Bull AIX 5L Version 5.3 Installation guide

Bull AIX 5L Version 5.3 Installation guide
Installation and Migration
REFERENCE
86 A2 49EM 05
ESCALA
AIX 5L Version 5.3
ESCALA
AIX 5L Version 5.3
Installation and Migration
Software
October 2009
BULL CEDOC
357 AVENUE PATTON
B.P.20845
49008 ANGERS CEDEX 01
FRANCE
REFERENCE
86 A2 49EM 05
The following copyright notice protects this book under Copyright laws which prohibit such actions as, but not limited
to, copying, distributing, modifying, and making derivative works.
Copyright © Bull SAS 2009
Printed in France
Trademarks and Acknowledgements
We acknowledge the rights of the proprietors of the trademarks mentioned in this manual.
All brand names and software and hardware product names are subject to trademark and/or patent protection.
Quoting of brand and product names is for information purposes only and does not represent trademark misuse.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice. Bull will not be liable for errors
contained herein, or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the use of this material.
Contents
About this document . . . . . . . . . v
Highlighting . . . .
Case-sensitivity in AIX .
ISO 9000. . . . . .
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Installation and migration . . . . . . . 1
How-To’s for AIX Installation Tasks. . . . . . . 1
Installing new and complete overwrite BOS from
media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Migrating your system from media . . . . . . 4
Creating and installing a software bundle. . . . 7
Adding open source applications to your AIX
system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Cloning a rootvg using alternate disk installation 12
Configuring NIM using EZNIM . . . . . . 14
Installing a client using NIM . . . . . . . 14
Network installation of a JS20 blade . . . . . 15
Creating a system backup to tape . . . . . . 20
Cloning a system using a system backup tape . . 21
Cleaning up a failed software installation . . . 22
Installing AIX using the media device to install a
partition with an HMC . . . . . . . . . 23
Installing AIX using the media device to install a
partition without an HMC . . . . . . . . 27
Configuring the AIX 5L system after a new
installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Installing the Base Operating System . . . . . . 32
Using BOS menus . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Electronic license agreements . . . . . . . 34
BOS installation options . . . . . . . . . 35
Graphical Install menus . . . . . . . . . 38
The bosinst.data file . . . . . . . . . . 38
Installing new and complete BOS overwrite or
preservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
iSCSI disk installation . . . . . . . . . . 52
Installing to an alternate disk . . . . . . . 53
Using the multibos utility . . . . . . . . 61
Customizing your installation . . . . . . . 66
Optional products and service updates . . . . . 70
Optionally installed software . . . . . . . 70
Identifying software products . . . . . . . 71
Software licensing . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Preparing to install optional software products
and service updates . . . . . . . . . . 72
Installing optional software products or service
updates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Maintaining optional software products and
service updates . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Cleaning up optional software products and
service updates . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Using the Software Service Management menu
(including SUMA) . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Using InstallShield MultiPlatform . . . . . . 84
Interim fix management solution . . . . . . 89
Related information . . . . . . . . . . 108
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2009
Troubleshooting your installation . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting an installation from a system
backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting migration installation . . . .
Troubleshooting alternate disk installation errors
Troubleshooting after a BOS installation . . .
Troubleshooting a system that does not boot
from the hard disk . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting a full /usr file system . . . .
Viewing BOS installation logs . . . . . . .
Interpreting installation-related system and error
messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Installing content for the man command . . . .
Configuring AIX . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring AIX with the Configuration
Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring AIX with the Installation Assistant
Related information . . . . . . . . . .
Migrating AIX . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ensuring binary compatibility between AIX 5.3
and earlier versions . . . . . . . . . .
BOS pre- and post-migration checks . . . . .
Migrating to AIX 5.3 . . . . . . . . . .
mksysb migration . . . . . . . . . . .
Related information . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and installing system backups. . . . .
Creating system backups . . . . . . . .
Installing system backups . . . . . . . .
Software product packaging . . . . . . . .
Installing variously formatted software packages
Fileset installation packages . . . . . . .
Creating software packages. . . . . . . .
Packaging software bundles . . . . . . .
Installing with Network Installation Management
NIM objects . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NIM machines . . . . . . . . . . . .
Establishing NIM networks. . . . . . . .
NIM resources . . . . . . . . . . . .
NIM operations . . . . . . . . . . .
Using NIM groups . . . . . . . . . .
NIM Task Roadmap . . . . . . . . . .
Using EZNIM . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring NIM and other basic operations
Migrating a NIM client to a POWER5 logical
partition using nim_move_up . . . . . . .
Performing advanced NIM configuration tasks
Performing advanced NIM installation tasks . .
Performing other NIM operations . . . . .
Using miscellaneous network installation files
NIM error and warning messages . . . . .
Troubleshooting NIM. . . . . . . . . .
Partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Logical partitions . . . . . . . . . . .
Managed system . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic logical partitioning . . . . . . .
Affinity logical partitions . . . . . . . .
108
108
110
111
112
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115
115
116
126
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128
129
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130
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132
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158
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190
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211
212
215
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250
278
297
307
311
335
340
340
340
341
341
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Full system partition . . . . . . . . .
Running AIX on a logical partition . . . .
Implementations of logical partitions . . .
Remote management . . . . . . . . .
Partition security . . . . . . . . . .
Network adapter communication between
partitions and the HMC . . . . . . . .
Installing AIX in a partitioned environment .
Creating and changing a dedicate dump device
Verifying your dump device . . . . . .
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
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343
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356
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Shutting down a partition . . . . . .
Changing your operating system host name
Booting a machine over a network . . . .
Booting specific machines over the network
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357
357
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358
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Trademarks .
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Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
About this document
This book provides system administrators with complete information about how to perform such tasks as
installing and maintaining the AIX® operating system and optional software on standalone systems and
on client systems from a resource server using the Network Install Management (NIM) interface. It also
includes information on how to migrate a system, manage system backups, install AIX updates, use
alternate disk installation, and troubleshoot problems with installation. This publication is available on
the documentation CD or DVD that is shipped with the operating system.
Highlighting
The following highlighting conventions are used in this book:
Bold
Identifies commands, subroutines, keywords, files, structures, directories, and other items whose names are
predefined by the system. Also identifies graphical objects such as buttons, labels, and icons that the user
selects.
Italics
Identifies parameters whose actual names or values are to be supplied by the user.
Monospace
Identifies examples of specific data values, examples of text similar to what you might see displayed,
examples of portions of program code similar to what you might write as a programmer, messages from
the system, or information you should actually type.
Case-sensitivity in AIX
Everything in the AIX operating system is case-sensitive, which means that it distinguishes between
uppercase and lowercase letters. For example, you can use the ls command to list files. If you type LS, the
system responds that the command is not found. Likewise, FILEA, FiLea, and filea are three distinct file
names, even if they reside in the same directory. To avoid causing undesirable actions to be performed,
always ensure that you use the correct case.
ISO 9000
ISO 9000 registered quality systems were used in the development and manufacturing of this product.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2009
v
vi
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Installation and migration
This topic provides system administrators with complete information about how to perform such tasks as
installing and maintaining the AIX operating system and optional software on standalone systems, and
on client systems from a resource server using the Network Install Management (NIM) interface. It also
includes information about how to migrate a system, manage system backups, install AIX updates, use
alternate disk installation, and troubleshoot problems with installation. This topic is available on the
documentation media that is shipped with the operating system.
To view or download the PDF version of this topic, select Installation and migration.
Note: Downloading the Adobe® Reader: You need Adobe Reader installed on your system to view or
print this PDF. You can download a free copy from the Adobe Web site (www.adobe.com/products/
acrobat/readstep.html).
How-To’s for AIX Installation Tasks
Use how-to’s to perform common installation tasks.
Installing new and complete overwrite BOS from media
Using this scenario, you can install the AIX operating system for the first time or overwrite an existing
version of the operating system.
Things to consider
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
In this scenario, you will do the following:
v Boot from the AIX product media
v Set BOS Installation Settings
– Perform a new and complete overwrite installation of AIX onto hdisk0
– Use English as the primary language
– Use the default options in the More Options menu
v Start the BOS Installation and Configure the System
If you are overwriting an existing system, gather the TCP/IP information from the system before you
begin this scenario.
Attention: This procedure requires shutting down and reinstalling the base operating system. Whenever
you reinstall any operating system, schedule your downtime when it least impacts your workload to
protect yourself from a possible loss of data or functionality. Before you perform a new and complete
overwrite installation, ensure you have reliable backups of your data and any customized applications or
volume groups. For instructions on how to create a system backup, refer to Creating system backups.
The following steps show you how to use the system’s built-in media device to perform a new and
complete overwrite base operating system installation.
At this point, the BOS Installation is complete, and the initial configuration of the system is complete.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2002, 2009
1
Step 1. Prepare your system
v There must be adequate disk space and memory available. AIX 5.2 and AIX 5.3 require 256–512 MB of
memory and 2.2 GB of physical disk space. For additional release information, see the AIX 5.2 Release
Notes® and AIX 5.3 Release Notes.
v Make sure your hardware installation is complete, including all external devices. See the
documentation provided with your system unit for installation instructions.
v If your system needs to communicate with other systems and access their resources, make sure you
have the information in the following worksheet before proceeding with installation:
Table 1. Network Configuration Information Worksheet
Network Attribute
Value
Network Interface
(For example: en0, et0)
Host Name
IP Address
_______.________.________.________
Network Mask
_______.________.________.________
Nameserver
_______.________.________.________
Domain Name
Gateway
_______.________.________.________
Step 2. Boot from the AIX Product Media
Booting the system from the AIX Product media.
1. Insert the AIX Volume 1 media into the media device.
2. Make sure all external devices attached to the system (such as CD-ROM drives, tape drives, DVD
drives, and terminals) are turned on. Only the media drive from which you will install AIX should
contain the installation media.
3. Power on the system.
4. When the system beeps twice, press F5 on the keyboard (or 5 on an ASCII terminal). If you have a
graphics display, you will see the keyboard icon on the screen when the beeps occur. If you have an
ASCII terminal (also called a tty terminal), you will see the word keyboard when the beeps occur.
Note: If your system does not boot using the F5 key (or the 5 key on an ASCII terminal), refer to
your hardware documentation for information about how to boot your system from an AIX product
media.
5. Select the system console by pressing F1 (or 1 on an ASCII terminal) and press Enter.
6. Select the English language for the base operating system (BOS) Installation menus by typing a 1 in
the Choice field. Press Enter to open the Welcome to Base Operating System Installation and
Maintenance screen.
7. Type 2 to select 2 Change/Show Installation Settings and Install in the Choice field and press Enter.
2
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Welcome to Base Operating System
Installation and Maintenance
Type the number of your choice and press Enter.
Choice is indicated by >>>.
1 Start Install Now with Default Settings
2 Change/Show Installation Settings and Install
3 Start Maintenance Mode for System Recovery
88 Help ?
99 Previous Menu
>>> Choice [1]: 2
Step 3. Set and verify BOS installation settings
1. In the Installation and Settings screen, verify the installation settings are correct by checking the
method of installation (new and complete overwrite), the disk or disks you want to install, the
primary language environment settings, and the more options menu.
If the default choices are correct, type 0 and press Enter to begin the BOS installation. The system
automatically reboots after installation is complete. Go to step 4.
Otherwise, go to sub-step 2.
2. To change the System Settings, which includes the method of installation and disk where you want to
install, type 1 in the Choice field and press Enter.
Installation and Settings
Either type 0 and press Enter to install with current settings, or type the
number of the setting you want to change and press Enter.
1
System Settings:
Method of Installation.............New and Complete Overwrite
Disk Where You Want to Install.....hdisk0
>>> Choice [0]: 1
3. Type 1 for New and Complete Overwrite in the Choice field and press Enter. The Change Disk(s)
Where You Want to Install screen now displays.
Change Disk(s) Where You Want to Install
Type one or more numbers for the disk(s) to be used for installation and press
Enter. To cancel a choice, type the corresponding number and Press Enter.
At least one bootable disk must be selected. The current choice is indicated
by >>>.
Name
1
2
3
>>>
0
66
77
88
99
hdisk0
hdisk1
hdisk2
Location Code
04-B0-00-2,0
04-B0-00-5,0
04-B0-00-6,0
Size(MB)
4296
4296
12288
VG Status
none
none
none
Bootable
Yes
Yes
Yes
Continue with choices indicated above
Disks not known to Base Operating System Installation
Display More Disk Information
Help ?
Previous Menu
>>> Choice [0]:
4. In the Change Disk(s) Where You Want to Install screen:
Installation and migration
3
a. Select hdisk0 by typing a 1 in the Choice field and press Enter. The disk will now be selected as
indicated by >>>. To unselect the destination disk, type the number again and press Enter.
b. To finish selecting disks, type a 0 in the Choice field and press Enter. The Installation and Settings
screen displays with the selected disks listed under System Settings.
5. Change the Primary Language Environment® Settings to English (United States). Use the following
steps to change the Cultural Convention, Language, and Keyboard to English.
a. Type 2 in the Choice field on the Installation and Settings screen to select the Primary Language
Environment Settings option.
b. Type the number corresponding to English (United States) as the Cultural Convention in the
Choice field and press Enter.
c. Select the appropriate keyboard and language options.
You do not need to select the More Options selection, because you are using the default options in
this scenario. For more information about the installation options available in AIX 5.2 and greater, see
BOS installation options.
6. Verify that the selections are correct in the Overwrite Installation Summary screen, as follows:
Overwrite Installation Summary
Disks: hdisk0
Cultural Convention: en_US
Language: en_US
Keyboard: en_US
64 Bit Kernel Enabled: No
JFS2 File Systems Created: No
Graphics Software: Yes
Desktop: CDE
Enable System Backups to install any system:
Yes
Optional Software being installed:
>>> 1
88
99
Continue with Install
Help ?
Previous Menu
>>> Choice [1]:
Note: The default options change based on machine and console type.
7. Press Enter to begin the BOS installation. The system automatically reboots after installation is
complete.
Step 4. Configure the system after installation
1. On systems with a graphics display, after a new and complete overwrite installation, the
Configuration Assistant opens. On systems with an ASCII display, after a new and complete overwrite
installation, the Installation Assistant opens.
2. Select the Accept Licenses option to accept the electronic licenses for the operating system.
3. Set the date and time, set the password for the administrator (root user), and configure network
communications (TCP/IP).
Use any other options at this time. You can return to the Configuration Assistant or the Installation
Assistant by typing configassist or smitty assist at the command line.
4. Select Exit the Configuration Assistant and select Next. Or, press F10 (or ESC+0) to exit the Installation
Assistant.
5. If you are in the Configuration Assistant, select Finish now, and do not start Configuration Assistant
when restarting AIX and select Finish.
Migrating your system from media
Using this scenario, you can migrate a system from AIX 4.3.3 (or earlier) to AIX 5.3.
4
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Things to consider
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
In this scenario, you will do the following:
v Perform a migration installation of AIX 4.3.3 to AIX 5.3
v Use English as the primary language
v Use the default options in the Advanced Options menu
Attention: This procedure requires shutting down and reinstalling the base operating system. Whenever
you reinstall any operating system, schedule your downtime when it least impacts your workload to
protect yourself from a possible loss of data or functionality. Before you perform a migration installation,
ensure you have reliable backups of your data and any customized applications or volume groups. For
instructions on how to create a system backup, refer to Creating system backups in Installation and
migration.
Step 1. Prepare for the migration
Before starting the migration, complete the following prerequisites:
v Ensure that the root user has a primary authentication method of SYSTEM. You can check this
condition by typing the following command:
# lsuser -a auth1 root
If needed, change the value by typing the following command:
# chuser auth1=SYSTEM root
v Before you begin the installation, other users who have access to your system must be logged off.
v Verify that your applications will run on AIX 5.3. Also, check if your applications are binary-compatible
with AIX 5.3. If your system is an application server, verify that there are no licensing issues. Refer to
your application documentation or provider to verify on which levels of AIX your applications are
supported and licensed. You can also check the Supported Products List at the following Web address:
http://www-03.ibm.com/services/sl/products/
v Check that your hardware microcode is up-to-date.
v All requisite hardware, including any external devices (such as tape drives or CD/DVD-ROM drives),
must be physically connected and powered on. If you need further information, refer to the hardware
documentation that accompanied your system.
v Use the errpt command to generate an error report from entries in the system error log. To display a
complete detailed report, type the following:
# errpt -a
v There must be adequate disk space and memory available. AIX 5.3 requires 256–512 MB of memory
and 2.2 GB of physical disk space. For additional release information, see the AIX 5.3 Release Notes.
v Run the pre-migration script located in the mount_point/usr/lpp/bos directory on your media. To
mount the media run the following command:
# mount -v cdrfs -o ro /dev/cdN /mnt
where ″N″ is your media drive number.
Note: Do not remove the data created by the pre-migration script, because it is used by the
post-migration script.
v Make a backup copy of your system software and data. For instructions on how to create a system
backup, refer to Creating system backups.
v Always refer to the release notes for the latest migration information.
Installation and migration
5
Step 2. Boot from the AIX product media
1. If they are not already on, turn on your attached devices.
2. Insert the AIX Volume 1 media into the media device.
3. Reboot the system by typing the following command:
# shutdown -r
4. When the system beeps twice, press F5 on the keyboard (or 5 on an ASCII terminal). If you have a
graphics display, you will see the keyboard icon on the screen when the beeps occur. If you have an
ASCII terminal (also called a tty terminal), you will see the word keyboard when the beeps occur.
Note: If your system does not boot using the F5 key (or the 5 key on an ASCII terminal), refer to
your hardware documentation for information about how to boot your system from an AIX product
media.
5. Select the system console by pressing F1 (or 1 on an ASCII terminal) and press Enter.
6. Select the English language for the BOS Installation menus by typing a 5 at the Choice field and press
Enter. The Welcome to Base Operating System Installation and Maintenance menu opens.
7. Type 2 to select 2 Change/Show Installation Settings and Install in the Choice field and press Enter.
Welcome to Base Operating System
Installation and Maintenance
Type the number of your choice and press Enter.
Choice is indicated by >>>.
1 Start Install Now with Default Settings
2 Change/Show Installation Settings and Install
3 Start Maintenance Mode for System Recovery
88 Help ?
99 Previous Menu
>>> Choice [1]: 2
Step 3. Verify migration installation settings and begin installation
1. Verify that migration is the method of installation. If migration is not the method of installation, select
it now. Select the disk or disks you want to install.
1
System Settings:
Method of Installation.............Migration
Disk Where You Want to Install.....hdisk0
2. Select Primary Language Environment Settings (AFTER Install).
3. Type 3 and press Enter to select More Options. To use the Help menu to learn more about the
options available during a migration installation, type 88 and press Enter in the Installation Options
menu. For more information about the installation options available in AIX 5.3, see BOS installation
options.
4. Verify the selections in the Migration Installation Summary screen and press Enter.
5. When the Migration Confirmation menu opens, follow the menu instructions to list system
information or continue with the migration by typing 0 and pressing Enter.
6
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Migration Confirmation
Either type 0 and press Enter to continue the installation, or type the
number of your choice and press Enter.
1
List the saved Base System configuration files which will not be
merged into the system. These files are saved in /tmp/bos.
2 List the filesets which will be removed and not replaced.
3 List directories which will have all current contents removed.
4 Reboot without migrating.
Acceptance of license agreements is required before using system.
You will be prompted to accept after the system reboots.
>>> 0 Continue with the migration.
88 Help ?
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------WARNING: Selected files, directories, and filesets (installable options)
from the Base System will be removed. Choose 2 or 3 for more information.
>>> Choice[0]:
Step 4. Verify system configuration after installation
After the migration is complete, the system will reboot. as follows:
1. On systems with a graphics display, after a migration installation, the Configuration Assistant opens.
On systems with an ASCII display, after a migration installation, the Installation Assistant opens.
For more information on the Configuration Assistant or the Installation Assistant, see Configuring AIX
with the Configuration Assistant.
2. Select the Accept Licenses option to accept the electronic licenses for the operating system.
3. Verify the administrator (root user) password and network communications (TCP/IP) information.
Use any other options at this time. You can return to the Configuration Assistant or the Installation
Assistant by typing configassist or smitty assist at the command line.
4. Select Exit the Configuration Assistant and select Next. Or, press F10 (or ESC+0) to exit the
Installation Assistant.
5. If you are in the Configuration Assistant, select Finish now, and do not start Configuration Assistant
when restarting AIX and then select Finish.
6. When the login prompt displays, log in as the root user to perform system administration tasks.
7. Run the /usr/lpp/bos/post_migration script.
Creating and installing a software bundle
Using this scenario, you can create a user-defined software bundle and install its contents.
Things to consider
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
A user-defined software bundle is a text file ending in .bnd that is located in the /usr/sys/inst.data/
user_bundles path. By creating the software bundle file in the /usr/sys/inst.data/user_bundles path,
SMIT (System Management Interface Tool) can locate the file and display it in the bundle selection screen.
In this scenario, you will do the following:
Installation and migration
7
v Create a user-defined software bundle that contains the Web-based System Manager Security
application, which is located on the Expansion Pack
v Install the software bundle
v Verify the installation of the software bundle was successful
Step 1. Creating a user-defined software bundle
1. Create a text file with the extension .bnd in the /usr/sys/inst.data/user_bundles path by running
the following:
# vi /usr/sys/inst.data/user_bundles/MyBundle.bnd
2. Add the software products, packages, or filesets to the bundle file with one entry per line. Add a
format-type prefix to each entry. For this example, we are dealing with AIX installp packages, so the
format-type prefix is I:. Type the following in the MyBundle.bnd file: I:sysmgt.websm.security.
For more information on installation format types, see Software product packaging.
3. Save the software bundle file and exit the text editor.
Step 2. Installing the software bundle
1. Type the following at the command line: # smitty easy_install
2. Enter the name of the installation device or directory.
3. From the selection screen, select the name of the user-defined software bundle, MyBundle, you created.
Install Software Bundle
Type or select a value for the entry field.
Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|
Select a Fileset Bundle
|
|
|
| Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.
|
|
|
|
App-Dev
|
|
CDE
|
|
GNOME
|
|
KDE
|
|
Media-Defined
|
|
MyBundle
|
|
...
|
|
...
|
|
|
| F1=Help
F2=Refresh
F3=Cancel
|
| F8=Image
F10=Exit
Enter=Do
|
| /=Find
n=Find Next
|
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
4. Change the values provided in the Install Software Bundle screen as appropriate to your situation.
You can change the PREVIEW only? option to yes to preview the installation of your software bundle
before you install it. You might also need to accept new license agreements if the software in your
bundle has an electronic license.
8
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Install Software Bundle
Type or select values in entry fields.
Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.
* INPUT device / directory for software
* BUNDLE
* SOFTWARE to install
PREVIEW only? (install operation will NOT occur)
COMMIT software updates?
SAVE replaced files?
AUTOMATICALLY install requisite software?
EXTEND file systems if space needed?
VERIFY install and check file sizes?
Include corresponding LANGUAGE filesets?
DETAILED output?
Process multiple volumes?
ACCEPT new license agreements?
Preview new LICENSE agreements?
F1=Help
Esc+5=Reset
F9=Shell
F2=Refresh
F6=Command
F10=Exit
F3=Cancel
F7=Edit
Enter=Do
[Entry Fields]
/cdrom
MyBundle
[all]
no/yes
yes
no
yes
yes
no
yes
no
yes
no/yes
no
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
F4=List
F8=Image
5. Press Enter to continue.
6. Press Enter a second time to confirm your decision and begin the installation of your software bundle.
Step 3. Verify the installation of the software bundle
v Check the installation summary at the end of the installation output by scrolling to the end of the
output. The output indicates whether the installation of your user-defined software bundle was
successful. You might see output similar to the following:
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Summaries:
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Installation Summary
-------------------Name
Level
Part
Event
Result
------------------------------------------------------------------------------sysmgt.websm.security
5.3.0.0
USR
APPLY
SUCCESS
sysmgt.websm.security
5.3.0.0
ROOT
APPLY
SUCCESS
v You can also verify the installation at a later time by completing one of the following:
– Run the following command:
lslpp -Lb MyBundle
The output indicates whether the installation of your user-defined software bundle was successful.
You might see output similar to the following:
Installation and migration
9
Fileset
Level
State Type Description
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------sysmgt.websm.security
5.1.0.0
C
F
WebSM Security Components
State
A -B -C -E -O -? --
codes:
Applied.
Broken.
Committed.
EFIX Locked.
Obsolete. (partially migrated to newer version)
Inconsistent State...Run lppchk -v.
Type codes:
F -- Installp Fileset
P -- Product
C -- Component
T -- Feature
R -- RPM Package
– Complete the following steps in SMIT:
1. Type the following at a command line: smitty list_installed
2. Select List Installed Software by Bundle.
3. With your cursor at the BUNDLE name field, press F4 and select your bundle from the list.
4. Press Enter. Output is shown similar to that in the preceding option.
Adding open source applications to your AIX system
Options for installing open source applications from the AIX Toolbox for Linux® Applications media.
Things to consider
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
The AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications media that is shipped with your base operating system software
contains the most commonly used open source applications that you can use with the AIX operating
system. Your options for installing from this media include:
v Using the SMIT install_software fast path to install RPM packages from the AIX Toolbox for Linux
Applications media.
v Using the geninstall command to install RPM packages from the AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications
media.
v Installing a bundle. Bundles group the applications you need for a basic Linux operating environment,
basic desktop use, GNOME or KDE desktop use, or application development.
v Installing from a directory of packages classified by function. These directory groupings cover a broad
range of applications, shell environments, network applications, development tools, application
libraries, and so on.
v Installing a single package for a particular application.
The following procedures provide examples of installing RPM packages from AIX Toolbox for Linux
Applications media.
v To install the cdrecord and mtools RPM packages using SMIT, do the following:
1. Run the SMIT install_software fast path.
2. Enter the device name for the AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications media (for example, /dev/cd0), and
press Enter.
3. Use the F4 key to list the contents of the device.
4. Select the cdrecord and mtools packages, and press Enter.
10
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
5. Accept the default values for the rest of the Install Software menu fields, and press Enter.
6. Confirm that you do want to install the software, and press Enter.
The software installation process begins at this point.
v To install the cdrecord and mtools RPM packages from the command line, type the following:
# geninstall -d/dev/cd0 R:cdrecord R:mtools
The software installation process begins at this point.
v Use the rpm command, which is automatically installed with the base operating system for AIX 5.1
and later versions, to install the bundles required for the GNOME desktop and the bc application
package. Complete instructions are available on the readme file for the AIX Toolbox for Linux
Applications.
1. With your system powered on and AIX 5.1 or a later version running, insert the AIX Toolbox for
Linux Applications media into the media drive of your system.
2. With root authority, mount the media drive using the following command:
mount -vcdrfs -oro /dev/cd0 /mnt
The -v flag specifies the virtual file system type of cdrfs. The -o flag specifies the ro option, which
means the mounted file is read-only. The device name is /dev/cd0. The directory in which you want
to mount the media drive is /mnt.
3. Change to the /mnt directory by using the following command:
cd /mnt
4. Use the ls command to list the contents of the media. The listing contains the following, which you
can view or print:
– The readme file contains complete instructions for installing from this media.
– The CONTENTS file lists all packages available on this media and provides a short description
of the purpose for each package.
5. In your Web browser, open the /mnt/LICENSES/index.html file to view software licensing
information.
6. In your terminal window, change to the ezinstall/ppc directory by using the following command:
cd /mnt/ezinstall/ppc
In the next step, you use the rpm program to install GNOME by installing four bundles (Base,
Desktop Base, GNOME Base, and GNOME Apps). Alternatively, you can install all necessary
packages using the smit install_bundle fast path and selecting the GNOME bundle.
7. Install GNOME by using the following sequence of commands:
rpm
rpm
rpm
rpm
-Uhv
-Uhv
-Uhv
-Uhv
ezinstall/ppc/base/*
ezinstall/ppc/desktop.base/*
ezinstall/ppc/gnome.base/*
ezinstall/ppc/gnome.apps/*
The -U flag updates any earlier versions of each package that you might have on your system. The
-h flag prints hash marks (#) at timed intervals to indicate that the installation is progressing. The
-v flag displays relevant informational or error messages that occur during the installation. Your
result will look similar to the following:
rpm -Uhv ezinstall/ppc/desktop.base/*
gdbm
##################################################
libjpeg
##################################################
libpng
##################################################
libtiff
##################################################
libungif
##################################################
readline
##################################################
zlib
##################################################
If your rpm command returns an error, it is probably caused by one of the following:
Installation and migration
11
– Not enough space in your current file system. Resize the file system or change your mount
point.
– Package is already installed. The rpm program discovered an existing package of the same name
and version level, so it did not replace the package. A script on the media installs only those
packages from a directory that are not already installed on your system, as shown in the
following example:
/mnt/contrib/installmissing.sh ezinstall/ppc/desktop.base/*
– Failed dependencies. The packages listed in the error message must be installed before you can
install this package or bundle.
8. Install the bc application package by using the following command:
rpm -Uhv RPMS/ppc/bc-*.rpm
Cloning a rootvg using alternate disk installation
Using this scenario, you can clone AIX running on rootvg to an alternate disk on the same system, install
a user-defined software bundle, and run a user-defined script to customize the AIX image on the
alternate disk.
Things to consider
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
Because the alternate disk installation process involves cloning an existing rootvg to a target alternate
disk, the target alternate disk must not be already assigned to a volume group.
In this scenario you will do the following:
v
v
v
v
Prepare for the alternate disk installation
Perform the alternate disk installation and customization
Boot off the alternate disk
Verify the operation
For information about alternate disk installation, see Installing to an alternate disk. Also, refer to the
alt_disk_install man page.
Step 1. Prepare for the alternate disk installation
1. Check the status of physical disks on your system. Type:
# lspv
Output similar to the following displays:
hdisk0
hdisk1
0009710fa9c79877
0009710f0b90db93
rootvg
None
active
We can use hdisk1 as our alternate disk because no volume group is assigned to this physical disk.
2. Check to see if the alt_disk_install fileset has been installed by running the following:
# lslpp -L bos.alt_disk_install.rte
Output similar to the following displays if the alt_disk_install fileset is not installed:
lslpp: 0504-132
Fileset bos.alt_disk_install.rte not installed.
3. Using volume 1 of the AIX installation media, install the alt_disk_install fileset by running the
following:
# geninstall -d/dev/cd0 bos.alt_disk_install.rte
12
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Output similar to the following displays:
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Summaries:
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Installation Summary
-------------------Name
Level
Part
Event
Result
------------------------------------------------------------------------------bos.alt_disk_install.rte
5.3.0.0
USR
APPLY
SUCCESS
4. Create a user-defined bundle called /usr/sys/inst.data/user_bundles/MyBundle.bnd that contains the
following filesets:
I:bos.content_list
I:bos.games
For more information on how to create a user-defined software bundle, refer to Creating and
installing a software bundle.
5. Create the /home/scripts directory:
mkdir /home/scripts
6. Create a user-defined customization script called AddUsers.sh in the /home/scripts directory:
touch /home/scripts/AddUsers.sh
chmod 755 /home/scripts/AddUsers.sh
7. Edit /home/scripts/AddUsers.sh to contain the following lines:
mkuser johndoe
touch /home/johndoe/abc.txt
touch /home/johndoe/xyz.txt
Step 2. Perform the alternate disk installation and customization
1. To clone the rootvg to an alternate disk, type the following at the command line to open the SMIT
menu :
# smit alt_clone
2. Select hdisk1 in the Target Disk to Install field.
3. Select the MyBundle bundle in the Bundle to Install field.
4. Insert volume one of the installation media.
5. Type /dev/cd0 in the Directory or Device with images field.
6. Type /home/scripts/AddUsers.sh in the Customization script field.
7. Press Enter to start the alternate disk installation.
8. Check that the alternate disk was created, by running the following:
# lspv
Output similar to the following displays:
hdisk0
hdisk1
0009710fa9c79877
0009710f0b90db93
rootvg
altinst_rootvg
Step 3. Boot from the alternate disk
1. By default, the alternate-disk-installation process changes the boot list to the alternate disk. To check
this run the following:
# bootlist -m normal -o
Output similar to the following displays:
hdisk1
2. Reboot the system. Type:
# shutdown -r
The system boots from the boot image on the alternate disk (hdisk1).
Installation and migration
13
Step 4. Verify the operation
1. When the system reboots, it will be running off the alternate disk. To check this, type the following:
# lspv
Output similar to the following displays:
hdisk0
hdisk1
0009710fa9c79877
0009710f0b90db93
old_rootvg
rootvg
2. Verify that the customization script ran correctly, by typing the following:
# find /home/johndoe -print
Output similar to the following displays:
/home/johndoe
/home/johndoe/.profile
/home/johndoe/abc.txt
/home/johndoe/xyz.txt
3. Verify that the contents of your software bundle was installed, by typing the following:
# lslpp -Lb MyBundle
Output similar to the following displays:
Fileset
Level State Description
---------------------------------------------------------------------------bos.content_list
5.3.0.0
C
AIX Release Content List
bos.games
5.3.0.0
C
Games
Configuring NIM using EZNIM
Using this scenario, you will use the SMIT EZNIM option to configure the NIM environment for the first
time.
Things to consider
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
The SMIT EZNIM option installs the bos.sysmgt.nim.master fileset and configures the NIM environment.
The configuration involves creating the NIM database and populating it with several default entries.
Several basic NIM resources will then be created and defined in the NIM database.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Type the following: # smitty eznim.
Select Configure as a NIM Master, and press Enter.
Select Setup the NIM Master Environment, and press Enter.
Verify that the default selections for software source, volume group, and file system are correct for
your environment. Change the selections, if needed.
5. Press Enter to begin configuring the NIM environment.
6. To display the NIM resources that have been created, do the following:
a. Use the SMIT eznim_master_panel fast path to open the EZNIM Master menu.
b. Select Show the NIM environment, and press Enter.
Installing a client using NIM
Using this scenario, you can perform a new and complete BOS (base operating system) installation on a
NIM client.
Things to consider
14
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
It is assumed that you have already configured the NIM master, defined the basic NIM resources, and
defined the NIM client you want to install.
For a guide on configuring the NIM environment and defining resources, see NIM Task Roadmap.
In this scenario, you will do the following:
1. Perform an BOS (rte) installation.
2. Use a bosinst_data resource to perform a nonprompted installation. For information on how to create
a bosinst.data file for nonprompted installation, see Using the bosinst.data file.
3. Use a resolv_conf resource to configure the network nameserver and domain.
It is recommended that you first perform a system backup on the client to ensure safe system recovery.
For instructions on how to create a system backup, see Creating system backups.
1. Type the following: # smit nim_bosinst.
2. Select the lpp_source resource for the BOS installation.
3. Select the SPOT resource for the BOS installation.
4. Select the BOSINST_DATA to use during installation option, and select a bosinst_data resource that
is capable of performing a nonprompted BOS installation.
5. Select the RESOLV_CONF to use for network configuration option, and select a resolv_conf
resource.
6. Select the Accept New License Agreements option, and select Yes.Accept the default values for the
remaining menu options.
7. Press Enter to confirm and begin the NIM client installation.
8. To check the status of the NIM client installation, type: # lsnim -l va09. Output similar to the
following displays:
va09:
class
type
default_res
platform
netboot_kernel
if1
cable_type1
Cstate
prev_state
Mstate
info
boot
bosinst_data
lpp_source
nim_script
resolv_conf
spot
cpuid
control
Cstate_result
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
machines
standalone
basic_res_grp
chrp
up
master_net va09 0
bnc
Base Operating System installation is being performed
BOS installation has been enabled
in the process of booting
BOS install 7% complete : 0% of operations completed.
boot
bid_tty_ow
520lpp_res
nim_script
master_net_conf
520spot_res
0009710F4C00
master
success
Network installation of a JS20 blade
Using this scenario, you can install AIX for the first time or overwrite an existing version of the operating
system onto a JS20 blade.
Things to consider
Installation and migration
15
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
In this scenario, you will do the following:
v Gather the required TCP/IP information for your JS20 blade.
v Prepare your Network Installation Management (NIM) environment.
v Configure a NIM master.
v Create NIM installation resources.
v Define your JS20 blade as a NIM client.
v Prepare your JS20 blade for a network installation.
v Boot the JS20 blade off the network using a directed bootp or broadcast bootp method.
To perform a network install, you will need to configure a NIM master if you do not already have one
configured. For instructions about how to create a NIM master, see Configuring NIM and other basic
operations
Note: This procedure requires shutting down and reinstalling the base operating system. When you
reinstall any operating system, schedule your downtime when it least impacts your workload to protect
yourself from a possible loss of data or functionality. Before you perform a new and complete overwrite
installation, ensure you have reliable backups of your data and any customized applications or volume
groups. For instructions about how to create a system backup, see Creating system backups.
Performing a broadcast bootp network installation
To perform a broadcast bootp, ensure that the NIM server is on the same subnet as the JS20 blade that
you are installing. During a broadcast bootp, the JS20 blade sends a broadcast bootp packet to its subnet.
The NIM server receives and responds to this packet. The JS20 blade NIM client definition on your NIM
master must include the MAC address of the JS20 blade’s network adapter used during the installation,
or the NIM server will not respond to a broadcast bootp. If your NIM master is on a different subnet,
and you want to perform a broadcast bootp, then you must set up another system on the client’s subnet
to forward broadcast bootp packets.
To set up a system to forward broadcast bootp packets, complete the following steps:
1. Add the IP address of your NIM server to the /etc/dhcprd.cnf file on the system that forwards the
packets. For example, if your NIM server’s IP address is 192.24.24.1, add server 192.24.24.1 to
/etc/dhcprd.cnf
2. Run startsrc -s dhcprd.
This system will now forward broadcast bootp packets to your NIM server that is on a different subnet.
You must also install the latest firmware version onto your client for the client to correctly handle the
bootp response from the system that is forwarding broadcast bootp packets.
Step 1: Prepare your NIM server
Performing a broadcast bootp is similar to a directed bootp. The steps are the same, except you
that must obtain the MAC address of the JS20 blade’s network adapter that you will use to
network install.
1. Obtain the MAC address from the MM Web interface by completing the following steps:
a. Select Monitor → Hardware VPD .
b. Scroll down to BladeCenter® Server MAC Addresses.
c. Find the JS20 blade that you plan to install and the MAC address that corresponds to the
adapter you will use to perform the installation. Write this MAC address down.
16
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
2. Specify the MAC Address when you define the JS20 blade as a NIM client. If you are using
the smitty nim_mkmac command, specify the MAC address on the Network Adapter
Hardware Address SMIT screen. Do not include the colons (″:″) when you are specifying the
MAC address. If the client is already defined, you can change the MAC address with the
smitty nim_chmac command.
3. Set up your NIM master to install the JS20 blade, by completing the following steps:
a. Run the smitty nim_bosinst command.
b. Select the JS20 blade that is defined as your target .
c. Select the type of install that you want to perform and select the installation resources that
you want to use to install the JS20 blade.
You can also prepare the JS20 blade to install using the bos_inst NIM operation on the
command line. For more information on using the bos_inst operation, see Using the NIM
bos_inst operation.
4. Power off the JS20 blade. If you do not want the JS20 blade to reboot automatically, set
Initiate reboot and installation now? to no in the SMIT screen and press Enter.
Step 2: Initiate the installation from the management module
The bootp protocol allows you to install through a directed bootp or broadcast bootp request.
1. Ensure that the JS20 blade’s boot list is set to install from the network in the MM Web
interface by selecting Blade Tasks → Configuration and scroll down Boot Sequence.
2. Click the JS20 blade that you are installing and ensure the first device listed is Network BOOTP. When the JS20 blade boots, it will install from the first network adapter that receives
a bootp response.
Note: You should not have a serial over LAN connection open to the JS20 blade that you are
attempting to install when you power on the JS20 blade.
3. Click save.
4. Power on the JS20 blade from the MM Web interface by selecting Blade Tasks →
Power/Restart.
5. Select the JS20 blade that you are installing and click Power On Blade.
If you do not have an serial over LAN connection to the JS20 blade, you can view the status of
the installation by running the following command from your NIM master:
lsnim -l js20_nim_name
For example, if the JS20 blade was defined as JS20blade1, run the following command:
lsnim -l JS20blade1
Note: If you run the AIX bootlist command to set the IP parameters for a network adapter and
reboot the system, the IP parameters will be stored in NVRAM. When you reboot the JS20 blade
from the MM with the boot sequence set to Network-BOOTP, the JS20 blade attempts to use the
IP parameters stored in NVRAM instead of performing a broadcast bootp. To perform a broadcast
bootp, run the bootlist command specifying 0.0.0.0 for each IP parameter and reboot from AIX
using the shutdown -Fr command. For example, to perform a broadcast bootp over ent1, run the
following commands.
# bootlist -m normal ent1 client=0.0.0.0 bserver=0.0.0.0 gateway=0.0.0.0 hdisk0
# shutdown -Fr
If you are unable to log into the AIX system, then follow the instructions for performing a
directed bootp via the Open Firmware prompt, but specify ″0.0.0.0″ for each IP address. Once the
JS20 blade installs successfully, the boot IP parameters are reset to ″0.0.0.0″.
Installation and migration
17
Performing a directed bootp network installation
A directed bootp can be used to install a JS20 blade from a NIM server and does not require the NIM
server to be on the same subnet as the JS20 blade.
This option does not require that you have the MAC address of the network adapter on the JS20 blade.
To perform a directed bootp, you need a serial over LAN connection to the blade so that you can specify
the IP parameters to Open Firmware. Currently you must have 2 network adapters to perform a NIM
installation if you are using serial over LAN. You cannot install AIX over the same adapter that is using
serial over LAN.
Step 1: Prepare your NIM server
1. Create a SPOT, lpp_source, and any other resources that you will need at the level of AIX that
you want to install on your NIM server. Your NIM server is usually the NIM master, but you
can also set up a NIM client as a NIM server. For instructions on how to create NIM
resources, see Configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation resources.
2. Ensure that you have the information in the following worksheet for your JS20 blade before
proceeding with the installation:
Table 2. Network Configuration Information Worksheet
Network Attribute
Value
Network Interface
(For example: ent1)
Host Name
IP Address
_______.________.________.________
Network Mask
_______.________.________.________
Name server
_______.________.________.________
Domain Name
Gateway
_______.________.________.________
3. Define the JS20 blade as a NIM client on your NIM master by running the smitty
nim_mkmac command on the NIM master. This command creates a client definition for your
JS20 blade. You can also define the JS20 blade using the define NIM operation on the
command line.
4. If you want to set the JS20 blade’s name server and domain name after the installation, use a
resolv_conf resource. For more information on creating a resolv_conf resource, see Using the
nim_script resource.
5. Set up your NIM master to install the JS20 blade, by running the smitty nim_bosinst
command. Select the JS20 blade that you defined earlier as your target. Then select the type of
install that you want to perform and select the installation resources that you want to use to
install the JS20 blade. You can also prepare the JS20 blade to install using the bos_inst NIM
operation on the command line.
Note:
a. If the JS20 blade is powered off or has never been installed, set Initiate reboot and
installation now? to no and press enter in the SMIT interface.
b. If the JS20 blade is powered on and running AIX, set Initiate reboot and installation
now? to yes in the SMIT interface. If you choose this option, a directed bootp is initiated
by default and you can skip step 2. Before you run this command, ensure that the JS20
blade is a registered NIM client. To do this, run smitty niminit on the JS20 blade. Then
specify the hostname of your NIM master and the interface you want to use for the
installation. You can also initialize the JS20 blade using the niminit command on the
command line.
Step 2: Specify a directed bootp from the JS20 blade
18
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
1. Open a Web interface to the MM by navigating to the IP address or hostname of the MM
using a Web browser.
2. Enable serial over LAN to the JS20 blade from the MM Web interface by selecting Blade Tasks
→ Serial Over LAN .
3. Select the JS20 blade that you are installing and click Enable Serial Over LAN.
4. Power on the JS20 blade from the MM Web interface by selecting Blade Tasks →
Power/Restart.
5. Select the JS20 blade that you are installing and click Power On Blade.
6. Open a serial over LAN connection to the JS20 blade by telnetting into the MM and running
the console command. For example, if the JS20 blade is in slot 3, you would run the following
command:
console -T blade[3]
The serial over LAN connection shows a series of LED numbers.
7. Press 8 on the keyboard when you see E1F1 to go to the Open Firmware prompt.
8. Run boot net:bootp,server_ip,,client_ip,gateway_ip to boot from the network.
v If you are using a net type boot, you would run a command similar to the following:
boot net:bootp,192.168.2.10,,192.168.1.11,192.168.1.1
v If you are using ent1, then you would run a command similar to the following:
boot /[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected],1:bootp,192.168.2.10,,192.168.1.11,192.168.1.1
Note: You must specify the full device path name with this command. To determine the
full path to your device, list the device tree by running the ls command at the Open
Firmware prompt. This command displays output similar to the following:
0 > ls
000000c87f18: /ibm,serial
000000c88840: /chosen
000000c88a98: /packages
...
000000d31488: /vdevice
000000d327a8:
/[email protected]
000000d32f88:
/IBM,[email protected]
000000d33f10:
/[email protected]
000000d34a18: /[email protected]
000000d384d0:
/[email protected]
000000d4bbd0:
/[email protected]
000000d5af50:
/[email protected],1
000000d3be00:
/[email protected]
000000d6a350:
/[email protected]
000000d845f8:
/[email protected]
000000d854b8:
/[email protected],1
000000d9f760:
/[email protected]
000000d3f798:
/[email protected]
000000d45ed8:
/[email protected],1
000000d47b10:
/[email protected]
The highlighted items are the path to the second ethernet adapter. You would pass this
information to the boot command to initiate a network boot from the second ethernet
adapter
9. After you run the boot command, then network installation begins. Output similar to the
following is displayed on the serial over LAN connection:
BOOTP:
BOOTP:
BOOTP:
BOOTP:
BOOTP:
chosen-network-type = ethernet,auto,none,auto
server
IP =
192.168.2.10
requested filename =
client
IP =
192.168.1.11
client
HW addr =
0 d 60 1e c cb
Installation and migration
19
BOOTP: gateway IP =
192.168.1.1
BOOTP: device
/[email protected]/[email protected]/[email protected],1
BOOTP: loc-code U8842.P1Z.23A0984-P1-T7
BOOTP R = 1
FILE: /tftpboot/js20blade1.austin.ibm.com
Load Addr=0x0000000000004000, Max Size=0x0000000000bfc000
FINAL Packet Count = 21131
FINAL File Size = 10818623 bytes.
load-base=0x4000
real-base=0xc00000
Elapsed time since release of system processors: 2 mins 28 secs
...
Creating a system backup to tape
Using this scenario, you can create and verify a bootable system backup, also known as a root volume
group backup or mksysb image
Things to consider
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
Step 1. Prepare for system backup creation
Before creating system backups, complete the following prerequisites:
v Be sure you are logged in as root user.
v If you plan to use a backup image for installing other differently configured target systems, you must
create the image before configuring the source system, or set the RECOVER_DEVICES variable to no in
the bosinst.data file. For more information about the bosinst.data file, refer to The bosinst.data file in
Installation and migration.
v Consider altering passwords and network addresses if you use a backup to make master copies of a
source system. Copying passwords from the source to a target system can create security problems.
Also, if network addresses are copied to a target system, duplicate addresses can disrupt network
communications.
v Mount all file systems you want to back up. The mksysb command backs up only mounted JFS and
JFS2 in the rootvg. To mount file systems, use the mount command.
Note: The mksysb command does not back up file systems mounted across an NFS network.
v Unmount any local directories that are mounted over another local directory.
Note: This backup procedure backs up files twice if a local directory is mounted over another local
directory in the same file system. For example, if you mount /tmp over /usr/tmp, the files in the /tmp
directory are then backed up twice. This duplication might exceed the number of files that a file system
can hold, which can cause a future installation of the backup image to fail.
v Use the /etc/exclude.rootvg file to list files you do not want backed up.
v Make at least 12 MB of free disk space available in the /tmp directory. The mksysb command requires
this working space for the duration of the backup.
Use the df command, which reports in units of 512-byte blocks, to determine the free space in the /tmp
directory. Use the chfs command to change the size of the file system, if necessary.
For example, the following command adds 12 MB of disk space to the /tmp directory of a system with
4 MB partitions:
# chfs -a size=+24000 /tmp
v All hardware must already be installed, including external devices, such as tape and media drives.
20
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
v The bos.sysmgt.sysbr fileset must be installed. The bos.sysmgt.sysbr fileset is automatically installed
in AIX 5.3. To determine if the bos.sysmgt.sysbr fileset is installed on your system, type:
# lslpp -l bos.sysmgt.sysbr
If the lslpp command does not list the bos.sysmgt.sysbr fileset, install it before continuing with the
backup procedure. Type the following:
# installp -agqXd /dev/cd0 bos.sysmgt.sysbr
Step 2. Create a system backup to tape
1. Enter the smit mksysb fast path.
2. Select the tape device in the Backup DEVICE or File field.
3. If you want to create map files, select yes in the Create Map Files? field.
For more information, see Using map files for precise allocation in Operating system and device
management.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Note: If you plan to reinstall the backup to target systems other than the source system, or if the
disk configuration of the source system might change before reinstalling the backup, do not create
map files.
To exclude certain files from the backup, select yes in the Exclude Files field.
Select yes in the List files as they are backed up field.
Select yes in the Disable software packing of backup? field, if you are running any other programs
during the backup.
Use the default values for the rest of the menu options.
Press Enter to confirm and begin the system backup process.
The COMMAND STATUS screen displays, showing status messages while the system makes the
backup image. When the backup process finishes, the COMMAND: field changes to OK.
To exit SMIT when the backup completes, press F10 (or Esc+0).
Remove the tape and label it. Write-protect the backup tape.
12. Record any backed-up root and user passwords. Remember that these passwords become active if
you use the backup to either restore this system or install another system.
You have successfully created the backup of your rootvg. Because the system backup contains a boot
image, you can use this tape to start your system if for some reason you cannot boot from hard disks.
Cloning a system using a system backup tape
With a mksysb image, you can clone one system image onto multiple target systems.
Things to consider
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
The target systems might not contain the same hardware devices or adapters, require the same kernel
(uniprocessor or microprocessor), or be the same hardware platform as the source system.
Beginning in AIX 5.2, all devices and kernel support are installed by default during the base operating
system (BOS) installation process. If the Enable System Backups to install any system selection in the
Install Software menu was set to yes, you can create a mksysb image that boots and installs supported
systems. Verify that your system is installed with all devices and kernel support, by typing the following:
# grep ALL_DEVICES_KERNELS /var/adm/ras/bosinst.data
Output similar to the following displays:
Installation and migration
21
ALL_DEVICES_KERNELS = yes
Use this scenario if your system was not installed with all devices and kernel support during BOS
installation. Be sure to boot from the appropriate product media for your system and at the same
maintenance or technology level of BOS (base operating system) as the installed source system on which
the mksysb was made. For example, use BOS AIX 5.3 media with a mksysb from a BOS AIX 5.3 system.
Use this how-to when installing a system backup tape to a different system.
In this scenario, you will do the following:
1. Boot the system with the AIX Volume 1 media in the media drive and the system backup tape in the
tape device.
2. Select Start Maintenance Mode for System Recovery.
3. Select Install from a System Backup.
4. Select the drive containing the backup tape, and press Enter.
The system reads the media and begins the installation.
You are then prompted for the BOS installation language, and the Welcome screen displays. Continue
with the Prompted Installation, because cloning is not supported in nonprompted installations.
If you are cloning from the product media to restore a backup tape, do not remove the media from the
media drive.
After the mksysb installation completes, the installation program automatically installs additional devices
and the kernel (uniprocessor or microprocessor) on your system, using the original product media you
booted from. Information is saved in BOS installation log files. To view BOS installation log files, type cd
/var/adm/ras and view the devinst.log file in this directory.
If the source system does not have the correct passwords and network information, you can make
modifications on the target system now. Also, some products (such as graPHIGS) ship device-specific
files. If your graphics adapter is different on the target system, verify that the device-specific filesets for
graphics-related LPPs are installed.
Cleaning up a failed software installation
Using this scenario, you can clean up software products and service updates after an interrupted or failed
installation.
Things to consider
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
The cleanup procedure attempts to delete items that were partially installed or left in an incomplete state.
This scenario applies only to the update or installation of optional software products. If your AIX 5.2 BOS
installation was unsuccessful, see Troubleshooting after a BOS installation.
Note: It is recommended that you first perform a system backup before installing software updates to
ensure safe system recovery. For instructions on how to create a system backup, refer to Creating system
backups.
The cleanup procedure attempts to revert the update to its previous state. For example, when cleaning up
an update that was interrupted in the COMMITTING state, the cleanup procedure attempts to return the
update to its APPLIED state.
22
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
If an update installation is interrupted, run the lslpp -l command to see the current state of the update.
For example, if you run lslpp -l on an interrupted update installation, it might report the update status
as APPLYING rather than APPLIED.
If the interruption occurs during the initial state of an installation, then the cleanup procedure attempts to
delete the installation entirely and restore the previous version of the product (if there is one). When the
previous version is restored, it becomes the active version. When the previous version cannot be restored,
the software is listed by the lslpp -l command as BROKEN.
When the product is deleted or BROKEN, you can attempt to reinstall the software. Any product in the
BROKEN state cannot be cleaned up; it can only be reinstalled or removed.
To initiate a cleanup procedure using SMIT:
1. Type smit maintain_software on the command line.
2. Select Clean Up After Failed or Interrupted Installation and press Enter.
To initiate a cleanup procedure from the command line:
Type installp -C on the command line and press Enter.
If prompted to reboot (restart) the system after running the cleanup procedure, then do so now.
If you get a message indicating that no products were found that could be cleaned up, you may have
executed the cleanup procedure when it was not needed. Try your installation again.
Installing AIX using the media device to install a partition with an HMC
In this procedure, you will perform a new and complete base operating system installation on a logical
partition using the partition’s media device. This procedure assumes that there is an HMC attached to the
managed system.
Prerequisites
Things to consider
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
Note: For the installation method that you choose, ensure that you follow the sequence of steps as
shown. Within each procedure, you must use AIX to complete some installation steps, while other steps
are completed using the HMC interface.
Before you begin this procedure, you should have already used the HMC to create a partition and
partition profile for the client. Assign the SCSI bus controller attached to the media device, a network
adapter, and enough disk space for the AIX operating system to the partition. Set the boot mode for this
partition to be SMS mode. After you have successfully created the partition and partition profile, leave
the partition in the Ready state. For instructions about how to create a logical partition and partition
profile, refer to the Creating logical partitions and partition profiles article in the IBM® eServer™
Hardware Information Center.
Step 1. Activate and install the partition (perform these steps in the HMC interface)
1. Activate the partition, as follows:
a. Insert the AIX 5L Volume 1 media into the media device of the managed system.
b. Right-click on the partition to open the menu.
c. Select Activate. The Activate Partition menu opens with a selection of partition profiles. Be sure
the correct profile is highlighted.
Installation and migration
23
d. Select Open a terminal window or console session at the bottom of the menu to open a virtual
terminal (vterm) window.
e. Select Advanced to open the Advanced options menu.
f. For the Boot mode, select SMS.
g. Select OK to close the Advanced options menu.
h. Select OK. A vterm window opens for the partition.
2. In the SMS menu on the vterm, do the following:
a. Press the 5 key and press Enter to select 5. Select Boot Options.
PowerPC Firmware
Version SF220_001
SMS 1.5 (c) Copyright IBM Corp. 2000, 2003 All rights reserved.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Main Menu
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select Language
Setup Remote IPL (Initial Program Load)
Change SCSI Settings
Select Console
Select Boot Options
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Navigation Keys:
X = eXit System Management Services
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Type the number of the menu item and press Enter or select Navigation Key: 5
b. Press the 2 key and press Enter to select 2. Select Boot Devices.
c. Press the 1 key and press Enter to select 1. Select 1st Boot Device.
d. Press the 3 key and press Enter to select 3. CD/DVD.
e. Select the media type that corresponds to the media device and press Enter.
f. Select the device number that corresponds to the media device and press Enter. The media device
is now the first device in the Current® Boot Sequence list.
g. Press the ESC key until you return to the Configure Boot Device Order menu.
h. Press the 2 key to select 2. Select 2nd Boot Device.
i. Press the 5 key and press Enter to select 5. Hard Drive.
j. If you have more than one hard disk in your partition, determine which hard disk you will use to
perform the AIX installation. Select the media type that corresponds to the hard disk and press
Enter.
k. Select the device number that corresponds to the hard disk and press Enter.
l. Press the x key to exit the SMS menu. Confirm that you want to exit SMS.
3. Boot from the AIX 5L Volume 1, as follows:
a. Select console and press Enter.
b. Select language for BOS Installation menus, and press Enter to open the Welcome to Base
Operating System Installation and Maintenance menu.
c. Type 2 to select Change/Show Installation Settings and Install in the Choice field and press
Enter.
24
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Welcome to Base Operating System
Installation and Maintenance
Type the number of your choice and press Enter.
Choice is indicated by >>>.
1 Start Install Now with Default Settings
2 Change/Show Installation Settings and Install
3 Start Maintenance Mode for System Recovery
88 Help ?
99 Previous Menu
>>> Choice [1]: 2
4. Verify or Change BOS Installation Settings, as follows:
a. Type 1 in the Choice field to select the System Settings option.
b. Type 1 for New and Complete Overwrite in the Choice field and press Enter.
Note: The installation methods available depend on whether your disk has a previous version of
AIX installed.
c. When the Change Disk(s) screen opens, you can change the destination disk for the installation. If
the default shown is correct, type 0 in the Choice field and press Enter. To change the destination
disk, do the following:
1) Type the number for each disk you choose in the Choice field and press Enter. Do not press
Enter a final time until you have finished selecting all disks. If you must deselect a disk, type
its number a second time and press Enter.
2) When you have finished selecting the disks, type 0 in the Choice field and press Enter. The
Installation and Settings screen opens with the selected disks listed under System Settings.
d. If needed, change the primary language environment. Use the following steps to change the
primary language used by this installation to select the language and cultural convention you
want to use.
Note: Changes to the primary language environment do not take effect until after the Base
Operating System Installation has completed and your system is rebooted.
1) Type 2 in the Choice field on the Installation and Settings screen to select the Primary
Language Environment Settings option.
2) Select the appropriate set of cultural convention, language, and keyboard options. Most of the
options are a predefined combination, however, you can define your own combination of
options.
v To choose a predefined Primary Language Environment, type that number in the Choice
field and press Enter.
v To configure your own primary language environment, do the following:
a) Select MORE CHOICES.
b) Select Create Your Own Combination.
c) When the Set Primary Cultural Convention screen opens, type the number in the Choice
field that corresponds to the cultural convention of your choice and press Enter.
d) When the Set Primary Language screen opens, type the number in the Choice field that
corresponds to your choice for the primary language and press Enter.
e) When the Set Keyboard screen opens, type the number in the Choice field that
corresponds to the keyboard attached to the system and press Enter.
e. After you have made all of your selections, verify that the selections are correct. Press Enter to
confirm your selections and to begin the BOS Installation. The system automatically reboots after
installation is complete.
Installation and migration
25
5. Switch the partition to Normal Mode, as follows:
a. Right-click on the partition profile to open the menu. Be sure the correct partition profile is
highlighted.
b. Select Properties.
c. Select the Settings tab.
d. For the Boot Mode, select Normal.
e. Select OK to close the Properties menu.
f. Right-click on the partition to open the menu.
g. Select Restart Partition.
h. Select Immediate for the Restart Options.
i. Confirm that you want to restart the partition.
j. When the partition has restarted, right-click on the partition to open the menu.
k. Select Open terminal window to open a virtual terminal (vterm) window.
6. Complete the BOS Installation, as follows:
a. Type vt100 as the terminal type.
Set Terminal Type
The terminal is not properly initialized. Please enter a terminal type
and press Enter. Some terminal types are not supported in
non-English languages.
ibm3101
ibm3151
ibm3161
ibm3162
ibm3163
ibm3164
ibmpc
lft
88
99
tvi912
tvi920
tvi925
tvi950
vs100
vt100
vt320
sun
vt330
vt340
wyse30
wyse50
wyse60
wyse100
wyse350
+-----------------------Messages-----------------------| If the next screen is unreadable, press Break (Ctrl-c)
| to return to this screen.
|
|
Help ?
Exit
>>> Choice []: vt100
b. In the License Agreement menu, select Accept License Agreements.
c. Select yes to ACCEPT Installed License Agreements.
d. Press F10 (or Esc+0) to exit the License Agreement menu.
e. In the Installation Assistant main menu, select Set Date and Time.
Installation Assistant
Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.
Set Date and Time
Set root Password
Configure Network Communications
Install Software Applications
Using SMIT (information only)
F1=Help
F9=Shell
F2=Refresh
F10=Exit
F3=Cancel
Enter=Do
F8=Image
f. Set the correct date, time, and time zone. Press the F3 (or Esc+3) key to return to the Installation
Assistant main menu.
g. Select Set root Password. Set a root password for the partition.
26
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
h. Select Configure Network Communications. Select TCP/IP Startup. Select from the Available
Network Interfaces and press Enter. Enter the appropriate network information in the Minimum
Configuration and Startup menu and press Enter. Use the F3 (or Esc+3) key to return to the
Installation Assistant main menu.
i. Exit the Installation Assistant by typing F10 (or Esc+0).
j. The vterm window displays a login prompt.
Step 2. Manage your partition (perform this step in the AIX environment)
When the installation has completed and the system has rebooted, the vterm window displays a login
prompt.
At this point, you may want to perform several common system-administration procedures. The
following table lists where to find information about performing these procedures.
Table 3. Common System Administration Procedures
Procedure
Location
Backing up and recovering system
backups
″Creating and installing system backups″ in Installation and migration
Managing users and groups
″Users, Roles, and Passwords″ in Security
Installing software
″Optional Software Products and Service Updates″ in Installation and migration
Installing fixes/updates
″Optional Software Products and Service Updates″ in Installation and migration
Tuning the system for performance
″Performance tuning″ in Performance management
Configuring printers
Printers and printing
Installing AIX using the media device to install a partition without an
HMC
In this procedure, you will use the system’s built-in media device to perform a new and complete Base
Operating System Installation on the standalone system.
Things to consider
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
This information contains procedures to install the AIX operating system. For more information on
concepts and considerations involved when performing a base operating system installation of AIX, or
concepts and requirements involved when using the Network Installation Manager (NIM) to install and
maintain AIX, refer to Installation and migration.
At this point, the BOS Installation is complete, and the initial configuration of the system is complete.
Step 1. Prepare your system for installation
v There must be adequate disk space and memory available. AIX 5.3 requires 256–512 MB of memory
and 2.2 GB of physical disk space. For additional release information, see the AIX 5.3 Release Notes.
v Make sure your hardware installation is complete, including all external devices. See the
documentation provided with your system unit for installation instructions.
v If your system needs to communicate with other systems and access their resources, make sure you
have the information in the following worksheet before proceeding with installation:
Installation and migration
27
Table 4. Network Configuration Information Worksheet
Network Attribute
Value
Network Interface
(For example: en0, et0)
Host Name
IP Address
_______.________.________.________
Network Mask
_______.________.________.________
Nameserver
_______.________.________.________
Domain Name
Gateway
_______.________.________.________
Step 2. Boot from the AIX product media
1. Insert the AIX Volume 1 media into the media device.
2. Make sure all external devices attached to the system (such as CD-ROM drives, tape drives, DVD
drives, and terminals) are turned on. Only the media drive from which you will install AIX should
contain the installation media.
3. Follow whatever procedure is needed to power on the system to cause it to boot from an AIX product
media. Consult your hardware documentation for instructions if necessary.
Note: Most older MicroChannel systems require the keylock to be set in the service position before
powering on the system. Some older PCI systems require you to type 5 or press the F5 key
(depending on whether you have an ASCII terminal or color graphics display console) when the
system beeps and beings repeating IBM or RS/6000 on the console several seconds after being powered
on. Most current PCI systems only require that you repetitively type the 5 key (regardless of what
type of console you have) at these system prompts. Also, most current systems can be set to boot
from alternate media before they are powered on using the service processor menu. Consult your
hardware documentation for more information.
4. Select the system console when prompted by typing the key indicated by the prompt (1, 2, F1, F2, and
so on).
5. Select the English language for the base operating system (BOS) Installation menus by typing a 1 in
the Choice field. Press Enter to open the Welcome to Base Operating System Installation and
Maintenance screen.
6. Type 2 to select 2 Change/Show Installation Settings and Install in the Choice field and press Enter.
Welcome to Base Operating System
Installation and Maintenance
Type the number of your choice and press Enter.
Choice is indicated by >>>.
1 Start Install Now with Default Settings
2 Change/Show Installation Settings and Install
3 Start Maintenance Mode for System Recovery
88 Help ?
99 Previous Menu
>>> Choice [1]: 2
Step 3. Set and verify BOS installation settings
1. In the Installation and Settings screen, verify the installation settings are correct by checking the
method of installation (new and complete overwrite), the disk or disks you want to install, the
primary language environment settings, and the advanced options.
28
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
2. To change the System Settings, which includes the method of installation and disk where you want to
install, type 1 in the Choice field and press Enter.
Installation and Settings
Either type 0 and press Enter to install with current settings, or type the
number of the setting you want to change and press Enter.
1
System Settings:
Method of Installation.............New and Complete Overwrite
Disk Where You Want to Install.....hdisk0
>>> Choice [0]: 1
3. Type 1 for New and Complete Overwrite in the Choice field and press Enter. The Change Disk(s)
Where You Want to Install screen now displays.
Change Disk(s) Where You Want to Install
Type one or more numbers for the disk(s) to be used for installation and press
Enter. To cancel a choice, type the corresponding number and Press Enter.
At least one bootable disk must be selected. The current choice is indicated
by >>>.
Name
1
2
3
>>>
0
66
77
88
99
hdisk0
hdisk1
hdisk2
Location Code
04-B0-00-2,0
04-B0-00-5,0
04-B0-00-6,0
Size(MB)
4296
4296
12288
VG Status
none
none
none
Bootable
Yes
Yes
Yes
Continue with choices indicated above
Disks not known to Base Operating System Installation
Display More Disk Information
Help ?
Previous Menu
>>> Choice [0]:
4. In the Change Disk(s) Where You Want to Install screen:
a. Select hdisk0 by typing a 1 in the Choice field and press Enter. The disk will now be selected as
indicated by >>>. To unselect the destination disk, type the number again and press Enter.
b. To finish selecting disks, type a 0 in the Choice field and press Enter. The Installation and Settings
screen displays with the selected disks listed under System Settings.
5. Change the Primary Language Environment Settings to English (United States). Use the following
steps to change the Cultural Convention, Language, and Keyboard to English.
a. Type 2 in the Choice field on the Installation and Settings screen to select the Primary Language
Environment Settings option.
b. Type the number corresponding to English (United States) as the Cultural Convention in the
Choice field and press Enter.
c. Select the appropriate keyboard and language options.
6. Verify that the selections are correct in the Overwrite Installation Summary screen, as follows:
Installation and migration
29
Overwrite Installation Summary
Disks: hdisk0
Cultural Convention: en_US
Language: en_US
Keyboard: en_US
64 Bit Kernel Enabled: No
JFS2 File Systems Created: No
Desktop: CDE
Enable System Backups to install any system:
Yes
Optional Software being installed:
>>> 1
88
99
Continue with Install
Help ?
Previous Menu
>>> Choice [1]:
7. Press Enter to begin the BOS installation. The system automatically reboots after installation is
complete.
Step 4. Configure the system after installation
1. On systems with a graphics display, after a new and complete overwrite installation, the
Configuration Assistant opens. On systems with an ASCII display, after a new and complete overwrite
installation, the Installation Assistant opens.
2. Select the Accept Licenses option to accept the electronic licenses for the operating system.
3. Set the date and time, set the password for the administrator (root user), and configure network
communications (TCP/IP).
Use any other options at this time. You can return to the Configuration Assistant or the Installation
Assistant by typing configassist or smitty assist at the command line.
4. Select Exit the Configuration Assistant and select Next. Or, press F10 (or ESC+0) to exit the
Installation Assistant.
5. If you are in the Configuration Assistant, select Finish now, and do not start Configuration Assistant
when restarting AIX and select Finish.
Step 5. Manage your system
At this point, you may want to perform several common system-administration procedures. The
following table lists where to find information about performing these procedures.
Table 5. Common System Administration Procedures
Procedure
Location
Backing up and recovering system
backups
″Creating and installing system backups″ in Installation and migration
Managing users and groups
″Users, Roles, and Passwords″ in Security
Installing software
″Optional Software Products and Service Updates″ in Installation and migration
Installing fixes/updates
″Optional Software Products and Service Updates″ in Installation and migration
Tuning the system for performance
″Performance tuning″ in Performance management
Configuring printers
Printers and printing
Configuring the AIX 5L system after a new installation
Using the Configuration Assistant after a new and complete overwrite installation.
Things to consider
30
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
v On systems with a graphics display, after a new and complete overwrite installation, the Configuration
Assistant opens.
1. Select the Accept Licenses option to accept the electronic licenses for the operating system.
2. Set the date and time, set the password for the administrator (root user), and configure network
communications (TCP/IP).
Use any other options at this time. You can return to the Configuration Assistant at any time by
typing configassist at the command line.
3. Select Exit the Configuration Assistant and select Next.
4. If you are in the Configuration Assistant, select Finish now, and do not start Configuration
Assistant when restarting AIX and select Finish.
At this point, the BOS Installation is complete, and the initial configuration of the system is complete.
v On systems with an ASCII display, after a new and complete overwrite installation, the Installation
Assistant opens.
1. If the Set Terminal Type menu appears, type vt100 as the terminal type.
Set Terminal Type
The terminal is not properly initialized. Please enter a terminal type
and press Enter. Some terminal types are not supported in
non-English languages.
ibm3101
ibm3151
ibm3161
ibm3162
ibm3163
ibm3164
ibmpc
lft
88
99
tvi912
tvi920
tvi925
tvi950
vs100
vt100
vt320
sun
vt330
vt340
wyse30
wyse50
wyse60
wyse100
wyse350
+-----------------------Messages-----------------------| If the next screen is unreadable, press Break (Ctrl-c)
| to return to this screen.
|
|
Help ?
Exit
>>> Choice []: vt100
2. In the License Agreement menu, select Accept License Agreements.
3. Select yes to ACCEPT Installed License Agreements.
4. Press F10 (or Esc+0) to exit the License Agreement menu.
5. In the Installation Assistant main menu, select Set Date and Time.
Installation Assistant
Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.
Set Date and Time
Set root Password
Configure Network Communications
Install Software Applications
Using SMIT (information only)
F1=Help
F9=Shell
F2=Refresh
F10=Exit
F3=Cancel
Enter=Do
F8=Image
6. Set the correct date, time, and time zone. Press the F3 (or Esc+3) key to return to the Installation
Assistant main menu.
7. Select Set root Password. Set a root password for the partition.
Installation and migration
31
8. Select Configure Network Communications. Select TCP/IP Startup. Select from the Available
Network Interfaces and press Enter. Enter the appropriate network information in the Minimum
Configuration and Startup menu and press Enter. Use the F3 (or Esc+3) key to return to the
Installation Assistant main menu.
9. Exit the Installation Assistant by typing F10 (or Esc+0).
10. The vterm window displays a login prompt.
At this point, the BOS Installation is complete, and the initial configuration of the system is complete.
Manage your AIX system after installation
At this point, you may want to perform several common system-administration procedures. The
following table lists where to find information about performing these procedures.
Table 6. Common System Administration Procedures
Procedure
Location
Backing up and recovering system backups
″Creating and Installing System Backups″ in Installation and migration
Managing users and groups
″Users, Roles, and Passwords″ in Security
Installing software
″Optional Software Products and Service Updates″ in Installation and migration
Installing fixes / updates
″Optional Software Products and Service Updates″ in Installation and migration
Tuning the system for performance
Performance management
Configuring printers
Printers and printing
Installing the Base Operating System
There are multiple ways to install the AIX base operating system.
The Base Operating System (BOS) installation program first restores the run-time bos image, then installs
the appropriate filesets, depending on your selections. The installation program automatically installs
required message filesets, according to the language you choose.
If you are reinstalling on an older system, the DVD media can only be used to boot or reinstall on 64-bit
systems. To determine if your system is a 32-bit system or a 64-bit system, run the prtconf command
with the -c flag.
For more information about the installation options, refer to “BOS installation options” on page 35.
The following installation methods are available on AIX:
New and Complete Overwrite
This method installs AIX 5.3 on a new machine or completely overwrites any BOS version that
exists on your system.
For instructions on installing AIX 5.3 on a new machine or to completely overwrite the BOS on
an existing machine, refer to “Installing new and complete BOS overwrite or preservation” on
page 47.
Preservation
This method replaces an earlier version of the BOS but retains the root volume group, the
user-created logical volumes, and the /home file system. The system file systems /usr, /var, /tmp,
/opt, and / (root) are overwritten. Product (application) files and configuration data stored in
these file systems will be lost. Information stored in other non-system file systems will be
preserved.
For instructions on preserving the user-defined structure of an existing BOS, refer to “Installing
new and complete BOS overwrite or preservation” on page 47.
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Migration
This method upgrades from AIX 4.2, 4.3, 5.1, or 5.2 versions of the BOS to AIX 5.3 (see the release
notes for restrictions). The migration installation method is used to upgrade from an existing
version or release of AIX to a later version or release of AIX. A migration installation preserves
most file systems, including the root volume group, logical volumes, and system configuration
files. It overwrites the /tmp file system.
For instructions on migrating an existing version or release of AIX to a later version or release of
AIX, refer to “Migrating AIX” on page 130.
The following table shows the differences in the installation steps among the installation methods.
Table 7. AIX BOS Installation Methods
Installation Steps
New and Complete Overwrite
Preservation
Migration
Create rootvg
Yes
No
No
Create file system /, /usr, /var
Yes
Yes
No
Create file system /home
Yes
No
No
Save Configuration
No
No
Yes
Restore BOS
Yes
Yes
Yes
Install Additional Filesets
Yes
Yes
Yes
Restore Configuration
No
No
Yes
Using BOS menus
The available choices on the BOS menu window are described.
After you select the console and language to be used for the BOS menus, the Welcome to Base Operating
System Installation and Maintenance window displays, as follows:
Welcome to Base Operating System
Installation and Maintenance
Type the number of your choice and press Enter.
Choice is indicated by >>>.
>>> 1 Start Install Now with Default Settings
2 Change/Show Installation Settings and Install
3 Start Maintenance Mode for System Recovery
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99
Help ?
Previous Menu
>>> Choice [1]:
Note: To turn on the debug mode for the BOS installation process, type 911 in the Choice field and press
Enter. The Welcome to Base Operating System Installation and Maintenance window refreshes and the
BOS installation process runs in debug mode when the installation occurs. Continue the procedure for
selecting options and specifying data until the installation begins. Debug output is sent to the client’s
display as the installation proceeds.
If you select Start Install Now with Default Settings, the BOS command determines the default
installation method to use based on your system’s configuration. A summary window displays, similar to
the following, where you can confirm the installation method and installation options:
Installation and migration
33
Overwrite Installation Summary
Disks: hdisk0
Cultural Convention: en_US
Language: en_US
Keyboard: en_US
64 Bit Kernel Enabled: No
JFS2 File Systems Created: No
Desktop:
Enable System Backups to install any system:
Yes
Optional Software being installed:
Kerberos_5 (Expansion Pack)
>>> 1
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Continue with Install
Help ?
Previous Menu
>>> Choice [1]:
If the selections are correct, press Enter to begin the BOS installation.
However, if you would like to change the installation method or options, select Change/Show
Installation Settings and Install at the BOS welcome window. The Installation and Settings window
displays, as follows:
Installation and Settings
Either type 0 and press Enter to install with current settings, or type the
number of the setting you want to change and press Enter.
1
System Settings:
Method of Installation.............New and Complete Overwrite
Disk Where You Want to Install.....hdisk0
2
Primary Language Environment Settings (AFTER
Cultural Convention................English
Language ..........................English
Keyboard ..........................English
Keyboard Type......................Default
3
More Options
>>> 0
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Install):
(United States)
(United States)
(United States)
(Desktop, Security, Kernel, Software, ...)
Install with the current settings listed above.
Help ?
Previous Menu
+----------------------------------------------------|
WARNING: Base Operating System Installation will
|
destroy or impair recovery of ALL data on the
|
destination disk hdisk0.
>>> Choice [0]:
For more information on the BOS menu options, refer to the Help at any time by typing 88 in the Choice
field.
Electronic license agreements
AIX 5.3 ships with software license agreements that can be viewed electronically.
If a product has an electronic license agreement, it must be accepted before software installation can
continue. In the case of initial BOS installation, you can view and accept or reject license agreements in a
license agreement dialog after the installation has occurred, but before the system is available for use as
part of Configuration Assistant (graphics consoles) or Installation Assistant (ASCII consoles).
34
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
The AIX BOS has a license agreement, but not all software packages do. When you agree to the license
agreement for BOS installation, you are also accepting all license agreements for any software installed
automatically with the BOS. Some software, such as the GNOME or KDE desktops, can be optionally
installed during BOS installation; the appropriate licensing information for such software is displayed
separately.
If a customized bosinst.data file is used (usually for unattended installations, or nonprompted installations),
the ACCEPT_LICENSES field in the control_flow stanza can be used to accept the license agreements so
users are not prompted at reboot time. When performing a ″push″ installation using the Network
Installation Management (NIM) environment, the licenses must be accepted, either from the choices made
when initializing the installation or in a customized bosinst.data file, before the installation can continue.
For more information about the bosinst.data file, refer to “The bosinst.data file” on page 38.
For additional software package installations, the installation cannot occur unless the appropriate license
agreements are accepted. This option, as well as options to preview licenses, is offered in both the System
Management Interface Tool (SMIT) and the Web-based System Manager installation interfaces. When
using the installp command, use the -Y flag to accept licenses and the -E flag to view license agreement
files on the media.
For more information about license manipulation, refer to the inulag command description in the AIX
5L™ Version 5.3 Commands Reference.
BOS installation options
The available options for installing BOS are described.
The installation options are available by typing 3 in the More Options field in the Installation and
Settings window.
The following the installation options are available:
Desktop
The default is CDE for new and complete overwrite installations. If you select NONE, a minimal
configuration is installed including X11, Java™, perl, SMIT, and the Web-based System Manager (if
Graphics Software is selected).
If you select GNOME or KDE, the BOS installation process prompts you for the AIX Toolbox for
Linux Applications media. If this media is not available, you can type q to continue the installation
without the AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications media. You can select additional desktops from the
Install More Software menu.
Enable Trusted Computing Base
The Trusted Computing Base (TCB) is the part of the system that is responsible for enforcing the
information security policies of the system. All of the computer’s hardware is included in the
TCB, but a person administering the system should be concerned primarily with the software
components of the TCB.
If you install the Trusted Computing Base option, you enable the trusted path, trusted shell, and
system-integrity checking (tcbck command). These features can be enabled only during BOS
installation.
The choices are yes and no. To enable the Trusted Computing Base, type 2 and press Enter. The
default is no.
Enable CAPP and EAL4+ Technology
Available in a new and complete overwrite installation. If you enable Controlled Access Protection
Profile (CAPP) and Evaluation Assurance Level 4+ (EAL4+), other restrictions exist on installation
choices, such as:
v Desktop = CDE or NONE
Installation and migration
35
v
v
v
v
v
TCB = yes
64-bit kernel = yes
JFS2 = yes
Enable System Backups to install any system (Installs all devices and kernels) = no
Install more software options = no
For information about CAPP and EAL4+, see Controlled Access Protection Profile and Evaluation
Assurance Level 4+ in the Security.
Import User Volume Groups
Available in migration installation and preservation installation. You have the option to have user
volume groups imported after the installation completes. These volume groups can be manually
imported at a later time.
Enable 64-bit Kernel
Available only on 64-bit Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP) systems. To toggle the choice
between no (the default) and yes, type 3 and press Enter. If you choose no, the 64-bit kernel is
still installed, but it is not linked to the running /unix. If you choose yes, the 64-bit kernel is
installed and begins running when your system reboots.
Create JFS2 File Systems
Available in new and complete overwrite installation, as well as preservation installation with 64-bit kernel
enabled option. Create enhanced journaled file systems during BOS installation.
Graphics Software
Available in new and complete overwrite installation, as well as preservation installation. Install graphics
software support.
Remove Java 1.1.8 Software
Available in migration installation. You have the option to have all Java version 1.1.8 software
removed.
Enable System Backups
If Enable System Backups to install any system is selected, all devices and kernels are installed, so
that a system backup can be installed on a different system. For more information about
installing a system backup to a different system, see “Cloning a system backup” on page 153.
Install More Software
Available in the new and complete overwrite installation method, as well as the preservation
installation method. Select Install More Software to choose additional software to install after the
BOS installation process finishes. A software bundle file corresponds to each selection that
contains the required packages and filesets. The following software bundles are available:
Install More Software
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mozilla (Mozilla CD)..............................................
Kerberos_5 (Expansion Pack).......................................
Server (Volume 2)................................................
GNOME Desktop (Toolbox for Linux Applications)....................
KDE Desktop (Toolbox for Linux Applications)......................
>>> 0
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No
No
No
No
No
Install with the current settings listed above.
Help ?
Previous Menu
>>> Choice [0]:
On 32-bit systems, the new and complete overwrite installation options are the following:
36
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Install Options
1.
2.
3.
4.
Desktop..........................................................
Enable Trusted Computing Base....................................
Graphics Software................................................
Enable System Backups to install any system......................
(Installs all devices and kernels)
>>> 5.
0
NONE, CDE, GNOME, KDE
No
Yes
Yes
Install More Software
Install with the current settings listed above.
88
99
Help ?
Previous Menu
>>> Choice [5]:
On 64-bit systems, the new and complete overwrite installation options are the following:
Install Options
1.
2.
3.
Desktop..........................................................
Enable Trusted Computing Base....................................
Enable CAPP and EAL4+ Technology.................................
(English only, 64-bit kernel enablement, JFS2 file systems)
Enable 64-bit Kernel.............................................
Create JFS2 File Systems.........................................
Graphics Software................................................
Enable System Backups to install any system......................
(Installs all devices and kernels)
4.
5.
6.
7.
>>> 8.
0
NONE, CDE, GNOME, KDE
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Install More Software
Install with the current settings listed above.
88
99
Help ?
Previous Menu
>>> Choice [8]:
On 64-bit systems, the preservation installation options are the following:
Install Options
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Desktop..........................................................
Enable Trusted Computing Base....................................
Import User Volume Groups........................................
Graphics Software................................................
Enable System Backups to install any system......................
(Installs all devices and kernels)
>>> 6.
0
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NONE, CDE, GNOME. KDE
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Install More Software
Install with the current settings listed above.
Help ?
Previous Menu
>>> Choice [6]:
On 64-bit systems, the migration installation options are the following:
Installation and migration
37
Install Options
1.
2.
3.
Enable Trusted Computing Base....................................
Import User Volume Groups........................................
Enable System Backups to install any system......................
(Installs all devices and kernels)
4. Remove Java 1.1.8 Software.......................................
>>> 0
88
99
No
Yes
Yes
No
Install with the current settings listed above.
Help ?
Previous Menu
>>> Choice [0]:
Graphical Install menus
The Graphical Install menus provide a method to quickly begin a New and Complete Overwrite BOS
Installation using a graphical user interface.
The Graphical Install menus are used only when the following conditions are met:
v The system has not been configured with any operating system.
v The system has a DVD drive.
v The system has hardware for graphics.
If these conditions are met, you can launch the Graphical Install menus by following these steps:
1. Insert the AIX DVD into the DVD drive.
2. Turn the system unit power switch from Off (0) to On (1).
3. When the system beeps twice, press F5. The keyboard icon displays on the screen when the beeps
occur. The system starts from the installation media.
4. Select the system console by pressing F1 and press Enter.
5. After the console is selected, the Graphical Install menus are loaded. The Welcome to Base Operating
System Installation menu displays first. Use this menu to choose the language that you want to use
during installation.
6. When the Select the Type of Base Operating System Installation menu displays, click Traditional
Install to exit from the Graphical Install menus and load the Base Operating System (BOS) menus.
Otherwise click the Quick Install button to continue.
7. Next, the Summary of the BOS Installation menu displays. This menu allows you to select the
Language, Cultural Convention, and Keyboard for the Base Operating System. You can begin a
default BOS installation by clicking Start Quick Install. To change any of the default BOS installation
settings, choose the Switch to Traditional Install button to exit the Graphical Install menus and load
the BOS menus.
The bosinst.data file
The content and use of the bosinst.data file is described.
bosinst.data file stanza descriptions
Stanza descriptions with example files are shown.
bosinst.data control_flow stanza descriptions:
The control_flow stanza contains variables that control the way the installation program works.
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Variable
CONSOLE
INSTALL_METHOD
PROMPT
Description
Specifies the full path name of the device you want to use as the console. If
this value is Default, and you are performing a nonprompted installation,
then the console is set to /dev/lft0, if this device exists. If /dev/lft0 does not
exist, the console is set to /dev/vty0 or /dev/tty0 depending on the system.
(Instructions for which key to press are displayed on the screen.) If you
change the PROMPT variable to no, you must specify a console here.
Specifies a method of installation: migrate, preserve, erase_only, or
overwrite (for a new and complete install). The default value is initially
blank. The installation program assigns a value, depending on which
version of AIX was previously installed. See “Installing the Base Operating
System” on page 32 for more information.
The default method of installation is migrate if a previous version of the
operating system is on the machine. If no previous version exists, the
default method is overwrite. The erase_only value specifies to erase the
hard drives only and not to do an installation.
Specifies whether the installation program uses menus from which you
make choices. The possible values are yes (default) and no.
Note: You must fill in values for all variables in the locale stanza to
uniquely identify the disk, if you set the PROMPT variable to no.
Similarly, if PROMPT equals no, you must supply values for
variables in the control_flow stanza, with two exceptions: the
ERROR_EXIT and CUSTOMIZATION_FILE variables, which are
optional.
EXISTING_SYSTEM_OVERWRITE
Attention: Fill in values for enough variables in the
target_disk_data stanza if you set the PROMPT variable to no. The
BOS installation program assigns target disks for blank variables. You
can lose data if the installation program assigns a disk where you
store data.
Confirms that the installation program can overwrite existing volume
groups. This variable is applicable only for a nonprompted overwrite
installation. The possible values are no (default), yes, and any.
no
(Default) Only disks that are not part of a volume group can be
used for the installation.
yes
Disks that contain the root volume group is used first, and if
additional disks are needed for the installation, then disks that
contain no volume groups are used.
any
Any disks can be used for the installation.
When the installation is nonprompted and the target_disk_data stanza is
empty, the installation process uses the value of the
EXISTING_SYSTEM_OVERWRITE field to determine the disks to install
on.
INSTALL_X_IF_ADAPTER
When you do a prompted installation, this value is changed to yes, and is
saved with other changes in the /var/adm/ras/bosinst.data file. Network
Install Manager (NIM) creates a default bosinst.data file (NIM bosinst_data
resource) with this value set to yes, and system backups use the
bosinst.data file that is copied from the /var/adm/ras directory, so in most
cases this value is already be set to yes. If this field is set to no, as seen in
the /usr/lpp/bosinst/bosinst.template file, an error message informs you
that there are not enough disks matching the criteria needed to complete
the installation during a non-prompted install. The BOS installation is then
changed to a prompted BOS installation, and the value of the
EXISTING_SYSTEM_OVERWRITE field is set to yes.
Specifies whether a desktop should be installed or not. The possible values
are yes, all, and no. The default value for this field is yes, meaning that if
the system has a graphical console, and a DESKTOP is specified, the
DESKTOP is installed. If set to all and a DESKTOP is specified, the
desktop is installed, whether the system has a graphical console or not. If
set to no and a DESKTOP is specified, the desktop is not installed.
Installation and migration
39
RUN_STARTUP
RM_INST_ROOTS
ERROR_EXIT
CUSTOMIZATION_FILE
TCB
INSTALL_TYPE
BUNDLES
Starts the Configuration Assistant on first boot after the BOS installation
completes, if the system has a graphical interface. Starts Installation
Assistant if the machine has an ASCII interface. The possible values are yes
(default) and no. The no value is valid only when the ACCEPT_LICENSES
field is set to yes.
Removes all files and directories in the /usr/lpp/*/inst_roots directories. The
possible values are no (default) and yes.
The /usr/lpp/bos/inst_roots directories must remain if the machine is used
as a network server. To save disk space, set this value to yes if the machine
is not a network server.
Starts an executable program if an error occurs in the installation program.
The default value is blank, which signals BOS installation to use a
command that is shipped on the installation media. The command starts an
error message routine when the installation program halts because of an
error. As an alternative to the default, you can enter the path name of your
own script or command for a customized error routine.
Specifies the path name of a customization file you create. The default value
is blank. The customization file is a script that starts immediately after the
installation program concludes.
Specifies whether you want to install the Trusted Computing Base (TCB).
When you install the TCB, the trusted path, the trusted shell, and system
integrity checking are installed. The TCB must be installed and initialized
when the operating system is installed. The TCB cannot be installed later.
By not installing the TCB, installation time is reduced. The possible values
are no (default) and yes.
If set to CC_EVAL, then CAPP and EAL4+ technology will be enabled. This
is only allowed when INSTALL_METHOD is overwrite. If this is set, the
CULTURAL_CONVENTION and MESSAGES fields of the locale stanza
can only be en_US or C. The system must be 64-bit, and have
ENABLE_64BIT_KERNEL and CREATE_JFS2_FS set to yes.
ALL_DEVICES_KERNELS must be set to no. TCB must be set to yes.
DESKTOP can only be NONE or CDE. The additional software bundles:
MOZILLA, HTTP_SERVER_BUNDLE, KERBEROS_5_BUNDLE,
SERVER_BUNDLE and ALT_DISK_INSTALL_BUNDLE, must be set to
no.
Specifies what software bundles to install. Type the full path name of each
bundle file. Be sure there is sufficient disk space and paging space on the
target machine for the software you specify in the BUNDLES variable.
This list of bundle file names is limited to 139 bytes. If your list of bundle
file names is longer than 139 bytes, use the cat command to combine the
bundle files into a single custom bundle file and enter the name of your
custom bundle file in this field.
If you are installing from tape, to specify system-defined bundles on the
product media, use the full path name of each bundle file as follows:
/usr/sys/inst.data/sys_bundles/BundleFileName
If you are using a bosinst.data diskette to define your own bundle files,
specify the full path name of each bundle file as follows:
/../DirectoryName/BundleFileName. For example, if you put a bundle file
named mybundle in the root directory, the full path name would be
/../mybundle.
If you are using preservation installation, create bundle files before you
start the installation. Create the files in /home and specify the full path
name of each bundle file as follows:
/home/BundleFileName
40
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
RECOVER_DEVICES
Specifies whether to reconfigure the devices. The default value is Default.
For mksysb installations, the ODM configuration database is saved in the
image. The device names and attributes are automatically extracted from
the database, and the BOS installation program attempts to recreate the
devices the same way they were on the machine the mksysb was created
on. This is normal procedure for regular mksysb restores on the same
system. However, for cloning (installing the mksysb image on another
system), you may not want these devices configured this way, especially for
network configuration.
When the mksysb image is created, the CPU ID is saved. If you are
reinstalling the same system, then the device information is recovered. If the
mksysb image is used to install another system, device information is not
recovered from the mksysb image.
BOSINST_DEBUG
ACCEPT_LICENSES
DESKTOP
INSTALL_DEVICES_AND_UPDATES
IMPORT_USER_VGS
ENABLE_64BIT_KERNEL
CREATE_JFS2_FS
ALL_DEVICES_KERNELS
GRAPHICS_BUNDLE
MOZILLA_BUNDLE
KERBEROS_5_BUNDLE
The Default value can be overwritten. For example, if your system had the
planar replaced, or you upgraded to another system, you might want to
recover devices. In these cases, you can select yes in the Backup Restore
menu to recover devices.
Specifies whether to show debug output during BOS installation. The value
yes sends set -x debug output to the screen during BOS installation. The
possible values are no (default) and yes.
Specifies whether to accept software license agreements during the BOS
installation. The default is no. To automatically accept them, set this value
to yes. When the software licenses agreements are not accepted during BOS
installation, Configuration Assistant or Installation Assistant prompts you to
view and accept them. During a BOS installation, if this value is blank, the
default of no is assumed.
For mksysb installations, when the ACCEPT_LICENSES field is no, the
user is forced to accept the licenses again before continuing to use the
system. When the ACCEPT_LICENSES field is set to yes, the licenses are
automatically accepted for the user. If blank, the state of the licenses is the
same as when the mksysb was created.
Specifies the desktop to be installed. The choice of available desktops are
CDE (the default), NONE, GNOME, and KDE. If you choose GNOME or
KDE, you will be prompted for the AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications CD.
When installing a mksysb image to a system with a different hardware
configuration, boot from product media to get any missing device drivers
installed. In addition, if the product media is a later level of AIX than the
mksysb, software in the mksysb image will be updated. To prevent either
of these additional installations from occurring, set this field to no. The
default is yes.
Specifies whether you want any user volume groups to be automatically
imported after the system has been installed. The choices are yes and no.
Specifies whether you want to enable the 64-bit kernel. The choices are yes
and no.
Specifies whether you want to create enhanced journaled file systems. The
choices are yes and no.
Specifies whether to install all device and kernel filesets. The choices are
yes and no. If you select no, your system will be installed with the devices
and kernel specific to your system configuration. If you select yes, when
you create a system backup of your system, you can use that system
backup to install any system.
Specifies whether to install the graphics software bundle during the BOS
installation. This software bundle contains the graphics support for the
Web-based System Manager and Linux desktops. The choices are yes and
no.
Specifies whether to install the Mozilla software bundle during the BOS
installation. This software bundle contains the Mozilla Web browser
software. The choices are yes and no.
Specifies whether to install the Kerberos 5 client software bundle during the
BOS installation. This software bundle installs the Kerberos 5 client
software. The choices are yes and no.
Installation and migration
41
SERVER_BUNDLE
ALT_DISK_INSTALL_BUNDLE
REMOVE_JAVA_118
HARDWARE_DUMP
ERASE_ITERATIONS
ERASE_PATTERNS
ADD_CDE
ADD_KDE
ADD_GNOME
MKSYSB_MIGRATION_DEVICE
Specifies whether to install the AIX server software bundle during the BOS
installation. This software bundle installs additional networking software,
performance tools, and accounting services software. The choices are yes
and no.
Specifies whether to install the alternate disk installation software during
the BOS installation. The choices are yes and no.
Specifies whether to remove the Java 1.1.8 software from the current system
when performing a migration installation. The choices are yes and no.
Creates a dump logical volume to contain firmware and hardware dump
data. Dump logical volumes are only create on hardware that supports
creation of firmware and hardware dump data. The choices are yes and no.
Specifies the number of times to erase the choosen hard drives before the
installation occurs. This field is only valid when the INSTALL_METHOD
field is set to overwrite or erase_only. The choices for this field is a number
from 0 to 8. If the field is set to 0 then no erasure of the hard drives will
occur. The default is 0.
Specifies the patterns to write to the choosen hard drives. The value for this
field is a comma separated list of the patterns to use for each erasure of the
drives. A valid pattern is a hexadecimal value from 0 to ffffffff. The number
of patterns specified must be equal or greater to the number of iterations
specified in ERASE_ITERATIONS. If ERASE_ITERATIONS is 0 then this
field is ignored. ex: If ERASE_ITERATIONS = 3 then a valid entry for this
field could be ERASE_PATTERNS = 00,ff,0a0a0a0a .
Adds CDE as an additional desktop. If the DESKTOP field is not CDE and
ADD_CDE is set to yes, the CDE desktop is installed in addition to the
desktop specified by the DESKTOP field. The default value is no. If
DESKTOP is set to none, this attribute is ignored.
Adds KDE as an additional desktop. If the DESKTOP field is not KDE and
ADD_KDE is set to yes, the KDE desktop is installed in addition to the
desktop specified by the DESKTOP field. The default value is no. If
DESKTOP is set to none, this attribute is ignored.
Adds GNOME as an additional desktop. If the DESKTOP field is not
GNOME and ADD_GNOME is set to yes, the GNOME desktop is installed
in addition to the desktop specified by the DESKTOP field. The default
value is no. If DESKTOP is set to none, this attribute is ignored.
When set, specifies the device to be used to restore the mksysb image for
migration. Default is blank. Valid values are /dev/cddevice number for a
mksysb image on a CD-DVD, and /dev/rmtdevice number for a mksysb
image on tape. For a network installation, the valid value is the word
network.
bosinst.data target_disk_data stanza:
The target_disk_data stanza contains variables for disks in the machine where the program is to install
BOS.
The default bosinst.data file has one target_disk_data stanza, but you can add new stanzas to install BOS
on multiple disks, one stanza for each disk.
Multiple target_disk_data stanzas can exist. They define the disks that are to contain the root volume
group. Only one field (PVID, PHYSICAL_LOCATION, SAN_DISKID, CONNECTION, LOCATION,
SIZE_MB, HDISKNAME) must be non-null for BOS installation to choose a disk. The order of
precedence is PVID (Physical Volume ID), PHYSICAL_LOCATION, SAN_DISKID, then
CONNECTION (parent attribute//connwhere attribute), then LOCATION, then SIZE_MB, and then
HDISKNAME. The BOS installation process uses the following logic to determine how to use the
target_disk_data stanza information:
v If PVID is set, BOS installation checks to see if a disk matches the value. If so, other attributes are
ignored.
v If PVID is empty and PHYSICAL_LOCATION is set, then BOS installation checks to see if the parent
and connwhere attributes (separated by ″//″) match a disk. If they do, other attributes are ignored.
