Crown Broadcast FM1000 Owner Manual

Crown Broadcast FM1000 Owner Manual
®
FM1000A
RF Amplifier Package
User's Manual
©2005 Crown Broadcast, a division of International Radio and Electronics, Inc.
25166 Leer Drive, Elkhart, Indiana, 46514-5425 U.S.A.
(574) 262-8900
i
Revision Control
Revision
Print Date
Initial Release (Rev. 0) 900413-1
November 1998
Revision 1
April 2002
Revision 2
May 2005
Important Notices
©2005, Crown Broadcast, a division of International Radio and Electronics, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted,
transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language in any
form by any means without the written permission of Crown International, Inc.
Printed in U.S.A.
Crown attempts to provide information that is accurate, complete, and useful.
Should you find inadequacies in the text, please send your comments to the
following address:
International Radio and Electronics
25166 Leer Drive, P.O. Box 2000
Elkhart, Indiana, 46515-2000 U.S.A.
ii
Contents
Section 1—Getting Acquainted
1.1 Your Amplifier Package ....................................................................................... 1–2
1.2 Amplifier Package Specifications ......................................................................... 1–3
1.3 Safety Considerations .......................................................................................... 1–4
1.3.1 Dangers ............................................................................................................ 1–4
1.3.2 Warnings .......................................................................................................... 1–4
1.3.3 Cautions ........................................................................................................... 1–4
Section 2—Installation
2.1 Operating Environment ..................................................................................... 2–2
2.2 Tools Required .................................................................................................. 2–2
2.3 Unpacking ......................................................................................................... 2–2
2.4 Preinstallation ................................................................................................... 2–3
2.4.1 Power Amplifier Modules ............................................................................. 2–3
2.4.2 Hubble Twist Lock® Connector Wiring ........................................................ 2–4
2.5 Installation ........................................................................................................ 2–5
2.6 Remote I/O Connection ..................................................................................... 2–6
Section 3—Operation
3.1 Initial Power-up Procedures.............................................................................. 3–2
3.2 Power Switches ................................................................................................ 3–4
3.2.1 AC Input Circuit Breaker ............................................................................... 3–4
3.2.2 DC Power Switch .......................................................................................... 3–5
3.2.3 Interlock Switch ............................................................................................ 3–5
3.3 Digital Multimeter ............................................................................................. 3–6
3.4 Fault Indicators ................................................................................................. 3–7
3.5 Fuse Indicators ................................................................................................. 3–8
Section 4—Principles of Operation
4.1 PA1000 Power Amplifier ................................................................................... 4–2
4.1.1 Power Modules ............................................................................................ 4–2
4.1.2 Power Combiner Board ................................................................................ 4–2
4.1.3 Backplane Assembly ..................................................................................... 4–3
4.1.3.1
Backplane DC Interconnect Board ........................................................ 4–3
4.1.3.2
Input Divider Board ............................................................................... 4–3
4.1.3.3
Output Combiner Board ........................................................................ 4–3
4.1.4 Output Filter & Reflectometer ....................................................................... 4–3
4.1.5 Metering and Control Board ......................................................................... 4–4
4.1.6 DC Fuse and Power Distribution Board ........................................................ 4–4
4.1.7 Cooling Fans ................................................................................................. 4–4
iii
4.2 PS1000 Power Supply ...................................................................................... 4–4
4.2.1 AC Input Board ............................................................................................. 4–5
4.2.2 PFC (Power Factor Correcting) Switching Board .......................................... 4–5
4.2.3 DC Output Board .......................................................................................... 4–6
4.2.4 Cooling Fans ................................................................................................. 4–6
Section 5—Troubleshooting
5.1 Troubleshooting Flow Chart Analysis ................................................................ 5–2
5.2 Digital Multimeter Parameters .......................................................................... 5–3
5.2.1 In Ref (Input Drive Reference) ...................................................................... 5–3
5.2.2 SWR (Standing Wave Ratio) ........................................................................ 5–3
5.2.3 ALC (Automatic Level Control) ..................................................................... 5–3
5.2.4 Power Out .................................................................................................... 5–3
5.2.5 PA Temp ....................................................................................................... 5–4
5.2.6 PA Voltage .................................................................................................... 5–4
5.2.7 Tot Current ................................................................................................... 5–4
5.2.8 PA1–8 ........................................................................................................... 5–4
5.3 Fault Indicators ................................................................................................. 5–5
5.3.1 Antenna ........................................................................................................ 5–5
5.3.2 RF Drive ........................................................................................................ 5–5
5.3.3 PA Temp ....................................................................................................... 5–5
5.3.3.1
Potential Causes for Non-functioning Cooling Fans .............................. 5–5
5.3.4 PA DC ........................................................................................................... 5–6
5.3.5 Multiple Indicators........................................................................................ 5–6
Section 6—Reference Drawings
6.1 Views ................................................................................................................ 6–2
6.2 Diagrams and Schematics ................................................................................ 6–3
Section 7—Service and Support
7.1 Service .............................................................................................................. 7–2
7.2 24–Hour Support .............................................................................................. 7–2
7.3 Spare Parts ....................................................................................................... 7–2
Glossary
Index
iv
I
INFORMATION
Section 1—Getting Acquainted
This section provides a general description of the FM1000A
power amplifier system and introduces you to safety conventions
used within this document. Review this material before installing or operating the amplifier and power supply.
Getting Acquainted
1–1
I
1.1 Your Amplifier Package
The FM1000A is a highly efficient amplifier package designed to set a new standard
in FM transmitter design offering modularity, ease of use, and long-term reliability. The FM1000A package includes a PA1000 amplifier, PS1000 power supply, and
an FM1K accessory pack.
The PA1000 broadband amplifier requires no tuning and typically provides 80% RF
efficiency across the band. The PS1000 power supply is power factor corrected and
90% efficient. Modern MOSFET technology ensures high AC to RF efficiency
(better than 70% overall) and long-term reliability. The unmatched efficiency of
this power amplifier significantly improves your bottom line by providing cooler
operation and lower power costs.
These modular units are uniquely designed to be lightweight and compact for
convenient shipping, and require only seven RU spaces for installation. Installation is made simple with just three interconnections between the amplifier and
power supply. In addition, built-in digital metering and status indicator capabilities enable intuitive operation to further augment the user-friendly design.
Economic long-term reliability is ensured through our carefully engineered solidstate design. The PA1000 features two field-replaceable 500–watt power modules.
This power amplifier delivers 500 to over 1000 watts of RF power output. Use your
existing exciter or purchase the FM1000T which includes our award-winning FM30
exciter for an unbeatable 1 kW transmitter package.
Metering
Fault
In Ref
SWR
ALC
Power Out
PA Temp
PA Voltage
Tot Current
PA1
PA2
PA5
PA6
PA3
PA4
PA7
PA8
Antenna
RF Drive
PA Temp
PA DC
Fuses
PA3
PA4
PA7
PA8
®
Power
I
O
®
Illustration 1–1 FM1000A Amplifier Package
1–2
FM1000A User’s Manual
1.2 Amplifier Package Specifications
RF Power Output:
100 to 1100 watts continuous with remote
controlled power adjust
RF Drive Requirement:
30 watts for full output
RF Output Impedance:
50 ohms (unbalanced)
Maximum SWR:
1.7:1 (With power foldback at high SWR)
Frequency Range:
87–108 MHz
RF Harmonics/Spurious Products: Better than –80 dB
Asynchronous AM S/N Ratio:
Better than –55 dB with 100% modulation at
400 Hz, no de-emphasis, no FM modulation
(typically > 60 dB)
Synchronous AM S/N Ratio:
Better than –55 dB with 100% modulation at
400 Hz, no de-emphasis, FM
modulation=75 kHz @400 Hz
(typically > 60 dB)
Operating Environment:
Temperature Range:
Humidity Range:
0°–50°C at sea level
0–80% at 20°C (noncondensing)
AC Power:
240 Volts AC +10/-15%, 50–60 Hz
Power Consumption:
Less than 1400 watts at 1000 watts RF output
typical
Power Factor:
.96 typical
Overall Efficiency:
70% typical
RF Output Connector:
7/8 in. EIA flange, 7–16 in DIN optional
Power Amplifier Chassis:
7 x 17.25 x 23 inches (17.78 x 43.82 x
58.42 cm) exclusive of rack ears, but inclusive of connectors
Power Supply Chassis:
5.25 x 17.25 x 23 inches (13.34 x 43.82 x
58.42 cm) exclusive of rack ears
Weight:
PA1000—40 pounds (18.1 kg)
RF PA Modules—8 pounds (3.6 kg) each
PS1000—43 pounds (19.5 kg)
Note: System performance is specified using Crown Broadcast
Model FM30 Exciter where applicable.
Getting Acquainted
1–3
I
1.3 Safety Considerations
Crown Broadcast assumes the responsibility for providing you a safe product and
safety guidelines during its use. “Safety” means protection to all individuals who
install, operate, and service the transmitter as well as protection of the transmitter
itself. To promote safety, we use standard hazard alert labeling on the product and
in this manual. Follow the associated guidelines to avoid potential hazard.
1.3.1 Dangers
DANGER represents the most severe hazard alert. Extreme bodily harm or death
will occur if DANGER guidelines are not followed.
1.3.2 Warnings
WARNING represents hazards which could result in severe injury or death.
1.3.3 Cautions
CAUTION indicates potential personal injury or equipment or property damage if
the associated guidelines are not followed. Particular cautions in this text also
indicate unauthorized radio-frequency operation.
Type of Hazard
WARNING
Severe shock hazard!
Pictorial Indication
of Hazard
Turn power off and
wait approximately 1
minute for capacitors
to discharge before
handling them.
Explanation of
Hazard
Illustration 1–3 Sample Hazard Alert
1–4
FM1000A User’s Manual
®
Section 2—Installation
This section provides important guidelines for installing your
power amplifier and power supply. Review this information carefully for proper installation.
Installation
2–1
2.1 Operating Environment
You can install the FM1000A amplifier system in a standard 19–inch component
rack or on a suitable surface such as a bench or desk. In any case, the area should
be as clean and well-ventillated as possible. The power supply must be installed
directly above or below the power amplifier (for the included dressed cables to
reach their respective connectors).
2.2 Tools Required
To install the power supply and power amplifier, you will need the following tools:
❑ Medium phillips screwdriver
❑ Medium flat-blade screwdriver
❑ Small flat-blade screwdriver
❑ 7/16–Inch wrench or nut driver
❑ ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection grounding strap and/or mat.
2.3 Unpacking
Before handling any exposed printed circuit boards, ground yourself with an
antistatic strap and/or mat.
CAUTION
Possible equipment damage!
Guard against electrostatic discharge
through electronic components.
The power amplifier, power supply, and two power amplifier modules are packed
and shipped in individual boxes because of their modular nature. (The FM1K
accessory kit is packed inside one of the two power amplifier module boxes.) For
added protection, both the PA1000 amplifier and PS1000 supply are packed in an
inner box and then placed inside an outer box with styrofoam protective corners in
both boxes. You will need to unpack a total of four boxes (plus two inner boxes).
Note: Save the boxes and packaging material that the individual
units are packed in should you need to return them for factory
service.
2–2
FM1000A User’s Manual
2.4 Preinstallation
2.4.1 Power Amplifier Modules
The PA1000 incorporates four power amplifiers (two each in two modules). Due to
possible damage during shipment, the power modules have been removed. Follow
these steps to install the modules:
1. Remove the front panel of the PA1000 (four screws).
2. Taking ESD precautions (see page 2–2), unpack the power modules and place
them on your work area with the circuit sides up.
Connector
Warning Label
Slide Rail
Illustration 2–1 Power Amplifier Module
3. The warning labels on the front of the modules should all be positioned to the
center of the chassis, also note the position of the connector on the modules
and in the chassis.
4. Insert the two power modules, using their slide rails, into the built in channels of the right-side cavity as shown below. Note that the connectors and
warning labels are nearest the middle wall or partition of the PA1000.
Module A
(amps 3 & 4)
Module B
(amps 7 & 8)
Middle Partition
Vacant Cavity
Illustration 2–2 Power Amplifier Module Placement
5. Be sure the modules are pushed in completely so that the connector makes
proper contact.
