Renogy RNG-CTRL-RVR40 User manual

Renogy RNG-CTRL-RVR40 User manual
Rover Series
Rover 20A | 30A | 40A
Maximum Power Point Tracking Solar Charge Controller
Version 1.0
Important Safety Instructions
Please save these instructions.
This manual contains important safety, installation, and operating instructions for the charge
controller. The following symbols are used throughout the manual to indicate potentially
dangerous conditions or important safety information.
Indicates a potentially dangerous condition. Use extreme caution
when performing this task
Indicates a critical procedure for safe and proper operation of the
Indicates a procedure or function that is important to the safe and
proper operation of the controller
General Safety Information
Read all of the instructions and cautions in the manual before beginning the installation.
There are no serviceable parts for this controller. Do NOT disassemble or attempt to repair
the controller.
Do NOT allow water to enter the controller.
Make sure all connections going into and from the controller are tight.
Charge Controller Safety
NEVER connect the solar panel array to the controller without a battery. Battery must be
connected first.
Ensure input voltage does not exceed 100 VDC to prevent permanent damage. Use the
Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) to make sure the voltage does not exceed this value when
connecting panels together.
Battery Safety
Use only sealed lead-acid, flooded, gel or lithium batteries which must be deep cycle.
Explosive battery gases may be present while charging. Be certain there is enough
ventilation to release the gases.
Be careful when working with large lead acid batteries. Wear eye protection and have
fresh water available in case there is contact with the battery acid.
Carefully read battery manuals before operation.
Do NOT let the positive (+) and negative (-) terminals of the battery touch each other.
Recycle battery when it is replaced.
Over-charging and excessive gas precipitation may damage the battery plates and
activate material shedding on them. Too high of an equalizing charge or too long of one
may cause damage. Please carefully review the specific requirements of the battery
used in the system.
Equalization is carried out only for non-sealed / vented/ flooded / wet cell lead acid
Do NOT equalize VRLA type AGM / Gel / Lithium cell batteries UNLESS permitted by
battery manufacturer.
Default charging parameters in Li mode are programmed for 12.8V Lithium Iron
Phosphate (LFP) Battery only. Before using Rover to charge other types of lithium
battery, set the parameters according to the suggestions from battery manufacturer.
Connect battery terminals to the charge controller BEFORE connecting
the solar panel(s) to the charge controller. NEVER connect solar panels to
charge controller until the battery is connected.
Do NOT connect any inverters or battery charger into the load terminal of
the charge controller.
Once equalization is active in the battery charging, it will not exit this stage
unless there is adequate charging current from the solar panel. There
should be NO load on the batteries when in equalization charging stage.
Table of Contents
General Information
Additional Components
Optional Components
Identification of Parts
LED Indicators
Rover Protections
System Status Troubleshooting
Error Codes
Technical Specifications
Electrical Parameters
Battery Charging Parameters
PV Power – Conversion Efficiency Curves
General Information
The Rover Series charge controllers are suitable for various off-grid solar applications. It protects
the battery from being over-charged by the solar modules and over-discharged by the loads. The
controller features a smart tracking algorithm that maximizes the energy from the solar PV module
(s) and charge the battery. At the same time, the low voltage disconnect function (LVD) will prevent
the battery from over discharging.
The Rover's charging process has been optimized for long battery life and improved system
performance. The comprehensive self-diagnostics and electronic protection functions can prevent
damage from installation mistakes or system faults.
Key Features
Automatically detect 12V or 24V DC system voltages
Innovative MPPT technology with high tracking efficiency up to 99% and peak
conversion efficiency of 98%
Deep cycle Sealed, Gel, Flooded and Lithium (12.8V LFP) battery option ready
Electronic protection: Overcharging, over-discharging, overload, and short circuit
Reverse protection: Any combination of solar module and battery, without causing
damage to any component
Customizable charging voltages
Charges over-discharged lithium batteries
RS232 port to communicate with BT-1 Bluetooth module and PC
MPPT Technology
The MPPT Charge Controller utilizes Maximum Power Point Tracking technology to extract
maximum power from the solar module(s). The tracking algorithm is fully automatic and
does not require user adjustment. MPPT technology will track the array’smaximum power point
voltage (Vmp) as it varies with weather conditions, ensuring that the maximum power is
harvested from the array throughout the course of the day.
Current Boost
In many cases, the MPPT charge controller will “boost” up the current in the solar system. The
current does not come out of thin air. Instead, the power generated in the solar panels is the
same power that is transmitted into the battery bank. Power is the product of Voltage (V) x
Amperage (A).