42
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
v If either PVID or PHYSICAL_LOCATION is set, and neither value matches a disk on the target
system, and no other attributes are set, an error message is generated, and a disk must be explicitly
selected.
v If PVID and PHYSICAL_LOCATION are empty, and SAN_DISKID is set, then, for fibre
channel-attached disks, BOS installation interprets the SAN_DISKID as a World Wide Port Name and
a Logical Unit ID (separated by ″//″). The World Wide Port Name (ww_name) and Logical Unit ID
(lun_id) can be obtained on a running system from the lsattr command.
The SAN_DISKID field is checked before the CONNECTION field.
v If the ww_name and lun_id match a disk, other attributes are ignored.
v If either PVID or SAN_DISKID is set, and neither value matches a disk on the target system, and no
other attributes are set, an error message is generated and a disk must be explicitly selected.
v If PVID and SAN_DISKID are empty and CONNECTION is set, BOS installation verifies if the
parent and connwhere attributes (separated by ″//″) match a disk. If this is true, other attributes are
ignored.
v If CONNECTION is set, the value does not match a disk on the target system, and no other attributes
are set, an error message is generated and a disk must be explicitly selected.
v If other attributes are specified, processing occurs as described below:
– If LOCATION is set, BOS installation ignores SIZE_MB and HDISKNAME.
– If LOCATION is not set and SIZE_MB is, BOS installation selects disks based on SIZE_MB and
ignores HDISKNAME.
– If LOCATION and SIZE_MB are both empty, BOS installation chooses the disk specified in
HDISKNAME.
– If all fields are empty, BOS installation chooses a disk for you.
For the PVID, PHYSICAL_LOCATION, SAN_DISKID, and CONNECTION fields, the BOS installation
process uses the following logic to determine how to use the target_disk_data stanza information:
v Does the information in one or more of the PVID, PHYSICAL_LOCATION, SAN_DISKID, and
CONNECTION fields match the disk information?
v If the disk information matches the information in one of these four fields, use that information.
v If the disk information does not match the information in one of these four fields, and if the
LOCATION, SIZE_MB, and HDISKNAME fields are not set, display an error message and prompt
the user for the correct disk information.
The PHYSICAL_LOCATION information can be retrieved using the lsdev command. For example:
# lsdev -Cc disk -l hdisk0 -F "name physloc"
returns the hdisk0 diskname and the P2/Z1-A8 physical location.
Attention: If prompt=no, do not leave the target_disk_data stanzas empty, unless it is unimportant
which disk BOS installation overwrites. This is because the algorithm that determines the default
disk for the installation is not always predictable.
The SIZE_MB field can contain either a size or the word largest. If a size is listed, BOS installation does
a ″best-fit″ on the disks. If the word largest is in that field, BOS installation selects the largest disk. If
there is more than one target_disk_data stanza, BOS installation selects the two ″largest″ disks, and so on.
Installation and migration
43
PVID
PHYSICAL_LOCATION
SAN_DISKID
CONNECTION
SIZE_MB
LOCATION
HDISKNAME
Specifies the 16-digit physical volume identifier for the disk.
The physical location code provides a way to identify fibre channel disks during BOS Install. For
fibre channel disks the PHYSICAL_LOCATION field includes the World Wide Port Name and Lun
ID that are included in the SAN_DISKID field. The information in the PHYSICAL_LOCATION
field supercedes the information in the SAN_DISKID field.
Specifies the World Wide Port Name and a Logical Unit ID for fibre channel-attached disks. The
ww_name and lun_id are separated by two slashes (//). This information can be obtained on a
running system from the lsattr command.
Specifies the combination of the parent attribute and the connwhere attribute associated with a
disk. The parent and connwhere values are separated by two slashes (//). If the parent value is
scsi0 and the connwhere value is 0,1, then the CONNECTION value is scsi0//0,1. An example
of the CONNECTION value for a SSA disk would be ssar//000629CCC07300D. In the example, the
parent attribute is represented by ssar and the ConnectionLocation (15-character unique identity)
of the disk drive 000629CCC07300D is used for the connwhere attribute.
Specifies the formatted size of the disk, in megabytes, where the program is to install BOS. The
default value is blank. You can specify the size of your target disk by typing the number of
megabytes available on the formatted disk. Also, you can type largest if you want to use the
largest disk (that has not already been selected) found by the installation program.
Specifies a location code for the disk where the program is to install BOS. The default value is
blank. If you do not specify a value, the installation program assigns a value based on the next two
variables. For more information about physical location codes, refer to the Diagnostic Information for
Multiple Bus Systems guide.
Specifies the path name of the target disk. The default value is blank. To name a target disk, use
the hdiskname format, where hdiskname is the device name of your disk (for example, hdisk0).
bosinst.data target_iscsi_data stanza:
The optional target_iscsi_data stanza contains variables for the parent iSCSI adapter of the disks in the
machine where the program resides to install the Base Operating System.
The bosinst.data file contains a target_iscsi_data stanza only if the root volume group includes an iSCSI
disk. Only one target_iscsi_data stanza can exist. It defines the iSCSI target for the disks that are to
contain the root volume group. The target_iscsi_data stanza must be located after all the target_disk_data
stanzas to ensure correct processing.
Variable
Description
ADAPTER_NAME
Specifies the name of the iSCSI TOE adapter (for example, ics0) or the iSCSI software solution
protocol device (for example, iscsi0) to which this iSCSI target will be configured. This is a required
field.
ISCSI_GROUP
This field should be set to the static value.
TARGET_NAME
Specifies the iSCSI target name of the iSCSI target. The mkiscsi command will not do normalizing
on the TARGET_NAME.
INITIATOR_NAME
Specifies the iSCSI initiator name of the iSCSI Initiator.
PORT_NUMBER
Specifies the TCP port number of the iSCSI target.
IP_ADDRESS
Specifies the IP address of the iSCSI target.
SW_INITIATOR<yes, no>
Specifies if the adapter is an iSCSI software solution protocol device. If the adapter is an iSCSI
software protocol device, the network interface configured by NIM is used to connect to the iSCSI
target.
DISC_POLICY
This field should be set to the odm value.
ADAPTER_IP
Specifies the IP address of the iSCSI TOE adapter when SW_INITIATOR is set to no.
ADAPTER_GW
Specifies the IP address of the gateway used by the iSCSI TOE adapter when SW_INITIATOR is
set to no.
ADAPTER_SNM
Specifies the subnet mask used by the iSCSI TOE adapter when SW_INITIATOR is set to no.
The following is an example of a target_iscsi_data stanza for a configuration where the adapter is a
software initiator adapter:
44
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
target_iscsi_data:
ADAPTER_NAME = iscsi0
ISCSI_GROUP = static
TARGET_NAME = iqn.sn1234.iscsi_hw1
INITIATOR_NAME= iqn.2000-01.ibm.boot
PORT_NUMBER = 3260
IP_ADDRESS = 10.1.1.130
SW_INITIATOR = yes
DISC_POLICY = odm
The following is an example of a target_iscsi_data stanza using an iSCSI TOE adapter:
target_iscsi_data:
ADAPTER_NAME = ics0
ISCSI_GROUP = static
TARGET_NAME = iqn.sn1234.iscsi_hw1
INITIATOR_NAME= iqn.2000-01.ibm.boot
PORT_NUMBER = 3260
IP_ADDRESS = 10.1.1.130
SW_INITIATOR = no
DISC_POLICY = odm
ADAPTER_IP = 10.1.2.115
ADAPTER_GW = 10.1.2.1
ADAPTER_SNM = 255.255.255.0
bosinst.data file locale stanza:
The locale stanza contains variables for the primary language that the installed machine is to use.
Refer to Understanding Locale Categories in AIX 5L Version 5.3 National Language Support Guide and
Reference, which provides information about locales and the format to use when editing variables.
Specifies the language that the installation program uses for prompts, menus, and error
messages. The default value is blank.
Specifies the primary locale to install. The default value is blank.
Specifies the locale for message catalogs to install. The default value is blank.
Specifies the keyboard map to install. The default value is blank.
BOSINST_LANG
CULTURAL_CONVENTION
MESSAGES
KEYBOARD
bosinst.data large_dumplv stanza:
The optional large_dumplv stanza specifies characteristics used if a dedicated dump device is to be
created on the systems.
A dedicated dump device is only created for systems with 4 GB or more of memory. The following
characteristics are available for a dedicated large dump device:
DUMPDEVICE
SIZEGB
Specifies the name of the dedicated dump device.
Specifies the size of the dedicated dump device in gigabytes.
If the stanza is not present, the dedicated dump device is created when required. A dedicated dump
device is created in machines with at least 4 Gigabytes of real memory during an overwrite install. By
default, the name of the dedicated dump device is lg_dumplv and its size is determined by the following
formula:
4>= RAM < 12
12>= RAM < 24
24>= RAM < 48
RAM >= 48
size
size
size
size
of
of
of
of
dump
dump
dump
dump
device=
device=
device=
device=
1
2
3
4
GB
GB
GB
GB
bosinst.data dump stanza:
Installation and migration
45
The dump stanza specifies system dump characteristics.
PRIMARY
SECONDARY
COPYDIR
FORCECOPY
ALWAYS_ALLOW
Specifies the primary dump device to be set by sysdumpdev -P -p device.
Specifies the secondary dump device to be set by sysdumpdev -P -s device.
Specifies the directory to which the dump is copied at system boot.
Specifies whether the system boots into menus that allow copy of the dump to external media if the
copy fails.
Specifies whether the key mode switch can be ignored when a dump is requested.
If the stanza is not present in the bosinst.data file, no additional dump-device handling occurs beyond
what is already in place. Checking on the values of the fields is limited; if the device specified for a
dump device is not valid, any error processing comes from the sysdumpdev command and is sent to the
console and stored in the BOS installation log.
v If FORCECOPY is specified and no COPYDIR is specified, the value field of the autocopydump
attribute from /etc/objrepos/SWservAt is retrieved and used for the sysdumpdev -[d|D] copydir
operation.
v If only the COPYDIR is specified without FORCECOPY being specified, forcecopy defaults to yes. The
sysdumpdev -d (FORCECOPY = no) or sysdumpdev -D (FORCECOPY = yes) is used to set the copy
directory.
v If ALWAYS_ALLOW=yes, run sysdumpdev -K. Otherwise, run sysdumpdev -k.
v If any values other than yes and no are specified for FORCECOPY or ALWAYS_ALLOW, the default
actions occur, and processing continues.
v If no value is specified for a particular dump field, no analogous sysdumpdev operation is performed.
This leaves the system values in the appropriate state, even for a migration or system backup image
installation. If a COPYDIR is specified but FORCECOPY is not specified, the value of the
forcecopydump attribute is retrieved from the /etc/objrepos/SWservAt file to determine the correct
form of sysdumpdev to invoke.
Using the bosinst.data file
The values in the bosinst.data file for this example are not specific to a network installation and can be
applied for other types of installations, such as a mksysb installation.
Note: The depicted values illustrate formatting only and do not apply to your installation.
For information about a bosinst.data variable or values, see “bosinst.data file stanza descriptions” on
page 38.
To check the contents of your customized bosinst.data file, use the bicheck command, as follows:
/usr/lpp/bosinst/bicheck filename
bosinst.data file nonprompted network installation:
An example of a modified bosinst.data file is shown that might be used in a nonprompted network
installation.
control_flow:
CONSOLE = Default
INSTALL_METHOD = overwrite
PROMPT = no
EXISTING_SYSTEM_OVERWRITE = yes
INSTALL_X_IF_ADAPTER = yes
RUN_STARTUP = yes
RM_INST_ROOTS = no
ERROR_EXIT =
CUSTOMIZATION_FILE =
TCB = no
INSTALL_TYPE =
BUNDLES =
46
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
RECOVER_DEVICES = no
BOSINST_DEBUG = no
ACCEPT_LICENSES = yes
DESKTOP = NONE
INSTALL_DEVICES_AND_UPDATES = yes
IMPORT_USER_VGS =
ENABLE_64BIT_KERNEL = Default
CREATE_JFS2_FS = Default
ALL_DEVICES_KERNELS = yes
GRAPHICS_BUNDLE = yes
MOZILLA_BUNDLE = no
KERBEROS_5_BUNDLE = no
SERVER_BUNDLE = no
REMOVE_JAVA_118 = no
HARDWARE_DUMP = yes
ADD_CDE = no
ADD_GNOME = no
ADD_KDE = no
ERASE_ITERATIONS = 0
ERASE_PATTERNS =
target_disk_data:
LOCATION =
SIZE_MB =
HDISKNAME =
locale:
BOSINST_LANG =
CULTURAL_CONVENTION =
MESSAGES =
KEYBOARD =
mksysb_migration_device
The device type or name where the mksysb image can be located when describing how to perform a
mksysb or migration operation.
For a network installation, the mksysb image device must be a network resource and the value of
″network″ needs to be specified with this variable. For an installation from media, the mksysb image
device needs to be specified using the device logical name as known to AIX (such as /dev/cd0,
/dev/rmt0).
Installing new and complete BOS overwrite or preservation
Use these steps to install Base Operating System new and complete overwrite or preservation.
Step 1. Completing the prerequisites
Complete these prerequisites before starting the BOS installation.
Before starting the installation, complete the following prerequisites:
v There must be adequate disk space and memory available. AIX 5.2 and AIX 5.3 require 256–512 MB of
memory and 2.2 GB of physical disk space. For additional release information, see the AIX Release
Notes that correspond to the level of your AIX operating system.
v All requisite hardware, including any external devices (such as tape drives, CD-ROM or DVD-ROM
drives), must be physically connected. If you need further information, refer to the hardware
documentation that accompanied your system.
v The installation media must be loaded in the boot device.
v The system must be set to boot from the device in which the installation media is loaded. Refer to the
hardware documentation that accompanied your system for instructions on setting the boot device.
v Before you begin the installation, other users who have access to your system must be logged off.
Installation and migration
47
v If the system you are installing is currently running, create or locate a backup of the system. For
instructions on how to create a system backup, refer to “Creating system backups” on page 141.
v If your system needs to communicate with other systems and access their resources, make sure you
have the information in the following worksheet before proceeding with installation:
Table 8. Network Configuration Information Worksheet
Network Attribute
Value
Network Adapter
Host Name
IP Address
_______.________.________.________
Network Mask
_______.________.________.________
Nameserver
_______.________.________.________
Domain Name
Gateway
_______.________.________.________
Step 2. Preparing your system for installation
Prepare for a new and complete overwrite or preservation installation.
Do the following:
1. Insert the AIX Volume 1 media into the media device.
2. Shut down your system. If your machine is currently running, power it off by following these steps:
a. Log in as the root user.
b. Type the following command:
shutdown -F
c. If your system does not automatically power off, place the power switch in the Off (0) position.
Attention: You must not turn on the system unit until instructed to do so in “Step 4. Booting
from your installation media” on page 49.
3. Turn on all attached external devices. These include the following:
v Terminals
v CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drives
v Tape drives
v Monitors
v External disk drives
Turning on the external devices first is necessary so the system unit can identify each peripheral
device during the startup (boot) process.
Step 3. Setting up an ASCII terminal
Follow these criteria for setting the communications, keyboard, and display options on an ASCII terminal.
If you are using a graphics terminal, skip directly to “Step 4. Booting from your installation media” on
page 49.
If you are using an ASCII terminal, use the criteria listed below and your terminal reference
documentation to set the communications, keyboard, and display options. The following settings are
typical, but your terminal might have different option names and settings than those listed here.
Note: If your terminal is an IBM 3151, 3161, or 3164, press the Ctrl+Setup keys to display the Setup
Menu and follow the on-screen instructions to set these options.
48
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Communication Options
Option
Setting
Line Speed (baud rate)
9600
Word Length (bits per character)
8
Parity
no (none)
Number of Stop Bits
1
Interface
RS-232C (or RS-422A)
Line Control
IPRTS
Keyboard and Display Options
Option
Setting
Screen
normal
Row and Column
24x80
Scroll
jump
Auto LF (line feed)
off
Line Wrap
on
Forcing Insert
line (or both)
Tab
field
Operating Mode
echo
Turnaround Character
CR
Enter
return
Return
new line
New Line
CR
Send
page
Insert Character
space
Step 4. Booting from your installation media
Follow this procedure for booting from your installation media.
1. Turn the system unit power switch from Off (0) to On (|).
2. When the system beeps twice, press F5 on the keyboard (or 5 on an ASCII terminal). If you have a
graphics display, you will see the keyboard icon on the screen when the beeps occur. If you have an
ASCII terminal (also called a tty terminal), you will see the word keyboard when the beeps occur.
Note: If your system does not boot using the F5 key (or the 5 key on an ASCII terminal), refer to
your hardware documentation for information about how to boot your system from an AIX product
media.
The system begins booting from the installation media.
3. If you have more than one console, each might display a window that directs you to press a key to
identify your system console. A different key is specified for each console displaying this window. If
this window displays, press the specified key only on the console you want to use for the installation.
(The system console is the keyboard and display device used for installation and system
administration.)
A window displays, asking you to select a language to be used during installation.
4. Select the language you prefer to use during installation.
Installation and migration
49
5. When the Welcome to Base Operating System Installation and Maintenance window displays, type 2
in the Choice field to select Change/Show Installation Settings and Install and press Enter. Go to
“Step 5. Verifying or changing the installation settings” for instructions on verifying or changing
installation settings.
Step 5. Verifying or changing the installation settings
Follow this procedure for verifying or changing the installation settings.
Verify the default installation settings from the Installation and Settings window. If the installation and
system settings are correct, type 0 in the Choice field and press Enter. Confirm that the selections on the
installation summary window are correct, and press Enter to begin the BOS installation. Go to “Step 6.
Finishing the BOS installation” on page 51.
To change the installation settings, use the following procedure:
1. Select either New and Complete Overwrite Installation or Preservation Installation.
a. Type 1 in the Choice field to select the System Settings option.
b. When the Change Method of Installation window displays, type the number corresponding to
desired installation (either 1 for New and Complete Overwrite or 2 for Preservation) in the Choice
field and press Enter.
Note: Available installation methods depend on whether your system has a previous version of
AIX installed.
If you only want to install the next recommended maintenance or technology level of AIX, see
“Preparing to install optional software products and service updates” on page 72. You can also use
the SMIT update_all fast path or the install_all_updates command to update existing filesets to
the next recommended maintenance or technology level.
c. When the Change Disk(s) window displays, you can change the destination disk for the
installation. If you selected the preservation installation, the window lists only disks containing a
rootvg.
The disk name, the location, the size of the disk, and the root volume group status is displayed for
each available disk. The Bootable column indicates whether the disk is bootable. Type 77 to select
Display More Disk Information to view additional disk attributes such as physical volume
identifier, device adapter connection location, or World Wide Port Name//Lun ID.
If the default shown is correct, type 0 in the Choice field and press Enter. To change the
destination disk, use the following procedure:
1) Type the number for each disk you choose in the Choice field and press Enter. Do not press
Enter a final time until you have finished selecting all disks. If you need to deselect a disk,
type its number a second time and press Enter.
v You can specify a supplemental disk by typing 66 and pressing the Enter key for the Disks
not known to Base Operating System Installation option. This option opens a new menu
that prompts for a device support media for the supplemental disk. The device-support
media is only needed when the device cannot configure with the generic SCSI or
bus-attached device drivers. BOS installation configures the system for the disk and then
returns to the Change Disk window.
v If this is an overwrite installation, you can specify to erase the disks chosen to be installed
before the installation occurs by typing 55 and pressing the Enter key for the More Disk
Options option. This option opens a new menu that prompts for the number of patterns to
write, which is the number of times the drive will be overwritten. If you choose 0 for the
number of patterns to write, the disks will not be erased prior to installation. This menu also
prompts for the patterns to be used for each disk erasure. The patterns are a choice of the
hexadecimal values 00,a5,5a, or ff. For example, a pattern of 00 will write all zeros to the
50
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
drive. Erasing a drive is a time consuming process and only drive types that are supported
by the diag command can take advantage of this option (for example, erasure of IDE drives
are not supported).
2) When you have finished selecting the disks, type 0 in the Choice field and press Enter. The
Installation and Settings window displays with the selected disks listed under System
Settings.
2. Change the primary language environment, if needed. Use the following steps to change the primary
language used by this installation.
Note: Changes to the primary language environment do not take effect until after BOS is installed
and your system is rebooted.
a. Type 2 in the Choice field on the Installation and Settings window to select the Primary Language
Environment Settings option.
b. Select the appropriate set of cultural convention, language, and keyboard options. Most of the
options are a predefined combination, however, you can define your own combination of options.
v To select a predefined Primary Language Environment, type that number in the Choice field
and press Enter.
v To configure your own primary language environment:
1) Select MORE CHOICES.
2) Page through the choices and select the Create Your Own Combination option.
3) When the Set Primary Cultural Convention window displays, type the number in the
Choice field that corresponds to the cultural convention of your choice and press Enter.
4) When the Set Primary Language window displays, type the number in the Choice field that
corresponds to your choice for the primary language and press Enter.
5) When the Set Keyboard window displays, type the number in the Choice field that
corresponds to the keyboard attached to the system and press Enter.
3. Change the installation options by typing 3 to select More Options and press Enter. For more
information on the installation options, see “BOS installation options” on page 35.
4. Verify your selections in the installation summary window and press Enter to begin the BOS
installation process.
Your system automatically reboots after installation is complete. Go to “Step 6. Finishing the BOS
installation.”
Step 6. Finishing the BOS installation
Follow this procedure for finishing the BOS installation.
1. The Installing Base Operating System window displays the status of your installation.
After the base run-time environment is installed, status information displays about other software that
is being installed.
2. The system automatically reboots.
3. After the system has restarted, you are prompted to configure your installation. For information on
configuring your system after a BOS installation process, refer to “Configuring AIX” on page 127.
Note: If the system being installed has 4 GB or more of memory and you have performed an overwrite
installation, then a dedicated dump device is created for you. If so, the device name is /dev/lg_dumplv,
and its size is based on the following formula:
4>= RAM < 12
12>= RAM < 24
24>= RAM < 48
RAM >= 48
size
size
size
size
of
of
of
of
dump
dump
dump
dump
device=
device=
device=
device=
1
2
3
4
GB
GB
GB
GB
Installation and migration
51
Related information
Links to information related to BOS installation are listed.
v For additional release information, see the AIX Release Notes that correspond to your level of AIX.
v For late-breaking information, which might include information about the configuration process and
installed software, refer to the readme files.
v For information about installing optional software, refer to “Preparing to install optional software
products and service updates” on page 72.
iSCSI disk installation
AIX supports installing the Base Operating System to an iSCSI disk.
To configure an iSCSI disk for Base Operating System use, you must supply several parameters before
beginning the installation. The following parameters should be gathered:
v Adapter Name: Name of network adapter used for iSCSI. For iSCSI TOE adapters, this field is
formatted ics#, where # is a number. For the iSCSI SW Initiator, this field should be the Ethernet
interface name and is formatted en#, where # is a number.
v IP Address of Adapter: IP address that is assigned to the adapter specified by Adapter Name.
v IP Address of Gateway: IP address of gateway used by the adapter specified by Adapter Name.
v Subnet Mask: Subnet mask assigned to the adapter specified by Adapter Name.
v iSCSI Target Name: Name configured for the iSCSI Target. Consult your iSCSI vendor’s
documentation for more information.
v iSCSI Initiator Name: Initiator name configured for the iSCSI Target. Consult your iSCSI vendor’s
documentation for more information.
v Port Number: Port Number configured for the iSCSI Target. Consult your iSCSI vendor’s
documentation for more information.
v IP Address of Target: IP Address configured for the iSCSI Target. Consult your iSCSI vendor’s
documentation for more information.
Notes:
1. Consult your iSCSI vendor’s documentation for more information.
2. IPv6 support for iSCSI disk installation is not supported.
For prompted installs of AIX, these parameters can be submitted using the iSCSI configuration menus.
For non-prompted installs of AIX, these parameters can be supplied using the bosinst.data file stanza
descriptions.
Only one iSCSI target can be configured for the root volume group used to install the Base Operating
System. The root volume group cannot be created by combining iSCSI disks with non-iSCSI disks.
Using the iSCSI configuration menus
The iSCSI configuration menus can be accessed from the main menu of Base Operating System menus.
To access the iSCSI configuration menus, perform the following steps:
1. From the Base Operating System (BOS) menus, select Welcome to Base Operating System
Installation and Maintenance.
2. Choose the Configure Network Disks (iSCSI) option to load the iSCSI configuration menus.
3. At the Configure iSCSI SMIT menu, select the iSCSI Configuration option.
4. Enter the iSCSI parameters and press Enter.
After the menu is submitted, you can see the output from the configuration commands, as well as
output listing the iSCSI disks that have successfully been configured.
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
5. If the correct iSCSI disks have been configured, proceed to BOS installation by pressing F10 to exit to
BOS menus.
6. Select Change/Show Installation Settings and Install to select the iSCSI disks for installation.
Accessing maintenance mode to recover iSCI parameters
If you are unable to start the BOS from an iSCSI disk, you might need to access maintenance mode to
reconfigure the iSCSI parameters used during boot.
Access maintenance mode using a CD or DVD boot with the installation media. For more information,
see Accessing the system if unable to boot from the hard disk. Maintenance mode can also be accessed by
starting the network using NIM. For more information, see Booting in maintenance mode. After you have
accessed maintenance mode, perform the following steps:
1. Select Configure Network Disks (iSCSI). The iSCSI configuration menus are launched.
Note: If you supplied all of the iSCSI parameters through a bosinst.data file using NIM, this step
might not be required.
When the correct disk has been configured, exit the iSCSI configuration menus.
2. At the Maintenance menu, save the iSCSI configuration parameters for the disk configured in the
previous step to the root volume group on the disk. Select option 1, Access a Root Volume Group.
The Warning screen is displayed.
3. Read the information displayed on the Warning screen. When you are ready to continue, type 0 and
press Enter. The Access a Root Volume Group menu is displayed.
4. Select the root volume group on the disk that was configured in Step 2. After entering your selection,
the Volume Group Information menu is displayed.
Note: Reviewing the disk and location code information on the Volume Group Information menu
enables you to determine whether the volume group you selected was the root volume group. You
can return to the Access a Root Volume Group screen if the choice you made was not the root volume
group. If you have not chosen a root volume group, you cannot continue beyond the Volume Group
Information menu.
5. Select Choice 1 from the Volume Group Information menu and press Enter. A shell and system
prompt is displayed.
6. At the system prompt, run the update_iscsi command to save the iSCSI configuration to the root
volume group. The system can now be restarted using the updated iSCSI parameters.
For more information, see Using the iSCSI configuration menus.
Installing to an alternate disk
Alternate disk installation lets you install the operating system while it is still up and running, which
reduces installation or upgrade downtime considerably.
Alternate disk installation also allows large facilities to better manage an upgrade because systems can be
installed over a longer period of time. While the systems are still running at the previous version, the
switch to the newer version can happen at the same time.
Alternate disk installation filesets
An alternate disk installation uses these filesets.
Installation and migration
53
bos.alt_disk_install.boot_images
bos.alt_disk_install.rte
Must be installed for alternate disk mksysb installations.
Must be installed for rootvg cloning and alternate disk mksysb
installations.
Installing an alternate mksysb disk
Alternate mksysb installation involves installing a mksysb image that has already been created from a
system, onto an alternate disk of the target system. The alternate disk or disks cannot contain a volume
group.
The mksysb image is created on a system that either was the same hardware configuration as the target
system, or had all the device and kernel support installed for a different machine type or platform, or
different devices. The installed device and kernel support would be as follows:
v devices.*
v bos.mp
v bos.mp64, if necessary
Note: Beginning in AIX 5.2, all device and kernel support is automatically installed during a base
operating system installation.
When the alt_disk_install command is run, the image.data file from the mksysb image is used by
default (unless a customized image.data is given) to create the logical volumes and file systems. The
prefix alt_ is added to the logical volume names, and the file systems are created with a prefix of
/alt_inst. For example, hd2 would be created as alt_hd2, and its file system, 1, would be created as
/alt_inst/usr. These names are changed back to their original names at the end of the alternate disk
installation process.
The mksysb image is then restored into the alternate file system. A prepopulated boot image is then
copied to the boot logical volume of the altinst_rootvg, and the boot record of the boot disk is modified
to allow booting from the disk.
At this point, a script can be run to allow for any customization before the system is rebooted. The
alternate file systems are still mounted as /alt_inst/real_file_system (for example: /alt_inst/usr,
/alt_inst/home). Files can be accessed at this point, but nothing can be installed into the alternate file
system because the kernels and libraries of the mksysb image may not match those of the running
system.
After the optional script is run, the file systems are unmounted, and the logical volume and file system
names are changed to match the image.data file’s names (for example, alt_inst_hd6 is changed to hd6 in
the volume group descriptor area). The logical volumes are exported from the Object Data Manager
(ODM), but the altinst_rootvg is only varied off. It is left in the ODM as a placeholder so the disk is not
accidentally overwritten. The default action of the alt_disk_install command is to set the bootlist so that
the next time the system boots, it boots from this newly installed volume group. This default action can
be turned off. If specified, the system reboots at this point, and the system reboots from the new rootvg.
The boot process proceeds to a certain point, with the new rootvg’s file systems mounted, and the
bosboot command is called to rebuild a ″normal″ boot logical volume. The system then reboots.
After rebooting from the new alternate disk, the former rootvg volume group is contained in an lspv
listing as old_rootvg, and includes all disk(s) in the original rootvg. This former rootvg volume group is
set to not varyon at reboot and should only be removed with the -X flag. For example:
alt_disk_install -X old_rootvg
1. /usr
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
If a return to the original rootvg is necessary, the bootlist command is used to change the bootlist to
reboot from the original rootvg.
If it is unclear which disk is the boot disk for a specific volume group, use the -q flag to determine the
boot disk. This flag can be useful when a volume group comprises multiple disks and a change in the
bootlist is necessary.
Cloning the rootvg to an alternate disk
Cloning the rootvg to an alternate disk has many advantages. One advantage is having an online backup
available, in case of a disk crash. Keeping an online backup requires an extra disk or disks to be available
on the system.
Another benefit of rootvg cloning occurs when applying new maintenance or technology level updates. A
copy of the rootvg is made to an alternate disk, then updates are applied to that copy. The system runs
uninterrupted during this time. When it is rebooted, the system boots from the newly updated rootvg for
testing. If updates cause problems, the old_rootvg can be retrieved by resetting the bootlist and then
rebooting.
By default, calling the alt_disk_install command does the following:
1. Creates an /image.data file based on the current rootvg’s configuration. A customized image.data
file can be used.
2. Creates an alternate rootvg (altinst_rootvg).
3. Creates logical volumes and file systems with the alt_inst prefix.
4. Generates a backup file list from the rootvg, and if an exclude.list file is given, those files are
excluded from the list.
5. Copies the final list to the altinst_rootvg’s file systems.
6. If specified, the installp command installs updates, fixes, or new filesets into the alternate file
system.
7. The bosboot command creates a boot logical volume on the alternate boot disk.
8. If a customization script is specified, it runs at this point.
9. The file systems are then unmounted, and the logical volumes and file systems are renamed.
10. The logical volume definitions are exported from the system to avoid confusion with identical ODM
names, but the altinst_rootvg definition is left as an ODM placeholder.
11. By default, the bootlist is set to the new cloned rootvg for the next reboot.
Performing an alternate disk phased installation:
For AIX 4.3.1 and later, alternate disk installation can be performed in stages.
The installation is broken down into three phases. The default is to perform all three phases in the same
invocation. The phases are as follows:
Phase 1
Phase 2
Phase 3
Creates the altinst_rootvg volume group, the alt_ logical volumes, and the /alt_inst file systems.
Also restores the mksysb or rootvg data.
Runs any specified customization script. For cloning only, installs updates, new filesets, fixes, or
bundles. Also copies a resolv.conf file (if specified) and necessary files to remain a NIM client (if
specified).
Unmounts the /alt_inst file systems, renames the file systems and logical volumes, removes the
alt_ logical volume names from ODM, and varies off the altinst_rootvg. It also sets the bootlist
and reboots (if specified).
As an alternative to running all three phases, the phases can be completed by one of the following
methods:
v Each phase separately
Installation and migration
55
v Phases 1 and 2 together
v Phases 2 and 3 together (Phase 2 can be run multiple times before Phase 3 is run.)
You must run Phase 3 to obtain a usable rootvg. Running Phases 1 and 2 leave the /alt_inst file systems
mounted. Any time during the phase process and before rebooting, the altinst_rootvg can be removed,
and disk cleanup occurs using the following command:
alt_disk_install -X
Performing an alternate disk migration installation
Alternate disk migration installation allows you to create a copy of rootvg to a free disk, or disks, and
simultaneously migrate it through Network Installation Management (NIM) to a new release level.
Using alternate disk migration installation compared to a conventional migration provides the following
advantages:
v Reduced downtime; the migration is performed while the system is up normally, and there is no need
to boot from any media.
v Quick recovery in case of migration failure.
v High degree of flexibility and customization.
Reduced downtime. The migration is performed while the system is up and functioning. There is no
requirement to boot from install media, and the majority of processing occurs on the NIM master.
Quick recovery in the event of migration failure. Because you are creating a copy of rootvg, all changes
are performed to the copy (altinst_rootvg). In the event of serious migration installation failure, the failed
migration is cleaned up, and there is no need for the administrator to take further action. In the event of
a problem with the new (migrated) level of AIX, the system can be quickly returned to the premigration
operating system by booting from the original disk.
High degree of flexibility and customization in the migration process. This is done with the use of
optional NIM customization resources including image_data, bosinst_data, exclude_files, premigration
script, installp_bundle, and post-migration script.
Network Install Manager Alternate Disk Migration (nimadm) is a utility that allows you to do the
following:
v Create a copy of rootvg to a free disk, or disks, and simultaneously migrate it to a new version or
release level of AIX.
v Using a copy of rootvg, create a new nim mksysb resource that has been migrated to a new version or
release level of AIX.
v Using a nim mksysb resource, create a new nim mksysb resource that has been migrated to a new
version or release level of AIX.
v Using a nim mksysb resource, restore to a free disk, or disks, simultaneously migrating it to a new
version or release level of AIX.
nimadm uses NIM resources to perform these functions.
For more information about the nimadm command, refer to the AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference.
Preparing for an alternate disk migration:
These are the requirements for an alternate disk migration installation.
v Configured NIM master running AIX 5.1 or later with AIX recommended maintenance level 5100-03 or
later.
v The NIM master must have bos.alt_disk_install.rte installed in its rootvg and the SPOT which will be
used.
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
v The level of the fileset, which includes the bos.alt_disk_install.rte file and
bos.alt_disk_install.boot_images file, on the NIM master rootvg, lpp_source, and SPOT must be at the
same level.
v The client (the system to be migrated) must be at AIX 4.3.2 or later.
v The client must have a disk (or disks) large enough to clone the rootvg and an additional 500 MB
(approximately) of free space for the migration. The total amount of required space will depend on
original system configuration and migration customization.
v The client must be a registered NIM client to the master.
v The nim master must be able to execute remote commands on the client using the rshd protocol.
v The client must have a minimum of 256–512 MBs of memory.
v A reliable network, which can facilitate large amounts of NFS traffic, must exists between the NIM
master and the client.
v The client’s hardware should support the level it is migrating to and meet all other conventional
migration requirements.
Note: If you cannot meet the alternate disk migration installation requirements 1-10, perform a
conventional migration. For information on the conventional migration installation method, see
“Migrating AIX” on page 130. If you cannot meet requirement 11, no migration installation is possible.
Before performing an alternate disk migration installation, you are required to agree to all software
license agreements for software to be installed. You can do this by specifying the -Y flag as an argument
to the alternate disk migration command or setting the ADM_ACCEPT_LICENSES environment variable
to yes.
Alternate disk migration limitations:
These limitations apply to alternate disk migration installations.
The limitations are:
v If the client’s rootvg has the Trusted Computing Base option enabled, either disable it (permanently) or
perform a conventional migration. TCB must access file metadata that is not visible over NFS.
v All NIM resources used must be local to the NIM master.
v During the migration, the client’s active rootvg may experience a small performance decrease due to
increased disk I/O, nfsd activity, and some CPU usage associated with alt_disk_install cloning.
v NFS tuning may be required to optimize performance.
Alternate disk migration installation usage:
The syntax for the alternate disk migration installation command is described.
The syntax is:
nimadm -l
[-a
[-e
[-P
lpp_source -c NIMclient -s SPOT -d Targetdisks
PreMigrationScript] [-b installp_bundle] [-z PostMigrationScript]
exclude_files] [-i image_data] [-m NFSMountOptions] [-o bosinst_data]
Phases] [-Y] [-F] [-D] [-E] [-V] [{ -B | -r }]
Use the nimadm command to target the aix1 NIM client, using the spot1 NIM SPOT resource, the lpp1
NIM lpp_source resource, and hdisk1 and hdisk2 target disks, by typing the following:
nimadm -c aix1 -s spot1 -l lpp1 -d "hdisk1 hdisk2" -Y
Use the -Y flag to agree to all required software license agreements for the software being installed
Installing alternate disk migration:
Installation and migration
57
The nimadm command performs a migration in 12 phases.
Each phase can be executed individually using the -P flag. Before performing a migration in phases, you
should have a good understanding of the nimadm process. The nimadm phases are as follows:
1. The master issues the alt_disk_install command to the client, which makes a copy of the rootvg to
the target disks (this is Phase 1 of the alt_disk_install process). In this phase, altinst_rootvg
(alternate rootvg) is created. If a target mksysb has been specified, the mksysb is used to create a
rootvg using local disk caching on the NIM master.
2. The master runs remote client commands to export all of the /alt_inst file systems to the master.
The file systems are exported as read/write with root access to the master. If a target mksysb has
been specified, the cache file systems are created based on the image.data from the mksysb.
3. The master NFS mounts the file systems exported in Phase 2. If a target mskysb has been specified,
the mksysb archive is restored into the cache file systems created in Phase 2.
4. If a premigration script resource has been specified, it is executed at this time.
5. System configuration files are saved. Initial migration space is calculated and appropriate file
system expansions are made. The bos image is restored and the device database is merged (similar
to a conventional migration). All of the migration merge methods are executed and some
miscellaneous processing takes place.
6. All system filesets are migrated using installp. Any required RPM images are also installed during
this phase.
7. If a post-migration script resource has been specified, it is executed at this time.
8. The bosboot command is run to create a client boot image, which is written to the client’s boot
logical volume (hd5).
9. All mounts made on the master in phase 3 are removed.
10. All client exports created in phase 2 are removed.
11. The alt_disk_install command is called again (phase 3 of alt_disk_install) to make final adjustments
and put altinst_rootvg to sleep. The bootlist is set to the target disk (unless the -B flag is used). If an
output mksysb has been specified, the cache is archived into a mksysb file, and made a nim mksysb
resource.
12. Cleanup is executed to end the migration. The client is rebooted, if the -r flag is specified.
Note: The nimadm command supports migrating several clients at the same time.
Accessing data between the original rootvg and the new alternate disk
You can initiate data access between the original rootvg and the new alternate disk.
A volume group ″wake-up″ can be accomplished, on the non-booted volume group. The ″wake-up″ puts
the volume group in a post alt_disk_install Phase 1 state. For example, the /alt_inst file system is then
mounted.
The volume group that experiences the ″wake-up″ is renamed altinst_rootvg. When data access is no
longer needed, the volume group can be ″put to sleep.″
Note:
1. The running operating system’s version must be greater than or equal to the version of the volume
group that undergoes the ″wake-up.″ This might mean that it is necessary to boot from the
altinst_rootvg and ″wake-up″ the old_rootvg. For example, an alternate disk is created from an
alt_disk_install AIX 5.2 mksysb, on a AIX 4.3.0 system. It is then necessary to boot from the AIX 5.2
alternate disk and ″wake-up″ the AIX 4.3.0 old_rootvg volume group to access data between the two
volume groups.
This limitation is caused by a journaled file system (JFS) log entry incompatibility. It is possible to
″wake-up″ a volume group that contains a more recent version, but the volume group cannot have
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
ever been the system rootvg. If this was true, the volume group would have made JFS log entries that
could not be interpreted by an older version rootvg, when the volume group was experiencing a
″wake-up.″
The alt_disk_install command does not allow a ″wake-up″ to occur on a volume group with a more
recent version, unless the FORCE environment variable is set to yes.
2. The volume group that experiences a ″wake-up″ must be put to sleep before it can be booted and used
as the rootvg.
Attention: If a FORCE ″wake-up″ is attempted on a volume group that contains a more recent
version of the running operating system, and the ″waking″ volume group has been a system rootvg,
errors occur.
Installing to an alternate disk using Web-based System Manager
The graphical interface provides access to Web-based System Manager options for installing a mksysb to
an alternate disk and for cloning a rootvg to the alternate disk.
At any time during the following procedures, you can view extended help by selecting Contents from the
Help menu.
To install a mksysb to an alternate disk, do the following:
1. Start the Web-based System Manager by typing wsm on the command line.
2. Select the Software container.
3. From the pulldown, select Alternate Disk Install → Install Mksysb on an Alternate Disk.
To clone the rootvg to an alternate disk, do the following:
1. Start the Web-based System Manager by typing wsm on the command line.
2. Select the Software container.
3. From the pulldown, select Alternate Disk Install → Clone the Rootvg to an Alternate Disk.
Running alternate disk installation using SMIT
The procedure for running alternate disk installation using SMIT is described.
To run alternate disk mksysb installation, do the following:
1. At the system prompt, type the smit alt_mksysb fast path.
2. Type or select values in the entry fields. Press Enter after making all desired changes.
To run alternate disk rootvg cloning, do the following:
1. At the system prompt, type the smit alt_clone fast path.
2. Type or select values in the entry fields. Press Enter after making all desired changes.
Installing an alternate disk through dynamic logical partitioning
On a system that supports dynamic logical partitioning (DLPAR), you can dynamically add an adapter
with disks to a running logical partition (LPAR). You can then install a new rootvg volume group to these
newly added target disks using the alt_disk_install command with either the clone or mksysb option.
If you are running the alt_disk_install command with dynamically added target disks on an LPAR
system, the following flags might be used:
-O
If the target disk will be used to boot an LPAR other than the one where the operation is being
executed, use the -O flag to reset the device information.
-B
This flag prevents the bootlist command from being run. A general limitation of dynamically
Installation and migration
59
added disks is that you can not specify them as a boot device (before an initial reboot operation).
If you are attempting to boot an LPAR from dynamically added disks, set the boot list in the
system management services (SMS) menus.
-g
This flag causes the alt_disk_install command to run without checking if the disk is bootable.
Dynamically added disks do not appear bootable to AIX until after a reboot operation. The user
will need to verify that the newly added adapter and disks are bootable.
Installing an alternate disk: examples
Examples of alternate disk installation are shown.
To install an alternate disk, perform one of the following procedures:
1. To clone the rootvg running 4.3.2.0 to hdisk1 and update that clone with the latest maintenance level
4.3.3.0 that is on cd0, run the following command:
alt_disk_install -C -b update_all -l /dev/cd0 hdisk1
In SMIT, use the smit alt_clone fast path and select hdisk1 from the listing for Target Disk(s) to
install, select the update_all bundle from the listings in the Bundle to Install field, and /dev/cd0 from
the listing in the Directory or Device with images field.
2. To clone the rootvg running 4.3.2 to hdisk3, then update to the latest fixes that are mounted from
another system on /433fixes, and run a customized script named /tmp/finish_alt_install, run the
following command:
alt_disk_install -C -b update_all -l /433fixes \
-s /tmp/finish_alt_install hdisk3
In SMIT, use the smit alt_clone fast path and select hdisk3 from the listing for Target Disk(s) to
install, select the update_all bundle from the listings in the Bundle to Install field, type /433fixes in
the Directory or Device with images field, and type /tmp/finish_alt_install in the Customization
script field.
3. To install an AIX 5.2 mksysb tape that was created from a machine with the same hardware
configuration as the target, to hdisk1, run the following command:
alt_disk_install -d /dev/rmt0 hdisk1
In SMIT, use the smit alt_mksysb fast path and select hdisk1 from the listing for Target Disk(s) to
install field and select /dev/rmt0 from the listing for Device or image name field.
4. To install an AIX 5.2 mksysb image that is NFS mounted on file system /mksysbs to the alternate disk
hdisk2 using a customized image.data file and an exclude file containing ^./tmp/, type the following
command:
alt_disk_install -d /mksysbs/my_52_mksysb -i /mksysbs/my_52_image.data \
-e /mksysbs/my_exclude_file hdisk2
Using the ^./tmp/ pattern does not backup files in the /tmp directory, but does backup files in the
/var/tmp directory.
Note: All files are backed up relative to the current directory. This directory is represented by a .
(dot character). If it is important that the search match the string at the beginning of the line
when excluding a file or directory, it is necessary to use a ^. (caret followed by a dot character)
as the first part of the search string, followed by the filename or directory to be excluded. The
form is as follows:
^./filename
If the file name or directory being excluded is a substring of another file name or directory, use a
^. (caret followed by a dot character) for the search to start at the beginning of the line and the $
(dollar symbol) to have the search finish at the end of the line.
In SMIT, use the smit alt_mksysb fast path and select hdisk2 in the Target Disk(s) to install field.
Next, type /mksysbs/my_52_mksysb in the Device or image name field, /mksysbs/my_52_image.data in
the image.data file field, and /mksysbs/my_exclude_file in the Exclude list field.
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
5. To ″wake-up″ an original rootvg, after booting from the new alternate disk, run the following
command:
alt_disk_install -W hdisk0
The following example illustrates the output that might display when running the command
discussed above:
# lspv
hdisk0
hdisk1
000040445043d9f3
00076443210a72ea
old_rootvg
rootvg
# alt_disk_install -W hdisk0
# lspv
hdisk0
hdisk1
000040445043d9f3
00076443210a72ea
altinst_rootvg
rootvg
At this point, the altinst_rootvg volume group is varied-on and the /alt_inst file systems are mounted.
6. To ″put-to-sleep″ a volume group that had experienced a ″wake-up,″ type the following command:
alt_disk_install -S
The following example illustrates the output that might display when running the command
previously discussed:
# lspv
hdisk0
hdisk1
000040445043d9f3
00076443210a72ea
altinst_rootvg
rootvg
# alt_disk_install -S
# lspv
hdisk0
hdisk1
000040445043d9f3
00076443210a72ea
altinst_rootvg
rootvg
The altinst_rootvg is no longer varied on and the /alt_inst file systems are no longer mounted. If
necessary for the altinst_rootvg volume group name to be changed back to old_rootvg, do this task
with the -v flag.
Using the multibos utility
The multibos utility allows you, as root, to create multiple instances of AIX on the same root volume
group (rootvg).
The multibos setup operation creates a standby Base Operating System (BOS) that boots from a distinct
Boot Logical Volume (BLV). This creates two bootable instances of BOSes on a given rootvg. You can boot
from either instance of a BOS by specifying the respective BLV as an argument to the bootlist command,
or using system firmware boot operations.
You can simultaneously maintain two bootable instances of a BOS. The instance of a BOS associated with
the booted BLV is the active BOS. The instance of a BOS associated with the BLV that has not been booted
is the standby BOS. Only two instances of BOS are supported per rootvg.
The multibos utility allows you to access, install, maintain, update, and customize the standby BOS
either during setup or during any subsequent customization operations. Installing maintenance or
technology level updates to the standby BOS does not change system files on the active BOS. This allows
for concurrent update of the standby BOS, while the active BOS remains in production.
The multibos utility has the ability to copy or share logical volumes and file systems. By default, the
multibos utility copies the BOS file systems (currently the /, /usr, /var, /opt, and /home directories),
associated log devices, and the boot logical volume. You can make copies of additional BOS objects (see
the –L flag). All other file systems and logical volumes are shared between instances of the BOS. Separate
log device logical volumes (those not contained within the file system) are not supported for copy and
will be shared.
Installation and migration
61
Requirements of the multibos utility
The multibos utility has requirements for operating system, space, and logical volumes.
Following are the general requirements and limitations:
v The multibos utility is supported on AIX 5L Version 5.3 with the 5300-03 Recommended Maintenance
package and higher versions.
v The current rootvg must have enough space for each BOS object copy. BOS object copies are placed on
the same disk or disks as the original.
v The total number of copied logical volumes cannot exceed 128. The total number of copied logical
volumes and shared logical volumes are subject to volume group limits.
Standby BOS setup operation
The standby BOS setup operation is described.
The multibos setup operation, using the -s flag, performs the following steps:
1. The multibos methods are initialized.
2. If you provide a customized image.data file, it is used for the logical volume attributes. Otherwise, a
new one is generated. You can use the customized image.data file to change BOS object (logical
volume or file systems) attributes. You cannot use the customized image.data file to add or delete
BOS logical volumes or file systems.
3. The standby logical volumes are created based on image.data attributes. The active and standby
logical volumes are marked with unique tags in the logical volume control block. The multibos
utility uses these tags to identify copied logical volumes. If the active logical volume names are
classic names, such as hd2, hd4, hd5, and so on, then the bos_ prefix is prepended to create a new
standby name. If the active logical volume names have the bos_ prefix, the prefix is removed to
create a new standby name.
Note: The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) limits the maximum length of a logical volume name to
15 characters. This means that any logical volume classic name may not exceed 11 characters. You
can rename logical volumes that have classic names that exceed 11 characters using the chlv
command. If the active logical volume name already has the bos_ prefix, then the prefix is removed
in the standby name.
4. The standby file systems are created based on image.data attributes. The active and standby file
systems are marked with unique tags in the hosting logical volume control block and
/etc/filesystems. The multibos utility uses these tags to identify copied logic volumes. The
/bos_inst prefix is prepended to the original active file system name to create the standby file system
name. The standby file system name may not exceed the system’s PATH_MAX limit. The standby
file systems appear as standard entries in the active BOS /etc/filesystems.
5. The standby file systems are mounted.
6. A list of files that will be copied from the active BOS is generated. This list is comprised of the
current files in copied active BOS file systems, less any files that you excluded with the optional
exclude list (see the -e flag).
7. The list of files generated in the previous step is copied to the standby BOS file systems using the
backup and restore utilities.
8. Any optional customization is performed. This can include installation of fileset updates or other
software.
9. The standby boot image is created and written to the standby BLV using the AIX bosboot command.
You can block this step with the -N flag. Only use the -N flag if you are an experienced
administrator and have a good understanding the AIX boot process.
10. The standby BLV is set as the first boot device, and the active BLV is set as the second boot device.
You can skip this step using the -t flag.
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Automatic file system expansion
Run all multibos operations with the multibos -X flag auto-expansion feature. This flag allows for
automatic file system expansion, if space is necessary to perform multibos-related tasks.
Booting the standby BOS
The bootlist command supports multiple BLVs.
As an example, to boot from disk hdisk0 and BLV bos_hd5, you would enter the following: # bootlist
–m normal hdisk0 blv=bos_hd5. After the system is rebooted from the standby BOS, the standby BOS
logical volumes are mounted over the usual BOS mount points, such as /, /usr, /var, and so on.
The set of BOS objects, such as the BLV, logical volumes, file systems, and so on that are currently booted
are considered the active BOS, regardless of logical volume names. The previously active BOS becomes
the standby BOS in the existing boot environment.
Mounting the standby BOS
It is possible to access and modify the standby BOS by mounting its file systems over the standby BOS
file system mount points. The multibos mount operation, using the -m flag, mounts all standby BOS file
systems in the appropriate order.
Automatic file system expansion
Run all multibos operations with the multibos -X flag auto-expansion feature. This flag allows for
automatic file system expansion, if space is necessary to perform multibos-related tasks.
Preview option
The preview option, using the -p flag, applies to the setup, remove, mount, unmount, and customization
operations. If you specify the preview option, then the operation provides information about the action
that will be taken, but does not perform actual changes.
Unmounting the standby BOS
The multibos unmount operation, using the -u flag, unmounts all standby BOS file systems in the
appropriate order.
Automatic file system expansion
The multibos -X flag auto-expansion feature allows for automatic file system expansion, if space is
necessary to perform multibos-related tasks. You should execute all multibos operations with this flag.
Preview option
The preview option, using the -p flag, applies to the setup, remove, mount, unmount, and customization
operations. If you specify the preview option, then the operation provides information about the action
that will be taken, but does not perform actual changes.
Customizing the standby BOS
You can use the multibos customization operation, with the -c flag, to update the standby BOS.
The customization operation requires an image source (-l device or directory flag) and at least one
installation option (installation by bundle, installation by fix, or update_all). The customization operation
performs the following steps:
1. The standby BOS file systems are mounted, if not already mounted.
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63
2. If you specify an installation bundle with the -b flag, the installation bundle is installed using the
geninstall utility. The installation bundle syntax should follow geninstall conventions. If you specify
the -p preview flag, geninstall will perform a preview operation.
3. If you specify a fix list, with the -f flag, the fix list is installed using the instfix utility. The fix list
syntax should follow instfix conventions. If you specify the -p preview flag, then instfix will perform
a preview operation.
4. If you specify the update_all function, with the -a flag, it is performed using the install_all_updates
utility. If you specify the -p preview flag, then install_all_updates performs a preview operation.
Note: It is possible to perform one, two, or all three of the installation options during a single
customization operation.
5. The standby boot image is created and written to the standby BLV using the AIX bosboot command.
You can block this step with the -N flag. You should only use the -N flag if you are an experienced
administrator and have a good understanding the AIX boot process.
6. If standby BOS file systems were mounted in step 1, they are unmounted.
Automatic file system expansion
The multibos -X flag auto-expansion feature allows for automatic file system expansion, if space is
necessary to perform multibos-related tasks. You should run all multibos operations with this flag.
Preview option
The preview option, using the -p flag, applies to the setup, remove, mount, unmount, and customization
operations. If you specify the preview option, then the operation provides information about the action
that will be taken, but does not perform actual changes.
Removing the standby BOS
The remove operation, using the -R flag, deletes all standby BOS objects, such as BLV, logical volumes,
file systems, and so on.
You can use the remove operation to make room for a new standby BOS, or to clean up a failed multibos
installation. The remove operation performs standby tag verification on each object before removing it.
The remove operation will only act on BOS objects that multibos created, regardless of name or label.
You always have the option of removing additional BOS objects using standard AIX utilities, such as
Rmlv, rmfs, rmps, and so on. The multibos remove operation performs the following steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
All boot references to the standby BLV are removed.
The bootlist is set to the active BLV. You can skip this step using the -t flag.
Any mounted standby BLVs are unmounted.
Standby file systems are removed.
Remaining standby logical volumes are removed.
Automatic file system expansion
The multibos -X flag auto-expansion feature allows for automatic file system expansion, if space is
necessary to perform multibos-related tasks. You should execute all multibos operations with this flag.
Preview option
The preview option, using the -p flag, applies to the setup, remove, mount, unmount, and customization
operations. If you specify the preview option, then the operation provides information about the action
that will be taken, but does not perform actual changes.
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Rebuilding the standby BOS boot image
The rebuild boot image operation, using the -B flag, enables you to rebuild the standby BOS boot image.
The new boot image will be based on standby BOS system files and written to the standby BLV. The
multibos build boot image operation performs the following steps:
1. The standby BOS file systems are mounted, if they are not already.
2. The standby boot image is created and written to the standby BLV using the AIX bosboot command.
3. If the standby BOS file systems were mounted in step 1, they are unmounted.
Automatic file system expansion
The multibos -X flag auto-expansion feature allows for automatic file system expansion, if space is
necessary to perform multibos-related tasks. You should execute all multibos operations with this flag.
Using the standby BOS shell operation
The multibos shell operation -S flag enables you to start a limited interactive chroot shell with standby
BOS file systems.
This shell allows access to standby files using standard paths. For example, /bos_inst/usr/bin/ls maps to
/usr/bin/ls within the shell. The active BOS files are not visible outside of the shell, unless they have been
mounted over the standby file systems. Limit shell operations to changing data files, and do not make
persistent changes to the kernel, process table, or other operating system structures. Only use the BOS
shell if you are experienced with the chroot environment.
The multibos shell operation performs the following steps:
1. The standby BOS file systems are mounted, if they are not already.
2. The chroot utility is called to start an interactive standby BOS shell. The shell runs until an exit
occurs.
3. If standby BOS file systems were mounted in step 1, they are unmounted.
Here is an example of some operations that can be performed in the multibos shell:
MULTIBOS> lppchk –v
# check system fileset consistency
MULTIBOS> installp -ug bos.games # removes bos.games
MULTIBOS> oslevel –r # reports recommended maintenance level for standby BOS
Automatic file system expansion
The multibos -X flag auto-expansion feature allows for automatic file system expansion, if space is
necessary to perform multibos-related tasks. Start all multibos operations with this flag.
Additional multibos options
You can specify additional logical volumes, file systems, paging space, and so on to be copied to a
standby BOS.
Preview option
The preview option, using the -p flag, applies to the setup, remove, mount, unmount, and customization
operations. If you specify the preview option, then the operation provides information about the action
that will be taken, but does not perform actual changes.
Exclude list file
You can use an optional exclude list with the setup operation. The rules for exclusion follow the
pattern-matching rules of the egrep command.
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For example, to exclude the contents of the /tmp directory, and avoid excluding any other directories that
have /tmp in the path name, edit the exclude file to read as follows: ^./tmp/
Note: All files are backed-up relative to the current working directory (″.″). To exclude any file or
directory for which it is important to have the search match the string at the beginning of the line, use
the caret character (^) as the first character in the search string, followed by the dot character (.), followed
by the filename or directory to be excluded. If the file name or directory being excluded is a substring of
another file name or directory, then use the caret character followed by the dot character (^.) to indicate
that the search starts at the beginning of the line. Use the dollar sign ($) to indicate that the search stops
at the end of the line.
Specifying additional BOS objects
By default, only a subset of the BOS file systems are copied to the standby BOS. These file systems
currently are /, /usr, /var, /opt, and /home. The boot logical volume is also copied to the standby BOS.
You can specify additional logical volumes, file systems, paging space, and so on to be copied to the
standby BOS with the -L AddFile flag. The AddFile file needs to contain the logical volume names
associated with the active BOS object. For example, if you intended to copy the /mylocal file system, then
you would include the name of the logical volume that is mounted over /mylocal (for example, Lv01).
See the lsfs command for details about how to match file system mount points to logical volumes.
Separate log devices (those not contained within the file systems) are not supported for copy and will not
be copied even if listed in the AddFile file.
Note: Only LVM-based objects (that is, objects associated with logical volumes) are supported for
multibos copying.
Automatic file system expansion
The multibos -X flag auto-expansion feature allows for automatic file system expansion, if space is
necessary to perform multibos-related tasks. Run all multibos operations with this flag.
Customizing your installation
You can customize your AIX installation. Customizing an installation requires you to edit the
bosinst.data file and use it with your installation media.
The first time you install, the Base Operating System (BOS) installation program presents menus from
which you must choose setup options. This initial installation also automatically starts a post-installation
configuration program, either the graphical Configuration Assistant or the ASCII Installation Assistant.
For more information about Configuration Assistant and Installation Assistant, refer to “Configuring AIX”
on page 127.
For subsequent installations, you can change many aspects of the default BOS install program by editing
the bosinst.data file. For example, to install the BOS without menus, you can specify that no prompts be
provided. You can also customize a BOS installation to bypass Configuration Assistant or Installation
Assistant and start your own configuration script. Also, the bosinst.data file can be used to replicate one
set of installation settings on other machines. For example, system administrators can create a
bosinst.data file with settings that can be used to install all the machines they support that have the
same configuration. For AIX 4.3.3 and later versions of the operating system, you can use the Web-based
System Manager Reinstall Base Operating System wizard to install systems from product or backup
media. This application lets you customize your installation by answering prompts before installation and
creates a bosinst.data file appropriate for the type of installation wanted. For more information on the
bosinst.data file, refer to “The bosinst.data file” on page 38.
If you run your own configuration script from a bosinst.data file or from the Network Installation
Management (NIM) interface, the environment that is in place at the time the script is run is a single-user
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environment. This environment is not available as a multiuser environment, and thus, there are limits to
what can be run from a configuration script. The /etc/init file is not running, so no process
management can take place. All available memory cannot be made available because the RAM file system
still exists, so devices that require large amounts of memory to run might fail to configure. In addition,
signal handling is not available.
Because of the single-user environment, use the following guidelines for configuration scripts:
v Base devices can be configured, but devices that require daemons or more complex configuration
should be started at reboot time by adding the necessary code to the end of the /etc/firstboot script.
v Daemons should not be started.
v Items such as NIS configuration, which uses system resource controller (SRC) commands, should be
done by creating a separate entry in the /etc/inittab file and running a configuration script at reboot
time.
v Beginning in AIX 5.2, the BOS installation process automatically creates and extends paging space
based on available memory.
The bosinst.data file directs the actions of the BOS installation program. The file resides in the
/var/adm/ras directory on the installed machine only, and it is not accessible on the commercial tape or
the media on which you received AIX 5.2.
The bosinst.data file contains stanzas with variables set to default values. Each variable is on a new line,
in the Variable=Value form. A blank line separates each stanza. These stanzas provide the installation
program with information such as the method and type of installation, the disks in the machine, and the
language used. By editing the file with an ASCII text editor, you can substitute new values for the default
variables.
Another installation file, image.data, can also be modified and used during BOS installation. The
image.data file contains information describing the root volume group image created during the BOS
installation process. This information includes the sizes, names, maps, and mount points of logical
volumes and file systems in the root volume group. The installation program also takes input from the
image.data file regarding defaults for the machine being installed. For a description of the image.data
file, see AIX 5L Version 5.3 Files Reference. The procedure for using the bosinst.data file to customize BOS
installation can also be used for the image.data file. The modified files can be used together to override
BOS installation defaults.
You can also use the instructions in this chapter to create a supplemental diskette, a CD-R, or a
DVD-RAM containing a modified preserve.list file, which is used during a preservation Installation.
For more information about a preservation installation, see “Installing the Base Operating System” on
page 32.
Customizing and using the bosinst.data file
You must install the BOS before you can access and modify the default bosinst.data file.
You can use the Web-based System Manager Reinstall Base Operating System wizard to prepare your
next installation and to customize the bosinst.data file. You can also edit the bosinst.data file like any
other ASCII file.
For information about the contents of the file and examples of edited files, refer to “bosinst.data file
stanza descriptions” on page 38 and “Using the bosinst.data file” on page 46. To verify the contents of
your modified bosinst.data file, use the bicheck command.
Note: If you are customizing the /bosinst.data file so that it becomes part of a system backup (mksysb),
beginning with AIX 4.3.3, the mksysb command always updates the target_disk_data stanzas to reflect
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the current disks in the rootvg. If you do not want this update to occur, you must create the file
/save_bosinst.data_file. The existence of this file is checked by the mksysb command, before the
target_disk_data stanzas are updated.
To edit and use the bosinst.data file, use one of the following procedures:
Using a customized bosinst.data file with NIM
You can use a customized bosinst.data file for network installations.
Create one customized bosinst.data file for each client, and using Network Installation Management
(NIM), define the files as NIM resources. For more information about how to use the bosinst.data file as
a resource in network installations, refer to “The bosinst.data file” on page 38.
Creating and using a supplementary bosinst.data media
Use this procedure to create the supplementary media and use it in future installation.
1. Customize the bosinst.data file and create a signature file by completing the following steps:
a. Use the mkdir command to create a directory called /tmp/mycd: mkdir /tmp/mycd.
b. Use the cd command to change your directory to the /tmp/mycd directory: cd /tmp/mycd.
c. Copy the /var/adm/ras/bosinst.data file to /tmp/mycd.
d. Copy the /var/adm/ras/bosinst.data file to /tmp/mycd.
e. Edit the bosinst.data file with an ASCII editor to customize it.
f. Create a signature file: echo data > signature.
g. Change the permissions on the file using the following command: # chmod 777 *.
2. Create the customized media by completing the following steps:
a. Use the cd command to change your directory to the / directory.
b. Create the customized media using the following command (where /dev/cd1 varies depending on
your CD writer device): # mkcd -d /dev/cd1 -r /tmp/mycd
3. Use the customized media for installation by completing the following steps:
If you have only one media drive and you are installing from CD or DVD, complete the following:
Insert the installation media in the media drive of the machine where you are installing AIX.
Boot the machine from the installation media.
Type 311 at the BOS welcome screen. You will be prompted to insert the customized media.
Insert the customized media. The BOS installation program uses the bosinst.data file on the
media, rather than the bosinst.data file on the boot media. For more information on the
bosinst.data file, see “The bosinst.data file” on page 38.
If you are performing a network installation or tape mksysb installation, or if you have more than
one media drive, complete the following:
a. Insert the customized media in the media drive of the machine where you are installing AIX.
b. Boot the machine from the network or a tape.
a.
b.
c.
d.
c. Type 311 at the BOS welcome screen. The installation continues for a non-prompted installation, or
the menus display for a prompted installation.
The BOS installation program uses the bosinst.data file on the media, rather than the
bosinst.data file from the boot media. For more information on the bosinst.data file, refer to
“The bosinst.data file” on page 38.
Creating and using a supplementary bosinst.data diskette
You can create a supplementarybosinst.data diskette to use for customized installations.
Complete the following process to create the supplementary diskette:
1. Customize the bosinst.data file and create a signature file by completing the following steps:
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a. Use the mkdir command to create a directory called /tmp/mydiskette: mkdir /tmp/mydiskette
b. Use the cd command to change your directory to the /tmp/mydiskette directory: cd
/tmp/mydiskette
c. Copy the /var/adm/ras/bosinst.data file to /tmp/mydiskette.
d. Edit the bosinst.data file with an ASCII editor to customize it.
e. Create a signature file: echo data > signature
2. Create the diskette and use it for installation by completing the following steps
a. Back up the edited bosinst.data file and the new signature file to diskette with the following
command: ls ./bosinst.data ./signature | backup -iqv.
OR
If you create a bundle file named mybundle, back up the edited bosinst.data file, the new
signature file, and the bundle file to diskette with the following command: ls ./bosinst.data
./signature ./mybundle | backup -iqv
b. Insert the diskette in the diskette drive of the target machine you are installing.
c. Boot the target machine from the installation media (tape, CD or DVD-ROM, or network) and
install the operating system. The BOS installation program uses the diskette file, rather than the
default bosinst.data file shipped with the installation media. For more information on the
bosinst.data file, see “The bosinst.data file” on page 38.
Installing AIX on a system with many disks
Save time on AIX installations by specifying the disks on which you want the system installed.
In general, if you do not specify the disk (root volume group) on which you want the AIX system
installed, the operating system is installed on a disk that was previously installed with AIX. If you have
many disks that contain data volume groups, and these data volume groups are discovered before the
previous root volume group is found, the installation can be delayed until a suitable disk is found.
Beginning with AIX 5L Version 5.3 with the 5300-03 Recommended Maintenance package, first specify the
disk on which you want to install the system, and you will save time. You can specify the installation
disk by using one of the following methods:
v Specify the installation disk in the bosinst.data file by physical location code
(PHYSICAL_LOCATION) or physical volume identifier (PVID):
1. To determine the physical location on a running system, type:
lsdev -F "name physloc" -l hdisk
2. To determine the physical volume identifier on a running system, type:
lsattr -E -O -a pvid -l hdisk
3. If you are using a fibre-channel disk for the installation, you can use the following command in the
bosinst.data file:
SAN_DISKID=worldwide_portname//lun_id
v Specify the installation disk in the 2 file through either an installation from CD or DVD, or through a
network installation.
1. For a network installation, specify the installation disk in the bosinst.data file by typing the
following command:
nim -o bos_inst -a bosinst_data=value ...
2. For an installation from CD or DVD, specify the installation disk in the bosinst.data file by
following the procedures at “Customizing and using the bosinst.data file” on page 67.
If you do not specify the characteristics of the disk in the bosinst.data file on the target system, the
installation disk is chosen based on the flags in the control_flow stanza of the bosinst.data file. Unless
you specify EXISTING_SYSTEM_OVERWRITE=no, the first suitable root volume group is chosen for the
2. bosinst.data
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installation. For overwrite or preserve installations, any root volume group is acceptable. For migration,
the volume group must be installed with a version of the operating system that can be migrated to the
level being installed. If you specify EXISTING_SYSTEM_OVERWRITE=no in the control_flow stanza of the
bosinst.data file, then the installation goes to the first unused disk.
Related information
Links to information related to customizing your BOS installation are shown.
For more information about the bosinst.data file, refer to “The bosinst.data file” on page 38.
For a description of the image.data file, see AIX 5L Version 5.3 Files Reference.
Optional products and service updates
After the Base Operating System (BOS) is installed, you might want to install optional software or service
updates.
Note: The cdromd CD and DVD automount facility, which is included in the bos.cdmount fileset, is
provided beginning with AIX 5.2. To determine if the cdromd daemon is enabled on your system, run the
following command:
# lssrc -s cdromd
The cdromd daemon can interfere with scripts, applications, or instructions that attempt to mount the CD
or DVD device without first checking to see if the device is already enabled. A resource or device busy
error occurs in such a condition. Use the cdumount or cdeject command to unmount the device. Then
mount the device as specified in the program or instructions. Alternatively, use the cdcheck -m or mount
command to determine the current mount point of the device. For further information, see the cdromd
command documentation in the AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference.
The installation code allows for this automatic mounting. If cdromd is enabled and the mkcd command
is run, the CD-R or DVD-RAM is ejected after the image is completed. If you do not want to have the
media ejected, then the cdromd daemon must be put in the inoperative state with the following
command:
# stopsrc -s cdromd
Optionally installed software
What constitutes optionally installed software is described.
Optionally installable software includes:
v Optional Software Products: Software that is not automatically installed on your system when you
install the BOS. Software products include those shipped with the operating system and those
purchased separately. The BOS is divided into subsystems that can be individually updated, such as
bos.rte.install. Any update that begins with bos.rte updates a BOS subsystem.
v Service Updates: Software that corrects a defect in the BOS or in an optional software product. Service
updates are organized by filesets. This type of update always changes part of a fileset.
Software products can be divided into the following categories:
Licensed Program
A licensed program (LP) is also known as a licensed program product (LPP) or a product. An LP is a
complete software product including all packages associated with that licensed program. For
example, bos (the base operating system) is a licensed program.
Package
A group of separately installable units that provide a set of related functions. For example,
bos.net is a package.
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Fileset An individually installable option. Filesets provide a specific function. An example of a fileset is
bos.net.nfs.client 5.1. For more information on fileset packaging, see “Fileset installation
packages” on page 159.
Fileset Update
An individually installable update. Fileset updates either enhance or correct a defect in a
previously installed fileset.
Bundle
A collection of packages, products, or individual filesets that suit a specific purpose, such as
providing personal productivity software or software for a client machine in a network
environment. A set of bundles is provided with BOS that contain a specific set of optional
software. For more information on bundle packaging, see “Packaging software bundles” on page
160.
A product can be composed of several packages, which in turn can be composed of different filesets. A
product might be installed in its entirety, or only certain packages or filesets for the product might be
installed. Software products are subdivided in this way, because many software products are large and
have many pieces that can be used independently. Dividing a product into separately installable filesets
allows you to install only those filesets you need.
You can install all the filesets included in a package or the entire product, or you can install only selected
filesets, especially if you have limited hard disk space on your system.
Identifying software products
The product name, level number, and product identification fields are described.
The product name and level number identify a software product. The format for a software product level
in AIX is as follows:
versionnumber.releasenumber.modificationlevel.fixlevel
Each field in the software product identification is defined as follows:
v The versionnumber field consists of 1 to 2 digits that identify the version number.
v The releasenumber field consists of 1 to 2 digits that identify the release number.
v The modificationlevel field consists of 1 to 4 digits that identify the modification level.
v The fixlevel field consists of 1 to 4 digits that identify the fix level.
For example, 05.01.0000.0000 is a software product level number, and 05.01.0000.0032 is a software
product update level. It is not necessary to include the leading zeroes in the version, release, modification
level, and fix level fields of the level. Level 05.01.0000.0000 can also be written as 5.1.0.0.
Software licensing
The types of software licensing that can be implemented in the software purchase are run-time licensing
and acceptance of software license agreements.
Normally, software requiring run-time licenses is only selected for installation when you have a license to
use that software. Although the Web-based System Manager and System Management Interface Tool
(SMIT) allow you to install licensed software even if you do not own a license, you might be prevented
from using the newly installed software until you have obtained the appropriate license.
Accepting software license agreements requires that the license agreement be accepted as part of the
installation process. If software installed as part of your BOS installation requires accepting a software
license agreement, you cannot exit the Configuration Assistant (or the Installation Assistant for
non-graphics consoles) until the license agreement has been accepted. You can view as well as accept the
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license agreement. The BOS installation can be customized to automatically accept software licenses. For
more information, refer to “Customizing your installation” on page 66.
For optional software installation, you can preview the license agreements on the installation media using
the smit license_on_media fast path or the installp -El command. During the installation process, you
can use the menu item to accept the software license, or you can use the installp command with the -Y
flag. To view accepted license agreements on a system, you can use the SMIT smit installed_license fast
path or the lslpp -E command. To view licenses using the Web-based System Manager, type wsm to start
the application, and select Software. When a product is uninstalled, the license agreement acceptance is
changed to the inactive state. If the product is reinstalled, you will not be prompted to reaccept the
license agreement.
After completing the prerequisites in the next section, your next step is deciding whether to install
software with the Web-based System Manager or with SMIT. Descriptions of both applications are
included in this chapter.
Before you install optional software and service updates, refer to the specific instructions that accompany
your installation media. If you ever need to reinstall your system, refer to the installation media
instructions.
Note: For information about developing software products that are installed using the installp
command, refer to Packaging Software for Installation in AIX 5L Version 5.3 General Programming
Concepts: Writing and Debugging Programs.
Preparing to install optional software products and service updates
The prerequisites for installing optional software or service updates are described.
If either of the following conditions applies to you, go to the referenced section. Otherwise, continue with
the procedures in this chapter.
v If you need to commit updates or remove previously installed software, go to “Maintaining optional
software products and service updates” on page 76.
v If you are using a network installation server, refer to “Installing with Network Installation
Management” on page 163.
Complete the Prerequisites
Before installing optional software or service updates, complete the following prerequisites:
v You must be logged in to the system as the root user.
v AIX 5.3 BOS must be installed on your system. If the BOS is not yet installed on your system, go to
“Installing the Base Operating System” on page 32, or if you are installing over a network, refer to
Installing with Network Installation Management.
v Either insert the media that contains the optional software or service updates into the appropriate drive
or know the local or routed path to the software.
v If you are installing service updates and do not have a current backup of your system, use the
procedures in “Creating system backups” on page 141. To create a system backup, you must have the
backup fileset (bos.sysmgt.sysbr) installed on your system.
v If system files have been modified, back them up separately before updates are applied, because the
update process might replace configuration files.
v If you are installing from CD or DVD and have a mounted documentation disk in the same media
drive that you want to install from, run the following commands in the sequence shown:
# unlinkbasecd
# umount /infocd
v To eject the documentation disk, press the eject button on the media drive for at least two seconds.
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Installing optional software products or service updates
Optional software products and service updates can be installed using system management tools
provided with the operating system.
To view the files as they are being installed, do the following:
v In SMIT, you can set the DETAILED Output field to yes to list the files being restored during an
installation.
v In Web-based System Manager, expand the Software container and select Installed Software. From the
Software menu, select New Software (Install/Update) → Install Additional Software → Advanced
Method. In the resulting screen, select the source drive and click on Advanced. In the resulting dialog,
click beside Show detailed messages.
v You can also use the installp command with the verbose option (-V2) to show which files have been
updated.
Installing optional software or service updates with Web-based System Manager
Use the Web-based System Manager to install optional software products or service updates.
The graphics interface provides access to Web-based System Manager options for installing the following:
v Optional software
v Service updates
v Software bundles
The Web-based System Manager allows you to install software, as well as to change the system’s default
install settings and specify other options. By default, the Web-based System Manager applies and commits
any software updates you are installing. However, you can change this default setting and have the
software updates applied only.
Note: Base software applications are always committed. If a previous version of the software is installed,
it cannot be saved.
Installing optional software with Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for installing optional software with Web-based System Manager.
1. Start the Web-based System Manager by typing wsm on the command line.
2. Expand the machine name.
3. Expand Software in the Navigation area.
4. Select Overview and Tasks.
5. Select Install Software.
Installing service updates with Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for installing service updates with Web-based System Manager.
1. Start the Web-based System Manager by typing wsm on the command line.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Expand the machine name.
Expand Software in the Navigation area.
Select Overview and Tasks.
Select Update Software to the Latest Level.
Installing software bundles with Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for installing software bundles with Web-based System Manager.
1. Start the Web-based System Manager by typing wsm on the command line.
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73
2.
3.
4.
5.
Expand the machine name.
Expand Software in the Navigation area.
Select Installed Software.
From the Software menu, select New Software (Install/Update) → Install Bundles (Easy).
Installing optional software and service updates using SMIT
Use SMIT to install optional software and service updates.
The following installation paths are available in SMIT:
Install Software
Install or update software from the latest levels of software available on the media. To shorten the
list of software displayed, message and locale software are omitted from the list. To use this
option, type smit install_latest on the command line.
Update Installed Software to Latest Level
Update all currently installed software to the latest level available on the installation media. To
use this option, type smit update_all on the command line.
Beginning in AIX 5L Version 5.2 with the 5200-01 Recommended Maintenance package, if you
select the option to install all devices and kernels during a BOS installation, then during
subsequent update_all processing, any new devices.* filesets are installed from the installation
media. This option can be turned off by setting the ALL_DEVICES_KERNELS variable in the
/var/adm/ras/bosinst.data file to no.
Install Software Bundle
Install complete bundles of software simply by specifying the input device and which bundle you
are installing. You can also preview a bundle installation to see what software will be installed
and how much space is required in the file system to install the bundle. To use this option, type
smit install_bundle on the command line.
Update Software by Fix
Install a specific fix for a problem. This menu allows you to list all service fixes on the media and
select a fix to install. You can also preview the installation to see what software will be updated
and how much space is required in the file system to apply the fix. To use this option, type smit
update_by_fix on the command line.
Install and Update from ALL Available Software
Install or update software from all software available on the media. To use this option, type smit
install_all on the command line.
Note: If a problem occurs during the installation of optional software that causes the installation
process to halt abnormally, you might have to complete a cleanup procedure to remove the partially
installed software from the system before attempting to reinstall it. If the system instructs you to do
a cleanup, go to “Cleaning up optional software products and service updates” on page 79.
Completing the SMIT installation and reading the status messages
The system activity and actions that you must take after the installation process has begun is described.
Perform the following steps:
1. When you press Enter to start the installation, the COMMAND STATUS screen displays. As the
installation proceeds, a series of messages display. The amount of time that the installation takes
varies depending on your system and the software you are installing and updating.
Note: The system might prompt you to insert the volume of the installation media, with a message
similar to the following:
Mount volume 2 on /dev/cd0.
Press the Enter key to continue.
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When this message displays, insert the specified media and press Enter.
When the installation finishes, the Command: status field on the COMMAND STATUS screen changes
to OK or failed. OK indicates that the installation ran to completion, although some filesets may not
have installed successfully. The failed status means that there was a problem with the installation.
Although a preview installation always finishes with an OK status, always check the summaries.
For information about error messages, refer to “Interpreting installation-related system and error
messages” on page 116.
2. When the installation halts or finishes, the screen returns to the top of the list of messages that
display during installation. You can review the message list as described in the next step, or you can
exit SMIT and review the smit.log file (/smit.log or /home/user_id/smit.log).
3. Review the message list for error messages on software products or service updates that may not
have been successfully installed. Use the following procedure to correct any errors in the installation:
a. Look at the pre- and post-installation summaries at the end of the message list to see whether any
installation failure occurred.
b. Use the message list to determine problems and which software products or service updates were
involved. For example, space limits might have been exceeded or the requisites might not have
been met for some software. The system lists how much extra space is needed and which requisite
software products or service updates to install.
c. Any product that is marked as FAILED, BROKEN, or CANCELLED can be reinstalled after the
condition that caused the failure has been corrected. You do not need to reinstall any service
update or software product that was marked as SUCCESS in the Installp Summary report. If you
need to perform the installation again, change installation settings as appropriate. For example, if
requisites were missing, set AUTOMATICALLY install requisite software? to yes. If there was not
enough space to complete the installation, set EXTEND file systems if space needed? to yes.
If you need to install again and you have AIX BOS multivolume media, insert volume 1 of the AIX
product CDs. Press F3 to return to the previous screen, then restart the installation. See
“Interpreting installation-related system and error messages” on page 116 for information about
bosboot command errors that may occur while the installation program is running, and about
recovery procedures for these errors.
Attention: If the system log files show the following message, indicating that a reboot is
required, perform the reboot as indicated in Step 6:
* * *
System
system
and to
A T T E N T I O N * * *
boot image has been updated. You should reboot the
as soon as possible to properly integrate the changes
avoid disruption of current functionality.
d. If the installation was interrupted (for example, a power failure), you might need to use the
cleanup procedure before continuing. Press F10 (or Esc+0) to exit SMIT, and refer to “Cleaning up
optional software products and service updates” on page 79.
e. If the software has been installed successfully, and you have no other software to install, go to
Step 4.
If you have additional software to install from a different installation media, remove the media
that is in that drive and insert the new media.
Press F3 (or Esc+3) to return to the previous screen and continue installing the software product or
service update.
4. Press F10 (or Esc+0) to exit SMIT.
5. Remove all installation media from the drives.
6. When you are directed, reboot your system by typing: # shutdown -Fr
Updating installed software from the command line
The install_all_updates command updates installed system software to the latest level that is on the
media, and verifies the current recommended technology level.
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Beginning in AIX 5L Version 5.2 with the 5200-01 Recommended Maintenance package, if you select the
option to install all devices and kernels during a BOS installation, then during subsequent update_all
processing, any new devices.* filesets are installed from the installation media. This option can be
turned off by setting the ALL_DEVICES_KERNELS variable in the /var/adm/ras/bosinst.data file to no.
If the ALL_DEVICES_KERNELS variable is set to no, the install_all_updates command does not install
any filesets that are present on the installation media but not installed on the system, unless these filesets
are installed as requisites of other selected filesets.
For installp images, all installp requisites are enforced.
The following example shows how to install all installp updates on the /dev/cd0 device and to verify the
current recommended technology level:
# install_all_updates -d /dev/cd0
For more information about the install_all_updates command, refer to the AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands
Reference.
Checking modifications to configuration files
The geninstall command provides an easy way to see what modifications have been made to the
configuration files listed in /etc/check_config.files.
When these files have been changed during a geninstall installation or update operation, the differences
between the old and new files is recorded in the /var/adm/ras/config.diff file. If /etc/
check_config.files requests that the old file be saved, the old file can be found in the /var/adm/config
directory. The /etc/check_config.files file can be edited and used to specify whether old configuration
files that have been changed should be saved (indicated by s) or deleted (indicated by d), and has the
following format:
d /etc/inittab
Maintaining optional software products and service updates
During and after installation, the following major maintenance actions can be taken with optional
software products and service updates.
Whether a particular action can be taken depends on whether the action is being applied to the entire
software product, or only to a service update that has had a previous action taken on it.
You can perform these actions using either the Web-based System Manager or the System Management
Interface Tool (SMIT) or by using commands directly from the command line. The following sections
briefly describe how to do each action using Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or a command. Both
Web-based System Manager and SMIT provide online help to guide you through each process.
Attention: Any library or executable program updated by an interim fix or service update which is in
use by an active process will not be reflected in that process unless it is restarted. For example, an update
that changes the ksh will not have the changes reflected in any ksh processes that are already running.
Likewise, an update to the libc.a library will not be reflected in any process that is already running. In
addition, any process that is using a library and does a dlopen operation of the same library after the
library has been updated could experience inconsistencies if it is not restarted.
Applying a service update
When installing a service update, it can be left in the applied state.
In this state, the former version of that software product is saved in the /usr/lpp/PackageName directory.
Service Updates in the applied state allow you to restore the former version of the software without
having to reinstall it.
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Only service updates can be placed in the applied state. In contrast, after you install an entire software
product, the product is left in the committed state. Software products in the committed state do not save
the previous version of the software, because two versions of the same software product cannot be
installed at the same time.
Applying a service update using Web-based System Manager
1. Start the Web-based System Manager by typing wsm on the command line.
2. Expand the machine name.
3. Expand Software.
4. Select Overview and Tasks.
5. Select Update Software to the Latest Level.
Applying a service update using SMIT:
Type smit update_by_fix on the command line.
Applying a service update from the command line:
Use the installp -a command to only apply the update.
Committing a service update using Web-based System Manager
Committing a service update removes the previous version of a product from the system, which
conserves disk space.
After a software product or update has been committed, it cannot be deleted from the system except by
removing the entire software product (the base level product and all of its updates) or by force-installing
it back to a previous level. To do a force-installation, you must have the base level of the fileset available
on media.
Although applying and committing a service update are separate actions, both can be accomplished while
installing the update. In fact, the default action under Web-based System Manager and SMIT is to both
apply and commit the service update during installation. This default can be changed to just apply the
update.
Committing a service update using Web-based System Manager:
1. Start the Web-based System Manager by typing wsm on the command line.
2. Expand the machine name.
3. Expand the Software container.
4. Select Installed Software.
5. From the Software menu, choose Software Utilities → Commit Applied Updates.
You can list all service updates in the applied state by selecting List Installed Software →
Updates in Applied State from the Software menu.
Committing a service update using SMIT:
Type smit commit on the command line.
You can list all service updates in the applied state by typing smit list_installed on the
command line.
Committing a service update from the command line:
Use the installp -c command to commit applied updates.
You can list all service updates in the applied state by typing installp -s on the command line.
Rejecting a service update using Web-based System Manager or SMIT
When you reject an applied service update, the update files are removed from the system and the
previous version of the software is restored.
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Only service updates in the applied state can be rejected. You can use the Web-based System Manager or
SMIT to reject applied service updates.
Rejecting a service update using Web-based System Manager:
1. Start the Web-based System Manager by typing wsm on the command line.
2. Expand the machine name.
3. Expand the Software container.
4. Select Installed Software.
5. From the Software menu, choose Software Utilities → Reject Applied Updates.
Rejecting a service update using SMIT:
Type smit reject on the command line.
Rejecting a service update from the command line:
Use the installp -r command to reject an applied update.
Attention: After the reject completes, if the system log files show the following message, indicating that
a reboot is required, perform the reboot as soon as possible:
* * *
System
system
and to
A T T E N T I O N * * *
boot image has been updated. You should reboot the
as soon as possible to properly integrate the changes
avoid disruption of current functionality.
Removing a software product using Web-based System Manager or SMIT
When you remove a software product, that product’s files are removed from the system, and the Software
Vital Product Data information is changed to indicate that the product is removed.
The remove process also attempts to restore the system’s configuration to its previous state, although this
is dependent on the product and might not always be complete. After a product is removed, no version
of that product remains running on the system.
Use the Web-based System Manager or SMIT to remove software products. In either application, if you
set the Remove dependent software? field to yes, any requisite software (software that is dependent on
the product you are removing) is also removed, unless it is required by other software on your system.
Removing
1.
2.
3.
a software product using Web-based System Manager:
Start the Web-based System Manager by typing wsm on the command line.
Expand the machine name.
Expand the Software container.
4. Select Installed Software.
5. Select the software product you want to remove.
6. From the Selected menu, choose Remove Software.
Removing a software product using SMIT:
Type smit remove on the command line.
Removing a software product from the command line:
Use the geninstall -u command to remove the product.
Copying a software bundle to the hard disk for future installation
The Copy Software Bundle to Hard Disk for Future Installation option allows you to copy a software
bundle from a specified source to a location on your local system.
Installation software bundles include the following:
v Alt_Disk_Install
v App-Dev
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v
v
v
v
v
CC_EVAL.Graphics
CDE
GNOME
Graphics
KDE
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
Kerberos_5
Mozilla
Server
cas_client
cas_server
devices
openssh_client
v openssh_server
v wsm_remote
Cleaning up optional software products and service updates
The cleanup procedure attempts to delete items that were partially installed or left in an incomplete state.
For example, after an update is interrupted, the lslpp -l command might report the update status as
APPLYING rather than APPLIED.
Note: This procedure applies only to the update or installation of optional software products. If your AIX
5.3 BOS installation was unsuccessful, see “Troubleshooting a system that does not boot from the hard
disk” on page 112 for more information.
The cleanup procedure attempts to revert the update to its previous state. For example, when cleaning up
an update that was interrupted in the COMMITTING state, the cleanup procedure attempts to return the
update to its APPLIED state.
If the interruption occurs during the initial state of an installation, then the cleanup procedure attempts to
delete the installation entirely and restore the previous version of the product (if there is one). When the
previous version is restored, it becomes the active version. When the previous version cannot be restored,
the software is listed by the lslpp -l command as BROKEN.
When the product is deleted or BROKEN, you can attempt to reinstall the software. Any product in the
BROKEN state cannot be cleaned up; it can only be reinstalled or removed.
The system automatically initiates a cleanup when an installation fails or is interrupted. Normally, you
must initiate a cleanup procedure if the system shuts down or loses power during an installation or if the
installation process terminates abnormally. Occasionally, you are prompted to reboot (restart) the system
after running the cleanup procedure.
If you get a message indicating that no products were found that could be cleaned up, you may have run
the cleanup procedure when it was not needed. Try your installation again.
If you get a message indicating that you need to clean up a failed installation, contact your point of sale
for assistance.
Initiating a cleanup procedure using Web-based System Manager
Follow these steps for initiating a cleanup procedure using Web-based System Manager.
1. Start the Web-based System Manager by typing wsm on the command line.
2. Expand the machine name.
3. Expand the Software container.
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4. Select Installed Software.
5. From the Software menu, choose Troubleshooting → Cleanup Failed or Interrupted Installation.
Initiating a cleanup procedure using SMIT
Follow these steps for initiating a cleanup procedure using SMIT.
1. Type smit maintain_software on the command line.
2. Select Clean Up After Failed or Interrupted Installation.
Initiating a cleanup procedure from the command line
Perform this step to initiate a cleanup procedure from the command line.
Type installp -C on the command line.
Managing existing installp image source
The lppmgr command is used to manage an existing installp image source.
The lppmgr command performs the following functions on an existing installp image source (also known
as an lpp_source resource in the NIM environment):
v Remove duplicate updates (-u flag).
v Remove duplicate base levels (-b flag).
v Eliminate update images that are the same level as base images of the same fileset. Such update images
can create conflicts that lead to installation failure (-u flag).
v Remove message and locale filesets other than the language you specify (-k flag).
v Remove superseded filesets (-x flag).
v Remove non-system images from a NIM lpp_source resource (-X flag).
By default, lppmgr lists all images filtered by the preceding routines. The -r flag can be used to remove
the filtered images and the -m flag can be used to move the images to another location.
The lppmgr command does not replace the bffcreate command, perform installations, or work with
installed filesets. Before using the -X flag, it is recommended that you have a good understanding of
NIM, system images (known as SIMAGES in NIM), and the workings of a NIM lpp_source resource.
To list all duplicate and conflicting updates in the /myimages image source directory, type:
# lppmgr -d /myimages -u
To remove all duplicate and conflicting updates in the /myimages image source directory, type:
# lppmgr -d /myimages -u -r
For more information about the lppmgr command, refer to the AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference.
Using the Software Service Management menu (including SUMA)
The Software Service Management menu allows access to Service Update Management Assistant (SUMA)
functions, which significantly simplify the system update process by allowing policy-based automatic
downloads of technology level updates from the Web.
The Software Service Management menu allows generation of reports to manage filesets installed on a
system, filesets contained in a repository, and filesets available from the IBM System p® support Web site.
It also provides a way for you to clean up and rename software images in a repository.
You can perform these actions using either the SMIT service_software fast path or by using commands
directly from the command line. The following sections briefly describe how to do each action using
SMIT or a command.
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Using the Service Update Management Assistant (SUMA)
The Service Update Management Assistant (SUMA) helps move system administrators away from the
task of manually retrieving maintenance updates from the Web.
SUMA offers flexible options that let you set up an automated interface to download fixes from a fix
distribution website to your systems. Because SUMA can be configured to periodically check the
availability of specific new fixes and entire maintenance levels, the time spent on such system
administration tasks is cut significantly.
SUMA can be accessed through the suma command or through the SMIT suma fast path.
Using the SUMA command line interface:
The suma command can be used to perform these operations on a SUMA task or policy.
v Create
v Edit
v List
v Schedule
v Unschedule
v Delete
An RqType parameter specifies the type of download that is being requested (such as critical fixes, a
specific fileset, or an APAR). A policy can be set up to retrieve the following types of fixes:
APAR Specifies a request to download an APAR (such as IY12345).
PTF
Specifies a request to download a PTF (such as U123456).
ML
Specifies a request to download a specific maintenance level (such as 5300-03).
TL
Specifies a request to download a specific technology level (such as 5300-04).
SP
™
Specifies a request to download a specific service pack or concluding service pack (such as
5300-04-02 or 5300-04-CSP).
Fileset Specifies a request to download a specific fileset (such as bos.rte.lvm).
Security
Specifies a request to download the latest security fixes.
Critical
Specifies a request to download the latest critical fixes. These resolve highly pervasive (HIPER)
problems.
Latest Specifies a request to download all of the latest fixes.
Several flag options can be used with the suma command to further specify your request. With these
command options, you can perform the list, edit, create, schedule, unschedule, and delete operations on
different tasks or policies.
For example, to create and schedule (-s) a task that downloads the latest critical fixes on the 15th day of
every month at 2:30 a.m. (using cron format), and add a policy label through the DisplayName field
(useful when listing policies through SMIT), type:
suma -s "30 2 15 * *" -a RqType=Critical \
-a DisplayName="Critical fixes - 15th Monthly"
The preceding example uses task defaults, which can be displayed by the suma -D command.
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81
Type the following command to create and schedule a task that downloads the entire 5300-02
Maintenance Level into the /lppsrc/5302 directory on Monday at 11:00 p.m., while turning off filtering
against installed software (FilterSysFile), and running an lppmgr clean operation after the download to
remove any superseded updates, duplicates base levels, and conflicting updates:
suma -s "0 23 * * 1" -a Action=Clean -a RqType=ML -a RqName=5300-02 \
-a DLTarget=/lppsrc/5302 -a FilterSysFile=/dev/null
Note: Prior to running a task that specifies Action=Clean, you can run suma -c to verify the SUMA global
configuration settings that will be used when running lppmgr. Setting REMOVE_SUPERSEDE,
REMOVE_DUP_BASE_LEVELS, and REMOVE_CONFLICTING_UPDATES to yes will result in the
intended action of the preceding example.
For a more complete listing of examples that detail the functionality of the suma command, refer to the
suma command.
Using the Comparison Reports menu
The Comparison Reports menu allows you to generate several comparison reports to verify that the
filesets for a particular fix or preventive maintenance package are installed by comparing filesets installed
on a system to another source. This source could be a fix repository, such as an lpp_source or a directory
of fixes, or a downloaded list from the IBM System p support Web site.
If you want to verify that your lpp_source is up to date, you can also compare a fix repository to a
downloaded list.
You can perform these actions in the SMIT compare_report fast path or using the compare_report
command.
Using the Compare Installed Software to Fix Repository menu:
The Compare Installed Software to Fix Repository menu allows you to compare the filesets installed on a
system to a fix repository.
The following report lists are generated:
v Filesets on the system that are back-level (lowerlevel.rpt)
v Filesets on the system that are at a later level (higherlevel.rpt)
v Filesets in the fix repository that are not installed on the system (notinstalled.rpt)
v Filesets installed on the system that are not in the fix repository (no_update_found.rpt)
The Compare Installed Software to Fix Repository option is available using the SMIT instofix_compare
fast path or the compare_report command with the following options:
compare_report -s -i FixDir {[-l] [-h] [-m] [-n]} [-t ReportDir -Z | -v]
compare_report -b BaseList -i FixDir {[-l] [-h] [-m] [-n]} [-t ReportDir] -Z | -v]
When using the -l (lower) or -h (higher) flags, the compare report only shows that interim fixes are
installed. The higher or lower concept is not currently available.
Compare Installed Software to List of Available Updates menu:
The Compare Installed Software to List of Available Updates menu allows you to compare the filesets
installed on a system to a downloaded list of available updates from the IBM System p service Web site.
The following report lists are generated:
v Filesets on the system that are back-level from the latest (lowerthanlatest1.rpt)
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v Filesets on the system that are at a later level from the latest maintenance and technology levels
(higherthanmaint.rpt)
v Filesets on the system that are back-level from the latest maintenance and technology levels
(lowerthanmaint.rpt)
The Compare Installed Software to List of Available Updates option is available using the SMIT
instolist_compare fast path or the compare_report command with the following options:
compare_report -s -r ServiceReport {[-l] [-h]} [-t ReportDir -Z | -v]
compare_report -b BaseList -r ServiceReport {[-l] [-h]} [-t ReportDir] -Z | -v]
When using the -l (lower) or -h (higher) flags, the compare report only shows that interim fixes are
installed. The higher or lower concept is not currently available.
Compare Fix Repository to List of Available Updates menu:
The Compare Fix Repository to List of Available Updates menu allows you to compare the filesets in a fix
repository, such as a fix directory or lpp_source, to a downloaded list of available updates from the IBM
System p service Web site.
The report list that is generated contains information on filesets in the fix directory that are back-level
from latest (lowerthanlatest2.rpt).
The Compare Fix Repository to List of Available Updates option is available using the SMIT
fixtolist_compare fast path or the compare_report command with the following options:
compare_report -i FixDir -r ServiceReport [ -t ReportDir -Z | -v ]
Compare a list of installed software on a base system to another system:
The compare a list of installed software on a base system to another system option allows you to
compare the filesets installed on a system to another system.
