGs also perform this function. You must disable NAT on your
VoIP devices if you configure an H.323 or SIP-ALG.
For instructions to add the SIP-ALG to your XTM device configuration, see Add a Proxy Policy to Your
Configuration on page 376.
If you must change the proxy definition, you can use the Policy Configuration page to modify the
definition. This page has three tabs: Policy, Properties, and Advanced.
Action Settings
At the top of the Policy Configuration page, you can set these actions:
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Application Control Action — If Application Control is enabled on your device, specify the
application control action to use for this policy. For more information, see Enable Application
Control in a Policy.
Proxy action — Select the proxy action to use for this policy. For information about proxy
actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
Policy Tab
To set access rules and other options, select the Policy tab.
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Connections are — Specify whether connections are Allowed, Denied, or Denied (send
reset). Define who appears in the From and To lists.
For more information, see Set Access Rules for a Policy on page 367.
Use policy-based routing — To use policy-based routing in your proxy definition, see
Configure Policy-Based Routing on page 369.
You can also configure static NAT or configure server load balancing.
For more information, see Configure Static NAT on page 187 and Configure Server Load
Balancing on page 190.
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Properties Tab
On the Properties tab, you can configure these options:
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To edit or add a comment to this policy configuration, type the comment in the Comment text box.
To define the logging settings for the policy, configure the settings in the Logging section. For
more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
If you set the Connections are drop-down list (on the Policy tab) to Denied or Denied (send
reset), you can block sites that try to use SIP.
For more information, see Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings on page 518.
To change the idle timeout that is set by the XTM device or authentication server, see Set a
Custom Idle Timeout.
Advanced Tab
You can also configure these options in your proxy definition:
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Set an Operating Schedule
Add a Traffic Management Action to a Policy
Set ICMP Error Handling
Apply NAT Rules (Both 1-to-1 NAT and dynamic NAT are enabled by default in all policies.)
Enable QoS Marking or Prioritization Settings for a Policy
Set the Sticky Connection Duration for a Policy
Configure the Proxy Action
You can choose a predefined proxy action or configure a user-defined proxy action for this proxy. For
more information about how to configure proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
For the SIP-ALG, you can configure these categories of settings for a proxy action:
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SIP-ALG: Access Control
SIP-ALG: Denied Codecs
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SIP-ALG: General Settings
In the General section of the Edit Proxy Action page for a SIP-ALG action, you can set security and
performance options for the SIP-ALG (Application Layer Gateway).
Enable header normalization
To deny malformed or extremely long SIP headers, select this check box . While these headers
often indicate an attack on your XTM device, you can disable this option if necessary for your
VoIP solution to operate correctly.
Enable topology hiding
This feature rewrites SIP and SDP (Session Description Protocol) headers to remove private
network information, such as IP addresses. We recommend that you select this option unless
you have an existing VoIP gateway device that performs topology hiding.
Enable directory harvesting protection
To prevent attackers from stealing user information from VoIP gatekeepers protected by your
XTM device, select this check box. This option is enabled by default.
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Set the maximum number of sessions allowed per call
To restrict the maximum number of audio or video sessions that can be created with a single
VoIP call, type or select a value in this text box.
For example, if you set the number of maximum sessions to one and participate in a VoIP call
with both audio and video, the second connection is dropped. The default value is two sessions
and the maximum value is four sessions. The XTM device sends a log message when it denies
a media session above this number.
User agent information
To identify outgoing SIP traffic as a client you specify, type a new user agent string in the
Rewrite user agent as text box.
To remove the false user agent, clear the text box.
Idle media channels
When no data is sent for a specified amount of time on a VoIP audio, video, or data channel,
your XTM device closes that network connection. The default value is 180 seconds (three
minutes) and the maximum value is 600 seconds (ten minutes).
To specify a different time interval, type or select the time in seconds in the Idle media
channels text box.
Registration expires after
Specify the elapsed time interval before the SIP-ALG rewrites the SIP registration value that
VoIP phones and PBX systems use to update their registration. The default value is 180
seconds (three minutes) and the maximum value is 600 seconds (ten minutes).
To specify a different time interval, type or select the time in seconds in the Registration
expires after text box.
Enable logging for reports
To send a log message for each connection request managed by the SIP-ALG, select this
check box. To create accurate reports on SIP traffic, you must select this check box.
Override the diagnostic log level for proxy policies that use this proxy action
To specify the diagnostic log level for all proxy polices that use this proxy action, select this
check box. Then, from the Diagnostic log level for this proxy action drop-down list, select a
log level:
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Error
Warning
Information
Debug
The log level you select overrides the diagnostic log level that is configured for all log messages
of this proxy policy type.
For more information about the diagnostic log level, see Set the Diagnostic Log Level on page 530.
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SIP-ALG: Access Control
On the Edit Proxy Action page for a SIP-ALG action, in the Access Control section, you can create
a list of users who are allowed to send VoIP network traffic.
Enable access control for VoIP
To enable the access control feature, select this check box. When enabled, the SIP-ALG allows
or restricts calls based on the options you set.
Default Settings
To allow all VoIP users to start calls by default, select the Start VoIP calls check box.
To allow all VoIP users to receive calls by default, select the Receive VoIP calls check box.
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To create a log message for each SIP VoIP connection that is started or received, select the
adjacent Log check box.
Access Levels
To create an exception to the default settings you specified, type the Address of Record (the
address that shows up in the TO and FROM headers of the packet) for the exception. This is
usually a SIP address in the format [email protected], such as [email protected] .
From the Access Level drop-down list, select an access level and click Add.
You can select whether to allow users to Start calls only, Receive calls only, Start and
receive calls, or give them No VoIP access. These settings apply only to SIP VoIP traffic.
To delete an exception, select it in the list and click Remove.
Connections made by users who have an access level exception are logged by default. If you
do not want to log connections made by a user with an access level exception, clear the Log
check box adjacent to the exception.
SIP-ALG: Denied Codecs
You can use the SIP-ALG Denied Codecs feature to specify one or more VoIP voice, video, or data
transmission codecs to deny on your network. When a SIP VoIP connection is opened that uses a
codec specified in this list, your XTM device reads the value from the SIP header in the "a=rtpmap"
field and strips the codec information from the connection negotiation.
The Denied Codecs list is empty by default. We recommend that you add a codec to this list if the codec:
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Consumes too much bandwidth and causes excessive data usage across trunks or between
network elements
Presents a security risk
Is necessary for your VoIP solution to operate correctly
For example, you might choose to deny the G.711 or G.726 codecs because they use more than 32
Kb/sec of bandwidth, or you might choose to deny the Speex codec because it is used by an
unauthorized VoIP application.
For a list of codecs and the name or text pattern associated with each codec, see
http://www.iana.org/assignments/rtp-parameters/rtp-parameters.xml. When you add a codec to the
Denied Codecs list, make sure to specify the value in the Encoding Name column for that codec.
To configure the denied codecs settings for a SIP-ALG:
1. On the SIP-Client Edit Proxy Action page, select Denied Codecs.
The Denied Codecs section appears.
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2. To add a codec to the list, in the Denied Codecs text box, type the codec name or unique text
pattern in the text box.
Do not use wildcard characters or regular expression syntax. Codec patterns are case
sensitive.
3. Click Add
4. To delete a codec from the list, select the codec and click Remove.
5. To create a log message when your XTM device strips the codec information from SIP traffic
that matches a codec in this list, select the Log each transaction that matches a denied
codec pattern check box.
6. Click Save.
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About the SMTP-Proxy
SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) is a protocol used to send email messages between email
servers and also between email clients and email servers. It usually uses a TCP connection on Port
25. You can use the SMTP-proxy to control email messages and email content. The proxy scans
SMTP messages for a number of filtered parameters, and compares them against the rules in the proxy
configuration.
With an SMTP-proxy filter you can:
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Adjust timeout, maximum email size, and line length limit to make sure the SMTP-proxy does
not use too many network resources and can prevent some types of attacks.
Customize the deny message that users see when an email they try to receive is blocked.
Filter content embedded in email with MIME types and name patterns.
Limit the email addresses that email can be addressed to and automatically block email from
specific senders.
To add the SMTP-proxy to your XTM device configuration, see Add a Proxy Policy to Your
Configuration on page 376.
You can also configure subscription service settings for the SMTP-proxy. For more information, see:
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Configure the Gateway AntiVirus Service
If you must change the proxy definition, you can use the Policy Configuration page to modify the
definition. This page has three tabs: Policy, Properties, and Advanced.
Action Settings
At the top of the Policy Configuration page, you can set these actions:
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Application Control Action — If Application Control is enabled on your device, specify the
application control action to use for this policy. For more information, see Enable Application
Control in a Policy.
Proxy action — Select the proxy action to use for this policy. For information about proxy
actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
Policy Tab
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Connections are — Specify whether connections are Allowed, Denied, or Denied (send
reset). Define who appears in the From and To lists.
For more information, see Set Access Rules for a Policy on page 367.
Use policy-based routing — To use policy-based routing in your proxy definition, see
Configure Policy-Based Routing on page 369.
You can also configure static NAT or configure server load balancing.
For more information, see Configure Static NAT on page 187 and Configure Server Load
Balancing on page 190.
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Properties Tab
On the Properties tab, you can configure these options:
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To edit or add a comment to this policy configuration, type the comment in the Comment text box.
To define the logging settings for the policy, configure the settings in the Logging section. For
more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
If you set the Connections are drop-down list (on the Policy tab) to Denied or Denied (send
reset), you can block sites that try to use SMTP.
For more information, see Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings on page 518.
To change the idle timeout that is set by the XTM device or authentication server, see Set a
Custom Idle Timeout.
Advanced Tab
You can also configure these options in your proxy definition:
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Set an Operating Schedule
Add a Traffic Management Action to a Policy
Set ICMP Error Handling
Apply NAT Rules (Both 1-to-1 NAT and dynamic NAT are enabled by default in all policies.)
Enable QoS Marking or Prioritization Settings for a Policy
Set the Sticky Connection Duration for a Policy
Configure the Proxy Action
You can choose a predefined proxy action or configure a user-defined proxy action for this proxy. For
more information about how to configure proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
For the SMTP-proxy, you can configure these categories of settings for a proxy action:
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SMTP-Proxy: General Settings
SMTP-Proxy: Greeting Rules
SMTP-Proxy: TLS Encryption
SMTP-Proxy: ESMTP Settings
SMTP-Proxy: Authentication
SMTP-Proxy: Content Types
SMTP-Proxy: Filenames
SMTP-Proxy: Mail From/Rcpt To
SMTP-Proxy: Headers
SMTP-Proxy: Deny Message
SMTP-Proxy: Proxy and AV Alarms
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SMTP-Proxy: General Settings
In the General section of the Edit Proxy Action page for an SMTP proxy action, you can set basic
SMTP-proxy parameters such as idle timeout, message limits, and email message information.
Idle timeout
You can set the length of time an incoming SMTP connection can be idle before the connection
times out. The default value is 10 minutes.
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Set the maximum email recipients
To set the maximum number of email recipients to which a message can be sent, select this
check box. In the adjacent text box that appears, type or select the number of recipients.
The XTM device counts and allows the specified number of addresses through, and then drops
the other addresses. For example, if you set the value to 50 and there is a message for 52
addresses, the first 50 addresses get the email message. The last two addresses do not get a
copy of the message. The XTM device counts a distribution list as one SMTP email address (for
example, [email protected]). You can use this feature to decrease spam email because
spam usually includes a large recipient list. When you enable this option, make sure you do not
also deny legitimate email.
Set the maximum address length to
To set the maximum length of email addresses, select this check box. In the adjacent text box
that appears, type or select the maximum length for an email address in bytes.
Set the maximum email size to
To set the maximum length of an incoming SMTP message, select this check box. In the
adjacent text box that appears, type or select the maximum size for each email in kilobytes.
Most email is sent as 7-bit ASCII text. The exceptions are Binary MIME and 8-bit MIME. 8-bit
MIME content (for example, MIME attachments) is encoded with standard algorithms (Base64
or quote-printable encoding) to enable them to be sent through 7-bit email systems. Encoding
can increase the length of files by as much as one third. To allow messages as large as 10 KB,
you must set this option to a minimum of 1334 bytes to make sure all email gets through.
Set the maximum email line length to
To set the maximum line length for lines in an SMTP message, select this check box. In the
adjacent text box that appears, type or select the length in bytes for each line in an email.
Very long line lengths can cause buffer overflows on some email systems. Most email clients
and systems send short line lengths, but some web-based email systems send very long lines.
Hide Email Server
You can replace MIME boundary and SMTP greeting strings in email messages.These are used
by hackers to identify the SMTP server vendor and version.
Select the Message ID and Server Replies check boxes.
If you have an email server and use the SMTP-Incoming proxy action, you can set the SMTPproxy to replace the domain that appears in your SMTP server banner with a domain name you
select. To do this, you must select the Server Replies and Rewrite Banner Domain check
boxes. In the Rewrite Banner Domain text box, type the domain name to use in your banner.
If you use the SMTP-Outgoing proxy action, you can set the SMTP-proxy to replace the domain
shown in the HELO or EHLO greetings. A HELO or EHLO greeting is the first part of an SMTP
transaction, when your email server announces itself to a receiving email server. To do this,
select the Rewrite HELO Domain check box. In the Rewrite HELO Domain text box, type
the domain name to use in your HELO or EHLO greeting.
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Allow uuencoded attachments
To enable the SMTP-proxy to allow uuencoded attachments to email messages, select this
check box. Uuencode is an older program used to send binary files in ASCII text format over the
Internet. UUencode attachments can be security risks because they appear as ASCII text files
but can actually contain executable files.
Allow BinHex attachments
To enable the SMTP-proxy to allow BinHex attachments to email messages, select this check
box. BinHex, which is short for binary-to-hexadecimal, is a utility that converts a file from binary
to ASCII format.
Auto-block sources of invalid commands
To add senders of invalid SMTP commands to the Blocked Sites list, select this check box.
Invalid SMTP commands often indicate an attack on your SMTP server.
Send a log message when an SMTP command is denied
To send a log message for connection requests that are denied by the SMTP-proxy, select this
check box.
Enable logging for reports
To send a log message for each connection request through the SMTP-proxy, select this check
box. To create accurate reports on SMTP traffic, you must select this check box.
Override the diagnostic log level for proxy policies that use this proxy action
To specify the diagnostic log level for all proxy polices that use this proxy action, select this
check box. Then, from the Diagnostic log level for this proxy action drop-down list, select a
log level:
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Error
Warning
Information
Debug
The log level you select overrides the diagnostic log level that is configured for all log messages
of this proxy policy type.
For more information about the diagnostic log level, see Set the Diagnostic Log Level on page 530.
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SMTP-Proxy: Greeting Rules
The proxy examines the initial HELO/EHLO responses when the SMTP session is initialized. The default
rules for the SMTP-Incoming proxy action make sure that packets with greetings that are too long, or
include characters that are not correct or expected, are denied. You can add, delete, or modify rules.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the General category.
The General category expands.
2. In the link bar, select Greeting Rules.
The Greeting Rules page appears.
3. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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SMTP-Proxy: ESMTP Settings
On the ESMTP Settings page, you can configure settings to filter ESMTP content. Although SMTP is
widely accepted and widely used, some parts of the Internet community want more functionality in
SMTP. ESMTP gives a method for functional extensions to SMTP, and to identify servers and clients
that support extended features.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the ESMTP category.
The ESMTP category expands.
2. In the link bar, select ESMTP Settings.
The ESMTP Settings page appears.
3. Configure these options:
Enable ESMTP
Select this check box to enable all fields. If you clear this check box, all other check boxes
on this page are disabled. When the options are disabled, the settings for each options are
saved. If this option is enabled again, all the settings are restored.
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Allow BDAT/CHUNKING
Select this check box to allow BDAT/CHUNKING. This enables large messages to be
sent more easily through SMTP connections.
Allow ETRN (Remote Message Queue Starting)
This is an extension to SMTP that allows an SMTP client and server to interact to start the
exchange of message queues for a given host.
Allow 8-Bit MIME
Select this check box to allow transmission of 8-bit data messages. When this option is
disabled, messages encoded with 8-big MIME are denied by the SMTP-proxy. Enable this
option only if your email server has the ability to send 8-bit data transmissions.
Allow Binary MIME
Select to allow the Binary MIME extension, if the sender and receiver accept it. Binary
MIME prevents the overhead of base64 and quoted-printable encoding of binary objects
sent that use the MIME message format with SMTP. We do not recommend you select this
option as it can be a security risk.
Log denied ESMTP options
To create a log message for unknown ESMTP options that are stripped by the SMTPproxy, select this check box.
To disable this option, clear this check box.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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SMTP-Proxy: TLS Encryption
You can configure the SMTP-proxy to use TLS encryption to process email sent from a client email
server (the sender) to your SMTP server (the recipient). SMTP over TLS is a secure extension to the
SMTP service that allows an SMTP server and client to use TLS (transport-layer security) to provide
private, authenticated communication over the Internet. For SMTP, this usually involves the use of
STARTTLS keywords. TLS encryption settings for the SMTP-proxy have two configurable parts: when
to use encryption (sender or recipient channel) and how to encrypt (SSL or TLS protocol and certificate
type). You can use these settings to specify the encryption settings for incoming traffic (sender email),
for traffic from your SMTP server (the recipient), or both.
XTM Compatibility If your device runs Fireware XTM v11.0–v11.3.x, the TLS
Encryption settings are not available for your device.
About TLS Encryption
SSLv3, SSLv2, and TLSv1 are all protocols used for encrypted SMTP connections. SSLv2 is not as
secure as SSLv3 and TLSv1. When you enable TLS encryption, by default, the SMTP-proxy only
allows connections that negotiate the SSLv3 and TLSv1 protocols. You can, however, allow the
SMTP-proxy to use the SSLv2 protocol for connections to and from SMTP clients or servers that
require the SSLv2 protocol.
About OCSP Options
You can also choose whether to use OCSP (Online Certificate Status Protocol) to validate certificates.
If you enable this option, your XTM device automatically uses OCSP to check for certificate
revocations. When this feature is enabled, the XTM device uses information in the certificate to
contact an OCSP server that keeps a record of the certificate status. If the OCSP server responds that
the certificate has been revoked, the XTM device disables the certificate. This process can cause a
delay of several seconds, while the XTM device requests a response from the OCSP server. The XTM
device keeps between 300 and 3000 OCSP responses in a cache to improve performance for
frequently accessed hosts. The number of responses stored in the cache is determined by your XTM
device model.
When you use OCSP to validate certificates, you can also specify whether certificates that cannot be
validated are considered valid. If you specify that invalidated certificates are invalid, and if an
OCSP responder does not send a response to a revocation status request, the XTM device considers
the original certificate as invalid or revoked. This option can cause certificates to be considered invalid
if there is a routing error or a problem with your network connection.
About Encryption Rules
After you enable TLS encryption for your SMTP proxy action, you add rules to specify the sender and
recipient domains, and the required encryption details for each domain. When you add rules to the
Encryption Rules list, the rules are evaluated in order from the first rule to the last rule in the list. Make
sure to put your rules in an order that provides the most flexibility. For example, if you have more than
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one SMTP server domain, put the rule for your primary SMTP server first in the list, with rules for any
backup SMTP servers lower in the list.
When you add encryption rules, you can create rules for specific sender and recipient domains. Or, to
create a global rule, you can use a wildcard character (*) for either the sender or recipient domain. You
can specify encryption rules for the sender channel, for the recipient channel, or both. This enables you
to set different encryption rules for specific domains that send email to your SMTP server. Each
encryption rule must be 200 bytes or less in length.
Sender Encryption
n
n
n
Required — The sender SMTP server must negotiate encryption with the XTM device.
None — The XTM device does not negotiate encryption with the sender SMTP servers.
Optional — The sender SMTP server can negotiate encryption with the XTM device, but
email that is not encrypted is allowed.
Recipient Encryption
n
n
n
n
Required — The XTM device must negotiate encryption with the recipient SMTP server.
None — The XTM device does not negotiate encryption with the recipient SMTP server.
Preferred — The XTM device tries to negotiate encryption with the recipient SMTP server.
Allowed — The XTM device uses the sender SMTP server behavior to negotiate
encryption with the recipient SMTP server.
If you do not want to add rules for more than one domain, you can set the Sender Encryption to
Optional, Recipient Encryption to Preferred, and use the wildcard character (*) for the domain
information. With these encryption settings, most email is safely sent to your SMTP server.
If your users connect to your network over a public Internet connection, we recommend that you select
Requiredfor the Sender Encryption setting. If your SMTP server does not support encryption, we
recommend that you select Optional, because email that is not encrypted can still be accepted.
If your users send email to your SMTP server through your protected corporate intranet, you have the
most flexibility if you set Sender Encryption to Optional and Recipient Encryption to None.
If you add a rule that always requires traffic from a sender domain to be encrypted, you can also
specify that a TLS protocol must be used for the recipient, sender, and body information in the email
message.
Configure TLS Encryption Settings
When you create a new configuration file, the TLS encryption option is enabled by default. You must
only configure the settings for TLS encryption. If you upgrade an XTM device with an existing
configuration file to v11.5.1 or later, you must manually enable the TLS encryption option and then
configure the settings for TLS encryption.
To enable TLS encryption and configure the rules for an SMTP proxy action:
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the ESMTP category.
The ESMTP category expands.
2. In the link bar, select TLS Encryption.
The TLS Encryption page appears.
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3. Select the Enable deep inspection of SMTP with TLS check box.
4. To enable the SMTP-proxy to use the SSLv2 protocol, select the Allow SSLv2 (insecure)
check box.
5. (Optional) Select the Use OCSP to validate certificates check box.
6. To specify how certificates that cannot be validated are processed, select the If a certificate
cannot be validated, the certificate is considered invalid check box.
7. To add encryption rules, in the Rules section, click Add.
A new encryption rule appears in the Encryption Rules list.
8. In the To Recipient Domain text box, type the domain name for your SMTP server and press
Enter on your keyboard.
9. To specify the domain that client traffic can come from, double-click the default From Sender
Domain value, *, type a new value in the text box, and press Enter on your keyboard.
To allow traffic from any domain, keep the default value of *.
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10. To change the Recipient Encryption value, click the default selection, Preferred, and select
an option from the drop-down list:
n Required
n None
n Preferred
n Allowed
11. To change the Sender Encryption value, click the default selection, Optionally Encrypted,
and select an option from the drop-down list:
n Required
n None
n Optional
12. To change the order that rules are applied, select a rule in the Encryption Rules list, and click
Up or Down.
13. To disable a rule in the list, clear the Enabled check box for that rule.
14. To delete a rule from the list, click Remove.
15. To require the TLS protocol to be used for encrypted sender traffic, select the When sender
encryption is required, TLS must be used for the sender, recipient, and body
information check box.
This option is only available if you configure a rule with a Sender Encryption setting of Always
Encrypted.
For more information about proxy action rules, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
16. To change settings for another category in this proxy action, see the topic for that category.
17. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
SMTP-Proxy: Authentication
This ruleset allows these ESMTP authentication types: DIGEST- MD5, CRAM-MD5, PLAIN, LOGIN,
LOGIN (old style), NTLM, and GSSAPI. The default rule denies all other authentication types. The RFC
that tells about the SMTP authentication extension is RFC 2554. You can add, delete, or modify rules.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the ESMTP category.
The ESMTP category expands.
2. In the link bar, select Authentication.
The Authentication page appears.
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3. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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SMTP-Proxy: Content Types
Certain kinds of content embedded in email can be a security threat to your network. Other kinds of
content can decrease the productivity of your users. You can use the ruleset for the SMTP-Incoming
proxy action to set values for incoming SMTP content filtering. You can use the ruleset for the SMTPOutgoing proxy action to set values for outgoing SMTP content filtering. The SMTP-proxy allows these
content types: text/*, image/*, multipart/*, and message/*. You can add, delete, or modify rules.
You can also configure the SMTP-proxy to automatically examine the content of email messages to
determine the content type. If you do not enable this option, the SMTP-proxy uses the value stated in
the email header, which clients sometimes set incorrectly. For example, an attached .pdf file might
have a content type stated as application/octet-stream. If you enable content type auto detection, the
SMTP-proxy recognizes the .pdf file and uses the actual content type, application/pdf. If the proxy
does not recognize the content type after it examines the content, it uses the value stated in the email
header, as it would if content type auto detection were not enabled. Because hackers often try to
disguise executable files as other content types, we recommend that you enable content type auto
detection to make your installation more secure.
Configure Rules
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Attachments category.
The Attachments category expands.
2. In the link bar, select Content Types.
The Content Types page appears, with the Rules tab selected.
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3. To enable the SMTP-proxy to examine content to determine content type, select the Enable
content type auto detection check box.
4. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
5. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
6. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
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Configure Body Encryption Settings
Your XTM device detects the body encryption settings in an email based on PGP MIME types. To
specify the encryption requirements for the body content of the email messages that are sent through
your network, you can configure the settings for Body Encryption. You can add rules to allow or deny
an email message based on the encryption criteria you specify. When you configure the rules for
encrypted content, you can specify the actions to take for messages from a particular email address to
a particular email address, or you can use wildcards to add global rules that apply to all email
messages. Rules are applied to email messages in the order you specify in the Encrypted Content
Rules list. Make sure to arrange the rules in your list in the best order for your organization.
From the Content Types page:
1. Select the Body Encryption tab.
The Encrypted Content Rules appear.
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2. To add a new rule, click Add.
The Add Rule dialog box appears.
3. In the To Address text box, type a valid email address.
To use a wildcard, type *@* .
4. To set a specific From Address, in the From Address text box, type an email address.
5. To set the action the proxy takes for this rule, from the Action drop-down list, select an option:
n Required
n Allowed
n Denied
The default Action setting is Required.
6. Click OK.
The rule appears in the Body Encryption list.
7. To change the order of the rules in the list, select a rule and click Move Up or Move Down.
8. To disable a rule in the list, clear the Enabled check box.
SMTP-Proxy: Filenames
To put limits on file names for incoming email attachments, configure rules in the SMTP-Incoming
proxy action ruleset. To put limits on file names for outgoing email attachments, configure rules in the
SMTP-Outgoing proxy action ruleset. You can add, delete, or modify rules.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Attachments category.
The Attachments category expands.
2. In the link bar, select Filenames.
The Filenames page appears.
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3. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
SMTP-Proxy: Mail From/Rcpt To
You can use the Address: Mail From ruleset to put limits on email and to allow email into your
network only from specified senders. The default configuration is to allow email from all senders. You
can add, delete, or modify rules.
The Address: Rcpt To ruleset can limit the email that goes out of your network to only specified
recipients. The default configuration allows email to all recipients out of your network. On an SMTPIncoming proxy action, you can use the Rcpt To ruleset to make sure your email server can not be
used for email relaying. For more information, see Protect Your SMTP Server from Email Relaying on
page 490.
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You can also use the Replace option in a rule to configure the XTM device to change the Mail From
and Mail To components of your email address to a different value. This feature is also known as
SMTP masquerading.
Other options available in the Mail From and Rcpt To rulesets:
Block source-routed addresses
Select this check box to block a message when the sender address or recipient address
contains source routes. A source route identifies the path a message must take when it goes
from host to host. The route can identify which mail routers or backbone sites to use.
For example, @backbone.com:[email protected] means that the host named
Backbone.com must be used as a relay host to deliver mail to [email protected] By
default, this option is enabled for incoming SMTP packets and disabled for outgoing SMTP
packets.