6. Replace the front panel of the PA1000.
Installation
2–3
2.4.2 Hubble Twist Lock® Connector Wiring
Prepare the wiring for the Hubble Twist-Lock® connector in the following manner
before connecting to your AC power source:
1. Use round cord with a diameter of 0.385–0.780 inches (10–20 mm), Type SJ
12/3 – 10/3; Type S 16/3 – 10/3.
2. Select conductor size from your National Electrical Code®.
3. Slide the cover onto the cord. Remove insulation from cable and conductors
as shown in Illustration 2–3. Do not tin conductors.
1 Inch
(25 mm)
5/8 Inch
(16 mm)
Illustration 2–3 Cover, Cable & Conductors
4. Loosen terminal screws. Insert conductors fully into proper terminals according to the table below. Take caution that there are no stray wire strands.
Terminal
Conductor
Green Hex Head Screw
Equipment grounding conductor
(green or green/yellow)
Brass Screw
Hot circuit conductor, 240 VAC
(NOT white, NOT green)
Brass/Black Screw
Hot circuit conductor, 240 VAC
(NOT white, NOT green)
5. Tighten terminal screws to 18 pound•inches (2.1 N•m) of torque.
6. Tighten assembly screws to 10 pound•inches (1.1 N•m) of torque.
7. Tighten cord clamp screws to 10 pound•inches (1.1 N•m) of torque.
WARNING
Possible Electric Shock Hazard!
Do not connect AC source until all
other connections are made and
installation is complete.
2–4
FM1000A User’s Manual
2.5 Installation
1. Mount the units in an appropriate 19–inch wide cabinet. The power supply
must be installed directly below the power amplifier for the included
cables to reach their respective connectors (see illustration 2–4 below).
Note: The PS1000 weighs approximately 40 pounds (18.1 kg); the
PA1000, approximately 43 pounds (19.5 kg). Use help to install.
2. Ensure that the PS1000 power switch is off, the circuit breakers of the 240
VAC source on the back panel are off, and the AC connector is not plugged in.
3. Install the exciter source (such as a Crown Broadcast FM30) according to its
instructions.
4. Connect the RF input cable from the exciter source to the N connector on the
back of the PA1000.
5. Connect the RF output cable (from the antenna) to the 7/8 EIA or 7-16 DIN
connector on the back of the PA1000.
6. Connect one end of the supplied control cable to the 9–pin D-sub connector
on the PA1000.
7. Connect the other end of the control cable to the 9–pin D-sub connector on
the PS1000.
+ DC Input
RF Monitor
(Optional Connection)
RF Input
Ground Screws
DC Input
Air Intakes/Filters
PA1000
Remote I/O
RF Output
Control
Circuit Breakers
+ DC Output
OFF
Fans
OFF
Power
Control
DC Output
PS1000
Air Exhaust Vents
240 VAC IN
Illustration 2–4 Rear Panel Connections
Installation
2–5
8. Using the supplied connector, tie together pins 6 and 7 of the Remote I/O
connector. The amplifier will not operate without this connection or a
remote switch on these pins. (See Section 2.6 for Remote I/O connection.)
9. If monitoring of the output signal is desired, connect the RF monitor cable to
the BNC connector on the PA1000.
10. Connect the DC input/output cables between the PA1000 and the PS1000 as
illustrated (Illustration 2–4). The connector end with the ground lead connects to the PA1000. Be sure to attach the ground leads as indicated.
Note: The power lead shield is only grounded at the PA chassis.
11. Install the covers over the DC terminals of the PA1000 and the PS1000 using
hardware form the hardware kit (1/4–inch X 6–32 bolts with lock washers).
12. Connect to your AC power source by inserting the Hubble Twist-Lock connector into the female Hubble connector on the PS1000 and turn to the right
until the connection locks.
2.6 Remote I/O Connection
The Remote I/O Connector on the back of the PA1000 allows remote control and
monitoring of Certain transmitter functions. There are three basic control functions—AC on/off, RF power level adjustment, and RF down/off.
The AC power on/off remote control function, available at pin 7 of the Remote I/O
Connector, turns DC power to the PA on when the pin is grounded.
The RF power level adjustment remote control function has an internal maximum
limit set on the Metering and Control Board. The Local Power Adjust (R62) sets
the maximum limit of RF power output. The limit is set by placing the Remote/
Local switch (SW5) in the LOCAL position and adjusting the Local Power Adjust to
your desired maximum limit (see illustrations 2–5 and 2–6). However, for any
remote operation to work, the Remote/Local slide switch must be in the REMOTE
position. Then the on-board remote RAISE and LOWER push buttons and any
external remote switches attached to pins 4 and 15 of the I/O Connector can adjust
+5V
R62
LOCAL
POWER
ADJUST
MAXIMUM
MINIMUM
REMOTE
RAISE POWER
Pin 4
Remote I/O Conn.
SW3
RAISE
ElectroControl
Circuit
LOCAL
SW5
REMOTE
REMOTE
LOWER POWER
Pin 15
Remote I/O Conn.
TANSMITTER
CONTROL
SW4
LOWER
Illustration 2–5 Local and Remote Functions
2–6
FM1000A User’s Manual
the level up to that limit and down to zero. When a specific output power level is
set, the Metering and Control Board controls and maintains the setting to keep the
power constant. The location of the Local Power Adjust (R62), the on-board Raise
and Lower switches (SW3 & SW4), and the Local/Remote slide switch (SW5) are
shown below.
Local/Remote
Slide Switch
On-board Remote
Power Adjust
Buttons
Local Power Adjust
Pot
Illustration 2–6 On-board Remote Power & Related Controls
Another remote control function, available at pin 5 of the Remote I/O Connector,
turns RF down/off. Connecting this pin to ground through a resistor allows the
RF power output level of the amplifier to be reduced below the internal limit set by
the Local Power Adjust pot or the remote Raise/Lower settings. However, some
drive power, less than one watt, may still be present at the antenna. Depending on
the resistor used, this pin can serve as a control for optional low power operation.
The remaining remote functions are for monitoring the various
parameters of the PA1000. They are either buffered metering outputs, direct
reading, or latched high/low indications. Further details of these functions are
described in the pin-out table on page 2–8.
Note: If Remote I/O controls are not used, tie pin 7 to pin 6 (GND.).
For remote I/O (Input/Output) connection, connect your remote I/O cable from
your remote control location to the 25–pin (female) D-sub connector on the back
panel of the PA1000. The I/O Connector on the power amplifier is described in the
following diagram:
13
25
1
14
Illustration 2–7
Remote
connector
(back panel view)
View
fromI/O
Rear
of Cabinet
The Remote I/O Connector Pinout Table on the next page summarizes the Remote
I/O pin connections.
Installation
2–7
Pin #
Function
1
PA#8 Current Monitor (a buffered metering output with 1 V = 2 A)
2
PA#7 Current Monitor (a buffered metering output with 1 V = 2 A)
3
Ground
4
Remote RAISE Power (a momentary switch, on this pin, when held low will
raise the power level 10 watts every 0.5 seconds)
5
Remote RF Power Control (a resistor to ground on this pin reduces RF
power output level below internal limits. See Section 2.6, page 2–7)
6
Ground
7
Remote AC Power On (a latching switch, on this pin, when held low will turn
the AC power supply on)
8
Fault Summary (the voltage from this pin goes to +5 V if any fault occurs and
drops below 2V when the fault goes away)
9
Ground
10
ALC (the voltage from this pin is a direct reading of automatic level control
voltage, not buffered)
11
PA Temperature (a buffered metering output with 1 V = 20° C)
12
SWR (a buffered metering output with a calculated reading of standing wave
ratio in VDC)
13
RF Output Power (a buffered metering output with a calculated reading of
output power of 1 V = 1000 W)
14
Input Power Reference (a buffered metering output with a DC voltage
representing input power)
15
Remote LOWER Power (a momentary switch, on this pin, when held low will
lower the power level 10 watts every 0.5 seconds)
16
PA#6 Current Monitor (a buffered metering output with 1 V = 2 A)
17
PA#5 Current Monitor (a buffered metering output with 1 V = 2 A)
18
Ground
19
PA#4 Current Monitor (a buffered metering output with 1 V = 2 A)
20
PA#3 Current Monitor (a buffered metering output with 1 V = 2 A)
21
Ground
22
PA#2 Current Monitor (a buffered metering output with 1 V = 2 A)
23
PA#1 Current Monitor (a buffered metering output with 1 V = 2 A)
24
PA Total Current Monitor (a buffered metering output with 1 V = 20 A)
25
PA Volts (a buffered metering output with 1 V = 10 V)
Note: PA = Power Amplifier
Remote I/O Connector Pinout Table
2–8
FM1000A User’s Manual
Section 3—Operation
This section provides general operating parameters of your power
amplifier system and a detailed description of the front panel
display.
Operation
3–1
3.1 Initial Power-up Procedures
These steps summarize the operating procedures you should use for the initial
operation of the power amplifier and power supply. More detailed information
follows.
1. Ensure that the external remote control unit is properly connected (See the
Pin Out Description Table, Section 2.6, page 2–8 for proper pin configuration). If not using a remote control unit, pin 7 must be tied to ground pin 6.
2. Connect Antenna.
3. If using an external remote control, enable the power supply via the remote
I/O connector.
4. Turn on (flip up) the AC input circuit breaker located on the rear panel of the
power supply (do not turn on the front panel power switch yet).
Outputs to
PA1000
Fan
Circuit Breaker
AC Input
Circuit Breaker
+ DC Output
OFF
OFF
Fans
Power
Control
DC Output
PS1000
Air Exhaust Vents
240 VAC IN
Illustration 3–1 PS1000 Back Panel Functions
5. Turn on the exciter (a Crown FM30 or equivalent) and adjust its RF power
output level until the In Reference (In Ref) voltage, as indicated on the
PA1000 front panel Digital Multimeter, is between 0.4 and 0.8volts. This is
not a drive dependent amplifier; therefore drive must be at a constant level
regardless of main output power.
Note: The unit will not operate until the exciter is active.
3–2
FM1000A User’s Manual
6. Before power-up, place the Local/Remote switch (located on the Metering &
Control board behind the front panel) in the Local position and adjust the
output power limit to the mid-level position using the Local Power Adjust,
also on the Metering & Control board (see Illustration 3–2 below). The unit is
normally shipped with this setting. See Section 2.6 for setting up remote
operation and using the on-board remote buttons and other controls.
7. Turn on the main power switch located on the front panel of the power
supply. (The unit typically takes 30 seconds to power up.)
Local/Remote
Slide Switch
On-board Remote
Power Adjust
Buttons
Local Power Adjust
Pot
Illustration 3–2 Local Power Adjust and Other Controls
8. Check the PA1000 parameters with the Digital Multimeter for a current (Tot
Current) of 20 to 30 amps and a voltage (PA Voltage) of 25 to 35 volts. If
parameters are within range, increase the Local Power Adjust to the maxiAir Intakes/Filters
Power
I
O
®
Power Switch
Illustration 3–3 PS1000 Front Panel Functions
mum level of desired operation.
Note: The Local Power Adjust pot is unconventional (CW lowers power).
9.Using an external remote control unit connected to the Remote I/O connector,
adjust the PA1000 to the maximum power set by the Local Power Adjust.
(This prevents adjusting to higher than permitted power levels.)
Operation
3–3
10. Verify that the following conditions are present as indicated by the PA1000’s
Digital Multimeter:
a. In Ref—Should read between 0.4 and 0.8 volts (0.5 nominal, dependent
upon power input level).
b. SWR—Should read 1.05 to 1.5.
c. ALC—Should read between 4.00 and 6.00 volts for 1.1 kW output (less
for lower output or danger conditions, i.e. high SWR).
d. Power Out—Should read 1.10 for 1.1 kW output.
e. PA Temp—Should read 35 to 50°C with ambient temperature of 25°C.
The remainder of this section describes the functions of the front and rear panel
indicators and switches of the PA1000 and PS1000.
3.2 Power Switches
3.2.1 AC Input Circuit Breaker
The PS1000 supplies power to the PA1000 by converting single-phase 220/240 VAC
into 50 VDC. The PS1000 is protected by a 20 A, double-pole circuit breaker
located on the rear panel. This AC input circuit breaker must be in the “up”
position (as shown below) for operation.