The lslpp -Lc output from one system is saved to a file and compared with the lslpp -Lc output from
another system. The following report lists are generated:
v A list of base system installed software that is at a lower level (baselower.rpt)
v Filesets not installed on the base system, but installed on the other system (otheronly.rpt)
v A list of base system installed software that is at a higher level (basehigher.rpt)
v Filesets installed on the base system that are not installed on the other system (baseonly.rpt)
To compare a list of installed software on a base system to another system use the compare_report
command with the following options:
compare_report -b BaseList -o OtherList {[-l] [-h] [-m] [-n]} [-t ReportDir -Z | -v]
Using the Rename Software Images in Repository option
The Rename Software Images in Repository option allows you to rename updates that have FIX ID
numbers for names, to more meaningful fileset names like those generated when updates are copied to
hard disk for future installation. This action renames all filesets in the indicated directory with the same
format.
This option is available using the SMIT rename_software fast path.
You can also use the bffcreate command to rename software images in a directory. To rename software
images in a directory using the bffcreate command, use the -c flag and the -d flag for the directory
containing the filesets. For example, to rename filesets in the /usr/sys/inst.images directory, type:
# /usr/sbin/bffcreate -cd /usr/sys/inst.images
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You can also create a log file containing a mapping between the old names and new names, using the -s
logfile option, as shown in the following example:
# /usr/sbin/bffcreate -cd /usr/sys/inst.images -s /usr/sys/inst.images/names.log
This example creates a /usr/sys/inst.images/names.log file that contains content formatted as follows:
old_fileset_name:new_fileset_name
This option is also available in SMIT Rename Software Images in Repository menu as the LOG software
name changes (location of log file) option.
Using the Clean Up Software Images in Repository option
The Clean Up Software Images in Repository option allows you to remove unneeded or duplicate
software images from a local software-image repository.
You can remove duplicate software, superseded updates, and language software:
v The Remove Duplicate software option allows you to remove duplicate base and update images from
the specified directory.
v The Remove Superseded updates option allows you to remove superseded filesets from the specified
directory. This action applies only to update images.
v The Remove Language software option allows you to remove language and locale filesets that are not
needed on your system. This option removes all language and locale filesets from the specified
directory, except the language specified in the PRESERVE language field. By default, the value of the
LANG environment variable for the system is used to determine the language to preserve.
v The Save Removed files option allows you to save all removed files to the location specified in the
DIRECTORY for storing saved files field. Select true in this field if you want to move the images to
another location instead of removing them from the hard drive.
This option is available using the SMIT cleanup_software fast path.
Using InstallShield MultiPlatform
Some products that are distributed for installation on AIX are packaged and installed with InstallShield
MultiPlatform (ISMP).
Unlike installp or RPM Package Manager (RPM) installations which only provide nonprompted or silent
installations of a product, ISMP-packaged products provide both interactive and silent interfaces for
installing and uninstalling a product.
Similar to products packaged and installed with installp and RPM, ISMP-packaged products can be
installed using the AIX system management tools, including SMIT and Web-based System Manager.
These tools use the geninstall command to install or uninstall products that are packaged and installed
with installp, RPM, or ISMP. As expected, the geninstall command can be used directly to install, list, or
uninstall ISMP-packaged products.
For instructions for installing or uninstalling a specific product packaged and installed with ISMP, consult
the product’s documentation.
Installing products with InstallShield MultiPlatform
You install an InstallShield MultiPlatform product using SMIT, Web-based System Manager, the
geninstall command, or the files provided by the product.
v Use the SMIT install_software fast path to install ISMP products without knowledge of the exact
location of the product installation files. For information on installing optional software using SMIT,
see “Preparing to install optional software products and service updates” on page 72. Use the F4 key
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on the SOFTWARE to install field to select the product you want to install. ISMP products are
displayed in the list similar to installp packages or RPM packages. Select the ISMP products, and press
Enter to begin the installation.
By default, ISMP product installations launched through SMIT is silent or nonprompted installations. To
perform an interactive installation, use the Web-based System Manager, the geninstall command, or
the instructions provided with the product documentation.
Although SMIT has a preview option, this option is not available for ISMP installations. If you select
the preview option, a message instructs you to launch an interactive installation using Web-based
System Manager or the command line, which allows you to view the preinstallation summary panel
before completing the product installation.
v Use the Software Application in the Web-based System Manager to launch ISMP-packaged product
installations. For information on installing optional software using the Web-based System Manager, see
“Preparing to install optional software products and service updates” on page 72. When you press the
Browse button to list products on the media, ISMP-packaged products are displayed in the list.
Note: If you select the preview option, but proceed through the entire installation wizard, the product
is installed. Most ISMP products include a preinstallation summary panel that provides preview
information about the installation, including space requirements and file system expansion. If you do
not want to proceed with the installation after viewing this information, press the CANCEL button to
exit the wizard.
v Use the geninstall command to install an ISMP-packaged product. To perform an interactive
installation, specify the device or directory containing the product installation files with the -d flag and
specify the product name. The product name is the same as the subdirectory name containing the
product installation files. For example, if we have a product called MyProduct, and the product
installation files are in the /usr/sys/inst.images/ismp/ppc/MyProduct/ directory, use the following
command for an interactive installation:
/usr/sbin/geninstall -d /usr/sys/inst.images J:MyProduct
Use the J: prefix to inform the geninstall command that the product is an ISMP package. The
geninstall command recognizes the ismp/ppc subdirectory, just as it recognizes RPMS/ppc for RPM
packages and installp/ppc for installp packages, so it is only necessary to pass the
/usr/sys/inst.images base directory. You can also use the directory that contains the installation files.
In this example, specify the directory as follows:
/usr/sbin/geninstall -d /usr/sys/inst.images/ismp/ppc/MyProduct J:MyProduct
If you want to launch a silent or nonprompted installation with geninstall, include the -Z flag:
/usr/sbin/geninstall -d /usr/sys/inst.images -Z J:MyProduct
For more information about silent installations, see “Performing a silent installation using response
files” on page 86.
v You can use the installation files provided by the product developer to install an ISMP-packaged
product. The product developer might provide a script or executable that can be used to launch an
ISMP-packaged product installation. For more information, refer to the documentation provided with
the product.
Uninstalling a InstallShield MultiPlatform product
You uninstall an ISMP product using SMIT, Web-based System Manager, the geninstall command, or the
files provided by the product’s developer.
v
You can use the SMIT remove fast path to uninstall an ISMP-packaged product. If you use the F4 key
to list the installed software for the SOFTWARE to remove field, the ISMP-packaged product is
displayed in the list. You can also type the name of the product in the field.
By default, uninstallation processes performed in SMIT are silent or nonprompted. To perform an
interactive uninstallation, use Web-based System Manager, the geninstall command, or the instructions
provided with the product documentation.
In SMIT, the preview option is not available for the ISMP product uninstallation procedure. If you
attempt to preview the uninstallation, a message instructs you to launch an interactive uninstallation
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using Web-based System Manager or the command line. This allows you to view the pre-unstallation
summary panel before completing the product uninstallation.
v You can use the Software Application in Web-based System Manager to uninstall ISMP-packaged
products.
Note: If you select the preview option, but proceed through the entire uninstallation wizard, the
product is uninstalled. Most ISMP products include a pre-uninstallation summary panel that provides
preview information about the uninstallation. If you do not want to proceed with the installation after
viewing this information, press the CANCEL button to exit the wizard.
v You can use the geninstall command to perform an uninstallation for an ISMP-packaged product. To
perform the uninstallation interactively, specify the -u flag for uninstallation, and the product name.
For example, to uninstall the MyProduct product, type the following:
/usr/sbin/geninstall -u J:MyProduct
To speed processing, use the J: prefix to inform the geninstall command that you are uninstalling an
ISMP-packaged product.
To perform a silent or nonprompted uninstallation with the geninstall command, use the -Z flag, as
follows:
/usr/sbin/geninstall -Zu J:MyProduct
v You can use installation files provided by the product developer to uninstall an ISMP-packaged
product. The product developer might provide instructions for performing an ISMP-packaged product
uninstallation. For more information, see the documentation provided with the ISMP product.
Performing a silent installation using response files
You can perform silent installations for ISMP-packaged products using response files.
A response file contains predetermined responses for an installation. By default, the geninstall command
searches on the product media in the ISMP-product subdirectory for response files for each ISMP
product. For example, the MyProduct ISMP product subdirectory is similar to the following:
/basedir/ismp/ppc/MyProduct/
The geninstall command searches in the ISMP-product subdirectory for each ISMP product specified in
the install list or bundle for a MyProduct.response file. If a MyProduct.response file does not exist or is
not found, geninstall proceeds with whatever defaults are configured in the installer.
The -t ResponseFileLocation option allows you to specify an alternate location for response files or response
file templates. The ResponseFileLocation can either be a file or directory name. If the ResponseFileLocation is
a directory, it must already exist. If the ResponseFileLocation is not an existing directory, it is assumed that
a file name is specified.
To use response files with ISMP products, the following methods are available:
v Create a response file template. To create an ISMP response file template in the default location, use the
geninstall command with the -T flag. The -T flag creates an ISMP response file template in the default
location, which is the directory containing the product installation files. The resulting template can be
used to create a response file for future installations of the same product with the desired options.
Creation of the response file template does not result in installation of the ISMP product.
To create an ISMP response file template for the MyProduct ISMP product using the product installation
files in the /usr/sys/inst.images/ismp/ppc/MyProduct/ default directory, do the following:
/usr/sbin/geninstall -d /usr/sys/inst.images -T J:MyProduct
The MyProduct.template response file template that is generated is similar to the following:
#######################################################################
#
# InstallShield Options File Template
#
# Wizard name: Setup
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# Wizard source: setup.jar
# Created on: Tue Jun 25 10:59:55 CDT 2004
# Created by: InstallShield Options File Generator
#
# This file can be used to create an options file (i.e., response file) for the
# wizard "Setup". Options files are used with "-options" on the command line to
# modify wizard settings.
#
# The settings that can be specified for the wizard are listed below. To use
# this template, follow these steps:
#
#
1. Enable a setting below by removing leading '###' characters from the
#
line (search for '###' to find settings you can change).
#
#
2. Specify a value for a setting by replacing the characters <value>.
#
Read each settings documentation for information on how to specify its
#
value.
#
#
3. Save the changes to the file.
#
#
4. To use the options file with the wizard, specify -options <filename>
#
as a command line argument to the wizard, where <filename> is the name
#
of this options file.
#
#####################################################################
#####################################################################
#
# My Product Install Location
#
# The install location of the product. Specify a valid directory into which the
# product is installed. If the directory contains spaces, enclose it in
# double-quotes. For example, to install the product to C:\Program Files\My
# Product, use
#
#
-P installLocation="C:\Program Files\My Product"
#
### -P installLocation=<value>
Although the preceding is a simple example, products often have many user-configurable options that
might be set in the response file. Each of these options is presented in the template with an explanation
of the expected value for that option.
v Create a response file recording. To create a response file recording, use the geninstall command with
the -E flag. The -E flag creates an ISMP response file recording in the default location, which is the
directory containing the product installation files. This option requires running the ISMP installation
interactively and completely. Creation of the response file recording will also result in installation of
the ISMP product.
To record the MyProduct.response response file with the MyProduct ISMP product and the product
installation files in the /usr/sys/inst.images/ismp/ppc/MyProduct/ default directory, do the following:
/usr/sbin/geninstall -d /usr/sys/inst.images -E J:MyProduct
This starts the interactive installation wizard. It is necessary to run the wizard to completion to
successfully create the response file recording. When completed, a message similar to the following
displays:
Options record mode enabled - run the wizard to completion to create the options file response.file
The resulting file MyProduct.response response file is similar to the following:
################################################################
#
# InstallShield Options File
#
# Wizard name: Setup
# Wizard source: setup.jar
# Created on: Tue Jun 25 11:05:34 CDT 2002
# Created by: InstallShield Options File Generator
#
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# This file contains values that were specified during a recent execution of
# Setup. It can be used to configure Setup with the options specified below when
# the wizard is run with the "-options" command line option. Read each setting's
# documentation for information on how to change its value.
#
# A common use of an options file is to run the wizard in silent mode. This lets
# the options file author specify wizard settings without having to run the
# wizard in graphical or console mode. To use this options file for silent mode
# execution, use the following command line arguments when running the wizard:
#
#
-options "record.txt" -silent
#
################################################################################
################################################################################
#
# My Product Install Location
#
# The install location of the product. Specify a valid directory into which the
# product is installed. If the directory contains spaces, enclose it in
# double-quotes. For example, to install the product to C:\Program Files\My
# Product, use
#
#
-P installLocation="C:\Program Files\My Product"
#
-P installLocation="/opt/MyProduct"
The -P installLocation value has been completed according to the response given while running the
wizard. In the preceding example, the /opt/MyProduct directory was specified as the installation
location in the wizard. The response file generated by this action can be used directly to launch a silent
installation with the chosen installation location.
v Use a response file for a silent installation. You can use a response file generated by the two methods
mentioned previously or one provided with the product to perform a silent installation with the
desired options.
To use a response file for a silent installation with the geninstall command, the MyProduct product, and
the installation files and response file in the /usr/sys/inst.images/ismp/ppc/MyProduct/ default
directory, do the following:
/usr/sbin/geninstall -Zd /usr/sys/inst.images J:MyProduct
To use a response file for a silent installation with the geninstall command, MyProduct product,
installation files in /usr/sys/inst.images/ismp/ppc/MyProduct/ directory, and the /tmp/MyProduct/
MyProduct.response response file, do the following:
/usr/sbin/geninstall -Zd /usr/sys/inst.images \
-t /tmp/MyProduct/MyProduct.response J:MyProduct
Using response files with NIM
If you are using NIM to install an ISMP-packaged product on one or more NIM clients, you can create
and use a separate response file for each client.
Separate response files are useful when properties of the installation operation must be configured
differently for each client. In order to install multiple clients, you must name each response file
CLIENT_NAME.response. These response files must be located in the default location (the same location
as the product installer files).
For example, to install the MyProduct ISMP-packaged product located in an lpp_source resource in the
/export/lpp_source/lpp_source1/ismp/ppc/MyProduct directory on the CLIENT1 and CLIENT2 clients,
do the following:
1. Create a CLIENT1.response and CLIENT2.response response file.
2. Place the response files in the /export/lpp_source/lpp_source1/ismp/ppc/MyProduct directory.
3. Create the correct responses for each client in the corresponding response file.
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4. When you run the NIM cust operation to install the MyProduct ISMP-packaged product on CLIENT1
and CLIENT2, the response files are used automatically and appropriately for each client.
If you want to use the same response file for all clients, name the response file
PRODUCT_NAME.response and place in the same default location as the ISMP-packaged product (the
product location in the lpp_source resource). For example, create a response file called
MyProduct.response in the /export/lpp_source/lpp_source1/ismp/ppc/MyProduct/ directory. If there are
no client response files when you perform the NIM cust operation, the MyProduct.response file is used
automatically.
Interim fix management solution
You can use the interim fix management solution to track and manage interim fix packages on a system.
An interim fix package might be an interim fix, debug code, or test code that contains commands, library
archive files, or scripts that run when the interim fix package is installed.
The interim fix management solution consists of: the interim fix packager (epkg) command and the
interim fix manager (emgr) command.
The epkg command creates interim fix packages that can be installed by the emgr command. The emgr
command installs, removes, lists, and verifies system interim fixes.
Note: When the term package is used, installp’s reference is the term fileset.
Installing and managing interim fix packages
You can install and manage packages created with the epkg command.
The epkg command installs and manages packages created with the epkg command, and maintains a
database with interim fix information on the system. The emgr command performs the following
operations:
The interim fix package display:
The levels of information on the Interim fix package display are described.
The emgr command’s -d flag displays the contents and topology of the efix package. The -d flag works
with the -v (verbosity) flag. The default verbosity level is 1, but you can set the level to 1, 2, or 3. The
syntax for interim fix package display is as follows:
emgr -d -e interim fixPackage | -f ListFile [-w Directory] [-v{1|2|3}]
For example, to get a level 1 verbosity output on the interim fix package test.102403.epkg.Z, type the
following command.
# emgr -d test.102403.epkg.Z
The verbosity levels include the following information:
LEVEL 1
Lists one interim fix per line with the following information:
v Label for the interim fix package
v Interim fix files contained in the package
v Target location for each interim fix file
LEVEL 2
Lists the following information:
v All LEVEL 1 information
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v
v
v
v
v
Abstract
Reboot requirement (yes or no)
Prerequisite files needed
Pre-install script
Post-install script
v Pre-remove script
v Post-remove script
v File type for each interim fix file
LEVEL 3
Lists the following information:
v All LEVEL 2 information
v Packaging date for each interim fix file
v
v
v
v
v
v
Virtually unique ID (VUID) for each package
File size for each interim fix file
Checksum for each interim fix file
Package for each interim fix file
Description of each interim fix file
Contents of installation scripts and control files, if they are readable text
v Reboot scenario for each interim fix file
v Prerequisites of interim fix file on other interim fix files
v Packages that will be locked when the interim fix is installed
v Interim fixes that will be superseded when the interim fix is installed
Note: Displaying is not supported in the original release of interim fix management. You should update
to the latest level of interim fix management to enable this feature. To update interim fix management,
update bos.rte.install to the latest level.
Installing interim fix packages:
The emgr command installs interim fix packages that are created with the epkg command.
The following example shows the syntax for installing an interim fix package:
emgr -e interim fixPackage | -f ListFile [-w Directory] [-b] [-k] [-p] \
[-I] [-q] [-m] [-o] [-X] [-a path]
The interim fix package installation operation consists of the following phases:
The installation preview phase:
These steps occur during the installation preview phase.
1. The interim fix manager initializes all commands and libraries, and extracts the interim fix metadata
from the interim fix package.
2. The interim fix attributes and description are listed.
3. The emgr command performs a lock-checking procedure by checking the installed interim fix data if
the target files that are being delivered by this interim fix package already have existing interim fixes
installed. If one or more interim fix files that are delivered by this interim fix package are locked, the
emgr command does not allow the installation or installation preview to proceed.
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4. The emgr command performs installp package prerequisite verification. If the user supplied an
installp prerequisite file, the emgr command checks the prerequisites at this stage. If one or more of
the prerequisites is not met, the emgr command does not allow the installation or installation preview
operation to proceed.
5. The emgr command performs interim fix to interim fix prerequisite verification. The emgr command
checks the following:
v All interim fix prerequisites for the interim fix package being checked are installed.
v All interim fix xrequisites for the interim fix package being checked are not installed.
v There are no previously installed interim fixes that list the interim fix being checked as an
xrequisite.
Note: You can use the epkg command to specify the interim fix to interim fix prerequisites for an
package. For more information on checking prerequisites, see “Interim fix user-specified package
components” on page 101.
6. The emgr command checks for space requirements by checking whether the target file systems
contain adequate space for the installation of the interim fix package. This includes space for
unpacking the interim fix files, creating database entries, saving replaced files, installing interim fix
files, creating interim fix mounts when using the -m flag, archiving library members, and other
miscellaneous tasks. The emgr command also adds a small buffer to the various space calculations to
account for file metadata and other factors.
If the user specifies the auto-expand flag using the -X flag, then the emgr command attempts to
expand the file system to the required size. If space requirements cannot be met, the emgr command
stops the installation. If the user specifies a preview installation using the -p flag, then the emgr
command only reports the space statistics without attempting expansion
If the user specifies a preview installation using the -p flag, the emgr command does not perform the
interim fix installation phase. Instead the emgr command skips to the summary and cleanup phase of
installation.
The installation phase:
During the installation phase for installing interim fix packages, these steps occur.
1. During the interim fix installation setup step, the entire interim fix package is unpacked and the
installation tools are initialized.
2. The emgr command checks whether the interim fix package supersedes any other currently installed
interim fix files. If any of the installed interim fix files should be superseded, the emgr command
removes them.
Note: You can use the epkg command to specify that an interim fix package be superseded when you
install another interim fix package. For more information on superseding, see “Interim fix
user-specified package components” on page 101.
3. If a pre_install script is specified, it is run. If the pre_install script returns a failure, the emgr
command halts the installation. If the pre_install script succeeds, the emgr command proceeds with
the installation and sets the interim fix state to INSTALLING.
4. Any files that are replaced by interim fix files in the interim fix package are saved to a secured
directory. If the interim fix package does not deliver any files, this step is skipped.
From this point forward, any major failure causes the emgr command to run a failure-cleanup
procedure, which attempts to clean up the failed installation. If this process fails, the interim fix is
placed into the BROKEN state.
5. All interim fix files are installed to their target locations. If the installation is a mount installation
operation using the -m flag, then the emgr command creates a unique mount file within the parent
directory of the target file. The target file is then over-mounted by the interim fix mount point. For
more information about the mount installation operation, see “Performing an interim fix mount
installation operation” on page 95.
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6. Package locking occurs. The interim fix package locks are processed. If the installer for which the
interim fix package is created supports interim fix package locking, the emgr command locks the
package associated with the interim fix files installed in step 4. For example, the installp command
supports interim fix locking, so an interim fix created for an installp package will support interim fix
package locking.
Note: In addition to implicit locking, you can use epkg to specify that a certain package be explicitly
locked when you install another package. For more information on locking, see “Interim fix
user-specified package components” on page 101.
7. If a post_install script is specified, it is run. If the post_install script returns a failure, the emgr
command halts the installation.
8. Reboot processing occurs. If the interim fix package specifies that a reboot operation is required, the
emgr command issues a message to the user and makes any necessary changes to the boot image. The
emgr command does not reboot the system automatically.
9. At this point, all installation steps have succeeded and the emgr command changes the interim fix
state to STABLE for a standard installation operation, or MOUNTED for a mount installation operation.
The summary and cleanup phase:
These steps occur during the summary and cleanup phase.
1. The emgr command displays a summary of all operations and results. If more than one interim fix
package was specified with an input file using the -f flag, the emgr command provides a report for
each interim fix package.
2. The emgr command cleans up any temporary directories and files. It also unloads any memory
modules that have been loaded into memory.
Removing an interim fix package:
The interim fix removal operation removes an installed interim fix.
You can specify an individual interim fix by using one of the interim fix identification methods or
specifying several individual interim fixes by using a list file. For more information about the interim fix
identification methods, see “Referencing interim fixes” on page 97.
The syntax for removing an installed interim fix is as follows:
emgr -r -L Label | -n interim fixNumber | -u VUID | -f ListFile [-w Directory] \
[-a path] [-b] [-k] [-p] [-I] [-q] [-X]
The removal preview phase:
These steps occur during the removal preview phase.
1. The interim fix manager initializes all commands and libraries, and loads interim fix metadata from
the interim fix database.
2. The interim fix attributes and descriptions are listed.
3. Space requirements are checked. The emgr command checks whether the target file systems contains
adequate space to restore the saved files. This includes space-changing database entries, restoring
saved files, archiving library members, and other miscellaneous tasks. The emgr command also adds
a small buffer to the various space calculations to account for file metadata and other factors.
If the user specifies to auto-expand the file system using the -X flag, the emgr command attempts to
expand the file system to the required size. If space requirements cannot be met, the emgr command
halts the remove operation. If the user specifies a preview installation operation using the -p flag,
then the emgr command only reports the space statistics without attempting to expand the file
system.
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If the user specifies a preview installation using the -p flag, the emgr command does not perform the
interim fix removal and skips to the summary and cleanup phase.
The removal phase:
These steps occur in the removal phase.
Note: Any failure in the removal phase causes the interim fix state to change to BROKEN.
1. The emgr command initializes all remove utilities and changes the interim fix state to REMOVING.
2. Package unlocking occurs. All packages that are locked by the interim fix file being removed are
unlocked. Because it is possible that a single package may be locked by multiple interim fixes, the
emgr command only unlocks a package if this interim fix file is the last (or the only) interim fix file
still holding a lock on the given package.
3. If a pre_remove script is specified, it is run. If the pre_remove script returns a failure, the emgr
command halts the remove operation.
4. emgr checks that the interim fix being removed is not a prerequisite for another installed interim fix.
5. The interim fix is removed. If the interim fix was installed with a standard installation operation, the
emgr command replaces the current interim fix files with the previously saved files. If the installation
was a mount installation operation, the emgr command unmounts the interim fix files and removes
them from the system.
6. If a post_remove script is specified, it is run. If the post_remove script returns a failure, the emgr
command halts the installation.
7. Reboot processing occurs. If the interim fix package specified that a reboot is required, the emgr
command issues a message to the user and make any necessary changes to the boot image. The emgr
command does not reboot the system automatically.
Note: You can use epkg to specify the reboot scenario you want when you install another package.
For more information on reboot scenarios, see “Interim fix user-specified package components” on
page 101.
8. At this point, all removal steps have succeeded and the emgr command removes the remaining
interim fix data from the database and save directories.
The summary and cleanup phase:
These steps occur during the summary and cleanup phase of removing an interim fix.
1. The emgr command issues a summary of all operations and results. If more than one interim fix
package was specified with an input file using the -f flag, the emgr command reports for each interim
fix package.
2. The emgremgr command cleans up any temporary directories and files. It also unloads any memory
modules that have been loaded.
Listing interim fixes:
The emgr command lists data on installed interim fixes with various levels of verbosity.
The syntax for listing interim fixes is as follows:
emgr -l [-L Label | -n interim fixNumber | -u VUID ] [-v{1|2|3}] [-X] [-a path]
By default, the emgr command reports data on all installed interim fix. You can specify an individual
interim fix by using one of the interim fix identification methods. For information about the interim fix
identification methods, refer to “Referencing interim fixes” on page 97.
The default level of verbosity is 1. You can specify up to level 3 with the -v flag. The verbosity levels
include the following information:
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LEVEL 1
Lists one interim fix per line with the following information:
v Interim fix ID
v Interim fix state
v Install time
v Interim fix abstract
LEVEL 2
Lists the following information:
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
All LEVEL 1 information
Virtually unique ID (VUID) for each interim fix file
Number of interim fix files
Location for each interim fix file
Package for each interim fix file
Installer for each interim fix File
Mount installation (yes or no) for each interim fix file
LEVEL 3
Lists the following information:
v All LEVEL 2 information
v Reboot requirement (yes or no)
v Prerequisite files needed
v Pre-install script
v Post-install script
v Pre-remove script
v Post-remove script
v File type for each interim fix file
v File size for each interim fix file
v Checksum for each interim fix file
v Access ownership and modes for each interim fix file
v Prerequisite information
v
v
v
v
v
Interim fix description
Archive member name for each interim fix file
If this is a mount installation operation, then display the mount status for each interim fix file
Reboot scenario for each interim fix file
Interim fix to interim fix prerequisites for each interim fix file
v Packages that will be locked when the interim fix is installed
v Interim fixes that will be superseded when the interim fix is installed
Checking interim fixes:
The emgr command checks the status of installed interim fixes.
The syntax for interim fix checking is as follows:
emgr -c [-L Label | -n interim fixNumber | -u VUID | -f ListFile] [-w Directory] [-a path] \
[-v{1|2|3}] [-X]
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By default the emgr command verifies all installed interim fixes. You can specify an individual interim fix
by using one of the interim fix identification methods or specify several individual interim fixes by using
a list file. For information about the interim fix identification methods, refer to “Referencing interim
fixes” on page 97.
The default level of verification is 1. You can specify up to level 3 with the -v flag. The verification levels
include the following checks:
LEVEL 1
Checks the following information:
v Interim fix data and state
v If this is a mount installation operation, then check the interim fix mount status for all files
Note: If the interim fix file is unmounted, the emgr command changes the interim fix state to
UNMOUNTED
v Interim fix checksum for all interim fix files or archive members
LEVEL 2
Checks the following information:
v All LEVEL 1 checks
v Interim fix ownership and mode for all interim fix files or archive members
LEVEL 3
Checks the following information:
v All LEVEL 2 checks
v All prerequisites
v All interim fix to interim fix prerequisites, including the following:
– All interim fix prerequisites for the interim fix package being checked are installed.
– All interim fix xrequisites for the interim fix package being checked are not installed.
– There are no installed interim fixes that list the interim fix being checked as an xrequisite.
Performing an interim fix mount installation operation:
If the -m flag is specified during interim fix installation, the emgr command performs a mount
installation operation of the interim fix package.
This means that the existing files that are being fixed are not removed from their present locations.
Instead they are over-mounted by the interim fix files. This approach has both advantages and
disadvantages. One advantage is that a system reboot unmounts all of the interim fixes. This means that
any interim fix that created a serious problem is not mounted after a reboot. The disadvantages are that
the administrator must monitor the mount status of interim fixes and some interim fixes may not be
removed without a reboot.
The mount installation operation is not supported with interim fix packages that deliver new files.
The interim fix mount and unmount operation:
The emgr command mounts or unmounts interim fixes that have been installed using the mount
installation operation.
The syntax for interim fix checking is as follows:
emgr -M | -U [-L Label | -n interim fixNumber | -u VUID | -f ListFile][-w Directory] [-a path] [-X]
By default, the emgr command applies the mount or unmount operation to all installed interim fixes. You
can specify an individual interim fix by using one of the interim fix identification methods or specify
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95
several individual interim fixes by using a list file. For more information about the interim fix
identification methods, see “Referencing interim fixes” on page 97.
Using the mount operation with the -M flag, the emgr command attempts to mount all interim fix files
that are unmounted. If all interim fix files are successfully mounted, and the previous interim fix state
was UNMOUNTED, then the emgr command changes the interim fix state to MOUNTED.
Using the unmount operation with the -U flag, the emgr command attempts to unmount all interim fix
files that are mounted. If at least one interim fix file is successfully unmounted, and the previous interim
fix state was MOUNTED, then the emgr command changes the interim fix state to UNMOUNTED.
Using the interim fix display package locks operation:
The display package locks operation displays all packages that are locked by interim fix manager, their
installer, and the locking label or labels.
The syntax for the display package locks operation is as follows:
emgr -P [Package] [-a path] [-X]
By default, the emgr command lists all locked packages. The user can specify an individual package as
an argument to the -P flag.
Using the interim fix force removal operation:
The force removal operation removes interim fix data.
This operation also unlocks all interim fix packages associated with the interim fix label without
removing the actual interim fix files, executing any removal scripts, or boot processing. The force removal
operation can only be run on one interim fix at a time, and the interim fix label is required to identify the
target interim fix. The syntax for performing a force removal operation is as follows:
emgr -R interim fix fixLabel [-w Directory] [-a path] [-X]
Note: The force removal operation must be considered as an emergency procedure. It must only be run if
all other methods to remove the interim fix have failed. This method can create inconsistencies on the
target system.
Additional interim fix information
The following are links to additional fix information.
Generating and using the MD5 checksum:
At the beginning of any operation involving epkg formatted images, emgr looks on the system for a
supported command that generates an MD5 checksum. If a command is located, emgr executes this
command and displays the resulting MD5 checksum.
You can then cross check this MD5 checksum with a secured source. If a command is not located, emgr
takes no further action. You can force set an explicit path to a command that generates a checksum by
exporting the EMGR_MD5_CMD shell variable. This variable should contain the absolute path to the
command. emgr does not verify that the user set command in the EMGR_MD5_CMD variable is an
actual command that generates an MD5 checksum. The syntax used by emgr to generate the MD5
checksum is as follows:
$EMGR_MD5_CMD epkg image file
The expected output is the MD5 checksum as the first word in the output.
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Note: This feature is not supported in the original release of interim fix management. You should update
to the latest level of interim fix management to enable this feature. To update interim fix management,
update bos.rte.install to the latest level.
Referencing interim fixes:
The following are methods for referencing interim fixes.
Reference by Label
Each interim fix that is installed on a given system has its a unique interim fix label. This label is
called the unique key that binds the different database objects. To reference an interim fix by label,
pass the label as an argument to the -L flag.
For example, to run a check operation on an interim fix with label ABC123, type the following:
# emgr -cL ABC123
Reference by Interim Fix ID
Each interim fix that is installed on a given system has a unique interim fix ID. This ID is the
order number in which the interim fix is listed in the interim fix database. Using this option may
be convenient if performing operations on interim fixes based on interim fix listings. The emgr
command converts the interim fix ID into an interim fix label before performing the given
operation. To reference an interim fix by ID, pass the ID as an argument to the -n flag.
For example, to run a check operation on the first interim fix with an ID equal to 1, type the
following:
# emgr -cn1
Note: Emergency fix IDs are valid for short periods of time and change as interim fixes are
removed and added. Always verify the current interim fix ID number by listing the interim fix
using the -l flag.
Reference by VUID
The VUID is used to differentiate packages that have the same label. Unlike Authorized Program
Analysis Reports (APARs), which are officially tracked, emergency fixes are not tracked by any
organization, so it is possible to have two interim fix packages with the same label. However, the
emgr command does not allow the installation of more than one interim fix with the same label.
The emgr command converts the VUID into an interim fix label before performing the given
operation. For example, to list an installed interim fix with VUID equal to
000775364C00020316020703, type the following:
# emgr -l -u 000775364C00020316020703
The VUID is also displayed in the preview section of the interim fix installation and removal
operations, and when using the listing operation with verbosity level 2 or greater. For more
information on verbosity levels, see “Listing interim fixes” on page 93
Generating interim fix list files:
You can perform operations on a set of interim fixes by specifying a list file.
For the installation operation, the list file must contain one interim fix package location per line. For the
removal operation and the mount and unmount operations, the list file must have one interim fix label
name per line. You can use the -f flag on the emgr command to specify a file that contains one of the
following:
v A list of package locations for the installation operation (one per line)
v A list of interim fix labels for the remove, mount, unmount, and check operations (one per line)
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The emgr command ignores any blank lines, or lines where the first non-white space character is the #
character.
Understanding interim fix states:
The emgr command maintains a state for each installed interim fix.
The following installed interim fix states are maintained by the emgr command:
STABLE
The interim fix was installed with a standard installation, and successfully completed the last
installation operation. To verify the interim fix details, run a check operation on the given efix or
interim fixes.
MOUNTED
The interim fix was installed with a mount installation operation, and successfully completed the
last installation or mount operation. A state of MOUNTED does not mean all interim fixes are
currently mounted. For example, the interim fixes might have been manually unmounted. This
state represents the emgr command’s previous actions and determination of the mount status. To
verify the interim fix details, including mount status, run a check operation on the given interim
fix or interim fixes.
UNMOUNTED
The interim fix was installed with a mount installation operation and one or more interim fix files
were unmounted in a previous emgr command operation. The state of UNMOUNTED does not mean
that all interim fixes are currently unmounted. For example, the interim fixes might have been
manually mounted or partially mounted. This state represents the emgr command’s previous
actions and determination of the mount status. To verify the interim fix details, including mount
status, run a check operation on the given interim fix or interim fixes.
BROKEN
An unrecoverable error occurred during an installation or removal operation. The status of the
interim fix is unreliable. You can attempt to remove this interim fix and reinstall it from the
interim fix package.
INSTALLING
The interim fix is in the process of installing. Normally, this state occurs only for a brief time
during interim fix installation. However, if an interim fix installation is suddenly interrupted
(such as in a sudden power loss or a system crash), and the emgr command is unable to clean up
the failed installation, an interim fix might be left in the INSTALLING state. You can attempt to
remove this interim fix and reinstall it from the interim fix package.
REBOOT REQUIRED
The interim fix was installed successfully and requires a reboot to fully integrate into the target
system. After you reboot the target system, emgr changes the interim fix state to STABLE.
Note:
1. This feature is not supported in the original release of interim fix management. You should
update to the latest level of interim fix management to enable this feature. To update interim
fix management, update bos.rte.install to the latest level.
2. emgr is called by init with the -B bootup flag during system start. emgr examines the state
data for all interim fixes and changes the interim fix states as necessary. The /etc/inittab
entry rcemgr is created the first time emgr installs an interim fix file. rcemgr is set to not block
or respawn. All rcemgr activities and output are logged to the emgr log in
/var/adm/ras/emgr.log. Do not directly execute emgr with the -B flag.
REMOVING
The interim fix is in the process of being removed. Normally, this state occurs only for a brief
time during interim fix removal. However, if an interim fix installation is suddenly interrupted
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(such as in a sudden power loss or a system crash), and the emgr command is unable to clean up
the failed installation, an interim fix might be left in the REMOVING state. You can attempt to
remove this interim fix and reinstall it from the interim fix package.
Logging interim fixes:
These operations are logged in the /var/adm/ras/emgr.log emgr log file.
v Installation
v Removal
v Checking
v Mounting
v Unmounting
v Force Removal
Cleaning up interim fix installation failures:
The failure-cleanup procedure is run when an interim fix installation operation fails after the installation
preview (and pre_install script, if specified).
The failure-cleanup procedure attempts to reverse any of the changes that have already been made by the
installation process and is similar to the removal phase of the interim fix removal operation. This
procedure sets the EMGR_UNDO global environment variable to 1 and allows packaging to take
different paths in the pre_remove and post_remove scripts.
Managing interim fix files when using the Trusted Computing Base:
The emgr command automatically detects if a system is enabled with the Trusted Computing Base (TCB).
If TCB is enabled, the emgr command registers all of the installed interim fixes with the interim fix
database. When the interim fixes are removed, the emgr command restores the original TCB data.
Because mount installation operations can create variations in file attributes when interim fix files are
mounted and unmounted, mount installation operations are not supported on a TCB-enabled system and
are blocked by the emgr command.
If you do not want the emgr command to automatically manage TCB data, export the
EMGR_IGNORE_TCB variable and set this variable to any value that is not null. When the
EMGR_IGNORE_TCB variable is set, the emgr command behaves as if the system is not TCB-enabled. If
the EMGR_IGNORE_TCB variable is set on a TCB-enabled system, you might be required to manually
manage interim fix files within TCB.
To check if TCB is enabled on your system, run the /usr/bin/tcbck command. If a usage statement is
returned, TCB is enabled. Otherwise, a message indicating that TCB is not enabled is returned.
Using emgr to manage interim fix command paths.:
The emgr command calls one or more of the following UNIX® commands.
ar
awk
cat
chmod
chown
compress
cp
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date
df
diff
du
egrep
fuser
id
ksh
ln
ls
mkdir
mount
mv
printf
ps
rm
rmdir
sed
sleep
sort
sum
tail
tar
tee
touch
umount
uname
vi
wc
zcat
The emgr command calls one or more of the following AIX commands:
aclget
aclput
bosboot
lslpp
odmchange
odmget
slibclean
tcbck
The emgr command looks for the UNIX and AIX commands previously listed in the following path
order:
1. /usr/emgrdata/bin
2. /usr/bin
3. /usr/sbin
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4.
5.
6.
7.
/bin
/sbin
/usr/local/bin
/usr/local/sbin
The /usr/emgrdata/bin directory is a secured directory that is created the first time the emgr command is
run.
If you are attempting to install or remove an interim fix for one of the commands that the emgr
command uses, you might not be able to successfully complete the operation. To solve this problem, do
the following:
1. Manually install the interim fix file into the /usr/emgrdata/bin directory.
2. Perform the emgr operation.
3. Remove the manually installed interim fix file from the /usr/emgrdata/bin directory.
Using this method, the interim fix is registered and tracked with interim fix manager and all other emgr
command processing takes place.
If the interim fix file is the /usr/bin/ksh file and the problem it fixes prevents the emgr command’s
operations from succeeding, then do the following:
1. Back up the original /usr/bin/ksh file.
2. Manually install the /usr/bin/ksh interim fix file to /usr/bin/ksh.
3. Perform the emgr command installation or remove operation.
Understanding interim fix integration with installp update images.:
The interim fix management commands use an APAR reference file to associate interim fixes with APAR
numbers.
When the APAR images are available, the installp command matches the APAR numbers contained in
the update image with the APAR numbers installed with the interim fix. If all APAR numbers are
matched by the update, the interim fixes will automatically be removed.
Creating interim fix packages
If you need to create your own interim fix and package it for distribution, use the epkg command to
package the interim fix.
The epkg command can be run in two modes: interactive and template-based. The interactive method
prompts the user with several questions and constructs the interim fix package based on the answers.
The template-based method uses an interim fix control file that is pre-filled with default answers that are
then asked in interactive mode. The interim fix package can then be installed by the emgr command.
By using an interim fix control file as a template, interim fix packages can be created noninteractively. For
an example of a completed interim fix control file, see the epkg command.
Interim fix user-specified package components:
The listed interim fix control-file components are part of the overall interim fix package and are not
related to specific files.
ABSTRACT
Describes the interim fix package. The abstract is limited to 38 bytes.
DESCRIPTION
Contains a detailed description of the interim fix package that is being installed.
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APARREF
Specifies the location of a file that contains the APAR number or numbers associated with this
interim fix. This component is required. The file must be contain one APAR number per line.
E2E_PREREQ
Lists the interim fix label names of interim fixes that are prerequisites to the interim fix package
being installed. Using this file causes emgr to check if the interim fix PREREQ label is installed.
If the prerequisite is not installed, emgr aborts installation of the interim fix package. You can
also use this file to specify an XREQ interim fix label. Specifiying XREQ interim fix labels causes
emgr to not install the interim fix package if the specified interim fix is installed. The maximum
number of supported interim fix labels is 32. You can specify the interim fix labels to check for in
the following ways.
v Specify the file location with the -g flag. For example, to specify interim fixprereq.epkg, type
the following:
# epkg -g /tmp/efixprereq.epkg myefix
v Use the -v flag in interactive mode for extended options, and type the file location when
prompted by epkg. For example, to specify interim_fixprereq.epkg, when prompted, type the
following:
Enter the location for the supersede file or "." to skip.
-> /tmp/interim_fixprereq.epkg
v Set the E2E_PREREQ attribute in the interim fix control file to the local file location of the
interim fix prerequisite file. For example, to specify interim_fixprereq.epkg, set the attribute as
follows:
E2E_PREREQ=/tmp/interim_fixprereq.epkg
The format of the interim fix prerequisite file entries is as follows (where RequisiteType is
PREREQ or XREQ):
EfixLabel RequisiteType
Comments beginning with a ″#″ sign and leading white space are ignored. For example:
oldefix1 PREREQ # Make sure oldefix1 is already installed
oldefix4 XREQ
# Make sure oldefix4 is NOT installed
Note: This feature is not supported in the original release of interim fix management. You should
update to the latest level of interim fix management to enable this feature. To update interim fix
management, update bos.rte.install to the latest level.
PKGLOCKS
Lists the packages that should be locked by emgr in addition to those that are automatically
locked based on file ownership. You should specify the name of the package, the package lock
action (either ALWAYS or IFINST), and the package file type. ALWAYS means always attempt to
lock this package, and a failure to lock the package results in interim fix installation failure.
IFINST means attempt to lock this package only if the package is installed, and failure to lock an
installed package results in interim fix installation failure. The maximum number of supported
interim fix labels is 32. You can specify the packages to be locked in the following ways.
v Specify the file location with the -l flag. For example, to specify pkglock.epkg, type the
following:
# epkg -l /tmp/pkglock.epkg myefix
v Use the -v flag in interactive mode for extended options, and type the file location when
prompted by epkg. For example, to specify pkglock.epkg, when prompted, type the following:
Enter the location for the supersede file or "." to skip.
-> /tmp/pkglock.epkg
v Set the PKGLOCKS attribute in the interim fix control file to the local file location of the
package to be locked. For example, to specify pkglock.epkg, set the attribute as follows:
PKGLOCKS=/tmp/pkglock.epkg
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The format of the interim fix package locks file entries is as follows:
PackageName PackageAction PackageType
Comments beginning with a ″#″ sign and leading white space are ignored. In the following
example, emgr will always attempt to lock bos.rte.lvm during installation and will unlock it on
removal. emgr will lock bos.games if (and only if) it is installed and will unlock it on removal (if
locked).
bos.rte.lvm ALWAYS installp
bos.games
IFINST installp
Note: This feature is not supported in the original release of interim fix management. You should
update to the latest level of interim fix management to enable this feature. To update interim fix
management, update bos.rte.install to the latest level.
PRE_INSTALL
Runs after an installation preview and before any interim fix files are installed. Failure in the
pre_install script causes the interim fix package installation to be aborted. This script is useful
for doing any preinstallation checking or work. Because the emgr command does not call a
failure-cleanup procedure for preinstallation failures, this script performs failure cleanup (related
to the script) before it exits. This component is optional.
POST_INSTALL
Runs after all interim fix files have been successfully installed. A failure in the post_install
script causes the installation to fail and causes interim fix manager to run a failure-cleanup
procedure. This component is optional. For more information about the post_install script, refer
to “Installing and managing interim fix packages” on page 89.
PRE_REMOVE
Runs after the removal preview and before any interim fix files are removed during a remove
operation and in the first stage of a failure-cleanup procedure. A failure in the pre_remove script
causes the given operation to fail. In the case of a failure-cleanup procedure, the emgr command
sets an EMGR_UNDO global environment variable to 1. If necessary, the EMGR_UNDO variable
is used to take different actions for removal as opposed to a failure-cleanup. This component is
optional.
POST_REMOVE
Runs after interim fix files are removed during a remove operation and a failure-cleanup
procedure. A failure in the post-remove script causes the given operation to fail. In the case of a
failure-cleanup procedure, the emgr command sets an EMGR_UNDO global environment
variable to 1. The EMGR_UNDO variable is used to take different actions for removal as
opposed to a failure-cleanup (if necessary). This component is optional.
REBOOT
Indicates whether a reboot operation is required for this interim fix. You can use this variable to
specify one of the following reboot scenarios.
v Reboot is not required.
v Reboot is required, and the boot image will be rebuilt.
v Reboot is required, and the boot image will not be rebuilt.
You can specify the which of these reboot scenarios you want in the following ways.
v Specify the reboot scenario with the -r flag. Arguments for this flag are n (reboot is not
required), y (reboot required and the boot image will be rebuilt), and o (reboot is required, but
the boot image will not be rebuilt). For example, the following command specifies that a reboot
is not required:
# epkg -r n
v Use the -v flag in interactive mode for extended options, and select the reboot scenario you
want when prompted by epkg. For example:
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Select reboot policy for this efix package:
1) Reboot is NOT required.
2) Reboot is required. The boot image will be rebuilt.
3) Reboot is required. The boot image will NOT be rebuilt.
v Set the REBOOT and BUILD_BOOTIMAGE attributes in the interim fix control file to the
appropriate values for the reboot scenario you want. For example, to specify that a reboot is
not required, set the attributes as follows:
REBOOT=no
BUILD_BOOTIMAGE=no
To specify that a reboot is required and the boot image will be rebuilt, set the attributes as
follows:
REBOOT=yes
BUILD_BOOTIMAGE=yes
To specify that a reboot is required and the boot image will not be rebuilt, set the attributes as
follows:
REBOOT=yes
BUILD_BOOTIMAGE=no
Note:
1. Setting REBOOT to no and BUILD_BOOTIMAGE to yes results in an error from epkg.
2. This feature is not supported in the original release of interim fix management. You should
update to the latest level of interim fix management to enable this feature. To update
interim fix management, update bos.rte.install to the latest level.
PREREQ
Contains installp prerequisites. This component is optional.
v The file has one prerequisite per line.
v The format of the prerequisite entry is as follows:
Fileset Min Level Max Level Type
Fileset The name of the requisite installp fileset.
Min Level
The minimum level for the requisite fileset. The specification of NONE indicates no
minimum level.
Max Level
The maximum level for the requisite fileset. The specification of NONE indicates no
maximum level.
The following types are supported: PREREQ and IFREQ. PREREQ is the default type and
requires that the requisite fileset meets all criteria. IFREQ requires that requisite fileset
meet all criteria only if it is installed.
v Blank lines or lines that start with # are ignored, as shown in the following examples:
Type
# Require that abc.xyz is installed at any level:
abc.xyz NONE NONE
# Require that bos.rte.lvm is installed at level 5.1.0.10 or above:
bos.rte.lvm 5.1.0.10 NONE
# Require bos.mp be between 5.1.0.0 and 5.1.0.40 if it is installed:
bos.mp 5.1.0.0 5.1.0.40 IFREQ
SUPERSEDE
Specifies the interim fix label name of an interim fix or interim fixes that are to be superseded
when an epkg is installed. Using this file causes emgr to remove any interim fix labels that are
specified in this file (if they are installed) before installing the interim fix package. Failure to
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remove an installed superseded interim fix aborts the installation of the interim fix package. The
maximum supported number of superseded labels is 32. You can specify the superseded file in
the following ways.
v Specify the file location with the -S flag. For example, to specify susperseded.epkg, type the
following:
# epkg -S /tmp/superseded.epkg myefix
v Use the -v flag in interactive mode for extended options, and type the file location when
prompted by epkg. For example, to specify susperseded.epkg, when prompted, type the
following:
Enter the location for the supersede file or "." to skip.
-> /tmp/superseded.epkg
v Set the SUPERSEDE attribute in the interim fix control file to the local file location of the
superseded file. For example, to specify susperseded.epkg, set the attribute as follows:
SUPERSEDE=/tmp/superseded.epkg
The format for the list of superseded files is one interim fix label to be superseded per line.
Comments beginning with a ″#″ sign and leading white space are ignored. For example:
# Requisites for efix myefix3
myefix1
myefix2
Note: This feature is not supported in the original release of interim fix management. You should
update to the latest level of interim fix management to enable this feature. To update interim fix
management, update bos.rte.install to the latest level.
Interim fix file components:
The following interim fix control-file components are related to specific files. The maximum number of
interim fix files for each interim fix that the epkg and emgr commands support is 200.
EFIX_FILE_NUM
Number of the given file (1 - 200).
SHIP_FILE
Local file location that the epkg command is archiving into the interim fix package. Specify either
an absolute or relative path to this file. The ship file is the interim fix that is delivered.
TARGET_FILE
Target file location where the SHIP_FILE is installed. This location is located on the system where
the interim fix package is installed. Specify the absolute path to this file. If this file is part of a
registered package, such as an RPM or installp package, you must specify the tracked location.
INSTALLER
This variable represents the type of installer that owns the interim fix package. Valid integer
choices are as follows:
1
Tracked by installp
2
Tracked by RPM
3
Tracked by ISMP
4
Tracked by another installer
5
New file that will be tracked by installp
6
New file that will be tracked by RPM
7
New file that will be tracked by ISMP
8
New file that will be tracked by another installer
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9
TYPE
Not tracked by any installer
This is the type of file that is being installed. The valid choices are as follows:
1
Standard file or executable file
2
Library or archive member
An example of TYPE 1 is the /usr/bin/ls file or the /usr/bin/rm file. An example of TYPE 2 is
the shr.o archive member as a member of the libc.a library.
ACL
Specifies the access attributes (mode and ownership) for a given file. If this attribute is set to
DEFAULT, the emgr command maintains the current permissions of the file to be replaced.
However, if the target file is a new file or the user wants to specify permissions using the -v flag,
the ACL attribute can be entered with the Owner:Group:OctalModes syntax, similar to the
following:
ACL= root:system:555
AR_MEM
Specifies the name of the archive member. This option is only valid if TYPE=2. In this case,
SHIP_FILE represents the local location of the archive member that is being shipped,
TARGET_FILE represents the target archive, and ACL applies to the archive member. For
example, the following attributes ship the myshr.o local file to the shr.o member in the
/usr/ccs/lib/libc.a target archive:
TYPE=2
SHIP_FILE=/home/myshr.o
TARGET_FILE=/usr/ccs/lib/libc.a
AR_MEM=shr.o
Interim fix automatic common components:
The listed components are part of the overall interim fix package and are not related to specific files.
These components are automatically determined by the epkg command. Typically, the user does not set
the following components:
DATE Date and time that the backup was made.
INSTWORK
Amount of space (in 512 byte-blocks) required for unpacking the interim fix metadata.
VUID Virtually Unique ID. A combination of time and cpuid, this ID can be used to differentiate fixes
that are otherwise identical.
QNEXT and QORDER
Internal trackers for interactive mode. If you are using an interim fix control file in nonprompted
mode, make sure QNEXT and QORDER are not set, or set to QEND.
Interim fix automatic file components:
The listed components are related to specific files. These components are automatically determined by the
epkg command. Typically, the user does not set these components.
CKSUM
File checksum for the given file
SIZE
Size for the given file
Running the epkg command in interim fix interactive mode:
By default, the epkg command is run in interactive mode. The only required parameter is the interim fix
label.
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If you interrupt a running epkg command session, the interim fix control file is saved. If you start a new
session with the same interim fix label, you are asked whether you want to keep working with the
previous interim fix control file. You can use the -u flag to answer this question.
The epkg command maintains a record of the question order and allows the user to navigate between
questions by using subcommands. Also, the epkg command remembers the previous answer the user
provided and sets that answer as the default answer. The epkg subcommands are the following:
b!
Returns to the previous question.
s!
Shows the current interim fix control file.
q!
Quits without saving interim fix control file (using the Ctrl-C key sequence will prompt this
subcommand).
h!
Displays help information for the current question.
The epkg command asks the following questions, one at a time:
1. Enter interim fix abstract [38 bytes maximum]:
** If "-s" flag is specified, go to question #3 ***
2. Does this interim fix deliver one or more files ? (yes/no):
** If "no", go to question #9 **
3. Enter the local ship file location for interim fix file number 1:
4. Enter target location for interim fix file number 1:
5. Select file type for interim fix file number 1:
1) Standard (file or executable)
2) Library member
6. Select the installer which tracks the file
file number 1:
1) Currently tracked by installp.
2) Currently tracked by RPM.
3) Currently tracked by ISMP.
4) Currently tracked by another installer.
5) This is a NEW file that will be tracked
6) This is a NEW file that will be tracked
7) This is a NEW file that will be tracked
8) This is a NEW file that will be tracked
9) Not tracked by any installer.
that is being fixed by interim fix
by
by
by
by
installp.
RPM.
ISMP.
another installer.
*** If "-m flag" and not new go to #7.1 ***
*** If new, go to #7.2 ***
*** Else, go to #8 ***
7.1 Enter the ACL for file 1 in the format of <owner>:<group>:<octal modes>.
For example to make the user="root", the group="system", and the modes "444",
you would enter root:system:444. Enter "." if you want to keep the default
(i.e. current) permissions on the existing target file.
7.2 Enter the ACL for file 1 in the format of <owner>:<group>:<octal modes>.
For example to make the user="root", the group="system", and the modes "444",
you would enter root:system:444.
8. Are there more interim fix files ? (yes/no):
** If "yes", increment file and go to question #3 **
** If "no" and "-s" flag, go to #14 **
** If "no" go to question #9 **
9.
Enter the local location for the pre-install script or "." to skip.
10. Enter the local location for the post-install script or "." to skip.
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107
11. Enter the local location for the pre-remove script or "." to skip.
12. Enter the local location for the post-remove script or "." to skip.
14. Is a reboot required after installing this interim fix ? (yes/no):
15. Enter the location for the APAR reference file.
16. Enter the local location for the installp prerequisite file or "." to skip.
*** This question is skipped if -p flag ***
17. Enter the local location for the interim fix description file or "." to compose it
in an editor:
*** This question is skipped if "-d" flag is specified
***
*** If the description file is not specified, the user will be
***
*** put into an editor to compose it. The user can specify
***
*** which editor to use by setting the EDITOR global environment ***
*** variable. The default editor is /usr/bin/vi.
***
After all of the questions are answered, the epkg command verifies the interim fix control file and creates
a compressed tar package that can be installed by using the emgr command.
Related information
The following are links to additional information related to optional software products and service
updates.
v For information about developing software products that are installed using the installp command, see
Packaging Software for Installation in AIX 5L Version 5.3 General Programming Concepts: Writing and
Debugging Programs.
v For information about creating a new backup of your system, see “Creating system backups” on page
141.
v For additional release information, see the AIX 5.3 Release Notes.
Troubleshooting your installation
Find tactics for isolating installation and configuration problems, and their solutions.
Troubleshooting an installation from a system backup
Troubleshoot common problems when installing from a system image created with the mksysb
command.
Installing when booting a system backup fails
If a backup tape fails to boot, you can still install by using a mksysb image stored on the tape.
Boot the machine from the product media (Volume 1 if there is more than one volume), then install the
backup from Maintenance mode. For instructions on booting, refer to “Installing the Base Operating
System” on page 32. Follow the instructions to the point when the Welcome to the Base Operating
System Installation and Maintenance screen displays.
If your system fails to boot from a mksysb tape, you may have encountered a problem which can be
identified and resolved with these instructions. Affected systems include all CHRP architecture systems,
which started with the model F50. Access the firmware command line prompt, which usually appears as
an option in the SMS menus. At the firmware command line prompt, type following two commands:
setenv real-base 1000000
reset-all
The system will then reboot, and you will be able to boot from tape, assuming that you have an
otherwise valid boot image on your tape media.
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Booting system backup from the product media:
Follow this procedure to boot a system backup from the product media.
Complete the following steps when the Welcome screen is displayed:
1. Choose the Start Maintenance Mode for System Recovery option.
2. Choose the Install from a System Backup option.
3. Choose the drive containing the backup tape.
The system reads the tape and begins the installation.
4. Do not remove the disk from the media drive.
The system installs the kernel and device support required on the target system from the disk.
5. Return to step 9 on page 157 in the Installing a System Backup on the Source Machine procedure and
continue the instructions for installing the backup.
Note: The Use Maps option is not supported in Maintenance Mode. For more information on the
maps options in Maintenance Mode, refer to “Installing a system backup on the source machine” on
page 154.
Configuring mksysb image on system backup tapes
Use the mksysb command to ensure that the boot image, BOS Installation/Maintenance image, and the
table of contents image are created with a tape block_size value of 512.
Bootable mksysb tapes comprise the following images:
v
v
v
v
Boot image
BOS Installation/Maintenance image
Table of contents image
System backup image
The system backup image is the actual backup of the files in the rootvg in all JFS-mounted file systems.
The boot image, BOS Installation/Maintenance image, and the table of contents image must be created
with a tape block_size value of 512. The mksysb command ensures that the block size is 512 when these
images are created. There are no restrictions on the block size used for the fourth (system backup image)
on the tape. The block size of the system, before it was temporarily set to 512, is used for the fourth
image on the tape.
The value of the block size must be saved in the /tapeblksz file in the second image on the tape. The
second and fourth images are stored in backup/restore format. Again, mksysb ensures the correctness of
the tapes created by using the mksysb command.
If there are problems with the bosinst.data file, the image.data file, or the tapeblksz file, these files can
be restored from the second image on the tape and checked. These files, as well as commands necessary
for execution in the RAM file system (when running in maintenance mode after booting from the tape),
are stored in the second image.
Restoring a file from the second image or tape:
Follow these steps to restore a file from the second image.
1. Be sure the tape block size is 512 by entering the following command: # lsattr -E -l rmt0.
If the block size is not correct, use the following command to set it to 512: # chdev -l rmt0 -a
block_size=512.
2. Make sure the tape is rewound. If the tape is not rewound, enter the following command: # tctl -f
/dev/rmt0 rewind
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109
3. Extract the necessary files by entering: # restore -xvq -s2 -f /dev/rmt0.1.filename
Note: The filename should be the full path, and always preceded with a . (dot character), such as
./tapeblksz.
4. Rewind the tape by entering: # tctl -f /dev/rmt0 rewind
5. Change the block size back to its original value, if necessary.
Troubleshooting problems with installation from mksysb backup
These troubleshooting tips apply to reported problems with installations from a mksysb image.
v Check that you have sufficient free blocks in the file systems to write temporary files.
v Check that each file system has at least 500 blocks free when the mksysb backup image is made. The
system needs work space in each file system when installing from a mksysb backup image.
v
v
v
v
Note: Depending on the type of data or files in the file system, you might need additional blocks free.
For example, if the file system has a lot of small files, an extra 4 KB is automatically allocated to allow
for metadata expansion.
Check that you are using the correct tape type for the density setting that you selected.
Check that the tape is not write-protected.
Clean the tape drive at the recommended intervals and use only approved data-grade tapes (not video
tapes for 8 mm).
Check that 7206 4-mm Digital Audio Tape (DAT) tape drives are using only DAT tapes marked with
the Dataphone Digital Services (DDS) symbol. Any other DAT tapes (for example, voice grade) cannot
be used.
v Check the /smit.log file for any errors from SMIT.
v Check that your mksysb backup image contains an image.data file. If you create the mksysb backup
image through Web-based System Manager or SMIT, it is done automatically. If you run mksysb from
the command line, you must either run the mkszfile command first, or use the -i flag with the mksysb
command.
Troubleshooting migration installation
The following offers solutions for problems that can occur during a migration installation.
Troubleshooting boot logical volume errors
References for responding to errors indicating that the boot logical volume is not large enough is
described.
If you receive errors indicating the boot logical volume is not large enough, see “Interpreting
installation-related system and error messages” on page 116.
Troubleshooting insufficient disk space for migration
At the beginning of a migration installation, the system verifies that there will be enough space to
attempt the migration. If there is not enough disk space, a message explains how much is needed.
You must now reboot the machine from the media containing your current version of AIX, and make
more space available in the rootvg volume group. After you do this, attempt the migration again.
You can use the following options for adding additional disk space for the migration installation:
v Add another disk to the rootvg volume group, using either the SMIT smit extendvg fast path or the
extendvg command.
v Move any user-data logical volumes from the rootvg volume group to another volume group. You can
use either the SMIT smit cplv fast path or the cplv command to move individual logical volumes to
another volume group’s disk. It is a good idea to have only system logical volumes in the rootvg, and
have user-data logical volumes in other volume groups.
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After you use the cplv command, you must remove the original logical volumes with the rmlv
command. If the moved logical volume contains a file system, you must modify its corresponding
entries in the /etc/filesystems file to reflect the new logical volume name.
For more detailed information about manipulating logical volumes and volume groups, refer to Logical
Volumes in Operating system and device management.
v Remove unneeded logical volumes (and file systems) from the rootvg. Run the lsvg -l rootvg
command to see all the logical volumes in the rootvg volume group. The only logical volumes that
must be in the rootvg are: hd2, hd3, hd4, hd5, hd6, hd8, and hd9var. The hd1 (/home) logical volume
can be located in another volume group if necessary.
Beginning in AIX 5.1, the hd7 (system dump) logical volume is not needed because the paging space
logical volume (hd6) is used. The migration code automatically removes this logical volume if space is
needed, but you can remove it ahead of time with the following commands:
sysdumpdev -P -p /dev/hd6
rmlv -f hd7
v If you cannot find extra space in your rootvg, you might have to do a preservation installation instead
of a migration installation to AIX. A preservation installation saves all the ″non-system″ logical
volumes and file systems (for example, /home), but removes and re-creates the following logical
volumes: hd2, hd3, hd4, hd5 and hd9var.
If you do a preservation installation, you must reinstall any applications that were installed in your
rootvg after the preservation installation has completed. You must also reconfigure devices, as well as
re-create users and groups. For more information about a preservation installation, see “Installing the
Base Operating System” on page 32.
After you have released enough space, reboot from your installation media, and try the migration
installation again. You must have at least 8 MB of free disk space to complete the migration installation.
If there is insufficient space to complete the migration installation during the BOS installation process, a
message similar to the following is displayed at the end of the installation:
An error occurred while migrating packages.
Some packages have not been installed.
Please see /var/adm/ras/devinst.log for details or perform an overwrite or
preservation install.
If space limitations prevent the migration of all software that is usually automatically migrated, the
installation program attempts to install the software that is usually installed for a Preservation or
Overwrite installation. If there is still not enough disk space available, the minimum set of software
required to support the use of the system is installed.
If there is not enough space to migrate all of the usually migrated software, a collection of software called
a Migration Bundle will be available when you install additional software later. If the minimum set of
software is installed, or if the installation is not performed from a graphics console, a Graphics_Startup
Bundle is created. Before installing either of these bundles, create additional disk space on the machine
you want to install. For more information about installing software bundles and migrating or installing
optional software products, refer to “Optional products and service updates” on page 70. “Maintaining
optional software products and service updates” on page 76 describes how to remove software from the
system to release disk space.
Troubleshooting alternate disk installation errors
The following are error messages you might encounter during alternate disk installation.
If you receive either of the following error messages, see “Interpreting installation-related system and
error messages” on page 116.
v 0505-113 alt_disk_install: No target disk name provided.
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v 0505-117 alt_disk_install: Error restoring image.data file from mksysb image.
Troubleshooting other problems with alternate disk installation
You might encounter one of these problems with alternate disk installation.
Symptom: You have run the alt_disk_install command or used the SMIT menus to either clone or install
a mksysb image on an alternate disk. However, you now want to remove the definition so you can use
the disk to run the alt_disk_install command again or use the disk for another purpose.
Action: Do not run the exportvg command. The exportvg examines the logical volumes on the disk
(now called by their rootvg names: hd1, hd2, hd3, and so on) and tries to remove their
corresponding entries from the /etc/filesystems file. This action removes the real file system
stanzas from your running system and causes boot problems if you reboot with the missing stanzas.
Use the alt_disk_install -X command to remove the altinst_rootvg name from the database. This
removes only the ODM information from the CuDv database, so the lspv command shows the
disk(s) as no longer belonging to altinst_rootvg. It also resets your bootlist to the boot disk on
which the hd5 boot logical volume resides. You can still boot from the altinst_rootvg, because the
volume group, logical volume, and file system information remain on the disk. However, you must
set your bootlist to the altinst_rootvg boot disk.
Troubleshooting after a BOS installation
The following are troubleshooting tips for issues that might arise following a BOS installation.
The Configuration Assistant or Installation Assistant will not display when the BOS installation program
completes if your system was installed by a network installation server.
Configuration Assistant and Installation Assistant do not contain the tasks needed to configure your
machine as a server. If you need to configure your system for a specific resource, refer to the
documentation pertaining to that resource.
If your terminal type is not set, the first menu displayed by the ASCII Installation Assistant requires you
to enter your terminal type (tty). If you enter a terminal type that is not valid, this menu redisplays until
a valid type is entered.
If you enter a valid terminal type that does not match your terminal, the next screen displayed may be
unreadable. In this case, press the break key sequence to return to the Set Terminal Type screen. For most
terminal types, the break key sequence is Ctrl-C.
Troubleshooting a system that does not boot from the hard disk
Follow this procedure to access a system that will not boot from the hard disk.
If a mksysb backup tape fails to boot, read “Troubleshooting an installation from a system backup” on
page 108 for instructions.
This procedure enables you to get a system prompt so that you can attempt to recover data from the
system or perform corrective action that will enable the system to boot from the hard disk.
Note:
1. This procedure is intended only for experienced administrators who have knowledge of how to boot
or recover data from a system that is unable to boot from the hard disk. Most administrators should
not attempt this procedure but instead should follow local problem-reporting procedures.
2. This procedure is not intended for administrators who have just completed a New Installation,
because the system will not contain data that needs to be recovered. If you are unable to boot from
the hard disk after completing a New Installation, follow your local problem-reporting procedures.
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The following steps summarize the procedure for accessing a system that will not boot.
1. Boot the system from Volume 1 of the BOS media or a bootable tape.
2. Select Maintenance Options.
3. Recover data or perform corrective action using the system prompt.
Preparing to access a system that does not boot
You must meet these prerequisites before attempting to access a system that will not boot from the hard
disk.
Confirm the following:
v Your system cannot be booted from the hard disk.
v All hardware is installed.
v AIX Base Operating System (BOS) is installed.
v Your system unit is set to Off.
Accessing the system if unable to boot from the hard disk
Use this procedure if you are unable to boot from the hard disk.
The beginning of this procedure is similar to the one you used to install the Base Operating System. You
will, however, use the maintenance screens instead of the installation screens to complete this procedure.
1. Turn on all attached external devices, such as terminals, media drives, tape drives, monitors, and
external disk drives before turning on the system unit. Do not turn on the system unit until step 5.
Turning on the external devices first is necessary so that the system unit can identify them during
the startup (boot) process.
v If you are booting from a network device, refer to Booting a machine over a network.
v If you are not booting from a network device, go to step 3.
2. Insert Volume 1 of the installation media into the tape or media drive. Some media drives have a
removable disc caddy, while others have a sliding drawer. If the media drive on your system has a
sliding drawer, place the media in the drawer and push the drawer in. If the media drive on your
system does not have a sliding drawer, insert the media into the disc caddy and then insert the
caddy into the CD-ROM drive.
Note:
a. You may find that on specific hardware, the tape drive door will not open while the system unit
is turned off. If you have trouble opening the tape drive door during installation, use the
following procedure:
1) Turn the system unit on.
2) Insert the BOS tape (insert Volume 1 if you received more than one volume).
3) Turn the system unit off and wait 30 seconds.
b. On some models that have a door to the tape drive, there may be a waiting period of up to three
minutes before the tape drive door opens after you have pressed the button to open the tape
drive. Some models also require that the button for the tape drive door be held in the pressed
position for a few seconds before the tape drive door will open.
c. On some models, the eject button must be pressed for at least 2 seconds to eject media that is
already in the disc caddy.
3. If you are not using an ASCII terminal, skip to step 5. If you are using an ASCII terminal, set the
communications options as follows:
v Line Speed (baud rate) = 9600
v Word Length (bits per character) = 8
v Parity = no (none)
v Number of Stop Bits = 1
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113
v Interface = RS-232C (or RS-422A)
v Line Control = IPRTS
Set the keyboard and display options as follows:
v Screen = Normal
v Row and Column = 24x80
v
v
v
v
v
v
v
Scroll = jump
Auto LF (line feed) = off
Line Wrap = on
Forcing Insert = line (or both)
Tab = field
Operating Mode = echo
Turnaround Character = CR
v
v
v
v
v
Enter = return
Return = new line
New Line = CR
Send = page
Insert Character = space
Note: If your terminal is an IBM 3151, 3161, or 3164, press the Ctrl+Setup keys to display the
Setup Menu and follow the onscreen instructions to set these options. If you are using some
other ASCII terminal, refer to the appropriate documentation for information about how to
set these options. Some terminals have different option names and settings than those listed
here.
4. Turn the system unit power switch to the On position. The system begins booting from the
installation media. If your system is booting from tape, it is normal for the tape to move back and
forth. After several minutes, c31 is displayed in the LED.
If you have more than one console, each terminal and directly attached display device (or console)
might display a screen that directs you to press a key to identify your system console. A different
key is specified for each terminal displaying this screen. If this screen is displayed, then press the
specified key on the device to be used as the system console. The system console is the keyboard
and display device used for installation and system administration. Press a key on only one console.
5. Type 3 to select Start Maintenance Mode for System Recovery from the Welcome to the Base
Operating System Installation and Maintenance screen when it displays.
Note: If you customized the bosinst.data file in your installation media to specify a nonprompted
installation, the installation and maintenance screens are not displayed. The system instead reboots
from the installation media using the settings already defined in the bosinst.data file. To access the
installation and maintenance screens, override the nonprompted mode. You can do this when three
zeros are displayed on the screen. When you observe the three zeros, type 000 (zeros) and press
Enter at the terminal.
You can select 88 to display help on this or any subsequent screen.
After you have selected the Start Maintenance Mode for System Recovery option, the Maintenance
screen displays.
6. Select option 1, Access a Root Volume Group, from the Maintenance screen. The Warning screen
displays.
7. Read the information displayed on the Warning screen. When you are ready to continue, type 0 and
press Enter. The Access a Root Volume Group screen displays.
8. Select the option for the root volume group whose logical volume information you want to display.
The Access a Root Volume Group screen lists all of the volume groups (root and otherwise) on your
system. After entering your selection, the Volume Group Information screen displays.
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Note: Reviewing the disk and location code information on the Volume Group Information screen
enables you to determine whether the volume group you selected was the root volume group. You
can return to the Access a Root Volume Group screen if the choice you made was not the root
volume group. If you have not chosen a root volume group, you cannot continue beyond the
Volume Group Information screen.
9. Select one of the options from the Volume Group Information screen and press Enter. Each option
does the following:
Choice 1
Choice 2
Choice 99
Access this volume group and start a shell. Selecting this choice imports and activates the volume group and
mounts the file systems for this root volume group before providing you with a shell and a system prompt.
Access this volume group and start a shell before mounting file systems. Selecting this choice imports and
activates the volume group and provides you with a shell and system prompt before mounting the file
systems for this root volume group.
Typing 99 returns you to the Access a Root Volume Group screen.
After you select either choice1 or 2, a shell and system prompt display.
10. Take appropriate measures to recover data or take action (such as using the bosboot command) to
enable the system to boot normally.
Troubleshooting a full /usr file system
Use this procedure for troubleshooting a full /usr file system.
To release space in a full /usr file system, complete one or more of the following tasks:
v Type installp -c all to commit all updates and release space in the /usr file system.
v If the system is not a Network Installation Management (NIM) system serving a Shared Product Object
Tree (SPOT), enter /usr/lib/instl/inurid -r to remove client information for root file system
installations. For information about NIM and SPOTs, see “Using the SPOT (Shared Product Object Tree)
resource” on page 186 in the NIM Resources section.
v Remove software that you do not need. See “Maintaining optional software products and service
updates” on page 76.
Viewing BOS installation logs
Information saved in BOS installation log files might help you determine the cause of installation
problems.
To view BOS installation log files, type cd /var/adm/ras and view the files in this directory. One example
is the devinst.log, which is a text file that can be viewed with any text editor or paged.
Viewing BOS installation logs using SMIT
You can use the SMIT fast path to view some logs in the /var/adm/ras directory.
To view some logs in the /var/adm/ras directory, you can use the following SMIT fast path:
smit alog_show
The resulting list contains all logs that are viewable with the alog command. Select from the list by
pressing the F4 key.
Viewing BOS installation logs with the alog command
You can use the alog command to view some logs in the /var/adm/ras directory.
To view some logs in the /var/adm/ras directory, type:
alog -o -f bosinstlog
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115
Interpreting installation-related system and error messages
These messages might appear during the installation of AIX 5.1 and later.
Information about most messages is provided in the following format:
System Message
The system message is displayed in bold type.
Explanation
Describes what is likely to have caused the system message to be displayed.
System Action
Describes what the system does after the message is displayed.
User Action
Suggests a possible resolution to the problem suggested by the system message.
Note: Multiple messages can have the same explanation, system action, and user action.
0516-404 allocp: Not enough resources available to fulfill allocation. Either not enough free partitions
or not enough physical volumes to keep strictness. Try again with different allocation characteristics.
0516-788: extendlv: Unable to extend logical volume
0503-008 installp: There is not enough free disk space in file system /usr (506935 more 512 byte blocks
are required.) An attempt to extend this file system was unsuccessful. Make more space available,
then retry this operation.
Explanation
There is not enough space to complete the installation.
System Action
The installation cannot begin until the problem is resolved.
User Action
You have several options:
v Select fewer filesets than the number originally selected for installation.
OR
v Extend the root volume group to another disk. Type: extendvg rootvg hdisk Number, where
Number is the number of the specified disk.
OR
v Remove user-defined file systems to release space in the rootvg file system.
OR
v Follow the instructions in “Troubleshooting a full /usr file system” on page 115.
BOS Install: After saving all the data from the previous system into /tmp, it was discovered that there
will not be enough free space in /tmp to make the boot image. Please reboot in normal mode and
increase the size of /tmp or reduce the number of files to save as listed in the /etc/preserve.list file.
Explanation
During a preservation installation, files listed in the/etc/preserve.list file were copied to the /tmp file.
After doing so, there was not enough room in /tmp to create the boot image.
System Action
Installation cannot continue.
User Action
Reboot in normal mode and increase the size of /tmp or reduce the number of files to be saved.
BOS Install: You chose to create logical volumes mapped exactly as they were on the previous disks,
but there are no map files specified in the image.data file.
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Explanation
On system backup restore, EXACT_FIT = yes was specified in the image.data file, but no map files
were specified in the image.data file.
System Action
Nonprompted mode is terminated. The user is prompted.
User Action
Run the mkszfile command with the -m option before creating the system backup tape.
OR
Do not specify EXACT_FIT = yes in the image.data file.
The boot logical volume (hd5) must be at least 12 MB. The system you are installing has a boot logical
volume smaller than this, and the system does not have enough free contiguous physical partitions on
diskname to increase the size of the boot logical volume. Please reboot in normal mode and correct
this problem, or restart the installation and choose an overwrite install. Use the lspv -M diskname
command to see the current allocation map of the disk.
OR
Error: No space available to create a larger boot logical volume. In order to proceed with this
installation the size of the boot logical volume (hd5) must be increased to 12 MB. At this time there
are not N contiguous physical partitions available on the boot disk (diskname) for recreating the larger
boot logical volume. You must free up this space by removing or relocating one or more logical
volumes or file systems from diskname. Use lspv -M diskname to see its current partition allocation
map.
Explanation
Starting with AIX 5.2, the boot logical volume (blv), logical volume hd5, must be greater than 12
megabytes. If your system had disks less than 4 gigabytes in size in the root volume group, or was
originally installed with a version of AIX earlier than AIX 4.3.3 your boot logical volume may only
be 4 megabytes. You might experience this failure during preservation or migration installations.
Overwrite installations create the boot logical volume with a minimum size of 12 megabytes. If free
partitions contiguous to hd5 are available or if another location on the disk contains hd5 is identified,
the installation process increases the size of hd5 and continues. Only the disk that currently contains
the boot logical volume is checked for additional partitions in order to increase the size of the boot
logical volume. Other disks in the rootvg are not checked.
System Action
You will be prompted to reboot in normal mode from the existing rootvg and increase the boot
logical volume, or restart the installation and choose an overwrite install.
User Action
Only a system administrator with root authority should attempt to increase the boot logical volume.
To increase the boot logical volume, follow the process described below:
If you received this error, then your partition size is less than 8 megabytes, and you must increase
the number of partitions in hd5 (boot logical volume). You can check your partition size as follows:
1. Type the following:
# lsvg rootvg
2. Look for the field: PP SIZE:
3. Obtain the current number of partitions in hd5, as follows:
# lslv hd5
4. Look for the field: LPs:
5. Your boot logical volume must contain enough partitions such that:
v PP SIZE multiplied by LPs is greater than or equal to 8.
v The partitions for the boot logical volume must be contiguous.
If there were free partitions available next to hd5 or at some other location on the disk that contains
hd5, the installation process would have increased the size of hd5, and continued.
To view the current allocation map (free and used partitions) of a disk, use the command:
# lspv -M diskname
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User Action, continued
If there are not enough contiguous free partitions, you must increase the size of the boot logical
volume (hd5) using one of the options described below, and rerun the installation. The options for
increasing the boot logical volume size are as follows:
v If a user-created logical volume or file system follows hd5 on the disk (check the allocation map),
and has free partitions, you can back up, remove, re-create, and restore the logical volume.
v If there is another disk in the rootvg, that has enough contiguous free partitions, then you could
move hd5 to the other disk with the following steps:
1. Verify that the disk you plan to move hd5 to is bootable by using the command:
bootinfo -B diskname
– If 1 is returned, the disk is bootable.
– If 0 is returned, the disk is not bootable.
2. Find the free contiguous partitions you need on the other disk by viewing the allocation map
with the command:
lspv -M diskname
3. Create a map file to use when re-creating hd5. For example, if you want to re-create hd5 on
hdisk2, on partitions 88 and 89, use the command:
echo "hdisk2:88-89" > your_MAP_file
4. Remove the existing hd5:
rmlv -f hd5
5. Create the new hd5:
mklv -y hd5 -t boot -m your_MAP_file rootvg 2
The 2 represents the number of partitions and can vary as needed.
Note: If the mklv command moves hd5 to a new location, you must run the following
command:
echo ":C:C:C" | /usr/lpp/bosinst/blvset -d /dev/hdiskN
Where C is the message, locale, and keyboard (respectively) and hdiskN is the disk that
contains hd5.
6. Run the mkboot command to clear the boot record from the disk that previously contained hd5
(boot logical volume). For example, if hd5 was previously on hdisk0, use the command:
mkboot -d /dev/hdisk0 -c
7. Use the bosboot command to re-create the boot image and boot record on the new disk. For
example, if hd5 was re-created on hdisk2, use the command:
bosboot -a -d /dev/hdisk2
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User Action, continued
1. Change the bootlist of your system to boot from the new disk. To see the current bootlist, use the
command:
bootlist -m normal -o
OR
If your previous hd5 was on hdisk0, the output might be:
hdisk0
To change the bootlist to use hdisk2, use the command:
bootlist -m normal hdisk2
If there were additional items in your bootlist, add them after hdisk2, with spaces separating
each item.
2. If there were no errors, reboot your system.
3. If you encountered this error when installing a mksysb on a system other than the system it was
created on (cloning), then you might be able to use a customized image.data file to increase the
size of hd5.
The vg_data stanza contains the size of the physical partitions in the PPSIZE field. Use this
information to determine how many partitions are needed for hd5. The lv_data stanza for hd5
contains the fields for the number of logical partitions (LPs), the number of physical partitions
(PP), and the minimum number of logical partitions required for the logical volume
(LV_MIN_LPS). These fields must be set to the number of partitions needed.
See “Creating and using a supplementary bosinst.data diskette” on page 68 for information on
putting an image.data file on diskette and a bosinst.data file.
If the source machine had no free partitions, and the target machine has the same disk size, then
you might need to install using the shrink option, as well as the customized image.data file.
BOS Install: Could not create boot image.
Explanation
The bosboot command failed.
System Action
The boot image was not created.
User Action
Check the /var/adm/ras/bosinst.log file for errors (alog -o -f bosinst.log | pg). This log is updated
by appending, so make sure you check the last entry.
The bosinst.data file does not specify any bootable disks.
Explanation
The bosinst.data file does not specify any bootable disks.
System Action
Nonprompted mode is terminated. The user is prompted.
User Action
When the system prompts, select bootable disks to install on.
OR
Add a bootable disk to the bosinst.data file target_disk_data stanzas.
The bosinst.data file specified doing a migration install, but there is no existing root volume group of
level 4.2, 4.3, or 5.1.
Explanation
A BOS installation method of migration was specified in the bosinst.data file, but the existing
volume group is at level 3.1 or 5.2.
System Action
This error only occurs during a nonprompted BOS installation. The installation menus are displayed.
User Action
Respond to the menu prompts to complete the installation.
The bosinst.data file specified doing either a migration or a preservation install, but there is no
existing root volume group.
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119
Explanation
A BOS installation method of migrate or preserve was specified in the bosinst.data file, but no root
volume group was found.
System Action
This error only occurs during a nonprompted BOS installation. The installation menus are displayed.
User Action
Respond to the menu prompts to complete the installation.
The data file did not specify enough disk space to contain the operating system.
Explanation
Nonprompted mode was specified, and there were not enough disks specified in the bosinst.data
file to hold the operating system.
System Action
Nonprompted mode is terminated. The user is prompted.
User Action
When the system prompts, select disks to install on.
OR
Add more target_disk_data stanzas to bosinst.data file.
Duplicate lv_data stanzas specified in the image.data file. The installation cannot continue because
data may be lost.
Explanation
An lv_data stanza was duplicated in the image.data file.
System Action
Installation cannot continue.
User Action
Correct the problem and try the installation again.
Duplicate fs_data stanzas specified in the image.data file. The installation cannot continue because
data may be lost.
Explanation
An fs_data stanza was duplicated in the image.data file.
System Action
Installation cannot continue.
User Action
Correct the problem and try the installation again.
The following disks failed the preliminary diagnostic tests: <disk name>
bosset: No hard disks can be accessed.
Explanation
The listed disks failed pretest.
System Action
The system initiated a diagnostic pretest on the specified disk.
User Action
Run full diagnostics on the specified disks.
Disks specified in bosinst.data do not define a root volume group.
Explanation
Nonprompted mode was specified. The install method was set to preserve or migrate, and the disks
specified in bosinst.data do not define a root volume group.
System Action
Nonprompted mode is terminated. The user is prompted.
User Action
When the system prompts, select a root volume group to install on.
OR
Specify disks in the bosinst.data file that define a root volume group.
Encountered an unrecoverable error.
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Explanation
The menus subsystem encountered an unrecoverable error.
System Action
The menu is restarted.
User Action
None
The image.data file contains no vg_data stanza for rootvg. The installation cannot continue.
Explanation
The image.data file is incomplete.
System Action
Installation cannot continue.
User Action
Use the default image.data file supplied with product media.
image.data has invalid logical volume data. Cannot continue.
Explanation
The system could not parse the logical volume data stanzas in the image.data file.
System Action
Installation cannot continue.
User Action
Use the default image.data file supplied with product media.
image.data has invalid file system data. Cannot continue.
Explanation
The system detected invalid file system data stanzas in the image.data file.
System Action
Installation cannot continue.
User Action
Use the default image.data file supplied with product media.
0516-366 putlvodm: Volume group rootvg is locked. Try again.
0516-788: extendlv: Unable to extend logical volume.
Explanation
You interrupted the installation of your optional software.
System Action
When an installation is interrupted, the system sometimes locks the root volume group.
User Action
Unlock the root volume group. Then attempt the installation procedure again.
To unlock a root volume group:
1. Log in with root authority.
2. Type chvg -u rootvg
3. Type smit_install and attempt to install your optional software products again.
installp: An error occurred during bosboot processing.
Please correct the problem and rerun.
0301-52 bosboot: not enough file space to create: /tmp/disk.image.
OR
0301-152 bosboot: not enough file space to create: /tmp/unix.
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121
Explanation
The bosboot command was unable to finish processing because of insufficient space in /tmp.
System Action
The bosboot process is interrupted. The error message, the amount of disk space required, and the
available disk space are displayed. The disk space displayed indicates the number of 1024 KB blocks
required.
User Action
Release space in the /tmp file system or extend the /tmp file system. Continue or restart the
installation process.
To resize the /tmp file system and complete the installation, do the following:
1. Note the error message preceding this one. Either the message bosboot verification starting or
bosboot process starting will precede this message.
2. Change directories to /tmp. List the files and determine which files can be deleted. If there is
sufficient space available, go to step 6. If you need to expand the /tmp file system, continue with
this procedure.
3. Type smit chfs
4. Select the /tmp file system from the displayed list.
5. Add the additional block space required. The smit chfs command requires disk space to be
defined in 512 KB blocks. Double the required disk space displayed in the system message.
6. If the message installp: An error occurred during bosboot processing was displayed after the
message bosboot verification starting, rerun the installation procedure.
OR
If the message installp: An error occurred during bosboot processing was displayed after the
message bosboot process starting, enter installp -C.
7. Continue the installation process.
installp: An error occurred during bosboot processing.
Please correct the problem and rerun.
301-155 bosboot: Invalid or no boot device specified.
Explanation
A device specified with the bosboot -d command is not valid. The bosboot command was unable to
finish processing because it could not locate the required boot device. The installp command calls
the bosboot command with /dev/ipldevice. If this error does occur, it is probably because
/dev/ipldevice does not exist. /dev/ipldevice is a link to the boot disk.
System Action
The bosboot process is interrupted.
User Action
Determine if the link to the boot device is missing or incorrect, correct the error and complete the
installation process.
To identify the boot device and complete the installation:
1. To identify the boot disk, enter lslv -m hd5. The boot disk name displays.
2. Create a link between the boot device indicated and the /dev/ipldevice file. Enter:
ln /dev/boot_device_name /dev/ipldevice
(An example of boot_device_name is rhdisk0.)
3. If the message installp: An error occurred during bosboot processing was displayed after the
message bosboot verification starting, rerun the installation procedure.
OR
If the message installp: An error occurred during bosboot processing was displayed after the
message bosboot process starting, enter installp -C. Continue the installation process.
Missing image.data file. The tape does not contain a valid install image.
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Explanation
The system could not find an image.data file.
System Action
Installation cannot continue.
User Action
The most likely cause of this error is the tape is bad. Try a different tape.
0512-0016 mksysb: Attempt to create a bootable tape failed: bosboot -d /dev/device -a failed with
return code xxx.
OR
0512-0016 mksysb: Attempt to create a bootable tape failed: mkinsttape /dev/device failed with return
code xxx.
Explanation
The xxx return code indicates the error:
5 OR 1
Not enough space in one or more of three file systems:
v / must have at least 500 1KB blocks.
v /tmp must have at least 7400 1KB blocks.
v /usr must have at least 4000 1KB blocks.
11
Defective tape.
42 OR 45
Either the /usr/lib/boot/unix file is corrupted (may be 0 length) or the link to /unix is
missing.
48
Cannot write to the tape drive or cannot read /dev/blv. This is probably caused by an
incorrect density setting for the tape drive. It could also be caused by either a hardware
problem with the tape drive or by dirty heads on the drive.
System Action
The mksysb command failed to make a bootable tape.
User Action
The return code xxx indicates the action required:
5 OR 1
Check the /, /tmp, and /usr file systems and create more space as required.
11
Replace the defective tape.
42 OR 45
Either restore the /usr/lib/boot/unix file from the original tape or create the missing link.
48
Check the tape drive settings and clean the heads.
There are no disks available on this system.
Explanation
No hard disks are configured on the system. Consequently, the only functioning menu option is the
maintenance option.
System Action
Installation cannot begin until the problem is resolved.
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123
User Action
You have several options:
v Select Maintenance (option 3) from the Welcome to Base Operating System Install Menu, and
select the Limited Function Maintenance Shell. Verify that no disks were configured by entering
the following command:
lsdev -Cc disk
To determine if there were configuration errors, enter the command:
cfgmgr -v 2>1 | tee /tmp/cfgmgr.out
You can use the cat command to view the /tmp/cfgmgr.out file, and look specifically for errors in
configuration of disks. The file can be copied to diskette media using either the dd or pax
commands, and moved to a running system for ease of viewing.
OR
v Turn off the system and check the following on systems with SCSI devices:
– Check all SCSI devices to ensure that all SCSI addresses are unique.
– Make sure the SCSI cards are properly terminated.
– If external SCSI devices are in use, make sure that the SCSI chain is terminated and that the
devices are turned on.
– Check the SCSI cabling and connections.
– Reboot and attempt the installation again.
OR
v Turn off the system and check the following on systems with IDE devices:
– Check all IDE devices to ensure that all IDE master and slave settings are unique per controller.
If only one IDE device is connected to a controller, it must be set to master. If an ATA device
(disk) and an ATAPI device (CD-ROM or tape) are connected to the same controller, the ATA
device must be set to the master device and the ATAPI device must be set as the slave device.
– Check the IDE cabling and connections.
– Reboot and attempt the installation again.
OR
v Boot from the diagnostics and check the hard disks.
OR
v Follow your local problem-reporting procedures.
There are no disks on this system which can be booted.
Explanation
The system could not find any bootable disks on the system.
System Action
Installation cannot continue.
User Action
Some third-party disks are not bootable. If a disk should be bootable but is not, run diagnostics.
You chose to install only onto disks in the existing root volume group and those not in any volume
group. There are not enough of those disks to contain the mksysb image.
Explanation
The EXISTING_SYSTEM_OVERWRITE field in bosinst.data was set to yes, and prompt was set to
no, and there were not enough disks on the system that contained the root volume group or
contained no volume group.
System Action
Nonprompted mode is terminated. The user is prompted.
User Action
Use target_disk_data stanzas to specify the disks to install on, set SHRINK to yes in the image.data
file, or at the BOS Install prompt set the EXISTING_SYSTEM_OVERWRITE in the bosinst.data file to
any. This allows any disks to be used for the installation.
Attention: If EXISTING_SYSTEM_OVERWRITE is set to any, user volume groups might be
overwritten.
OR
When the system prompts, select disks on which to install or select to shrink the file systems.
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You chose to install only onto disks which are not contained in a volume group, but there are not
enough of those disks to contain the mksysb image.
Explanation
The EXISTING_SYSTEM_OVERWRITE field in bosinst.data was set to no, and prompt was set to no,
and there were not enough disks on the system that contained a volume group.
System Action
Nonprompted mode is terminated. The user is prompted.
User Action
If you want the system to select the disk to install on, use the target_disk_data stanzas to specify the
target disks and set the appropriate setting for EXISTING_SYSTEM_OVERWRITE, leave
EXISTING_SYSTEM_OVERWRITE blank in the bosinst.data file, or set SHRINK to yes in the
image.data file and retry the installation.
OR
When the system prompts, select disks on which to install.
0505-113 alt_disk_install: No target disk name provided.
Explanation
This message is displayed in the following situations:
v You did not enter a target disk.
v The disk that was specified as the target disk has a volume group already associated with it. Running
the lspv command should show the word None by disks that do not have a volume group associated
with them, which is what the alt_disk_install command checks.
v The target disk (or disks) specified are not bootable. The alt_disk_install command runs bootinfo -B
disk_name on each disk specified in the target disk list. If any one bootinfo -B command returns a 0,
then the disk is not bootable, and it cannot be used as a target disk for the alt_disk_install operation.
0505-117 alt_disk_install: Error restoring image.data file from mksysb image.
Explanation
This message is displayed when you are trying to install a mksysb image from tape.
The alt_disk_install command first checks the second image on the tape for a ./tapeblksz file, which
contains the block size in which the mksysb image was created. The mksysb command creates this file
and puts it in the second image on the tape. The first three images of a mksysb tape are always created
at a 512 byte block size. The mksysb image (the fourth image on the tape) can be created at another
block size.
If the alt_disk_install command cannot restore the ./tapeblksz file from the second image, the block size
will remain what it was when the alt_disk_install command was started. It will attempt to restore the
./image.data file from the mksysb image. If this block size does not match the block size in which the
mksysb image was created, the restore fails, and the alt_disk_install command produces this error.
The size of a disk is too large for the running kernel.
Explanation
This message is displayed when the BOS menus load to indicate that the size of one of the selected
disks for installation is larger than 1 TB (1048576 MB).
System Action
Non-prompted mode is terminated. The user is prompted.
User Action
When prompted, select a smaller disk.
OR
Restart the installation with AIX media (product or mksysb image) that supports booting the 64 bit
kernel.
Could not determine kernel type.
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125
Explanation
This message is displayed when the installation program cannot determine the kernel type at the
time of the installation.
System Action
The installation will be paused for troubleshooting.
User Action
Contact your service representative for troubleshooting.
Could not determine the largest disk size.
Explanation
This message is displayed when the installation program cannot determine the largest disk size on
the system.
System Action
The installation will be paused for troubleshooting.
User Action
Verify that the data in the target_disk_data stanzas in the bosinst.data file are correct and follow
the guidelines for stanza validation as specified in the bosinst.template.README file.
The size of the Logical Volume (logical volume name) is larger than the size supported by the running
kernel.
Explanation
This message is displayed when the installation program detects that one of the Logical Volumes
being created is larger than 1 TB (1048576 MB) and the running kernel is not the 64 bit kernel.
System Action
The installation will be paused for troubleshooting.
User Action
Restart the installation with AIX media (product or mksysb image) that supports booting the 64 bit
kernel to prevent data loss or errors.
The size of one of the Logical Volumes in the rootvg disk or disks is larger than the size supported by
the running kernel.
Explanation
This message is displayed when the installation program detects that one of the Logical Volumes on
the root volume group about to be imported is larger than 1 TB (1048576 MB) and the running
kernel is not the 64 bit kernel.
System Action
The installation will be paused for troubleshooting.
User Action
Restart the installation with AIX media (product or mksysb image) that supports booting the 64 bit
kernel to prevent data loss or errors.
Installing content for the man command
The content for the man command in the AIX commands, libs, and files for English are contained on both
the base AIX operating system CD1 or DVD, and on the AIX Documentation CD1 or AIX Documentation
DVD. Translated versions of these filesets are contained only on the AIX Documentation CD2 and the AIX
Documentation DVD.
Note: These filesets are not translated into all languages.
Installing from CD
To install the translated content for the man command from CD, follow the procedure below:
1. Insert the AIX Documentation CD1 or AIX Documentation CD2 into the CD drive.
2. Mount the drive by entering the following information in the order listed::
a. mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 /mnt/cdrom
b. cd /mnt/cdrom
3. Start the installation:
Issue the runAIX command.
The installation wizard displays:
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Welcome to the InstallShield Wizard for the AIX Information Center
The InstallShield Wizard will install AIX Information Center on your computer.
To continue, choose Next.
Next
Cancel
Choose Next.
Accept the General Terms and Conditions at the next screen.
Select Custom Install when asked what installation type you prefer.
Ensure that the box next to the infocenter.man.XX_XX item is checked — where XX_XX is the language
(such as JA_JP). On AIX Documentation CD1 you will only see EN_US.
Installing from DVD
To install the translated content for the man command from DVD, follow the procedure below:
1. Insert the AIX Documentation DVD into the DVD drive.
2. Mount the drive by entering the following information in the order listed:
a. mount -v cdrfs -r /dev/cd0 /mnt/cdrom
b. cd /mnt/cdrom
c. runAIX
3. Start the installation:
Issue the runAIX command.
Running the runAIX command brings up a panel that gives you the choice to either install or view
the information center from the DVD:
Welcome to the AIX Information Center
Install
Install the Information Center
View
View the Information Center from media
Choose Next.
Accept the General Terms and Conditions at the next screen.
Select Custom Install when asked what installation type you prefer.
Ensure that the box next to the infocenter.man.XX_XX item is checked — where XX_XX is the language
(such as EN_US, JA_JP).
Configuring AIX
Complete all configuration tasks that apply to your newly installed system. Two configuration tools are
available to assist you.
Depending on which type of console you are using, one of the following usually begins automatically
after installation:
v Configuration Assistant for graphics consoles
v Installation Assistant for ASCII consoles
Note:
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127
v If your system was installed by a network installation server, the Configuration Assistant or Installation
Assistant does not display when the BOS installation program completes.
If your system was installed using a system backup image, or if your BOS installation was customized,
or if you selected migration installation from AIX 4.2 or later, the Configuration Assistant or
Installation Assistant might not display when the BOS installation program completes.
v The Configuration Assistant and the Installation Assistant do not contain the tasks needed to configure
your machine as a server. If you need to configure your system for a specific resource, refer to the
documentation pertaining to that resource.
v If your terminal type is not set, the first menu displayed by the ASCII Installation Assistant requires
you to enter your terminal type (tty). If you enter a terminal type that is not valid, this menu
redisplays until a valid type is entered.