Block 8-bit characters
Select this check box to block a message that has 8-bit characters in the sender user name or
recipient user name. This allows an accent on an alphabet character. By default, this option is
enabled for incoming SMTP packets and disabled for outgoing SMTP packets.
To configure the SMTP proxy to put limits on the email traffic through your network:
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Address category.
The Address category expands.
2. In the link bar, select Mail From or Rcpt To.
The Mail From or Rcpt To settings page appears.
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3. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
4. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
5. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
SMTP-Proxy: Headers
Header rulesets allow you to set values for incoming or outgoing SMTP header filtering. You can add,
delete, or modify rules.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Headers category.
The ESMTP category settings appear.
2. Configure the rule action.
For more information, see Add, Change, or Delete Rules.
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3. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
SMTP-Proxy: Deny Message
When content is denied, the XTM device sends a default deny message that replaces the denied
content. This message appears in a recipients email message when the proxy blocks an email. You
can change the text of that deny message. The first line of the deny message is a section of the HTTP
header. You must include an empty line between the first line and the body of the message.
The default deny message appears in the Deny Message text box. To change this to a custom
message, use these variables:
%(reason)%
Includes the reason the XTM device denied the content.
%(type)%
Includes the type of content that was denied.
%(filename)%
Includes the file name of the denied content.
%(virus)%
Includes the name or status of a virus for Gateway AntiVirus users.
%(action)%
Includes the name of the action taken. For example, lock or strip.
%(recovery)%
Includes whether you can recover the attachment.
To configure the deny message:
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Deny Message category.
The Deny Message category settings appear.
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2. In the Deny Message text box, type a custom plain text message in standard HTML.
3. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
SMTP-Proxy: Proxy and AV Alarms
You can configure how the SMTP-proxy sends messages for alarm and antivirus events that occur
through the SMTP-proxy. You can define the proxy to send an SNMP trap, a notification to a network
administrator, or both. The notification can either be an email message to a network administrator or a
pop-up window on the management computer.
1. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Proxy and AV Alarms category.
The Proxy an AV Alarm settings appear.
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2. Configure the notification settings for the SMTP proxy action.
For more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
3. To change settings for another category in this proxy, see the topic for that category.
4. Click Save.
If you modified a predefined proxy action, when you save the changes you are prompted to clone
(copy) your settings to a new action.
For more information on predefined proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions.
Configure the SMTP-Proxy to Quarantine Email
The WatchGuard Quarantine Server provides a safe, full-featured quarantine mechanism for any email
messages suspected or known to be spam or to contain viruses. This repository receives email
messages from the SMTP-proxy and filtered by spamBlocker.
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To configure the SMTP-proxy to quarantine email:
1. Add the SMTP-proxy to your configuration.
2. Enable spamBlocker in the proxy definition.
Or, enable spamBlocker and select to enable it for the SMTP-proxy.
3. Configure the actions spamBlocker applies for different categories of email.
Make sure you select the Quarantine action for at least one of the categories.
For more information, see Configure spamBlocker on page 799.
If the Quarantine Server is not already configured, when you select this action you are prompted
to configure it.
4. (Optional) Select the Quarantine action for email messages identified by Virus Outbreak
Detection as containing viruses.
For more information, see Configure Virus Outbreak Detection Actions for a Policy on page 803.
Protect Your SMTP Server from Email Relaying
Email relaying, also called mail spamming or open mail relay, is an intrusion in which a person uses
your email server, address, and other resources, to send large amounts of spam email. This can cause
system crashes, equipment damage, and financial loss.
If you are not familiar with the issues involved with mail relaying, or are unsure whether your email
server is vulnerable to mail relaying, we recommend you research your own email server and learn its
potential vulnerabilities. The XTM device can give basic mail relay protection if you are unsure of how
to configure your email server. However, you find out how to use your email server to prevent email
relaying.
To protect your server, you change the configure of the SMTP-proxy policy that filters traffic from the
external network to your internal SMTP server to include your domain information. When you type your
domain, you can use the wildcard * character. Then, any email address that ends with @your-domainname is allowed. If your email server accepts email for more than one domain, you can add more
domains. For example, if you add both *@example.com and *@*.example.com to the list, your email
server will accept all email destined to the top-levelexample.com domain and all email destined to subdomains of example.com. For example, rnd.example.com.
Before you start this procedure, you must know the names of all domains that your SMTP email server
receives email for.
1. Select Firewall > Proxy Actions.
2. Select the SMTP-proxy action for the SMTP-proxy policy that filters traffic from the external
network to an internal SMTP server. Click Edit.
3. On the Edit Proxy Action page, select the Address category.
4. In the link bar, click Mail From or Rcpt To.
5. In the Actions to Take section, from the Action to take if no rule above is matched dropdown list, select Deny.
Any email destined to an address other than the domains in the list is denied.
Another way to protect your server is to type a value in the Rewrite As text box in this dialog box. The
XTM device then changes the From and To components of your email address to a different value. This
feature is also known as SMTP masquerading.
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About the TCP-UDP-Proxy
The TCP-UDP-proxy is a low precedence policy that allows all outbound TCP and UDP traffic from
networks protected by your XTM device. If you remove the Outgoing policy, and do not want to add a
separate policy for each type of traffic you want to allow out through your firewall, you can add the
TCP-UDP-proxy. This policy only allows outbound TCP and UDP traffic, but it also monitors that
traffic for HTTP, HTTPS, SIP, and FTP packets sent on non-standard ports. For the HTTP, HTTPS,
SIP, and FTP protocols, the TCP-UDP proxy relays the traffic to the correct proxy for each protocol.
To add the TCP-UDP-proxy to your XTM device configuration, see Add a Proxy Policy to Your
Configuration on page 376.
If you must change the proxy definition, you can use the Policy Configuration page to modify the
definition. This page has three tabs: Policy, Properties, and Advanced.
Action Settings
At the top of the Policy Configuration page, you can set these actions:
n
n
Application Control Action — If Application Control is enabled on your device, specify the
application control action to use for this policy. For more information, see Enable Application
Control in a Policy.
Proxy action — Select the proxy action to use for this policy. For information about proxy
actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
Policy Tab
On the Properties tab, you can configure these options:
n
n
n
TCP-UDP-proxy connections are — Specify whether connections are Allowed, Denied, or
Denied (send reset), and define who appears in the From and To list (on the Policy tab of the
proxy definition). Fore more information, see Set Access Rules for a Policy on page 367.
Use policy-based routing — To use policy-based routing in your proxy definition, see
Configure Policy-Based Routing on page 369.
You can also configure static NAT or configure server load balancing.
For more information, see Configure Static NAT on page 187 and Configure Server Load
Balancing on page 190.
Properties Tab
On the Properties tab, you can configure these options:
n
n
n
n
To edit or add a comment to this policy configuration, type the comment in the Comment text box.
To define the logging settings for the policy, configure the settings in the Logging section. For
more information, see Set Logging and Notification Preferences on page 533.
If you set the Connections are drop-down list (on the Policy tab) to Denied or Denied (send
reset), you can block sites that try to use TCP-UDP.
For more information, see Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings on page 518.
To change the idle timeout that is set by the XTM device or authentication server, see Set a
Custom Idle Timeout.
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Advanced Tab
You can also configure these options in your proxy definition:
n
n
n
n
n
n
Set an Operating Schedule
Add a Traffic Management Action to a Policy
Set ICMP Error Handling
Apply NAT Rules (Both 1-to-1 NAT and dynamic NAT are enabled by default in all policies.)
Enable QoS Marking or Prioritization Settings for a Policy
Set the Sticky Connection Duration for a Policy
Configure the Proxy Action
You can choose a predefined proxy action or configure a user-defined proxy action for this proxy. For
more information about how to configure proxy actions, see About Proxy Actions on page 377.
For the TCP-UDP-proxy, you can configure the general settings for a proxy action. For more
information, see TCP-UDP-Proxy: General Settings.
TCP-UDP-Proxy: General Settings
On the Edit Proxy Action page for a TCP-UDP proxy action, in the General section, you set basic
parameters for the TCP-UDP-proxy.
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Proxy actions to redirect traffic
The TCP-UDP-proxy can pass HTTP, HTTPS, SIP, and FTP traffic to proxy policies that you
have already created when this traffic is sent over non-standard ports.
For each of these protocols, from the adjacent drop-down list, select the proxy policy to use to
manage this traffic.
If you do not want your XTM device to use a proxy policy to filter a protocol, select Allow or
Deny from the adjacent drop-down list.
Note To ensure that your XTM device operates correctly, you cannot select the Allow
option for the FTP protocol.
Enable logging for reports
To send a log message for each connection request through the TCP-UDP-proxy, select this
check box. To create accurate reports on TCP-UDP traffic, you must select this check box.
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Override the diagnostic log level for proxy policies that use this proxy action
To specify the diagnostic log level for all proxy polices that use this proxy action, select this
check box. Then, from the Diagnostic log level for this proxy action drop-down list, select a
log level:
n
n
n
n
Error
Warning
Information
Debug
The log level you select overrides the diagnostic log level that is configured for all log messages
of this proxy policy type.
For more information about the diagnostic log level, see Set the Diagnostic Log Level on page 530.
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Traffic Management and QoS
About Traffic Management and QoS
In a large network with many computers, the volume of data that moves through the firewall can be
very large. A network administrator can use Traffic Management and Quality of Service (QoS) actions
to prevent data loss for important business applications, and to make sure mission-critical applications
take priority over other traffic.
Traffic Management and QoS provide a number of benefits. You can:
n
n
n
Guarantee or limit bandwidth
Control the rate at which the XTM device sends packets to the network
Prioritize when to send packets to the network
To apply traffic management to policies, you define a Traffic Management action, which is a collection
of settings that you can apply to one or more policy definitions. This way you do not need to configure
the traffic management settings separately in each policy. You can define additional Traffic
Management actions if you want to apply different settings to different policies.
Enable Traffic Management and QoS
For performance reasons, all traffic management and QoS features are disabled by default. You must
enable these features in Global Settings before you can use them.
1. Select System > Global Settings.
The Global Settings page appears.
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2. Select the Enable all traffic management and QoS features check box.
3. Click Save.
Guarantee Bandwidth
Bandwidth reservations can prevent connection timeouts. A traffic management queue with reserved
bandwidth and low priority can give bandwidth to real-time applications with higher priority when
necessary without disconnecting. Other traffic management queues can take advantage of unused
reserved bandwidth when it becomes available.
For example, suppose your company has an FTP server on the external network and you want to
guarantee that FTP always has at least 200 kilobytes per second (KBps) through the external interface.
You might also consider setting a minimum bandwidth from the trusted interface to make sure that the
connection has end-to-end guaranteed bandwidth. To do this, you would create a Traffic Management
action that defines a minimum of 200 KBps for FTP traffic on the external interface. You would then
create an FTP policy and apply the Traffic Management action. This will allow ftp put at 200 KBps. If
you want to allow ftp get at 200 KBps, you must configure the FTP traffic on the trusted interface to
also have a minimum of 200 KBps.
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As another example, suppose your company uses multimedia materials (streaming media) to train
external customers. This streaming media uses RTSP over port 554. You have frequent FTP uploads
from the trusted to external interface, and you do not want these uploads to compete with your
customers ability to receive the streaming media. To guarantee sufficient bandwidth, you could apply a
Traffic Management action to the external interface for the streaming media port.
The guaranteed bandwidth setting works with the Outgoing Interface Bandwidth setting configured
for each interface to make sure you do not guarantee more bandwidth than actually exists. This setting
also helps you make sure the sum of your guaranteed bandwidth settings does not fill the link such that
non-guaranteed traffic cannot pass. For example, suppose the link is 1 Mbps and you try to use a
Traffic Management action that guarantees 973 Kbps (0.95 Mbps) to the FTP policy on that link. With
these settings, the FTP traffic could use so much of the available bandwidth that other types of traffic
cannot use the interface.
Restrict Bandwidth
To preserve the bandwidth that is available for other applications, you can restrict the amount of
bandwidth for certain traffic types or applications. This can also discourage the use of certain
applications when users find that the speed of the application’s performance is significantly degraded.
The Maximum Bandwidth setting in a Traffic Management action enables you to set a limit on the
amount of traffic allowed by the Traffic Management action.
For example, suppose that you want to allow FTP downloads but you want to limit the speed at which
users can download files. You can add a Traffic Management action that has the Maximum bandwidth
set to a low amount on the trusted interface, such as 100 kbps. This can help discourage FTP
downloads when the users on the trusted interface find the FTP experience is unsatisfactory.
QoS Marking
QoS marking creates different types of service for different kinds of outbound network traffic. When
you mark traffic, you change up to six bits on packet header fields defined for this purpose. Other
devices can make use of this marking and provide appropriate handling of a packet as it travels from
one point to another in a network.
You can enable QoS marking for an individual interface or an individual policy. When you define QoS
marking for an interface, each packet that leaves the interface is marked. When you define QoS
marking for a policy, all traffic that uses that policy is also marked.
Traffic priority
You can assign different levels of priority either to policies or for traffic on a particular interface. Traffic
prioritization at the firewall allows you to manage multiple type of service (ToS) queues and reserve the
highest priority for real-time or streaming data. A policy with high priority can take bandwidth away from
existing low priority connections when the link is congested so traffic must compete for bandwidth.
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Set Outgoing Interface Bandwidth
Some traffic management features require that you set a bandwidth limit for each network interface.
For example, you must configure the Outgoing Interface Bandwidth setting to use QoS marking and
prioritization.
After you set this limit, your XTM device completes basic prioritization tasks on network traffic to
prevent problems with too much traffic on the specified interface. Also, a warning appears in Fireware
XTM Web UI if you allocate too much bandwidth as you create or adjust traffic management actions.
If you do not change the Outgoing Interface Bandwidth setting for any interface from the default
value of 0, it is set to the auto-negotiated link speed for that interface.
1. Select Firewall > Traffic Management.
The Traffic Management page appears.
2. Select the Interfaces tab.
3. In the Bandwidth column adjacent to the interface name, type the amount of bandwidth
provided by the network.
Use your Internet connection upload speed in kilobits or megabits per second (Kbps or Mbps).
Set your LAN interface bandwidth based on the minimum link speed supported by your LAN
infrastructure.
4. To change the speed unit, select an interface in the list, then click the adjacent speed unit and
select a different option in the drop-down list.
5. Click Save.
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Set Connection Rate Limits
To improve network security, you can create a limit on a policy so that it only filters a specified number
of connections per second. If additional connections are attempted, the traffic is denied and a log
message is created.
To specify a limit, select Custom and type or select the maximum connection rate in the
adjacent text box .
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies or Firewall > Mobile VPN Policies.
The Policies page appears.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Double-click a policy, or select the policy to configure and click .
Select the Advanced tab.
Select the Specify Connection Rate check box.
In the adjacent text box, type or select the number of connections that this policy can process in
one second.
6. Click Save.
About QoS Marking
Today’s networks often consist of many kinds of network traffic that compete for bandwidth. All traffic,
whether of prime importance or negligible importance, has an equal chance of reaching its destination
in a timely manner. Quality of Service (QoS) marking gives critical traffic preferential treatment to make
sure it is delivered quickly and reliably.
QoS functionality must be able to differentiate the various types of data streams that flow across your
network. It must then mark data packets. QoS marking creates different classifications of service for
different kinds of network traffic. When you mark traffic, you change up to six bits on packet header
fields defined for this purpose. The XTM device and other QoS-capable devices can use this marking
to provide appropriate handling of a packet as it travels from one point to another in a network.
Fireware XTM supports two types of QoS marking: IP Precedence marking (also known as Type of
Service) and Differentiated Service Code Point (DSCP) marking. For more information on these
marking types and the values you can set, see Marking types and values.
Before you begin
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Make sure your LAN equipment supports QoS marking and handling. You may also need to
make sure your ISP supports QoS.
The use of QoS procedures on a network requires extensive planning. You can first identify the
theoretical bandwidth available and then determine which network applications are high priority,
particularly sensitive to latency and jitter, or both.
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QoS marking for interfaces and policies
You can enable QoS marking for an individual interface or an individual policy. When you define QoS
marking for an interface, each packet that leaves the interface is marked. When you define QoS
marking for a policy, all traffic that uses that policy is also marked. The QoS marking for a policy
overrides any QoS marking set on an interface.
For example, suppose your XTM device receives QoS-marked traffic from a trusted network and sends
it to an external network. The trusted network already has QoS marking applied, but you want the
traffic to your executive team to be given higher priority than other network traffic from the trusted
interface. First, set the QoS marking for the trusted interface to one value. Then, add a policy with QoS
marking set for the traffic to your executive team with a higher value.
QoS marking and IPSec traffic
If you want to apply QoS to IPsec traffic, you must create a specific firewall policy for the
corresponding IPsec policy and apply QoS marking to that policy.
You can also choose whether to preserve existing marking when a marked packed is encapsulated in
an IPSec header.
To preserve marking:
1. Select VPN > Global Settings.
The Global VPN Settings page appears.
2. Select the Enable TOS for IPSec check box.
3. Click Save.
All existing marking is preserved when the packet is encapsulated in an IPSec header.
To remove marking:
1. Select VPN > Global Settings.
The Global VPN Settings page appears.
2. Clear the Enable TOS for IPSec check box.
3. Click Save.
The TOS bits are reset and marking is not preserved.
Enable QoS Marking for an Interface
You can set the default marking behavior as traffic goes out of an interface. These settings can be
overridden by settings defined for a policy.
1. Select Firewall > Traffic Management.
The Traffic Management page appears.
2. Clear the Disable all Traffic Management check box. Click Save.
You might want to disable these features at a later time if you do performance testing or network
debugging.
3. Select Network > Interfaces.
The Network Interfaces page appears.
4. Select the interface for which you want to enable QoS Marking. Click Configure.
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The Interface Configuration page appears.
5. Click Advanced.
6. In the Marking Type drop-down list, select either DSCP or IP Precedence.
7. In the Marking Method drop-down list, select the marking method:
n Preserve — Do not change the current value of the bit. The XTM device prioritizes the traffic
based on this value.
n Assign — Assign the bit a new value.
8. If you selected Assign in the previous step, select a marking value.
If you selected the IP precedence marking type you can select values from 0 (normal priority)
through 7 (highest priority).
If you selected the DSCP marking type, the values are 0–56.
For more information on these values, see Marking types and values.
9. Select the Prioritize traffic based on QoS Marking check box.
10. Click Save.
Enable QoS Marking or Prioritization Settings for a Policy
In addition to marking the traffic that leaves a XTM device interface, you can also mark traffic on a perpolicy basis. The marking action you select is applied to all traffic that uses the policy. Multiple policies
that use the same marking actions have no effect on each other. XTM device interfaces can also have
their own QoS Marking settings. To use QoS Marking or prioritization settings for a policy, you must
override any per-interface QoS Marking settings.
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies or Firewall > Mobile VPN Policies.
The Policies page appears.
2. Select the policy you want to change. Click .
3. Select the Advanced tab.
4. To enable the other QoS and prioritization options, select the Override per-interface settings
check box.
5. Complete the settings as described in the subsequent sections.
6. Click Save.
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QoS Marking Settings
For more information on QoS marking values, see Marking Types and Values.
1. From the Marking Type drop-down list, select either DSCP or IP Precedence.
2. From the Marking Method drop-down list, select the marking method:
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Preserve — Do not change the current value of the bit. The XTM device prioritizes the
traffic based on this value.
Assign — Assign the bit a new value.
3. If you selected Assign in the previous step, select a marking value.
If you selected the IP precedence marking type you can select values from 0 (normal priority)
through 7 (highest priority).
If you selected the DSCP marking type, the values are 0–56.
4. From the Prioritize Traffic Based On drop-down list, select QoS Marking.
Prioritization Settings
Many different algorithms can be used to prioritize network traffic. Fireware XTM uses the strict priority
queuing method to prioritze traffic through your XTM device. Prioritization in Fireware XTM is applied
per policy and is equivalent to CoS (class of service) levels 0–7, where 0 is normal priority (default) and
7 is the highest priority. Level 5 is commonly used for streaming data such as VoIP or video
conferencing. Reserve levels 6 and 7 for policies that allow system administration connections to
make sure they are always available and avoid interference from other high priority network traffic. Use
the Priority Levels table as a guideline when you assign priorities.
1. From the Prioritize Traffic Based On drop-down list, select Custom Value.
2. From the Value drop-down list, select a priority level.
Priority Levels
We recommend that you assign a priority higher than 5 only to network administration policies, such as
the WatchGuard policy or the WG-Mgmt-Server policy. Give high priority business traffic a priority of 5
or lower.
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Priority Description
0
Routine (HTTP, FTP)
1
Priority
2
Immediate (DNS)
3
Flash (Telnet, SSH, RDP)
4
Flash Override
5
Critical (VoIP)
6
Internetwork Control (Remote router configuration)
7
Network Control (Firewall, router, switch management)
Traffic Control and Policy Definitions
Define a Traffic Management Action
Traffic Management actions can enforce bandwidth restrictions and guarantee a minimum amount of
bandwidth for one or more policies. Each Traffic Management action can include settings for multiple
interfaces. For example, on a Traffic Management action used with an HTTP policy for a small
organization, you can set the minimum guaranteed bandwidth of a trusted interface to 250 kbps and the
maximum bandwidth to 1000 kbps. This limits the speeds at which users can download files, but
ensures that a small amount of bandwidth is always available for HTTP traffic. You can then set the
minimum guaranteed bandwidth of an external interface to 150 kbps and the maximum bandwidth to
300 kbps to manage upload speeds at the same time.
Determine Available Bandwidth
Before you begin, you must determine the available bandwidth of the interface used for the policy or
policies you want to guarantee bandwidth. For external interfaces, you can contact your ISP (Internet
Service Provider) to verify the service level agreement for bandwidth. You can then use a speed test
with online tools to verify this value. These tools can produce different values depending on a number
of variables. For other interfaces, you can assume the link speed on the XTM device interface is the
theoretical maximum bandwidth for that network. You must also consider both the sending and
receiving needs of an interface and set the threshold value based on these needs. If your Internet
connection is asymmetric, use the uplink bandwidth set by your ISP as the threshold value.
Determine the Sum of Your Bandwidth
You must also determine the sum of the bandwidth you want to guarantee for all policies on a given
interface. For example, on a 1500 kbps external interface, you might want to reserve 600 kbps for all
the guaranteed bandwidth and use the remaining 900 kbps for all other traffic.
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All policies that use a given Traffic Management action share its connection rate and bandwidth
settings. When they are created, policies automatically belong to the default Traffic Management
action, which enforces no restrictions or reservations. If you create a Traffic Management action to set
a maximum bandwidth of 10 Mbps and apply it to an FTP and an HTTP policy, all connections handled
by those policies must share 10Mbps. If you later apply the same Traffic Management action to an
SMTP policy, all three must share 10 Mbps. This also applies to connection rate limits and guaranteed
minimum bandwidth. Unused guaranteed bandwidth reserved by one Traffic Management action can
be used by others.
Create or Modify a Traffic Management Action
1. Select Firewall > Traffic Management.
The Traffic Management page appears.
2. Click Add to create a new Traffic Management action.
Or, select an action and click Configure.
3. Type a Name and a Description (optional) for the action. You use the action name to refer to
the action when you assign it to a policy.
4. In the drop-down list, select an interface. Type the minimum and maximum bandwidth for that
interface in the adjacent text boxes.
5. Click Add.
6. Repeat Steps 4–5 to add traffic limits for additional interfaces.
7. To remove an interface from the Traffic Management action, select it and click Remove.
8. Click Save.
You can now apply this Traffic Management action to one or more policies.
Add a Traffic Management Action to a Policy
After you Define a Traffic Management Action, you can add it to policy definitions. You can also add
any existing traffic management actions to policy definitions.
1. Select Firewall > Traffic Management.
The Traffic Management page appears.
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2. In the Traffic Management Policies list, select a policy.
3. In the adjacent column, click the drop-down list and select a traffic management action.
4. To set an action for other policies, repeat Steps 2–3.
5. Click Save.
Note If you have a multi-WAN configuration, bandwidth limits are applied separately to
each interface.
Add a Traffic Management Action to Multiple Policies
When the same traffic management action is added to multiple policies, the maximum and minimum
bandwidth apply to each interface in your configuration. If two policies share an action that has a
maximum bandwidth of 100 kbps on a single interface, then all traffic on that interface that matches
those policies is limited to 100 kbps total.
If you have limited bandwidth on an interface used for several applications, each with unique ports, you
might need all the high priority connections to share one traffic management action. If you have lots of
bandwidth to spare, you could create separate traffic management actions for each application.
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About Default Threat Protection
WatchGuard Fireware XTM OS and the policies you create give you strict control over access to your
network. A strict access policy helps keep hackers out of your network. But, there are other types of
attacks that a strict policy cannot defeat. Careful configuration of default threat protection options for
the XTM device can stop threats such as SYN flood attacks, spoofing attacks, and port or address
space probes.
With default threat protection, a firewall examines the source and destination of each packet it
receives. It looks at the IP address and port number and monitors the packets to look for patterns that
show your network is at risk. If a risk exists, you can configure the XTM device to automatically block
a possible attack. This proactive method of intrusion detection and prevention keeps attackers out of
your network.
To configure default threat protection, see:
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About Default Packet Handling Options
About Blocked Sites
About Blocked Ports
You can also purchase an upgrade for your XTM device to use signature-based intrusion prevention.
For more information, see About Gateway AntiVirus on page 821.
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About Default Packet Handling Options
When your XTM device receives a packet, it examines the source and destination for the packet. It
looks at the IP address and the port number. The device also monitors the packets to look for patterns
that can show your network is at risk. This process is called default packet handling.
Default packet handling can:
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Reject a packet that could be a security risk, including packets that could be part of a spoofing
attack or SYN flood attack
Automatically block all traffic to and from an IP address
Add an event to the log file
Send an SNMP trap to the SNMP management server
Send a notification of possible security risks
Most default packet handling options are enabled in the default XTM device configuration. You can use
Fireware XTM Web UI to change the thresholds at which the XTM device takes action. You can also
change the options selected for default packet handling.
1. Select Firewall > Default Packet Handling.
The Default Packet Handling page appears.
2. Select the check boxes for the traffic patterns you want to take action against, as explained in
these topics:
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About Spoofing Attacks on page 509
About IP Source Route Attacks on page 510
About Port Space and Address Space Probes on page 510
About Flood Attacks on page 512
About Unhandled Packets on page 514
About Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks on page 515
About Spoofing Attacks
One method that attackers use to enter your network is to make an electronic false identity. This is an
IP spoofing method that attackers use to send a TCP/IP packet with a different IP address than the
computer that first sent it.
When anti-spoofing is enabled, the XTM device verifies the source IP address of a packet is from a
network on the specified interface.
The default configuration of the XTM device is to drop spoofing attacks. From Fireware XTM Web UI,
you can change the settings for this feature:
1. Select Firewall > Default Packet Handling.
The Default Packet Handling page appears.
2. Select or clear the Drop Spoofing Attacks check box.
3. Click Save.
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About IP Source Route Attacks
To find the route that packets take through your network, attackers use IP source route attacks. The
attacker sends an IP packet and uses the response from your network to get information about the
operating system of the target computer or network device.
The default configuration of the XTM device is to drop IP source route attacks. From Fireware XTM
Web UI, you can change the settings for this feature.
1. Select Firewall > Default Packet Handling.
The Default Packet Handling page appears.
