Bull Power6 User manual

Bull Power6 User manual
REFERENCE
86 A1 34EV 04
ESCALA
Site Preparation and
Physical Planning
Guide
ESCALA
Site Preparation and
Physical Planning Guide
Hardware
May 2009
BULL CEDOC
357 AVENUE PATTON
B.P.20845
49008 ANGERS CEDEX 01
FRANCE
REFERENCE
86 A1 34EV 04
The following copyright notice protects this book under Copyright laws which prohibit such actions as, but not limited
to, copying, distributing, modifying, and making derivative works.
Copyright © Bull SAS 2009
Printed in France
Trademarks and Acknowledgements
We acknowledge the rights of the proprietors of the trademarks mentioned in this manual.
All brand names and software and hardware product names are subject to trademark and/or patent protection.
Quoting of brand and product names is for information purposes only and does not represent trademark misuse.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Bull will not be liable for errors
contained herein, or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the use of this material.
Contents
Safety notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
Site preparation and physical planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Site selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Static electricity and floor resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Space requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Floor construction and floor loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Raised floors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conductive contamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computer room layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vibration and shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electromagnetic compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computer room location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Material and data storage protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency planning for continuous operations . . . . . . . . . . .
General power information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Voltage and frequency limits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dual-power installation configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dual-power installation: Redundant distribution panel and switch . . .
Dual-power installation: Redundant distribution panel . . . . . . .
Single distribution panel: Dual circuit breakers . . . . . . . . .
Air conditioning determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General guidelines for data centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temperature and humidity design criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temperature and humidity recording instruments . . . . . . . . . .
Relocation and temporary storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acclimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System air distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Planning for the installation of rear door heat exchangers . . . . . . . .
Heat exchanger specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat exchanger performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water specifications for the secondary cooling loop . . . . . . . . .
Water delivery specifications for secondary loops . . . . . . . . . .
Layout and mechanical installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat exchanger installation overview . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat exchanger filling and draining overview . . . . . . . . . .
Planning for heat exchangers in a raised floor environment . . . . .
Planning for heat exchangers in a non-raised floor environment . . . .
Secondary cooling loop parts and services information . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous parts supplier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services supplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling distribution unit suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation and support from IBM Integrated Technology Services offerings .
Planning for communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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. 1
. 1
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. 47
. 51
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. 55
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. 76
. 76
. 76
. 79
. 80
Appendix. Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Trademarks . . . . . .
Electronic emission notices .
Class A Notices . . . .
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2007, 2009
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. 84
. 84
. 84
iii
Terms and conditions .
iv
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Site preparation and physical planning
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. 87
Safety notices
Safety notices may be printed throughout this guide:
v DANGER notices call attention to a situation that is potentially lethal or extremely hazardous to
people.
v CAUTION notices call attention to a situation that is potentially hazardous to people because of some
existing condition.
v Attention notices call attention to the possibility of damage to a program, device, system, or data.
World Trade safety information
Several countries require the safety information contained in product publications to be presented in their
national languages. If this requirement applies to your country, a safety information booklet is included
in the publications package shipped with the product. The booklet contains the safety information in
your national language with references to the U.S. English source. Before using a U.S. English publication
to install, operate, or service this product, you must first become familiar with the related safety
information in the booklet. You should also refer to the booklet any time you do not clearly understand
any safety information in the U.S. English publications.
German safety information
Das Produkt ist nicht für den Einsatz an Bildschirmarbeitsplätzen im Sinne § 2 der
Bildschirmarbeitsverordnung geeignet.
Laser safety information
IBM® servers can use I/O cards or features that are fiber-optic based and that utilize lasers or LEDs.
Laser compliance
All lasers are certified in the U.S. to conform to the requirements of DHHS 21 CFR Subchapter J for class
1 laser products. Outside the U.S., they are certified to be in compliance with IEC 60825 as a class 1 laser
product. Consult the label on each part for laser certification numbers and approval information.
CAUTION:
This product might contain one or more of the following devices: CD-ROM drive, DVD-ROM drive,
DVD-RAM drive, or laser module, which are Class 1 laser products. Note the following information:
v Do not remove the covers. Removing the covers of the laser product could result in exposure to
hazardous laser radiation. There are no serviceable parts inside the device.
v Use of the controls or adjustments or performance of procedures other than those specified herein
might result in hazardous radiation exposure.
(C026)
CAUTION:
Data processing environments can contain equipment transmitting on system links with laser modules
that operate at greater than Class 1 power levels. For this reason, never look into the end of an optical
fiber cable or open receptacle. (C027)
CAUTION:
This product contains a Class 1M laser. Do not view directly with optical instruments. (C028)
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2007, 2009
v
CAUTION:
Some laser products contain an embedded Class 3A or Class 3B laser diode. Note the following
information: laser radiation when open. Do not stare into the beam, do not view directly with optical
instruments, and avoid direct exposure to the beam. (C030)
Power and cabling information for NEBS (Network Equipment-Building System)
GR-1089-CORE
The following comments apply to the IBM servers that have been designated as conforming to NEBS
(Network Equipment-Building System) GR-1089-CORE:
The equipment is suitable for installation in the following:
v Network telecommunications facilities
v Locations where the NEC (National Electrical Code) applies
The intrabuilding ports of this equipment are suitable for connection to intrabuilding or unexposed
wiring or cabling only. The intrabuilding ports of this equipment must not be metallically connected to the
interfaces that connect to the OSP (outside plant) or its wiring. These interfaces are designed for use as
intrabuilding interfaces only (Type 2 or Type 4 ports as described in GR-1089-CORE) and require isolation
from the exposed OSP cabling. The addition of primary protectors is not sufficient protection to connect
these interfaces metallically to OSP wiring.
Note: All Ethernet cables must be shielded and grounded at both ends.
The ac-powered system does not require the use of an external surge protection device (SPD).
The dc-powered system employs an isolated DC return (DC-I) design. The DC battery return terminal
shall not be connected to the chassis or frame ground.
vi
Site preparation and physical planning
Site preparation and physical planning
These guidelines help you prepare your site for the delivery and installation of your server.
Site selection
The selection of a site for information technology equipment is the first consideration in planning and
preparing for the installation. Determine whether a new site is to be constructed or alterations are to be
performed on an existing site.
This section provides specific information on building location, structure, and space requirements for
present and future needs.
Utilities
Power and communication facilities must be available in the quantities required for operation. If these are
inadequate, contact the utility company to determine if additional services can be made available.
Exposure to hazards
Pollution, flooding, radio or radar interference, and hazards caused by nearby industries can cause
problems to information technology equipment and recorded media. Any indication of exposure in these
areas should be recognized and included in the planning of the installation.
Access
Define an access route from your loading dock to your data processing area before delivery of your
server.
A preliminary check of the building will show if adequate access for the normal delivery of supplies and
servers exists. A small alley, a narrow door opening, or limited access to the delivery area can become
inhibitive to installation. The loading dock, passageways, and elevators should be able to accommodate
heavy, oversized data processing support equipment such as air conditioning equipment.
Access route
Define an access route from the loading dock to the data processing area. A small alley (cannot
accommodate delivery truck), a narrow door opening <914 mm (<36 in.), low height 2032 mm(<80 in.), or
limited access to the delivery area can become inconvenient during the delivery process. If the heights of
the truck bed and the dock surface do not match, the ramp angle should be such that the machine frame
does not bottom out while taking it from the truck bed to the dock surface.
Within your site, ramps from hallways to computer-room floors should conform to the American
Disabilities Acts (ADA). The ADA requirement states that the ramp should have a 1:12 relationship. For
each inch of vertical height of the raised floor, one foot of ramp length should be provided. As an
example, if the raised floor height is 12 inches, then the ramp length should be 12 feet. The ramps should
also be strong enough to support the weight of the server while it is being moved over the surface. The
hallways and doors should be wide enough and high enough to allow passage of the server, and ensure
adequate turning radius in the hallway. The overhead clearance to pipes and ducts must be sufficient to
allow movement of computer equipment, air conditioners, and electrical equipment. Most standard
passenger elevators are rated for 1134 kg (2500 lb.). Selected information technology equipment, and
some site infrastructure equipment such as air conditioning units might exceed 1134 kg (2500 lb.). Access
to a freight elevator with a minimum rating of 1587 kg (3500 lb.) is recommended.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2007, 2009
1
Review the access route from the loading dock to the computer room to prevent problems when moving
the frames. Consider making a cardboard template to check the access route for height, width, and length
interference. Employ qualified experts if special rigging is required to get the server from the loading
dock to the computer room.
Because the dynamic loads of rolling frames are higher than the static loads of stationary frames, floor
protection is required at delivery time. It is also important to consider the caster point loads. Some floors
cannot withstand the force exerted by the casters of heavier systems. For example, caster point loads on
some servers can be as high as 455 kg (1,000 lb.). This can penetrate, or otherwise damage, the surface of
some floors.
It is also important to protect the raised floor from damage when moving servers or relocating processors
in the computer room. Ten mm (3/8 in.) plywood sheeting provides adequate protection. For some of the
heavier high-end servers, it is recommended that you use tempered masonite or plyron. Plywood might
be too soft for the heavier servers.
Delivery and subsequent transportation of the equipment
DANGER
Heavy equipment—personal injury or equipment damage might result if mishandled. (D006)
You must prepare your environment to accept the new product based on the installation planning
information provided, with assistance from an IBM Installation Planning Representative (IPR) or IBM
authorized service provider. In anticipation of the equipment delivery, prepare the final installation site in
advance so that professional movers or riggers can transport the equipment to the final installation site
within the computer room. If for some reason, this is not possible at the time of delivery, you must make
arrangements to have professional movers or riggers return to finish the transportation at a later date.
Only professional movers or riggers should transport the equipment. The IBM authorized service
provider can only perform minimal frame repositioning within the computer room, as needed, to perform
required service actions. You are also responsible for using professional movers or riggers when you
relocate or dispose of equipment.
Static electricity and floor resistance
Use these guidelines to minimize static electricity buildup in your data center.
Floor covering material can contribute to buildup of high static electrical charges as a result of the motion
of people, carts, and furniture in contact with the floor material. Abrupt discharge of the static charges
causes discomfort to personnel and might cause malfunction of electronic equipment.
Static buildup and discharge can be minimized by:
v Maintaining the relative humidity of the room within the server operating limits. Choose a control
point that normally keeps the humidity between 35 percent and 60 percent. See the Air conditioning
determination for further guidance.
v Providing a conductive path to ground from a metallic raised floor structure including the metal
panels.
v Grounding the raised floor metallic support structure (stringer, pedestals) to building steel at several
places within the room. The number of ground points is based on the size of the room. The larger the
room, the more ground points are required.
v Ensuring the maximum resistance for the flooring system is 2 x 1010 ohms, measured between the floor
surface and the building (or an applicable ground reference). Flooring material with a lower resistance
2
Site preparation and physical planning
will further decrease static buildup and discharge. For safety, the floor covering and flooring system
should provide a resistance of no less than 150 kilohms when measured between any two points on the
floor space 1 m (3 ft.) apart.
v Maintenance of antistatic floor coverings (carpet and tile) should be in agreement with the individual
supplier’s recommendations. Carpeted floor coverings must meet electrical conductivity requirements.
Use only antistatic materials with low-propensity ratings.
v Using ESD-resistant furniture with conductive casters to prevent static buildup.
Measuring floor resistance
The following equipment is required for measuring floor resistance:
v A test instrument similar to an AEMC-1000 megohmmeter is required for measuring floor conductivity.
The following figure shows the typical test connection to measure floor conductivity.
Figure 1. Typical test connection to measure floor conductivity
Related concepts
“Air conditioning determination” on page 29
The air conditioning system must provide year-round temperature and humidity control as a result of the
heat dissipated during equipment operation.
Space requirements
The floor area required for the equipment is determined by the specific servers to be installed, the
location of columns, floor loading capacity, and provisions for future expansion.
See Floor construction and floor loading to review floor loading and weight distribution for your system.
When the amount of space is determined, allow for the addition of furniture, carts, and storage cabinets.
Additional space, not necessarily in the computer area, is required for air conditioning, electrical, security
systems, and fire protection equipment as well as for the storage of tapes, forms, and other supplies.
Additional space might be needed to access the server (for example, rack-door-opening clearance). Plan to
store all combustible materials in properly designed and protected storage areas.
Site preparation and physical planning
3
A computer room or area should be separated from adjacent areas to allow for air conditioning, fire
protection, and security. The floor-to-ceiling height must be sufficient to allow server top covers to open
for service and should be adequate to allow air circulation from the data processing machine.
Recommended heights are 2.6 m to 2.9 m (8 ft. 6 in. to 9 ft. 6 in.) from the building floor or (if used) from
the raised floor to ceiling, but higher ceilings are acceptable. In new construction or remodeling, the
computer room area should have a minimum door width of 914 mm (36 in.). Because many machine
frames are close to 914 mm (36 in.) in width, the use of a 1067 mm (42 in.) door width would be
preferable. The door height should be a minimum of 2032 mm (80 in.) of unobstructed height (no
threshold plate).
Related concepts
“Floor construction and floor loading”
Calculate the floor loads for your server with these formulas.
Floor construction and floor loading
Calculate the floor loads for your server with these formulas.
A floor loading assessment is the evaluation of the concrete subfloor, not the raised floor. The weight of
the raised floor is considered in the floor loading formula.
The building floor must support the weight of the equipment to be installed. Although older devices
might impose 345 kg/m2 (75 lb./ft.2) on the building floor, a typical server design imposes a load of no
more than 340 kg/m2 (70 lb./ft.2). The following pounds-per-square-foot (lb./ft.2) formula is used to
calculate floor loading. For assistance with floor load evaluation, contact a structural engineer.
Floor Loading is: ( machine weight + (15 lb/ft2 x 0.5 svc clear) + (10 lb/ft2 x total area))/ total area
v The floor loading should not exceed 240 kg/m2 (50 lb./ft.2) with a partition allowance of 100 kg/m2 (20
lb./ft.2) for a total floor load rating of 340 kg/m2 (70 lb./ft.2).
v The raised-floor weight plus the cable weight adds 50 kg/m2 (10 lb./ft.2) uniformly across the total
area used in calculations and is included in the 340 kg/m2 (70 lb./ft.2) floor loading. (The total area is
defined as: machine area + 0.5 service clearance.)
v When the service clearance area is also used to distribute machine weight (weight distribution/service
clearance), 75 kg/m2 (15 lb./ft.2) is considered for personnel and equipment traffic. The distribution
weight is applied over 0.5 of the clearance up to a maximum of 760 mm (30 in.) as measured from the
machine frame.
Raised floors
Learn how a raised floor environment improves data center operational efficiency.
A raised floor accomplishes the following major objectives:
v
v
v
v
v
Improves operational efficiency and allows greater flexibility in the arrangement of equipment
Permits the space between the two floors to be used to supply cooling air to the equipment or area
Allows for future layout change with minimum reconstruction cost
Protects the interconnecting cables and power receptacles
Prevents tripping hazards
A raised floor should be constructed of fire-resistant or noncombustible material. The two general floor
types are shown in the following figure. The first figure is of a stringerless floor, and the second figure is
a floor with stringers.
4
Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 2. Raised floors types
Raised floor factors:
v No metal or highly-conductive material that might be at ground potential should be exposed to the
walking surface when a metallic raised-floor structure is used. Such exposure is considered an electrical
safety hazard.
v The raised-floor height should be between 155 mm (6 in.) and 750 mm (30 in.). For processors with
multiple channels, a minimum raised-floor height of 305 mm (12 in.) is recommended. Clearance must
be adequate to accommodate interconnecting cables, fiber cable raceways, power distribution, and any
piping that is present under the floor. Experience has shown that higher raised-floor heights allow
better air-conditioning balance in the room.
v Caster point loads on some servers can be as high as 455 kg (1,000 lb.) concentrated load anywhere on
the panel with a 2 mm (0.080 in.) maximum deflection .
v When a raised-floor panel is cut for cable entry or air supply, an additional panel support (pedestal)
might be required to restore the structural integrity of the panel to the above requirement.
v Use protective covering (such as plywood, tempered masonite, or plyron panels) to prevent damage to
floor tiles, carpeting, and panels while equipment is being moved into or is relocated within the
installation. When the equipment is moved, the dynamic load on the casters is significantly greater
than when the equipment is stationary.
v Concrete subfloors require treatment to prevent the release of dust.
v Use noncombustible protective molding to eliminate sharp edges on all floor cutouts to prevent
damage to cables and hoses and to prevent casters from rolling into the floor cutout.
v Pedestals must be firmly attached to the structural (concrete) floor using an adhesive.