Therefore, assuming 100% efficiency:
Power In = Power Out
Volts In * Amps In = Volts out * Amps out
Although MPPT controllers are not 100% efficient, they are very close at about 92-95% efficient.
Therefore, when the user has a solar system whose Vmp is greater than the battery bank
voltage, then that potential difference is proportional to the current boost. The voltage generated
at the solar module needs to be stepped down to a rate that could charge the battery in a stable
fashion by which the amperage is boosted accordingly to the drop. It is entirely possible to have
a solar module generate 8 amps going into the charge controller and likewise have the charge
controller send 10 amps to the battery bank. This is the essence of the MPPT charge controllers
and their advantage over traditional charge controllers. In traditional charge controllers, that
stepped down voltage amount is wasted because the controller algorithm can only dissipate it
as heat. The following demonstrates a graphical point regarding the output of MPPT technology.
Current vs. Voltage (12V System)
Typical Battery
Voltage Range
Power Point
Output Power(12V System)
Power Point
Limiting Effectiveness
Temperature is a huge enemy of solar modules. As the environmental temperature
increases, the operating voltage (Vmp) is reduced and limits the power generation of the solar
module. Despite the effectiveness of MPPT technology, the charging algorithm will possibly
not have much to work with and therefore there is an inevitable decrease in performance.
In this scenario, it would be preferred to have modules with higher nominal voltage, so that
despite the drop in performance of the panel, the battery is still receiving a current boost
because of the proportional drop in module voltage.
Four Charging Stages
The Rover MPPT charge controller has a 4-stage battery charging algorithm for a rapid,
efficient, and safe battery charging. They include: Bulk Charge, Boost Charge, Float Charge,
and Equalization.
Bulk Charge: This algorithm is used for day to day charging. It uses 100% of available solar
power to recharge the battery and is equivalent to constant current. In this stage the battery
voltage has not yet reached constant voltage (Equalize or Boost), the controller operates in
constant current mode, delivering its maximum current to the batteries (MPPT Charging) .
Constant Charging: When the battery reaches the constant voltage set point, the controller
will start to operate in constant charging mode, where it is no longer MPPT charging. The current
will drop gradually. This has two stages, equalize and boost and they are not carried out
constantly in a full charge process to avoid too much gas precipitation or overheating of the
Boost Charge: Boost stage maintains a charge for 2 hours by default. The user
can adjust the constant time and preset value of boost per their demand.
Float Charge: After the constant voltage stage, the controller will reduce the battery voltage
to a float voltage set point. Once the battery is fully charged, there will be no more chemical
reactions and all the charge current would turn into heat or gas. Because of this,
The charge controller will reduce the voltage charge to smaller quantity, while lightly charging
the battery. The purpose for this is to offset the power consumption while maintaining a full
battery storage capacity. In the event that a load drawn from the battery exceeds the charge
current, the controller will no longer be able to maintain the battery to a Float set point and the
controller will end the float charge stage and refer back to bulk charging.
Equalization: Is carried out every 28 days of the month. It is intentional overcharging of
the battery for a controlled period of time. Certain types of batteries benefit from periodic
equalizing charge, which can stir the electrolyte, balance battery voltage and complete
chemical reaction. Equalizing charge increases the battery voltage, higher than the standard
complement voltage, which gasifies the battery electrolyte.
Once equalization is active in the battery charging, it will not exit this stage unless
there is adequate charging current from the solar panel. There should be NO load
on the batteries when in equalization charging stage.
Over-charging and excessive gas precipitation may damage the battery plates
and activate material shedding on them. Too high of equalizing charge or for too
long may cause damage. Please carefully review the specific requirements of the
battery used in the system.
Equalization may increase battery voltage to a level damaging to sensitive DC
loads. Ensure that all load allowable input voltages are greater than the equalizing
charging set point voltage.
Lithium Battery Activation
The Rover MPPT charge controller has a reactivation feature to awaken a sleeping lithium
battery. The protection circuit of lithium battery will typically turn the battery off and make it
unusable if over-discharged. This can happen when storing a lithium battery pack in a
discharged state for any length of time as self-discharge would gradually deplete the remaining
charge. Without the wake-up feature to reactivate and recharge batteries, these batteries would
become unserviceable and the packs would be discarded. The Rover will apply a small charge
current to activate the protection circuit and if a correct cell voltage can be reached, it starts a
normal charge.