2. Select or clear the Drop IP Source Route check box.
3. Click Save.
About Port Space and Address Space Probes
Attackers frequently look for open ports as starting points to launch network attacks. A port space
probe is TCP or UDP traffic that is sent to a range of ports. These ports can be in sequence or random,
from 0 to 65535. An address space probe is TCP or UDP traffic that is sent to a range of network
addresses. Port space probes examine a computer to find the services that it uses. Address space
probes examine a network to see which network devices are on that network.
For more information about ports, see About Ports on page 10.
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How the XTM Device Identifies Network Probes
An address space probe is identified when a computer sends a specified number of packets to different
IP addresses assigned to an XTM device interface. To identify a port space probe, your XTM device
counts the number of packets sent from one IP address to any XTM device interface IP address. The
addresses can include the primary IP addresses and any secondary IP addresses configured on the
interface. If the number of packets sent to different IP addresses or destination ports in one second is
larger than the number you select, the source IP address is added to the Blocked Sites list.
When the Block Port Space Probes and Block Address Space Probes check boxes are selected,
all incoming traffic on all interfaces is examined by the XTM device. You cannot disable these features
for specified IP addresses, specified XTM device interfaces, or different time periods.
To Protect Against Port Space and Address Space Probes
The default configuration of the XTM device blocks network probes. You can use Fireware XTM Web
UI to change the settings for this feature, and change the maximum allowed number of address or port
probes per second for each source IP address (the default value is 10).
1. Select Firewall > Default Packet Handling.
The Default Packet Handling page appears.
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2. SelectorcleartheBlock Port Space ProbesandtheBlock Address Space Probescheck boxes.
3. Click the arrows to select the maximum number of address or port probes to allow per second
from the same IP address. The default for each is 10 per second. This means that a source is
blocked if it initiates connections to 10 different ports or hosts within one second.
4. Click Save.
To block attackers more quickly, you can set the threshold for the maximum allowed number of
address or port probes per second to a lower value. If the number is set too low, the XTM device could
also deny legitimate network traffic . You are less likely to block legitimate network traffic if you use a
higher number, but the XTM device must send TCP reset packets for each connection it drops. This
uses bandwidth and resources on the XTM device and provides the attacker with information about
your firewall.
About Flood Attacks
In a flood attack, attackers send a very high volume of traffic to a system so it cannot examine and
allow permitted network traffic. For example, an ICMP flood attack occurs when a system receives too
many ICMP ping commands and must use all of its resources to send reply commands. The XTM
device can protect against these types of flood attacks:
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IPSec
IKE
ICMP
SYN
UDP
Flood attacks are also known as Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. The default configuration of the XTM
device is to block flood attacks.
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to change the settings for this feature, or to change the maximum
allowed number of packets per second.
1. Select Firewall > Default Packet Handling.
The Default Packet Handling page appears.
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2. Select or clear the Flood Attack check boxes.
3. Click the arrows to select the maximum allowed number of packets per second for each source
IP address.
For example, if the setting is 1000, the XTM device blocks a source if it receives more than
1000 packets per second from that source.
4. Click Save.
About the SYN Flood Attack Setting
For SYN flood attacks, you can set the threshold at which the XTM device reports a possible SYN
flood attack, but no packets are dropped if only the number of packets you selected are received. At
twice the selected threshold, all SYN packets are dropped. At any level between the selected
threshold and twice that level, if the src_IP, dst_IP, and total_length values of a packet are the same
as the previous packet received, then it is always dropped. Otherwise, 25% of the new packets
received are dropped.
For example, you set the SYN flood attack threshold to 18 packets/sec. When the XTM device
receives 18 packets/sec, it reports a possible SYN flood attack to you, but does not drop any packets.
If the device receives 20 packets per second, it drops 25% of the received packets (5 packets). If the
device receives 36 or more packets, the last 18 or more are dropped.
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About Unhandled Packets
An unhandled packet is a packet that does not match any policy rule. By default, the XTM device
always denies unhandled packets. From Fireware XTM Web UI, you can change the device settings to
further protect your network.
1. Select Firewall > Default Packet Handling.
The Default Packet Handling page appears.
2. Select or clear the check boxes for these options:
Auto-block source of packets not handled
Select to automatically block the source of unhandled packets. The XTM device adds the
IP address that sent the packet to the temporary Blocked Sites list.
Send an error message to clients whose connections are disabled
Select to send a TCP reset or ICMP error back to the client when the XTM device receives
an unhandled packet.
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About Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks are very similar to flood attacks. In a DDoS attack, many
different clients and servers send connections to one computer system to try to flood the system.
When a DDoS attack occurs, legitimate users cannot use the targeted system.
The default configuration of the XTM device is to block DDoS attacks. From Fireware XTM Web UI,
you can change the settings for this feature, and change the maximum allowed number of connections
per second.
1. Select Firewall > Default Packet Handling.
The Default Packet Handling page appears.
2. Select or clear the Per Server Quota and Per Client Quota check boxes.
3. Click the arrows to set the Per Server Quota and the Per Client Quota.
Per Server Quota
The Per Server Quota applies a limit to the number of connections per second from any
external source to the XTM device external interface. This includes connections to internal
servers allowed by a static NAT policy. The Per Server Quota is based on the number of
connection requests to any one destination IP address, regardless of the source IP
address. After the threshold is reached, the XTM device drops incoming connection
requests from any host.
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For example, when the Per Server Quota is set to the default value of 100, the XTM device
drops the 101st connection request received in a one second time frame from any external
IP address. The source IP address is not added to the blocked sites list.
Per Client Quota
The Per Client Quota applies a limit to the number of outbound connections per second
from any source protected by the XTM device to any destination. The Per Client Quota is
based on the number of connection requests from any one source IP address, regardless of
the destination IP address.
For example, when the Per Client Quota is set to the default value of 100, the XTM device
drops the 101st connection request received in a one second time frame from an IP
address on the trusted or optional network to any destination IP address.
About Blocked Sites
A blocked site is an IP address that cannot make a connection through the XTM device. You tell the
XTM device to block specific sites you know, or think, are a security risk. After you find the source of
suspicious traffic, you can block all connections from that IP address. You can also configure the XTM
device to send a log message each time the source tries to connect to your network. From the log file,
you can see the services that the sources use to launch attacks.
The XTM device denies all traffic from a blocked IP address. You can define two different types of
blocked IP addresses: permanent and auto-blocked.
Permanently Blocked Sites
Network traffic from permanently blocked sites is always denied. These IP addresses are stored in the
Blocked Sites list and must be added manually. For example, you can add an IP address that
constantly tries to scan your network to the Blocked Sites list to prevent port scans from that site.
To block a site, see Block a Site Permanently on page 517.
Auto-Blocked Sites/Temporary Blocked Sites List
Packets from auto-blocked sites are denied for the amount of time you specify. The XTM device uses
the packet handling rules specified for each policy to determine whether to block a site. For example, if
you create a policy that denies all traffic on port 23 (Telnet), any IP address that tries to send Telnet
traffic through that port is automatically blocked for the amount of time you specify.
To automatically block sites that send denied traffic, see Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings
on page 518.
You can also automatically block sites that are the source of packets that do not match any policy rule.
For more information, see About Unhandled Packets on page 514.
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Blocked Site Exceptions
If the XTM device blocks traffic from a site you believe to be safe, you can add the site to the Blocked
Site Exceptions list, so that traffic from that site is not automatically blocked.
To add a blocked site exception, see Create Blocked Site Exceptions.
See and Edit the Sites on the Blocked Sites List
To see a list of all sites currently on the blocked sites list, select System Status > Blocked Sites.
For more information, see Blocked Sites on page 546.
Block a Site Permanently
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to permanently add sites to the Blocked Sites list.
1. Select Firewall > Blocked Sites.
2. From the Choose Type drop-down list, select whether you want to enter a host IP address, a
network address, or a range of IP addresses.
3. Type the value in the subsequent text box and click Add. If you must block an address range
that includes one or more IP addresses assigned to the XTM device, you must first add these IP
addresses to the Blocked Sites Exceptions list.
To add exceptions, see Create Blocked Site Exceptions on page 518.
4. Click Save.
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Create Blocked Site Exceptions
When you add a site to the Blocked Site Exceptions list in Fireware XTM Web UI, the traffic from that
site is not blocked by the auto-blocking feature.
1. Select Firewall > Blocked Sites.
2. Click the Blocked Site Exceptions tab.
3. From the Choose Type drop-down list, select whether you want to enter a host IP address, a
network address, or a range of IP addresses.
4. Type the value in the subsequent text box and click Add.
5. Click Save.
Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to temporarily block sites that try to use a denied service. IP
addresses from the denied packets are added to the Temporary Blocked sites list for 20 minutes (by
default).
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies. Double-click a policy to edit it.
The Policy Configuration dialog box appears.
2. On the Policy tab, make sure you set the Connections Are drop-down list to Denied or
Denied (send reset).
3. On the Properties tab, select the Auto-block sites that attempt to connect check box. By
default, IP addresses from the denied packets are added to the Temporary Blocked Sites list for
20 minutes.
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Change the Duration that Sites are Auto-Blocked
To see a list of IP addresses that are auto-blocked by the XTM device, select System Status >
Blocked Sites. You can use the Temporary Blocked Sites list together and your log messages to help
you decide which IP addresses to block permanently.
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to enable the auto-block feature.
Select Firewall > Default Packet Handling.
For more information, see About Unhandled Packets on page 514.
You can also use policy settings to auto-block sites that try to use a denied service. For more
information, see Block Sites Temporarily with Policy Settings on page 518.
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to set the duration that sites are blocked automatically.
1. Select Firewall > Blocked Sites.
2. Select the Auto-Blocked tab.
3. To change the amount of time a site is auto-blocked, in the Duration for Auto-Blocked sites
text box, type or select the number of minutes to block a site. The default is 20 minutes.
4. Click Save.
About Blocked Ports
You can block the ports that you know can be used to attack your network. This stops specified
external network services. Blocking ports can protect your most sensitive services.
When you block a port, you override all of the rules in your policy definitions. To block a port, see Block
a Port on page 521.
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Default Blocked Ports
In the default configuration, the XTM device blocks some destination ports. You usually do not need to
change this default configuration. TCP and UDP packets are blocked for these ports:
X Window System (ports 6000-6005)
The X Window System (or X-Windows) client connection is not encrypted and is dangerous to
use on the Internet.
X Font Server (port 7100)
Many versions of X Windows operate X Font Servers. The X Font Servers operate as the superuser on some hosts.
NFS (port 2049)
NFS (Network File System) is a frequently used TCP/IP service where many users use the
same files on a network. New versions have important authentication and security problems. To
supply NFS on the Internet can be very dangerous.
Note The portmapper frequently uses port 2049 for NFS. If you use NFS, make sure that
NFS uses port 2049 on all your systems.
rlogin, rsh, rcp (ports 513, 514)
These services give remote access to other computers. They are a security risk and many
attackers probe for these services.
RPC portmapper (port 111)
The RPC Services use port 111 to find which ports a given RPC server uses. The RPC
services are easy to attack through the Internet.
port 8000
Many vendors use this port, and many security problems are related to it.
port 1
The TCPmux service uses Port 1, but not frequently. You can block it to make it more difficult
for tools that examine ports.
port 0
This port is always blocked by the XTM device. You cannot allow traffic on port 0 through the
device.
Note If you must allow traffic through any of the default blocked ports to use the associated
software applications, we recommend that you allow the traffic only through a VPN
tunnel or use SSH (Secure Shell) with those ports.
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Block a Port
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to add a port number to the Blocked Ports list.
Note Be very careful if you block port numbers higher than 1023. Clients frequently use
these source port numbers.
To add a port number to the Blocked Ports list:
1. Select Firewall > Blocked Ports.
2. In the Port text box, type or select the port number to block.
3. Click Add.
The new port number appears in the Blocked Ports list.
Block IP Addresses That Try to Use Blocked Ports
You can configure the XTM device to automatically block an external computer that tries to use a
blocked port. In the Blocked Ports page, select the Automatically block sites that try to use
blocked ports check box.
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16
Logging and Notification
About Logging, Log Files, and Notification
An important feature of network security is to gather messages from your security systems, to
examine those records frequently, and to keep them in an archive for future reference. The
WatchGuard log message system creates log files with information about security related events that
you can review to monitor your network security and activity, identify security risks, and address them.
A log file is a list of events, along with information about those events. An event is one activity that
occurs on the XTM device. An example of an event is when the device denies a packet. Your XTM
device can also capture information about allowed events to give you a more complete picture of the
activity on your network.
The WatchGuard log message system has several components, which are described in the
subsequent sections.
About Log Messages
Your XTM device and WatchGuard servers can send log messages to your WatchGuard Log Server.
XTM devices can also send log messages to a syslog server or keep logs locally on the XTM device.
You can choose to send log messages to one or both of these locations.
Log Servers
There are two methods to save log files with Fireware XTM Web UI:
WatchGuard Log Server
This is a component of WatchGuard System Manager (WSM). If you have a Firebox X Core,
Firebox X Peak, or Firebox X Edge e-Series device with Fireware XTM, or a WatchGuard XTM
2 Series, 3 Series, 5 Series, 8 Series, or 1050 device, you can configure a primary Log Server to
collect log messages for your device.
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Syslog
This is a log interface developed for UNIX but also used on many other computer systems. If
you use a syslog host, you can set your XTM device to send log messages to your syslog
server. To find a syslog server compatible with your operating system, search the Internet for
"syslog daemon".
If your XTM device is configured to send log files to a WatchGuard Log Server and the connection fails,
the log files are not collected. You can configure your device to also send log messages to a syslog
host that is on the local trusted network to prevent the loss of log files.
For more information about sending log messages to a WatchGuard Log Server, see Send Log
Messages to a WatchGuard Log Server on page 525.
For more information about sending log messages to a syslog host, see Send Log Information to a
Syslog Host on page 527.
Logging and Notification in Applications and Servers
The Log Server can receive log messages from your XTM device or a WatchGuard server. After you
have configured your XTM device and Log Server, the device sends log messages to the Log Server.
You can enable logging in the various WSM applications and policies that you have defined for your
XTM device to control the level of logs that you see. If you choose to send log messages from another
WatchGuard server to the Log Server, you must first enable logging on that server.
System Status Syslog
The Fireware XTM Web UI Syslog page shows real-time log message information that includes data
on the most recent activity on the XTM device.
For more information, see Use Syslog to See Log Message Data on page 534.
Types of Log Messages
Your XTM device sends several types of log messages for events that occur on the device. Each
message includes the message type in the text of the message. The log messages types are:
n
n
n
n
n
Traffic
Alarm
Event
Debug
Statistic
Traffic Log Messages
The XTM device sends traffic log messages as it applies packet filter and proxy rules to traffic that
goes through the device.
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Alarm Log Messages
Alarm log messages are sent when an event occurs that triggers the XTM device to run a command.
When the alarm condition is matched, the device sends an Alarm log message to the Log Server or
syslog server, and then it does the specified action.
There are eight categories of Alarm log messages:
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
System
IPS
AV
Policy
Proxy
Counter
Denial of Service
Traffic
The XTM device does not send more than 10 alarms in 15 minutes for the same conditions.
Event Log Messages
The XTM device sends event log messages because of user activity. Actions that can cause the XTM
device to send an event log message include:
n
n
n
n
n
Device start up and shut down
Device and VPN authentication
Process start up and shut down
Problems with the device hardware components
Any task done by the device administrator
Debug Log Messages
Debug log messages include diagnostic information that you can use to help troubleshoot problems.
There are 27 different product components that can send debug log messages.
Statistic Log Messages
Statistic log messages include information about the performance of the XTM device. By default, the
device sends log messages about external interface performance and VPN bandwidth statistics to
your log file. You can use these logs to change your XTM device settings as necessary to improve
performance.
Send Log Messages to a WatchGuard Log Server
The WatchGuard Log Server is a component of WatchGuard System Manager. If you have
WatchGuard System Manager, you can configure a primary Log Server and backup Log Servers to
collect the log messages from your XTM devices. You designate one Log Server as the primary
(Priority 1) and other Log Servers as backup servers.
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If the XTM device cannot connect to the primary Log Server, it tries to connect to the next Log Server
in the priority list. If the XTM device examines each Log Server in the list and cannot connect, it tries to
connect to the first Log Server in the list again. When the primary Log Server is not available, and the
XTM device is connected to a backup Log Server, the XTM device tries to reconnect to the primary Log
Server every 6 minutes. This does not impact the XTM device connection to the backup Log Server
until the primary Log Server is available.
For more information about WatchGuard Log Servers and instructions to configure the Log Server to
accept log messages, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help or User Guide.
Add, Edit, or Change the Priority of Log Servers
To send log messages from your XTM device to a WatchGuard Log Server:
1. Select System > Logging.
The Logging page appears.
2. To send log messages to one or more WatchGuard Log Servers, select the Send log
messages to these WatchGuard Log Servers check box.
3. In the Log Server Address text box, type the IP address of the primary Log Server.
4. In the Encryption Key text box, type the Log Server encryption key.
5. In the Confirm text box, type the encryption key again.
6. Click Add.
The information for the Log Server appears in the Log Server list.
7. Repeat Steps 3–6 to add more Log Servers to the Server list.
8. To change the priority of a Log Server in the list, select an IP address in the list and click Up or
Down.
The priority number changes as the IP address moves up or down in the list.
9. Click Save.
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Send Log Information to a Syslog Host
Syslog is a log interface developed for UNIX but also used by a number of other computer systems.
You can configure the XTM device to send log information to a syslog server. An XTM device can send
log messages to a WatchGuard Log Server or a syslog server, or to both at the same time. Syslog log
messages are not encrypted. We recommend that you do not select a syslog host on the external
interface.
When you configure the settings for the syslog server, you specify the syslog facility to use for your log
messages. The syslog facility refers to one of the fields in the syslog packet and to the file where
syslog sends a log message. For high priority syslog messages, such as alarms, you can
selectLocal0. To assign priorities for other types of log messages (lower numbers have greater
priority), you can select Local1–Local7. For more information on logging facilities, see your syslog
documentation .
For information about the different types of messages, see Types of Log Messages on page 524.
To configure the XTM device to send log messages to a syslog host, you must have a syslog host
configured, operational, and ready to receive log messages.
1. Select System > Logging.
The Logging page appears.
2. Select the Syslog Server tab.
3. Select the Send log messages to the syslog server at this IP address check box.
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4. In the Send log messages to the syslog server at this IP address text box, type the IP
address of the syslog host.
5. In the Settings section, for each type of log message, select a syslog facility from the dropdown list.
If you select NONE, details for that message type are not sent to the syslog host.
6. Click Save.
Note Because syslog traffic is not encrypted, syslog messages that are sent through the
Internet decrease the security of the trusted network. It is more secure if you put your
syslog host on your trusted network.
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Configure Logging Settings
You can choose to save log messages on your XTM device and select the performance statistics to
include in your log files.
1. Select System > Logging.
The Logging page appears.
2. Select the Settings tab.
3. To store log messages on your XTM device, select the Send log message to Firebox
Internal storage check box.
4. To include performance statistics in your log files, select the Enter external interface and
VPN bandwidth statistics in log file check box.
5. To send a log message when the XTM device configuration file is changed, select the Send log
messages when the configuration for this Firebox is changed check box.
6. To send log messages about traffic sent by the XTM device, select the Enable logging for
traffic sent from this device check box.
7. To enable the XTM device to collect a packet trace for IKE packets, select the Enable IKE
packet tracing to Firebox internal storage check box
8. Click Save.
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Set the Diagnostic Log Level
From Fireware XTM Web UI you can select the level of diagnostic logging to write to your log file. We
do not recommend that you select the highest logging level unless a technical support representative
tells you to do so while you troubleshoot a problem. When you use the highest diagnostic log level, the
log file can fill up very quickly, and performance of the XTM device is often reduced.
1. Select System > Diagnostic Log.
The Diagnostic Log Level page appears.
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2. Use the scroll bar to find a category.
3. From the drop-down list for the category, select the level of detail to include in the log message
for the category:
n Off
n Error
n Warning
n Information
n Debug
When Off (the lowest level) is selected, diagnostic messages for that category are disabled.
4. Click Save.
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Configure Logging and Notification for a Policy
You can configure the logging and notification settings for each policy in your configuration. To see
information about a policy in your log files, you must enable logging for that policy.
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall Policies page appears.
2. Add a policy, or double-click a policy.
The Policy Configuration page appears.
3. Select the Properties tab.
4. In the Logging section, set the parameters to match your security policy.
For information about the settings in the Logging section, see Set Logging and Notification
Preferences on page 533.
5. Click Save.
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Set Logging and Notification Preferences
The settings for logging and notification are similar throughout the XTM device configuration. For each
place you define logging and notification preferences, most or all of the options described in this topic
are available.
Send Log message
When you select this check box, the XTM device sends a log message when an event occurs.
You can select to send log messages to a WatchGuard Log Server, Syslog server, or XTM
device internal storage. For detailed steps to select a destination for your log messages, see
Configure Logging Settings on page 529.
Send SNMP trap
When you select this check box, the XTM device sends an event notification to the SNMP
management system. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a set of tools used to
monitor and manage networks. A SNMP trap is an event notification the XTM device sends to
the SNMP management system when a specified condition occurs.
Note If you select the Send SNMP Trap check box and you have not yet configured SNMP,
a dialog box appears and asks you if you want to do this. Click Yes to go to the SNMP
Settings dialog box. You cannot send SNMP traps if you do not configure SNMP.
For more information about SNMP, see About SNMP on page 65.
To enable SNMP traps or inform requests, see Enable SNMP Management Stations and Traps
on page 67.
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Logging and Notification
Send Notification
When you select this check box, the XTM device sends a notification when the event you
specified occurs. For example, when a policy allows a packet.
You can select how the XTM device sends the notification:
n
n
Email — The Log Server sends an email message when the event occurs.
Pop-up Window — The Log Server opens a dialog box when the event occurs.
Set the:
Launch Interval — The minimum time (in minutes) between different notifications. This
parameter prevents more than one notification in a short time for the same event.
Repeat Count — This setting tracks how frequently an event occurs. When the number of
events reaches the selected value, a special repeat notification starts. This notification
creates a repeat log entry about that specified notification. Notification starts again after the
number of events you specify in this field occurs.
For example, set the Launch interval to 5 minutes and the Repeat count to 4. A port space
probe starts at 10:00 AM. and continues each minute. This starts the logging and notification
mechanisms.
These actions occur at these times:
n
n
n
n
n
10:00 — Initial port space probe (first event)
10:01 — First notification starts (one event)
10:06 — Second notification starts (reports five events)
10:11 — Third notification starts (reports five events)
10:16 — Fourth notification starts (reports five events)
The launch interval controls the time intervals between each event (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5). This was
set to 5 minutes. Multiply the repeat count by the launch interval. This is the time interval an
event must continue to in order to start the repeat notification.
Use Syslog to See Log Message Data
You can see real-time log message data on the Syslog page. You can choose to see only one type of
log message, or to filter all the log messages for specific details. You can also control the frequency at
which the log message data is refreshed.
When you use the Filter text box to specify which log messages you see, the filter search results
include all entries that are a partial match for the selected filter.
View, Sort, and Filter Log Message Data
You can choose to see only specific types of log messages and apply filters to refine the data you see
in Syslog log messages.
1. Select System Status > Syslog.
The Syslog page appears with a complete list of real-time log messages for all message types.
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2. To view only one type of log message, in the Chart Type drop-down list, select a message type:
n
n
n
n
n
Traffic
Alarm
Event
Debug
Statistic
3. To see all the log message types again, in the Chart Type drop-down list, select All.
4. To sort the log messages by a data type, click the column header for that data type. Different
data columns appear based on the log message type selected in the Chart Type drop-down list.
5. To see only log messages with a specific message detail, in the Filter text box, type the detail.
The Syslog display updates automatically to show only the log messages that include the detail you
specified. If no messages match the filter details you type, the Syslog display is blank.
For example, if you only want to see log messages from the user Admin, type userID=Admin .
The results include log messages with the user Admin, Admins, Administrator, and any other
user name that includes the characters Admin.
6. To remove a filter, clear all details from the Filter text box.
The Syslog display updates automatically.
7. To copy log message data from the list, select one or more items in the list and click Copy.
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Refresh Log Message Data
n
n
n
536
To change the frequency at which the log message data is refreshed in the display, set the
Refresh Interval.
To temporarily disable the display refresh option, click Pause.
To enable the display to refresh again, click Restart.
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Monitor Your Device
About the Dashboard and System Status Pages
To monitor the status and activity on your XTM device, you can use the Dashboard and System
Status pages.
The Dashboard
The Dashboard includes two pages: the System page and the Subscription Services page.
The System page includes a quick view of the status of your device. If you have read-write
configuration access, you can reboot your device from this page. The System page of the Dashboard
automatically appears when you connect to Fireware XTM Web UI.
To open the System page from another page in the Web UI:
Select Dashboard > System.
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The System page of the Dashboard shows:
n
n
n
n
Device information:
o Device name
o Fireware XTM OS software version
o Model number of the device
o Serial number of the device
o Uptime since last restart
Network interface information:
o Link status
o Alias — the name of the interface
o IP — the IP address assigned to the interface
o Gateway — the Gateway for the interface
Memory and CPU usage statistics
License information
To see statistics for a longer period of time, or to see more detail about statistics on the Dashboard:
At the bottom of a Dashboard item, click Zoom.
The System Status page appears, with more information and options.
You can also see information about your subscription services.
Select Dashboard > Subscription Services.
The Subscription Services page appears.
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The Subscription Services page shows:
n
n
n
n
n
n
Scanned, infected, and skipped traffic that is monitored by Gateway AntiVirus
Scanned, detected, and prevented traffic that is monitored by Intrusion Prevention Service
Signature version and update information for Gateway AntiVirus and Intrusion Prevention
Service
Good, bad and inconclusive reputation score statistics for URLs checked by Reputation
Enabled Defense
HTTP requests and traffic that is denied by WebBlocker
Clean, confirmed, bulk, and suspect mail that is identified by spamBlocker
For more information about manual signature updates, see Subscription Services Status and Manual
Signatures Updates on page 91.
System Status Pages
The System Status pages include a list of monitoring categories. On these pages, you can monitor all
the components of your XTM device.
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The System Status pages are set to refresh automatically every 30 seconds.
To change these settings:
1. To change the refresh interval, click and drag the triangle on the Refresh Interval slider bar.
2. To temporarily stop the refreshes, click Pause.
3. To force an immediate refresh, click Pause and then click Restart.
The numbers on the x-axis of the charts indicate the number of minutes ago. The statistical charts on
the Dashboard show data for the past 20 minutes.
Some System Status pages have a Copy function.
To copy information from a list:
1. Select one or more list items.
2. Click Copy.
3. Paste the data in another application.
ARP Table
To see the ARP table for the XTM device:
Select System Status > ARP Table.
The ARP Table page includes devices that have responded to an ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
request from the XTM device:
IP Address
The IP address of the computer that responds to the ARP request.
Hardware Type
The type of Ethernet connection that the IP address uses to connect.
Flags
If the hardware address of the IP resolves, it is marked as valid. If it does not, it is marked as
invalid.
Note A valid hardware address can briefly appear as invalid while the XTM device waits for
a response for the ARP request.
HW Address
The MAC address of the network interface card that is associated with the IP address.
Device
The interface on the XTM device where the hardware address for that IP address was found.
The Linux kernel name for the interface is shown in parentheses.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
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Authentication List
The Authentication List page includes information about every user who is currently authenticated to
the XTM device.
To see the list of authenticated users for your XTM device:
1. Select System Status > Authentication List.
The Authentication List page appears.