Site preparation and physical planning
5
v Cable cutout size information is determined by the volume of cables passing through the cutout. See
the server’s documentation for recommendations on the cable cutout size.
Signal reference ground
To minimize the effects of high-frequency (HF) interference and other undesired electrical signals
(commonly referred to as electrical noise), a Signal Reference System (SRS) may be recommended. An SRS
may be made up of a Signal Reference Ground or Grid (SRG), or a Signal Reference Plane (SRP). A Signal
Reference Ground or Grid may also be known as a Zero Signal Reference Ground (ZSRG). Regardless of
the name used, the intent is to provide an equal potential point of reference for equipment installed in a
contiguous area for a wide range of frequencies. This is accomplished by installing a network of low
impedance conductors throughout the information technology room.
Access (raised) flooring systems that utilize bolted stringer construction can be used to provide a simple
SRG. Floor systems that have either no stringer or snap-in stringers do not provide for an effective SRG,
and other methods for installing a SRG should be used.
For safety requirements, the SRG must be connected to earth ground. SRG practices recommend that all
metallic objects that cross the SRG area are to be bonded (mechanically connected) to the SRG.
For more information on Signal Reference Grounds, contact your IBM Installation Planning
Representative.
Figure 3. Signal reference ground
Conductive contamination
Contaminants that conduct electricity need to be reduced in data center environments.
Semiconductors and sensitive electronics used in current information technology equipment have allowed
for the manufacture of very high density electronic circuitry. Although new technology allows for
significant increases or capacity in a smaller physical space, it is susceptible to contamination, especially
contamination particles that will conduct electricity. Since the early 1990s, it has been determined that
data center environments may contain sources of conductive contamination. Contaminants include:
carbon fibers, metallic debris such as aluminum, copper and steel filings from construction, and zinc
whiskers from zinc-electroplated materials used in raised floor structures.
6
Site preparation and physical planning
Although very small, and at times not easily seen without the visual aid of magnifying lenses, this type
of contamination can have disastrous impact on equipment availability and reliability. Errors, component
damage and equipment outages caused by conductive contamination can be difficult to diagnose. Failures
may be at first attributed to other more common factors such as lightning events or electrical power
quality or even just presumed to be defective parts.
Zinc whiskers
The most common conductive contamination in raised-floor data centers is what is known as zinc
whiskers. It is the most common because it is frequently found on the underside of certain types of access
floor tiles. Typically, the wood core style floor tile has a flat steel bottom. The steel may be coated with
zinc either by a hot-dip-galvanize process or by zinc electroplate. The zinc electroplate steel exhibits a
phenomena that appears as whisker-like growths on the surface. These small particles of approximately
1-2 mm (.04-.08 in.) in length can break away from the surface and get pulled into the cooling air stream.
Eventually they might be ingested by the equipment air, settle on a circuit board and create a problem. If
you suspect that you may have this type of problem, contact your IBM Service representative.
The following figure shows light reflection from zinc whiskers.
Figure 4. Light reflection from zinc whiskers
Computer room layout
Effective computer room layout is dependent on several important factors.
The factors for effective computer room layout are as follows.
Service clearance and floor loading
Each piece of equipment that you plan to install has some minimum amount of space around it that is
required to be kept clear so that service might be performed on that equipment, if it become necessary.
Site preparation and physical planning
7
Beyond keeping a clear area around the equipment, it is advisable that traffic patterns for work flow do
not fall in service clearance boundaries. Do not allow the service clearance areas to be used for temporary
or permanent storage. Exact clearance dimensions are supplied with the individual product specifications.
Generally, floor loading areas fall inside the service clearance boundaries. Consult individual product
planning documentation and your seller for specific information about the equipment that you are
planning to install. If you have not yet done so, review floor loading, weight distribution, service
clearance, and machine area.
Physical and logical priority
Some types of peripheral equipment might require physical or logical positioning in relation to the
processor or other equipment that might dictate where that equipment must be placed on your floor.
Consult individual product planning documentation and your seller to determine if equipment that you
are planning to install must be specifically placed. Such equipment should be situated in your floor
layout diagrams first, before other equipment that does not require precise positioning.
Restrictive cable lengths
As computing power increases, cable lengths might decrease to support improvements in processing
speed. Consult product-specific planning documentation and your seller to determine where cable lengths
will allow you to place each piece of equipment on your floor. Review cabling and connectivity,
especially if you are using Integrated Cluster Bus (ICB) cables.
Practical work space and safety
Allow enough room around equipment for normal movement of work flow. Consider the placement of
equipment in relation to entrances and exits, windows, columns, wall-mounted equipment, such as circuit
breaker boxes and electrical outlets, safety equipment, fire extinguishers, storage areas, and furniture. Be
especially careful to allow easy access to things like the emergency power-off controls, smoke detectors,
sprinkler systems, and under-floor or in-ceiling fire extinguishing systems.
If possible, make plans now to allow for future additional equipment. Plan cable routing and server
locations to make it easy for additional units to be added.
Other equipment
In addition to the information technology equipment that you will be installing, allow room for office
furniture and equipment, power and air conditioning, storage for operating supplies, and miscellaneous
considerations, such as a meeting area, vending machine location, or water fountains.
It is highly recommended that scale drawings of your proposed layout be prepared and reviewed by both
your seller and all service providers to ensure that your floor layout is physically capable and practically
useful. Following is a chart of standard symbols used to create floor layouts.
8
Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 5. Standard symbols to create floor layouts
Site preparation and physical planning
9
Figure 6. Sample plan view
Vibration and shock
Use this information to plan for possible vibration and shock in your data center.
It might be necessary to install the information technology equipment in an area subject to minor
vibrations. The following information supplies vibration and shock limits for your equipment and some
basic definitions concerning vibration. The vibration levels normally present in computer-room and
industrial installations are well within the indicated levels.
However, mounting the equipment in racks, stackers, or similar equipment might increase the risks of
vibration-related problems. It is important to consult the manufacturer of such equipment to ensure that
vibration factors will not exceed the specifications provided in the following tables.
Some useful definitions of vibration include:
Acceleration:
Normally measured in g multiples of the acceleration because of the force of gravity. If the
frequency is also known for a sine wave, acceleration can be calculated from displacement. (g:
The unit of acceleration caused by the force of gravity.)
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Site preparation and physical planning
Continuous:
Vibrations present over an extended period and cause a sustained resonant response in the
equipment.
Displacement:
Magnitude of the wave shape; normally given in peak-to-peak displacement in English or metric
units:
v Normally used to measure floor vibrations at low frequencies
v If the frequency is also known, it can be converted to displacement g for a sine wave.
Note: Many measuring instruments can convert displacement to g for either sinusoidal or
complex wave shapes.
Peak:
The maximum value of a sinusoidal or random vibration. This can be expressed as peak-to-peak
in cases of sinusoidal vibration displacement.
Random:
A complex vibration wave form varying in amplitude and frequency content.
rms (root mean square):
The long-term average of the acceleration or amplitude values. Normally used as a measure of
overall vibration for random vibration.
Shock:
Intermittent inputs that occur and then decay to zero prior to a recurrence of the event. Typical
examples are foot traffic, fork lifts in aisles, and external events such as railroad, highway traffic,
or construction activities (including blasting).
Sinusoidal:
Vibrations with the characteristic shape of the classical sine wave (for example, 60-Hz ac power).
Transient:
Vibrations that are intermittent and do not cause a sustained resonant response in the equipment.
If you need to make any calculations or require information regarding the above definitions, consult a
mechanical engineer, a vibration consulting engineer, or your seller.
The three classes of a vibration environment are shown in the following table.
Table 1. Vibration environment
Class
Vibration environment
V1
Floor-mounted machines in an office environment
V2
Table-top and wall-mounted machines
V3
Heavy industrial and mobile equipment
A summary of the vibration limits for each of the three classes is shown in the following table. A legend
follows the table.
Note: Vibration levels at any discrete frequency should not exceed a level of 1/2 the g rms values for
the class listed in the Operational vibration and shock limits table.
Table 2. Operational vibration and shock limits
Class
g rms
g peak
Mils
Shock
V1 L
0.10
0.30
3.4
3 g at 3 ms
V1 H
0.05
0.15
1.7
3 g at 3 ms
V2
0.10
0.30
3.4
3 g at 3 ms
Site preparation and physical planning
11
Table 2. Operational vibration and shock limits (continued)
V3
0.27
0.80
L:
Light, weight less than 600 kg.
H:
Heavy, weight equal to or greater than 600 kg.
9.4
application
dependent
g rms: Overall average g level over the 5 to 500 Hz frequency range.
g peak:
Maximum real-time instantaneous peak value of the vibration time history wave form (excluding
events defined as shocks).
Mils:
Peak-to-peak displacement of a discrete frequency in the 5 to 17 Hz range. One mil equal .001
inch.
Shock:
Amplitude and pulse width of a classical 1/2 sine shock pulse.
The values given in the Operational vibration and shock limits table are based on worst-case field data
measured at customer installations for current and previously released products. The vibration and shock
environment will not exceed these values except for abnormal cases involving earthquakes or direct
impacts. Your seller can contact the IBM Standards Authority for Vibration and Shock in case of specific
technical questions.
Earthquakes
Special frame-strengthening features or RPQs might be required in earthquake prone areas. Local codes
might require the information technology equipment to be tied down to the concrete floor. If sufficient
information on equipment tie down is not provided in the product’s physical planning documentation,
consult with your seller.
Lighting
Proper lighting is required to normally operate the server and when service is required.
Light sources in the equipment room and work station areas should have a general lighting level of 300
to 500 lumens/m2 (lux) or 30 to 50 foot-candles. When preparing the equipment room and work areas,
consider painting the room a light color with a white ceiling to reflect (rather than absorb) light. To lessen
any glare, windows should not be in an operator’s field of vision or directly facing the display screen.
Direct sunlight can cause light-sensing devices to malfunction and make observations of various signal
lamps difficult.
To avoid eye fatigue, light sources should be compatible. Universal white fluorescent lamps are
compatible with both incandescent lamps and daylight.
The following figure shows a suggested lighting layout for a workstation.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 7. Typical lighting for a workstation
Provide and maintain emergency lighting, of sufficient intensity, to ensure a safe exit.
Acoustics
Acoustic noise emission data allows you to assess noise levels for your data processing equipment.
Acoustic noise emission data on IBM products is provided for the benefit of installation planners and
consultants to help predict acoustical noise levels in data centers and other installations of information
technology and telecommunications equipment. Such noise declarations also allow you to compare noise
levels of one product to another and to compare the levels to any applicable specifications. The format of
the data provided conforms to ISO 9296: Acoustics - Declared Noise Emission Values of Computer and
Business Equipment. The measurement procedures used to acquire the data conform to International
Standard ISO 7779 and its American National Standard equivalent ANSI S12.10. In addition to the
individual product noise declarations that appear in the IBM product-specific documents, an index of
links to most of IBM product noise declarations is available online at .
The following terms are used to present acoustical data.
v LWAd is the declared (upper limit) A-weighted sound power level for a random sample of machines.
v LpAm is the mean value of the A-weighted sound pressure levels either at the operator position or at
the bystander (1-meter) positions for a random sample of machines.
v <LpA>m is the mean value of the space-averaged sound-pressure-emission levels at the one-meter
positions for a random sample of machines.
Acoustical treatment of data centers or other rooms, in which the equipment is installed, is recommended
to achieve lower noise levels. Lower noise levels tend to enhance employee productivity and avoid
mental fatigue, improve communications, reduce employee complaints, and generally improve employee
comfort. Proper room design, including the use of acoustical treatment, might require the services of a
specialist in acoustics.
Site preparation and physical planning
13
The total noise level of an installation with information technology and telecommunications equipment is
an accumulation of all the noise sources in the room. This level is affected by the physical arrangement of
the products on the floor, the sound reflective (or absorptive) characteristics of the room surfaces, and the
noise from other data center support equipment such as air conditioning units and backup power
equipment. Noise levels might be reduced with proper spacing and orientation of the various
noise-emitting equipment. Provide sufficient space around such machines: the farther apart they can be
placed, the lower the overall room noise will be.
In smaller installations, such as small offices and general business areas, pay additional attention to the
location of equipment relative to the work areas of the employees. At work areas, consider locating
personal computers and computer workstations next to the desk rather than on top of it. Small servers
should be located as far away from personnel as possible. Locate nearby work areas away from the
exhaust of computer equipment.
The use of absorptive materials can reduce the overall noise level in most installations. Effective and
economical sound reduction can be achieved by using a sound-absorptive ceiling. The use of acoustically
absorbing free-standing barriers can reduce the direct noise, increase room absorption and provide
privacy. The use of absorptive material, such as carpeting on the floor, results in further reduction of the
sound level in the room. Any carpeting used in a computer room must meet the electrical continuity
requirements stated in Static electricity and floor resistance. To prevent computer room noise from reaching
adjacent office areas, walls should be constructed from the structural floor to the structural ceiling. Also,
ensure that doors and walls are properly sealed. Acoustical treatment of overhead ducts might further
reduce noise transmitted to or from other rooms.
Many IBM large systems products are offered with optional acoustical front and rear doors to help
attenuate the noise of the product itself. Smaller IBM products might also offer special acoustical
packages. If noise exposure is a concern for the installation planners or employees, inquiries should be
made to IBM on the availability of such product options.
Related concepts
“Static electricity and floor resistance” on page 2
Use these guidelines to minimize static electricity buildup in your data center.
Electromagnetic compatibility
Use this information to plan for server installation in an environment that has a high
electomagnetic-radiated field.
Information technology equipment installation might occasionally be planned in an area that has a high
electromagnetic-radiated field environment. This condition results when the information technology
equipment is near a radio frequency source such as a radio-transmitting antenna (AM, FM, TV, or
two-core radio), civilian and military radar, and certain industrial machines (rf induction heaters, rf arc
welders, and insulation testers). If any of these sources are near the proposed site, a planning review
might be appropriate to assess the environment and determine whether any special installation or
product considerations are advisable to reduce interference. Consult your seller. Workstations located near
devices like transformers or buried electrical conduits can experience jitter on the workstation display in
the presence of strong magnetic fields.
Most products can tolerate low-frequency to very-high-frequency rf levels of 3 volts per meter. Field
strengths greater than 3 volts per meter might cause operational or serviceability problems. Products have
different tolerance levels to electromagnetic-radiated fields in different frequency ranges. Radar
(frequency of 1300 MHz, and 2800 MHz) signals with field strengths of a maximum of 5 volts per meter
are acceptable. If problems occur, reorientation of the server or selective shielding might be required.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Two-core radio or cellular telephone usage should be properly controlled in the computer room. To
reduce the likelihood of a problem, the following recommendations should be considered when operating
such equipment:
v Keep hand-held transmitters (for example, walkie-talkies, radio paging, and cellular telephones) a
minimum of 1.5 m (5 ft.) from information technology equipment.
v Use only an operator-controlled transmitting device (no automatic transmissions). Develop specific
rules, such as - Do not transmit within 1.5 m (5 ft.) of a fully covered operating server. If covers are
open, do not transmit.
v Choose the minimum output power that will accomplish your communication needs.
Extremely low frequency (ELF) fields
With the exception of some video display cathode ray tubes (CRT), most information technology
equipment is tolerant of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields. The video displays that
use cathode ray tubes are more sensitive because they use electromagnetic fields to position the electron
beam in normal operation. The extremely low frequency range covers frequencies between 0 and 300 Hz.
It is also referred to as electrical power frequency because most world electrical power is generated at
either 50 or 60 Hz.