If you enter a valid terminal type that does not match your terminal, the next screen displayed might
be unreadable. In this case, press the break key sequence to return to the Set Terminal Type screen. For
most terminal types, the break key sequence is Ctrl-C.
Configuring AIX with the Configuration Assistant
On a system with a graphical interface, the newly installed BOS reboots and the Configuration Assistant
guides you through the configuration tasks.
If there are outstanding software license agreements that must be accepted before you can continue to use
the machine, the Configuration Assistant prompts you to view and accept these agreements.
The Configuration Assistant guides you through the following configuration tasks:
v Set or verify system date and time.
v Set password for administrator (root user).
v Configure network communications (TCP/IP).
Note: To configure your machine as an NFS server, refer to Configuring an NFS server in
Networks and communication management.
v Configure the Web server for Web-based System Manager remote management.
v Manage Software.
v Exit the Configuration Assistant.
The Manage Software option allows you to perform software management tasks immediately after a BOS
installation. The following options are available:
v List installed software
v Install additional software
v List software licenses with license text
If you select List installed software, the following options are available:
v List automatically installed Software – Displays a list of all installed packages
v List optionally installed software – Displays a list of all optional software that was selected to be
installed during BOS installation
If you select Install additional software, the following options are available:
v Install by bundles – Allows you to select from a list of software bundles to install additional software,
such as the Mozilla Software Bundle or a User-Defined Software Bundle
v Selective install – Allows you to select a specific package or set of packages to install
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
The graphical interface for the Configuration Assistant provides step-by-step instructions for completing
each configuration task. The tasks are presented to you in a logical sequence. Complete all configuration
tasks before you use your system.
When you exit the Configuration Assistant, the guide asks you whether you want to start Configuration
Assistant again the next time you restart the operating system. After exiting the Configuration Assistant,
users can begin logging in to and using AIX.
To access the Configuration Assistant later, type configassist on the command line.
Configuring AIX with the Installation Assistant
On a system with an ASCII interface, the newly installed BOS reboots, and the Installation Assistant
guides you through the configuration tasks.
You must have root user authority to use the Installation Assistant. To access the Installation Assistant
later, type install_assist on the command line. You can also access it from a graphics system through
the SMIT smit assist fast path.
If there are outstanding software license agreements that must be accepted before you can continue to use
the machine, the Installation Assistant prompts you to view and accept these agreements.
The Installation Assistant guides you through the following configuration tasks:
v Set the system date and time for your time zone.
v Set a root user account password to restrict access to system resources.
v Configure network communications.
v Install software applications.
v Using SMIT (information only).
v Tasks Completed - Exit to Login.
The Install software applications option allows you to perform software management tasks immediately
after a BOS installation. The following options are available:
v Install and Update Software
v Add License Passwords for Applications
v Show Installed License Agreements
If you select Install and Update Software, the following menu displays:
Install and Update Software
Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.
Install Software
Update Installed Software to Latest Level (Update All)
Install Software Bundle
Update Software by Fix (APAR)
Install and Update from ALL Available Software
You can also access this SMIT menu by using the install_update fast path.
Related information
The following are links to information related to Configuring AIX.
If you are installing from CD or DVD-ROM, or would like more information about installing optional
software, refer to “Preparing to install optional software products and service updates” on page 72.
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129
Migrating AIX
During a migration, the installation process determines which optional software products are installed on
the existing version of the operating system. Components from previous releases that have been replaced
by new software in AIX 5.3 are installed at the AIX 5.3 level.
Migration is the default installation method to move from AIX 4.2 and later to AIX 5.3.
Note: If you only want to install the next recommended maintenance or technology level of the
operating system, use the SMIT update_all fast path or the install_all_updates command to update
the filesets currently installed. For more information about updating to the next recommended
maintenance or technology level of AIX, see “Optional products and service updates” on page 70.
Migration attempts to preserve all user configuration, while moving the operating system to a new level
of software. The following steps are taken to achieve this objective:
v Save configuration files
v
v
v
v
v
v
Prepare and remove old files
Restore new files
Remove unsupported or unnecessary filesets
Migrate configuration data wherever possible
Prepare VPD for install
Update additional filesets
When performing a migration, the following occurs:
v All files in the /usr/lib/drivers, /usr/lib/microcode, /usr/lib/methods and /dev directories are
removed from the system, so software support for device drivers must be reinstalled. Non-device
software products and applications remain on the system, and work correctly if they are among those
files described in “Ensuring binary compatibility between AIX 5.3 and earlier versions.”
v The following software products are removed from the system:
– AIXwindows Interface Composer
– Remote Customer Services
– AIXwindows Development Environment
– Display PostScript® functionality from AIXwindows Run-Time Environment Extensions
– Performance Tools functionality from Extended Commands
– OpenGL and graPHIGS
– Xstation Manager®
In most cases, user-configuration files from the previous version of a product are saved when the new
version is installed during a migration installation.
Ensuring binary compatibility between AIX 5.3 and earlier versions
After a migration installation, you might notice filesets on the system in the OBSOLETE state. Obsolete
filesets were installed by earlier versions of the operating system, but they remain on the current system
because the migration only replaced some, but not all, of the files they contain. These filesets remain
necessary for systems running mixed levels of the operating system.
During a migration installation, the following filesets are automatically included:
v Base operating system commands
v Base operating system libraries
v Base operating system curses/termcap
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
v
v
v
v
v
Base operating system networking
Base operating system directories/files (symlinks)
Messages
X11R3
X11R4
v X11 fonts
All operating system applications based on AIX 4.2 and those intended for use with POWER® family,
POWER2™, and POWER-based models run compatibly on AIX 5.3 without recompilation for those same
models. The only exceptions to this statement are applications using the following:
v Unsupported self-loadable kernel extensions
v Certain High-Function Terminal (HFT) control interfaces
v X11R3 input device interfaces
v CIO LAN device driver interface
v SCSI device configuration methods (IHVs)
v nlist subroutine interface
v DCE threads
v Applications compiled using POWER2 or POWER-based compiler options, but executed on models
other than POWER2 or POWER-based models.
Note: Any program that must run in all environments (POWER family, POWER2, and
POWER-based models 601 and higher) must be compiled using the common mode of the
compiler. Programs compiled to exploit POWER2 technology must be run on POWER2
processors. Existing code need not be recompiled to run.
A system using AIX 4.2 can operate as a server system for client machines using AIX 5.3 with the
following exceptions:
v
v
v
v
v
Network installation of AIX 5.3 clients
Service SNA or X.25 to AIX 5.3 clients
Service HCON to AIX 5.3 clients
Service CGE extensions of PEX and PEX-PHIGS
Use of AIX 5.3 client installation formats
Font servers might be required on the AIX 5.3 clients to reliably handle AIXwindows between server and
client.
A system using AIX 5.3 might operate as a server system for client machines using AIX 4.2 or later
versions as long as the necessary compatibility options are installed. All statements about binary
compatibility apply in this case. AIX 5.3 applications might not execute reliably on AIX 4.2 systems using
remote network mounts from an AIX 5.3 file system.
BOS pre- and post-migration checks
The pre_migration and post_migration commands perform various system checks to ensure a successful
migration installation. Both commands are shipped in the bos.rte fileset.
In case the pre_migration command does not exist on a level of AIX that you want to check before
performing a migration installation, the pre_migration command is also located in the usr/lpp/bos
directory of the media file system. Copy the pre_migration command from the usr/lpp/bos directory of
the new AIX media version you are about to perform the migration.
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131
The output from the pre_migration command is saved to the system in the /home/pre_migration date
directory.
The pre_migration command performs the following actions:
v List the device filesets being removed.
v List all other filesets being removed.
v List the saved base configuration files that will not be merged.
v
v
v
v
v
List configuration files that will be merged.
Verify fileset version consistency.
Create a list of all filesets installed, to be used by the post_migration command.
Check the size and location of the boot logical volume.
Check the major number for rootvg is 10.
v Check for the missing DB directory for the bos.net.ipsec.keymgt fileset.
v Determine if Kerberos is being used.
v Check disk and memory sizes.
v Check the firmware level for IBM System p5® 7025/7026 systems.
Note: The required version of the firmware can be obtained from the following Web site:
http://techsupport.services.ibm.com/server/mdownload
Refer to the history section of the firmware level for the statement of AIX 5L Version 5.3 support.
v If migrating from AIX 4.2, verify that the correct updates are applied.
v Verify system platform.
Note: If the platform is not supported for AIX 5.3, a minimal pre-migration check is performed since
the system may be used for a mksysb migration.
v Print a recommendation that a system backup be made before the migration.
The output from the post_migration command is saved in the /home/post_migration date directory.
The post_migration command performs the following actions:
v Verify fileset version consistency.
v Check the installation list from before the migration, and inform the user of any filesets that might still
need migrating.
v Compare saved and merged configuration scripts and save the differences.
Migrating to AIX 5.3
Follow this procedure to migrate to AIX 5.3.
Note:
1. The boot logical volume requires 12 MB of contiguous disk space. During migrations, the
inuextendblv command runs to ensure there are contiguous partitions for hd5. If contiguous partitions
are not present, the inuextendblv command attempts to create them. If the partitions are not present
and the inuextendblv command fails to create them, the migration is stopped.
2. The settings in your bootlist are not migrated. After a migration, the bootlist is set to the primary boot
device.
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Attention: This procedure requires shutting down and reinstalling the base operating system. Whenever
you reinstall any operating system, schedule your downtime when it least impacts your workload to
protect yourself from a possible loss of data or functionality. Before you perform a migration installation,
ensure that you have reliable backups of your data and any customized applications or volume groups.
For instructions on how to create a system backup, refer to “Creating system backups” on page 141.
Prerequisites
Before starting the migration, complete the following prerequisites:
v All requisite hardware, including any external devices (such as tape, CD, or DVD-ROM drives), must
be physically connected. If you need further information, refer to the hardware documentation that
accompanied your system.
v Before migrating your BOS to AIX 5.3, ensure that the root user has a primary authentication method
of SYSTEM. You can check this condition by typing the following command:
# lsuser -a auth1 root
Change the value, if needed, by typing the following command:
# chuser auth1=SYSTEM root
v Before you begin the installation, other users who have access to your system must be logged off.
v Verify that your applications runs on AIX 5.3. Also, verify that your applications are binary-compatible
with AIX 5.3. If your system is an application server, verify that there are no licensing issues. Refer to
your application documentation or provider to verify on which levels of AIX your applications are
supported and licensed. You can also check the AIX application availability guide at the following Web
address: http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/ibmsw/list/
v Verify that your hardware microcode is up-to-date.
v All requisite hardware, including any external devices (such as tape, CD, or DVD-ROM drives), must
be physically connected and powered on. If you need further information, refer to the hardware
documentation that accompanied your system.
v Use the errpt command to generate an error report from entries in the system error log. To display a
complete detailed report, type the following:
# errpt -a
v There must be adequate disk space and memory available. AIX 5.3 requires 256–512 MB of memory
and 2.2 GB of physical disk space. For additional release information, see the AIX 5.3 Release Notes.
v Run the pre-migration script.
v Make a backup copy of your system software and data. For instructions on how to create a system
backup, refer to “Creating system backups” on page 141.
Preparing your system for BOS installation
Follow this procedure for preparing to migrate to the AIX 5.3 BOS.
Prepare for migrating to the AIX 5.3 BOS by doing the following:
1. Insert the AIX Volume 1 disk into the media device.
2. Shut down your system. If your machine is currently running, power it off now by following these
steps:
a. Log in as the root user.
b. Type the following command: # shutdown -F
c. If your system does not automatically power off, place the power switch in the Off (0) position.
Attention: You must not turn on the system unit until instructed to do so in “Booting from your
installation media” on page 134.
3. Turn on all attached external devices. These include the following:
v Terminals
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133
v CD or DVD-ROM drives
v Tape drives
v Monitors
v External disk drives
Turning on the external devices first is necessary so the system unit can identify each peripheral
device during the startup (boot) process.
Booting from your installation media
Follow this procedure to migrate your current version of the operating system to AIX 5.3.
If you are using an ASCII console that was not defined in your previous system, complete “Step 3.
Setting up an ASCII terminal” on page 48 before proceeding.
The following steps migrate your current version of the operating system to AIX 5.3:
1. Turn the system unit power switch from Off (0) to On (|).
2. When the system beeps twice, press F5 on the keyboard (or 5 on an ASCII terminal). If you have a
graphics display, you see the keyboard icon on the screen when the beeps occur. If you have an ASCII
terminal (also called a tty terminal), you see the word keyboard when the beeps occur.
Note: If your system does not boot using the F5 key (or the 5 key on an ASCII terminal), refer to
your hardware documentation for information about how to boot your system from an AIX product
CD.
The system begins booting from the installation media.
3. If your system has an LED display, the three-digit LED should display c31.
If you have more than one console, each might display a window that directs you to press a key to
identify your system console. A different key is specified for each console displaying this window. If
this window displays, press the specified key only on the device to be used as the system console.
(The system console is the keyboard and display device used for installation and system
administration.) Press a key on one console only.
A window displays, asking you to select a language to be used for installation instructions.
4. Select the language you prefer to use for installation instructions.
5. When the Welcome to Base Operating System Installation and Maintenance window displays, either
begin the migration immediately by typing 1 to select Start Install Now with Default Settings, or
verify the installation and system settings by typing 2 to select Change/Show Installation Settings
and Install. If you want to change any settings, follow the procedure in “Step 5. Verifying or
changing the installation settings” on page 50.
Note:
v You should not have to change settings simply to select the migration installation method. If a
previous version of the operating system exists, the installation method defaults to migration.
v The available installation methods vary, depending on the version of the operating system that is
currently installed (before migration). For information about the BOS installation methods, refer to
“Installing the Base Operating System” on page 32. For information about the installation options
available for a migration installations, refer to “BOS installation options” on page 35.
6. Verify the selections in the Migration Installation Summary window and press Enter.
7. Confirm the migration installation process in the Migration Confirmation window, and press Enter to
begin the migration installation.
Finishing the BOS migration
After prompting for confirmation, the installation process begins. The Installing Base Operating System
window displays.
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
As the installation progresses, the numbers increment in the fields that show percentage complete and
elapsed time to indicate the installation status. After the base run-time environment is installed, status
information displays about other software that is being installed. After the BOS installation is complete,
the system automatically reboots.
After the system has restarted, you are prompted to configure your installation of the BOS. Go to
“Configuring AIX” on page 127 for information on the configuration process.
Note: If there is not enough space to migrate all of the usually migrated software, a collection of software
called a Migration Bundle is available when you install additional software later. You must create
additional disk space on the machine on which you want to install, and then you can run smit
update_all to complete the installation, during which the Migration Bundle is installed.
If you are not doing the installation from a graphics console, a Graphics_Startup bundle is created. Refer
to “Preparing to install optional software products and service updates” on page 72 for more information
about installing software bundles and for information on migrating or installing optional software
products. “Maintaining optional software products and service updates” on page 76 describes how to
remove software from the system to release disk space.
Run the post-migration script and verify the output files.
Checking modifications to configuration files
The geninstall command provides an easy way to see what modifications have been made to the
configuration files listed in /etc/check_config.files.
When these files have been changed during a geninstall installation or update operation, the differences
between the old and new files is recorded in the /var/adm/ras/config.diff file. If /etc/
check_config.files requests that the old file be saved, the old file can be found in the /var/adm/config
directory. The /etc/check_config.files file can be edited and used to specify whether old configuration
files that have been changed should be saved (indicated by s) or deleted (indicated by d), and has the
following format:
d /etc/inittab
mksysb migration
A mksysb migration allows you to restore the mksysb from an old system to a system that supports AIX
5.3 and then migrate the mksysb.
Traditional migration moves the operating system of a supported hardware configuration to a newer
level. A mksysb migration installation is the recommended method of installation to move unsupported
hardware configurations running AIX 4.3 and later to new supported hardware running AIX 5.3.
A mksysb migration is not intended for systems that you can migrate with a traditional migration. This
method allows you to bypass the hardware limitation by restoring the mksysb on the new hardware
configuration and migrate it without running AIX 4.3. The resulting system will be running the new level
of AIX.
Requirements for using a customized bosinst.data file with a mksysb migration
A customized bosinst.data file is required to perform a mksysb migration installation.
Your customized bosinst.data file must meet the following requirements to be used with a mksysb
migration:
v The file must be provided using the supplementary diskette method or using the client file method
(NIM). For additional information about creating this file, see “Customizing your installation” on page
66. The supplementary CD or DVD method is not supported for a mksysb migration.
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135
v The file must contain a new variable called MKSYSB_MIGRATION_DEVICE. This variable specifies the
name of the device that contains the mksysb. For information about the supported values for this
variable, see “bosinst.data control_flow stanza descriptions” on page 38.
v The following variables in the CONTROL_FLOW stanza must be set as follows:
– PROMPT must be set to no.
– INSTALL_METHOD must be set to migrate.
– EXISTING_SYSTEM_OVERWRITE must be set to yes.
– RECOVER_DEVICES must be set to no. A mksysb migration attempts to recover the sys0 attributed
for the source system as specified in the mksysb ODM, but no other device-specific data is
recovered from the source system.
Any user-supplied values for these variable are ignored.
v The file should list the disks to be installed in the TARGET_DISK_DATA stanza to ensure that only
those disks are used. A mksysb migration is a combination of an overwrite installation and a migration
installation. The overwrite portion destroys all of the data on the target disks. The
TARGET_DISK_DATA stanza must have enough information to clearly single out a disk. If you supply
an empty TARGET_DISK_DATA stanza, the default disk for the platform is used, if available. The
following examples show possible values for the TARGET_DISK_DATA stanza:
Example 1. Disk names only (two disks)
target_disk_data:
PVID =
PHYSICAL_LOCATION =
CONNECTION =
LOCATION =
SIZE_MB =
HDISKNAME = hdisk0
target_disk_data:
PVID =
PHYSICAL_LOCATION =
CONNECTION =
LOCATION =
SIZE_MB =
HDISKNAME = hdisk1
Example 2. Physical location specified (1 disk)
target_disk_data:
PVID =
PHYSICAL_LOCATION = U0.1-P2/Z1-A8
CONNECTION =
LOCATION =
SIZE_MB =
HDISKNAME =
Example 3. By physical volume ID (PVID)(2 disks)
target_disk_data:
PVID = 0007245fc49bfe3e
PHYSICAL_LOCATION =
CONNECTION =
LOCATION =
SIZE_MB =
HDISKNAME =
target_disk_data:
PVID = 00000000a472476f
PHYSICAL_LOCATION =
CONNECTION =
LOCATION =
SIZE_MB =
HDISKNAME =
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Performing a mksysb migration with CD or DVD installation
You can perform a mksysb migration with a CD or DVD installation of AIX 5.3.
Prerequisites
v All requisite hardware, including any external devices (such as tape, CD, or DVD-ROM drives), must
be physically connected. For more information about connecting external devices, see the hardware
documentation that accompanied your system.
v Before you begin the installation, other users who have access to your system must be logged off.
v Verify that your applications run on AIX 5.3. Also, verify that your applications are binary-compatible
with AIX 5.3. If your system is an application server, verify that there are no licensing issues. Refer to
your application documentation or provider to verify on which levels of AIX your applications are
supported and licensed. You can also check the AIX application availability guide at the following Web
address: http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/ibmsw/list/
v Verify that your hardware microcode is up-to-date.
v There must be adequate disk space and memory available. AIX 5.3 requires 256–512 MB of memory
and 2.2 GB of physical disk space. For additional release information, see the AIX 5.3 Release Notes.
v Make a backup copy of your system software and data. For instructions on how to create a system
backup, refer to “Creating system backups” on page 141. This backup is used during the mksysb
migration installation to restore your system files prior to migration.
v If the source system is available, run the pre-migration script on it. Ignore any messages that pertain to
the hardware configuration of the source system because the migration takes place on the target
system. Correct any other problems as recommended by the script.
Step 1. Prepare your system for installation
Prepare for migrating to the AIX 5.3 BOS by completing the following steps:
1. Insert the AIX Volume 1 disk into the media device.
2. Shut down the target system. If your machine is currently running, power it off by following these
steps:
a. Log in as the root user.
b. Type shutdown -F.
c. If your system does not automatically power off, place the power switch in the Off (0) position.
Attention:
You must not turn on the system unit until instructed to do so.
3. Turn on all attached external devices. External devices include the following:
v Terminals
v
v
v
v
v
CD-ROM drives
DVD-ROM drives
Tape drives
Monitors
External disk drives
Turning on the external devices first is necessary so that the system unit can identify each peripheral
device during the startup (boot) process.
4. If your MKSYSB_MIGRATION_DEVICE is a tape, insert the tape for the mksysb in the tape drive. If
your MKSYSB_MIGRATION_DEVICE is a CD or DVD, and there is an additional CD or DVD drive
on the system (other than the one being used to boot AIX), insert the mksysb CD or DVD in the drive
to avoid being prompted to swap medias.
5. Insert your customized bosinst.data supplemental diskette in the diskette drive. If the system does
not have a diskette drive, use the network installation method for mksysb migration.
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137
Step 2. Boot from your installation media
The following steps migrate your current version of the operating system to AIX 5.3. If you are using an
ASCII console that was not defined in your previous system, you must define it. For more information
about defining ASCII consoles, see “Step 3. Setting up an ASCII terminal” on page 48.
1. Turn the system unit power switch from Off (0) to On (|).
2. When the system beeps twice, press F5 on the keyboard (or 5 on an ASCII terminal). If you have a
graphics display, you will see the keyboard icon on the screen when the beeps occur. If you have an
ASCII terminal (also called a tty terminal), you will see the word ″keyboard″ when the beeps occur.
Note: If your system does not boot using the F5 key (or the 5 key on an ASCII terminal), refer to
your hardware documentation for information about how to boot your system from an AIX product
media.
The system begins booting from the installation media. The mksysb migration installation proceeds as
an unattended installation (non-prompted) unless the MKSYSB_MIGRATION_DEVICE is the same CD
or DVD drive as the one being used to boot and install the system. In this case, the user is prompted
to switch the product media for the mksysb CD or DVD to restore the image.data and the
/etc/filesystems file. After this happens the user is prompted to reinsert the product media and the
installation continues. When it is time to restore the mksysb image, the same procedure repeats.
The BOS menus do not currently support mksysb migration, so they cannot be loaded. In a traditional
migration, if there are errors that can be fixed by prompting the user for information through the menus,
the BOS menus are loaded. If such errors or problems are encountered during mksysb migration, the
installation asserts and an error stating that the migration cannot continue displays. Depending on the
error that caused the assertion, information specific to the error might be displayed. If the installation
asserts, the LED shows ″088″.
Step 3. Finish the BOS migration
After the installation process begins, the Installing Base Operating System screen displays.
As the installation progresses, the numbers in the percentage complete field and the elapsed time field
increment to indicate the installation status. After the mksysb is restored, the base run-time environment
is installed, status information about other software that is being installed displays. After the BOS
installation is complete, the system automatically reboots.
After the system has restarted, you are prompted to configure your installation of the BOS. For more
information on configuring the BOS, see “Configuring AIX” on page 127.
Note:
If there is not enough space to migrate all of the usually migrated software, a collection of software called
a migration bundle is available when you install additional software later. You must create additional
disk space on the machine where you want to install the migration bundle, and then you can run smit
update_all to complete the installation where the migration bundle is installed.
If you are not doing the installation from a graphics console, a Graphics_Startup bundle is created. For
more information on this, see “Optional products and service updates” on page 70. For information on
how to remove software from the system to release disk space, see “Maintaining optional software
products and service updates” on page 76.
If the pre-migration script ran on the source system, run the post-migration script and verify the output
files.
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Performing a mksysb migration with NIM installation
You can perform a mksysb migration with a NIM installation of AIX 5.3.
Prerequisites
v All requisite hardware, including any external devices (such as tape, CD, or DVD-ROM drives), must
be physically connected. For more information about connecting external devices, see the hardware
documentation that accompanied your system.
v Before you begin the installation, other users who have access to your system must be logged off.
v Verify that your applications run on AIX 5.3. Also, verify that your applications are binary-compatible
with AIX 5.3. If your system is an application server, verify that there are no licensing issues. Refer to
your application documentation or provider to verify on which levels of AIX your applications are
supported and licensed. You can also check the AIX application availability guide at the following Web
address: http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/aix/products/ibmsw/list/
v Verify that your hardware microcode is up-to-date.
v There must be adequate disk space and memory available. AIX 5.3 requires 256 MB of memory and 2.2
GB of physical disk space. For additional release information, see the AIX 5.3 Release Notes.
v Make a backup copy of your system software and data. For instructions on how to create a system
backup, refer to “Creating system backups” on page 141. This backup is used during the mksysb
migration installation to restore your system files prior to migration.
v If the source system is available, run the pre-migration script on it. Ignore any messages that pertain to
the hardware configuration of the source system because the migration takes place on the target
system. Correct any other problems as recommended by the script.
Step 1. Prepare your system for installation
To prepare your system, verify that the following conditions are met:
v The target system must be a defined client to the NIM master.
v The required customized bosinst.data file described in the prerequisites is a NIM bosinst.data
resource or supplied using the supplemental diskette method.
To instruct the NIM master to start an installation of the client run the following command:
# nim -o bos_inst -a source=rte -a spot=spot name -a lpp_source=lpp source name
-a bosinst_data=bosinst_data resource name -a mksysb=mksysb name client_name
The SPOT file and lpp_source file should be at the AIX 5.3 level.
Alternatively, the mksysb can be allocated to the client first using a separate alloc operation. Then use
command line or smitty nim to perform a bos_inst operation on the client. If the mksysb is allocated to
the client prior to the bos_inst operation, the specification of the mksysb is not required.
Step 2. Boot from your installation media
The following steps migrate your current version of the operating system to AIX 5.3. If you are using an
ASCII console that was not defined in your previous system, you must define the console. For more
information about defining ASCII consoles, see “Step 3. Setting up an ASCII terminal” on page 48.
1. After the network boot image is transferred, the system begins booting using the network resources.
2. The mksysb migration installation proceeds as an unattended installation (non-prompted).
The BOS menus do not currently support mksysb migration, so they cannot be loaded. In a traditional
migration, if there are errors that can be fixed by prompting the user for information through the menus,
the BOS menus are loaded. If such errors or problems are encountered during mksysb migration, the
installation asserts and an error stating that the migration cannot continue displays. Depending on the
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139
error that caused the assertion, information specific to the error might be displayed. If the installation
asserts, the LED shows ″088″.
Step 3. Finish the BOS migration
After the installation process begins, the Installing Base Operating System screen displays.
As the installation progresses, the numbers in the percentage complete field and the elapsed time field
increment to indicate the installation status. After the mksysb is restored, the base run-time environment
is installed, status information about other software that is being installed displays. After the BOS
installation is complete, the system automatically reboots.
After the system has restarted, you are prompted to configure your installation of the BOS. For more
information on configuring the BOS, see “Configuring AIX” on page 127.
Note:
If there is not enough space to migrate all of the usually migrated software, a collection of software called
a migration bundle is available when you install additional software later. You must create additional
disk space on the machine where you want to install the migration bundle, and then you can run smit
update_all to complete the installation where the migration bundle is installed.
If you are not doing the installation from a graphics console, a Graphics_Startup bundle is created. For
more information on this, see “Optional products and service updates” on page 70. For information on
how to remove software from the system to release disk space, see “Maintaining optional software
products and service updates” on page 76.
If the pre-migration script ran on the source system, run the post-migration script and verify the output
files.
Related information
The following are links to information related to migrating AIX.
v For additional release information, see the AIX 5.3 Release Notes.
v For late-breaking information, which might include information on the configuration process and
installed software, refer to readme files.
v For information about installing optional software, refer to “Preparing to install optional software
products and service updates” on page 72.
Creating and installing system backups
Use the following information to create and install system backups.
Notes:
1. References to CD also apply to DVD.
2. AIX 5.3 provides the cdromd CD and DVD automount facility, which is included in the bos.cdmount
fileset. To determine if the cdromd daemon is enabled on your system, run the following command:
# lssrc -s cdromd
The cdromd daemon can interfere with scripts, applications, or instructions that attempt to mount the
CD or DVD device without first checking to see if the device is already enabled. A resource or device
busy error occurs in such a condition. Use the cdumount or cdeject command to unmount the device.
Then mount the device as specified in the program or instructions. Alternatively, use the cdcheck -m
or mount command to determine the current mount point of the device. For further information, see
the cdromd command documentation in the AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference.
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The installation code allows for this automatic mounting. If cdromd is enabled and the mkcd
command is run, the CD-R or DVD-RAM is ejected after the image is completed. If you do not want
to have the media ejected, then the cdromd daemon should be put in the inoperative state with the
following command:
# stopsrc -s cdromd
Creating system backups
You can create and verify a bootable backup copy, or mksysb image, of your root volume group. You can
also make separate backup copies of user volume groups.
The root volume group is a hard disk or group of disks that contains:
v Startup files
v Base Operating System (BOS)
v System configuration information
v Optional software products
A user volume group, also called the nonroot volume group, typically contains data files and application
software.
A system backup does the following:
v Contains a working copy of your system. In the event your system data becomes corrupted, you can
use this information to restore your system to working order.
v Allows you to transfer installed and configured software from one system to others. You can use the
Web-based System Manager or SMIT to make a backup image of the root volume group or user
volume groups.
A backup transfers the following configurations from the source system to the target system:
v rootvg volume group information
v Paging space information
v Logical volume information
v Placement of logical partitions (if creating map files has been selected in the Web-based System
Manager or SMIT).
Note: The use of map files is not recommended if you plan to reinstall the backup to target systems
other than the source system, or the disk configuration of the source system is to be changed before
reinstalling the backup.
Using the Web-based System Manager or the SMIT backup menu lets you preserve configuration
information, thus avoiding some of the configuring tasks normally required after restoring a system
backup. A backup preserves the configuration if the following are true:
v The target system has the same hardware configuration as the source system.
AND
v The target disk has enough space to hold the backup image.
The Web-based System Manager and SMIT both use the mksysb command to create a backup image,
stored either on CD, DVD, tape, or in a file. If you choose CD, DVD, or tape, the backup program by
default writes a boot image, which makes the medium suitable for installing. For more information, see
“Creating a system backup to CD-R, DVD-R, or DVD-RAM” on page 144.
If you have problems with installations from a mksysb image, see Troubleshooting problems with
installation from mksysb backup.
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Installing all device and kernel support before the backup is created
Create a system backup that contains all devices and kernel types.
All devices and kernels are installed by default when performing a base operating system installation.
This allows you to create a system backup that contains all devices and kernel types. Because the system
backup contains all the devices and kernel support, the system backup can be used to install another
system without the need for the AIX product media. This option is available in the Install Options menu
in the BOS installation menus. If you change the default (yes) to no, only the devices and kernel type for
your system configuration will be installed.
This value is read from the ALL_DEVICES_KERNELS field in the /var/adm/ras/bosinst.data file on the
product media that you used to boot the system.
After the system is installed, you can check if all the devices and kernel types have been installed on the
system as follows:
# grep ALL_DEVICES_KERNELS bosinst.data
Output similar to the following displays:
ALL_DEVICES_KERNELS = yes
For more information about the bosinst.data file, refer to “Customizing your installation” on page 66.
Preparing to create system backups
Meet these prerequisites before creating system backups.
Before creating system backups, complete the following prerequisites:
v Be sure you are logged in as root user.
v Consider altering passwords and network addresses if you use a backup to make master copies of a
source system. Copying passwords from the source to a target system can create security problems.
Also, if network addresses are copied to a target system, duplicate addresses can disrupt network
communications.
v Mount all file systems you want to back up. The mksysb command backs up mounted JFS (journaled
file systems) and JFS2 (enhanced journaled file systems) in the rootvg. Refer to the mount command
for details.
Note: The mksysb command does not back up file systems mounted across an NFS network.
v Unmount any local directories that are mounted over another local directory.
This backup procedure backs up files twice if a local directory is mounted over another local directory
in the same file system. For example, if you mount /tmp over /usr/tmp, the files in the /tmp directory
are then backed up twice. This duplication might exceed the number of files a file system can hold,
which can cause a future installation of the backup image to fail.
v Use the /etc/exclude.rootvg file to list files you do not want backed up.
v Make at least 12 MB of free disk space available in the /tmp directory. The mksysb command requires
this working space for the duration of the backup.
Use the df command, which reports in units of 512-byte blocks, to determine the free space in the /tmp
directory. Use the chfs command to change the size of the file system, if necessary.
For example, the following command adds 12 MB of disk space to the /tmp directory of a system with
4 MB partitions:
chfs -a size=+24000 /tmp
v All hardware must already be installed, including external devices, such as tape and media drives.
v The bos.sysmgt.sysbr fileset in the BOS System Management Tools and Applications software package
must be installed. The bos.sysmgt.sysbr fileset is automatically installed. To determine if the
bos.sysmgt.sysbr fileset is installed on your system, type:
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lslpp -l bos.sysmgt.sysbr
If your system has the bos.sysmgt.sysbr fileset installed, continue with one of the following
procedures:
– “Creating a root volume group backup to tape or file”
– “Creating a system backup to CD-R, DVD-R, or DVD-RAM” on page 144
– “Backing-up a user volume group” on page 149
If the lslpp command does not list the bos.sysmgt.sysbr fileset, install it before continuing with the
backup procedure. Refer to “Optional products and service updates” on page 70 for instructions, or
enter the following command:
installp -agqXd device bos.sysmgt.sysbr
where device is the location of the software; for example, /dev/cd0 for CD-ROM drive.
Creating a root volume group backup to tape or file
Follow this procedure for creating a root volume group backup to tape or file.
You can use either the Web-based System Manager or SMIT to create a system backup to be stored to
tape or in a file.
For instructions on how to back up to CD or DVD, see “Creating a system backup to CD-R, DVD-R, or
DVD-RAM” on page 144.
To create a root volume group backup:
v Use the Web-based System Manager Backup and Restore application and select Back up the system.
OR
v Use the following SMIT procedure:
1. Enter the smit mksysb fast path.
2. In the Back Up the System menu, make the following selections:
– Select which medium you want to use in the Backup DEVICE or File field. If you want to create
a bootable backup, the medium must be tape or CD/DVD. See “Creating a system backup to
CD-R, DVD-R, or DVD-RAM” on page 144 for more information. Then, select the appropriate
option below:
TAPE
Press the F4 key to list available devices and highlight the device name.
FILE
Enter a full path and file name in the entry field.
– If you want to create map files, select yes in the Create Map Files? field.
Map files match the physical partitions on a drive to its logical partitions. When installing from a
backup image, the BOS installation program uses map files to position the logical volumes on
the target drive in the same partitions they were on in the source system. If you do not create
map files, the installation program relies on the logical volume manager (LVM) to determine
placement for the logical volumes. For more information, see Using map files for precise
allocation in Operating system and device management.
Note: If you plan to reinstall the backup to target systems other than the source system, or if the
disk configuration of the source system might change before reinstalling the backup, do not
create map files.
– To exclude certain files from the backup, select yes in the Exclude Files field, then create an
/etc/exclude.rootvg file with an ASCII editor, and enter the file names that you do not want
included in your system backup image. You can use patterns for the file names that conform to
the pattern matching conventions of the grep command. For example, to exclude all the contents
of the directory called scratch, put the following line in the exclude file:
/scratch/
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For another example, exclude the contents of the directory called /tmp and avoid excluding any
other directories that have /tmp in the pathname by adding the following line to the exclude file:
^./tmp/
Note: All files are backed up relative to the current working directory. This directory is
represented by a . (dot character). To exclude any file or directory for which it is important to
have the search match the string at the beginning of the line, use a ^ (caret character) as the first
character in the search string, followed by a . (dot character), and then followed by the file name
or directory to be excluded.
If the file name or directory being excluded is a substring of another file name or directory, use
^. (caret character followed by dot character) to indicate that the search should begin at the
beginning of the line and/or use $ (dollar sign character) to indicate that the search should end
at the end of the line.
– To list each file as it is backed up, select yes in the List files as they are backed up? field.
Otherwise, you see a percentage-completed progress message while the backup is created.
– If you modified the image.data file and do not want a new one created, select no for Generate
new /image.data file?. (The image.data file contains information about the sizes of all the file
systems and logical volumes in your rootvg.)
– If you are creating a bootable tape and you want to expand the system /tmp file system (if
required by the backup program), select yes for EXPAND /tmp if needed?.
– If the tape drive you are using provides packing (or compression), set the Disable software
packing of backup? field to yes.
– If you chose tape as the backup medium, either leave the default in the Number of BLOCKS to
write in a single output field or enter a different number.
– If you chose file as the backup medium, press Enter. If you chose tape as the backup medium,
insert the first blank backup tape into the drive and press Enter.
3. The COMMAND STATUS screen displays, showing status messages while the system makes the
backup image.
If you chose tape as the backup medium, the system might prompt you to insert the next tape
during the backup by displaying a message similar to the following:
Mount next Volume on /dev/rmt0 and press Enter.
If this message displays, remove the tape and label it, including the BOS version number. Then
insert another tape and press Enter.
When the backup process finishes, the COMMAND: field changes to OK.
4. When the backup completes, press F10 to exit SMIT.
5. If you selected tape as the backup medium, remove the last tape and label it. Write-protect the
backup tapes.
6. Record any backed-up root and user passwords. Remember that these passwords become active if
you use the backup to either restore this system or install another system.
You have created the backup of your root volume group (rootvg). If you created bootable tapes, you can
use these tapes to start your system if for some reason you cannot boot from hard disks.
Creating a system backup to CD-R, DVD-R, or DVD-RAM
Creating a backup on CD-R, DVD-R, or DVD-RAM media is similar to making a backup tape for your
personal use, but with some noticeable differences.
For DVD media, the following formats for creating backups are available:
v ISO9660 CD format, which is available for DVD-R/DVD-RAM media.
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v Universal Disk Format (UDF), which is available for DVD-RAM media. For information about creating
a backup to DVD-RAM using UDF, see “Creating system backups using DVD-RAM media and
Universal Disk Format” on page 148.
Note: For information about CD-R, DVD-R, or DVD-RAM drives and CD-R, DVD-R, or DVD-RAM
creation software, refer to the following readme file:
/usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/mkcd.README.txt
Both Web-based System Manager and SMIT use the mkcd command, which calls the mksysb or savevg
command, if needed.
For system backups, the CDs or DVDs can be created as:
v Non-bootable CDs or DVDs
v Bootable CDs or DVDs
A bootable system backup contains a boot image and all the device and kernel packages necessary to
install a system. A backup CD or DVD can be used to install (clone) a large number of machines, which
is convenient when each machine in the system environment needs to have the same image installed.
Note: It is possible that a backup CD or DVD would not boot all machines of the same type because not
every machine has the same hardware configuration. Depending on what packages were made available
during the creation of the backup, the backup might not have all the necessary packages to boot an
individual system. Most required packages for systems are present on the BOS AIX 5.2 media.
Web-based System Manager and SMIT interfaces are available for the mkcd command. Online help can
guide you through the required steps.
Meeting hardware and software requirements for system backups:
These are the hardware and software requirements for system backup to CD-R, DVD-R, or DVD-RAM.
The mkcd command requires that you already have the software installed to create a CD or DVD file
system in Rock Ridge format and to burn or write the CD or DVD. The GNU versions of the cdrecord
and mkisofs commands are installed with a BOS installation. Hardware and software that have been
tested with this command include the following:
Software
Hardware
GNU and Free Software Foundation, Inc.
DVD-RAM
readcd command version 1.9
mkisofs command version 1.13
Preparing to run the mkcd command:
To run the mkcd command, you need extra working space.
A separate file system or directory is required for each of the following:
v Storing a mksysb or savevg image
v Storing the CD or DVD file system contents
v Storing the CD or DVD images before they are recorded
The mkcd command creates the following file systems if they are not already present or if alternative file
systems or directories have not been specified:
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/mkcd/mksysb_image
Space requirement depends on the size of the mksysb image that is to be created. The mkcd
command attempts to calculate this space and verify that adequate space is available before
starting to create the mksysb image.
Note: When the mkcd command calculates the space requirements needed for the
/mkcd/mksysb_image directory, it also adds the space used by the excluded files
(/etc/exclude.rootvg). It is therefore possible that the mkcd command might not be able to create
the /mkcd/mksysb_image directory.
/mkcd/cd_fs
Requires 645 megabytes (up to 4.38 GB for DVD)
/mkcd/cd_images
Requires at least 645 megabytes (up to 4.38 GB for DVD) of space. If the -R or -S flags are used
to specify not removing the images and there are multiple volumes required, more space must be
provided.
The space used in these file systems is only temporary (unless the -R or -S flag is specified to save the
images). If the mkcd command creates the file systems, it also removes them. Each file system or
directory might require over 645 megabytes (up to 4.38 GB for DVD).
If your machine does not have sufficient space, you can use NFS to mount some space from another
server system; however, the file systems must be writable. You can create a /mkcd file system that is very
large (1.5 GB for CD or 9 GB for DVDs). The /mkcd file system can then be mounted onto the clients
when they want to create a backup CD or DVD for their systems. When creating very large backups
(larger than 2 GB) with the mkcd command, the file system must be large-file enabled and the ulimit
values must be set to unlimited.
The mkcd command with the -L flag allows the creation of DVD-sized ISO9660 images. The mkcd
command with the -U flag allows the creation of UDF DVD images. In AIX 5.3 and later, you can also
use the mkdvd command to create DVD-sized ISO9660 images.
Creating a root volume group backup on CD or DVD with the ISO9660 format:
Follow this procedure to create a root volume group backup on CD or DVD with the ISO9660 format.
You can use Web-based System Manager or SMIT to create a root volume group backup on CD or DVD
with the ISO9660 format, as follows:
v Use the Web-based System Manager Backup and Restore application and select System backup
wizard method. This method lets you create bootable or non-bootable backups on CD-R, DVD-R, or
DVD-RAM media.
OR
v To create a backup to CD, use the smit mkcd fast path.
v To create a backup to DVD, use the smit mkdvd fast path and select ISO9660 (CD format).
The following procedure shows you how to use SMIT to create a system backup to CD. (The SMIT
procedure for creating a system backup to an ISO9660 DVD is similar to the CD procedure.)
1. Type the smit mkcd fast path. The system asks whether you are using an existing mksysb image.
2. Type the name of the CD-R device. (This can be left blank if the Create the CD now? field is set to
no.)
3. If you are creating a mksysb image, select yes or no for the mksysb creation options, Create map
files? and Exclude files?. Verify the selections, or change as appropriate.
The mkcd command always calls the mksysb command with the flags to extend /tmp.
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You can specify an existing image.data file or supply a user-defined image.data file. See step 16.
4. Enter the file system in which to store the mksysb image. This can be a file system that you created
in the rootvg, in another volume group, or in NFS-mounted file systems with read-write access. If
this field is left blank, the mkcd command creates the file system, if the file system does not exist,
and removes it when the command completes.
5. Enter the file systems in which to store the CD or DVD file structure and final CD or DVD images.
These can be file systems you created in the rootvg, in another volume group, or in NFS-mounted
file systems. If these fields are left blank, the mkcd command creates these file systems, and removes
them when the command completes, unless you specify differently in later steps in this procedure.
6. If you did not enter any information in the file systems’ fields, you can select to have the mkcd
command either create these file systems in the rootvg, or in another volume group. If the default of
rootvg is chosen and a mksysb image is being created, the mkcd command adds the file systems to
the exclude file and calls the mksysb command with the -e exclude files option.
7. In the Do you want the CD or DVD to be bootable? field, select yes to have a boot image created
on the CD or DVD. If you select no, you must boot from a product CD at the same
version.release.maintenance level, and then select to install the system backup from the system backup
CD.
8. If you change the Remove final images after creating CD? field to no, the file system for the CD
images (that you specified earlier in this procedure) remains after the CD has been recorded.
9. If you change the Create the CD now? field to no, the file system for the CD images (that you
specified earlier in this procedure) remains. The settings that you selected in this procedure remain
valid, but the CD is not created at this time.
10. If you intend to use an Install bundle file, type the full path name to the bundle file. The mkcd
command copies the file into the CD file system. You must have the bundle file already specified in
the BUNDLES field, either in the bosinst.data file of the mksysb image or in a user-specified
bosinst.data file. When this option is used to have the bundle file placed on the CD, the location in
the BUNDLES field of the bosinst.data file must be as follows:
/../usr/sys/inst.data/user_bundles/bundle_file_name
11. To place additional packages on the CD or DVD, enter the name of the file that contains the
packages list in the File with list of packages to copy to CD field. The format of this file is one
package name per line.
If you are planning to install one or more bundles after the mksysb image is restored, follow the
directions in the previous step to specify the bundle file. You can then use this option to have
packages listed in the bundle available on the CD. If this option is used, you must also specify the
location of installation images in the next step.
12. Enter the location of installation images that are to be copied to the CD file system (if any) in the
Location of packages to copy to CD field. This field is required if additional packages are to be
placed on the CD (see the previous step). The location can be a directory or CD device.
13. You can specify the full path name to a customization script in the Customization script field. If
given, the mkcd command copies the script to the CD file system. You must have the
CUSTOMIZATION_FILE field already set in the bosinst.data file in the mksysb image or else use
a user-specified bosinst.data file with the CUSTOMIZATION_FILE field set. The mkcd command
copies this file to the RAM file system. Therefore, the path in the CUSTOMIZATION_FILE field must
be as follows:
/../filename
14. You can use your own bosinst.data file, rather than the one in the mksysb image, by typing the full
path name of your bosinst.data file in the User supplied bosinst.data file field.
15. To turn on debugging for the mkcd command, set Debug output? to yes. The debug output goes to
the smit.log.
16. You can use your own image.data file, rather than the image.data file in the mksysb image, by
typing the full path name of your image.data file for the User supplied image.data file field.
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Creating system backups using DVD-RAM media and Universal Disk Format:
Universal Disk Format (UDF) allows you to manipulate files directly on the DVD-RAM media.
The system backup image is an archived file composed of many files that cannot be manipulated.
However, the installation packages and any files that are not contained in the backup image, can be
directly manipulated on the DVD-RAM. After the DVD is mounted the files can be changed by using an
editor or new files can be copied to the DVD using the various copy and restore commands such as the
cp, mv, restore commands.
With UDF and DVD-RAM, system space is only needed for the backup image. A high-level description of
the UDF backup process is as follows:
1. Create a backup of a volume group to a file (archive) on a hard disk containing enough space to hold
the backup image.
2. Populate UDF with files needed to boot and install a system.
3. Copy backup to DVD-RAM media.
The mkcd or the mkdvd command with the -U flag is used to create a UDF file system on the
DVD-RAM.
UDF allows for the possibility of changing files directly on the DVD-RAM media, such as a bosinst.data
file and image.data or vgname.data file. Without UDF for example, to add a user-defined bosinst.data
file to a backup image, you must restore the backup image to a location, add the file, and then back up
the files again.
Or, you had to create a supplemental diskette containing the changed bosinst.data file, and use the
supplemental diskette in conjunction with the backup. However, some system configurations might not
provide diskette drives, making this procedure more difficult.
Creating a root volume group backup on DVD-RAM with Universal Disk Format:
Use this procedure to creating a root volume group backup on DVD-RAM with Universal Disk Format
(UDF).
To create a root volume group backup on DVD-RAM with UDF, do the following:
v Use the Web-based System Manager Backup and Restore application and select System backup
wizard method. This method lets you create bootable or non-bootable backups on DVD-RAM media.
OR
v Use SMIT to create a backup to DVD-RAM with UDF, as follows:
1. Enter the smit mkdvd fast path. The system asks whether you are using an existing mksysb
image.
2. Select UDF (Universal Disk Format).
3. Enter the name of the DVD-RAM device.
4. If you are creating a mksysb image, select yes or no for the mksysb creation options. The options
are as follows:
– Create map files?
– Exclude files?
The mkcd command always calls the mksysb command with the flags to extend /tmp.
You can specify an existing image.data file or supply a user-defined image.data. See step 14 on
page 149.
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5. Enter the file system or directory in which to store the mksysb image. This can be a file system
you created in the rootvg, in another volume group, or in NFS mounted file systems with
read-write access. If left blank, the mkcd command creates the file system and removes it when
the command completes.
6. If you did not enter information in the file system field, you can select to have the mkcd
command either create these file systems in the rootvg, or in another volume group. If the default
of rootvg is chosen and a mksysb image is being created, the mkcd command adds the file
systems to the exclude file and calls the mksysb command with the exclude files option -e.
7. Do you want the DVD to be bootable? If you select no, you must boot from a product CD at the
same version.release.maintenance level, and then select to install the system backup from the system
backup DVD.
8. If you intend to use an Install bundle file, enter the full path name to the bundle file. The mkcd
command copies the file into the DVD file system. You must have the bundle file already specified
in the BUNDLES field, either in the bosinst.data file of the mksysb image or in a user-specified
bosinst.data file. When this option is used to have the bundle file placed on the DVD, the
location in the BUNDLES field of the bosinst.data file must be as follows:
/../usr/sys/inst.data/user_bundles/bundle_file_name
9. Additional packages can be placed on the CD by entering the name of the file that contains the
packages list in the File with list of packages to copy to DVD field. The format of this file is one
package name per line.
If you are planning to install one or more bundles after the mksysb image is restored, follow the
directions in the previous step to specify the bundle file. You can then use this option to have
packages listed in the bundle available on the DVD. If this option is used, you must also specify
the location of installation images in the next step.
10. Enter the location of installation images that are to be copied to the CD file system (if any) in the
Location of packages to copy to DVD field. This field is required if additional packages are to be
placed on the DVD (see the previous step). The location can be a directory or DVD device.
11. You can specify the full path name to a customization script in the Customization script field. If
given, the mkcd command copies the script to the CD file system. You must have the
CUSTOMIZATION_FILE field already set in the bosinst.data file in the mksysb image or use a
user-specified bosinst.data file with the CUSTOMIZATION_FILE field set. The mkcd command
copies this file to the RAM file system. Therefore, the path in the CUSTOMIZATION_FILE field
must be as follows:
/../filename
12. You can use your own bosinst.data file, rather than the one in the mksysb image, by entering the
full path name of your bosinst.data file in the User supplied bosinst.data file field.
13. To enable debugging for the mkcd command, set Debug output? to yes. The debug output goes
to the smit.log.
14. You can use your own image.data file, rather than the image.data file in the mksysb image, by
entering the full path name of your image.data file for the User supplied image.data file field.
Backing-up a user volume group
The savevg command provides the ability to create a user-volume group backup to a CD, DVD, tape, or
file.
The savevg command finds and backs up all files belonging to a specified volume group. The volume
group must be varied-on, and the file systems must be mounted.
This user backup contains a copy of a non-rootvg volume group, and is useful for volume groups that
contain user data.
The savevg command uses a data file created by the mkvgdata command. The data file created is as
follows:
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149
/tmp/vgdata/vgname/vgname.data
The vgname.data file contains information about a user volume group. The savevg command uses this file
to create a backup image that can be used by the restvg command to re-create the user volume group.
The savevg command with the -r flag is used to back up only a user-volume group’s logical volume
structure information. The data needed to list backup properties is also backed up. The -r flag runs the
mkvgdata command for the volume group specified to create a vgname.data file. The -r flag backs up
only the vgname.data file, any map files, and the backup.data file. The backup image that is created is
used with the restvg -r command option to create only the volume group, logical volumes, and file
system information contained in the file, without restoring any data. For example, to back up only the
paul user volume group’s structure information to the /vg_backup/paul_vg_data file, type the following:
savevg -r -f /vg_backup/paul_vg_data paul
You can also use the mkcd command to create a user volume group backup to CD or DVD. The mkcd
command saves one volume group at a time to a CD or DVD.
The mkcd command with the -L flag allows the creation of ISO9660 DVD sized images. The mkcd or the
mkdvd command with the -U flag allows the creation of UDF DVD images.
If your rootvg image and savevg image are small enough to fit on one CD or DVD, you can save them
both by using the -l (stacklist) and -z (customization_script) flags. The -l flag gives a list of images to
copy to the CD or DVD. The -z flag lets you create a script to restore savevg backups. For example, if
you make a copy of a non-rootvg volume group ahead of time, and then write a script that calls the
restvg command, your non-rootvg volume group would be restored to hdisk2 at the end of the
installation of rootvg, as shown by the following command:
restvg -d /SPOT/installp/ppc/savevg_image hdisk2
This procedure is recommended only if you know you want to restore the non-rootvg volume group
every time you install. Otherwise, you might just want to store it on the CD/DVD, then use restvg to
restore it after reboot. The restvg command can restore from CD or DVD if the name of the image is
savevg_image. If you save the non-rootvg backup on a CD or DVD with a different file name, you can
insert that CD or DVD and use the full path to the file name as the device for the restvg command.
Use either Web-based System Manager or SMIT to back up user volume groups to CD or DVD.
Backing-up a user volume group using Web-based System Manager:
You can use the wizard for creating a non-bootable CD or DVD that contains only a volume group
backup image of a user volume group.
Use Web-based System Manager and select System backup wizard method.
Creating a user volume group backup using SMIT:
With this procedure, you can use SMIT to create a backup image of a user volume group.
1. To back up a user volume group to tape or file using SMIT, type smit savevg on the command line.
Back up a user volume group to CD by typing smit savevgcd on the command line. Back up a user
volume group to DVD by typing smit savevgdvd on the command line.
2. When the Save a Volume Group screen displays, use the steps for backing up the root volume group
as a guide for backing up user volume groups. There is one exception to this procedure. If you want
to exclude files in a user volume group from the backup image, create a file named
/etc/exclude.volume_group_name, where volume_group_name is the name of the volume group you want
to backup.
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3. If you exclude files, edit the /etc/exclude.volume_group_name file and enter the patterns of file names
that you do not want included in your backup image. The patterns in this file are input to the
pattern-matching conventions of the grep command to determine which files are excluded from the
backup.
Using the user volume group backup options
After you have a system backup or a user volume group backup, you may want to verify the backup or
list information about the backup image.
You can use this information for the operations you can perform on a backup image. The commands
used to perform these operations are the lsmksysb command for system backups, and the lssavevg
command for user volume groups. Using the lsmksysb command or the lssavevg command, you can
perform the operations described in the following topics:
Previewing information about a volume group backup:
The preview option allows you to view volume group information, the date and time the backup was
made, and the level of AIX.
You can use the lsmksysb command or the lssavevg command with the -l option to preview a backup
image. For example, to preview a system backup file called /tmp/mybackup, type the following:
# lsmksysb -l -f /tmp/mybackup
Output similar to the following displays:
VOLUME GROUP:
BACKUP DATE/TIME:
UNAME INFO:
BACKUP OSLEVEL:
none
MAINTENANCE LEVEL:
BACKUP SIZE (MB):
SHRINK SIZE (MB):
rootvg:
LV NAME
hd5
hd6
hd8
hd4
hd2
hd9var
hd3
hd1
hd10opt
fslv00
fslv01
rootvg
Mon Jul 29 22:03:27 CDT 2002
AIX va08 2 5 000974AF4C00
5.2.0.0
none
1408
1242
TYPE
boot
paging
jfs2log
jfs2
jfs2
jfs2
jfs2
jfs2
jfs2
jfs2
jfs2
LPs
1
16
1
1
21
1
1
1
1
31
1
PPs
1
16
1
1
21
1
1
1
1
31
1
PVs LV STATE
MOUNT POINT
1
closed/syncd N/A
1
open/syncd
N/A
1
open/syncd
N/A
1
open/syncd
/
1
open/syncd
/usr
1
open/syncd
/var
1
open/syncd
/tmp
1
open/syncd
/home
1
open/syncd
/opt
1
open/syncd
/export/nim
1
open/syncd
/tftpboot
To preview a backup image in the SMIT, use the lsbackupinfo fast path.
Verifying system backup (tape only):
You can list the contents of a mksysb image on tape.
To list the contents of a mksysb image on tape, you can use either Web-based System Manager (type wsm
on the command line, then choose the Backup and Restore application) or SMIT (type smit lsmksysb on
the command line). The listing verifies most of the information on the tape, but does not verify that the
backup media can be booted for installations. The only way to verify that the boot image on a mksysb
tape functions properly is by booting from the media.
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Viewing the backup log for volume group and system backups:
You can view the backup log that is created each time a volume group is backed up. The log file contains
information on previous volume group and system backups.
You can use the lsmksysb command or the lssavevg command with the -B option to view the backup log
file. Type:
# lsmksysb -B
Output similar to the following displays:
#Device;Command;Date;Shrink Size;Full Size;Maintenance Level
/export/mksysb/generic_sysb;"mksysb -X -e /export/mksysb/generic_sysb";M
on Jul 29 22:11:17 CDT 2002;1242;1408;
/export/mksysb/generic_sysb;"mksysb -X -e /export/mksysb/generic_sys
b";Tue Jul 30 16:38:31 CDT 2002;2458;2720;
To view the backup log in the SMIT, select View the Backup Log in the System Backup Manager menu.
Viewing filesets installed in a system backup:
You can view the filesets installed in a system backup using the lsmksysb command with the -L option.
For example, to view the filesets installed in a system backup, type the following:
# lsmksysb -L -f generic_sysb
Output similar to the following displays:
Fileset
Level State
Description
---------------------------------------------------------------------------Path: /usr/lib/objrepos
IMNSearch.bld.DBCS
2.4.0.0 COMMITTED NetQuestion DBCS Buildtime
Modules
.
.
.
bos.terminfo.wyse.data
5.2.0.0 COMMITTED Wyse Terminal Definitions
bos.txt.spell.data
5.2.0.0 COMMITTED Writer's Tools Data
bos.txt.tfs.data
5.2.0.0 COMMITTED Text Formatting Services Data
To view the filesets installed in a system backup in SMIT, use the lslppbackup fast path.
Note: This feature is only available for backups created from AIX 5.2 or later.
Installing system backups
You can install the Base Operating System (BOS) using a system backup image, also called a mksysb
image.
You can use a system backup to restore a corrupted operating system. But installing a system from a
backup can also reduce (or even eliminate) repetitive installation and configuration tasks. For example,
you can use a backup to transfer optional software installed on the source system (the machine from
which you created the backup copy), in addition to the basic operating system. Also, the backup image
can transfer many user configuration settings to the target system (a different machine on which you are
installing the system backup).
You can install a system from a backup image that is stored on tape, CD, or DVD, or in a file. If you
want to install a backup stored in a directory on your network installation server, refer to “Using a
mksysb image to install the base operating system on a NIM Client” on page 224.
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The procedures to install from backup operate either in prompted or nonprompted mode, depending on
conditions set in the /bosinst.data file and on compatibility between the backup image and the installed
machine. See “Customizing your installation” on page 66 for information on how to modify the
bosinst.data file to preset installation parameters when you create a system backup.
When installing the backup image, the system checks whether the target system has enough disk space to
create all the logical volumes stored on the backup. If there is enough space, the entire backup is
recovered. Otherwise, the installation halts and the system prompts you to choose additional destination
hard disks.
File systems are created on the target system at the same size as they were on the source system, unless
the backup image was created with SHRINK set to yes in the image.data file, or you selected yes in the
BOS Install menus. An exception is the /tmp directory, which can be increased to allocate enough space
for the bosboot command. For more information about setting variables, see the image.data file in AIX
5L Version 5.3 Files Reference.
When you install a system backup on the source machine, the installation program restores the Object
Data Manager (ODM) on that machine. Restoring the ODM allows devices to keep the same number they
had on the original system. For example, if you install two ethernet cards in your source machine, first
en0 in slot 3 and then en1 in slot 1, the cards are not renumbered if they are detected in reverse order
when you install a system backup. When you clone a system backup, the installation program rebuilds
the ODM on the target system after installing the image, so devices are renumbered. In both cases, the
rootvg and all logical volumes have different IDs.
If you reinstall a system backup on the source machine, and the target system does not have exactly the
same hardware configuration as the source system, the program might modify device attributes in the
following target system files:
v All files in the /etc/objrepos directory beginning with ″Cu″
v All files in the /dev directory
The settings in the bootlist are not restored. After a system backup restore, the bootlist is reset to the
primary boot device.
Shared volume groups have AUTO ON set to no. Beginning in AIX 5L Version 5.2 only user volume
groups that have AUTO ON set to yes are imported. The reason for this is that shared volume groups
might lock out other systems’ access to the volume group because of installation queries on the shared
volume group at the time of a mksysb restore operation.
If you have problems with installations from a mksysb image, see Troubleshooting problems with
installation from mksysb backup.
Cloning a system backup
You can install a system backup on a target machine to propagate a consistent operating system, optional
software, and configuration settings.
With a mksysb image, you can clone one system image onto multiple target systems. However, the target
systems might not contain the same hardware devices or adapters, or require the same kernel as the
source system. All devices and kernels are automatically installed during a BOS installation. As a result,
when you create a system backup, the mksysb image contains all the device and kernel support. For
example, you can create a system backup from System_A and install System_A’s mksysb image onto
System_B without having to use product media to boot System_B. For more information on installing all
devices and kernels, see “Installing all device and kernel support before the backup is created” on page
142.
If you are performing a clone installation, device information will not be restored to the target system by
default. During a clone installation, the BOS installation process verifies that the mksysb image is from
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153
the system you are trying to install. If the target system and the mksysb image are different, the device
information is not recovered. This behavior is determined by the RECOVER_DEVICES variable in the
bosinst.data file. This variable can be set to Default, yes, or no. The following list shows the resulting
behaviors for each value:
Default
No recovery of devices
yes
Attempted rebuild of ODM
no
No recovery of devices
Note: You can override the default value of RECOVER_DEVICES by selecting yes or no in the Backup
Restore menu or by editing the value of the attribute in the bosinst.data file.
If the source system does not have the correct passwords and network information, you can make
modifications on the target system now. Also, some products (such as graPHIGS) ship device-specific
files. If your graphics adapter is different on the target system, verify that the device-specific filesets for
graphics-related LPPs are installed.
Installing a system backup on the source machine
You can use Web-based System Manager or command line to restore an operating system onto the same
machine from which you created the backup.
For either interface, the following conditions must be met before beginning the procedure:
v All hardware must already be installed, including external devices, such as tape and CD/DVD-ROM
drives.
v Obtain your system backup image from one of the following sources:
CD or DVD
BOS CDs, created in one of the following ways:
v Using the Web-based System Manager Backup and Restore application. Select System backup to writable
CD.
v Using the SMIT Back Up This System to CD menu.
v From the command line, using the mkcd or mkdvd command.
BOS tapes, created in one of the following ways:
Tape
v Using the Web-based System Manager Backup and Restore application. Select Back up the system.
v Using the SMIT Back Up the System to Tape/File menu.
v From the command line, using the mksysb -i Target command.
Network
Note: If devices were removed from or replaced on the system after the backup was created, their information
will be restored when you install a backup. The system shows these devices in a defined state because the ODM
from the system at the time of backup is restored instead of rebuilt.
The path to your backup image file. For information about installing a backup across a network, refer to Using a
mksysb image to install the base operating system on a NIM Client.
Note: Before you begin, select the tape or CD/DVD-ROM drive as the primary boot device. For
additional information, refer to the section in your hardware documentation that discusses system
management services.
Due to enhancements in the mksysb command, you can control how devices are recovered when you
install a system backup on the source machine. This behavior is determined by the RECOVER_DEVICES
variable in the bosinst.data file. This variable can be set to default, yes, or no. The following list shows
the resulting behaviors for each value:
default
ODM is restored
yes
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ODM is restored
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
no
No recovery of devices
Note: You can override the default value of RECOVER_DEVICES by selecting yes or no in the Backup
Restore menu or by editing the value of the attribute in the bosinst.data file.
To use Web-based System Manager:
1. Start the Web-based System Manager by typing wsm on the command line as root user.
2. Expand Software in the Navigation Area, select Overview and Tasks, then select Reinstall Operating
System.
3. Choose the installation device:
v Network
If you choose this option, your machine must either be a configured NIM client, or have access to a
NIM environment. If your machine is not a NIM client, the Reinstall Base Operating System wizard
leads you through the process. For more information on setting up a NIM environment, see Using
installation images to install the base operating system on a NIM client.
v Tape or CD/DVD-ROM
4. Choose Install a system backup image (mksysb) as the installation type.
5. Follow the wizard prompts to complete the procedure.
To use the command line:
1. You can use the bootlist command to display or change the primary boot device.
To display the primary boot device:
bootlist -m normal -o
To change the primary boot device:
bootlist -m normal rmt0
bootlist -m normal cd0
2. Power off your machine by following these steps:
a. Log in as the root user.
b. Enter the following command:
shutdown -F
c. If your system does not automatically power off, place the power switch in the Off (0) position.
Attention:
Do not turn on the system unit until Step 6 on page 156.
3. Turn on all attached external devices. These include:
v Terminals
v CD or DVD drives
v Tape drives
v Monitors
v External disk drives
Turning on the external devices first is necessary so that the system unit can identify them during
the startup (boot) process.
4. Insert the installation media into the tape or CD or DVD drive.
You might find that on certain tape drive units, the tape drive door does not open while the system
is turned off. If you have this problem, use the following procedure:
a. Turn on the system unit.
b. Insert the boot installation tape (insert Volume 1 if you received more than one volume).
c. Turn off the system unit and wait for 30 seconds.
5. If you are not using an ASCII terminal, skip to Step 6. If you are using an ASCII terminal, use the
following criteria to set the communications, keyboard, and display options.
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Note: If your terminal is an IBM 3151, 3161, or 3164, press the Ctrl+Setup keys to display the Setup
Menu and follow the on-screen instructions to set these options. If you are using some other ASCII
terminal, refer to the appropriate documents for information about how to set these options. Some
terminals have different option names and settings than those listed here.
Communication Options
Option
Setting
Line Speed (baud rate)
9600
Word Length (bits per character)
8
Parity
no (none)
Number of Stop Bits
1
Interface
RS-232C (or RS-422A)
Line Control
IPRTS
Keyboard and Display Options
Option
Setting
Screen
normal
Row and Column
24x80
Scroll
jump
Auto LF (line feed)
off
Line Wrap
on
Forcing Insert
line (or both)
Tab
field
Operating Mode
echo
Turnaround Character
CR
Enter
return
Return
new line
New Line
CR
Send
page
Insert Character
space
6. Turn the system unit power switch from Off (0) to On (|). The system begins booting from the
backup media. If your system is booting from tape, it is normal for the tape to move back and forth.
If your system has an LED display, the three-digit LED should display c31.
Note: You can boot from production media (tape or CD) if your backup media fails to boot. The
initial Welcome screen includes an option to enter a maintenance mode in which you can continue
the installation from your backup media. Refer to Troubleshooting an installation from a system
backup for more information.
If you have more than one console, each terminal and directly attached display device (or console)
might display a screen that directs you to press a key to identify your system console. A different
key is specified for each terminal displaying this screen. If this screen is displayed, then press the
specified key only on the device to be used as the system console. (The system console is the
keyboard and display device used for installation and system administration.) Press a key on only
one console.
Note: If the bosinst.data file lists a valid display device for the CONSOLE variable, you do not
manually choose a system console. Read Customizing your installation for more information about
the bosinst.data file.
7. The type of installation that begins is determined by the settings of the PROMPT field in the
control_flow stanza of the bosinst.data file. Use the following criteria to determine the type of
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installation you will be using:
PROMPT = no
PROMPT = yes
Nonprompted Installation. This installation method is used if the backup image is configured to install
automatically, without having to respond to the installation program. Go to step 8.
Prompted Installation. This installation method is used if you need to use menu prompts to install the
backup image. Also, use this installation method if a nonprompted installation halts and the Welcome to
Base Operating System Installation and Maintenance screen displays. Go to step 9.
8. A successful nonprompted installation requires no further instructions because the installation is
automatic.
Note: If the backup image holds source system-configuration information that is incompatible with
the target system, the nonprompted installation stops and a prompted installation begins.
The Installing Base Operating System screen displays before the installation starts. The nonprompted
installation pauses for approximately five seconds before beginning. After this time, the
non-prompted installation continues to completion.
However, if you decide to interrupt the automatic installation and start a prompted session, type 000
(three zeros) at the terminal and follow the remaining steps in this procedure.
9. The Welcome to the Base Operating System Installation and Maintenance screen displays.
Note: You can view Help information at each screen of this installation process by typing 88.
Choose the Change/Show Installation Settings and Install option.
10. The System Backup Installation and Settings displays. This screen shows current settings for the
system. An ellipsis follows the disk listed in the first line if there is more than one disk selected.
11. Either accept the settings or change them. For more information on using map files, see Creating
system backups.
To accept the settings and begin the installation, skip to step 16.
To change the settings, continue with step 12.
12. Type 1 in the System Backup Installation and Settings screen to specify disks where you want to
install the backup image. The Change Disk(s) Where You Want to Install screen displays. This screen
lists all available disks on which you can install the system backup image. Three greater-than signs
(>>>) mark each selected disk.
Type the number and press Enter for each disk you choose. Type the number of a selected disk to
deselect it. You can select more than one disk.
Note: You can also specify a supplemental disk by typing 66 and pressing the Enter key for the
Disks not known to Base Operating System Installation option. This option opens a new menu
that prompts for a device support media for the supplemental disk. BOS installation configures the
system for the disk and then returns to the Change Disk(s) Where You Want to Install screen.
13. After you have finished selecting disks, press the Enter key.
The screen that displays after you press the Enter key is dependent on the availability of map files
for all of the selected disks. The criteria for this is as follows:
v If one or more selected disks have no maps, BOS installation returns directly to the System Backup
Installation and Settings screen. Skip to step 15.
v If all selected disks have maps, the Change Use Maps Status screen displays, where you choose
whether to use maps for installation. Continue with step 14.
To preserve the placement of logical volumes during a future restoration of the backup, you can
create map files before backing up a system. Map files, stored in the /tmp/vgdata/rootvg directory,
match the physical partitions on a drive to its logical partitions. Create map files either with the
SMIT Backup the System menu, using Web-based System Manager, or using the -m option when you
run the mksysb command.
For more information about map files, see Using Map Files for Precise Allocation in Operating system
and device management.
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14. Type either 1 or 2 in the Change Use Maps Status screen to specify whether the installation program
is to use maps.
When you complete this choice, BOS installation returns to the System Backup Installation and
Settings screen.
15. Decide whether BOS installation is to shrink file systems on the disks where you install the system.
When you choose this option, the logical volumes and file systems within a volume group are
re-created to the minimum size required to contain the data. This reduces wasted free space in a file
system.
File systems on your backup image might be larger than required for the installed files. Press the 2
key to toggle the Shrink File Systems option between Yes and No in the System Backup Installation
and Settings screen. The default setting is No.
Note: Shrinking the file system disables the use of maps.
16. Type 0 to accept the settings in the System Backup Installation and Settings screen.
The Installing Base Operating System screen displays the rate of completion and duration.
If you specified a supplemental disk in step 12, an untitled screen temporarily replaces the Installing
Base Operating System screen. When this screen displays, it prompts you to place the device-support
media in the drive and press the Enter key. BOS installation reconfigures the supplemental disk, then
returns to the Installing Base Operating System screen.
The system reboots automatically when the installation completes.
Software product packaging
The following is additional software product packaging information.
Installing variously formatted software packages
You can use this information to install software packages received in different formats.
Beginning in AIX 5.1, you can install RPM Package Manager (RPM) and InstallShield MultiPlatform
(ISMP) formatted packages in addition to installp formatted packages. Use the Web-based System
Manager, SMIT, or the geninstall command to install and uninstall these types of packages. The
geninstall command can detect the format type of a specified package and run the appropriate
installation command.
Beginning in AIX 5.1, the AIX product media contains installp packages and RPM packages that are
installed during a base operating system (BOS) installation. The installp packages are located in the
following path:
/mount_point/installp/ppc
The RPM packages are located in the following path:
/mount_point/RPMS/ppc
If you have media that contains ISMP packages for AIX 5.1 and later, the ISMP packages are located in
the following path:
/mount_point/ISMP/ppc
The geninstall command recognizes the following file names as ISMP install images:
v setupaix*
v install*
v setup.jar
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If you are using the geninstall command to install RPM or ISMP packages, use the prefix type to
indicate to the geninstall command the type of package that you are installing. The package prefix types
are the following:
I:
installp format
R:
RPM format
J:
ISMP format
E:
interim fix format
For example, to install the cdrecord RPM package and the bos.games installp package, type the
following:
# geninstall -d/dev/cd0 R:cdrecord I:bos.games
The geninstall command detects that the cdrecord package is an RPM package type and runs the rpm
command to install the cdrecord package. The geninstall command then detects that bos.games is an
installp package type and runs the installp command to install the bos.games package. The process for
uninstallation is similar to the installation process.
In Web-based System Manager and SMIT, if you are selecting the packages from a software list, you need
not specify the prefix type.
Fileset installation packages
The installation packaging of each fileset in a product can be divided into three parts.
These parts include the usr, root, and share parts. Although this can add further complexity to the
understanding of the packaging, this parceling of a software product is necessary for the product to be
used by diskless and dataless clients in AIX 5.1 and later.
Because they are parceled, a product can be installed on one machine (called the server) and then be used
remotely by other machines on a network (called the clients).
Note: The usr and root parts of a product are packaged in the same installable package.
usr part
root part
The usr part of a software product contains the part of the product that can be shared by machines that
have the same hardware architecture. Most of the software that is part of a product usually falls into
this category.
In a standard system, the usr parts of products are stored in the /usr file tree. For example, the ls
command would be in the /usr/bin/ls file.
Every product has a usr part. The root part of a software product contains the part of the product that
cannot be shared. The root part of a product is optional because many products may not have any files
that need to be specific to each individual machine.
In a client/server environment, these are the files for which there must be a unique copy for each client
of a server. Most of the root software is associated with the configuration of the machine or product.
In a standard system, the root parts of a product are stored in the root (/) file tree. The /etc/objrepos
directory contains the root part of an installable software product’s vital product data (VPD).
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share part
The share part of a software product contains the part of the product that can be shared among
machines, even if they have different hardware architectures, which can include nonexecutable text or
data files. For example, the share part of a product might contain documentation written in ASCII text
or data files containing special fonts.
The share part of a product is optional because many products might not have any files that can be
shared among different hardware platforms. The share part of a product is always packaged in a
separately installable package.
In a standard system, the share parts of products are usually stored in the /usr/share file tree. For
example, a dictionary database might be stored in the /usr/share/dict/words file.
Creating software packages
The mkinstallp command allows users to create their own software packages for AIX.
Packages created with the mkinstallp command are in installp format and are installed or removed with
the mkinstallp command.
Files to be packaged by the mkinstallp command must be in a directory structure such that the location
of the file relative to the root build directory is the same as the destination of the file after installation.
For example, if the /usr/bin/somecommand command is to be installed by a mkinstallp package, the
somecommand parameter must be in the buildroot/usr/bin directory when the mkinstallp command is
invoked.
When the contents of a package are in the correct directory structure, the mkinstallp command prompts
for basic package data through the command line. This data includes the package name, requisites,
descriptions of files to be packaged, and more. The mkinstallp command then generates a template file
based on responses given by the user. To prevent command line prompting when using a template file,
create and edit the template file directly and use the mkinstallp command with the -T flag.
For example, to package the /usr/bin/foo command using the /tmp/packages directory as the build root,
make sure the following directory structure exists by typing the following at the command line:
mkdir /tmp/packages
touch /tmp/packages/usr/bin/foo
Then type the following:
mkinstallp -d /tmp/packages
For more examples, refer to the /usr/lpp/bos/README.MKINSTALLP file.
The mkinstallp command is included with the bos.adt.insttools fileset.
Packaging software bundles
The Web-based System Manager and the SMIT Install application look for bundles in
/usr/sys/inst.data/sys_bundles and in /usr/sys/inst.data/user_bundles.
The sys_bundles location is typically reserved for system-defined bundles (those which come with AIX).
Users can create their own bundle files in the user_bundles directory.
The bundle definition file name must end in .bnd, because the AIX installation interfaces that process
bundles recognize only bundle files that end in .bnd. Use any editor to create bundle files, which can
contain comments and fileset names. Lines beginning with the pound sign (#) are recognized as
comments and are ignored by the bundle processing code. When you have completed your list of filesets,
save the file and make sure the file has the appropriate read permission. Invoking a bundle installation
interface displays your bundle without the .bnd extension.
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The following are examples of the predefined bundles:
v Server Bundle. A collection of software packages for machines running AIX in a multiuser standalone or
networked environment. This bundle emphasizes functionality over disk utilization.
v Graphics Bundle. A collection of software packages that provides support of graphical environments.
Graphical support may be automatically installed on some systems during BOS installation.
v Migration Bundle. This bundle is created when there was not enough disk space available to complete a
migration installation during the BOS installation process. The bundle consists of a collection of
software packages that must be installed to complete your migration. You must install this bundle to
complete the migration installation. Install the bundle using the smit update_all fast path.
You may also need to install the Graphics Bundle.
Some system bundles might refer to installation images that are spread across multiple media. If you see
errors indicating that filesets could not be found on the media you are using, insert the media containing
the missing filesets and retry the bundle installation.
The system bundles are located in the /usr/sys/inst.data/sys_bundles directory. To list the system
bundles, type the following:
ls /usr/sys/inst.data/sys_bundles/*.bnd
You can also use the SMIT list_bundle fast path to list the system bundles.
Beginning in AIX 5L Version 5.2 with the 5200-01 Recommended Maintenance package, the geninstall
and gencopy commands handle multiple software sources to be specified when a bundle file is used. This
is accomplished by grouping software images together under #MEDIA= headings in the bundle file. Any
images listed under such a heading must reside on the specified media. Media can be specified as the
name of a CD (such as Base Install Media Volume 1 or AIX Linux Toolbox CD) or as a local directory (such
as the /usr/sys/inst.images directory).
The #MEDIA= heading is used to designate the location of the file sets or packages in the bundle. For
example, the BaseAndLinuxCD Bundle might contain the following information:
# BaseAndLinuxCDBundle contains packages on volume 1 of base media and on the AIX
# Linux Toolbox CD
#MEDIA=Base Install Media Volume 1
I:bos.adt.prof
#MEDIA=AIX Linux Toolbox CD
R:mtools
R:vim-common
When the geninstall and gencopy commands prompt for the additional media, they use the words
provided in the #MEDIA= line. In the previous examples, the geninstall and the gencopy commands
display a message informing you that the bos.adt.prof installp package is located on Base Install Media
Volume 1, and the mtools and vim-common RPM packages are located on the AIX Linux Toolbox CD.
The #MEDIA= heading can also be used to indicate a directory. For example, the CD_Directory Bundle
might contain the following information:
# CD_DirectoryBundle contains packages on volume 1 of base install media
# and in /usr/sys/inst.images
#MEDIA=/usr/sys/inst.images
I:bos.games
#MEDIA=Base Install Media Volume 1
I:bos.adt.prof
R:cdrecord-1.9-4
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This informs the geninstall and the gencopy commands that the bos.games installp package is located in
the 3 directory, and that the bos.adt.prof installp package and the cdrecord-1.9-4 RPM package are
located on Base Install Media Volume 1.
Beginning in AIX 5L Version 5.3 with the 5300-03 Recommended Maintenance package, the geninstall
and gencopy commands understand the ″%L″ wildcard in a bundle file. This wildcard is replaced at
runtime with the value of the appropriate locale environment variable; LC_ALL is checked first, then
LC_MESSAGES, and then LANG. This allows you to create a single bundle file corresponding to
multiple installation configurations.
As an example, assume you provide the ABC product, which requires the abc.rte and abc.com filesets, as
well as a message catalog fileset and a documentation fileset. You then provide the message and
documentation filesets in English, French, and German, as follows:
abc.cat.en_US
abc.cat.fr_FR
abc.cat.de_DE
abc.doc.en_US
abc.doc.fr_FR
abc.doc.de_DE
The following bundle file would cause the appropriate combination of filesets to be installed, according
to the locale variables on the target system:
I:abc.rte
I:abc.com
I:abc.cat.%L
I:abc.doc.%L
Note: If expanding the %L wildcard does not yield a fileset name corresponding to a fileset available on
the installation media, then the UTF-8 version of the current locale will be tried, then en_US, and then
EN_US.
You can determine whether or not the contents of a bundle are installed on your system with the lslpp
-Lb command. For example, to determine whether the components of the Alt_Disk_Install bundle, which
is located in the /usr/sys/inst.data/sys_bundles directory, are installed, run the following command:
lslpp -Lb Alt_Disk_Install.bnd
You might see output that looks similar to the following:
Fileset
Level
State Type Description
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------bos.alt_disk_install.boot_images
5.3.00
C
F
Alternate Disk Installation Disk Boot Image
bos.alt_disk_install.rte
5.3.00
C
F
Alternate disk Installation Runtime
State
A -B -C -E -O -? --
codes:
Applied.
Broken.
Committed.
EFIX Locked.
Obsolete. (partially migrated to newer version)
Inconsistent State...Run lppchk -v.
Type codes:
F -- Installp Fileset
P -- Product
C -- Component
T -- Feature
R -- RPM Package
3. /usr/sys/inst.images
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Installing with Network Installation Management
AIX Network Installation Management (NIM) allows you to manage the installation of the Base
Operating System (BOS) and optional software on one or more machines.
You can install a group of machines with a common configuration or customize an installation for the
specific needs of a given machine. The number of machines you can install simultaneously depends on
the throughput of your network, the disk access throughput of the installation servers, and the platform
type of your servers.
The NIM environment includes client and server machines. A server provides resources (for example, files
and programs required for installation) to another machine. A machine that is dependent on a server to
provide resources is known as a client. Any machine that receives NIM resources is a client, although the
same machine can also be a server in the overall network environment.
Most installation tasks in the NIM environment are performed from one server, called the master. A set of
installation tasks can also be performed from NIM clients. Once the network installation setup is
complete, users of standalone clients can, from the client, install software that is available on NIM
servers.
NIM objects
The machines you want to manage in the NIM environment, their resources, and the networks through
which the machines communicate are all represented as objects within a central database that resides on
the master.
Network objects and their attributes reflect the physical characteristics of the network environment. This
information does not affect the running of a physical network but is used internally by NIM for
configuration information.
Each object in the NIM environment has a unique name that you specify when the object is defined. The
NIM name is independent of any of the physical characteristics of the object it identifies and is only used
for NIM operations. The benefit of unique names is that an operation can be performed using the NIM
name without having to specify which physical attribute should be used. NIM determines which object
attributes to use. For example, to easily identify NIM clients, the host name of the system can be used as
the NIM object name, but these names are independent of each other. When an operation is performed on
a machine, the NIM name is used, and all other data for the machine (including the host name) is
retrieved from the NIM database.
NIM machines
The types of machines that can be managed in the NIM environment are standalone, diskless, and dataless
clients. This section describes the differences between the machines, the attributes required to define the
machines, and the operations that can be performed on them.
The NIM environment is composed of two basic machine roles: master and client. The NIM master
manages the installation of the rest of the machines in the NIM environment. The master is the only
machine that can remotely run NIM commands on the clients. All other machines participating in the
NIM environment are clients to the master, including machines that may also serve resources.
Operating NIM on client machines
There are unique operations to initialize the different client configurations. NIM checks that the operation
is a valid operation for a specific client configuration.
The following table shows the operations that can be performed on the different client configuration
types.
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NIM Operation
Machine Configuration
Standalone
bos_inst
Diskless
Dataless
x
dkls_init
x
dtls_init
x
diag
x
cust
x
fix_query
x
lppchk
x
maint
x
maint_boot
x
reset
check
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
showlog
x
x
x
reboot
x
x
x
Defining NIM clients
You can use the NIM define operation to define standalone, diskless, and dataless clients.
The command line syntax is as follows:
nim -o define -t MachineType -a Attribute=Value ... MachineName
where the following attributes are required:
-t MachineType
-a if=Value ...
Specifies the type of machine being defined. Valid values are standalone, diskless, and dataless.
Stores network interface information for a NIM client, and requires a sequence number when
specified. The value for this attribute consists of three required values and a fourth, optional value:
Value 1
Specifies the name of the NIM network to which this interface connects. If the name of the
NIM network is unknown, then the find_net keyword can be used to match the client’s IP
address to a defined NIM network. If the find_net keyword is used, but NIM does not find
a matching network, the optional net_definition attribute should be used to define the
network, as well.
Value 2
Specifies the host name associated with this interface.
Value 3
Specifies the network adapter hardware address of this interface. A value of 0 can be
specified unless broadcasting is used for network boot of the client.
Value 4
Specifies the logical device name of the network adapter used for this interface. If this value
is not specified, NIM uses a default based on the type of network interface defined. This
field is required when the client is defined on a heterogeneous network.
This attribute requires a sequence number for NIM to distinguish between multiple network
interfaces. Because machines can be multihomed, NIM allows more than one if attribute per
machine.
The following attributes are optional:
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-a ring_speed=Value
-a cable_type=Value
-a netboot_kernel=Value
-a iplrom_emu=Value
-a net_definition=Value ...
Specifies the ring speed of the client’s token-ring adapter. This value is required if the client’s
NIM network is token-ring. This attribute requires a sequence number for NIM to distinguish
between ring speeds for multiple interfaces on the machine.
Specifies the cable type of the client’s ethernet adapter. This value is required if the client’s
NIM network is Ethernet. This attribute requires a sequence number for NIM to distinguish
between cable types for multiple interfaces on the machine.
Specifies the kernel type of the client. Valid values are up for uniprocessor machines and mp
for multiprocessor machines. The default value is up.
Specifies the device that contains the IPL ROM emulation software. IPL ROM emulation is
required for machines that do not have bootp-enabled IPL ROM.
Defines a NIM network to be associated with the client being defined. The value for this
attribute consists of required values and optional values:
Value 1 = NetworkType (required)
Specified values are tok, ent, fddi, and generic.
Value 2 = SubnetMask (required)
Specifies the dotted decimal mask for the network.
Value 3 = ClientGateway (optional)
Specifies the IP address or host name of the default gateway used by the machine
being defined to communicate with the NIM master.
Value 4 = MasterGateway (optional)
Specifies the IP address or host name of the default gateway used by the NIM
master to communicate with clients on other subnets.
Value 5 = NetworkName (optional)
Specifies a name to be given to the NIM definition created for the network.
(Otherwise, a unique default value is assigned.)
-a cpuid=Value
-a master_port=Value
-a registration_port=Value
-a group=Value
-a comments=Value
-a verbose=Value
-a net_settings=Value1 Value2
When specifying the net_definition attribute to create or change a machine definition, the
find_net keyword must be specified as the first component of the if attribute for the machine.
The net_definition attribute may also be specified when defining additional NIM interfaces (if
attributes) for machine definitions.
Specifies the CPU ID of the machine being defined. This attribute can be used for client
verification during NIM operations. To display the CPU ID on a running machine, use the
uname -m command. This field is optional and will be automatically set the first time a client
communicates with the NIM master.
Specifies the port number used by the NIM master for socket communication with the clients.
The default master port number is 1058.
Specifies the port number used by clients to register themselves with the NIM master. The
default registration port number is 1059.
Specifies a machine group to which the client should be added. The group will be defined if it
does not exist.
Provides comments about the client being defined.
Displays information for debugging. Use verbose=5 to show maximum detail.
Specifies the speed and duplex settings to use for the client’s ethernet adapter during a
network install, and requires a sequence number when specified. When initiating an install
and reboot of a client, NIM will set these parameters in the bootlist. This attribute is only valid
for clients running AIX 5.2 or higher.
Value1= auto, 10, 100, or 1000
The default is value is 100.
Value2 = auto, half, or full
The default value is full.
For example:
-a connect=Value
nim -o change -a net_settings1="10 half" jellyfish
Specifies the communicating service used by the NIM client for remote execution of NIM
commands. Value options are shell (for RSH) and nimsh. The default setting is connect=shell.
Booting and operating standalone NIM clients
Standalone NIM clients can be booted and operated from local resources.
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Standalone clients mount all file systems from local disks and have a local boot image. Standalone clients
are not dependent upon network servers for operation.
Booting a standalone client from the network:
Although an installed standalone client is capable of booting from the local disk, it may be necessary to
perform a network boot of the client for certain NIM operations.
Clients must boot over the network in order for NIM to perform a BOS installation (bos_inst) of the
client or to boot into maintenance mode (maint_boot) and diagnostics (diag). For instructions on booting
a client over the network, see Booting specific machines over the network.
Managing software on standalone clients:
The AIX Base Operating System can be installed directly on standalone clients using the NIM bos_inst
operation.
Additional software and updates can be installed and managed on standalone clients using the NIM cust
and maint operations. For more information about these and other operations, see “NIM operations” on
page 190.
Defining diskless and dataless clients
Diskless and dataless clients are machines that are not capable of booting and running without the
assistance of servers on a network.
As their names imply, diskless clients have no hard disk, and dataless clients have disks that are unable
to hold all the data that may be required for operation. Diskless machines must mount paging space and
all file systems from remote servers. Dataless machines can only use a local disk for paging space and the
/tmp and /home file systems. Neither diskless nor dataless clients have a local boot image, and they must
boot from servers on the network.
Defining a machine as diskless or dataless has the following advantages:
v Cost savings
No hard disk is required for diskless clients. Only a small hard disk is needed for dataless clients.
v Manage software configurations on machines
On diskless and dataless clients, the file system containing the BOS is mounted from a server. All client
systems that mount the same file system for BOS run from identical software.
v Manage storage of user data
User data for diskless and dataless clients are stored on remote servers. A system administrator can
manage storage allocation and data backups for the client machines by managing the data on the
server, rather than on each machine separately.
Resources for diskless and dataless clients:
The file systems that are mounted by the diskless and dataless client machines are treated as resources in
the NIM environment. Like other resources, they exist on a server in the NIM environment, and they are
NFS-exported to the clients that use them.
The following resources are managed by NIM to support diskless and dataless clients:
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boot
SPOT
Defined as a network boot image for NIM clients. The boot resource is managed automatically by NIM
and is never explicitly allocated or deallocated by users.
Defined as a directory structure that contains the AIX run-time files common to all machines. These files
are referred to as the usr parts of the fileset. The SPOT resource is mounted as the /usr file system on
diskless and dataless clients.
Contains the root parts of filesets. The root part of a fileset is the set of files that may be used to configure
the software for a particular machine. These root files are stored in special directories in the SPOT, and
they are used to populate the root directories of diskless and dataless clients during initialization.
The network boot images used to boot clients are constructed from software installed in the SPOT.
root
A SPOT resource is required for both diskless and dataless clients.
Defined as a parent directory for client ″/″ (root) directories. The client root directory in the root resource
is mounted as the ″/″ (root) file system on the client.
When the resources for a client are initialized, the client root directory is populated with configuration
files. These configuration files are copied from the SPOT resource that has been allocated to the same
machine.
dump
A root resource is required for both diskless and dataless clients.
Defined as a parent directory for client dump files. The client dump file in the dump resource is mounted
as the dump device for the client.
paging
A dump resource is required for both diskless and dataless clients.
Defined as a parent directory for client paging files. The client paging file in the paging resource is
mounted as the paging device for the client.
home
A paging resource is required for diskless clients and optional for dataless clients.
Defined as a parent directory for client /home directories. The client directory in the home resource is
mounted as the /home file system on the client.
shared_home
A home resource is optional for both diskless and dataless clients.
Defined as a /home directory shared by clients. All clients that use a shared_home resource will mount
the same directory as the /home file system.
tmp
A shared_home resource is optional for both diskless and dataless clients.
Defined as a parent directory for client /tmp directories. The client directory in the tmp resource is
mounted as the /tmp file system on the client.
resolv_conf
A tmp resource is optional for both diskless and dataless clients.
Contains nameserver IP addresses and a network domain name.
Unlike the other resources used by diskless/dataless clients, the resolv_conf resource does not remain
mounted by the client. Instead, it is copied to the /etc/resolv.conf file in the client’s root directory.
A resolv_conf resource is optional for both diskless and dataless clients.
Initializing diskless and dataless clients:
Diskless and dataless clients are not installed in the same way as standalone machines. Instead, they are
initialized. Initialization of diskless and dataless clients involves several phases of operation.
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Resource Allocation
Client Initialization
The resources required to support a diskless/dataless client must be allocated to the client before
or during the initialization operation.
If the resource is a parent directory of client directories, the allocation will create an empty
subdirectory for the client. The client subdirectory is then NFS-exported to the client. The client
subdirectories are not populated until the initialization is actually performed.
The dkls_init and dtls_init operations are used in NIM to initialize the resources for client use.
Among the operations performed during client initialization are the following:
v The boot image is made available to the client for performing a network boot.
v The root files, which are used for machine-specific customization, are copied into the client’s
subdirectory in the root resource. The files that are copied into the client root directories come
from the SPOT resource that has been allocated to the client.
v The /tftpboot/Client.info file is created on the boot server (which is the SPOT server). This file
contains information that will be needed by the client during the start-up configuration
processing to successfully configure as a diskless or dataless client.
The following are some of the variables defined in the Client.info file:
export
export
export
export
Network Boot of the Client
NIM_CONFIGURATION=diskless
RC_CONFIG=rc.dd_boot
ROOT=Host:Client_Root_Directory
SPOT=Host:SPOT_Location
The paging location is set in the client’s root directory in the /etc/swapspaces file.
The client machine is booted over the network using standard bootp procedures for the machine
type. The client obtains the boot image and begins running a mini-kernel in a file system in RAM.
The client tftp’s the Client.info file from the /tftpboot directory on the SPOT server. The
information in the Client.info file is used to properly configure the client as a diskless or dataless
machine.
The remote file systems are mounted from the resource servers.
If the client is a dataless client, and no paging, tmp, home, or shared_home resource is allocated,
then the client will create the missing file system on the local hard disk.
Managing software on diskless and dataless clients:
The /usr and root file systems of diskless and dataless clients are resources that have been mounted from
a server. Therefore, in order to install or uninstall software on a diskless or dataless client, the processing
must actually occur on the resources that the clients use.
The SPOT contains the directory structure for an installed /usr file system. It also contains subdirectories
for the ″root″ parts of installed filesets. Because the SPOT contains both usr and root files, software
maintenance must be performed on the SPOT in order to update the software that is running on the
clients. Such actions must be performed using the NIM cust and maint operations. For more information
about the cust and maint operations, see “NIM operations” on page 190.
If the SPOT is currently allocated for client use, NIM will prevent software customization operations
from being performed on it. This is to safeguard the SPOT from changes that may adversely affect
running client machines. However, this restriction can be overridden by specifying the force option when
performing the operation.
When NIM is used to install software in a SPOT, the following operations are performed to manage the
software for diskless and dataless clients:
1. The /usr files are installed in the SPOT. These files are automatically seen by all the clients that
mount the SPOT as their /usr file systems.
2. The root files are installed in special subdirectories in the SPOT.
3. After all the filesets have been installed in the SPOT, the root files are copied to the root directories of
any diskless or dataless clients that have been initialized with the SPOT.
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When NIM is used to uninstall software in a SPOT, the following operations are performed to manage
the software for diskless and dataless clients:
1. The /usr files are removed from the SPOT. This also automatically ″removes″ the files from the client
systems.
2. The root files of the software are removed from the client root directories.
NIM also provides a sync_roots operation to perform consistency verification and correction to ensure the
client root directories match the root parts stored in the SPOT.
Establishing NIM networks
When the NIM master is configured, the network associated with the master is automatically defined in
the NIM environment. It is necessary only to define additional NIM networks if clients reside on other
local area networks or subnets.
In order to perform certain NIM operations, the NIM master must be able to supply information
necessary to configure client network interfaces. The NIM master must also be able to verify that client
machines can access all the resources required to support operations. To avoid the overhead of repeatedly
specifying network information for each individual client, NIM networks are used to represent the
networks in a NIM environment. When NIM clients are defined, the associated network for the client
must be specified. During NIM operations, the NIM master is able to use information from the client’s
network definition when necessary.
Supported NIM network types
You can use these network types to support NIM.
v Ethernet
v Standard Ethernet
v IEEE 802.3 Ethernet
v Token-Ring
v FDDI
v ATM
v Generic
Network boot support is provided for Ethernet, Token-Ring, and FDDI. Unlike other network adapters,
ATM adapters cannot be used to boot a machine. Therefore, installing a machine over an ATM network
requires special processing. See “Using NIM with ATM networks” on page 228. The Generic network
type is used to represent all other network types where network boot support is not available. For clients
on Generic networks, NIM operations that require a network boot, such as bos_inst and diag, are not
supported. However, nonbooting operations, such as cust and maint, are allowed. Diskless and dataless
clients cannot be associated with Generic networks, because they inherently rely on network boot
capability.
Defining NIM networks
Networks are defined in the NIM environment using the NIM define operation.
The command line syntax is as follows:
nim -o define -t NetworkType -a Attribute=Value ... MachineName
where the following attributes are required:
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169
-a net_addr=Value
-a snm=Value
-t NetworkType
Specifies the IP address of the network being defined. If the network address is not known,
see “Determining a network’s IP address.”
Specifies the subnet mask for the network.
Specifies the type of network being defined. Valid values are atm, tok, ent, fddi, and
generic.
The following attributes are optional:
-a comments=Value
-a ieee_ent=Value
-a other_net_type=Value
-a routing=Value ...
Provides comments about this network.
Specifies IEEE 802.3 Ethernet configuration. This is only valid for networks that are
defined with the ent type or those that have an other_net_type attribute set to ent.
Specifies another network type that applies to this logical network. Each NIM network
is used to represent one logical network that exists in the NIM environment. When the
network is defined, the type of network interface used in the network must be
supplied. Usually, a network is composed of only one type. However, a bridge can be
used to connect different network types together to form one logical network. In that
situation, NIM needs to know what the other network interface types are, and this
attribute is used to specify that information. For more information on how to use the
other_net_type attribute, see “Defining a heterogeneous network” on page 171.