Summary
The Summary section at the top of the page includes the number of users authenticated
with each authentication type and the total number of authenticated users.
Information about each authenticated user appears in these columns:
User
The name of the authenticated user.
Type
The type of user who authenticated: Firewall or Mobile User.
Auth Domain
The authentication server that authenticated the user.
Start Time
The amount of time since the user authenticated.
Last Activity
The amount of time since the last user activity.
IP Address
The internal IP address being used by the user - for mobile users, this IP address is the IP
address assigned to them by the XTM device.
From Address
The IP address on the computer the user authenticates from. For Mobile Users, this IP
address is the IP address on the computer they used to connect to the XTM device. For
Firewall users, the IP Address and From Address are the same.
2. To sort the Authenticated Users list, click a column header.
3. To end a user session, select the user name and select Log Off Users.
For more information about authentication, see About User Authentication.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
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Server Connection
To make sure that your XTM device can connect to your Active Directory or LDAP server and
successfully authenticate your users, you can test the connection to your authentication server from
Fireware XTM Web UI. This is helpful both when you set up a new XTM device and when you
reconfigure your current device or authentication server. You can also use this feature to determine the
authentication status of a particular user in your authentication server database, and to get
authentication group information for that user.
To test the connection to your authentication server, you must only select the authentication server to
test. To find the authentication status for a user and get user group information for that user, you must
also select the authentication server, but the other information you must provide depends on how you
have configured your authentication server. If you specified the Searching User name and password in
your authentication server settings, you can provide less information on the Server Connection page
and still get both the user authentication status and user group information in the test results.
For more information about how to specify the Searching User credentials for your Active Directory or
LDAP server, see Configure Active Directory Authentication on page 326 and Configure LDAP
Authentication on page 322.
When you specify the Searching User credentials for your authentication server, you can choose
whether to specify only the username or to also specify the password. If you do not specify the
password for the Searching User, the Server Connection page Results section only includes the
authentication status and group information if you specify both the correct User Name and the correct
Password in the Authentication Server Connection section.
This table shows the results you see based on the Searching User credentials you set and the user
name and password details that you provide.
Searching
User
Credentials
User
Name
Password Result
User name &
password
None
None
Authentication status not verified, group information not
retrieved
Yes
None
Authentication status not verified, group information
retrieved
Yes
Incorrect
Authentication status verified, group information retrieved
Yes
Yes
Authentication status verified, group information retrieved
None
None
Authentication status not verified, group information not
retrieved
Yes
None
Authentication status not verified, group information not
retrieved
Yes
Incorrect
Authentication status not verified, group information not
retrieved
Yes
Yes
Authentication status verified, group information retrieved
None
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Test the Server Connection
You can test the connection to your authentication server from the Authentication Servers page for
your Active Directory or LDAP server, or you can navigate directly to the Server Connection page in
Fireware XTM Web UI. When you test the connection, the results you receive depend on the
parameters you specified. This can include the connection status of the server, the authentication
status of the user you specified, and any group membership information for that user.
For instructions to navigate to the Server Connection page from the Authentication Servers page,
see the appropriate topic for your server:
n
n
Configure Active Directory Authentication on page 326
Configure LDAP Authentication on page 322
To navigate directly to the Server Connection page, from Fireware XTM Web UI:
1. Select System Status > Server Connection.
The Authentication Server Connection page appears.
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2. From the Authentication Server drop-down list, select the server to test.
3. In the User Name text box, type the name of a user account in your authentication server
database.
4. In the Password text box, type the password of the user you specified.
5. Click Test Connection.
The XTM device contacts the server you selected and returns results of the connection test in the
Results list.
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Read the Server Connection Results
The details that appear in the Results list depend on the connection status of your server, the
authentication status of the user account you specified, and the user credentials you specified.
Results include:
Detail
Result
Description
Connect to
server
OK (Connected to <server
address>)
The connection test was successful and the device is
connected to the specified server.
Failed (Failed to connect to The connection test was not successful and the device
<server address>)
is not connected to the specified server.
Log in (bind)
OK (<[email protected]
domain> authenticated)
The specified user was found in the server database and
is currently authenticated to the specified server.
Failed (User
<[email protected] domain>
not authenticated [<details
of reason authentication
failed>])
The specified user was not found in the server database
and is not currently authenticated to the specified server.
Details of the reason for the failure are also included.
Failed (Unknown)
If the device could not connect the specified server and
determine whether the specified user is authenticated,
the connection test is not successful, and the Log in
(bind) result is Failed (Unknown).
Get group
List of groups
membership
Empty
If the Log in (bind) result is OK, the specified user is in
the server database, and the Results list includes all the
groups of which the specified user is a member.
If the Log in (bind) result is Failed or Unknown, the
specified user was not found in the server database and
no group membership details are sent to the device.
Bandwidth Meter
This Bandwidth Meter page shows the real-time throughput statistics for all the XTM device
interfaces in kilobytes. The Y axis (vertical) shows the cumulative throughput value of kilobytes sent
and received over an interface since the last time the device was powered on or rebooted. The X axis
(horizontal) shows the time interval included in the graph.
To monitor the bandwidth usage for XTM device interfaces:
1. Select System Status > Bandwidth Meter.
The Bandwidth Meter page appears.
2. From the Select Period drop-down list, select the time interval to show in the graph.
The data in the graph is updated to include only the selected amount of time, which is calculated
from the moment you select the time interval.
3. To see the value for each data point, move your mouse over the lines in the graph.
The data in kilobytes appears for the selected time interval.
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For example, select to include data in the graph for the last 20 minutes. Then look at the data from the
external interface sent at the interval :04. The data at that interval shows what the cumulative
throughput value was for the external interface four minutes ago. Because the data value is reset when
a device is rebooted or powered on, and the data value increases with every connection through the
interface, shorter time intervals have a higher data value.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
Blocked Sites
To see a list of IP addresses currently blocked by the XTM device:
Select System Status > Blocked Sites.
The Blocked Sites page appears.
The Blocked Sites page includes a list of IP addresses currently on the Blocked Sites list, the reason
they were added to the list, and the expiration time (when the site is removed from the Blocked Sites list).
For each blocked site, the Blocked IP List list includes this information:
IP
The IP address of the blocked site.
Source
The source of the blocked site. Sites added on the System Status > Blocked Sites page are
shown as admin, while sites added from the Firewall > Blocked Sites page are shown as
configuration.
Reason
The reason the site was blocked.
Timeout
The total amount of time the site is blocked.
Expiration
The amount of time that remains until the timeout period expires.
Blocked sites with a Reason of Static Blocked IP, and a Timeout and Expiration of Never Expire
are permanently blocked. You cannot delete or edit a permanently blocked site from this page.
To add or remove a permanently blocked site, select Firewall > Blocked Sites. For more information,
see Block a Site Permanently on page 517.
Add or Edit Temporary Blocked Sites
On the Blocked Sites page, you can also add and remove temporarily blocked sites in the Blocked
Sites list, and change the expiration of those sites.
To add a temporary blocked site to the Blocked Sites list:
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1. Click Add.
The Add Temporary Blocked Site dialog box appears.
2. Type the IP Address of the site you want to block.
3. In the Expire After text box and drop-down list, specify how long this site is to stay on the
Blocked Sites list.
4. Click OK.
To change the expiration for a temporarily blocked site:
1. From the Blocked IP List list, select the site.
2. Click Change Expiration.
The Edit Temporary Blocked Site dialog box appears.
3. In the Expire After text box and drop-down list, specify how long this site is to stay on the
Blocked Sites list.
4. Click OK.
To remove a temporarily blocked site from the Blocked Sites list:
1. From the Blocked IP List list, select the site.
2. Click Delete.
The blocked site is removed from the list.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
Checksum
To see the checksum of the OS (operating system) files currently installed on the XTM device:
Select System Status > Checksum.
The XTM device calculates the checksum for the installed OS. It may take a few minutes for
the XTM device to complete the checksum calculation. The checksum appears, with the date
and time that the checksum calculation was completed.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
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Connections
To monitor the connections to the XTM device:
Select System Status > Connections.
The Connections page includes the number of connections that go through the XTM device. The
current number of connections for each protocol appears in the Connections column.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
Components List
To view a list of the software components installed on the XTM device:
Select System Status > Components List.
The Components page includes a list of the software installed on the XTM device.
The software list includes these attributes:
n
n
n
n
Name
Version
Build
Date
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
CPU Usage
To monitor CPU usage on the XTM device:
1. SelectSystem Status > CPU Usage.
TheCPU Usagepagecontains graphs thatshow CPU usageandaverageloadoveraperiodoftime.
2. To see the value for each data point, move your mouse over the lines in the graph.
3. To select a time period, click the CPU Usage drop-down list.
n
n
The x-axis indicates the number of minutes ago.
The y-axis scale is the percentage of CPU capacity used.
A smaller version of this graph appears on the Dashboard page.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
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DHCP Leases
To see a list of the DHCP leases for the XTM device:
Select System Status > DHCP Leases.
The DHCP Leases page appears with information about the DHCP server, the leases used by the
XTM device, and the DHCP reservations.
Interface
The XTM device interface that the client is connected to.
IP Address
The IP address for the lease.
Host
The host name. If there is not an available host name, this item is empty.
MAC Address
The MAC address associated with the lease.
Start Time
The time that the client requested the lease.
End Time
The time that the lease expires.
Hardware Type
The type of hardware.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
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Diagnostics
To find diagnostic information for your XTM device, you can ping an IP address or host, trace the route
to an IP address or host, lookup DNS information for host, or see information about the packets
transmitted across your network (TCP dump).
1. Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI for your device.
2. Select System Status > Diagnostics.
The Diagnostics page appears with the Network tab selected.
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Run a Basic Diagnostics Command
1. From the Task drop-down list, select a command:
n Ping
n traceroute
n DNS lookup
n tcpdump
If you select Ping, traceroute, or DNS lookup, the Address text box appears.
If you select TCP Dump, the Interface text box appears.
2. If you select Ping, traceroute, or DNS lookup, in the Address text box, type an IP address or
host name.
If you select tcpdump, from the Interface drop-down list, select an interface.
3. Click Run Task.
The output of the command appears in the Results window and the Stop Task button appears.
4. To stop the diagnostic task, click Stop Task.
Use Command Arguments
1. From the Task drop-down list, select a command:
n Ping
n traceroute
n DNS lookup
n tcpdump
2. Select the Advanced Options check box.
The Arguments text box is enabled and the Address or Interface text box is disabled.
3. In the Arguments text box , type the command arguments.
To see the available arguments for a command, leave the Arguments text box blank.
The -w argument is not available when you select the tcpdump command.
4. Click Run Task.
The output of the command appears in the Results window and the Stop Task button appears.
5. To stop the diagnostic task, click Stop Task.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
Run a VPN Diagnostic Report
To see configuration and status information for a VPN gateway and the associated Branch Office
VPN tunnels, you can run a VPN Diagnostic Report. When you run a report, the XTM device
temporarily increases the log level for the selected gateway.
On the Diagnostic Tasks page:
1. Select the VPN tab.
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2. From the Gateway drop-down list, select a VPN gateway.
3. In the Duration text box, type or select the number of seconds to run the VPN Diagnostic
Report.
4. Click Start Report.
The diagnostic task starts.
The XTM device collects log messages for the duration you specified. When the task is completed,
details about the gateway and tunnel configuration and information about the status of any active
tunnels for the selected gateway appear in the Results section. The log level is then returned to the
previously set level.
For more information about diagnostic tasks for VPNs, see Use the VPN Diagnostic Report on page 660.
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Dynamic DNS
To view the dynamic DNS status information:
Select System Status > Dynamic DNS.
The Dynamic DNS page contains the Dynamic DNS status information, which includes these details:
Name
The interface name.
User
The Dynamic DNS account user name.
Domain
The domain for which Dynamic DNS is being provided.
System
The Dynamic DNS service type.
Address
The IP address associated with the domain.
IP
The current IP address of the interface.
Last
The last time the DNS was updated.
Next Date
The next time the DNS is scheduled to be updated.
State
The state of Dynamic DNS.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
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Feature Key
A feature key is a license that enables you to use a set of features on your XTM device. You increase
the functionality of your device when you purchase an option or upgrade and get a new feature key.
When You Purchase a New Feature
When you purchase a new feature for your XTM device, you must:
n
n
Get a Feature Key for Your XTM Device
Add a Feature Key to Your XTM Device
See Features Available with the Current Feature Key
Your XTM device always has one currently active feature key. You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to see
the features available with this feature key. You can also review the details of your current feature key.
The available details include:
n
n
n
n
Serial number of the XTM device to which this feature key applies
XTM device ID and name
Device model and version number
Available features
To see information about the licensed features for your XTM device:
1. Select System Status > Feature Key.
The Feature Key page appears, with basic information about the features enabled by the feature key
for this device.
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2. To see information for each feature, use the scroll bar on the Feature Key tab.
This information appears:
n
n
n
n
Feature — The name of the licensed feature.
Value — The feature the license enables. For example, a capacity or number of users.
Expiration — When the license expires.
Time left — The number of days until the license expires.
3. To see the details of the feature key, select the Feature Key Text tab.
The licensed features for your device appear.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
Interfaces
To see information about the XTM device network interfaces:
Select System Status > Interfaces.
The Interfaces page appears with information about each interface.
Link Status
If the interface is active, Up appears. If it is not active, Down appears.
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Alias
The interface name.
Enabled
Includes whether each interface is enabled or disabled.
Gateway
The gateway defined for each interface.
IPv4 Address
The IPv4 address configured for each interface.
MAC Address
The MAC Address for each interface,
Name
The interface number.
Netmask
Network mask for each interface.
Zone
The trust zone for each interface.
IPv6
The IPv6 address configured for the selected interface. When you select an interface, if
IPv6 is configured for that interface, information about the IPv6 configuration for that
interface appears in this text box.
Release or Renew a DHCP Lease
For any external interface with DHCP enabled, you can release or renew the DHCP lease on an IP
address. This includes external VLAN interfaces.
1. Select System Status > Interfaces.
The Interfaces page appears.
2. Select an external interface with DHCP enabled.
The DHCP Release and DHCP Renew buttons are enabled at the bottom of the page.
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3. To release the DHCP lease for the selected interface, click DHCP Release.
4. To refresh the DHCP lease for the selected interface, click DHCP Renew.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
LiveSecurity
Fireware XTM Web UI includes a page with the most recent alert notifications sent from the
WatchGuard LiveSecurity Service. LiveSecurity alerts give you information that applies to the
appliance, such as notification about available software updates. Alert notifications are sent no more
than one time each day.
To see alerts from WatchGuard:
1. Select System Status > LiveSecurity.
2. Click Refresh to check for new alerts.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
Memory
To monitor memory usage on the XTM device:
1. Select System Status > Memory.
A graph appears that shows the usage of Linux kernel memory over a period of time.
2. To see the value for each data point, move your mouse over the lines in the graph.
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3. To select the time period for the graph, click the Memory drop-down list.
n The x-axis indicates the number of minutes ago.
n The y-axis scale is the amount of memory used, in megabytes.
You can also see a smaller version of this graph on the Dashboard page.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
Processes
To see a list of processes that run on the XTM device:
1. Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI for your device.
2. Select System Status > Processes.
The Processes page appears.
The Processes page includes information about all processes that run on the XTM device.
PID
The Process ID is a unique number that shows when the process started,
Name
The name of the process.
State
The state of the process:
R — Running
S — Sleeping
D,Z — Inactive
RSS
The total number of kilobytes of physical memory the process uses.
Share
The total number of kilobytes of shared memory the process uses.
Time
The time that the process has used after the last time the device was started.
CPU
The percentage of CPU time the process has used after the last device reboot.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
Routes
To see the routes table for the XTM device:
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Select System Status > Routes.
The routes table includes this information about each route:
Destination
The network that the route was created for.
Interface
The interface associated with the route.
Gateway
The gateway that the network uses.
Flag
The flags set for each route.
Metric
The metric set for this route in the routing table.
Mask
The network mask for the route.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
Syslog
You can use syslog to see the log data in the XTM device log file.
Select System Status > Syslog.
The Syslog page appears with the most recent entries in the XTM device log file.
For more information about how to use this page, see Use Syslog to See Log Message Data on page 534.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
Traffic Management
To see traffic management statistics:
Select System Status > Traffic Management.
The statistics associated with each traffic management action you have configured appear.
The Traffic Management page includes these statistics:
Action
The name of the traffic management action.
Interface
The XTM device interface to which the traffic action applies.
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Bytes
The total number of bytes.
Bytes/second
The current bits per second (rate estimator).
Packets
The total number of packets.
Packets/second
The current packets per second (rate estimator).
For information about Traffic Management, see About Traffic Management and QoS on page 495.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
VPN Statistics
To see statistics about VPN tunnels:
1. Select System Status > VPN Statistics.
The traffic statistics for Branch Office VPN and Mobile VPN with IPSec tunnels appear.
For each VPN tunnel, this page includes:
Name
The tunnel name.
Local
The IP address at the local end of the tunnel.
Remote
The IP address at the remote end of the tunnel.
Gateway
The gateway endpoints used by this tunnel.
Packets In
The number of packets received through the tunnel.
Bytes In
The number of bytes received through the tunnel.
Packets Out
The number of packets sent out through the tunnel.
Bytes Out
The number of bytes sent out through the tunnel.
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Rekeys
The number of rekeys for the tunnel.
2. To force a BOVPN tunnel to rekey, selected a BOVPN tunnel and click Rekey selected
BOVPN tunnel.
For more information, see Rekey BOVPN Tunnels on page 659.
3. To see additional information for use when you troubleshoot, click Debug.
We recommend you use this feature when you troubleshoot a VPN problem with a technical
support representative.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
Wireless Statistics
To see statistics about your wireless network:
Select System Status > Wireless Statistics.
A summary of wireless configuration settings and some statistics about wireless traffic appears.
This summary includes:
n
n
n
n
n
Wireless configuration information
Interface statistics
Keys
Bit rates
Frequencies
You can also update the wireless country information for this device from this page. The available
options for the wireless radio settings are based on the regulatory requirements of the country in which
the device detects that it is located.
To update the wireless country information:
Click Update Country Info.
The 2 Series device contacts a WatchGuard server to determine the current operating region.
For more information about radio settings on the WatchGuard XTM wireless device, see About
Wireless Radio Settings.
For more information about the System Status pages, see About the Dashboard and System Status
Pages on page 537.
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Wireless Hotspot Connections
When you enable the wireless hotspot feature for your WatchGuard XTM wireless device, you can see
information about the number of wireless clients that are connected. You can also disconnect wireless
clients.
For more information about how to enable the wireless hotspot feature, see Enable a Wireless Hotspot.
To see the wireless hotspot connections:
1. Connect to Fireware XTM Web UI for your wireless device.
2. Select System Status > Wireless Hotspot.
The IP address and MAC address for each connected wireless client appears.
For more information about how to manage wireless hotspot connections, see See Wireless Hotspot
Connections.
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Certificates
About Certificates
Certificates match the identity of a person or organization with a method for others to verify that identity
and secure communications. They use an encryption method called a key pair, or two mathematically
related numbers called the private key and the public key. A certificate includes both a statement of
identity and a public key, and is signed by a private key.
The private key used to sign a certificate can be from the same key pair used to generate the
certificate, or from a different key pair. If the private key is from the same key pair used to create the
certificate, the result is called a self-signed certificate. If the private key is from a different key pair, the
result is a regular certificate. Certificates with private keys that can be used to sign other certificates
are called CA (Certificate Authority) Certificates. A certificate authority is an organization or application
that signs and revokes certificates.
If your organization has a PKI (public key infrastructure) set up, you can sign certificates as a CA
yourself. Most applications and devices automatically accept certificates from prominent, trusted CAs.
Certificates that are not signed by prominent CAs, such as self-signed certificate are not automatically
accepted by many servers or programs, and do not operate correctly with some Fireware XTM
features.
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Use Multiple Certificates to Establish Trust
Several certificates can be used together to create a chain of trust. For example, the CA certificate at
the start of the chain is from a prominent CA, and is used to sign another CA certificate for a smaller
CA. That smaller CA can then sign another CA certificate used by your organization. Finally, your
organization can use this CA certificate to sign another certificate for use with the HTTPS-proxy and
SMTP-proxy content inspection feature. However, to use that final certificate at the end of the chain of
trust, you must first import all of the certificates in the chain of trust in this order:
1. CA certificate from the prominent CA (as type Other) CA certificate from the smaller CA (as
type Other)
2. CA certificate from the organization (as type Other)
3. Certificate used to re-encrypt proxy content after inspection (as type Proxy Authority")
It could also be necessary to import all of these certificates on each client device so that the last
certificate is also trusted by users.
For more information, see Manage XTM Device Certificates.
How the XTM device Uses Certificates
Your XTM device can use certificates for several purposes:
n
n
n
n
n
n
Management session data is secured with a certificate.
BOVPN or Mobile VPN with IPSec tunnels can use certificates for authentication.
When content inspection is enabled, the proxy uses a certificate to re-encrypt incoming traffic
after it is decrypted for inspection.
You can use a certificate with the proxy to protect a web server on your network.
When a user authenticates with the XTM device for any purpose, such as a WebBlocker
override, the connection is secured with a certificate.
When RADIUS or Firebox authentication is configured to use WPA Enterprise or WPA2
Enterprise authentication methods.
By default, your XTM device creates self-signed certificates to secure management session data and
authentication attempts for Fireware XTM Web UI and for proxy content inspection. To make sure the
certificate used for content inspection is unique, its name includes the serial number of your device and
the time at which the certificate was created. Because these certificates are not signed by a trusted
CA, users on your network see warnings in their web browsers.
You have three options to remove this warning:
1. You can import certificates that are signed by a CA your organization trusts, such as a PKI you
have already set up for your organization, for use with these features. We recommend that you
use this option if possible.
2. You can create a custom, self-signed certificate that matches the name and location of your
organization.
3. You can use the default, self-signed certificate.
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For the second and third options, you can ask network clients to accept these self-signed certificates
manually when they connect to the XTM device. Or, you can export the certificates and distribute them
with network management tools. You must have WatchGuard System Manager installed to export
certificates.
Certificate Lifetimes and CRLs
Each certificate has a set lifetime when it is created. When the certificate reaches the end of that set
lifetime, the certificate expires and can no longer be used automatically. You can also remove
certificates manually with Firebox System Manager (FSM).
Sometimes, certificates are revoked, or disabled before their lifetime expiration, by the CA. Your XTM
device keeps a current list of these revoked certificates, called the Certificate Revocation List (CRL),
to verify that certificates used for VPN authentication are valid. If you have WatchGuard System
Manager installed, this list can be updated manually with Firebox System Manager (FSM), or
automatically with information from a certificate. Each certificate includes a unique number used to
identify the certificate. If the unique number on a Web Server, BOVPN, or Mobile VPN with IPSec
certificate matches an identifier from its associated CRL, the XTM device disables the certificate.
When content inspection is enabled on a proxy, the XTM device can check the OCSP (Online
Certificate Status Protocol) responder associated with the certificates used to sign the content. The
OCSP responder sends the revocation status of the certificate. The XTM device accepts the
OCSP response if the response is signed by a certificate the XTM device trusts. If the OCSP response
is not signed by a certificate the XTM device trusts, or if the OCSP responder does not send a
response, then you can configure the XTM device to accept or reject the original certificate.
For more information about OCSP options, see HTTPS-Proxy: Content Inspection on page 443.
Certificate Authorities and Signing Requests
To create a self-signed certificate, you put part of a cryptographic key pair in a certificate signing
request (CSR) and send the request to a CA. It is important that you use a new key pair for each CSR
you create. The CA issues a certificate after they receive the CSR and verify your identity. If you have
FSM or Management Server software installed, you can use these programs to create a CSR for your
XTM device. You can also use other tools, such as OpenSSL or the Microsoft CA Server that comes
with most Windows Server operating systems.
If you want to create a certificate for use with the HTTPS-proxy and SMTP-proxy content inspection
feature, it must be a CA certificate that can re-sign other certificates. If you create a CSR with Firebox
System Manager and have it signed by a prominent CA, it can be used as a CA certificate.
If you do not have a PKI set up in your organization, we recommend that you choose a prominent CA to
sign the CSRs you use, except for the proxy CA certificate. If a prominent CA signs your certificates,
your certificates are automatically trusted by most users. WatchGuard has tested certificates signed
by VeriSign, Microsoft CA Server, Entrust, and RSA KEON. You can also import additional certificates
so that your XTM device trusts other CAs.
For a complete list of automatically trusted CAs, see Certificate Authorities Trusted by the XTM
Device on page 566.
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Certificate Authorities Trusted by the XTM Device
By default, your XTM device trusts most of the same certificate authorities (CAs) as modern web
browsers. We recommend that you import certificates signed by a CA on this list for the HTTPS proxy
or Fireware XTM Web UI, so that users do not see certificate warnings in their web browser when they
use those features. However, you can also import certificates from other CAs so that your certificates
are trusted.