IBM products tolerate ELF electromagnetic fields in the following ranges:
v Cathode ray tube video display: 15-20 milligauss
v Liquid crystal display (LCD) : 10 Gauss
v Magnetic tape equipment: 20 Gauss
v Disk drive equipment : 20 Gauss
v Processors or servers : 20 Gauss
Typical information technology centers exhibit an ambient electromagnetic field between 3-8 milligauss.
Some equipment within a center may, under normal operation, produce fields in excess of 100 milligauss.
Examples of equipment that produces large magnetic fields include: power distribution units, electric
motors, electrical transformers, laser printers and uninterruptible power systems. However, magnetic field
density decreases rapidly with distance. If a CRT display is located near equipment that produces large
electromagnetic fields, the display may exhibit distortion such as poor focus, change in image shape or
slight motion in static display images. Moving the CRT away from the equipment may remedy the
problem.
Computer room location
Computer room location is affected by several factors.
Before selecting a location for the computer, give attention to these guidelines:
v The computer room should be in a noncombustible or fire-resistant building or room.
v The computer room should not be above, below, or adjacent to areas where hazardous materials or
gases are stored, manufactured, or processed. If the computer must be located near such an area, take
extra precautions to safeguard the area.
v If the computer room is below ground level, provide adequate drainage.
Safety consideration and fire prevention
Safety is a vital factor when planning computer installation. This consideration is reflected in the choice
of the computer location, building materials used, fire prevention equipment, air conditioning and
electrical systems, and personnel training.
Site preparation and physical planning
15
If an inconsistency occurs between your server’s recommendations and any local or national regulation,
the more stringent of the recommendations or regulations should take precedence. The National Fire
Protection Association standard, NFPA 75, provides guidelines for protection of information technology
equipment. The customer is responsible for adherence to governmental regulations.
v Computer room walls should have a minimum of a 1-hour-fire-resistance rating and extend from the
structural floor to the structural ceiling (slab-to-slab).
v In rooms used for critical operations, it is preferable to install processors in 1-hour-fire-rated rooms
separate from the main computer room.
v If the computer room has one or more outside walls adjacent to a building that is susceptible to fire,
consider taking the following precautionary actions:
– Installing shatterproof windows in the computer room to improve the safety of personnel and
equipment from flying debris and water damage. Usually, windows in the computer room are
undesirable because of security concerns, and the negative effect they have on temperature control.
They can cause excessive heating in the summer, and excessive cooling in the winter.
– Installing sprinklers outside the windows to protect them with a blanket of water if a fire occurs in
the adjacent area.
– Sealing the windows with masonry.
v Where a false (or hung) ceiling or insulating material is to be added, ensure that it is noncombustible
or fire-resistant material. All duct work should be noncombustible. If combustible material is used in
the space between the structural ceiling and the false ceiling, appropriate protection should be
provided.
v A raised floor that is installed over the structural floor should be constructed of noncombustible or
fire-retardant materials. If the structural floor is of combustible material, it should be protected by
water sprinklers on the ceiling of the room below.
Note: Before the information technology equipment is installed, the space between the raised and the
structural floors should be cleared of debris. This space should also be checked periodically after
installation to keep it free of accumulated dust, possible debris, and unused cables.
v The roof, ceiling, and floor above the computer room and the storage area for recorded media should
be watertight. Liquid piping, roof drains, and other potential sources of liquid damage should be
rerouted around the area.
v The space under the raised floor in the computer room should be provided with drainage to protect
against flooding or trapped water.
v Waste material containers should be constructed of metal with a frame-suppressant lid.
Fire prevention equipment in a computer room
Fire prevention equipment in the computer room should be installed as an added safety measure. A fire
suppression system is the responsibility of the customer. Your insurance underwriter, local fire marshall,
and local building inspector are all parties that should be consulted in selecting a fire suppression system
that provides the correct level of coverage and protection. IBM designs and manufactures equipment to
internal and external standards that require certain environments for reliable operation. Because IBM does
not test any equipment for compatibility with fire suppression systems, IBM does not make compatibility
claims of any kind nor does IBM provide recommendations on fire suppression systems.
v An early-warning fire detection system should be installed to protect the computer room and storage
areas for recorded media. This system should activate both an audible and a visual alarm in the rooms
and at a monitored central station.
v Portable carbon dioxide fire extinguishers, of suitable size and number, should be provided in the
computer room for use on electrical equipment.
v Portable, pressurized-water extinguishers should be provided for combustible material such as paper.
v Extinguishers should be readily accessible to individuals in the area, and extinguisher locations should
be marked so they are visible.
16
Site preparation and physical planning
v Automatic sprinkler systems and gaseous total flooding systems are acceptable forms of fixed
protection. For information on environmentally friendly gases for total flooding systems, consult NFPA
2001 titled Standard on Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems.
v Special consideration should be used if you prefer a gaseous total flooding system. If a gaseous total
flooding system is installed, include a time delay feature that allows investigation and evacuation from
the covered area of the gaseous total flooding system. A cross-zoned detection system is suggested.
v The protected area must be evacuated whenever the gaseous total flooding system or its controls are
being serviced. Additionally, a master Disarm switch, available for use by the system service personnel,
is required. With the switch set in the off position, the detonators used to release the gaseous total
flooding system must be made inoperative, even if the circuit fails elsewhere in the system. This switch
must be placed in the off (manual) position before servicing begins to prevent possible accidental
discharge of the gaseous total flooding system.
v Alternatives to ordinary wet pipe sprinkler systems might include dry pipe systems or preaction
systems. Water flows into preaction systems only if triggered by smoke or heat detectors. The detection
systems should be independent of gaseous total flooding system detection systems. The On-Off type of
sprinkler head is not recommended because it is more prone to leakage.
To determine the proper fire protection required for the computer room, consult with your insurance
underwriter and your local code authority.
Material and data storage protection
Special safety considerations are required when storing data or other material.
Consider the following factors:
v Any data or material stored in the computer room, whether in the form of magnetic tapes, paper tapes,
cards, or paper forms, should be limited to the minimum needed for safe, efficient operation and
should be enclosed in metal cabinets or fire-resistant containers when not in use.
v For security purposes, and protection against fire, a separate room for material storage is strongly
recommended. This room should be constructed of fire-resistant material (minimum
2-hour-fire-resistance rating). An approved fixed extinguishing system is recommended. Fixed
extinguishing systems include automatic sprinklers and approved total flooding gaseous systems.
If continuity of operation is critical, plan a remote storage location for vital records if a disaster occurs.
Key considerations in the choice of an off-site location for data storage are that the area is:
v Not subject to the same risk that might occur in the computer room.
v Suitable for long-term storage of hardcopy records and magnetic media files.
Air conditioning systems
In most installations, the computer area is controlled by a separate air conditioning system. Therefore,
emergency power-off switches for the equipment and air conditioning should be placed in convenient
locations, preferably near the console operator and next to the main exit doors. See National Fire
Protection Association standard, NFPA 70 article 645, for information.
v When the regular building air conditioning system is used, with supplemental units in the computer
area, the supplemental units would then be handled as stated above. The regular building air
conditioning system should have an audible alarm to alert maintenance personnel of an emergency.
v Fire dampers should be located in all air ducts at fire walls.
v The air filters in the air conditioning system should contain noncombustible or self-extinguishing
material.
Site preparation and physical planning
17
Electrical systems
Provide a mainline disconnect control for the computer equipment at a remote location. The remote
controls should be in a convenient location, preferably near the console operator and next to the main
exit doors. They should be next to the power-off switch for the air conditioning system and should be
properly marked. A light should be installed to indicate when power is on. The National Electric Code
(NFPA 70) article 645 states that a single disconnecting means to control both the electronic equipment
and the HVAC system is permitted.
v If continuity of operation is essential, a standby power source should be installed.
v It is advisable to install an automatic battery-operated lighting unit to illuminate an area if a power or
lighting circuit failure occurs. This unit is wired to and controlled by the lighting circuit.
v Watertight connectors are recommended under raised floors because of the moisture exposures (water
pipe leaks, high humidity levels) under raised floors.
Emergency planning for continuous operations
Planning for emergencies ensures that your data center continues to operate in the event of a power
outage.
If a power outage occurs, continued operation depends on information stored on cards, tapes, or disks,
and the equipment used to process the information being available immediately. Arrangements should be
made for emergency use of other equipment and transportation of personnel, data, and supplies to a
temporary location. Arrangements should also be made to ensure the continuous operation of
environment equipment, such as air conditioning. Duplicate or master records and programming data
should be maintained in a remote area, from which the necessary information can be taken to resume
operation.
Precautions and personnel training
Further plans should include training of personnel to act in an emergency situation.
v Sound alarm signals for fire detection and for other abnormal conditions to familiarize personnel with
the alarm.
v Monitor the computer room, air conditioning equipment room, and electrical and data storage room at
all times.
v Inspect steam pipes and water pipes above the false ceiling to guard against possible damage due to
accidental breakage, leakage, or condensation.
v Locate emergency exit doors in the computer area. The number of doors depends on the size and
location of the area. Train personnel in emergency measures such as:
– Shutting off all electrical power
– Shutting off the air conditioning system
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
18
Shutting off the chilled water to the information technology equipment
Calling the fire company
Handling fire extinguishers in the approved manner
Operating a small-diameter fire hose
Evacuating records
Evacuating personnel
Administering first aid
Site preparation and physical planning
Lightning protection for communication wiring
Be sure to install lightning protection devices to protect communication wiring and equipment from
surges and transients induced into the communication wiring. In any area subject to lightning, surge
suppressors should be installed at each end of every outdoor cable installation, whether installed above
the ground (aerial) or buried below the ground.
Information about lightning surge suppressors for communication wiring and recommended methods for
outdoor communication cables can be found in the information technology product’s physical planning
documentation.
General power information
Reliable electrical power is required for the proper functioning of your data processing equipment.
IBM information technology equipment requires a reliable electrical power source that is free from
interference or disturbance. Electrical power companies generally supply power of sufficient quality. The
Power quality, Voltage and frequency limits, Power load, and Power source topics provide the guidance
and specifications needed to meet the requirements of the equipment. Qualified personnel must ensure
that electrical power distribution system is safe and meets local and national codes. They must also
ensure that the voltage measured at the power receptacle is within the specified tolerance for the
equipment. In addition, a separate power feeder is required for items such as lighting and air
conditioning. A properly installed electrical power system will help to provide for reliable operation of
your IBM equipment.
Other factors to consider when planning and installing the electrical system include a means of providing
a low impedance conducting path to ground (path to earth) and lightning protection. Depending on the
geographical location, special considerations may be required for lightning protection. Your electrical
contractor should meet all local and national electrical code requirements. Building electrical power is
normally derived from a three-phase power distribution system. General office areas are normally
provided with single-phase power outlets, and data processing rooms are provided with three-phase
power.
Some IBM IT equipment and devices may require standard three-phase power; others may require
single-phase power. The power requirements for each device are specified in the individual server
specifications for that server. Nominal voltage, plugs, receptacles, and in some cases, conduit and back
boxes are listed in the specific server specifications. Refer to the respective server specifications to
determine the power requirements. Ensure that existing branch circuit outlets are the correct type and are
properly grounded.
Related information
Server specifications
Power quality
The quality of electrical power significantly impacts the performance of sensitive electronic equipment.
These guidelines ensure that quality electrical power is provided to your data center.
IBM equipment can tolerate some power disturbances or transients. However, large disturbances can
cause equipment power failures or errors. Transients can come into the site on the power utility company
lines but are often caused by electrical equipment installed in the building. For example, transients can be
produced by welders, cranes, motors, induction heaters, elevators, copy machines, and other office
equipment. The best way to prevent problems caused by power disturbances is to have
transient-producing equipment on a separate power service than the one that supplies power to your
information technology equipment.
Site preparation and physical planning
19
Ground or earth
When used in reference to electrical power systems, Ground is a conducting connection between an
electrical circuit and the earth or some conducting body that serves in place of the earth. The term
ground is the most common name used, however it is also referred to as earth or terra in several
international geographies. In this topic, these terms and other local language equivalents are
interchangeable.
Ground is a critical component of an electrical power distribution system. A properly installed ground
system allows for safe operation of equipment that is connected to the electrical power source under
normal and electrical or equipment fault conditions. The life safety function of ground and grounding
methods is addressed by the appropriate local and national electrical wiring codes. In the United States,
this code is known as the National Electric Code or publication 70 of the National Fire Protection
Association. Many countries have adopted the National Electric Code or have developed an equivalent
code.
The National Electric Code and its equivalents have a primary objective to provide safe operation of
electrical power distribution systems and electrical equipment installations. Compliance with these codes
does not guarantee efficient operation of equipment connected to the power distribution systems. When
sensitive electronic equipment is connected, there are often times when additional ground connections
may be required. Typically, additional ground connections are recommended when there is a concern for
high frequency or radio frequency (RF) interference, which may impact electronic circuits. These
additional ground requirements will be found with the installation documentation for specific equipment.
Additional ground requirements may also be recommendations from engineering or data center
evaluations, reviews or surveys. Local or national codes allow for these additional grounds to be
installed.
Grounding
IBM equipment, unless double insulated, has power cords containing an insulated grounding conductor
(color-coded green or green with yellow stripe) that connects the frame of the equipment to the ground
terminal at the power receptacle. The power receptacles for IBM equipment are identified in the
equipment documentation and should match the equipment power plug. In some cases, there may be
options for different manufacturer equivalent receptacles. IBM equipment plugs should not be changed or
altered to match existing connectors or receptacles. To do so may create a safety hazard and void product
warranty. The connectors or receptacles for IBM equipment should be installed to a branch circuit with an
equipment grounding conductor, connected to the grounding bus bar in the branch-circuit distribution
panel. The grounding bus bar in the panel should then be connected back to the service entrance or
suitable building ground by an equipment grounding conductor.
Information technology equipment must be properly grounded. It is recommended that an insulated
green wire ground, the same size as the phase wire, be installed between the branch circuit panel and the
receptacle.
For personnel safety, the ground must have sufficiently low impedance to limit the voltage to ground and
to facilitate the operation of protective devices in the circuit. For example, the ground path shall not
exceed 1 ohm for 120-volt, 20-ampere branch circuit devices.
The ground path impedance limit is 0.5 ohms for 120 volt branch circuits protected by 30 ampere circuit
breakers. The limit is 0.1 ohms for 120 volt 60 to 100 ampere circuits.
All grounds entering the room should be interconnected somewhere within the building to provide a
common ground potential. This includes any separate power sources, lighting and convenience outlets,
and other grounded objects, such as building steel, plumbing, and duct work.
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Site preparation and physical planning
The equipment grounding conductor must be electrically attached to both the enclosure of the computer
power center and the connector grounding terminal. Conduit must not be used as the only grounding
means, and it must be connected in parallel with any grounding conductors it contains.
Figure 8. Transient grounding plate
Transient grounding
To minimize the effects of high-frequency electrical noise, the branch circuit power panel servicing the
equipment should be mounted in contact with bare building steel or connected to it by a short length of
cable. If this is not possible, a metal area of at least 1 m2 (10 ft.2) in contact with masonry can be used.
The plate should be connected to the green-conductor common.
Site preparation and physical planning
21
Figure 9. Transient grounding plate
The preferred connection is with a braided strap. If a braided strap is not available, the connection should
consist of no. 12 AWG (3.3 mm or 0.0051 in.) or larger conductor and should not be more than 1.5 m (5
ft.) long. To minimize this length, the preferred connection of this braided strap or conductor is to the
nearest portion of the enclosure on the panel, if the enclosure is electrically continuous from the
green-conductor common point to this point of connection.
The raised-floor-supporting substructure can be used as a substitute for the transient plate if the structure
has a consistently low-impedance path. If the raised floor has stringers or other subframing that makes
electrical connection between the pedestals, the floor itself can be used for the signal reference plane.
Some raised floors are stringerless and the floor tiles lock into isolated pedestals by gravity alone. If there
is no reliable electrical connection between the pedestals, a signal reference grid can be constructed by
connecting the pedestals together with conductors. A minimal grid would interconnect every other
pedestal in the immediate area of the power panel and extend at least 3 m (10 ft.) in all directions.