When using the Rover to charge a 24V lithium battery bank, set the system
voltage to 24V instead of auto recognition. If auto recognition is accidently
selected the Rover will allow you to change it to 24V when the lithium battery
activation feature is activated. In the activation interface press and hold the
enter button to trigger the system voltage selector. To change the system
voltage, press the Up or Down buttons then long press Enter to save the
selected system voltage.
Additional Components
Additional components included in the package:
Remote Temperature Sensor:
This sensor measures the temperature at the battery and uses this data for
very accurate temperature compensation. Accurate temperature
compensation is important in ensuring proper battery charging regardless
of the temperature.
Do Not use this sensor when charging lithium battery.
Optional Components
Optional components that require a separate purchase:
Renogy BT-1 Bluetooth Module:
The BT-1 Bluetooth module is a great addition to any Renogy charge
controllers with a RS232 port and is used to pair charge controllers with the
Renogy BT App. After pairing is done you can monitor your system and
change parameters directly from you cell phone or tablet. No more
wondering how your system is performing, now you can see performance
in real time without the need of checking on the controller’s LCD.
Identification of Parts
11 12
Key Parts
1. PV LED Indicator
2. Battery LED Indicator
3. Load LED Indicator
4. System Error LED Indicator
5. LCD Screen
6. Operating Keys
7. Mounting Holes
8. Remote Temperature Sensor Port (optional accessory)
9. PV Terminals
10. Battery Terminals
11. Load Terminals
12. RS-232 Port (optional accessory)
Recommended tools to have before installation:
Connect battery terminal wires to the charge controller FIRST then connect the
solar panel(s) to the charge controller. NEVER connect solar panel to charge
controller before the battery.
Do NOT connect any inverters or battery chargers into the LOAD TERMINAL of
the charge controller.
Do not over tighten the screw terminals. This could potentially break the
piece that holds the wire to the charge controller.
Refer to the technical specifications for max wire sizes on the controller and
for the maximum amperage going through wires.
You are now ready to begin connecting your battery to your charge controller.
Load (optional)
Solar Panels
PC or Bluetooth Module communication (optional)
Temperature Sensor (optional, not polarity sensitive)
Secure the Temperature Sensor lug to one of the battery posts
Do NOT place the Temperature Sensor lug inside the battery cell.
Mounting Recommendations
Never install the controller in a sealed enclosure with flooded batteries. Gas can accumulate
and there is a risk of explosion.
1. Choose Mounting Location—place the controller on a vertical surface protected from
direct sunlight, high temperatures, and water. Make sure there is good ventilation.
2. Check for Clearance—verify that there is sufficient room to run wires, as well as clearance
above and below the controller for ventilation. The clearance should be at least 6 inches (150mm).
3. Mark Holes
4. Drill Holes
5. Secure the charge controller.
Rover is very simple to use. Simply connect the batteries, and the controller will automatically
determine the battery voltage. The controller comes equipped with an LCD screen and 4 buttons
to maneuver though the menus.
Startup Interface
Main Display
Main Screen
Solar Panel Voltage
Battery Voltage
Charging Current
Battery Capacity
Error Code
Load mode
Load Current
Accumulated AH
Ambient Temperature
Discharged AH
The Battery Capacity (SOC%) is an estimation based on the charging voltage.
Page Up/ Increase parameter value
Page Down/ Decrease parameter value
Return to the previous menu
Enter sub menu/ save parameter value/
turn load on or off in manual mode
Programming Parameters
Battery type
System voltage
Over-discharge voltage
Equalizing voltage
return voltage
boost voltage
Floating charging
To enter the programming interface simply press and hold the right arrow button. After entering
this feature press the Enter/Right button to switch between parameters. To change the
parameters, press the Up or Down button. To save the parameter press and hold the
Enter/Right button.
The charging parameter setting (Equalizing voltage, Boost voltage, Floating charging voltage,
over-discharge return voltage, Over-discharge voltage) are only available under the battery
“USER” mode. Press and hold the right arrow to enter the programming settings and continue
pressing the right arrow button until you see the desired voltage screen.
Battery charging parameters can also be programmed using Solar Monitoring Software and
Renogy BT APP. Read the corresponding user manuals for more information.
Programming Load Terminal
1. This screen is displaying the current Load Mode.
2. To enter screen 2 press and hold the Enter button. This screen will allow you to change
the load mode.