If you have installed WatchGuard System Manager, a copy of each certificate is stored on your hard
drive at:
n
n
Windows XP — C:\Documents and Settings\WatchGuard\wgauth\certs\README
Windows 7 — C:\ProgramData\WatchGuard\wgca\certs
Certificate Authority List
C=FR, O=Certplus, CN=Class 2 Primary CA
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 1 Public Primary Certification Authority - G2,
OU=(c) 1998 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only, OU=VeriSign Trust
Network
O=eSign Australia, OU=Public Secure Services, CN=Primary Utility Root CA
C=ES, ST=Barcelona, L=Barcelona (see current address at
https://www.anf.es/address/), O=ANF Autoridad de Certificaci\xC3\xB3n, OU=ANF
Clase 1 CA/serialNumber=G63287510, CN=ANF Server CA
C=CH, O=SwissSign AG, CN=SwissSign Gold Root CA - G3
C=ZA, ST=Western Cape, L=Cape Town, O=Thawte Consulting, OU=Certification
Services Division, CN=Thawte Personal Premium CA/[email protected]
C=FR, O=Dhimyotis, CN=Certigna
C=DE, O=D-Trust GmbH, CN=D-TRUST Root Class 2 CA 2007
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=VeriSign Trust Network, OU=(c) 2006 VeriSign, Inc. For authorized use only, CN=VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Certification
Authority - G5
O=Digital Signature Trust Co., CN=DST Root CA X3
C=AT, O=A-Trust Ges. f. Sicherheitssysteme im elektr. Datenverkehr GmbH, OU=ATrust-Qual-03, CN=A-Trust-Qual-03
O=Cybertrust, Inc, CN=Cybertrust Global Root
C=US, O=AffirmTrust, CN=AffirmTrust Premium
C=FR, O=Certplus, CN=Class 1 Primary CA
C=US, O=thawte, Inc., OU=Certification Services Division, OU=(c) 2006 thawte,
Inc. - For authorized use only, CN=thawte Primary Root CA
C=GB, O=Trustis Limited, OU=Trustis EVS Root CA
C=CN, O=UniTrust, CN=UCA Global Root
C=IE, O=Baltimore, OU=CyberTrust, CN=Baltimore CyberTrust Root
C=IL, O=StartCom Ltd., OU=Secure Digital Certificate Signing, CN=StartCom
Certification Authority
C=AT, O=A-Trust, OU=A-Trust-nQual-01, CN=A-Trust-nQual-01
C=GB, ST=Greater Manchester, L=Salford, O=COMODO CA Limited, CN=COMODO
Certification Authority
C=DE, O=TC TrustCenter GmbH, OU=TC TrustCenter Class 4 CA, CN=TC TrustCenter
Class 4 CA II
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 2 Public Primary Certification Authority - G2,
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OU=(c) 1998 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only, OU=VeriSign Trust Network
C=US, OU=www.xrampsecurity.com, O=XRamp Security Services Inc, CN=XRamp Global
Certification Authority
C=FR, O=KEYNECTIS, OU=ROOT, CN=KEYNECTIS ROOT CA
C=NL, O=Staat der Nederlanden, CN=Staat der Nederlanden Root CA - G2
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority - G2,
OU=(c) 1998 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only, OU=VeriSign Trust
Network
C=LT, O=Skaitmeninio sertifikavimo centras, OU=Certification Authority, CN=SSC
Root CA B
CN=T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Elektronik Sertifika Hizmet
Sa\xC4\x9Flay\xC4\xB1c\xC4\xB1s\xC4\xB1, C=TR, L=Ankara, O=T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST
Bilgi \xC4\xB0leti\xC5\x9Fim ve Bili\xC5\x9Fim G\xC3\xBCvenli\xC4\x9Fi
Hizmetleri A.\xC5\x9E. (c)Aral\xC4\xB1k 2007
C=SE, O=AddTrust AB, OU=AddTrust External TTP Network, CN=AddTrust External CA Root
x500UniqueIdentifier=SEC-830101-9V9, L=Alvaro Obregon, ST=Distrito Federal,
C=MX/postalCode=01030/street=Insurgentes Sur 1940, CN=Autoridad Certificadora
Raiz de la Secretaria de Economia, OU=Direccion General de Normatividad
Mercantil, O=Secretaria de Economia/[email protected]
C=GB, ST=Greater Manchester, L=Salford, O=COMODO CA Limited, CN=COMODO
Certification Authority
C=DE, O=TC TrustCenter GmbH, OU=TC TrustCenter Class 3 CA, CN=TC TrustCenter
Class 3 CA II
C=US, O=VISA, OU=Visa International Service Association, CN=Visa Information
Delivery Root CA
DC=com, DC=microsoft, CN=Microsoft Root Certificate Authority
C=ES, O=Consejo General de la Abogacia NIF:Q-2863006I, CN=Autoridad de
Certificacion de la Abogacia
C=IL, O=StartCom Ltd., OU=Secure Digital Certificate Signing, CN=StartCom
Certification Authority
C=ES, O=IZENPE S.A. - CIF A-01337260-RMerc.Vitoria-Gasteiz T1055 F62 S8, L=Avda
del Mediterraneo Etorbidea 3 - 01010 Vitoria-Gasteiz,
CN=Izenpe.com/[email protected]
C=US, O=Symantec Corporation, CN=Symantec Root 2005 CA
CN=Microsoft Internet Authority, DC=com, DC=microsoft, DC=corp,DC=redmond,
CN=Microsoft Secure Server Authority
C=LT, O=Skaitmeninio sertifikavimo centras, OU=Certification Authority, CN=SSC
Root CA C
CN=ComSign CA, O=ComSign, C=IL
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 2 Public Primary Certification Authority
C=US, O=DigiCert Inc, OU=www.digicert.com, CN=DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA
C=FR, O=Certinomis, OU=0002 433998903, CN=Certinomis - Autorit\xC3\xA9 Racine
C=HU, L=Budapest, O=NetLock Halozatbiztonsagi Kft., OU=Tanusitvanykiadok,
CN=NetLock Uzleti (Class B) Tanusitvanykiado
C=DK, O=TDC Internet, OU=TDC Internet Root CA
C=CH, O=SwissSign AG, CN=SwissSign Platinum Root CA - G3
C=US, O=thawte, Inc., OU=Certification Services Division, OU=(c) 2006 thawte,
Inc. - For authorized use only, CN=thawte Primary Root CA
C=US, O=Wells Fargo, OU=Wells Fargo Certification Authority, CN=Wells Fargo Root
Certificate Authority
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=VeriSign Trust Network, OU=(c) 2006 VeriSign, Inc. For authorized use only, CN=VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Certification
Authority - G5
C=LV, OU=Sertifikacijas pakalpojumu dala, CN=E-ME SSI (RCA)
User Guide
567
Certificates
C=US, O=Entrust.net, OU=www.entrust.net/CPS incorp. by ref. (limits liab.), OU=
(c) 1999 Entrust.net Limited, CN=Entrust.net Secure Server Certification
Authority
C=CH, O=SwissSign AG, CN=SwissSign Silver CA - G2
O=EUnet International, CN=EUnet International Root CA
C=ZA, ST=Western Cape, L=Cape Town, O=Thawte Consulting, OU=Certification
Services Division, CN=Thawte Personal Basic CA/[email protected]
C=GB, ST=Greater Manchester, L=Salford, O=COMODO CA Limited, CN=COMODO
Certification Authority
C=JP, O=Japan Certification Services, Inc., CN=SecureSign RootCA11
DC=com, DC=microsoft, CN=Microsoft Root Certificate Authority, C=US,
ST=Washington, L=Redmond, O=Microsoft Corporation, CN=Microsoft Product
Secure Communications PCA
CN=ComSign Secured CA, O=ComSign, C=IL
C=FR, ST=France, L=Paris, O=PM/SGDN, OU=DCSSI,
CN=IGC/A/[email protected]
L=ValiCert Validation Network, O=ValiCert, Inc., OU=ValiCert Class 2 Policy
Validation Authority,
CN=http://www.valicert.com//[email protected]
DC=com, DC=microsoft, CN=Microsoft Root Certificate Authority
C=HK, O=Hongkong Post, CN=Hongkong Post Root CA 1
C=NL, O=DigiNotar, CN=DigiNotar Root CA G2/[email protected]
C=BR, O=Serasa S.A., OU=Serasa CA III, CN=Serasa Certificate Authority III
C=US, ST=Washington, L=Redmond, O=Microsoft Corporation, CN=Microsoft Product
Secure Communications PCA, [email protected]
C=BE, O=GlobalSign nv-sa, OU=Root CA, CN=GlobalSign Root CA
CN=ACEDICOM Root, OU=PKI, O=EDICOM, C=ES
C=EE, O=AS Sertifitseerimiskeskus, CN=Juur-SK, [email protected]
C=US, O=Starfield Technologies, Inc., OU=Starfield Class 2 Certification
Authority
C=US, O=GeoTrust Inc., CN=GeoTrust Universal CA
C=AT, O=A-Trust Ges. f. Sicherheitssysteme im elektr. Datenverkehr GmbH, OU=ATrust-nQual-03, CN=A-Trust-nQual-03
C=BR, O=Certisign Certificadora Digital Ltda., OU=Certisign - Autoridade
Certificadora - AC2
C=US, O=VISA, OU=Visa International Service Association, CN=Visa eCommerce Root
C=SE, O=AddTrust AB, OU=AddTrust External TTP Network, CN=AddTrust External CA Root
C=GB, ST=Greater Manchester, L=Salford, O=COMODO CA Limited, CN=COMODO HighAssurance Secure Server CA
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority,
O=VeriSign Trust Network, OU=VeriSign, Inc., OU=VeriSign International Server
CA - Class 3, OU=www.verisign.com/CPS Incorp.by Ref. LIABILITY LTD.(c)97
VeriSign
C=US, O=thawte, Inc., OU=Certification Services Division, OU=(c) 2006 thawte,
Inc. - For authorized use only, CN=thawte Primary Root CA
C=BM, O=QuoVadis Limited, CN=QuoVadis Root CA 3
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority
C=US, O=SecureTrust Corporation, CN=Secure Global CA
C=US, O=DigiCert Inc, OU=www.digicert.com, CN=DigiCert Assured ID Root CA
C=ES, ST=Barcelona, L=Barcelona, O=IPS Internet publishing Services s.l.,
[email protected] C.I.F. B-60929452, OU=IPS CA Timestamping Certification
Authority, CN=IPS CA Timestamping Certification
Authority/[email protected]mail.ips.es
568
Fireware XTM Web UI
Certificates
C=DE, O=TC TrustCenter GmbH, OU=TC TrustCenter Universal CA, CN=TC TrustCenter
Universal CA I
C=SI, O=ACNLB
C=US, O=U.S. Government, OU=ECA, CN=ECA Root CA
C=ZA, ST=Western Cape, L=Cape Town, O=Thawte Consulting, OU=Certification
Services Division, CN=Thawte Personal Freemail CA/[email protected]
C=FI, O=Sonera, CN=Sonera Class2 CA
C=NL, O=Staat der Nederlanden, CN=Staat der Nederlanden Root CA
CN=T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Elektronik Sertifika Hizmet
Sa\xC4\x9Flay\xC4\xB1c\xC4\xB1s\xC4\xB1, C=TR, L=ANKARA, O=(c) 2005
T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Bilgi\xC4\xB0leti\xC5\x9Fim ve Bili\xC5\x9Fim
G\xC3\xBCvenli\xC4\x9Fi Hizmetleri A.\xC5\x9E.
C=DE, O=D-Trust GmbH, CN=D-TRUST Qualified Root CA 1 2007:PN
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 1 Public Primary Certification Authority
O=TeliaSonera, CN=TeliaSonera Root CA v1
C=US, O=GTE Corporation, OU=GTE CyberTrust Solutions, Inc., CN=GTE CyberTrust
Global Root
C=US, O=DigiCert Inc, OU=www.digicert.com, CN=DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA
C=US, O=Entrust.net, OU=www.entrust.net/CPS incorp. by ref. (limits liab.), OU=
(c) 1999 Entrust.net Limited, CN=Entrust.net Secure Server Certification
Authority
C=US, O=DigiCert Inc, OU=www.digicert.com, CN=DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA
C=CH, O=SwissSign, CN=SwissSign CA (RSA IK May 6 1999 18:00:58)
/[email protected]
C=ES, O=IZENPE S.A., CN=Izenpe.com
C=US, O=GTE Corporation, OU=GTE CyberTrust Solutions, Inc., CN=GTE CyberTrust
Global Root
C=US, O=Akamai Technologies Inc, CN=Akamai Subordinate CA 3
C=US, O=U.S. Government, OU=DoD, OU=PKI, CN=DoD CLASS 3 Root CA
C=MO, O=Macao Post, CN=Macao Post eSignTrust Root Certification Authority
C=US, ST=Washington, L=Redmond, O=Microsoft Corporation, CN=Microsoft Certificate
Trust List PCA, DC=com, DC=microsoft, CN=Microsoft Root Certificate Authority
C=CZ, O=\xC4\x8Cesk\xC3\xA1 po\xC5\xA1ta, s.p. [I\xC4\x8C 47114983],
CN=PostSignum Root QCA 2
C=ES, ST=Barcelona, L=Barcelona, O=IPS Internet publishing Services s.l.,
[email protected] C.I.F. B-60929452, OU=IPS CA CLASEA3 Certification
Authority, CN=IPS CA CLASEA3 Certification
Authority/[email protected]
C=US, O=Equifax Secure Inc., CN=Equifax Secure eBusiness CA-1
C=LV, O=VAS Latvijas Pasts - Vien.reg.Nr.40003052790, OU=Sertifikacijas
pakalpojumi, CN=VAS Latvijas Pasts SSI(RCA)
C=SE, O=AddTrust AB, OU=AddTrust TTP Network, CN=AddTrust Qualified CA Root
C=US, ST=Arizona, L=Scottsdale, O=GoDaddy.com, Inc., CN=Go Daddy Root Certificate
Authority - G2
C=JP, O=Japan Certification Services, Inc., CN=SecureSign RootCA3
CN=ComSign Advanced Security CA
C=si, O=state-institutions, OU=sigov-ca
C=US, O=GTE Corporation, OU=GTE CyberTrust Solutions, Inc., CN=GTE CyberTrust
Global Root, CN=Microsoft Internet Authority
C=US, O=Equifax Secure Inc., CN=Equifax Secure Global eBusiness CA-1
C=US, O=GeoTrust Inc., OU=(c) 2008 GeoTrust Inc. - For authorized use only,
CN=GeoTrust Primary Certification Authority - G3
User Guide
569
Certificates
C=ES, ST=Barcelona, L=Barcelona, O=IPS Internet publishing Services s.l.,
[email protected] C.I.F. B-60929452, OU=IPS CA CLASEA1 Certification
Authority, CN=IPS CA CLASEA1 Certification
Authority/[email protected]
C=US, O=America Online Inc., CN=America Online Root Certification Authority 1
C=US, O=GeoTrust Inc., CN=GeoTrust Primary Certification Authority
C=ZA, ST=Western Cape, L=Durbanville, O=Thawte, OU=Thawte Certification,
CN=Thawte Timestamping CA
C=EU, O=AC Camerfirma SA CIF A82743287, OU=http://www.chambersign.org, CN=Global
Chambersign Root
C=DE, O=D-Trust GmbH, CN=D-TRUST Root Class 3 CA 2007
C=SI, O=Halcom, CN=Halcom CA PO 2
C=GB, O=ViaCode, OU=CA Data, OU=CA 1
C=US, O=DigiCert Inc, OU=www.digicert.com, CN=DigiCert Global Root CA
C=ES, O=FNMT, OU=FNMT Clase 2 CA
C=US, ST=UT, L=Salt Lake City, O=The USERTRUST Network,
OU=http://www.usertrust.com, CN=UTN-USERFirst-Client Authentication and Email
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=VeriSign Trust Network, OU=(c) 2006 VeriSign, Inc. For authorized use only, CN=VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Certification
Authority - G5
C=US, O=Starfield Technologies, Inc., OU=Starfield Class 2 Certification
Authority
C=SI, O=Halcom, CN=Halcom CA FO
C=TR, O=Elektronik Bilgi Guvenligi A.S., CN=e-Guven Kok Elektronik Sertifika
Hizmet Saglayicisi
C=FR, O=NATIXIS, OU=0002 542044524, CN=CESAM
C=JP, O=LGPKI, OU=Application CA G2
C=US, O=Digital Signature Trust Co., OU=DST-Entrust GTI CA
C=US, ST=UT, L=Salt Lake City, O=The USERTRUST Network,
OU=http://www.usertrust.com, CN=UTN - DATACorp SGC
C=RO, O=certSIGN, OU=certSIGN ROOT CA
C=SE, O=AddTrust AB, OU=AddTrust TTP Network, CN=AddTrust Public CA Root
C=US, O=GTE Corporation, OU=GTE CyberTrust Solutions, Inc., CN=GTE CyberTrust
Global Root
C=CH, O=WISeKey, OU=Copyright (c) 2005, OU=OISTE Foundation Endorsed, CN=OISTE
WISeKey Global Root GA CA
C=US, O=Equifax, OU=Equifax Secure Certificate Authority
C=IL, O=StartCom Ltd., OU=Secure Digital Certificate Signing, CN=StartCom
Certification Authority
C=EU, L=Madrid (see current address at www.camerfirma.com/address)/serialNumber=A82743287,
O=AC Camerfirma S.A., CN=Chambers of Commerce Root - 2008
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=VeriSign Trust Network, OU=(c) 1999 VeriSign, Inc. For authorized use only, CN=VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Certification
Authority - G3
C=ES, O=Agencia Notarial de Certificacion S.L. Unipersonal - CIF B83395988,
CN=ANCERT Certificados Notariales
C=ZA, ST=Western Cape, L=Cape Town, O=Thawte Consulting cc, OU=Certification
Services Division, CN=Thawte Premium Server CA/[email protected]
OU=GlobalSign Root CA - R2, O=GlobalSign, CN=GlobalSign
C=KR, O=Government of Korea, OU=GPKI, CN=GPKIRootCA
O=RSA Security Inc, OU=RSA Security 2048 V3
570
Fireware XTM Web UI
Certificates
O=Entrust.net, OU=www.entrust.net/SSL_CPS incorp. by ref. (limits liab.), OU=(c)
2000 Entrust.net Limited, CN=Entrust.net Secure Server Certification
Authority
C=US, ST=UT, L=Salt Lake City, O=The USERTRUST Network,
OU=http://www.usertrust.com, CN=UTN-USERFirst-Object
C=US, O=GeoTrust Inc., CN=GeoTrust Global CA 2
C=US, O=GeoTrust Inc., CN=GeoTrust Global CA, CN=RapidSSL CA
C=US, O=GTE Corporation, OU=GTE CyberTrust Solutions, Inc., CN=GTE CyberTrust
Global Root
O=Digital Signature Trust Co., CN=DST Root CA X4
C=TN, O=ANCE, OU=Certification & PKI, CN=Agence Nationale de Certification
Electronique/[email protected]
C=US, O=AOL Time Warner Inc., OU=America Online Inc., CN=AOL Time Warner Root
Certification Authority 2
C=US, O=Entrust.net, OU=www.entrust.net/Client_CA_Info/CPS incorp. by ref. limits
liab., OU=(c) 1999 Entrust.net Limited, CN=Entrust.net Client
Certification Authority
C=US, O=Verizon Business, OU=OmniRoot, CN=Verizon Global Root CA
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority
C=CN, O=CNNIC, CN=CNNIC ROOT
C=ES, O=Agencia Notarial de Certificacion S.L. Unipersonal - CIF B83395988,
CN=ANCERT Certificados CGN
C=US, O=Entrust, Inc., OU=www.entrust.net/CPS is incorporated by reference, OU=
(c) 2006 Entrust, Inc., CN=Entrust Root Certification Authority
CN=Autoridad de Certificacion Raiz del Estado Venezolano, C=VE, L=Caracas,
ST=Distrito Capital, O=Sistema Nacional de Certificacion Electronica,
OU=Superintendencia de Servicios de Certificacion
Electronica/[email protected]
C=ES, L=C/ Muntaner 244 Barcelona, CN=Autoridad de Certificacion Firmaprofesional
CIF A62634068/[email protected]
C=US, O=GeoTrust Inc., CN=GeoTrust Global CA
C=US, O=AffirmTrust, CN=AffirmTrust Networking
C=TN, O=ANCE, OU=ANCE WEB, CN=Agence Nationale de Certification
Electronique/[email protected]
C=US, ST=UT, L=Salt Lake City, O=The USERTRUST Network,
OU=http://www.usertrust.com, CN=UTN-USERFirst-Network Applications
C=HU, ST=Hungary, L=Budapest, O=NetLock Halozatbiztonsagi Kft.,
OU=Tanusitvanykiadok, CN=NetLock Kozjegyzoi (Class A) Tanusitvanykiado
O=eSign Australia, OU=Public Secure Services, CN=eSign Imperito Primary Root CA
C=TW, O=TAIWAN-CA, OU=Root CA, CN=TWCA Root Certification Authority
C=ZA, ST=Western Cape, L=Cape Town, O=Thawte Consulting cc, OU=Certification
Services Division, CN=Thawte Server CA/[email protected]
C=US, O=Entrust, Inc.,OU=www.entrust.net/CPS is incorporated by reference, OU=(c)
2006 Entrust, Inc., CN=Entrust Root Certification Authority
C=DE, O=Deutsche Telekom AG, OU=T-TeleSec Trust Center, CN=Deutsche Telekom Root CA 1
C=JP, O=SECOM Trust.net, OU=Security Communication RootCA1
C=BR, O=Certisign Certificadora Digital Ltda., OU=Certisign - Autoridade
Certificadora - AC4
C=BR, O=Serasa S.A., OU=Serasa CA II, CN=Serasa Certificate Authority II
C=DE, ST=Baden-Wuerttemberg (BW), L=Stuttgart, O=Deutscher Sparkassen Verlag
GmbH, CN=S-TRUST Authentication and Encryption Root CA 2005:PN
C=us, O=U.S. Government, OU=FBCA, CN=Common Policy
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority,
C=ZA, O=Thawte Consulting (Pty) Ltd., CN=Thawte SGC CA
User Guide
571
Certificates
O=Entrust.net, OU=www.entrust.net/CPS_2048 incorp. by ref. (limits liab.), OU=(c)
1999 Entrust.net Limited, CN=Entrust.net Certification Authority (2048)
C=US, O=U.S. Government, OU=DoD, OU=PKI, CN=DoD Root CA 2
C=US, ST=New Jersey, L=Jersey City, O=The USERTRUST Network, CN=USERTrust RSA
Certification Authority
C=si, O=state-institutions, OU=sigen-ca
C=US, O=First Data Digital Certificates Inc., CN=First Data Digital Certificates
Inc. Certification Authority
C=BE, CN=Belgium Root CA
C=US, O=GeoTrust Inc., CN=GeoTrust Global CA
C=DE, O=TC TrustCenter GmbH, OU=TC TrustCenter Class 2 CA, CN=TC TrustCenter
Class 2 CA II
C=SE, O=Carelink, CN=SITHS CA v3
C=CZ, CN=I.CA - Qualified Certification Authority, 09/2009,
O=Prvn\xC3\xADcertifika\xC4\x8Dn\xC3\xAD autorita, a.s., OU=I.CA - Accredited
Provider of Certification Services
C=ES, O=FNMT-RCM, OU=AC RAIZ FNMT-RCM
C=US, O=thawte, Inc., OU=Certification Services Division, OU=(c) 2006 thawte,
Inc. - For authorized use only, CN=thawte Primary Root CA
CN=T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Elektronik Sertifika Hizmet
Sa\xC4\x9Flay\xC4\xB1c\xC4\xB1s\xC4\xB1, C=TR, L=Ankara, O=T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST
Bilgi \xC4\xB0leti\xC5\x9Fim ve Bili\xC5\x9Fim G\xC3\xBCvenli\xC4\x9Fi
Hizmetleri A.\xC5\x9E. (c)Kas\xC4\xB1m 2005
L=Alvaro Obregon, ST=Distrito Federal, C=MX/postalCode=01030/street=Insurgentes
Sur 1940, CN=Autoridad Certificadora Raiz de la Secretaria de Economia,
OU=Direccion General de Normatividad Mercantil, O=Secretaria de
Economia/[email protected]
C=SI, O=POSTA, OU=POSTArCA
C=LT, O=Skaitmeninio sertifikavimo centras, OU=Certification Authority, CN=SSC
Root CA A
C=DK, O=KMD, OU=KMD-CA, CN=KMD-CA Kvalificeret Person
C=HU, L=Budapest, O=Microsec Ltd., CN=Microsec e-Szigno Root CA
2009/[email protected]
C=FI, O=Sonera, CN=Sonera Class1 CA
C=GB, ST=Greater Manchester, L=Salford, O=COMODO CA Limited, CN=COMODO
Certification Authority
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=VeriSign Trust Network, OU=(c) 1999 VeriSign, Inc. For authorized use only, CN=VeriSign Class 2 Public Primary Certification
Authority - G3
C=US, O=America Online Inc., CN=America Online Root Certification Authority 2
C=DK, O=KMD, OU=Root CA, CN=KMD-CA Root
C=DK, O=TDC, CN=TDC OCES CA
C=PT, O=SCEE, CN=ECRaizEstado
CN=Autoridad de Certificacion Raiz del Estado Venezolano, C=VE, L=Caracas,
ST=Distrito Capital, O=Sistema Nacional de Certificacion Electronica,
OU=Superintendencia de Servicios de Certificacion
Electronica/[email protected]
C=ES, ST=Barcelona, L=Barcelona, O=Fundacion FESTE, CN=FESTE, Public Notary
Certs/[email protected]
C=BE, O=GlobalSign nv-sa, OU=Root CA, CN=GlobalSign Root CA
C=EU, O=AC Camerfirma SA CIF A82743287, OU=http://www.chambersign.org, CN=Public
Notary Root
C=IT, O=SIA S.p.A., L=Milano, CN=SIA Secure Server CA
C=FR, O=Certplus, CN=Class 3 Primary CA
572
Fireware XTM Web UI
Certificates
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority - G2,
OU=(c) 1998 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only, OU=VeriSign Trust
Network
C=SK, L=Bratislava, O=Disig a.s., CN=CA Disig
C=CH, O=SwissSign AG, CN=SwissSign Platinum CA - G2
C=US, ST=Arizona, L=Scottsdale, O=Starfield Technologies, Inc.,
OU=http://certificates.starfieldtech.com/repository/, CN=Starfield Services
Root Certificate Authority
C=IT, O=SIA S.p.A., L=Milano, CN=SIA Secure Client CA
C=TW, O=Government Root Certification Authority
O=Entrust.net, OU=www.entrust.net/CPS_2048 incorp. by ref. (limits liab.), OU=(c)
1999 Entrust.net Limited, CN=Entrust.net Certification Authority (2048)
C=US, O=Entrust.net, OU=www.entrust.net/CPS incorp. by ref. (limits liab.), OU=
(c) 1999 Entrust.net Limited, CN=Entrust.net Secure Server Certification
Authority
C=TR, L=Gebze - Kocaeli, O=T\xC3\xBCrkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik
Ara\xC5\x9Ft\xC4\xB1rma Kurumu - T\xC3\x9CB\xC4\xB0TAK, OU=Ulusal Elektronik
ve Kriptoloji Ara\xC5\x9Ft\xC4\xB1rma Enstit\xC3\xBCs\xC3\xBC - UEKAE,
OU=Kamu Sertifikasyon Merkezi, CN=T\xC3\x9CB\xC4\xB0TAK UEKAE K\xC3\xB6k
Sertifika Hizmet Sa\xC4\x9Flay\xC4\xB1c\xC4\xB1s\xC4\xB1 S\xC3\xBCr\xC3\xBCm 3
C=PL, O=TP Internet Sp. z o.o., OU=Centrum Certyfikacji Signet, CN=CC Signet - RootCA
C=BM, O=QuoVadis Limited, CN=QuoVadis Root CA 2
C=US, ST=Washington, L=Redmond, O=Microsoft Corporation, CN=Microsoft Root
Certificate Authority 2010
C=JP, O=SECOM Trust Systems CO.,LTD., OU=Security Communication EV RootCA1
C=FR, O=Certeurope, OU=0002 434202180, CN=Certeurope Root CA 2
C=ES, ST=Barcelona, L=Barcelona, O=Fundacion FESTE, CN=FESTE, Verified
Certs/[email protected]
C=BR, O=Serasa S.A., OU=Serasa CA I, CN=Serasa Certificate Authority I
C=US, O=AffirmTrust, CN=AffirmTrust Commercial
C=JP, O=JPKI, OU=Prefectural Association For JPKI, OU=BridgeCA
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=VeriSign Trust Network, OU=(c) 2008 VeriSign, Inc. For authorized use only, CN=VeriSign Universal Root Certification Authority
C=JP, O=Japanese Government, OU=ApplicationCA
C=BE, O=Certipost s.a./n.v., CN=Certipost E-Trust Primary Normalised CA
OU=Copyright (c) 1997 Microsoft Corp., OU=Microsoft Corporation, CN=Microsoft
Root Authority
C=US, O=Digital Signature Trust Co., OU=DSTCA E1
C=US, O=Entrust.net, OU=www.entrust.net/CPS incorp. by ref. (limits liab.), OU=
(c) 1999 Entrust.net Limited, CN=Entrust.net Secure Server Certification
Authority
C=BG, O=InfoNotary PLC, DC=root-ca, CN=InfoNotary CSP Root, OU=InfoNotary CSP
Root/[email protected]
OU=GlobalSign Root CA - R3, O=GlobalSign, CN=GlobalSign
C=ES, O=DIRECCION GENERAL DE LA POLICIA, OU=DNIE, CN=AC RAIZ DNIE
C=CH, O=SwissSign AG, CN=SwissSign Gold CA - G2
OU=GlobalSign Root CA - R2, O=GlobalSign, CN=GlobalSign
C=BM, O=QuoVadis Limited, OU=Root Certification Authority, CN=QuoVadis Root
Certification Authority
C=KR, O=KISA, OU=Korea Certification Authority Central, CN=KISA RootCA 3
C=ES, ST=Barcelona, L=Barcelona, O=IPS Internet publishing Services s.l.,
[email protected] C.I.F. B-60929452, OU=IPS CA CLASE1 Certification
User Guide
573
Certificates
Authority, CN=IPS CA CLASE1 Certification
Authority/[email protected]
C=US, O=DigiCert Inc, OU=www.digicert.com, CN=DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA
C=JP, O=Japan Certification Services, Inc., CN=SecureSign RootCA2
C=US, O=Digital Signature Trust Co., OU=DSTCA E2
C=DE, O=TC TrustCenter GmbH, OU=TC TrustCenter Universal CA, CN=TC TrustCenter
Universal CA III
C=JP, O=SECOM Trust Systems CO.,LTD., OU=Security Communication RootCA2
C=US, ST=UT, L=Salt Lake City, O=The USERTRUST Network,
OU=http://www.usertrust.com, CN=UTN-USERFirst-Hardware
C=SE, O=AddTrust AB, OU=AddTrust External TTP Network, CN=AddTrust External CA Root
O=Cisco Systems, CN=Cisco Root CA 2048
C=US, O=thawte, Inc., OU=Certification Services Division, OU=(c) 2008 thawte,
Inc.- For authorized use only, CN=thawte Primary Root CA - G3
C=BE, O=Belgacom, OU=E-Trust, CN=Belgacom E-Trust Root CA for qualified
certificates
C=BR, O=ICP-Brasil, OU=Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia da Informacao - ITI,
CN=Autoridade Certificadora Raiz Brasileira v1
C=US, O=Apple Computer, Inc., OU=Apple Computer Certificate Authority, CN=Apple
Root Certificate Authority
C=AT, O=\x00A\x00-\x00T\x00r\x00u\x00s\x00t\x00 \x00G\x00e\x00s\x00.\x00
\x00f\x00\xFC\x00r\x00
\x00S\x00i\x00c\x00h\x00e\x00r\x00h\x00e\x00i\x00t\x00s\x00s\x00y\x00s\x00t\x00e\x00m\x00e\x00 \x00i\x00m\x00 \x00e\x00l\x00e\x00k\x00t\x00r\x00.\x00
\x00D\x00a\x00t\x00e\x00n\x00v\x00e\x00r\x00k\x00e\x00h\x00r\x00\x00G\x00m\x00b\x00H, OU=A-Trust-Qual-01, CN=A-Trust-Qual-01
C=CZ, CN=I.CA - Standard Certification Authority, 09/2009, O=Prvn\xC3\xAD
certifika\xC4\x8Dn\xC3\xAD autorita, a.s., OU=I.CA - Provider of
Certification Services
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=VeriSign Trust Network, OU=(c) 2006 VeriSign, Inc. For authorized use only, CN=VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Certification
Authority - G5
L=Bogota AV Calle 26 N 68D-35, C=CO, O=Entidad de Certificacion Digital Abierta
Certicamara S.A., CN=CERTICAMARA S.A.