22
Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 10. Transient grounding using the raised floor support structure
Figure 11. Signal reference grid
Stranded bare or insulated conductor of at least no. 8 AWG (8 mm or 0.0124 in.) copper is required. This
conductor provides a low-impedance path and is strong enough to make physical damage unlikely. Any
connection method is acceptable as long as it provides a reliable electrical and mechanical connection.
A customer’s self-contained, separately derived power system (computer power centers, transformers,
motor generators), installed on a raised floor, has the same requirements.
Site preparation and physical planning
23
Power specifications
Your server is normally furnished with power-supply provision to meet the 50-Hz or 60-Hz voltage
standards shown in the following tables, respectively.
Table 3. 50-Hz standard voltages1
50-Hz nominal voltages
Single phase
100
110
200
220
230
Three phase
200
220
380
400
415
240
Note:
1. This table lists the nominal voltages available at the specified frequency. The columns for single phase and three
phase do not imply a phasor relationship.
Table 4. 60-Hz standard voltages1
60-Hz nominal voltages
Single phase
100
110
120
127
200
Three phase
200
208
220
240
480
208
220
240
277
Note:
1. This table lists the nominal voltages available at the specified frequency. The columns for single phase and three
phase do not imply a phasor relationship.
Voltage and frequency limits
Voltage and frequency limits must be maintained to ensure proper functioning of your server.
The phase-to-phase steady-state voltage must be maintained within plus six percent to minus 10 percent
of the normal rated voltage, measured at the receptacle when the system is operating. A voltage surge or
sag condition must not exceed plus 15 percent or minus 18 percent of the nominal voltage and must
return to within a steady-state tolerance of plus 6 percent or minus 10 percent of normal rated voltage
within 0.5 second.
Some servers might require special considerations and might have more or less restrictive specifications.
See the individual server specifications for actual requirements. Because of the possibility of brownouts
(planned voltage reduction by the utility company) or other marginal voltage conditions, installing a
voltage monitor might be advisable.
The phase frequency must be maintained at 50 or 60 Hz + 0.5 Hz.
The value of any of the three phase-to-phase equipment voltages in the three-phase system must not
differ by more than 2.5 percent from the arithmetic average of the three voltages. All three line-to-line
voltages must be within the limits specified above.
The maximum total harmonic content of the power system voltage waveforms on the equipment feeder
must not exceed 5 percent with the equipment operating.
Power load
A preliminary sizing for total power load can be obtained by adding the total power requirements for all
devices to be connected.
24
Site preparation and physical planning
For a more precise analysis of power distribution system requirements, you can request an IBM System
Power Profile Program printout from your seller. The System Power Profile Program, controlled and
operated by the service office installation planning representative, provides a vector analysis rather than
an arithmetic summation of total power. The vector analysis takes into consideration power factor and
phase relationships. In addition, it considers waveform distortions caused by the load and inrush
requirements. Additional capacity should be planned for future expansion. Contact you service office
installation planning representative for information on how to obtain a System Power Profile.
Primary power problem areas
Your server is designed to operate on the normal power supplied by most electrical utility companies.
However, possible computer malfunctions can be caused by outside (radiated or conducted) transient
electrical noise signals being superimposed on the power line to the computer. To guard against this
interference, power distribution design should comply with the specifications discussed in this topic.
Failures caused by the power source are basically of three types:
v Power line disturbances, such as, short duration dips in voltage as well as prolonged outages. If the
frequency of such power failures is not acceptable for your operation, installing standby or buffered
power might be necessary.
v Transient electrical noise superimposed on power lines might be caused by a variety of industrial,
medical, communication, or other equipment:
– Within the computing facilities
– Adjacent to the computing facilities
– In the vicinity of the power company’s distribution lines
Switching large electrical loads can cause problems, even though the source is on a different branch
circuit. If you suspect such a condition, it might be advisable to provide a separate, dedicated feeder
or transformer for your server directly from your power source.
If the transient-producing devices have been eliminated from the feeder and the computer room power
panel and power line disturbances are still present, it might be necessary for you to install isolation
equipment (for example, transformers, motor generators, or other power conditioning equipment).
Lightning protection
Installing lightning protection devices is recommended on the computer power source when:
v The primary power is supplied by an overhead power service.
v The utility company installs lightning protectors on the primary power source.
v The area is subject to electrical storms or an equivalent type of power surge.
Lightning protection for communication wiring
Be sure to install lightning protection devices to protect communication wiring and equipment from
surges and transients induced into the communication wiring. In any area subject to lightning, surge
suppressors should be installed at each end of every outdoor cable installation, whether installed above
the ground (aerial) or buried below the ground.
Information about lightning surge suppressors for communication wiring systems and recommended
installation methods for outdoor communication cables can be found in the manuals for the specific type
of data processing system that is being considered.
Power source
These guidelines help to ensure that your data center has a quality power source.
Site preparation and physical planning
25
The primary power source is normally a wye-type or delta-type, three-phase service coming from a
service entrance or a separately derived source with appropriate overcurrent protection and suitable
ground (service entrance or building ground). A three-phase, five-wire power distribution system should
be provided for flexibility in your data processing installation. However, depending on the type of
equipment installed, a single-phase distribution system might be sufficient. The five wire system enables
you to provide power for three-phase line-to-line, single phase line-to-line, and single phase
line-to-Neutral. The five wires consist of three phase conductors, one neutral conductor, and one
insulated equipment grounding conductor (green, or green with yellow trace).
Conduit must not be used as the only grounding means.
Power panel feeders
Ensure that the feeder wires to the branch-circuit distribution panel (shown in Power quality) are large
enough to handle the total server power load. It is recommended that these feeders service no other
loads.
Branch circuits
The computer branch circuit panel should be in an unobstructed, well-lighted area in the computer room.
The individual branch circuits on the panel should be protected by suitable circuit breakers properly
rated according to manufacturer specifications and applicable codes. Each circuit breaker should be
labeled to identify the branch circuit it is controlling. The receptacle should also be labeled.
Where a branch circuit and receptacle are installed to service your server, it is recommended that the
grounding conductor of the branch circuit be insulated and equal in size to the phase conductors. The
grounding conductor is an insulated, dedicated-equipment-grounding conductor, not the neutral.
Branch circuit receptacles installed under a raised floor should be within 0.9 m (3 ft.) of the server that
they supply power to. If the branch circuits are contained in a metallic conduit, either rigid or nonrigid,
the conduit system should be grounded. This is accomplished by bonding the conduit to the power
distribution panel, which in turn, is tied to the building or transformer ground.
Power cords are supplied in 4.3 m (14 ft.) lengths unless otherwise noted in the server specifications. The
length is measured from the exit symbol on the plan views. Some power plugs furnished by your seller
are watertight, and should be located under the computer room raised floor.
Phase rotation
The three-phase power receptacles for some equipment, such as printers, must be wired for correct phase
rotation. When looking at the face of the receptacle and counting clockwise from the ground pin, the
sequence is phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3.
Emergency power control
A disconnecting means should be provided to disconnect the power from all electronic equipment in the
computer room. This disconnecting means should be controlled from locations readily accessible to the
operator at the principal exit doors. A similar disconnecting means to disconnect the air conditioning
system serving this area should be available. Consult the local and national codes to determine the
requirements for your installation. National Electric Code (NFPA 70) article 645 provides the requirements
for this room EPO.
See Emergency planning for continuous operations.
26
Site preparation and physical planning
Convenience outlets
A suitable number of convenience outlets should be installed in the computer room and the Service
Representative area for use by building maintenance personnel and service representatives. Convenience
outlets should be on the lighting or other building circuits, not on the computer power panel or feeder.
Under no circumstances are the service convenience outlets on your servers to be used for any purpose
other than normal servicing.
Related concepts
“Power quality” on page 19
The quality of electrical power significantly impacts the performance of sensitive electronic equipment.
These guidelines ensure that quality electrical power is provided to your data center.
“Emergency planning for continuous operations” on page 18
Planning for emergencies ensures that your data center continues to operate in the event of a power
outage.
Related information
Server specifications
Dual-power installation configurations
These dual-power installation configurations allow you to leverage the fully-redundant power features of
your server.
Some IBM Systems models are designed with a fully redundant power system. The possible power
installation configurations are:
Dual-power installation: Redundant distribution panel and switch
This configuration requires that the system receives power from two separate power distribution panels.
Each distribution panel receives power from a separate piece of building switch gear. This level of
redundancy is not available in most facilities.
Site preparation and physical planning
27
Figure 12. Dual power installation - Redundant distribution panel and switch
Dual-power installation: Redundant distribution panel
This configuration requires that the system receives power from two separate power distribution panels.
The two distribution panels receive power from the same piece of building switch gear. Most facilities
should be able to achieve this level of redundancy.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 13. Dual power installation - Redundant distribution panel
Single distribution panel: Dual circuit breakers
This configuration requires that the system receives power from two separate circuit breakers in a single
power panel.
This configuration does not make full use of the redundancy provided by the processor. It is, however,
acceptable if a second power distribution panel is not available.
Figure 14. Single distribution panel - Dual circuit breakers
Air conditioning determination
The air conditioning system must provide year-round temperature and humidity control as a result of the
heat dissipated during equipment operation.
Site preparation and physical planning
29
Heat dissipation ratings are given in the server specifications for each server. Air conditioning units
should not be powered from the computer power panel because of the high starting current drawn by
their compressor units. The feeder line for the air conditioning system and the computer room power
should not be in the same conduit.
Consider the following factors when determining the air conditioning capacity necessary for installation:
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
Information technology equipment heat dissipation
Number of personnel
Lighting requirements
Amount of fresh air introduced
Possible reheating of circulated air
Heat conduction through outer walls and windows
Ceiling height
v Area of floors
v Number and placement of door openings
v Number and height of partitions
Most servers are air-cooled by internal blowers. A separate air conditioning system is recommended for
data processing installation. A separate system might be required for small systems or individual servers
intended for operation when the building air conditioning system is not adequate or is not operational.
Server heat dissipation loads are given on the server specifications for each server. See the environmental
requirements in the server specifications for your server.
Related information
Server specifications
General guidelines for data centers
Use these general guidelines to set up your data center.
Refer to the latest ASHRAE publication, ″Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments″, dated
January, 2004. This document can be purchased online at ashrae.org. A dedicated section outlines a
detailed procedure for assessing the overall cooling health of the data center and optimizing for
maximum cooling.
Server and storage considerations
Most IBM servers and storage products are designed to pull chilled air through the front of the server
and exhaust hot air out of the back. The most important requirement is to ensure that the inlet air
temperature to the front of the equipment does not exceed IBM environmental specifications. See the
environmental requirements in the server specifications or hardware specification sheets. Make sure that
the air inlet and exit areas are not blocked by paper, cables, or other obstructions. When upgrading or
repairing your server, be sure not to exceed, if specified, the maximum allowed time for having the cover
removed with the unit running. After your work is completed, be sure to reinstall all fans, heat sinks, air
baffles, and other devices per IBM documentation.
Manufacturers, including IBM, are reporting heat loads in a format suggested by the ASHRAE
publication, ″Thermal Guidelines for Data Processing Environments″, dated January, 2004. Although this
data is meant to be used to for heat load balancing, care is required when using the data to balance
cooling supply and demand as many applications are transient and do not dissipate constant rates of
heat. A thorough understanding of how the equipment and application behave with regard to heat load,
including considerations for future growth, is required.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Rack or cabinet considerations
Note: Racks are used throughout this section to also mean cabinets, frames, and any other commonly
used term to identify the unit that houses rack-mounted equipment.
IBM Enterprise 19-inch racks are designed to allow maximum airflow through the equipment installed in
the rack. Chilled air is pulled through the front and exhausted through the rear by the fans in the
rack-mounted equipment. Most IBM racks come with a perforated rear door and an optional front door
that is perforated. Some racks have optional acoustical treatment to reduce the noise emissions from the
rack. If non-IBM racks are used, solid doors or doors with significant amounts of decorative glass are not
recommended as these will not allow sufficient air to flow into and out of the rack.
Recirculation of hot air exiting the back of the rack into the front of the rack must be eliminated. There
are two actions that can be taken to prevent air recirculation. First, filler or blanking panels must fill all
unoccupied rack space that is not occupied by equipment shipped in rack. 1U and 3U filler panels are
used to block air recirculation within the rack. If you do not have filler panels installed in your rack,
these are available from IBM.
Figure 15. 1U and 3U filler panel figure and part numbers
Index number
1
FRU part number
Units per assembly
Description
97H9754
As needed
1U Filler snap (black)
62X3443
As needed
1U Filler snap (white)
Site preparation and physical planning
31
2
97H9755
As needed
3U Filler snap (black)
62X3444
As needed
3U Filler snap (white)
3
12J4072
As needed
1U Filler snap (black)
4
12J4073
As needed
3U Filler snap (black)
5
74F1823
2 per Item 3
M5 Nut clip
74F1823
4 per Item 4
M5 Nut clip
1624779
2 per Item 3
M5 X 14 Hex flange
1624779
4 per Item 4
M5 X 14 Hex flange
6
Second, allow proper operating clearance around all racks. See the clearance requirements in the server
specifications or hardware specification sheets. The floor layout should not allow the hot air exhaust from
the back of one rack to enter the front air inlet of another rack.
Finally, proper cable management is another important element of maximizing the airflow through the
rack. Cables must be routed and tied down in such a way that they do not impede the movement of air
into or out of the rack. Such impedance could significantly reduce the volumetric flow of air through the
equipment.
Use a fan-assisted rack or cabinet with caution. Depending upon how much equipment is installed in the
cabinet, the air movers in the cabinet may limit the amount of flow to less than what is required by the
equipment.
Room considerations
Data centers designed and built in the last 10 years are typically capable of cooling up to 3KW of heat
load per cabinet. These designs often involve raised floor air distribution plenums 18 to 24 inches in
height, room ceiling heights of 8 to 9 feet, and Computer Room Air Conditioning (CRAC) units
distributed around the perimeter of the room. IT equipment occupies roughly 30-35% of the total data
center space. The remaining space is white space (for example, access aisles, service clearances), power
distribution units (PDUs), and CRAC units. Until recently, little attention has been given to heat load
assessments, equipment layout and air delivery paths, heat load distribution, and floor tile placement and
openings.
Assessing the total heat load of your installation
A total heat load assessment should be conducted to determine your overall environment balance point.
The purpose of the assessment is to see if you have enough sensible cooling, including redundancy, to
handle the heat load that you plan to install or have installed. There are several ways to perform this
assessment, but the most common is to review the heat load and cooling in logical sections defined by
I-beams, airflow blockages, or CRAC unit locations.
Equipment layout and air delivery paths
The hot-aisle, cold-aisle arrangement that is explained in the ASHRAE publication, ″Thermal Guidelines
for Data Processing Environments″, dated January, 2004, should be used. In the following figure, racks
within the data center are arranged such that there are cold aisles and hot aisles. The cold aisle consists
of perforated floor tiles separating two rows of racks. The chilled air from the perforated floor tiles is
exhausted from the tiles and is drawn into the fronts of the racks. The inlets of each rack (front of each
rack) face the cold aisle. This arrangement allows the hot air exhausting the rear of the racks to return to
the CRAC units; thus, minimizing hot exhaust air from the rack circulating back into the inlets of the
racks. CRAC units are placed at the end of the hot aisles to facilitate the return of the hot air to the
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Site preparation and physical planning
CRAC unit and maximize static pressure to the cold aisle.
Figure 16. Hot aisle and cold aisle arrangement
The key to heat load management of the data center is to provide inlet air temperatures to the rack that
meet the manufacturer’s specifications. Because the chilled air exhausting from the perforated tiles in the
cold aisle may not satisfy the total chilled airflow required by the rack, additional flow will be drawn
from other areas of the raised floor and may not be chilled. See the following figure. In many cases, the
airflow drawn into the top of the rack, after the bottom of the rack has been satisfied, will be a mixture of
hot air from the rear of the system and air from other areas. For those racks that are at the ends of a row,
the hot airflow that exhausts from the rear of the rack and migrate to the front around the sides of the
rack. These flow patterns have been observed in actual data centers and in flow modeling.