AC Input
Circuit Breaker
ON
ON
Fans
Power
Control
240 VAC IN
Illustration 3–4 AC Input Circuit Breaker
3–4
FM1000A User’s Manual
3.2.2 DC Power Switch
The main on/off power switch located on the front panel of the power supply
controls high voltage output. (The control circuit activates this voltage.)
Power
I
O
®
Power Switch
Illustration 3–5 DC Power Switch
3.2.3 Interlock Switch
This switch is located on the fan mounting bracket in the power supply. When the
top cover of the power supply is removed, the Interlock Switch interrupts the
power supply control circuit disabling the high and low voltage supplies.
WARNING
Lethal voltages are still present on the AC Input Board !
So, handle with care.
Interlock Switch
Illustration 3–6 Interlock Switch
Operation
3–5
3.3 Digital Multimeter
The 3–digit numeric display in the upper left corner of the front panel provides
information on the amplifier’s operation. Use the “up” and “down” push-buttons to
select one of the following parameters as indicated by a green LED.
Multimeter
Metering Selection Buttons
Metering Indicators
Metering
Fault
In Ref
SWR
ALC
Power Out
PA Temp
PA Voltage
Tot Current
PA1
PA2
PA5
PA6
PA3
PA4
PA7
PA8
Antenna
RF Drive
PA Temp
PA DC
PA3
®
Illustration 3–7 Digital Multimeter
In Ref—Input reference is a relative voltage level used to determine input RF
power level. This varies between frequency of operation and input power level.
SWR—Direct reading of the antenna Standing-Wave Ratio (the ratio of the actual
load impedance to the desired 50 ohm load impedance).
ALC—Automatic level control is DC gain control bias used to regulate PA supply
voltage. With the PA power supply at full output voltage, ALC will read about 6.0
volts. When the RF output is being regulated by the RF power control circuit, this
voltage will be reduced, typically reading 5.0 to 6.0 volts. The ALC voltage will be
reduced during PA DC overcurrent, SWR, or overtemperature conditions.
Power Out—Actually reads RF voltage squared, so the accuracy can be affected by
SWR. Tolerance of ± 10% is normal. For exact set-up on site, an external power
meter is recommended.
PA Temp—Highest temperature of all individual RF power amplifier heatsinks in
degrees C.
PA Voltage—Supply voltage of the RF power amplifier.
Tot Current—Sum total current of all individual RF power amplifiers in amperes.
PA1–8—Individual RF amplifier current reading in amperes.
3–6
FM1000A User’s Manual
3.4 Fault Indicators
Faults are indicated by illuminated red LED’s when the following occurs:
Antenna—Load SWR exceeds 1.5:1. ALC voltage is reduced to limit the reflected
RF power.
RF Drive—Lack of or insufficient RF drive. If the RF drive fault LED is lit, input
drive must be increased. To achieve full output power, 30 watts of input drive is
required.
CAUTION
Possible equipment damage!
Do not exceed 40 watts of input drive.
Damage to the PA1000 will result if
this level is exceeded.
PA Temp—PA heatsink temperature is greater than 75°C (power foldback will
begin at this point).
PA DC—Power supply current for the PA (power amplifier) is at the preset limit, or
there is a difference of more than 2.5 amps in current between the individual PAs.
When this indicator is on ALC, the voltage is reduced automatically which holds
the supply current to the preset limit.
Fault Indicators
Metering
Fault
In Ref
SWR
ALC
Power Out
PA Temp
PA Voltage
Tot Current
PA1
PA2
PA5
PA6
PA3
PA4
PA7
PA8
Antenna
RF Drive
PA Temp
PA DC
Fuses
PA3
PA4
PA7
PA8
®
Illustration 3–8 Fault Indicators
Operation
3–7
3.5 Fuse Indicators
The PA1000 consists of two field-replacable power modules with two amplifiers in
each module. Each of the paralleled amplifiers is protected by a 10 ampere
fast-acting fuse. When a fuse opens, the indicator light next to it illuminates.
Fuses 3 and 4 represent amplifiers 1 and 2 on the top right module. Fuses 7 and 8
represent amplifiers 3 and 4 on the lower right power module.
Fuses and Indicators
Fault
Power Out
PA Temp
PA Voltage
Tot Current
PA1
PA2
PA5
PA6
PA3
PA4
PA7
PA8
Antenna
RF Drive
PA Temp
PA DC
Fuses
PA3
PA4
PA7
PA8
®
Illustration 3–9 Fuse Indicators
3–8
FM1000A User’s Manual
, erono due persone che ab
ondo
bian
to m
o
ue s
non ha la dispozion
in q
e do
dice che
o si
farl
o.
, un
e
M
e non c'e nulla nel mond
fors
o re
che ch
o
a
le d
iam
i
dic
se
n la matita ci insegna a non
do co
parl
n
e
v
are
scri
pers
ue
d
a
no
on
e
che a
, ero
m
bbia
ondo
no
to m
ue s
non ha la dispozion
in q
e do
dice che
farl
no si
o.
e, u
M
e non c'e nulla nel mond
ch
fors
o
he
re a l
oc
ed
iam
i
dic
se
n la matita ci insegna a non
co
parl
endo
are
criv
s
ma
n la matita ci insegna a non
do co
parl
ve n
are
scri
due persone che
do, erono
abbia
m on
o
no
t
ue s
che non ha la dispozione
ce
in q
di
do fa
no si
rlo.
u
,
e
M
fors
ma
che non c'e nulla nel mondo
re a l
o che
ed
i
ta ci insegna a
non p
con la mati
ndo
arla
e
v
re
scri
a
'e
n
ulla
c
on
ne
n
l
m
mondo
che
re a l
o che
m
ed
ia
i
dic
se
n la matita ci insegna a non
do co
parl
ve n
are
scri
ma
se
dic
iam
n la matita ci insegna a non
do co
parl
ve n
are
scri
due persone che
do, erono
abbia
m on
o
no
t
ue s
che non ha la dispozione
ce
in q
di
do fa
no si
rlo.
u
,
e
M
che non c'e nulla nel mondo
fors
re a l
o che
ed
iam
i
dic
atita ci insegna a no
se
con la m
n
do
p
arla
en
re
criv
s
ma
ma
Section 4—Principles of Operation
This section discusses the circuit principles upon which the
power amplifier and power supply function. This information is
not needed for day-to-day operation, but may be useful for advanced users and service personnel.
Principles of Operation
4–1
uesto mondo,
in rqse, uno si dice
fo diciamo che
se scrivendo con
maquesto mondo,
in rse, uno si dice
fo diciamo che
se scrivendo con
ma
scrivendo con
ma uesto mondo,
in rqse, uno si dice
fo diciamo che
se scrivendo con
ma
scrivendo con
ma uesto mondo,
in rqse, uno si dice
fo
diciamo che
se scrivendo con
madiciamo che
se scrivendo con
ma
Introduction
The FM1000A is a solid state RF amplifier package designed to deliver 500 to 1000
watts. The package consists of two separate, compact units—a power supply
(PS1000) and a power amplifier (PA1000). In turn, these units consist of modular
components which provide for efficient operation as well as ease-of-service.
4.1 PA1000 Power Amplifier
The PA1000 power amplifier features adjustable output to deliver 500–1000 watts of
RF output power for broadcast transmission. The amplifier is broadband; no tuning
is required. The design, however, ensures efficient operation. Typical RF efficiency
is 75% to 85% across the FM band.
4.1.1 Power Modules
The primary components of the PA1000 are two, 500–watt power modules. These
power modules are mounted by stacking two in the right cavity of the chassis. The
two slots on the left side are unpopulated.
The chassis of the power modules acts as a heat sink for the MOSFET amplifiers.
There are two power amplifiers mounted to spacer plates on each of the heat sinks,
for a total of four power amplifiers in all. (The power amplifiers are the same as
those utilized in the Crown Broadcast 100, 250, and 500–watt transmitters.)
Power from the amplifiers is combined through a micro-strip combiner to convert
from 50 Ω output impedance for each amplifier to an intermediate impedance and
then return to the 50 Ω output at the Low Pass Filter. This technology eliminates
tuning and adjustments throughout the 88–108 FM band and enables each amplifier
to equally share the power load. The power combiner is also designed to allow a
module to be disconnected from the combiner and removed without adversely
affecting the impedance balance of the unit. With one module removed the impedance change allows the remaining module to continue operation at approximately
one-third of the full output power.
4.1.2 Power Combiner Board
There are two Power Combiner Boards; one attached to each of the two heatsinks
overlapping the amplifiers. Each board takes the power from two amplifiers and
combines it through a parallel quarter-wave transmission line transformer network.
The power is then summed in a common point junction on the Output Combiner
Board.
4–2
FM1000A User’s Manual
4.1.3 Backplane Assembly
The backplane assembly is located in the vertical center of the PA1000 behind the
power modules. The Backplane Assembly is the common connection point for the
major sections of the transmitter. This assembly consists of the Input Divider
Board, Output Combiner Board, and Backplane Interconnect Board.
4.1.3.1 Backplane DC Interconnect Board
This board is located nearest the metal inner brace of the chassis. It distributes DC
power to each of the four MOSFET amplifiers, provides the interconnections for
control of the power supply, and enables connection to the remote control interface. The Backplane/DC Interconnect Board contains interconnections from the
Control and Metering Board to the DC Fuse and Power Distribution Board, as well
as power connections to the power amplifier modules.
4.1.3.2 Input Divider Board
The Input Divider Board is the middle board sandwiched between the Backplane DC
Interconnect Board and the Output Combiner Board. It provides the power division
and impedance transformation needed to supply proper drive to each of the four
amplifiers (two modules).
4.1.3.3 Output Combiner Board
The Output Combiner Board is located nearest the Output Filter It consists of a
micro-strip transmission line that combines the output power from the four amplifiers (two modules) so that ultimately, all the power comes together at one common
point junction. Here the currents and voltages of all four power amplifiers are in
phase and producing equal RF output power. From this common point junction,
the Output Combiner Board uses a second quarter-wave transformer to convert the
output power to the 50–ohm impedance needed at the output of the unit.
4.1.4 Output Filter & Reflectometer
The Output Filter/Reflectometer is located behind the Backplane Assembly in the
center of the PA1000. See the accompanying schematic in Section 6 for more
information.
The ninth-order, elliptic, low-pass filter attenuates harmonics generated in the
power amplifier. The capacitors for the filter are circuit board pads. The reflectometer uses printed circuit board traces for micro-strip transmission lines. Transmission line segments (with an impedance of about 100 ohms) on either side of a
50–ohm conductor provide sample voltages representative of the square root of
forward and reverse power. DC voltages, representative of forward and reflected
power, go through a bulkhead Filter Board to the Backplane/DC Interconnect
Board, then to the Metering Board where they are processed for power control and
metering and for SWR metering and protection.
Principles of Operation
4–3
uesto mondo,
in rqse, uno si dice
fo diciamo che
se scrivendo con
maquesto mondo,
in rse, uno si dice
fo diciamo che
se scrivendo con
ma
scrivendo con
ma uesto mondo,
in rqse, uno si dice
fo diciamo che
se scrivendo con
ma
scrivendo con
ma uesto mondo,
in rqse, uno si dice
fo
diciamo che
se scrivendo con
madiciamo che
se scrivendo con
ma
4.1.5 Metering and Control Board
The Metering and Control Board is located above the upper left cavity. This board
supplies readings of voltages and currents, and provides information on the operation of the amplifier.
The Local Power Adjust pot sets the upper limit (maximum) of RF power output.
The on-board RAISE and LOWER push buttons and any external remote control of
the power level is activated within that limit by placing the Local/Remote slide
switch on the board into the Remote position. When a specific output power is set,
the Metering and Control Board controls and maintains the setting keeping power
constant. A long-life battery supplies power to retain the power setting after the
amplifier is turned off.
This board also takes samples from the RF amplifier boards and PS1000 power
supply and processes all the data. It provides SWR readings from the Output Filter
and folds back the amplifier power if the SWR exceeds safe operating limits. Protection circuitry for overcurrent and overtemperature conditions is designed into this
board as well, providing additional precaution against overheating. This board is
fail-safe, like all the other circuit board components in the FM1000A and can be
removed for repair/replacement if necessary.