C=US, O=AOL Time Warner Inc., OU=America Online Inc., CN=AOL Time Warner Root
Certification Authority 1
C=FR, O=CertiNomis, OU=AC Racine - Root CA, CN=CertiNomis
C=FR, O=Certplus, CN=Class 3TS Primary CA
C=EU, O=AC Camerfirma SA CIF A82743287, OU=http://www.chambersign.org,
CN=Chambers of Commerce Root
C=BE, O=GlobalSign nv-sa, OU=Root CA, CN=GlobalSign Root CA
C=ES, ST=Barcelona, L=Barcelona, O=IPS Internet publishing Services s.l.,
[email protected] C.I.F. B-60929452, OU=IPS CA Chained CAs Certification
Authority, CN=IPS CA Chained CAs Certification
Authority/[email protected]
C=US, O=Entrust.net, OU=www.entrust.net/CPS incorp. by ref. (limits liab.), OU=
(c) 1999 Entrust.net Limited, CN=Entrust.net Secure Server Certification
Authority
O=WatchGuard, OU=Engineering
C=ES, ST=Madrid, L=Madrid, O=IPS Certification Authority s.l. ipsCA, OU=ipsCA,
CN=ipsCA Main CA Root/[email protected]
C=US, ST=Arizona, L=Scottsdale, O=Starfield Technologies, Inc., CN=Starfield
Services Root Certificate Authority - G2
C=US, O=The Go Daddy Group, Inc., OU=Go Daddy Class 2 Certification Authority
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C=US, ST=Washington, L=Redmond, O=Microsoft Corporation, CN=MSN Content PCA
C=CO, O=Sociedad Cameral de Certificaci\xC3\xB3n Digital - Certic\xC3\xA1mara
S.A., CN=AC Ra\xC3\xADz Certic\xC3\xA1mara S.A.
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=VeriSign Trust Network, OU=(c) 2006 VeriSign, Inc. For authorized use only, CN=VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Certification
Authority - G5
C=FI, L=Helsinki, O=Saunalahden Serveri Oy, CN=Saunalahden Serveri
CA/[email protected]
C=US, O=Digital Signature Trust, OU=DST ACES, CN=DST ACES CA X6
C=GB, ST=Greater Manchester, L=Salford, O=Comodo CA Limited, CN=Trusted
Certificate Services
C=ES, ST=Madrid, L=Madrid, O=IPS Certification Authority s.l. ipsCA, OU=ipsCA,
CN=ipsCA Global CA Root/[email protected]
C=CN, O=UniTrust, CN=UCA Root
C=IN, O=India PKI, CN=CCA India 2007
C=EU, L=Madrid (see current address at www.camerfirma.com/address)
/serialNumber=A82743287, O=AC Camerfirma S.A.,
CN=Global Chambersign Root - 2008
C=TW, O=Chunghwa Telecom Co., Ltd., OU=ePKI Root Certification Authority
C=JP, O=Japan Certification Services, Inc., CN=SecureSign RootCA1
C=CN, O=China Internet Network Information Center, CN=China Internet Network
Information Center EV Certificates Root
C=US, O=Wells Fargo, OU=Wells Fargo Certification Authority, CN=Wells Fargo Root
Certificate Authority
C=SG, O=Netrust Certificate Authority 1, OU=Netrust CA1
C=PL, O=Unizeto Technologies S.A., OU=Certum Certification Authority, CN=Certum
Trusted Network CA
C=PL, O=Unizeto Sp. z o.o., CN=Certum CA
C=JP, O=Japanese Government, OU=MPHPT, OU=MPHPT Certification Authority
C=US, O=GeoTrust Inc., CN=GeoTrust Global CA
C=US, O=GeoTrust Inc., CN=GeoTrust Universal CA 2
C=CA, ST=Ontario, L=Toronto, O=Echoworx Corporation, OU=Certification Services,
CN=Echoworx Root CA2
C=CL, ST=Region Metropolitana, L=Santiago, O=E-CERTCHILE, OU=Autoridad
Certificadora/[email protected], CN=E-CERT ROOT CA
C=IL, O=StartCom Ltd., OU=Secure Digital Certificate Signing, CN=StartCom
Certification Authority
C=ES, O=Generalitat Valenciana, OU=PKIGVA, CN=Root CA Generalitat Valenciana
C=GB, ST=Greater Manchester, L=Salford, O=Comodo CA Limited, CN=AAA Certificate
Services
C=BE, O=Belgacom, OU=E-Trust, CN=Belgacom E-Trust Root CA for normalised
certificates
C=FR, O=Certplus, CN=Class 3P Primary CA
C=DK, O=KMD, OU=KMD-CA, CN=KMD-CA Server/[email protected]
C=AT, O=A-Trust Ges. f. Sicherheitssysteme im elektr. Datenverkehr GmbH, OU=ATrust-Qual-02, CN=A-Trust-Qual-02
C=ES, O=IZENPE S.A., CN=Izenpe.com
C=SE, O=AddTrust AB, OU=AddTrust TTP Network, CN=AddTrust Class 1 CA Root
C=US, O=America Online Inc., CN=America Online Root Certification Authority 1
C=US, O=Wells Fargo WellsSecure, OU=Wells Fargo Bank NA, CN=WellsSecure Public
Root Certificate Authority
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C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=VeriSign Trust Network, OU=(c) 2006 VeriSign, Inc. For authorized use only, CN=VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Certification
Authority - G5
C=US, O=Apple Inc., OU=Apple Certification Authority, CN=Apple Root CA
CN=EBG Elektronik Sertifika Hizmet Sa\xC4\x9Flay\xC4\xB1c\xC4\xB1s\xC4\xB1, O=EBG
Bili\xC5\x9Fim Teknolojileri ve Hizmetleri A.\xC5\x9E., C=TR
C=US, O=Digital Signature Trust Co., OU=DST (ANX Network) CA
C=NL, O=PTT Post, OU=KeyMail, CN=PTT Post Root CA/[email protected]
C=NO, O=Buypass AS-983163327, CN=Buypass Class 3 CA 1
C=IL, O=StartCom Ltd., OU=Secure Digital Certificate Signing, CN=StartCom
Certification Authority
C=FI, ST=Finland, O=Vaestorekisterikeskus CA, OU=Certification Authority
Services, OU=Varmennepalvelut, CN=VRK Gov. Root CA
C=US, O=Entrust.net, OU=www.entrust.net/CPS incorp. by ref. (limits liab.), OU=
(c) 1999 Entrust.net Limited, CN=Entrust.net Secure Server Certification
Authority
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=VeriSign Trust Network, OU=(c) 1999 VeriSign, Inc. For authorized use only, CN=VeriSign Class 1 Public Primary Certification
Authority - G3
C=BR, ST=Rio de Janeiro, L=Rio de Janeiro, O=Certisign Certificadora Digital
Ltda., OU=Certisign Autoridade Certificadora AC3S
C=ES, O=Agencia Catalana de Certificacio (NIF Q-0801176-I), OU=Serveis Publics de
Certificacio, OU=Vegeu https://www.catcert.net/verarrel (c)03, OU=Jerarquia
Entitats de Certificacio Catalanes, CN=EC-ACC
C=GB, ST=Greater Manchester, L=Salford, O=Comodo CA Limited, CN=Secure
Certificate Services
C=HU, L=Budapest, O=Microsec Ltd., OU=e-Szigno CA, CN=Microsec e-Szigno Root CA
L=ValiCert Validation Network, O=ValiCert, Inc., OU=ValiCert Class 1 Policy
Validation Authority,
CN=http://www.valicert.com//[email protected]
C=US, ST=UT, L=Salt Lake City, O=The USERTRUST Network,
OU=http://www.usertrust.com, CN=UTN-USERFirst-Hardware
C=NL, O=DigiNotar, CN=DigiNotar Root CA/[email protected]
C=DE, O=TC TrustCenter GmbH, OU=TC TrustCenter Universal CA, CN=TC TrustCenter
Universal CA II
C=DE, O=Deutsche Telekom AG, OU=T-TeleSec Trust Center, CN=Deutsche Telekom Root CA 2
C=AT, L=Vienna, ST=Austria, O=ARGE DATEN - Austrian Society for Data Protection,
OU=GLOBALTRUST Certification Service,
CN=GLOBALTRUST/[email protected]
C=HU, L=Budapest, O=NetLock Kft.,
OU=Tan\xC3\xBAs\xC3\xADtv\xC3\xA1nykiad\xC3\xB3k (Certification Services),
CN=NetLock Arany (Class Gold) F\xC5\x91tan\xC3\xBAs\xC3\xADtv\xC3\xA1ny
C=ES, O=Agencia Notarial de Certificacion S.L. Unipersonal - CIF B83395988,
CN=ANCERT Corporaciones de Derecho Publico
C=US, ST=UT, L=Salt Lake City, O=The USERTRUST Network,
OU=http://www.usertrust.com, CN=UTN-USERFirst-Hardware
C=UY, O=ADMINISTRACION NACIONAL DE CORREOS, OU=SERVICIOS ELECTRONICOS, CN=Correo
Uruguayo - Root CA
C=HU, L=Budapest, O=NetLock Halozatbiztonsagi Kft., OU=Tanusitvanykiadok,
CN=NetLock Minositett Kozjegyzoi (Class QA)
Tanusitvanykiado/[email protected]
C=BE, CN=Belgium Root CA2
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C=ES, O=Colegio de Registradores de la Propiedad y Mercantiles de Espa\xC3\xB1a,
OU=Certificado Propio, CN=Registradores de Espa\xC3\xB1a - CA Ra\xC3\xADz
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=VeriSign Trust Network, OU=(c) 2006 VeriSign, Inc. For authorized use only, CN=VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Certification
Authority - G5
C=NO, O=Buypass AS-983163327, CN=Buypass Class 2 CA 1
C=ES, ST=Barcelona, L=Barcelona, O=IPS Internet publishing Services s.l.,
[email protected] C.I.F. B-60929452, OU=IPS CA CLASE3 Certification
Authority, CN=IPS CA CLASE3 Certification
Authority/[email protected]
C=US, O=Network Solutions L.L.C., CN=Network Solutions Certificate Authority
O=Entrust.net, OU=www.entrust.net/GCCA_CPS incorp. by ref. (limits liab.), OU=(c)
2000 Entrust.net Limited, CN=Entrust.net Client Certification Authority
C=US, O=Equifax Secure, OU=Equifax Secure eBusiness CA-2
C=BE, O=Certipost s.a./n.v., CN=Certipost E-Trust TOP Root CA
C=KR, O=Government of Korea, OU=GPKI, CN=Root CA
C=FI, L=Helsinki, O=Saunalahden Serveri Oy, CN=Saunalahden Serveri
CA/[email protected]
C=GB, ST=Greater Manchester, L=Salford, O=COMODO CA Limited, CN=COMODO RSA
Certification Authority
C=es, O=Servicio de Certificacion del Colegio de Registradores (SCR),
OU=Certificado Propio, OU=Certificado Raiz, CN=Certificado de la Clave
Principal/street=Principe de Vergara 72 28006
Madrid/[email protected]
C=GB, O=Trustis Limited, OU=Trustis FPS Root CA
C=BR, O=Certisign Certificadora Digital Ltda., OU=Certisign Autoridade
Certificadora AC1S
C=US, O=The Go Daddy Group, Inc., OU=Go Daddy Class 2 Certification Authority
C=IT, L=Milano, O=Actalis S.p.A./03358520967, CN=Actalis Authentication CA G1
C=KR, O=KISA, OU=Korea Certification Authority Central, CN=KISA RootCA 1
C=IE, O=An Post, OU=Post.Trust Ltd., CN=Post.Trust Root CA
C=ES, CN=Autoridad de Certificacion Firmaprofesional CIF A62634068
C=CH, O=SwissSign AG, CN=SwissSign Silver Root CA - G3
C=US, ST=Arizona, L=Scottsdale, O=Starfield Technologies, Inc., CN=Starfield Root
Certificate Authority - G2
C=ch, O=Swisscom, OU=Digital Certificate Services, CN=Swisscom Root CA 1
CN=T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Elektronik \xC4\xB0\xC5\x9Flem Hizmetleri, C=TR, L=Ankara,
O=T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Bilgi \xC4\xB0leti\xC5\x9Fim ve Bili\xC5\x9Fim
G\xC3\xBCvenli\xC4\x9Fi Hizmetleri A.\xC5\x9E. (c) Kas\xC4\xB1m 2005
CN=T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Elektronik \xC4\xB0\xC5\x9Flem Hizmetleri, C=TR, L=ANKARA, O=
(c) 2005 T\xC3\x9CRKTRUST Bilgi \xC4\xB0leti\xC5\x9Fim ve Bili\xC5\x9Fim
G\xC3\xBCvenli\xC4\x9Fi Hizmetleri A.\xC5\x9E.
C=US, O=U.S. Government, OU=FPKI, CN=Federal Common Policy CA
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 4 Public Primary Certification Authority - G2,
OU=(c) 1998 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only, OU=VeriSign Trust
Network
L=ValiCert Validation Network, O=ValiCert, Inc., OU=ValiCert Class 3 Policy
Validation Authority,
CN=http://www.valicert.com//[email protected]
DC=rs, DC=posta, DC=ca, CN=Configuration, CN=Services, CN=Public Key Services,
CN=AIA, CN=Posta CA Root
C=BE, O=Certipost s.a./n.v., CN=Certipost E-Trust Primary Qualified CA
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C=HU, L=Budapest, O=NetLock Halozatbiztonsagi Kft., OU=Tanusitvanykiadok,
CN=NetLock Expressz (Class C) Tanusitvanykiado CN=Root Agency
C=US, O=Equifax, OU=Equifax Secure Certificate Authority
C=DE, O=TC TrustCenter GmbH, OU=TC TrustCenter Class 2 CA, CN=TC TrustCenter
Class 2 CA II
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority
C=CH, O=admin, OU=Services, OU=Certification Authorities, CN=AdminCA-CD-T01
C=US, O=Entrust, Inc., OU=See www.entrust.net/legal-terms, OU=(c) 2009 Entrust,
Inc. - for authorized use only, CN=Entrust Root Certification Authority - G2
O=eSign Australia, OU=Gatekeeper PKI, CN=Gatekeeper Root CA
C=US, O=VeriSign, Inc., OU=VeriSign Trust Network, OU=(c) 1999 VeriSign, Inc. For authorized use only, CN=VeriSign Class 4 Public Primary Certification
Authority - G3
Manage XTM Device Certificates
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to see and manage your XTM device certificates. This includes:
n
n
n
n
See a list of the current XTM device certificates and their properties
Import a certificate
Select a web server certificate for Firebox authentication
Select a certificate to use with a Branch Office VPN or Mobile User VPN
Note You must use Firebox System Manager (FSM) to create certificate signing requests
(CSRs), import certificate revocation lists (CRLs), remove certificates, or delete
certificates.
For more information, see the WatchGuard System Manager help system.
See Current Certificates
To see the current list of certificates:
1. Select System > Certificates.
The Certificates list appears, with all the certificates and certificate signing requests (CSRs).
The Certificates list includes:
n
n
n
The status and type of the certificate.
The algorithm used by the certificate.
The subject name or identifier of the certificate.
By default, trusted CA certificates are not included in this list.
2. To show all of the certificates from trusted CAs, select the Show Trusted CAs for Proxies
check box.
3. To hide the trusted CA certificates, clear the Show Trusted CAs for Proxies check box.
Import a Certificate from a File
You can import a certificate from the Windows clipboard or from a file on your local computer.
Certificates must be in PEM (base64) format. Before you import a certificate to use with the proxy
content inspection feature, you must import each previous certificate in the chain of trust of the type
Other. This configures the XTM device to trust the certificate. You must import these certificates from
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first to last, or from most prominent to least prominent, so the XTM device can properly connect the
certificates in the chain of trust.
If you want to import a CA certificate for your XTM device to use to validate other certificates when
they are imported and create a chain of trust, make sure to select the IPSec, Web Server, Other
category when you import the CA certificate and do not include the private key.
For more information, see About Certificates on page 563, Use Certificates for the HTTPS-Proxy on
page 583, and SMTP-Proxy: TLS Encryption.
1. Select System > Certificates.
The Certificates page appears.
2. Click Import Certificate.
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3. Select the option that matches the function of the certificate:
n Proxy Authority (for deep packet inspection) — Select this option if the certificate is for
an proxy policy that manages web traffic requested by users on trusted or optional networks
from a web server on an external network. A certificate you import for this purpose must be a
CA certificate. Before you import the CA certificate used to re-encrypt traffic with a proxy,
make sure the CA certificate used to sign this certificate was imported with the Other
category.
n Proxy Server — Select this option if the certificate is for a proxy policy that manages web
traffic requested by users on an external network from a web server protected by the XTM
device. Before you import the CA certificate used to re-encrypt traffic from a web server,
make sure the CA certificate used to sign this certificate was imported with the
Other category .
n Trusted CA for Proxies — Select this option for a certificate used to trust traffic that is not
re-encrypted by a proxy. For example, a root certificate or intermediate CA certificate used
to sign the certificate of an external web server.
n IPSec, Web Server, Other — Select this option if:
o The certificate is for authentication, is a device IPSec certificate, or is a CA certificate.
o You want to import a CA certificate for your XTM device to use to validate other
certificates when they are imported and create a chain of trust. Make sure you do not
include the private key when you import the CA certificate.
4. Copy and paste the contents of the certificate in the text box. If the certificate includes a private
key, type the password to decrypt the key.
5. Click Save.
The certificate is added to the XTM device.
Use a Web Server Certificate for Authentication
To use a third-party certificate for authentication, you must first import that certificate. See the previous
procedure for more information. If you use a custom certificate signed by the XTM device, we
recommend that you export the certificate and then import it on each client device that connects to the
XTM device.
1. Select Authentication > Web Server Certificate.
The Authentication Web Server Certificate page appears.
2. To use a previously imported third-party certificate, select Third party certificate and select
the certificate from the drop-down list.
Click Save and do not complete the other steps in this procedure.
3. To create a new certificate for XTM device authentication, select Custom certificate signed
by Firebox.
4. In the text box at the bottom of the dialog box, type the domain name or IP address of an
interface on your XTM device. Click Add.
When you have added all the domain names, click OK.
5. Type the Common name for your organization. This is usually your domain name.
Or, you can also type an Organization name and an Organization unit name (both optional)
to identify what part of your organization created the certificate.
6. Click Save.
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Create a CSR with OpenSSL
To create a certificate, you first need to create a Certificate Signing Request (CSR). You can send the
CSR to a certification authority, or use it to create a self-signed certificate.
Use OpenSSL to Generate a CSR
OpenSSL is installed with most GNU/Linux distributions. To download the source code or a Windows
binary file, go to http://www.openssl.org/ and follow the installation instructions for your operating
system. You can use OpenSSL to convert certificates and certificate signing requests from one format
to another. For more information, see the OpenSSL man page or online documentation.
1. Open a command line interface terminal.
2. To generate a private key file called privkey.pem in your current working directory, type openssl
genrsa -out privkey.pem 1024
3. Type openssl req -new -key privkey.pem -out request.csr
This command generates a CSR in the PEM format in your current working directory.
4. When you are prompted for the x509 Common Name attribute information, type your fullyqualified domain name (FQDN). Use other information as appropriate.
5. Follow the instructions from your certificate authority to send the CSR.
To create a temporary, self-signed certificate until the CA returns your signed certificate:
1. Create a plain text file with the name extensions.txt.
2. Add this text to the file:
basicConstraints=CA:TRUE,pathlen:0
keyUsage=digitalSignature,keyEncipherment,keyCertSign,cRLSign
extendedKeyUsage=serverAuth
subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer
3. Open a command line interface terminal.
4. Type openssl x509 -req -days 30 -in request.csr -signkey privkey.pem -extfile
extensions.txt -out sscert.cert
This command creates a certificate inside your current directory that expires in 30 days with the private
key and CSR you created in the previous procedure.
Note You cannot use a self-signed certificate for VPN remote gateway authentication. We
recommend that you use certificates signed by a trusted Certificate Authority.
Sign a Certificate with Microsoft CA
Although you can create a self-signed certificate with Firebox System Manager or other tools, you can
also create a certificate with the Microsoft Certificate Authority (CA).
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Each certificate signing request (CSR) must be signed by a certificate authority (CA) before it can be
used for authentication. When you create a certificate with this procedure, you act as the CA and
digitally sign your own CSR. For compatibility reasons, however, we recommend that you instead
send your CSR to a widely known CA. The root certificates for these organizations are installed by
default with most major Internet browsers and XTM devices, so you do not have to distribute the root
certificates yourself.
You can use most Windows Server operating systems to complete a CSR and create a certificate. The
subsequent instructions are for Windows Server 2003.
Send the Certificate Request
1. Open your web browser. In the location or address bar, type the IP address of the server where
the Certification Authority is installed, followed by certsrv .
For example: http://10.0.2.80/certsrv
2. Click the Request a Certificate link.
3. Click the Advanced certificate request link.
4. Click Submit a certificate.
5. Paste the contents of your CSR file into the Saved Request text box.
6. Click OK.
7. Close your web browser.
Issue the Certificate
1. Connect to the server where the Certification Authority is installed, if necessary.
2. Select Start > Control Panel > Administrative Tools > Certification Authority.
3. In the Certification Authority (Local) tree, select Your Domain Name > Pending
Requests.
4. Select the CSR in the right navigation pane.
5. In the Action menu, select All Tasks > Issue.
6. Close the Certification Authority window.
Download the Certificate
1. Open your web browser. In the location or address bar, type the IP address of the server where
the certification authority is installed, followed by certsrv.
Example: http://10.0.2.80/certsrv
2. Click the View the status of a pending certificate request link.
3. Click the certificate request with the time and date you submitted.
4. To choose the PKCS10 or PKCS7 format, select Base 64 encoded.
5. Click Download certificate to save the certificate on your hard drive.
Certification Authority is distributed with Windows Server 2003 as a component. If the Certification
Authority is not installed in the Administrative Tools folder of the Control Panel, follow the instructions
from the manufacturer to install it.
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Use Certificates for the HTTPS-Proxy
Many web sites use both the HTTP and HTTPS protocols to send information to users. While
HTTP traffic can be examined easily, HTTPS traffic is encrypted. To examine HTTPS traffic
requested by a user on your network, you must configure your XTM device to decrypt the information
and then encrypt it with a certificate signed by a CA that each network user trusts.
By default, the XTM device re-encrypts the content it has inspected with an automatically generated
self-signed certificate. Users without a copy of this certificate see a certificate warning when they
connect to a secure web site with HTTPS. If the remote web site uses an expired certificate, or if that
certificate is signed by a CA (Certificate Authority) the XTM device does not recognize, the XTM
device re-signs the content as Fireware HTTPS Proxy: Unrecognized Certificate or simply Invalid
Certificate.
This section includes information about how to export a certificate from the XTM device and import it
on a Microsoft Windows or Mac OS X system to operate with the HTTPS-proxy. To import the
certificate on other devices, operating systems, or applications, see the documentation from their
manufacturers.
Protect a Private HTTPS Server
To protect an HTTPS server on your network, you must first import the CA certificate used to sign the
HTTPS server certificate, and then import the HTTPS server certificate with its associated private
key. If the CA certificate used to sign the HTTPS server certificate is not automatically trusted itself,
you must import each trusted certificate in sequence for this feature to operate correctly. After you
have imported all of the certificates, configure the HTTPS-proxy.
First, edit an HTTPS proxy action to enable deep content inspection of HTTPS content.
From Fireware XTM Web UI:
1. Select Firewall > Proxy Actions.
The Proxy Actions page appears.
2. Select an HTTPS proxy action: HTTPS-Client or HTTPS-Server. Click Edit.
The Edit Proxy Action page appears for the proxy action you selected.
3. Expand the Content Inspection section.
4. Select the Enable deep inspection of HTTPS content check box.
5. From the Proxy Action drop-down list, select the HTTP proxy action to use to inspect HTTPS
content.
For example, HTTP-Client.
6. Clear the Use OCSP to confirm the validity of certificates check box.
7. In the Bypass List text box, type the IP address of a web site for which you do not want to
inspect traffic. Click Add.
8. (Optional) Repeat Step 7 to add more IP addresses to the Bypass List.
9. Click Save.
If you edited a predefined proxy action, you must clone your changes to a new proxy action before
you can save them and apply them to a proxy policy. The Clone Proxy Action dialog box appears.