Site preparation and physical planning
33
Figure 17. Possible rack airflow patterns
For a data center that may not have the best chilled-air-flow distribution, the following figure gives
guidance in providing adequate chilled airflow given a specific heat load. The chart takes into account
worst-case locations in a data center and are the requirements to meet the maximum temperature
specifications required by most IBM high-end equipment. Altitude corrections are noted on the bottom
portion of the chart.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 18. High-end equipment chilled airflow and temperature requirements
The most common methods for delivering supply air to the racks can be found in System air distribution.
Heat load distribution
Increased performance capabilities and the accompanying heat load demands have caused data centers to
have hot spots in the vicinity of heat loads that exceed 3KW. Facility owners are discovering that it is
becoming increasingly difficult to plan cooling schemes for large-scale deployments of high-heat-load
equipment. Essentially, two different approaches can be undertaken for a large-scale, high-end server or
storage deployment:
v Provide ample cooling for maximum heat load requirements across the entire data center.
v Provide an average amount of cooling across the data center with the capability to increase cooling in
limited, local areas.
Option 1 is very expensive and more conducive to new construction. For option 2, a number of things
can be done to optimize cooling in existing data centers and possibly raise the cooling capability in
limited sections.
One recommendation is to place floor tiles with high percent-open and flow ratings in front of the
high-end racks. Another recommendation is to provide special means for removing hot exhaust air from
the backs of the high-end racks immediately, before it has a chance to migrate back to the air intakes on
racks in other parts of the room. This could be accomplished by installing special baffling or direct
Site preparation and physical planning
35
ducting back to the air returns on the CRAC units. Careful engineering is required to ensure that any
recommendation does not have an adverse effect on the dynamics of the underfloor static pressure and
airflow distribution.
In centers where floor space is not an issue, it would be most practical to design the entire raised floor to
a constant level of cooling and depopulate racks or observe a greater distance between racks in order to
meet the per-cabinet capability of the floor.
Floor tile placement and openings
Perforated tiles should be placed exclusively in the cold aisles, aligned with the intakes of the equipment.
No perforated tiles should be placed in the hot aisles, no matter how uncomfortably hot. Hot aisles are,
by design, supposed to be hot. Placement of open tiles in the hot aisle artificially decreases the return air
temperature to the CRAC units, thereby reducing their efficiency and available capacity. This
phenomenon contributes to hot spot problems in the data center. Perforated tiles should not be placed in
too close proximity to the CRAC units. In areas under the raised floor where air velocities exceed about
530 feet-per-minute, usually within about six tiles of the unit discharges, a Venturi effect may be created
where room air will be sucked downward into the raised floor, opposite of the desired result of upward
chilled air delivery.
The volumetric flow capabilities of floor tiles with various percent-open ratings are shown in the
following figure.
Figure 19. Volumetric flow capabilities of various raised floor tiles
Floor tiles in typical data centers deliver between 100 and 300 cfm. By optimizing the flow utilizing some
of the guidelines set forth in this document, it may be possible to realize flows as high as 500 cfm. Flow
rates as high as 700-800 cfm per tile are possible with tiles with the highest percent-open rating. Floor
tiles must be aligned in the cold aisles with the intake locations on the equipment.
Openings in the raised-floor that are not there for the purpose of delivering chilled air directly to the
equipment in the data center space should be completely sealed with brush assemblies or other cable
opening material (for example, foam sheeting, fire pillows). Other openings that must be sealed are holes
in data center perimeter walls, underfloor, and ceiling. Sealing all openings will help maximize
under-floor static pressure, ensure optimal airflow to the cold aisles where it is needed, and eliminate
short-circuiting of unused air to the CRAC unit returns.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Related concepts
“System air distribution” on page 41
Careful attention should be given to the method of air distribution to eliminate areas of excessive air
motion and hot spots.
Related information
Server specifications
Temperature and humidity design criteria
Use these temperature and humidity design criteria to ensure that your data center environment provides
optimal conditions for your server operation.
The information technology equipment can tolerate a considerable range of temperature and humidity, as
described in the server specifications for each server. Generally, the air conditioning system should be
designed for 22 degrees C (71.6 degrees F) and 45 percent relative humidity at altitudes up to 2150 m
(7000 ft.). This design point provides for the largest buffer in terms of available system time. If the air
conditioning system fails or malfunctions, the computer will be able to operate until it reaches its
specified limits. This buffer provides additional time for air conditioning repairs before the computer
must be shut down. The design point has also been proven to be a generally acceptable personal comfort
level.
The design points for temperature and relative humidity might differ in certain geographical areas.
Air conditioning control instruments that respond to + or - 1 degree C ( + or - 2 degrees F) temperature
and + or - 5 percent relative humidity should be installed.
Computer room cooling is basically a sensible (as opposed to a latent) cooling operation. (Sensible heat is
defined as the transfer of thermal energy to or from a substance resulting in a change in temperature:
Latent heat is the thermal energy absorbed or evolved in a process other than change of temperature.)
Substantial deviations from the recommended design point in either direction, if maintained for long
periods (that is, for hours), will expose the system to malfunction from external conditions. For example,
high relative humidity levels might cause improper feeding of paper, operator discomfort, and
condensation on windows and walls when outside temperatures fall below room dew point.
Low relative humidity levels alone will not cause static discharge. However, in combination with many
types of floor construction, floor coverings, and furniture, static charges that are generated by movement
of people, carts, furniture, and paper will be more readily stored on one or more of the objects. These
charges might be high enough to be objectionable to operating personnel, if discharged by contact with
another person or object. If discharged to or near information technology equipment or other electronic
equipment, these charges can cause intermittent interference. In most areas, it will be necessary to add
moisture to the room air to meet the design criteria.
Because temperature or relative humidity deviations for only a few hours will cause the floors, desks,
furniture, cards, tapes, and paper to reach a condition that will readily permit the retention of a charge, it
is recommended that the air conditioning system be automatically controlled and provided with a high or
low alarm or a continuous recording device with the appropriate limits marked.
Server operating limits
Some individual servers might require special consideration and have more or less restrictive
requirements. See your server specifications for specific environmental limits.
The typical server operating environment is shown in the following table. The server nonoperating limits
are shown in the following Nonoperating Server Limits table.
Site preparation and physical planning
37
Table 5. Typical server operating environment
Environmental criteria
Computer room limits
Office space air conditioned Office space not air
conditioned
Temperature
16 to 32 degrees C (60.8 to
89.6 degrees F)
16 to 32 degrees C (60.8 to
89.6degrees F)
10.0 to 40.6 degrees C (50 to
105.08 degrees F)
Relative humidity
20 to 80 percent
8 to 80 percent
8 to 80 percent
Maximum wet bulb
23 degrees C (73.4 degrees
F)
23 degrees C (73.4 degrees F) 27.0 degrees C (80.6 degrees
F)
The design criteria is shown is the following table.
Table 6. Design criteria
Environmental criteria
Design criteria
Temperature
22 degrees C (71.6 degrees F)
Relative humidity
45 percent
Maximum wet bulb
23 degrees C (73.4 degrees F)
The recommended design is shown in the following figure.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 20. Recommended design
Note: The air entering the server must be at the conditions for operation before power is turned on.
Under no circumstances may the server’s input air, room air, or humidity exceed the upper limit of the
operating conditions. This is the maximum operating temperature limit and should not be considered a
design condition. Also, the relative humidity of the air entering the server should not be greater than 80
percent. This specification is an absolute maximum. The optimum condition is where the room is at the
design criteria of 22 degrees C (71.6 degrees F) and 45 percent humidity.
Air temperature in a duct or an underflow air supply should be kept above the room dew point
temperature to prevent condensation within or on the servers. When it is necessary to add moisture to
the system for control of low relative humidity, one of the following methods should be used:
v Steam grid or jets
v Evaporation pan or pane
v Steam cup
v Water atomizers
Water treatment might be necessary in areas with high mineral content to avoid contamination of the air.
Site preparation and physical planning
39
Note: In localities where the outside temperature drops below freezing, condensation will form on single,
glazed window panes. Also, if outside temperatures are considerably below freezing, the outside walls of
the building should be waterproofed or vapor sealed on the inside or, in time, structural damage will
occur in the outside walls.
Server nonoperating limits
When the facilities are shut down, the nonoperating environmental specifications must be followed to
prevent damage to the server and to ensure reliable operation when power is restored.
Table 7. Nonoperating server limits
Server nonoperating limits
Temperature
10 to 43 degrees C (50 to 109.4 degrees F)
Relative humidity
8 to 80 percent
Maximum wet bulb
27 degrees C (80.6 degrees F)
Related information
Server specifications
Temperature and humidity recording instruments
Temperature and humidity recording instruments should be installed to provide a continuous record of
the environmental conditions.
Direct-reading instruments with seven-day charts are suggested to monitor the ambient room conditions.
Any under-floor air conditioning supply should also be monitored.
Monitoring provides the ability to:
v Assure the air conditioning system is continuously performing as designed.
v Determine whether a mandatory drying-out period is necessary when the humidity limitations are
exceeded. The duration of the drying-out period is determined by the extent and duration of excess
humidity.
v Determine whether a mandatory warm-up period is necessary when the building temperature has
dropped below server operating specifications during off-shift hours.
A visual or audible signal should be incorporated with the recording instrument to alert personnel that
ambient conditions are approaching the maximum limitations.
Relocation and temporary storage
Shipment or storage conditions that exceed the specified limits can cause permanent damage to your
server. These guidelines should be followed when relocating or temporarily storing your server.
Care should be taken to ensure that a server is not stored with chemicals that can cause corrosion
damage.
When a server is removed in preparation for shipment or storage, use the packaging bill of material. This
might include a protective package, including blocks, braces, and preparation instructions, designed
uniquely for each server. This is available from any IBM branch office. IBM large processors are designed
for operation in a controlled temperature and relative humidity range, and require the environment be
kept within this range even when they are in a storage area or in transit. See the individual server
specifications for operating environment limits. Shipment of large processors should be in an
environmentally controlled van with appropriate strapping and padding to avoid any transit damage.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Table 8. Typical shipping environment
Shipping environment
Temperature
-40 to 60 degrees C (-40 to 140 degrees F)
Relative humidity
5 to 100 percent (no condensation)
Maximum wet bulb
1 to 27 degrees C (33.8 to 80.6 degrees F)
If shipping a large processor in a nonenvironmentally controlled van, contact your seller for packing and
unpacking instructions.
Table 9. Typical storage environment
Storage environment
Temperature
1 to 60 degrees C (33.8 to 140 degrees F)
Relative humidity
5 to 80 percent
Maximum wet bulb
1 to 29 degrees C (33.8 to 84.2 degrees F)
Acclimation
Server and storage equipment must be acclimated to the surrounding environment to prevent
condensation.
When server and storage equipment is shipped in a climate where the outside temperature is below the
dew point of an indoor location, there is a possibility that water condensation will form on the cooler
surfaces inside the equipment when brought into a warmer indoor environment. If condensation occurs,
sufficient time must be allowed for the equipment to reach equilibrium with the warmer indoor
temperature before removing the shipping bag, if used. Leave the system in the shipping bag, if used, for
up to 48 hours, or until there is no visible signs of condensation, to let it acclimate to the indoor
environment.
System air distribution
Careful attention should be given to the method of air distribution to eliminate areas of excessive air
motion and hot spots.
Regardless of the type of system, it should use predominantly recirculated air with a set minimum of
fresh air for personnel. This helps eliminate the introduction of dust, reduces the latent load, and allows
the system to carry on a sensible cooling operation. The various methods of air distribution and
computer room air conditioning (CRAC) are shown in the following figures.
In general you should ensure that the design supply and return air temperatures are within the
manufacturer’s specifications for CRAC units.
Underfloor air distribution
In underfloor air distribution, the space between the regular building floor and the raised floor is used as
a means to supply air for equipment cooling (see the following figure). Concrete subfloors might require
treatment to prevent the release of dust. Air is discharged into the room through perforated panel floor
registers. The air is returned directly to the air conditioning system or by means of a ceiling return
system. Remove obsolete cabling (as required in the United States National Electrical Code) and seal all
raised-floor openings that are not specifically intended to supply cool air to equipment intakes.
Site preparation and physical planning
41
Figure 21. Underfloor air distribution
A higher return air temperature can be tolerated in underfloor air distribution without affecting the
design conditions of the overall room. The underfloor design takes into consideration a heat transfer
factor through the raised metal floor and also provides some reheated air to control the relative humidity
before it enters the room.
A temperature control system would consist of the same controls as described for the single duct system.
In addition, the system must have controls for air temperature in the under floor supply system to
prevent under floor temperatures from getting below the room dew point. Air entering the server
through the cable holes must be within operating limits. (See Temperature and humidity design criteria).
Combination overhead and under floor system
For a combination overhead and under floor air circulation design, the primary air conditioning unit is
inside the room and the secondary air conditioning unit is outside the room. See following figure.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 22. Combination overhead and underfloor air conditioning system
An air handler, with separate controls, supplies conditioned and filtered air to the area under the raised
floor. The air is discharged into the room through floor panels or registers. This air absorbs the heat
generated by the server and is discharged from the top or rear of the servers into the room. The relative
humidity of the air supplied to the information technology equipment should be below 80 percent and
the temperature should be controlled to prevent condensation on or within the servers. It might be
necessary to provide for a reheating system to operate with the cooling unit to control relative humidity.
The second air handling system supplies air directly to the room through a separate supply system and
should be large enough to absorb the remaining heat load in the computer room. It should maintain
room temperature and relative humidity as specified and give continuous air conditioning and
ventilation.
Overhead air circulation
In overhead air circulation, the entire heat load of the room or area, including the heat generated by the
information technology equipment, is absorbed by the air supplied to the computer room and the area
diffuser system or by a pressurized ceiling supply.
The air returned to the air conditioning system is from either ceiling return registers above the
heat-producing servers, or from a fixed pattern of return registers both in the ceiling and on the walls of
the room. The following figure shows an overhead air circulation system.
Site preparation and physical planning
43
Figure 23. Overhead air distribution system
To maximize the cooling capability of such an arrangement, it is imperative to align the supply
discharges with the cold aisles and the return grilles with the hot aisles. The supply discharges should
force air directly down into the cold aisles and not use diffusers that distribute air laterally. Such
diffusion can cause cool air to migrate undesirably into the return air path prior to having the
opportunity to transfer heat from the equipment.
A temperature control system should consist of temperature and humidity controls. These controls should
be placed in a representative location within the machine room. The temperature and humidity recorder
(described in Temperature and humidity design criteria) should be mounted next to the controls to monitor
conditions.
Air filtration
A high efficiency filter should be installed to filter all air supplied to the computer room. Because
mechanical and electrostatic air cleaners operate on different principles, a different rating is specified for
each type. Ratings are determined by using the test methods outlined in the American Society of Heating,
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard No. 52-76 (or national equivalent).
Special air filtration is necessary where installations are exposed to corrosive gases, salt air, or unusual
dirt or dust conditions.
Mechanical air filters must be rated at a minimum initial atmospheric dust-spot efficiency of 40 percent.
Electrostatic air filters are designed to operate at 85 to 90 percent efficiency at a given face velocity. The
filter must be operated in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation to prevent bypass and
ozone buildup, which can be detrimental to certain servers.
Air quality
If you are installing your system in a typical business office or clean industrial location, you probably do
not have to worry about the quality of the surrounding air. However, if your site is unusually dirty or
has a chemical odor, you should be concerned. Dirt and corrosive gases can cause corrosion and possible
equipment damage.
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Site preparation and physical planning
High concentrations of gases such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and acidic gaseous chlorine
associated with industrial processes are known to cause corrosion and failure of electronic components. If
you have any reason to suspect the presence of a corrosive gas (for example, the presence of an odor),
determine what contaminant is in the air and whether it is in high enough concentrations to be harmful
to your system. In addition to gases, some industrial processes produce particulate contamination. These
particles can settle (in the form of dust) in surrounding areas even though the process producing the
particles might be some distance away.