4.1.6 DC Fuse and Power Distribution Board
This board is located above the right cavity over Power Modules A and B. The DC
Fuse and Power Distribution Board takes power direct from the power supply
through one 80–amp power line, divides it into four separate DC power lines, and
distributes it to the four power amplifiers. Metering resistors in each of the four
power lines monitor the current drawn by each of the four amplifiers to ensure
proper function for monitor and control of the unit.
4.1.7 Cooling Fans
There is a cooling fan located in the back of the PA1000 powered by the PS1000.
The fan operates at 24 volts and is rated at 235 cubic feet per minute. Cool air is
drawn through the heatsinks where a flushing moves the air over the DC Distribution Fuse board, the Control and Metering Board, the Output Filter circuits, and
then out through the air vents on the side panel. If a fan fails, the amplifier will
fold back power to prevent overheating.
4.2 PS1000 Power Supply
The PS1000 supplies power to the PA1000 by converting single-phase 240
VAC into 50 VDC. The PS1000 is protected by a 20 A double-pole circuit breaker.
This highly efficient power supply utilizes switching technology and is power factor
corrected. The PS1000 consists of three printed circuit boards described below.
4–4
FM1000A User’s Manual
4.2.1 AC Input Board
The AC Input Board is located on the left side of the PS1000. AC power from the
circuit breaker connects to the AC Input Board where it connects to a ±12 volt DC
power supply and three relays. The ±12 volts is used to close the three relays when
the DC Power Switch on the front panel is switched on. In addition, the ±12 volts
are supplied to the PA1000 for use in the Control and Metering Board. The 240volt AC input to the power supply is connected through a Hubble Twist Lock
connector on the back panel to a 20–amp circuit breaker mounted inside the back
panel.
When the power supply is turned on and enabled, the AC power comes through
torroidal inductors which prevent harmonics and spurious products from feeding
back into the AC power lines. The current flows from the inductors to a bridge
rectifier that converts the current to DC Power, and from there to the PFC Switching Board where the rectified DC is filtered. The filtered DC power is then fed from
the PFC Switching Board through an 80–turn boost inductor and back to the PFC
Switching Board.
4.2.2 PFC (Power Factor Correcting) Switching Board
The PFC Switching Board is located directly behind the cooling fans (front panel) in
the PS1000. This board takes the voltage from the Torroidal Boost Inductor and
sends it to the Boost Switching Transistor. The switching transistor chops the DC
input power at a 25 kHz rate. The chopped voltage is then rectified, filtered, and
sent as DC voltage to a set of four transistors which form a second switching stage.
The second switching stage chops the DC voltage at a 22.5 kHz rate. This chopped
DC power is fed through a blocking capacitor to a transformer on the DC Output
Board. The second switching stage controls the amount of power sent to the DC
Output Board. This ensures that the transformer output voltage and current are
correct for providing the selected RF output power to the amplifier.
Principles of Operation
4–5
uesto mondo,
in rqse, uno si dice
fo diciamo che
se scrivendo con
maquesto mondo,
in rse, uno si dice
fo diciamo che
se scrivendo con
ma
scrivendo con
ma uesto mondo,
in rqse, uno si dice
fo diciamo che
se scrivendo con
ma
scrivendo con
ma uesto mondo,
in rqse, uno si dice
fo
diciamo che
se scrivendo con
madiciamo che
se scrivendo con
ma
4.2.3 DC Output Board
The DC Output Board is located in the back of the unit directly behind the PFC
Switching Board. This board rectifies and filters the transformer output voltage
once again to produce the clean DC power required for the power modules. The DC
Output Board also provides the 24–volts that operate the cooling fans in both the
PS1000 and the PA1000. There are two parallel paths from the DC Output Board,
with half the power going through each set of output cables. These cables come
together at the terminal in back of the unit providing the maximum output power
of 50 volts at 60 amperes.
4.2.4 Cooling Fans
There are two cooling fans located in the front section of the PS1000. Their primary function is to cool the semiconductors used in the switching and rectifying
process which are subject to high currents. The fans blow cool air through the
heatsinks and out through the vents on the back and side panels of the PS1000.
The fans have a dedicated circuit breaker located on the back panel of the power
supply.
4–6
FM1000A User’s Manual
TROUBLE
Section 5—Troubleshooting
This section describes procedures for service personnel to diagnose and troubleshoot potential fault conditions in the power
amplifier and power supply.
Troubleshooting
5–1
TROUBLE
5.1 Troubleshooting Flow Chart Analysis
Does your
amplifier have
output power?
Is power
output at the
proper level?
Yes
Yes
No
Do you have
power now?
No
Is exciter delivering
sufficient RF drive?
(Check In Ref meter
reading.)
Are there any
fault
indicators?
Yes
See Section 3.1
Initial Power-up
procedures.
No
Yes
No
Is your exciter
turned on?
See Section 3.1
Initial Power-up
procedures.
Yes
Yes
No
No
Turn the
exciter on.
Antenna: See
Section 5.3.1
Secure all
connections to the
PS2000.
RF Drive: See
Section 5.3.2
Ensure AC input
circuit breaker is
flipped up
PA Temp: See
Section 5.3.3
PA DC: See
Section 5.3.4
Ensure main
power switch is
turned on.
Call Support—
See Section 8
5–2
FM1000A User’s Manual
5.2 Digital Multimeter Parameters
The following procedures are general in nature; for in-depth service, and repair see
the Service & Support section of this manual.
WARNING
Lethal voltages present!
Only technically qualified
individuals shoud attempt
troubleshooting or service
procedures.
If any abnormal readings are displayed for any of the following parameters on the
Digital Multimeter, try troubleshooting in the following manner:
5.2.1 In Ref (Input Drive Reference)
If this indication of drive level is not between 0.4 and 0.8 volts, then:
q Check the exciter to ensure proper power input level of 25–30 watts.
q Check RF input cable for secure connection.
5.2.2 SWR (Standing Wave Ratio)
If the SWR is over 1.5:1, then look for:
q effects of inclement weather such as icing on the antenna and feed line.
q for moisture in the feedline.
q insecure antenna connections.
5.2.3 ALC (Automatic Level Control)
If this indication is not between 4.00 and 6.00 volts for 1.1 kW output, then:
q Check for overheating (see PA Temp fault LED).
q Check for overcurrent (see PA DC fault LED).
q Check for high SWR (see Antenna fault LED).
5.2.4 Power Out
This reading is user adjustable, but for full output should read 1.10 for 1.1 kW.
q If lower than desired, check for proper input drive, and/or proper adjustment
of the Local Power Control (see section 3.1 #6).
Troubleshooting
5–3
TROUBLE
5.2.5 PA Temp
The meter should read between 35–50°C with an ambient temperature of 25°C. If
temperature is 75°C or above, then check and do the following:
❑ Ambient temperature higher than 50°C; reduce temperature.
❑ Restricted air flow; remove any obstructions, clean dirty air filters by using
mild detergent and warm water.
❑ Possible antenna mismatch; check for icing, moisture in the feedline, and
secure antenna connections.
❑ Overcurrent: If PA DC fault indicator is flashing, monitor the current for a
proper level—the total current and the current of individual Power Amps.
5.2.6 PA Voltage
Supply voltage to the RF power amplifiers should be 50 V. If it is not check:
❑ drive level to ensure proper power level input of 30 watts
❑ for high SWR
❑ for overcurrent; check PA DC fault indicator and if flashing, check current for
proper levels (total and individual Power Amps)
❑ for overtemperature; ambient temperature higher than 50°C; reduce temperature. Check air flow; remove any obstructions and clean dirty air filters.
5.2.7 Tot Current
If total current reading is over 35 amperes, then check or do the following:
❑ Reduce power output; check all fault indicators and troubleshoot accordingly.
❑ If one or more of the 250–watt power modules has failed; replace.
❑ High SWR; check for icing, moisture in the feedline, and secure antenna
connections.
5.2.8 PA1–8
If there is 2.5 amps or more difference between the individual PA current readings
(7 to 9 amps typical), then check the following:
❑ Failed/faulty power module (reading directly correlates to failed power module); replace.
❑ Blown individual power amplifier fuses 1–8; replace as indicated by red LED.
❑ Reduced power output; check all fault indicators and troubleshoot accordingly.
5–4
FM1000A User’s Manual
5.3 Fault Indicators
If one of the LED fault indicators is illuminated red, troubleshoot using the following suggestions:
5.3.1 Antenna
Antenna mismatch.
❑ Effects from inclement weather conditions such as icing.
❑ Check for moisture in the feedline.
❑ Secure antenna connections.
5.3.2 RF Drive
Denotes lack of or insufficient drive level.
❑ Ensure proper drive level of 25–30 watts input power.
❑ Check RF input cable for secure connection.
5.3.3 PA Temp
Temperature has reached the internal preset limit for safe operation (75°C).
❑ Ambient temperature higher than 50°C; reduce temperature.
❑ Restricted air flow; remove any obstructions, clean dirty air filters by using
mild detergent and warm water.
❑ Antenna mismatch; check for icing, moisture on the feedline, and secure
antenna connections.
❑ Overcurrent; check PA DC fault indicator, if flashing monitor current for
proper levels (total and individual Power Amps).
❑ Faulty DC Output Board; replace (see Section 7, Service & Support).
❑ Faulty or non-functioning cooling fan; determine the cause for malfunction
in the following section.
5.3.3.1 Potential Causes for Non-functioning Cooling Fans
The PA1000 has one and the PS1000 has two cooling fans each. All three fans are
powered by the same circuit of the PS1000. There are two potential causes for a
non-functioning fan or fans:
1. If a single fan does not operate, the fan is faulty and must be replaced. (See
Section 7, Service & Support.)
2. If none of the fans operate, a blown circuit breaker, a short circuit in the
PS1000, or a damaged winding on the main transformer of the DC Output
Board (in the PS1000) is the cause. In this case, do one of the following:
Troubleshooting
5–5
TROUBLE
a. The circuit breaker is located on the rear panel of the power supply. If the
breaker has popped out, reset it by pushing it in. If the breaker continues
to trip, check for a short circuit.
b. Check each fan with a volt-ohm meter by disconnecting and testing it for a
short circuit. Replace the fan/fans as needed (see Section 7).
c. If none of the fans have short circuits, there is damage on the
winding of the transformer. It will have to be replaced (see Section 7).
5.3.4 PA DC
Discrepancy in current between the individual amplifiers, or in total current.
❑ There is a difference of current greater than 2.5 amps between any one of the
4 individual amplifiers. This could occur as a result of a blown or faulty power
module, or a blown fuse; replace as appropriate (see Section 7, Service &
Support).
❑ There is too much total current—power foldback will occur above maximum
total amperage of 35 amps due to antenna mismatch. Examine the antenna
for arcing and moisture. Also, check output power for proper current; the RF
detection circuit could malfunction causing an overcurrent situation.
5.3.5 Multiple Indicators
Call your Crown Broadcast service representative. See Section 7, Service and
Support, for contact information.
®
Fuses
Fault
Metering
In Ref
SWR
ALC
Power Out
PA Temp
PA Voltage
Tot Current
PA1
PA2
PA3
PA4
PA5
PA6
PA7
PA8
Antenna
RF Drive
PA Temp
PA DC
PA1
PA2
PA3
PA4
PA5
PA6
PA7
PA8
®
Power
I
O
®
5–6
FM1000A User’s Manual
Section 6—Reference Drawings
The illustrations in this section may be useful for making
adjustments, taking measurements, troubleshooting, or
understanding the circuitry of your RF power amplifier and
power supply.