10. In the Name text box, type a new name for the proxy action.
For example, type HTTPS-Client DCI .
11. Click OK.
The new proxy action appears in the Proxies list.
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Next, add an HTTPS-proxy that uses the proxy action you added.
From Fireware XTM Web UI:
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall Policies page appears.
2. Click
.
The Select a Policy Type page appears.
3. Expand the Proxies category and select HTTPS-proxy.
4. Click Add policy.
The Policy Configuration page appears for the HTTPS-proxy.
5. From the Proxy Action drop-down list, select the proxy action you added.
For example, select HTTPS-Client DCI.
6. Click Save.
For more information, see Manage XTM Device Certificates on page 578.
Examine Content from External HTTPS Servers
If your organization already has a PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) set up with a trusted CA, then you
can import a certificate on the XTM device that is signed by your organization CA. If the CA certificate
is not automatically trusted itself, you must import each previous certificate in the chain of trust for this
feature to operate correctly. For more information, see Manage XTM Device Certificates on page 578.
Note If you have other traffic that uses the HTTPS port, such as SSL VPN traffic, we
recommend that you evaluate the content inspection feature carefully. The HTTPSproxy attempts to examine all traffic on TCP port 443 in the same way. To ensure that
other traffic sources operate correctly, we recommend that you add those
IP addresses to the Bypass List.
For more information, see HTTPS-Proxy: Content Inspection on page 443.
Before you enable this feature, we recommend that you provide the certificate(s) used to sign HTTPS
traffic to all of the clients on your network. You can attach the certificates to an email with instructions,
or use network management software to install the certificates automatically. Also, we recommend
that you test the HTTPS-proxy with a small number of users to ensure that it operates correctly before
you apply the HTTPS-proxy to traffic on a large network.
If your organization does not have a PKI, you must copy the default or a custom self-signed certificate
from the XTM device to each client device.
First, edit an HTTPS proxy action to enable deep content inspection of HTTPS content.
From Fireware XTM Web UI:
1. Select Firewall > Proxy Actions.
The Proxy Actions page appears.
2. Select an HTTPS proxy action: HTTPS-Client or HTTPS-Server. Click Edit.
The Edit Proxy Action page appears for the proxy action you selected.
3. Expand the Content Inspection section.
4. Select the Enable deep inspection of HTTPS content check box.
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5. From the Proxy Action drop-down list, select the HTTP proxy action to use to inspect HTTPS
content.
For example, HTTP-Client.
6. Specify the options for OCSP certificate validation.
7. Click Save.
If you edited a predefined proxy action, you must clone your changes to a new proxy action before
you can save them and apply them to a proxy policy. The Clone Proxy Action dialog box appears.
8. In the Name text box, type a new name for the proxy action.
9. Click OK.
The new proxy action appears in the Proxies list.
Next, add an HTTPS-proxy that uses the proxy action you added.
From Fireware XTM Web UI:
1. Select Firewall > Firewall Policies.
The Firewall Policies page appears.
2. Click
.
The Select a Policy Type page appears.
3. Expand the Proxies category and select HTTPS-proxy.
4. Click Add policy.
The Policy Configuration page appears for the HTTPS-proxy.
5. From the Proxy Action drop-down list, select the proxy action you added.
For example, select HTTPS-Client DCI.
6. Click Save.
When you enable content inspection, the HTTP proxy action WebBlocker settings override the
HTTPS proxy WebBlocker settings. If you add IP addresses to the Bypass list, traffic from those sites
is filtered with the WebBlocker settings from the HTTPS proxy.
For more information on WebBlocker configuration, see About WebBlocker on page 781.
Import the Certificates on Client Devices
To use certificates you have installed on the XTM device with client devices, you must export the
certificates with Firebox System Manager, then import the certificates on each client. You cannot
export a certificate from your XTM device with the Web UI.
For more information about how to import a certificate, see Import a Certificate on a Client Device on
page 591.
For more information about how to export a certificate with Firebox System Manager, see Use
Certificates for the HTTPS-Proxy in the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager Help.
Troubleshoot Problems with HTTPS Content Inspection
The XTM device often creates log messages when there is a problem with a certificate used for
HTTPS content inspection. We recommend that you check these log messages for more information.
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If connections to remote web servers are often interrupted, check to make sure you have imported all
of the certificates necessary to trust the CA certificate used to re-encrypt the HTTPS content, as well
as the certificates necessary to trust the certificate from the original web server. You must import all of
these certificates on the XTM device and each client device for connections to be successful.
Use Certificates for Mobile VPN With IPSec
Tunnel Authentication
When a Mobile VPN tunnel is created, the identity of each endpoint must be verified with a key. This
key can be a passphrase or pre-shared key (PSK) known by both endpoints, or a certificate from the
Management Server. Your XTM device must be a managed device to use a certificate for Mobile VPN
authentication. You must use WatchGuard System Manager to configure your XTM device as a
managed device.
For more information, see WatchGuard System Manager Help.
To use certificates for a new Mobile VPN with IPSec tunnel:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Select VPN > Mobile VPN with IPSec.
Click Add.
Select the IPSec Tunnel tab.
In the IPSec Tunnel section, select Use a certificate.
In the CA IP Address text box, type the IP address of your Management Server.
In the Timeout text box, type or select the time in seconds the Mobile VPN with IPSec client
waits for a response from the certificate authority before it stops connection attempts. We
recommend you keep the default value.
7. Complete the Mobile VPN group configuration.
For more information, see Configure the XTM Device for Mobile VPN with IPSec on page 688.
To change an existing Mobile VPN tunnel to use certificates for authentication:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Select VPN > Mobile VPN with IPSec.
Select the Mobile VPN group you want to change. Click Edit.
Select the IPSec Tunnel tab.
In the IPSec Tunnel section, select Use a certificate.
In the CA IP Address text box, type the IP address of your Management Server.
In the Timeout text box, type or select the time in seconds the Mobile VPN with IPSec client
waits for a response from the certificate authority before it stops connection attempts. We
recommend you keep the default value.
7. Click Save.
When you use certificates, you must give each Mobile VPN user three files:
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The end-user profile (.wgx)
The client certificate (.p12)
The CA root certificate (.pem)
Copy all of the files to the same directory. When an Mobile VPN user imports the .wgx file, the root and
client certificates in the cacert.pem and the .p12 files are automatically loaded.
For more information on Mobile VPN with IPSec, see About Mobile VPN with IPSec on page 685.
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Certificates for Branch Office VPN (BOVPN)
Tunnel Authentication
When a BOVPN tunnel is created, the IPSec protocol checks the identity of each endpoint with either a
pre-shared key (PSK) or a certificate imported and stored on the XTM device.
To use a certificate for BOVPN tunnel authentication:
1. Select VPN > Branch Office VPN.
2. In the Gateways section, click Add to create a new gateway.
Or, select an existing gateway and click Edit.
3. Select Use IPSec Firebox Certificate.
4. Select the certificate you want to use.
5. Set other parameters as necessary.
6. Click Save.
If you use a certificate for BOVPN authentication:
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You must first import the certificate.
For more information, see Manage XTM Device Certificates on page 578.
Firebox System Manager must recognize the certificate as an IPSec-type certificate.
Make sure certificates for the devices at each gateway endpoint use the same algorithm. Both
endpoints must use either DSS or RSA. The algorithm for certificates appears in the table on
the Gateway page.
If you do not have a third-party or self-signed certificate, you must use the certificate authority
on a WatchGuard Management Server.
Verify the Certificate with FSM
1. Select System > Certificates.
The Certificates page appears.
2. In the Type column, verify IPSec or IPSec/Web appears.
Verify VPN Certificates with an LDAP Server
You can use an LDAP server to automatically verify certificates used for VPN authentication if you
have access to the server. You must have LDAP account information provided by a third-party CA
service to use this feature.
1. Select VPN > Global Settings.
The Global VPN Settings page appears.
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2.
3.
4.
5.
Select the Enable LDAP server for certificate verification check box.
In the Server text box, type the name or address of the LDAP server.
(Optional) Type the Port number.
Click Save.
Your XTM device checks the CRL stored on the LDAP server when tunnel authentication is
requested.
Configure the Web Server Certificate for Firebox
Authentication
When users connect to your XTM device with a web browser, they often see a security warning. This
warning occurs because the default certificate is not trusted, or because the certificate does not match
the IP address or domain name used for authentication. If you have Fireware XTM with a Pro upgrade,
you can use a third-party or self-signed certificate that matches the IP address or domain name for user
authentication. You must import that certificate on each client browser or device to prevent the security
warnings.
To configure the web server certificate for Firebox authentication:
1. Select Authentication > Web Server Certificate.
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2. To use the default certificate, select Default certificate signed by Firebox and proceed to the
last step in this procedure.
3. To use a certificate you have previously imported, select Third-party certificate.
4. Select a certificate from the Third-party certificate drop-down list and proceed to the last step
in this procedure.
This certificate must be recognized as a Web certificate.
5. To create a custom certificate signed by your XTM device, select Custom certificate signed
by Firebox.
6. Type the Common Name for your organization. This is usually your domain name.
7. (Optional) You can also type an Organization Name and an Organization Unit Name to
identify the part of your organization that created the certificate.
8. To create additional subject names, or interface IP addresses for IP addresses on which the
certificate is intended for use, type a Domain Name.
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9. Adjacent to the text box for each entry, click Add.
10. Repeat Steps 8–9 to add more domain names.
11. Click Save.
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Import a Certificate on a Client Device
When you configure your XTM device to use a custom or third-party certificate for authentication or
HTTPS content inspection, you must import that certificate on each client in your network to prevent
security warnings. This also allows services like Windows Update to operate correctly.
Note If you normally use Fireware XTM Web UI, you must install Firebox System Manager
before you can export certificates.
Import a PEM Format Certificate with Windows XP
This process allows Internet Explorer, Windows Update, and other programs or services that use the
Windows certificate store on Microsoft Windows XP to get access to the certificate.
1. In the Windows Start menu, select Run.
2. Type mmc and click OK.
A Windows Management Console appears.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Select File > Add/Remove Snap-In.
Click Add.
Select Certificates, then click Add.
Select Computer account and click Next.
Click Finish, Close, and OK to add the certificates module.
In the Console Root window, expand the Certificates tree.
Expand the Trusted Root Certification Authorities object.
Under the Trusted Root Certification Authorities object, right-click Certificates and select
All Tasks > Import.
11. Click Next.
12. Click Browse to find and select the HTTPS Proxy Authority CA certificate you previously
exported. Click OK.
13. Click Next, then click Finish to complete the wizard.
Import a PEM format certificate with Windows Vista
This process allows Internet Explorer, Windows Update, and other programs or services that use the
Windows certificate store on Microsoft Windows Vista to get access to the certificate.
1. On the Windows Start menu, type certmgr.msc in the Search text box and press Enter.
If you are prompted to authenticate as an administrator, type your password or confirm your access.
2. Select the Trusted Root Certification Authorities object.
3. From the Action menu, select All Tasks > Import.
4. Click Next. Click Browse to find and select the HTTPS Proxy Authority CA certificate you
previously exported. Click OK.
5. Click Next, then click Finish to complete the wizard.
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Import a PEM Format Certificate with Mozilla Firefox 3.x
Mozilla Firefox uses a private certificate store instead of the operating system certificate store. If
clients on your network use the Firefox browser, you must import the certificate into the Firefox
certificate store even if you have already imported the certificate on the host operating system.
When you have more than one XTM device that uses a self-signed certificate for HTTPS content
inspection, clients on your network must import a copy of each XTM device certificate. However, the
default self-signed XTM device certificates use the same name, and Mozilla Firefox only recognizes
the first certificate you import when more than one certificate has the same name. We recommend that
you replace the default self-signed certificates with a certificate signed by a different CA, and then
distribute those CA certificates to each client.
1. In Firefox, select Tools > Options.
The Options dialog box appears.
2. Click the Advanced icon.
3. Select the Encryption tab, then click View Certificates.
The Certificate Manager dialog box appears.
4. Select the Authorities tab, then click Import.
5. Browse to select the certificate file, then click Open.
6. In the Downloading Certificate dialog box, select the Trust this CA to identify web sites
check box. Click OK.
7. Click OK twice to close the Certificate Manager and Options dialog boxes.
8. Restart Firefox.
Import a PEM Format Certificate with Mac OS X 10.5
This process allows Safari and other programs or services that use the Mac OS X certificate store to
get access to the certificate.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Open the Keychain Access application.
Select the Certificates category.
Click the plus icon (+) button on the lower toolbar, then find and select the certificate.
Select the System keychain, then click Open. You can also select the System keychain, then
drag and drop the certificate file into the list.
5. Right-click the certificate and select Get Info.
A certificate information window appears.
6.
7.
8.
9.
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Expand the Trust category.
In the When using this certificate drop-down list, select Always Trust.
Close the certificate information window.
Type your administrator password to confirm your changes.
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Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
Introduction to VPNs
To move data safely between two private networks across an unprotected network, such as the
Internet, you can create a virtual private network (VPN). You can also use a VPN for a secure
connection between a host and a network. The networks and hosts at the endpoints of a VPN can be
corporate headquarters, branch offices, or remote users. VPNs use encryption to secure data, and
authentication to identify the sender and the recipient of the data. If the authentication information is
correct, the data is decrypted. Only the sender and the recipient of the message can read the data sent
through the VPN.
A VPN tunnel is the virtual path between the two private networks of the VPN. We refer to this path as
a tunnel because a tunneling protocol such as IPSec, SSL, or PPTP is used to securely send the data
packets. A gateway or computer that uses a VPN uses this tunnel to send the data packets across the
public Internet to private IP addresses behind a VPN gateway.
Branch Office VPN
A Branch Office VPN (BOVPN) is an encrypted connection between two dedicated hardware devices.
It is used most frequently to make sure the network communications between networks at two offices
is secure. WatchGuard provides two methods to set up a BOVPN:
Manual BOVPN
You can use Policy Manager or Fireware XTM Web UI to manually configure a BOVPN
between any two devices that support IPSec VPN protocols.
For more information, see About Manual Branch Office VPN Tunnels on page 606.
Managed BOVPN
You can use WatchGuard System Manager to set up a managed BOVPN between any two
managed Firebox or XTM devices.
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For more information, see the Fireware XTM WatchGuard System Manager User Guide or Help
system.
All WatchGuard BOVPNs use the IPSec protocol suite to secure the BOVPN tunnel.
For more information about IPSec VPNs, see About IPSec VPNs on page 594.
Mobile VPN
A Mobile VPN is an encrypted connection between a dedicated hardware device and a laptop or
desktop computer. A Mobile VPN allows your employees who telecommute and travel to securely
connect to your corporate network. WatchGuard supports three types of Mobile VPNs:
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Mobile VPN with IPSec
Mobile VPN with PPTP
Mobile VPN with SSL
For a comparison of these Mobile VPN solutions, see Select a Mobile VPN.
About IPSec VPNs
WatchGuard Branch Office VPN and Mobile VPN with IPSec both use the IPSec protocol suite to
establish virtual private networks between devices or mobile users. Before you configure an IPSec
VPN, especially if you configure a manual branch office VPN tunnel, it is helpful to understand how
IPSec VPNs work.
For more information, see:
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About IPSec Algorithms and Protocols
About IPSec VPN Negotiations
Configure Phase 1 and Phase 2 Settings
About IPSec Algorithms and Protocols
IPSec is a collection of cryptography-based services and security protocols that protect
communication between devices that send traffic through an untrusted network. Because IPSec is
built on a collection of widely known protocols and algorithms, you can create an IPSec VPN between
your XTM device and many other devices that support these standard protocols. The protocols and
algorithms used by IPSec are discussed in the subsequent sections.
Encryption Algorithms
Encryption algorithms protect the data so it cannot be read by a third-party while in transit. Fireware
XTM supports three encryption algorithms:
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DES (Data Encryption Standard) — Uses an encryption key that is 56 bits long. This is the
weakest of the three algorithms.
3DES (Triple-DES) — An encryption algorithm based on DES that uses DES to encrypt the
data three times.
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) — The strongest encryption algorithm available. Fireware
XTM can use AES encryption keys of these lengths: 128, 192, or 256 bits.
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Authentication Algorithms
Authentication algorithms verify the data integrity and authenticity of a message. Fireware
XTM supports two authentication algorithms:
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HMAC-SHA1 (Hash Message Authentication Code — Secure Hash Algorithm 1) — SHA-1
produces a 160-bit (20 byte) message digest. Although slower than MD5, this larger digest size
makes it stronger against brute force attacks.
HMAC-MD5 (Hash Message Authentication Code — Message Digest Algorithm 5) — MD5
produces a 128 bit (16 byte) message digest, which makes it faster than SHA-1.
IKE Protocol
Defined in RFC2409, IKE (Internet Key Exchange) is a protocol used to set up security associations
for IPSec. These security associations establish shared session secrets from which keys are derived
for encryption of tunneled data. IKE is also used to authenticate the two IPSec peers.
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange Algorithm
The Diffie-Hellman (DH) key exchange algorithm is a method used to make a shared encryption key
available to two entities without an exchange of the key. The encryption key for the two devices is
used as a symmetric key for encrypting data. Only the two parties involved in the DH key exchange
can deduce the shared key, and the key is never sent over the wire.
A Diffie-Hellman key group is a group of integers used for the Diffie-Hellman key exchange. Fireware
XTM can use DH groups 1, 2, and 5. The higher group numbers provide stronger security.
For more information, see About Diffie-Hellman Groups on page 619.
AH
Defined in RFC 2402, AH (Authentication Header) is a protocol that you can use in manual
BOVPN Phase 2 VPN negotiations. To provide security, AH adds authentication information to the IP
datagram. Most VPN tunnels do not use AH because it does not provide encryption.
ESP
Defined in RFC 2406, ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) provides authentication and encryption
of data. ESP takes the original payload of a data packet and replaces it with encrypted data. It adds
integrity checks to make sure that the data is not altered in transit, and that the data came from the
proper source. We recommend that you use ESP in BOVPN Phase 2 negotiations because ESP is
more secure than AH. Mobile VPN with IPSec always uses ESP.
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About IPSec VPN Negotiations
The devices at either end of an IPSec VPN tunnel are IPSec peers. When two IPSec peers want to
make a VPN between them, they exchange a series of messages about encryption and authentication,
and attempt to agree on many different parameters. This process is known as VPN negotiations. One
device in the negotiation sequence is the initiator and the other device is the responder.
VPN negotiations happen in two distinct phases: Phase 1 and Phase 2.
Phase 1
The main purpose of Phase 1 is to set up a secure encrypted channel through which the two
peers can negotiate Phase 2. When Phase 1 finishes successfully, the peers quickly move on
to Phase 2 negotiations. If Phase 1 fails, the devices cannot begin Phase 2.
Phase 2
The purpose of Phase 2 negotiations is for the two peers to agree on a set of parameters that
define what traffic can go through the VPN, and how to encrypt and authenticate the traffic. This
agreement is called a Security Association.
The Phase 1 and Phase 2 configurations must match for the devices on either end of the tunnel.
Phase 1 Negotiations
In Phase 1 negotiations, the two peers exchange credentials. The devices identify each other and
negotiate to find a common set of Phase 1 settings to use. When Phase 1 negotiations are completed,
the two peers have a Phase 1 Security Association (SA). This SA is valid for only a certain amount of
time. After the Phase 1 SA expires, if the two peers must complete Phase 2 negotiations again, they
must also negotiate Phase 1 again.
Phase 1 negotiations include these steps:
1. The devices exchange credentials.
The credentials can be a certificate or a pre-shared key. Both gateway endpoints must use the
same credential method. If one peer uses a pre-shared key, the other peer must also use a preshared key, and the keys must match. If one peer uses a certificate, the other peer must also
use a certificate.
2. The devices identify each other.
Each device provides a Phase 1 identifier, which can be an IP address, domain name, domain
information, or an X500 name. The VPN configuration on each peer contains the Phase 1
identifier of the local and the remote device, and the configurations must match.
3. The peers decide whether to use Main Mode or Aggressive Mode.
Phase 1 negotiations can use one of two different modes: Main Mode or Aggressive Mode. The
device that starts the IKE negotiations (the initiator) sends either a Main Mode proposal or an
Aggressive Mode proposal. The responder can reject the proposal if it is not configured to use
that mode. Aggressive Mode communications take place with fewer packet exchanges.
Aggressive Mode is less secure but faster than Main Mode.
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4. The peers agree on Phase 1 parameters.
n Whether to use NAT traversal
n Whether to send IKE keep-alive messages (supported between Firebox or XTM devices only)
n Whether to use Dead Peer Detection (RFC 3706)
5. The peers agree on Phase 1 Transform settings.
Transform settings include a set of authentication and encryption parameters, and the
maximum amount of time for the Phase 1 SA. The settings in the Phase 1 transform must
exactly match a Phase 1 transform on the IKE peer, or IKE negotiations fail.
The items you can set in the transform are:
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Authentication — The type of authentication (SHA1 or MD5).
Encryption — The type of encryption algorithm (DES, 3DES or AES).
SA Life — The amount of time until the Phase 1 Security Association expires.
Key Group — The Diffie-Hellman key group.
Phase 2 Negotiations
After the two IPSec peers complete Phase 1 negotiations, Phase 2 negotiations begin. Phase 2
negotiations is to establish the Phase 2 SA (sometimes called the IPSec SA). The IPSec SA is a set of
traffic specifications that tell the device what traffic to send over the VPN, and how to encrypt and
authenticate that traffic. In Phase 2 negotiations, the two peers agree on a set of communication
parameters. When you configure the BOVPN tunnel in Policy Manager or in Fireware XTM Web UI,
you specify the Phase 2 parameters.
Because the peers use the Phase 1 SA to secure the Phase 2 negotiations, and you define the Phase 1
SA settings in the BOVPN Gateway settings, you must specify the gateway to use for each tunnel.
Phase 2 negotiations include these steps:
1. The peers use the Phase 1 SA to secure Phase 2 negotiations.
Phase 2 negotiations can only begin after Phase 1 SA has been established.
2. The peers exchange Phase 2 identifiers (IDs).
Phase 2 IDs are always sent as a pair in a Phase 2 proposal: one indicates which IP addresses
behind the local device can send traffic over the VPN, and the other indicates which IP
addresses behind the remote device can send traffic over the VPN. This is also known as a
tunnel route. You can specify the Phase 2 IDs for the local and remote peer as a host
IP address, a network IP address, or an IP address range.
3. The peers agree on whether to use Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS).
PFS specifies how Phase 2 keys are derived. When PFS is selected, both IKE peers must use
PFS, or Phase 2 rekeys fail. PFS guarantees that if an encryption key used to protect the data
transmission is compromised, an attacker can access only the data protected by that key, not
subsequent keys. If the peers agree to use PFS, they must also agree on the Diffie-Hellman
key group to use for PFS.
4. The peers agree on a Phase 2 proposal.
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The Phase 2 proposal includes the IP addresses that can send traffic over the tunnel, and a
group of encryption and authentication parameters. Fireware XTM sends these parameters in a
Phase 2 proposal. The proposal includes the algorithm to use to authenticate data, the algorithm
to use to encrypt data, and how often to make new Phase 2 encryption keys.
The items you can set in a Phase 2 proposal include:
Type
For a manual BOVPN, you can select the type of protocol to use: Authentication Header
(AH) or Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). ESP provides authentication and
encryption of the data. AH provides authentication without encryption. We recommend you
select ESP. Managed BOVPN and Mobile VPN with IPSec always use ESP.
Authentication
Authentication makes sure that the information received is exactly the same as the
information sent. You can use SHA or MD5 as the algorithm the peers use to authenticate
IKE messages from each other. SHA1 is more secure.
Encryption
Encryption keeps the data confidential. You can select DES, 3DES, or AES. AES is the
most secure.
Force Key Expiration
To make sure Phase 2 encryption keys change periodically, always enable key expiration.
The longer a Phase 2 encryption key is in use, the more data an attacker can collect to use
to mount an attack on the key.
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Configure Phase 1 and Phase 2 Settings
You configure Phase 1 and Phase 2 settings for each IPSec VPN you configure.
Branch Office VPN
For a manual Branch Office VPN (BOVPN), you configure Phase 1 settings when you define a Branch
Office gateway, and you configure Phase 2 settings when you define a Branch Office tunnel.
For more information about BOVPN Phase 1 and Phase 2 settings, see:
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Configure Gateways on page 611
Define a Tunnel on page 622
Mobile VPN with IPSec
For Mobile VPN with IPSec, you configure the Phase 1 and Phase 2 settings when you add or edit a
Mobile VPN with IPSec configuration.
For more information, see:
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Configure the XTM Device for Mobile VPN with IPSec
Modify an Existing Mobile VPN with IPSec Group Profile
Use a Certificate for IPSec VPN Tunnel Authentication
When an IPSec tunnel is created, the IPSec protocol checks the identity of each endpoint with either a
pre-shared key (PSK) or a certificate imported and stored on the XTM device. You configure the tunnel
authentication method in the VPN Phase 1 settings.
For more information about how to use a certificate for tunnel authentication, see:
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Certificates for Branch Office VPN (BOVPN) Tunnel Authentication
Use Certificates for Mobile VPN With IPSec Tunnel Authentication
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About Mobile VPNs
A Mobile VPN enables your employees who telecommute and travel to securely connect to your
corporate network. Fireware XTM supports three forms of remote user virtual private networks: Mobile
VPN with IPSec, Mobile VPN with PPTP, and Mobile VPN with SSL.
When you use Mobile VPN, you first configure your XTM device and then configure the remote client
computers. You use Policy Manager or Fireware XTM Web UI to configure the settings for each user or
group of users. For Mobile VPN with IPSec and Mobile VPN with SSL, you use Policy Manager or the
Web UI to create an end user profile configuration file that includes all the settings necessary to
connect to the XTM device. You can also configure your policies to allow or deny traffic from Mobile
VPN clients. Mobile VPN users authenticate either to the XTM device user database or to an external
authentication server.
Select a Mobile VPN
Fireware XTM supports three types of Mobile VPN. Each type uses different ports, protocols, and
encryption algorithms.
Mobile VPN with PPTP
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PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) — Secures the tunnel between two endpoints
TCP port 1723 — Establishes the tunnel
IP protocol 47 — Encrypts the data
Encryption algorithms — 40 bit or 128 bit
Mobile VPN with IPSec
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IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) — Secure the tunnel between two endpoints
UDP port 500 (IKE) — Establishes the tunnel
UDP port 4500 (NAT Traversal) — Used if the XTM device is configured for NAT
IP protocol 50 (ESP) or IP Protocol 51 (AH) — Encrypts the data
Encryption algorithms — DES, 3DES, or AES (128, 192, or 256 bit)
Mobile VPN with SSL
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SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) — Secures the tunnel between two endpoints
TCP port 443 or UDP port 443 — Establishes the tunnel and encrypts the data
Encryption algorithms — Blowfish, DES, 3DES, or AES (128, 192, or 256 bit)
Note For Mobile VPN with SSL, you can choose a different port and protocol. For more
information, see Choose the Port and Protocol for Mobile VPN with SSL on page 769
The type of Mobile VPN you select largely depends on your existing infrastructure and your network
policy preferences. The XTM device can manage all three types of mobile VPN simultaneously. A
client computer can be configured to use one or more methods. Some of the things to consider when
you select what type of Mobile VPN to use are described in the subsequent sections.
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VPN Tunnel Capacity and Licensing
When you select a type of tunnel, make sure to consider the number of tunnels your device supports
and whether you can purchase an upgrade to increase the number of tunnels.