Testing for gases and particulate in the air involves special equipment and procedures. Your seller can
provide guidance.
Related concepts
“Temperature and humidity design criteria” on page 37
Use these temperature and humidity design criteria to ensure that your data center environment provides
optimal conditions for your server operation.
Planning for the installation of rear door heat exchangers
Use this information to prepare your location to facilitate the use of the IBM rear door heat exchanger.
The heat exchanger is a water-cooled device that is mounted on the rear of an IBM rack to cool the air
that is heated and exhausted by devices inside the rack. A supply hose delivers chilled, conditioned water
to the heat exchanger. A return hose delivers warmed water back to the water pump or chiller. In this
document, this is referred to as a secondary cooling loop. The primary cooling loop supplies the building
chilled water to secondary cooling loops, air conditioning units, and so on. The hoses for the secondary
cooling loop are not included with this product. The rack on which you install the heat exchanger can be
on a raised floor or a non-raised floor.
For heat exchanger performance information, see Heat exchanger performance.
For information about hoses, water treatment, and cooling distribution units for supplying conditioned
water, see Secondary cooling loop parts and services information.
If you want to procure IBM installation planning services regarding what is needed to plan for supplying
conditioned water and installing the rear door heat exchangers, see Secondary cooling loop parts and services
information.
Planning considerations overview
As you plan the installation of the heat exchanger, include the following considerations:
v Providing chilled, conditioned water that meets the specifications that are outlined in Water control
and conditioning of the secondary cooling loop.
v Procuring and installing the water supply system that is suitable for your data center. Details are
provided in Water delivery specifications for secondary loops.
v Providing redundant secondary cooling loop water supply, or enough room air conditioning to handle
a tolerable heat load if the function of one or more of the heat exchangers is compromised. If the rear
door is opened for rack maintenance, or conditioned water supply to the door is stopped, the rack heat
load is sent out into the room and must be handled by room air conditioning. This will occur until the
conditioned water supply is restored.
v Providing floor or ceiling tile cutouts or protective coverings to avoid tripping hazards on non-raised
floors as part of hose management.
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45
Water control and conditioning of the secondary cooling loop
It is very important that the water that is being supplied to the heat exchanger meet the requirements
that are described in this section. Otherwise, system failures might occur over time, as a result of any of
the following problems:
v Leaks due to corrosion and pitting of the metal components of the heat exchanger or the water-supply
system.
v Buildup of scale deposits inside the heat exchanger, which can cause the following problems:
– A reduction of the ability of the heat exchanger to cool the air that is exhausted from the rack.
– Failure of mechanical hardware, such as a hose quick-connect coupling.
v Organic contamination, such as bacteria, fungi, or algae. This contamination can cause the same
problems as described for scale deposits. The water that is used to fill, refill, and supply the heat
exchanger must be particle-free deionized water or particle-free distilled water with appropriate
controls for avoiding these issues
– Metal corrosion
– Bacterial fouling
– Scaling
The water cannot originate from the primary chilled-water system for the building but must be supplied
as part of a secondary, closed-loop system.
Important: Do not use glycol solutions because they can adversely affect the cooling performance of the
heat exchanger.
Water delivery specifications for secondary loops
This section describes the various hardware components that make up the delivery system secondary
loop that provides the chilled, conditioned water to the heat exchanger. The delivery system includes
pipes, hoses, and the required connection hardware to connect to the heat exchanger. Hose management
in raised floor or non-raised-floor environments is also described.
The primary cooling loop is considered to be the building chilled-water supply or a modular chiller unit.
The primary loop must not be used as a direct source of coolant for the heat exchanger for the following
reasons:
v If the supply water temperature is below the room dew point, condensation forms and causes dripping
from the door components.
v If a leak develops in the door, supply hose, or return hose, a large amount of water is available.
Procurement and installation of the components that are needed to create the secondary cooling loop
system are required for this design and are your responsibility. See Secondary cooling loop parts and services
information for information about suppliers of hoses and cooling distribution units.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Attention: The overpressure safety device must meet the following requirements:
v Comply with ISO 4126-1.
v
v
v
v
v
v
Note: Perform a search for ISO 4126-1.
Be installed so that it is easily accessed for inspection, maintenance, and repair.
Be connected as close as possible to the device that it is intended to protect.
Be adjustable only with the use of a tool.
Have a discharge opening that is directed so that discharged water or fluid will not create a hazard or
be directed toward any person.
Be of adequate discharge capacity to ensure that the maximum working pressure is not exceeded.
Be installed without a shutoff valve between the overpressure safety device and the protected device.
Heat exchanger specifications
Heat exchanger specifications provide detailed information for your heat exchanger, including
dimensions, weight, air source, water source, water pressure and water volume.
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47
The following tables show the specifications for the heat exchanger.
Table 10. Operating specifications for 19-inch EIA-rail heat exchanger
Door size
v Depth: 142.6 mm (5.6 in.)
v Height: 1945.4 mm (76.6 in.)
v Width: 639 mm (25.2 in.)
Exchanger size
v Depth: 67 mm (2.6 in.)
v Height: 1791.3 mm (70.5 in.)
v Width: 438.6 mm (17.3 in.)
Door assembly weight
v Empty: 29.9 kg (66 lb.)
v Filled: 35.6 kg (78.5 lb.)
Air movement
v Provided by servers and other
devices in the rack
Air source for servers
v Room air for front of rack. Air
exhausts servers, moves through
rear door heat exchanger and exits
into the room (open loop)
Air temperature drop
Water source
v User-supplied, compliant with
specifications in this topic.
Water pressure
v Normal operation: 137.93 kPa (20
psi)
v Maximum: 689.66 kPa (100 psi)
v Pressure drop across heat
exchanger: approximately 48 kPa
(7 psi)
v The temperature drop can be up to Water volume
25 degrees C (45 degrees F)
v Exchanger: 2.8 liters (0.75 gallons)
between the air exiting the rack
Door heat removal capacity
v Exchanger plus supply and return
devices and the air exiting the heat
v For examples of door heat removal
hoses to the pump unit: Maximum
exchanger on high heat load
capacity, see the illustrations in
of approximately 15.1 liters (4.0
products.
Heat exchanger performance.
gallons) excluding pump unit
v In general, the door heat removal
piping and reservoir
capacity percentage increases if one Air impedance
Water temperature
or more of the following events
v Air pressure drop across the heat
occur:
exchanger is equivalent to the IBM v If no dew point control is available
from the secondary loop cooling
– The water temperature
acoustic 19-inch rear door
distribution unit, 18 degrees C +/decreases.
1 degree C (64.4 degrees F +/- 1.8
– The water flow increases.
degrees F) must be maintained.
– The server heat loads decrease.
v Lower temperature water is
v The door heat removal capacity
allowed as long as the water
varies with water temperature,
supply is monitored and adjusted
water flow rate, air temperature
to remain above room dew point
and flow, and total heat load of the
(where heat exchanger is located).
servers. However, a typical
high-load cabinet (20 - 32 kW or
Required water flow rate (as
approximately 70 000 to 105 000
measured at the supply entrance to
Btu per hour) can achieve 55 - 85%
the heat exchanger)
heat removal.
v Minimum: 22.7 liters per minute (6
gallons per minute)
v Maximum: 37.9 liters per minute
(10 gallons per minute)
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Site preparation and physical planning
Table 11. Operating specifications for 24-inch EIA-rail heat exchanger
Door size
v Depth: 142.6 mm (5.6 in.)
v Height: 1945.4 mm (76.6 in.)
v Width: 771.8 mm (30.4 in.)
Exchanger size
v Depth: 67 mm (2.6 in.)
v Height: 1791.3 mm (70.5 in.)
v Width: 574.6 mm (22.6 in.)
Door assembly weight
v Empty: 31.7 kg (70 lb.)
v Filled: 39.9 kg (88.2 lb.)
Door heat removal capacity
v Lab tests indicate 10 percent
improvement over the 19-inch
version of the door.
v Up to 17 kW (58 000 Btu/hr) heat
removal possible
Air movement
v Provided by servers and other
devices in the rack
Air source for servers
v Room air for front of rack. Air
exhausts servers, moves through
rear door heat exchanger and exits
into the room (open loop)
Water source
v User-supplied, compliant with
specifications in this topic.
v 3/4-inch couplings on floor
v Minimum 3/4-inch inside diameter
hose required
Water pressure
v Normal operation: 137.93 kPa (20
psi)
v Maximum: 689.66 kPa (100 psi)
Air temperature drop
v Pressure drop across heat
v The temperature drop can be up to
exchanger: approximately 48 kPa
25 degrees C (45 degrees F)
(7 psi)
between the air exiting the rack
devices and the air exiting the heat Water volume
exchanger on high heat load
v Exchanger: 5.3 liters (1.4 gallons)
products.
v Exchanger plus supply and return
hoses to the pump unit: Maximum
Air impedance
of approximately 15.1 liters (4.0
v Air pressure drop across the heat
gallons) excluding pump unit
exchanger is equivalent to the IBM
piping and reservoir
acoustic 24-inch rear door
Water temperature
v If no dew point control is available
from the secondary loop cooling
distribution unit, 18 degrees C +/1 degree C (64.4 degrees F +/- 1.8
degrees F) must be maintained.
v Lower temperature water is
allowed as long as the water
supply is monitored and adjusted
to remain above room dew point
(where heat exchanger is located).
Required water flow rate (as
measured at the supply entrance to
the heat exchanger)
v Minimum: 22.7 liters per minute (6
gallons per minute)
v Maximum: 37.9 liters per minute
(10 gallons per minute)
Heat exchanger performance
Heat exchanger option kit
The heat exchanger feature kit consists of the components listed below and shown in the following
figures.
v Door assembly
v Hinge kit
v Air-purge tool
Site preparation and physical planning
49
Figure 24. Components of the heat exchanger kit for 19-inch EIA-rail racks
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 25. Components of the heat exchanger kit for 24-inch EIA-rail racks
Related concepts
“Heat exchanger performance”
Learn about the heat exchanger performance of the rear door heat exchanger.
Heat exchanger performance
Learn about the heat exchanger performance of the rear door heat exchanger.
An example of expected performance of the rear door heat exchanger is illustrated in Typical
performance of a rear door heat exchanger, 32 kW heat load load for a typical inlet air temperature of
24°C (75.2°F), with a fully populated rack near uniform power dissipation, 32 kW heat load, and the node
fans running near nominal fan speed (1530 cfm). By selecting the water inlet temperature and water flow
rate, you can estimate the indicated heat removal. These levels can be achieved with normal cable exits
from the rack and with the small amount of hot air bypass at the base of the door (small amounts of hot
air escaping from the rack without being cooled by the door).
Site preparation and physical planning
51
Figure 26. Typical performance of a rear door heat exchanger, 32 kW heat load. Percentage heat removal as function
of water temperature and flow rate. (24°C rack inlet air, 32 kW rack load, 1530 cfm air through the rear door heat
exchanger)
As described in Heat exchanger specifications, water temperatures below 18°C (64.4°F) can be used only if
the system that is supplying the water is able to measure the room dew point conditions, and
automatically adjust the water temperature accordingly.
Another example of performance data is shown in Typical performance of a rear door heat exchanger, 20
kW heat load for identical conditions as in Typical performance of a rear door heat exchanger, 32 kW
heat load, except reflecting a 20 kW heat load. Because of the lower heat load, a specific level of cooling
can be achieved with warmer water, a lower flow rate, or both.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 27. Typical performance of a rear door heat exchanger, 20 kW heat load. Percentage heat removal as function
of water temperature and flow rate. (24°C rack inlet air, 20 kW rack load, 1530 cfm air through the rear door heat
exchanger)
Water specifications for the secondary cooling loop
Learn about the water specifications required for the secondary cooling loop of your heat exchanger.
It is important that the water being supplied to the heat exchanger meet the requirements described in
this topic; otherwise, system failures might occur over time, as a result of:
v Leaks due to corrosion and pitting of the metal components of the heat exchanger or the water supply
system
v Buildup of scale deposits inside the heat exchanger, which can cause the following problems:
– A reduction of the heat exchanger’s ability to cool the air that is exhausted from the rack.
– Failure of mechanical hardware, such as a hose quick-connect adapter.
v Organic contamination, such as bacteria, fungi, or algae. This contamination can cause the same
problems as described for scale deposits.
Water control and conditioning for the secondary cooling loop
The water used to fill, refill, and supply the heat exchanger must be particle-free deionized water or
particle-free distilled water with appropriate controls for avoiding the following issues.
v Metal corrosion
v Bacterial fouling
v Scaling
Because of typical water temperatures (described in Water delivery specifications for secondary loops), the
water may not be able to originate from the primary building chilled-water system. Conditioned water
for the heat exchanger should be supplied as part of a secondary, closed-loop system.
Site preparation and physical planning
53
Important: Use of glycol solutions is not recommended because they can adversely affect the cooling
performance of the heat exchanger.
Materials for secondary loops
This topic describes the materials for use in supply lines, connectors, manifolds, pumps, hoses, and any
other hardware that makes up the closed-loop water-supply system at your location.
v Copper
v Brass with less than 30 percent zinc content
v Stainless steel – 303, 304, or 316
v Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) rubber – peroxide cured, non-metal oxide
Materials to avoid in secondary loops
Do not use any of the following materials in any part of your water supply system.
v Oxidizing biocides, such as, chlorine, bromine, and chlorine dioxide
v Aluminum
v Brass with greater than 30 percent zinc
v Irons (non-stainless steel)
Water supply requirements for secondary loops
This topic describes specific characteristics of the system that supplies the chilled conditioned water to
the heat exchanger.
Temperature
The heat exchanger, its supply hose and return hoses are not insulated and do not have features designed
to address the creation and collection water from condensate. Avoid any condition that could cause
condensation. The temperature of the water inside the supply hose, return hose, and the heat exchanger
must be kept above the dew point of the location where the heat exchanger is being used.
Attention: Typical primary chilled water is too cold for use in this application because building chilled
water can be as cold as 4 - 6 degrees C (39 to 43 degrees F).
Important: If the system supplying the cooling water does not have the ability to measure the room dew
point and automatically adjust the water temperature accordingly, the minimum water temperature that
must be maintained is 18 degrees C plus or minus 1 degree C(64.4 degrees F plus or minus 1.8 degrees
F). This is consistent with the ASHRAE Class 1 Environmental Specification that requires a maximum
dew point of 17 degrees C (62.6 degrees F). Refer to the ASHRAE document entitled Thermal Guidelines
for Data Processing Environments. Information on obtaining this document is found at theASHRAE Technical
Committee website. Search on document id ASHRAE TC 9.9.
Pressure
The water pressure in the secondary loop must be less than the maximum 689.66 kPa (100 pounds per
square inch). Somewhere in the water circuit, a pressure relief valve, set to this maximum value, is
required for safety reasons. Normal operating pressure at the rear door heat exchanger should be 137.93
kPa (20 psi) or less.
Flow rate
The flow rate of the water in the system must be in the range of 23 - 38 liters per minute (6 - 10 gallons
per minute).
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Site preparation and physical planning
Pressure drop versus flow rate for heat exchangers (including quick-connect couplings) is defined as
approximately 48 kPa (7 psi) at 30 liters per minute (8 gallons per minute). Adjustable flow valves are
recommended for installation on all supply lines of the water circuit, to enable compliance, to this flow
specification.
Water volume limits
The heat exchangers hold between 2.8 liters (0.75 gallons) and 5.3 liters (1.4 gallons). Fifteen meters (50
ft.) of 19 mm (0.75 in.) supply and return hoses hold approximately 9.4 liters (2.5 gallons). To minimize
exposure to flooding in the event of leaks, the entire product cooling system (heat exchanger, supply hose
and return hose) excluding any reservoir tank should have a maximum 15.1 liters (4 gallons) of water.
This is a cautionary statement not a functional requirement. Also consider using leak detection methods
on the secondary loop that supplies water to the heat exchanger.
Air exposure
The secondary cooling loop is a closed loop, with no continuous exposure to room air. After you fill the
loop, remove all air from the loop. Air bleed valves are provided at the top of each heat exchanger
manifold for purging all air from the system.
