Industry Standards
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) are
nationally recognized organizations, which identify and
develop industry test methods and technical standards.
All tile products distributed by Merola Tile are Grade 1,
First-Quality products and meet or exceed the
requirements of ANSI A137.1. Please refer to individual
product pages for item-specific technical data.
Static Coefficient of Friction (SCOF), ASTM C1028-06 /
Dynamic Coefficient of Friction (DCOF) AcuTest, ANSI
A137.1–2012, Section 9.6
The tile industry uses ASTM C1028-06 to measure the
coefficient of friction, or the relative slip resistance of
tile surfaces. This procedure measures the maximum
force required to initiate motion, or slip, across the tile
surface. The values are recorded and averaged to
determine the static COF. A newer standard, called DCOF,
is an evaluation of the COF of a tile surface under known
conditions using a standardized sensor prepared
according to a specific protocol. Measurements are made
using a tribometer, under wet conditions using a 0.05%
sodium lauryl sulfate solution to establish a thin film
as would be present when a slip occurs. Because many
variables affect the risk of a slip occurring, the SCOF
and DCOF measurement shall not be the only factor in
determining the appropriateness of a tile for a particular
Water Absorption, ASTM C373-88
Water absorption is measured using ASTM C373-88.
Individual tiles are weighed, saturated with water, and
weighed again. The percent difference between the two
values is the water absorption value. Tiles are categorized
according to water absorption percentages as follows:
Tiles absorbing 0.5% or less.
(Frostproof, can be used for outdoor applications)
Vitreous Tiles absorbing more than 0.5% but not more than 3.0%.
(Not frostproof, not recommended for outdoor applications)
Tiles absorbing more than 3.0% but not more than 7.0%.
(Not frostproof, not recommended for outdoor applications)
Tiles absorbing more than 7.0%.
(Not frostproof, not recommended for outdoor applications)
Chemical Resistance, ASTM C650-04
Chemical resistance is measured using ASTM C650-04. A
tile sample is placed in continuous contact with a
selection of chemical agents for 24 hours, then the
surface is rinsed and examined for visible staining or
Improving Homes. Improving Lives.
Break Strength, ASTM C648-04
Tiles used on floors and walls must be able to withstand
the expected load-bearing capacity of various
installations. The tile industry uses ASTM C648-04 to
determine the strength and durability of the tile. The test
method provides means for establishing whether or not a
tile meets the strength requirements which may appear
in tile specifications. Tile strength is the force in poundsforce (or newtons) necessary to cause an unsupported**
tile to break.
**Breaking strength does not measure the weight limit of
foot traffic or supported tile. The final strength of a tile
installation is calculated by including (but not limited
to) the tile, the installation materials and method, and
Merola Tile recommends adherence to industry
installation guidelines set forth here:
ANSI A108.1 - Installation of ceramic tile with Portland Cement
ANSI A108.4 - Installation of ceramic tile with water resistant organic adhesives
ANSI A108.5 - Installation of ceramic tile installed with dry-set Portland Cement
Mortar or Latex-Portland Cement Mortar
ANSI A108.6 - Installation for ceramic tile installed with chemical-resistant epoxy.
PEI Rating/Abrasion Resistance, ASTM C1027-99
The durability of glazed tile is measured by observing the
visible surface abrasion of the tile when subjected to the
ASTM C1027-99 testing procedure. Tiles are classified into
the following classes according to their durability:
PEI 0: (Wall Use Only) Not recommended for use on floors.
PEI 1: (Light Residential) Suitable for light-duty residential floors, bathrooms and
bedrooms without direct access from outside; no scratching dirt can be present (no
exterior access entrances)
PEI 2: (Residential) Suitable for all interior walls and light foot traffic such as
powder rooms and areas subject to soft-soled footwear or normal footwear traffic
with small amounts of scratching dirt (i.e. rooms in the living areas of homes
except kitchens, entrances and other areas that may be subjected to high foot
PEI 3: (Heavy Residential or Light Commercial) Suitable for medium-duty
residential floors including kitchens, halls, corridors, balconies, terraces and areas
used more often with normal footwear and small amounts of dirt. Examples may
include residential kitchens and hallways with limited traffic from the outside.
PEI 4: (Commercial) Suitable for heavy-duty residential and commercial kitchens,
entrances, hotels, exhibition and sales rooms with some dirt conditions.
PEI 5: (Heavy Commercial) Suitable for both residential and high-traffic commercial
use, including extra heavy-duty floors and areas subject to heavy pedestrian traffic
over sustained periods with some dirt such as shopping centers, airport concourses,
public walkways and industrial applications.
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