Mobile VPN
Maximum VPN tunnels
Mobile VPN with
PPTP
50 tunnels
n
Mobile VPN with
IPSec
n
n
n
Mobile VPN with SSL
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Base and maximum tunnels vary by XTM device model.
License purchase is required to enable the maximum number of
tunnels.
Base and maximum tunnels vary by XTM device model.
Pro upgrade for the Fireware XTM OS is required for maximum SSL
VPN tunnels.
To support more than one SSL VPN tunnel you must have a Pro
upgrade.
For the base and maximum number of tunnels supported for Mobile VPN with IPSec and Mobile VPN
with SSL, see the detailed specifications for your XTM device model.
Authentication Server Compatibility
When you select a Mobile VPN solution, make sure to choose a solution that supports the type of
authentication server you use.
Mobile VPN
XTM
device
Mobile VPN with
Yes
PPTP
RADIUS
Vasco/
RADIUS
RSA SecurID
LDAP
Active
Directory
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes*
Yes*
Mobile VPN with
Yes
IPSec
Yes
WatchGuard
client only
WatchGuard
client only
Yes
Yes
Mobile VPN with
Yes
SSL
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
* The Shrew Soft IPSec VPN client is not compatible with 2-factor authentication.
Other compatibility notes:
RADIUS
RADIUS server must return Filter-Id attribute (RADIUS attribute #11) in its Access-Accept
response. The value of the Filter-Id attribute must match the name of the correct group (PPTPUsers or SSLVPN-Users, or the name of the group you define in the Mobile VPN with SSL or
Mobile VPN with IPSec configuration).
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Vasco RADIUS
The RADIUS Filter-Id attribute is currently not supported by Vasco. For a workaround, use the
Microsoft® IAS RADIUS plug-in.
Client Configuration Steps and Operating System Compatibility
The configuration steps you must complete are different for each Mobile VPN solution. Each VPN
solution is also compatible with different operating systems.
Mobile VPN with PPTP
You do not install WatchGuard VPN client software. You must manually configure the network
settings on each client computer to set up a PPTP connection.
Compatible with — Windows XP and Windows Vista.
Mobile VPN with IPSec
You must install the Shrew Soft VPN client or the WatchGuard Mobile VPN with IPSec client
and manually import the end user profile. The Mobile VPN with IPSec clients require more steps
to set up than the Mobile VPN with SSL client.
Compatible with — Windows XP SP2 (32 bit and 64 bit), Windows Vista (32 bit and 64 bit), and
Windows 7 (32 bit and 64 bit).
Mobile VPN with SSL
You must install the WatchGuard Mobile VPN with SSL client and configuration file.
Compatible with — Windows XP SP2 (32 bit and 64 bit), Windows Vista (32 bit and 64 bit),
Windows 7 (32 bit and 64 bit), Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard, and Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard.
Internet Access Options for Mobile VPN Users
For all three types of Mobile VPN, you have two options for Internet access for your Mobile VPN users:
Force all client traffic through tunnel (default-route VPN)
The most secure option is to require that all remote user Internet traffic is routed through the
VPN tunnel to the XTM device. Then, the traffic is sent back out to the Internet. With this
configuration (known as default-route VPN), the XTM device is able to examine all traffic and
provide increased security, although it uses more processing power and bandwidth.
When you use default-route VPN with Mobile VPN for IPSec or Mobile VPN for PPTP, a
dynamic NAT policy must include the outgoing traffic from the remote network. This enables
remote users to browse the Internet when they send all traffic to the XTM device.
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Allow direct access to the Internet (split tunnel VPN)
Another configuration option is to enable split tunneling. With this option, your users can browse
the Internet, but Internet traffic is not sent through the VPN tunnel. Split tunneling improves
network performance, but decreases security because the policies you create are not applied to
the Internet traffic. If you use split tunneling, we recommend that each client computer have a
software firewall.
For more information specific to each type of Mobile VPN, see:
n
n
n
Options for Internet Access Through a Mobile VPN with IPSec Tunnel
Options for Internet Access Through a Mobile VPN with PPTP Tunnel
Options for Internet Access Through a Mobile VPN with SSL Tunnel
Mobile VPN Setup Overview
When you set up Mobile VPN, you must first configure the XTM device and then configure the client
computers. Regardless of which type of Mobile VPN you choose, you must complete the same five
configuration steps. The details for each step are different for each type of VPN.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Activate Mobile VPN in Policy Manager.
Define VPN settings for the new tunnel.
Select and configure the method of authentication for Mobile VPN users.
Define policies and resources.
Configure the client computers.
n
n
For Mobile VPN with IPSec and Mobile VPN with SSL, install the client software and
configuration file.
For Mobile VPN with PPTP, manually configure the PPTP connection in the client
computer network settings.
For more information and detailed steps to set up each type of Mobile VPN, see:
n
n
n
About Mobile VPN with IPSec
About Mobile VPN with PPTP
About Mobile VPN with SSL
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Branch Office VPNs
What You Need to Create a Manual BOVPN
Before you configure a branch office VPN network on your XTM device, read these requirements:
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
You must have two XTM devices, or one XTM device and a second device that uses IPSec
standards. You must enable the VPN option on the other device if it is not already active.
You must have an Internet connection.
The ISP for each VPN device must allow IPSec traffic on their networks.
Some ISPs do not let you create VPN tunnels on their networks unless you upgrade your
Internet service to a level that supports VPN tunnels. Speak with a representative from each
ISP to make sure these ports and protocols are allowed:
o UDP Port 500 (Internet Key Exchange or IKE)
o UDP Port 4500 (NAT traversal)
o IP Protocol 50 (Encapsulating Security Payload or ESP)
If the other side of the VPN tunnel is a XTM device and each device is under management, you
can use the Managed VPN option. Managed VPN is easier to configure than Manual VPN. To
use this option, you must get information from the administrator of the XTM device on the other
side of the VPN tunnel.
You must know whether the IP address assigned to the external interface of your XTM device is
static or dynamic.
For more information about IP addresses, see About IP Addresses on page 3.
Your XTM device model tells you the maximum number of VPN tunnels that you can create. If
your XTM device model can be upgraded, you can purchase a model upgrade that increases the
maximum number of supported VPN tunnels.
If you connect two Microsoft Windows NT networks, they must be in the same Microsoft
Windows domain, or they must be trusted domains. This is a Microsoft Networking issue, and
not a limitation of the XTM device.
If you want to use the DNS and WINS servers from the network on the other side of the VPN
tunnel, you must know the IP addresses of these servers.
The XTM device can give WINS and DNS IP addresses to the computers on its trusted network
if those computers get their IP addresses from the XTM device with DHCP.
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n
n
If you want to give the computers the IP addresses of WINS and DNS servers on the other side
of the VPN, you can type those addresses into the DHCP settings in the trusted network setup.
For information on how to configure the XTM device to distribute IP addresses with DHCP, see
Configure DHCP in Mixed Routing Mode on page 108.
You must know the network address of the private (trusted) networks behind your XTM device
and of the network behind the other VPN device, and their subnet masks.
Note The private IP addresses of the computers behind your XTM device cannot be the
same as the IP addresses of the computers on the other side of the VPN tunnel. If
your trusted network uses the same IP addresses as the office to which it will create a
VPN tunnel, then your network or the other network must change their IP address
arrangement to prevent IP address conflicts.
About Manual Branch Office VPN Tunnels
A VPN (Virtual Private Network) creates secure connections between computers or networks in
different locations. Each connection is known as a tunnel. When a VPN tunnel is created, the two
tunnel endpoints authenticate with each other. Data in the tunnel is encrypted. Only the sender and the
recipient of the traffic can read it.
Branch Office Virtual Private Networks (BOVPN) enable organizations to deliver secure, encrypted
connectivity between geographically separated offices. The networks and hosts on a BOVPN tunnel
can be corporate headquarters, branch offices, remote users, or telecommuters. These
communications often contain the types of critical data exchanged inside a corporate firewall. In this
scenario, a BOVPN provides confidential connections between these offices. This streamlines
communication, reduces the cost of dedicated lines, and maintains security at each endpoint.
Manual BOVPN tunnels are those created with the Fireware XTM Web UI, which provides many
additional tunnel options. Another type of tunnel is a managed BOVPN tunnel,which is a BOVPN
tunnel that you can create in WatchGuard System Manager with a drag-and-drop procedure, a wizard,
and the use of templates. For information about this type of tunnel, see the WatchGuard System
Manager User Guide or online help system.
What You Need to Create a VPN
In addition to the VPN requirements, you must have this information to create a manual VPN tunnel:
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n
You must know whether the IP address assigned to the other VPN device is static or dynamic.
If the other VPN device has a dynamic IP address, your XTM device must find the other device
by domain name and the other device must use Dynamic DNS.
You must know the shared key (passphrase) for the tunnel. The same shared key must be used
by each device.
You must know the encryption method used for the tunnel (DES, 3DES, AES-128 bit, AES-192
bit, or AES-256 bit). The two VPN devices must use the same encryption method.
You must know the authentication method for each end of the tunnel (MD5 or SHA-1). The two
VPN devices must use the same authentication method.
For more information, see What You Need to Create a Manual BOVPN on page 605.
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We recommend that you write down your XTM device configuration and the related information for the
other device. See the Sample VPN Address Information Table on page 608 to record this information.
How to Create a Manual BOVPN Tunnel
The basic procedure to create a manual tunnel includes these steps:
1. Configure Gateways — Configure the connection points on both the local and remote sides of
the tunnel.
2. Make Tunnels Between Gateway Endpoints — Configure routes for the tunnel, specify how the
devices control security, and make a policy for the tunnel.
Other options you can use for BOVPN tunnels are described in the subsequent sections.
One-Way Tunnels
Set Up Outgoing Dynamic NAT Through a Branch Office VPN Tunnel if you want to keep the VPN
tunnel open in one direction only. This can be helpful when you make a tunnel to a remote site where all
VPN traffic comes from one public IP address.
VPN Failover
VPN tunnels automatically fail over to the backup WAN interface during a WAN failover. You can
configure BOVPN tunnels to fail over to a backup peer endpoint if the primary endpoint becomes
unavailable. To do this, you must define at least one backup endpoint, as described in Configure VPN
Failover on page 656.
Global VPN Settings
Global VPN settings on your XTM device apply to all manual BOVPN tunnels, managed tunnels, and
Mobile VPN tunnels. You can use these settings to:
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n
n
n
n
n
Enable IPSec pass-through
Clear or maintain the settings of packets with Type of Service (TOS) bits set
Enable the use of non-default routes to determine if IPSec is used
Disable or enable the built-in IPSec policy
Use an LDAP server to verify certificates
Configure the XTM device to send a notification when a BOVPN tunnel is down
(BOVPN tunnels only)
To change these settings, from the Fireware XTM Web UI, select VPN > Global Settings. For more
information on these settings, see About Global VPN Settings on page 629.
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BOVPN Tunnel Status
To see the current status of BOVPN tunnels. In the Fireware XTM Web UI, select System Status
> VPN Statistics. For more information, see VPN Statistics on page 560.
Rekey BOVPN Tunnels
You can use the Fireware Web UI to immediately generate new keys for BOVPN tunnels instead of
waiting for them to expire. For more information, see Rekey BOVPN Tunnels on page 659.
Sample VPN Address Information Table
Item
Assigned
by
Description
The IP address that identifies the IPSec-compatible device on the
Internet. ISP
External IP
Address
ISP
Example:
Site A: 203.0.113.2
Site B: 198.51.100.2
An address used to identify a local network. These are the IP
addresses of the computers on each side that are allowed to send
traffic through the VPN tunnel. We recommend that you use an address
from one of the reserved ranges:
10.0.0.0/8—255.0.0.0
172.16.0.0/12—255.240.0.0
Local Network 192.168.0.0/16—255.255.0.0
You
Address
The numbers after the slashes indicate the subnet masks. /24 means
that the subnet mask for the trusted network is 255.255.255.0.
For more information about slash notation, see About Slash Notation on
page 5.
Example:
Site A: 10.0.1.0/24
Site B: 10.50.1.0/24
Shared Key
The shared key is a passphrase used by two IPSec-compatible
devices to encrypt and decrypt the data that goes through the VPN
tunnel. The two devices use the same passphrase. If the devices do
not have the same passphrase, they cannot encrypt and decrypt the
data correctly.
You
Use a passphrase that contains numbers, symbols, lowercase letters,
and uppercase letters for better security. For example, “Gu4c4mo!3” is
better than “guacamole”.
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Item
Description
Assigned
by
Example:
Site A: OurShared/Secret
Site B: OurShared/Secret
Encryption
Method
DES uses 56-bit encryption. 3DES uses 168-bit encryption. AES
encryption is available at the 128-bit, 192-bit, and 256-bit levels. AES256 bit is the most secure encryption. The two devices must use the
same encryption method.
You
Example:
Site A: AES-256
Site B: AES-256
The two devices must use the same authentication method.
Authentication Example:
Site A: MD5 (or SHA-1)
Site B: MD5 (or SHA-1)
You
Branch Office VPN Terminology
When you configure branch office VPNs, it is useful to understand these terms. Some of these terms
have a specific meaning when you set up and monitor branch office VPNs on a WatchGuard
XTM device.
Security Association (SA)
A Security Association is defined in RFC 2408 as part of the ISAKMP (Internet Security
Association and Key Management Protocol) standard. In a VPN, you can think of an SA as the
context that includes all of the information, such as encryption, authentication, and integrity
checks, required for two peers to communicate securely. Both peers must share and agree
upon this information. SA is a general term that can apply to different protocols, and the SA
structure is different for different VPN protocols. SAs are uni-directional.
For an IPSec VPN tunnel, there are two types of SAs:
Phase 1 SA
Negotiated based on the Phase 1 settings, the Phase 1 SA creates a secure channel for
Phase 2 negotiations. In Fireware XTM, you configure Phase 1 settings when you
configure the branch office VPN gateway.
Phase 2 SA
Negotiated based on the Phase 2 settings, the Phase 2 SA defines what traffic can be sent
over the VPN, and how to encrypt and authenticate that traffic. In Fireware XTM, you
configure Phase 2 settings when you configure the branch office VPN tunnel.
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Gateway
For a Fireware XTM device, a branch office VPN gateway defines the settings for a connection
between one or more pairs of VPN gateway endpoints. Each gateway endpoint pair consists of
a local gateway and a remote gateway. When you configure a gateway endpoint pair, you
specify the addresses of the two gateway endpoints, and the Phase I settings the two gateway
endpoints use to exchange keys or negotiate an encryption methodology to use. If one or both
sites has multi-WAN, the branch office VPN gateway can have multiple gateway endpoint
pairs, and the gateway endpoint pairs can fail over to one another.
You can configure multiple tunnels to use the same gateway. The gateway creates a secure
connection for the VPN tunnels that use it.
Tunnel
For a Fireware XTM device, a branch office VPN tunnel defines the phase 2 configuration
settings, and includes one or more tunnel routes to define who can exchange traffic through the
tunnel.
Tunnel route
For a Fireware XTM device, the tunnel route defines which hosts or networks can send and
receive traffic through the tunnel. When you add a tunnel route, you specify a pair of local and
remote IP addresses of devices at each end of the tunnel. Each IP address in a tunnel route can
be for a host or network. You can add multiple tunnel routes to the same tunnel. Each tunnel
route has a pair of associated SAs, one inbound and one outbound.
Note In Firebox System Manager, each active tunnel route appears as a separate tunnel.
This allows you to easily monitor the status of each tunnel route. In the feature key,
the number of Branch Office VPN tunnels refers to the maximum number of active
branch office VPN tunnel routes.
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Configure Gateways
A gateway is a connection point for one or more tunnels. To create a tunnel, you must set up gateways
on both the local and remote endpoint devices. To configure these gateways, you must specify:
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Credential method — Either pre-shared keys or an IPSec XTM device certificate.
For information about using certificates for BOVPN authentication, see Certificates for Branch
Office VPN (BOVPN) Tunnel Authentication on page 587.
Location of local and remote gateway endpoints, either by IP address or domain information.
Settings for Phase 1 of the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) negotiation. This phase defines the
security association, or the protocols and settings that the gateway endpoints will use to
communicate, to protect data that is passed in the negotiation.
You can use Fireware XTM Web UI to configure the gateways for each endpoint device.
1. Select VPN > Branch Office VPN.
The Branch Office VPN configuration page appears, with the Gateways list at the top.
2. To add a gateway, click Add adjacent to the Gateways list.
The Gateway settings page appears.
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3. In the Gateway Name text box, type a name to identify the gateway for this XTM device.
4. From the Gateway page, select either Use Pre-Shared Key or Use IPSec Firebox Certificate
to identify the authentication procedure this tunnel uses.
If you selected Use Pre-Shared Key
Type or paste the shared key. You must use the same shared key on the remote device.
This shared key must use only standard ASCII characters.
If you selected Use IPSec Firebox Certificate
The table below the radio button shows current certificates on the XTM device. Select the
certificate to use for the gateway.
For more information, see Certificates for Branch Office VPN (BOVPN) Tunnel Authentication
on page 587.
You can now define the gateway endpoints. For more information, see Define Gateway Endpoints on
page 613.
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Define Gateway Endpoints
Gateway Endpoints are the local and remote gateways that a BOVPN connects. This information tells
your XTM device how to identify and communicate with the remote endpoint device when it negotiates
the BOVPN. It also tells the XTM device how to identify itself to the remote endpoint when it negotiates
the BOVPN.
Any external interface can be a gateway endpoint. If you have more than one external interface, you
can configure multiple gateway endpoints for VPN failover. For more information, see Configure VPN
Failover on page 656.
Note Do not use a secondary network IP address as the gateway endpoint.
Local Gateway
In the Local Gateway section, you configure the gateway ID and the interface the BOVPN connects to
on your XTM device. For the gateway ID, if you have a static IP address you can select By
IP Address. If you have a domain that resolves to the IP address the BOVPN connects to on your
XTM device, select By Domain Information.
From the Gateway page:
1. In the Gateway Endpoints section, click Add.
The New Gateway Endpoints Settings dialog box appears.
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2. Select an option and specify the gateway ID:
n By IP address — Type the IP address of the XTM device interface IP address . Do not use
a secondary network IP address to specify the gateway endpoint.
n By Domain Name — Type your domain name.
n By User ID on Domain — Type the user name and domain with the format
[email protected] .
n By x500 Name — Type the x500 name.
3. From the External Interface drop-down list, select the interface on the XTM device with the
IP address or domain you chose for the gateway ID. If you configured the wireless client as an
external interface, select the interface WG-Wireless-Client.
Remote Gateway
In the Remote Gateway section, you configure the gateway IP address and gateway ID for the remote
endpoint device that the BOVPN connects to. The gateway IP address can be either a static
IP address or a dynamic IP address. The gateway ID can be By Domain Name, By User ID on
Domain, or By x500 Name. The administrator of the remote gateway device can tell you which to use.
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1. Select the remote gateway IP address.
n Static IP address — Select this option if the remote device has a static IP address. For
IP Address, type the IP address or select it from the drop-down list.
n Dynamic IP address — Select this option if the remote device has a dynamic IP address.
2. Select an option and specify the gateway ID:
n By IP address — Type the IP address.
n By Domain Name — Type the domain name.
n By User ID on Domain — Type the user ID and domain.
n By x500 Name — Type the x500 name.
n If the domain name of the remote endpoint is resolvable, select the Attempt to resolve
domain check box.
When this option is selected, the XTM device automatically does a DNS query to find the
IP address associated with the domain name for the remote endpoint. Connections do not
proceed until the domain name can be resolved. Select this check box for configurations that
depend on a dynamic DNS server to maintain a mapping between a dynamic IP address and
a domain name.
Note If the remote VPN endpoint uses DHCP or PPPoE to get its external IP address, set
the ID type of the remote gateway to Domain Name. Set the peer name to the fully
qualified domain name of the remote VPN endpoint. The XTM device uses the IP
address and domain name to find the VPN endpoint. Make sure the DNS server used
by the XTM device can identify the name.
3. Click OK to close the Gateway Endpoints Settings dialog box.
The Gateway page appears. The gateway pair you defined appears in the list of gateway endpoints.
4. To configure Phase 1 settings for this gateway, follow the steps in Configure Mode and
Transforms (Phase 1 Settings) on page 616.
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Configure Mode and Transforms (Phase 1 Settings)
When an IPSec connection is established, Phase 1 is when the two peers make a secure,
authenticated channel they can use to communicate. This is known as the ISAKMP Security
Association (SA).
A Phase 1 exchange can use either Main Mode or Aggressive Mode. The mode determines the type
and number of message exchanges that occur in this phase.
A transform is a set of security protocols and algorithms used to protect VPN data. During IKE
negotiation, the peers make an agreement to use a certain transform.
You can define a tunnel so that it offers a peer more than one transform for negotiation. For more
information, see Add a Phase 1 Transform on page 618.
1. In the Gateway page, select the Phase 1 Settings tab.
2. From the Mode drop-down list, select Main, Aggressive, or Main fallback to Aggressive.
Main Mode
This mode is more secure, and uses three separate message exchanges for a total of six
messages. The first two messages negotiate policy, the next two exchange Diffie-Hellman
data, and the last two authenticate the Diffie-Hellman exchange. Main Mode supports
Diffie-Hellman groups 1, 2, and 5. This mode also allows you to use multiple transforms, as
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described in Add a Phase 1 Transform on page 618.
Aggressive Mode
This mode is faster because it uses only three messages, which exchange About DiffieHellman Groups data and identify the two VPN endpoints. The identification of the
VPN endpoints makes Aggressive Mode less secure.
Main fallback to aggressive
The XTM device attempts Phase 1 exchange with Main Mode. If the negotiation fails, it
uses Aggressive Mode.
3. If you want to build a BOVPN tunnel between the XTM device and another device that is behind
a NAT device, select the NAT Traversal check box. NAT Traversal, or UDP Encapsulation,
enables traffic to get to the correct destinations.
4. To have the XTM device send messages to its IKE peer to keep the VPN tunnel open, select
the IKE Keep-alive check box.
5. In the Message Interval text box, type or select the number of seconds that pass before the
next IKE Keep-alive message is sent.
Note IKE Keep-alive is used only by XTM devices. Do not enable it if one VPN endpoint is a
third-party IPSec device.
6. To set the maximum number of times the XTM device tries to send an IKE keep-alive message
before it tries to negotiate Phase 1 again, type the number you want in the Max failures text box.
7. Use the Dead Peer Detection check box to enable or disable traffic-based dead peer detection.
When you enable dead peer detection, the XTM device connects to a peer only if no traffic is
received from the peer for a specified length of time and a packet is waiting to be sent to the
peer. This method is more scalable than IKE keep-alive messages.
If you want to change the XTM device defaults, in the Traffic idle timeout text box, type or
select the amount of time (in seconds) that passes before the XTM device tries to connect to
the peer. In the Max retries text box, type or select the number of times the XTM device tries to
connect before the peer is declared dead.
Dead Peer Detection is an industry standard that is used by most IPSec devices. We
recommend that you select Dead Peer Detection if both endpoint devices support it.
Note If you configure VPN failover, you must enable DPD. For more information about VPN
failover, see Configure VPN Failover on page 656
8. The XTM device contains one default transform set, which appears in the Transform Settings
list. This transform specifies SHA-1 authentication, 3DES encryption, and Diffie-Hellman
Group 2.
You can:
n Use this default transform set.
n Remove this transform set and replace it with a new one.
n Add an additional transform, as explained in Add a Phase 1 Transform on page 618.
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Add a Phase 1 Transform
You can define a tunnel to offer a peer more than one transform set for negotiation. For example, one
transform set might include SHA1-DES-DF1 ([authentication method]-[encryption method]-[key
group]) and a second transform might include MD5-3DES-DF2, with the SHA1-DES-DF1 transform as
the higher priority transform set. When the tunnel is created, the XTM device can use either SHA1DES-DF1 or MD5-3DES-DF2 to match the transform set of the other VPN endpoint.
You can include a maximum of nine transform sets. You must specify Main Mode in the Phase 1
settings to use multiple transforms.
1. On the Gateway page, select the Phase 1 Settings tab.
2. In the Transform Settings section, click Add.
The Transform Settings dialog box appears.
3. From the Authentication drop-down list, select SHA1 or MD5 as the type of authentication.
4. From the Encryption drop-down list, select AES (128-bit), AES (192-bit), AES (256-bit),
DES, or 3DES as the type of encryption.
5. To change the SA (security association) life, type a number in the SA Life text box, and select
Hour or Minute from the adjacent drop-down list. The SA life must be a number smaller than
596,523 hours or 35,791,394 minutes.
6. From the Key Group drop-down list, select a Diffie-Hellman group. Fireware XTM supports
groups 1, 2, and 5.
Diffie-Hellman groups determine the strength of the master key used in the key exchange
process. A higher group number provides greater security, but more time is required to make the
keys. For more information, see About Diffie-Hellman Groups on page 619.
7. Click OK.
The Transform appears in the New Gateway page in the Transform Settings list. You can add up to
nine transform sets.
8. Repeat Steps 2–6 to add more transforms. The transform set at the top of the list is used first.
9. To change the priority of a transform set, select the transform set and click Up or Down.
10. Click OK.
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About Diffie-Hellman Groups
Diffie-Hellman (DH) groups determine the strength of the key used in the key exchange process.
Higher group numbers are more secure, but require additional time to compute the key.
Fireware XTM supports Diffie-Hellman groups 1, 2, and 5:
n
n
n
DH Group 1: 768-bit group
DH Group 2: 1024-bit group
DH Group 5: 1536-bit group
Both peers in a VPN exchange must use the same DH group, which is negotiated during Phase 1 of
the IPSec negotiation process. When you define a manual BOVPN tunnel, you specify the DiffieHellman group as part of Phase 1 of creating an IPSec connection. This is where the two peers make a
secure, authenticated channel they can use to communicate.
DH groups and Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS)
In addition to Phase 1, you can also specify the Diffie-Hellman group in Phase 2 of an IPSec
connection. Phase 2 configuration includes settings for a security association (SA), or how data
packets are secured when they are passed between two endpoints. You specify the Diffie-Hellman
group in Phase 2 only when you select Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS).
PFS makes keys more secure because new keys are not made from previous keys. If a key is
compromised, new session keys are still secure. When you specify PFS during Phase 2, a DiffieHellman exchange occurs each time a new SA is negotiated.
The DH group you choose for Phase 2 does not need to match the group you choose for Phase 1.
How to Choose a Diffie-Hellman Group
The default DH group for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 is Diffie-Hellman Group 1. This group provides
basic security and good performance. If the speed for tunnel initialization and rekey is not a concern,
use Group 2 or Group 5. Actual initialization and rekey speed depends on a number of factors. You
might want to try DH Group 2 or 5 and decide whether the slower performance time is a problem for
your network. If the performance is unacceptable, change to a lower DH group.
Performance Analysis
The following table shows the output of a software application that generates 2000 Diffie-Hellman
values. These figures are for a 1.7GHz Intel Pentium 4 CPU.
DH Group No. of key pairs Time required Time per key pair
Group 1
2000
43 sec
21 ms
Group 2
2000
84 sec
42 ms
Group 5
2000
246 sec
123 ms
User Guide
619
Branch Office VPNs
Edit and Delete Gateways
To change the definition of a gateway
1. Select VPN > BOVPN.
2. Select a gateway and click Edit.
The Gateway settings page appears.
3. Make your changes and click Save.
To delete a gateway, select the gateway and click Remove.
Disable Automatic Tunnel Startup
BOVPN tunnels are automaticall