Related concepts
“Water delivery specifications for secondary loops”
The delivery system secondary loop provides chilled water to the heat exchanger. The secondary loop
consists of the components listed.
Related information
ASHRAE Technical Committee
ASHRAE guidelines are available in this website
Water delivery specifications for secondary loops
The delivery system secondary loop provides chilled water to the heat exchanger. The secondary loop
consists of the components listed.
This topic describes the various hardware components that make up the delivery system secondary loop
that provides the chilled, conditioned water to the heat exchanger. The delivery system includes pipes,
hoses and the required connection hardware to attach to the heat exchanger. Hose management on raised
or non-raised floor environments is also described.
Attention:
The overpressure safety device must meet the following requirements:
v Comply with ISO 4126-1
Note: Perform a search for ISO 4126-1.
v Be installed so that it is easily accessed for inspection, maintenance, and repair.
v Be connected as close as possible to the device that it is intended to protect.
v Be adjustable only with the use of a tool.
v Have a discharge opening that is directed so that discharged water or fluid will not create a hazard or
be directed toward any person.
v Have an adequate discharge capacity to ensure that the maximum working pressure is not exceeded.
v Be installed without a shutoff valve between the overpressure safety device and the protected device.
The primary cooling loop is considered to be the low temperature building chilled-water supply or a
modular chiller unit. The primary loop must not be used as a direct source of coolant for the heat
exchanger for two main reasons. First, below-dew-point water will cause air moisture to form on the door
heat exchanger as it operates (condensation will drip and gather under the rack). Second, if proper leak
Site preparation and physical planning
55
detection is not established (for example, monitored leak tape, hose-in-trough with leak sensors and
automatic shut-off valves) and a leak in the door, hoses or manifolds occurs, the constant, large supply of
primary loop water could result in large amounts of water leaking into the data center. Water provided in
a controlled and monitored secondary, closed loop, would limit the amount of water available in a leak
situation, and prevent condensation from forming.
Procurement and the installation of the components needed to create the secondary cooling loop system
are required for this design and are your responsibility. For suggestions on where to procure hoses and
cooling distribution units, see Flexible hose suppliers and Cooling distribution unit suppliers. The main
purpose of this topic is to provide examples of typical methods for secondary loop set-up and operating
characteristics that are needed to provide an adequate, safe supply of water to the heat exchanger. Key
components recommended for the water supply and return lines are:
v
v
v
v
v
v
Couplings to match those provided on the heat exchanger
Flexible hoses
Thermal feedback to a flow valve that will adjust and control supply water temperature
Pressure relief valve
Shutoff valves for each line running to a door
Adjustable flow valves for each supply line to a door
The actual number of heat exchangers connected to a secondary loop depends on the capacity of the
secondary loop to transfer heat to the primary loop. For example, if the secondary loop can remove 100
kW of heat load and you have multiple 25 kW racks, you could have 12.5 kW per rack (assuming 50
percent door heat removal) going into the water loop, and attach eight doors per secondary loop.
The following figure shows an example of a facilities fabricated solution. The actual number of heat
exchangers connected to a secondary loop depends on the capacity of the cooling distribution unit that is
running the secondary loop.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 28. Coolant distribution using a fabricated facilities solution
The following figure shows an example of an off-the-shelf modular cooling distribution unit. The actual
number of heat exchangers connected to a secondary loop depends on the capacity of the cooling
distribution unit that is running the secondary loop.
Site preparation and physical planning
57
Figure 29. Coolant distribution using off-the-shelf supplier solutions
The following figure shows an example of a water chiller unit that supplies conditioned water to one or
more heat exchangers. This must be a closed system (no exposure of the water to air) and meet all
materials, water quality, water treatment, and temperature and flow specifications that are defined in this
document. A water chiller unit is considered an acceptable alternative to use as a building chilled water
source for removing heat from a rear door heat exchanger.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 30. Cooling distribution unit that uses a water chiller unit to provide conditioned water
The following figure shows a typical cooling solution and defines the components of the primary cooling
loop and the components of the secondary cooling loop.
Site preparation and physical planning
59
Figure 31. Primary and secondary cooling loops
Manifolds and piping
Manifolds that accept large-diameter feed pipes from a pump unit are the preferred method for splitting
the flow of water to smaller diameter pipes or hoses that are routed to individual heat exchangers.
Manifolds must be constructed of materials compatible with the pump unit and related piping. See Water
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Site preparation and physical planning
specifications for the secondary cooling loop. The manifolds must provide enough connection points to allow
a matching number of supply and return lines to be attached and the manifolds must match the capacity
rating of the pumps and heat exchanger (between the secondary cooling loop and building chilled-water
source). Anchor or restrain all manifolds to provide the required support to avoid movement when
quick-connect couplings are plugged to the manifolds and when valves are opened or closed.
Example manifold supply pipe sizes
v Use a 50.8 mm (2 in.) supply pipe to provide the correct flow to six (100 kW CDU) 19 mm (0.75 in.)
supply hoses.
v Use a 63.5 mm (2.50 in.) supply pipe to provide the correct flow to eight (120 kW CDU) 19 mm (0.75
in.) supply hoses.
v Use an 88.9 mm (3.50 in.) supply pipe to provide the correct flow to twenty (300 kW CDU) 19 mm
(0.75 in.) supply hoses.
Shutoff valves are suggested for each supply and return line that exits the manifold to allow stopping the
flow of water in individual lines of multiple circuit loops. This provides a way of servicing or replacing
an individual heat exchanger without affecting the operation of other heat exchangers in the loop.
Adjustable flow valves (called circuit setters) are also suggested for each supply line that exits a supply
manifold so changes can be made to the flow to each individual rack, in the event that door heat
exchangers are added or removed from the secondary loop (this method keeps water flow within
specification to each door heat exchanger).
Temperature and flow metering (monitoring) are suggested in secondary loops, to provide assurance that
water specifications are being met and that the optimum heat removal is taking place.
Anchor or restrain all manifolds and pipes to provide the required support, and to avoid movement
when quick-connect couplings are being attached to the manifolds.
The following figure shows an example of a typical central manifold layout that supplies water to
multiple heat exchangers.
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61
Figure 32. Typical central distribution manifold layout in a central location
The following figure shows another layout for multiple water circuits.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 33. Typical central manifold (located at a central location for multiple water circuits)
The following figure shows an extended manifold layout.
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63
Figure 34. Typical extended manifold (located along aisles between racks)
Flexible hoses and connections to manifolds and heat exchangers
Pipes and hose configurations can vary and are determined by analyzing the needs of your facilities, or a
site preparation representative can provide this analysis.
Flexible hoses are needed to supply and return water between your hard plumbing (manifolds and
cooling distribution units) and the heat exchanger, (allowing needed movement when opening and
closing the rack rear door).
Hoses are available that provide water with acceptable pressure-drop characteristics and that help
prevent depletion of some corrosion inhibitors. These hoses must be made of Ethylene Propylene Diene
Monomer (EPDM) rubber - peroxide cured, non-metal oxide material and will have Parker Fluid
quick-connect couplings at each end. These couplings are defined below and are compatible with the heat
exchanger couplings. Hose lengths from 3 to 15 m (10 ft. to 50 ft.), in increments of 3 m (10 ft.) are
available. Hoses longer than 15 m (50 ft.) may create unacceptable pressure loss in the secondary circuit
and reduce the water flow, and thus reduce the heat removal capabilities of the heat exchanger.
For a suggested supplier of these hoses, see the table in Miscellaneous parts supplier. Use solid piping or
tubing that has a minimum inner diameter of 19 mm (0.75 in.) and the least number of joints possible
between a manifold and a heat exchanger in each secondary loop.
Quick-connect couplings are used to attach the hoses or fixed pipes to the distribution manifolds and the
rear door heat exchangers. Hose couplings that attach to the heat exchanger must have the following
characteristics.
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Site preparation and physical planning
v The couplings should be constructed of passivated 300-L series stainless steel or brass couplings with
less than 30 percent zinc content. The coupling size is 19 mm (0.75 in.).
v The supply hose must have a Parker (male) quick-coupling nipple part number SH6-63-W, or
equivalent. The return hose must have a Parker (female) quick-conect couplings part number
SH6-62-W, or equivalent.
v At the opposite (manifold) end of the hoses, it is suggested that similar quick-connect couplings be
used. However, if other types are desired, it is also suggested that positive locking mechanisms be
used to prevent loss of water when the hoses are disconnected. The connections must minimize water
spill and air inclusion into the system when they are disconnected.
Note: When creating supply and return loops, it is recommended to avoid placement of electrical
connections directly below water connections. These would be areas prone to water drips or splash when
working with the water loop. Water dripping or splashing onto electrical connections can cause electrical
problems or an unsafe environment.
Related concepts
“Water specifications for the secondary cooling loop” on page 53
Learn about the water specifications required for the secondary cooling loop of your heat exchanger.
Related reference
“Cooling distribution unit suppliers” on page 76
This topic provides a list of possible suppliers for cooling distribution units.
“Miscellaneous parts supplier” on page 76
Supplier and contact information for miscellaneous secondary loop parts is provided.
Layout and mechanical installation
The layout and mechanical installation of your heat exchanger is dependent upon several factors. Use this
information to plan for your specific configuration.
The following provide and overview of the installation steps. It also provides examples of typical layouts
for water circuits.
Heat exchanger installation overview
These are the major tasks for installing the heat exchanger.
1. Preparing your facility to provide water to the rack per the required specifications.
2. Removing the existing rack rear door, and installing new hinge assemblies, and installing new latch
plate.
3. Attaching the heat exchanger door assembly to the rack.
4. Routing flexible hoses, leaving enough length at the rack end to easily make connections to the heat
exchanger.
5. Connecting the water-supply and water-return hose that runs from the cooling distribution unit or
distribution manifold to the heat exchanger.
6. Filling the heat exchanger with water.
7. Adjusting and inspecting the hoses to ensure there are no kinks in the hoses and that the hoses are
not lying against any sharp edges.
8. Adjusting the door latch assembly to ensure the door fits flatly to the rack and that all gaskets seal to
the rack.
Note: For safety reasons, trained service personnel (or qualified professionals) must perform the
installation of the heat exchanger.
Heat exchanger filling and draining overview
Follow these steps to ensure that your heat exchanger is drained and filled properly.
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65
1. Filling a heat exchanger with water includes using the air purge tool supplied with the heat
exchanger to purge any air from the heat exchanger manifolds.
Note: Attachment and detachment of air purge tool should be done with the tool valve open to
reduce water pressure at the air bleed valves and reduce water that might escape at the valves during
attaching or detaching.
Containers must be available for capturing water. The container must hold a minimum of 2 L (0.5 gal)
capacity for purging air and a minimum 6 L (1.6 gal) capacity for draining a heat exchanger.
2. Draining a heat exchanger is required before the door containing the heat exchanger can be removed
from the rack, or before a rack with a heat exchanger installed can be moved. The air purge tool can
be connected to the drain port on the bottom of the heat exchanger to drain the water.
3. Use absorbent materials, such as cloth, under the work area to capture any water that might spill
when filling or draining a heat exchanger.
Planning for heat exchangers in a raised floor environment
Plan for your heat exchangers in a raised floor environment.
On a raised floor, hoses are routed under the floor tiles and are brought up from beneath the rack
through special tile cut outs. The hoses attach to the quick-connect couplings on the bottom of the heat
exchanger.
Note: In the following examples, figures show optimal placement and size of openings for hose exit. In
some products, IBM installation planning documents recommend other hole locations (for example, heavy
racks may not have openings allowed in tiles that casters are resting on). Specific product requirements
should be followed over those provided in this topic. Recommendations for openings in reinforced
pedestal or stringer type tiles versus non-reinforced pedestal tiles should also be followed. Existing tile
cutouts for electrical or other cables can be used (or expanded) for the hoses, if enough opening space is
available to allow easy movement of both hoses when the door is opened and closed. In general, hoses
should exit the tiles at locations that will not put high forces on the hoses, or cause rubbing that will
abrade the hose surface and lead to premature hose failure (leaks).
Raised floor hose requirements and management
In a typical example, each heat exchanger requires a special cut 0.6 m by 0.6 m (2 ft. by 2 ft.) floor tile
below it and in front of the rack. A portion of the tile is cut away and correctly covered to protect against
sharp edges. The corner opening is placed directly under the hinge side of the rack rear door. The
opening size of the cut is 152.4 mm wide and 190.5 mm long +/- 12.7 mm (6.0 in. wide and 7.5 in. long
+/- 0.5 in.) in the direction parallel to the door. The following figures provide examples of hose
management methods.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 35. Raised floor hose management example 1; tile cut out size and position for 19-inch EIA-rail racks.
Site preparation and physical planning
67
Figure 36. Raised floor hose management example 1; tile cut out size and position for 24-inch EIA-rail racks.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 37. Raised floor hose management example 1; Tile cut out definition and location for 19-inch EIA-rail racks
Figure 38. Raised floor hose management example 1; Tile cut out definition and location for 24-inch EIA-rail racks
In another example, for racks being installed at the same time a heat exchanger is being installed, and in
cases where installation planning allows floor tile cutouts under the rack, each heat exchanger still
requires a special cut 0.6 m by 0.6 m (2 ft. by 2 ft.) floor tile. However, the floor tile will be positioned
Site preparation and physical planning
69
completely within the footprint of the rack. A modified cable opening or independent hose cut out is
used. Flexible hoses that contain a right-angle elbow are used to route the hoses under the rack in a large
loop to allow hose movement when the door is opened and closed. The following figures show how to
route hoses under the rack with enough hose length to allow the hose to move freely as the door is
opened and closed.
Figure 39. Raised floor and non-raised floor hose management example 2; loop under the 19-inch EIA-rail rack with
door closed
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 40. Raised floor and non-raised floor hose management example 2; loop under the 24-inch EIA-rail rack with
door closed
Site preparation and physical planning
71
Figure 41. Raised floor and non-raised floor hose management example 2; loop under the 19-inch EIA-rail rack with
door open
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 42. Raised floor and non-raised floor hose management example 2; loop under the 24-inch EIA-rail rack with
door open
Lay hoses side-by-side as they run between the heat exchanger and the supply and return manifolds, and
allow the hoses to freely move. Leave enough slack in the hoses below the rear door so that minimum
forces are exerted on the door when the hoses are attached and operating. When routing hoses, avoid
sharp bends that cause hose kinks, and avoid hose contact with sharp edges.
Planning for heat exchangers in a non-raised floor environment
Plan for your heat exchangers in a non-raised floor environment.
Non-raised floor hose requirements and management
In data centers without a raised floor, straight hose assemblies cannot make the sharp bend to exit
between the floor and the rack door without kinking the hose.
Hose assemblies with right-angle metal elbows are needed. This allows the hoses to be routed along the
floor, make the 90 degree turn upwards within the gap between the bottom of the heat exchanger door
and the floor surface, and then connect to the heat exchanger couplings. This is shown in the following
Site preparation and physical planning
73
figures.
Figure 43. Non-raised floor hose requirements for 19-inch EIA-rail rack
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Site preparation and physical planning
Figure 44. Non-raised floor hose requirements 24-inch EIA-rail rack
Hoses exiting the heat exchanger can be routed in a manner similar to that of power cables in a
non-raised floor data center. For example, place the hoses side-by-side and allow them to move freely as
they approach the rack (within approximately 3 m (10 ft.) of the rack). When the door is opened, it is
acceptable for the hoses to move slightly and rotate in parallel at the coupling interface inside the door.
As the door is closed, the hoses rotate back to their original positions.
Note: When opening or closing the door, some manipulation of the hose along the floor might be
necessary to prevent unwanted forces on the door and to make it easier to open and close the door.
Another method for non-raised floor hose routing is described using Figures 10 and 11 (without the hoses
exiting a tile cutout). Hose exiting the heat exchanger turns and loops under the rack. In that method, the
hose can then exit from under the rack at any place and in any direction that is convenient in your data
center.
In either of these examples, hose coverings or protective devices are not provided by IBM. Routing and
protection of the hose assemblies exterior to the rack is your responsibility.