Stores NIM routing information for a network. This attribute requires a sequence
number when specified. When a new NIM route is specified, the routing attribute
consists of three values:
Value 1
Specifies the NIM name of the destination network for this route.
Value 2
Specifies the host name of the gateway to use in order to communicate with
the destination network.
Value 3
Specifies the host name of the gateway used by the destination network to
get back to this network.
This attribute can be used to add a default route or static route. To add a default route,
specify default for Value 1. Then, specify the default gateway for the network in Value
2. Leave Value 3 blank.
-a verbose=Value
For more information on adding and changing routes, see “Defining NIM routes” on
page 171, “Establishing a default NIM route between networks” on page 259, and
“Establishing a static NIM route between networks” on page 260.
Displays information for debugging. Use verbose=5 to show maximum detail.
It is also possible to define NIM networks automatically when client machines are defined. To do this,
use the find_net and net_definition attributes when defining the client. For more information, see “NIM
machines” on page 163.
Determining a network’s IP address
NIM determines a network’s IP address by performing a bitwise ″AND″ on the binary representations of
the network’s subnet mask and the address of any machine’s IP address on the same network.
For example:
subnet mask = 255.255.254.0
client address = 129.35.58.207
In binary:
subnet mask = 11111111.11111111.11111110.00000000
client address = 10000001.00100011.00111010.11001111
network address = 10000001.00100011.00111010.00000000
In decimal:
network address = 129.35.58.0
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Defining NIM routes
NIM uses routing information internally to ensure that a client on one network can communicate with a
server on another network. It defines the gateway to use to go from one network to the other network.
NIM provides the ability to define default or static routes. Default NIM routes provide the following
advantages over static routes:
v They more closely model the network configuration of common network environments.
v They permit resources that are distributed throughout a NIM environment to be more easily accessed
by any client in the NIM environment.
To determine the gateway used by machines on a given network, run netstat -rn on a running machine
on the network to see if a default gateway is listed. You can also issue traceroute Host_Name from a
running machine on the network in question, where Host_Name is the name of the master’s primary
network interface if determining the gateway for a client, or the name of a target client if determining the
gateway used by the master. The first gateway listed is the gateway used by machines on the specified
network.
Note that NIM routes are not required if the only networks defined in a NIM environment are associated
with interfaces (if attributes) defined on the NIM master and if all resources will be defined on the
master. If resources are served by machines other than the master to clients that do not reside on the
same network as the server, NIM routes are required between those networks even if all networks are
attached to interfaces belonging to the master. In this case, the master must act as a gateway (with
IP-forwarding switched on), and the host name of the interface on the master should be used as a
gateway.
Networks with default routes may be created automatically when NIM machines are being defined.
Communications between networks go through several gateways. However, it is important to remember
that when defining NIM routes for networks, the only gateways of interest are the first ones used by the
networks to reach their destinations. Intermediate gateways between the originating and destination
networks are irrelevant for NIM routing purposes.
Defining a heterogeneous network
The NIM feature enables NIM to model networks consisting of different data-link protocol segments.
Networks consisting of different data-link protocol segments use bridges to connect two segments that
have different data link protocols. A network consisting of a Token-Ring and an Ethernet segment can be
connected to form a single logical network, as shown in the following figure.
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171
Master
Token-Ring
Segment
Ethernet
Segment
Bridge
One IP
Network
Client
Heterogeneous Network
Figure 1. Heterogeneous Network. This illustration shows a single IP network in which the master server uses its
token-ring connection and a bridge to communicate with its client on an Ethernet segment.
Because a single NIM network object is used to represent one network, the other_net_type attribute is
reserved for a different type of interface that can exist in a network. The other_net_type attribute can be
added to the definition of a network object. When present in a network definition, the other_net_type
attribute tells NIM that this logical network uses a bridge to connect the other network type to the
network type that was specified when the object was defined.
When you define a machine object to be connected to a network object, NIM checks to see if the network
has any other_net_type attributes. If so, NIM requires that the fourth field, which is usually optional, in
the if attribute, be specified. This field specifies the logical name of the client’s network adapter. The
following example defines a network object that has a bridge joining a Token-Ring and an Ethernet
segment:
nim -o define -t tok -a net_addr=129.35.129.0 \
-a snm=255.255.240.0 -a other_net_type1=ent b905net
lsnim -l b905net
class
type
net_addr
snm
other_net_type1
Nstate
prev_state
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
network
tok
129.35.128.0
255.255.240.0
ent
ready for use
information is missing from this object's def>
The other_net_type attribute requires a sequence number because a network could be composed of all
three types of interfaces linked by bridges.
When you define a client’s interface that is physically connected to an Ethernet segment joined with a
Token-Ring network using a bridge (with master being on the Token-Ring side), you must supply the
fourth field:
nim -o define -t standalone -a if1='find_net mymac 08005ac9430c \
ent' -a cable_type1=bnc mymac
Adding another network type to a NIM network
You can add a network type to a NIM network using Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or the
command line.
Adding another network type to a NIM network using Web-based System Manager:
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Follow this procedure for adding another network type to a NIM network using Web-based System
Manager.
1. In the NIM Network container, double-click on a network. The General page of the properties
notebook opens.
2. Use the General page to add a type of network to the network.
Adding another network type to a NIM network using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for adding another type of network to a NIM network using SMIT.
1. To add another network type, enter the smit nim_chnet fast path.
2. Select the network to change.
3. Specify the additional network type to be supported.
Adding another network type to a NIM network from the command line:
Follow this procedure for adding another network type to a NIM network from the command line.
To define a NIM network, enter:
nim -o change -a other_net_typeSequenceNumber=NetworkType NetworkName
For example, to change a Token-Ring network called network1 to also support Ethernet and FDDI, enter:
nim -o change -a other_net_type1=ent -a other_net_type2=fddi
network1
NIM resources
All operations on clients in the NIM environment require one or more resources.
NIM resource objects represent files and directories that are used to support some type of NIM operation.
Because NIM resources are ordinary file system objects in the AIX operating system, most of them are
provided to clients with standard Network File System (NFS) software. This means that many resources
must reside locally on the servers providing these resources, because NFS can only export file system
objects that are stored on local media in the machines from which they are exported.
A large number of resources (files and directories) are needed to support NIM software installation and
maintenance operations. Resources can be added through the Web-based System Manager New
Resources wizard.
To obtain detailed information about any resource, enter the following from the NIM master:
lsnim -Pa ResourceType
The Web-based System Manager and SMIT interfaces are designed to hide much of the detail required for
the command line interface. Therefore, these sections only document the resource task procedures for the
command line. The following information applies to the other interfaces as well, but discussion of those
interfaces is deferred to the online contextual help available for those applications.
Using the adapter_def resource
The adapter_def resource represents a directory that contains secondary adapter configuration files that
are used during bos_inst and cust operations.
The adapter_def resource directory is populated with secondary-adapter configuration files by the
nimadapters command.
Defining an adapter_def resource:
You can use the following syntax and attributes for defining an adapter_def resource.
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The command line syntax for defining an adapter_def resource is:
nim -o define -t adapter_def -a Attribute=Value ... adapter_defName
The following attributes are required for the adapter_def resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the adapter_def resource directory.
Specifies the name of the machine where the adapter_def resource directory resides. Only the
master can serve an adapter_def resource.
The following attributes are optional for the adapter_def resource:
-a comments=Value
-a group=Value
-a verbose=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Secondary adapter support is available for AIX 5.2 or later. Before you enable a secondary adapter, you
must verify the AIX version the client is on. Secondary adapter support is not available for clients at AIX
5.1 or earlier. The secondary adapters will fail to configure because NIM is unable to find the
/usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_cfgadptrs client method. The following example shows the outcome
if you attempt to enable this support on your NIM master.
nim -o cust -a adapter_def=adapter_def1 rspc10
trigger.austin.xyz.com. 0042-001 nim: processing error encountered on "master":
0042-001 m_cust: processing error encountered on "rspc10":
0042-175 c_script: An unexpected result was returned by the
"trigger.austin.xyz.com:/export/nim/scripts/rspc10.script" command:
/tmp/_nim_dir_4714/script[10]: /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_cfgadptrs: not found.
Using the boot resource
The boot resource is an internally managed NIM resource used to indicate that a boot image has been
allocated to a client.
The boot resource is automatically allocated to clients to support NIM operations requiring a network
boot. The boot resource will automatically be deallocated when the operation finishes.
Using the bosinst_data resource
With a bosinst_data resource, data can be specified in a NIM resource prior to the installation.
A bosinst_data resource represents a file that contains information for the BOS installation program.
Normally, the BOS installation program looks for this information in the /bosinst.data file in the BOS
installation image. If this file does not exist or if it does not contain all the information that the BOS
installation program requires, the program prompts for information by using a console that is local to the
target. Information must then be specified manually for the BOS installation to proceed. With a
bosinst_data resource, the data can be specified in a NIM resource prior to the installation to prevent the
need for prompting at the console.
A sample bosinst.data file (SPOT_Offset /usr/lpp/bosinst/bosinst.template) is located on the SPOT
resource server. Also, see “Performing a nonprompted BOS installation” on page 226 for a sample
bosinst_data file.
For instructions on how to create and use a bosinst_data file, see “Performing a nonprompted BOS
installation” on page 226.
Defining a bosinst_data resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining a bosinst_data resource.
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The command line syntax for defining a bosinst_data resource is:
nim -o define -t bosinst_data -a Attribute=Value ... bosinst_dataName
The following attributes are required for the bosinst_data resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the bosinst_data resource file.
Specifies the name of the machine where the bosinst_data resource file resides.
The following attributes are optional for the bosinst_data resource:
-a
-a
-a
-a
comments=Value
group=Value
verbose=Value
source=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Specifies an existing bosinst_data resource to be replicated when defining a new resource. The
file pointed to by the source resource will be copied to the new location.
Using the dump resource
A dump resource represents a directory in which client dump directories are maintained.
When a dump resource is allocated to a client, NIM creates a subdirectory for the client’s exclusive use.
This allocated subdirectory is initialized by the dkls_init or dtls_init operation, which creates an empty
file in this subdirectory. After initialization, the client uses this file to store any dump images it creates.
Note: If you subsequently deallocate this resource, NIM removes the dump file and the subdirectory that
NIM created for the client’s use.
Defining a dump resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining a dump resource.
The command line syntax for defining a dump resource is:
nim -o define -t dump -a Attribute=Value ... DumpName
The following attributes are required for the dump resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the parent directory for the client dump files.
Specifies the name of the machine where the directory for the dump resource will be created.
The following attributes are optional for the dump resource:
-a comments=Value
-a group=Value
-a verbose=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Using the exclude_files resource
This resource may be used when a mksysb resource is being created from a running NIM client.
An exclude_files resource represents a file that contains a list of files and directories that should be
excluded when creating a system backup image.
Defining an exclude_files resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining an exclude_files resource.
The command line syntax for defining an exclude_files resource is:
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175
nim -o define -t exclude_files -a Attribute=Value ... exclude_filesName
The following attributes are required for the exclude_files resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the file containing the list of files and directories to exclude from
the mksysb.
Specifies the name of the machine where the file for the exclude_files resource resides.
The following attributes are optional for the exclude_files resource:
-a
-a
-a
-a
comments=Value
group=Value
verbose=Value
source=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Specifies an existing exclude_files resource to be replicated when defining a new resource. The
file pointed to by the source resource will be copied to the new location.
Using the fb_script resource
Use an fb_script resource to provide device-configuration information.
An fb_script resource represents a file that is used to configure devices when a NIM client is booting for
the first time after the BOS installation process is completed. During BOS installation, certain
customization operations (such as device configuration) cannot be performed because they require certain
daemons to be running. However, at this point in the BOS installation process, daemons are not available.
As a result, certain devices may not be configured during system reboot, and have to be manually
configured after the system has booted.
You can use an fb_script resource to provide device-configuration information. The BOS installation
process adds the content of the fb_script resource to the /etc/firstboot file, which is run the first time
that a client is booted. The /etc/firstboot file then performs the device configuration.
Defining an fb_script resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining a fb_script resource.
The command line syntax for defining an fb_script resource is as follows:
nim -o define -t fb_script -a server=server_name \
-a location=fbscript_file_location fbscript_object_name
After the fb_script resource is defined, you can allocate the resource and initiate a BOS installation
operation using the fb_script resource, as follows:
nim -o bos_inst -a fb_script=fbscript_object_name client_name
The following attributes are required for the fb_script resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the file being defined as the fb_script resource.
Specifies the name of the machine where the file for the fb_script resource resides.
The following attributes are optional for the fb_script resource:
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
-a comments=Value
-a source=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies an existing fb_script resource to be replicated when defining a new resource. The file
pointed to by the source resource will be copied to the new location.
Using a fix_bundle resource
A fix_bundle resource represents a file containing fix keywords to be used by the instfix command,
which is called by the NIM cust and fix_query operations.
NIM mounts the fix_bundle resource on the client so it can be used by the local instfix command. NIM
automatically unmounts the resource when the operation has completed.
A fix can include either a single fileset update or multiple fileset updates that are related in some way;
fixes are identified by unique keywords. When a fix is identified with an Authorized Program Analysis
Report (APAR) number, it includes all the fileset updates that are necessary to fix the reported software
problem identified by that number.
Defining a fix_bundle resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining a fix_bundle resource.
The command line syntax for defining a fix_bundle resource is:
nim -o define -t fix_bundle -a Attribute=Value ... fix_bundleName
The following attributes are required for the fix_bundle resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the file containing the list of fixes to manage.
Specifies the name of the machine where the fix_bundle resource file resides.
The following attributes are optional for the fix_bundle resource:
-a
-a
-a
-a
comments=Value
group=Value
verbose=Value
source=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Specifies an existing fix_bundle resource to be replicated when defining a new resource. The file
pointed to by the source resource will be copied to the new location.
Using a home resource
A home resource represents a directory in which client /home directories are maintained.
When home resource is allocated to a client, NIM creates a subdirectory for the client’s exclusive use.
This allocated subdirectory is subsequently initialized when you perform the dkls_init or dtls_init
operation. After initialization, any time the client performs a network boot, the client NFS mounts this
subdirectory over /home to gain access to the home directory that has been set up for its use. This
subdirectory remains mounted over /home on the client as long as the client is running.
Note: Whenever this resource is deallocated, NIM removes the subdirectory that was created for the
client’s use. Therefore, back up any files you want to save in the client’s subdirectory before you
deallocate a resource of this type.
Defining a home resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining a home resource.
The command line syntax for defining a home resource is:
nim -o define -t home -a Attribute=Value ... HomeName
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177
The following attributes are required for the home resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the parent directory for the client /home directories.
Specifies the name of the machine where the directory for the home resource will be created.
The following attributes are optional for the home resource:
-a comments=Value
-a group=Value
-a verbose=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Using an image_data resource
An image_data resource represents a file that contains information for the BOS installation program. This
information describes how physical disks and file systems should be configured in the root volume group
during installation.
Normally, the BOS installation program determines default values that should be used, or uses an
image.data file from a mksysb being restored. Use a customized image_data resource only in special
cases.
A sample image.data file (SPOT_Offset/usr/lpp/bosinst/image.template) is located on the SPOT resource
server. For more information about the image.data file, see the AIX 5L Version 5.3 Files Reference.
Defining an image_data resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining an image_data resource.
The command line syntax for defining an image_data resource is:
nim -o define -t image_data -a Attribute=Value ... image_dataName
The following attributes are required for the image.data resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the image_data resource file.
Specifies the name of the machine where the image_data resource file resides.
The following attributes are optional for the image.data resource:
-a
-a
-a
-a
comments=Value
group=Value
verbose=Value
source=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Specifies an existing image_data resource to be replicated when defining a new resource. The file
pointed to by the source resource will be copied to the new location.
Using an installp_bundle resource
An installp_bundle resource represents a file that contains the names of filesets that should be managed
by NIM.
During an installation or maintenance operation, NIM mounts the installp_bundle file on the client
machine so it can be used by the local installp command. NIM automatically unmounts the resource
from the client when the operation has completed.
Defining an installp_bundle resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining an installp_bundle resource.
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The command line syntax for defining an installp_bundle resource is:
nim -o define -t installp_bundle -a Attribute=Value ... installp_bundleName
The following attributes are required for the installp_bundle resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the file containing the list of software to manage.
Specifies the name of the machine where the installp_bundle resource file resides.
The following attributes are optional for the installp_bundle resource:
-a
-a
-a
-a
comments=Value
group=Value
verbose=Value
source=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Specifies an existing installp_bundle resource to be replicated when defining a new resource. The
file pointed to by the source resource will be copied to the new location.
Using an lpp_source resource
An lpp_source resource represents a directory in which software installation images are stored.
If the lpp_source contains the minimum set of support images required to install a machine, it is given
the simages attribute and can be used for BOS installation (bos_inst) operations. If an lpp_source does
not contain enough software to be an simages lpp_source, then it can only be used in NIM cust
operations to install software on running machines and SPOTs.
The recommended types of NIM lpp_source resources are as follows:
v A complete (simages=yes) NIM lpp_source resource that contains AIX base-installation file sets
(generated from AIX base-installation media) that are capable of installing the AIX operating system on
an AIX machine.
v An update lpp_source resource that contains only technology-level or service-pack updates (such as
those on AIX update media or available for downloading from an IBM service site).
v An application lpp_source resource that contains additional application software (to be installed after a
base operating system installation).
If you combine these images into one lpp_source resource, use the lppmgr command to remove
superseded or duplicate images.
Note: Do not combine an lpp_source resource that was created from a technology-level base media with
images from the same technology-level update media.
NIM uses an lpp_source for an installation operation by first mounting the lpp_source on the client
machine. The installp commands are then started on the client using the mounted lpp_source as the
source for installation images. When the installation operation has completed, NIM automatically
unmounts the resource.
In addition to providing images to install machines, lpp_source resources can also be used to create and
update SPOT resources.
The minimum set of images required for an lpp_source to have the simages attribute in AIX 5.2 and later
are:
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179
POWER-based
Itanium-based
bos
bos
bos.64bit (if AIX 4.3 or later)
N/A
bos.rte.up (if AIX 4.1)
N/A
bos.rte.mp (if AIX 4.1)
N/A
bos.up (if AIX 4.2 or later)
N/A
bos.mp (if AIX 4.2 or later)
bos.mp
bos.net
bos.net
bos.diag
bos.diag
bos.sysmgt
bos.sysmgt
bos.terminfo
bos.terminfo
bos.terminfo.data
bos.terminfo.data
devices.base
devices.ia64.base
devices.buc
N/A
devices.common
devices.common
devices.graphics
devices.graphics
devices.mca
devices.pci
devices.rs6ksmp.base
N/A
devices.scsi
devices.scsi
N/A
devices.ide
devices.sio
devices.isa_sio
devices.sys
N/A
devices.tty
devices.tty
xlC.rte
xlC.rte
Note: When copying device images to a directory that you plan to define as an lpp_source, be sure to
copy all the device images for a given type of device. For example:
cp /cdfs/usr/sys/inst.images/devices.pci.*
lpp_source_directory
You can define an lpp_source in several ways:
v If a directory containing installation images already exists, it can be directly defined as an lpp_source
resource.
v If a directory should be created and populated by NIM with the default set of support images for a
BOS install, use the source attribute when defining the resource. This attribute specifies the name of
the device that contains the installation images. NIM copies the software images from this device into
the location specified for the lpp_source. The images copied will include those from the simages list,
all available device support, and some additional software that is typically installed as well (for
example, X11).
v If an lpp_source should be created from a source device using a list of software other than the default
set of images, specify the packages attribute when defining the lpp_source. Use the packages attribute
to list the alternative set of software images to copy.
The size of an lpp_source may vary greatly with the amount of software it includes. A minimum
lpp_source with just enough software to qualify for the simages attribute may be under 100 MB, but a
default lpp_source created from a CD-ROM may be over 350 MB. It is recommended that a separate file
system be created to contain an lpp_source so the space can be more easily managed. By default, NIM
automatically expands a file system as needed when creating an lpp_source and copying images from a
source device.
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Beginning in AIX 5.2, the simages message displays only if the user is creating an lpp_source resource
with the default installation packages. The simages message will display if the simages attribute could
not be set for the lpp_source. If a user creates an lpp_source and specifies a list of packages, the simages
message is not printed. The simages attribute is set correctly, whether or not a simages message is
printed or not.
If a user attempts to do an rte BOS installation with an lpp_source that does not have the simages
attribute, the user receives an error. The error message instructs the user to run nim -o check on the
lpp_source to determine the missing packages needed for an rte BOS installation. Whenever a user runs
nim -o check on an lpp_source after it has been created, the simages message is printed if the
lpp_source does not contain all the images needed for a rte BOS installation.
Defining an lpp_source resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining a lpp_source resource.
The command line syntax for defining an lpp_source resource is:
nim -o define -t lpp_source -a Attribute=Value ... lpp_sourceName
The following attributes are required for the lpp_source resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the directory that will contain the installation images.
Specifies the name of the machine where the lpp_source is to be created.
The following attributes are optional for the lpp_source resource:
-a comments=Value
-a group=Value
-a multi_volume=Value
-a packages=Value
-a show_progress=Value
-a source=Value
-a verbose=Value
Describes the lpp_source.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Specifies whether the user should be prompted to insert a second CD into the CD-ROM
drive when creating an lpp_source with /dev/cd* as its source. This attributes’s default
value is no. If the attribute is set to yes, and the server of the resource is not the master,
a warning is displayed, and a single-volume lpp_source is created.
Specifies a list of filesets to copy into the lpp_source if the default list of images is not
desired.
Enables display of informational output when an lpp_source is created. The default
value for this attribute is yes. This attribute is only available in AIX 5.3 or later. If the
show_progess attribute is set to yes, and the server attribute is set to another machine
with an earlier version of the bos.sysmgt.nim.client fileset, a warning is displayed
indicating that informational output can not be enabled.
Identifies the source device for copying installation images when defining the
lpp_source. This attribute is not required if the location of the lpp_source already
contains installation images.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
If a migration installation will be performed on NIM client machines, the lpp_source used in the
operation must contain all the required software to migrate the machine.
If the directory specified in the location attribute does not exist, NIM will create the directory. NIM will
also remove the directory and its contents if the lpp_source is later removed.
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power
POWER-based architecture (used for platforms of the type rs6k, rspc, and chrp)
ia64
Itanium-based architecture (used for platform of type ia64)
Using a mksysb resource
A mksysb resource represents a file that is a system backup image created using the mksysb command.
This type of resource can be used as the source for the installation of a client.
The mksysb image must reside on the hard disk of a machine in the NIM environment in order to be
defined as a resource. It cannot be located on a tape or other external media.
A mksysb resource can be defined from an image that already exists on the hard disk of the NIM master
or any NIM client. If such an image does not exist, it can be created when the resource is defined. To
create the image when the resource is defined, specify the name of the NIM client that will be the source
for the backup, and set the mk_image attribute to yes in the command to define the mksysb resource.
Use an exclude_files resource to list any files and directories that should not be included in the backup
image.
Defining a mksysb resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax, flags, and attributes for defining a mksysb resource.
The command line syntax for defining a mksysb resource is:
nim -o define -t mksysb -a Attribute=Value ... mksysbName
The following flags are valid for the mksysb resource:
v -a
v -i
v
v
v
v
v
-m
-e
-b
-X
-p
For descriptions of these flags, see the nim command.
The following attributes are required for the mksysb resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the mksysb image.
Specifies the name of the machine where the mksysb image resides or is to be created.
The following attributes are optional for the mksysb resource:
-a comments=Value
-a exclude_files=Value
-a group=Value
-a mk_image=Value
-a
-a
-a
-a
mksysb_flags=Value
size_preview=Value
source=Value
verbose=Value
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Describes the mksysb.
Specifies an exclude_files resource to use to exclude files and directories from the
system backup.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Specifies the flag to use to create a mksysb image from a machine in the NIM
environment.
Specifies the flags to use to tell the command how to create the backup.
Specifies the flag to verify that space is available before creating a mksysb image.
Specifies the name of the machine to be backed up in the mksysb image.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Specifies the name of the machine to be backed up in the mksysb image if the
mk_image attribute is specified. If the mk_image attribute is not specified, this value
specifies an existing mksysb resource to be replicated when defining a new mksysb
resource. The file pointed to by the source resource will be copied to the new location.
-a source=Value
Using the nim_script resource
The nim_script resource is an internally-managed NIM resource used to indicate that a script should be
run by NIM as part of a NIM operation.
The nim_script resource is automatically allocated to support some NIM operations, and it is
automatically deallocated when the operations complete.
Depending on the operation, NIM will use the following rules to determine which NIM server to place
the nim_script resource on:
v For a bos_inst operation, the nim_script resource will be placed on the SPOT server.
v For cust operation with an lpp_source, the nim_script resource will be placed on the lpp_source
server.
v For a cust operation without an lpp_source, the nim_script resource will be placed on the script server.
v Otherwise, the nim_script resource will be placed on the NIM master.
Using a paging resource
A paging resource represents a directory where client paging files are maintained.
When this type of resource is allocated to a client, NIM creates a subdirectory for the client’s exclusive
use. This allocated subdirectory is initialized by the dkls_init or dtls_init operation, which creates a file
in this subdirectory that the client configures as a paging device when it performs a network boot. By
default, 32 MB are reserved for this file. A different value can be specified using the size flag when the
dkls_init or dtls_init operation is performed.
After this resource has been initialized for a client, it is configured as a paging device by the client each
time the client performs a network boot.
Note: If you subsequently deallocate this resource, NIM removes the paging file and the subdirectory it
created for the client’s use.
Defining a paging resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining a paging resource.
The command line syntax for defining a paging resource is:
nim -o define -t paging -a Attribute=Value ... PagingName
The following attributes are required for the paging resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the parent directory for the client paging files.
Specifies the name of the machine where the directory for the paging resource will be created.
The following attributes are optional for the paging resource:
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-a comments=Value
-a group=Value
-a verbose=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Using a resolv_conf resource
A resolv_conf resource represents a file containing valid /etc/resolv.conf entries that define Domain Name
Protocol name-server information for local resolver routines.
A resolv_conf resource can be allocated to a standalone machine as part of a bos_inst operation, or to a
diskless or dataless machine as part of a dkls_init or dtls_init operation. Upon successful installation and
reboot, the machine will be configured to use the domain name services defined by the resource.
The following are sample entries in a resolv_conf resource file:
nameserver
domain
129.35.143.253
test.ibm.com
Defining a resolv_conf resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining a resolv_conf resource.
The command line syntax for defining a resolv_conf resource is:
nim -o define -t resolv_conf -a Attribute= ... resolv_confName
The following attributes are required for the resolv_conf resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the file containing the information for domain name server (DNS)
name resolution.
Specifies the name of the machine where the resolv_conf resource file resides.
The following attributes are optional for the resolv_conf resource:
-a
-a
-a
-a
comments=Value
group=Value
verbose=Value
source=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Specifies an existing resolv_conf resource to be replicated when defining a new resource. The file
pointed to by the source resource will be copied to the new location.
Using a root resource
A root resource represents a directory in which client root directories are maintained.
When a root resource is allocated to a diskless or a dataless client, NIM creates a subdirectory for the
client’s exclusive use. This allocated subdirectory is subsequently initialized when you perform the
dkls_init or dtls_init operation.
After initialization, anytime the client performs a network boot, the client NFS mounts this subdirectory
over ″/″ to gain access to the root directory that has been set up for its use. This subdirectory remains
mounted over / on the client as long as the client is running.
Note: Whenever this resource is deallocated, NIM removes the subdirectory that was created for the
client’s use. Therefore, any files you want to save in the client’s subdirectory should be backed up before
you deallocate a resource of this type.
Defining a root resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax for defining a root resource.
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The command line syntax and attributes for defining a root resource is:
nim -o define -t root -a Attribute=Value ... RootName
The following attributes are required for the root resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the directory under which client root directories will be created.
Specifies the name of the machine where the directory for the root resource will be created.
The following attributes are optional for the root resource:
-a comments=Value
-a group=Value
-a verbose=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Using a script resource
A script resource represents a file that is a user-defined shell script. After it is defined, this type of
resource can be used to perform processing on a client as part of a NIM cust or bos_inst operation.
The script resources are always run by NIM after software installation is performed in cust or bos_inst
operations. This allows the scripts to perform configuration processing on the client after all the software
is installed. Multiple script resources can be allocated for client use, but the order in which the scripts
will be run is not predictable.
Note: The script resources must not point to files that reside in the /export/nim/scripts directory. This
directory is used for the nim_script resource that is managed by NIM. NFS restrictions prevent defining
multiple resources in the same location.
Defining a script resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining a script resource.
The command line syntax for defining a script resource is:
nim -o define -t script -a Attribute=Value ... ScriptName
The following attributes are required for the script resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the script resource file.
Specifies the name of the machine where the script resource file resides.
The following attributes are optional for the script resource:
-a
-a
-a
-a
comments=Value
group=Value
verbose=Value
source=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Specifies an existing script resource to be replicated when defining a new resource. The file
pointed to by the source resource will be copied to the new location.
Using a shared_home resource
A shared_home resource represents a directory that can be used as a common /home directory by one or
more clients
When a shared_home resource is allocated to a client, and when the dkls_init or dtls_init operation is
performed, NIM configures the client’s configuration to use this common directory. After initialization,
anytime the client performs a network boot, the client NFS mounts this common directory over its /home
directory. This common directory remains mounted as long as the client is running.
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Note: Whenever this resource is deallocated, NIM changes only the client’s configuration, so the client no
longer uses this directory. NIM does not remove the common directory.
Defining a shared_home resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining a shared_home resource.
The command line syntax for defining a shared_home resource is:
nim -o define -t shared_home -a Attribute=Value ... shared_homeName
The following attributes are required for the shared_home resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the directory to be used as a common /home directory among
clients.
Specifies the name of the machine where the directory for the shared_home resource will be
created.
The following attributes are optional for the shared_home resource:
-a comments=Value
-a group=Value
-a verbose=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Using the SPOT (Shared Product Object Tree) resource
The SPOT (Shared Product Object Tree ) is a fundamental resource in the NIM environment. It is
required to install or initialize all types of machine configurations.
A SPOT provides a /usr file system for diskless and dataless clients, as well as the network boot support
for all clients.
Everything that a machine requires in a /usr file system, such as the AIX kernel, executable commands,
libraries, and applications are included in the SPOT. Machine-unique information or user data is usually
stored in the other file systems. A SPOT can be located on any standalone machine within the NIM
environment, including the master. The SPOT is created, controlled, and maintained from the master,
even though the SPOT can be located on another system.
You can create a SPOT by converting the /usr file system (/usr SPOT, or you can locate the SPOT
elsewhere within the file system (non-/usr SPOT) on the server.
The /usr SPOT inherits all the optional software that is already installed on the server. All the clients
using the /usr SPOT have access to the optional software installed on the server. The non-/usr SPOT can
be used to manage a different group of optional software than those that are installed and licensed for
the server.
Creating a SPOT by converting the /usr file system has the advantage of being fast and using much less
disk space. However, this method does not give you the flexibility to choose which software packages
will be included in the SPOT, because all the packages and filesets installed in the /usr file system of the
machine serving the SPOT will be included in the SPOT. The second method, creating a non-/usr SPOT,
uses more disk space, but it is more flexible. Initially, only the minimum set of software packages
required to support NIM clients is installed in the SPOT, but additional packages and filesets can be
installed. Also, it is possible to have multiple SPOTs, all with different additional packages and filesets
installed, serving different clients.
Note: Do not create a non-/usr SPOT in a subdirectory of the /usr file system.
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A SPOT varies in size from 100 MB up to, and sometimes in excess of, 300 MB depending on the
software that is installed. Because all device support is installed in the SPOT and the number of device
filesets typically increases, the size is not easily predictable from one release of AIX to another.
SPOTs are used to support all NIM operations that require a machine to boot over the network. These
operations are as follows:
v
v
v
v
v
bos_inst
maint_boot
diag
dkls_init
dtls_init
When a SPOT is created, network boot images are constructed in the /tftpboot directory of the SPOT
server, using code from the newly created SPOT. When a client performs a network boot, it uses tftp to
obtain a boot image from the server. After the boot image is loaded into memory at the client, the SPOT
is mounted in the client’s RAM file system to provide all additional software support required to
complete the operation.
Each boot image created is up to 12 MB in size. Before creating a SPOT, ensure there is sufficient space
in the root (/) file system, or create a separate file system for /tftpboot to manage the space required for
the network boot images.
The Micro Channel-based systems support booting from the network using Token-Ring, Ethernet, or
FDDI. The POWER-based PCI bus-based systems support booting from the network using Token-Ring or
Ethernet. The uniprocessor MCA and PCI bus-based systems can be used in a diskless or dataless
configuration.
A single network boot image can be accessed by multiple clients; therefore, the network boot image
cannot contain any client-specific configuration information. The platform type is specified when the
machine object is defined, while the network type is determined from the primary interface definition.
Two files are created in the /tftpboot directory on the SPOT server for each client to be network-booted:
ClientHostName and ClientHostName.info. The ClientHostName file is a link to the correct network boot
image, while the ClientHostName.info file contains the client configuration information.
When the SPOT is defined (and created), the following occurs:
v The BOS image is retrieved from archive or, for /usr conversion, just the root directory is retrieved
from archive (/usr/lpp/bos/inst_root).
v The device support required to support NIM operations is installed.
v Network boot images are created in the /tftpboot directory.
To list the software installed in a SPOT, enter the following command:
nim -o lslpp SPOTName
If you want to change your /usr SPOT back to a normal /usr file system, you must remove the SPOT
from the NIM database.
For information about software installation and maintenance tasks you can perform on a SPOT, see
“Customizing NIM clients and SPOT resources” on page 230.
Using network boot images for AIX 4.2 SPOTs:
Each network boot image supports a single network, platform, and kernel type. The network boot image
files are named SPOTName.Platform.Kernel.Network. The network types are Token-Ring, Ethernet, and
FDDI.
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The platform types are:
rs6k (AIX 5.1 and
earlier)
rspc (AIX 5.1 and
earlier)
chrp
Used for POWER family/POWER family2/P2SC/POWER-based MCA bus-based machines.
Used for POWER-based Reference Platform (PREP) Architecture-based machines.
Used for POWER-based Common Hardware Reference Platform (CHRP) Architecture-based machines.
The rs6ksmp platform for AIX 4.2 (and later) SPOTs is represented by the boot image with a platform
type of rs6k and a kernel type of mp.
The kernel types are:
Used for single processor machines.
Used for multiple processor machines.
up
mp
Both up and mp boot images are created for each platform and network type. The network boot images
located in /tftpboot for a SPOT named 42spot look similar to the following:
42spot.rs6k.mp.ent
42spot.rs6k.mp.fddi
42spot.rs6k.mp.tok
42spot.rs6k.up.ent
42spot.rs6k.up.fddi
42spot.rs6k.up.tok
42spot.rspc.mp.ent
42spot.rspc.mp.tok
42spot.rspc.up.ent
42spot.rspc.up.tok
The amount of space used in the /tftpboot directory for boot images may become very large. An AIX
4.2.1 (or later) SPOT that supports network boot for all possible combinations of platforms, kernel types,
and network adapters may require as much as 60 MB in /tftpboot. If the same server serves multiple
SPOTs, the space required in /tftpboot will be even more because each SPOT creates its own set of boot
images.
Using network boot images for AIX 4.3 or later SPOTs:
You can use network boot images for AIX 4.3 or later to reduce the amount of disk space used and the
time required to create boot images from SPOT resources.
In AIX 4.3 or later, by default NIM only creates the boot images required to support the machines and
network types that are defined in the environment. This situation should significantly reduce the amount
of disk space used, and the time required to create boot images from SPOT resources.
Note: Due to kernel changes, AIX 5.2 or later, does not provide NIM support to create or use AIX 4.2 or
earlier SPOTs.
In AIX 5.3 with 5300-03 or later, to create SPOT resources for AIX 4.3.3, the environment variable
INST_DEBUG must be set as shown:
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export INST_DEBUG=yes
If the INST_DEBUG variable is not set, NIM cannot create SPOT resources for AIX 4.3.3.
Defining a SPOT resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining a SPOT resource.
The command line syntax for defining a SPOT resource is:
nim -o define -t spot -a Attribute=Value ... SPOTName
The following attributes are required for the SPOT resource:
-a location=Value
-a server=Value
-a source=Value
Specifies the parent directory under which the SPOT is to be created.
Specifies the name of the machine where the SPOT is to be created.
Identifies the source device for installation images to create and install the SPOT.
The following attributes are optional for the SPOT resource:
-a auto_expand=Value
-a comments=Value
-a debug=Value
-a installp_flags=Value
-a show_progress=Value
-a verbose=Value
Expands the file system as needed when installing the SPOT. The default value is
yes.
Describes the SPOT.
Builds debug-enabled network boot images. The default value is no.
Specifies the flags that describe how installp should install software into the SPOT.
The default value is agQX.
Shows installp output as SPOT is installed. The default value is yes.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Note: The creation of a SPOT, by default, produces a large amount of output. Be sure to scan the output
to look for nonfatal errors and warnings that may not be evident from a successful return code.
Using a tmp resource
A tmp resource represents a directory where client /tmp files are maintained.
When this type of resource is allocated to a client, NIM creates a subdirectory for the client’s exclusive
use. This allocated subdirectory is subsequently initialized when you perform the dkls_init or dtls_init
operation. After initialization, anytime the client performs a network boot, the client NFS mounts this
subdirectory over /tmp to gain access to the /tmp directory that has been set up for its use. This
subdirectory remains mounted over /tmp on the client as long as the client is running.
Note: Whenever this resource is deallocated, NIM removes the subdirectory that was created for the
client’s use. Therefore, back up any files you want to save in the client’s subdirectory before you
deallocate a resource of this type.
Defining a tmp resource:
You can use the following command-line syntax and attributes for defining a tmp resource.
The command line syntax for defining a tmp resource is:
nim -o define -t tmp -a Attribute=Value ... TmpName
The following attributes are required for the tmp resource:
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-a location=Value
-a server=Value
Specifies the full path name of the directory where client/tmp directories will be created.
Specifies the name of the machine where the directory for the tmp resource will be created.
The following attributes are optional for the tmp resource:
-a comments=Value
-a group=Value
-a verbose=Value
Describes the resource.
Specifies the name of a resource group to which this resource should be added.
Displays information for debugging. To show maximum detail, specify a value of 5.
Distributing NIM resources
Usually, a NIM administrator will use the NIM master as the server for all resources. This strategy keeps
all resources together on one machine. However, there are several reasons to distribute resources onto
client machines.
v If the NIM environment requires several large resources to be defined, it may not be possible to put
them all on the same server because of disk space limitations. Creating resources on different machines
allows the burden of disk consumption to be distributed over several machines.
v Serving resources from different machines helps avoid bottlenecks when performing NIM operations
on large numbers of clients. Bottlenecks can occur on server machines or on network gateways, so it
may be beneficial to distribute resources across servers running in different subnets.
v Multiple resources of the same type can be created on different machines to increase the availability of
resources when servers are taken offline for scheduled maintenance.
v Some SPOT resources at certain levels cannot be served by some machines at certain levels.
Specifically, SPOT creation is not supported when the level of AIX installed in the SPOT is higher than
the level of AIX running on the server. When you are creating SPOTs at multiple levels, it may be
necessary to distribute the SPOTs on different servers.
Distributing resources on different machines in the NIM environment is simply a matter of specifying the
correct server information when the resource is defined. After the resources are created, they are used no
differently than resources defined on the master.
NIM operations
A large number of operations can be performed to manage a NIM environment and perform software
installation and maintenance.
The Web-based System Manager and SMIT interfaces are designed to hide much of the detail required for
the command line interface. Therefore, this section only documents the operations for the command line.
All of this information applies to the other interfaces as well, but discussion of those interfaces is deferred
to the online contextual help available for those applications.
Most NIM operations are performed by running the nim command with various attributes for each
possible operation. The command line syntax is as follows:
nim -o OperationName -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName |TargetNames
Using the NIM allocate operation
Use the allocate operation to make resources available to NIM clients for subsequent operations.
The command line syntax for the allocate operation is as follows:
nim -o allocate -a ResourceType=ResourceName ... TargetName|TargetNames
The target of an allocate operation may be a NIM client or group of NIM clients.
The following attribute can be specified for the allocate operation:
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-a ResourceType=ResourceName (required)
Specifies the resource to allocate to the client, for example,
lpp_source=42_images.
When a resource is allocated to a client, an entry is added to the /etc/exports file on the resource server
to NFS export the resource to the client. The allocation count for the resource is also incremented. When
the allocation count is greater than 0, the resource cannot be modified. During NIM operations, a client
mounts and uses the resources that have been allocated to it.
Using the NIM alt_disk_install operation
You can use the alt_disk_install operation (available in AIX 4.3 or later) to install a mksysb image on a
client system alternate disk or disks or to clone a client running rootvg to an alternate disk.
The command line syntax for the alt_disk_install mksysb operation is as follows:
nim -o alt_disk_install -a source=mksysb -a mksysb=mksysb_resource \
-a disk=target_disk(s) -a attribute=Value.... TargetName |TargetNames
The command line syntax for the alt_disk_install rootvg clone operation is as follows:
nim -o alt_disk_install -a source=rootvg -a disk=target_disk(s) \
-a attribute=Value.... TargetName |TargetNames
The target of an alt_disk_install operation can be a standalone NIM client or a group of standalone NIM
clients. The clients must also have the bos.alt_disk_install.rte fileset installed.
To display the alternate disk installation status while the installation is progressing, enter the following
command on the master:
lsnim -a info -a Cstate ClientName
OR
lsnim -l ClientName
The following are required attributes for alt_disk_install mksysb operation:
-a source=mksysb
-a disk=target_disk(s)
-a mksysb=mksysb_resource
Specifies the type of alt_disk_install to perform.
Specifies the disks on the client system that the mksysb image will be restored. This disk or
these disks must not currently contain any volume group definition. The lspv command
should show these disks as belonging to volume group None. If you are specifying more
than one disk, the disk names must be enclosed in a set of single quotes; for example,
'hdisk2 hdisk3'.
Specifies the mksysb resource to use.
The following are required attributes for the alt_disk_install rootvg clone operation:
-a source=rootvg
-a disk=target_disk(s)
Specifies the type of alt_disk_install to perform.
Specifies the disks on the client system that the mksysb image will be restored. This disk or these
disks must not currently contain any volume group definition. The lspv command shows these
disks as belonging to volume group None. If you are specifying more than one disk, the disk
names must be enclosed in a set of single quotes; for example, 'hdisk2 hdisk3'.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for both alt_disk_install mksysb and the
alt_disk_install rootvg clone operation:
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-a concurrent=Value
-a set_bootlist=Value
-a boot_client=Value
-a debug=Value
-a image_data=Value
-a resolv_conf=Value
-a script=Value
-a time_limit=Value,
-a verbose=Value
Specifies the maximum number of machines from the selected group that should be installing at
any given time. This attribute is only valid when the target of the operation is a machine group.
If specified, NIM will monitor the progress of all machines in the group and attempt to keep no
more or less than the number specified installing until all machines in the group are installed.
Specifies whether to set the bootlist to point to the new rootvg when the install is complete. Value
can be yes or no, where yes is the default value. The next time the system is rebooted, it will boot
from the newly installed alternate disk if Value is set to yes.
Specifies whether to reboot the client when the alt_disk_install operation is completed. Value can
be yes or no, where no is the default value. This attribute would normally be set only if the
set_bootlist attribute was also set to yes.
Specifies whether to print debug (set -x) output from the alt_disk_install script. Value can be yes
or no, where no is the default value. This output does not go to the screen, but is saved to the
NIM log, /var/adm/ras/nim.alt_disk_install, on the client system. This file can be checked after
the alt_disk_install has completed.
Specifies the image_data resource to use when creating the new alternate rootvg and its logical
volumes and file systems. The new volume group created must be large enough to restore the
mksysb image or a copy of the running rootvg. An exclude_files attribute can also be used with
an alt_disk_install rootvg clone to specify files or directories that should not be backed up.
Specifies the resolv_conf resource to use for configuring the domain and name resolution on the
client system when the system is rebooted. This is the /etc/resolv_conf file that will be copied into
the alternate disk’s file system. This may be useful if the mksysb image you are using has a
different /etc/resolv_conf file than the one you want the client to retain.
Specifies the script resource to call at the end of the alt_disk_install operation. This script is
called on the running system before the /alt_inst file systems are unmounted, so files can be
copied from the running system to the /alt_inst file systems before the reboot. This is the only
opportunity to copy or modify files in the alternate file system because the logical volume names
will be changed to match those of rootvg, and they will not be accessible until the system is
rebooted with the new alternate rootvg.
Specifies the maximum number of hours that should elapse before ceasing to initiate installation
of additional members of the selected group of machines. This value can only be specified when
limiting the number of concurrent operations on a group.
Specifies whether to show files as they are being backed up for a rootvg clone, or to show files as
they are being restored for a mksysb install. Value can be yes or no, where no is the default value.
The output goes to the alt_disk_install log on the client, /var/adm/ras/alt_disk_inst.log.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified only for the alt_disk_install rootvg clone
operation:
-a exclude_files=Value
-a filesets=Value
-a fixes=Value
-a fix_bundle=Value
-a installp_bundle=Value
-a installp_flags=Value
Specifies an exclude_files resource to use to exclude files and directories from the rootvg. Files
and directories specified in this file will not be copied to the new cloned rootvg.
Specifies the list of filesets to install into the alternate rootvg after the clone of the rootvg is
complete.
Specifies the APARs to install into the alternate rootvg after the clone of the running rootvg. The
fixes are in the format ″IX123456″ or ″update_all″.
Specifies the fix_bundle resource that lists the APARs to install into the alternate rootvg after the
clone of the running rootvg.
Specifies an installp_bundle resource that lists filesets to install into the alternate rootvg after the
clone of the running rootvg.
Tells installp how to apply the filesets, installp_bundle, fixes, or fix_bundles attributes. The
default value is installp_flags=-acgX.
Using the NIM bos_inst operation
Use the bos_inst operation to install the AIX BOS on standalone clients.
The command line syntax for the bos_inst operation is as follows:
nim -o bos_inst -a source=Value -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName|TargetNames
The target of a bos_inst operation can be a standalone NIM client or a group of standalone NIM clients.
The following NIM resources are required attributes that can be specified for the bos_inst operation to
install and customize a machine:
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-a lpp_source=Value
Identifies the lpp_source resource to be used. The lpp_source resource is only required for an rte
installation. The lpp_source resource specified must have the simages attribute set. However, if
you are performing a bos_inst operation using a mksysb resource and an lpp_source resource,
then the simages attribute is optional. The lpp_source provides software for machine
customization. It also provides the BOS image for installation if the source attribute is rte.
-a source=Value
Identifies the source for BOS run-time files. Valid values are:
rte
Installs from a BOS image in the lpp_source.
mksysb
Installs the machine from a mksysb image.
spot
Installs the machine from a SPOT copy.
Note: If a SPOT copy is not complete, the installation will succeed, but the target
machine might not be bootable. A SPOT copy must have the proper device support to
boot the target system. While installing from a SPOT copy is the fastest installation
method, using rte ormksysb is more reliable and functional.
Note: A SPOT copy will also install the file sets that are part of the BOS.autoi bundle.
-a spot=Value
Identifies the SPOT resource to be used. The SPOT provides support for network boot and
operations in the boot environment.
The following NIM resources are optional attributes that can be specified for the bos_inst operation:
-a accept_licenses=Value
Specifies whether license agreements should be accepted during BOS installation. Before the
installation process can complete, this attribute must be set to yes. The default value is
accept_licenses=no. If the bosinst_data resource resides on the NIM master, the
ACCEPT_LICENSES field in the bosinst_data resource can also be set to yes. You can also set
the NIM_LICENSE_ACCEPT global environment variable to yes on the NIM master.
-a adapter_def=Value
Specifies the directory containing secondary adapter definition files. The nimadapters command
parses a secondary-adapters stanza file to build the files required to add NIM secondary adapter
definitions to the NIM environment as part of the adapter_def resource. The nimadapters
command does not configure secondary adapters. The actual configuration takes place during a
nim -o bos_inst or nim -o cust operation that references the adapter_def resource.
-a async=Value
Specifies whether NIM should perform operations on group members asynchronously and not
wait for the operation to complete on one member before beginning the operation on the next.
The default value is async=yes.
-a auto_expand=Value
Indicates whether to expand file systems when setting up a client for a force_push installation.
The default value is auto_expand=yes.
-a boot_client=Value
Indicates whether NIM should attempt to reboot the client immediately for BOS installation. The
boot_client attribute is the converse of the no_client_boot attribute. The default value is
boot_client=yes, indicating that NIM should attempt to reboot the client.
-a bosinst_data=Value
Specifies the bosinst_data resource to use for nonprompted installation.
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-a concurrent=Value
Specifies the maximum number of machines from the selected group that should be installing at
any given time. This attribute is only valid when the target of the operation is a machine group.
If specified, NIM will monitor the progress of all machines in the group and attempt to keep no
more or less than the number specified installing until all machines in the group are installed.
-a filesets=Value
Specifies a list of filesets to install on the target after BOS installation.
-a force_push=Value
Indicates whether or not a force_push installation should occur. A force_push should be used for
installing machines that are running, but are not configured with the NIM client fileset. See
“Using the force_push attribute” on page 196 for more information.
-a group=Value
Specifies the name of a resource group to use for installation. A resource group can be specified
as an alternative to specifying multiple resources as separate attributes. If a resource group is
specified, and it contains a SPOT and lpp_source, the spot and lpp_source attributes are no
longer required.
-a image_data=Value
Specifies an image_data resource to describe how physical and logical data is organized on the
client.
-a installp_bundle=Value
Specifies an installp_bundle resource that lists filesets to install on the target after BOS
installation.
-a installp_flags=Value
Tells installp how to apply the filesets specified by the filesets or installp_bundle attributes. The
default value is installp_flags=-agQX.
-a mksysb=Value
Provides the run-time files for BOS and other filesets if the source attribute is mksysb. The level
of BOS run-time files in the mksysb must be equal to the level of the SPOT resource used for the
installation.
If the level of the SPOT resource is greater than the level of the mksysb resource, then an
lpp_source resource must be used and match the level of the SPOT resource. When this situation
occurs, an update operation is performed by default.
-a no_client_boot=Value
Indicates whether the target should remain in the NIM environment after installation completes.
The default value is no, indicating that the target system should remain in the NIM environment.
-a physical_loc=Value
Specifies the physical location code or AIX location code of the installation disk to the BOS
installation process. This attribute allows you to specify the location code for the installation disk
or disks on the command line, and allows you to have a generic bosinst.data file that does not
contain location code information.
To determine a disk’s physical location code, type the following:
lsdev -Cc disk -l hdisk0 -F "name physloc"
For more information about location codes, see Device Location Codes in Operating system and
device management .
-a preserve_res=Value
Indicates whether resources in non-rootvg file systems should be preserved on the client system
being installed. The default value is preserve_res=no.
-a resolv_conf=Value
Specifies the resolv_conf resource to use for configuring domain and name resolution on a client.
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-a script=Value
Specifies the script resource to be run on the target system after all software has been installed.
-a set_bootlist=Value
Indicates whether NIM should set the bootlist of the client so that the client boots over the
network on the next reboot. Usually, set_bootlist would be yes if the client is not going to be
rebooted immediately for installation (no_client_boot=yes or boot_client=no). The default value
is set_bootlist=no.
-a show_progress=Value
Indicates whether status should be displayed for each group member when the installation target
is a group of machines. The default value is yes.
-a time_limit=Value
Specifies the maximum number of hours that should elapse before ceasing to initiate installation
of additional members of the selected group of machines. This value can only be specified when
limiting the number of concurrent operations on a group.
-a verbose=Value
Displays information for debugging. Valid values are 1-5. Use verbose=5 to show maximum
detail. The default is to show no debugging output.
When a bos_inst operation is performed on a client, the following occurs:
On the SPOT server:
1. A link is created in /tftpboot to a boot image matching the platform type, kernel type, and network
adapter of the client.
2. The /etc/bootptab file is updated with client information to allow the boot image to be used.
3. A ClientName.info file is created in /tftpboot to provide client-specific installation and configuration
information in the boot environment.
4. The /etc/tftpaccess.ctl file is modified, if necessary, to allow access to the /tftpboot directory.
On the target system:
1. The bootlist is modified so the network adapter is the default boot device for normal mode boot,
unless no_client_boot=yes, set_bootlist=no, and force_push=no are specified.
2. The client is rebooted to begin the installation, unless no_client_boot=yes, boot_client=no, and
force_push=no are specified.
When the client boots over the network adapter, it obtains the boot image from the SPOT server. The
boot image configures devices and sets up the machine for the BOS installation. The Client.info file is
transferred to the client machine; and based on its contents, the network adapter is configured, routes are
added, and NIM resources are mounted in the boot environment. Processing control is then passed to the
BOS installation program.
NIM BOS installation data:
The BOS installation program requires access to an image that contains the BOS run-time files. This image
is used by the BOS installation program to populate the target’s /usr filesystem.
In the NIM environment, this image can come from one of the following resources:
v A BOS run-time image that is part of the lpp_source resource that has been allocated to the target
v A SPOT resource that has been allocated to the target
v A mksysb image that has been allocated to the target
A spot and lpp_source are always required to support the bos_inst rte operation. A bos_inst mksysb
operation only requires a spot resource be used.
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To indicate which BOS image to use, specify the source attribute when performing the bos_inst
operation. The source attribute may have one of the following values:
When an rte value (the default) is used for the source attribute, NIM directs the BOS installation
program to use the BOS run-time image that is in the lpp_source directory. This image contains
only the BOS run-time files; it does not contain any optional software packages. Selecting an rte
source may increase the BOS installation time, because the BOS installation program installs the
appropriate device support after populating the target’s /usr file system to make the target
viable. The installation time may also be increased due to additional installp activity during the
NIM customization phase.
rte
Note: The rte source must be used when performing BOS migration installation.
mksysb
Using mksysb as the source results in a target machine that has the same configuration as the
machine from which the mksysb image was created. This may save installation and configuration
time. The mksysb images could be very large, and the installation will fail if the target does not
have enough disk space to accommodate the image.
After the installation is initiated from the master, the NIM master attempts to contact the target and
execute a script that will force the system to reboot. The target system issues a BOOTP request to the
server after it has shut down. The bos_inst operation is considered complete even if the target does not
immediately issue a BOOTP request. The target must issue a BOOTP request to load a network boot
image from the server to start the installation.
If the master is unable to contact the target system for any reason (for example, the system is turned off,
it is not a running NIM client, or there is a network problem), a message is displayed and user
intervention is then required at the target to issue the BOOTP request using the IPL ROM. See Booting
specific machines over the network.
By default (no_nim_client=no), NIM also includes the customization required for the target to remain a
NIM client after the install. This customization includes the installation and configuration of the
bos.sysmgt.nim.client fileset and its requisite filesets, bos.net.tcp.client and bos.net.nfs.client, so that
the NIM master can communicate with and control the client after installation. The installp_flags are
passed to the installp command for installing the software on the standalone client. The filesets attribute
can be used to install a list of additional filesets or software packages from the allocated lpp_source.
To display BOS installation status information while the installation is progressing, enter the following
command on the master:
lsnim -a info -a Cstate ClientName
OR
lsnim -l ClientName
Errors in the allocation of a nim_script or boot resource type are fatal errors because the network BOS
installation process cannot proceed without these resources. On the other hand, any error encountered
during the attempt to cause the target to issue a BOOTP request is a nonfatal error to NIM because, at
that point, NIM has successfully initialized the environment to perform a network installation. As soon as
the target has successfully loaded its allocated network boot image, the BOS installation process begins.
Using the force_push attribute:
When assigned a value of yes, the force_push attribute tells NIM that the target of the bos_inst operation
does not necessarily have the bos.sysmgt.nim.client fileset installed and configured.
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NIM will attempt to NFS mount or copy the minimal client support to the target system to perform an
unattended installation or migration of the base operating system. If client support is copied to the target
machine, NIM will automatically expand the necessary file systems on the target unless the auto_expand
attribute to bos_inst is set to no.
The force_push attribute requires that the client grant root rsh permissions to the master and that the key
on the client be in the normal position. The force_push attribute also requires that a bosinst_data file be
allocated to the target machine to indicate that a no-prompt installation should occur. The force_push
attribute is set to yes by setting the Force Unattended Installation Enablement? option to yes when using
SMIT to perform the bos_inst operation.
Using the boot_client attribute:
When assigned a value of no, the boot_client attribute is used to instruct NIM not to attempt to initiate
the BOS installation on the target machine after setting up the installation with the bos_inst operation.
This allows a BOS installation to be set up while deferring the actual installation until the client is
rebooted at a later time.
Also, if the client is not a running machine, this attribute will avoid waiting for the reboot attempt to
time-out or fail. If the installation of the client system is going to be initiated later from the server, the
normal mode boot device list on the client must be set so that a network boot is attempted when the
client is rebooted. No attempt is made to modify the boot list when boot_client is set to no unless the
force_push or set_bootlist attributes are specified and set to a value of yes. The boot_client attribute is
set to no by setting Initiate Boot Operation on Client to no when using SMIT to perform the bos_inst
operation.
Using the set_bootlist attribute:
The set_bootlist attribute can be used with the boot_client attribute to modify the boot device list on the
client for normal mode so a network boot is attempted when the client is rebooted.
It is not necessary to specify the set_bootlist attribute if the force_push attribute is set to yes or if
boot_client is unspecified or set to yes. In both instances, the boot list will be modified as the default.
The only valid values for set_bootlist are yes and no. The set_bootlist attribute is set to yes by setting
Set Boot List if Boot not Initiated on Client? when using SMIT to perform the bos_inst operation.
Using the preserve_res attribute:
The preserve_res attribute can be used to preserve the NIM database definitions for resources residing on
a NIM client that is being reinstalled.
When the preserve_res is set to yes, any resources that reside in file systems, which are being preserved
by the BOS installation process, will also be preserved.
Using the NIM change operation
Use the change operation to modify attributes of NIM objects.
The command line syntax is as follows:
nim -F -o change -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName|TargetNames
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-F (optional)
Tells NIM to force the operation if the target is currently in use.
The target of a change operation can be any network, machine, resource, or group in the NIM environment.
Not all attributes can be modified on targets. Usually, the attributes are changed automatically as parts of
other operations, so there is little need for you to use the change operation explicitly.
Using the NIM check operation
Use the check operation to verify the usability of a machine or resource in the NIM environment.
The command line syntax for the check operation is as follows:
nim -F -o check -a debug=Value TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a check operation can be any NIM client, a group of NIM clients, a SPOT resource, or an
lpp_source resource.
The flags and attributes that can be specified for the check operation are as follows:
-F (optional)
-a debug=Value (optional)
Tells NIM to ″force″ the operation if the target is currently in use. If the -F flag is specified
when the target is a SPOT resource, it will force the SPOT’s network boot images to be
rebuilt. The -F flag is typically not required when performing the check operation on client
machines.
Builds a SPOT’s network boot images in debug mode if debug=yes is specified. This
attribute is only valid if the target is a SPOT resource. The default value is debug=no. For
more information on the debug attribute, refer to “Producing debug output from a network
boot image” on page 338.
When applied to NIM clients, the check operation updates the machine state (Mstate) of the client. A
ping test is performed to check whether the client is reachable. After the check operation is performed,
the client’s Mstate is set to either running or not running.
When applied to SPOT resources, the check operation performs root synchronization for diskless and
dataless clients and rebuilds the SPOT’s network boot images, if necessary.
When applied to lpp_source resources, the check operation rebuilds the table of contents (.toc) file in the
lpp_source directory. It also determines whether all filesets are included in the resources to qualify the
lpp_source for the simages attribute.
Using the NIM cust operation
Use the cust operation to install software filesets and updates on standalone clients and SPOT resources.
See “Customizing NIM clients and SPOT resources” on page 230 for information on performing a
software customization of standalone NIM clients.
The command line syntax for the cust operation is as follows:
nim -o cust -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a cust operation can be a standalone NIM client, a group of standalone NIM clients, or a
SPOT resource.
The following are required attributes that can be specified for the cust operation:
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-a filesets=Value
-a installp_bundle=Value
-a lpp_source=Value
Specifies a list of filesets to install on the target. This attribute is required unless an
installp_bundle is used for the operation.
Specifies an installp_bundle resource that lists filesets to install on the target. This
attribute is required unless the filesets attribute is specified.
Identifies the lpp_source resource that will provide the installation images for the cust
operation.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the cust operation:
-a accept_licenses=Value
-a async=Value
-a concurrent=Value
-a fix_bundle=Value
-a fixes=Value
-a group=Value
-a installp_flags=Value
-a resolv_conf=Value
-a script=Value
-a show_progress=Value
-a time_limit=Value,
Specifies whether software licenses should be automatically accepted during installation. If
accept_licenses=yes, the -Y flag is passed on the installp command and licenses are
automatically accepted. If accept_licenses=no, license processing is controlled by the
installp_flags attribute. The default value is accept_licenses=no.
Specifies whether NIM should perform operations on group members asynchronously and
not wait for the operation to complete on one member before beginning the operation on
the next. The default value is async=yes.
Specifies the maximum number of machines from the selected group that should be
installing at any given time. This attribute is only valid when the target of the operation is
a machine group. If specified, NIM will monitor the progress of all machines in the group
and attempt to keep no more or less than the number specified installing until all
machines in the group are installed.
Contains a list of fixes to install on the target. Fixes should be listed in the fix_bundle
resource by APAR number with one number per line.
Identifies a list of fixes to install on the target. Fixes should be listed by APAR number.
For example, fixes="IX12345 IX54321".
Specifies the name of a resource group to use for the installation. A resource group can be
specified as an alternative to specifying multiple resources as separate attributes. If a
resource group is specified, and it contains an lpp_source, the lpp_source attribute is no
longer required.
Identifies the flags that tell installp how to apply the filesets specified by the filesets,
installp_bundle, fixes, and fix_bundle attributes. The default value is
installp_flags=agQX.
Specifies a resolv_conf resource for configuring domain and name resolution on a client.
Specifies a script resource to be run on the target system after all software has been
installed.
Indicates whether status should be displayed while software is installed. The default value
is show_progress=yes.
Specifies the maximum number of hours that should elapse before ceasing to initiate
installation of additional members of the selected group of machines. This value can only
be specified when limiting the number of concurrent operations on a group.
Using the NIM deallocate operation
Use the deallocate operation to unlock and unexport resources when they are no longer needed by NIM
clients.
It is generally unnecessary to perform explicit deallocations after NIM operations, because upon
successful completion, operations will automatically deallocate resources from the clients.
The command line syntax for the deallocate operation is as follows:
nim -o deallocate -a ResourceType=ResourceName ... -a subclass=all TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a deallocate operation may be a NIM client or group of NIM clients.
The following list includes all the attributes that can be specified for the deallocate operation:
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-a ResourceType=ResourceName
Specifies the resource to deallocate from the client, for example,
lpp_source=42_images. This attribute is required.
Specifies that all resources should be deallocated from the target.
This attribute is optional.
-a subclass=all
When a resource is deallocated from a client, the /etc/exports file on the resource server is modified to
unexport the resource from the client. The allocation count for the resource is also decremented.
Using the NIM define operation
Networks, machines, and resources can be created using the define operation.
The command line syntax for the define operation is as follows:
nim -o define -t ObjectType -a Attribute=Value ... ObjectName
The attributes for the define operation vary for the different object types. For a complete description of
the attributes required to define the various NIM objects, see “Establishing NIM networks” on page 169,
“NIM machines” on page 163, “NIM resources” on page 173, and “Using NIM groups” on page 209.
Note: NIM resource class objects should not be defined with a location attribute of /tmp or /tmp
subdirectories (including filesystems mounted under /tmp).
Using the NIM diag operation
Use the diag operation to prepare resources for a client to be network-booted into diagnostics mode.
The command line syntax for the diag operation is as follows:
nim -o diag -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a diag operation can be any standalone NIM client or group of standalone NIM clients.
The following are required attributes that can be specified for the diag operation:
-a spot=Value
Specifies the SPOT resource to be used to provide network boot and diagnostics support.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the diag operation:
-a group=Value
-a verbose=Value
Specifies the name of a resource group to use for the operation. A resource group can be
specified as an alternative to specifying multiple resources as separate attributes.
Displays information for debugging. Valid values are 1-5. Use verbose=5 to show maximum
detail. The default is to show no debugging output.
Using the NIM dkls_init operation
Use the dkls_init operation to prepare resources for use by a diskless client.
The command line syntax for the dkls_init operation is as follows:
nim -o dkls_init -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a dkls_init operation can be any diskless NIM client or group of diskless NIM clients.
The following are required attributes that can be specified for the dkls_init operation:
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-a dump=Value
-a paging=Value
-a root=Value
-a spot=Value
Specifies the dump resource that contains client dump files.
Specifies the paging resource that contains client paging files.
Specifies the root resource that contains the client root (/) directories. The root resource must
be served by the same machine that serves the SPOT.
Specifies the SPOT resource to be used to provide network boot support and the /usr file
system for clients.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the dkls_init operation:
-a group=Value
-a home=Value
-a resolv_conf=Value
-a shared_home=Value
-a size=Value
-a tmp=Value
-a verbose=Value
Specifies the name of a resource group to use for the installation. A resource group can be
specified as an alternative to specifying multiple resources as separate attributes.
Specifies the home resource that contains client /home directories.
Specifies the resolv_conf resource to configure Domain Name Protocol name server
information on the client.
Specifies the shared_home resource that contains a common /home directory for multiple
clients.
Specifies the size in megabytes for client paging files.
Specifies the tmp resource that contains client /tmp directories.
Displays information for debugging. Valid values are 1-5. Use verbose=5 to show
maximum detail. The default is to show no debugging output.
The dkls_init operation populates client directories and creates client paging and dump files. A network
boot image is also allocated to the client. When the client boots over the network, it obtains the boot
image and is configured to mount the remaining resources.
Using the NIM dtls_init operation
Use the dtls_init operation to prepare resources for use by a dataless client.
The command line syntax for the dtls_init operation is as follows:
nim -o dtls_init -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a dtls_init operation can be any dataless NIM client or group of dataless NIM clients.
The following are required attributes that can be specified for the dtls_init operation:
-a dump=Value
-a spot=Value
-a root=Value
Specifies the dump resource that contains client dump files.
Specifies the SPOT resource to be used to provide network boot support and the /usr file
system for clients.
Specifies the root resource that contains the client root (/) directories. The root resource must
be served by the same machine that serves the SPOT.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the dtls_init operation:
-a paging=Value
-a group=Value
-a home=Value
-a resolv_conf=Value
-a shared_home=Value
-a size=Value
-a tmp=Value
-a verbose=Value
Specifies the paging resource containing client paging files.
Specifies the name of a resource group to use for the installation. A resource group can be
specified as an alternative to specifying multiple resources as separate attributes.
Specifies the home resource that contains client /home directories.
Specifies the resolv_conf resource to configure Domain Name Protocol name server
information on the client.
Specifies the shared_home resource that contains a common /home directory for multiple
clients.
Specifies the size in megabytes for client paging files.
Specifies the tmp resource that contains client /tmp directories.
Displays information for debugging. Valid values are 1-5. Use verbose=5 to show
maximum detail. The default is to show no debugging output.
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The dtls_init operation populates client directories and creates client paging and dump files. A network
boot image is also allocated to the client. When the client boots over the network, it obtains the boot
image and is configured to mount the remaining resources.
Using the NIM fix_query operation
Use the fix_query operation to display whether specified fixes are installed on a client machine or a
SPOT resource.
The command line syntax for the fix_query operation is as follows:
nim -o fix_query -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a fix_query operation can be any standalone NIM client, group of standalone NIM clients,
or SPOT resource.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the fix_query operation:
-a fix_bundle=Value
-a fixes=Value
-a group=Value
-a fix_query_flags=Value
-a show_progress=Value
Specifies a fix_bundle resource containing a list of fix keywords. This attribute is
required unless the fixes attribute is specified for the operation.
Specifies a list of keywords for the fix_query operation. Fix keywords are APAR
numbers used to identify software updates that can span multiple filesets. This
attribute is required unless a fix_bundle is used for the operation.
Specifies the name of a resource group to use for the operation. A resource group can
be specified as an alternative to specifying multiple resources as separate attributes.
Tells the fix_query operation how to display information. Valid flags are those used
by the instfix command.
Indicates whether status should be displayed as the operation is performed. The
default value is show_progress=yes.
Note: There are no required attributes for the fix_query operation.
Using the NIM lppchk operation
Use the lppchk operation to verify that software was installed successfully by running the lppchk
command on a NIM client or SPOT resource.
The command line syntax for the lppchk operation is as follows:
nim -o lppchk -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a lppchk operation can be any standalone NIM client, a group of standalone NIM clients, or
a SPOT resource.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the lppchk operation:
-a async=Value
-a filesets=Value
-a lppchk_flags=Value
-a show_progress=Value
-a verbose=Value
Specifies whether NIM should perform operations on group members asynchronously
and not wait for the operation to complete on one member before beginning the
operation on the next. The default value is async=yes.
Specifies a list of filesets on the target on which the lppchk operation will be
performed.
Tells the lppchk command how to perform software verification.
Indicates whether status should be displayed as the operation is performed. The
default value is show_progress=yes.
Displays information for debugging. Valid values are 1-5. Use verbose=5 to show
maximum detail. The default is to show no debugging output.
Note: There are no required attributes for the lppchk operation.
Using the NIM lppmgr operation
The NIM lppmgr operation helps to manage base installation images and update images in an
lpp_source.
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Although the lppmgr command is a separate command, it does use NIM objects as parameters. By
having the lppmgr operation in NIM, the lppmgr command is called by NIM to be executed on
lpp_source resources on other servers, and allows NIM to do sufficient checking of the lpp_source before
and after lppmgr is executed. The format of the operation will be as follows:
The format of the command is as follows:
nim -o lppmgr -a lppmgr_flags=<flags> <lpp_source_object>
The NIM lppmgr operation is also available in SMIT using the nim_lppmgr fast path.
The lppmgr operation does not check the lppmgr_flags attribute for conflicts.
Note: Do not use the -p flag for prompting to move or remove installation images.
To list the names of duplicate filesets which should be removed with space usage information, type the
following:
nim -o lppmgr -a lppmgr_flags="-lsb" lpp_source1
For more information on the lppmgr command, see the AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference.
Using the NIM maint operation
Use the maint operation to uninstall software filesets and commit and reject updates on standalone
clients and SPOT resources.
The command line syntax for the maint operation is as follows:
nim -o maint -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a maint operation can be a standalone NIM client, a group of standalone NIM clients, or a
SPOT resource.
The following are required attributes that can be specified for the maint operation:
-a installp_flags=Value
Identifies the flags that tell installp what to do with the installed software.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the maint operation:
-a async=Value
-a filesets=Value
-a group=Value
-a installp_bundle=Value
-a show_progress=Value
Specifies whether NIM should perform operations on group members asynchronously
and not wait for the operation to complete on one member before beginning the
operation on the next. The default value is async=yes.
Specifies a list of filesets to be maintained on the target.
Specifies the name of a resource group to use for the operation. A resource group can
be specified as an alternative to specifying multiple resources as separate attributes.
Specifies an installp_bundle resource that contains a list of filesets to be maintained on
the target.
Indicates whether status should be displayed as maintenance is performed. The default
value is show_progress=yes.
Using the NIM maint_boot operation
Use the maint_boot operation to prepare resources for a client to be network-booted into maintenance
mode.
The command line syntax for the maint_boot operation is as follows:
nim -o maint_boot -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a maint_boot operation can be any standalone NIM client or group of standalone NIM
clients.
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The following are required attributes that can be specified for the maint_boot operation:
-a spot=Value
Specifies the SPOT resource to be used to provide network boot and maintenance mode support.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the maint_boot operation:
-a group=Value
-a verbose=Value
Specifies the name of a resource group to use for the operation.
Displays information for debugging. Valid values are 1-5. Use verbose=5 to show maximum
detail. The default is to show no debugging output.
After the maint_boot operation is performed, the client must be rebooted over the network to load the
network boot image and enter maintenance mode.
Using the NIM reboot operation
Use the reboot operation to reboot a NIM client machine.
The command line syntax for the reboot operation is as follows:
nim -o reboot -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a reboot operation can be any standalone NIM client or group of standalone NIM clients.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the reboot operation:
-a inst_warning=Value
Indicates whether a warning should be displayed to warn users that the machine will be
rebooted. The default value is inst_warning=yes.
Note: There are no required attributes for the reboot operation.
Using the NIM remove operation
Use the remove operation to remove objects from the NIM environment.
The command line syntax for remove is as follows:
nim -o remove TargetName |TargetNames
The remove operation does not take any attributes. The target of this operation can be any network,
machine, resource, or group in the NIM environment.
Using the NIM reset operation
Use the reset operation to change the state of a NIM client or resource, so NIM operations can be
performed with it.
A reset may be required on a machine or resource if an operation was stopped before it completed
successfully.
The command line syntax for the reset operation is as follows:
nim -F -o reset TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a reset operation can be any NIM client, a group of NIM clients, or a SPOT resource.
The following list includes all the flags and attributes that can be specified for the reset operation:
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-F (optional)
Tells NIM to ″force″ the operation if the target is currently in use.
When applied to NIM clients, the reset operation updates the control state (Cstate) of the client. After the
reset operation is performed, the client’s Cstate is set to ready, and it is possible to perform NIM
operations on the client. Although the Cstate of the client is reset by the operation, resources are not
deallocated automatically. For information on deallocating resources, see “Using the NIM deallocate
operation” on page 199.
When applied to SPOT resources, the reset operation updates the resource state (Rstate) of the SPOT.
After the reset operation is performed, the SPOT’s Rstate is set to ready, and you can use the SPOT in
NIM operations.
Using the NIM select operation
Use the select operation to include and exclude group members from operations performed on the group.
The command line syntax for the select operation is as follows:
nim -o select -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a select operation must be a group of NIM clients.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the select operation:
-a exclude=Value
-a exclude_all=Value
-a include=Value
-a include_all=Value
-a verbose=Value
Specifies the name of the group member to exclude from operations on the group.
Indicates that all members of the group should be excluded from operations on the group.
Valid values are yes and no.
Specifies the name of the group member to include in operations on the group.
Indicates that all members of the group should be included in operations on the group. Valid
values are yes and no.
Displays information for debugging. Valid values are 1-5. Use verbose=5 to show maximum
detail. The default is to show no debugging output.
To display the group members that are included and excluded from operations, use the lsnim -g
GroupName command syntax.
Using the NIM showlog operation
Use the showlog operation to list software installed on a NIM client or SPOT resource.
The command line syntax for the showlog operation is as follows:
nim -o showlog -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName |TargetNames
The target of a showlog operation can be any standalone NIM client, a group of standalone NIM clients,
or a SPOT resource.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the showlog operation:
-a full_log=Value
Indicates whether the entire log is displayed or only the last entry. The default value is
full_log=no.
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-a log_type=Value
Specifies the type of log to display. The log types supported for both standalone clients
and SPOT resources are:
boot
Machine’s boot log
bosinst
Output from the BOS installation program
devinst
Output from the installation of key system and device-driver software
lppchk
Log of the output from the lppchk operation executed on a standalone NIM
client
nimerr
Errors encountered during execution of the nim command
niminst Output from the installation of user-specified software (including installation
of NIM client software during a bos_inst operation)
Output from any configuration script resources allocated for a bos_inst
operation.
Indicates whether status should be displayed as the operation is performed. The default
value is show_progress=yes.
Displays information for debugging. Valid values are 1-5. Use verbose=5 to show
maximum detail. The default is to show no debugging output.
script
-a show_progress=Value
-a verbose=Value
Note: The showlog operation has no required attributes.
Using the NIM showres operation
Use the showres operation to display the contents of a resource.
The contents displayed will be appropriate for the type of resource on which the operation is run.
The command line syntax for the showres operation is as follows:
nim -o showres -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName
The target of a showres operation may be a SPOT, lpp_source, script, bosinst_data, image_data,
installp_bundle, fix_bundle, resolv_conf, exclude_files, or an adapter_def resource.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the showres operation:
-a client=Value
Specifies which client’s secondary adapter configuration file is displayed from an adapter_def
resource. This attribute is only applicable when the target of the operation is an adapter_def
resource.
-a filesets=Value
Specifies a list of filesets for which information should be displayed. This attribute is only
applicable to lpp_source and SPOT targets.
-a installp_flags=Value
Specifies flags that tell the installp command how to format the display of filesets. This attribute
is only applicable to lpp_source and SPOT targets.
-a instfix_flags=Value
Specifies flags that tell the instfix command how to format the display of fixes. This attribute is
only applicable to lpp_source targets.
-a lslpp_flags=Value
Specifies flags that tell the lslpp command how to format the display of installed software. This
attribute is only applicable to SPOT targets.
-a reference=Value
Specifies a reference machine or SPOT resource for fileset comparison. This attribute is only
applicable when the target of the operation is an lpp_source. Available filesets in the lpp_source
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are compared against installed filesets in the reference machine or SPOT. If the showres
operation is performed from a NIM client, the reference attribute is automatically set to the name
of the client.
-a resource=Value
Specifies the name of the resource whose contents should be displayed. This attribute is only
necessary when the showres operation is performed from a NIM client.
-a sm_inst_flags=Value
Specifies flags that tell the sm_inst command how to format the display of filesets. This attribute
is only applicable to lpp_source and SPOT targets. This attribute must be used in conjunction
with the reference attribute and is normally used only within the SMIT application.
Note: There are no required attributes for the showres operation.
v When the target of the showres operation is a SPOT, the list of filesets installed in the SPOT is
displayed.
v When the target of the showres operation is an lpp_source, the list of filesets contained in the
lpp_source is displayed.
v For all other resources that are valid targets for the showres operation, the character contents of the
files are displayed.
Using the NIM sync operation
The sync operation synchronizes the NIM database with an alternate master.
The command backs up the local NIM database, restores the database onto the alternate master, and then
updates the restored database.
The command line syntax for the sync operation is as follows:
nim [-F] -o sync -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName
The target of a sync operation must be an alternate_master.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the showres operation:
-a verbose=Value
-F
Displays information for debugging. Valid values are 1-5. Use verbose=5 to show maximum
detail. The default is to show no debugging output.
Specifies that NIM should force the operation. Use the force operation if the database on the
alternate_master should be overwritten.
Note: There are no required attributes for the sync operation.
Using the NIM sync_roots operation
Use the sync_roots operation to verify that diskless and dataless clients have the correct root files for the
SPOT resource they use.
The command line syntax for the sync_roots operation is as follows:
nim -F -o sync_roots -a num_parallel_syncs=Value TargetName
The target of a sync_roots operation must be a SPOT resource.
The following are optional flags and attributes that can be specified for the sync_roots operation:
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-a num_parallel_syncs=Value
-F
Specifies the number of client root directories to simultaneously synchronize with
the SPOT’s root files. Valid values are numeric. The default value is
num_parallel_syncs=5.
Specifies that NIM should force the operation.
A sync_roots operation can be performed automatically when the check operation is performed on a
SPOT.
Using the NIM takeover operation
The takeover operation allows a machine that is configured as an alternate_master to take control of the
NIM environment.
The alternate master attempts to become the current master of each client defined in its database by
updating each client’s /etc/niminfo file. Only clients running AIX 5.3 or greater are updated by this
operation. This operation also attempts to update the database on the target alternate_master.
The command line syntax for the takeover operation is as follows:
nim [-F] -o takeover -a Attribute=Value ... TargetName
The target of a takeover operation must be an alternate_master.
The following are optional attributes that can be specified for the takeover operation:
-a verbose=Value
-a show_progress [yes | no]
-a async= [yes | no]
-F
Displays information for debugging. Valid values are 1-5. Use verbose=5 to show
maximum detail. The default is to show no debugging output.
Indicates whether status should be displayed as the operation is performed. The
default value is show_progress=yes.
If this attribute is set to ″yes″, then the clients will be updated with the new master
information asynchronously. The default is to run this command asynchronously.
Specifies that NIM should force the operation. Use the force operation if the database
on the alternate_master should be overwritten.
Note: Thetakeover operation has no required attributes.
Using the NIM unconfig operation
Use the unconfig operation to unconfigure the NIM master.
The unconfig operation must be performed before the NIM master can be reconfigured or the NIM
master fileset can be uninstalled.
Attention: Performing the unconfig operation removes all information from the NIM database and
should be used with caution.
The command line syntax for the unconfig operation is as follows:
nim -o unconfig master
The target of the unconfig operation must be the NIM master.
No attributes can be specified for the unconfig operation.
The unconfig operation completely unconfigures the NIM master by performing the following:
v Removes the nimesis and nimd daemon entries from the System Resource Controller (SRC)
v Removes all data from the nim_attr and nim_object databases
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Using the NIM update operation
The NIM update operation updates lpp_source resources by adding and removing packages.
The format of the update operation is as follows:
nim -o update -a packages=<all | list of packages with levels optional> \
[-a gencopy_flags=<flags>] ] [-a installp_bundle=<bundle_file>] \
[-a smit_bundle=<bundle_file>] [-a rm_images=<yes>] \
[-a source=<dir | device | object>] [-a show_progress=<yes | no>]
<lpp_source_object>\
The NIM update operation is also available in SMIT using the nim_update fast path.
The source attribute must be a directory or device that is local to the server of the target lpp_source
resource or an existing NIM lpp_source resource. The default operation is to add packages to the target
lpp_source. If the rm_images attribute is present, the operation will remove packages from the
lpp_source. A user must specify either the source or rm_images attribute and must specify the packages,
installp_bundle, or smit_bundle attribute, but not more than one.
Generally, the all keyword means to perform a multi-volume installation when the source is a CD-ROM.
However, the update operation will only do a single volume copy (equivalent to passing the gencopy -S
flag).
The default behavior for this command is to display output. To turn off the output, pass
show_progress=no.
To add packages to an lpp_source resource, run the following:
# nim -o update -a packages=all -a source=/tmp/inst.images lpp_source1
To remove packages from an lpp_source resource, run the following:
# nim -o update -a packages="bos.games 5.1.0.25 bos.sysmgt.nim" -a rm_images=yes lpp_source2
Using NIM groups
NIM groups are essentially lists of machines and resources. Groups can be used in NIM operations to
simplify repetitive administrative tasks.
Working with NIM machine groups
Machine groups are used to represent collections of machines of similar types. The machine types in a
group must all be the same (for example, standalone, diskless, or dataless) and of the same architecture,
because some NIM operations are restricted to certain target types.
The first member added to a group determines the architecture and type of machine the group can
contain. By having multiple machines defined as members of a single group, you can perform a single
operation on all machines by specifying the group as the target. NIM iterates through the list of machines
in the group, and performs the operation on each member, in turn.
Group members can be excluded from NIM group operations by marking them for exclusion before
performing the operation. Excluding a member marks the member list in the group representation, so
NIM skips the member when it iterates through the list. Excluding a member does not change the
definition of the client in the NIM database. For information on marking group members for inclusion
and exclusion, see “Including and excluding group members from operations on the group” on page 283.
Machines can be added or removed from groups, as well as be members of multiple groups. When all
members of a group are removed, the group definition in the NIM database is automatically deleted. For
information on adding and removing group members, see “Adding new members to machine groups” on
page 282 and “Removing members from machine groups” on page 283.
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The command line syntax for defining a machine group is:
nim -o define -t mac_group -a Attribute=Value ... MachineGroupName
where the following attributes are optional:
add_member=Value
member=Value
Specifies the name of a NIM client to add to the machine group. NIM automatically converts
this attribute to a member attribute with an appropriate sequence number.
Specifies the name of a NIM client to add to the machine group. This attribute requires a
sequence number.
Operations performed on machine groups are, by default, performed asynchronously on the
non-excluded members of the group. NIM does not wait for an operation to complete on one group
member before initiating the operation on the next member. When performing operations asynchronously,
it is not possible for NIM to display all the output as it occurs on each client. Therefore, you should use
the lsnim command to check the states of the group members to determine how far, and how
successfully, the operations have executed. If errors do occur, the log files on client machines can be
viewed using the NIM showlog operation.
To change the behavior of NIM group operations from asynchronous to synchronous, use the async=no
attribute when running the nim command.
The number of machines permitted in a machine group is not explicitly limited by NIM. However, the
following factors limit the number for practical reasons:
Operation being Performed
NFS Export Limitations
Operations that are not resource-intensive (such as the maint or showlog operations) may be
performed on a group containing any number of machines. Operations that are
resource-intensive (such as cust or bos_inst) are limited by the throughput of the network,
the disk access throughput of the installation servers, and the platform type of servers.
The maximum number of hosts to which a file or directory may be exported with root
permissions is limited by NFS to 256. Also, the length of a line in an exports file has an
upper limit which could determine the maximum number of machines permitted in a group.
For information on how to increase the number of machines to which a resource can be
allocated, refer to “Exporting NIM resources globally” on page 304.
Working with NIM resource groups
Resource groups are used to represent collections of NIM resources.
A resource group can contain multiple installp_bundle and script resources, and one resource from each
of the other types. If a resource group is allocated or specified for use in a NIM operation, all applicable
resources in the group are allocated to the target. The use of resource groups can save NIM
administrators from having to repeatedly specify the same set of resources individually, when the
allocation of a single resource group would suffice.
The command line syntax for defining a resource group is:
nim -o define -t res_group -a default=Value \
-a ResourceType=ResourceName ... ResourceGroupName
where the following attributes are optional:
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default=Value
ResourceType
Specifies whether a resource group should be made the default. The default value is default=no.
Specifies the type (for example, spot, lpp_source, script, etc.) and name of the resource to add to
the group. One resource of each type may be specified, except for script and installp_bundle
resources, which may have multiple resources participate in an operation.
The allocation of individual resource group members can be overridden by specifying additional resource
attributes for the members to be changed.
For example, the resource group, res_grp1, contains the spot1, lpp_source1, bosinst_data1, script1, and
resolv_conf1 resources. To use the resource group to perform an rte bos_inst operation on client1, but
using no bosinst_data resource, and using resolv_conf2 instead of resolv_conf1, use the following
command:
nim -o bos_inst -a source=rte -a group=res_group1 \
-a bosinst_data= -a resolve_conf=resolv_conf2 client1
A resource group can be specified as the default set of resources to use for all NIM operations. This is
done by setting the master’s default_res attribute to the name of the resource group that will be the
default. When a default resource group is defined, the applicable member resources will always be
automatically allocated during NIM operations, unless they are specifically overridden.
To set the default resource group to res_group1, enter:
nim -o change -a default_res=res_group1 master
or enter:
nim -o change -a default=yes res_group1
To stop using a default resource group, enter:
nim -o change -a default_res=master
or enter:
nim -o change -a default=no res_group1
NIM Task Roadmap
The following are NIM configuration tasks and installation tasks and where they can be found in this
topic. Also provided is a brief description of the task. Where appropriate, the SMIT fast path is provided.
Table 9. NIM Task Roadmap
NIM Task
SMIT Fast Path
“Using EZNIM” on page 212
smit eznim
Description
Configure the NIM enviroment using EZNIM. Allows you to
configure your system as a NIM master or a NIM client. If
you configure your system as a NIM master, EZNIM also
creates the minimum basic installation resources.
“Configuring the NIM master
and creating basic installation
resources” on page 215
smit nim_config_env
Configure the NIM master, create the minimum basic
installation resources required to install NIM client machines,
and manage the resources for diskless and dataless clients.
“Adding standalone clients to the smit nim_mkmac
NIM environment” on page 217
“Using installation images to
install the base operating system
on a NIM client” on page 222
Describes how to add standalone clients to the NIM
environment.
smit nim_bosinst
Describes how to perform a BOS installation on a NIM client.
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Table 9. NIM Task Roadmap (continued)
“Using a mksysb image to install
the base operating system on a
NIM Client” on page 224
smit nim_bosinst
Describes how to restore a mksysb image and additional
software to a target NIM client from a mksysb resource in the
NIM environment.
“Performing a nonprompted BOS v smit nim_mkres
installation” on page 226
v smit nim_bosinst
“Using NIM with ATM
networks” on page 228
Provides information about how to perform a nonprompted
NIM BOS installation using a bosinst_data resource.
Provides information about how to configure NIM to work
with ATM adapters.
“Using installation images to
install the base operating system
on a NIM client” on page 222
smit nim_task_inst
“Performing boot diagnostics on
NIM clients” on page 263
smit nim_mac_op
Describes how to use NIM to install software packages,
updates, and maintenance levels on running, configured NIM
clients and SPOT resources.
Hardware diagnostics can be performed on NIM clients using
a diagnostic boot image from a NIM server, rather than
booting from a diagnostic tape or CD-ROM. Not only does
this eliminate the need for diagnostic boot media, it
eliminates the need to have diagnostics installed on the local
disks of machines.
For maintenance operations, you can boot a NIM client into
maintenance mode from the boot image on a NIM server
instead of using a bootable tape or CD-ROM.
“Maintaining software on
standalone clients and SPOT
resources” on page 288
smit nim_task_maint
“Adding a diskless or dataless
client to the NIM environment”
on page 234
smit nim_task_dd
Provides information about how to commit, reject, remove,
copy, verify, and clean up software.
Provides information about how to add diskless and dataless
systems to your NIM environment. You can also manage
resources for diskless and dataless clients from the NIM
master.
“Installing to an alternate disk on smit nim_alt_install
a NIM Client” on page 237
“Performing an alternate disk
migration installation” on page
56
NIM can be used to clone the running of rootvg (root volume
group) to an alternate disk, or install a mksysb image to an
alternate disk.
smit nimadm
NIM can be used to perform an alternate disk migration
installation to a NIM client.
Using EZNIM
The SMIT EZNIM feature organizes the commonly used NIM operations and simplifies frequently used
advanced NIM operations.
Features of SMIT EZNIM include:
v Task-oriented menus
v Automatic resource naming that includes the level of the software used to create NIM resources.
v The user can review what steps will take place before executing a task, whenever possible.
Use the SMIT eznim fast path to open the EZNIM main menu. If the NIM environment has not been set
up on your system, the EZNIM main menu displays the following options:
v Configure as a NIM Master
v Configure as a NIM Client
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Using EZNIM to configure a NIM master
Follow these steps to configure your current system as a NIM master.
If you select Configure as a NIM Master, the following options display:
Setup the NIM Master environment
Enable Cryptographic Authentication
Add fixes to the NIM Master environment
Add client to the NIM environment
Update clients
Backup a client
Reinstall clients
Reset clients
Show the NIM environment
Verify the NIM environment
Remove NIM environment
v To configure your current system as a NIM master, select Setup the NIM Master environment. You
can select the software source to configure from, select the volume group to use for the NIM resources,
and select the file system to use for the NIM resources. When the NIM master environment is
configured, the basic NIM resources are created. To view the NIM resources created by EZNIM, select
Show the NIM environment, or run the lsnim command on the NIM master.
v To configure your NIM master for SSL authentication, select Enable Cryptographic Authentication.
This option allows you to install and configure the cryptographic software in the OpenSSL RPM
package. After you configure OpenSSL, NIM clients with OpenSSL installed can request cryptographic
authentication during service requests from the NIM master.
v To install updates and maintenance or technology level packages to the NIM master, select Add fixes
to the NIM Master environment. This option performs an update installation of a specified set of fixes
onto the default SPOT resource. A second SPOT resource containing the newly installed fixes is
created by this operation. You can optionally select to update all your NIM clients during this
operation.
v To update a client using EZNIM, select Update clients. This option allows you to perform an
update_all operation on a selected client (or clients) using an lpp_source resource.
v To back up a client using EZNIM, select Backup a client. This option allows you to create a system
backup image of a selected client and store the backup image on the NIM master.
v To reinstall a client using EZNIM, select Reinstall clients. This option allows you to perform a mksysb
restore or native, rte install on a selected client (or clients). You must then select a system backup
image to restore or an lpp_source to install and decide whether to reboot and install the client now.
v To reset a NIM client to the ready state, select Reset clients. This option resets the state of a client or
clients in the NIM environment. Use this option after a NIM operation has failed, and you want to
return the client to the ready state.
Using EZNIM to configure a NIM client
Follow these steps to configure a NIM client with EZNIM.
On a client system, use the SMIT eznim fast path. Select Configure as a NIM Client, and the following
options display:
Add this system to a NIM environment
Configure Client Communication Services
Update this system
Reinstall this system
Reset this system
Show the NIM environment
v To define your client in the NIM environment, select Add this system to a NIM environment.
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v To configure your NIM client for SSL authentication, select Configure Client Communication Services.
This option allows you to install and configure the cryptographic software in the OpenSSL RPM
package. After you configure OpenSSL, you can select nimsh as the communication protocol used by
the client. Any incoming NIM master service requests are then authenticated through SSL socket
connections.
v To update your client, select Update this system. This option allows you to perform an update_all
operation on your client using an lpp_source resource.
v To reinstall your client, select Update this system. This option allows you to perform a mksysb restore
or native, rte install on a selected client (or clients). You must then select a system backup image to
restore or an lpp_source to install and decide whether to reboot and install the client now.
v To reset your client in the NIM environment, select Reset this system. This option resets the state of
the client in the NIM environment. Use this option after a NIM operation has failed, and you want to
return the client to the ready state.
v To view the default resources in the EZNIM environment, select Show the NIM environment. The
resources are defined using EZNIM Master Operations.
Example of using EZNIM
Follow these steps to create EZNIM setup using a different volume group.
To create EZNIM setup using a different volume group, run smitty eznim → Configure as a NIM Master
→ Setup the NIM Master environment.
Easy NIM - Setup the NIM Master environment
Type or select values in entry fields.
Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.
Select or specify software source
to initialize environment:
[Entry Fields]
[cd0]
+
Select Volume Group for resources
[rootvg]
Select Filesytem for resources
[/export/eznim]
Options
CREATE system backup image?
CREATE new Filesystem?
DISPLAY verbose output?
[yes]
[yes]
[no]
+
+
+
+
For Select Volume Group for resources, select your volume group. If you prefer to use a different
filesystem than the default /export/eznim, then fill in the desired value in the Select Filesystem for
resources field.
The nim_master_setup command can also be used to select a different volume group or filesystem by
specifying the flag attribute (-a file_system=<value> or -a volume_group=<value>). You can enter the
value for filesystem and rootvg.
To define NIM resources in using install media located in device /dev/cd0, and create a new filesystem
named /export/nimfs under volume group myvg, type:
nim_master_setup -a volume_group=myvg -a file_system=/export/nimfs
Note: If the /export/nimfs filesystem does not currently exist, then is created under the myvg volume
group. If the myvg volume group does not exist, it is created using the next empty physical volume
(disk) since the disk attribute was not specified.
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Configuring NIM and other basic operations
You can use several methods for performing basic NIM operations and configuration tasks.
You can perform basic NIM operations and configuration tasks using the following methods:
v Web-based System Manager NIM interface
v System Management Interface Tool (SMIT)
v Command line
Note: For tasks performed at the command line, the root user must be using ksh. Unexpected results can
occur if the root user is set to another shell, such as csh.
Starting the Web-based System Manager NIM interface
To start the Web-based System Manager NIM interface from an X-Windows session on the NIM master,
type: wsm.
For assistance, use the online contextual help for Web-based System Manager. Extended help is also
available in the interface. To view the extended help, select Contents from the Help menu in the NIM
container.
Configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation resources
You can configure the NIM master, create the minimum basic installation resources required to install
NIM client machines, and manage the resources for diskless and dataless clients with Web-based System
Manager, SMIT, or the command line.
Note:
1. Using an AIX Version 5 lpp_source to install filesets on an AIX Version 4 client through NIM, is not
supported. If installing Version 5 filesets on a Version 4 system is necessary, the user can NFS export
the lpp_source, mount it on the client, and then use the installp command or geninstall command to
perform the installation procedures.
2. This procedure produces a large amount of output, especially when creating the SPOT resource. Be
sure to scan through the output to look for nonfatal errors and warnings that may not be evident
from a successful return code.
Prerequisites
The NIM master must have at least 1 GB of available disk space. If such space is not available, see
“Using client machines as resource servers” on page 280, and “Defining an lpp_source on CD/DVD-ROM
versus hard disk” on page 258.
Configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation resources using Web-based System
Manager:
Use this procedure for configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation resources using
Web-based System Manager.
1. Insert the AIX 5.3 Volume 1 CD/DVD into the appropriate drive of the designated master machine.
2. Start the Web-based System Manager Software application by entering wsm.
3. In the navigation area, expand and select the NIM container, then follow the directions in the wizard.
Configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation resources using SMIT:
Use this procedure for configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation resources using SMIT.
1. Insert the AIX 5.3 Volume 1 CD/DVD into the appropriate drive of the designated master machine.
2. To install the bos.sysmgt.nim.master fileset, enter the smit install_latest fast path.
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215
3. Using the LIST option, select /dev/cd0 for the INPUT device/directory for software.
4. Specify bos.sysmgt.nim.master as the SOFTWARE to install.
5. Accept the default values for all other fields on this screen. After successful completion of this
installation, exit SMIT.
6. To configure the NIM master, enter the smit nim_config_env fast path.
7. Using the LIST option, select the Primary Network Interface for the NIM Master.
8. Using the LIST option, select /dev/cd0 or /dev/rmt0 for the Input device for installation / images
field.
9. If you will be supporting diskless and dataless clients, select yes at the Create Diskless/Dataless
Machine Resources? field, and supply names for the resources to be created.