Reference Drawings
6–1
6.1 Views
Metering
Fault
In Ref
SWR
ALC
Power Out
PA Temp
PA Voltage
Tot Current
PA1
PA2
PA5
PA6
PA3
PA4
PA7
PA8
Antenna
RF Drive
PA Temp
PA DC
Fuses
PA3
PA4
PA8
PA7
®
Power
I
O
®
Illustration 6–1 Front View
+ DC Input
RF Monitor
(Optional Connection)
RF Input
Ground Screws
DC Input
Air Intakes/Filters
PA1000
Remote I/O
RF Output
Control
Circuit Breakers
+ DC Output
OFF
Fans
OFF
Power
Control
DC Output
PS1000
Air Exhaust Vents
240 VAC IN
Illustration 6–2 Back View
6–2
FM1000A User’s Manual
6.2 Diagrams and Schematics
1 kW RF
Power Output
30 W Exciter
(Crown FM30)
RF Input
Excitation
PA1000
Power Amplifier
Remote I/O
Connector
Power Supply
Control
0–50 VDC
PA Supply
PS1000
Power Supply
240 VAC
50/60 Hz Input Power
Single Phase
Illustration 6–3 FM1000A Block Diagram
Reference Drawings
6–3
6–4
AC INPUT
240 VAC
AC
CIRCUIT
BREAKER
NEUTRAL
360 VDC
AC
INPUT
CCA
RECTIFIER
220 VDC
GROUND
PFC &
CONTROL
CCA
+ 0 to 50 VDC
360 VDC
CONTROL
+/ 12 VDC
POWER
SWITCH
9-PIN
DSUB
VOLTAGE
BOOST
INDUCTOR
PS CONTROL
FM1000A User’s Manual
Illustration 6–4 PS1000 Block Diagram
DC
OUTPUT
CCA
RETURN
VR1
LM2586-ADJ
5
4
3
2
1
T1
R10
10.0K
D3
1N4004
HD3
HEADER 5X2
L4
330UH
C11
220
50V
C12
47
20V
-12V
+12V
+12V
C13
220
50V
L5
330UH
1
3
5
7
9
C15
1.0
D4
1N4004
R9
1.10K
NOTES :
_______
_______
2
4
6
8
10
To DC OUTPUT BOARD
D5
2N5822
C14
220
50V
D6
2N5822
R1
PTC
C16
1.0
1.
ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS,
1/4W, 5% UNLESS OTHERWISE
SPECIFIED.
2.
ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN
MICROFARADS UNLESS
OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.
-12V
GND CHASSIS
GND EARTH
GND FIELD SIGNAL
POWER OFF/ON
GND SIGNAL
SW2
AC Power
+12V
1
2
R5
1K
HD2
R8
10K
Q1
IRFD9113
U1
4N37N
C10
.001
1
5
2
4
C1
.0033
250VAC
K1
RELAY 24V
C7
.0033
250VAC
C9
1.5
630v
C6
.47
250VAC
MOV4
V271HA40
V271HA40
MOV2
V271HA40
C4
.0033
250VAC
R4
5.6
3W
L1
MOV3
C2
.0033
250VAC
R3
5 PTC
K3
RELAY 24V
CB1B
15A
REAR PANEL
D1
BDF01
L3
100UH
C3
1.5UF/630V
K2
RELAY 24V
C8
.0033
250VAC
C5
.0033
250VAC
-
MOV1
V217HA40
L100
L2
100UH
R2
5 PTC
CB1A
15A
J1
220-240
VAC IN
Q2
IRFD9113
+
R7
1K
SW1
DC Power
(FRONT PANEL)
From PFC Switcher Board
R100
.04 OHM
650-ohm
D1
1N4004
D2
1N4004
-12V
TITLE:
SCH, FM2K POWER SUPPLY AC INPUT
UNCONTROLLED
UNLESS OTHERWISE MARKED IN RED INK BY CM AS
A CONTROLLED COPY, COPIES OF THESE
DOCUMENTS INCLUDING ASSOCIATED ELECTRONIC
REPRODUCTIONS ARE FOR REFERENCE ONLY.
Reference Drawings
THESE DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE THE
PROPERTY OF INTERNATIONAL RADIO AND
ELECTRONICS CORP., AND SHALL NOT BE
REPRODUCED, COPIED, OR USED AS THE BASIS
FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR SALE OF APPARATUS
OR DEVICES WITHOUT PERMISSION.
SIZE
DWG. NO.
REV
Q43521-6
B
SCALE:
NONE
PROJ NO.
103
J
SHEET 10 OF 10
6-5
HD2
D8
1N4148
D6
1N4148
2
1
NOT ON PWB
J1
1%
R34
4.7K
5%
5t
BRIDGE+
BRIDGE-
IND1
J3
J2
R51
20
R50
1K
T2 80t
D7
1N4148
R60
2.74K
C37
1.0
D9
1N4148
D1
IND2
J4
HFA25TB60
C40
4.7
400VDC
D5 OPEN
T3
2
1
C16
.001
6KV
HD1
J6
XFMR2
QF1
IGBT, 600V 50A FAST
C15
.0047
3KV
-
C50
1.5
630VDC
C25
470
C23
470
R32
22
3W 5%
C24
470
QF4
IGBT, 600V 50A FAST
R42
10
C26
470
3
QF2
R41
10K IGBT, 600V 50A FAST
4
C44
.0033
250VAC
R23
15K
3W 5%
25V
R18
10
Q1
2N5210
R54
4.99K
C6
1.0
R5
511K
.5W
R56
100K
R6
511K
.5W
R57
100K
C17
47
R19
10
R3
4.02K
R11
4.3K
5%
R4
4.02K
C5
10
C1
.001
R9
20K
C3
.001
C4
.01
*
R15
C9
.47
R55
22.1K
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
QF5
IGBT, 600V 50A FAST
C41
.01
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
DS10
R30
5.11K
C31
47
C30
.01
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
DS11
1N5818
U2
UC3875
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
DS13
1N5818
R38
10
R39
75K
C35
.0015
C34
330PF
R21
15K
C11
.01
R40
5.11K
C36
.01
DS12
1N5818
DS14
1N5818
R62
4.7K
5%
DL2
LED
(22.5KHZ)
R14
1K
C18
.001
C45
.001
HD3
6
R45
3.01K
D3
1N4004
R35
6.81K
5
4
C12
.0039
6
R48
10
C42
.01
C33
1.0
C29
.001
C51
.001
R16
4.3K
5%
U1
LT1248
* R17
OPEN
DS1
1N5818
DS8
R27
20.5K
R20
20K
C2
.001
C7
.001
DS9
C43
.01
R31
10
330K
5%
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
R53
33
2W 5%
R37
75K
C8
.047
R58
10K
2
5
R49
10K
15VDC
C21
47
R26
511K
.5W
R10
1K
R52
33
2W 5%
R44
QF3
10
IGBT, 600V 50A FAST
3
DS7
C19
1000
R25
511K
.5W
D10
1N4148
C49
10
35V
C22
.001
R2
1.50K
DZ2
24V
C39
.001
6KV
4 1N5818
OUT
1
R8
300
5%
IN
C
R7
100
6
VR1
7815CT
2
DS2
1N5822
75K
R43
10K
T1
XFMR
GATE
D2
1N4004
DL1
LED
R12
75K
C38
.001
6KV
2
R24
15K
3W 5%
R33
4.7K
5%
T2
XFMR
GATE
4
1
5
D4
1N4004
C28
0.1
DS4
1N5818
R47
10K
1
C14
4.7
C27
0.1
DS3
1N5818
R46
10
3
+
R1
0.04
15W
3%
J5
XFMR1
L1
JUMPER
R22
2K
A
C
K
E
NC
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
2
3
U4
4N37
R36
3.01K
C32
.001
R28
10K
B
D12
0 OHM
C46
.001
1
C13
.01
2
3
C10
1.0
(25KHZ)
R29
10K
C20
10
Q2
2N5087
2N5087
R59
3.32K
A
B
K
C
NC
E
6
D11
0 OHM
5
4
HD4
1
2
U3
4N37
DL3
AMBER
HD5
C47
.001
1
2
C48
.001
HD6
Q3
1
2
* Install R58.
R58 for AC current foldback.
GND CHASSIS
NOTES :
_______
_______
1.
ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS,
1/4W, 1% UNLESS OTHERWISE
SPECIFIED.
2.
ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN
MICROFARADS UNLESS
OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.
GND FIELD SIGNAL
GND SIGNAL
TITLE:
SCH, FM2K PWR SUP PFC SWITCHER
UNCONTROLLED
UNLESS OTHERWISE MARKED IN RED INK BY CM AS
A CONTROLLED COPY, COPIES OF THESE
DOCUMENTS INCLUDING ASSOCIATED ELECTRONIC
REPRODUCTIONS ARE FOR REFERENCE ONLY.
6-6
THESE DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE THE
PROPERTY OF INTERNATIONAL RADIO AND
ELECTRONICS CORP., AND SHALL NO BE
REPRODUCED, COPIED, OR USED AS THE BASIS
FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF DEVICES WITHOUT
PERMISSION.
SIZE
REV
DWG. NO.
Q43522-4
C
SCALE: NONE
PROJ NO.
103
L
SHEET 10 0F 10
FM1000 User's Manual
1
2
3
4
5
6
E . C . N.
7
REVISION HISTORY
DESCRIPTION
REV
C
REDRAWN ON IREC FORMAT, AND ADDED U2,D16,L5,C20-21,R20-21
8
DATE
DWN
01/17/05
DW
APPROVALS
CHK
CM
PE
DW
F
F
J5
1
TO
FAN FUSE
1
5
D5
D7
MBR3100
MBR3100
D6
D8
MBR3100
MBR3100
1
R14
10
R15
10
LM2596T-ADJ
220/35V
R20
18.7K
C20
470pF
3W
3W
220/35V
E
J3
BYV44-300
MUR130
D10
C16
.0047
+ C21
1%
D1
D9
MUR130
D13
MUR130
D2
L1
L2
89 uH
89 uH
C1
3300
1
2
3
4
C2
3300
+
+
4 HEADER
C3
1
R16
10
R17
10
3W
3W
D11
J4
BYV44-300
MUR130
D12
C18
.0047
3,4
MUR130
D14
MUR130
D4
L3
L4
89 uH
89 uH
C4
3300
C11
220pF
BYV44-300
C8
.47/160V
R6
15K
1/2W
C
D15
+12V
C9
0.1
+
R9
51K
1%
DZ1
16V
R13
100K
1
2
3
4
C5
3300
+
+
HD1
R7
234K
1%
HD3
HEADER 3
C
INT/EXT
LOCAL
CONTROL
NOTES:
UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED:
R10
10K
1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS, 1/4W, 5% TOL.
2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN MICROFARADS.
2
1
U1A
FAN +24VDC
4
B
ALC
2
4
6
8
10
HEADER 5X2
R2
5.11K
1%
HD2
1
2
3
4
5
6
FAN GND
FAN +24VDC
HEADER 6
3
R18
R12
LM358
5.11K
1%
3.01K
1%
R3
1M
1%
C10
.1
C12
.01
1
Reference Drawings
UNCONTROLLED
UNLESS OTHERWISE MARKED IN RED INK BY CM AS A
CONTROLLED COPY, COPIES OF THESE DOCUMENTS
INCLUDING ASSOCIATED ELECTRONIC REPRODUCTIONS
ARE FOR REFERENCE ONLY.
2
3
ALC
APPROVALS
510K
THESE DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE THE PROPERTY OF
INTERNATIONAL RADIO AND ELECTRONICS CORP.
AND ARE NOT TO BE REPRODUCED, COPIED OR USED AS THE BASIS
FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR SALE OF APPARATUS OR
DEVICES WITHOUT PERMISSION.
4
5
DWN
CHK
CM
PE
DW
01/17/05
DW
01/17/05
DISTRIBUTION
FILENAME:
INTERNATIONAL RADIO AND ELECTRONICS CORP.
25166 LEER DRIVE ELKHART, IN. 46514
574-262-8900
WWW.IREC1.COM
TITLE:
SIZE
B
SCH, POWER SUPPLY DC OUTPUT
REV.
DWG . NO .
200983-SCH
200983-SCH
6
B
IREC
R4
5
LM358
A
B_L_SHT1_A.DOT REV. A
U1B
CONTROL
0-6VDC IN
(5V FOR 50V OUT)
R11
2.0K
1%
R8
10K
1%
6
7
TO RF PA'S
50V 24A
4 HEADER
C6
1
8
1N4004
R5
1K
5W
1
2
3
R1
1K
5W
+
C7
.47/160V
200983-SCH
C17
.0047
5,6,7,8
1
3
5
7
9
TO RF PA'S
50V 24A
BYV44-300
D3
D
1
MUR420
1%
9,10
2
4
C
C15
.0047
15,16,17,18
19,20
J2
FEEDBACK
GND
R21
1.0K
3W
.0047
13,14
1
FAN +24VDC
D16
ON/OFF
R19
10
C19
11
1
2
12
E
J1
C13
1
OUT
DWG. NO.