Secondary cooling loop parts and services information
IBM supplies the rear door designed for IBM Enterprise server racks. For other parts and services needed
for proper function and reliability of the secondary water loop, this section provides sources and
information.
Site preparation and physical planning
75
This sections lists suggested suppliers that you can contact:
Miscellaneous parts supplier
Supplier and contact information for miscellaneous secondary loop parts is provided.
Table 12. Miscellaneous secondary loop parts supplier for customers in North America, Europe, Middle East, Africa,
Asia Pacific
Supplier
Vette Corporation
1
Solution
Contact information
Installation of door and/or secondary loop
items
Web: http://www.vettecorp.com
Preventive maintenance
Location:
Vette Corp Datacom Facilities
Division
201 Boston Post Road West
Marlborough, MA 01752
Email:
[email protected]
Phone: 877-248-3883 or 508-203-4690
1
This supplier will provide individual items in this list, or all the items, depending on needs and desires of each
customer.
Services supplier
Supplier and contact information for services that can be provided for secondary loop parts is provided.
Table 13. Services supplier for customers in North America, Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia Pacific
Supplier
Solution
Contact information
Vette Corporation
Installation of door and/or secondary Web: http://www.vettecorp.com
loop items
Location:
Preventive maintenance
Vette Corp Datacom Facilities
Division
201 Boston Post Road West
Marlborough, MA 01752
Email:
[email protected]
Phone: 877-248-3883 or 508-203-4690
Cooling distribution unit suppliers
This topic provides a list of possible suppliers for cooling distribution units.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Table 14. Cooling distribution unit supplier for customers in Europe. This table provides supplier and contact
information for a coolant distribution unit (CDU), which was designed specifically for the IBM rear door heat
exchanger.
Supplier
Solution
Contact Information
Eaton-Williams Group, Ltd.
Coolant distribution units (CDUs)
www.eaton-williams.com
CDU120 (120 kW, 400 - 480 V ac)
CDU121 (120 kW, 208 V ac)
Location:
CDU150 (150 kW, 400 - 480 V ac)
Eaton-Williams Group, Ltd.
CDU151 (150 kW, 208 V ac)
Station Road Edenbridge
Kent TN8 6EZ
Phone: (0) 1732 866055
Fax: (0) 1732 867937
The following figure shows a cooling distribution unit with unit parts labeled.
Site preparation and physical planning
77
Figure 45. Cooling distribution unit
The following tables show performance, electrical, and physical information of a cooling distribution unit.
Table 15. Performance
Performance
Properties
Maximum Cooling Capacity
120 kW (409450 BTU/Hr) or 150kW (511815 BTU/Hr)
Pump Capacity (design flow)
240 L/min (63.4 GPM)
Maximum Pump Head Pressure
355 kPa (51.5 psi) at design duty, excluding cabinet losses
Coolant (Liquid) Type
Chilled water (with up to 30% glycol)
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Site preparation and physical planning
Table 15. Performance (continued)
Performance
Properties
Primary Liquid Connections
1 1/2 in. flex tail for sweat connection, top or bottom
Secondary Liquid Connections
3/4 in. quick connects, hydraulic ISO-B
Unit Internal Primary Circuit Liquid Capacity
Approximately 10.0 liters (2.6 gallons)
Unit Internal Secondary Circuit Liquid Capacity
Approximately 32.0 liters (8.5 gallons)
Noise
Less than 55 dBA at 3 meters
Table 16. Electrical
Power Supply
Maximum Power Consumption
200 - 230 V ac, 30, 50/60 Hz or 400 - 480 V ac, 30,
50/60Hz
5.6 kVA at 480 V ac, 4.9 kVA at 208 V ac
Table 17. Physical
Height
Width
Depth
Weight (empty)
Weight (filled)
1825 mm (72 in.)
800 mm (31. in.)
1085 mm (43 in.)
396 kg (870 lb)
438 kg (965 lb)
Note: Other industrial coolant distribution units can be used in a secondary cooling loop, with the IBM
rear door heat exchanger, if they meet the specifications and requirements described or referenced in this
document.
Installation and support from IBM Integrated Technology Services
offerings
Integrated Technology Services can assist in the planning and installation of your heat exchanger.
Services offered by IBM Integrated Technology Services include business consulting, outsourcing, hosting
services, applications, and other technology management. These services help you learn about, plan,
install, manage, or optimize your information technology infrastructure to be an On Demand business.
If you would like assistance with coordinating and managing the installation and support of rear door
heat exchangers is desired, IBM can supply a focal point.
Before calling the 800 number shown in the table, have the following information available:
v Serial numbers of the racks
v Telephone number where the racks are located
v Contact name and phone number
v Building location and location of the racks within the building
To access the correct contact area in OSC Dispatch, dial the 800 number, request option 1, 1, 1 and when
prompted, enter your 4-digit rack machine type.
Table 18. IBM Integrated Technology Services contact information
North America
1-800-426-7378 (OSC Dispatch)
Request contact with an IBM Installation Planning
Representative in the service branch office closest to your
location.
Site preparation and physical planning
79
Table 18. IBM Integrated Technology Services contact information (continued)
Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia Pacific
Glen Yuan
(Site Services Executive - AP Network & Site Integration
Services)
Phone: 886-910-007690
E-mail: [email protected]
Planning for communications
Your installation requires a variety of communication equipment to support the computer installation.
Telephone lines, fax lines, and the remote support facility (RSF) are just some of the types of
communications that you will need to have installed.
You will have to refer to specific product planning documentation for each type of communication
equipment that you are going to install. The main tasks to prepare for communication equipment are:
1. Get an exact list of the communication features that your company ordered:
a. Make copies of the communication-feature planning list.
b. Determine the specific communication features on order from your company’s copy of the
purchase agreement.
c. Check the types of communication features and enter the quantities of feature cards and cables on
the communication-feature planning list. This list is your record of communication features to help
in your planning and coordinating tasks.
2. Prepare a communication-feature planning list:
v Use a separate planning list for each communication feature. On the list, connect the device and
modem blocks with lines to indicate the feature’s arrangement in the network. Indicate whether the
network is switched or nonswitched. The network-diagram part of the list is for typical networks. If
enough space is not available on the planning list, use additional lists or separate sheets of paper to
draw the network.
v Finally, check or fill in the remaining part of the communication-feature planning list. You might
not be able to answer some items, such as the modem model, until you meet with the local
communication company representative.
3. Meet with the local communication company representative to order needed equipment and to
discuss service:
v Define the equipment and wiring to be provided by the communication company.
v Determine the power outlets needed for communication company equipment.
v Place an order for the needed services.
v Schedule the installation work the communication company will do before the arrival of your
server.
v Install a telephone for the service representative, if recommended.
v Define the options when you order a handset with a switched line.
4. Meet with the modem vendor to discuss the following items:
v Options such as switched or leased line, line speed, auto answer, and clocking must be known.
v Who will install and who will service the original equipment manufacturer’s (OEM) modem.
v What modems will require couplers, jacks, and plugs.
v Match the coupler and the modem.
v The telephone company must be notified of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
registration number and ringer equivalence number.
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Site preparation and physical planning
v Modems that require power outlets.
5. Coordinate the installation of your equipment with remote locations to be sure the proper equipment
is installed on time at both locations. Be sure the equipment at your location is compatible with the
equipment at the remote location. Pay particular attention to these items:
v The communicating devices must use the same type of communication features.
v The devices must operate at the same speed (bits per second).
v The modems must be compatible.
v The couplers must match the modem.
v The modem strapping (jumpers) must be the same at both ends of the line.
v Properly coordinating remote locations can prevent problems such as mismatched communication
equipment. A copy of the completed communication feature planning list should be sent to the
remote locations before the equipment is installed.
6. Determine and establish wiring practices for privately owned lines:
v Do not route your communication lines parallel with power lines. Power transients can cause
electrical noise in your communication lines. Noise can also be caused by electric motors, radios,
and radar equipment.
v Use shielded outdoor-type cable where communication lines exit a building.
v Install shunt-type lightning protection on all exterior communication lines, whether they are buried
or overhead.
v Ground the shields of overhead communication lines where cables enter or exit junction boxes or at
other points where the shield is broken. For buried lines, ground the shield at each building exit or
entry.
v Shield continuity must not be broken where the ground conductor connects to the shield. Cable that
includes a drain conductor is easier to install when multiple grounding is needed.
See the applicable national and local safety standards for communication regulations and requirements.
Site preparation and physical planning
81
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Site preparation and physical planning
Appendix. Notices
This information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.
The manufacturer may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other
countries. Consult the manufacturer’s representative for information on the products and services
currently available in your area. Any reference to the manufacturer’s product, program, or service is not
intended to state or imply that only that product, program, or service may be used. Any functionally
equivalent product, program, or service that does not infringe any intellectual property right of the
manufacturer may be used instead. However, it is the user’s responsibility to evaluate and verify the
operation of any product, program, or service.
The manufacturer may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in
this document. The furnishing of this document does not grant you any license to these patents. You can
send license inquiries, in writing, to the manufacturer.
The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where such
provisions are inconsistent with local law: THIS INFORMATION IS PROVIDED “AS IS” WITHOUT
WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimer of express or implied warranties in certain
transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you.
This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically
made to the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication.
The manufacturer may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s)
described in this publication at any time without notice.
Any references in this information to Web sites not owned by the manufacturer are provided for
convenience only and do not in any manner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at
those Web sites are not part of the materials for this product and use of those Web sites is at your own
risk.
The manufacturer may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes
appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.
Any performance data contained herein was determined in a controlled environment. Therefore, the
results obtained in other operating environments may vary significantly. Some measurements may have
been made on development-level systems and there is no guarantee that these measurements will be the
same on generally available systems. Furthermore, some measurements may have been estimated through
extrapolation. Actual results may vary. Users of this document should verify the applicable data for their
specific environment.
Information concerning products not produced by this manufacturer was obtained from the suppliers of
those products, their published announcements or other publicly available sources. This manufacturer has
not tested those products and cannot confirm the accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other
claims related to products not produced by this manufacturer. Questions on the capabilities of products
not produced by this manufacturer should be addressed to the suppliers of those products.
All statements regarding the manufacturer’s future direction or intent are subject to change or withdrawal
without notice, and represent goals and objectives only.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2007, 2009
83
The manufacturer’s prices shown are the manufacturer’s suggested retail prices, are current and are
subject to change without notice. Dealer prices may vary.
This information is for planning purposes only. The information herein is subject to change before the
products described become available.
This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate
them as completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and
products. All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an
actual business enterprise is entirely coincidental.
If you are viewing this information in softcopy, the photographs and color illustrations may not appear.
The drawings and specifications contained herein shall not be reproduced in whole or in part without the
written permission of the manufacturer.
The manufacturer has prepared this information for use with the specific machines indicated. The
manufacturer makes no representations that it is suitable for any other purpose.
The manufacturer’s computer systems contain mechanisms designed to reduce the possibility of
undetected data corruption or loss. This risk, however, cannot be eliminated. Users who experience
unplanned outages, system failures, power fluctuations or outages, or component failures must verify the
accuracy of operations performed and data saved or transmitted by the system at or near the time of the
outage or failure. In addition, users must establish procedures to ensure that there is independent data
verification before relying on such data in sensitive or critical operations. Users should periodically check
the manufacturer’s support websites for updated information and fixes applicable to the system and
related software.
Trademarks
IBM, the IBM logo, and ibm.com are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business
Machines Corp., registered in many jurisdictions worldwide. Other product and service names might be
trademarks of IBM or other companies. A current list of IBM trademarks is available on the Web at
Copyright and trademark information at www.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml.
Other company, product, or service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.
Electronic emission notices
Class A Notices
The following Class A statements apply to the IBM servers that contain the POWER6 processor.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) statement
Note: This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against
harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. This equipment
generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with
the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this
equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference, in which case the user will be
required to correct the interference at his own expense.
Properly shielded and grounded cables and connectors must be used in order to meet FCC emission
limits. IBM is not responsible for any radio or television interference caused by using other than
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Site preparation and physical planning
recommended cables and connectors or by unauthorized changes or modifications to this equipment.
Unauthorized changes or modifications could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2) this device must accept any interference
received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
Industry Canada Compliance Statement
This Class A digital apparatus complies with Canadian ICES-003.
Avis de conformité à la réglementation d’Industrie Canada
Cet appareil numérique de la classe A respecte est conforme à la norme NMB-003 du Canada.
European Community Compliance Statement
This product is in conformity with the protection requirements of EU Council Directive 2004/108/EC on
the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility. IBM cannot
accept responsibility for any failure to satisfy the protection requirements resulting from a
non-recommended modification of the product, including the fitting of non-IBM option cards.
This product has been tested and found to comply with the limits for Class A Information Technology
Equipment according to European Standard EN 55022. The limits for Class A equipment were derived for
commercial and industrial environments to provide reasonable protection against interference with
licensed communication equipment.
European Community contact:
IBM Technical Regulations
Pascalstr. 100, Stuttgart, Germany 70569
Tele: 0049 (0)711 785 1176
Fax: 0049 (0)711 785 1283
E-mail: [email protected]
Warning: This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment, this product may cause radio
interference, in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.
VCCI Statement - Japan
The following is a summary of the VCCI Japanese statement in the box above.
This product is a Class A Information Technology Equipment and conforms to the standards set by the
Voluntary Control Council for Interference by Information Technology Equipment (VCCI). In a domestic
environment, this product may cause radio interference, in which case the user may be required to take
adequate measures.
Appendix. Notices
85
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Statement - People’s Republic of China
Declaration: This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio
interference in which case the user may need to perform practical action.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Statement - Taiwan
The following is a summary of the EMI Taiwan statement above.
Warning: This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference
in which case the user will be required to take adequate measures.
IBM Taiwan Contact Information:
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Statement - Korea
Please note that this equipment has obtained EMC registration for commercial use. In the event that it
has been mistakenly sold or purchased, please exchange it for equipment certified for home use.
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Site preparation and physical planning
Germany Compliance Statement
Deutschsprachiger EU Hinweis: Hinweis für Geräte der Klasse A EU-Richtlinie zur
Elektromagnetischen Verträglichkeit
Dieses Produkt entspricht den Schutzanforderungen der EU-Richtlinie 2004/108/EG zur Angleichung der
Rechtsvorschriften über die elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit in den EU-Mitgliedsstaaten und hält die
Grenzwerte der EN 55022 Klasse A ein.
Um dieses sicherzustellen, sind die Geräte wie in den Handbüchern beschrieben zu installieren und zu
betreiben. Des Weiteren dürfen auch nur von der IBM empfohlene Kabel angeschlossen werden. IBM
übernimmt keine Verantwortung für die Einhaltung der Schutzanforderungen, wenn das Produkt ohne
Zustimmung der IBM verändert bzw. wenn Erweiterungskomponenten von Fremdherstellern ohne
Empfehlung der IBM gesteckt/eingebaut werden.
EN 55022 Klasse A Geräte müssen mit folgendem Warnhinweis versehen werden:
″Warnung: Dieses ist eine Einrichtung der Klasse A. Diese Einrichtung kann im Wohnbereich
Funk-Störungen verursachen; in diesem Fall kann vom Betreiber verlangt werden, angemessene
Maßnahmen zu ergreifen und dafür aufzukommen.″
Deutschland: Einhaltung des Gesetzes über die elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit von Geräten
Dieses Produkt entspricht dem “Gesetz über die elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit von Geräten
(EMVG)“. Dies ist die Umsetzung der EU-Richtlinie 2004/108/EG in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.
Zulassungsbescheinigung laut dem Deutschen Gesetz über die elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit von
Geräten (EMVG) (bzw. der EMC EG Richtlinie 2004/108/EG) für Geräte der Klasse A.
Dieses Gerät ist berechtigt, in Übereinstimmung mit dem Deutschen EMVG das EG-Konformitätszeichen
- CE - zu führen.
Verantwortlich für die Konformitätserklärung nach des EMVG ist die IBM Deutschland GmbH, 70548
Stuttgart.
Generelle Informationen:
Das Gerät erfüllt die Schutzanforderungen nach EN 55024 und EN 55022 Klasse A.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Statement - Russia
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Appendix. Notices
87
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88
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