3. To change the load mode press the up or down button.
4. Once you have selected the desired load mode press the Enter button to save the setting.
5. To exit the programming setting press the left button.
Load Mode Options
The load will turn on at night when the solar
panel is no longer producing any power after
a short time delay. The load will turn off
when the panel starts producing power.
Time control
When the panel is no longer producing power
the load will be ON for 1-14 hours or until the
panel starts producing power.
In this mode, the user can turn the Load
On/Off by pressing the Enter button at
any time.
Used to troubleshoot load terminal (No
Time Delay). When voltage is detected
load will be off and when no voltage is
detected load will be on.
The load will be on for 24 hours a day.
LCD Indicators
daytime solar panel
charging stage system voltage
setting serial port bluetooth abnormality
battery type
parameter value
LED Indicators
①---PV array indicator
Indicating the controller's current
charging mode.
②---BAT indicator
Indicating the battery's current state.
③---LOAD indicator
Indicating the loads' On/ Off state.
④---ERROR indicator
Indicating whether the controller is
functioning normally.
PV Indicator (1)
The PV system is charging the battery bank
White Slow Flashing
The Controller is undergoing boost stage
White Single Flashing
The Controller is undergoing float stage
White Fast Flashing
The Controller is undergoing equalization stage
White Double Flashing
The PV system is charging the battery bank at a
slow rate. Make sure panels are not shaded. Low
The PV system is not charging the battery bank.
PV not detected.
BATT Indicator (2)
White Solid
Battery is normal
White Slow Flashing
Battery over-discharged
White Fast Flashing
Battery over-voltage
BATT Indicator (3)
White Solid
Load is on
White Fast Flashing
Load is over-loaded or short-circuited
Load is off
BATT Indicator (4)
White Solid
System Error. Please check LCD for Error code
System is operating normally
Rover Protections
PV Array Short Circuit
When PV shot circuit occurs, the controller will stop charging.
Clear it to resume normal operation.
PV Overvoltage
If the PV voltage is larger than maximum input open voltage
100VDC, PV will remain disconnected until the voltage drops
below 100VDC.
PV Overcurrent
The controller will limit the battery charging current to the
maximum battery current rating. Therefore, an over-sized solar
array will not operate at peak power.
Load Overload
If the current exceeds the maximum load current rating 1.05
times, the controller will disconnect the load. Overloading must
be cleared up by reducing the load and restarting the controller.
Load Short Circuit
Fully protected against the load wiring short-circuit. Once the
load short (more than quadruple rate current), the load short
protection will start automatically. After 5 automatic load
reconnect attempts, the faults must be cleared by restarting the
PV Reverse Polarity
The controller will not operate if the PV wires are switched. Wire
them correctly to resume normal controller operation.
Battery Reverse Polarity
The controller will not operate if the battery wires are switched. Wire
them correctly to resume normal controller operation.
If the temperature of the controller heat sink exceeds 65℃, the
controller will automatically start the reducing the charging
current and shut down when temperature exceeds 80℃.
System Status Troubleshooting
PV indicator
Off during daylight
Ensure that the PV wires are correctly and tightly secured inside the
charge controller PV terminals. Use a multi-meter to make sure the
poles are correctly connected to the charge controller.
BATT Indicator
White Slow Flashing
Disconnect loads, if any, and let the PV modules charge the battery bank.
Use a multi-meter to frequently check on any change in battery voltage to
see if condition improves. This should ensure a fast charge. Otherwise,
monitor the system and check to see if system improves.
White Fast Flashing
Using a multimeter check the battery voltage and verify it is not
exceeding 32 volts.
Load Indicator
White Fast Flashing
The Load circuit on the controller is being shorted or overloaded. Please
ensure the device is properly connected to the controller and make sure it
does not exceed 20A (DC).
Error Indicator
System Error. Please check LCD for Error code
Error Codes
Error Number
No error detected
Battery over-discharged
Battery over-voltage
Battery under-voltage
Load short circuit
Load overloaded
Controller over-temperature
PV input over-current
PV over-voltage
PV reverse polarity
Risk of Electric Shock! Make sure that all power is turned off before touching the
terminals on the charge controller.
For best controller performance, it is recommended that these tasks be performed from time to time.
1. Check that controller is mounted in a clean, dry, and ventilated area.
2. Check wiring going into the charge controller and make sure there is no wire damage or wear.
3. Tighten all terminals and inspect any loose, broken, or burnt up connections.
4. Make sure LED readings are consistent. Take necessary corrective action.
5. Check to make sure none of the terminals have any corrosion, insulation damage, high
temperature, or any burnt/discoloration marks.
Fusing is a recommended in PV systems to provide a safety measure for connections going
from panel to controller and controller to battery. Remember to always use the recommended
wire gauge size based on the PV system and the controller.
NEC Maximum Current for different Copper Wire Sizes
18A 25A 30A 40A 55A 75A 95A 130A 170A
Note: The NEC code requires the overcurrent protection shall not exceed 15A for 14AWG, 20A
for 12 AWG, and 30A for 10AWG copper wire.
Fuse from Controller to Battery
Controller to Battery Fuse = Current Rating of Charge Controller
Ex. 20A MPPT CC = 20A fuse from Controller to Battery
Fuse from Solar Panel(s) to Controller
Ex. 200W; 2 X 100 W panels
**Utilize 1.56 Sizing Factor (SF)
Different safety factors could be used. The purpose is to oversize.
Total Amperage= Isc1 = Isc2 * SF
= 5.75A * 1.56 = 8.97
Fuse = 9A fuse
Total Amperage= (Isc1 + Isc2) * SF
=(5.75A + 5.75A)* 1.56 = 17.94
Fuse = 18A fuse
Technical Specifications
Electrical Parameters
Nominal system voltage
Rated Battery Current
Rated Load Current
Max. Battery Voltage
Max Solar Input Voltage
12V/24V Auto Recognition
100 VDC
12V @ 260W
12V @ 400W
12V @ 520W
24V @ 520W
24V @ 800W
24V @ 1040W
Max. Solar Input Power
mA @ 12V
mA @ 24V
-3mV/°C/2V (default)
Charge circuit voltage drop
Discharge circuit voltage drop
Temp. Compensation
210 x 151 x 59.5mm
8.27 x 5.94 x 2.34in
238 x 173 x 72.5mm
9.37 x 6.81 x 2.85in
7.66 x 4.70mm
0.30 x 0.18in
Mounting Oval
Max Terminal Size
Net Weight
3.08 lb.
4.41 lb.
Working Temperature
-35°C to +45°C
Storage Temperature
-35°C to +75°C
Rated Load Current
10% to 90% NC
Humidity Range
< 3000m
FCC Part 15 Class B; CE; RoHS; RCM
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a class B digital
device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable
protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates,
uses and can radiate radio frequency energy and if not installed and used in accordance with
the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is
no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does
cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by
turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by
one or more of the following measures:
Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept
any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Battery Charging Parameters
High Voltage
Boost Voltage
Float Voltage
Boost Return
Low Voltage
Under Voltage
Low Voltage
Discharging Limit
Boost Duration
16 V
16 V
16 V
16 V
9-17 V
14.6 V
9-17 V
14.2 V
13.8 V
14.4 V
13.8 V
14.6 V
13.8 V
14.4 V
9-17 V
9-17 V
13.2 V
13.2 V
13.2 V
13.2 V
9-17 V
12.6 V
12.6 V
12.6 V
12.6 V
9-17 V
12 V
12 V
12 V
12 V
9-17 V
9-17 V
10.6 V
10.6 V
10.6 V
10.6 V
9-17 V
2 hours
2 hours
0-10 Hrs.
2 hours
2 hours
2 hours
1-10 Hrs.
*Battery charging parameters in LI mode and USER mode can be programmed using the
Solar Monitoring Software or Renogy BT App.
**Default charging parameters in LI mode are programmed for 12.8V LFP battery. Before
using Rover to charge other types of lithium battery, set the parameters according to the
suggestions from battery manufacturer.
***Parameters are multiplied by 2 for 24V systems.
PV Power – Conversion Efficiency Curves
Illumination Intensity: 1000W/ m2
Temp 25℃
1.12 Volt System Conversion Efficiency
MPPT 12V conversion efficiency (12V battery)
Conversion efficiency
Output power(W)
2. 24 Volt System Conversion Efficiency
MPPT 24V conversion efficiency (24V battery)
Conversion efficiency
Output power(W)
Product dimensions: 210*151*59.5mm
Hole positions: 154*131mm
Hole diameter: Ø3mm
Maximum Wire Gauge 8 AWG
Dimensions in millimeters (mm)
Product dimensions: 238*173*72.5mm
Hole positions: 180*147mm
Hole diameter: Ø3mm
Maximum Wire Gauge 8 AWG
Dimensions in millimeters (mm)
2775 E. Philadelphia St., Ontario, CA 91761
Renogy reserves the right to change the contents of this manual without notice.
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