T1
3
+ C14
Vin
REV.
J6
L5
150uH
U2
+27V
SCALE : NONE
7
PROJ NO.
533
A
C
SHEET
1 OF 1
8
6-7
6–8
FM1000A User’s Manual
Illustration 6–5 PA1000 Block Diagram
C2
47PF NP0
R2
82
R4
10
BNC 1
R1
82
D2
1N5263
C1
47PF NP0
D1
1N6263
R6
20K
R5
20K
C3
.001
C5
.01
R7
20K
C6
.01
R
E
F
L
R8
20K
C4
.001
Coaxual Cable Connection
Coaxual Cable Connection
R3
10
RF
OUTPUT
F
W
D
RF INPUT
(Back Panel)
1 2 3 4 5
HD1
RF IN
NOTES :
_______
_______
1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS,
1/4W, 5% UNLESS OTHERWISE
SPECIFIED.
2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN
MICROFARADS UNLESS
OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.
3. C1201-1209A,1217 are circuit board pads.
RF Input
Reflectometer & Splitter
J0744-3m
PA1000 RF Input
Reference Drawings
6–9
6–10
GND
GND
GND
GND
PA IN
PA IN
PA IN
PA IN
GND
GND
GND
L18
L14
GND
GND
GND
GND
TEMP AMP A&B
TEMP V+
AMPB DC PWR
AMPB DC PWR
AMPB DC PWR
AMPA DC PWR
AMPA DC PWR
AMPA DC PWR
500 W Power Amp
FM1000A User’s Manual
C2
1.0
C1
1.0
C3
1.0
RFIN
RFIN
C4
1.0
R1119
200
3W
R1119
200
3W
C1111
0.01
C1111
0.01
C5
1.0
PA INPUT BD
C1116
27PF
T1111P
DZ1110
1N4735
6.2V
PA INPUT BD
C1116
27PF
T1111P
DZ1110
1N4735
6.2V
T11S
R1116
10
T11S
R1116
10
C6
1.0
C1114
0.01
R1114
5.6
2W
R1117
24
3W
R1117
24
3W
R1120
2.7K
C1112
0.01
R1112
5.6
2W
R1114
5.6
2W
C1114
0.01
C1112
0.01
R1112
5.6
2W
R1120
2.7K
TEMPERATURE
SENSE
U1
LM35DZ
R1111
10K
POT V
R1110
10K
R1111
10K
POT V
R1110
10K
R1115
5.6
2W
C1115
0.01
C1113
0.01
R1113
5.6
2W
0.01
C1110
R1115
5.6
2W
C1115
0.01
C1113
0.01
R1113
5.6
2W
0.01
C1110
C1121
0.01
DISC
C1121
0.01
DISC
VPWR
C1138
0.068
C1138
0.068
L1122
50NH
L1122
50NH
PA OUTPUT BD
C1123
0.01
L1121
50NH
PA OUTPUT BD
C1123
0.01
L1121
50NH
THESE DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE THE
PROPERTY OF CROWN INTERNATIONAL, INC. AND
SHALL NOT BE REPRODUCED, COPIED, OR USED
AS THE BASIS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR SALE
OF APPARATUS OR DEVICES WITHOUT PERMISSION.
Q1101
BLF278
250W RF POWER AMP “B”
R1101
15K
Q1101
BLF278
250W RF POWER AMP “A”
R1101
15K
VPWR
C1124
0.01
C1124
0.01
C1122
0.01
DISC
C1122
0.01
DISC
C1125
60PF
ELKHART, IN. 46517
RFOUT
RFOUT
L28
L24
500W RF POWER MODULE CCA
J0746-8
PHONE (219) 294-8000
2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN
MICROFARADS UNLESS
OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.
b
REV
1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS,
1/4W, 5% UNLESS OTHERWISE
SPECIFIED.
NOTES :
_______
_______
CROWN INTERNATIONAL, INC.
1718 WEST MISHAWAKA ROAD
T1121
T1121
C1125
60PF
GND
GND
GND
GND
PA OUT
PA OUT
PA OUT
PA OUT
RF Output Combiner
Reference Drawings
6–11
6–12
C1201A
10PF
RF IN
RF OUTPUT FILTER & REFLECTOMETER
FM1000A User’s Manual
0.25"
0.5"
0.5"
0.5"
0.4375"
L1201
L1202
L1203
L1204
L1205
0.6"
0.5"
0.7"
0.6"
3
3
3
0.7"
14
3
LENGTH
C1204
37.7PF
L1204
87.5NH
TURNS
C1203
38.9PF
EXACT COIL LENGTHS ARE FACTORY-SET.
I.D.
C1202
40.9PF
INDUCTORS
L1201
250NH
C1201
15.4PF
L1203
94.1NH
#12
#12
#12
#12
#17
GUAGE
RF MONITOR
C1205
14.1PF
L1205
77.9NH
C1208
5.13PF
C1207
9.3PF
C1206
7.1PF
C1200
1.35PF
L1202
90.5NH
(252MHz)
(176MHz)
(195MHz)
(455MHz)
C1213
.001
R1216
100K
R1215
1K
C1212
47PF NP0
R1213
10
0.50 W
R1211
200
0.50 W
C1214
.01
3. C1201-1209A,1217 are circuit board pads.
2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN
MICROFARADS UNLESS
OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.
NOTES :
_______
_______
1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS,
1/4W, 5% UNLESS OTHERWISE
SPECIFIED.
R1216
100
D1201
1N6263
C1210
82PF SM
C1209A
1PF
1-10 PF
F
W
D
R1217
100K
R1218
1K
R1212
10
0.50 W
C1216
.001
D1211
1N5263
PA RF
OUTPUT
RF Output
Filter & Reflectometer
J0750-0
HD1202
HEADER 5
1 2 3 4 5
R
E
F
L
C1215
.01
R1214
200
0.5 W
C1211
47PF NP0
Note: All bypass capacitors are 0.01 mf
Backplane Distribution
Reference Drawings
6–13
Ribbon Cables and Connectors
Ribbon Cables and Connectors
6–14
FM1000A User's Manual
+5V
+12V
U1A
TL074
4
2
R1
1K
RF FWD
-
3
+
C3
.01
C2
1nF
-12V
R3
100K
1
3
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
R6
3.3K
2
R4
10k
R2
22K
D11
1N4148
+12V
R5
62K
8
D1
1N6263
11
C1
1nF
R108
220K
1
2
3
4
POWER CAL
1
8
7
6
5
1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
8
7
6
5
R8
49.9K
Q1
LM394
8
7
6
5
6
7
D10
1N4148
R11
100
U2B
MC33282
C34
1nF
+5V
U29A
74HC132
R174
10K
REM /PWR RAISE
3
4
R16
10K
2
3
-
2
3
8
+
C10
1nF
U4A
MC33282
R23
10K
R37
100K
R22
10K
R24
10K
1
2
3
4
NUMER
R25
10K
C7
.01
6
REM /PWR LOWER
Q3
LM394
1
2
3
4
R28
49.9K
-5V
1
2
3
4
8
7
6
5
8
7
6
5
R222 OPEN
8
7
6
5
6
-
5
+
14
C12
1nF
D4
1N6263
R41
100K
5
4
11
14
+
R42
OPEN
PATEMP 1-2
11
-
5
+
C15
1nF
R113
220K
C16
1nF
7
R60
100
R32
510
R65
20K
2
R64
10K
D6
OPEN
C18
1nF
10
+
C17
OPEN
R75
100K
8
OUTPUT REV
D7
1N4148
INPUT FWD
5
D8
OPEN
12
-
R53
100
14
U3D
TL074
+
10
REM PA TEMP
C70
1nF
R51
24.9K
9
R54
49.9K
PAV SENSE
+
8
U8C
TL074
R106
10K
R80
10K
FOLDBACK
CAL.
R224
0
R223
OPEN
SH LO 7
SH HI 8
R215
100 1%
R140
100 1%
DIFFERENTIAL PA ERROR CURRENT SENSE.
SH LO 8
R158 = OPEN: HIGHEST-LOWEST = 2.4 AMP.
R158 = 240K: HIGHEST-LOWEST = 1.2 AMP.
R144
100 1%
C62
1nF
U24D
TL074
U19A
MC33282
1
+
U25A
TL074
5
-
7
+
U25B
TL074
.5V/A
R138
OPEN
9
10
-
8
+
U25C
TL074
C63
.01
7
5
U19B
MC33282
13
12
100uA/A
R145
4.99K
+
D26
1N4148
14
-12V
+
14
U25D
TL074
SW2
DOWN
C38
.01
OUT
C90
1UF
C89
1UF
C85
1UF
+5.00
C74
OPEN
DP100
15
1
10
9
5
4
11
14
A
B
C
D
QA
QB
QC
QD
F.S.
UP
DN
LOAD
CLR
CO
BO
3
2
6
7
3
X
R119
150
12
13
INH
A
B
C
9
8
D23
1N4148
X0
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
X7
10
R103
1M
13
14
15
12
1
5
2
4
6
11
10
9
U14C
74HC132
C84
1UF
C75
OPEN
C76
1nF
C77
1nF
C78
OPEN
C79
OPEN
C80
1nF
OPEN
OPEN
100
100
OPEN
OPEN
100
100
REM PAI1
REM PAI2
REM PAI3
REM PAI4
REM PAI5
REM PAI6
REM PAI7
REM PAI8
3
R120
150
R159
100K
C81
1nF
PA1
PA2
PA3
PA4
PA5
PA6
PA7
PA8
+12V
U1,3,5,6,8,24,25
11
-12V
-12V
NOTES :
_______
_______
19.99
19.99
19.99
19.99
19.99
19.99
19.99
19.99
.5V
.5V
.5V
.5V
.5V
.5V
.5V
.5V
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
PER
13
14
15
12
1
5
2
4
AMP
AMP
AMP
AMP
AMP
AMP
AMP
AMP
PAV+6
+5V
4
R160
4.3K
8
U2,4,26,29
4
1,8
U27
4,5
7
1
U28
U13
4
26
-5V
16
14
U7,14
U9,10
7
8
7
16
U11,12
7,8
16
U15
8
7
U16-23
4
6
11
10
9
X0
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
X7
X
DL6
19.99
DRIVE
DL7
19.99
SWR
DL8
19.99
ALC
DL9
19.99
POWER OUT
DL10
199.9
PA TEMP
DL11
199.9
DL12
199.9
PA AMPS
DL13
19.99
PA1
U12
74HC4051
X
X0
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
X7
DL14
19.99
PA2
DL15
19.99
PA3
DL16
19.99
PA4
DL17
19.99
PA5
DL18
19.99
ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN
MICROFARADS.
UNCONTROLLED
UNLESS OTHERWISE MARKED IN RED INK BY CM AS
A CONTROLLED COPY, COPIES OF THESE
DOCUMENTS INCLUDING ASSOCIATED ELECTRONIC
REPRODUCTIONS ARE FOR REFERENCE ONLY.
6
11
10
9
PA6
DL19
19.99
PA7
DL20
19.99
PA8
ALL GRN
U10
INH
A
B
C
74HC4051
TITLE:
PAV-6
SCH, FM1K CONTROL & METERING
UNLESS OTHERWISE
SPECIFIED:
ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS,
1/4W, 5% TOL.
13
14
15
12
1
5
2
4
PA VOLTS
3
SIZE
1.
-5V
C86
1UF
DP10
U11
74HC4051
74HC193
R162
R163
R164
R165
R166
R167
R168
R169
3
DECIMAL POINT
INH
A
B
C
RF output power is limited by the lower of:
Remote RAISE/LOWER step circuit, or
Remote PWR CTRL analog input, or
Front panel OUTPUT control.
OUT
6
REF02
U14B
74HC132
R117
100K
IN
U8D
TL074
2.