10. Select yes at the Remove all newly added NIM definitions and file systems if any part of this
operation fails? field. This will make it easier to restart this procedure if failures occur.
11. Accept the default values for all other fields on this screen.
Note:
1. Depending on the speed of your machine, creating the basic NIM resources could be a lengthy
process.
2. This procedure provides the capability for much more than just configuring the NIM master and
creating the lpp_source and SPOT resources. However, for this simple configuration, only a subset of
the available functions will be used. Advanced NIM administrators can use the SMIT screens accessed
through this procedure to create a more complex environment.
3. As you develop a better understanding of configuration tasks, you may prefer to not automatically
undo all configuration when failures occur (as in step 10 in the previous procedure). Continuing from
the last point of failure results in faster configuration for experienced administrators.
Configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation resources from the command line:
Use this procedure for configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation resources from the
command line.
1. Insert the AIX 5.3 Volume 1 CD/DVD into the appropriate drive of the designated master machine.
2. To install the bos.sysmgt.nim.master fileset from the disk, enter: # installp -agXd /dev/cd0
bos.sysmgt.nim.master
To install the bos.sysmgt.nim.master fileset from a tape, enter: # installp -agXd /dev/rmt0
bos.sysmgt.nim.master
3. To configure the NIM master using the nimconfig command, enter:
For example, to configure a NIM master with the following configuration:
master host name = master1
primary network interface = tr0
ring speed = 16
platform = chrp
kernel type = mp
Enter the following command sequence: # nimconfig -a netname=network1 -a pif_name=tr0 \ -a
ring_speed1=16 -a platform=chrp -a netboot_kernel=mp
Note: For additional attribute information, see the nimconfig command.
4. To create a file system in the rootvg volume group with 400 MB of space with a mount point of
/export/lpp_source, enter:
# crfs -v jfs -g rootvg -a size=$((2000*400)) \
-m /export/lpp_source -A yes -p rw -t no \
-a frag=4096 -a nbpi=4096 -a compress=no
5. To mount the file system, enter: # mount /export/lpp_source
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
6. The lpp_source contains the installation images copied from the source device (in this example, the
CD-ROM). The server of the lpp_source will be the NIM master. The images will be stored in the
/export/lpp_source/lpp_source1 directory. To create the lpp_source resource named lpp_source1,
enter:
# nim -o define -t lpp_source -a source=/dev/cd0 \
-a server=master -a location=/export/lpp_source/lpp_source1 \
lpp_source1
7. To create a file system in the rootvg volume group with 200 MB of space with a mount point of
/export/spot, enter:
# crfs -v jfs -g rootvg -a size=$((2000*200)) \
-m /export/spot -A yes -p rw -t no \
-a frag=4096 -a nbpi=4096 -a compress=no
8. To mount the file system, enter: # mount /export/spot
9. The SPOT resource will be installed from images in the image source (in this case, the lpp_source
that was created in step 6). The server of the resource will be the NIM master, and the SPOT will be
stored in the /export/spot/spot1 directory. To create the SPOT resource named spot1, enter:
# nim -o define -t spot -a source=lpp_source1 \
-a server=master -a location=/export/spot spot1
10. If you are not supporting diskless and dataless clients, you do not need to continue with this
procedure. If you are supporting diskless and dataless clients, create and mount a file system for
their resources.
To create a file system in the rootvg volume group with 150 MB of space and a mount point of
/export/dd_resource, enter:
# crfs -v jfs -g rootvg -a size=$((2000*150)) \
-m /export/dd_resource -A yes -p rw -t no \
-a frag=4096 -a nbpi=4096 -a compress=no
11. To mount the file system, enter: # mount /export/dd_resource
12. Create the diskless and dataless client resources in subdirectories of the /export/dd_resource
directory. Not all resources are required. Create only the resources to be used in your environment.
To create the root resource named root1 (required for diskless and dataless clients), enter:
# nim -o define -t root -a server=master \
-a location=/export/dd_resource/root1 root1
To create the dump resource named dump1 (required for diskless and dataless clients), enter:
# nim -o define -t dump -a server=master \
-a location=/export/dd_resource/dump1 dump1
To create the paging resource named paging1 (required for diskless clients), enter:
# nim -o define -t paging -a server=master \
-a location=/export/dd_resource/paging1 paging1
To create the home resource named home1 (optional), enter:
# nim -o define -t home -a server=master \
-a location=/export/dd_resource/home1 home1
To create the shared_home resource named shared_home1 (optional), enter:
# nim -o define -t shared-home -a server=master \
-a location=/export/dd_resource/shared_home1 shared_home1
To create the tmp resource named tmp1 (optional), enter:
# nim -o define -t tmp -a server=master \
-a location=/export/dd_resource/tmp1 tmp1
Adding standalone clients to the NIM environment
You can add standalone clients to the NIM environment with Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or the
command line.
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217
Standalone clients are machines that, once installed, can obtain a boot image and mount all file systems
from the local hard disk, unlike diskless and dataless clients which depend on remote servers. You can
add a client with or without the network information.
Adding a client with the network information with Web-based System Manager:
To add a client with the network information with Web-based System Manager, you can use the wizard.
v The NIM master must be configured. For more information, see “Configuring the NIM master and
creating basic installation resources” on page 215.
v You must know the subnet mask, the default gateway for the client machine, and the default gateway
for the NIM master.
1. To start the Web-based System Manager Software application, type wsm.
2. In the navigation area, expand and select the NIM container.
3. Select the Machines container.
4. From the Machines menu, select New → Machine .
5. Use the wizard to complete the task.
Adding a client with the network information using SMIT:
Follow these instructions to add a standalone NIM client to the NIM environment using SMIT.
To add a standalone NIM client to the NIM environment using SMIT, use Method A if the client machine
is not running or if the client does not have AIX installed. Method A can also be used if BOS is to be
installed on the client and the client is to be network-booted manually or to initiate the installation from
a force-push operation. This procedure automatically adds NIM networks when needed.
To add a standalone NIM client that already has AIX installed, use Method B.
If the NIM client being defined is on a network that is not currently defined in the NIM environment, the
niminit command will fail. If this is the case, use Method A of this procedure to define the client on the
NIM master, and then follow the steps in Method B to complete the configuration.
Prerequisites
v The NIM master must be configured. For more information, see “Configuring the NIM master and
creating basic installation resources” on page 215.
v You must know the subnet mask, the default gateway for the client machine, and the default gateway
for the NIM master.
Adding a client with the network information using SMIT when client is not running (method A):
Follow these steps to add a client with the network information using SMIT when the client is not
running.
1. On the NIM master, add a standalone client to the NIM environment by typing the smit nim_mkmac
fast path.
2. Specify the host name of the client.
3. The next SMIT screen displayed depends on whether NIM already has information about the client’s
network. Supply the values for the required fields or accept the defaults. Use the help information
and the LIST option to help you specify the correct values to add the client machine.
Adding a client with the network information using SMIT when client is running (method B):
Follow these steps to add a client with the network information using SMIT when the client is running.
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
1. On a system that you have chosen to be a NIM client, verify that if the bos.sysmgt.nim.client fileset
is installed by typing the following: # lslpp -L bos.sysmgt.nim.client
2. If the bos.sysmgt.nim.client fileset is not installed, then install the fileset from the AIX Volume 1
CD/DVD by typing the following: # installp -acXd /dev/cd0 bos.sysmgt.nim.client
3. Enter the smit niminit fast path.
4. Supply the values for the required fields or accept the defaults. Use the help information and the LIST
option to help you specify the correct values for defining your client machine.
Adding a client with the network information from the command line:
Follow these instructions to add a standalone NIM client to the NIM environment from the command
line.
To add a standalone NIM client to the NIM environment from the command line, use Method A if the
client machine is not running or if the client does not have AIX installed. Method A can also be used if
BOS is to be installed on the client and the client is to be network-booted manually or to initiate the
installation from a force-push operation. This procedure automatically adds NIM networks when needed.
To add a standalone NIM client that already has AIX installed, use Method B.
If the NIM client being defined is on a network that is not currently defined in the NIM environment, the
niminit command will fail. If this is the case, use Method A of this procedure to define the client on the
NIM master, and then follow the steps in Method B to complete the configuration.
Prerequisites
v The NIM master must be configured. For more information, see “Configuring the NIM master and
creating basic installation resources” on page 215.
v You must know the subnet mask, the default gateway for the client machine, and the default gateway
for the NIM master.
Adding a client with the network information from the command line when client machine is not running (method
A):
Follow these steps to add a client with the network information from the command line when client
machine is not running.
On the NIM master, type:
# nim -o define -t standalone -a platform=PlatformType \
-a netboot_kernel=NetbootKernelType \
-a if1=InterfaceDescription \
-a net_definition=DefinitionName -a ring_speed1=SpeedValue \
-a cable_type1=TypeValue -a iplrom_emu=DeviceName MachineName
Example 1:
To add the machine with host name machine1 with the following configuration:
host name=machine1
platform=chrp
kernel=up
network type=ethernet
subnet mask=255.255.240.0
default gateway=gw1
default gateway used by NIM master=gw_master
cable type=bnc
network boot capability=yes (no emulation needed)
enter the following command sequence:
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219
# nim -o define -t standalone -a platform="chrp" \
-a netboot_kernel="up" -a if1="find_net machine1 0" \
-a cable_type1="bnc" \
-a net_definition="ent 255.255.240.0 gw1 gw_master" machine1
Example 2:
To add the machine with host name machine2 with the following configuration:
host name=machine2
platform=chrp
netboot_kernel=up
network type=token ring
subnet mask=255.255.225.0
default gateway=gw2
default gateway used by NIM master=gw_master
ring speed=16
enter the following command sequence:
# nim -o define -t standalone -a platform="chrp" \
-a netboot_kernel="up" -a if1="find_net machine2 0" \
-a ring_speed1="16" \
-a net_definition="tok 255.255.225.0 gw2 gw_master" machine2
Note:
1. If the find_net keyword in the if attribute causes NIM to successfully match a network definition to
the client definition, the net_definition attribute is ignored.
2. For more information about the attributes you can specify when defining NIM clients, see “Defining
NIM clients” on page 164
Adding a client with the network information from the command line when client machine is running (method B):
Follow these steps to add a client with the network information from the command line when the client
machine is running.
1. Install the bos.sysmgt.nim.client fileset on the client machine.
2. From the machine being defined as a client, enter:
# niminit -a name=ClientDefinitionName -a master=MasterName \
-a pif_name=Interface -a platform=PlatformType \
-a netboot_kernel=NetbootKernelType -a ring_speed1=SpeedValue \
-a cable_type1=TypeValue -a iplrom_emu=DeviceName
Note: For detailed attribute information, see the niminit command.
Example 1:
To add the machine with host name machine1 with the following configuration:
host name=machine1
NIM master's host name=master_mac
primary interface adapter=en0
platform=chrp
kernel=up
cable type=bnc
network boot capability=yes (no emulation needed)
enter the following command sequence:
# niminit -a name=machine1 -a master=master_mac \
-a pif_name=en0 -a platform=chrp -a netboot_kernel=up \
-a cable_type1=bnc
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Example 2:
To add the machine with host name machine2 with the following configuration:
host name=machine2
NIM master's host name=master_mac
primary interface adapter=tr0
platform=chrp
netboot_kernel=up
ring speed1=16
enter the following command sequence:
# niminit -a name=machine2 -a master=master_mac \
-a pif_name=tr0 -a platform=chrp -a netboot_kernel=up \
-a ring_speed1=16
Adding a client without the network information using SMIT:
Beginning in AIX 5.3, you can use a new remote service for defining clients in the NIM environment.
Follow these directions to use this new service with SMIT.
The new service is called the NIM Service Handler (NIMSH), and it runs on potential NIM clients. When
you define a system using NIMSH, no information is required for defining the client object. For
additional information, see “Using the NIM service handler for client communication” on page 274.
To define NIM clients using nimquery, complete the following steps:
1. Type the fast path smitty nim_query on the NIM master.
2. Specify the hostname of the machine to query.
Note: The machines must have NIMSH daemon active.
3. Select yes as the option for Adding Machine to the NIM Environment if you are adding the machine
as a NIM client object.
4. Specify the new client object name.
Adding a client without the network information from the command line:
Beginning in AIX 5.3, you can use a new remote service for defining clients in the NIM environment.
Follow these directions to use the new service from the command line.
The new service is called the NIM Service Handler (NIMSH), and it runs on potential NIM clients. When
you define a system using NIMSH, no information is required for defining the client object. For
additional information, see “Using the NIM service handler for client communication” on page 274.
To define NIM clients using the nimquery command on the command line, type the following:
# nimquery -a host=hostname -a name=obj_name -d
For more information on defining NIM clients using NIMSH, see the nimquery command.
Verifying the status of your client machine:
Use the niminit command to verify the status of your client machine.
To verify that the niminit command completed successfully, enter the following command at the NIM
client:
# nimclient -l -l MachineObjectName
The system returns output similar to the following:
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221
Standalone2:
class
type
Cstate
platform
netboot_kernel
if1
cable_type1
iplrom_emu
prev_state
cpuid
Mstate
Cstate_result
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
machines
standalone
ready for a NIM operation
chrp
up
Network2 standalone2 08005acd536d
bnc
/dev/fd0
customization is being performed
000247903100
currently running
success
If the system output to this query indicates any errors, you must validate all of your data, checking for
accurate spelling, nonduplication of NIM names, and so forth, and redo the niminit operation.
Be sure to coordinate this operation with the system administrator of the NIM master, and ensure that all
NIM object names are unique in the entire NIM environment.
Note: You cannot perform this task with Web-based System Manager or SMIT.
Using installation images to install the base operating system on a NIM client
Using installation images to install the base operating system (BOS) on a NIM client is similar to the
traditional BOS installation from a tape or media device because the BOS image is installed from the
installation images in the lpp_source resource.
Prerequisites
v The NIM master must be configured, and lpp_source and SPOT resources must be defined. See
“Configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation resources” on page 215.
v The NIM client to be installed must already exist in the NIM environment. To add the client to the
NIM environment, see “Adding standalone clients to the NIM environment” on page 217.
Using installation images to install the base operating system on a NIM client using Web-based
System Manager:
With this procedure you can use installation images to install the base operating system on a NIM client
using Web-based System Manager.
1. From the NIM container, select the Machines container.
2. In the contents area, select a target standalone machine for the installation.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Install Operating System.
4. If the client machine being installed is not already a running, configured NIM client, NIM will not
automatically reboot the machine over the network for installation. If the client was not rebooted
automatically, initiate a network boot from the client to install it. For information about performing a
network boot, see Booting specific machines over the network.
5. After the machine boots over the network, the display on the client machine will begin prompting for
information about how to configure the machine during installation. Specify the requested
information to continue with the installation.
Note: To perform a nonprompted installation, follow the instructions in “Performing a nonprompted
BOS installation” on page 226 to complete the prerequisite tasks.
Using installation images to install the base operating system on a NIM client using SMIT:
Follow this procedure to install use installation images to install the base operating system a NIM client
using SMIT.
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
To install BOS on a NIM client using an rte installation, type smit nim_bosinst from the NIM master.
Select the TARGET for the operation.
Select rte as the installation TYPE.
Select the SPOT to use for the installation.
Select the LPP_SOURCE to use for the installation.
6. In the displayed dialog fields, supply the correct values for the installation options or accept the
default values. Use the help information and the LIST option to help you.
7. If the client machine being installed is not already a running, configured NIM client, NIM will not
automatically reboot the machine over the network for installation. If the client was not rebooted
automatically from SMIT, initiate a network boot from the client to install it. Use the procedure for
Booting specific machines over the network to initiate the network boot.
8. After the machine boots over the network, the display on the client machine will begin prompting for
information about how the machine should be configured during installation. Specify the requested
information to continue with the installation.
Note: To perform a nonprompted installation, follow the instructions in “Performing a nonprompted
BOS installation” on page 226 to complete the prerequisite tasks.
Using installation images to install the base operating system on a NIM client from the command
line:
Follow this procedure for using installation images to install the base operating system on a NIM client
from the command line.
1. To initiate the bos_inst operation, type:
# nim -o bos_inst -a source=rte -a lpp_source=Lpp_Source \
-a spot=SPOTName -a accept_licenses=yes -a boot_client=yes/no ClientName
Specify the resources to be used to support the installation and any additional options for customizing
the installation. To perform a simple rte installation, specify the lpp_source and SPOT resources.
If the client machine being installed is not already a running, configured NIM client, NIM will not
automatically reboot the machine over the network for installation. A network boot must be
performed manually on the machine. If that is the case, supply the boot_client=no attribute to the
bos_inst command. If the boot_client attribute value is not specified, it defaults to boot_client=yes.
2. If the client was not rebooted automatically, initiate a network boot from the client to install it. Follow
the Booting specific machines over the network procedure to perform the network boot.
3. After the machine boots over the network, the display on the client machine will begin prompting for
information about how to configure the machine during installation. Specify the requested
information to continue with the installation.
Example
The client machine, machine1, is not a running, configured NIM client. You should specify
boot_client=no. To install the client using the lpp_source named lpp_source1 and the SPOT named
spot1, enter:
# nim -o bos_inst -a source=rte -a lpp_source=lpp_source1 \
-a spot=spot1 -a accept_licenses=yes -a boot_client=no machine1
Note:
a. The steps to perform an rte installation are almost identical to the steps to perform other types of
BOS installations. The main difference is that rte must be specified in the source attribute of the
nim bos_inst command.
b. To perform a nonprompted installation, follow the instructions in “Performing a nonprompted
BOS installation” on page 226 to complete the prerequisite tasks.
c. For a complete description of the different ways that a BOS installation can be customized by
NIM, see “Using the NIM bos_inst operation” on page 192.
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Using a mksysb image to install the base operating system on a NIM Client
A mksysb installation restores BOS and additional software to a target from a mksysb image in the NIM
environment.
For a complete description of different ways to customize a BOS installation using NIM, see “Using the
NIM bos_inst operation” on page 192.
The mksysb images enable you to clone one system image onto multiple target systems. The target
systems might not contain the same hardware devices or adapters, require the same kernel (uniprocessor
or multiprocessor).
Because NIM configures TCPIP at the end of an installation, it is recommended that a bosinst_data
resource be allocated for cloning mksysb installations with the RECOVER_DEVICES field set to no. This
will prevent the BOS installation process from attempting to configure the devices as they were on the
source machine of the mksysb image.
Note: A NIM customization that affects the ODM database is not reflected after a mksysb installation on
the same system. Restoring the mksysb backup causes the ODM to be restored to the state it was in
when the backup was created.
Beginning in AIX 5.2, devices are not recovered if the mksysb image that is being installed was not
created on the same system.
Attention: If the system you have cloned is using OpenGL or graPHIGS, there may be some device
filesets from these LPPs that must be installed after a clone. OpenGL and graPHIGS have graphics
adapter-specific filesets, so if you cloned onto a system with a different graphics adapter, you will need to
create a bundle as follows:
echo OpenGL.OpenGL_X.dev > /usr/sys/inst.data/user_bundles/graphic_dev.bnd
echo PEX_PHIGS.dev >> /usr/sys/inst.data/user_bundles/graphic_dev.bnd
You can allocate this bundle when you install the mksysb, and the device filesets will be installed
automatically if OpenGL and graPHIGS are in your lpp_source.
Prerequisites
v The NIM master must be configured, and SPOT and mksysb resources must be defined. See
“Configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation resources” on page 215.
v The NIM client to be installed must already exist in the NIM environment. To add the client to the
NIM environment, see “Adding standalone clients to the NIM environment” on page 217.
v The mksysb must be available on the hard disk of the NIM master or a running NIM client, or the
mksysb image is created during this procedure from either the NIM master or a running NIM client.
v The SPOT and mksysb resources should be at the same level of AIX when used for NIM BOS
installations.
v Many applications, particularly databases, maintain data in sparse files. A sparse file is one with empty
space, or gaps, left open for future addition of data. If the empty spaces are filled with the ASCII null
character and the spaces are large enough, the file will be sparse, and disk blocks will not be allocated
to it.
This situation creates an exposure in that a large file will be created, but the disk blocks will not be
allocated. As data is then added to the file, the disk blocks will be allocated, but there may not be
enough free disk blocks in the file system. The file system can become full, and writes to any file in the
file system will fail.
It is recommended that you either have no sparse files on your system or that you ensure you have
enough free space in the file system for future allocation of the blocks.
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Using a mksysb image to install the base operating system on a NIM Client using Web-based System
Manager:
Follow this procedure for using a mksysb image to install the base operating system on a NIM Client
using Web-based System Manager.
1. In the NIM container, select the Resources container.
2. From the Resources menu, select New → Resource → New Resources.
3. Use the wizard to complete the task.
Note: To perform a nonprompted installation, follow the instructions in “Performing a nonprompted BOS
installation” on page 226 to complete the prerequisite tasks.
Using a mksysb image to install the base operating system on a NIM Client using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for using a mksysb image to install the base operating system on a NIM Client
using SMIT.
1. If the mksysb resource has already been created, skip to step 6. Otherwise, to create the mksysb
resource, enter the smit nim_mkres fast path.
2. Select mksysb from the list of resource types that can be defined.
3. In the displayed dialogs, supply the values for the required fields. Use the help information and the
LIST option to help you specify the correct values for defining your mksysb resource.
4. If the mksysb image does not exist, create it by supplying the values for the fields under System
Backup Image Creation Options.
Note: If the mksysb image already exists as a file on the hard disk of the NIM master or client, no
additional information is needed to define your mksysb resource.
5. Upon successful completion of this task, exit SMIT.
6. To use the mksysb resource to install a NIM client, enter the smit nim_bosinst fast path.
7. Select a TARGET for the operation.
8. Select mksysb as the installation TYPE.
9. Select the MKSYSB to use for the installation.
10. Select the SPOT to use for the installation.
11. In the displayed dialog fields, supply the correct values for the installation options or accept the
default values. Use the help information or the LIST option to help you.
12. Run the SMIT dialog to install the NIM client.
13. If the client machine being installed is not already a running, configured NIM client, NIM will not
automatically reboot the machine over the network for installation. If the client was not rebooted
automatically from SMIT, initiate a network boot from the client to install it. For information about
to initiating a network boot, see Booting specific machines over the network.
14. After the machine boots over the network, the display on the client machine will begin prompting
for information about how to configure the machine during installation. Specify the requested
information to continue with the installation.
Note: To perform a nonprompted installation, follow the instructions in “Performing a nonprompted
BOS installation” on page 226 to complete the prerequisite tasks.
Using a mksysb image to install the base operating system on a NIM client from the command line:
Follow this procedure for using a mksysb image to install the base operating system on a NIM client
from the command line.
1. If the mksysb resource has already been created, skip to step 2. To create the mksysb resource, enter:
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225
nim -o define -t mksysb -a server=ServerName \
-a location=LocationName -a mk_image=yes \
-a source=SourceMachine ResourceName
Specify the server name and location of the mksysb image. The mk_image and source attributes are
used to create the mksysb image if it does not already exist.
For a complete description of all the options that can be specified when creating a mksysb resource,
see “Using a mksysb resource” on page 182.
Example 1:
To define a mksysb resource, mksysb_res1, from an existing mksysb image located in
/export/backups/client_mksysb on the master, enter:
nim -o define -t mksysb -a server=master \
-a location=/export/backups/client_mksysb mksysb_res1
Example 2:
To create a mksysb image of the client machine, client1, in /export/resources/new_mksysb on the
master, and to define a mksysb resource, mksysb_res2, enter:
nim -o define -t mksysb -a server=master \
-a location=export/resources/new_mksysb -a mk_image=yes \
-a source=client1 mksysb_res2
2. To initiate the bos_inst operation, enter:
nim -o bos_inst -a source=mksysb -a mksysb=mksysb \
-a spot=SPOTName -a boot_client=yes/no ClientName
Specify the resources to be used to support the installation and any additional options for customizing
the installation. To perform a simple mksysb installation, specify the mksysb and SPOT resources.
If the client machine being installed is not already a running, configured NIM client, NIM will not
automatically reboot the machine over the network for installation. A network boot must be
performed manually on the machine. If that is the case, supply the boot_client=no attribute to the
bos_inst command. If the boot_client attribute value is not specified, it defaults to boot_client=yes.
3. If the client was not rebooted automatically, initiate a network boot from the client to install it. For
information about performing a network boot, see Booting specific machines over the network.
4. After the machine boots over the network, the display on the client machine will begin prompting for
information about how to configure the machine during installation. Specify the requested
information to continue with the installation.
Example 3:
To perform a mksysb installation using the mksysb, mksysb1, an optional lpp_source, lpp_source1,
and the SPOT, spot1, on client machine, machine1, which is not a running, configured NIM client,
enter:
nim -o bos_inst -a source=mksysb -a mksysb=mksysb1 \
-a lpp_source=lpp_source1 -a spot=spot1 -a boot_client=no machine1
Note:
1. The steps to perform a mksysb installation are almost identical to the steps to perform other types of
BOS installations. The main differences are that mksysb must be specified in the source attribute of
the nim bos_inst command, and a mksysb resource must be allocated for the operation.
2. To perform a nonprompted installation, follow the instructions in “Performing a nonprompted BOS
installation” to complete the prerequisite tasks.
Performing a nonprompted BOS installation
This procedure provides information about how to create a bosinst_data resource to use for a
nonprompted BOS installation.
After you have created the bosinst_data resource, refer to the following procedures to perform the
nonprompted installation:
v “Using installation images to install the base operating system on a NIM client” on page 222
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
v “Using a mksysb image to install the base operating system on a NIM Client” on page 224
Prerequisites
1. The NIM master must be configured, and lpp_source and SPOT resources must be defined. See
“Configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation resources” on page 215.
2. The NIM client to be installed must already exist in the NIM environment. To add the client to the
NIM environment, use the procedure “Adding standalone clients to the NIM environment” on page
217.
3. If any of the software to be installed during the BOS installation requires acceptance of a license
agreement, determine whether to accept the license agreement during BOS installation or defer
acceptance until after the client has booted. Note that license acceptance takes place at the client. For a
sample bosinst.data file that specifies the syntax to control license acceptance, see “Using the
bosinst.data file” on page 46.
Performing a nonprompted BOS installation using Web-based System Manager:
You can use the Install Base OS wizard to create a bosinst_data resource.
The bosinst_data resource can be used for a rte installation or a mksysb installation.
If you want to create the bosinst_data resource, continue with the following steps:
1. In the Resources container, from the Resources menu, select New → Resource. The Add New
Resource wizard displays.
2. Follow the wizard instructions to create a bosinst_data resource. The wizard creates a basic
bosinst.data file, which can be used ″as is″ or can be enhanced according to sample files. For a
sample bosinst.data file, see “bosinst.data file nonprompted network installation” on page 46. To do
a nonprompted installation, the bosinst_data resource must be created first.
Performing a nonprompted BOS installation using SMIT:
You can perform a nonprompted BOS installation using SMIT.
1. On the NIM master or any running NIM client, create a bosinst.data file that describes how a
machine should be configured during a BOS installation. For a sample bosinst.data file, see “Using
the bosinst.data file” on page 46.
2. To define the bosinst.data file as a bosinst_data resource in the NIM environment, enter the smit
nim_mkres fast path.
3. Select bosinst_data from the list of resource types displayed on your screen.
4. Supply the values for the required fields. Use the help information and the LIST option to help you
specify the correct values for defining your bosinst_data resource.
5. After the bosinst_data resource has been defined, follow the procedures for performing an rte or
mksysb installation on a standalone machine. Be sure to specify the bosinst_data resource to use
during the installation.
Performing a nonprompted BOS installation from the command line:
You can perform a nonprompted BOS installation from the command line.
1. On the NIM master or any running NIM client, create a bosinst.data file that describes how a
machine should be configured during a BOS installation.
Note: To accept license agreements for software to be installed during the BOS installation, specify -a
accept_licenses=yes on the nim -o bos_inst command.
2. To define the bosinst.data file as a bosinst_data resource, enter:
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# nim -o define -t bosinst_data -a server=ServerName \
-a location=LocationName NameValue
Using the server attribute, specify the name of the machine where the bosinst.data file is located.
Using the location attribute, specify the full path name of the bosinst.data file that is to be used as a
resource.
3. After the bosinst_data resource has been defined, follow the normal procedure for performing an rte
or mksysb installation on standalone machines. Be sure to specify that the bosinst_data resource be
used for the installation.
For example, to perform a nonprompted rte installation of machine1 using the lpp_source1, spot1, and
bosinst_data1 resources, enter:
# nim -o bos_inst -a source=rte -a lpp_source=lpp_source1 \
-a spot=spot1 -a accept_licenses=yes -a bosinst_data=bosinst_data1 \
machine1
Using NIM with ATM networks
Special processing is required to install a machine over an ATM network.
Unlike other network adapters, ATM adapters cannot be used to boot a machine. Installing a machine
over an ATM network requires special processing. Normally when a machine performs a network boot
over a specified adapter, the adapter is configured by IPL-ROM or firmware. Then a boot image is
transferred from the boot server to the client using tftp. This boot image performs further configuration
and mounts network installation resources before starting the BOS installation.
Because an ATM adapter cannot be configured by IPL-ROM or firmware, a boot image cannot be
obtained over the network to perform a BOS installation. The NIM bos_inst operation must copy a boot
image to the hard disk of the client before the machine is rebooted. Some Object Data Manager (ODM)
information is also saved on the client machine so that when the machine is rebooted, the ATM adapter
can be configured properly.
NIM clients may not have the programs installed to support the special processing required for
installation over ATM, so the /usr/lib/boot/bin and /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods directories are
mounted at the client from the NIM master. These directories contain the programs that run during the
setup performed by the NIM bos_inst operation.
After the initial setup completes, an at job is issued to reboot the machine after one minute has elapsed.
When the machine reboots, the boot image that was copied to the hard disk configures the ATM adapter
and mounts network installation resources for the BOS installation. The installation then proceeds as
normal until the customization phase. During NIM customization, the ATM adapter is not reconfigured
with a mktcpip command because the ODM already contains information carried over from before the
machine was reinstalled. All other aspects of NIM customization are the same as for non-ATM clients.
Converting a generic network into an ATM network:
You can convert generic networks into ATM networks.
Prerequisites
v Machines that will have the BOS installed over ATM must be running and configured NIM clients.
Note: Configured NIM clients have the bos.sysmgt.nim.client fileset installed, are registered in the
NIM master database, and have a valid /etc/niminfo file.
v BOS installations over ATM adapters will always use the at0 interface on the client.
v The NIM master fileset must be installed at AIX 4.3 or later with the update for ATM installation or
any superseding level.
v The SPOT that will be used to install the clients must be at version AIX 4.3 or later with the update for
ATM installation or any superseding level.
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Prior to the support of BOS installations over ATM, it was necessary to define ATM networks as ″generic″
networks for performing other types of NIM operations. To convert generic networks into ATM networks,
enter the following command:
nim -o change -a new_type=atm (network)
The adapter names for the client interfaces on the ATM network will automatically be set to at0 in the
NIM database.
To change the name of the network, type the following:
nim -o change -a new_name=new_network_name current_network_name
Recovering a client on an ATM network after boot failure:
Follow this procedure for recovering a client on an ATM network after boot failure.
Because BOS installation over ATM requires a special boot image to be written to the hard disk of the
client, the original boot image on the machine will be lost. If the installation is stopped or fails before
BOS is reinstalled, it will not be possible to perform a normal reboot of the client unless system
maintenance is performed. By performing system maintenance, a new boot image can be created on the
hard disk to allow the machine to be booted for normal use. Use the following procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Boot the client from the CD/DVD.
When the installation options are displayed, select the option to perform system maintenance.
Make the necessary selections to access the machine’s root volume group.
In the maintenance shell, run the following sequence of commands:
a. bosboot -ad /dev/ipldevice
b. BLVDISK='lslv -l hd5 | grep hdisk | head -1 |cut -d' ' -f1'
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
bootlist -m normal $BLVDISK
sync
sync
sync
reboot -q
Stopping the reboot of a client on an ATM network:
Follow this procedure for stopping the reboot of a client on an ATM network.
If errors are detected during the NIM bos_inst operation and the client machine has not rebooted, it is
possible to stop the machine from rebooting, and then execute the sequence of commands in the above
step 4 on the running system. To stop the reboot, use the following procedure:
1. List the at jobs on the machine by entering the command: at -1
The first name in the output field will be the name of the job. For example:
$ at -1
root.884205595.a Wed Jan
7 14:39:55 1998
2. To remove the at job, enter the following command: at -r name of job
For example:
$ at -r root.884205595.a
at file: root.884205595.a deleted
Note: The reboot can also be prevented by removing the shutdown script that the at job was instructed
to run by typing:
rm/tmp/_NIM_shutdown
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Customizing NIM clients and SPOT resources
This procedure describes how to use NIM to install software on running, configured NIM clients and
SPOT resources.
Prerequisites
v If the software is to be installed on a machine, the machine must be a running, configured NIM client
with push permissions enabled for the NIM master. Push permissions are enabled by default when a
client is configured or installed by NIM.
v If the software is to be installed on a SPOT resource, the server of the SPOT must be running.
v The installation image to be installed on the target is available in an lpp_source resource, and a check
operation was performed on the lpp_source at some point after the image was first copied there. (The
check operation updates the .toc file with information about the images present in the lpp_source.)
Customizing NIM clients and SPOT resources using Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for customizing NIM clients and SPOT resources using Web-based System
Manager.
1. From the NIM container, select the Machines container.
2. In the contents area, select a target machine (master or standalone), or in the Resources container,
select a target SPOT.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Install/Update Software → Install Additional Software (Custom) to
display the Install Software dialog.
4. Use the dialog to complete the task.
Customizing NIM clients and SPOT resources using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for customizing NIM clients and SPOT resources using SMIT.
The SMIT screens follow the same structure as those used for local installation operations performed on a
system. When performing NIM customization operations, select the SMIT screen that most closely
describes the installation you want to perform.
1. From the command line, enter the smit nim_task_inst fast path.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Select the SMIT menu item that matches the type of installation you want to perform.
Select a TARGET for the operation.
Select the lpp_source that contains the installation images to be used.
Select any other required resources.
In the final SMIT dialog, supply the values for the required fields or accept the defaults. Use the help
information and the LIST option to help you specify the correct values.
Customizing NIM clients and SPOT resources from the command line:
Follow this procedure for customizing NIM clients and SPOT resources from the command line.
To perform the installation operation, enter:
nim -o cust -a lpp_source=Lpp_Source -a filesets=FilesetsList \
-a installp_bundle=InstallpBundle \
-a installp_flags=InstallpFlags TargetName
You will specify the resources to use to support the installation and any additional attributes for
customization.
The software to be installed on the client can be specified on the command line using either the filesets
attribute or by specifying an installp_bundle resource that lists the software.
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
The default installp flags to be used to install the software are -a, -g, -Q, and -X. To specify a different set
of installp flags, you can list them in the installp_flags attribute.
Example 1:
To install the bos.diag and bos.dosutil filesets on the client, machine1, using the lpp_source resource
named lpp_source1, enter:
nim -o cust -a lpp_source=lpp_source1 \
-a filesets="bos.diag bos.dosutil" machine1
Example 2:
To install software into the SPOT resource, spot1, using the lpp_source resource, lpp_source1, and the
list of filesets specified in the installp_bundle resource, installp_bundle1, enter:
nim -o cust -a lpp_source=lpp_source1 \
-a installp_bundle=installp_bundle1 spot1
Note: Several other resources and attributes can be specified on the command line with the cust
operation. For a complete description of the cust operation, see “NIM operations” on page 190.
Configuring the NIM master and creating resources to support diskless and
dataless clients
Use this procedure only if the NIM environment is to be used exclusively for diskless and dataless client
management.
If the NIM environment is also to be used for installing and maintaining software on standalone
machines, follow the procedure for “Configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation
resources” on page 215.
Note: This procedure produces a large amount of output, especially when creating the SPOT resource. Be
sure to scan through the output to look for nonfatal errors and warnings that may not be evident from a
successful return code.
Prerequisites
The NIM master must have at least 300 MB of available disk space. If such space is not available, see
“Using client machines as resource servers” on page 280, and “Defining an lpp_source on CD/DVD-ROM
versus hard disk” on page 258.
Configuring the NIM master and creating resources to support diskless and dataless clients using
Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for configuring the NIM master and creating resources to support diskless and
dataless clients using Web-based System Manager.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Insert the AIX media into the appropriate drive of the designated master machine.
Start the Web-based System Manager application by typing wsm.
In the navigation area, select and expand the Software container.
While still in the navigation area, select the Installed Software container.
From the Software menu, choose New Software (Install/Update) → Install Additional Software.
In the Install Software dialog, select /dev/cd0 as the software source.
Specify bos.sysmgt.nim as the software to install.
8. In the navigation area, select the NIM container.
9. From the NIM menu, select Configure Environment.
10. Follow the wizard instructions to guide you through the configuration.
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Configuring the NIM master and creating resources to support diskless and dataless clients using
SMIT:
Follow this procedure for configuring the NIM master and creating resources to support diskless and
dataless clients using SMIT.
1. Insert the AIX media into the media or tape drive of the designated master machine.
2. To install the bos.sysmgt.nim fileset, enter the smit install_latest fast path.
3. Using the LIST option, select /dev/cd0 or /dev/rmt0 for the INPUT device / directory for software.
4. Specify bos.sysmgt.nim as the SOFTWARE to install.
5. Accept the default values for all other fields on this screen. After completion of this installation, exit
SMIT.
6. To configure the NIM master, enter the smit nimconfig fast path.
7. Specify a name in the Network Name field to be assigned to the NIM master’s network.
Using the LIST option, select the Primary Network Interface for the NIM Master.
Accept the default values for all other fields on this screen.
After the master is configured, exit SMIT.
Restart SMIT using the smit nim_mkres_dd_name_server fast path.
When prompted, select the NIM master as the server of the client resources.
Select yes in the Create a new SPOT? field, because there is not a SPOT currently defined in your
environment.
14. Using the LIST option, select /dev/cd0 or /dev/rmt0 as the input device for installation images.
15. Specify a name in the SPOT Name field.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
16. Specify names for the other resources to be created in the NIM environment. If a name is not
specified, the resource will not be created.
17. Select yes at the Remove all newly added NIM definitions and file systems if any part of this
operation fails? field. This will make it easier to restart this procedure if failures occur.
18. Accept the default values for all other fields on this screen.
Note: In most NIM environments, the SPOT will already exist to support base operating system
installation operations on standalone machines. In such environments, it is not necessary to create a
new SPOT.
Configuring the NIM master and creating resources to support diskless and dataless clients from the
command line:
Follow this procedure for configuring the NIM master and creating resources to support diskless and
dataless clients from the command line.
Insert the AIX media into the media or tape drive of the designated master machine.
If installing from a tape, skip to step 5. To create a mount point for the CD, type: mkdir /cdfs.
To create a cdrom file system, type: crfs -v cdrfs -p ro -d’cd0’ -m’/cdfs’
To mount the disk, type: mount /cdfs
To install the bos.sysmgt.nim fileset from the disk, type: installp -agX -d /cdfs/usr/sys/
inst.images bos.sysmgt.nim.
or to install the bos.sysmgt.nim fileset from a tape, type: installp -agX -d /dev/rmt0
bos.sysmgt.nim
6. If installing from CD/DVD, to unmount the cdrom file system, type: unmount /cdfs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
7. To configure the NIM master using the nimconfig command, type:
nimconfig -a attr1=value1 \
-a attr2=value2 \
...
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
For example, to configure a NIM master with the following configuration:
master host name = master1
primary network interface = tr0
ring speed = 16
platform = chrp
kernel type = mp
enter the following command sequence:
nimconfig -a netname=network1 -a pif_name=tr0 -a ring_speed=16 \
-a platform=chrp -a netboot_kernel=mp
Note: For additional attribute information, see the nimconfig command.
8. To create a file system in the rootvg volume group with 200 MB of space and a mount point of
/export/spot, enter:
crfs -v jfs -g rootvg -a size=$((2000*200)) \
-m /export/spot -A yes -p rw -t no \
-a frag=4096 -a nbpi=4096 -a compress=no
9. To mount the file system, enter:
mount /export/spot
10. The SPOT resource will be installed from images in the image source (in this example, the CD). The
server of the resource will be the NIM master, and the SPOT will be stored in the
/export/spot/spot1 directory. To create the SPOT resource, enter:
nim -o define -t spot -a source=/dev/cd0 -a server=master \
-a location=/export/spot spot1
11. To create a file system in the rootvg volume group with 150 MB of space and a mount point of
/export/dd_resource, enter:
crfs -v jfs -g rootvg -a size=$((2000*150)) \
-m /export/dd_resource -A yes -p rw -t no \
-a frag=4096 -a nbpi=4096 -a compress=no
12. To mount the file system, enter: mount /export/dd_resource
13. Create the diskless and dataless client resources in subdirectories of the /export/dd_resource
directory. Not all resources are required. Create only the resources to be used in your environment.
To create the root resource named root1 (required for diskless and dataless clients), enter:
nim -o define -t root -a server=master \
-a location=/export/dd_resource/root1 root1
To create the dump resource named dump1 (required for diskless and dataless clients), enter:
nim -o define -t dump -a server=master \
-a location=/export/dd_resource/dump1 dump1
To create the paging resource named paging1 (required for diskless clients), enter:
nim -o define -t paging -a server=master \
-a location=/export/dd_resource/paging1 paging1
To create the home resource named home1 (optional), enter:
nim -o define -t home -a server=master \
-a location=/export/dd_resource/home1 home1
To create the shared_home resource named shared_home1 (optional), enter:
nim -o define -t shared_home -a server=master \
-a location=/export/dd_resource/shared_home1 shared_home1
To create the tmp resource named tmp1 (optional), enter:
nim -o define -t tmp -a server=master \
-a location=/export/dd_resource/tmp1 tmp1
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Note:
a. The file systems created for the NIM resources are not required, but they can be beneficial for
storage management.
b. For more information about NIM resources, see “NIM resources” on page 173.
Adding a diskless or dataless client to the NIM environment
Use this procedure to add diskless and dataless clients to the NIM environment by adding an entry for
the client to the NIM database on the master.
This provides NIM with the information required to satisfy boot requests from the client. However,
resources for the diskless or dataless client machine must be initialized before the client will be able to
successfully boot and configure. See “Initializing and booting a diskless or dataless machine” on page 235
for more information. Diskless clients must mount all file systems from remote servers. Dataless clients
can have paging space, as well as the /tmp and /home file systems on the local disk. Neither diskless nor
dataless clients have a boot image on the local disk. Therefore, they must boot over the network.
Prerequisites
v The NIM master must be configured, and the resources for diskless or dataless clients must be defined.
For more information, see “Configuring the NIM master and creating resources to support diskless and
dataless clients” on page 231.
v You must know the subnet mask, the default gateway for the client machine, and the default gateway
for the NIM master.
Adding a diskless or dataless client to the NIM environment with Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for adding a diskless or dataless client to the NIM environment with Web-based
System Manager.
1. In the Machines container, from the Machines menu, select New → OK. The Add New Machine
wizard displays.
2. Follow the wizard instructions to add a diskless or dataless client to the NIM environment.
Adding a diskless or dataless client to the NIM environment using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for adding a diskless or dataless client to the NIM environment using SMIT.
1. To define a diskless or dataless client, enter the smit nim_mkmac fast path.
2. Specify the host name of the machine.
3. The SMIT screen displayed next depends on whether NIM already has information about the client’s
network. Supply the values for the required fields or accept the defaults. Use the help information
and the LIST option to help you specify the correct values to define the client machine.
Adding a diskless or dataless client to the NIM environment from the command line:
Follow this procedure for adding a diskless or dataless client to the NIM environment from the command
line.
To define a diskless or dataless client, enter:
nim -o define -t Diskless/Dataless \
-a platform=PlatformType -a netboot_kernel=NetbootKernelType \
-a if1=InterfaceDescription -a net_definition=DefinitionName \
-a ring_speed1=Speedvalue -a cable_type1=TypeValue \
-a iplrom_emu=DeviceName MachineName
Note: For detailed attribute information, see the descriptions of diskless and dataless clients in “NIM
machines” on page 163.
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Example 1:
To add the diskless client with the host name diskless1 to the NIM environment with the following
configuration:
host name=diskless1
platform=rspc
kernel=up
network type=ethernet
subnet mask=255.255.240.0
default gateway=gw1
default gateway used by NIM master=gw_master
cable type=bnc
network boot capability=yes (no emulation needed)
enter the following command sequence:
nim -o define -t diskless -a platform="rspc" \
-a netboot_kernel="up" -a if1="find_net diskless1 0" \
-a cable_type1="bnc" \
-a net_definition="ent 255.255.240.0 gw1 gw_master" \
diskless1
Example 2:
To add the dataless client with the host name dataless1 to the NIM environment with the following
configuration:
host name=dataless1
platform=rs6k
netboot_kernel=up
network type=token ring
subnet mask=255.255.225.0
default gateway=gw2
default gateway used by NIM master=gw_master
ring speed=16
network boot capability=no (use emulation on a diskette)
enter the following command sequence:
nim -o define -t dataless -a platform="rs6k" \
-a netboot_kernel="up" -a if1="find_net dataless1 0" \
-a ring_speed1="16" \
-a net_definition="tok 255.255.225.0 gw2 gw_master" \
-a iplrom_emu="/dev/fd0" dataless1
Note: If the find_net keyword in the if attribute causes NIM to successfully match a network definition
to the client definition, the net_definition attribute is ignored.
Initializing and booting a diskless or dataless machine
Use this procedure to configure and boot a machine as a diskless or dataless client in the NIM
environment.
Prerequisites
v The NIM master must be configured, and the resources for diskless and dataless clients must be
defined. See “Configuring the NIM master and creating resources to support diskless and dataless
clients” on page 231.
v The NIM client must already exist in the NIM environment. To add the client to the NIM environment,
use the “Adding a diskless or dataless client to the NIM environment” on page 234 procedure.
Initializing and booting a diskless or dataless machine with Web-based System Manager:
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235
Follow this procedure for initializing and booting a diskless or dataless machine with Web-based System
Manager.
1. Select the Machines container.
2. In the contents area, select the diskless or dataless machine you want to initialize.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Initialize Machine Resources.
4. Use the dialog to specify or select the resources to use for initialization. You will specify either the
Home resource or Shared Home resource for the machine, but not both.
5. After completion of the initialization operation, use the “Booting specific machines over the network”
on page 358 procedure to boot the client machine over the network.
Note: On older model rspc systems, it may be necessary to permanently set the bootlist from the
firmware menus to make the client always boot over the network. For other systems, the bootlist is
automatically set the first time the machine is booted as a diskless/dataless client.
6. After the client boots over the network and performs some initialization, the client will display
instructions for you to select the console for the machine.
Initializing and booting a diskless or dataless machine using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for initializing and booting a diskless or dataless machine using SMIT.
1. On the NIM master, enter the smit nim_dd_init fast path.
2. Select the client to be initialized from the list of clients displayed on your screen.
3. Supply the values for the required fields. Use the help information and the LIST option to help you
specify the correct values for the initialization options.
4. After completion of the initialization operation, use the Booting specific machines over the network
procedure to boot the client machine over the network.
Note: On older model rspc systems, it may be necessary to permanently set the bootlist from the
firmware menus to make the client always boot over the network. For other systems, the bootlist is
automatically set the first time the machine is booted as a diskless/dataless client.
5. After the client boots over the network and performs some initialization, the client will display
instructions for you to select the console for the machine.
Initializing and booting a diskless or dataless machine from the command line:
Follow this procedure for initializing and booting a diskless or dataless machine from the command line.
1. To initialize the client resources for diskless clients, enter the following on the NIM master:
nim -o dkls_init -a spot=SPOTName -a root=RootName \
-a dump=DumpName -a paging=PagingName ClientName
2. To initialize the client resources for dataless clients, enter the following on the NIM master:
nim -o dtls_init -a spot=SPOTName -a root=RootName \
-a dump=DumpName ClientName
Note: For detailed information about other attributes you can specify for the dkls_init and dtls_init
operations, see “Using the NIM dkls_init operation” on page 200 and “Using the NIM dtls_init
operation” on page 201.
3. After completion of the initialization operation, use the Booting specific machines over the network
procedure to boot the client machine over the network.
Note: On older model rspc systems, it may be necessary to permanently set the bootlist from the
firmware menus to make the client always boot over the network. For other systems, the bootlist is
automatically set the first time the machine is booted as a diskless/dataless client.
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4. After the client boots over the network and performs some initialization, the client will display
instructions for you to select the console for the machine.
Uninitializing diskless and dataless machines
Diskless and dataless machines are uninitialized by performing the reset operation.
The reset operation also provides the option to deallocate all resources for the machine. Deallocating all
resources from the diskless or dataless machine removes all root data for the machine. Without
deallocating resources, the uninitialize operation deallocates just the network boot image.
Uninitializing diskless and dataless machines using Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for uninitializing diskless and dataless machines using Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Machines container.
2. In the contents area, select the diskless or dataless machine you want to initialize.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Uninitialize Machine Resources.
4. Use the dialog to uninitialize and, if desired, deallocate all resources from the client.
Uninitializing diskless and dataless machines using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for uninitializing diskless and dataless machines using SMIT.
1. To uninitialize diskless and dataless machines, enter the smit nim_dd_uninit fast path.
2. Select the Target.
3. If you want to remove all root data, change the DEALLOCATE Resources field to yes.
Uninitializing diskless and dataless machines from the command line:
Follow this procedure for uninitializing diskless and dataless machines from the command line.
1. To uninitialize the client machine, enter the following on the NIM master:
nim -F -o reset ClientName
2. To deallocate all resources and remove root data, enter the following on the NIM master:
nim -o deallocate -a subclass=all ClientName
Installing to an alternate disk on a NIM Client
NIM allows you to install an AIX 4.3 or later mksysb image (mksysb resource) on a NIM client’s
alternate disk or to clone a NIM client’s current disk onto an alternate disk and apply updates. Because
the client system is running during installation, less time is required than for a normal installation.
Note: For information about the different ways NIM can customize an alternate disk installation, see
“Using the NIM alt_disk_install operation” on page 191.
Prerequisites
v The NIM master must be configured. To install a mksysb image onto the alternate disk, the mksysb
resource must be defined. See “Configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation resources”
on page 215.
v The NIM client must already exist in the NIM environment and must be running. To add the client to
the NIM environment, see “Adding standalone clients to the NIM environment” on page 217.
v The bos.alt_disk_install.rte fileset must be installed on the NIM client. To install a new fileset on a
NIM Client, see “Customizing NIM clients and SPOT resources” on page 230.
Installing to an alternate disk on a NIM Client using Web-based System Manager:
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237
Follow this procedure for installing to an alternate disk on a NIM Client using Web-based System
Manager.
1. Select the Machines Container.
2. In the contents area, select the standalone machine for the alternate disk installation.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Alternate Disk Installation → Clone the Rootvg to an Alternate Disk
or Install Mksysb on an Alternate Disk.
4. Use the dialog to finish the installation.
Installing to an alternate disk on a NIM Client using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for installing to an alternate disk on a NIM Client using SMIT.
1. Enter the smit nim_alt_mksysb fast path from the NIM master.
2. Select the Target Machine or Target Group to Install.
3. Enter the Target Disk or Disks on the Target machine.
4. Accept the default installation options, or supply different ones in the displayed dialog fields. Use the
help information and the LIST option for guidance.
5. The alternate disk installation will be initiated on the client, and progress can be seen with the lsnim
command (smit lsnim). If the Reboot when complete? option is set to yes and the Phase to execute is
all or includes Phase 3, the client will reboot from the newly installed disk when the alt_disk_install
command is complete.
6. To clone a disk onto a NIM client’s alternate disk, enter the smit nim_alt_clone fast path from the
NIM master.
Installing to an alternate disk on a NIM Client from the command line:
The alt_disk_install command is initiated on the target system, and progress is shown with the lsnim
command.
A log kept on the target system, /var/adm/ras/alt_disk_inst.log, contains progress messages and any error
or warning messages that might occur. The /var/adm/ras/nim.alt_disk_install log will contain debug
information, if requested.
Installing mksysb on an alternate disk:
Use this code for initiating the alt_disk_install operation.
Initiate the alt_disk_install operation by entering:
nim -o alt_disk_install -a source=mksysb -a mksysb=Mksysb \
-a disk='diskname(s)' ClientName
Specify the mksysb resource to be used and any additional options for customizing the installation. To
perform a simple alternate disk mksysb install, specify the source, mksysb, and disk resources.
Note: For detailed information about the mksysb resources, see “Using a mksysb resource” on page 182.
Cloning the rootvg to an alternate disk:
Use this command for cloning the rootvg to an alternate disk.
To clone a disk onto a NIM client’s alternate disk, enter:
nim -o alt_disk_install -a source=rootvg -a disk=diskname(s) ClientName
Specify any additional options for customizing the installation.
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Installing to an alternate disk on a NIM client from the command line - examples:
Here is an examples of performing an installation to an alternate disk on a NIM client from the command
line.
The client machine machine1 is a running system with a disk, hdisk2, that is not currently occupied by a
volume group.
v To install this disk with a mksysb resource named 51mksysb enter:
nim -o alt_disk_install -a source=mksysb -a mksysb=51mksysb \
-a disk=hdisk2 machine1
v To clone the rootvg to hdisk2 enter:
nim -o alt_disk_install -a source=rootvg -a disk=hdisk2 machine1
Installing the Virtual I/O Server using NIM
You can use the following procedures to install the Virtual I/O Server into environments managed by the
HMC or Integrated Virtualization Manager using Network Installation Management (NIM).
Prerequisites
You need the following files before beginning this procedure. These files are located on the Virtual I/O
Server installation media:
v nimol/ioserver_res/mksysb (the mksysb image)
In addition, the following system requirements must be met:
v A system running AIX 5.3 with 5300-03 or higher, which contains a file system with at least 700 MB
available.
v A logical partition of type Virtual I/O Server containing an Ethernet adapter connected to an active
network for installing the Virtual I/O Server. For information about creating logical partitions, see
Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and partition profile.
v A storage controller containing at least 16 GB of disk space.
After the prerequisites have been met, follow these steps to use NIM to install the Virtual I/O Server:
1. Insert the Virtual I/O Server DVD into the DVD drive.
2. Run the installios command without any arguments to start the installation wizard. The installios
wizard then guides you through the process of filling-out the necessary information to start an
installation on the Virtual I/O Server or on a Integrated Virtualization Manager.
If you run installios on a NIM client, then you are prompted for the location to the
bos.sysmgt.nim.master fileset. The NIM client is then configured as a NIM master. For more
information about command-line usage of installios, see the installios command.
The installios setup process creates the following NIM resources to start the installation:
v bosinst_data
v installp_bundle
v lpp_source
v mksysb
v resolv_conf
v SPOT
v Client definition
If you are installing the Virtual I/O Server logical partition, and if Secure Shell (SSH) and credentials
have been configured on the NIM master, then the partition is network-booted from the Hardware
Management Console (HMC) to begin the installation.
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If you are installing the Virtual I/O Server logical partition without SSH, or if you are installing the
Integrated Virtualization Manager, then go to step 3.
3. On the system on which the Virtual I/O Server software will be installed, boot the Virtual I/O Server
logical partition or the Integrated Virtualization Manager into System Management Services (SMS)
mode by following these steps:
v To boot the Virtual I/O Server logical partition into SMS:
a. On the HMC, right-click the partition to open the menu.
b. Click Activate. The Activate Partition menu opens with a selection of partition profiles. Be sure
the correct profile is highlighted.
c. Select the Open a terminal window or console session check box to open a virtual terminal
(vterm) window.
d. Click (Advanced...) to open the advanced options menu.
e. For the Boot mode, select SMS.
Click OK to close the advanced options menu.
Click OK. A vterm window opens for the partition.
In the vterm window, select Setup Remote IPL (Initial Program Load).
Select the network adapter that will be used for the installation.
Select IP Parameters.
Enter the client IP address, server IP address, and gateway IP address. Optionally, you can enter
the subnet mask. After you have entered these values, press Esc to return to the Network
Parameters menu.
l. Select Ping Test to ensure that the network parameters are properly configured. Press Esc twice
to return to the Main Menu.
m. From the Main Menu, select Select Boot Options.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.
n. Select Select Install/Boot Device.
o. Select Network.
p. Select the network adapter whose remote IPL settings you previously configured.
q. When prompted for Normal or Service mode, select Normal.
r. When asked if you want to exit, select Yes.
v To boot the Integrated Virtualization Manager into SMS:
a. Begin with the machine turned off.
b. Switch on the machine, and as icons begin to appear from left to right on the bottom of your
display, press F1.
Note: If the last icon is displayed before pressing F1, then you get the normal mode boot list
instead of SMS, so try again.
c. The System Management Services menu opens. Select Utilities.
d. From the System Management Services Utilities menu, select Remote Initial Program Load
Setup.
e. From the Network Parameters panel, select IP Parameters.
f. Set or change the displayed values so they are correct for your client system. Specify the IP
address of the following:
– The client machine you are booting in the client address field.
– Your NIM master server in the server address field.
– Your client’s gateway in the gateway address field.
– Your client’s subnet mask in the subnet mask field.
g. After you specify the addresses, press Enter to save the addresses and continue.
h. The Network Parameters window opens. Select the Ping option.
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i. Select the network adapter to be used as the client’s boot device.
j. Verify that the displayed addresses are the same as the addresses you specified for your boot
device. If the addresses are incorrect, press Esc until you return to the main menu. Then, go back
to step e. If they are correct, continue with k.
k. If the addresses are correct, press Enter to perform the ping test. The ping test might take
several seconds to complete.
l. If the ping test fails, verify that the addresses are correct, and analyze the network problem. If
the ping test is successfull, press Enter to acknowledge the success message.
m. Press Esc until you return to the System Management Services menu.
n. From the System Management Services menu, choose the Select Boot Devices option.
o. Select the network adapter to be used for the network boot from the list of displayed bootable
devices
After the installation is complete, the Virtual I/O Server logical partition or the Integrated Virtualization
Manager is ready to be configured and managed.
To remove all the NIM resources that were created from the installios setup process, run the installios
command with the -u flag. If the installios command fails to perform the cleanup, run installios -u and
specify the -f flag to force NIM to reset and deallocate resources to the client. This still leaves the NIM
environment, but removes all resources and directory structures created from the installios wizard. If,
however, you want to unconfigure NIM, or to uninstall the bos.sysmgt.nim.master fileset and return the
NIM master back to a NIM client if it was configured from a NIM client, specify installios -u with a -U
flag.
You can also install a Virtual I/O Server or a Integrated Virtualization Manager through the SMIT
interface. Run smitty installios to get access to the SMIT interface to the installios command. When
invoked on a NIM master, the administrator will have access to two options to Setup for Virtual I/O and
Integrated Virtualization Manager Installation and Cleanup after Virtual I/O and Integrated
Virtualization Manager Installation, where Configure Client as Master for Virtual I/O and Integrated
Virtualization Manager Installation is the only available option on a NIM client. Then fill out the
specific fields as required from the installios wizard to invoke the installios command to setup the
environment to initiate the installation, or to perform a cleanup.
NIM Commands
The following references provide more information on NIM commands.
The nim_master_setup command:
The nim_master_setup command installs the bos.sysmgt.nim.master fileset, configures the NIM master,
and creates the required resources for installation, including a mksysb system backup.
The nim_master_setup command uses the rootvg volume group and creates an /export/nim file system,
by default. You can change these defaults using the volume_group and file_system options. The
nim_master_setup command also allows you to optionally not create a system backup, if you plan to use
a mksysb image from another system. The nim_master_setup usage is as follows:
Usage nim_master_setup: Setup and configure NIM master.
nim_master_setup [-a mk_resource={yes|no}]
[-a file_system=fs_name]
[-a volume_group=vg_name]
[-a disk=disk_name]
[-a device=device]
[-B] [-v]
-B
-v
Do not create mksysb resource.
Enable debug output.
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Default values:
mk_resource = yes
file_system = /export/nim
volume_group = rootvg
device = /dev/cd0
The nim_clients_setup command:
The nim_clients_setup command is used to define your NIM clients, allocate the installation resources,
and initiate a NIM BOS installation on the clients.
The nim_clients_setup command uses the definitions in the basic_res_grp resource to allocate the
necessary NIM resources to perform a mksysb restore operation on the selected clients. The usage for
nim_clients_setup is as follows:
Usage nim_clients_setup: Setup and Initialize BOS install for NIM clients.
nim_clients_setup [-m mksysb_resource]
[-c] [-r] [-v] client_objects
-m
specify mksysb resource object name -OR- absolute file path.
-c
define client objects from client.defs file.
-r
reboot client objects for BOS install.
-v
Enables debug output.
Note: If no client object names are given, all clients in the NIM environment are enabled for BOS
installation; unless clients are defined using the -c option.
Other NIM commands reference:
The AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference set provides reference information about the NIM commands,
AIX operating system commands, and commands for other licensed programs for end users, system
administrators, and programmers.
These books contain examples and descriptions of the commands and their available flags. The command
entries are arranged in alphabetic order:
v AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference, Volume 1 contains commands ac through cx
v AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference, Volume 2 contains commands da through hy
v AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference, Volume 3 contains commands ib through mw
v AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference, Volume 4 contains commands na through rw
v AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference, Volume 5 contains commands sa through uu
v AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference, Volume 6 contains commands va through yp
For example, AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference, Volume 3 contains reference information for the NIM
lsnim command. The AIX 5L Version 5.3 Commands Reference, Volume 4 contains reference information for
the following NIM commands:
v nim
v nimclient
v nimconfig
v nimdef
v niminit
v nimquery
v nim_update_all
Migrating the Virtual I/O Server using NIM
You can use the following procedures to perform a migration installation of the Virtual I/O Server into
environments managed by the HMC or Integrated Virtualization Manager using NIM.
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Prerequisites
The Virtual I/O Server installation media is required.
In addition, the following system requirements must be met:
v A system running AIX 5.3 with 5300-03 or higher which contains a file system with at least 700 MB
available.
v A logical partition of type Virtual I/O Server containing an Ethernet adapter connected to an active
network for installing the Virtual I/O Server. For information about creating logical partitions, see
Creating the Virtual I/O Server logical partition and partition profile.
v A storage controller containing at least 16 GB of disk space.
After the prerequisites have been met, follow these steps to use NIM to migrate the Virtual I/O Server:
1. Insert the Virtual I/O Server Migration DVD into the DVD drive.
2. Run the installios command without any arguments to start the installation wizard. The installios
wizard then guides you through the process of filling-out the necessary information to start an
installation on the Virtual I/O Server or on an Integrated Virtualization Manager.
If you run installios on a NIM client, then you are prompted for the location to the
bos.sysmgt.nim.master fileset. The NIM client is then configured as a NIM master. For more
information about command-line usage of installios, see the installios command.
The installios setup process creates the following NIM resources to start the migration installation:
v bosinst_data
v installp_bundle
v lpp_source
v resolv_conf
v SPOT
v Client definition
If you are installing the Virtual I/O Server logical partition, and if Secure Shell (SSH) and credentials
have been configured on the NIM master, then the partition is network-booted from the HMC to
begin the installation.
If you are installing the Virtual I/O Server logical partition without SSH, or if you are installing the
Integrated Virtualization Manager, then go to step 3.
3. On the system on which the Virtual I/O Server software will be installed, boot the Virtual I/O Server
logical partition or the Integrated Virtualization Manager into System Management Services (SMS)
mode by following these steps:
v To boot the Virtual I/O Server logical partition into SMS:
a. On the HMC, right-click the partition to open the menu.
b. Click Activate. The Activate Partition menu opens with a selection of partition profiles. Be sure
the correct profile is highlighted.
c. Select the Open a terminal window or console session check box to open a virtual terminal
(vterm) window.
d. Click (Advanced...) to open the advanced options menu.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
For the Boot mode, select SMS.
Click OK to close the advanced options menu.
Click OK. A vterm window opens for the partition.
In the vterm window, select Setup Remote IPL (Initial Program Load).
Select the network adapter that will be used for the installation.
Select IP Parameters.
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243
k. Enter the client IP address, server IP address, and gateway IP address. Optionally, you can enter
the subnet mask. After you have entered these values, press Esc to return to the Network
Parameters menu.
l. Select Ping Test to ensure that the network parameters are properly configured. Press Esc twice
to return to the Main Menu.
m. From the Main Menu, select Select Boot Options.
n. Select Select Install/Boot Device.
o. Select Network.
p. Select the network adapter whose remote IPL settings you previously configured.
q. When prompted for Normal or Service mode, select Normal.
r. When asked if you want to exit, select Yes.
v To boot the Integrated Virtualization Manager into SMS:
a. Begin with the machine turned off.
b. Switch on the machine, and as icons begin to appear from left to right on the bottom of your
display, press F1.
Note: If the last icon is displayed before pressing F1, then you get the normal mode boot list
instead of SMS, so try again.
c. The System Management Services menu opens. Select Utilities.
d. From the System Management Services Utilities menu, select Remote Initial Program Load
Setup.
e. From the Network Parameters panel, select IP Parameters.
f. Set or change the displayed values so they are correct for your client system. Specify the IP
address of the following:
– The client machine you are booting in the client address field.
– Your NIM master server in the server address field.
– Your client’s gateway in the gateway address field.
– Your client’s subnet mask in the subnet mask field.
g. After you specify the addresses, press Enter to save the addresses and continue.
h. The Network Parameters window opens. Select the Ping option.
i. Select the network adapter to be used as the client’s boot device.
j. Verify that the displayed addresses are the same as the addresses you specified for your boot
device. If the addresses are incorrect, press Esc until you return to the main menu. Then, go back
to step e. If they are correct, continue with k.
k. If the addresses are correct, press Enter to perform the ping test. The ping test might take
several seconds to complete.
l. If the ping test fails, verify that the addresses are correct, and analyze the network problem. If
the ping test is successfull, press Enter to acknowledge the success message.
m. Press Esc until you return to the System Management Services menu.
n. From the System Management Services menu, choose the Select Boot Devices option.
o. Select the network adapter to be used for the network boot from the list of displayed bootable
devices
After the migration installation is complete, the Virtual I/O Server logical partition or the Integrated
Virtualization Manager is booted to its configuration prior to the migration installation.
To remove all the NIM resources that were created from the installios setup process, run the installios
command with the -u flag. If the installios command fails to perform the cleanup, run installios -u and
specify the -f flag to force NIM to reset and deallocate resources to the client. The NIM environment still
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exists, but all resources and directory structures created from the installios wizard are removed. If,
however, you want to unconfigure NIM, or uninstall the bos.sysmgt.nim.master fileset and return the
NIM master to a NIM client (if it was configured from a NIM client), specify installios -u with a -U flag.
Migrating a NIM client to a POWER5 logical partition using
nim_move_up
The nim_move_up application allows you to easily migrate a back-level AIX system onto an logical
partition (LPAR) residing on a POWER5™ (or newer) server.
The system must meet the following requirements before you can run the nim_move_up application
properly.
v NIM Master Requirements
– A configured NIM master running AIX 5.3 with 5300-03 or above
–
–
–
–
Perl 5.6 or above
Openssh (obtainable from the Linux Toolbox media)
At least one stand-alone NIM client running AIX 4.3.3.75 or above
AIX product media version AIX 5L with 5200-04 or higher, or AIX product media version 5.3 or
higher, or equivalent lpp_source and SPOT NIM resources
v Server and resource requirements
v A POWER5 server with sufficient hardware resources to support the target clients’ equivalent POWER5
configuration
v If virtual resources will be used to migrate the clients, an installed and configured Virtual I/O Server is
required
v HMC controlling the POWER5 server, along with sufficient privileges to start, stop, and create LPARs
v root user authority
This nim_move_up process requires no downtime on the part of the original client. In addition,
nim_move_up is capable of migrating a client onto virtualized hardware, such as virtual disks, using the
Virtual I/O capabilities of the POWER5 server. This migration process can be completed by the
nim_move_up application in phases to allow more control over the process, or it can be completed all at
once without any user interaction required.
With the nim_move_up application, you can use a NIM master and its clients as the starting point for a
migration that produces the following hardware environment:
v The original NIM master
v LPARs on POWER5 server that correspond to the original NIM clients and are controlled by the NIM
master
v HMC to control the LPARs on the POWER5 servers, communicated with by the NIM master through
SSH
v The original NIM clients
The nim_move_up migration process is completed in the following phases to allow more control over the
process.
1. The Create NIM Resources phase creates the needed NIM resources to perform the migration steps if
they don’t already exist or are not provided beforehand.
2. The Pre-migration Software Assessment phase performs an assessment on each target client to
determine what software is installed and can be migrated. Any software that is missing from the
lpp_source will be added from the source of installation images that should be provided to
nim_move_up.
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245
3. The Client Hardware and Utilization Data Gathering phase gathers data about each target client’s
hardware resources and attempts to assess how much of those resources are utilized on average over
a given amount of time.
4. The POWER5 Resource Availability Data Gathering and Client Resource Data Translation phase searches
the given managed system for available hardware resources. Uses the data gathered in the previous
phase to create an equivalent LPAR configuration that utilizes the managed system’s available
resources. Creates the client LPARs with virtual I/O resources instead of physical I/O resources if
nim_move_up was provided a Virtual I/O Server LPAR to work with. Creates the appropriate
adapters and configuration on the Virtual I/O Server as they are needed.
5. The Create System Backups of Target Clients phase creates an installable image of each target client and
its resources using the mksysb command.
6. The Migrate Each System Backup phase uses the nimadmin command to migrate the newly-created
installable images to the new level of AIX.
7. The Allocate NIM Resources to New LPARs phase uses the network information provided to the
nim_move_up application to create NIM standalone client objects for the new LPARs created in the
POWER5 Resource Availability Data Gathering and Client Resource Data Translation phase. Allocates the
appropriate NIM resources and runs a bos_inst pull operation (i.e. NIM will not attempt to boot the
client) on each NIM client.
8. The Initiate Installation on LPARs phase reboots each LPAR via the control host (HMC partition) and
initiates the installation.
Note: This phase ends when the installation begins. The actual progress of the installation is not
monitored.
9. Post-migration Software Assessment
Assesses the overall success of the migration after each installation, and reports on any software
migration issues. It may be necessary to manually correct the errors reported for filesets that fail to
migrate.
10. Post-installation Customization
Performs a NIM customization operation on each client with the values provided if an alternate
lpp_source, fileset list, or customization script was provided to the nim_move_up application. This
allows for the optional installation of additional software applications or for any additional
customization that may be needed.
Migrating a NIM client to a POWER5 logical partition using nim_move_up from
SMIT
The SMIT fastpath to the root menu of nim_move_up is smitty nim_move_up.
After all prerequisites needed to run the nim_move_up application have been met, nim_move_up
performs the migration process in two steps: configuration and phase execution. You can run the
nim_move_up allocation from SMIT by completing the following steps:
1. Enter smitty nim_move_up_config. The Configure nim_move_up Input Values panel opens.
2. Enter information in the required fields. This information is retained by the nim_move_up
application, unless the application is reset. You can change this information at any time from the
Configure nim_move_up Input Values panel.
3. To begin the actual migration process, enter smitty nim_move_up_exec. The Execute nim_move_up
Phases panel opens.
4. Provide an appropriate answer to the option Execute All Remaining Phases? on the Execute
nim_move_up Phases panel and press Enter.
You can use other panels to interact with the nim_move_up application, in addition to the Configure
nim_move_up Input Values panel and the Execute nim_move_up Phases panel:
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Display the Current Status of nim_move_up
Selecting this menu option is equivalent to running nim_move_up with the -S flag. The next
phase to be executed and a listing of all the saved options are displayed.
Configure SSH Keys on Target HMC
This SMIT panel provides a simple interface to setting up SSH keys on the remote control host
(HMC). Using this panel is the equivalent of using the -K command line option. Configuring SSH
keys on the remote control host enables the unattended remote execution of commands from the
NIM master.
Unconfigure nim_move_up
This SMIT panel provides an interface to unconfiguring the nim_move_up environment.
Unconfiguring the environment removes all state information, including what phase to execute
next, saved data files generated as a result of the execution of some phases, and all saved input
values. Optionally, all NIM resources created through nim_move_up can also be removed. Using
this panel is the equivalent of using the -r command line option.
Migrating a NIM client to a POWER5 logical partition using nim_move_up from the
command line
Once all prerequisites needed to run the nim_move_up application have been met, nim_move_up
performs the migration process in two steps: configuration and phase execution.
Command-Line Usage
nim_move_up {[-S] | [-K [-h control_host] ] | [-r [-R] ]} | { [-c NIM_client] [-i target_ip[-ending_ip]] [-s
subnet_mask] [-g gateway] [-h control_host] [-m managed_sys] [-V vio_server [-e] [-D] ] [-I img_src] [-l
resource_dir] [-t seconds] [-p loops] [-j nimadm_vg] [-L lpp_source] [-U spot] [-B bosinst_data] [-E exclude_files]
[-C script_resource] [-b installp_bundle] [-f fix_bundle] {{[-n] [-d]} | -O} [-q] }
Table 10. Required Flags
Flag
-c NIM_client
Either a NIM standalone client (standalone object type), or a
NIM machine group (mac_group object type). The indicated
clients must be reachable via the network from the NIM master
and must allow the NIM master to execute commands on them.
If you specify a NIM machine group in this argument, they
must all reside in the same NIM network. The clients will be the
target machines that will be migrated onto equivalent LPARs on
a POWER5 server.
-i target_ip[-ending_ip]
The IP address that the new migrated client will be configured
with after it is installed onto the POWER5 server. If a NIM
machine group is supplied to the -c option, a range of IP
addresses must be supplied here and there must be enough
addresses in the range to enumerate the amount of clients that
will be migrated.
-s subnet_mask
The subnet mask that the clients will be configured with after
the migration to the POWER5 server.
-g gateway
The IP address of the default gateway that the clients will be
configured with after the migration to the POWER5 server.
-h control_host
The hostname or IP address of the HMC that is used for
hardware control of the POWER5 server that nim_move_up is
to use.
-m managed_sys
The name of the managed system corresponding to the
POWER5 server as tracked by the HMC.
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Table 10. Required Flags (continued)
Flag
-I img_src
Path to the source of the installation images to be used to create
the NIM resources needed to perform the migration and
installation. This path can be a device, such as dev/cd0 if using
AIX product media, or a path to a location on the file system
containing the installation images. The level of AIX present in
the installation images must be AIX 5L Version 5.2 with the
5200-04 Recommended Maintenance package or above, or AIX
5.3 or above.
-l resource_dir
Path to a location on the file system that will contain any new
NIM resources created through nim_move_up. The location
should have enough space to accommodate an lpp_source and a
spot unless existing resources were provided through the -L and
-U options.
Table 11. Execution and Control Flags
Flag
-S
Displays the status of the execution of the current phase or the
next phase to be executed. All saved values are displayed as
well. nim_move_up exits immediately after displaying the
information. This flag cannot be used with any other options.
-n
Executes only the next phase of the nim_move_up migration
process. nim_move_up will exit when the phase completes or
fails. If you do not provide this flag, all the subsequent phases
will be executed, and nim_move_up will exit when all the
phases have executed, or one of them has failed.
-d
nim_move_up will execute in the background and return
control of the terminal to the caller. The progress of
nim_move_up can be tracked through the -S flag described
above.
-q
Quiet mode. No output will be printed to the terminal, but will
instead be kept in the logs. This flag has no effect if
nim_move_up is being executed with the -d flag described
above.
-O
Only save supplied values. nim_move_up will save values
provided through other options and then exit without executing
any phases. This flag cannot be used with any other of the
execution or control flags.
-K
Configures SSH keys on the specified HMC to allow the
unattended remote execution of commands from th NIM master
without password prompts. This flag cannot be used with any
other options except for the -h option.
-r
Unconfigures nim_move_up, which causes it to reset all its
saved data, including saved options, phase-specific data, and
current phase information. This operation must be executed if
the migration process is to be started over for the migration of a
new client or set of clients.
-R
Removes all NIM resources created by nim_move_up in
addition to unconfiguring the environment. This flag can only
be used with -r, described above.
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Table 12. Optional Flags
Flag
-V vio_server
LPAR name of a Virtual I/O Server residing on the POWER5
server denoted through the -m flag described above.
-e
Forces the use of physical network adapters instead of shared
ethernet adapters in creating the new LPAR on the POWER5
server when a Virtual I/O Server LPAR has been specified. This
flag is only valid when used with the -V option described
above.
-D
Forces the use of physical storage controllers instead of virtual
SCSI adapters in creating the new LPAR on the POWER5 server
when a Virtual I/O Server LPAR has been specified. This flag is
only valid when used with the -V option described above.
-p loops
Number of times to execute system analysis tools on the target
NIM clients in analyzing its resource utilization. The final
resource utilization data will be the average of the values
obtained from each loop and will be taken into account when
determining the equivalent POWER5 resources from which the
migrated LPAR will be derived. If you do not provide this
option, it will default to 1 loop.
-t seconds
Number of seconds for which each loop runs. If you do not
provide this option, it will default to 10 seconds.
-j nimadm_vg
The volume group to be used by the underlying nimadm call
for data caching. If this option is not provided, the default value
will be rootvg.
-L lpp_source
An existing lpp_source NIM resource to whose AIX level the
target clients will be migrated to. If this option is not provided,
nim_move_up will attempt to create a new lpp_source from the
installation image source provided through the -I option,
described above.
-U spot
An existing spot NIM resource that will be used in the
migration and installation of the clients. If this option is not
provided, a new spot will be created from the provided
lpp_source NIM resource (see the -L and -I options above).
-B bosinst_data
An existing bosinst_data NIM resource that will be used by
nim_move_up to install the new clients onto the POWER5
LPARs. If this option is not provided, nim_move_up will
generate a bosinst_data resource with default unattended
installation values.
-E exclude_files
An existing exclude_files NIM resource that nim_move_up will
use when creating a mksysb of the original clients. If this option
is not provided, nim_move_up will generate an exclude_files
resource that will exclude the contents of /tmp from the backup.
-C script_resource
An existing script NIM resource that, if provided, nim_move_up
will execute in phase 10 (Post-installation Customization) on all
of the newly migrated LPARs.
-b installp_bundle
An existing installp_bundle NIM resource whose software will be
installed on each of the new migrated LPARs in phase 10
(Post-installation Customization) if the option is provided to
nim_move_up.
-f fix_bundle
An existing fix_bundle NIM resource whose APARs will be
installed on each of the new migrated LPARs in phase 10
(Post-installation Customization) if the option is provided to
nim_move_up.
Example:
To configure the nim_move_up application with the required options and to start the first phase of the
migration process, you would enter the following:
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249
nim_move_up -c client1 -i 192.168.1.100 -s 255.255.255.0 -g 192.168.1.1 -h hmc1.mydomain.com -m
my-p5 -l /big/dir -I /dev/cd0 -n
where
v -c client1 is a NIM standalone client reachable via the network from the NIM master
v -i 192.168.1.100 is the IP address that the new migrated client will be configured with after it is
installed onto the POWER5 server
v -s 255.255.255.0 is the subnet mask that the clients will be configured with after the migration to the
POWER5 server
v -g 192.168.1.1 is the IP address of the default gateway that the clients will be configured with after the
migration to the POWER5 server
v -h hmc1.mydomain.com is the hostname or IP address of the HMC that is used for hardware control of
the POWER5 server to be used by the nim_move_up application
v -m my-p5 is the name of the managed system corresponding to the POWER5 server as tracked by the
HMC
v -l /big/dir is the path to a location on the file system that will contain any new NIM resources created
by the nim_move_up application
v -I /dev/cd0 is the path to the source of the installation images to be used to create the NIM resources
needed to perform the migration and installation
v -n begins the next phase of the migration process.
Then, to execute all remaining phases of the migration process in the background and save your
agreement to accept all licenses, you would enter
nim_move_up -Y -d
Performing advanced NIM configuration tasks
You can perform many advanced Network Installation Management (NIM) configuration tasks using the
Web-based System Manager NIM interface, System Management Interface Tool (SMIT), and the command
line.
NFS client communication options management
AIX Network Installation Management (NIM) provides several options for network security and firewall
enhancements.
The NIM Service Handler (NIMSH) provides you with several options for remote service authentication
and limits the network socket selection of the service. NIMSH provides NIM users with a client
configurable option for service authentication. Use Network File System (NFS) V4, which is part of NIM,
to encrypt or secure network data on resource servers.
NFS V4 provides information-security functions:
Identification
Establishes the identity of any users, hosts, or services
Authentication
Confirms the identity of a user, host, or service
Authorization
Controls what shared information each user or entity can access
The information-security functions in the network installation environment use NIM’s object-oriented
description of an install model. Resource objects in the NIM database must contain additional attributes
for describing the security options required when accessing NIM resources through NFS V4.
NFS V4 host identification:
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The NFS V4 server identifies client hosts using these methods.
Basic host identification
An NFS V4 server identifies client hosts by the IP address given in the Remote Procedure Call
(RPC) packets. The NFS server turns this IP address into a host name using a host resolver, which
gets its information from the Domain Name System (DNS) or the local /etc/hosts file.
Kerberos host identification
Kerberos authentication uses a unique identifier called a machine principal to identify hosts. The
machine principal is established when configuring a host into a Kerberos realm. The machine
principal name is the fully qualified host name prefixed with host/ (for example,
host/jsblade00.austin.ibm.com).
Kerberos can indirectly identify a host is through the NFS service principal (the identification of
the NFS service running on the host). The service principal name is the fully qualified host name
prefixed with nfs/ (for example, nfs/jsblade00.austin.ibm.com).
NFS V4 host authentication:
NFS servers always identify client hosts by IP addresses and host names, regardless of the authentication
method that you use. When Kerberos authentication is the only allowed security method for an exported
directory, the NFS client session must be properly authenticated before gaining access to any of the data
in that directory.
NFS V4 normally authenticates clients at the user level rather than at the host level. The two user
authentication methods are auth_sys (UNIX authentication) and RPCSEC_GSS (Kerberos). Under the
auth_sys security method, the user is authenticated at the client, usually through a logon name and
password. The NFS server trusts the user and group identities presented by its clients. When an NFS
client and server are using Kerberos 5 authentication, the client and server must establish a security
context for NFS requests. The security context is a data structure that indicates that the client and server
have completed a mutual authentication procedure. If requested, the context also contains the encryption
keys that are used for protecting exchanged data. The security context has a lifetime and might need to
be refreshed by the client.
For more information about the RPCSEC_GSS authentication process, see the readme files, Network File
System security, and the Commands reference.
NFS V4 host authorization:
Host authorization in an Network File System (NFS) context means controlling which NFS client hosts
can mount exported directories from the NFS server. This is accomplished in AIX with a combination of
the /etc/exports file and the exportfs command.
NFS V4 has the security-related options as shown in the following table.
Option
Description
vers
Controls which version NFS mounts you can use. Possible values are 2, 3, and 4. Versions 2 and 3 cannot be enforced
separately. Specifying Version 2 or 3 allows access by clients using either NFS protocol Versions 2 or 3. Version 4 can
be specified independently and must be specified to allow access by clients using Version 4 protocol.
The default value in NIM is 3. Valid values in NIM are 3 and 4.
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251
Option
Description
sec
Controls which security methods can be used. Possible values are:
sys
UNIX authentication, default option
dh
DES authentication
krb5
Kerberos, authentication only
krb5i
Kerberos, authentication, and integrity
krb5p
Kerberos, authentication, integrity, and privacy
none
Allows mount requests to proceed with anonymous credentials
The default value in NIM is sys. Valid values in NIM are sys and krb5.
The sec option can appear more than once in the exports definition for a directory. This allows different
access options, such as ro, rw, and root, to be specified for the different security options. For example,
hosts using the sys security method might only be allowed read access, while hosts using the krb5
security method might be allowed read and write access.
Using NIM in NFS, there is a standard set of export options that you can use. You can also use
user-defined options, but they require you to manage NFS exports for the directory or file system using
the NFS export commands, such as mknfsexp, chnfsexp, and rmnfsexp. These export options are
separate from NIM export options.
Prerequisites for setting up a NIM environment with NFS security using Kerberos 5:
Your system must meet these prerequisites before you can configure Kerberos 5.
v The NIM master must have AIX 6.1 or later installed.
v The NIM master must be configured.
v IBM Network Access Server (NAS) Version 1.4 or later from the AIX Expansion Pack CD server files
must be installed:
– krb5.lic
– krb5.client
– krb5.server
– modcrypt.base
v Kerberos services must be configured and authenticated with the Key Distribution Center (KDC)
server.
v Any participating NIM clients must have AIX 6.1 or later installed.
v IBM NAS Version 1.4 or later from the AIX Expansion Pack CD client files must be installed:
– krb5.lic
– krb5.client
– modcrypt.base
v The Kerberos client must be configured and authenticated with the KDC server.
While NIM is capable of configuring NFS V4, due to the variation of Kerberos configurations, you must
manage the KDC configuration and services outside of NIM. Use the sec option in the NIM database for
export-list generation only. You can use the sample scripts in the bos.sysmgt.nim.client fileset to set up
Kerberos. After Kerberos 5 is configured in the NIM environment, you must authenticate and obtain
tickets for each client and the NIM master. Use the usr/krb5/bin/kinit command for ticket-granting
options.
For additional help for NIM and Kerberos 5, see the /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/README file.
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Managing NFS client communication options using SMIT:
Use the following procedure to configure the NFS client communication options using SMIT.
v Type smitty nim_global_nfs on the NIM client.
v Select any of the NFS client options as shown in the following table.
Option
Value
Enable/Disable Global Usage of NFS Reserved
Ports?
Specifies that a non-reserved IP port number is to be used. The value is
disable. A value of enable uses a reserved IP port number when the NFS
client-communicates with the NFS server.
Allow NIM to enable port-checking on NIM
master?
Checks whether an NFS request originated from a privileged port. The default
value is no. A value of yes directs the NFS server to do port checking on the
incoming NFS requests.
Specify the NFS Local Domain
Specify that the NFS local domain of the system should be changed. The value
that you specify is used to create the NIM environment attribute nfs_domain
and is used as the domain name in the /etc/nfs/local_domain file.
Note: You must set this option before exporting NIM resources as NFS V4
mounts.
Managing NFS client-communication options from the command line:
Use these commands to configure NFS client-communication options on the NIM master.
Use the following commands on the NIM master:
v To enable global usage of NFS reserved ports, use the following command:
nim -o change -a nfs_reserved_port=yes master
v To disable global usage of NFS reserved ports, use the following command:
nim -o change -a nfs_reserved_port=no master
v To enable port checking on the NIM master NFS server, use the following command:
nfso -o portcheck=1
v To disable port checking on the NIM master NFS server, use the following command:
nfso -o portcheck=0
v To create a simple KDC server and principals on the NIM master NFS server, use the following
command:
/usr/samples/nim/krb5/config_rpcsec_server -p <password> -u <user principal name>
This command creates a new-system user name based on the principal name and password provided.
See Sample KDC Server Definition File.
v To delete the KDC server and principals on the NIM master NFS server, use the following command:
/usr/sbin/unconfig.krb
This command removes all Kerberos 5 configuration information.
Removing machines from the NIM environment
You can remove a machine from the NIM environment by removing the client information from the NIM
database.
Note: When a client is removed from the NIM environment, NIM attempts to remove the /etc/niminfo
file from the client machine. However, the client fileset and rhost permission for the NIM master must be
removed manually from the client system if such additional cleanup is desired.
Removing machines from the NIM environment using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure to remove a machine from the NIM environment using the Web-based System
Manager.
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253
1. Select the Machines container.
2. In the contents area, select a machine to remove from the NIM environment.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Delete to remove the machine.
Removing machines from the NIM environment using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for removing a machine from the NIM environment using SMIT.
1. Enter the smit nim_rmmac fast path.
2. Select the machine to remove.
3. In the displayed dialog fields, accept the defaults.
Removing machines from the NIM environment using the command line:
Follow this procedure for removing machines from the NIM environment using the command line.
Enter:
nim -o remove MachineName
where MachineName is the name of the machine to be removed.
Creating additional interface attributes
The primary interface or the first interface (if1) is created when the master is activated, and a sequence
number is used to identify the additional interfaces (if2, if3, ...) in the machine object definition.
To create an additional if attribute for the master object, use either Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or
the nim -o change command operation.
Creating additional interface attributes using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for creating additional interface attributes using the Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Machines container.
2. In the contents area, select any machine (master, standalone, diskless, or dataless).
3. From the Selected menu, choose Properties. The General page of the Machine Properties notebook for
the selected machine displays.
4. Select the NIM Interfaces tab.
5. Follow the dialog instructions.
Creating additional interface attributes from SMIT:
Follow this procedure for creating additional interface attributes from SMIT.
1. To create an additional if attribute, enter the smit nim_mac_if fast path.
2. Select the Define a Network Install Interface option.
3. Select the machine object name. In the example, this is master.
4. Enter the host name for the interface.
5. Complete the network-specific information in the entry fields on the Define a Network Install
Interface screen.
Note: If a NIM network does not already exist corresponding to the IP address of the host name
specified for the interface, additional network information will be requested so the network can be
defined.
Creating additional interface attributes from the command line:
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Use this procedure for creating additional interface attributes from the command line.
To create an additional if attribute for the master object, enter:
For Token-Ring:
nim -o change -a ifseq_no='NetworkObjectName AdapterHostName \
AdapterHardwareAddress' -a ring_speedseq_no=Speed master
For Ethernet:
nim -o change -a ifseq_no='NetworkObjectName AdapterHostName \
AdapterHardwareAddress' -a cable_typeseq_no=Type master
For FDDI:
nim -o change -a ifseq_no='NetworkObjectName AdapterHostName \
AdapterHardwareAddress' master
For other networks:
nim -o change -a ifseq_no='NetworkObjectName AdapterHostName \
AdapterHardwareAddress' master
Note: If you do not know the name of the NIM network to which the interface is attached or if a
network corresponding to the interface has not been defined, use the find_net keyword and
net_definition attribute as described in “Defining NIM clients” on page 164.
In the example, the following command is run:
nim -o change -a if2='Network2 srv1_ent 0' -a \
cable_type2=bnc master
With this syntax, another if attribute is created for the master, which tells NIM that the master has an
Ethernet interface that uses a host name of srv1_ent, that the Ethernet adapter’s hardware address is 0
(not used), and that the master connects to the Network2 network object.
To display detailed information about the master which will now show the if2 attribute, enter:
lsnim -l master
The command produces output similar to the following:
master:
class
type
Cstate
reserved
platform
serves
serves
comments
Mstate
prev_state
if1
master_port
registration_port
ring_speed1
if2
cable_type2
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
machines
master
ready for a NIM operation
yes
rs6k
boot
nim_script
machine which controls the NIM environment
currently running
ready for a NIM operation
Network1 server1 10005AA88399
1058
1059
16
Network2 Srv1_ent 02608c2e222c
bnc
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Defining /usr versus non-/usr SPOTs
A SPOT resource contains operating system files that are normally installed in the /usr file system of a
machine. If disk space is limited on a machine or a SPOT must be created quickly, it may be helpful to
convert the machine’s /usr file system to a SPOT instead of creating an entirely separate SPOT at a
different location.
If the /usr file system of a machine is converted to a SPOT, additional software will be installed on the
machine to provide support for machines with different hardware configurations. Most of the operating
system files will already be installed on the system and will not be reinstalled when the SPOT is created.
After a /usr file system is converted to a SPOT, all software installation and maintenance operations on
the machine should be performed using NIM on the /usr SPOT resource that was created. This will
ensure that all necessary SPOT operations are performed in addition to software installation or
maintenance on the machine.
Defining /usr versus non-/usr SPOTs using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for defining /usr versus non-/usr SPOTs using the Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Resources container.
2. From the Resources menu, select New Resource.
3. Follow the wizard instructions to create the SPOT resource.
Defining /usr versus non-/usr SPOTs using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for defining /usr versus non-/usr SPOTs using SMIT.
1. To create a /usr SPOT, enter the smit nim_mkres fast path.
2. Select the Resource Type.
3. Type /usr in the Location of Resource field.
4. Supply the values or accept the defaults for all other fields on this screen.
Creating the /usr-SPOT from the command line.:
Follow this procedure for creating the /usr-SPOT from the command line.
Enter:
nim -o define -t spot -a server=ServerName \
-a location=/usr -a source=SourceName ResourceName
Example:
To convert the /usr file system on the machine, client1, to a SPOT named usrspot using lppsource1 as
the source for additional installation images, enter:
nim -o define -t spot -a server=client1 -a location=/usr \
-a source=lpp_source1 usrspot
Using the installp command:
After you convert a /usr file system to a SPOT, it is not recommended that you use the installp
command to install or maintain software on the machine serving the SPOT.
The diskless and dataless clients and network boot images associated with the SPOT will not be updated
by the installp command unless it is invoked using NIM’s cust or maint operations. If you need to use
the installp command to install or maintain software on a /usr SPOT server, use the following steps:
1. Ensure that all NIM operations on the server and any clients associated with the SPOT are complete.
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2. Deallocate the SPOT from all standalone clients.
3. Run the installp command.
4. Run the check operation on the SPOT after the installp command has completed:
nim -o check -F usrSPOTName
Note: The -F flag is required for rebuilding the boot images.
5. If this SPOT is being used to serve diskless or dataless clients, resynchronize all diskless and dataless
clients with the SPOT after the installp command completes by issuing the nim command with the
sync_roots operation for the /usr SPOT:
nim -o sync_roots usrSPOTName
nim -o check -F usrSPOTName
The cust and maint operations must be used to manage software installed on non-/usr SPOTs.
Re-creating SPOT resources from existing directories
Defining NIM resources from existing files and directories can usually be done by specifying the server
and location attributes to the nim - o define command. SPOT resources take longer to define because
software must be installed from installation images into the SPOT location.
The nim -o command line interface always builds a SPOT from installation images. However, if a
directory structure for a SPOT already exists from a prior creation, it is possible to call a NIM method
directly to redefine the SPOT without reinstalling all the software.
The need to define a SPOT from an existing SPOT directory typically arises only when it is necessary to
rebuild the NIM database during system recovery.
To define a SPOT from a directory that previously had a SPOT installed in it, use the following
command:
/usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/m_mkspot -o -a server=server \
-a location=location -a source=no spotname
Example:
A SPOT named spot1 was created on the NIM master in the /export/spot directory. Later, the NIM
database became corrupted and has to be rebuilt. The SPOT files are still on the machine, but the SPOT
must be redefined to NIM using the following command:
/usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/m_mkspot -o -a server=master \
-a location=/export/spot -a source=no spot1
Creating a SPOT resource from a mksysb resource
Creating a SPOT from a mksysb resource allows you to only support the devices the mksysb uses.
Because the SPOT only contains boot images for the devices in the source mksysb, it is significantly
smaller than a SPOT created from an installation image. A SPOT that you create from a mksysb resource
is typically 30 to 50 MB, whereas a SPOT that you create from an installation image is typically 300 MB.
You also do not need an lpp_source resource with this method.
In AIX 5.3, NIM only creates the mp boot image because that is all that is required to boot the SPOT.
You should only use a SPOT created from a mksysb to perform bos_inst operations of the mksysb.
Performing other operations on standalone clients, such as maint and diag is not supported. Performing
cust operations on a SPOT taken from a mksysb is also not supported.
The mksysb_source attribute is used to distinguish a SPOT created from a mksysb from other SPOTs.
The mksysb_source attribute is set to the resource name of the mksysb you used to create the SPOT.
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The mksysb from which you create a SPOT can be at any level greater than 4.3.3.75.
Creating a SPOT resource from a mksysb resource with SMIT or from a command line:
To create a SPOT from a mksysb on the command line, set the source attribute to the name of the
mksysb resource you want to create the SPOT from.
If the mksysb resource is called ″mksysb1,″ you would use the following command to create a SPOT
called ″spot1″ served by the NIM master:
nim -o define -t spot -a source=mksysb1 -a server=master -a location=/export/spot spot1
To create a SPOT from a mksysb with SMIT, you can use fast paths nim_mkres_spot_only and
nim_mkres. When the source attribute is expanded, all available mksysb resources, as well as other
sources, are displayed as possible sources for the creation of a SPOT.
Defining an lpp_source on CD/DVD-ROM versus hard disk
You can define an lpp_source on a CD-ROM versus a disk using the Web-based System Manager, SMIT,
or the command line.
Normally an lpp_source resource is created by copying installation images from installation media to the
hard disk of the lpp_source server. If disk space is limited on the server or if an lpp_source is needed
quickly, you can use a directory mounted from CD/DVD-ROM installation media as the lpp_source.
Defining an lpp_source on CD/DVD-ROM versus hard disk using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for defining an lpp_source on CD/DVD-ROM versus hard disk using the
Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Resources container.
2. From the Resources menu, select New Resource.
3. Follow the wizard instructions to create the lpp_source resource.
Note: You can also define an lpp_source resource through the Configure NIM wizard, both when you
are configuring your environment, and after configuration.
Defining an lpp_source on CD/DVD-ROM versus hard disk using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for defining an lpp_source on CD/DVD-ROM versus disk using SMIT.
1. Mount the CD/DVD as a CDROM file system. The installation images can be found in the
/usr/sys/inst.images directory under the mount point of the CDROM file system.
2. To define the lpp_source using the directory of install images, enter the smit nim_mkres fast path.
3. Specify the name of the machine with the CD/DVD-ROM as the Server.
4. Specify CD_MountPoint/ usr/sys/inst.images as the location of the lpp_source, and leave the Source
field blank.
Defining an lpp_source on CD/DVD-ROM versus hard disk from the command line:
Follow this procedure for defining an lpp_source on a CD/DVD-ROM versus a disk from the command
line.
1. Mount the CD/DVD as a CDROM file system. The installation images can be found in the
/usr/sys/inst.images directory under the mount point of the CDROM file system.
2. Define the lpp_source using the directory of install images for the location attribute. Do not specify a
value for the source attribute, since an existing set of images will be used. With the CD/DVD
mounted at /cdfs on the NIM master, to define an lpp_source named cd_images, enter:
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nim -o define -t lpp_source -a server=master \
-a location=/cdfs/usr/sys/inst.images cd_images
Establishing a default NIM route between networks
You can create default NIM routes for two Networks (for example, Network1 and Network3).
Establishing a default NIM route between networks using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for establishing a default NIM route between networks using the Web-based
System Manager.
1. Select the Networks container.
2. In the contents area, select any network.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Properties. The General page of the Properties notebook for the
selected network displays.
4. Select the NIM Routes tab. The NIM Routes page of the Properties notebook displays.
5. Use the NIM Routes page to add the default route.
Establishing a default NIM route between networks using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for establishing a default NIM route between networks using SMIT.
1. Enter the smit nim_mkdroute fast path.
2. In the displayed dialog fields, supply the values or accept the defaults. Use the help information and
the LIST option to help you.
Establishing a default NIM route between networks from the command line:
Follow this procedure to establish default NIM routes between networks from the command line.
To create a default NIM route for a network, enter:
nim -o change -a routingseq_no='default Gateway' NetworkObject
where default is the reserved keyword used by NIM to indicate a default route, and Gateway is the host
name (or IP address) of the interface that clients on NetworkObject use to contact other networks in the
NIM environment.
For example, to establish default NIM routes for Network1 and Network3, enter:
nim -o change -a routing1='default gw1_tok' Network1
nim -o change -a routing1='default gw1_fddi' Network3
where gw1_tok is the host name of the default gateway for machines on Network1, and gw1_fddi is the
host name of the default gateway for machines on Network3.
The detailed information for the network objects now shows the added default routes. To display the
detailed information for the two networks, enter:
lsnim -l Network1 Network3
which produces output similar to the following:
Network1:
class
type
net_addr
snm
Nstate
prev_state
routing1
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
networks
tok
9.101.1.0
255.255.255.0
ready for use
ready for use
default gw1_tok
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Network3:
class
type
net_addr
snm
Nstate
prev_state
routing1
=
=
=
=
=
=
networks
fddi
9.101.3.0
255.255.255.0
ready for use
information is missing from this
object's definition
= default gw1_fddi
Establishing a static NIM route between networks
You can create a static NIM route between two networks (for example, Network1 and Network3) using the
Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or the command line.
Establishing a static NIM route between networks using Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for establishing a static NIM route between networks using Web-based System
Manager.
1. Select the Networks container.
2. In the contents area, select any network.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Properties. The General page of the Properties notebook for the
selected network displays.
4. Select the NIM Routes tab. The NIM Routes page of the Properties notebook displays.
5. Use the NIM Routes page to add the static route.
Establishing a static NIM route between networks using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for establishing a static NIM route between networks using SMIT.
1. Enter the smit nim_mkroute fast path.
2. In the displayed dialog fields, supply the values or accept the defaults. Use the help information and
the LIST option to help you.
Establishing a static NIM route between networks from the command line:
Follow this procedure for establishing a static NIM route between networks from the command line.
To create a static NIM route between two networks, enter:
nim -o change -a routingseq_no='DestinationNetworkObject \
Gateway1 Gateway2' NetworkObject
where Gateway1 is the host name of the interface that clients on NetworkObject use to get to
DestinationNetworkObject, and Gateway2 is the host name that clients on DestinationNetworkObject use
to get back to NetworkObject.
For example, to establish a NIM route between Network1 and Network3, enter:
nim -o change -a routing1='Network3 gw1_tok gw1_fddi' Network1
where gw1_tok is the host name of the gateway that machines on Network1 use to communicate with
machines on Network3, and gw1_fddi is the host name of the gateway that machines on Network3 use to
communicate with machines on Network1.
The detailed information for the network objects now shows the added routing attributes.
To display the detailed information about the two networks, enter:
lsnim -l Network1 Network3
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The command produces output similar to the following:
Network1:
class
type
net_addr
snm
Nstate
prev_state
routing1
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Network3:
class
type
net_addr
snm
Nstate
prev_state
=
=
=
=
=
=
routing1
networks
tok
9.101.1.0
255.255.255.0
ready for use
ready for use
Network3 gw1_tok
networks
fddi
9.101.3.0
255.255.255.0
ready for use
information is missing from this object's
definition
= Network1 gw1_fddi
Recovering the /etc/niminfo file
The /etc/niminfo file, which resides on the master and running NIM clients, is required to run NIM
commands and perform NIM operations. If the /etc/niminfo file is accidentally deleted, you can rebuild
the file.
Recovering the /etc/niminfo file using Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for recovering the /etc/niminfo file using Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the NIM container.
2. From the NIM menu, select Advanced Configuration → Rebuild Master Configuration File.
Note: The Configure NIM wizard will detect when you do not have a niminfo file, but do have NIM
database entries. The wizard queries whether it should rebuild the master configuration file.
Recovering the /etc/niminfo file from the command line:
Follow this procedure for recovering the /etc/niminfo file from the command line.
Enter the following command from the master to rebuild the file:
nimconfig -r
To rebuild the /etc/niminfo file from a running NIM client, enter:
niminit -a master_port=PortNumber -a master=MasterHostName \
-a name=ClientMachineObjectName
Backing up the NIM database
You can back up the NIM database using Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or the command line.
To back up the NIM database, you will be prompted for the name of a device or a file to which the NIM
database and the /etc/niminfo file will be backed up. The level of the installed NIM master fileset will
also be written to a file called /etc/NIM.level and saved in the backup. A backup of a NIM database
should only be restored to a system with a NIM master fileset which is at the same level or a higher level
than the level from which the backup was created.
Backing up the NIM database using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for backing up the NIM database using the Web-based System Manager.
1. From the NIM container, from the NIM menu, select Back Up Database.
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261
2. Use the dialog to specify the backup device or file.
Backing up the NIM database using SMIT:
To back up the NIM database, enter the smit nim_backup_db fast path.
Backing up the NIM database from the command line:
Save these files to back up the NIM database from the command line.
Save the following NIM files:
/etc/niminfo
/etc/objrepos/nim_attr
/etc/objrepos/nim_attr.vc
/etc/objrepos/nim_object
/etc/objrepos/nim_object.vc
Restoring the NIM database and activating the NIM master
You can restore the NIM database and activate the NIM master using the Web-based System Manager,
SMIT, or the command line.
Note: A NIM database should only be restored to the same or later level of NIM that was used for the
backup.
Restoring the NIM database and activating the NIM master using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for restoring the NIM database and activating the NIM master using the
Web-based System Manager.
1. From the NIM container, from the NIM menu, select Restore Database.
2. Use the dialog to specify the restore device or file.
Restoring the NIM database and activating the NIM master using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for restoring the NIM database and activating the NIM master using SMIT.
To configure a NIM master from a NIM database backup, enter the smit nim_restore_db fast path.
Restoring the NIM database and activating the NIM master from the command line:
Follow this procedure for restoring the NIM database and activating the NIM master from the command
line.
Restore the files saved in “Backing up the NIM database” on page 261.
Unconfiguring the NIM master
This operation removes the NIM daemons from the system and removes all configuration from the NIM
database.
The NIM master should only be unconfigured if the NIM environment is to be completely redefined or if
the NIM master fileset is to be removed from the system.
Unconfiguring the NIM master using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for unconfiguring the NIM master using the Web-based System Manager.
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1. From the NIM Container, from the NIM menu, select Unconfigure Environment.
2. You have the option to back up the NIM database before starting the unconfigure action.
Unconfiguring the NIM master using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for unconfiguring the NIM master using SMIT.
Enter the smit nim_unconfig fast path.
The SMIT screen will prompt you to first back up your NIM database before unconfiguring the NIM
master.
Unconfiguring the NIM master from the command line:
Follow this procedure for unconfiguring the NIM master from the command line.
Enter nim -o unconfig master.
Performing boot diagnostics on NIM clients
Hardware diagnostics can be performed on all NIM clients using a diagnostic boot image from a NIM
server, rather than booting from a diagnostic tape or CD/DVD-ROM.
This is useful for standalone clients, because the diagnostics do not have to be installed on the local disk.
Diagnostic support comes from a SPOT resource.
Booting diagnostics using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for booting diagnostics using the Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the NIM container.
2. In the contents area, select the standalone, diskless, or dataless machine you want to enable for
diagnostics boot.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Troubleshooting → Enable Diagnostic Boot.
4. Use the dialog to select a SPOT resource from which to boot.
Booting diagnostics using SMIT:
Follow these procedures for performing the diag operation from the master and client using SMIT.
Initiating the diag operation from the client:
Follow this procedure to initiate the diag operation from the client.
1. Enter the smit nim_client_op fast path.
2. Select the diag operation from the displayed list of operations.
Initiating the diag operation from the master:
Follow this procedure to initiate the diag operation from the master.
1. Enter the smit nim_mac_op fast path.
2. Select the machine object.
3. Select the diag operation from the list of operations.
Booting diagnostics from the command line:
Follow this procedure for performing the diag operation from the master and client.
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263
To perform the diag operation from the client, enter:
nimclient -o diag -a spot=SPOTName
To perform the diag operation from the master, enter:
nim -o diag -a spot=SPOTName MachineObjectName
Verifying the diag operation:
After you have enabled the client to perform a diagnostic boot, you can verify the success of the
operation by querying the client’s control state (Cstate).
On the client, enter:
nimclient -l -l ClientMachineObjectName
On the master, enter:
lsnim -l ClientMachineObjectName
If the operation is successful, output similar to the following is displayed:
Cstate = Diagnostic boot has been enabled
For the client to boot the diagnostics, you need to reboot the client. If it is a diskless or a dataless client,
you have already defined a network adapter as the default boot device (BOOTP request), so no additional
action is required. For a standalone machine, the boot list for normal boot lists the hard disk as the
primary boot device, so you must follow the procedure described in Booting specific machines over the
network.
Loading diagnostics without the diag operation:
In addition to the procedure using the diag operation, diskless and dataless clients have another way of
loading diagnostics from the network. You can boot a diskless or dataless client from the network the
same way you do for normal use, but with the machine’s key mode switch in the Service position.
If the client’s key mode switch is in the Service position at the end of the boot process, hardware
diagnostics from the server’s SPOT are loaded. If a standalone client boots with the key mode switch in
the Service position, the diagnostics (if installed) are loaded from the hard disk.
Booting in maintenance mode
If you need to perform maintenance on a standalone machine that is not part of the NIM environment,
the system must be booted from a bootable tape or CD/DVD-ROM.
This may require connecting an external device. If the machine is part of a NIM environment, you can
enter maintenance mode directly by enabling the maint_boot operation for a NIM standalone machine.
Booting in maintenance mode using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for booting in maintenance mode using the Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Machines container.
2. In the contents area, select a target standalone machine you want to enable for maintenance boot.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Troubleshooting → Enable Maintenance Boot.
4. Use the dialog to select a SPOT resource from which to boot.
Booting in maintenance mode using SMIT:
Follow these procedures for booting in maintenance mode using SMIT.
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Initiating the maint_boot operation from the client:
Follow this procedure for initiating the maint_boot operation from the client.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Enter the smit nim_client_op fast path.
Select the maint_boot operation.
Select the SPOT to be used for the operation.
Press Enter to enable the client for maintenance boot.
Initiating the maint_boot operation from the master:
Follow this procedure for initiating the maint_boot operation from the master.
1. Enter the smit nim_mac_op fast path.
2. Select the client’s machine object.
3. Select the maint_boot operation.
4. Select the SPOT to be used for the operation.
5. Press Enter to enable the client for maintenance boot.
Booting in maintenance mode from the command line:
Follow these procedures for booting in maintenance mode from the command line.
To issue the maint_boot operation from the client, enter:
nimclient -o maint_boot -a spot=SPOTNAME
To issue the maint_boot operation from the master, enter:
nim -o maint_boot -a spot=SPOTNAME CLIENT
To verify that the maintenance boot operation worked:
1. On the client, enter:
nimclient -l -l ClientMachineObjectName
2. On the master, enter:
lsnim -l
ClientMachineObjectName
If the operation was successful, the client’s Cstate output will look similar to the following:
Cstate = maintenance boot has been enabled
For the machine to boot into maintenance mode, follow the procedure for issuing the BOOTP request
from the client. See Booting specific machines over the network for more information about initiating a
BOOTP request.
Using the maintenance mode
After successfully booting and defining the console, the System Maintenance menu is displayed. The
maintenance menu options and their descriptions are described below.
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265
Access a Root Volume Group
Copy a System Dump to Removable Media
Access Advanced Maintenance Function
This option allows you
maintenance shell with
This option allows you
This option allows you
commands.
to activate the root volume group and start the
a full set of commands.
to copy a previous system dump to external media.
to start a maintenance shell with a limited set of
Using secondary adapter support
Previously, during a NIM rte BOS installation operation, only the network adapter and interface used
during BOS installation were configured. Using NIM secondary adapter definitions, you can have
additional network adapters and interfaces configured during a BOS installation or customized
installation.
The nimadapters command parses a secondary adapter stanza file to build the files required to add NIM
secondary adapter definitions to the NIM environment as part of an adapter_def resource. The
nimadapters command does not configure secondary adapters. The configuration takes place during a
nim -o bos_inst operation or a nim -o cust operation that references the adapter_def resource.
Secondary adapter support is available for AIX 5.2 or later. Before you enable a secondary adapter, you
must verify the AIX version the client is running. Secondary adapter support is not available for clients at
AIX 5.1 or earlier. The secondary adapters will fail to configure, because NIM is unable to find the
/usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_cfgadptrs client method. The following example shows the outcome
if you attempt to enable this support on your NIM master.
nim -o cust -a adapter_def=adapter_def1 rspc10
trigger.austin.xyz.com. 0042-001 nim: processing error encountered on "master":
0042-001 m_cust: processing error encountered on "rspc10":
0042-175 c_script: An unexpected result was returned by the
"trigger.austin.xyz.com:/export/nim/scripts/rspc10.script" command:
/tmp/_nim_dir_4714/script[10]: /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/c_cfgadptrs: not found.
The secondary adapter stanza file is processed by the nimadapters command and turned into a file that
contains one stanza for each secondary adapter or interface on the NIM client. During a BOS installation,
NIM processes this information and configures the secondary adapters.. If a secondary adapter is already
configured in the requested manner, NIM does not reconfigure the secondary adapter.
Note: Before using the nimadapters command, you must configure the NIM master. For information on
configuring the NIM master, see “Configuring the NIM master and creating basic installation resources”
on page 215.
Working with secondary adapter file rules
The format of the secondary adapter file must comply with these rules.
v After the stanza header, follow attribute lines of the form: Attribute = Value
v If you define the value of an attribute multiple times within the same stanza, only the last definition is
used.
If you use an invalid attribute keyword, that attribute definition is ignored.
Each line of the file can have only one header or attribute definition.
More than one stanza can exist in a definition file for each machine host name.
Each stanza for a machine host name represents a secondary adapter definition on that NIM client. No
two secondary adapter definitions for the same machine host name can have the same location or
interface_name. There should be only one definition per adapter or interface on a given NIM client.
v If the stanza header entry is the default keyword, this specifies to use that stanza for the purpose of
defining default values.
v You can specify a default value for any secondary adapter attribute. However, the netaddr and
secondary_hostname attributes must be unique. Also, the location and interface_name attributes must
be unique on a NIM client.
v
v
v
v
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v If you do not specify an attribute for a secondary adapter but define a default value, the default value
is used.
v You can specify and change default values at any location in the definition file. After a default value is
set, it applies to all definitions that follow.
v To turn off a default value for all following machine definitions, do not set the attribute value in a
default stanza.
v To turn off a default value for a single machine definition, do not set the attribute value in the machine
stanza.
v You can include comments in a client definition file. Comments begin with the number sign (#).
v When parsing the definition file for header and attribute keywords and values, tab characters and
spaces are ignored.
Note: During a nim -o bos_inst or nim -o cust operation, if NIM examines the configuration data on the
client and determines that a secondary adapter is already configured with precisely the attributes
requested in the adapter_def resource, this secondary adapter is not reconfigured.
Using secondary adapter file keywords
The secondary adapter file uses these keywords to specify machine attributes.
Using required adapter attributes:
The following attributes are required for configuring adapters.
machine_type = secondary | etherchannel | install
Specifying the machine_type attribute as secondary clearly distinguishes the nimadapters input
from nimdef input. If a secondary adapter’s file is mistakenly passed to the nimdef command,
the error can be detected. The etherchannel option is only supported on clients running AIX 5.3
or later. Stanzas with a machine_type of install are ignored.
netaddr
Specifies the network address for the secondary adapter.
interface_type = en | et | sn | ml |vi
Specifies the type of network interface. The network interface can be en (ethernet interface), et
(ethernet interface), sn (switch network interface), ml (multi-link interface), or vi (virtual
interface). This attribute is only supported on clients running AIX 5.3 or later, and it replaces the
deprecated network_type attribute.
subnet_mask
Specifies the subnet mask used by the secondary adapter.
Note: Configuring a secondary adapter on the same subnet as another adapter does not provide failover.
Packets alternate between adapters when they are configured on the same subnet. If one of the adapters
fails, the other adapter will not take over the failed adapter’s workload, and the subnet will have
connectivity problems. Commands, such as mount, might fail if this occurs.
Using optional attributes:
The following attributes are optional for configuring adapters.
adapter_attributes
Blank-separated list of physical adapter attributes and values. For example, Attribute1=Value1
Attribute2=Value2. To see the list of attributes that can be set for the requested adapter, run the
command lsattr -E -l AdapterName. This attribute is only supported on clients running AIX 5.3 or
later.
interface_attributes
Blank-separated list of interface attributes and values. For example, Attribute1=Value1
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Attribute2=Value2. To see the list of attributes that can be set for the requested interface, run the
command lsattr -E -l InterfaceName. This attribute is only supported on clients running AIX 5.3 or
later, and it replaces the deprecated attributes attribute.
cable_type
Specifies the cable type (optional if network_type is en or et).
comments
Specifies a comment to include in the secondary adapter definition. Enclose the comment string
in quotation marks.
interface_name
Specifies the name of the network interface for the secondary adapter (for example, en1, sn0,
ml0). Do not specify both location and interface_name.
Note: The value of the interface_name attribute must be consistent with the value of the
network_type attribute.
location
Specifies the physical location of the adapter corresponding to this network interface. Do not
specify both the location and the interface_name attributes.
Note: Except for the multilink pseudo-device, use of the location attribute is highly
recommended. If the location attribute is not specified and the user adds multiple adapters or
adds an adapter at the same time that the operating system is reinstalled, the adapter and
network interface names might be reassigned by the operating system in unexpected ways.
multiple_physloc
Specifies the physical adapters to associate with an interface when you use an etherchannel or
VIPA stanza.
media_speed
Specifies the media speed (optional if the network_type attribute’s value is either en or et).
secondary_hostname
Host name to save in the /etc/hosts file with the netaddr attribute. This host name is not set
using the hostname command or the uname -S command.
Working with deprecated attributes:
If you have a NIM secondary adapter configuration with an AIX 5.2 client, then you must use
network_type and attributes because the new attributes are not supported.
network_type
Replaced by interface_type.
attributes
Replaced by interface_attribute.
Troubleshooting secondary adapter file stanza errors
A secondary adapter stanza causes an error under any of the following conditions.
v The host name that was used in the stanza header for the definition cannot be resolved.
v A required attribute is missing.
v An invalid value was specified for an attribute.
v An attribute mismatch occurs. For example, if the network_type attribute’s value is not set to either en
or et, you cannot specify cable_type=bnc or media_speed=1000_Full_Duplex.
v The stanza contains both a location attribute and an interface_name attribute.
v Secondary adapter definitions occur multiple times for the same adapter location and the same host
name.
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v Secondary adapter definitions occur multiple times for the same interface_name and the same host
name.
If a secondary adapter stanza is incorrect, the errors are reported, the stanza is ignored, and the following
input is processed without regard to the incorrect stanza.
Secondary adapter files
This is an example a secondary adapter file.
# Set default values.
default:
machine_type = secondary
subnet_mask
= 255.255.240.0
network_type = en
media_speed
= 100_Full_Duplex
# Define the machine "lab1"
# Take all defaults and specify 2 additional attributes.
# Unlike the case of the client definitions that are input to the
# nimdef command, the secondary adapter definition includes at least
# one required field that cannot be defaulted.
lab1:
netaddr = 9.53.153.233
location = P2-I1/E1
# Change the default "media_speed" attribute.
default:
media_speed
= 100_Half_Duplex
# define the machine "test1"
# Take all defaults and include a comment.
test1:
comments
= "This machine is a test machine."
# define a machine with a VIPA interface that uses interfaces en2 and en3.
lab2:
machine_type
= secondary
interface_type
= vi
interface_name
= vi0
netaddr
= 9.53.153.235
subnet_mask
= 255.255.255.0
secondary_hostname
= lab3
interface_attributes = "interface_names=en2,en3"
# define a machine with an etherchannel adapter that uses the adapters at
# the following location codes P1-I4/E1 and P1/E1
lab4:
machine_type
= etherchannel
interface_type
= en
interface_name
= en2
netaddr
= 9.53.153.237
subnet_mask
= 255.255.255.0
multiple_physloc
= P1-I4/E1,P1/E1
# define a machine with an etherchannel adapter that uses the
# ent2 and ent3 adapters and uses mode 8023ad.
lab6:
machine_type
= etherchannel
interface_type
= en
interface_name
= en2
netaddr
= 9.53.153.239
subnet_mask
= 255.255.255.0
adapter_attributes = "adapter_names=ent2,ent3 mode=8023ad"
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Working with secondary adapter definitions
Follow these procedures to work with NIM secondary adapter definitions.
1. To preview the secondary_adapters.defs client definition file, type:
nimadapters -p -f secondary_adapters.defs adapter_def
2. To add the NIM secondary adapters described in the secondary_adapters.defs secondary adapters
definition file, type:
nimadapters -d -f secondary_adapters.defs adapter_def
3. To define the NIM secondary adapters for the pilsner client, type:
nimadapters -d \
-a info="en,P2-I1/E1,N/A,1000_Full_Duplex,9.53.153.233,255.255.254.0" \
-a client=pilsner adapter_def
4. To remove the NIM secondary adapter definitions for a client called pilsner from the my_adapter_def
resource, type:
nimadapters -r -a client=pilsner my_adapter_def
5. To remove the NIM secondary adapter definitions for clients defined in the file
secondary_adapters.defs, type:
nimadapters -r -f secondary_adapters.defs my_adapter_def
6. To remove all the NIM secondary adapter definitions from the my_adapter_def resource, type:
nimadapters -r my_adapter_def
Enabling NIM alternate master support
Using this procedure, you can set up an alternate NIM master in your environment, synchronize the NIM
database between masters, and takeover control of clients between masters.
Preparing to Enable NIM alternate master support:
Only AIX clients running AIX 5.3 and later recognize alternate masters. Both masters must be at the same
level of AIX.
Before you create an alternate master for your NIM environment, you should already have a primary
NIM master configured. For instructions about configuring a NIM master, see Configuring the NIM
Master and Creating Basic Installation Resources.
Initializing the alternate master:
You can initialize the alternate master in SMIT or from a command line.
In this scenario, ″master A″ is already configured as a NIM master, and ″master B″ will be initialized as
an alternate master.
Initializing the alternate master using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for initializing the alternate master using SMIT.
In this scenario, ″master A″ is already configured as a NIM master, and ″master B″ will be initialized as
an alternate master.
1. Insert the AIX 5.3 Volume 1 CD/DVD into the appropriate drive of the designated alternate master
machine (master B).
2. Enter the SMIT install_latest fast path, to install the bos.sysmgt.nim.master fileset.
3. Using the LIST option, select /dev/cd0 for the INPUT device or directory for software.
4. Specify bos.sysmgt.nim.master as the SOFTWARE to install.
5. Accept the default values for all other fields on this screen. After successful completion of this
installation, exit SMIT.
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6. To initialize the alternate master (master B) with master A, enter the smit niminit_altmstr fast path
on master B.
7. Type in the name of master B in the field for This Machine Name.
8. Using the LIST option, select the Primary Network Interface for master B.
9. Type in the hostname of master A in the field for Host Name of Master with which to Initialize.
10. Change any other fields as necessary and press Enter.
11. On master A, repeat the process using the smit niminit_altmstr fast path to register master A with
master B. You will need to type in the name of master A in the field for ″This Machine Name″ and
the hostname of master B in the field for ″Host Name of Master with which to Initialize″.
You should consider the following issues when initializing the alternate master from SMIT:
v The niminit command creates an alternate_master object for the registering machine. In this example,
master B is defined as an alternate_master object on master A when master B registers with master A.
v The niminit command configures the alternate_master as a NIM master if it is not already configured
as one.
v The niminit command gives the master that the machine is registering with remote access permissions
either through rsh or nimsh. In this example, when master B registers, master B gives master A remote
access permissions.
v Once an alternate master has been added to the NIM environment, clients should initialize themselves
again to recognize the alternate master. Initializing again gives the alternate master remote access to the
clients either through rsh or nimsh. Once clients have initialized themselves again, their sync_required
attribute is set to no, indicating that they recognize the alternate master. Only clients running AIX 5.3
or later recognize alternate masters.
Initializing the alternate master from the command line:
Follow this procedure for initializing the alternate master from the command line.
In this scenario, ″master A″ is already configured as a NIM master, and ″master B″ will be initialized as
an alternate master.
1. Insert the AIX 5.3 Volume 1 CD/DVD into the appropriate drive of the designated alternate master
machine (master B).
2. To install the bos.sysmgt.nim.master fileset from the disk, enter:
# installp -agXd /dev/cd0 bos.sysmgt.nim.master
3. To initialize the alternate master (master B) with master A, enter:
# niminit -a is_alternate=yes -a attr1=value1 \
-a attr2=value2 \
...
For example, to initialize alternate master (master B) with existing NIM master (master A):
alternate master host name = masterb
master host name with which to register = mastera
primary network interface = en0
cable type = N/A
platform = chrp
Enter the following command sequence:
# niminit -a is_alternate=yes -a master=mastera -a pif_name=en0 \
-a cable_type1=N/A -a platform=chrp -a name=masterb
For additional attribute information, see the niminit command.
4. Register master A with master B, using the niminit command. For example, enter the following on
master A:
# niminit -a is_alternate=yes -a master=masterb -a pif_name=en0 \
-a cable_type1=N/A -a platform=chrp -a name=mastera
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Synchronizing the alternate master’s NIM database:
You can synchronize the NIM database for the alternate master using SMIT or from the command line.
In this scenario, master A is configured as a NIM master and has objects, such as clients and resources,
defined. Master B is initialized as an alternate master, but its database does not match that of master A.
You can use the sync operation to synchronize the NIM database on master B with master A’s database.
The sync operation backs up master A’s database, restores it onto master B, and then ensures that all the
object definitions are consistent.
You should consider the following issues when synchronizing the alternate master’s NIM database:
v The resources served by master A are removed from the database when it is restored on master B.
v Object definitions are reset when the database is restored on master B.
v After the database is restored on master B, master B does not control any NIM objects until you
perform the takeover operation. As a result, master B can not run any NIM operations to any objects in
its database.
Synchronizing the alternate master’s NIM database using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for synchronizing the alternate master’s NIM database using SMIT.
1. On master A, enter the smit nim_altmstr fast path.
2. Select Synchronize an Alternate Master’s NIM database.
3. Type the name of the NIM object for master B.
4. Select yes for the force option if master B has been configured as a NIM master.
5. Select yes for the replicate option if the resources have to be replicated onto the alternate master.
Synchronizing the alternate master’s NIM database from the command line:
Follow this procedure to synchronize the alternate master’s NIM database from the command line.
To synchronize master B’s database with master A’s, enter the following on master A:
# nim -o sync masterb
To synchronize master B’s database with master A’s, and also replicate the resources served by master A:
# nim -o sync -a replicate=yes masterb
Note:
v You must use the force option to overwrite the existing database that was created by the niminit
command.
v Resources are replicated only if they are not present in the appropriate file system locations of the
alternate master.
For example:
# nim -Fo sync masterb
The replicate option can be used along with the force option. For example:
# nim -Fo sync -a replicate=yes masterb
Taking control of the NIM environment:
You can take control of the NIM environment using SMIT or from the command line.
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In this example, master B is initialized as an alternate master and has had its NIM database synchronized
with master A. Master B takes control of the objects in the NIM environment.
You should consider the following issues when taking control of the NIM environment:
v Master B can only take control of clients running AIX 5.3 or later. Clients running earlier versions of
AIX do not recognize alternate masters.
v If you perform this operation while master A is running, and master A has a network connection to
master B, the database on master A is updated to reflect the change in masters. You should reset the
clients on master A before running this operation. This operation prints warnings for any clients on
master A that are currently set up to run NIM operations. This operation will not reset those clients to
complete successfully.
v If master B is unable to update master A during the takeover operation, master A should have its
database synchronized with master B once it is running.
v This operation updates the current master of each client by running a remote command on the clients.
Clients that are unavailable to switch masters are displayed. When the client is available, initialized it
with master B or perform the takeover operation again from master B.
Taking control of the NIM environment using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for taking control of the NIM environment using SMIT.
1. Enter the smit nim_altmstr fast path on master B and select Takeover control of NIM clients from an
Alternate Master.
2. Type in the name of the NIM object for master A.
Taking control of the NIM environment from the command line:
Follow this procedure for taking control of the NIM environment from the command line.
To have master B take control of the NIM environment, enter the following on master B:
# nim -o takeover mastera
Master A can retake control of the NIM environment by running the takeover command with master B as
the target.
Removing an alternate master from the NIM environment:
You can remove an alternate master from the NIM environment using SMIT or from the command line.
In this example, master B is removed from the NIM environment. Master A should be in control of the
NIM environment prior to removing master B.
You should consider the following issues when removing an alternate master from the NIM environment:
v Clients re-initialize themselves with master A after removing master B from the environment.
Re-initializing updates the niminfo files and remote access permissions.
v You can unconfigure Master B by running the unconfig operation locally on master B.
Removing an alternate master from the NIM environment using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for removing an alternate master from the NIM environment using SMIT.
1. On master A, enter the smit nim_altmstr fast path and select Remove an Alternate Master.
2. Select the NIM name of master B.
Removing an alternate master from the NIM environment from the command line:
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Use this command to remove an alternate master from the NIM environment.
To remove master B from the NIM environment, enter the following command on master A:
# nim -o remove masterb
Using the NIM service handler for client communication
NIM makes use of the remote shell server (rshd) when it performs remote execution on clients. The
server provides remote execution facilities with authentication based on privileged port numbers from
trusted hosts.
AIX 5.3 uses NIM Service Handler (NIMSH) to eliminate the need for rsh services during NIM client
communication. The NIM client daemon (NIMSH) uses reserved ports 3901 and 3902, and it installs as
part of the bos.sysmgt.nim.client fileset.
NIMSH allows you to query network machines by hostname. NIMSH processes query requests and
returns NIM client configuration parameters used for defining hosts within a NIM environment. Using
NIMSH, you can define NIM clients without knowing any system or network-specific information.
While NIMSH eliminates the need for rsh, it does not provide trusted authentication based on key
encryption. To use cryptographic authentication with NIMSH, you can configure OpenSSL in the NIM
environment. When you install OpenSSL on a NIM clients, SSL socket connections are established during
NIMSH service authentication. Enabling OpenSSL provides SSL key generation and includes all cipher
suites supported in SSL version 3.
Using NIMSH:
Basic NIMSH functions are explained.
NIMSH service port:
The client daemon has two ports registered with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) for
use during network communication. These ports are referred to as the primary and secondary ports.
The primary port listens for service requests on reserved port 3901. When a request is accepted, the
primary port is used for stdin and stdout while stderr is redirected to secondary port 3902 (like auxiliary
connections in rcmd()). This implementation allows the NIM master connection to stay consistent with
current support of client connections through rsh. Using a reserved secondary port in NIMSH allows
firewall administrators to write firewall rules for accepting incoming connections on privileged ports
from the secondary port. These rules can have the requirement that the originating socket address
(hostname : secondary port) comes from a trusted source.
NIMSH system resource control:
NIMSH is registered with the System Resource Controller (SRC). The SRC group name is nimclient and
the subsystem defined is NIMSH.
The client daemon is started by SRC when the configuration routine is run using the nimclient
command.
NIMSH authentication process:
Service requests from the communicating host (the NIM master) will build packets with the following
data for authentication.
v Hostname of NIM client
v CPUID of NIM client
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v CPUID of NIM master
v Return port for secondary (stderr) connection
v Query flag (used to obtain registration information)
When a connection to the primary port is received, the service handler obtains peer information from the
connecting socket. The source port must be in the privileged port space (only root user can bind to
privileged ports). Using the privileged port space ensures that the originating user has the root UID. The
return port number is retrieved and connected to from the secondary port, which is the reserved port in
/etc/services.
The following sections describe the phases of the authentication process:
query flag set
When the query flag is set to 1, the service handler treats the incoming request as a client
discovery for information. The client service handler obtains all relevant information necessary
for defining itself as a NIM client and returns the information to the requesting NIM master then
terminates the connection. The following data is returned when query flag is set:
v Default hostname (value obtained from inet0)
v Default route (value obtained from inet0)
v Network address (value obtained from hostname)
v Subnet mask (value obtained from hostname)
v Network interface (value obtained from hostname)
Method request
If the query flag is not set, then a request for service (NIM operation) is pushed by the NIM
master. The service handler validates the method request as follows:
1. Verify hostname of NIM master is the client’s recognized master hostname.
2. Check the client CPUID passed, it should match the client’s machine ID.
3. Check the master CPUID passed, it should match the master’s machine id stored in memory.
4. Verify the operation passed is a method in the path /usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods.
5. Check for cryptographic authentication setting.
For additional security, NIMSH supports push disablement. Push disablement disables method requests
unless the request is a response to an active NIM client call being processed by the client’s NIM master.
When push disablement is set, NIMSH does not process any NIM operations controlled by the NIM
master. Client control (nimclient commands) is the only way to perform NIM operations on the client
when push disablement is set.
Logging NIMSH operations:
The NIM client daemon logs data in the /var/adm/ras/nimsh.log file during its operation. The log is used
only for debug purposes.
Setting up NIMSH:
You can configure existing standalone clients to use NIMSH as the communication protocol. You can also
define clients using NIMSH as the service option.
For more information on doing this, see Adding a Standalone NIM Client to the NIM Environment.
Preparing to set up NIMSH:
These prerequisites must be met prior to configuring NIMSH.
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v The NIM client must already be configured (see “Adding standalone clients to the NIM environment”
on page 217).
v The client and the client’s NIM master must have one of the following installed:
– AIX 5.2 with the 5200–07 Technology Level (or later)
– AIX 5.3 with the 5300–03 Technology Level (or later)
Setting up NIMSH using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for configuring existing standalone clients with NIMSH using SMIT.
Complete the following steps:
1. Type the smitty nim_config_services fast path on the NIM client.
2. Select nimsh as the Communication Protocol used by client.
Setting up NIMSH from the command line:
Rename the /etc/niminfo file to another name on the NIM client. You also can delete it, but renaming it
allows you to keep a copy if you should need it for some reason.
Use the niminit command to register the client with the NIM master.
# niminit -a name=<client_name> -a master=<master_name> -a connect=nimsh
If OpenSSL is installed on the NIM client and NIMSH is configured as the communication protocol, type
the following command on the NIM client to disable cryptographic authentication with NIMSH.
Type the following command on the NIM client:
# nimclient -C
Enabling cryptographic authentication:
You can configure existing standalone clients to use the NIMSH communication protocol with SSL
enabled.
NIM supports OpenSSL versions 0.9.6e and higher. When OpenSSL is installed, NIMSH uses
SSL-encrypted certificates for authenticating the connecting NIM master.
Preparing to enable cryptographic authentication:
These prerequisites must be met to enable cryptographic authentication.
v The NIM master must already be configured for SSL authenticating within the NIM Environment. For
more information, see “Using NIM to install clients configured with SSL authentication” on page 294.
v The client must be at AIX 5.3 or later.
v The client’s NIM master must be at AIX 5.3 or later.
Enabling cryptographic authentication using SMIT:
Complete these steps to configure existing standalone clients to use NIMSH communication protocol with
SSL enabled.
1. Type the smitty nim_config_services fast path on the NIM client.
2. Select nimsh as the Communication Protocol used by client.
3. Select enabled as the option for Enabling Cryptographic Authentication.
4. Select yes as the option for Installing Secure Socket Layer Software, if OpenSSL is not installed on
the client.
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5. Specify the absolute path for the RPM package or select the lpp_source resource that contains the
OpenSSL RPM package.
Enabling cryptographic authentication from the command line:
Complete these steps to configure existing standalone clients to use the NIMSH communication protocol
with SSL enabled from the command line.
v If OpenSSL is installed on the NIM client and NIMSH is configured as the communication protocol,
type the following command:
# nimclient -c
v
If OpenSSL is not installed on the NIM client, complete the following steps
1. Locate the Toolbox for Linux Applications media.
2. Install OpenSSL RPM package using geninstall. For additional information on using geninstall, see
Add Open Source Applications to Your AIX System.
3. Type the following command on the NIM client after OpenSSL is installed:
# nimclient -c
Enabling a secondary port:
This procedure describes how to configure existing standalone clients to use the NIMSH communication
protocol with a secondary port option enabled.
By default, NIMSH uses a reserved port for returning stderr output during command execution. The
default setting allows administrators to specify a specific port for opening behind a firewall, but it can
cause performance issues when several connections are attempted in a short amount of time.
When TCP connections are closed, the closing sockets enter TIME_WAIT state. The length of time for this
state may last up to 240 seconds depending on system settings. The secondary port option allows you to
specify any specific range of ports to cycle through during NIMSH operation.
For firewalls, administrators might want to open a specific range on the firewall, and then for each
machine on the internal network, ensure that the port range on the machine coincides with the open
range on the firewall. When changing the NIMSH secondary port, you should choose a range of ports
outside of the range used for system services. Try using ports 49152 through 65535.
Preparing to enable a secondary port:
These prerequisites must be met to enable a secondary port.
v The NIM client must already be configured (see Adding a Standalone NIM Client to the NIM
Environment).
v The client must have AIX 5.3 or later installed.
v The client’s NIM master must have AIX 5.3 or later.
Enabling a secondary port from SMIT:
Complete these steps to configure existing standalone clients to use the NIMSH communication protocol
with a secondary port range.
1. Type the smitty nim_config_services fast path on the NIM client.
2. Select nimsh as the Communication Protocol used by client.
3. Specify a start value for the secondary port number.
4. Specify an increment value for the secondary port range.
Enabling a secondary port from the command line:
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Complete these steps to configure existing standalone clients to use the NIMSH communication protocol
with a secondary port range from the command line.
1. Edit the /etc/environment file.
2. Add the variable NIM_SECONDARY_PORT=60000:5, to use ports 60000 - 60005 within NIMSH.
3. Use the desired nimclient command option to restart the NIMSH daemon.
Disabling push operations using NIMSH:
NIM clients can prohibit the NIM master from allocating resources or initiating operations by disabling
push operations.
Although master control is disabled, the client can still control the allocation of NIM resources and the
initiation of NIM operations. To configure existing standalone clients to use NIMSH communication
protocol with NIM master control disabled, see “Disabling master push permissions in the NIM
environment” on page 279.
Verifying NIMSH startup:
Run this command to verify that the NIMSH daemon is enabled on the client.
# lssrc -s nimsh
Performing advanced NIM installation tasks
You can perform many advanced NIM installation tasks using the Web-based System Manager NIM
interface, the System Management Interface Tool (SMIT), or the command line.
NIM environment control
In the NIM environment, control is held by the NIM master or the standalone client. The system
allocating the resources has control.
The allocation of resources is the act of making resources available to clients for NIM operations.
Normally, resources are allocated automatically as part of an operation, but they may also be allocated
prior to the initiation of an operation. The control status acts like a locking mechanism and remains with
the client or the master until the resources are deallocated. Using NIM, if the installation of a standalone
client completes successfully, the resources are automatically deallocated.
When there are no resources allocated to the standalone client by the NIM master, the standalone client
takes control by allocating resources or disabling the NIM master’s push permissions. The control
attribute is managed by the master and indicates whether the master or the standalone client has
permission to perform operations on the standalone client.
The control attribute indicates four control states. You can display the control attribute from a NIM client
by entering:
nimclient -l -l StandAloneClientName
The control attribute can be displayed from the NIM master by entering:
lsnim -l StandaloneClientName
The control states are as follows:
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control attribute is not set
control = master
control = StandaloneClientName
control = StandaloneClientName push_off
If the control attribute is not displayed when listing the machine object
attributes, then neither the master nor the standalone client has control.
The master has allocated resources to the client and is ready to initiate an
operation (or has already initiated an operation).
The standalone client has allocated resources and can now initiate NIM
operations on itself.
The standalone client has prohibited the NIM master from allocating
resources or initiating operations on the client. The client itself can still
control the allocation of NIM resources and the initiation of NIM
operations.
Disabling master push permissions in the NIM environment
The NIM master must have push permissions to perform push operations on the NIM clients.
You can disable the NIM master’s push permissions using Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or the
command line.
Disabling master push permissions using Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for disabling master push permissions using Web-based System Manager.
1. From the main Web-based System Manager container, select the Software icon.
2. From the Software menu, select NIM Client → Permissions.
3. Select whether to grant or deny permission for the NIM master to initiate push installations.
Disabling master push permissions using SMIT:
You can use the smit nim_perms fast path to disable the master push permissions.
To disable the master’s push permissions, enter the smit nim_perms fast path from the client machine.
Disabling master push permissions from the command line:
You can disable and re-enabling the master push permissions from the command line.
To set control on the client to push_off, enter the following on the client machine:
nimclient -P
To re-enable push permission on the client, enter the following on the client machine:
nimclient -p
Resetting the NIM state
To return a machine to the ready state, use the NIM reset operation.
The operations performed using NIM can be very complex. To help ensure that the operations can be
completed successfully, NIM requires that a machine be in the ready state before operations can be run
on it. While an operation is being performed, the state of the machine will reflect the current operation.
After the operation completes, the machine returns to the ready state.
If an operation on a machine is interrupted, the machine state may continue to reflect the operation. If
this occurs, the machine must be reset to the ready state before performing any further operations. To
return a machine to the ready state, use the NIM reset operation.
Resetting the NIM state using Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for resetting the NIM state using Web-based System Manager.
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1.
2.
3.
4.
Select the Machines container.
In the contents area, select a target standalone, diskless, or dataless machine to reset.
From the Selected menu, choose Administration → Reset NIM State.
Use the dialog to reset the state of the machine.
You can also do this task from Troubleshooting. From the Selected menu, choose Troubleshooting →
Clean Up Failed or Interrupted Installation.
Resetting the NIM state using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for resetting the NIM state using SMIT.
1. To return a machine to the ready state, enter the smit nim_mac_op fast path.
2. Select the target machine for the operation.
3. Select reset as the Operation to Perform.
4. To deallocate resources, change the Deallocate All Resources? field to yes.
5. Change the Force field to yes.
Resetting the NIM state from the command line:
Follow this procedure for resetting the NIM state from the command line.
1. To return a machine to the ready state, enter:
nim -Fo reset MachineName
2. To deallocate resources, enter:
nim -o deallocate -a ResourceType=ResourceName MachineName
where ResourceType is the type of the resource being deallocated (for example, lpp_source, SPOT,
Script, etc.), ResourceName is the name of the resource being deallocated, and MachineName is the name
of the machine that has been allocated the resources.
Note: Resetting a machine will not automatically deallocate all the resources that were allocated for
the operation. To deallocate resources, use the NIM deallocate operation.
Using client machines as resource servers
Any machine in the NIM environment can be a resource server. In simple environments, the NIM master
is usually used to serve all the NIM resources.
Defining resources on client machines can be beneficial for the following reasons:
v Disk space limitations on the NIM master may prohibit the storage of all the resources on a single
machine.
v Resource usage may be heavy, and communications and data access bottlenecks could occur if all the
resources were served by a single machine.
For example, if you use NIM to install 200 machines on 5 different subnets, you could have a set of
resources created and available on each subnet. Each set of resources would be used to install the
machines on the same subnet. In addition to distributing the workload among several resource servers,
this would also reduce the network traffic across the gateways between the different subnets.
Using client machines as resource servers using Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for using client machines as resource servers using Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Resources container.
2. From the Resources menu, select New Resources.
3. Follow the wizard instructions to create the resource.
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Using client machines as resource servers using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for using client machines as resource servers using SMIT.
1. To create a resource on a NIM client, enter the smit nim_mkres fast path.
2. Select the Resource Type.
3. In the displayed dialog fields, supply the correct values for the resource options. Be sure to specify
the name of the client machine for the Server of the Resource field. Use the help information or the
LIST option to help you. All attributes specified when the resource is defined (such as location and
source) must be local to the server machine.
Using client machines as resource servers from the command line:
Follow this procedure for using client machines as resource servers from the command line.
To create a resource on a NIM client, specify the client’s NIM name for the server attribute when defining
the resource.
Example:
To create an lpp_source resource named images2 from a CD on the NIM client machine, client_mac1, in
the /resources/images directory, enter:
nim -o define -t lpp_source -a server=client_mac1 \
-a location=/resources/images -a source=/dev/cd0 images2
Defining machine groups
Machine groups can be defined to collect multiple clients in a common target for NIM operations. Groups
can be defined for standalone, diskless, or dataless clients; but a group can only contain clients of a single
type.
Web-based System Manager supports the following types of machine groups:
v A temporary machine group is created when multiple machines are selected in the NIM container and
an action from the Selected menu is performed. The temporary group is removed when the action is
completed.
v If you want a more permanent machine group, you can create it using the New Machine Group menu
option in the NIM menu.
In the Web-based System Manager NIM application, machine groups are not explicitly created and
managed, but ad hoc groupings are supported by multi-selecting the icons representing machines in the
NIM container. After they are selected, a group of machines can be administered by selecting an action
from the Selected menu.
Note: You can perform most operations only on multi-selected machines of the same type.
Defining a machine group using Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for defining a machine group using Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Groups container.
2. From the Groups menu, select New → Group.
3. Select the machine type.
4. Select a machine from the list on the right, and click the < button to add the machine to the new
group. Repeat this step until all the desired members of the machine group are in the Members list
on the left.
5. Click OK.
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Defining a machine group using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for defining a machine group using SMIT.
1. To define a machine group, enter the smit nim_mkgrp fast path.
2. Select the type of group you want to define.
3. Enter the name of the group and member information.
Defining a machine group from the command line:
Follow this procedure for defining a machine group from the command line.
To define a machine group, enter:
nim -o define -t mac_group -a add_member=MemberName GroupName
For example, to create a machine group named MacGrp1 containing previously defined machines
Standalone1, Standalone2, and Standalone3, enter:
nim -o define -t mac_group -a add_member=Standalone1 \
-a add_member=Standalone2 -a add_member=Standalone3 \
-a comments="Machines for Department d03" MacGrp1
Adding new members to machine groups
New members can be added to machine groups, however, the new member must be of the same machine
type as existing members. Members can be added to machine groups using the Web-based System
Manager NIM application.
Adding new members to machine groups using Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for adding new members to machine groups using Web-based System Manager.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Select the Groups container.
In the contents area, select a group.
From the Selected menu, choose Add/Remove Members....
Select a machine from the list on the right, and click on the < button to add the machine to the new
group. Continue with this step until all the desired members of the machine group are in the list on
the left.
5. Click on OK.
Adding new members to machine groups using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for adding new members to machine groups using SMIT.
1. To add members to a machine group, enter the smit nim_chgrp fast path.
2. Select the machine group to modify.
3. Specify members to add to the group. Use the LIST option to select members to add.
Adding new members to machine groups from the command line:
Follow this procedure for adding new members to machine groups from the command line.
To add a member to a machine group, enter:
nim -o change -a add_member=MachineName GroupName
For example, to add the diskless client, diskless5, to the machine group, diskless_grp, enter the
following command:
nim -o change -a add_member=diskless5 diskless_grp
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Alternatively, you could have specified group members in both the define and change operations by
using sequenced member attributes, such as -a member1=Standalone1 -a member2=Standalone2 and so
forth.
Removing members from machine groups
Members can be removed from machine groups. Whenever the last member of a machine group is
removed, the group definition is also removed.
Removing members from machine groups using Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for removing members from machine groups using Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Groups container.
2. From the Selected menu, choose Add/Remove Members.
3. Select a machine from the list on the left and click on the > button to add the machine to the list on
the right. Continue with this step until all the desired members of the machine group have been
removed.
4. Click on OK.
Removing members from machine groups using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for removing members from machine groups using SMIT.
1. To remove members from a machine group, enter the smit nim_chgrp fast path.
2. Select the machine group to modify.
3. Specify members to remove from the group. Use the LIST option to select members to remove.
Removing members from machine groups from the command line:
Follow this procedure for removing members from machine groups from the command line.
To remove a member from a machine group, enter the following command:
nim -o change -a rm_member=MachineName GroupName
For example, to remove the machine Standalone2, and add the machine Standalone4 to the group
MacGrp1, enter:
nim -o change -a rm_member=Standalone2 \
-a add_member=Standalone4 MacGrp1
Including and excluding group members from operations on the group
Group members may be included or excluded by using the Web-based System Manager NIM application,
SMIT, or from the command line.
Use the select operation from the command line to indicate that specific members of a machine group
should be included or excluded from operations on that group. This capability is useful if an operation
needs to be tried again on specific group members that failed during an initial operation on the group.
When a group member is marked as being excluded, it remains so until it is included again.
Including and excluding a group member from operations on the group using Web-based System
Manager:
Follow this procedure for including and excluding a group member from operations on the group using
Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Groups container.
2. In the contents area, expand a group container to view the members included in that group.
3. Select a machine from those listed in the container.
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4. From the Selected menu, choose Properties.
Including and excluding a group member from operations on the group using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for including and excluding a group member from operations on the group using
SMIT.
1. To include or exclude a group member from operations on the group, enter the smit nim_grp_select
fast path.
2. Select the name of the group from which you want to include or exclude members.
3. Select the members to include or exclude.
Including and excluding a group member from operations on the group from the command line:
Follow this procedure for including and excluding a group member from operations on the group from
the command line.
To include or exclude a group member, enter the following:
nim -o select -a include_all=Value -a exclude_all=Value \
-a include=MemberName -a exclude=MemberName GroupName
As an example, to exclude the machine, Standalone2, from further operations on machine group, MacGrp1
and to include a previously excluded machine, Standalone3, enter:
nim -o select -a exclude=Standalone2 -a include=Standalone3
MacGrp1
The special attributes include_all and exclude_all, when assigned a value of yes, can be used
respectively to include or exclude all members in a group. The select operation evaluates command line
attributes from left to right. The following example shows how to exclude all members except
Standalone2 from subsequent operations on the MacGrp1 machine group:
nim -o select -a exclude_all=yes -a include=Standalone2 MacGrp1
Using the special -g option shows the excluded status of the group’s members:
lsnim -g MacGrp1
Group member information similar to the following is displayed:
MacGrp1:
type = mac_group
member1=Standalone1;ready for a NIM operation,not running;EXCLUDED
member2=Standalone2;ready for a NIM operation; currently running;
member3=Standalone3;ready for a NIM operation,not running;EXCLUDED
Associating and defining NIM resource groups
NIM resource groups allow association and definition of resources so they can be allocated as a logical
unit to machines prior to other NIM operations.
Resource groups can only contain one of each resource type, except for script and installp_bundle
resources, which may occur multiple times in a given resource group.
Defining a resource group:
You can use the following procedures to define a resource group.
Defining a resource group using SMIT:
Follow this procedure to define a resource group using SMIT.
1. To define a resource group, enter the smit nim_mkgrp_resource fast path.
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2. Enter the name of the group with member information.
Defining a resource group from the command line:
Follow this procedure for defining a resource group from the command line.
To define a resource group, enter:
nim -o define -t res_group -a ResourceType=ResourceName GroupName
As an example, to create a resource group named ResGrp1 containing previously defined resources,
images1, spot1, bosinst_data1, and bundle1, enter:
nim -o define -t res_group -a lpp_source=images1 -a spot=spot1 \
-a bosinst_data=bosinst_data1 -a installp_bundle=bundle1 \
-a comments="BOS Install Resources" ResGrp1
Allocating a resource group:
Use the following procedures to allocate resource groups.
Allocating a resource group using SMIT:
Follow this procedure to allocate a resource group using SMIT.
1. To allocate a resource group, enter the smit nim_alloc fast path.
2. Select the machine or machine group from the list of defined machines (for example, Standalone1).
3. A list of resource groups is displayed. Select the resource group you want to allocate.
Allocating a resource group from the command line:
Follow this procedure to allocate a resource group from the command line.
To allocate a resource group, enter:
nim -o allocate -a group=ResGroupName TargetName
For example, to allocate a resource group named ResGrp1 to a machine named Standalone1, enter:
nim -o allocate -a group=ResGrp1 Standalone1
Alternatively, the group resource can be specified on the command line to the operation. For example, to
allocate the resource group, ddResGrp, while performing the dkls_init operation on a group of diskless
machines named DklsMacs, enter:
nim -o dkls_init -a group=ddResGrp DklsMacs
Defining default resource groups:
After a resource group is defined, you may want to specify the group as the set of defaults for all
operations that require resources.
Set the default_res attribute on the master to the name of the resource group that you want to be the
default.
Note: All applicable resources are allocated from the group specified as the default for all operations,
except for installp_bundle for a maint operation.
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A resource from the default group will only be allocated if a resource of the same type is not already
allocated and if a resource of that type is not specified on the command line for automatic allocation. The
exceptions are the script and installp_bundle resources, of which all occurrences in the resource group
and specified on the command line will be allocated.
Default members can be overridden by specifying a null value in the attribute assignment for that
resource.
The following bos_inst operation allocates all applicable bos_inst resources from the resource group
specified as the default, except for the bosinst_data resource:
nim -o bos_inst -a bosinst_data=Standalone1
Defining default resource groups using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for defining default resource groups using SMIT.
1. Enter the smit nim_grp fast path.
2. Choose Select/Unselect a Default Resource Group.
3. Fill in the name of the group that is to act as the default.
Defining default resource groups from the command line:
Follow this procedure to define default resource groups from the command line.
Enter:
nim -o change -a default_res=ResGroupName master
For example, if the ResGrp1 resource group should be the set of default resources for all NIM operations,
enter:
nim -o change -a default_res=ResGrp1 master
Managing software on standalone clients and SPOT resources
The commands for managing software on standalone clients and SPOT resources are generally the same.
Specify the name of the machine, group, or SPOT as the target of the option.
Note: If the SPOT is currently allocated to a NIM client, NIM prevents the change to the SPOT. Use the
Force (-F) option to force the operation.
Software updates to a SPOT cause the SPOT’s network boot images to be rebuilt when necessary. If you
think the boot images are bad, you can force them to be rebuilt using the NIM check operation.
Software updates to a SPOT may also cause software updates to occur in the root parts of diskless and
dataless clients of the SPOT. This will occur automatically. You can force a synchronization of the client
root parts using the NIM sync_roots operation on the SPOT.
For information on how to install additional software on standalone clients and SPOT resources, see
“Customizing NIM clients and SPOT resources” on page 230.
Listing software installed on a standalone client or SPOT:
You can list software installed on a standalone client or SPOT using the Web-based System Manager,
SMIT, or the command line.
Listing software installed on a standalone client or SPOT using Web-based System Manager:
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Follow this procedure for listing software installed on a standalone client or SPOT using Web-based
System Manager.
1. Select the Machines container.
2. In the contents area, select a target machine (master or standalone), or in the Resources container,
select a target SPOT resource.
3. From the Selected menu, choose List Installed Software → All Installed.
Listing software installed on a standalone client or SPOT using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for listing software installed on a standalone client or SPOT using SMIT.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Enter the smit nim_list_installed fast path.
Select the menu item that describes the list operation you want to perform.
Select a target for the operation.
In the displayed dialog fields, supply the required values. Use the help information or the LIST option
to help you.
Listing software installed on a standalone client or SPOT from the command line:
Follow this procedure for listing software installed on a standalone client or SPOT from the command
line.
Enter the following command:
nim -o lslpp [-a lslpp_flags=LslppFlags] TargetName
where LslppFlags are the flags to be passed to the lslpp command, and TargetName is the name of the
client or SPOT object.
For example:
nim -o lslpp -a lslpp_flags=La spot1
Listing software updates, installed on a standalone client or SPOT, by keyword:
You can list software updates, installed on a standalone client or SPOT, by keyword using the Web-based
System Manager, SMIT, or the command line.
Listing software updates, installed on a standalone client or SPOT, by keyword using Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for listing software updates, installed on a standalone client or SPOT, by keyword
using Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Machines container.
2. In the contents area, select a target machine (master or standalone), or in the Resources container,
select a target SPOT resource.
3. From the Selected menu, choose List Installed Software → Fix (APAR) Status.
4. Use the dialog to list the installation status of specific installed fixes.
Listing software updates, installed on a standalone client or SPOT, by keyword using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for listing software updates, installed on a standalone client or SPOT, by keyword
using SMIT.
1. To list fixes installed on a standalone client or SPOT by APAR number or keyword, enter the smit
nim_mac_op fast path for standalone clients, or enter the smit nim_res_op fast path for SPOTs.
2. Select the standalone client or SPOT resource object.
3. Select the fix_query operation.
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4. Select the desired fix_query flags or accept the default settings. Specify the fix_bundle object name;
or to check the installation status of an APAR, specify the fix APAR numbers. If you leave both blank,
all known fixes are displayed.
Listing software updates, installed on a standalone client or SPOT, by keyword from the command line:
Follow this procedure for listing software updates, installed on a standalone client or SPOT, by keyword
from the command line.
Enter the following command:
nim -o fix_query [ -afixes="FixKeywords" ] \
[-afix_bundle=FixBundleName ] [ -afix_query_flags=FixQueryFlags ] \
TargetName
where FixKeywords are APAR numbers; FixBundleName is the object name of the fix_bundle resource;
FixQueryFlags are optional flags to the fix_query operation, and TargetName is the client, group, or SPOT
for which to display fix information.
Valid FixQueryFlags are as follows:
-a
-c
-F
-q
-v
Displays symptom text.
Displays output in colon-separated format.
Returns failure unless all filesets associated with a fix are installed.
Quiet option; if -q is specified, no heading is displayed.
Verbose option; gives information about each fileset associated with a fix (keyword).
For example:
v To query the fix database on standalone1 to determine if all fileset updates for fix IX12345 are
installed, enter:
nim -o fix_query -afixes=IX12345 standalone1
v To list fix information for all known fixes installed on spot1, with symptom text, enter:
nim -o fix_query -afix_query_flags=a spot1
Maintaining software on standalone clients and SPOT resources:
This kind of task is accomplished by performing the NIM maint operation on a SPOT using the
Web-based System Manager NIM application, SMIT, or command line interface.
NIM uses the installp command to construct a SPOT by installing in the SPOT the software products
that each SPOT needs to support the NIM environment. Because the installp command also supports
software maintenance tasks, you can perform these tasks on SPOT resources as well. For example, you
can remove previously installed optional software from a SPOT when they are no longer being used. You
interact with the installp command by supplying the installp_flags, and either filesets or
installp_bundle attributes.
Maintaining software on standalone clients and SPOT resources using Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for software maintenance on standalone clients and SPOT resources using
Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Machines container.
2. In the contents area, select a target standalone machine, or in the Resources container, select a target
SPOT resource.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Software Utilities → Commit Applied Updates, Reject Applied
Updates, or Remove Software, depending upon the task you want to perform.
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Maintaining software on standalone clients and SPOT resources using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for software maintenance on standalone clients and SPOT resources using SMIT.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Enter the smit nim_task_maint fast path.
Select the menu item that describes the maintenance that you want to perform.
Select the target for the operation.
In the displayed dialog fields, supply the required values. Use the help information or the LIST option
to help you.
Maintaining software on standalone clients and SPOT resources from the command line:
Follow this procedure for maintaining software on standalone clients and SPOT resources from the
command line.
Enter the following command:
nim -o maint -a installp_flags="InstallpFlags" \
[-a filesets="FileSetNames" | \
-a installp_bundle=BundleResourceName ] [-F] TargetName
where InstallpFlags are the flags you want to pass to the installp command; FileSetNames are the names of
the filesets or packages you want to maintain; BundleResourceName is the object name of the
installp_bundle resource; and TargetName is the object name of the standalone client, group, or SPOT.
For example:
v To remove the bos.adt and bos.INed software packages from standalone1, enter:
nim -o maint -a filesets="bos.adt bos.INed" -a \
installp_flags="-u" standalone1
v To remove the bos.INed software package from spot1, which is allocated to diskless or dataless clients,
without deallocating spot1 first, enter:
nim -o maint -F -a filesets=bos.INed -a installp_flags="-u" \
spot1
v To remove the packages from spot1 which are listed in the bundle pointed to by the installp_bundle
resource object, bundle1, enter:
nim -o maint -a installp_flags="-u" -a installp_bundle=bundle1 \
spot1
v To clean up from an interrupted software installation on spot1, enter:
nim -o maint -a installp_flags="-C" spot1
Rebuilding network boot images for a SPOT
You can rebuild network boot images for a SPOT using the Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or the
command line.
Rebuilding network boot images for a SPOT using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for rebuilding network boot images for a SPOT using the Web-based System
Manager.
1. Select the Resources container.
2. In the contents area, select a target SPOT.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Check SPOT.
4. Use the dialog to select the Build debug network boot images and/or the force option, if needed.
You can also perform this task from Troubleshooting. From the Selected menu, choose Troubleshooting →
Build Non-Debug Network Boot Images.
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Rebuilding network boot images for a SPOT using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for rebuilding network boot images for a SPOT using SMIT.
1.
2.
3.
4.
To rebuild network boot images for a SPOT, enter the smit nim_res_op fast path.
Select the SPOT.
Select the check operation.
In the displayed dialog fields, set the Force option to yes.
Rebuilding network boot images for a SPOT from the command line:
Follow this procedure to force the rebuild of the boot images for a SPOT from the command line.
Enter:
nim -Fo check SPOTName
For information on how to install additional software on standalone clients and SPOT resources, see
“Customizing NIM clients and SPOT resources” on page 230.
Maintaining software in an lpp_source
To add or remove software in an lpp_source, add or remove the installation image from the lpp_source
directory, and then initiate the NIM check operation on the lpp_source.
Copying software to an lpp_source:
You can copy software to an lpp_source using the Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or the command
line.
Copying software to an lpp_source using Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for copying software to an lpp_source using Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Resources container.
2. In the contents area, select an lpp_source.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Properties. The General page of the properties notebook displays.
4. From the General page, identify the location of the resource. Close the notebook.
5. From the Resources menu, select Copy Software to Directory, and specify as the destination directory,
the location of the resource identified in the notebook.
6. After the copy is completed, select the lpp_source and from the Selected menu, choose Check NIM
State. This action updates the table of contents (.toc) file for the lpp_source.
Copying software to an lpp_source using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for copying software to an lpp_source using SMIT.
1. To copy software from installation media to an lpp_source, insert the installation media in the
appropriate drive of the lpp_source server.
2. To copy the software to the lpp_source directory, enter smit bffcreate from the resource server.
3. Enter the INPUT device / directory for software.
4. In the displayed dialog fields, supply the correct values or accept the default values. Be sure to
specify the lpp_source location for the directory to store the installation images. Use the help
information and the LIST option to help you.
Copying software to an lpp_source from the command line:
Follow this procedure for copying software to an lpp_source from the command line.
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1. Copy the software from the media to the lpp_source directory.
2. Perform the NIM check operation on the lpp_source by entering the following command:
nim -o check Lpp_sourceName
Removing software from an lpp_source:
To remove software from an lpp_source, delete the installation image from the lpp_source directory.
Note: This function is only available from the command line interface.
Removing software from an lpp_source from the command line:
Follow this procedure for removing software from an lpp_source from the command line.
1. Remove the installation image from the lpp_source directory.
2. Perform the NIM check operation on the lpp_source by entering the following command:
nim -o check Lpp_sourceName
Running the NIM check operation:
After adding or removing software, you must run the NIM check operation on the lpp_source to update
the installation table-of-contents file for the resource. You can run the NIM check operation from the
Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or the command line.
In addition to updating the table-of-contents for the lpp_source, the check operation also updates the
simages attribute for the lpp_source, which indicates whether the lpp_source contains the images
necessary to install the Base Operating System images on a machine.
Running the NIM check operation using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for running the NIM check operation using the Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Resources container.
2. In the contents area, select a target lpp_source resource.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Check NIM State.
Running the NIM check operation using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for running the NIM check operation using SMIT.
1. Enter the smit nim_res_op fast path.
2. Select the lpp_source for the operation.
3. Select check for the operation to be performed.
Running the NIM check operation from the command line:
Follow this procedure for running the NIM check operation from the command line.
To initiate the NIM check operation on the lpp_source, enter:
nim -o check Lpp_sourceName
If the lpp_source is currently allocated to a client, use the Force option as follows:
nim -F -o check Lpp_sourceName
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Viewing installation, configuration, and boot logs
After installing a standalone machine, use the showlog operation to check the installation results by
viewing the installation, boot, and configuration logs. You can view these logs from the Web-based
System Manager, SMIT, or the command line.
One of several log types can be viewed by specifying one of the following as the value of the log_type
attribute to the showlog operation:
devinst
niminst
bosinst
boot
lppchk
script
nimerr
Output from the installation of key system and device-driver software
Output from the installation of user-specified software (including installation of NIM client software during a
bos_inst operation)
Output from the BOS installation program
The machine’s boot log
A log of the output from the lppchk operation executed on a standalone NIM client
Output from any configuration script resources allocated for a bos_inst operation
Errors encountered during execution of the nim command.
By default, the showlog operation applied to a standalone machine displays the niminst log and shows
the output logged when software was last installed on the machine using NIM. The last entry is also
shown by default for the script and lppchk logs. The entire contents of the niminst, script, and lppchk
logs can be displayed by assigning the full_log attribute a value of yes when executing the showlog
operation. The entire log is shown for all other log types.
Viewing installation, configuration, and boot logs using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for viewing installation, configuration, and boot logs using the Web-based System
Manager.
1. Select the Machines container.
2. In the contents area, select a target machine (master, standalone, diskless, or dataless), or in the
Resources container, select a target SPOT.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Troubleshooting → Show NIM Logs.
4. Use the dialog to select the log you want to examine.
Viewing installation, configuration, and boot logs using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for viewing installation, configuration, and boot logs using SMIT.
1. Enter the smit nim_mac_op fast path to view a machine’s log, or enter smit nim_res_op to view a
SPOT’s log.
2. Select the object name of the machine or SPOT whose log you want to view.
3. Select showlog from the list of operations.
4. Select the log type to be viewed.
5. Specify if the full log should be viewed (only applicable to script, lppchk, and niminst logs).
Viewing installation, configuration, and boot logs from the command line:
Follow this procedure for viewing installation, configuration, and boot logs from the command line.
To view a log on a standalone machine or SPOT, enter:
nim -o showlog -a LogType=value ObjectName
where LogType represents the log you want to view, and ObjectName is the name of the machine or SPOT
whose log will be viewed.
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Verifying installation with the lppchk operation
When investigating functional problems in software, you can use the lppchk operation to check the
integrity of installed software. You can perform this operation from the Web-based System Manager,
SMIT, or the command line.
Verifying installation with the lppchk operation using the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for verifying installation with the lppchk operation using the Web-based System
Manager.
1. Select the Machines container.
2. In the contents area, select a target standalone machine, or in the Resources container, select a target
SPOT.
3. From the Selected menu, choose Troubleshooting → Verify Installed Software.
4. Use the dialog to select whether to verify all or some installed software on the selected machine or
SPOT.
Verifying installation with the lppchk operation using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for verifying installation with the lppchk operation using SMIT.
1. Enter the smit nim_mac_op fast path to check software on a machine, or enter smit nim_res_op to
check software on a SPOT.
2. Select the target of the lppchk operation.
3. Select the desired verification mode.
Verifying installation with the lppchk operation from the command line:
Follow this procedure for verifying installation with the lppchk operation from the command line.
Enter the following command:
nim -o lppchk -a filesets=FilesetName \
-a lppchk_flags="lppchkFlags" ObjectName
where FilesetName is the name of a single fileset (or a name with the * wildcard character), and
ObjectName is the name of the machine or SPOT which is the target of the lppchk operation. Valid
lppchk_flags are defined as follows:
-f
-c
-v
-l
-u
-mn
Fast check (file existence, file length)
Checksum verification
Fileset version consistency check (default)
File link verification
Note: Only one of the flags -f, -c, -v, or -l may be specified.
Update inventory (only valid with -c or -l)
Controls detail of messages. n equals 1 to 3, where 3 is the most verbose.
For example, to perform the lppchk operation while verifying checksums for all filesets on the machine
named Standalone1, enter the following:
nim -o lppchk -a lppchk_flags="-c" Standalone1
Using NIM to install clients configured with Kerberos authentication
You can install clients configured with Kerberos authentication using NIM.
Normally, NIM relies on Standard AIX authentication to allow the NIM master to remotely execute
commands. Standard AIX authentication uses the .rhosts file to provide this capability. While NIM
functionality depends on its ability to remotely execute commands, some system environments require
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stricter authentication controls. Kerberos authentication provides a higher level of authentication for
executing remote commands on the system without disabling NIM’s capabilities.
Using NIM to install clients configured with Kerberos 4 authentication:
In AIX 4.3.2 and later, NIM can be used to install machines in an RS/6000® SP environment configured
for Kerberos 4 authentication.
Clients configured for Kerberos 4 authentication will contain a $HOME/.klogin file for the root user. This
file will determine what ticket is required to allow remote command execution. The user must obtain the
required ticket before attempting to execute remote commands through NIM.
The NIM master and all secure clients must have the IBM Parallel System Support Program for AIX 3.1
(or later) installed and configured.
If secure clients will be reinstalled with BOS (Base Operating System), the authentication methods on the
NIM master should be set for both Kerberos 4 and Standard UNIX. Because NIM will not have
configured Kerberos 4 on the client after the BOS is installed. NIM will therefore have to rely on a
.rhosts file to guarantee that it can remotely execute commands on the client until the client can be
configured with Kerberos 4 and made into a secure client.
If only software customization and maintenance will be performed, the NIM master must have its
authentication methods set to match those of the clients. To manage secure clients, the master will need
authentication methods set to include Standard UNIX.
For more information on installing and configuring Kerberos 4, see the SP Administration Guide
(GC23–3897).
Using NIM to install clients configured with Kerberos 5 authentication:
In AIX 4.3.3 and later, NIM can be used to install machines in an environment configured for Kerberos 5
authentication.
Clients configured for Kerberos 5 authentication will contain a $HOME/.k5login file for the root user. This
file will contain an entry that specifies what host token is required to allow remote command execution.
This entry uses the following form:
hosts/hostname/[email protected]
The NIM master and all secure clients must have DCE installed and configured at a level greater than or
equal to 2.2.1.
If secure clients will be reinstalled with BOS, the authentication methods on the NIM master should be
set for both Kerberos 5 and Standard UNIX. Because the client will not have DCE or Kerberos 5
configured and running after the BOS is installed. NIM will therefore have to rely on standard rhosts to
remotely execute commands on the client until it can be configured with Kerberos 5 and made into a
secure client.
If only software customization and maintenance will be performed, the NIM master must have its
authentication methods set to match those of the clients. To manage secure clients, the master will need
authentication methods set to include Standard UNIX.
Using NIM to install clients configured with SSL authentication
In AIX 5.3 and later, NIM can be used to install machines in an RS/6000 environment configured for SSL
authentication.
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Clients configured for SSL authentication must use the NIM Service Handler (NIMSH) for handling NIM
master push operations. For more information about NIMSH, see “Using the NIM service handler for
client communication” on page 274.
You can install and configure the OpenSSL cryptographic software using the NIM command options.
Scripts are provided for configuring OpenSSL in the NIM environment, and you can use these without
any modifications. The scripts are installed as part of the bos.sysmgt.nim.client fileset and located in the
/usr/samples/nim/ssl directory. The scripts are used to define SSL keys and certificates for NIM SSL
usage.
Because NIM masters can support a large system environment, it is necessary to impose a hierarchy on
SSL certificate and key storage structure. During NIM setup, the following directory structure is created:
/ssl_nimsh
SSL parent directory for NIM
/ssl_nimsh/configs
Contains scripts used to configure SSL in NIM
/ssl_nimsh/certs
Contains SSL certificates used during host authentication
/ssl_nimsh/keys
Contains SSL keys used during SSL protocol communication
The NIM SSL directory structure is considered static and you should not modify it. To change SSL
certificate options, you can modify the following configuration scripts:
SSL_root.cnf
Generates Certificate Authority key for signing certificates
SSL_server.cnf
Generates the NIM master’s certificate for distributing to clients
SSL_client.cnf
Generates the NIM master’s local certificate for authenticating
Note: You should configure NIM SSL using default settings prior to modifying the configuration scripts.
To verify changes, a certificate viewer script called certview is located in the /usr/samples/nim/ssl
directory. For more information about certview, see “Using the certificate viewing file” on page 309.
For more information on installing and configuring OpenSSL in NIM, see the nimconfig command and
nimclient command.
Using NIM to install clients configured with SSL authentication using SMIT:
Follow this procedure for using NIM to install clients configured with SSL authentication using SMIT.
To
1.
2.
3.
configure the NIM environment for SSL authentication, complete the following steps:
Type the fast path smitty nim_ssl on the NIM master.
Select enabled as the option for Enabling Cryptographic Authentication.
If OpenSSL is not installed on the client, select yes as the option for Installing Secure Socket Layer
Software.
4. If OpenSSL is selected for install, specify the absolute path for the RPM package or select the
lpp_source resource which contains the OpenSSL RPM package.
Using NIM to install clients configured with SSL authentication from the command line:
Follow this procedure to configure the NIM environment for SSL authentication from the command line.
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1. If OpenSSL is installed on the NIM master, type:
# nimconfig -c
2. If OpenSSL is not installed on the NIM master, complete the following steps:
v Locate the AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications media.
v Install the OpenSSL RPM package using geninstall. For additional information on using geninstall,
see Add Open Source Applications to Your AIX System.
v After OpenSSL is installed on the NIM master, type:
# nimconfig -c
Using concurrency control
Users can ease the severity of NIM installations becoming overburdened when they are being performed
on a large number of clients at the same time by controlling the number of clients that are installed.
NIM installations can become overburdened when they are being performed on a large number of clients
at the same time. This can be caused by network bandwidth or workload on the NIM servers.
The concurrent and time_limit attributes can be used in conjunction with the bos_inst, cust, and
alt_disk_install operations to control the number of client machines being operated on simultaneously
from a client group. The concurrent attribute controls the number of clients in a group that are
processing a particular operation at one time. After a client finishes the operation, another client will
initiate the operation one at a time. The time_limit attribute prohibits NIM from initiating an operation
on any more clients of the group, after the specified time (in hours) has elapsed.
Using concurrency control from the Web-based System Manager:
Follow this procedure for using concurrency control from the Web-based System Manager.
1. Select the Machines container.
2. In the contents area, select multiple targets.
3. From the Selected menu, choose any of the following options:
v Install Operating System
v Install/Update Software
v Alternate Disk Install
4. From any of those dialogs, select the NIM settings or Advanced button.
5. In those dialogs, a section containing the concurrency controls can be specified.
Note: Web-based System Manager does not provide support for continuing after a failure or if the group
of machines were individually selected and the time limit expired. The user must reselect the clients that
failed or were not attempted and then reissue the command.
Using concurrency control from SMIT:
You can access concurrency control attributes from all SMIT panels under the Install and Update
Software menu and the Alternate Disk Installation menu.
Using concurrency control from the command line:
The concurrent and time_limit attributes can be used in conjunction with the bos_inst, cust and
alt_disk_install operations.
For example, to have the bos.games fileset installed on only five machines from the client group tmp_grp
at one time, enter the following command:
nim -o cust -a lpp_source=lpp_source1 -a filesets=bos.games \
-a concurrent=5 tmp_grp
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In this example, to BOS install only 10 clients from tmp_grp, using lpp_source, lpp_source1, and SPOT,
spot1, with no other installs permitted after three hours have elapsed, enter the following command:
nim -o bos_inst -a lpp_source=lpp_source1 -a spot=spot1 \
-a concurrent=10 -a time_limit=3 tmp_grp
Note: The concurrency controlled operation can complete and leave the group in one of the following
states:
v All machines install successfully.
v Some machines may fail the installation.
v If the time_limit attribute was used, time may have expired before the installation operation was
complete.
In the first situation, the group will revert to the state prior to the operation. In the second and third
situations, the group will be left in a state that indicates some machines have completed and some have
not. Problems with failing machines should be investigated. At this point, the user can continue with the
machines that did not complete by rerunning the command on the group. Alternatively, the user can
″reset″ the group, which will set the group back to its state prior to the concurrency controlled operation.
Performing other NIM operations
Network Installation Management (NIM) operations that are not part of the usual installation procedures
is described.
Managing the NIM master
Tasks for managing the NIM master are described.
Note: NFS version 4 is not supported by NIM. For additional information on NFS version 4, see Network
File System in Networks and communication management.
Deactivating the NIM master and removing the NIM master fileset:
After the NIM master fileset has been installed, the master activated, and the master object defined in the
NIM database, this object, and hence the master fileset itself, cannot be removed. The master must be
deactivated before the NIM master fileset can be removed.
To deactivate the master using Web-based System Manager, see “Unconfiguring the NIM master” on page
262.
To use the command line to deactivate the master and remove the NIM master fileset, enter:
nim -o unconfig master
installp -u bos.sysmgt.nim.master
Increasing the number of hosts to which NIM can NFS-export a resource:
Follow these instructions to increase the number of hosts to which NIM can NFS-export a resource.
By default, when NIM exports a file or directory through NFS during resource allocation, it creates an
entry in the /etc/exports file granting the target host both client mount access and root access for root
users. As a result, when exporting to numerous clients, the limit on the length of a line in the exports file
(32767 characters) may be exceeded, resulting in failure.
NIM provides an option to decrease the line length of an allocation entry in an NFS exports file by
approximately one-half, effectively permitting files to be allocated to a greater number of hosts. This
action has the side effect of increasing the number of machines permitted in a NIM machine group. NIM
achieves this by only granting root access to allocation target hosts. The client mount access list is not
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created, which allows any machine to mount the resource, but still restricts root access to NIM clients
only. NFS permits no more than 256 host names in a root exports file entry.
To enable this mode of operation, set the restrict_nfs_exports attribute to no on the master’s NIM object.
Use the change operation as follows:
nim -o change -a restrict_nfs_exports=no master
To restore client mount access restrictions, set restrict_nfs_exports to yes with the change operation.
For information about how to export NIM resources globally, see “Exporting NIM resources globally” on
page 304.
Controlling the asynchronous behavior of NIM operations:
Certain NIM operations are asynchronous, meaning that NIM master might initiate the operation on the
client, but does not wait for the operation to finish. The reason for this asynchronous behavior is because
the NIM operation running on the client is typically time-consuming.
An example of an asynchronous operation is the bos_inst operation. Examples of synchronous operations
are the cust, maint, and lppchk operations on a single machine target. However, these operations, when
applied to members of a machine group, are asynchronous. The nim command initiates these operations
on each member of the group without waiting for the operation to finish.
If desired, the asynchronous behavior of the cust, maint, and lppchk operations can be controlled by
setting the async attribute on the command line. For example, to ensure that the execution of a
customization script identified by the NIM resource script1 is executed completely on a given member
of the group MacGrp1 before initiating execution of the script on the next member of the group, enter the
following:
nim -o cust -a script=script1 -a async=no MacGrp1
To force the master to not wait for the customization operation to finish when running the script on
machine Standalone1 that is not part of a machine group, enter:
nim -o cust -a script=script1 -a async=yes Standalone1
Suppressing output from NIM operations:
Follow these instructions to suppress output from NIM operations.
By default, progress messages are displayed by the nim command operating on machine groups to
inform the user of how much processing remains. Similarly, the output from the installation and
customization programs invoked by the cust and maint operations on SPOTs and machines is also
displayed. This output can be suppressed by setting the show_progress attribute to no on the command
line. For example, to indicate to NIM not to display output from the installp command when updating
the machine Standalone1 with software from the lpp_source named images1, enter the following
command:
nim -o cust -a show_progress=no -a lpp_source=images1 \
-a fixes=update_all Standalone1
Reducing space requirements for NIM resources:
It is not unusual for resources such as the SPOT and lpp_source to take several hundred megabytes of
storage space on a NIM server. You can reduce space consumption significantly on resource servers by
creating /usr SPOTs and defining CD-ROM file-system directories as lpp_sources.
A /usr SPOT can be created from the /usr file system of the NIM master or any NIM client. The AIX
system files for the BOS are already installed, so only software for additional device support will be
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added to the system. The resulting system ultimately has more software installed on it than it needs to
run, but far less disk space is used than otherwise would have been, had a non-/usr SPOT been created
on the same system. For more information on creating /usr SPOT resources, see “Using the SPOT (Shared
Product Object Tree) resource” on page 186 and “Defining /usr versus non-/usr SPOTs” on page 256.
A directory on the AIX product CD can be mounted and defined as an lpp_source, eliminating the need
to copy installation images to the hard disk of a resource server. The defined lpp_source contains all the
images available on the CD, but the CD must remain mounted at the server for the lpp_source to be
usable in NIM operations. For more information about using a CD-ROM file system as an lpp_source, see
“Defining an lpp_source on CD/DVD-ROM versus hard disk” on page 258.
Obtaining support for multiple mksysb operations in NIM:
During the allocation of NIM mksysb images, only the file is exported to the NFS clients. However,
during mksysb creation, the parent directory is also exported. If you use that filesystem to create a
mksysb image of a system while another system is restoring a mksysb image from that filesystem, you
will get NFS errors.
To avoid this problem, use the environment variable NIM_MKSYSB_SUBDIRS on the NIM master. When
this variable is set to yes, subdirectories are used to separate mksysb images. The subdirectories are
transparent to the user, but they provide separate child locations for NFS exporting.
Saving system backup information:
When you are defining a mksysb NIM resource using the nim -o define -t mksysb command, the -a
mksysb_flags=xxx attribute can be given the -p option, which prevents the mksysb image from being
compressed.
Note: Due to the amount of space that this system backup is likely to occupy, the location into which the
mksysb file is saved, specified by the -a location=xxx attribute, must be large-file enabled. Otherwise,
errors can occur.
Resolving host names with NIM
NIM relies on standard AIX library routines to perform name resolution. If a network environment uses
multiple sources for name resolution, NIM will resolve host names by querying the sources in whatever
order is specified for the system.
For example, if a system is configured to resolve host names by first querying NIS, then BIND/DNS, then
a local /etc/hosts file, NIM will also follow that order when resolving client host names.
Problems may result if the NIM master and the NIM clients use different orders when querying sources
for name resolution. Problems may also arise if a name service is available to one machine but not to
another, causing different name resolution sources to be used.
Note: Mixing BIND/DNS, which is not case-sensitive, with NIS, which is case-sensitive, may result in
problems.
It is possible to override the default system-wide order that AIX and NIM use when querying sources for
host name resolution. This can be done by setting the NSORDER environment variable in the
environment where NIM commands are being run. For example, to configure the environment to query
NIS first, then BIND/DNS, then a local /etc/hosts file, type the following on the command line where
NIM operations are being run:
export NSORDER=nis,bind,local
For more information on TCP/IP name resolution, refer to Networks and communication management.
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Booting over a router on an FDDI interface
Boot over a router on an FDDI interface only if the router supports all-route broadcast.
Booting over a router that does not support all-route broadcast on an FDDI interface may fail due to
known limitations of these router types.
Setting default paging space during BOS installation through NIM
In AIX 4.3 or later, default paging space is set by the BOS installation process when installing through
NIM.
Default paging space is set by the BOS installation process, if the following conditions are met:
v The method of installation is overwrite.
v Neither an image_data resource nor an image.data file on the diskette is specified for the installation.
v The source of the BOS image is not a mksysb image.
v The source of the BOS image is a SPOT, and the default image.data file contains more than one entry
for paging. This file is located at:
(spot_location)/lpp/bosinst/image_template
v The source of the BOS image is a SPOT, and the LPs value for the single paging entry is set to the
default value of 16.
The default paging size is calculated from the smaller value of optimal_ps and recommended_ps where:
v RAM = amount of memory on the target system measured in megabytes (MB).
v optimal_ps = maximum between RAM and (0.2 size of rootvg)
v IF CDE (Common Desktop Environment) is installed, recommmended_ps =
– amount of RAM is less than 32 MB, then recommended_ps = 3 * RAM
–
v IF
–
–
amount of RAM is 32 MB or more, then recommended_ps = RAM + 64 MB
CDE (Common Desktop Environment) is not installed, recommmended_ps =
amount of RAM is less than 32 MB, then recommended_ps = 2 * RAM
amount of RAM is 32 MB or more, then recommended_ps = RAM + 32 MB
The default paging space set by this process is never greater than 512 MB.
Migrating diskless and dataless clients and NIM SPOTS
Migration to a new release of AIX is not supported for diskless and dataless clients. Also, migration of a
SPOT that is not a converted /usr file system is not supported.
After migrating a machine that is a SPOT server to a new release of AIX, you must remove and redefine
the SPOT in order to also bring it to the new AIX level.
To remove and redefine the SPOT, enter:
nim -o remove SPOT_name
nim -o define -t spot -a location=SPOTDirectory \
-a server=SPOTServer -a source=SPOTSource SPOTName
A /usr SPOT served by a client in the NIM environment can be reinstalled with a new level of AIX using
the migration procedure, but the SPOT object must be removed and then redefined after the migration
completes. Any diskless or dataless clients served by that SPOT must be reinitialized. To reinitialize
diskless and dataless clients after migrating a /usr SPOT server, deallocate, then reallocate the root
resources, and then perform the dtls_init or dkls_init operation accordingly.
To reinitialize diskless and dataless clients, enter:
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nim
nim
nim
nim
-o
-o
-o
-o
reset -F ClientName
deallocate -a root=RootResourceName ClientName
allocate -a root=RootResourceName ClientName
dkls_init ClientName
Attention: Any customization that was done previously will be erased, because deallocating the root
resource will delete all the files in the root directory.
Using the nimdef command
The nimdef command assists administrators when defining complex NIM environments and adding large
numbers of client machines.
The nimdef command also solves a common usability problem when defining large NIM environments.
Regardless of how well a NIM environment is understood, it can be a very time-consuming process to
execute all the commands necessary to define it. If NIM could process a simple definition file for
configuration of the NIM environment, a great deal of time could be saved that would otherwise be spent
defining each network and machine manually.
The nimdef command reads a definition file for input. The definition file is in a structured stanza format.
Each stanza describes a machine that will be added to the NIM environment. Included in the stanza is
information about the machine’s network adapter and routing configuration. Based on the supplied
information, the nimdef command can determine the remaining information needed to define both
networks and machines in the NIM environment.
For more information, see the nimdef command. For a sample definition file for the nimdef command,
see “Using miscellaneous network installation files” on page 307.
Naming NIM object definitions
The name that you give a NIM object will be used in all future operations involving that object. This
name must be unique among NIM objects, and it must adhere to certain restrictions.
v It must have between 1 and 39 characters.
v Valid NIM name characters include the uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet, the numbers
0-9, hyphen (-), exclamation mark (!), and the underscore character (_).
v Invalid NIM name characters include the dot character, all shell metacharacters, all file system
metacharacters, and all regular expression metacharacters.
Using NIM with Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Select your NIM master to be the same system as the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
server when using NIM in an environment that uses DHCP.
Use host names whenever possible when defining NIM machine objects.
The DHCP server reads the /etc/services file to determine which port it should use for receiving
requests. The default service is dhcps. Because this is the same port that the bootpd daemon uses, you
can only have one daemon (either dhcpsd or bootpd) running. If you choose the dhcpsd daemon, you
will need to comment bootp from the /etc/inetd.conf file, then enter refresh -s inetd on the command
line.
Creating file resources in the root directory
Due to a limitation in NFS, file resources, such as bosinst_data and script resources cannot be created in
the root directory (″/″) of a resource server.
Creating resources in the /tmp directory or /tmp subdirectories
NIM resources should not be created in the /tmp directory or /tmp subdirectories (including filesystems
mounted under /tmp).
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Restricting NIM client resource allocation
NIM provides client machines with the capability of allocating and using any resource in the NIM
environment. In some tightly controlled NIM environments, administrators may not want clients to be
able to access all resources at all times.
To control client-resource allocation, a NIM administrator can use the client_alloc attribute. The
restrictions placed by the client_alloc attribute will prevent clients from allocating and using resources,
but the NIM master will continue to have the full capability of performing operations on clients.
Note: This task is not supported by the Web-based System Manager.
Restricting NIM client resource allocation using SMIT:
Use this procedure to change NIM client-allocation restrictions from the SMIT interface.
Type the SMIT fast path:
smit nim_control_alloc
Restricting NIM client resource allocation from the command line:
Use these procedures to restrict NIM client resource allocation from the command line.
To restrict all clients from being able to use any resources, set the attribute client_alloc=no on the NIM
master:
nim -o change -a client_alloc=no master
To restrict a particular client from being able to use any resources, set the attribute client_alloc=no on the
client:
nim -o change -a client_alloc=no clientname
To restrict all clients from being able to use a particular resource, set the attribute client_alloc=no on the
resource:
nim -o change -a client_alloc=no resourcename
To lift the restrictions on client-resource allocation, remove the client_alloc attribute by setting it to yes
for the applicable object:
nim -o change -a client_alloc=yes master
nim -o change -a client_alloc=yes clientname
nim -o change -a client_alloc=yes resourcename
Preventing machines from adding themselves as clients
Machines may add themselves as clients in NIM environments by using the niminit command and
specifying the hostname of a NIM master. In some environments, administrators may want total control
over which machines are added as clients of their masters.
To prevent clients from adding themselves to a NIM environment, an administrator can use the
client_reg attribute.
Note: This task is not supported by the Web-based System Manager.
Preventing machines from adding themselves as clients using SMIT:
Use this information to change the option to allow machines to add themselves to a NIM environment as
clients.
Type the SMIT fast path:
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smit nim_client_reg
Preventing machines from adding themselves as clients from the command line:
Use this information to set from the command line whether machines can add themselves as clients in a
NIM environment.
To prevent machines from adding themselves as clients in a NIM environment, set the attribute
client_reg=no on the NIM master:
nim -o change -a client_reg=no master
To allow machines to add themselves as clients of a NIM master, remove the client_reg attribute by
setting it to yes on the master:
nim -o change -a client_reg=yes master
Managing client CPU ID validation
The CPU ID of a NIM client is stored in the NIM database so that the master can perform verification
that NIM client commands are coming from the machines that were originally registered as clients.
A NIM administrator would not want this CPU ID validation to be performed in the following situations:
v When the hardware of a client machine is changed, giving the client a new CPU ID.
v When a single client definition is used to install different machines, as on a preinstall assembly line.
v When a client machine is migrated with Logical Partition Mobility (LPM), giving the client new
hardware and a new CPU ID.
Managing client CPU ID validation using the Web-based System Manager:
Use this information to enable or disable the NIM client CPU ID validation from the NIM application.
To enable or disable NIM client CPU ID validation from the NIM application:
1. From the NIM menu, select Advanced Configuration → Control Client CPU ID Validation.
2. Use the dialog to complete the task.
Managing client CPU ID validation using SMIT:
Use this information to enable or disable client CPU ID validation from the SMIT interface.
Type the SMIT fast path:
smit nim_cpuid_validate
Managing client CPU ID validation from the command line:
Client CPU ID validation can be managed on the NIM master by using the validate_cpuid attribute.
To disable client CPU ID validation, set the attribute validate_cpuid=no on the NIM master:
nim -o change -a validate_cpuid=no master
To perform client CPU ID validation, remove the validate_cpuid attribute from the master by setting it to
″yes″:
nim -o change -a validate_cpuid=yes master
Attention: The value of the validate_cpuid attribute should not be changed while operations are being
performed on NIM clients because it could potentially disrupt client communications for active machines.
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Exporting NIM resources globally
NIM resources can be exported globally using the Web-based System Manager, SMIT, or the command
line interface.
When resources are allocated for use during NIM operations, they are NFS-exported to the client
machines where the operations will be performed. If operations are performed simultaneously on many
different clients, the /etc/exports and /etc/xtab files may become very large on the resource servers.
This may cause size limits to be exceeded in the files, and it may also negatively affect NIM performance
as the files are locked and modified for each resource allocation or deallocation.
In environments where administrators are not concerned about who has access to the NIM resources,
they may set an option to globally export the resources and thereby eliminate the repeated updates to the
/etc/exports and /etc/xtab files. The only resources that may not be globally exported are those that are
used exclusively by diskless and dataless clients. The global export of a NIM resource will make it
readable by any machine in the network, not just those in the NIM environment. The resource will be
globally exported as long as it is allocated to any client. When the resource is deallocated from all clients,
it is unexported.
Exporting NIM resources globally using the Web-based System Manager:
Use this information to export NIM resources globally using the Web-based System Manager.
To enable or disable global export of NIM resources from the NIM application:
1. From the NIM menu, select Advanced Configuration → Export NIM Resources Globally.
2. Use the dialog to complete the task.
Exporting NIM resources globally using SMIT:
Use this information to export NIM resources globally using SMIT.
To manage global exporting of NIM resources from the SMIT interface, type the SMIT fast path:
smit nim_global_export
Exporting NIM resources globally from the command line:
Global exporting of NIM resources for use by clients can be managed with the global_export attribute.
To enable global exporting of NIM resources, set the attribute global_export=yes on the NIM master:
nim -o change -a global_export=yes master
To disable global exporting of NIM resources, remove the global_export attribute from the master by
setting it to no:
nim -o change -a global_export=no master
Do not change the enablement and disablement of global exports when there are resources allocated to
clients because this could lead to situations where resources are exported with incorrect permissions. All
NIM operations should be completed and resources deallocated before any attempts are made to change
the global_export value. If resources are currently allocated to clients, the nim command will fail to
change the global_export value.
Creating network boot images to support only the defined clients and networks
You can create network boot images in the /tftpboot directory using the Web-based System Manager,
SMIT, or the command line interface.
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When a SPOT resource is created, network boot images are created in the /tftpboot directory to support
certain NIM operations.
NIM only creates network boot images to support clients and networks that are defined. If a new client is
defined and there is no network boot image already created for it in the environment, then the boot
image will not be created until either the SPOT is allocated to the client or a check operation is
performed on the SPOT to rebuild the boot images.
When clients are removed from the NIM environment, boot images are not automatically removed. To
remove boot images that are no longer necessary for a NIM environment, the list of required
machine-network combinations in the environment must be rebuilt. The boot images must then be rebuilt
for each SPOT.
Creating network boot images to support defined clients and networks using Web-based System
Manager:
Follow this procedure to limit or enable boot image creation according to whether the interface is defined.
1. From the NIM menu, select Advanced Configuration → Control Network Boot Image Creation.
2. Use the dialog to complete the task.
Creating network boot images to support defined clients and networks using SMIT:
Use this method to manage the creation of boot images from the SMIT interface.
Type the SMIT fast path:
smit nim_control_boot
Creating network boot images to support defined clients and networks from the command line:
Use this information to manage network boot images to support only the defined clients and networks.
To rebuild the list of machine types and networks that must be supported by network boot images in the
NIM environment, perform a change operation on the NIM master with the if_discover=yes attribute:
nim -o change -a if_discover=yes master
To rebuild network boot images from a SPOT, perform a check operation on the SPOT with the force
option:
nim -Fo check spot_name
If an administrator prefers to have NIM always create all possible boot images from the SPOT resources,
the if_prebuild=yes attribute can be specified on the master:
nim -o change -a if_prebuild=yes master
To return NIM to the behavior of creating only the boot images that are required for the environment,
remove the if_prebuild attribute from the master by setting it to ″no″:
nim -o change -a if_prebuild=no master
Updating a SPOT with new device support for a new level of AIX
A NIM SPOT may be updated from one level of AIX to another using the update_all option of the NIM
cust operation.
This process will update all current SPOTs with the latest level of code on the installation media.
However, this process will not automatically install new software packages or device drivers from the
installation media.
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Machines in the NIM environment that are being upgraded to a new level of AIX require that new
applicable device support be updated for any existing NIM SPOTs intended to support network boot and
installation. This must be done after the SPOT is updated to the new level of AIX.
The new device support can be installed in the SPOT using NIM’s cust operation, specifying the desired
device-specific filesets in an installp_bundle resource or by using the filesets attribute. Alternatively, a
fileset name of devices can be specified as the value of the filesets attribute to install all devices on the
installation media. For further details about the cust operation, see “Using the NIM cust operation” on
page 198.
Tuning client-request processing
For large installation environments, NIM can be scaled to support anywhere from 20 to 150 client
requests simultaneously. NIM scaling is done by enabling the multithreaded option on the nimesis
daemon.
The multithreaded option provides better handling of the volume of client information change requests
and client state changes. Without the use of the multithreaded option, the NIM master can become
overloaded by activity on the NIM database and the number of active processes, resulting in
simultaneous failures during the installation of a large number of client machines.
The multithreaded nimesis daemon will serialize and buffer NIM client requests to protect the NIM
master from process overload, without causing significant performance degradation. The user must
understand that many of the client information changes will not be reflected in the NIM database. The
most recent information changes for any client, however, are eventually processed. Debugging of failed or
hung clients will not be adversely affected.
The number of threads assigned to this daemon determines how many simultaneous NIM client requests
can be handled in the NIM environment. Because most of the NIM client requests are processed rapidly,
it is not necessary to have one thread for every client installing. The number of threads needed to
support the activities in a NIM environment is dependent upon several items. The following should be
considered when determining the number of threads:
v Number of clients that will be operated on at the same time
v Processing capacity of the NIM master machine
v What type of operations are planned
In general, one thread can support two to four clients that are installing BOS at the same time. For
example, when installing 150 machines, 50 to 75 threads is sufficient. The number of threads is highly
dependent on the processing power of the NIM master machine, and slower master machines may
require more threads.
For smaller NIM environments, enabling the multithreaded daemon can monopolize system resources on
the master that will not be used. For example, when installing 50 machines simultaneously, 20 to 25
threads or even the single-threaded daemon would suffice.
Note: The multithreaded option alone will not allow more machines to be installed simultaneously. The
multithreaded option should be used in conjunction with global export of NIM resources, distribution of
NIM resources throughout the NIM environment, and a network environment capable of handling a large
volume of throughput.
Tuning client-request processing using SMIT:
You can tune client-request processing from the SMIT interface.
Type the SMIT fast path:
smit nim_tune_nimesis
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Tuning client-request processing using the Web-based System Manager:
You can tune client-request processing using the Web-based System Manager.
To tune client-request processing from the NIM application:
1. From the NIM menu, select Advanced Configuration → Tune Client Request Processing.
2. Use the dialog to complete the task.
Tuning client-request processing from the command line:
You can tune client-request processing from the command line.
The max_nimesis_threads attribute can be used to tune client-request processing. To enable the
multithreaded nimesis daemon, set a value to the max_nimesis_threads attribute on the NIM master
using the following command:
nim -o change -a max_nimesis_threads=value master
Note: The range for the value attribute above is 20 to 150.
To disable the multithreaded nimesis daemon, set a null value to the max_nimesis_threads attribute on
the NIM master:
nim -o change -a max_nimesis_threads="" master
Performing a network installation of an IBM eServer p5 over a virtual I/O Ethernet
adapter
To perform a network installation on a IBM eServer p5 partition over a virtual I/O Ethernet adapter, the
NIM master must be configured to receive packets from the partition adapter’s default virtual local area
network (VLAN).
One of the following configurations must exist:
v The master has a virtual I/O Ethernet adapter configured to receive packets from the partition’s
default VLAN, if the master is also a partition.
v A gateway exists that can route packets between the master’s interface and the partition’s default
VLAN.
v The master has a VLAN interface associated with a physical Ethernet adapter that is configured to
receive packets from the partition’s default VLAN through the I/O Server, if the IBM eServer p5 has an
I/O Server partition.
If you are performing a broadcast bootp install, then either you must have either the first or the third
configuration. For additional information on configuring and using VLANs, see TCP/IP local area
network adapter cards.
Using miscellaneous network installation files
The use of miscellaneous files pertinent to network installation is described.
Using the customizing script
This customizing script configures the target’s TCP/IP domain name resolution and routing.
The resolv_conf resource should be used when installing clients running the latest version of AIX.
#!/bin/ksh
#
#
#
CUSTOMIZING SCRIPT to set the hostname,
establish the nameserver and DNS domain name,
and configure the routing table for the
target standalone client
# Truncate the host name
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# if the host name is set to the fully qualified host name
#
#NOTE: This procedure will NOT result in a truncated host name if
#the bos installation operation is installing a mksysb image
#(ie. -a source=mksysb) unless the bos_inst operation is
#instructed not to configure the target as a NIM client upon
#completion (ie. unless -a no_nim_client=yes is specified)
#
chdev -l inet0 -a hostname =$(/usr/bin/hostname | cut -d. -f1)
# Set Name server and Domain Name
if [[ -f /etc/resolv.conf ]]
then
/usr/sbin/namerslv -E '/etc/resolv.conf.sv'
fi
/usr/sbin/namerslv -a -i '9.101.1.70'
/usr/sbin/namerslv -c 'enterprise.ca'
# Flush routing table and add default route
/etc/route -n -f
odmdelete -o CuAt -q "name=inet0 and attribute=route"
chdev -l inet0 -a route=net,,'0','9.101.1.70'
Sample definition file for the nimdef command
This example shows a definition file for the nimdef command.
# Set default values.
default:
machine_type
subnet_mask
gateway
network_type
ring_speed
platform
machine_group
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
standalone
255.255.240.0
gateway1
tok
16
rs6k
all_machines
# Define the machine "lab1"
# Take all defaults.
lab1:
# Define the machine "lab2"
# Take all defaults and specify 2 additional attributes.
# The machine "lab2" uses IPL ROM emulation, and will be added to
# the machine groups "all_machines" (by default) and "lab_machines".
lab2:
ipl_rom_emulation = /dev/fd0
machine_group
= lab_machines
# Define the machine "lab3"
# Take all defaults, but do not add the machine to the
# default group.
lab3:
machine_group=
#
#
#
#
Define the machine "lab4"
Take all defaults, but do not add "lab4" to the default group
"all_machines".
Instead add it to the groups "lab_machines" and "new_machines".
lab4:
machine_group =
machine_group = lab_machines
machine_group = new_machines
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# Change the default "platform" attribute.
default:
platform = rspc
# define the machine "test1"
# Take all defaults and include a comment.
test1:
comments = "This machine is a test machine."
Using the certificate viewing file
These examples are from a certificate viewing script for OpenSSL certificates.
The script is located in the /usr/samples/nim/ssl directory.
The script is provided for helping users view hash, issuer, subject, and other certificate information
available using the openssl command. The script can be modified based on user need or preference.
To print out all readable values for certificate(s):
# certview certificate_names
To print out the hash value for certificate(s):
# certview -h certificate_names
To print out the issuer value for certificate(s):
# certview -i certificate_name
To print out the subject value for certificate(s):
# certview -s certificate_name
To print out the subject, issuer, and enddate values for certificate(s):
# certview -I certificate_name
Using the certificate password loading file
The following are examples from a certificate password loading file for NIM OpenSSL certificates.
The file is located in the /usr/samples/nim/ssl directory. The file is provided for helping users store a
desired password for decrypting the NIM master’s client key. The password provided must match the
password used to encrypt the NIM master’s client key during NIM SSL configuration.
To load the encrypted key’s password in the NIM environment:
#
certpasswd
To unload the encrypted key’s password from the NIM environment:
#
certpasswd -u
Only the NIM master’s client key may be password encrypted. To password encrypt the NIM master’s
client key, complete the following steps:
1. On the NIM master, edit the /ssl_nimsh/configs/client.cnf config file.
2. Locate the encrypt_key variable and change the value to yes.
3. Add the output_password variable underneath encrypt_key and specify the password. If you do not
specify output_password, you will be prompted for the password during key generation.
4. Type the following command:
# make -f
/usr/samples/nim/ssl/SSL_Makefile.mk
client
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5. On each SSL client, copy the new server.pem file using the nimclient -c command.
6. Load the password into the NIM environment using certpasswd.
When you use password encrypted keys, NIM commands may fail with the following error if the correct
password is not loaded:
0042-157 nconn: unable to access the "clientkey.pem" file
After the password is loaded, it will be used for client key decrypting until you unload the password.
Sample KDC server definition file
Using a sample script, you can create and configure a Key Distribution Center (KDC) server on the same
system as a NFS V4 server.
The script is located in the /usr/samples/nim/krb5 directory. The script helps you create a simple KDC
environment that can be modified based on your needs or preference.
Note: Before you begin, review the config_rpcsec_server script.
The config_rpcsec_server script handles the following operations:
v
v
v
v
Creates
Creates
Creates
Creates
a system user; the default is nim
principals for the administrator and system user
an NFS host key for the server
realm-to-domain mapping
v Creates a tar image of krb5 files for use by KDC slim clients
v Refines the exports list
v Recycles the NFS services
v Re-exports NFS file systems and directories
Examples
To create a simple KDC environment using default values, type the following command:
config_rpcsec_server
To create a KDC environment using system user nimadmin as the user principal and password l0gin1 for
the kadmin principal, type the following command:
config_rpcsec_server -p l0gin1 -u nimadmin
Sample slim client definition file
Using a sample script, you can create and configure a NIM client as a Kerberos slim client.
The script is located in the /usr/samples/nim/krb5 directory. The script helps you create a simple
Kerberos slim client using values defined in the config_rpcsec_server script. The script can be modified
based on user need or preference.
Note: Before you begin, review the config_rpcsec_client script prior to use.
The config_rpcsec_client script handles the following operations:
v Creates a system user; the default is nim
The user must match an existing user principal on the KDC server.
v tftp the slim image from the NIM master
The tar image must exist on the NIM server.
v Enables the user principal using the kinit command
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The password must match the user principal on the KDC server.
v Recycles the NFS services
Examples
To create a simple KDC slim client using default values, type the following command:
config_rpcsec_client
To create a simple KDC slim client using system user nimadmin as the user principal, type the following
command:
config_rpcsec_client -u nimadmin
NIM error and warning messages
Information about Network Installation Management (NIM) error and warning messages is provided,
with suggestions for resolving specific problems.
Note: You can access the complete set of NIM error messages information (message number and message
text only) through the Message Center located on the Information Center on the Internet at the following
Web address:
Message Center
(http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/v5r3/topic/com.ibm.aix.messagecenter/
messagecenter.htm)
If an error condition is detected when a NIM command is executed, the command returns an error
message. If a NIM command returns a warning message, this indicates that either a less severe problem
was encountered by NIM, or a problem was encountered in a command called by NIM, and the severity
of the problem cannot be readily determined by NIM. In the latter case, additional messages or output
from the command often reveal the nature of the problem.
All NIM error messages begin with 0042 and are followed by a three-digit error code.
Note:
1. If you require usage information for a NIM command, type the command without any parameters or
with a question mark as a parameter (for example, nim -?). Additional information can be obtained
from the lsnim command, which provides several options to display NIM help and usage
information. For more information, refer to the -q, -O, and -P options of the lsnim command. You can
also use the lsnim -p -a command to display information for all NIM classes, subclasses, types, and
attributes. For example, to determine the list of valid values for an attribute, enter:
lsnim -p -a AttributeName
2. In some cases, a nim or nimclient operation that is being blocked because an object is in a particular
state may be permitted with the use of the force option (the -F flag). However, by using the force
option, you may adversely affect part of the NIM environment by forcing an operation that should
only proceed after other actions are complete. Use error messages that are displayed without using
the force option to determine if the force operation is a reasonable action.
3. If you believe that your problem is the result of a software defect, or if the User Actions provided
here do not provide adequate resolution to a problem, contact your point of sale.
Information about each message listed in this chapter is organized in the following manner:
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Message
Explanation
User Action
Indicates the warning or error message ID number returned by the command
Describes what is likely to have caused the message to be displayed
Suggests a possible resolution to the problem
Note: If a User Action for a given error or warning specifies using the lsnim command for recovery
hints, and if you are operating from a NIM client, use nimclient -l lsnimOperations, substituting the
suggested lsnim options as appropriate.
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-001
An error was detected by an underlying NIM method (a subcommand). This message describes where the
error occurred with respect to the NIM client or master and may be useful in troubleshooting the problem.
The messages that are displayed subsequent to this error are normally the true source of the problem.
Read the additional information and error messages, and refer to their explanation and recovery hints as
appropriate.
0042-002
An interrupt signal has been received, perhaps because the user entered Ctrl-C or used the kill command
on a NIM process.
The NIM operation that was active has been interrupted. Perform the operation again.
Note: This error is expected if it occurs after the nimclient -o bos_inst operation is performed on a client.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-003 and 0042-004
An error has been returned from a system call.
Fix the condition that caused the system call to fail and perform the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-005
The Object Data Manager (ODM) has returned an error.
Refer to the Message Database located on the Information Center Web page for specific details of the error.
Fix the ODM problem and perform the NIM operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-006
Generic error message used for rarely occurring NIM errors.
Phrases contained in this error message are constructed from debug information and from messages
returned by commands called by NIM. If the content of the message does not give insight into the true
cause of failure, contact your point of sale.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-007
An internal NIM error has occurred.
Try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
0042-008
NIM has attempted to establish socket communications with a remote machine, and it has refused the
connection.
If the failing operation occurred on the master, verify that the master has rsh permissions on the client
and that inetd is active on the client; otherwise, verify that the nimesis daemon is active on the master. If
the failing operation was the niminit command on the client, a possible cause of failure is that the master
does not have a network object that corresponds to the client’s network. A network object that represents
the client’s network needs to be added to the database on the master; then a route needs to be added from
the master’s network to the client’s network.
User Action
If the failure occurs during operations initiated from a client, using the nimclient command, or during a
NIM installation of the base operating system, the cpuid attribute on the client’s machine definition may
be obsolete (for example, if the machine’s system planar was recently replaced). To guarantee that this is
not the case, erase the cpuid from the machine definition by issuing the following from the master:
nim -Fo change -a cpuid= ClientName
Message
Explanation
312
0042-011
The /etc/niminfo file is not accessible.
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User Action
The niminfo file is required by all NIM commands and methods. This file is created when the
bos.sysmgt.nim.master and bos.sysmgt.nim.client packages are configured. If this file is not available, this
indicates that the NIM package has not been initialized or that this file has been deleted. To create the
niminfo file, execute the nimconfig command on the master or the niminit command on the client. To
recreate a deleted or corrupted niminfo file, enter from the master:
nimconfig -r
OR enter from the client:
niminit -aname=ClientName -amaster=MasterHostName -amaster_port=MasterPortValue
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-012
The specified command may only be executed on the master.
Execute the desired operation on the NIM master.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-013
The global lock used for synchronized access to the NIM database could not be obtained.
Try the operation again. If the same error is returned, verify that there are no active NIM commands. If
this is true, remove the /var/adm/nim/glock file and try the operation again. If the file does not exist and
the error persists, contact your point of sale.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-014
An internal NIM error has occurred.
Perform the remove operation on the NIM object followed by the appropriate define operation.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-015
A syntax error has been detected.
Refer to the appropriate man page for the NIM command and try again using valid syntax.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-016
An invalid option has been specified.
Refer to the appropriate man page for the NIM command and try again using valid syntax.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-017
An invalid value was specified for an option argument.
Refer to the appropriate man page for the NIM command and try again using valid syntax.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-018
A required option was not supplied.
Refer to the appropriate man page for the NIM command and try again using valid syntax.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-019
An option that requires an argument was specified without its argument.
Refer to the appropriate man page for the NIM command and try again, specifying the missing argument.
Message
Explanation
0042-20
An operand was required but not supplied. Usually, the operand is the NIM object to which a given
operation is being applied (that is, a NIM name for a network, machine or resource object that is the target
of the NIM operation).
Refer to the appropriate man page for the NIM command and try again using valid syntax. If you do not
know the name of an operand, and if the failing operation was targeted toward an existing NIM object,
enter:
User Action
lsnim -l -t ObjectType
OR
lsnim -l
to determine the operand name.
Message
Explanation
0042-021
A NIM attribute was required for the operation.
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User Action
Specify the missing attribute. If the failing command is the nim or nimclient command, to obtain a list of
attributes, enter from the master:
lsnim -q ObjectName
OR
lsnim -q -t ObjectType
OR enter from the clients:
nimclient -l lsnimOptions
For the other NIM commands, see the appropriate NIM man page.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-022
A value was specified that exceeds the bounds of acceptable values.
Supply a value within the acceptable bounds.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-023
The specified value is not valid.
Try the command again with a valid value. To determine the valid values for classes of objects and
operations as they pertain to those objects, enter:
lsnim -Pc ObjectClass
AND
lsnim -POc ObjectClass
where ObjectClass is one of machines, networks, or resources.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-024
An invalid NIM object type was specified.
Specify a valid NIM object type. See user actions for error 023 for lsnim options to determine a valid
object type.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-025
The specified operation cannot be supplied to the specified NIM object.
Specify an operation that can be applied to the object. Enter lsnim -O ObjectName for a list of valid
operations that can be applied to the object.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-027
The specified object is missing an attribute that is required to complete the specified operation.
Redefine the object that is missing an attribute by performing the remove operation followed by the
define operation.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-028 and 0042-029
The specified information cannot be supplied in the current context.
Try the operation again without supplying the offending attribute.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-030
A sequence number was opened to an attribute that doesn’t allow sequence numbers.
Try the operation again without a sequence number on the offending attribute.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-031
An internal NIM error has occurred. NIM is unable to generate a unique object ID.
Try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-032
The specified value for the attribute is not unique and it must be.
Supply a unique value for the attribute.
Message
Explanation
0042-033
The specified value is not unique and it must be. An attribute with a sequence number requires a unique
value.
314
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
User Action
Supply a unique value.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-034
The specified value is not unique and it must be.
Supply a unique value.
Message
Explanation
0042-035
NIM was attempting to access an attribute that had the specified characteristics, but the attribute doesn’t
exist.
Make sure the attribute exists and retry the operation.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-036
The define operation failed for a resource because the specified server does not have a standalone
configuration.
Try the operation again using a NIM client that is a standalone machine.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-037
The NIM state of the specified object prevents the operation from succeeding.
NIM states are used to synchronize activity among NIM objects. To perform the desired operation, the
state of the specified object must be changed. If the specified object is in an unexpected state, check the
system to make sure another user or process is not manipulating the object. Use the reset operation to set
the object to a known state and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-038
An object that NIM would operate on is already locked and thus cannot be operated on.
NIM object locks are used to synchronize activity among NIM objects. These locks are temporary, so try
the operation again after some delay. The value of the lock is the process ID of a NIM process that is
using the lock. If the lock persists and no NIM commands are active, reset all NIM locks by stopping the
nimesis daemon, then restarting it.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-039
The operating system version or release level of the specified object is unacceptable.
Perform the desired operation on objects that have the appropriate operating system version and release
levels.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-040
A NIM object could not be removed because it is being used by some other NIM object.
Remove all references to the object to be removed before the remove operation is specified. If NIM states
are such that you cannot remove references to the object and you want to remove the object anyway,
provide the -F flag to the remove operation.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-041
A specified value has already been defined to NIM.
Specify a value that isn’t already known to NIM.
Note: If /etc/niminfo is the value and the NIM command producing this error is niminit, this means that
niminit has already been performed. If you want to reinitialize your NIM master or client, deinstall the
appropriate fileset, and then reinstall and reconfigure the NIM master or client fileset.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-042
The specified machine could not be reached with the ping command from the master.
If the operation you were attempting to perform requires that the target machine be running and that it
can be reached, then verify that the machine is currently running. If not, turn it on; otherwise, perform
network diagnostic procedures to determine why the master could not reach the target machine.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-043
The remove operation cannot be performed, because the target machine currently serves a NIM resource
that has been allocated for use. Performing the operation at this time could lead to processing failures on
clients that are attempting to use the served resources.
You need to deallocate all resources that the target serves before you can remove the machine.
Message
0042-044
Installation and migration
315
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
You have specified a NIM attribute without an accompanying value. Most NIM attributes can only be
specified with a value assigned to them in the form of attr=value.
Retry the operation with a value assigned to the specified attribute.
0042-045
Some NIM attributes can be added to an object’s definition more than once. In these cases, a sequence
number is used to uniquely identify each attribute of that type. In this case, you have specified an
attribute of this type without its required sequence number and, therefore, NIM is unable to determine
which attribute you are attempting to specify.
Verify the sequence number and try the operation again.
0042-046
NIM was unable to perform an operation on the specified file. This may be due to the permissions on the
file. The file usually needs read, write, and, in some cases, execute permissions for root.
Change the permissions of the specified file and try the operation again.
0042-047
Some types of NIM resources may only be used by specific machine types. In this case, you attempted to
allocate a NIM resource to a type of machine that is not allowed to use that type of resource.
Specify a resource type that the machine is allowed to use when performing allocation for the target
machine.
To determine the valid resource types, enter:
lsnim -p -s ResourceSubclassForMachineType
To view the subclasses that are available, enter: lsnim -p -S
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-048
When resource allocation is requested, NIM verifies that the designated client has the potential to
communicate with the server of the resource. NIM does this by checking the NIM routing between the
network that the client’s primary interface connects to and all the networks that the server connects to. In
this case, a NIM route is missing between the client and the server.
Either establish a NIM route between the client and the server or choose a different resource to allocate.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-049
Only one resource of this type may be allocated to the client and one has already been allocated.
Choose the resource that you want to use and deallocate the currently allocated resource of this type if
you want to use the new one.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-051
NIM was unable to resolve a host name to an IP address or the other way around.
All host names that are used in the NIM environment must be resolvable. Perform the appropriate
network administration tasks to ensure that the specified host name is resolvable and try the operation
again.
Message
Explanation
0042-052
One or more NIM resources are still allocated to the machine that you have requested to be removed from
the NIM environment. To remove a machine, it cannot have any resources allocated to it.
Deallocate all resources that have been allocated to the target machine and try the operation again.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-053
You have specified the name of a NIM object that does not currently exist in the NIM environment. NIM
can only operate on objects that have been defined to NIM.
Verify that you have spelled the name of the object correctly and that it has already been defined. The
name of a target machine for a NIM operation must be the NIM name, not the host name. Enter:
lsnim -l -t ObjectType
OR
lsnim -l
to obtain listings of currently defined objects in the NIM environment. If you need to define the object, use
the define operation.
316
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Message
Explanation
0042-055
Many NIM operations require a source for installable images. You have specified a source that cannot be
used for this operation. Examples of valid sources for NIM operations are:
v /dev/rmt0, /dev/cd1 for lpp_source definition
User Action
v rte, spot, mksysb for bos_inst operation
Try the operation again using a source that the operation can use.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-056
You have specified the same attribute assignment more than once.
Try the operation again using only one instance of the attribute assignment.
Message
Explanation
0042-058
You have attempted to allocate a SPOT to a client whose primary network interface type or platform is
not supported by the SPOT. For a client to use a SPOT, the SPOT must support the network interface
type and platform of the client’s primary interface.
Install the appropriate device support into the SPOT, which will allow the SPOT to support the client’s
primary interface type and platform, or choose a different SPOT that supports the client’s primary
interface type and platform.
User Action
User Action
0042-059
In an attribute assignment (in the form of attr=value), the value you have specified represents a NIM
object whose type conflicts with the object type of the specified attr.
Try the operation again using the attr that corresponds to the type of object that value represents.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-060
You have specified multiple attribute assignments for an attribute that may only be specified once.
Try the operation again, using only one instance of the attribute.
Message
Explanation
0042-061
You have requested an operation to be performed on a NIM resource object that is currently allocated for
client use. NIM is not allowing this operation to be performed because it may interrupt the client’s use of
the resource.
Try the operation again when the resource is not allocated for client use. If necessary, try the force option
(-F flag) to disregard the preventive check by NIM. In some cases, NIM will allow the operation to be
performed.
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-062
The NIM object that was operated on is missing something that is required for its definition to be
complete.
List information about the object using the lsnim command. Each item that is missing from the object’s
definition will be represented by a missing attribute. Perform the appropriate NIM operation that will add
the missing item to the object’s definition. For a SPOT, if network boot images are missing, apply the
check operation to the SPOT. If software filesets are missing from a SPOT, allocate an lpp_source that
contains the required filesets and apply the cust operation to the SPOT.
0042-063
Some NIM operations require access to one or more NIM resources to complete successfully. This access is
granted through the allocate operation. In this case, you have not allocated all the resources that are
required for this operation.
Allocate all the required resources and try the operation again. For a list of required and optional
resources for a given operation, enter:
lsnim -q Operation ObjectName
OR
lsnim -q Operation -t ObjectType
Message
Explanation
0042-064
The machine that is the target of the requested operation currently serves a NIM resource that is allocated
for client use. The requested operation cannot be performed until all resources that the target serves have
been deallocated for use.
Installation and migration
317
User Action
Deallocate all resources that the target serves and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-065
You have specified a name that is reserved for NIM internal use only.
Try the operation again using a different name. To determine what names are reserved, enter:
lsnim -a reserved
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-066
You have specified one or more characters that are not allowed in NIM object names. NIM uses regular
expressions to perform many of its operations, so any character that has special meaning for regular
expressions cannot be used (for example, ^). Also, any character that has special meaning to the shell
cannot be used (for example, /).
Try the operation again using valid characters.
0042-067
You have requested an operation to be performed on a NIM object that has been reserved for NIM
internal use only.
Try the operation again, using a NIM object that is not reserved. To determine what objects are reserved,
enter:
lsnim -a reserved
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-069
The requested operation cannot be performed at this time because it conflicts with the current NIM state
of the target. NIM uses states to synchronize NIM activity so that operations don’t interfere with each
other.
Try the operation again when the state changes or, if necessary, try using the force option (-F flag). In
some cases, NIM will allow you to override this state checking.
If you encounter this error as a result of trying to remove, using the reset operation, the boot resource
from a client that incorrectly has a state of ″ready for a NIM operation″, you can remove the boot resource
from the NIM master by entering:
/usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/m_dealloc_boot client_name
where client_name is the name of the NIM object for the client.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-073
To perform customization on a machine, NIM constructs a shell script that is executed on the target. To
construct this script, some type of resource that can be used for customization must be used. In this case,
NIM could not create the customization script because no resources have been allocated to the target that
could be used for customization purposes.
Allocate one or more resources that can be used for customization and try the operation again. To display
the subclass of resources that can be used for customization, enter:
lsnim -p -s cust_res
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
318
0042-074
You have specified an attribute assignment in which the value represents a relative path name. NIM only
allows absolute path names (that is, path names that begin with /) to be used.
Try the operation again, using an absolute path name.
0042-075
The requested operation requires that a NIM resource be exported for a machine’s use. In this case, NIM
attempted to export the resource but an error was returned by an NFS utility.
Fix the error condition that the NFS utility reported and try the operation again.
0042-076
You have specified a port number that is already in use.
Try the operation again, using a port number that is currently not being used. Check the /etc/services
file.
Note: NIM uses both the specified port number and its successor. Therefore, ensure that the port number
after the specified port number is also free.
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-077
The niminit command is used to join the NIM environment. When executed, this command attempts to
add routing information that the NIM master has determined the client needs to participate in the NIM
environment. In this case, one or more of the required routes could not be added.
Perform the appropriate network diagnostic task to determine why the route could not be added.
0042-078
You have specified a change to a NIM routing attribute in which the destination network is different from
its current value. This is not allowed because only the gateway field of the routing attribute may be
changed.
If you are trying to change the connectivity between NIM networks, then you must remove the current
NIM route by supplying a NULL value for the appropriate routing attribute. Otherwise, specify the same
destination network when attempting to change the gateway field of the routing attribute.
0042-079
In the NIM environment, one resource may depend on another for information. In this case, an allocated
resource has a dependency on the resource you have specified for deallocation.
Deallocate the resource that is dependent on the resource causing the error.
0042-081
NIM uses NFS to make remote resources available for client use. To avoid NFS export errors, NIM
enforces some restrictions on where a resource can be defined. In general, a NIM resource cannot be
defined within a directory that is already a NIM resource. Conversely, a NIM resource cannot be defined
for a directory that already contains an existing NIM resource.
Move the resource to a location that adheres to NIM export rules and try the operation again.
0042-083
Each network communications adapter has an associated network hardware address that is unique. In this
case, you attempted to define a NIM network interface using a network hardware address already being
used by a NIM machine object.
Only one NIM interface attribute may be defined for each network communications adapter a client might
have. If you are attempting to add another interface definition, then verify that the hardware address is
correct. If so, then you must first change the interface attribute that is currently using that address. If not,
try the operation again with the correct hardware address.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-084
The machine has already been configured to be a NIM master.
If you want to reconfigure the machine as a NIM master, enter nim -o unconfig master, then deinstall and
reinstall the master fileset. You may then run the nimconfig command.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-086
You have attempted to add a NIM route between two NIM networks that already have a NIM route
between them. Only one NIM route can be specified between any two NIM networks.
If you are attempting to change NIM routing, delete the existing NIM route and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-093
NIM attempted to create a directory, and the mkdir command returned an error.
Fix the error reported by the mkdir command and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
0042-109
To complete the requested operation, NIM requires information about one or more file systems about
which it was unable to obtain information.
Verify that the file systems exist. If not, either specify the correct path name when performing the NIM
operation or redefine the NIM environment so that all the participating file systems exist.
User Action
User Action
0042-111
When a sequence number is specified for a NIM attribute, it must be within a specific range. You have
specified a sequence number that falls outside of the acceptable bounds.
Try the operation again using a sequence number that is within the acceptable bounds.
Message
0042-113
Message
Explanation
Installation and migration
319
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
To complete the requested operation, NIM requires information about the size of one or more objects,
which NIM was unable to determine.
If the object is a file or directory that does not exist, then create the file or directory and try the operation
again.
0042-118
You have requested to change characteristics of a NIM network on which there is currently one or more
active NIM operations. NIM is not allowing the change because changing the network characteristics at
this time could result in failures in the active operations.
Wait until the NIM resources allocated to machines that use the network being changed have been
deallocated and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-121
An invalid value has been specified.
Try the operation again, using a valid value.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-124
An NFS option was specified that is not supported.
Try the operation again using valid NFS options. Refer to NFS Problem Determination in Networks and
communication management.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-129
An invalid resource type was specified for this operation.
Use the lsnim -q Operation -t TargetType command to view a list of required and optional resources for
Operation when applied to TargetType.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-130
You have specified an attribute that cannot be used for this requested operation.
Try the operation again, without using the attribute you specified.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-131
You have specified two or more attributes that conflict with each other.
Try the operation again, using only one of the attributes.
Message
Explanation
0042-132
You have specified a value for an attribute assignment that is invalid in the context in which the operation
is being performed.
Try the operation again, using a different value for the attribute assignment.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
320
0042-133
The physical entity that is represented by the NIM resource object you have requested to be deleted could
not be deleted.
Delete the file or directory, using the rm command.
0042-134
The operation you requested requires the designated target to reboot using a network boot image. NIM
has automatically initialized the environment to enable the target to do this; however, NIM was unable to
force the target to load the network boot image.
Intervention at the target is required. Follow the procedures for initiating a BOOTP request.
0042-135
To synchronize NIM operations that can be initiated from a client or on the master, NIM keeps track of
which machine (the client or the master) is used to allocate the first resource to the client; this machine is
said to be in control. For example, if the first resource allocation occurs from the client, then the client is in
control. Once a machine has control, it remains in control until all resources for that client have been
deallocated. You have requested an operation to be performed from a machine that is currently not in
control of the specified target.
Perform the desired operation from the machine that is in control of the target, or from the controlling
machine deallocate the resources (to remove the control), or override this behavior by using the force (-F
flag) option when performing the operation from the master.
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-136
The requested operation cannot be performed because a NIM route does not exist between two machines
that participate in this operation.
Establish a NIM route between the networks.
0042-137
The /etc/niminfo file contains information about the NIM environment that all NIM commands require.
In this case, the /etc/niminfo file is missing some information that is required to continue, which
indicates that the file has been corrupted.
Reinitialize the NIM environment.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-138
Unable to update the rhost file.
Edit the $HOME/.rhosts file for root on the client machine to add an entry for the host name of the NIM
master.
Message
Explanation
0042-139
The process of installing a machine prevents any attached disks from being used as the source for
installable images. You have allocated a resource to the target of the install operation that is served by the
target itself.
Deallocate the resource, allocate another resource of this type that is served by another machine, and try
the operation again.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-140
You have requested that a machine object be removed from the NIM environment and this has been done;
however, NIM was unable to remove the /etc/niminfo file on the machine that has been removed from
the NIM environment.
Remove the /etc/niminfo file from the machine that was removed from the NIM environment.
Note: Verify that the .rhost permissions for the master have been removed from the client.
0042-141
By specifying an attribute assignment with a NULL value, you have requested NIM to remove the
specified attr. However, in this case, the specified attr is not currently part of the specified object’s
definition.
Try the operation again, using an attribute that is part of the object’s definition.
0042-142
All attribute values must be unique. You have specified a value in an attribute assignment that already
exists.
Try the operation again, using a unique value for the attribute.
0042-143
Some NIM attributes can only be added to an object’s definition once. In this case, you have specified an
attribute of this type when one already exists for the specified object.
Only one attribute of this type can be used in the object’s definition. Perform the change operation on the
object if you want to replace the current value with a new one.
0042-144
Some NIM attributes require a unique sequence number so that NIM can distinguish between multiple
attributes of that type. In this case, you have specified a sequence number that is already being used.
Try the operation again, using a sequence number that is not currently being used. To display the
sequence number that are being used, enter:
lsnim -a AttributeName ObjectName
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-145
You have specified an attribute that does not exist in the NIM environment.
Try the operation again, using a valid NIM attribute. To display a list of valid attribute names, enter:
lsnim -p -s info_subclass
Message
Explanation
0042-146
You have specified an object type that does not exist in the NIM environment.
Installation and migration
321
User Action
Try the operation again, using a valid NIM object type. On the NIM master, the lsnim command can be
used to display the valid NIM object types.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-147
You have attempted to execute a NIM command on the NIM master that can only be executed on NIM
clients.
Execute the command on a NIM client.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-148
The information contained in the specified attribute is no longer valid.
Change the information in the attribute to reflect valid information and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
0042-150
Any directory used to store NIM resources must be local to the machine that serves those resources. This
is required because NIM can only NFS export local directories. In this case, you have specified a directory
that is not local to the designated server of the directory. NIM has obtained this information from the file
system of the designated server and the vfstype listed corresponds to values in the /usr/include/sys/
vmount.h file.
Either copy the desired resources onto the designated server and perform the operation again, or specify
the correct server when performing the operation.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-151
For NIM to use a file, it must be of a specific type. In this case, you have specified a file whose type
cannot be used by NIM. NIM has obtained this information from the file system of the designated server
of the file and the file type corresponds to values in the /usr/include/sys/mode.h file.
Change the file type of the file and try the operation again.
0042-152
When an installp operation is performed on a SPOT, the root directories of all diskless and dataless
clients that use that SPOT must be synchronized with the changes made within the SPOT. In this case,
one or more errors occurred when performing the root sync operation on a root directory.
Investigate why some of the root syncs failed and perform the operation again. The nim.installp log for
the client root is located in RootResrcParentDir/ClientName/var/adm/ras.
User Action
0042-153
For NIM to use a file, it must have specific file permissions. In this case, you have specified a file whose
permissions conflict with those required by NIM. NIM has obtained this information from the file system
of the designated server of the file, and the value of the file permissions comes from the
/usr/include/sys/mode.h file.
Change the file permissions of the file and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-154
For NIM to use a file, it must exist. You have specified a file that does not exist.
Create the file and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-155
For NIM to keep diskless and dataless root directories in sync with their corresponding SPOTs, NIM
requires that the client’s root directory be served from the same machine as its SPOT. In this case, you
have requested a resource to be allocated that violates that requirement.
Try the operation again using resources that do not violate the NIM requirement.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-156
You have requested an operation to be performed that involves a directory that does not exist.
Create the missing directory and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
0042-157
The operation you have requested could not be performed because a required file could not be accessed.
Message
Explanation
322
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
User Action
Create the missing file and try the operation again. For example:
v If the missing file is a boot image with a name whose format is SpotName.NetworkInterface.Platform (for
example, myspot.tok.up), recreate the boot image by performing the check operation on the SPOT.
v If the missing files are directories with which root or paging resources are associated, delete the
resource definition with the remove operation, create the directories, and then redefine the resource.
v If a SPOT’s image.template file is missing, this indicates that the SPOT has been corrupted or was not
constructed successfully. To recover, you may need to remove and rebuild the SPOT with the remove
and define operations.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-158
The operation you have requested requires NIM to modify a file that it was unable to modify successfully.
Check the file permissions on the file and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-159
Required software is missing which prevents the target machine from acting as a SPOT server.
Install the missing software and retry the operation.
Message
Explanation
0042-160
The operation you requested requires the construction of network boot images and NIM was unable to do
that.
Fix the problem that prevented the network boot images from being constructed and try the operation
again.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-161
There is insufficient free disk space to complete the requested operation.
Increase the amount of available space, as detailed in the error message.
Message
Explanation
0042-162
To perform the requested operation, NIM requires an lpp_source type resource object that has the simages
attribute as part of its definition. This attribute is used to designate that an lpp_source contains the total
set of optional packages that are required to support NIM install operations. In this case, you have not
supplied an lpp_source that fulfills this requirement.
Try the operation again using an lpp_source that has the simages attribute in its definition.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-163
NIM coordinates access between a client and the server of the resource. To do this, NIM must identify a
network interface that can be used by the client. This becomes a complex problem when the server has
more than one network interface. NIM uses a connectivity algorithm to establish which network interface
to use. This error message occurred because the connectivity algorithm detected a problem with the
client’s routing and the interface the algorithm has selected to use. NIM does not allow the interface on
the server that the client uses as a gateway to be used to serve resources because the operation requiring
the resource could fail.
If the server has other network interfaces that are not known to NIM, change the server machine object to
add the interfaces.
Define a NIM route between the client’s primary network and one of the other networks to which the
server connects.
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
0042-164
Some NIM operations do not allow the source of installable images to be a CD-ROM. NIM is not always
able to construct an environment that supports the use of a CD-ROM for the operation being performed.
This is true for the operation you tried to perform.
Try the operation again using a different source for installable images.
0042-165
Some attributes can only be specified together; others are mutually exclusive. In this case, you specified
one or more attributes that conflict.
Try the operation again, omitting the attribute that was in conflict. For example, the ring_speed and
cable_type attributes cannot be used with the same if attribute; the one you should use depends on the
type of network interface referenced by the corresponding if attribute.
0042-166
Installation and migration
323
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
The if attribute specifies network interface information, which includes a reference to the network object
that the interface connects to. In this case, you have omitted a required attribute which is associated with
the if attribute.
Try the operation again, including the required attribute. For example, the ring_speed attribute
corresponds with the Token-Ring network interface, and the cable_type attribute corresponds with the
Ethernet network interface.
0042-167
The device which you have specified as the source for the IPL ROM emulation, does not contain a valid,
bootable image of the IPL ROM emulation.
If the specified device has media in it, this media either does not contain the IPL ROM emulation, or the
media has been corrupted. Remake the IPL ROM emulation, and try the operation again. If the specified
device has no media in it, make the IPL ROM emulation, put it in the device, and try the operation again.
0042-168
You have specified that the originating and destination network are the same. Machines that are on the
same network do not need routing to communicate; therefore, adding a route from a network to itself is
not allowed.
Specify a different originating and destination network when adding a NIM route.
0042-169
You have allocated an lpp_source, but you have not specified which filesets are to be installed using that
lpp_source.
Specify the filesets to install using the filesets attribute in the command, or by allocating an
installp_bundle that contains a list of the filesets to install.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-170
You entered a platform type that is not known to NIM.
The valid platform types are rs6k, rs6ksmp, and rspc. Correct the platform type attribute and try the
operation again.
Message
Explanation
0042-171
Not all platform types are supported on all configuration types. For example, the diskless configuration
type is not supported on the platform type rs6ksmp.
Use the correct platform type and try the operation again.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-172
You have specified the incorrect name of the machine object for the NIM client machine. When the
niminit command is used to rebuild the niminfo file, the master registration process checks the CPU ID of
the machine with the value stored in the NIM database for the named machine. If the stored value does
not match the value passed by niminit, this message is issued.
Use the correct name and try the command again.
User Action
0042-173
You specified that the installp command should expand file systems (using the -X flag) while specifying
that NIM should not auto expand (using the auto_expand attribute). This is not an allowable combination
for the command invoked.
Use either the -X flag or the auto_expand attribute, but not both.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-174
You specified an invalid value for an attribute whose only valid values are yes and no.
Retry the operation with a value of yes or no for the attribute indicated.
Message
Explanation
0042-175
An unexpected result has been returned from a command that NIM tried to execute.
Message
Explanation
324
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
User Action
Fix the problem that caused the executed command to fail and try the operation again.
If the command failed due to a shortage of space, its error messages indicating this should be displayed.
Expand the indicated file system, (for most NIM operations use the auto_expand attribute) and retry the
operation. If a space failure occurred during SPOT creation, and if the bosboot command failed to make
boot images as a result, increase the free space and run the check operation.
If the command listed by NIM in this message is the installp command, check the nim.installp log for
failure and recovery information. (For standalone client operations, this is located in the /var/adm/ras
directory of the client. For SPOT cust and maintoperations, this is located in SPOTParentDir/SPOTName/
usr/lpp/bos/inst_root/var/adm/ras on the SPOT. For diskless and dataless clients, this is located in
RootResrcParentDir/ClientName/var/adm/ras.
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-176
The resource cannot serve as a support image (simages)lpp_source. When an lpp_source serves as a
support image resource, it contains a minimal set of software packages for facilitating installation and the
use of the base operating system.
No action is necessary if this resource does not need to serve as a support images lpp_source. If the
resource needs to be a support images lpp_source, add the missing software to the lpp_source. If the
lpp_source is a directory, you can do this by copying the missing packages to the location of the
lpp_source and running the check operation.
0042-177
The operation you requested could not be completed due to insufficient free space in one or more file
systems.
Make more space available if possible, by extending the file system displayed. For most NIM operations,
the auto_expand attribute is available to automatically expand file systems.
0042-178
The if attribute is made up of four fields. The fourth field is optional in most cases. In this case. the
network object that you specified (in field one) has more than one type of network. In this case, NIM
requires that the fourth field has a value that specifies the logical device name of the network adapter.
Add the appropriate value to the if attribute, and try the operation again.
0042-179
You are attempting to remove an if or other_net_type attribute on which one or more NIM clients have a
dependency.
If this is not a mistake, remove the NIM clients that are dependent on the network, or remove the if
attribute from the NIM client object definition.
0042-180
The address of the machine that is being defined is not connected to the network that is represented by
the specified network object.
Define a network object that represents the physical network to which the machine is connected. Use this
network object when defining the machine.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-181
The fix_query_flags attribute has an illegal value. Use lsnim -Pa fix_query_flags for a list of legal values.
Determine the correct flags and retry the operation.
Message
Explanation
0042-182
A resource of one type cannot be allocated for the current operation at the same time as a resource of
another type. Allocate one or the other, but not both.
The resources specified are mutually exclusive. Determine which one is needed for the operation, and
omit the other.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
0042-183
An attribute cannot be specified for the current operation when a type of resource is allocated. Use one or
the other, but not both.
The attribute and the resource specified are mutually exclusive. Determine which one is needed for the
operation, and omit the other.
0042-184
Installation and migration
325
Explanation
User Action
The network address (net_addr) or subnet mask (snm) cannot be changed for the network, because NIM
clients are currently defined as being connected to that network. Remove the client definitions before
changing the network.
The nimdef command can be used to quickly redefine NIM clients after they have been removed to
update the network definition.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-185
Failed to link or copy files. Check permissions and file system space.
Verify that space and inodes are available for the files and links specified in the error message.
Message
Explanation
0042-186
Failed to copy setup programs. Either start NFS on the client or free 1000 512-byte blocks in the file
system.
Programs required to set up the operation could not be copied to the client system. Either start NFS on the
client, or increase space in the file system specified in the error message.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-187
Failed to expand file system.
Attempt to manually expand the file system specified in the error message, then retry the operation.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-188
Failed to NFS mount.
Verify that NFS is running on both the resource server and the client specified in the error message. Retry
the operation when the NFS problems have been resolved.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-189
Failed saving existing boot image. Check space in the file system.
Increase space in the file system specified by the error message, and retry the operation.
Message
Explanation
0042-190
The key is not in the NORMAL position. Unattended installation cannot complete unless the key is in the
NORMAL position.
Turn the key on the client machine to the NORMAL position and retry the operation.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-191
Unable to write the IPLROM emulation.
The mkboot command failed to write the IPLROM emulation on the client. Boot the client manually over
the network to begin the BOS installation.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-192
Unable to find boot logical volume.
Verify that a boot logical volume is defined for the machine. NIM attempts to use the lslv -l hd5
command to determine the boot logical volume.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-193
The client does not have an .rhosts entry for the master, or the client host ID is not resolvable.
Verify that the client host name is resolvable by the master. Then verify that an entry exists for the master
in the $HOME/.rhosts file for root on the client machine.
Message
Explanation
0042-194
The client does not allow NIM push operations. Remove /etc/nimstop on %s if push operation is
necessary.
On the client machine, run the nimclient -p command to re-enable master push permissions.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-195
Unable to order boot device list.
An error was returned by the bootlist command on the client. If a network boot must be performed for a
bos_inst, diag, or maint_boot operation, manually set the boot list and reboot the client, or follow the
normal procedure to boot the client over the network.
Message
0042-196
326
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
The set_bootlist attribute is only valid when used in combination with the no_client_boot or boot_client
attributes.
Only specify the set_bootlist attribute to the nim command when changing the default behavior with the
no_client_boot or boot_client attributes.
0042-197
If the target machine has more than one interface for a given network type, the network adapter’s logical
device name must be specified in the if1 attribute of the target machine’s NIM definition when using the
force_push attribute.
Modify the client’s if1 attribute using the NIM change operation. Change the if1 attribute to include one
of the client’s network adapter logical device names listed in the error message.
0042-198
When converting a machine’s /usr file system to a SPOT, the bos image on the media (lpp_source) being
used to create the SPOT must match the bos image that was used to install the machine.
When defining the /usr SPOT, use the same installation media that was used to install the machine
originally. For example, if a machine was originally installed with AIX 4.3.2 and then updates were
applied to bring the machine to AIX 4.3.3, the installation media that should be used when defining the
/usr SPOT on the machine would still need to be the AIX 4.3.2 product media.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-199
The no_client_boot and boot_client attributes may not be specified together.
To avoid the possibility of giving conflicting instructions to the NIM command, do not supply both the
no_client_boot and boot_client attributes in the same NIM operation.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-204
The mk_image and source attributes are only valid when specified together.
When creating a mksysb resource from a running client machine, use the mk_image=yes attribute to
indicate that a mksysb should be created, and use the source=ClientName attribute to specify the name of
the client that is to be backed up.
Message
Explanation
0042-205
The bos.sysmgt.sysbr fileset must be installed on the client to perform the system backup. You may install
this fileset with the NIM cust operation.
Install the bos.sysmgt.sysbr fileset on the client machine before retrying the operation.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-206
There is already a resource allocated.
Only one resource of the type specified can be allocated to the client. Deallocate the first resource before
attempting to allocate the other.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-207
Unable to allocate a resource to a client.
Look for other NIM error messages that may accompany this error and which may provide more
information about the problem. Verify that the resource specified is NFS-exportable to the client.
Message
Explanation
0042-208
Unable to lock a client. This could mean that the client is already locked, or the name given does not refer
to a valid NIM client.
If another NIM operation is being performed on the same client, wait for the process to complete before
retrying the operation. If no other NIM operations are being performed, stop and restart the nimesis
daemon to remove locks.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
0042-209
The mksysb_flags attribute contains an illegal value. Use the lsnim -Pa mksysb_flags command to get a
list of legal values.
Specify the correct values for the mksysb_flags attribute, and retry the operation.
0042-210
The maximum space required for the backup is greater than the amount of free space in the target file
system. To ignore space requirements, use the -F flag when defining the mksysb resource.
Installation and migration
327
User Action
Either increase the space of the target file system where the mksysb is to be created, or use the -F flag as
specified in the error message.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-211
The member already exists in group.
No additional action is required, since the member is already added to the group.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-212
The member was not added to the group, because it is not a valid NIM name.
The name of a member to add to a group was invalid. Verify that the member was specified correctly.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-213
The group was not created, because it did not contain any valid members.
A group must contain at least one member. Redefine the group with valid members to add it to the NIM
environment.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-214
Unable to add a member to a group.
Look for other NIM error messages that may accompany this error and which may provide more
information about the problem.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-215
An invalid log type for the showlog operation was specified.
Specify one of the valid log types listed in the error message.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-216
An invalid log type for the showlog operation was specified for a SPOT.
Specify one of the valid log types listed in the error message.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-217
An invalid log type for the showlog operation was specified for a diskless or dataless machine.
Specify one of the valid log types listed in the error message.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-218
The log file is either empty or does not exist.
No information is available in the log file for the machine or SPOT specified.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-219
The object is incompatible with the group.
The object cannot be added to the group, because its type is not allowed in the group. Machine groups
can only contain one type of NIM client, and that type is determined by the first member added. Resource
groups can only contain members whose types are resources.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-220
You cannot have more than one resource of the specified type in a resource group.
You must remove the current member with the specified type from the resource group before the new
member with the same type can be added.
Message
Explanation
0042-221
The group GroupName is being removed, because its single remaining member was removed during this
operation.
A group cannot be empty. Redefine the group with at least one member if it should remain in the NIM
environment.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-222
An unknown error occurred allocating resources to the machine.
Look for other NIM error messages that may accompany this error and which may provide more
information about the problem. Verify that the resource specified is NFS-exportable to the client.
Message
0042-223
328
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Explanation
User Action
Invalid input file. The file either cannot be read, is empty, or contains no valid entries.
Verify that the file specified in the error message is the correct file for the operation.
Message
Explanation
0042-224
The limit on the length of a line in an NFS exports file was exceeded. The export operation cannot be
performed.
Manually edit the /etc/exports and /etc/xtab files to remove any obsolete entries. The number of hosts to
which NIM can NFS-export a resource can also be increased by setting the restrict_nfs_exports attribute to
no on the master by running the nim -o change -a restrict_nfs_exports=no master command.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-225
An error occurred while updating the exports file. Check for corruption in the file.
Manually edit the /etc/exports and /etc/xtab files to fix any file corruption problems. Attempt to determine
why NIM was unable to successfully update the files. Check file and directory permissions, and verify
that file systems are not full.
Message
Explanation
0042-226
A timeout occurred while attempting to initiate the operation on the client. The operation may not have
started successfully.
If the operation that was performed was bos_inst, the client only needs to be rebooted manually over the
network to begin the installation. For all other operations, the problem is most likely due to network
communication problems between the master and the client. Verify that the client is reachable by the
master and that rsh permission is still granted by the client to the master.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-227
The state of the machine indicates that it may not be ready for certain NIM operations.
Check to see if any NIM operations are still being performed on the machine. If not, reset the state of the
machine with the nim -Fo reset MachineName command. This returns the machine to the ready state so
NIM operations can be performed on it. The reset operation does not deallocate resources, so deallocate
resources if necessary using the nim deallocate operation.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-228
Invalid release level.
The release level of the resource is incomplete, or incorrectly specified. The level of the resource can be
obtained by running the lsnim -l ResourceName command and viewing the version, release, and mod
attributes. To correct the problem, either recreate the resource, or modify the NIM database to contain the
correct level using the command on the NIM master:/usr/lpp/bos.sysmgt/nim/methods/m_chattr -a
Attribute = Value ResourceName, where Attribute is version, release, or mod; Value is the correct value;
and ResourceName is the name of the resource with the incorrect level specification.
Message
Explanation
0042-229
When installing a system using a mksysb as the source for the installation, the level of the SPOT used for
the installation must match the level of the mksysb image being installed. The release levels of the SPOT
and the mksysb do not match.
Create a SPOT that matches the level of the mksysb being installed, and use that SPOT when performing
a mksysb BOS installation. The level of mksysb and SPOT resources can be obtained by running the
lsnim -l ResourceName command and viewing the version, release, and mod attributes.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
0042-230
When installing a system using a mksysb as the source for the installation, the level of the SPOT used for
the installation should match the level of the mksysb image being installed. If this convention is not
followed, the installation may not complete successfully.
Create a SPOT that matches the level of the mksysb being installed, and use that SPOT when performing
a mksysb BOS installation. The level of mksysb and SPOT resources can be obtained by running the
lsnim -l ResourceName command and viewing the version, release, and mod attributes.
0042-231
A temporary list of software that should be installed is created and used for this operation. The list could
not be created.
Check previous error messages to understand why the error occurred. Correct the problem and try the
operation again.
0042-232
Installation and migration
329
Explanation
User Action
A temporary installp_bundle resource is created and used for this operation. The temporary resource
could not be created.
Check previous error messages to understand why the creation of the resource failed. Correct the problem
and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-233
The operation cannot be performed because the NIM Master is already initialized.
Unconfigure the NIM Master and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
0042-234
You cannot restore a NIM database backup onto a machine that has an earlier level of the NIM master
fileset installed. For example, a NIM database backup of a system with level 4.2.0.0 of the NIM master
cannot be restored to a system that has a level of the NIM master lower than 4.2.0.0.
Install a level of the NIM master fileset that is at the same level or a later level than that from which the
backup was created. Then attempt to restore the NIM database backup.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-235
An image source was not specified for creating the SPOT.
Specify a device containing installation images or specify an lpp_source with the simages attribute for
creating the SPOT.
Message
Explanation
0042-236
A name for the lpp_source and/or a directory to contain the lpp_source was not specified for the
lpp_source that will be created.
Specify a name and a directory for the lpp_source and try the operation again.
User Action
User Action
0042-237
A name for the SPOT and/or a directory to contain the SPOT was not specified for the SPOT that will be
created.
Specify a name and a directory for the SPOT and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-238
A parent directory was not specified for the diskless and dataless machine resources that will be created.
Specify a directory for the diskless/dataless machine resources and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-239
A name for the resource and/or directory to contain the resource was not specified for the resource that
will be created.
Specify a name and a directory for the resource and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-240
A parent directory was not specified for the diskless and dataless machine resources that will be created.
Specify a directory for the diskless/dataless machine resources and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
0042-241
The size and/or volume group was not specified for the creation of a new file system to contain a NIM
resource.
Specify both the size and volume group for the file system and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
330
0042-242
The size and/or volume group was not specified for the creation of a new file system to contain diskless
and dataless machine resources.
Specify both the size and volume group for the file system and try the operation again.
0042-243
An attempt was made to create the same file system twice: once for an lpp_source and once for a SPOT.
Specify a different directory for either the lpp_source or the SPOT. This will cause different file systems to
be created for the resources. If a new file system really should be created to contain both resources, then
only specify that the file system should be created for one of the resources, but specify the same directory
for both resources.
AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-244
An attempt was made to create the same file system twice: once for an lpp_source and once for
diskless/dataless machine resources.
Specify a different directory for either the lpp_source or the diskless/dataless resources. This will cause
different file systems to be created for the resources. If a new file system really should be created to
contain both sets of resources, then only specify that the file system should be created for one of the
resources, but specify the same directory for both resources.
User Action
0042-245
An attempt was made to create the same file system twice: once for a SPOT and once for
diskless/dataless machine resources.
Specify a different directory for either the SPOT or the diskless/dataless resources. This will cause
different file systems to be created for the resources. If a new file system really should be created to
contain both sets of resources, then only specify that the file system should be created for one of the
resources, but specify the same directory for both resources.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-246
Not enough space on the volume group to create the specified file system.
Specify a different volume group for the file system to be created and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-247
Creation of the file system failed.
Check the previous output for error messages to understand what caused the file system creation to fail.
Correct the error and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-248
An error occurred during file system creation.
Check the previous output for error messages to understand what caused the file system creation to fail.
Correct the error and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-249
NIM master initialization failed.
Check the previous output for error messages to understand what caused the configuration of the NIM
master to fail. Correct the error and attempt to reinitialize the master. The most frequent cause of this
failure is that the master is already initialized. The master can be unconfigured with the nim -o unconfig
master command and reinitialized. However, this should be done with extreme caution, since
unconfiguring the master will remove all definitions from the NIM database.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-250
Unable to continue with configuration.
Check the previous output for error messages to understand what caused the configuration to fail. Correct
the error and attempt to configure the system again from the point of failure.
Message
Explanation
0042-251
A route cannot be added to the network, because a required default route is missing. Add a default route
to the network, and try this operation again.
Add a default route to the network specified in the error message, and retry the operation.
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-252
Unable to locate a matching network.
The find_net keyword was used in the if attribute of the machine. However, no matching network was
found. Either define the network prior to defining the machine interface, or use the net_definition
attribute in conjunction with the find_net keyword to define the network while the interface is being
defined.
Message
Explanation
0042-253
You cannot use the net_definition attribute when the find_net keyword is not specified as the first field
of the if attribute.
The net_definition attribute is invalid when using a known network in the if attribute. Specify the
find_net keyword in the if attribute, or omit the net_definition attribute, and retry the operation.
User Action
Message
0042-254
Installation and migration
331
Explanation
Invalid format for the specified value of net_definition. The value of the attribute should be as follows:
NetType
Network type (for example, tok, ent, fddi, etc.).
snmName
Dotted decimal subnet mask for the network.
Client_gwName
Optional default gateway IP address or host name used by the machine being defined to
communicate with the master.
Master_gwName
Optional default gateway IP address or host name used by the master to communicate with
clients on other subnets.
NetName
Optional name given to the NIM definition created for the network. (Otherwise, a unique
default name is used.)
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
If you want to specify NetName and if Client_gwName or Master_gwName are not applicable, specify 0 in
their place. If Client_gwName is 0, Master_gwName cannot be nonzero.
Correct the syntax error, and retry the operation.
0042-255
The master already has a default route, and the gateway you specified as being the default for the master
is different from that which is already defined. Use the change operation if you want to modify the
master’s default gateway.
To change the default gateway for a network, use the following command:
nim -o change -a routingX="default GtName" NetName
where X is the sequence number for the routing attribute; GtName is the default gateway to use; and
NetName is the name of the master’s network.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-256
A default route already exists for the network. You can modify the default gateway, but you cannot define
more than one default route.
To change the default gateway for a network, use the following command:
nim -o change -a routingX="default GtName" NetName
where X is the sequence number for the routing attribute; GtName is the default gateway to use; and
NetName is the name of the network to modify.
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-257
You cannot specify the net_definition attribute without specifying the if attribute when changing a
machine definition.
The net_definition must reference a machine interface, so specify an if attribute when using the
net_definition attribute.
0042-258
You cannot specify the net_definition attribute when creating or modifying more than one if attribute in
the same change operation. Use two separate operations.
To avoid ambiguity, manipulate only one machine interface (if attribute) at a time when using the
net_definition attribute.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-259
The value of default_res specified on the master’s database definition is not a valid NIM resource group.
Specify a valid NIM resource group as the default resource. Obtain a list of resource groups by running
the lsnim -t res_group command.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-260
The default attribute is only applicable when manipulating a resource group.
Setting the default=yes/no attribute on a resource group makes it the default set of resources to use in
NIM operations. The default attribute is invalid when used as an attribute in other NIM operations.
Message
0042-261
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AIX Version 5.3: Installation and migration
Explanation
User Action
Illegal use of the async attribute. This attribute can only be specified for the lppchk operation when the
target is a standalone machine or a group of standalone machines.
Omit the async attribute when performing the lppchk operation, unless the target is a standalone machine
or a group of standalone machines.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-262
The file name of the client definition file is missing for this operation.
Specify the client definition file that should be used to add machines to the NIM environment. For more
information, see “NIM Commands” on page 241.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-263
The netboot_kernel attribute can only be assigned a value of up or mp.
Correct the value specified for the netboot_kernel attribute.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-264
The image source that was used to define the lpp_source is missing one or more requested packages.
Installation images were not copied into the lpp_source directory. The source for installation images may
not contain all of the filesets specified to populate the lpp_source. Copy the missing installation images to
the lpp_source directory, and then perform the NIM check operation on the lpp_source.
Message
Explanation
0042-265
The image source that was used to define the lpp_source is missing one or more items from the list of
default packages.
Installation images were not copied into the lpp_source directory. The source for installation images may
not contain all of the default filesets used to populate the lpp_source. Copy the missing installation
images to the lpp_source directory, and then perform the NIM check operation on the lpp_source.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-266
Requested packages are missing from the defined lpp_source.
Installation images were not copied into the lpp_source directory. The fileset names may have been
specified incorrectly, or the source for installation images may not contain all of the specified filesets. Copy
the missing installation images to the lpp_source directory, and then perform the NIM check operation on
the lpp_source.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-267
The defined lpp_source does not have the simages attribute, because one or more packages are missing.
Copy the missing installation images to the lpp_source directory, and perform the NIM check operation
on the lpp_source to add the simages attribute.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-268
The operation cannot be performed, because all members of the target group specified are currently
excluded from operations on the group. You must unmark (or include) excluded group members before
proceeding.
Perform the NIM select operation on the group to include members in further operations.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-269
Only one type of verification can be performed at a time when verifying installed filesets on a NIM client.
Disable or deselect all but one verification option and try the operation again.
Message
Explanation
0042-270
The operation is only supported on SPOTs and NIM clients installed with a version and release level of
AIX 4.2 or greater.
The NIM client fileset on the target is at an earlier level and does not support the attempted operation.
The client software on the target must be upgraded before the operation can be performed.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-271
A resource matching the type is already allocated. You cannot allocate more than one resource of this type
to a machine.
Deallocate the first resource before attempting to allocate the second. It may be necessary to reset the
machine before the resource can be deallocated.
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Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-272
A value specified is not a valid value for default_re because it is not a valid NIM resource group.
Specify a different resource group for the default_res attribute, or correct the resource group in question.
Message
Explanation
0042-273
A value specified cannot be used as the location for the mksysb image because it is a directory. You must
specify the filename where the mksysb image currently resides or will reside after creation.
Specify a file name instead of a directory for the location of the mksysb resource.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-274
The -e flag in the mksysb_flags attribute and the exclude_files attribute cannot be specified together.
Specify the -e flag with the mksysb_flags attribute to exclude the files in /etc/exclude.rootvg from the
backup, or specify an exclude_files attribute.
Do not specify both the -e mksysb flag and an exclude_files resource when performing this operation.
0042-275
Unable to obtain possession of a lock file. If no NIM operations are currently in progress, remove the file
and repeat the operation.
Use the ps -ef | grep nim command to list the running NIM processes on the system. If any NIM
processes other than the nimesis daemon are running, wait for them to finish and then remove the file
specified by the error message.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-276
A fileset must be installed before this operation can be performed.
Install the fileset listed in the error message before retrying the operation. Generally, the fileset needs to be
installed on the client system. However, depending on the operation being performed, the NIM master
may also need to have the fileset installed before the operation will succeed.
Message
Explanation
0042-277
Diskless and dataless machines cannot be defined with a primary network install interface residing on a
generic NIM network. It is presumed that a network adapter defined on a generic NIM network does not
support network boot.
To define the systems as diskless or dataless clients, they must first be connected to a NIM network that is
known to support network boot, such as ethernet, token-ring, or FDDI.
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-278
The interface specified does not correspond to a network adapter that is known to support network boot.
As a result, the NIM master has been defined on a generic NIM network. Network boot-dependent
operations, such as base operating system installation, will not be possible on any NIM client whose
primary network install interface is defined on the same network as the NIM master.
Operations that rely on network boot capability cannot be performed on clients on generic NIM networks.
Such operations must be performed using local media on the system.
0042-279
The interface specified maps to a subnet which has been defined as a generic NIM network. It will not be
possible to perform network boot-dependent operations, such as base operating system installation, on the
machine definition created by this operation.
Operations that rely on network boot capability cannot be performed on clients on generic NIM networks.
Such operations must be performed using local media on the system.
Message
Explanation
User Action
0042-280
Specify a complete date and time for the scheduled operation in the form: YYMMDDhhmm.
Use the format described in the error message to correctly schedule a date and time for the operation.
Message
Explanation
0042-281
The /usr file system on the specified server cannot be converted to a NIM SPOT. Either the
RM_INST_ROOTS variable was set to yes in a bosinst.data file during initial installation of the machine
or inurid -r was subsequently invoked. The only way to create a SPOT on this machine is to specify the
location to be something other than /usr or reinstall the machine and then create a SPOT in /usr.
The system is unable to support the creation of a /usr SPOT. A non-/usr SPOT may be created on the
system by specifying a different value for the location attribute.
User Action
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Message
Explanation
0042-282
The BOS installation has been enabled but could not be initiated, because the following file was not found
on the target. To start the installation, do one of the following:
1. Initiate a network boot operation from the target.
2. Correct the state of the target with NIM’s reset operation and invoke the bos_inst operation again
using one of the following:
a. The Force Push option (-a force_push=yes)
User Action
Message
Explanation
User Action
b. After installing and configuring the bos.sysmgt.nim.client fileset on the target.
The NIM client fileset is not properly installed and configured on the target system. Follow the directions
specified in the error message to correct the problem.
0042-283
The existence of a file on the server indicates that a NIM SPOT may still be mounted in a subdirectory
which will be removed by this operation. Before attempting the operation again, unmount the SPOT’s
directory along with any other directories that may be mounted beneath the directory being removed.
Failure to do so will result in loss of data on the SPOT server.
A SPOT operation failed, and NIM was unable to unmount all the directories mounted into the SPOT.
Manually unmount the directories specified in the error message before retrying the operation. The mount
command can be used to list the directories mounted on the system, and the unmount command can be
used to unmount directories. Use the -f option with the unmount command if necessary to force the
unmount.
Troubleshooting NIM
Solutions for network boot problems and procedures for producing debug output for NIM BOS
installations is described.
Refer to “NIM error and warning messages” on page 311 for information about error messages.
Debugging a network boot problem
If a client machine is unable to network boot from its boot server, there may be a problem in one or more
of the network boot stages.
The network boot stages are listed in the following tasks:
Verifying network communication between the client and server:
Before initiating the network boot on the client, perform these steps to verify network communication
between the client and the server.
1. Perform a ping test from the client bootp menus.
2. If the ping test fails, verify that the client, server, and gateway addresses are specified correctly.
3. If the addresses are correct, try to ping the server from a different machine in the client’s subnet.
If the server can be pinged from another machine, the network adapter on the boot client may be
faulty.
4. If the server cannot be pinged from another machine in the client’s subnet, there may be routing
problems between the client and the server, or network communications on the server may be faulty.
For information on network-debugging procedures, refer to TCP/IP troubleshooting in the Networks
and communication management.
Obtaining the boot image from the server:
Follow this procedure to obtain the boot image from the server.
1. If the ping test is successful, perform a network boot of the client. When a network boot is initiated
on a client, a bootp request packet is sent from the client to the server. The server then replies with a
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packet to the client. The client machine displays the number of packets sent and received for the
bootp request. If a packet is sent from the client, but none is received, another packet will be sent.
If bootp packets continue to be sent but not received, the boot server may not be responding to the
request.
2. From the bootp server, view the /etc/bootptab file on the server. It should contain an entry for the
client machine with the following information:
hostname_of_client
bf=boot_file
ip=client_ip_address
ht=network_type
sa=boot_server_address
sm=client_subnet_mask
ha=network_adapter_hardware_address (required only if bootp requests are sent by broadcasting)
If an entry does not exist, either the NIM command used to set up the current operation failed, or
the machine was reset before the boot operation could occur. Rerun the NIM bos_inst, diag, or
maint_boot operation to prepare the server for the client boot request.
If the entry exists in /etc/bootptab, verify that the specified data is correct. If a field contains
incorrect data, the information that was used to define the machine or network in the NIM database
was probably incorrect. Correct this problem by resetting the client machine, correcting the invalid
data in the client or network definition, retrying the NIM operation, and rebooting the client.
3. If the /etc/bootptab file is correct, verify that the inetd daemon is running. If it is not running, start
it and retry the network boot from the client. If the inetd daemon is running, it should automatically
start the bootpd daemon when the bootp request is received at the server.
4. If the bootpd daemon is not started, verify that the bootps entry in the /etc/inetd.conf file is not
commented out. If it is commented out, uncomment it and restart inetd with the refresh -s inetd
command. Retry the network boot from the client.
5. If a bootp reply is still not received at the client, manually start the bootpd daemon in debug mode:
a. Comment out the bootps entry from the /etc/inetd.conf file on the server.
b. Stop all running bootpd processes.
c. Restart inetd using the refresh -s inetd command.
d. Start bootpd from the command line, using the /usr/sbin/bootpd -s -d -d -d command.
6. Retry the network boot from the client. If no output is displayed from the running bootpd
command, the client bootp request is not reaching the server. Verify that the addresses specified in
the bootp menus are correct. If they are correct, perform network debugging procedures to
determine why the packet is not reaching the server.
If the server receives the client bootp request, the running bootpd command displays output
matching the client data in the /etc/bootptab file. Verify that the specified addresses are correct. This
information is sent back to the client in the bootp reply.
7. If the client is still not receiving the bootp reply, perform network-debugging procedures to
determine why the reply packet is not reaching the client.
After the client receives the bootp reply, it will tftp the boot image from the server.
The number of tftp packets transferred to the client will be displayed at the client machine.
The boot image has been successfully retrieved at the client machine when the LED shows 299 on
rs6k-platform machines or when the bottom third of the screen turns gray on other platform
machines.
8. If the tftp of the boot image does not complete successfully, the client may be trying to get the
wrong boot image. Verify that the client definition in the NIM database shows the correct platform
and kernel type. If the data is incorrect, correct it, reset the client machine, rerun the NIM operation,
and reboot the client over the network.
9. Verify that the /tftpboot directory on the boot server contains a link with the client name to the
correct boot image. If the link does not exist, reset the client machine, rerun the NIM operation, and
reboot the client over the network.
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10. If the link with the client name is pointing to the correct boot image and the tftp of the boot image
does not complete successfully, the boot image may be corrupted. Re-create the boot image by
performing a NIM check operation with the force flag on the SPOT. If the client is not an
rs6k-platform machine, also make sure the client has the latest version of the firmware installed.
Running the boot image on the client:
After the client machine has successfully received the boot image from the server, the most common
errors encountered are hangs with the LED showing 608, 611, or 613. Some machines may not have LED
displays. Debugging such problems on these machines will require using debug-enabled boot images.
For information on building debug boot images, see “Producing debug output from the BOS installation
program” on page 339.
608
Explanation
Action
611
Explanation
Action
613
Explanation
Action
tftp retrieve of client info file failure.
If a 608 hang is encountered, verify that the ClientName.info file exists in the /tftpboot directory. If it does
not exist, retry the NIM operation to create it. If it does exist, verify that tftp access to the /tftpboot
directory is not restricted in the /etc/tftpaccess.ctl file. It is also possible that the network adapter was not
configured properly in the boot environment. Use debug-enabled network boot images to look for errors
in the boot environment. If the client is not an rs6k-platform machine, make sure that it has the latest
version of firmware installed.
Remote mount of NFS file system failure.
611 hangs occur when the client machine is unable to mount a resource from a server. Ensure that NFS is
running on the resource server. Verify that the resources specified for the operation are exported properly
by checking the /etc/exports and /etc/xtab files on the server. Also, confirm that the resources have
permissions set correctly for reading. Debug-enabled network boot images can also be used to determine
exactly which mount command is failing on the client.
Failure setting up route tables.
613 hangs usually occur because a route is incorrectly defined for a network in the NIM database. Verify
that the correct gateways are specified between networks, and all gateways are functional. Use
debug-enabled network boot images to determine which routes could not be defined.
Obtaining debug output for NIM BOS installations
Due to problems in the network or in the NIM configuration, clients may fail to boot or install properly.
When this happens, it may be necessary to obtain debug information in order to determine the cause of
the problem.
If a client machine fails to configure properly from the network boot image, debug output from the boot
image can be obtained by building the debug-enabled image and attaching a tty to the client system. This
will display the commands and output that are run while the client is configured before further
processing is done by AIX.
If the system has been booted from the network boot image, but failures are still occurring during a BOS
installation, it may be necessary to collect debug information from the BOS installation program. The
commands and output from the BOS installation program will automatically be displayed on the tty if
the boot image was built debug-enabled. If the boot image was not built for debugging, output can be
obtained by either setting a value in a bosinst.data file or by entering special codes at the installation
menus.
When problems arise during a NIM BOS installation, you will most likely get system hangs. Viewing the
debug output can be useful, because you will be able to see the commands that failed. The problem may
be a misconfiguration of the network adapter or an inability to perform an operation from the client to
the server. By examining the debug output, you can determine what failed and make corrections to avoid
the error in the future.
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You will see the showled command running in the debug output. This command displays status values
on the LEDs on the front of the machine. Frequently, known problems and solutions are referenced by the
LED value that is displayed when a problem occurs. Some machines do not have LEDs for displaying
such information. Therefore, when debugging problems on such machines, give special attention to
observing the values that the showled commands are displaying.
Obtaining debug information from a network installation can save you time in determining the root cause
of a problem. Usually, the problem will be an incorrect definition in the NIM environment that can be
found without the debug information. However, with the debug information, you can significantly reduce
the scope of the investigation.
Producing debug output from a network boot image
Use these commands to create debug versions of the network boot images.
1. Use the Web-based System Manager or SMIT interfaces or run the following command:
nim -Fo check -a debug=yes SPOTName
where SPOTName is the name of your SPOT.
2. Obtain the address for entering the debugger by doing the following:
From Web-based System Manager:
a. From the NIM Resources container, double-click the SPOT resource to open the properties
notebook.
b. Click the Boot Image Information tab in the properties notebook to obtain the address.
Alternatively, you can use the following command to get the address:
lsnim -a enter_dbg SPOTName
where SPOTName is the name of your SPOT. The displayed output will be similar to the following:
spot1:
enter_dbg
enter_dbg
enter_dbg
enter_dbg
enter_dbg
enter_dbg
=
=
=
=
=
=
"chrp.mp
"chrp.up
"rs6k.mp
"rs6k.up
"rspc.mp
"rspc.up
0x001840d4"
0x00160b7c"
0x001840d4"
0x00160b7c"
0x001840d4"
0x00160b7c"
Write down the enter_dbg address for the client you are going to boot. For example, if your client is
an chrp-uniprocessor machine, you would write down the address 160b7c.
3. Attach a tty device to your client system (port 1).
4. Set up and perform the NIM operation that will require the client to boot over the network. Boot the
client over the network.
5. After the client gets the boot image from the SPOT server, the debug screen will appear on the tty. At
the > prompt, enter:
st Enter_dbg_Value 2
where Enter_dbg_Value is the number you wrote down in step 2 as your machine type’s enter_dbg
value. Specifying a 2 at the address of the enter_dbg value prints the output to your tty.
6. Type g (for go) and press Enter to start the boot process.
7. Use Ctrl-s to temporarily stop the process as you watch the output on the tty. Use Ctrl-q to resume
the process.
8. To rebuild your boot images in non-debug mode, use the following command:
nim - Fo check SPOTName
where SPOTName is the name of your SPOT.
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If the boot image is left in debug mode, every time a client is booted from these boot images, the
machine will stop and wait for a command at the debugger ″>″ prompt. If you attempt to use these
debug-enabled boot images and there is not a tty attached to the client, the machine will appear to be
hanging for no reason.
Producing debug output from the BOS installation program
Method A involves entering a special value at one of the installation menus and Method B uses a
bosinst_data resource to tell the installation program to display debug output.
Both methods are described as follows:
Producing debug output without using a bosinst_data resource (Method A):
Use this procedure to produce debug output without using a bosinst_data resource.
1. To enable debugging for the BOS installation program, start by performing all the processing you
would normally do to install a client.
Because you are not using a bosinst_data resource, you will be prompted to supply information about
the installation to the BOS installation program.
2. Select your console.
3. Select your language.
4. The Welcome to Base Operating System Installation and Maintenance menu is displayed. Instead of
selecting one of the options, type 911 at the prompt and press Enter.
5. Continue the normal procedure for selecting options and specifying data until the installation begins.
Debug output will be sent to the client’s display while the installation proceeds.
Producing debug output when using a bosinst_data resource (Method B):
Use this procedure to produce debug output when using a bosinst_data resource.
1. To enable debugging for the BOS installation program, set the value BOSINST_DEBUG = yes in the
control_flow stanza of the bosinst.data file that you are using for your bosinst_data resource.
A minimum bosinst.data file for debugging purposes would contain the following lines:
control_flow:
BOSINST_DEBUG = yes
2. In addition to the processing you would normally do to install a client, include the modified
bosinst_data resource as a resource for the operation.
After the client boots over the network, it will use the bosinst_data resource to obtain settings for the
installation. If the only data specified in your bosinst.data file is BOSINST_DEBUG = yes, you will be
prompted for the remaining required information before the installation will continue. Debug output
will be sent to the client’s display while the installation continues.
Debugging when port number conflicts with NIM and other applications
Follow this procedure if the nimesis daemon will not run.
When the NIM Master is configured, two port numbers are selected to be used by the nimesis daemon
for client communications. The default port numbers are 1058 and 1059. If either port is taken by another
application, the nimesis daemon will not run and nimclient commands will fail with an error similar to
the following:
0042-006 nimclient: (To master) rcmd connection refused
If the nimesis daemon cannot be started, it may be necessary to stop the other applicants on the system
to free the port.
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Rebooting the system will usually eliminate the problem, because when a machine is booted, the nimesis
daemon is started very early by init and the likelihood that the ports are taken will be very small.
Partitioning
Partitioning your system is similar to partitioning a hard drive. When you partition a hard drive, you
divide a single physical hard drive so that the operating system recognizes it as a number of separate
logical hard drives.
You have the option of dividing the system’s resources by using the Hardware Management Console
(HMC) to partition your system. On each of these divisions, called partitions, you can install an operating
system and use each partition as you would a separate physical system.
For additional information on managing partitions with the HMC, see Partitioning for AIX with an HMC.
Logical partitions
A logical partition (LPAR) is the division of a computer’s processors, memory, and hardware resources into
multiple environments so that each environment can be operated independently with its own operating
system and applications.
The number of logical partitions that can be created depends on the system’s processor model and
resources available. Typically, partitions are used for different purposes, such as database operation,
client/server operations, Web server operations, test environments, and production environments. Each
partition can communicate with the other partitions as if each partition is a separate machine.
The AIX operating system supports partitioned environments. Although the AIX installation concepts are
the same, the configuration and management of a partitioned environment with the AIX operating system
are new.
A logical partition must contain a minimum set of resources, as follows:
v
v
v
v
v
1 GB of available system memory
One available system processor
One boot device on an assigned I/O slot
One available network adapter (for error reporting)
Any other adapters you might need on an assigned I/O slot
Processors, memory, and I/O slots can be allocated to any partition, regardless of their location. However,
if you attempt to activate a partition, but the resources you specified are not available at the time,
partition activation fails. It is important to keep track of your system’s resources to avoid activation
failures. PCI slots are assigned individually to partitions, and memory can be allocated in 256 MB
increments. The granularity of the resources that can be assigned to partitions is very fine, providing
flexibility to create systems with just the desired amount of resources. Each partition runs its own copy of
the AIX operating system and is isolated from any activity in other partitions. Software failures do not
propagate through the system, and the hardware facilities and microcode isolate the resources.
Managed system
A managed system is a system that is physically attached to and managed by the Hardware Management
Console (HMC).
You can use the HMC to perform tasks that affect the entire managed system, such as powering the
system on and off. You can also create partitions and partition profiles within each managed system.
These partitions and partition profiles define the way that you configure and operate your partitioned
system.
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Dynamic logical partitioning
Dynamic logical partitioning provides the ability to logically attach and detach a managed system’s
resources to and from a logical partition’s operating system without rebooting.
For more information on dynamic logical partitioning, see the following:
v Dynamic logical partitioning in Performance management
v Dynamic logical partitioning in AIX 5L Version 5.3 General Programming Concepts: Writing and Debugging
Programs
Affinity logical partitions
An affinity logical partition is a special type of logical partition that uses system resources that are in close
physical proximity to each other.
Some systems have the ability to create affinity logical partitions. Check your hardware specifications to
see if your managed system is capable of using affinity logical partitions. When creating an affinity
logical partition, the HMC automatically determines which system resources are to be used, based on
their physical location to each other. The system resources that are automatically managed by the HMC
are processors and memory. The user determines the I/O requirements for each of these partitions. The
HMC then creates a profile for each affinity logical partition and a system profile for the managed
system.
Full system partition
A special partition called the Full System Partition assigns all of your managed system’s resources to one
large partition.
The Full System Partition is similar to the traditional, non-partitioned method of operating a system.
Because all resources are assigned to this partition, you cannot start any other partitions when the Full
System Partition is running. You also cannot start the Full System Partition when other partitions are
running. You should choose to use either the Full System Partition or create other partitions. Your I/O
usage might be affected if you switch between these two options frequently.
Running AIX on a logical partition
There are several differences between how AIX runs on a logical partition and how it runs on a
standalone server.
The following list describes some of these differences:
v The logical partition resource allocation provides the ability to select individual components to be
added to a partition without dependencies between these resources. The slots can be freely allocated in
any I/O drawer on the system. Other devices may be required for specific application requirements. It
is a good idea to configure more PCI slots in the partition than are required for the number of
adapters. This provides flexibility by allowing additional adapters to be hot-plugged into the empty
slots that are part of an active partition. Because each partition requires its own separate boot device,
the system must have at least one boot device and associated adapter per partition.
v In order for AIX to run inside a logical partition, AIX calls the Hypervisor in place of its traditional
direct access to the hardware and address-mapping facilities.
v Some direct-access calls are presented for diagnostic purposes, and alternate return codes for Run-Time
Abstraction Services (RTAS) calls are used whenever an illegal operation is issued.
v No physical console exists on the partition. While the physical serial ports on the system can be
assigned to the partitions, they can only be in one partition at a time. To provide an output for console
messages and also for diagnostic purposes, the firmware implements a virtual tty that is seen by AIX
as a standard tty device. Its output is sent to the HMC. The AIX diagnostics subsystems use the virtual
tty as the system console.
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v Certain platform operations are constrained in LPARs. For example, in non-LPAR systems, platform
firmware updates can be performed from AIX by a root user. Because firmware updates can affect all
partitions in an LPAR system, the LPAR administrator can specify that a particular partition (or no
partition) has this authority. Within that partition, firmware updates work in the same way as they do
for non-LPAR systems.
Apart from these considerations, AIX runs within a partition the same way it runs on a standalone server.
No differences are observed either from the application or the administrator’s point of view. Third-party
applications need only be certified for a level of AIX that runs in a partition, and not for the LPAR
environment itself.
Implementations of logical partitions
A logically partitioned environment adds to a portfolio of solutions that can provide better management,
improved availability, and more efficient use of resources. You can implement logical partitions in
multiple ways.
Server consolidation
If you have a server with sufficient processing capacity, you can logically subdivide the server into a
number of separate smaller systems to enable server consolidation. Using partitioning for sever
consolidation allows you to isolate applications, with the additional benefits of reduced floor space, a
single point of management, and easier redistribution of resources as workloads change.
Mixed production and test environments
Usually, production and test environments should be isolated from each other. Partitioning enables
separate partitions to be allocated for the production and test systems, eliminating the need to purchase
additional hardware and software.
When testing has been completed, the resources allocated to the test partition can be returned to the
production partition or elsewhere as required. You can also add extra resources to a partition if you want
to move the partition from a test environment to a production environment. As new projects are
developed, they can be built and tested on the same hardware where they will be deployed.
Consolidation of multiple versions of the same operating system
Different versions of AIX can exist on different logical partitions (LPARs) on the same system.
Consolidating multiple versions of AIX on a single system allows you to accommodate multiple
application requirements without multiple systems. You can also create an LPAR to test applications
under new versions of the operating system before you upgrade the production environments. Instead of
having a separate server for this function, a minimum set of resources can be temporarily used to create a
new LPAR where you test the application. When you no longer need the partition, you can incorporate
its resources back into the other LPARs.
Remote management
You can use the Hardware Management Console (HMC) to manage your partitions remotely with
Web-based System Manager or with the command line.
Each of the following system-management methods can be performed using the HMC interface or the
command line.
v Use the HMC client to remotely manage any AIX partition or system. All AIX plug-ins on the AIX
system can be managed remotely from the HMC client, provided that theWeb-based System Manager
framework version is compatible. The operating system checks each plug-in for compatibility with the
Web-based System Manager framework. If it is not compatible for that plug-in, a message displays,
indicating that the plug-in cannot be managed by the client.
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v Use an AIX partition or system to remotely manage an HMC. All HMC plug-ins on the HMC server
may be managed remotely from the AIX system, provided that the AIX system is at a compatible
Web-based System Manager framework version. Otherwise, an error message displays indicating that
the AIX system cannot manage the HMC server.
v Use Web-based System Manager Remote Client to remotely manage an HMC server. For instructions
on how to install the Remote Client, refer to the AIX 5L Version 5.3 Web-based System Manager
Administration Guide. All HMC plug-ins on the HMC server may be managed remotely from the
Remote Client, provided that the Remote Client is at a compatible Web-based System Manager
framework version. Otherwise, an error message displays, indicating that the Remote Client cannot
manage the HMC server. The only plug-in that is an exception is the Service Agent plug-in.
v Use an HMC client remotely manage another HMC client. All HMC plug-ins on the HMC server may
be managed remotely from the HMC client. The only plug-in that is an exception is the Service Agent
plug-in.
For information on remotely managing partitions with the command line on the HMC, see Using the
HMC remote command line.
For more information on remotely managing partitions with Web-based System Manager, see Web-based
System Manager Remote Client. You can also view the following readme files:
v /usr/websm/readme.html
v /usr/websm/readme.txt
Partition security
System administrators can install a server with the Controlled Access Protection Profile (CAPP) and
Evaluation Assurance Level 4+ (EAL4+) option during a base operating system (BOS) installation. If you
select this option, there are restrictions on the software that is installed during BOS installation and
network access restrictions.
Starting withAIX 5L Version 5.2 with the 5200-01 Recommended Maintenance package, the CAPP/EAL4+
technology runs on POWER4™ processor hardware platforms that support logical partition configuration.
The following peripherals are supported on CAPP/EAL4+ servers:
v Storage devices
– Terminals
– Printers
– Hard disks
– CD-ROM drives
v Backup devices
– Streamers
– Floppy disk drives
v Network devices
– Ethernet
– Token ring
Network adapter communication between partitions and the HMC
After a partition has been started, it uses the network adapter to communicate with the Hardware
Management Console (HMC).
Both the HMC and the partition must be configured so they can use the network adapters to
communicate with each other. The partition must be configured to identify the HMC (or HMCs) on the
network. It is recommended that the network be configured using a Domain Name Service (DNS) server.
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You can use either fully qualified host names or short host names to identify partitions and HMCs.
However, it is recommended that each partition and HMC be identified using a fully qualified host name,
as this identification ensures unique naming of all the partitions and the HMC in the network. Fully
qualified host names cannot be more than 100 bytes in length.
The HMC and partitions can also be configured using a short host name, where the domain name is not
defined. This is typically done in a private or test network. If the HMC is defined using a short host
name, you must perform extra network configuration steps to ensure correct communications between
the partitions and the HMC. If you use short host names rather than fully qualified host names, make
sure that the short host names are unique and that the mappings to IP addresses are properly specified.
The search order between the local /etc/hosts file and the DNS can be specified using the
/etc/netsvc.conf file or /etc/irs.conf file.
The following examples illustrate the scenarios supported:
v If you are using DNS and your partition and the HMC are using fully qualified host names, then no
additional network configuration is required.
v If you are using DNS and your partition is using a short host name, such as partition_1 and the HMC
is also using a short host name, such as hmc123, both must be added to the local /etc/hosts file, as
shown in the following:
[email protected]_1
-> cat /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1
loopback localhost
9.3.3.151 partition_1.mydomain.mycompany.com partition_1
9.3.3.152 hmc123.mydomain.mycompany.com hmc123
Note: You must include the fully qualified host name in addition to the short name when a DNS is
present.
v If you are not using DNS and your partition is using a fully qualified host name, such as
partition_1.mydomain.mycompany.com, and the HMC is also using a fully qualified host name, such as
hmc123.mydomain.mycompany.com, both must be added to the local /etc/hosts file, as shown in the
following:
[email protected]_1.mydomain.mycompany.com
-> cat /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1 loopback localhost
9.3.3.151 partition_1.mydomain.mycompany.com
9.3.3.152 hmc123.mydomain.mycompany.com
v If you are not using DNS and your partition is using a short host name, such as partition_1 and the
HMC is also using a short host name, such as hmc123, both must be added to the local /etc/hosts file,
as shown in the following:
[email protected]_1
-> cat /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1
loopback localhost
9.3.3.151 partition_1
9.3.3.152 hmc123
v Your HMC is using a short host name, such as hmc123, and you would like to use both a fully
qualified host name and a short host name for the HMC. In order for your partition to correctly
communicate with the HMC, you must specify the short host name before the fully qualified host
name in the partition’s /etc/hosts file, as shown in the following:
[email protected]_1.mydomain.mycompany.com
-> cat /etc/hosts
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127.0.0.1
loopback localhost
9.3.3.151 partition_1.mydomain.mycompany.com
9.3.3.152 hmc123 hmc123.mydomain.mycompany.com
Installing AIX in a partitioned environment
There are multiple procedures for installing AIX in a partitioned environment.
For the installation method that you choose, ensure that you follow the sequence of steps as shown.
Within each procedure, you must use AIX to complete some installation steps, while other steps are
completed using the HMC interface.
Installing AIX using the media device to install a partition with an HMC
In this procedure, you will perform a new and complete base operating system installation on a logical
partition using the partition’s media device. This procedure assumes that there is an HMC attached to the
managed system.
Prerequisites
Things to consider
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
Note: For the installation method that you choose, ensure that you follow the sequence of steps as
shown. Within each procedure, you must use AIX to complete some installation steps, while other steps
are completed using the HMC interface.
Before you begin this procedure, you should have already used the HMC to create a partition and
partition profile for the client. Assign the SCSI bus controller attached to the media device, a network
adapter, and enough disk space for the AIX operating system to the partition. Set the boot mode for this
partition to be SMS mode. After you have successfully created the partition and partition profile, leave
the partition in the Ready state. For instructions about how to create a logical partition and partition
profile, refer to the Creating logical partitions and partition profiles article in the IBM eServer Hardware
Information Center.
Step 1. Activate and install the partition (perform these steps in the HMC interface)
1. Activate the partition, as follows:
a. Insert the AIX 5L Volume 1 media into the media device of the managed system.
b. Right-click on the partition to open the menu.
c. Select Activate. The Activate Partition menu opens with a selection of partition profiles. Be sure
the correct profile is highlighted.
d. Select Open a terminal window or console session at the bottom of the menu to open a virtual
terminal (vterm) window.
e. Select Advanced to open the Advanced options menu.
f. For the Boot mode, select SMS.
g. Select OK to close the Advanced options menu.
h. Select OK. A vterm window opens for the partition.
2. In the SMS menu on the vterm, do the following:
a. Press the 5 key and press Enter to select 5. Select Boot Options.
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PowerPC Firmware
Version SF220_001
SMS 1.5 (c) Copyright IBM Corp. 2000, 2003 All rights reserved.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Main Menu
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Select Language
Setup Remote IPL (Initial Program Load)
Change SCSI Settings
Select Console
Select Boot Options
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Navigation Keys:
X = eXit System Management Services
------------------------------------------------------------------------------Type the number of the menu item and press Enter or select Navigation Key: 5
b. Press the 2 key and press Enter to select 2. Select Boot Devices.
c. Press the 1 key and press Enter to select 1. Select 1st Boot Device.
d. Press the 3 key and press Enter to select 3. CD/DVD.
e. Select the media type that corresponds to the media device and press Enter.
f. Select the device number that corresponds to the media device and press Enter. The media device
is now the first device in the Current Boot Sequence list.
g. Press the ESC key until you return to the Configure Boot Device Order menu.
h. Press the 2 key to select 2. Select 2nd Boot Device.
i. Press the 5 key and press Enter to select 5. Hard Drive.
j. If you have more than one hard disk in your partition, determine which hard disk you will use to
perform the AIX installation. Select the media type that corresponds to the hard disk and press
Enter.
k. Select the device number that corresponds to the hard disk and press Enter.
l. Press the x key to exit the SMS menu. Confirm that you want to exit SMS.
3. Boot from the AIX 5L Volume 1, as follows:
a. Select console and press Enter.
b. Select language for BOS Installation menus, and press Enter to open the Welcome to Base
Operating System Installation and Maintenance menu.
c. Type 2 to select Change/Show Installation Settings and Install in the Choice field and press
Enter.
Welcome to Base Operating System
Installation and Maintenance
Type the number of your choice and press Enter.
Choice is indicated by >>>.
1 Start Install Now with Default Settings
2 Change/Show Installation Settings and Install
3 Start Maintenance Mode for System Recovery
88 Help ?
99 Previous Menu
>>> Choice [1]: 2
4. Verify or Change BOS Installation Settings, as follows:
a. Type 1 in the Choice field to select the System Settings option.
b. Type 1 for New and Complete Overwrite in the Choice field and press Enter.
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Note: The installation methods available depend on whether your disk has a previous version of
AIX installed.
c. When the Change Disk(s) screen opens, you can change the destination disk for the installation. If
the default shown is correct, type 0 in the Choice field and press Enter. To change the destination
disk, do the following:
1) Type the number for each disk you choose in the Choice field and press Enter. Do not press
Enter a final time until you have finished selecting all disks. If you must deselect a disk, type
its number a second time and press Enter.
2) When you have finished selecting the disks, type 0 in the Choice field and press Enter. The
Installation and Settings screen opens with the selected disks listed under System Settings.
d. If needed, change the primary language environment. Use the following steps to change the
primary language used by this installation to select the language and cultural convention you
want to use.
Note: Changes to the primary language environment do not take effect until after the Base
Operating System Installation has completed and your system is rebooted.
1) Type 2 in the Choice field on the Installation and Settings screen to select the Primary
Language Environment Settings option.
2) Select the appropriate set of cultural convention, language, and keyboard options. Most of the
options are a predefined combination, however, you can define your own combination of
options.
v To choose a predefined Primary Language Environment, type that number in the Choice
field and press Enter.
v To configure your own primary language environment, do the following:
a) Select MORE CHOICES.
b) Select Create Your Own Combination.
c) When the Set Primary Cultural Convention screen opens, type the number in the Choice
field that corresponds to the cultural convention of your choice and press Enter.
d) When the Set Primary Language screen opens, type the number in the Choice field that
corresponds to your choice for the primary language and press Enter.
e) When the Set Keyboard screen opens, type the number in the Choice field that
corresponds to the keyboard attached to the system and press Enter.
e. After you have made all of your selections, verify that the selections are correct. Press Enter to
confirm your selections and to begin the BOS Installation. The system automatically reboots after
installation is complete.
5. Switch the partition to Normal Mode, as follows:
a. Right-click on the partition profile to open the menu. Be sure the correct partition profile is
highlighted.
b. Select Properties.
c. Select the Settings tab.
d. For the Boot Mode, select Normal.
e. Select OK to close the Properties menu.
f. Right-click on the partition to open the menu.
g.
h.
i.
j.
Select Restart Partition.
Select Immediate for the Restart Options.
Confirm that you want to restart the partition.
When the partition has restarted, right-click on the partition to open the menu.
k. Select Open terminal window to open a virtual terminal (vterm) window.
6. Complete the BOS Installation, as follows:
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a. Type vt100 as the terminal type.
Set Terminal Type
The terminal is not properly initialized. Please enter a terminal type
and press Enter. Some terminal types are not supported in
non-English languages.
ibm3101
ibm3151
ibm3161
ibm3162
ibm3163
ibm3164
ibmpc
lft
88
99
tvi912
tvi920
tvi925
tvi950
vs100
vt100
vt320
sun
vt330
vt340
wyse30
wyse50
wyse60
wyse100
wyse350
+-----------------------Messages-----------------------| If the next screen is unreadable, press Break (Ctrl-c)
| to return to this screen.
|
|
Help ?
Exit
>>> Choice []: vt100
b. In the License Agreement menu, select Accept License Agreements.
c. Select yes to ACCEPT Installed License Agreements.
d. Press F10 (or Esc+0) to exit the License Agreement menu.
e. In the Installation Assistant main menu, select Set Date and Time.
Installation Assistant
Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.
Set Date and Time
Set root Password
Configure Network Communications
Install Software Applications
Using SMIT (information only)
F1=Help
F9=Shell
F2=Refresh
F10=Exit
F3=Cancel
Enter=Do
F8=Image
f. Set the correct date, time, and time zone. Press the F3 (or Esc+3) key to return to the Installation
Assistant main menu.
g. Select Set root Password. Set a root password for the partition.
h. Select Configure Network Communications. Select TCP/IP Startup. Select from the Available
Network Interfaces and press Enter. Enter the appropriate network information in the Minimum
Configuration and Startup menu and press Enter. Use the F3 (or Esc+3) key to return to the
Installation Assistant main menu.
i. Exit the Installation Assistant by typing F10 (or Esc+0).
j. The vterm window displays a login prompt.
Step 2. Manage your partition (perform this step in the AIX environment)
When the installation has completed and the system has rebooted, the vterm window displays a login
prompt.
At this point, you may want to perform several common system-administration procedures. The
following table lists where to find information about performing these procedures.
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Table 13. Common System Administration Procedures
Procedure
Location
Backing up and recovering system
backups
″Creating and installing system backups″ in Installation and migration
Managing users and groups
″Users, Roles, and Passwords″ in Security
Installing software
″Optional Software Products and Service Updates″ in Installation and migration
Installing fixes/updates
″Optional Software Products and Service Updates″ in Installation and migration
Tuning the system for performance
″Performance tuning″ in Performance management
Configuring printers
Printers and printing
Installing AIX using the media device to install a partition without an HMC
In this procedure, you will use the system’s built-in media device to perform a new and complete Base
Operating System Installation on the standalone system.
Things to consider
The information in this how-to scenario was tested using specific versions of AIX. The results you obtain might vary significantly
depending on your version and level of AIX.
This information contains procedures to install the AIX operating system. For more information on
concepts and considerations involved when performing a base operating system installation of AIX, or
concepts and requirements involved when using the Network Installation Manager (NIM) to install and
maintain AIX, refer to Installation and migration.
At this point, the BOS Installation is complete, and the initial configuration of the system is complete.
Step 1. Prepare your system for installation
v There must be adequate disk space and memory available. AIX 5.3 requires 256–512 MB of memory
and 2.2 GB of physical disk space. For additional release information, see the AIX 5.3 Release Notes.
v Make sure your hardware installation is complete, including all external devices. See the
documentation provided with your system unit for installation instru