Reference Drawings
2
U15
R161
56K
.5V/A
.5V/A
Q13
2N5087
C87
1UF
4
1N4148'S
R141
4.99K
6
-
R158
OPEN
*
.5V/A
-12V
6
100uA/A
PA-5V
13
12
-
D22
1N4148
C39
1UF
(HIGHEST PAI)
R135
OPEN
Q12
2N5087
1
3
R218
OPEN
R157
10K
D34
3
IN
TEMP
TRIM
6
R156
4.3K
C91
1UF
VR2
79L05
-12V
R99
510
R118
3.3K
+5V
5
+
+5V
C82
47UF
20v
C92
1UF
+5V
.5V/A
D33
2
100uA/A
C60
.01
2
R143
100 1%
C61
1nF
R216
100 1%
14
R116
100K
R115
510K
D32 OPEN
U18B
OPEN
R151
100
C69
1nF
C73
1UF
-12V
U28
2
3
5
12
2
R114
10K
+12V
4
(40mv/A)
*
-
PA+5V
C59
1nF
GND
R219
OPEN
C37
.01
REM PAIT
3
VSS
DL4
RED
U7F
74HC14
U14A
74HC132
1
.05V/A
U26B
MC33282
D31 OPEN
5
8
TEMP V+
R214
100 1%
R132
4.99K
Q11
OPEN
7
U26A
MC33282
D51
SH HI 7
12
100uA/A
C57
OPEN
6
R139
100 1%
C58
1nF
+12V IN
U18A
OPEN
PA-5V
7
5
VCC
OUT
VEE
C29
1UF
U6D
TL074
IN
DZ5
ICTE-12
RFC4
33UH
-12V IN
R98
220K
SW1
UP
-12V
13
Q10
OPEN
1
3
C56
OPEN
R213
100 1%
C54
OPEN
2
R136
OPEN
R137
OPEN
1
3
DZ4
ICTE-12
PADC LAMP
C28
.01
14
+12v
100uA/A
R220
OPEN
+
C88
1UF
D21
8
U7D
74HC14
6
D50
R212
OPEN
U24C
TL074
PA+5V
C53
OPEN
IN'LK 2
R142
100
U17B
MC33282
-
2
+12V
DL3
RED
3
2
D49 OPEN
R134
OPEN
Q9
2N5087
5
+
.5V/A
R129
4.99K
C51
.01
7
R133
OPEN
C55
OPEN
IN'LK 1
PA-5V
6
8
D48 OPEN
SH HI 6
R211
OPEN
10
100uA/A
-
(LOWEST PAI)
R210
OPEN
9
11
SH LO 5
+12V
D30
R209
OPEN
72
SH LO 6
REM /PWR ON
R131
100 1%
C50
1nF
Viewed from front panel
PS /POWER ON
U17A
MC33282
R130
100 1%
C49
1nF
C52
OPEN
71
3
VDD
VR1
7805
+12V
+12V
R88
OPEN
13
TSC4429
RFC3
33UH
+12V IN
13
12
Q8
2N5087
1
R87
50K
C65
100UF/63V
RFC2
470UH
2
PATEMP LAMP
R18
200K
R148
10K 1%
D29
SH LO 4
R208
100 1%
R146
1.0K
D25
R171
510
7
DL2
RED
J2-12
4
R207
100 1%
U24B
TL074
4
69
2
C47
1nF
SH HI 4
+
R126
OPEN
D36
6.2V
U?
6
11
U14D
C64 74HC132
.01
U7C
74HC14
9
D35
1N4148
R170
510
DZ2
6.2V
PA-5V
13
6
R96
100K
DZ1
6.2V
C68
47UF/20V
12
DRIVE LAMP
D20
1N4148
5
PA LIMIT
C22
100PF
R147
20K
1%
.5V/A
C48
.01
4
3
R128
100 1%
5
7
+5.00
PA+5V
1N5822
1N5822
+12V
C83
47UF/20V
R152
10K
DL1
RED
4
R94
100K
R93
120K
C66
100UF
63V
C104
1nF
C72
1nF
+5.00
R86
5.1K
-
DPM REF
C36
0.1
C67
47UF/20V
10
U7E
74HC14
U7B
74HC14
R95
56K
R104
10.0K
R105
2.49K
RFC1
33UH
+50V
D19
1N4148
3
-12V
R149
100K
-12V
6
100uA/A
R150
OPEN
.5V/A
U24A
TL074
PA+5V
8
1
U16B
OPEN
1
+
C31
0.1
SWR LAMP
-12V
8
SH LO 3
R206
100 1%
R221
OPEN
R123
OPEN
Q7
OPEN
7
5
R127
100 1%
C46
1nF
Metering Card Edge Connector
70
C45
OPEN
6
-
D28 OPEN
R205
100 1%
HDR 72
4
PA-5V
C44
OPEN
SH HI 3
3
C30
0.1
1
C43
OPEN
R125
OPEN
2
100uA/A
C33
100PF
C35
0.1
D24
2
R92
100K
D17
1N4148
R100
100K
R172
24.9K
C
R204
OPEN
U16A
OPEN
R84
20K
DPM IN
INH
A
B
C
1
SH LO 2
Q6
OPEN
1
3
R83
120K
C32
0.1
R101
470K
R200
100
U7A
74HC14
11
R124
OPEN
U6A
TL074
-5V
R102
100K
U9
74HC4051
R97
10K
D18
1N4148
1
D16
1N4148
11
R203
OPEN
SH HI 5
2
2
C41
OPEN
SH HI 2
1
+
4
RF FWD
RF REV
DRIVE FWD
DRIVE REV
REM RF POWER
REM SWR
REM PAV
REM PAIT
REM PAI1
REM PAI2
REM PAI3
REM PAI4
REM PAI5
REM PAI6
REM PAI7
REM PAI8
NO PIN
NO PIN
GND
GND
NO PIN
NO PIN
SH LO 1
SH HI 1
SH LO 2
SH HI 2
SH LO 3
SH HI 3
SH LO 4
SH LO 5
SH LO 6
SH LO 7
SH LO 8
+50V
IN'LK 1
IN'LK 2
C42
OPEN
4
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
70
72
3
+12V
8
PIN
PIN
PL1
R202
OPEN
C40
OPEN
R122
OPEN
R57
1.15K
PA+5V
4
PIN
PIN
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55
57
59
61
63
65
67
69
71
R121
OPEN
8
SH LO 1
PS /POWER ON
(SPARE)
ALC
-12V IN
GND
+12V IN
REM PA TEMP
REM ALC
FAULT SUM
REM /PWR ON
REM PWR CTRL
REM /PWR RAISE
REM /PWR LOWER
(SPARE)
REM RF DRIVE
GND
NO
NO
GND
GND
NO
NO
GND
(SPARE)
PATEMP 7-8
PATEMP 5-6
PATEMP 1-2
TEMP V+
PATEMP 3-4
SH HI 4
SH HI 5
SH HI 6
SH HI 7
SH HI 8
PAV SENSE
MEM BATT
R201
OPEN
D47
SH HI 1
-
3
X
C
R50
470
D27 OPEN
U5D
TL074
D44 OPEN
+
C19
1nF
2
R82
7.5K
D46
12
R154
220K
14
D45 OPEN
PATEMP 7-8
-
C27
1nF
X0
X1
X2
X3
X4
X5
X6
X7
+5V
R74
1.15K
D15
1N4148
R85
1M
13
14
15
12
1
5
2
4
+5V
U?
DISP-40
FAULT SUM
U8B
TL074
R90
100K
R91
120K
4
13
D9
1N4148
R186
3.3K
ALC
11
+5V
19.99
19.99
19.99
19.99
199.9
199.9
199.9
6
11
10
9
7
+
R89
120K
R81
OPEN
R227
OPEN
+5V
U6C
TL074
D43
1N4148
5
R107
1.15K
R49
10K
8
+
U33A
TL074
(1.999V reads "1999" FULL SCALE)
+5V
-
1
+
REM ALC
D14
1N4148
9
R79
1K
+12V
-
C24
1nF
-12V
+12V
R48
1K
DRIVE
SWR
ALC
KW OUT
PA TEMPERATURE
PA DC VOLTS
PA DC AMPS
R72
100
U6B
TL074
10
REM PAV
C71
1nF
C21
1nF
R56
10.0K
R58
100
DP10
DP100
LOCAL ONLY
C101
1nF
-12V
R225
OPEN
R226
0
-
5
R68
200K
UNITS
R73
10.0K
6
C26
0.1
7
+
R78
1K
R52
100K 1%
R47
OPEN
-
R76
24.9K
(1.5:1)
49.9K FOR 2:1
INPUT REV
U5C
TL074
C20
1nF
6
POWER RANGE
R45
10K
R67
51K
3
R63
510
R70
100K
R77
1M
2
R62
1K
POWER SET
R71
100
-12V
+12V
4
R153
220K
D12
1N4148
TENS
SW5
Switch
+5.00
8
PATEMP 5-6
-
U8A
TL074
100's
D42
1N4148
1
2
3
+5.00
R69
10K
8
U33C
TL074
1
9
C23
0.1
+
-12V
R180
4.99K
D53
1N4148
C25
0.1
1
+
10mv per degree C.
13
R46
OPEN
R66
1M
-
3
-
10
U33D
TL074
C98
.01
1
VLC
14
+
U32
DAC0800
12
13
D13
1N4148
+12V
REM RF DRIVE
R43
OPEN
U5B
TL074
VR-
-
16
COMP
VR+
(0.6v at 6v)
C102
1nF
2
IOUT
(0.2VDC at 2000W)
(.35VDC at 35 degrees)
(.48V at 48 volts)
(.5VDC at 50 amps)
10
U5A
TL074
-12V
6
R44
1K
1
+
C13
OPEN
R112
220K
PATEMP 3-4
-
3
15
9
11
4
2
14
12
(DETERMINED BY DIR. CPLR. SENSITIVITY.)
4
C14
1nF
CO
BO
3
2
6
7
13
D52
1N4148
R61
ZERO
OUTPUT FWD
+12V
15
1
10
9
4
IOUT
(0.1V at 1.00)
8
U3C
TL074
SWR clamp @ <200W
Q14
R40
22K
D38
1N4148
U29C
74HC132
U31
74HCT193
R217
1K
R34
1.15K
UP
DN
LOAD
CLR
9
B8
B7
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
R31
12K
R26
100K
2N5210
+
C11
1nF
C8
1nF
+5.00
Q4
LM394
R27
3.3K
QA
QB
QC
QD
R183
4.99K
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
LSB
12
13
MSB
10
U29D
74HC132
C95
1UF
R33
10.0K
7
U3B
TL074
A
B
C
D
3
2
6
7
8
11
SW4
LOWER
REM SWR
CO
BO
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
-
12
R111
220K
D5
1N4148
U1D
TL074
13
R39
1K
DRIVE FWD
U4B
MC33282
R35
100
R30
5.1K
R29
10K
QA
QB
QC
QD
UP
DN
LOAD
CLR
C100
1nF
11
5
12
13
8
7
6
5
A
B
C
D
DZ3
6.2V
9
SWR CAL
1
2
3
4
7
R38
22K
R176
10K
5
4
11
14
D41
1N4148
U33B
TL074
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
D3
1N6263
R175
51K
R20
3.3K
1
-12V
R21
1K
15
1
10
9
R178
3.3K
C96
47UF
7
+
4
10
C9
1nF
R110
220K
-12V
C6
.01
4
DRIVE REV
U3A
TL074
11
R13
22K
1
+
R19
10K
U1C
TL074
9
R36
1K
-
6
C94
1UF
+5V
R10
1.15K
+5V
-
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
D2
1N6263
SW3
RAISE
DENOM
+12V
R155
OPEN
U30
74HCT193
5
-5V
10K
8
C5
1nF
C4
1nF
5
D37
1N4148
4
2
R17
+12V
R14
100K
4
R109
220K
R15
510
7
+
6
C103
1nF
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
-
5
C99
1nF
R182
1K
C97
3300UF/16V
R179
10K
U29B
74HC132
1
-12V
U1B
TL074
6
R12
1K
RF REV
R181
1K
REM PWR CTRL
C105
1nF
R177
240K
R173
51K
R9
10.0K
R7
49.9K
U2A
MC33282
+5V
REM RF POWER
5
Q2
LM394
+5.00
D40
1N4004
D39
1N4004
R59
1K
MEM BATT
THESE DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE THE
PROPERTY OF CROWN INTERNATIONAL, INC. AND
SHALL NOT BE REPRODUCED, COPIED, OR USED
AS THE BASIS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR SALE
OF APPARATUS OR DEVICES WITHOUT PERMISSION.
DWG. NO.
REV
102120
D
SCALE
NONE
PROJ NO.
MFM2000
F
SHEET 1 OF 1
6-15
Notes:
6–16
FM1000A User's Manual
Section 7—Service and Support
We understand that you may need various levels of support or
that the product could require servicing at some point in time.
This section provides information for both of these scenarios.
Service and Support
7–1
7.1 Service
The product warranty (see opposite page) outlines our responsibility for defective products.
Before returning a product for repair or replacement (our choice), call our Customer Service
department using the following telephone number:
(866) 262-8917
Our Customer Service Representative will give you further instructions regarding the return
of your product. Use the original shipping carton or a new one obtained from Crown. Place
shipping spacers between the slide-out power amplifier assembly and the back panel.
Please fill out the Factory Service Instructions sheet (page 7–5) and include it with your returned product.
7.2 24–Hour Support
In most instances, what you need to know about your product can be found in this manual.
There are times when you may need more in-depth information or even emergency-type
information. We provide 24–hour technical assistance on your product via a toll telephone
call. For emergency help or detailed technical assistance, call
(866) 262-8917
You may be required to leave a message at this number but your call will be returned
promptly from our on-call technician.
7.3 Spare Parts
To obtain spare parts, call Crown Broadcast Service at the following number.
(866) 262-8917
You may also write to the following address:
International Radio & Electronics Corporation
25166 Leer Drive
Elkhart, Indiana, U.S.A. 46514-5425
7-2
FM600 User’s Manual
Crown Broadcast Three Year Limited Product Warranty
SUMMARY OF WARRANTY
Crown Broadcast, IREC warrants its broadcast products to the ORIGINAL PURCHASER of a NEW Crown
Broadcast product, for a period of three (3) years after shipment from Crown Broadcast. All products are
warranted to be free of defects in materials and workmanship and meet or exeed all specifications published
by Crown Broadcast. Product nameplate with serial number must be intact and not altered in any way. This
warranty is non - transferable. This warranty in its entirety is the only warranty offered by Crown Broadcast. No
other warranties, expressed or implied, will be enforceable.
EXCLUSIONS
Crown Broadcast will not warranty the product due to misuse, accident, neglect and improper installation or
operation. Proper installation included A/C line surge supression, lightning protection and proper grounding of
the entire transmitter, and any other recommendations designated in the Instruction manual. This warranty
does not extend to any other products other than those designed and manufactured by Crown Broadcast. This
warranty does not cover any damage to any accessory such as loads, transmission line or antennas resulting
from the use or failure of a Crown Broadcast transmitter. Warranty does not cover any loss of revenue resulting
from any failure of a Crown Broadcast product, act of God, or natural disaster.
Procedure for Obtaining Warranty Service
Crown Broadcast will repair or service, at our discretion, any product failure as a result of normal intended use.
Warranty repair can only be performed at our plant facility in Elkhart, Indiana USA or at a factory authorized
service depot. Expenses in remedying the defect will be borne by Crown Broadcast, including two-way ground
transportation cost within the continental United States.
Prior to returning any product or component to Crown Broadcast for warranty work or repair, a Return
Authorization (RA) number must be obtained from the Crown Broadcast Customer Service Department.
Product must be returned in the original factory pack or equivalent. Original factory pack materials may be
obtained at a nominal charge by contacting Crown Broadcast Customer Service. Resolution of the defective
product will be made within a reasonable time from the date of receipt of the defective product.
Warranty Alterations
No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or modify this warranty, in whole or in part. This warranty is not
extended by the length of time for which the owner was deprived the use of the product. Repairs and
replacement parts that are provided under the terms of this warranty shall carry only the unexpired portion of
the warranty.
Product Design Changes
Crown Broadcast reserves the right to change the design and manufacture of any product at any time without
notice and without obligation to make corresponding changes in products previously manufactured.
Legal Remedies of Purchaser
This written warranty is given in lieu of any oral or implied warranties not covered herein. Crown Croadcast
disclaims all implied warranties including any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.
Crown Broadcast
25166 Leer Drive
Elkhart, Indiana 46514-5425
Phone 574-262-8900 Fax 574-262-5399 www.crownbroadcast.com
Service and support
7–3
Notes:
7–4
FM1000A User's Manual
Factory Service Instructions
To obtain factory service, complete the bottom half of this page, include it with the unit, and ship to:
International Radio & Electronics Corporation
25166 Leer Drive
Elkhart, Indiana, U.S.A. 46514-5425
For units in warranty (within 5 years of purchase from any authorized Crown Dealer): We pay for
ground UPS shipments from anywhere in the continental U.S. and Federal Express Second Day
service from Hawaii and Alaska to the factory and back to you. Expedited service/shipment is
available for an additional charge. You may forward your receipt for shipping charges which we will
reimburse. We do not cover any charges for shipping outside the U.S. or any of the expenses
involved in clearing customs.
If you have any questions about your Crown Broadcast product, please contact Crown Broadcast
Customer Service at:
Telephone: (866) 262-8917 or (866) 262-8972
Fax: (866) 262-8909
Company:
Name:
Shipping Address:
Phone Number: Fax:
Model:
Serial Number:
Purchase Date:
Nature of the Problem
(Describe the conditions that existed when the problem occurred and what attempts were made to correct it.)
Other equipment in your system:
If warranty has expired, payment will be:
Cash/Check
VISA
Please Quote before servicing
Card Number:
Exp. Date:
Return Shipment Preference if other than UPS Ground:
Mastercard
Signature:
Expedite Shipment
Other
ENCLOSE WITH UNIT—DO NOT MAIL SEPARATELY
Service and Support
7-5
A B C
Glossary
The following pages define terms and abbreviations used
throughout this and other Crown Broadcast manuals.
Glossary
G–1
A B C
AF
Audio Frequency; the frequencies between 20 Hz
and 20 kHz in the electromagnetic spectrum.
ALC
Automatic Level Control
AM
Amplitude Modulation; the process of impressing
information on a radio-frequency signal by varying
its amplitude.
bandwidth
The range of frequencies available for signalling.
BCD
Binary-Coded Decimal; a digital system that uses
binary codes to represent decimal digits.
BFO
Beat Frequency Oscillator
BNC
A bayonet locking connector for miniature coax;
said to be short for Bayonet-Neill-Concelman.
broadband
As used in the FM transmitter, refers to the entire
audio spectrum as opposed to the spectrum influenced by the pre-emphasis; also called "Wideband."
carrier
A continuous signal which is modulated with a
second, information-carrying signal.
crosstalk
In FM broadcasting, this term generally refers to
the interaction between the main (L+R) and the
subcarrier (L–R) signals as opposed to "separation"
which generally refers to leakage between left (L)
and right (R) channels.
density (program)
A high average of modulation over time.
deviation
The amount by which the carrier frequency
changes either side of the center frequency.
DIP
Dual In-line Package; term used to describe an IC
or socket that has two parallel rows of pins.
distortion
The unwanted changes in signal wave shape that
occur during transmission between two points.
DPM
Digital Panel Meter
EPROM
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
ESD
Electrostatic Discharge; a discharge that is potentially distructive to sensitive electronic components.
G–2
FM1000A User's Manual
exciter
FET
(1) A circuit that supplies the initial oscillator used
in the driver stage. (2) A transmitter configuration
which excludes stereo generation and audio
processing.
Field-Effect Transistor
frequency synthesizer
A circuit that generates precise frequency signals
by means of a single crystal oscillator in conjunction with frequency dividers and multipliers.
FM
Frequency Modulation; the process of impressing
information on a radio signal by varying its frequency.
FSK
Frequency Shift Keying; an FM technique for
shifting the frequency of the main carrier at a
Morse code rate. Used in the on-air identification
of frequencies.
gain reduction
The process of reducing the gain of a given amplifier.
harmonics
Undesirable energy at integral multiples of a
desired, fundamental frequency.
HF
High Frequency; Frequencies in the 3.0 to 30.0
MHz range.
Highband
Frequencies affected by the pre-emphasis.
IC
Integrated Circuit
I/O
Input/Output
LED
Light-Emitting Diode
modulation
The process by which a carrier is varied to represent an information-carrying signal.
MOSFET
Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor;
a voltage-controlled device with high input impedance due to its electrically isolated gate.
nearcast
A transmission within a localized geographic area
(ranging from a single room to a several kilometers).
PA
Power Amplifier
Glossary
G–3
A B C
PAI
Power Amplifier Current
PAV
Power Amplifier Voltage
pilot
A 19–kHz signal used for stereo transmissions.
pre-emphasis
The deliberate accentuation of the higher audio
frequencies; made possible by a high-pass filter.
processing
The procedure and/or circuits used to modify
incoming audio (keeping its level around 75 kHz
deviation) to make it suitable for transmission.
receiver
An option which adds incoming RF capability to an
existing transmitter. See also "Translator."
RF
Radio Frequency; (1) A specific portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum between audio-frequency and the infrared portion. (2) A frequency
useful for radio transmission (roughly 10 kHz and
100,000 MHz).
SCA
Subsidiary Communications Authorization; see
"subcarrier."
S/N
Signal to Noise
spurious products
Unintended signals present on the transmission
output terminal.
stability
A tolerance or measure of how well a component,
circuit, or system maintains constant operating
conditions over a period of time.
stereo pilot
See "pilot."
stereo separation
The amount of left-channel information that bleeds
into the right channel (or vice versa).
subcarrier
A carrier signal which operates at a lower frequency than the main carrier frequency and which
modulates the main carrier.
suppression
The process used to hold back or stop certain
frequencies.
G–4
FM1000A User's Manual
SWR
Standing-Wave Ratio; on a transmission line, the
ratio of the maximum voltage to the minimum
voltage or maximum current to the minimum
current; also the ratio of load impedance to intended (50 ohms) load impedance.
THD
Total Harmonic Distortion
translator
A transmitter designed to internally change an FM
signal from one frequency to another for retransmission. Used in conjunction with terrestrial-fed
networks.
satellator
A transmitter equipped with an FSK ID option for
rebroadcasting a satellite-fed signal.
UHF
Ultra High Frequency; frequencies in the 300 to
3000 MHz range.
VCO
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
VHF
Very High Frequency; frequencies in the 30 to 300
MHz range.
VSWR
Voltage Standing-Wave Ratio; see "SWR."
Wideband
See "broadband."
Glossary
G–5
Index
A
H
AC Input Board 4–5
AC Power 1–3
AC power 2–4
ALC 3–4, 5–3
Antenna 3–7
mismatch 5–5
antenna 2–5
Humidity Range 1–3
I
In Ref 3–4, 5–3
Input Divider Board 4–3
Installation 2–5
Interlock Switch 3–5
B
L
Backplane Assembly 4–3
Backplane DC Interconnect Board 4–3
Board Layouts 6–3
labels 1–4
C
Circuit Breaker 3–4
Combiner Board 4–2
Connections 2–5
Connectors
Hubble Twist Lock® 2–4
Hubble Twist-Lock 2–6
connectors 2–5
D
DC Fuse and Power Distribution Board
4–4
DC Output Board 4–6
DC Power Switch 3–5
Digital Multimeter 3–6, 5–3
E
Efficiency 1–3
efficiency 1–2
exciter 1–2
F
M
Metering and Control Board 4–4
multimeter display 3–4
O
operation 3–2
Output Combiner Board 4–3
Output Filter & Reflectometer 4–3
P
PA DC 5–6
PA Temp 3–4, 5–4
PA Voltage 5–4
PFC (Power Factor Correcting)
Switching Board 4–5
power adjust 3–3
Power Consumption 1–3
Power Factor 1–3
Power Module 4–2
Power Out 3–4, 5–3
Power Switch 3–4
power switch 3–3
Power-up 3–2
Fans 4–4, 4–6, 5–5
Fault Indicators 3–7, 5–5
Frequency Range 1–3
Fuse Indicators 3–8
Index-i
R
T
remote I/O 2–7
RF Drive Requirement 1–3
RF Harmonics 1–3
RF Output Impedance 1–3
RF output power 1–2
RF Power Output 1–3
RF power output 1–2
RU spaces 1–2
Tot Current 5–4
transmitter package 1–2
Troubleshooting Flow Chart 5–2
U
S
Weight 1–3
S/N Ratio 1–3
Safety 1–4
Schematics 6–3
Spurious Products 1–3
SWR 1–3, 3–4, 5–3
Index-ii
Unpacking 2–2
W
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement