Cakewalk Sonar 8.5 User guide

Cakewalk Sonar 8.5 User guide
SONAR
Reference Guide
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of Cakewalk, Inc. The software described in this document is furnished under a
license agreement or nondisclosure agreement. The software may be used or copied only in accordance of the terms of the agreement. It is against the law to copy this software on any medium
except as specifically allowed in the agreement. No part of this document may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and
recording, for any purpose without the express written permission of Cakewalk, Inc.
Copyright © 2009 Cakewalk, Inc. All rights reserved.
Program Copyright © 2009 Cakewalk, Inc. All rights reserved.
ACID is a trademark of Sony Creative Software, Inc.
Cakewalk is a registered trademark of Cakewalk, Inc. and the Cakewalk logo are trademarks of
Cakewalk, Inc. Other company and product names are trademarks of their respective owners.
Visit Cakewalk on the World Wide Web at www.cakewalk.com.
Getting started
If you want to get up and running quickly, please use the following tutorials,
which are tailored to learning specific tasks in SONAR. If you are new to
Cakewalk products, you may want to start at Tutorial 1. If you have used
previous versions of Cakewalk, or you want to do a specific task, choose from
the following tutorials:
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Tutorial 2 – Using the Media Browser
Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments
Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing
Glossary. A list of defined terms.
Introduction. An overview of SONAR’s features and functionality.
Troubleshooting.
Answers to some frequently asked questions.
New features in SONAR 8.5.
Descriptions of new features in SONAR 8.5.
3
Getting started
4
Getting started
Table of Contents
Getting started . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Music Composition and Exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remixing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Game Sound Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sound Production and Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web Authoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Film and Video Scoring and Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Publishing Music on the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Burning Audio CDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computers, Sound, and Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digital audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing I/O devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR file types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working on a project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windows taskbar indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Screen colors and wallpaper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51
51
52
52
52
52
53
53
53
53
54
54
54
55
56
57
59
60
62
66
67
67
68
85
86
86
Color presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Installing SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Starting to use SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2 Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Creating a new project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Opening project files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Playing project files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Configuring your sound device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Setting the tracks outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Playing the project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Looping project files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Saving project files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3 Tutorial 2 – Using the Media Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Finding and previewing audio loops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Previewing MIDI groove clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Adding loops to your project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
4 Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
5 Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Adding an instrument track to your project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Manually entering MIDI notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
6 Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Printing your notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
7 Tutorial 6 – Editing your music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Moving clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Splitting Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Cropping Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Undo and Redo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
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Table of Contents
8 Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Volume and pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Adding effects (FX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Using Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
9 Tutorial 8 – Working with video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Importing video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What if I don’t see the Video Thumbnail pane or Video view? . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the video properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting your video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
153
156
156
158
160
10 Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Burning an audio CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Cakewalk Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
11 Controlling Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
The Now time and how to use it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Now time marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Track view Now time display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the Now time in large print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other ways to set the Now time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Time ruler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling stuck notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Looping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Large Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track-by-track playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Playback state toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Silencing tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soloing tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dim Solo mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inverting the phase of a track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing tracks’ mono/stereo status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing track settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up output devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning Inputs & Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing the instrument sound (bank and patch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
172
174
175
176
176
177
179
181
181
184
187
188
188
189
190
191
191
193
203
205
207
209
7
Adjusting volume and pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Configuring panning laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
Adjusting volume trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Assigning a MIDI channel (Chn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Adjusting the Key/transposing a track (Key+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Adjusting the note velocity (Vel+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Adjusting the time alignment of a MIDI track (Time+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Other MIDI playback settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Local control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Playing files in Batch mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
The Play List view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Video playback, import, and export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Importing and playing back videos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Exporting video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Optimizing video performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Using the Video thumbnails pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Video playback on a FireWire DV device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Exporting a project to a FireWire DV device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Synchronizing external video playback to audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Locating missing audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
The Find missing audio file dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Restoring missing audio files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Managing shared and external files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
12 Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Creating a new project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Using per-project audio folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Creating a new project File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Setting the Meter and Key signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Setting the Metronome and Tempo settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Setting the audio sampling rate and bit depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Sony Wave-64 support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Setting the MIDI timing resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Preparing to record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Recording modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Choosing an input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Arming tracks for recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Auto arming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Recording music from a MIDI instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
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Table of Contents
Input quantizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arpeggiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the arpeggiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tuning an Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Confidence Recording and Waveform Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Audio Engine Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Punch Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Record Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Pattern Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording Specific Ports and Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input Filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Music and Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Audio CD Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Material from Another SONAR Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing OMF Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing MIDI Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing audio / MIDI files from the Clips pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving Your Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using File Versioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Labeling Your Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
247
249
252
255
256
257
258
262
262
264
266
271
273
274
275
276
276
278
278
279
281
281
282
283
284
285
13 Arranging and editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
Arranging Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Order of Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the Display of Tracks in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Erasing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Track Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring Track View Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arranging Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Navigator View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
288
289
290
291
293
293
294
295
297
299
299
303
9
Opening Views by Double-clicking Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Selecting Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Moving and Copying Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Reverting clip(s) to original time stamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Locking Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Auto Scroll Lock in Clips pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Nudge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Nudge Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Working with Partial Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Markers and the snap grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Showing gridlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
Defining and Using the Snap Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Snap Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Creating and Using Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
TAB to transients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Working with Linked Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Splitting and Combining Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Take Management and Comping Takes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Clip Muting with the Default Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Clip Muting with the Alternate Style. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Toggling a Clip’s Mute Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Audition (Selection Playback) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Isolating (Clip Soloing). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Track Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Adding Effects in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Changing Tempos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Using the Tempo Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Using the Tempo Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Using the Tempo View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Undo, Redo, and the Undo History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Slip-editing (Non-destructive Editing). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Using Slip-editing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Slip-editing Multiple Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Fades and Crossfades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
Using Fades and Crossfades in Real Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
14 AudioSnap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Using the Transient tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
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Table of Contents
Editing transient markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Enabling/disabling AudioSnap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Using the AudioSnap palette. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Editing a clip’s tempo map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
Changing a project’s tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Fixing timing problems in audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379
Adjusting the timing of a solo performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships
381
Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385
Making multiple clips/tracks groove together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Quantizing audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
General editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
Snapping edits to audio beats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396
Splitting beats into clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Slip-stretching audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
Adding automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Using the Pool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Groove Quantize and Quantize to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Algorithms and rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409
15 Working with Loops and Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411
The Loop Construction View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Construction Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Media Browser View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Folders Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents List Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Loops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working Groove Clip audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Groove Clips Work in SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Groove Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Editing Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Slices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving Groove Clips as Wave Files/ACIDized Wave Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Pitch Markers in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with REX files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Groove Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
411
412
416
417
418
418
419
419
420
421
423
424
425
426
427
11
Exporting, and Importing MIDI Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Importing Project5 Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
16 Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
Event Inspector Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
The Piano Roll View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Note Map Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Drum Grid Pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Notes Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Controller Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Track List Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Opening the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Note Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll View Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Selecting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441
Editing Notes with the Draw Tool and the Select Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Show velocity on selected notes (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 447
Selection sensitive velocity drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 448
Note/controller painting (freehand) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Note/controller painting (linear) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Controller/velocity painting (freehand). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Controller/velocity painting (linear) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Note split . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450
Note glue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
Drag-quantize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
MIDI event mute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Erase tool behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Note hit testing improvements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Velocity Audition options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Hiding events in muted clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Adjust velocity without changing the Display Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Flexible Piano Roll tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
The PRV Tool Configuration dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Default PRV tool assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Multiple automation controller lanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466
Adding Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
Selecting Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
Select controllers within note duration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472
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Table of Contents
Editing Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Piano Roll Microscope mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Inline Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the Inline Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The MIDI Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Notes and Controllers in the Inline Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting and Editing Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying and Pasting MIDI Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transposing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting Time or Measures into a Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stretching and Shrinking Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reversing Notes in a Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Crescendos and Decrescendos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Timing of a Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fit Improvisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snap to Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Searching for Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and
Automation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Event List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event List Buttons and Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Events in the Event List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event List Display Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Events and Event Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional Event Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Effects Presets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Echo/Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filtering Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Arpeggio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzing Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Velocities with the Velocity Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transposing MIDI Notes with the Transpose MIDI Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
473
474
477
478
479
480
482
482
482
484
486
489
489
490
491
498
501
505
505
510
512
514
516
516
517
518
519
520
520
521
523
523
525
526
527
17 Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
The Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 529
Creating and Editing a Drum Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
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13
The Drum Map Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
Working in the Drum Map Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
The Map Properties Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532
Saving a Drum Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
Using Drum Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
Opening a Drum Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
Velocity Tails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535
Editing Note Velocities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536
Previewing a Mapped Sound. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
The Note Map Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
Changing Mapped-note Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
The Drum Grid Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
Grid Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
The Pattern Brush Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
How the Pattern Brush Tool Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540
Creating Custom Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
18 Editing Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
Digital Audio Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 545
Basic Acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
Example—A Guitar String . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 546
Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
Recording a Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 550
The Decibel Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
Managing Audio Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
Basic Audio Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
Editing Clip Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
Moving, Copying, Pasting and Deleting Audio Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
Audio Scaling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
Splitting Audio Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
Bouncing to Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
Scrubbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
Basic Audio Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 560
Using the Normalize and Gain Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
Reversing Audio Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562
Advanced Audio Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
Removing Silence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
Removing DC Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
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Table of Contents
Applying Fades and Crossfades Offline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Real-Time Audio Effects Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Destructive Audio Effects Processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
565
567
568
568
19 Software Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
Synth Rack View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synth Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting Soft Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening a Soft Synth’s Property Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synth Rack Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing a Soft Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Muting and Soloing Soft Synth Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rename synths in the Synth Rack view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi-port Soft Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting Your Soft Synth Tracks to Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Assignable Controls Feature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating Controls from the Synth Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Synth Rack Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remote Control of the Synth Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawing Soft Synth Automation in the Clips Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soft Synth MIDI Output Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording a Soft Synth’s MIDI Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReWire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting a ReWire Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Routing MIDI Data to ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing Down ReWire Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating ReWire Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReWire Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stand-alone Synths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing a Stand-alone Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording a Stand-alone Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
570
571
571
574
575
575
577
578
578
579
580
582
582
582
583
583
583
585
585
586
588
588
588
588
589
589
590
20 Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593
Preparing to Mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594
Configuring the Console and Track Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596
Mixing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
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15
Mixing a MIDI Track. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 599
Converting MIDI to Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600
Signal Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602
Sidechaining Signal Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604
Routing and Mixing Digital Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605
Stereo Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607
Surround Buses (SONAR Producer Only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608
Main Outs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609
Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609
What the Meters Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
Hiding and Showing Meters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
Changing the Meters’ Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611
Segmented and Non-segmented Meters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613
Changing the Meters’ Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614
MIDI Activity indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
Peak Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
Waveform Preview for Buses and Synth Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616
Freeze Tracks and Synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617
Using Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 621
Effects Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622
How to Use Real-Time Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622
Presets and Property Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625
Effects on Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 626
Sidechaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
Sidechainable Vintage Channel VC-64 plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631
External Insert plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 632
Organizing Plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638
VST Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638
V-Vocal Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641
Using V-Vocal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642
Playing Back V-Vocal Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644
Pitch Editing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645
Editing Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 648
Editing Formants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649
Editing Dynamics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650
Context Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650
V-Vocal pitch-to-MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651
Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651
Using the Per-track EQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653
Applying Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656
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Table of Contents
Applying MIDI Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Control Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quick Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Remote Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Learn Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bouncing Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Real-time bounce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing to Create an Audio CD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing Audio for Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting OMF Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dithering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Burning audio CDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cakewalk Publisher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
657
657
660
662
664
664
666
668
669
678
679
680
680
21 Surround Mixing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683
Surround Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring SONAR for Surround Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Surround Format Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing a Surround Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Routing in Surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Downmixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Panning in Surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling Surround Panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating Surround Panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Joystick Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bass Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The SurroundBridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect Property Pages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to Patch and Configure Surround Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Surround Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting Surround Mixes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
683
684
684
687
688
688
689
691
692
696
697
698
698
699
699
700
700
701
703
704
22 Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705
Quick Automation Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706
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17
The Automation Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707
Automation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707
Automation Read and Automation Write Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708
Recording Individual Fader or Knob Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709
Creating and Editing Audio Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710
Creating and Editing MIDI Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712
Dotted Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715
Using the Envelope Draw Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715
Drawing Envelopes on Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716
Showing or Hiding Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 717
Deleting Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718
Copying and Pasting Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 719
Resetting Envelopes and Nodes to Current or Neutral Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720
Envelope Mode and Offset Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721
Converting MIDI Envelopes to Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722
Snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723
Adding Nodes at a Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 724
Automating Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725
Automating Individual Effects Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725
Recording Automation Data from an External Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 726
Reassigning envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 727
The Envelope Editing and Node Editing menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 728
Automated Muting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 729
23 Layouts, Templates and Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731
Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 732
Floating Views and Dual Monitor Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734
Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735
Template Example: Three MIDI instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737
Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738
Importing Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740
Exporting Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740
24 Notation and Lyrics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 743
The Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 743
Opening the Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 744
Staff Pane Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 745
The Staff pane right-click menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 746
The Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 747
Fretboard pop-up menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748
18
Table of Contents
Basic Musical Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting Notes on the Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting Notes with the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving, Copying, and Deleting Notes on the Staff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving Notes from within the Fretboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Note Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deglitch Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beaming of Rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Way Notes Are Displayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Enharmonic Spellings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Channels and the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chords and Marks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Chord Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Expression Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Hairpin Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Pedal Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tablature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tablature Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Fretboard Texture and Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quick TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Regenerate TAB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering Notes from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single Note Editing from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Chords or Groups of Notes from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Notes and Chords from the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Percussion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up a Percussion Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Up a Percussion Staff or Line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ghost Strokes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Meter/Key View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Is Meter? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Is Key? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening the Meter/Key View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and Editing Meter/Key Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Music Notation for Non-concert-key Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and Editing Lyrics in the Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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749
750
751
751
752
753
753
754
755
756
756
757
757
759
760
760
764
765
766
767
767
768
769
769
770
770
771
771
772
773
773
775
776
777
777
778
778
779
780
781
782
19
Opening the Lyrics View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783
Adding and Editing Lyrics in the Lyrics View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783
25 Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785
Assigning Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786
Importing Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788
Creating Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789
Creating and Editing Patch Name and Other Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792
Copying Name Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793
Assigning the Bank Select Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794
Assigning Patch Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795
Assigning Note Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796
Assigning Controller, RPN, and NRPN Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798
SONAR Flags in Instrument Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799
Instrument Definition Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800
Why Use Instrument Definitions? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800
What Can They Do and Not Do?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801
Where Do Instrument Definitions Come From?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801
Start of Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801
26 System Exclusive Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 805
What Is System Exclusive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806
Sysx Events. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806
Using the System Exclusive View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807
Sending Sysx Banks at Startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807
Importing, Creating, and Dumping Sysx Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808
More about Dump Request Macros. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 810
Editing Sysx Banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811
Sysx View Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 811
Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812
Send All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812
Receive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812
Clear Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812
Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812
Auto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812
Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812
Edit Bytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813
Load Bank and Save Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813
Transmitting Banks During Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814
20
Table of Contents
Real-time Recording of System Exclusive Messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sysx Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sysx .ini File Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
814
815
815
816
27 Synchronizing Your Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819
Synchronization Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing Clock Sources: SONAR as Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR as the Slave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR as the Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using MIDI Sync with Drum Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting MIDI Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMPTE/MIDI Time Code Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing Digital Audio under SMPTE/MTC Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMPTE/MTC Sync and Full Chase Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting SMPTE/MTC Sync. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Machine Control (MMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
819
820
821
822
823
824
824
824
828
828
829
830
28 Audio File Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 833
The Project Files Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project Files and Bundle Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Global Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Per-project Audio Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Imported Audio Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backing Up Projects with Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deleting Unused Audio Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
834
835
836
836
837
838
839
841
29 Improving Audio Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 843
System Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Wave Profiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling and Disabling Audio Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sampling Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit Depths, and Float Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit Depths for Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit Depths for Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit Depths for Importing Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
843
843
844
845
846
847
848
848
21
Bit Depths for Exporting Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849
Bit Depths for Rendering Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849
Preparing Higher-quality Audio for CD Burning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849
SONAR Project File Compatibility Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 850
Improving Performance with Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851
Getting the Most Out of Your PC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851
Mixing Latency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853
ASIO Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 854
Queue Buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 854
Status Bar/CPU Meter/Disk Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855
Reduce GUI updates to improve playback performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856
24-bit Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857
Dropouts and Other Audio Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858
Optimized Picture Cache Redrawing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 865
Improving recording performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 867
MIDI Prepare Buffer Size and automation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 867
30 External Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 869
Edirol PCR Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870
Setting up Control Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 872
ACT MIDI Controller Plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874
Using the ACT MIDI Controller Property Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874
ACT presets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875
Assigning Controls on Your Controller/Surface to Cells in the ACT MIDI Property Page
875
Cakewalk Generic Surface Plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876
Loading Cakewalk Generic Surface Presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 877
Assigning Faders and Knobs to Control SONAR Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 877
Controlling Different Tracks or Groups of Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880
The Cakewalk Generic Surface Property Page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 881
Euphonix EuCon control surface support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886
The WAI Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886
ACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888
OPT Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 890
Working with StudioWare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 890
StudioWare Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891
Using StudioWare Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892
Grouping Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895
Recording Control Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 897
Control Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 899
22
Table of Contents
StudioWare Panel Drawing Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900
31 Using CAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901
Running CAL Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample CAL Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPLIT NOTE TO TRACKS.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPLIT CHANNEL TO TRACKS.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RANDOM TIME.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THIN CONTROLLER DATA.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THIN CHANNEL AFTERTOUCH.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THIN PITCH WHEEL.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MAJOR CHORD.cal, MINOR CHORD.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
901
901
902
902
902
902
903
903
903
32 Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905
Audio dropouts or crash when playing back large files at maximum latency . . . . .
When I Play a File, I Don’t Hear Anything. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I Can’t Record from My MIDI Instrument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
When I Play a File Containing Audio, the Audio Portion Doesn’t Play . . . . . . . . . .
I Can’t Record Any Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Music Is Playing Back with the Wrong Instrument Sounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
My Keyboard Doubles Every Note I Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I Don’t See the Clips Pane in the Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Why Can’t SONAR Find My Audio Files? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Why Do I Get Errors from the Wave Profiler? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
My Track or Bus Fader is Maximized, But There’s No Sound or Level. . . . . . . . . .
How Do I Use SONAR to Access All the Sounds on My MIDI Instrument? . . . . . .
I Hear an Echo When I Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dropouts Happen in High Bit-depth or High Sample Rate Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patching an Effect into SONAR Causes a Dropout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I Can’t Open My Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio Distorts at Greater than 16 Bits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No Sound from My Soft Synth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
My Pro Audio 9 Files Sound Louder/Softer When I Open Them in SONAR. . . . . .
SONAR Can’t Find the Wavetable Synth or MPU401. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I Get an Error Message When I Change a Project to 24-bit Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bouncing Tracks Takes a Long Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The GUI is not Smooth During Playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
906
906
908
908
909
910
910
911
911
911
912
912
913
913
914
914
914
915
915
916
916
916
917
23
Plug-in windows flicker or don't display properly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 917
File Recovery mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 918
33 Hardware Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921
Connect Your MIDI Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 921
Set Up to Record Digital Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 923
34 Initialization Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929
Initialization Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 929
Initialization File Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930
Cakewalk.ini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931
TTSSEQ.INI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 939
AUD.INI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 942
35 MIDI Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 949
Timebases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 950
Supported MIDI File Meta-Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 950
Features Not Supported by MIDI Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 951
Other MIDI File Handling Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 951
Special Handling of GM, GS, and XG MIDI Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 951
If You Have Problems Playing MIDI Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 952
If You Plan to Publish Your Songs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 952
36 New features in SONAR 8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 955
PX-64 Percussion Strip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 959
VX-64 Vocal Strip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 959
Session Drummer 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 961
Alias Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 962
Classic Phaser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 962
HF Exciter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 963
Mod Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 963
Multivoice Chorus/Flanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 964
Para-Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 964
Stereo Compressor/Gate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 965
Stereo Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 965
Studioverb2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 966
New Impulse Responses for Perfect Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 966
24
Table of Contents
Step Sequencer 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Integrated arpeggiator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Support for more MIDI ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REX file import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Freeze and Archive buttons in Track view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Freeze option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solo track/bus from plug-in window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert Send Assistant enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DC offset meter in Analyst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AudioSnap 2.0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TAB to transients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auto Scroll Lock in Clips pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clips pane vertical grid lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Draggable Now Time marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change I/O devices without restarting SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
VST plug-in compatibility options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Media Browser enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TS-64 Transient Shaper plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TL-64 Tube Leveler plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beatscape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dimension Pro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Channel Tools plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Native Instruments GUITAR RIG 3 LE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TruePianos Amber Module VSTi plug-in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digital Sound Factory Volume 2 Classic Keys for Dimension Pro . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hollywood Edge FX for Dimension Pro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dimension Pro expansion packs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assign tracks to mono hardware outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enhanced CPU performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio driver changes without restart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimize driver state changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vista audio enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WASAPI support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MMCSS task profile support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WaveRT updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
966
967
968
968
969
970
970
970
971
973
973
974
975
975
975
976
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
983
984
984
985
986
987
987
988
989
989
990
991
992
25
Media Browser enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995
Auditioning audio files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997
Auditioning MIDI files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998
Using Content Location presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000
Arm tracks during playback/recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001
Insert Send Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001
Exclusive Solo mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005
Solo Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1006
Live input bounce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1006
Clip selection groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007
Editing clips in a group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009
Enhanced editing with keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012
Navigating with a keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014
Selecting with a keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1015
Editing with a keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1016
Aim Assist line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1019
Free Edit tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1020
Quick Group enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1021
Edit tools enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1021
Transport enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1021
Pause button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1021
True Rewind and Fast Forward buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1022
Audition button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1022
Control surface enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1023
Synchronizing channel strips between SONAR and control surfaces . . . . . . . 1023
Control surfaces keep MIDI port assignments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1023
Display logical VST parameter values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1024
MIDI out port assignments are retained when adding/removing MIDI devices . . . 1024
Audio Option configuration settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1025
Limit number of plug-in sidechain inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1026
Select all AudioSnap/SlipStretched clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1027
SurCode Dolby Surround encoders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1027
QuickTime 7 import/export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1027
Updated ACT mappings and presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1027
Live Input PDC override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1028
Multiprocessor load balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029
AIM Assist enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029
Snap to Grid enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1030
26
Table of Contents
Dynamic Arm enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
External insert enhancements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Global effects bypass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split clip group enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create new group when pasting grouped clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New split clip options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Notification when track/bus outputs are assigned to silent output . . . . . . . . . . . .
GUITAR RIG 3.2.1 LE enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TruePianos Vista 64 support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1031
1032
1032
1033
1033
1034
1034
1035
1035
37 Included plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1037
Audio effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1041
MIDI effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1074
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1077
38 Cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1087
Cyclone Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1088
Pad Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1088
Pad Inspector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1089
Loop Bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091
Loop View and Key Map View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091
Pad Editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1092
Slice Inspector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1092
Using Cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1093
Controlling Individual Pads—Volume, Pan, Mute, Solo, Sync, Looping, and Content
1096
Mixing Down Cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096
Loop Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097
Keyboard Shortcuts in Cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098
Undo and Redo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098
39 Menu Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099
File > New . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Revert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Close . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Save . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Save As. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
1099
1099
1099
1099
1100
1100
27
File > Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100
File > Project Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100
File > Import > Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101
File > Import > Audio CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101
File > Import > Video File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101
File > Import > MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102
File > Export > Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102
File > Export > Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102
File > Export > MIDI Groove Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102
File > Export > OMF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103
File > Export > Track Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103
File > Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103
File > Print Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103
File > Print Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103
File > Send. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103
File > Recent File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1104
File > Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1104
Edit > Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1104
Edit > Redo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1104
Edit > History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1104
Edit > Select > All. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1104
Edit > Select > None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1105
Edit > Select > By Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1105
Edit > Select > By Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1105
Edit > Select > From = Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1105
Edit > Select > Thru = Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106
Edit > Select > From = Start. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106
Edit > Select > Thru = End. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106
Edit > Select > Select Track Envelopes with Selected Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106
Edit > Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106
Edit > Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1107
Edit > Paste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1107
Edit > Delete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1107
Edit > Bounce to Clip(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108
Edit > Bounce to Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108
Edit > Groove Clip Looping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108
28
Table of Contents
Edit > Create V-Vocal Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Clip Mute/Unmute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Isolate Clip(s) in Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Split. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Apply Trimming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Revert Clip(s) to Original Time Stamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Clip Lock > Lock Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Clip Lock > Lock Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Convert MIDI to Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Audio > Remove Silence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Audio > Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Audio > Normalize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Audio > Remove DC Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Audio > Fade/Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Audio > Crossfade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Audio > Reverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Apply Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Apply MIDI Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Audio Fx. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Audio Fx > Plug-in Layouts > Manage Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > MIDI Fx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Deglitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Nudge > Left 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Nudge > Right 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Nudge > Left 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Nudge > Right 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Nudge > Left 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Nudge > Right 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Nudge > Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Nudge > Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Nudge > Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Quantize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Groove Quantize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > AudioSnap Pallette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Interpolate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
1108
1109
1109
1109
1109
1109
1109
1110
1110
1110
1110
1111
1111
1111
1111
1112
1112
1112
1113
1113
1113
1114
1114
1114
1114
1115
1115
1115
1115
1115
1116
1116
1116
1116
1117
1117
29
Process > Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1117
Process > Run CAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118
Process > Retrograde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118
Process > Transpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1118
Process > Scale Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119
Process > Fade Selected Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119
Process > Fit to Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119
Process > Fit Improvisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1120
Views > Piano Roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1120
Views > Step Sequencer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1120
Views > Event List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121
Views > Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121
Views > Loop Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121
Views > Lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121
Views > Media Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122
Views > Matrix View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122
Views > V-Vocal Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122
Views > Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1122
Views > Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123
Views > Synth Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123
Views > Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123
Views > Big Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123
Views > Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123
Views > Tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124
Views > Meter/Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124
Views > Sysx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124
Views > Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124
Views > Surround Panner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
Views > Layouts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
Views > Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
Views > Show Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
Views > Enable Tabbing in Open Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1126
Insert > Bank/Patch Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1126
Insert > Meter/Key Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1126
Insert > Tempo Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1126
Insert > Time/Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1126
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Insert > Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Audio Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > MIDI Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Multiple Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Track Folder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Insert from Track Template > More Track Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Insert from Track Template > Import Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Stereo Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Surround Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Series of Tempos. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Soft Synths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > ReWire Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Audition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Rewind. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Stop Audio / Transport > Run Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Step Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Toggle Step Record Activate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Loop and Auto Shuttle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Record Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Reject Loop Take . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Update Patch Cache . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Tempo Ratio 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Tempo Ratio 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Tempo Ratio 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Set Timecode at Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Set Measure/Beat at Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Go > Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Go > From. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Go > Thru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Go > Beginning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Go > End. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Go > Previous Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1134
Go > Next Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1135
Go > Previous Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1135
Go > Next Marker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1135
Go > Search. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1135
Go > Search Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1135
Go > Go to Track Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1136
Tracks > Property > Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1136
Tracks > Property > Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1136
Tracks > Property > Inputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1136
Tracks > Property > Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1136
Tracks > Property > Key+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1137
Tracks > Property > Vel+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1137
Tracks > Property > Time+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1137
Tracks > Property > Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1137
Tracks > Property > Patch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1137
Tracks > Property > Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1138
Tracks > Property > Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1138
Tracks > Property > Icon > Load Icon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1138
Tracks > Property > Icon > Reset Icon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1139
Tracks > Mute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1139
Tracks > Archive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1139
Tracks > Show Automated Mute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1139
Tracks > Solo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1139
Tracks > Automation Read Enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1140
Tracks > Automation Write Enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1140
Tracks > Arm for Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1140
Tracks > Input Monitor/Echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1140
Tracks > Freeze > Freeze Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1140
Tracks > Freeze > Quick Freeze Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1140
Tracks > Freeze > Unfreeze Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141
Tracks > Freeze > Quick Unfreeze Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141
Tracks > Freeze > Freeze Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141
Tracks > Freeze > Quick Freeze Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141
Tracks > Freeze > Unfreeze Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141
Tracks > Freeze > Quick Unfreeze Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1141
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Tracks > Freeze > Freeze Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Clone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Delete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Wipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Hide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Show Record Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Show Playback Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Layers > Show Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Layers > Remove Empty Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Layers > Rebuild Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Sort. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Inline PRV > PRV Mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Inline PRV > PRV Tool > Select/Draw/Erase. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Inline PRV > Fit Content. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Inline PRV > Show Velocity Tails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Inline PRV > Show/Hide Continuous Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Inline PRV > Show/Hide Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Inline PRV > Display All Continuous Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Snap to Scale > Enable/Disable Snap to Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Snap to Scale > Root Note > [name of root note] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Snap to Scale > Scales > [name of scale] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Snap to Scale > Scales > Scale Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Snap to Scale > Scales > Snap Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Input Quantize > Enable/Disable Input Quantize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks > Input Quantize > Quantize Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tools > Burn Audio CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tools > Cakewalk Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tools > Consolidate Project Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tools > Clean Audio Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tools > Change Audio Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Options > MIDI Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Options > Instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Options > Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Options > Audio Meter Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Options > Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Options > Global Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1145
1146
1146
1146
1146
1146
1147
1148
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Options > Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1150
Options > Icons > Show Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1150
Options > Icons > Track View > Show Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151
Options > Icons > Track View > Large Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151
Options > Icons > Track View > Small Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151
Options > Icons > Track View > Show in Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151
Options > Icons > Track View > Show Custom in Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151
Options > Icons > Track View > Show in Strip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151
Options > Icons > Track Inspector > Show Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151
Options > Icons > Track Inspector > Show Large Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151
Options > Icons > Track Inspector > Show Small Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1152
Options > Icons > Console > Show Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1152
Options > Icons > Console > Show Large Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1152
Options > Icons > Console > Show Small Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1152
Options > Icons > Synth Rack > Show Large Icons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1152
Options > SoundFonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1152
Options > Key Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1153
Options > Initialization File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1153
Options > Non-Destructive MIDI Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1153
Options > Time Ruler Format > M:B:T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1153
Options > Time Ruler Format > H:M:S:F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1154
Options > Time Ruler Format > Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1154
Options > Menu Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1154
Options > Menu Layouts > [name of layout] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1154
Options > Drum Map Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1154
Options > Controllers/Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1154
Options > ACT Learn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1155
Options > PRV Tool Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1155
Window > Cascade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1155
Window > Tile in Rows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1155
Window > Tile in Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1155
Window > Arrange Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1155
Help > Help Topics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1156
Help > View README.RTF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1156
Help > Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1156
Help > Tip of the Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1156
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Help > Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > SONAR on the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Register Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Time Trial Activator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Cakewalk Problem Reporter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove From Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Start = Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set End = Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert Audio Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert MIDI Track. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hide Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Snap-to = Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
90 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
78 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set As Current Track. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Loop Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Loop Region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Punch Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop On/Off. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Punch Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select All Siblings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Punch Region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snap Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Snap Offset to Now Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Envelope > Create Track Envelope > Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Envelope > Create Track Envelope > Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1175
1175
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1177
1177
1177
1177
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Jump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1177
Linear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1178
Fast Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1178
Slow Curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1178
Drag and Drop Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1178
Clip Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1178
Track Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1179
Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1179
Regenerate Tablature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1179
Export to ASCII TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1179
Note Length > Whole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1179
Note Length > Half . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1179
Note Length > Quarter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1179
Note Length > Eighth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180
Note Length > Sixteenth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180
Note Length > Thirty second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180
Note Length > Dotted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180
Note Length > Triplet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180
Mirror Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180
Rosewood Hi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180
Rosewood Lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1181
Ebony Hi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1181
Ebony Lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1181
Maple Hi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1181
Maple Lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1181
Show Previous Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1181
Show Next Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1181
Animate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1181
Insert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1182
Delete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1182
Original Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1182
Stretch to Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1182
Preserve Aspect Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1182
Integral Stretch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1183
Full Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1183
Time Display Format > M:B:T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1183
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Time Display Format > SMPTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display Format > Frames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display Format > None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display Format > Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background Color > Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background Color > White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reset Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Aftertouch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patch Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Channel Aftertouch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pitch Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RPN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NRPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sysx Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sysx Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lyric. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MCI Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hairpin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lock Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enable Floating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Entire Project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zoom tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast Zoom Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Previous Zoom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show All Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1185
1185
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1186
1186
1186
1186
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Record Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1189
Playback Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1189
Output Bus Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1189
Record Meter Options > Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1190
Record Meter Options > RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1190
Record Meter Options > Peak + RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1190
Record Meter Options > Show Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1190
Record Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1190
Record Meter Options > Lock Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1190
Playback Meter Options > Peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1191
Playback Meter Options > RMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1191
Playback Meter Options > Peak + RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1191
Playback Meter Options > Show Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1191
Playback Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1191
Playback Meter Options > Lock Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1191
Output Bus Meter Options > Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1192
Output Bus Meter Options > RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1192
Output Bus Meter Options > Peak + RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1192
Output Bus Meter Options > Show Labels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1192
Output Bus Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1192
Output Bus Meter Options > Lock Peaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1192
Playback Meter Options > Pre Fader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1193
Output Bus Meter Options > Pre Fader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1193
Playback Meter Options > Post Fader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1193
Output Bus Meter Options > Post Fader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1193
Output Bus Meter Options > Pre Fader Post FX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1193
Default Fade-In Curve > Linear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1193
Default Fade-In Curve > Fast Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1193
Default Fade-In Curve > Slow Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194
Default Fade-Out Curve > Linear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194
Default Fade-Out Curve > Fast Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194
Default Fade-Out Curve > Slow Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194
Default Crossfade Curves > Linear Out - Linear In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194
Default Crossfade Curves > Fast Out - Fast In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194
Default Crossfade Curves > Slow Out - Slow In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1195
Default Crossfade Curves > Fast Out - Slow In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1195
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Default Crossfade Curves > Slow Out - Fast In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default Crossfade Curves > Linear Out - Fast In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default Crossfade Curves > Linear Out - Slow In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default Crossfade Curves > Fast Out - Linear In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default Crossfade Curves > Slow Out - Linear In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percentage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
dB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zoom Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show and Fit Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fit Tracks to Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fit Tracks and Buses to Window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show only Selected Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hide Selected Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show All Tracks and Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Undo View Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Redo View Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show All Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hide All Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Volume Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Pan Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Bus Send Envelopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Plug-in Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Automated Mute Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show MIDI Envelopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create Track Envelopes Using Linear Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use Pattern Velocities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use Pattern Polyphony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Use Note Duration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auto Erase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quarter Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quarter Note Triplet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eighth Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eighth Note Triplet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sixteenth Note. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sixteenth Note Triplet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1195
1195
1195
1195
1196
1196
1196
1196
1196
1196
1196
1197
1197
1197
1197
1197
1197
1197
1198
1198
1198
1198
1198
1198
1198
1199
1199
1199
1199
1199
1199
1200
1200
1200
1200
1200
39
32nd Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1200
32nd Note Triplet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1200
64th Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1201
Follow Snap Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1201
Show/Hide Inspector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1201
Vertical FX Bins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1201
Envelope Draw Tool > Freehand Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1201
Envelope Draw Tool > Sine Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1201
Envelope Draw Tool > Triangle Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1201
Envelope Draw Tool > Square Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1201
Envelope Draw Tool > Saw Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1202
Envelope Draw Tool > Random Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1202
Save As Track Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1202
V-Vocal > Create V-Vocal Clip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1202
V-Vocal > Remove V-Vocal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1202
V-Vocal > Bypass All V-Vocal Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1202
V-Vocal > Bypass/Unbypass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1202
V-Vocal > V-Vocal Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1203
Pick Tracks Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1203
Snap to Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1203
Select Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1203
Erase Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1203
Draw Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1203
Scrub tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1203
Unlink Step Sequencer Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1204
Convert MIDI Clip(s) To Step Sequencer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1204
Convert to Mono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1204
Open Clip Effects Bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1204
Insert New Track(s) or Bus(es) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1204
Free Edit Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1205
Envelope Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1205
Envelope Draw Tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1205
Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1205
Show/Hide Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1206
Split Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1206
Mute Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1206
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Table of Contents
Show/Hide Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show/Hide Video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRV Select Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRV Draw Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PRV Erase Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Microscope Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Controllers Along with Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restores View to Previous State. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restore state of the view prior to undoing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aim Assist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exclusive Solo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > All AudioSnap/Stretched Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create selection group from selected clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove selected clips from selection groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Global Bypass Effects Bins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport > Live Input PDC Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transient Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set project tempo from clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clip follows project tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit clip tempo map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Save as groove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copy as MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add Clip to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Pool Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add MBT to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantize to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1206
1207
1207
1207
1207
1208
1208
1208
1208
1208
1209
1209
1209
1209
1210
1210
1210
1211
1211
1211
1211
1212
1212
1212
1212
1213
40 Beginner’s Guide to Cakewalk Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1215
MIDI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Channels, Interfaces, Inputs, and Outputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Files, Projects, Tracks, and Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling Which Sounds You Hear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio Playback in Cakewalk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
1216
1218
1220
1220
1222
1224
1225
1227
1228
41
Track-by-Track Playback. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1230
Audio Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1231
Connecting an Instrument, Home Stereo, or Microphone to your Sound Card1231
Choosing Inputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1237
Audio Hardware (Sound Cards) and Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1239
Consumer and Professional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1239
How do I know if I have a hardware conflict? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1240
Installation and Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1240
41 Dialog Reference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245
About SONAR dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245
Apply Audio Effects dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245
Apply MIDI Effects dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1246
Assign Instruments dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1246
Assign Series of Inputs dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1247
Audio CD Burner dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1248
Audio Meter Settings dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1249
Audio Mixdown Options dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1250
Audio Options dialog—General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1251
Audio Options dialog—Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1253
Audio Options dialog—Drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1256
Audio Options dialog—Driver Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1257
AudioSnap Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1257
Automation Read/Write Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1258
Auto-Send Sysx dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1259
AVI Encoder Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1259
Bank Name dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1261
Bank Output dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1261
Bank/Patch Change dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1261
Bounce to Track(s) dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1262
Change Audio Format dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1265
Chord Fret Number dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1265
Chord Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1265
Choose Track Type dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1266
Chromatic Tuner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1266
Clean Audio Folder dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1266
Clip Properties dialog—General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1267
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Clip Properties dialog—Audio Stretching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clip Properties dialog—Audio Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clone Track(s) dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clip View Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Registration dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configure Colors dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller/Surface Settings dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controllers/Surfaces dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convert MIDI To Shapes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convert MIDI Clip(s) To Step Sequencer dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copy dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create Fx Envelopes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crossfade dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller/Surface Settings dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customize Toolbars dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cut dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Define Groove dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Define Instruments and Names dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deglitch dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delay dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete dialog (with multiple selection). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drag and Drop Options dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drum Map Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dump Request Macro needs your input—Channel/Unit Number . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dump Request Macro needs your input--Patch/Voice/Config Number. . . . . . . . .
Duration dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit Node dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit System Exclusive Bytes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Filter dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Filter Select Some/Search/Replace dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Export Audio dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Export Color Set dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Export MIDI Groove Clip dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Export OMF dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1294
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1300
1301
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1302
1302
1302
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1306
1309
1310
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Expression Text Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1311
Export Track Template. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1312
Fade/Envelope dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1312
Fade Selected Clips dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1313
File Info dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1314
File Statistics dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1315
File Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1315
Find Missing Audio File dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1315
Fit to Time dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1316
Folder Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1317
Freeze Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1317
Gain dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1318
Global Options dialog—General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1319
Global Options dialog—Autosave and Versioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1322
Global Options dialog—Timecode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1322
Global Options dialog—MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1323
Global Options dialog—Folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1324
Global Options dialog—Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1328
Global Options dialog—Nudge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1330
Global Options dialog—Audio Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1330
Global Options dialog—VST Plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1332
Go dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333
Groove Quantize dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1335
Group Attributes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1337
Group Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1337
Hairpin Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1339
Import Audio dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1339
Import Audio CD Tracks dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1340
Import Color Set dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1341
Import Instrument Definitions dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1342
Import MIDI dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1342
Import Video File dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1343
Initialization File Settings dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1344
Input Quantize dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1346
Insert Pitch Change dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1347
Insert Series of Controllers dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1347
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Insert Series of Tempos dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert Soft Synth Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert Time/Measures dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert Tracks dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interpolate and Event Filter dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Bindings dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kind of Event dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Length dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Load Pattern dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop/Auto Shuttle dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lyric Properties dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Map Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marker dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Markers dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measure Beat/Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Menu Editor dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meter/Key Signature dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Microsoft Media Format Encode Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Devices dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Envelope dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Event Type dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Input Presets dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrate Cakewalk Preferences dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Missing Plug-ins dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MP3 Export Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Global Layout dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Project File dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No MIDI Inputs—SONAR dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No MIDI Outputs—SONAR dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Normalize dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note Names dialog dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note Properties dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Online Registration dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open Groove File dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paste dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Patch Browser dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1370
Pattern Velocity dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1371
Pedal Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1371
Percent Done dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1371
Percussion Notation Key dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1371
Pick Track(s) dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1373
Print dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1373
Print Preview dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1373
Print Setup dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1374
Project Files dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1375
Project Options dialog—Clock tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1376
Project Options dialog—Metronome tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1377
Project Options dialog—MIDI Out tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1378
Project Options dialog—Sync tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1379
Project Options dialog—Surround tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1380
PRV Tool Configuration dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1382
Quantize dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1388
Fast Zoom Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1389
Reassign Envelopes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1390
Receive System Exclusive dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1390
Record Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1391
Regenerate Tablature dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1392
Remote Control dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1393
Remove DC Offset dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1395
Remove Silence dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1395
Rename Existing Layout dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1396
Rename Toolbar dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1396
Retain Cakewalk Preferences dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1397
Revert dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1397
Safe Mode dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1398
Save As dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1398
Save Pattern dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1400
Scale Defaults dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1400
Scale Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1400
Scale Velocity dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1401
Search for Missing Audio dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1402
46
Table of Contents
Select By Time dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Default Velocities for Steps dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Fretboard Track dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Timecode at Now Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slide dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snap Scale Settings dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snap to Grid dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR Quick Start dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sort Tracks dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SoundFont Banks dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SoundFont Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split Clips dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Staff View Layout dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Staff View Print Configure dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Record dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Size dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SurroundBridge Plug-in Linker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sysx Bank Name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tablature Settings dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tempo dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tip of the Day dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Toolbars dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Bank dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Channel dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Inputs dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Key+ dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Name dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Outputs dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Pan dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Patch dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Template Import Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Time+ dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Vel+ dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Volume dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of Contents
1402
1403
1403
1403
1403
1404
1404
1406
1407
1408
1409
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1413
1414
1414
1416
1416
1417
1417
1417
1418
1418
1419
1419
1419
1420
1420
1421
1422
1423
1423
1423
47
Transpose dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
Undo History dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
Unlink Clips dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
Unpack Bundle dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
Unpack OMF dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
Unreadable Files dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1428
Video Export dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1428
Video Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1428
Widget Tab Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1429
Window Layouts dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1430
Windows Media Format Encode Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1431
WMV Encoder Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1432
Insert Send Assistant dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1433
Missing MIDI Ports dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1434
Silent Buses Detected dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1434
Rename Cell dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1435
Adjust Velocity Multiplier dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1435
Matrix Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1435
Quantize to AudioSnap Pool dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1436
42 View Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1437
Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1437
SONAR Empty View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1445
Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1445
Piano Roll View Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1446
Note Map Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1448
Drum Grid Pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1448
Notes Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1448
Controller pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1449
Track List pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1449
Step Sequencer View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1450
Step sequencer interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1450
Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1451
Rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1453
Notes pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1456
Controllers pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1457
Keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1458
Using the Step Sequencer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1459
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Table of Contents
Working with rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Controller events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Step sequencer with drum maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Step Sequencer clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Staff View Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synth Rack View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lyrics view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tempo View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meter/Key View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Markers View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SYSX View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Big Time View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Construction view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Media Browser View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tree View Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Contents List Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix view user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Matrix view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigator View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Play List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround Panner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1460
1462
1469
1471
1473
1475
1477
1477
1479
1480
1483
1483
1488
1490
1491
1492
1492
1492
1492
1496
1497
1497
1498
1499
1508
1519
1519
1520
43 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1521
Table of Contents
49
50
Table of Contents
Introduction
SONAR is a professional tool for authoring sound and music on your personal computer. It’s
designed for musicians, composers, arrangers, audio and production engineers, multimedia and
game developers, and recording engineers. SONAR supports Wave, MP3, ACIDized waves, WMA,
AIFF and other popular formats, providing all the tools you need to do professional-quality work
rapidly and efficiently.
SONAR is more than an integrated MIDI and digital audio authoring software package—it’s an
expandable platform that can function as the central nervous system of your recording studio. With
drivers for common high-end audio hardware, full support for audio plug-ins, software synthesizers,
StudioWare, MFX MIDI plug-ins, and MIDI Machine Control (MMC) of external MIDI gear, SONAR
can handle your most demanding projects.
About SONAR
SONAR lets you work with music on your own level. Here are some of the ways you can make music
with SONAR:
Publish
Publish
Publishing usually means printing your music; it’s one way to share your finished product with other
performers. After you’ve recorded and arranged a song in SONAR, you can produce printed lead
sheets and small scores with lyrics for sharing. You can also share the music files themselves.
SONAR will save your music in a format that you can put on a web site or email to other people.
SONAR is the flagship product of the Cakewalk line of integrated MIDI and digital audio sequencers
for the Windows platform. SONAR has a comprehensive feature set that makes it the single most
productive tool for sound and music authoring. Here are some of the ways you can use SONAR.
Next topic: Music Composition and Exploration.
Music Composition and Exploration
SONAR is a powerful music-composition application, providing tools to record your own musical
performances; enhance or improve the quality of those performances; and edit, arrange, and
experiment with the music. With a few simple clicks of the mouse, you can arrange, orchestrate, and
audition your composition. Fully integrated sequencing allows you to combine the convenience and
flexibility of MIDI composition with the high-quality sound and subtlety of digital audio sound
recording and reproduction. Change the feel of a piece by locking it to a musical groove, or add
delicate delays, anticipations, or echoes that add richness to the music.
SONAR displays and lets you edit your music using standard musical notation and guitar tablature,
so you can adjust individual notes, add performance markings, and print individual parts or full
scores. You can graphically draw tempo and volume changes, or add lyrics to display on-screen or
to include with printed scores.
Next topic: Remixing.
Remixing
SONAR’s Groove clips allow you to import, create, export and edit loops, making it possible to
quickly change tempos and keys for an entire project. The Media Browser view lets you preview
loops in the project’s tempo and key before dragging and dropping them onto a track.
Next topic: Game Sound Development.
Game Sound Development
There’s no better tool than SONAR for composing music for electronic games. Clip-based
sequencing lets you create and reuse musical themes freely, so you can associate musical sections
with game characters, locations, objects, and actions. Your creations can be saved and replayed
using the compact MIDI file format, which adapts its sound automatically to the target hardware for
the best possible sound reproduction.
Next topic: Sound Production and Engineering.
Sound Production and Engineering
If you want to produce music CDs or master tapes, SONAR has virtually everything you need from
recording to mixing and mastering. Multichannel recording lets you capture studio or live
performances track by track. Reconfigurable buses provide full control over your mix. Real-time
stereo effects like chorus, flange, reverb, and delay/echo can be applied as track inserts, in effects
loops, or to the master mix. SONAR supports 44.1 KHz sampling for CD-quality sound, 24-bit/96
kHz sound for DVD-quality sound, and lets you choose from lower or higher sample rates as well. All
52
Introduction
About SONAR
audio effects are 32-bit floating point for faster processing and high-quality sound reproduction.
Many effects now support 64-bit processing for pristine quality.
Next topic: Web Authoring.
Web Authoring
SONAR is the ideal tool for developing and producing music and sound for the World Wide Web,
because it lets you save your work in the formats that are most commonly used on web sites: MIDI,
MP3, and Windows Media Advanced Streaming Format. Any SONAR project—musical composition,
audio clip, commercial spot, jingle with voice-over—can be stored in a web-compatible format with a
few simple mouse clicks.
Next topic: Film and Video Scoring and Production.
Film and Video Scoring and Production
SONAR has many of the tools you need to execute audio post-production projects quickly and
efficiently. SONAR provides chase lock sync to time code for frame-by-frame accuracy when
synchronizing audio or MIDI to film or video. Or, you can turn chase lock off to conserve CPU power.
SONAR provides high-quality time stretching and sample-accurate editing with zero-crossing
detection so you can make the fine adjustments you need very quickly and easily. In addition,
SONAR’s support for video files gives you convenient synchronized access to digitized video,
making film and video scoring easier than ever.
Next topic: Publishing Music on the Internet.
Publishing Music on the Internet
Cakewalk Publisher allows you to easily present and share your music online. With Cakewalk
Publisher, you can create a customized streaming music player with a playlist of your music, upload
it to your personal or band's website, and embed it in any other website. You can also update your
playlist with album art, links (URLs), and artist, track, & album information.
Next topic: Burning Audio CDs.
Burning Audio CDs
SONAR has integrated Audio CD burning, which allows you to write your audio tracks to an audio
CD that can be played in any standard CD player.
Introduction
About SONAR
53
Next topic: Flexibility.
Flexibility
SONAR works the way you want to work—you can customize screen layouts, toolbars, and audio
and MIDI system configurations to make your work more efficient. SONAR integrates with other
sound editing tools so you can access them in an instant without leaving SONAR. There are custom
software modules to support specialized audio devices from Roland and Yamaha. SONAR’s unique
StudioWare technology provides software interfaces for common studio hardware.
Next topic: SONAR basics.
Computers, Sound, and Music
This section provides some background on the different ways that computers store and play sound
and music. Computers work with sound and music in two different forms: MIDI and digital audio.
Next topic: MIDI.
MIDI
MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is the way computers communicate with most
sound cards, keyboards, and other electronic instruments. MIDI refers to both the type of cables and
plugs used to connect the computers and instruments, and to the language those computers and
instruments use to talk to each other. The MIDI standard is accepted and used worldwide. Almost
any electronic instrument you buy today will have MIDI connectors and can be used with other MIDI
instruments and with your computer’s MIDI interface. To record MIDI in SONAR, you have to have a
MIDI cable connecting the MIDI OUT port on your MIDI instrument to a MIDI IN port on either your
sound card or your MIDI interface. You must also make sure that you have installed the software
MIDI driver that came with your sound card or MIDI interface.
The MIDI language conveys information and instructions, both from the computer to the instrument
and from the instrument to the computer. For example, if your computer wants your keyboard to play
a note, it sends a MIDI “Note On” message and tells the keyboard which note to play. When your
computer wants the keyboard to stop playing that note, it sends another message that stops the note
from playing.
The MIDI language has many other instructions, such as messages to change the sound that is
used to play the notes (the bank and patch), messages that enable working with the sustain pedal
and the pitch-bend wheel, and others. By sending the right messages at the right times, your
computer can control your electronic instrument and make it play music.
MIDI information can be sent on 16 different channels. You can set up your MIDI equipment to listen
for messages on all channels or on only a few.
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Computers, Sound, and Music
MIDI files contain all the MIDI messages and timing information that are needed to play a song. MIDI
files can be read and played by many different programs, including SONAR, and can even be played
by programs on other types of computers. MIDI files have the extension .mid.
There are several important advantages of the MIDI format:
• Large amounts of music can be stored in a very compact form
• Different parts of a piece can easily be assigned to any instrument you can imagine
• The music contains information on notes, tempos, and key signatures that makes it possible to
display and edit the piece using standard musical notation
The primary disadvantage of MIDI is that the quality of the sound a listener hears will vary depending
on the MIDI equipment the listener is using. For example, MIDI usually sounds much better on an
expensive synthesizer than it does on an inexpensive sound card.
Next topic: Digital audio.
Digital audio
Digital audio (frequently referred to here as just “audio”) is a simple way to record and play sounds of
any type. It works like a tape recorder—you record something, then later play it back. Digital audio
stores the sound as a long series of numbers. To record audio in SONAR, you have to have an audio
cable connecting the audio output of your electronic instrument to the audio input on your sound
card or audio hardware. If you’re recording vocals or an acoustic instrument, you need to connect a
microphone to the audio input on your sound card or audio hardware.
Sound Waves
Sound waves are vibrations in the air. Sound waves are generated by anything that vibrates; a
vibrating object causes the air next to it to vibrate, and the vibration is passed through the air in all
directions. When the vibrating air enters your ear, it makes your eardrum vibrate, and you hear a
sound. Likewise, if the vibrating air hits a microphone, it causes the microphone to vibrate and send
electrical signals to whatever it's connected to.
These vibrations are very fast. The slowest vibration frequency you can hear is about 20 vibrations
per second, and the fastest is around 16,000 to 20,000 vibrations per second.
Recording digital audio
To record digital audio, your computer monitors the electrical signal generated by a microphone, an
electric guitar, or another source. At equal intervals of time (for CD-quality sound, this means 44,100
times a second), the computer measures and saves the strength of the electrical signal from the
microphone, on a scale from 0 to 65,535.
That's it. Digital audio data is just a long series of numbers. The computer sends these numbers, in
the form of electrical signals, to a speaker. The speaker then vibrates and generates the same
sound that was recorded.
The primary advantage of digital audio is the quality of the sound. Unlike MIDI, a digital audio
recording is very rich, capturing all the nuances, overtones, and other characteristics of the sound
exactly as performed. The main drawback of digital audio is that it takes up a lot of disk space. To
Introduction
Computers, Sound, and Music
55
record a 1-minute segment of stereo, CD-quality digital audio, you need about 10 megabytes of disk
space.
On the PC, digital audio is usually stored in Wave files (extension .wav). There are many programs
available that let you create, play, and edit these files. SONAR reads, writes, and lets you edit Wave
files.
Next topic: Setup
Setup
You can install SONAR on any computer that runs Windows XP or x64 and has a sound card or
built-in sound module. If you want to hook up other devices, like a MIDI keyboard, an electric guitar,
or a microphone, you need the right cables, and you need to find the right connectors on your
computer.
Before you install SONAR, take a minute to register the software so we can let you know when
updates become available and provide you with technical support. To register anytime log onto
www.cakewalk.com/register, or call 888-CAKEWALK (U.S.) or +(617)-423-9004 (outside the U.S.)
between 9 AM and 8 PM Eastern Standard Time. If you live outside of North America, please visit
our distributor’s page at www.cakewalk.com/Dealers/International.asp to get the telephone number
of your local distributor. You’ll need to supply your serial number, your name, and a valid email
address.
To connect a MIDI keyboard to your computer, you need standard MIDI cables or a MIDI adapter
cable (joystick connector), such as the one available in Cakewalk’s PC Music Pack. One end of the
adapter cable should have two 5-pin DIN connectors that connect to your keyboard or other MIDI
device. At the other end, you need a 15-pin connector to connect to a sound card through its MIDI/
joystick port.
A
5-pin DIN
connector
A. MIDI to 15 Pin Connector B. 15-pin connector (DB15)
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B
If you have a dedicated MIDI interface, lots of electronic music gear, or work with many different
music software packages, see the online help topic “Hardware Setup.”
Before you attach or detach any cables from your computer, you should shut down your computer
and turn off the power to all your equipment. This greatly reduces the chance of electrical damage to
your equipment while plugging and unplugging cables.
User accounts
Previous versions of SONAR required a user to have Windows Administrator status. This is no
longer the case. Any level of user can now install and run SONAR. Only one copy of SONAR per
machine is necessary for multiple users to run SONAR with each user’s personal settings.
When you first install SONAR, all application data files and .ini files are installed to the systemspecified “all users” application data folders:
Windows XP:
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Cakewalk
Windows Vista:
C:\ProgramData\Cakewalk
When you launch SONAR for the first time, all content files (such as track templates and project
templates) will be copied from the global application data folder (All Users) to the user application
data folder (User Account), before the program launches.
If you install a SONAR patch on top of the original installation, any updated content files in the patch
will not overwrite existing content files in your personal user application data folder. However, you
can force SONAR to update the default content files in your personal user data folder.
Warning: The following action will overwrite any SONAR data files such as track templates
and project templates that you may have customized. A message box will prompt you if you wish
to continue or cancel. Only proceed if you are certain that you will not overwrite any important
customized files.
To force SONAR to update and overwrite any default content files, hold down the CTRL key while
starting SONAR.
Data in the Program Files folder will be common to all users.
Next topic: Audio connections
Audio connections
There are several types of audio interfaces (soundcards). CardBus (PCI), USB/USB2 and FireWire
are the most common. Laptops can use an audio PCMCIA card. Many audio interfaces also have
MIDI inputs and some have built in MIDI synthesizers as well. This section covers the various audio
connection options.
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Analog and digital Inputs
There are two basic types of audio inputs, analog and digital. Analog inputs allow you to connect a
guitar, mic or other instrument to your computer directly. The audio interface converts the analog
input to digital. Digital inputs allow other digital devices to connect directly to your computer.
Common digital inputs include external analog to digital converters, popular guitar processors like
the Line 6 POD, and other digital recording systems like the ADAT decks. Analog inputs are very
common, and are standard in virtually all consumer sound cards (the ones that come with your PC).
Digital inputs are becoming more popular and are very common on professional and mid-level,
“prosumer” interfaces. Analog inputs allow you to record a mono or stereo signal (assuming you
have a stereo input) while digital inputs allow you to record 1 to 8 signals depending on the type of
digital connection.
The following table describes the various analog inputs and outputs:
Type of analog input/output
Description
Balanced (XLR, phono or RCA)
A mono input/output
Unbalanced (TRS)
A stereo or mono input/output
Table 1.
The following table describes the various digital inputs and outputs:
Type of digital input/output
Description
S/PDIF
Sony/Philips Digital Interface capable of carrying a stereo signal, S/
PDIF is transmitted via RCA, Toslink or more rarely BNC jacks (singlepin cable-TV connections).
ADAT Lightpipe
Up to 8 channels of simultaneous transfer. If you want to import your old
ADAT material without any signal degradation, this is the connection
you should use.
TDIF
Tascam Digital Interface up to 8 channels of simultaneous transfer.
AES/EBU
Often referred to as simply AES, this type of digital connection uses a
modified XLR cable to transfer a stereo signal.
Table 2.
Read your hardware documentation carefully to determine what kind of digital connections, if any,
you have on your audio interface.
To connect an electric guitar or keyboard to your computer
• If your sound card has a 1/8 inch input jack (built-in sound cards that come with your PC usually
do), plug your 1/4 inch mono guitar or audio cable into a 1/8 inch stereo adapter, and then plug
the 1/8 inch adapter into the microphone input or line input jack on your computer sound card. If
you are connecting a keyboard, the audio cable must go from the keyboard’s audio out or line out
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Setup
jack to the sound card input jack. 1/8 inch stereo adapters are available at consumer electronic
supply stores.
Or
• If you use a professional or “prosumer” sound card, there is probably a 1/4 inch input jack on your
sound card or audio hardware interface that you can plug your guitar cable or audio cable into.
To connect a microphone to your computer
• If your sound card has a 1/8 inch input jack (built-in sound cards that come with your PC usually
do), and your microphone cable has a 1/4 inch plug on the end, plug the mic cable into a 1/8 inch
stereo adapter, and then plug the 1/8 inch adapter into the microphone input jack on your
computer sound card. 1/8 inch stereo adapters are available at consumer electronic supply
stores.
• If you use a professional or “prosumer” sound card, there is probably a 1/4 inch input jack on your
sound card or audio hardware interface that you can plug your mic cable into.
• If your mic has a cable with an XLR plug on the end, and your sound card or audio hardware
interface has a 1/4 inch input jack, plug the mic cable into an XLR-to-quarter inch adapter, and
then plug your mic cable into your audio hardware. If your audio hardware has an XLR input, of
course it’s better to use that.
• You can also plug your mic into a mixer or pre-amp, and connect the mixer or pre-amp to an input
jack on your audio hardware. This is usually the best method.
That's it! Now that your instruments are all set to go, you can restart your computer and turn on your
keyboard, guitar, and microphone.
For a complete description of audio input options, see the online help topic “Hardware Setup.”
Next topic: MIDI Connections
See:
“Changing I/O devices” on page 60
MIDI Connections
There are three types of MIDI cables in common use. Here’s how to connect each of the three types:
• USB cable. This is extremely common. Many electronic keyboards and stand-alone MIDI
interfaces use this type of connection. To use this type of connection, simply plug one end of the
USB cable into the USB jack on your MDI keyboard or stand-alone MIDI interface, and plug the
other end into your computer. If you are using a stand-alone USB MIDI interface, you then need to
connect standard MIDI cables between your MIDI keyboard and your stand-alone MIDI interface
(see the next procedure, below). If you haven’t already installed the software MIDI driver that
came with your keyboard or interface, make sure you do so.
• Standard MIDI cable. This is also very common. MIDI keyboards usually have jacks for these
cables even if they have a USB connection. You need two of these cables. To use this type of
cable, use one cable to connect the MIDI OUT jack on your MIDI instrument to the MIDI IN jack
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Setup
59
on your stand-alone MIDI interface or sound card, and one to connect the MIDI IN jack on your
MIDI instrument to the MIDI OUT jack on your stand-alone MIDI interface or sound card. Many
stand-alone MIDI interfaces and audio interfaces use this type of connector.
Figure 1.
Standard MIDI cable—use this if your MIDI interface has standard 5-pin input and output ports
• Joystick connector. This is becoming less common. This is the type of connection seen on
older SoundBlaster type sound cards. To use this type of connection, find the end of one of the
MIDI cables that is labeled OUT. Plug this connector into the MIDI IN jack on your electronic
keyboard. The other 5-pin connector on the MIDI cable is labeled IN. Plug this connector into the
MIDI OUT jack on your electronic keyboard. Plug the 15-pin connector on the MIDI cable into the
MIDI/joystick port on your sound card. If you have a joystick, unplug it, plug in the MIDI cable, and
plug the joystick into the pass-through connector on the MIDI cable.
Figure 2.
Joystick connector—use this if your MIDI interface is the joystick port on your sound card.
A
C
B
A. Insert this MIDI IN plug into the MIDI OUT port on your MIDI instrument B. Insert this MIIDI OUT plug into the
MIDI IN port on your MIDI instrument C. Insert this plug into the joystick port on your sound card
See:
“Changing I/O devices” on page 60
Changing I/O devices
You can add or remove USB/FireWire audio and MIDI devices while SONAR is running, and the
audio and MIDI engines will dynamically respond to any changes.
When a device is added or removed, SONAR prompts you to confirm or cancel the change. If you
click Yes, playback stops and the audio and MIDI engines reload.
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Preserve selected audio devices on device changes
Enabled inputs and outputs are persisted per device and per driver mode. This prevents audio ports
from shifting around and causing unwanted devices to become selected as active audio inputs and
outputs. You can add a device back at any time and SONAR will remember the last set of enabled
inputs and outputs for that device.
You can freely add or remove devices without impacting the current working set of enabled devices.
Adding a device back will remember its last selected inputs and outputs. You can also switch driver
modes and the existing enabled devices will be remembered for the next time when you switch back
to that mode.
Loading a project after changing audio devices
When loading a project after changing audio devices, SONAR will attempt to automatically remap
any missing device to an equivalent new device. If an equivalent match is not found, the Missing
Audio Outputs dialog appears, allowing you to manually reassign any unresolved output ports.
The Missing Audio Outputs dialog will suggest default assignments for any missing devices. You
can click OK to accept the assignments, or click Cancel to preserve the original missing device
assignments. You can also preserve the original missing device by selecting [Unassigned] from the
Available Devices list. If you choose not to reassign a missing device, the Output port selection in
SONAR will show the missing device name prefixed by MISSING.
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Setup
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Note: The Missing Audio Outputs dialog is not shown if there is only a single missing output
port and only one available output port. In this case, SONAR will automatically assign the
missing output port to the available output port.
Remapping using friendly driver names
When Use friendly names to represent audio drivers is selected in Options > Audio > Drivers,
SONAR can intelligently remap devices across different hardware configurations or driver models by
using your assigned friendly driver names, even if the hardware names do not match.
This can be very useful if you switch driver modes and load projects you worked on earlier in another
driver mode, or if you collaborate with other people who have different hardware configurations. As
long as you set up friendly names that match, all outputs will be automatically remapped.
Note: Remapping with friendly names takes precedence over the actual hardware device
names.
Automatic MIDI port remapping for control surfaces
SONAR persists the names of MIDI ports that are assigned to control surfaces. This ensures that the
correct MIDI ports are assigned to control surfaces, even if you add or remove other MIDI devices.
Starting SONAR
There are many different ways to start SONAR. Here are a few:
• Double-click the SONAR icon on your desktop.
• Click the Start button, and choose Programs > Cakewalk > SONAR 8.5 (Studio or Producer >
SONAR 8.5 (Studio or Producer).
• Click the Start button, point to Documents, and choose a SONAR project from the menu.
• Double-click the SONAR program or any SONAR document from the Windows Explorer or the
Find menu.
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When starting SONAR, you will see the Quick Start dialog box.
Figure 3.
The Quick Start dialog
The Quick Start dialog box has several options:
Option
How to use it
Open a Project
Choose a project from the Open File dialog box to open it
Open a Recent Project
Select a project from the list, and click this button to open it
Create a New Project
Click here to create a new project.
Online Videos and more
Click this link to view our tutorial videos online. An active Internet
connection is needed in order to access this content.
Getting Started
Click here to view the Getting started topic in the Help file. This topic has
links to a glossary of terms, as well as some basic procedures.
Table 3.
If you don’t want to see the Quick Start dialog box in the future, uncheck the box at the bottom of
the dialog box, and click Close. You can see the Quick Start dialog box later by choosing Help >
Quick Start.
RIFF/MID will not launch SONAR when double-clicked
Note: Double-clicking RIFF MIDI files and Standard MIDI files will fail to launch SONAR even
if these file types are associated with SONAR.
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Migrating preferences
If you have a previous version of Cakewalk installed, SONAR will detect it and give you the option of
migrating certain preferences from a single earlier version.
When you choose to migrate preferences, SONAR migrates the following settings from an earlier
Cakewalk version:
Setting
Description
Global Options
Settings in the Global Options dialog. Open by selecting Options >
Global.
Key Bindings
Your customized key bindings for controlling SONAR using your MIDI
keyboard or computer keyboard.
Instrument Definitions
Files used to control specific MIDI instruments.
Audio data directory (WaveData
folder) and Picture Cache directory
locations
SONAR uses the Data directory and Picture Cache directories from the
previous Cakewalk version for storing project wave files and their
waveform image files.
Table 4.
Running Wave Profiler
The first time you start SONAR, it automatically runs the Wave Profiler utility. Wave Profiler
determines the proper MIDI and Audio timings for your sound card and writes them to a file that
SONAR refers to when using the card. Wave Profiler does not change the sound card’s DMA, IRQ,
or port address settings.
Wave Profiler detects the make and model of your sound card, which determine the card’s audio
characteristics. If Wave Profiler finds a card that has a WDM driver, it only profiles that card. If you
want to use more than one sound card at a time, and they don’t both have WDM drivers, you must
force the one with the WDM driver to use that driver as an older, MME driver. It is not necessary to
run the Wave Profiler for a sound card using an ASIO driver. For more information about Wave
Profiler, WDM, and MME, see The Wave Profiler.
When Wave Profiler determines the kind of card you have, always accept the default settings.
Note: You can run the Wave Profiler again at a later time (for example, if you install a new
sound card or driver) by choosing the Options > Audio General tab command and clicking
Wave Profiler.
Setting up the MIDI In and MIDI Out devices
When you start SONAR for the first time, it checks your computer to find all the MIDI input and
output devices you have installed (such as sound cards and MIDI interfaces). However, sometimes
you need to tell SONAR exactly which devices you want it to use. If you’re not getting sound from
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Starting SONAR
your sound card or MIDI keyboard, or if you just want to change the MIDI outputs and devices that
you are using, follow the steps in this section.
Choose Options > MIDI Devices to open a dialog box in which you select the MIDI In and MIDI Out
devices that SONAR will use. Each item in the list is a MIDI Input or MIDI Output from drivers
installed using the Windows Control Panel.
1. Select Options > MIDI Devices. You will see the MIDI Devices dialog box, which lets you choose
instruments on MIDI inputs and outputs.
Figure 4.
The MIDI Devices dialog
2. Look at the top window. Notice that it shows devices on MIDI Inputs; make sure that all devices in
this window are checked. If a device isn’t checked, click on it once to select it for MIDI Input.
3. Look at the window on the bottom. Notice that it shows devices on MIDI Outputs. SONAR
numbers its MIDI Outputs by the order of the devices in this window. The device on top is on
Output 1, the one below it is on Output 2, and so on.
4. Check one device at a time in the Outputs window and click Move Selected Devices to Top to
change its order. Then check all the devices that appear in the window to select them for output.
Tip: Be sure to enable (check) MIDI output devices in the MIDI Devices dialog (use the Options >
MIDI Devices command). If you don’t do this, you won’t hear any of your MIDI instruments when you
play songs in SONAR.
See MIDI Devices dialog.
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Starting SONAR
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Using MIDI devices after making driver changes
If you later add or remove drivers using the Drivers icon of the Windows Control Panel, SONAR
reacts in the following way:
• If you remove a Control Panel driver, SONAR will not use the device it belongs to the next time
you run the program. Any other devices you had selected using the Options > MIDI Devices
command will remain selected.
• If you add a driver through the Control Panel, SONAR does not automatically use it. You must use
the Options > MIDI Devices command to enable the new driver in SONAR’s list.
Note: After you add or remove a driver with the Drivers icon in the Windows Control Panel,
you must restart Windows for the change to take effect.
Defining your MIDI instrument or sound card
Once you have selected your MIDI Input and Output devices, SONAR, by default, plays back MIDI
sequences using a General MIDI instrument definition. If you are using a synthesizer or sound card
that does not adhere to the General MIDI standard, you may want to define that instrument. See the
online help topic: Instrument Definitions for more information.
SONAR basics
SONAR’s menus and toolbars give you quick access to all the features of SONAR. Some menu
choices and tools display dialog boxes that let you choose among various options, or type in the
values you want. If you click in most views, in time rulers, or on certain other items with the right
mouse button, you see a pop-up menu that provides quick access to many common operations.
The project is the center of your work in SONAR. If you’re a musician, a project might contain a
song, a jingle, or a movement of a symphony. If you’re a post-production engineer, a project might
contain a 30-second radio commercial or a lengthy soundtrack for a film or videotape production. By
default, every project is stored in a file (known as a project file). The normal file extension for a
SONAR work file is .cwp.
SONAR organizes the sound and music in your project into tracks, clips, and events.
Tracks are used to store the sound or music made by each instrument or voice in a project. For
example, a song that is arranged for four instruments and one vocalist may have 5 tracks—one for
each instrument and one for the vocals. Each project can have an unlimited number of tracks. Some
of these tracks may be used in your finished project, while others can hold alternate takes, backup
tracks, and variations that you might want to keep for future use. Each track can be made up of one
or many clips.
Clips are the pieces of sound and music that make up your tracks. A clip might contain a horn solo,
a drum break, a bass or guitar riff, a voice-over, a sound effect like the hoot of an owl, or an entire
keyboard performance. A track can contain a single clip or dozens of different clips, and you can
easily move clips from one track to another.
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Groove clips are audio clips which have tempo and pitch information embedded within them,
allowing them to follow changes to the project tempo or project pitch. You can click on either edge of
a Groove clip and drag out repetitions in the track.
Events are MIDI data (in MIDI tracks) or automation data.
See:
SONAR file types
Opening a file
Views
Working on a project
SONAR file types
Projects in SONAR can be saved as a project file with the extension .cwp or as a Bundle file with the
extension .cwb.
For a complete description of the differences between project files and bundle files, see the online
help topic Project Files and Bundle Files.
Other types of files
SONAR lets you create and work with several other types of files, in addition to project (.cwp) and
bundle (.cwb) files that store your projects:
File type
Description
MIDI files (extension .mid)
Standard MIDI files.
Template files (extension .tpl)
Templates for new files you create
StudioWare (extension .CakewalkStudioware) To control external MIDI devices from SONAR
OMF (extension .omf)
Open Media Framework format files.
Table 5.
Opening a file
Use the following procedure to open a file.
To open a file in SONAR
1. If you haven't already done so, start SONAR.
2. Choose File > Open.
3. In the Open dialog box, navigate to the directory where the project you want to open is located
and select it.
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4. Click the Open button.
5. If you are opening an OMF file, the Unpack OMF dialog appears. Set the initial tempo and specify
the directory where you want to save the file and its audio. For more information about opening
OMF files, see Unpack OMF dialog in the online help.
SONAR loads the project.
See:
Working on a project
File Recovery mode
Views
SONAR displays your project in windows on the screen that are known as views. You can have
many views open at once, all showing the same project. When you edit a project in one view, the
other related views are updated automatically.
The Track View
Track view is the main window that you use to create, display, and work with a project. When you
open a project file, SONAR displays the Track view for the project. When you close the Track view
for a project, SONAR closes the file.
The Track view is divided into several sections: toolbars (at the top), the Navigator pane, the Video
Thumbnails pane, the Track pane, the Track/Bus Inspector, the Clips pane, and the Bus pane.
You can change the size of the panes by dragging the vertical or horizontal splitter bars that
separate them.
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Figure 5.
The Track view
A
B
I
C
H
G
F
E
D
A. The Track Pane B. The Clips Pane C. Clips D. Splitter bars E. Show/hide bus pane F. Track/Bus Inspector
G. Minimized tracks H. Expanded track I. The Video Thumbnails Pane
All of the current track’s controls, plus a few that are only available in the Console view, are
contained in the Track/Bus Inspector which is an expanded version of the current track’s controls
located on the far left side of the Track view. You can hide or show the Track/Bus Inspector by
pressing I on your keyboard (see “Track/Bus Inspector” on page 70, for more information).
The Track pane lets you see and change the initial settings for each track. By default, the current
track is displayed in gold. To change the current track, move the highlight using the mouse or the
keyboard as follows:
What it does
Key
Moves the highlight to the next or previous control.
LEFT/RIGHT ARROW
Moves to the same control in the adjacent track, or the next track of the same type
if the control only applies to a specific track type (for example, the Patch control
only applies to MIDI tracks).
UP/DOWN ARROW
Displays the next page of tracks.
PAGE DOWN
Displays the previous page of tracks.
PAGE UP
Table 6.
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69
What it does
Key
Moves the focus to the first track.
HOME
Moves the focus to the last track.
END
Table 6.
The current track’s controls are contained in the Track/Bus Inspector.
The Clips pane shows the clips in your project on a horizontal timeline called the Time Ruler that
helps you visualize how your project is organized. Clips contain markings that indicate their
contents. The Clips pane lets you select, move, cut and copy clips from place to place to change the
arrangement of music and sound in your project.
The Bus pane shows the buses in the project, and also shows any editing views that are in tabbed
(docked) format. The Show/Hide Bus pane button
allows you to show or hide the Bus pane at
the bottom of the Track view.
The Navigator pane displays a large part of your project so you can see an overview of your song.
The Navigator pane displays all of your project’s tracks.
The Track view makes it easy to select tracks, clips, and ranges of time in a project. These are the
most common selection methods:
To
Do this
Select tracks
Click on the track number, or drag over several track numbers
Select clips
Click on the clip, or drag a rectangle around several clips
Select time ranges
Drag in the Time Ruler, or click between two markers
Select partial clips
Hold down the ALT key while dragging over a clip
Table 7.
As with most other Windows programs, you can also use the SHIFT-click and CTRL-click
combinations when selecting tracks and clips. Holding the SHIFT key while you click adds tracks or
clips to the current selection. Holding the CTRL key while you click lets you toggle the selection
status of tracks or clips. For more information, see Track View and Configuring the Display of Tracks
in the Track View.
Track/Bus Inspector
The Track/Bus Inspector makes it easy to adjust the current track’s (or bus’s) controls, because it’s a
greatly expanded version of the current track’s controls that is located on the left side of the Track
pane.
In addition to the controls that a track or bus displays in the Track view, the Track/Bus Inspector also
contains a built-in 4-band EQ. See the online help topic “Using the Per-track EQ” for more
information.
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The following graphic shows most of the Track/Bus Inspector’s controls (there may not be room to
display all of a track’s controls on the Track/Bus Inspector, depending on the resolution of your
monitor):
Figure 6.
The Track/Bus Inspector
Track/Bus Inspector for an audio track
Track/Bus Inspector for a MIDI track
Most controls can be
shown or hidden.
A
F
B
C
G
H
D
I
E
J
A. Audio icon B. Output routing C. Track name D. Display menu E. Module menu F. MIDI icon G. Output
routing H. Track name I. Display menu J. Module menu
You can hide or show any of the Track/Bus Inspector’s controls, and use it to display the controls
from any track or bus. The following table shows you how.
To do this
Do this
Hide or show the Track/Bus Inspector
Press I on your keyboard.
Display a certain track’s or bus’s controls in the
Track/Bus Inspector
Click the track or bus to make it current, or choose the track
or bus in the track/bus drop-down menu that’s at the bottom
of the Track/Bus Inspector.
Table 8.
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To do this
Do this
Hide or show any of the Track/Bus Inspector’s
controls
Click the Display menu or Module menu, and choose
Options.
Note: you can not display a MIDI track’s Time + or Key +
controls in the Track/Bus Inspector.
Reassign MIDI controller sliders in a MIDI Track’s
Fx bin
Right-click the slider you want to reassign and choose
Reassign Control from the pop-up menu, choose the new
parameter, and click OK.
Display the parameters of a different automatable Click the name of the effect you want to select.
effect
Assign a control to a group, arm it for automation,
take an automation snapshot, or set up remote
control
Right-click the control and choose options from the pop-up
menu.
Bypass the FX bin
Right-click the FX bin and choose Bypass Bin from the
pop-up menu.
Table 8.
The Console View
The Console view is where you can mix the sounds on all the different tracks to create the final mix
of your project. While the Track view provides most of the same controls, you may want to use the
more familiar interface of the Console view for mixing.
You use the Console view to adjust the levels of sound for the different tracks in your project, to
change the stereo panning, and to apply real-time effects to an individual track, combinations of
tracks, or the final mix.
The Console view contains several groups of controls. There is one module for each track in your
project, and one module for each bus. You can use bus sends to direct certain tracks to special
modules that are known as buses.
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Figure 7.
The Console view
A
B
C
D
E
H
G
F
A. Audio module B. MIDI module C. MIDI velocity D. Bus out E. Main out F. Show/hide strip controls buttons
G. Widen all strips H. Show/hide for tracks, buses, mains
As in the Track view, you can change track settings or record new music or sound in the Console
view. You may choose to use one view or the other, or the choice you make may depend on which
project you are working on.
Other views
SONAR has a number of other views you can use to display and work on your project. To display
these views, select one or more tracks, by CTRL-clicking their track numbers and:
• Click the icon for the view in the Views toolbar
Or
• Choose the view you want from the View menu
The Piano Roll view
: shows the notes from a MIDI track or tracks as they would appear on a
player-piano roll. You can move the notes around, make them longer or shorter, and change their
pitches by just dragging them with the mouse. You can also use the Piano Roll view to display and
edit MIDI velocity, controllers, and other types of information. The Piano Roll view also contains the
Drum Editor, which allows you to “paint” drum patterns using the Pattern Brush tool and play
different drum modules from a single track. For more information, see Piano Roll View.
Figure 8.
The Piano Roll view
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The Staff view
: displays the notes from one or more MIDI tracks using standard music notation,
similar to the way the notation would appear on a printed page. You can add, edit, or delete notes;
create percussion parts; add guitar chords and other notation markings; display guitar tablature;
display the Fretboard pane; and print whole scores or individual parts to share with other musicians.
Figure 9.
The Staff view
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
A. Dynamics and markings B. Time and pitch locator C. Editing tools D. Zoom out E. Zoom in F. Snap to Grid
G. Show/hide track pane H. Fretboard display I. Track list pane J. Fretboard pane
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The Loop Construction view
: allows you to create and edit Groove clips (SONAR loops that
“know” the tempo and key in which they were recorded), and export these clips as ACIDized files.
For more information, see Loop Construction view.
Figure 10.
The Loop Construction view
The Media Browser view
: allows you to preview ACIDized files and other Wave files; and drag
and drop them into your project. For more information, see Media Browser View.
Figure 11.
The Media Browser view
The Event List view
: displays the events in a project individually, so that you can make changes
at a very detailed level. For more information, see Event List View.
Figure 12.
The Event List view
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SONAR has several other views that are used for very specific purposes:
View
How you use it
Meter/Key
To change the meter (time signature) or key signature, or to insert changes
in the meter or key signature at specific times in a project. For more
information, see Meter/Key View.
Big Time
To display the Now time in a large, resizable font that you can read more
easily. For more information, see Big Time View.
Markers
To add, move, rename, or delete labels for parts of your project that make it
easier to move from one point to another. For more information, see
Markers View.
Lyrics
To add and display lyrics for a track. For more information, see Lyrics view.
To display a loaded video file. For more information, see Video View.
Video
Synth Rack
Manage your soft synths
Navigator
Manage the Now Time in a project
Surround Panner
version only)
(Producer
Pan a surround track
Sysx
To create, display, store, and edit System Exclusive MIDI messages used to
control instruments and other gear that are MIDI capable. For more
information, see SYSX View.
Tempo
To view and edit the project's tempo changes. For more information, see
Tempo View.
Step Sequencer
Lets you compose patterns by clicking cells in a grid to turn notes on or off.
For more information, see Step Sequencer View.
Lets you trigger multiple audio and MIDI patterns, either with a mouse or via
MIDI remote control. For more information, see Matrix view.
Matrix
Table 9.
Zoom controls
Many of the views contain Zoom tools that let you change the horizontal and vertical scale of the
view.
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Figure 13.
Zoom controls
A
B
C
D
E
H
G
F
A. Zoom Clips pane out vertically B. Vertical Zoom fader for Clips pane C. Zoom Clips pane in vertically
D. Zoom Bus pane out vertically E. Vertical Zoom fader for Bus pane F. Zoom in horizontally G. Horizontal zoom
fader H. Zoom out horizontally
The Track view toolbar contains the Zoom tool:
The Zoom tools are used as described in the following table:
Tool
How you use it
Zoom out (Clips pane or Bus pane)
Click to zoom out incrementally, or press SHIFT and click to zoom all the
way out
Zoom in (Clips pane or Bus pane)
Click to zoom in incrementally, or press SHIFT and click to zoom all the
way in
Zoom fader
Click and drag to zoom continuously
Zoom tool
Click to arm, then click and drag in the view to select the zoom area.
Click the drop-down arrow to display a menu of zoom and view options.
Table 10.
You can also zoom with the keyboard:
Key
What it does
CTRL+UP ARROW
Zoom out vertically
CTRL+DOWN ARROW
Zoom in vertically
CTRL+RIGHT ARROW
Zoom in horizontally
CTRL+LEFT ARROW
Zoom out horizontally
G
Go to (center) the Now time, without zooming
Table 11.
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Key
What it does
Hold down Z
Arm the Zoom tool
U
Undo the current zoom
F
Fit tracks to window
A
Show all tracks
SHIFT+F
Fit project to window
SHIFT+double-click a clip
Maximize track height
Table 11.
Docking views
You can dock any view other than the Console view in the lower-right corner of the Track view by
enabling a view’s Enable Tabbed option. You can have as many views open in tabbed format as
you want. You can toggle through the different views by clicking the tab of the view you want to see
(or use the CTRL+SHIFT+LEFT/RIGHT ARROW shortcut). You can also maximize the pane to do
detailed work in a view, or drag the splitter bar at the top of the view to enlarge the tabbed view area.
For step-by-step instructions, see the procedures below.
A
B
C
D
A. Maximize pane B. Scroll left or right to view tabs C. Active view D. Tabs
To do this
Do this
Display a view in tabbed format
Click the upper left corner of a view, and choose Enable Tabbed from
the pop-up menu
Disable tabbed format for a view
Right-click the view’s tab, and choose Disable Tabbed from the pop-up
menu.
Enable or disable tabbed format for
all open views
Use the View > Enable Tabbing for Open Views command.
Table 12.
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To do this
Do this
Maximize a tabbed view
Click the Maximize/Restore button
Restore tabbed view
Click the Restore button
that you’re restoring.
Close a view that is in tabbed format
Right-click the view’s tab, and choose Close from the pop-up menu
that’s just to the left of the tabs.
that’s in the lower left corner of the view
Table 12.
Locking views
By default SONAR allows only one instance of each view, but you can lock the contents of most
views, preserving the current view by forcing a new instance of the view to appear if necessary.
Locking views is the only way you can have multiple instances of the same view open. Only the
Track and Console views cannot be locked.
To lock a view, just click the Lock button
this
, and a locked view looks like this
CTRL key when opening the view.
at the top right of the view. An unlocked view looks like
. A view can be locked automatically by pressing the
Floating views
When a view is float enabled, you can move it outside of the confines of SONAR. This is particularly
useful if you take advantage of SONAR’s dual monitor support. Using dual monitor support, you can
keep the Track or Console view on one monitor and “float” other views to the other monitor by
dragging them to the second screen.
For more information, see the online help topic “Floating Views and Dual Monitor Support.”
X-Ray windows
The X-Ray Windows feature eliminates the need to constantly minimize, move, or close windows in
order to work in other windows. It works by decreasing the opacity of the current window enough so
that you can see and work with the window that’s behind the current window. You activate the
feature by pressing a keyboard shortcut (default shortcut is SHIFT+X) when the mouse cursor is
over a window you want to x-ray. You can choose to X-Ray whichever window is underneath the
mouse cursor, or automatically X-Ray all FX/synth property pages in one step (Note: the mouse
cursor does not need to be over any plug-in property pages).
The X-Ray Windows feature works on the following windows:
• AudioSnap palette
• Synth Rack
• Piano Roll view (when float-enabled)
• Snap To Grid dialog
• Plug-in effects and synths
• Controller/Surface plug-ins
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To select key bindings for X-Ray windows
1. Use the Options > Key Bindings command to open the Key Bindings dialog.
2. If you want to use currently unassigned keys or key combinations, scroll through the options in the
Key window until the Global Key Assignment field that is just under the window reads
Unassigned. It’s a good idea to find two unassigned options that are next to each other or easy to
remember.
Note: For best results with X-Ray Windows, avoid using ALT key combinations.
3. Once you’ve decided on two keys or key combinations that you want to use, select Global
Bindings in the Bind Context field, and scroll to the bottom of the list of commands that are in the
window below that field.
4. In the Key window, highlight the key or key combination that you want to use for the X-Ray
command, then highlight X-Ray in the function column of the list of commands, then click the
Bind button to bind them together.
5. Now highlight the key or key combination that you want to use for the X-Ray All FX/Synths
command, then highlight X-Ray All FX/Synths in the function column of the list of commands,
then click the Bind button to bind them together.
6. Click OK to close the dialog.
To use X-Ray windows
1. Use the Options > Global command to open the Global Options dialog, and on the General
tab, make sure that the Enable X-Ray check box is enabled.
2. Make sure that the view windows you want to X-Ray are in the Floating-enabled state: to check
this, click the view or fx icon that’s in the upper left corner of a window, and select Enable
Floating from the drop-down menu. If Disable Floating is in the menu, then the Floating option
is already enabled.
Note: All FX/Synth/Control surface property pages are float-enabled by default.
3. To X-Ray or un-X-Ray a single window, move the mouse cursor over the window, and press the
keyboard shortcut (default is SHIFT+X) for the X-Ray command. The window does not need to
have focus (does not need to be the highlighted window).
4. To X-Ray or un-X-Ray all plug-in windows at once, press the key binding for the X-Ray All FX/
Synths command.
Note: If a window has focus, and the window’s Give All Keystrokes To Plug-in button
enabled, X-Ray keyboard commands won’t work.
To Adjust X-Ray Windows Options
1. Use the Options > Global command to open the Global Options dialog.
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is
2. On the General tab, you can adust these options:
• Enable X-Ray. Enable or disable this check box to turn the X-Ray Windows feature on or off.
• Opacity. Adjust this value by typing in a value, or by clicking and holding the + or - button to
adjust the final opacity percentage value that an X-Rayed window reaches.
• Fade Out Time. Adjust this value by typing in a value, or by clicking and holding the + or button to adjust the amount of time that an X-Rayed window takes to reach its final opacity
percentage value.
• Fade In Time. Adjust this value by clicking and holding the + or - button to adjust the amount
of time that an X-Rayed window takes to restore its original opacity.
3. Click OK to close the dialog and accept your changes.
To exclude a plug-in from X-Ray capablity
Some plug-ins (very few) use DirectDraw to create their windows. These windows appear jittery
when x-rayed.
To exclude a plug-in from X-Ray capablity, follow these steps:
1. Open the Cakewalk Plug-in Manager: use the Tools >Cakewalk Plug- in Manager command.
2. In the Plug-in Categories window, select the category that the plug-in you want to exclude is in.
3. In the Registered Plug-ins window, select the plug-in that you want to exclude.
4. If the plug-in is a DirectX effect or an MFX, write down (or select and copy) the CLSID value that’s
in the CLSID field at the bottom of the dialog.
5. If the plug-in is a VST or VSTi, write down the VST ID value that’s in the VST ID field at the bottom
of the dialog.
6. Close the Plug-in Manager dialog.
7. Open the Xrayexclude.ini file that’s in your SONAR program folder (use Notepad).
8. At the end of the file, find the [EffectProps View] section.
You will see entries such as the following:
; Waves SSL EQ Stereo
XRayExclude11=1397510483
XRayExclude12={E451379E-F7E1-4E82-98D9-BEB87AC45E90}
9. Exclude your plug-in by creating a blank line below the last entry in the [EffectProps View]
section, and then typing:
;[name of your plug-in, but withour brackets]
XRayExclude[type the next available number in XRayExclude list, but without brackets]=[VST ID
number, with no brackets, or CLSID number, with curly braces at start and finish]
For example, if the last entry in the [EffectProps View] section was:
; Waves SSL EQ Stereo
XRayExclude11=1397510483
XRayExclude12={E451379E-F7E1-4E82-98D9-BEB87AC45E90}
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And you wanted to exclude the Cakewalk FxDelay from the X-Ray Windows feature, after
creating a blank line you would type:
; Cakewalk FxDelay
XRayExclude13={985DAF67-589F-4B8D-8BBC-D7AD651B9022}
If there was also a VST version of the Cakewalk FxDelay, you would add another line:
XRayExclude14=[some VST ID number, with no brackets]
10.Save and close the Xrayexclude.ini file, and restart SONAR to implement your changes.
Customizable menus
All main menus and context menus are customizable. You can fine-tune your workflow by hiding
menu items that are rarely used and reordering commands that you use frequently. You can even
design and save menu layouts specific to different tasks.
Caution: You can move commands completely out of their default menus. For example, you
can move commands out of the Edit menu into the Process menu. Keep in mind that this
manual describes commands by their original menu locations, so if you’re looking for help about
the Process > Nudge command, and you’ve moved the Nudge command to the Edit menu, the
documentation for this command will still refer to the command as Process > Nudge. You can
always load the default menu layout to restore the original command structure.
• To open the Menu Editor dialog, choose Options > Menu Editor.
• In the Menu Editor dialog, to choose a menu to edit, select one from the Menu drop-down list.
To do this
Do this
Hide items in a menu
Click a menu Item (CTRL-click to select multiple items) and press the Hide
button.
The hidden command(s) will only be visible in the submenu that is automatically
created at the bottom of the menu. You can display the submenu by clicking one
of the arrows at the bottom of the menu.
Show items in a menu
Click a menu Item (CTRL-click to select multiple items) and press the Show
button.
The command(s) will reappear in its original location.
Reorder items in a menu
Click and drag menu Items up or down to change their position in the menu
order.
Note: You can also click and drag Menu Items in and out of submenus.
Create a new submenu
Right-click an item in the Menu Items list and select Create Submenu. That
item will now appear in its own new submenu.
Or
Select one or more items from the list and press the Create New button in the
Submenus section of the dialog.
Table 13.
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To do this
Do this
Rename a menu item or
submenu
Right-click a menu Item or submenu and select Rename, then enter a new
name.
Or
Select a menu Item and press F2, then enter a new name.
Create a new separator bar
Right-click a menu item and select Insert Separator.
The separator bar will appear above the menu item you right-clicked.
Remove a submenu or
separator bar
Right-click the submenu or separator and select Remove Submenu or Remove
Separator.
Save a new menu layout
Enter a new name into the Menu Layout field and press the Save button.
Delete an existing menu
layout
Select the menu layout you wish to delete and press the Delete button
Edit a menu layout
Launch the Menu Editor and choose the menu layout you wish to edit from the
drop-down menu, then make your changes.
Load a different menu layout Launch the Menu Editor and choose a different Menu Layout from the dropdown menu, then close the dialog.
OR
Use the Options > Menu Layouts command, and select a layout from the
available options.
Table 13.
Note 1: Keep in mind that the factory default menu layout cannot be overwritten. If you want to
change this layout, save your changes under a new layout name.
Note 2: If you change your menu layout so much that you can’t find some commands, you can
always load the factory default menu layout.
Altering your menus may affect your menus’ hotkeys, which allow you to navigate through the
application’s menus without using a mouse. You can view the hotkeys in your menus by pressing
ALT and observing the underlined letters. Pressing the underlined letter on your keyboard will launch
that menu command. In order to ensure you have no duplicates hotkeys in your customized menu,
do the following.
1. Launch the Menu Editor and select the menu or submenu you wish to check for duplicate
hotkeys. Right-click the menu item and select Check Hotkeys. The Menu Editor will then report
back if duplicate hotkeys are found, or if a command has no hotkey at all.
Note: The Check Hotkeys command examines only commands on the menu that you rightclicked, at the menu level that you right-clicked. It does not examine submenus of that menu.
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2. If missing or duplicate hotkeys are found, right-click again and select Generate Hotkeys. New
non-duplicate hotkeys will be assigned for each item in that menu or submenu (but only on the
menu level where you right-clicked, not on any submenus of the menu or submenu that you rightclicked).
Note: Hotkeys are indicated within the Menu Editor by ampersands (“&”) in each menu item’s
name. The ampersand is placed directly before the letter that represents the menu item’s hotkey.
If you wish to assign hotkeys manually, you can do so by when you rename a hotkey by placing
the ampersand before your preferred hotkey letter for that command or submenu.
3. If necessary, re-save your layout to preserve these changes.
Customizable toolbars
You can customize each toolbar in SONAR. You can hide or reorder each component of a toolbar, or
add buttons to a toolbar from other toolbars. You can create up to three new toolbars from
components of other toolbars. You can also hide or show all toolbars with a single command, and
dock toolbars vertically if you want.
• To choose what toolbars you want to see, use the View >Toolbars command, and check the
toolbars that you want to see in the dialog box.
• To hide or show all toolbars, use the View > Show Toolbars command. This command is
available in the Key Bindings dialog (Options > Key Bindings command).
To customize a toolbar:
1. Right-click the toolbar that you want to customize, and choose Customize from the pop-up menu
to open the Customize Toolbar dialog.
2. In the Available Toolbar Buttons field, select a component that you want to see in the toolbar,
and click the Add button to move the component to the Current Toolbar Buttons field.
3. Repeat step 2 for any additional components you would like to display.
4. In the Current Toolbar Buttons field, select a component that you do not want to see in the
toolbar, and click the Remove button to move the component to the Available Toolbar Buttons
field.
5. Repeat step 4 for any additional components you would like to remove.
6. If you would like to move a toolbar component to a different location in the toolbar, select the
component in the Current Toolbar Buttons field, and click the Move Up button or the Move
Down button to change the button’s location in the toolbar.
7. Repeat step 7 for any additional components.
8. If you want to restore the toolbar to its default appearance, click the Reset button.
9. Click Close when you want to close the dialog.
To create a toolbar:
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1. Use the View > Toolbars command, and check one of the User “n” options.
A toolbar appears, with a default set of controls.
2. Right-click the toolbar, and choose Customize from the pop-up menu to open the Customize
Toolbar dialog.
3. Customize the toolbar the in the same way as the previous procedure.
To rename a toolbar:
1. Right-click the toolbar, and choose Rename from the pop-up menu to open the Rename Toolbar
dialog
2. Fill in the New Name field, and click OK.
Now when you open the Toolbars dialog, the name you chose is listed in the dialog.
To dock or undock a toolbar:
• To dock a toolbar horizontally, drag it to the top or bottom of the interface.
• To dock a toolbar vertically, drag it to the left or right side of the interface.
• To undock a toolbar, drag it to the part of the interface where you want it, or entirely away from the
interface.
Layouts
You may spend a lot of time making sure that all the views are laid out on the screen just the way
you want. When you save your work, you can save the screen layout along with it. You can also
save the layout by itself and then use the layout with other projects. For more information, see the
online help topic “Layouts.”
Next topic: Working on a project.
Working on a project
Much of your time in SONAR is spent recording and listening to your project as it develops. The
Transport toolbar, shown below, contains the most important tools and other pieces of information
you’ll need to record and play back your project.
Every project has a current time, known as the Now time (see: The Now time and how to use it). As
you record or play back a project, the Now time shows your current location in the project. When you
create a project, the Now time is set to the beginning of the project. The current Now time is saved
with your project.
You control recording and playback using tools on the Large Transport toolbar (press F4 to show or
hide), which work a lot like the ones on your tape deck or CD player:
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Figure 14.
The Large Transport toolbar
A
H
B
G
F
E
D C
A. Play B. Record C. Click to move ahead one measure D. Auto-punch toggle E. Drag Now Time to any
desired position F. Click to jump to the end G. Click to back up one measure H. Click to jump to the beginning
As you work with a project, you can use SONAR’s mute and solo features to choose which tracks
are played, or you can create loops to play a particular section over and over again. You can also
create markers, which are named time points you add to your project to make it easy to jump to a
particular location.
Next topic: SONAR file types.
Windows taskbar indicators
When SONAR is running, you’ll normally see two indicators in your Windows taskbar, right next to
the clock.
The MIDI activity monitor
contains two lights that indicate MIDI input and output. When you play
your MIDI keyboard, the first light flashes when each note is pressed, and it flashes again when
each note is released. When you play back a project that contains MIDI, the second indicator lights
up.
The volume control
is used to control the playback and record volumes on your sound card.
Double-click on this indicator to open a dialog box that lets you control the levels for audio, MIDI, CD
playback, and record.
The volume control is available only if your sound card is using a native Windows driver. If your
sound card does not use a native Windows driver, no volume control will be displayed in the taskbar.
In this case, your sound card probably came with a separate program to control input and output
levels. See your sound card documentation for more information.
Screen colors and wallpaper
SONAR lets you customize the colors that are used for virtually all parts of the program using the
Options > Colors command. This command also lets you change the background bitmap that is
displayed in the SONAR window.
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Windows taskbar indicators
For any SONAR screen element, you can assign a color in two ways:
• Choose one of the colors that is part of your Windows color scheme.
• Assign a custom color.
To Assign Custom Colors
1. Choose Options > Colors to display the Configure Colors dialog box.
2. Choose the screen element whose color you want to change from the Screen Element list.
3. Assign a color to the screen element in one of two ways:
• To use a color from the Windows color scheme, choose one of the options in the Follow
System Color list
• To use a custom color, check Use Specific Color, click the Choose Color button, and select
the color you want
4. To save these changes from session to session, check the Save Changes for Next Session box.
5. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR uses the colors you have chosen.
To restore the default colors
1. Choose Options > Colors to display the Configure Colors dialog box.
2. In the Screen Elements window, select the elements that you want to restore; you can CTRLclick or SHIFT-click to select multiple elements.
3. Click the Defaults button.
4. Click OK.
SONAR uses the default colors for all selected screen elements.
To change the wallpaper
1. Choose Options > Colors to display the Configure Colors dialog box.
2. Choose the desired wallpaper according to the table:
To do this
Do this
Use the default wallpaper
Check Default in the Wallpaper list
Not use any wallpaper
Check None in the Wallpaper list
Use a custom bitmap
Check Custom, choose a bitmap, and click Open
Table 14.
3. Click OK when you are done.
See also:
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Configure Colors dialog
Color presets
Color presets
Once you create a color arrangement that you like, you can save it as a preset, and then load it
whenever you want to use that arrangement. You can also load any of the many factory presets,
some of which duplicate the colors of earlier versions of SONAR. You can also import and export
color arrangements in the form of .clr files so that SONAR users can share color layouts. And you
can back up or export all of your presets with a single command, and import a group of presets that
you or another SONAR user created.
Note: Both single color presets, and collections of presets use the file extension .clr, so when
you export either the current color arrangement, or all of your presets at once, give the exported
file a name that clearly labels it as either a single preset, or as a collection of presets.
Figure 15.
The Configure Colors dialog
A
B
A. Presets menu B. Import and Export buttons
88
Introduction
Screen colors and wallpaper
To load a color preset
1. Open the Configure Colors dialog by using the Options > Colors command.
2. Click the drop-down arrow on the Presets menu to display the list of presets, then click the name
of the preset you want to load.
To save a color preset
1. Open the Configure Colors dialog by using the Options > Colors command.
2. Adjust the color settings you want to save.
3. Type a name for your preset in the Presets menu.
4. Click the floppy disk icon
that’s next to the Presets menu to save your preset.
To export the current color arrangement
1. Open the Configure Colors dialog by using the Options > Colors command.
2. Arrange or load the color arrangement you want to export.
3. Click the Export Colors button
in the Configure Colors dialog.
The Export Color Set dialog appears.
4. Navigate to the folder where you want to store your new color set file.
5. Type a name for your color set file in the File Name field.
6. Make sure that the Export Current Color Set check box is enabled.
7. Click the Save button.
To import one or more color presets
1. Open the Configure Colors dialog by using the Options > Colors command.
2. Click the Import Colors button
in the Configure Colors dialog.
The Import Color Set dialog appears.
3. Navigate to the folder where the color set file you want to import is. Both single presets and
groups of presets are stored in color set files, which use the .clr file extension.
4. Click the file that you want to import.
5. Click the Open button.
6. If your Preset menu in SONAR already contains a preset that is included in the preset collection
file you are importing, SONAR asks you if you want to overwrite the file. This happens for each file
that has the same name as a preset in the preset collection you are importing. Click Yes or No for
each file in question, or Yes All or No All to either overwrite or protect all of your current preset
files.
To export all your color presets
1. Open the Configure Colors dialog by using the Options > Colors command.
Introduction
Screen colors and wallpaper
89
2. Click the Export Colors button
in the Configure Colors dialog.
The Export Color Set dialog appears.
3. Navigate to the folder where you want to store your the exported file. This file will contain all or
your color presets.
4. Type a name for your file in the File Name field. Use a file name that you will recognize as a
collection of presets, rather than as a single color arrangement.
5. Make sure that the Export Color Presets check box is enabled.
6. Click the Save button.
Note: A file of color presets can be large, and might take a minute or so to export.
Installing SONAR
SONAR is easy to install. All you need to do is choose the folder where the program and sample
project files should be stored. Before you start, make sure you have your serial number handy. Your
serial number is located on the back of your DVD case.
Note: If you choose to not install the Sample files, you will not have the necessary content to
use the tutorials in Chapter 2.
To install SONAR
1. Start your computer.
2. Close any open programs you have running.
3. Place the SONAR installation disc in your disc drive.
If you have autorun enabled, the SONAR AutoRun menu opens automatically, showing you a
dialog box with several buttons. If autorun is not enabled, you can open the SONAR AutoRun
menu by selecting Start > Run and entering d:\AutoRun.exe (where d:\ is your disc drive).
4. Click the Install SONAR button.
Note: If you exit Setup without completing the installation, choose Start > Run, type
D:\AutoRun.exe (where D:\ is your DVD drive), and click OK. This will reopen the AutoRun
window, and you can click Install to start installation again.
5. Follow the installation instructions on the screen.
You can also install SONAR by choosing Start > Run and running the application named SETUP.EXE
from the DVD.
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Introduction
Installing SONAR
Uninstalling SONAR
When you installed SONAR, the setup program placed an Uninstall icon in the Start menu. To
uninstall SONAR, click the Start button and choose Programs > Cakewalk > SONAR 8.5 (Studio or
Producer) > Uninstall SONAR 8.5 (Studio or Producer).
Starting to use SONAR
This chapter has provided you with an overview of SONAR and basic information on how to install
the software and configure your system.
The following tutorials will give you some hands-on practice in playing, recording, and mixing your
projects. If you have not already done so, you may want to refer to SONAR basics to get the most
out of these tutorials.
Note: If, during installation, you chose in the Select Components dialog not to install the
Tutorials folder (part of the Sample files), you will not have access to the sample tutorial files
needed to follow the tutorials in this chapter. If you didn’t install these files, insert your product
disc and copy the files to your hard drive.
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Tutorial 2 – Using the Media Browser
Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments
Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing
Introduction
Starting to use SONAR
91
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Introduction
Starting to use SONAR
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving
projects
Understanding and managing project files is central to your work flow in SONAR. In this tutorial, we are
going to cover the basics of getting started with project files and some of the operations that can be
performed with them. Whenever you write or record music in SONAR, you are writing it to be saved into
a project. A project can contain a variety of elements, including:
• Audio tracks
• MIDI tracks
• Instrument tracks
• DirectX and VST audio effects
• Project settings such as Tempo, Key and Meter changes
• Lyrics
See:
Creating a new project
Opening project files
Playing project files
Looping project files
Saving project files
Creating a new project
There are several ways to get started with a project in SONAR. When SONAR is opened, you will be
greeted with the Quick Start dialog. Let’s take a look at the options available in this dialog.
Open a Project.
want to open.
Opens a standard File Open dialog, which lets you select the project that you
Open a Recent Project. The drop-down list shows the most recent projects that have been
opened in SONAR. Select the desired project from the list and click the button to the left of the list to
open the project.
Create a New Project. Click this button to open the New Project File dialog, which lets you create
a new project based on any available template.
Online Videos and more. Click this link to view our tutorial videos online. An active Internet
connection is needed in order to access this content.
Getting Started.
Click this button to open the SONAR online Help.
Show this at Startup. Clear this check box if you don’t want the Quick Start dialog to launch the
next time you start SONAR.
Close. Use this button to close the Quick Start dialog.
For this tutorial, we want to create a new project.
• Click the Create a New Project button
.
Tip: You can also perform this same operation by clicking File > New from the main menu across
the top of SONAR’s screen.
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Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Creating a new project
The New Project File dialog appears. Whenever you create a new project, you will be presented
with this dialog.
Let’s explore some of the things you can do in this window.
Name. Type the name of your project in the Name box. For this exercise, let’s name your project
Tutorial 1.
Location. Use the Location box to specify where the project should be saved. Click
to
browse to a specific location. For this tutorial, use the default, as shown in the preceding figure.
Audio Path.
Click
Use the Audio Path box to specify where to save audio recordings for your project.
to browse to a specific location.
Store Project Audio in its own Folder. Select this check box if you want to store the project’s
audio files in a separate folder. It is recommended that you select this option.
Template. This list shows all available pre-made templates that are included with SONAR. This list
will also include any custom templates that you create. Your Template list may vary from the
preceding figure. For this tutorial, select the template named Normal.
OK. Click OK to create a new project based on the specified settings.
Cancel.
Help.
Click Cancel to close the New Project File dialog.
Click Help to open the online Help topic for the New Project File dialog.
Click OK now to move forward with this tutorial.
Congratulations, you have just created a new project in SONAR!
See:
Opening project files
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Creating a new project
95
Playing project files
Looping project files
Saving project files
Opening project files
Next we are going to talk about opening existing project files. There are two ways this can be done in
SONAR:
• Click the Open a Project button in the Quick Start dialog that is first presented when SONAR
starts.
• Select File > Open from the menu bar across the top of SONAR’s screen.
Let’s go ahead and try one of the above methods. Either of them will bring you to the Open dialog as
shown in the following figure. The Open dialog functions like any other file browsing dialog in
Microsoft Windows.
• The vertical navigation buttons let you jump to popular locations on your computer’s hard disk.
• The browsing pane lists all the project files and folders that are available in the selected folder.
• The Go to Folder dropdown list allows you to quickly move to commonly used folders for
project files in SONAR. Typically, you can get to your projects by selecting Project Files.
• For more detailed information about all of the options and functions in this dialog, click Help.
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Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Opening project files
For this tutorial we want to open one of the sample project files that are included with SONAR. To do
so, select Template Files in the Go to Folder list. This option appears when clicking on the little
arrow to the right of the dropdown list.
This will refresh the browsing pane to display all the files and folders in the Template Files directory.
Double-click on the Tutorials folder to open it and then Locate the project named
SONAR_AudioDemo1.cwp.
You can load project files into SONAR in one of two ways:
• Select a file by clicking on it so that it is selected, then click Open.
• Double-click the file from the browsing pane.
Let’s now use one of these methods to open the project file SONAR_AudioDemo1.cwp. When the
project opens, the File Information window appears. This window can be used for storing notes,
comments, credits and other helpful information about a project. For now, close File Information
window by clicking the Close button
in the upper right corner of the window.
See:
Creating a new project
Playing project files
Looping project files
Saving project files
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Opening project files
97
Playing project files
For this next section we are going to configure the project named SONAR_AudioDemo1.cwp for
playback in SONAR. If you have not opened the project yet using the steps from the previous
section Opening project files, do so before continuing.
Configuring your sound device
Before we can get any sound, we need to ensure that SONAR is communicating with your
computer’s sound card or audio interface. To do so, click on the Options menu across the top of
SONAR’s screen and choose Audio. For this tutorial, there are two pages of this window we are
concerned with. The first is the Drivers tab shown in the following image. To get to this page, click
the Drivers tab. Before you can hear any sound play in SONAR, you have to ensure that the
devices you want to use are selected. An Edirol audio interface is used in the following example, so
all the Input Drivers and Output Drivers check boxes for the Edirol device are selected. Your
device list will most likely be different from the following image.
After you have selected the desired Input and Output devices that you plan to use with SONAR, click
the General tab. In the Playback Timing Master list, select the audio output device that you want
SONAR to treat as the default or main output device. This should be the output on your sound card
that has either speakers or headphones connected to it. In the Record Timing Master list, select
the input on your sound card that you plan to plug devices into, such as a microphone, keyboard or
other instrument.
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Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Playing project files
If you are having trouble with any of the steps in the last section thus far, we have created a helpful
set-up guide on our web site that provides step-by-step instructions for configuring your audio
hardware. You can find it here: www.cakewalk.com/Support/hardwaresetup/
Setting the tracks outputs
The next important step is telling SONAR which output on your sound device you would like audio
tracks to play on. In some cases, it is desirable to have tracks playing different outputs (such as if
you are using external hardware processing for effects). In this scenario, you’ll want to set all of the
audio tracks to the same output.
Let’s start with the Bass track. Locate the track named Upright Bass in the project. Let’s take a
closer look at a few of the track’s controls. If the track controls are not all visible, you may need to
expand the track to see them all.
To expand a track to make all of its controls visible
1. Point the cursor to the bottom edge of the track.
2. Click and drag down to reveal all track controls.
Tip: If you find the number of track controls overwhelming, you can show/hide specific types of track
controls by using the tabs located at the bottom of the Track view.
Control
Description
This is the Mute button. It is used to silence a track during playback. Any tracks that are
muted will not be heard.
This is the Solo button. It is used to silence every track except the one that is soloed. This
can be handy for isolating a particular performance or recording for monitoring or mixing
purposes. SONAR allows you to solo multiple tracks simultaneously.
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Playing project files
99
Control
Description
This is the Arm or Record Enable button, which must be enabled on any track that you want
to record onto. For more details, see Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments.
This is the Input Echo or Input Monitor button. When clicked, this enables the track’s input
to be heard directly through its output. For more details, see Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals
and musical instruments.
This is the Write Automation button. When enabled, changes to adjustable track
parameters during playback are recorded. For more details, see Tutorial 7 – Mixing and
adding effects.
This is the Freeze button. It is used to temporarily convert a synth or instrument track into an
audio track to conserve CPU power.
Locate the dropdown list for Output and click the small arrow to show all available outputs. Select
the output that your speakers or headphones are connected to. If you can’t find the Output
dropdown list, make sure you have expanded the track fully by dragging it down.
Note: Your options will be different from the preceding image. Select the output that
corresponds to your sound card or audio device.
Next, you will want to repeat the above process for all of the tracks in your project.
Tip: If you need to change multiple outputs simultaneously, you can also do it by clicking Edit >
Select > All and then Tracks > Property > Outputs. This will bring up a dialog that will allow you
to change the Audio and MIDI outputs of all selected tracks.
Playing the project
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Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Playing project files
Now that all of the track’s outputs are set to the appropriate device, the next step is to play the
project to make sure it can be heard and sounds right.
Locate the Transport tool bar at the top of SONAR’s screen. If you can’t find this toolbar, press F4 to
show the Large Transport toolbar.
The transport contains many useful functions related to projects in SONAR. For now, simply click the
Play button
to hear the project.
Experiment with the Mute
and Solo
buttons on each track. If you solo multiple tracks you will
hear all of the soloed tracks. If you mute any tracks, they will not be heard.
Tip: You can also use your keyboard’s SPACEBAR key to start and stop playback in SONAR.
Once you are done listening, click the Stop button
.
See:
Creating a new project
Opening project files
Looping project files
Saving project files
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Playing project files
101
Looping project files
SONAR features a really handy tool that allows you to repeat specified sections of a project file. You
may want to do this for many reasons, such as to rehearse a part or phase or to listen closely to a
specific section. Perhaps you might set up a loop just because it’s your favorite part of the song and
you want to hear it over and over again. For all of the above, you will need to loop a section of the
song.
You may have noticed this demo file is an example of swing or jazz music. Let’s pretend for a second
that you are the guitar player and you wanted to practice your solo section right before the Violin
soloist begins. This requires you do two things:
1. Create a looped section of the Bass and Rhythm Guitar for you to practice with.
2. Mute the existing Solo Guitar track.
To enable looping in SONAR is easy. Simply click the Loop button
in the Loop/Auto Shuttle
toolbar. You can also find this button in the Large Transport toolbar by pressing F4. When enabled,
the Loop button is lit
.
Take note of the measure numbers displayed in the preceding image. The first number (2:01:000)
indicates the start of the loop region and second number (38:01:000) indicates the end of the loop
region.
When looping is enabled, the time ruler across the top of SONAR's track view displays yellow flag
markers that indicate where the loop region starts and ends. If you want to change the loop region,
you can drag the loop markers to a new location. Drag the loop start marker to measure 25 and the
loop end marker to measure 37. This will create a 12 bar loop.
Finally, mute both the Solo Guitar and Violin tracks and click Play
to audition the loop region.
You will now hear only the Upright Bass and Rhythm Guitar tracks so that you, the guitarist in our
scenario, can practice your solo section.
See:
Creating a new project
Opening project files
Playing project files
Saving project files
102
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Looping project files
Saving project files
SONAR offers you many options for saving your work. To investigate these options, click on the File
menu and choose Save As. This opens the Save As dialog. Before doing anything in this window,
the first thing you should do is select Project Files in the Go to Folder list. Even if it already says
Project Files, click it anyway.
You will notice this window looks very familiar to the Open dialog we looked at earlier in this tutorial.
The Save As dialog navigates files much in the same way as Windows does. If you would like to
read the finer points and in-depth information about using this window, click the Help button
. For this exercise, we are going to look at the different types of project files you can
save with SONAR.
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Saving project files
103
Take a look at the dropdown list labeled Save as type. Click the Save as type arrow to see a list of
supported file formats. Let’s look at these different files formats now:
• Normal. This is the first option listed and the most common format used for saving project files.
Choosing this will create a Cakewalk Project file with the .cwp file extension. It is important to
remember that Cakewalk Project files do not actually store any audio data, but rather reference
audio files from where they are saved on your computer’s hard drive.
• Template. Template files are used as a starting point for new projects. Templates can store layout
information about your project, such as how many audio and MIDI tracks there are and which
Output ports they are assigned to. Detailed information about using templates can be found in
SONAR’s help topic Templates
• Cakewalk Bundle. This format is typically only used when transferring projects to other people or
other computers. Cakewalk Bundle files use the .cwb file extension and are similar to Cakewalk
Project files. The main difference is that Cakewalk Bundle files actually contain all of a project’s
audio data. Cakewalk Bundle files are much larger in size than regular Cakewalk Project files
because they contain all of the audio data for a project, so try to avoid using this format unless
you need to move a project between computers. When opening a Cakewalk Bundle file, SONAR
will “unpack” the embedded audio data and save it to a new audio folder on your computer.
• MIDI. This option lets you save a standard MIDI file of your project. MIDI files do not contain any
embedded audio or references to external audio files, so any audio data in a project will be
discarded when you save a MIDI file. MIDI files can be either Format 0 or Format 1. Format 0
combines all the MIDI events into a single track. This is compatible with many older sequencers
and keyboards. MIDI Format 1 files can store up to 7256 tracks and are a better choice if you plan
on using your MIDI file with another computer-based sequencing application. Although not as
common, SONAR also allows you to save in the RIFF MIDI format. Unless you are positive that
the playback system requires a RIFF MIDI file, you will want to use the MIDI format.
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Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Saving project files
In most cases, the best choice for saving your files is Normal. To save this project, do the following:
1. In the Go to Folder list, select Project Files. Even if Project Files is already selected, select it
again for good practice.
2. In the Save as type list, select Normal.
3. Type a name in the File Name box.
4. Click Save to save the project.
This completes the tutorial.
See:
Creating a new project
Opening project files
Playing project files
Looping project files
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Saving project files
105
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Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Saving project files
Tutorial 2 – Using the Media Browser
New to SONAR is the enhanced Media Browser view; designed to improve workflow and make
working with audio loops and MIDI groove clips simple. When you open a project in SONAR, the
Media Browser will open underneath the track view. It is outlined in the image below.
To show or hide the Media Browser, click the the Media Browser View button
of the Transport controls in the top of SONAR’s screen, or press ALT+1.
located to the left
Now that we know how to show and hide the Media Browser view, let’s take a closer look at some of
its features, starting with the toolbar that spans across the top of the Media Browser view. Locate the
section on your computer screen that looks like the following image.
First, let’s review the controls on the left side of the toolbar.
Control
Description
This is the Move up button. It is used to open the folder one level above the active folder.
The Refresh button is used to refresh the active folder. This is helpful if you move new
loops into the folder and want SONAR to be able use/see them.
This is the Windows Explorer button. Click to open Windows Explorer at the same
directory being viewed in the Media Browser view.
Stop is used to stop play back of the selected loop.
Play is used to listen to the currently selected loop.
When enabled, the Auto Preview button automatically previews loops and files when you
click on them in the Media Browser view.
Clicking the Views button allows you to choose how files are displayed in the list view. For
more details on this check out the online help topic “The Media Browser View”
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Tutorial 2 – Using the Media Browser
The Content Location drop down box shown below allows you to quickly jump to popular locations
on your hard drive.
The Audio Preview Bus drop down box shown below allows you to select the output device used to
listen to loops and files from the Media Browser view.
The next three controls are used for software synths.
Control
Description
The Insert Soft Synth button allows you to add an instrument track to your project so you can
preview MIDI groove clips directly from the Media Browser.
This is the Delete Soft Synth button, which is used to remove the selected synth from the
Preview Synth list from your project.
Click the Properties button to open up the property page for the selected synth.
Table 15.
Below the toolbar, the Media Browser is split into two or three panes. From left to right they are the
Preview Synth list, the Folders pane and the Explorer pane.
Note: The folders list can be hidden using the Views button.
See:
Finding and previewing audio loops
Tutorial 2 – Using the Media Browser
109
Previewing MIDI groove clips
Adding loops to your project
110
Tutorial 2 – Using the Media Browser
Finding and previewing audio loops
Now that we have a general idea of how the Media Browser is laid out, let’s find some of the content
that is included with SONAR and give it a listen.
1. Make sure the Media Browser view is open and visible. If it is not, click the Media Browser view
button or press ALT+1.
2. Click on the Views button and make sure that the option for Folders is selected and that the
bullet point is set to Details.
3. In the Folders list, locate the My Documents directory. Click the little triangle to the left of my
documents to expose all of the folders inside of it.
4. Using the same process, navigate to the following directory:
My Documents\Cakewalk\SONAR\Sample Content\PowerFX\DowntempoDub\.You can
open folders by double-clicking on them.
Tip: You can quickly jump to the Sample Content folder by selecting Sample Content from
the Content Location drop-down list.
Your folders list should look something like the image below.
Notice that when you click on the Funky folder all of the contents of that folder are displayed in
the Explorer pane to the right.
5. Click on the file named DrumLoop1.wav.
Tutorial 2 – Using the Media Browser
Finding and previewing audio loops
111
6. Click the Play button
in the Media Browser toolbar.
The selected file is previewed.
If you don’t hear anything, revisit the settings of your Audio Preview Bus, as discussed above, and
ensure that it is set to the audio device that your headphones or speakers are connected to.
If you need to preview a lot of loops quickly, enable the Auto-Preview function
an audio loop will start playing as soon as you select it.
. When enabled,
See:
Previewing MIDI groove clips
Adding loops to your project
Previewing MIDI groove clips
In addition to audio loops, the Media Browser view also allows you to preview MIDI groove clips.
Let’s try this now with one of the clips included with SONAR. Unlike audio loops, MIDI groove clips
require a soft synth or instrument track to play through.
1. Click the Insert Soft Synth button
, point to Soft Synths and select Cakewalk TTS-1.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears.
2. Clear all of the check boxes except for Single Track Instrument, Recall Assignable Controls,
and Ask This Every Time.
3. Click OK.
Cakewalk TTS-1 is added to your project.
Now that we have a synth in our project that we can preview MIDI groove clips with, let’s find some
and give them a listen.
1. Using the same process we did to find audio loops, use the Folders and Explorer panes to
browse to My Documents\Cakewalk\SONAR\Sample Content\Smart Loops.
2. Locate the MIDI groove clip named Bangin 10.mid.
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Tutorial 2 – Using the Media Browser
Finding and previewing audio loops
Before we can preview a MIDI groove clip, we need to tell SONAR what instrument or synth we
would like to preview it with.
3. In the Preview Synth pane, select Cakewalk TTS-1 1.
4. Now that SONAR knows what synth to play MIDI groove clips through, select the groove clip
named Bangin 10.mid just as you did with the audio loop previously.
5. Click the Play
button in the Media Browser toolbar.
Just like with audio loops, you can set MIDI groove clips to auto-preview by clicking the AutoPreview
button.
In addition to using soft synths to preview MIDI groove clips, soft synths also have many other useful
and powerful features. For more details and instructions on using them, see Tutorial 4 – Playing and
recording software instruments.
See:
Adding loops to your project
Adding loops to your project
Once you have found an audio loop or MIDI groove clip that you would like to use in your project, the
next important step is to add it to your project. Adding loops is easy with SONAR’s intuitive drag and
drop interface.
To add a loop to your project, do the following:
1. Locate the loop you would like to use in the Browser pane of the Media Browser view.
2. Drag the loop to a track. If you are selecting an audio loop, you must drag it to an audio track. If
you would like to use a MIDI groove clip, be sure you drag it to a MIDI track.
You should also notice that, as you drag the file, your mouse pointer changes to an arrow with a
plus sign
.
3. When you drag a loop or groove clip into a project, it will only show one repetition. You can extend
how long a loop is by pointing the mouse pointer to the clip’s right edge, then drag the clip edge to
the desired duration. When you point the mouse pointer to the right clip edge, a blue vertical line
appears and the mouse pointer looks like this
Tutorial 2 – Using the Media Browser
Finding and previewing audio loops
.
113
This completes the tutorial. You should now be able to drag loops into your projects and loop them.
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Tutorial 2 – Using the Media Browser
Finding and previewing audio loops
Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical
instruments
One of the most important aspects of creating music in SONAR is digital audio recording. This is the
process of taking the sound from a microphone or an instrument and recording it to an audio track. Once
this step is completed you can edit and mix the song to prepare it to share with the world.
This tutorial will walk you through the steps involved and provide you with some insight on how to get the
best possible audio recordings.
Adding an audio track
In Tutorial 1, you learned about opening project templates. Let's open a blank project for this tutorial:
1. On the File menu, click New.
2. Select the Blank (no tracks or buses) template and click OK.
A new blank project is created.
With the blank project open, you can insert new tracks as you need them. For the task of recording
digital audio you'll need a new audio track. Follow these steps to insert one:
1. Do one of the following:
• Click Insert and then click Audio Track.
• Right-click on the Tracks pane and select Insert Audio Track on the pop-up menu.
A new audio track is added to your project.
2. In the new audio track, expand the track to expose all of its controls (for details, see “To expand a track
to make all of its controls visible” on page 99).
The track's controls are exposed.
3. Click the Input drop-down menu to select the track’s input.
The available inputs for the track are displayed.
4. Select the physical jack that you're instrument is plugged in to. If you know, for instance, that your
guitar is plugged into input 1, click the Input control and select the first option. Some audio interfaces
refer to their stereo inputs as pairs, like 1/2, 3/4 or 5/6. Most often left channels are represented by odd
numbers and right channels are represented by even numbers.
Note: Most microphones and guitars are mono, so you'll want to select either the left or right
channel accordingly.
5. Click the Output drop-down menu to select the track’s output.
The available outputs for the track are displayed.
6. Select the output port that you want the audio track to play through during playback. This is how
you ultimately route the audio to your speakers. You will usually choose 1 and 2, because these
are most commonly the outputs that speakers or audio monitors are connected to.
7. Click the track's Record Enable button
.
Note: SONAR only allows recording to tracks that have been record enabled. This is
necessary since SONAR allows for multi-track recording. This tells SONAR what track you want
your new material recorded to. Otherwise, every track would be recorded to during every take.
8. Click the Input Echo button
if you want to hear the input during recording. Many sound cards
and audio interfaces have an option to do this automatically on the hardware level. If you can
already hear the input signal, simply move on to the next section.
Getting ready to record
At this point, we need to check the input levels to make sure they are sufficient and not distorting.
Perform as you would if you were recording and watch the meter on the track respond to the sounds
you produce.
If the meter never even comes close to the maximum, increase the input level. If the meter even
occasionally reaches the maximum, decrease the input level.
Input levels are usually adjusted via a knob next to the input jack on the sound card, but features like
this may vary slightly between devices. So, if you have never recorded an instrument or microphone
with your sound card, you may want to read about doing so in the device's manual.
Figure 16.
The record meter shows the input level
Input may be too low
Input is too loud
Recording your performance
Now that everything is set up, let's record something!
1. On the Options menu, select Project and then click the Metronome tab.
2. Set the metronome for a 2 measure count-in.
• Click Use Audio Metronome, select the Recording check box and set Record Count-in to 2
Measures. For details about each metronome option, click Help.
3. Make sure the track has been record enabled by clicking the track’s Record Enable button. The
Record Enable button on the track should be lit in red like this:
. Again, if you don't arm a
track, SONAR will not know where to put the audio and the transport Record button will be
disabled
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Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments
4. On the Transport, click Record, or press R on your computer keyboard.
5. You'll hear two measures counted in by the metronome and then recording will begin. Start
performing at the beginning of the third count.
6. When you finish recording, click the Stop button
or press the SPACEBAR.
A new audio clip appears.
Press Play to play back the project. If you would like to redo the take, go to Edit > Undo to undo the
previous recording, then repeat steps 3, 4 and 5 above until you get a perfect take.
Now that your first track has been recorded, you can “over-dub” another part. To do so, disable
recording on track 1 and repeat the steps in this tutorial. After repeating the steps, you will have
recorded to track 2. Both recorded tracks will play during playback. Each will also have its own
exclusive volume and pan control, FX chain and can be muted or soloed. You'll learn more about this
in future tutorials.
See:
Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting
If you weren't able to record successfully by following this tutorial, please check the following:
I only get one side of my guitar/microphone recorded
You may be recording a mono signal through a stereo input. Guitars and microphones produce
mono signals. Right-click the track and select Track Properties from the popup menu. This opens
the Track Properties dialog, where you can specify the desired input port. Select the appropriate
side of your stereo pair, either left or right as opposed to stereo.
Also make sure you don't have a mono adapter going into the Line-in and that you have the Left side
of your sound card (mono) chosen for input in SONAR.
Previously recorded tracks are mixed into my new recordings
This can happen when your soundcard is set to record everything that comes out of your computer
speakers.
1. Click on the Windows Start button and go to All Programs > Accessories > Entertainment >
Volume Control.
The Volume Control window appears.
2. On the Options menu, click Properties.
The Properties dialog appears.
3. In the Adjust Volume For section, click Recording.
4. Click OK to close the Properties dialog.
The Record Mixer appears.
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5. Make sure What You Hear or Stereo Mix (exact name various depending on the sound card
manufacturer) is not selected. If this option is enabled, click the Select check box below the
desired input (normally Line In or Mic).
This problem can also occur when you are using an analog mixer in your setup. Carefully follow all
of your signal paths to ensure that your sound cards audio output is not being looped back into itself.
You should also consider the possibility of your microphone picking up the signal from your speakers
or headphones.
Only a flat line/silence is recorded
In Windows XP, click the Start button and go to Programs > Accessories > Entertainment >
Volume Control to open the Windows Mixer.
The Windows Mixer controls the volume levels of your sound card inputs and can also mute any
input or output device.
The Windows Mixer looks like this:
When you open the Windows Mixer it may be labeled Play Control or Recording Control. We want
to see the recording controls.
To view the recording controls in Windows XP:
1. On the Options menu, click Properties.
The Properties dialog appears.
2. In the Adjust Volume For section, click Recording.
3. In the Show the Following Volume Controls section, click Line-in and Microphone.
4. Click OK to close the Properties dialog.
The recording controls appear in the Windows Mixer.
5. Click the Select check box under the input you wish to use (normally Line In or Mic).
To view the recording controls in Windows Vista:
1. Go to the Windows Start Menu and type the word SOUND in the Start Search box.
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Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments
2. The search results appear.
3. Click Sound to open the Windows Sound Control Panel.
4. Click the Recording tab.
All available input devices are listed along with a meter for each device.
5. Play your instrument or speak into the microphone.
Meter activity is visible on one of the input devices.
6. Right-click the input device that has meter activity and select Set As Default from the popup
menu.
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Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments
Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software
instruments
Software instruments, which are also referred to as soft synths, are a major part of computer music. Our
goal in this tutorial is to add a software instrument to a project. We'll explore a few different ways they can
be used with SONAR and look at some options to really make the most of them.
A brief history
Note: Feel free to skip to the next section if you want to start using synths right away.
For our purposes, a synth has two basic functions:
• Receive a digital message
• Make a sound based on the information contained in that message
In the early 1980's, all of the major manufacturers of keyboards and drum machines got together to
decide on a way for their products to work well with each other. Since they all operated under some
version of the two functions listed above, it was a simple goal.
They needed to standardize what messages were used to represent particular expressions. For
example: if it was a drum machine, everyone would need to use the C note for the bass drum, the D note
for the snare drum and so on. That way, messages sent from one drum machine can be fed to another
made by a different company. It will play the same beat, but using the drum sounds from the different
module.
The standard they established is known as MIDI (usually pronounced [mid-ee]). As soon as computers
entered the scene, it was clear that there could (and should) be a way to connect a synth and send MIDI
messages to it from a software sequencer. That's how Cakewalk was born. Our first application was a
DOS program that would allow a user to edit the MIDI data in detail, and play it out to a connected synth.
You could also record the events from a performance into the computer.
Things have evolved a lot since then. As computers have grown more powerful, the capabilities of
Cakewalk software have expanded. Computers are now so fast that software companies are able to
make synths and drum machines that are completely software-based. They are essentially the guts of a
keyboard in a computer program.
See:
Adding an instrument track to your project
Recording MIDI
Manually entering MIDI notes
Adding an instrument track to your project
Adding instrument tracks to your project is easy and something you’ll find yourself doing often, so
let’s explore some of the basics. For this exercise, we'll start with a blank project:
1. On the File menu, click New.
2. Select the Blank (no tracks or buses) template and click OK.
A new project opens.
3. Click Insert >Soft-Synths.
A menu lists all available software synths that are installed on your computer.
4. Click DropZone.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears.
5. Select the following options:
• Simple Instrument Track
• Synth Property Page
• Recall Assignable Controls
• Ask This Every Time
A new track is inserted in your project. This track is a combination of the two types of tracks you
have learned about in the previous tutorials. It holds MIDI data and accepts a MIDI input, but it
outputs the sound of the synth, like an audio track would. The DropZone window may also open.
If not, you can open it manually by double-clicking on the track icon.
Note: You can always launch a given software instrument's window by double-clicking its track
icon.
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Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
Let's take a quick look at DropZone.
One of the first things you'll typically need to do is choose a sound. In DropZone and most other
Cakewalk synths, a sound preset is referred to as a program.
1. In DropZone's Program window, click Empty Program.
The Program Browser appears.
Note: It may take a minute the first time the Program Browser opens. This is because
DropZone is building a list of all available sounds. Once the list has been built, the Program
Browser will open faster the next time.
2. Select a program by double-clicking its name. For this tutorial we'll use Acid Quinda from the
Basses section.
DropZone loads the program and displays the program name.
3. Click the keyboard image to hear what the program sounds like.
Note: Each soft synth uses a different method of choosing and auditioning sounds. This is
often outlined in the synth's documentation. You can press the F1 key to open the online help
for a synth.
Now that we have inserted an instrument and selected one of its sounds we can make use of these
sounds in our project. This is where you can get creative. You have the option of recording a
performance that you play on a MIDI keyboard (also referred to as a controller) or manually entering
notes and events to play out to the software synth. We'll explore each method in the following
sections.
See:
Recording MIDI
Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
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Manually entering MIDI notes
Recording MIDI
First, we'll try recording. This only works if you have a MIDI controller. If you do not have a MIDI
controller, skip ahead to the next section of this tutorial.
For recording, you don't need the DropZone window open. You can close an instrument by clicking
in the upper right corner. This doesn't cause the synth to stop functioning—it will continue to work
in the background.
Note: If you need to see the DropZone window again, just double-click the track icon.
In the Track view, we can assign the input port. If you only have one MIDI keyboard this should be
set up already. Try playing some notes to see if it works. If not, go to Options > MIDI Devices and
make sure your keyboard is enabled in the Input Port list.
The next step is arming the track for recording. Click the track's Record Enable button
enables recording on the track.
Now, click the Record button
. This
in the Transport toolbar. The Now Time cursor starts to roll. Play
some notes and click the Stop button
when you're done.
You have just recorded your first MIDI performance through a software instrument. Press the Play
button
to hear it play back.
See:
Adding an instrument track to your project
Manually entering MIDI notes
Manually entering MIDI notes
Using this method, you can manually draw notes on a grid called the Piano Roll View (often referred
to as the PRV). This is the preferred method if you're not much of a keyboard player or don't have
access to a MIDI controller. It allows you to edit every detail of a performance.
To get to the PRV, you first need to select the track you would like to see in it. Simply click the track
icon once so that it changes color. Next, go to Views > Piano Roll to open the PRV.
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The ruler at the top of this view represents musical measures and beats. The keyboard image on the
left represents what notes are being played.
Click on the Draw tool
. You can also enable this tool by pressing the D key on your computer
keyboard. The Draw tool allows you to click on the grid to create a note.
To create a note, click on the grid at measure 1.
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125
If you click on various sections of a note, the Draw tool performs a different function:
• Left edge.
Adjusts the start time.
• Right edge. Adjusts the end time or the duration.
• Top.
Adjusts the velocity of the note, which indicates how hard the note is played.
• Bottom. Allows you to move the note to another location on the PRV grid.
Try to create a melody using this technique. You might find that you can only create 16th notes or
longer. If you want 32nd notes or triplets, click the Snap To Grid options button
.
This will open the Snap To Grid dialog box where you can set the resolution to 32nd notes.
Click OK. You can now draw notes at shorter distances from each other.
What if I already have a project that contains MIDI tracks?
If you already have a MIDI track that you would like to play through a software instrument, the steps
are a bit different.
Let's start by opening a sample project.
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Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
1. On the File menu, click Open.
2. Naviagate to My Documents/Cakewalk/SONAR/Sample Content/Tutorials.
3. Click on the file named Latin.cwp and click OK.
If you press Play, you are not likely to hear anything. That's because this project does not contain a
software synth for the MIDI tracks to play through. Since there are 11 tracks in this project, it would
be best to use one synth track and route them all to the same instrument. Some instruments, such
as the Cakewalk TTS-1 can output more than one type of sound. These instruments are known as
multi-timbral synths. They know what notes are played through each sound based on the MIDI
channel they are sent over. If you examine the Track Properties dialog of each track in this project,
you'll notice that each one is set to its own channel. No two tracks share the same channel.
Let's insert the Cakewalk TTS-1:
1. Go to Insert > Soft Synths > Cakewalk TTS-1.
The Insert Synth Options dialog appears.
2. In the Create These Tracks area, click First Synth Audio Output.
3. In the Open These Windows area, click Synth Property Page.
Note: If you would like a detailed explanation of each option, click Help.
4. Click OK.
A new synth track is inserted in your project.
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127
On some computers, the tracks may play back through the TTS-1 at this point. However, on
computers that have hardware MIDI outputs available, you may need to specify the TTS-1 as each
track's output. Here's a fast way to do that:
1. Hold down the CTRL key and click each track to select them.
The tracks are highlighted to indicate they are selected.
2. Go to Tracks > Property > Output.
The Track Outputs dialog appears.
3. In the MIDI Outputs list, select Cakewalk TTS-1.
Press Play to play back the project. If you'd like to add your own track to play through the TTS-1, you
can click on the New Track button again. This time select MIDI Track. On your new MIDI track, set
the output to TTS-1. Remember, it needs to be on its own discreet MIDI channel. In this project, MIDI
channels 1-11 are already used, so let's assign this track to channel 12. You can also select the
sound via the track's Patch control. Then use one of the methods described above to create MIDI
data. You can also add MIDI data to your new track from the Media Browser. See Tutorial 2 for
details about the Media Browser. Another option is using the Staff view as an alternative to the Piano
Roll view. That will be covered in the next tutorial: Tutorial 5 - Working with music notation.
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Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
A great way to compose in SONAR is by using the Staff view. The Staff pane displays MIDI note events
as musical notation. For some musicians, this may be the most familiar and comfortable view in which to
work. The Staff pane provides many features that make it easy for you to compose, edit, and print music.
You can add notes to your composition with simple point-and-click techniques.
This tutorial will introduce you to the tools and features that SONAR provides for working with notation.
Let’s start by opening the Staff view in a new project:
1. On the File menu, click New.
The New Project File dialog appears.
2. Select the Normal template, specify a project name and save location, then click OK.
SONAR loads the new project, which contains two audio tracks and two MIDI tracks.
3. Click on track 3 labeled “MIDI 1”.
4. On the Views menu, click Staff.
The Staff view opens.
Next we need to configure the Staff View tools for the purpose of this tutorial:
1. Change the Display Resolution
2. Disable Fill Durations
3. Select the Draw tool
to the smallest note value.
and Trim Durations
.
.
For this tutorial we will also change the time signature to ¾, the key to G and the staff layout to
display a treble and bass clef.
1. On the Insert menu, click Meter/Key Change.
The Meter/Key Signature dialog appears.
2. Change Beats per Measure to 3 and Key Signature to 1 Sharp (G), then click OK to close the
Meter/Key Signature dialog.
3. In the Staff view, click the Layout button
.
The Staff View Layout dialog appears.
4. In the Clef list, select Treble/Bass, then click OK to close the Staff View Layout dialog.
The Staff View now looks like this:
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Now that you know how to set up the Staff View, it's time to play! You can either record a MIDI track
in this project or manually add notes. The rest of this tutorial will provide you with a basic overview of
the notation tools. For more in depth information about all the features and functionality of the Staff
View, including using the Fretboard and the Lyrics View, see Notation and Lyrics.
Selecting the note value
Simply select any of the note value buttons found in the center of the Staff view. You can also create
a dotted note or triplet by clicking the appropriate buttons found just to the right.
Adding a note
To add a note:
1. Click the Draw tool
.
2. Click at the point where you want to add a note.
A note event is inserted.
Selecting notes
To select notes:
1. Click the Select tool
.
2. Do one of the following:
• To select a single note, click the note head.
• To select multiple adjacent notes, click outside the first note you want to select and drag the
mouse to draw a rectangle around the desired notes.
• To select discontiguous notes, hold down the CTRL key and click the desired notes.
Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
131
Moving Notes - Change timing or pitch
To move notes:
1. Click the Select tool
.
2. Select the note or notes that you want to move.
3. Click on any selected note and drag the mouse left or right to change timing or up and down to
change pitch.
Copying notes
To copy notes:
1. Press and hold the CTRL key down while you click the desired note(s).
2. While still holding the CTRL key and the left mouse button, drag the note(s) to the desired
location, then release the mouse button.
The note(s) is copied.
Changing the duration of a note
You can change the duration of a note while using either the Draw tool
or the Select tool
.
1. Right click the note head to open the Note Properties dialog.
2. In the Duration field, enter in the number of ticks you want for the note, then click OK to close the
Note Properties dialog.
The following table shows the relationship between note durations and ticks (with the default
timebase of 960 ticks per quarter note).
Note
Duration in ticks
Whole
4:000
Half
2:000
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Note
Duration in ticks
Quarter
1:000
Eighth
480
Sixteenth
240
Thirty-second
120
Deleting a note
Select the Erase tool
and click the note you want to delete.
Adding lyrics
To add a lyric event below a note:
1. Click the Draw tool
.
2. Enable the Lyric button
.
3. Position the pointer just below the note and click.
A box appears where lyrics can be typed.
4. Press the space bar to quickly jump to the next note.
Adding chord symbols
To add a chord symbol above a note:
1. Click the Draw tool
.
2. Enable the Chord button
.
3. Position the pointer above the note you want to add the chord to and click.
A chord symbol is added above the note.
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133
4. To change the chord properties or show a guitar chord grid, right-click the chord name.
The Chord Properties dialog appears.
Adding expressions
1. Click the Draw tool
.
2. Enable the Expression button
.
3. Position the pointer just below a note and click.
A box appears where expressions can be entered.
Adding a crescendo or decrescendo/diminuendo
1. Click the Draw tool
.
2. Enable the Hairpin button
.
3. Position the pointer just below a note and click.
A hairpin event (crescendo or decrescendo) is inserted.
4. To change the hairpin type and duration, right-click the hairpin event.
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
The Hairpin Properties dialog appears.
Note: Hairpin events are ornamental only and do not affect playback.
Adding pedal marks (sustain)
1. Click the Draw tool
.
2. Enablen the Pedal button
.
3. Position the pointer below the staff and click.
Pedal down
and Pedal up
marks are inserted.
4. Click and drag to move the marks to a new time if needed.
See:
Printing your notation
Printing your notation
Once you are finished entering and editing notes you can print out the score or individual parts.
1. Select the MIDI track or tracks you want to print the notation for.
2. On the Views menu, click Staff.
The Staff view opens.
3. On the File menu, click Print Preview.
The Print Preview window opens, allowing you to see how the printed score will look.
4. To change the rastral size of the score, click Configure.
The Staff View Print Configure dialog appears. For more information about the different rastral
sizes, see Printing.
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135
5. To print the score, click Print.
Tip: To change the title, composer and copyright information, select File > Info to open the File Info
window.
See:
Notation and Lyrics
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
While working on your music, you are likely to find that editing is a major part of the song creation
process. Before people started making music on computers, all of the editing was done by cutting tape
with a razor blade and piecing it together. You can imagine how difficult it could become. In SONAR, you
can actually select a part of your music with the mouse and delete/copy/paste/move it all very easily. This
Tutorial will introduce SONAR's tools for making some common edits and offer a few tips to make it faster
and more fun.
See:
Selection
Moving clips
Splitting Clips
Cropping Clips
Undo and Redo
Selection
One of the most important things to understand in order to edit your music successfully is selection. Once
you become familiar with selecting, the rest is easy. You typically need to have the appropriate parts
selected in order to make edits on them.
There are two aspects of selection:
• Time Range
• Tracks
Let's say you'd like to delete the second measure of a certain track. The time range specifies that the edit
will need to occur between measures 2 and 3. The track selection specifies what track's clips will be
deleted, while leaving its surrounding tracks unchanged.
Let's explore some different ways to do this in a sample project. All of the tools described are available in
the Track View toolbar, which is located directly above the tracks in the Track View. For a complete
description of all of the tools in the Track view toolbar, see “Track View Toolbar” on page 1439.
Note: If you would like to try both of the following methods, select Edit > Undo after
completeting the first method. Doing so will revert the project to its previous state.
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Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
Method 1:
1. Select the track that you want to delete measure two from.
Tip: Click in the Tracks pane on the left, not the Clips pane on the right.
2. Drag in the time ruler from measure 2 through measure 3.
The selected time range is highlighted.
3. Press DELETE or select Edit > Delete.
Measure two is deleted from the selected track.
Method 2:
1. Select the Free Edit tool
.
2. Click in the center of the clip and drag to select the section you want to delete.
The selected section is highlighted.
3. Press DELETE or select Edit > Delete.
You might have noticed that you're only able to select full measures. What if you need to edit a
smaller amount of time? You'll need to turn off Snap To Grid. To do so, click the Snap to Grid
button
.
With this button disabled, you will be able to make finer selections. You can also choose different
Snap To Grid options. Press SHIFT+N to open the Snap To Grid window and try different options.
For information about each option, click Help.
See:
Moving clips
Splitting Clips
Cropping Clips
Undo and Redo
Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
139
Moving clips
From time to time, you may need to move clips around. If you understand selection, you're half way
there already.
1. Select the section you want to move.
2. With the Free Edit tool, click the top or bottom of the selection and drag the clip to the desired
location.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears, which lets you specify what to do with any existing
data in the target location. You can either replace the existing data or blend the old and new data.
See:
Selection
Splitting Clips
Cropping Clips
Undo and Redo
Splitting Clips
In some cases, you might want to split a clip. As described later in this tutorial, it can be beneficial to
have clip borders at different points on a track. You can split a clip with the Split tool
.
To split a clip, do one of the following:
• To split a clip in two, click the desired position on the clip.
• To split a clip at two separate points, click the first split position and drag to the second split
position.
Note: The Split tool obeys the Snap to Grid settings. If a split does not occur exactly where
you click, disable Snap to Grid and try again.
Tip: You can also use the Free Edit tool to click the desired position on the clip, then press the S
key to split.
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Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
See:
Selection
Moving clips
Cropping Clips
Undo and Redo
Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
141
Cropping Clips
You can crop a clip by using a gesture called slip editing. Slip editing lets you “roll out” the beginning
or the end of a clip to different places without changing the position of the music. Imagine that the
clips are “windows” that allow you to see and hear pieces of audio or MIDI. You can change the size
of that window so that less of the data is visible. If it's not visible, it won't be heard during playback.
The data still exists, so you can enlarge the “window” by slip editing the clip. The visible data will
then be audible.
Click the Select tool
to enable slip editing.
Now, if you point to the left or right clip edge, the cursor changes and you can drag the clip edge to a
new location.
Fading Clips
You can also fade individual clips by using the Select tool. Drag the upper left corner of a clip to
create a fade-in. Drag the upper right corner of a clip to create a fade-out.
To change the fade characteristics, right-click an existing fade and select the desired fade type from
the popup menu.
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Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
See:
Selection
Moving clips
Splitting Clips
Undo and Redo
Undo and Redo
While editing a project, you might make mistakes or experiment with an idea that doesn't produce
the desired results. SONAR has unlimited Undo for such occasions. You can undo one step at a time
by selecting Edit > Undo or by pressing CTRL+Z. You can also look at your edit history and select a
time to go back to. To do so, go to Edit > History, choose the edit you'd like to return to and click
OK.
Note: When you close a project, the undo history is erased.
If you change your mind and want to revert to the previous undo state, select Edit > Redo or press
CTRL+SHIFT+Z.
This tutorial has shown you how to use different tools to shape your recordings into well-organized
and great sounding projects. The next step is mixing, which is covered in Tutorial 7 – Mixing and
adding effects.
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143
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Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
Mixing is an important part of recording that can really help the music you create in SONAR sound its
best. Mixing involves placing different instruments and sounds in layers of the frequency spectrum,
adjusting levels so that tracks blend nicely, spreading them across the stereo field and adding effects
where appropriate.
There are many important decisions to make when mixing; things that are sometimes not considered
while writing a song. The choices you make can have a major effect on how pleasurable the listening
experience is for your audience.
In this tutorial, we'll discuss some general guidelines. But, it's important to remember that there are no
rules. This is another artistic stage of song creation.
We'll start by opening the MixingTutorial project:
1. Go to File > Open and select the file named MixingTutorial.cwp.
Note: Tutorial files are located in the My Documents/Cakewalk/SONAR/Sample
Content/Tutorials folder. You can jump to this folder by selecting Template Files from the
Go to folder drop-down list in the Open dialog.
2. Go to File > Save As and save it under a new name. This way, you can save your work without
overwriting the original, in case you'd like to start over.
In the same folder is a file named MixingTutorial-Complete.cwp, which is a copy of the same
project, but after the tutorial has been completed. You can use this project as a reference to which you
can compare settings and levels.
See:
Volume and pan
Adding effects (FX)
Using Automation
Volume and pan
Adjusting volume and pan is always a good place to start when mixing. One of the biggest benefits
of SONAR's Console view is that you can easily see the volume and pan controls for many tracks
simultaneously, in addition to large meters. Some people also enjoy working in the Console view
because it doesn't offer a graphical representation of what the music “looks like”. Since the final
outcome will be an audio file, the listener will not be distracted by the visual cues that are shown in
the project's Track view. You may find that you are better able to focus on the actual sound when not
seeing the clips.
To open the Console view
• Do one of the following:
• Click the Console view button
in the Views toolbar.
• Click Views > Console.
• Press ALT+3.
Here, we'll be shaping the song's foundation. If you listen to the project as it is, you'll probably notice
that it sounds pretty “muddy” and bland. This usually happens because all of the instruments are
fighting each other for space in the frequency spectrum and stereo field. They're all trying to be
heard at the same level in the same location.
Normally, when recording a track, it is common to try to get a relatively loud signal. This is done to
achieve the best signal-to-noise ratio and knowing that you will eventually adjust levels during the
mixing stage.
Some people like to begin this process by turning down every track and then gradually turning up
one track at a time, starting with the rhythm section. Begin by increasing the volume of the bass
drum to the desired level. Continue with the snare, the rest of the drums and finally the bass guitar-moving on in order of importance. If there is a lead vocal in the song, that would come last, so that it
sits on top of the instrumental foundation you've established.
Other people approach mixing the opposite way, turning things down a bit one at a time. If one
method doesn't seem more appealing than the other, try both to see which one is more comfortable
for you.
Important: Pay close attention to the main meter while mixing. You never want the main
meter to reach the very top, which will result in undesirable audible noise. This is called clipping.
Note: You can find the Mains meters on the far right side in the Console view. If you don’t see
the Mains meters it, click the Mains button
.
The next thing we'll try is panning. As with mixing in general, there are no rules when it comes to
panning. Be creative, trying different ideas to see how they sound. One important thing to consider is
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that when you pan two tracks that share the same frequency range away from each other they will
become clearer. This especially applies to instruments that have been double-tracked. Try it with the
two tracks labeled Cymbals Left and Cymbals Right. Notice how you can hear more definition and
detail in the two tracks as you pan them away from each other. When panning double-tracked
instruments, try to avoid panning them all the way to the left or right. Doing so may cause the tracks
to sound too “separated”, which can take away from the fullness of the sound.
See:
Adding effects (FX)
Using Automation
Adding effects (FX)
At this point, you should have a basic mix. Everything is generally where you want it to be and it's
time to use some audio effects to tweak it all to perfection. Effects placed directly on an audio track
are called inserts.
Choose an audio track you would like to start with:
1. In the Console view, locate the FX bin for the track you’d like to work with. If you don’t see the FX
bin, click the FX button
to ensure FX bins are not hidden.
2. Right-click the FX bin to open the pop-up menu.
3. Point to Audio FX,then point to Sonitus:fx and choose any one of the available effects.
The selected effect is inserted into the track’s FX bin.
4. Experiment with the controls on the plug-in while the music is playing back. You will hear
noticeable changes to the sound.
5. Right-click on the effect and choose Delete to remove the effect.
Each of the effect plug-ins listed is designed to change the sound in some specific way. Here's a
quick list of some of the included plug-ins and what they're typically used for:
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Compressor/Gate. This plug-in affects the loudness of the sound. It can limit how loud a sound
can get. It can also limit how soft a sound can get before it's completely turned off.
EQ. EQ can accentuate or turn down a certain frequency range in a sound. For example, if you
have an unwanted high-pitched buzz on one of your tracks, an EQ may be able to turn that high
frequency down without affecting the sound of the instrument.
Reverb. Reverb creates an artificial space. It produces echoes that are similar to the natural
echoes that happen when a sound bounces off the walls in a room.
Delay. Delay plug-ins have the ability to create an echo. However, it's typically more distinct than
that of a reverb. It makes a sound repeat, often in a rhythmic, musical manner.
These are the effects we'll be focusing on in this tutorial. However, other effects are available and
you should experiment with each one to discover how they can be used in your mixes. To get online
Help for a particular plug-in, simply click one of its controls and press the F1 key on your computer
keyboard.
Compression and EQ
While adjusting track levels in a song, you might notice that some tracks are too dynamic.
Sometimes they're too loud, other times too soft. In most modern music, the important elements in a
mix are focused in a specific volume range. This is done with a compressor.
The purpose of a compressor is to limit the dynamic range of music or sound. Compression will
make the loud parts of the signal quieter, resulting in a more or less even level. That even level can
then be increased to fit more specifically in the mix.
Many compressors have an option to allow that loud peak to remain untouched for a certain time,
which can add some “punch”.
Let's try it on the bass drum:
1. Add the Compressor plug-in to the track labeled Kick.
2. Adjust the Threshold. The threshold value represents the dB level at which compression starts to
take place.
3. Adjust Attack. The attack value represents the time the compressor takes to respond to an
increase in the input audio's level once the threshold level has been reached.
4. Adjust the Level to the desired output volume.
This approach can be applied to any track you like. It's especially useful when trying to get vocals to
stand out in a mix.
Now, we can apply some EQ. One of the primary uses for EQ is to prevent different instruments from
stepping on each other in the frequency spectrum. One instrument might be intended for a certain
frequency range, but extends into another instrument's frequency range. If you turn down the
overlapping frequency range for one of the instruments, it will allow the other instrument to stand out
better in the mix.
Let's give it a try:
1. Solo the tracks named Tension Climbing and Chirppy Synth.
2. Add the Sonitus:fx Equalizer plug-in to the Tension Climbing track.
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The Sonitus:fx Equalizer interface appears.
3. Grab one of the numbered nodes and drag it around. Boost the selected band until you find the
frequency range that interferes with Chirppy Synth. When you find it, turn down the selected
band by dragging the node downward.
Tip: Try to cut the band around 1kHz.
Experiment with the other controls on the EQ to get the best possible results. As with the
compressor plug-in, this approach can be applied to any track you like.
Reverb and Delay
Next, we'll add some space to the song. This is done by using time-based effects.
The first thing we'll do is add a delay effect. A delay effect can really enhance an instrument. In our
tutorial project, we will add the Delay effect to the track name Chirppy Synth, which sounds very dry
and lifeless. Applying a delay might give it more depth.
1. Add the Delay plug-in to Chirppy Synth.
2. Configure the controls as follows:
• Tempo Sync = Host
• Factor = 1/2 (set for both Left & Right channels)
This is a good starting point. Sometimes the best way to familiarize yourself with a new effect plug-in
is to dig in and start tweaking.
Next, we'll apply some reverb to the project. Think of a reverb effect as an artificial room. We could
add a separate reverb to each track, but when multiple reverbs are running at the same time it can
sound “cloudy”. This might be because our ears are used to hearing sounds bounce of walls
naturally. A reverb on each track would sound like you have one instrument in one room, another
instrument in another room, and so on.
Instead, we will add a single reverb effect to a bus, then send each track to that bus, at varying
levels. This is where SONAR's advanced mixing environment offers a lot of flexibility. We will add a
control to each track, which adjusts how loud a copy of the track's sound is sent to the bus. This will
sound more natural since it's similar to the behavior of an actual acoustic space. All of the different
sounds can interact with each other in the “virtual room” we're creating with the reverb.
Follow these steps to create your reverb send from the Console View:
1. We want to add this send to all tracks, so go to Edit > Select > All to select all tracks.
2. Right-click on one of your tracks in the Sends section of the strip and choose Insert Send
Assistant. If you don’t see this section in your Console View click the SEND button to ensure it is
not hidden.
The Insert Send Assistant appears.
3. Configure the Send Assistant as follows:
• Click New Bus. This will create a new reverb bus instead of routing the tracks to an existing
Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
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bus.
• Select Stereo
• In the Name box, type Reverb.
• Click Choose Effect and select Audio Effects > Sonitus:fx > Reverb.
• Make sure Pre Fader is not selected.
• Select the Show Effects Property Page check box.
• In the Bus Output list, select Master.
4. Click OK.
The Reverb property page appears.
5. Set the Reverb control to 0.0 dB and the Dry control to -Inf..
Notice that a send control named Reverb has been added to each track. To enable or disable a
send, click the On/Off button located on each track’s Send control.
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When a send is enabled, you will hear the reverb effect during playback. To adjust how much reverb
is applied to each track, use the send's LEVEL control.
Enable the send control for each track that you want reverb on. You'll probably want at least a little
reverb on every track except for the kick drum and the bass guitar.
See:
Volume and pan
Using Automation
Using Automation
Another feature that is important to mixing is automation. Automation lets you record changes to
almost any parameter in SONAR, including track parameters, effects, synths and buses. SONAR
makes this very easy.
1. Click a track's Write Automation button
2. Press Play
to enable automation recording for that track.
to start playback.
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3. During playback, simply make the changes to the parameters in realtime, using either your mouse
or a control surface.
4. To disable automation recording, stop playback and click the track's Write Automation button
again.
When you play back, the parameters will update automatically.
Automation allows you to make gradual or sudden changes to make your song more dynamic. For
example, in the tutorial project, you might find that Whiney Synth should become lower in volume at
measure 25, when the drums and bass change. Try it:
1. Click the Write Automation button
2. Click Play
on the Whiney Synth track.
or press SPACEBAR to start playback.
3. At measure 25, turn the track volume down to the desired level.
4. At measure 33, turn the track volume back up.
5. Press Stop
to stop playback.
6. Disable Write Automation by clicking the
7. Press Play
button again.
and notice how the track volume changes automatically.
Repeat this process with any other automation you feel the project needs.
That concludes this tutorial. But don't stop here. Continue to experiment by adding different effects,
adding loops through the Media Browser view, etc.
Be creative and listen closely to the mix details in your favorite songs and albums. It's sure to
provide you with inspiration for your own projects. There are also many books available on the topic,
as well as thousands of add-on plug-ins that can expand your arsenal of FX. For more information,
visit www.cakewalk.com.
FX: www.cakewalk.com/Products/instruments.asp
Books/Videos: www.cakewalk.com/Products/Books/Mixing.asp
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Tutorial 8 – Working with video
SONAR allows you to add music and sound to your videos. This tutorial will guide you through the
basics of working with video inside SONAR. If you are new to SONAR, it is highly recommended you
review Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects before going any further.
See:
Importing video
Working with markers
Exporting your video
Importing video
Before you can start working with video, you first need to import a video file. Let’s try this out with a
new project.
1. On the File menu, click New to open the New Project File dialog.
2. Select the Normal template, give your project a name and then click OK.
If you are having trouble with this, please refer to Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving
projects.
3. On the File menu, point to Import and select Video.
The Import Video dialog appears.
Let’s explore some of the options in the Import Video dialog.
The first thing you will notice is that this dialog is very similar to the Open dialog that was discussed
in Tutorial 1. The Import Video dialog functions in very much the same way with the exception of
two sections.
First, outlined in the image above is the drop down box Files of type. Making a selection here will
determine which video formats are displayed in the dialog. SONAR supports the following digital
video formats:
• Windows Media (.wmv and .asf)
• Video For Windows (.avi)
• MPEG Video (.mpg)
• QuickTime Video (.mov)
The file we are interested in for this tutorial is a Windows Media file, so let’s select Windows Media
(*.wmv, *.asf) in the Files of type list.
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Importing video
Next, outlined in the above image you will see the File info area on the left and three options on the
right. Let’s review what each of these options do.
Option
What it does
Show file info
When selected, this tells SONAR to display video information about the
selected file in the File info area of the dialog.
Import Audio Stream
Select this option if you want to import the video file’s embedded audio
into a new audio track in SONAR.
Import as mono tracks
Select this option if you want to import the video file's embedded audio
data as one or more mono tracks.
Table 16.
For now, let’s leave the Import Audio Stream and Show file info check boxes selected.
Just as you would with the Open dialog, navigate to the following location:
My Documents/Cakewalk/SONAR/Sample Content/Tutorials
Locate and import the file named Boarding.wmv. You can open it by either double-clicking on it or
highlighting it and then clicking the Open button.
Tip: You can quickly get to the My Documents folder by clicking on its button along the left side
of the Import Video dialog.
Notice that SONAR imported any audio that is a part of the video as well. If the video does not have
any audio already associated with it, then SONAR will create a silent audio track like in our example.
You should now see the Boarding video in the Video view as well as the Video Thumbnail pane in
the Track view.
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Importing video
155
What if I don’t see the Video Thumbnail pane or Video view?
To show or hide the Video Thumbnail pane, drag the splitter bar that separates the Video Thumbnail
pane from the Clips pane.
To restore the Video Thumbnail pane, point the mouse pointer over the splitter bar (the mouse
pointer will look like
pane to your liking.
), then drag the splitter bar down to restore and resize the Video Thumbnail
If you closed the Video view, or if it did not open automatically when you imported the video, you can
open it by selecting Views > Video or pressing ALT+6.
Changing the video properties
SONAR allows you to make some useful changes to a video's settings for film scoring purposes. To
access these settings, simply right-click in the Video view and choose Video Properties from the
popup menu to open the Video Properties dialog.
The Video Properties dialog has three tabs: the Video Settings tab, the Info tab and the Render
Quality tab. For detailed information about all of these options and settings, see Video Properties
dialog. For this tutorial, we are only going to look at the tools on the Video Settings tab.
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Importing video
There are three options on this tab that are very important to understand and extremely helpful when
working with video. Let's take a closer look at them
Option
What it does
Start Time
The time in your SONAR project at which you want the video file to start playing.
Trim-in Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to start, this is useful if
you don’t want to see the opening credits or the first few scenes. This is expressed
in SMPTE time code.
Trim-out Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to stop, this is also
expressed in SMPTE time code.
Table 17.
Let’s change the Start Time value to measure 2. To do this, enter the number 2 in the Start Time
box.
Now, click the RTZ button in the transport and then click Play. Notice how the video doesn’t start
playing until measure 2 in your project.
See:
Working with markers
Exporting your video
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Importing video
157
Working with markers
When syncing up audio events to film cues or video, it is common to use markers. Markers are a
powerful feature in SONAR that helps to simplify the task of identifying major events in a song or
video. They can be used to clarify where a verse or chorus begins in a rock tune or, in the case of
film scoring, they can be used to identify hit points (points in the film where you want a musical event
to synchronize with a visual event). Before we get started on this next exercise, return to the Video
Properties dialog and click the Video Settings tab. Set Start Time to 1:01:000, Trim-in Time to
00:00:00:00 and Trim-out Time to 00:00:44:23.
Let’s say we want our music to start at the beginning of the video right when the sun comes out. This
occurs about 4 seconds into the movie. Taking a closer look, this happens at 4 seconds and 10
frames into the clip, which, expressed in SMPTE time code, is 00:00:04:10.
There are two ways to add markers in SONAR:
• Place the Now Time at the location where you would like a marker, then select Insert > Marker or
press F11.
• Click the Add Marker button in the Markers view.
Let’s open the Markers view by selecting Views > Markers.
The Markers view is very handy when working with events in a film. The first thing we want to do is
add a new marker to the project, indicating the start of the project. To do this, click the Insert
Markers button
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to open the Marker dialog.
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Working with markers
From this dialog you can do a lot of very important things. First let’s name this marker by typing Intro
in the Name field.
Next, select the Lock to SMPTE (Real World) Time check box. This option is very important when
working with video. If a marker is not locked to SMPTE time, its position in relation to events on the
video will change with tempo and meter changes in the project.
You might also notice that the Time value changes to the SMPTE format after you selected the
check box. This determines where the location of the marker will be. We know in the video that the
sun comes out at about four seconds and ten frames into the video. Let’s set the Time value to
00:00:04:10.
Click OK to insert the marker and close the Marker dialog. You can place as many markers as you
need for a project to sync up all of your events.
The Markers view will now display the marker you just created, with the name Intro assigned to it.
The Marker view toolbar contains the following commands that apply to selected markers.
Control
Description
Click the Delete Marker button to delete the currently selected marker.
Click the Change Marker Properties button to open the Marker dialog for the selected
marker. This is useful if you want to change the location of a marker.
Click the Lock/Unlock Marker button to lock or unlock the marker to SMTPE time.
Table 18.
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Working with markers
159
Close the Markers view now and take a look at the time ruler in SONAR, which spans the top of the
Clips pane in the Track view. You will notice there is now an orange flag named Intro indicating
where your new marker is in the project.
See:
Importing video
Exporting your video
Exporting your video
Once you have finished with all of your music and have your video synced up as you would like it,
you’ll want to mix it down to a video file that you can share with the world.
1. Select everything in the project that you want to export. If you want to export the entire project,
simply select Edit > Select > All or press CTRL+A.
2. On the File menu, point to Export and click Video.
The Export Video dialog opens. You will notice this is very similar to both the Save As and
Export Audio dialogs that were explored in Tutorial 1 and Tutorial 9.
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Exporting your video
3. Similar to saving project files, you will first want to give your video a name by typing one into the
File name field.
4. Choose the desired video format by selecting it from the Save as type list.
Clicking the Encoding Options button at the bottom will allow you to explore some advanced
settings for your video. From this dialog you will be able to change the quality and size of your
video. This is particularly important if you plan to upload your video to the web. Some codecs
work better than others and are more appropriate for different scenarios. Click the Help button in
this dialog for more specific details about different formats.
The Audio Mixdown Options button will bring up settings specific to the audio in your project.
Click the Help button for detailed instructions on how to use these settings.
5. Specify the location you wish to save the file to and click Save to export it.
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Exporting your video
161
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Exporting your video
Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and
sharing
Once your SONAR project is complete, you will want to share it with the world or burn a CD. SONAR
offers many tools to help you do this. In this tutorial, we are going to explore some of the basics of these
tools.
Before we get started, let’s open one of the example audio projects included with SONAR. If you have
your own project that already contains audio, you can load that instead. However, your screen will look
different from the images in this tutorial.
1. On the File menu, click Open.
The Open dialog appears.
2. In the Go to Folder list, select Template Files and then open the Tutorials folder.
3. Browse to the project named SONAR_AudioDemo1.cwp and click Open to load the project.
Note: You may have to rename the file if you saved it with the same name during Tutorial 1.
Now that you have opened the demo project (or your own audio project) click the Play button
or
press SPACEBAR listen to it. If you do not hear any audio, review the steps in Tutorial 1 to ensure
SONAR and your audio device are configured correctly.
Cakewalk Project Files are different from the audio you hear on a CD in that they are often multi-track. In
this example, you will notice that there are four audio tracks. In order to burn this mix to a CD or prepare
it for distribution, we need to export or mix it down to a stereo track.
First, we need to click File > Export > Audio.
This will bring us to the Export Audio dialog. This has many useful functions. Let’s explore some of them
in detail.
You should notice that the top half of this window is very similar to the Open and Save dialogs that
were discussed in Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects. This is used to navigate to
locations on your computer’s hard drive and tell SONAR where you want to store the exported
audio.
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For this Tutorial, we are only going to explore some of the more common settings. If you would like
to read about all of the options and settings click the Help button.
Control
Function
Channel Format
Specifies if the audio should be exported as stereo or mono.
Sample Rate
Allows you to set the sample rate of your export. 44100 Hz is used for CD
quality audio.
Bit-Depth
Allows you to set the bit-depth of your export. 16-bit is used for CD quality
and 24-bit is often used for DVD quality audio.
Add to Cakewalk Publisher
Select this option to send your file to Cakewalk Publisher, which is used to
put your music on the Internet.
Table 19.
If you would like to burn an audio CD of your music
1. Click File > Export > Audio to open the Export Audio dialog.
2. In the Channel Format list, select Stereo.
3. In the Sample Rate list, select 44100.
4. In the Bit-Depth list, select 16.
5. Enter a name for you mix in the File name box.
6. In the File type list, select Wave.
7. Specify where you want to save the file. Make note of this location, because you will need to use
it later.
8. Click Export.
A progress bar appears across the bottom of SONAR’s screen while a CD quality audio file is
exported. When the progress bar disappears, SONAR has finished exporting your project.
Now we need to burn our mix to a CD. SONAR features a powerful built-in CD burning application
that can do this for us. Let’s open Audio Creator LE and briefly explore its features and how to use it.
See:
Burning an audio CD
Cakewalk Publisher
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165
Burning an audio CD
Select Tools > Burn Audio CD to open the Audio CD Burner dialog.
Simply browse to the audio files you wish to burn and click the Add Track button. You can also drag
audio files into the Burner tracklist.
Note: Any files that are not in 16 bit, 44.1kHz wav files will automatically be converted to the
proper CD format.
Depending on the type of blank CD you are using, you can fit up to 80 minutes of audio on one CD.
Make note of the Space Available and Space Used fields; these will let you know how many more
tracks you can fit on your CD. For the best compatibility with most consumer CD players, you should
use a CD-R disc. CD-RW discs, while compatible with some newer CD players, may not play back in
all systems.
Once you have finished adding all the songs you would like to burn to a CD, the final step is to burn
your disc. To do so, do the following:
1. Insert the writable CD into the CD-R drive.
The drive containing the writable CD should automatically be detected. If for some reason it isn’t
detected, manually select the drive letter of your CD Burner from the Target Drive drop down list.
2. Click Burn CD.
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If you would like to share your music on the internet
Note: Due to licensing restrictions, your Cakewalk software only includes a 30 day free trial of
the MP3 encoder. If your 30 day trial period has expired, a full license can be purchased for
unlimited use from the Cakewalk web store.
1. Click the Export Audio button to open the Export Audio dialog.
2. In the Channel Format list, select Stereo.
3. In the Sample Rate list, select 44100.
4. In the Bit-Depth list, select 16.
5. Select the Add to Cakewalk Publisher check box.
6. Enter a name for you mix in the File name box.
7. In the File type list, select MP3.
8. Click Export.
The MP3 Export Options dialog appears. For detailed information about the different options,
click Help.
9. For our exercise, accept the default settings by clicking OK.
A progress bar appears across the bottom of SONAR’s screen. When the progress bar
disappears, SONAR has finished exporting your project.
See:
Cakewalk Publisher
Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing
167
Cakewalk Publisher
SONAR includes Cakewalk Publisher, which is a powerful tool to share your music, artwork and
playlists on the Internet. A detailed description of Publisher is beyond the scope of this tutorial, but
let’s take a quick look at its basic features and how it integrates with SONAR.
To open Publisher, select Tools > Publish to Web.
Notice that your recently exported project is already listed in the Track list. This is because you
selected the Add to Cakewalk Publisher check box in the Export Audio dialog.
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The following table describes a few of the buttons in the publisher interface. If you would like to
explore all of the features in Publisher, click the button labeled HELP in the upper right corner of the
Publisher window.
Control
Function
Used to configure the player and generate the HTML code for
pasting into your web site.
Lets you associate an image with the selected track. This is
useful if you want to include album artwork when you upload
your music.
Adds new tracks to the current playlist.
Deletes selected tracks from the current playlist.
Once your player has been configured and your playlist is put
together, click Publish to upload your files to the Internet.
Table 20.
Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing
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Controlling Playback
When you play your SONAR project, you have full control over the tempo or speed of playback,
which tracks are played, which sound cards or other devices are used to produce the sound, and
what the tracks sound like. You can access most of the playback functions from the Large
Transport toolbar.
SONAR’s multi-MIDI enhancements give you the ability to play multiple synths or tracks from a
single keyboard or controller, or let multiple performers play the same or different tracks. You have
total control over MIDI echo (MIDI echo refers to where MIDI input signals are sent once SONAR
receives them).
Note: SONAR has a button called the Audio Engine button
in the Transport toolbar which
you click to stop any feedback you may experience if there is a loop somewhere in your mixer
setup. Whenever you play a project, SONAR automatically enables the audio engine, which you
can tell by watching the status bar—whenever the audio engine is running, the Audio Running
indicator in the status bar lights up.
See also:
The Now time and how to use it
Using the Large Transport
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
Changing track settings
Video playback, import, and export
Locating missing audio
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo
Local control
The Now time and how to use it
Every project has a current time, known as the Now time, which keeps track of where you are in a
project. The Now time appears as a vertical line in the Track view and is displayed in both the Large
Transport toolbar and the Position toolbar, in two formats.
The measure, beat, and tick number (MBT) identifies the Now time in musical time units. Ticks are
subdivisions of quarter notes and indicate the timebase of the project. For more information about
the timebase, see “Setting the MIDI timing resolution” on page 241. The other time format is the
SMPTE format, expressed in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames.
Figure 17.
The Large Transport toolbar
A
B
C
A. The current measure, beat, and tick B. The current time in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames C. Meter
Key Signature display
Here are some examples of times expressed in measure, beat, and tick (MBT) format:
Time
What it means
1:01:000
First beat of the first measure
9:04:000
Fourth beat of the ninth measure
4:02:060
The 60th tick of the second beat of the fourth measure
Table 21.
The hours-minutes-seconds-frames format is commonly referred to as the SMPTE time. SMPTE is
the acronym for the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. In this format, time is
measured in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames. It’s not necessary for a project to begin at time
zero in this format—any time can be used to represent the start of a project. If you are synchronizing
SONAR with an external device whose start time is not 0, you must offset SONAR to match the
external device’s start time. For more information, see Synchronizing Your Gear.
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Here are some examples of times expressed in this format (assuming that zero is the start time):
Time
What it means
00:00:00:00
The beginning of the project
00:05:10:00
Five minutes and ten seconds from the beginning of the project
01:30:00:00
One hour and thirty minutes into the project
00:00:00:05
Five frames into the project
Table 22.
SONAR provides many ways to set the Now time. Here are just a few:
To change the Now time
• Click the desired time on The Time ruler in the Track view, Piano Roll view, or Staff view
• In the Navigator pane, click anywhere in the view while holding down the CTRL key to change the
Now Time to that location
• Click on the Now time in the Large Transport toolbar, enter the desired time, and press ENTER
• Choose Go > Time or press F5, enter the desired time, and click OK.
• Click on an event in the Event List view.
You can also set the Now time by right-clicking in the Clips pane if you enable the Right Click Sets
Now option in the Track View Properties dialog. Right-click a an empty area of the Clips pane, and
select View Options from the menu that appears to open the Clip View Properties dialog.
When entering a time in MBT format, the beat and tick values are optional. You can use a colon,
space, decimal point, or vertical bar to separate the parts of the Now time:
You enter
The Now time is set to
2
2:01:000
420
4:02:000
9
9:01:000
5|1:30
5:01:030
Table 23.
When entering a time in SMPTE format, you can enter a single number (hour), two numbers (hour
and minutes), three numbers (hour, minutes, and seconds), or all four numbers.
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173
If you click in The Time ruler while the snap grid is enabled, the Now time will be snapped to the
nearest point in the grid. By setting the grid size to a whole note or quarter note, you can easily set
the Now time to a measure or beat boundary.
Note: The Time Ruler only obeys snap when Musical Time or Absolute Time is selected in
the Snap to Grid dialog.
You can also use the buttons and the scroll bar in either the Transport toolbar or Large Transport
toolbar to adjust the time.
When playback or recording is stopped, the Now Time either remains at the point where the project
stopped or snaps back to the Now Time Marker. This behavior is controlled in the General tab of the
Global Options dialog. For more information, see The Now time marker.
MIDI note will continue to play If Now Time is moved
Changing the Now time while a MIDI note is sounding will cause SONAR to play the full duration of
the note. This behavior was introduced in SONAR 4.0.3, and is necessary as a result of addressing
various gapping issues when editing MIDI data during playback.
If you prefer a slight hiccup instead of hearing the full note duration, you can change the default
behavior with the Set Now Time with Full Restart option in Options > Global > General.
Note: Moving a MIDI note event during playback is affected by this same issue.
See:
Displaying the Now time in large print
Other ways to set the Now time
The Now time marker
In the Track view, the Now time appears as a black vertical line. When you set the Now time in the
Track view a green triangle called the Now time marker appears in the Time Ruler. This marker
represents the point at which the Now time will snap back to after you stop playback or recording.
You can drag the Now Time marker during playback. When the mouse button is released, the
transport immediately jumps to the new location.
Note: You can only drag the Now Time marker during playback, not while recording.
You can change the Now time marker behavior so that the marker moves to the current Now time
when playback or recording is stopped (use the Options > Global command; on the General tab
uncheck On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker).
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To change the Now time marker behavior
1. Select Options > Global from the SONAR menu.
The Global Options dialog appears.
2. Click the General tab.
3. Uncheck the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option to have the Now time marker move to
follow the current Now time when you stop playback.
Or
Check the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option to have the Now time snap back to the Now
time marker when you stop playback.
4. Click OK.
The Track view Now time display
The Track view displays the Now Time above the track strips in a large and configurable format.
Figure 18.
The Track view Now time display
Click the display to display the following time formats:
• M:B:T (Measure:Beat:Tick). Example: 8:01:000.
• SMPTE (Hours:Minutes:Seconds:Frames).
Example: 00:00:21:00.
• Frames. Example: 629 (only available if project contains video).
• Milliseconds (Hours:Minutes:Seconds:Milliseconds).
Example: 00:00:21:000.
• Samples. Example: 926100.
You can also right-click the display, and choose time formats from the pop-up menu.
The pop-up menu also lets you choose the following display options:
• To hide the time display, choose None.
• To show the time display, right-click the empty area and choose one of the available time formats
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175
from the pop-up menu.
• To choose font, size,color, or resizing options, choose Font from the pop-up menu to open the
Font dialog. Enabling the Automatically Resize to Window option causes the display to
automatically shrink the display to fit the available space.
• To choose alignment options, choose Align > Left, Align > Center, or Align > Left from the popup menu.
You can also configure the color from the Configure Colors dialog (Options > Colors; "Track View
Header Time Display"). The color is saved with color presets.
The time display settings are global and persist between sessions.
Displaying the Now time in large print
SONAR can display the Now time in large print so that it’s easier to see when you are far from your
monitor (for example, when you’re at your keyboard or another instrument) or when several people
need to read the Now time from a distance. Here’s how:
To display the Big time view
1. Choose Views > Big Time to display the Big Time view.
Figure 19.
The Big Time view
2. Change the settings according to the table:
To do this
Do this
Switch time format
Click on the view to toggle between MBT and SMPTE time
Change font or color
Right-click on the view, choose the font and color you want,
and click OK
Change the size of the view
Drag any corner of the view to change its size
Table 24.
Note that SONAR ignores font styles and effects such as strikeout and underline.
Other ways to set the Now time
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The Now time and how to use it
There are a variety of commands and keyboard shortcuts you can use to set the Now time:
Command
Shortcut
What it does
Go > Time
F5
Lets you enter the Now time in the Position toolbar or in a dialog
box
Go > From
F7
Sets the Now time to the From time (the start time of the current
time selection)
Go > Thru
F8
Sets the Now time to the Thru time (the end time of the current time
selection)
Go > Beginning
CTRL+HOME
Sets the Now time to the beginning of the project
Go > End
CTRL+END
Sets the Now time to the end of the project
Go > Previous
Measure
CTRL+PAGE UP Sets the Now time to the start of the current measure if the Now
time is not on a barline, or to the start of the previous measure if the
Now time is on a barline.
Go > Next Measure
CTRL+PAGE
DOWN
Sets the Now time to the start of the next measure
Table 25.
If your project has markers, you can use the Marker toolbar to set the Now time:
To do this
Do this
Skip to the next marker
Click
on the Markers toolbar (or press CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE
DOWN).
Skip to the previous marker
Click
Jump to any marker
on the Markers toolbar (or press CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE UP).
Click
on the Markers toolbar to open the Markers view. Click on the
marker you want to jump to in the Markers view.
Table 26.
For more information about markers, see “Creating and Using Markers” on page 318.
The Time ruler
The Time ruler appears in the Track view, Tempo view, Staff view and Piano Roll view. It has several
functions, including:
• Making a time selection.
The Time ruler follows the Snap to Grid settings, if enabled.
• Changing the Now time
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177
• Adding loop, punch, and pitch markers.
You can right-click in the Time ruler to add markers.
In the Track view, the Time ruler has the following time display options or formats:
• Measures, Beats and Ticks (M:B:T)
• Hours, Minutes, Seconds and Frames (H:M:S:F—also called SMPTE)
• Samples
• Milliseconds
Figure 20.
The Time ruler
A
E
B
C
F
D
A. M:B:T B. H:M:S:F C. Samples D. Milleseconds E. Add Musical Snap to transient snap pool (see
AudioSnap) F. Minus and Plus buttons
The M:B:T setting follows your settings in the Meter/Key view. If you project is set to 4/4 time, you
have four beats in the Time ruler for each measure. If your project is set to 6/8 time, you have six
beats in the Time ruler for each measure.
If there is only one format displayed in the Time ruler, you can switch the format by right-clicking in
the Time ruler and selecting the format you prefer.
To switch the Time ruler format to M:B:T
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format > M:B:T.
To switch the Time ruler format to H:M:S:F (SMPTE)
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format > H:M:S:F.
To switch the Time ruler format to samples
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format > Samples.
To switch the Time ruler format to milliseconds
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format > Milliseconds.
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Additionally, you can add or remove Time ruler formats using the Plus/Minus buttons located just
outside the right edge of the Time ruler.
Note: If only one Time ruler format is being used, only the Plus button is displayed.
To add or remove Time ruler formats using the Plus/Minus buttons
• Click the Plus button and select a Time ruler format from the pop-up menu.
• Click the Plus button and select a Time ruler format you would like to add from the pop-up menu.
• Click the Minus button and select from the pop-up menu to remove an active Time ruler format.
• Right-click in the Time ruler and move the cursor to Time ruler format in the pop-up menu. A list of
all Time ruler formats appears. Active formats are checked, inactive formats are unchecked.
• Click a checked format to move it down one row.
• Click an unchecked format to replace the topmost displayed format.
Note: Enabling the Display All Times as SMPTE check box in the General tab of the Global
Options dialog forces all times in the project to be displayed in SMPTE time, regardless of your
setting in the Time ruler.
Controlling playback
To control playback, you have your choice of tools, menu commands, and shortcut keys for most
common operations.
When you start playback, the Now time updates continuously to show the current time. When you
stop playback, the Now time rewinds to the Now Time Marker. When you start playback again, it
continues from the same point.
If the Now time is advancing but you don’t hear any sound, see the online help topic
“Troubleshooting.” If you are using MIDI sync or syncing to MIDI time code, SONAR waits to receive
external timing data before it begins playing. If the various views are not updating during playback,
make sure the Scroll Lock key on your computer keyboard is not enabled. For more information, see
the online help topic Synchronizing Your Gear.
Note: If your Windows setup uses any system sounds that are associated with any typical
activity, such as minimizing a window, etc., you should disable these sounds. They can sound
extremely loud through your monitors, and also interrupt playback and recording, if you open
any dialog boxes or do anything that has a system sound attached to it while a project plays.
The quickest way to disable all system sounds is to open the Control Panel (Start > Settings >
Control Panel), double-click the Sounds icon to open the Sounds Properties dialog box, and
in the Schemes field select No Sounds. Click Apply, and then click OK.
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179
To start and stop playback
To do this
Do this
Start playback
Press the SPACEBAR, click
click in the Time Ruler
, or choose Transport > Play, or double-
Press the SPACEBAR, click
, or choose Transport > Stop
Stop playback
Rewind to the start of the project
Click
Skip to the end of the project
Click
, press the W key, or choose Transport > Rewind
Table 27.
Note: The default behavior for the Now time when you click the Stop button is for it to return
to the Now time marker where playback began. If you want the Now time to remain where it is
when you stop playback, you can use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+SPACEBAR. If you want to
change the default behavior, select Options > Global and click the General tab. In the General
tab, uncheck the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option.
Allow playback with no data
SONAR is able to start playback even if there is no data in a project. This is useful in various cases,
such as:
• If you need to trigger playback of external devices.
• If you need to continue playback beyond the end of the project, for example, to allow MIDI notes
and sustains to decay naturally and not end abruptly.
Stop at Project End option
The Stop at Project End global option determines whether or not playback is allowed beyond the
last event in a project. This option is enabled by default.
When enabled (default setting):
• Playback will not engage if there is no data present in the project at all.
• Playback will stop when no more data is present going forward.
When disabled:
• Playback will engage if there is no data present in the project at all.
• Playback will continue past the end of a project until the user manually stops playback.
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Controlling playback
To allow playback with no data
Use the Options > Global command to open the Global Options dialog, and on the General tab,
make sure that the Stop at Project End check box is not checked.
Auto fade when starting/stopping playback
SONAR makes it possible to render a smooth fade in/out whenever audio playback is interrupted.
This can be useful to smooth out abrupt transitions while stopping and starting the transport rapidly
and will reduce ear fatigue during long sessions.
The fade is only applied during playback and is ignored while recording or bouncing audio.
To configure the auto fade times
1. Select Options > Audio and click the Advanced tab.
The Audio Options dialog appears.
2. Adjust the following options:
• Fade On Start (milliseconds). When this option is set to a value greater than zero, starting
playback will cause a gradual fade in of the audio for the specified duration. The valid range is
0–100000 and the default value is 0.
• Fade On Stop (milliseconds). When this option is set to a value greater than zero, stopping
playback will cause a gradual fade out of the audio for the specified duration. The valid range is
0–100000 and the default value is 0.
Handling stuck notes
Under MIDI, the events that turn notes on are separate from the events that stop notes from playing.
Normally, when you stop playback, SONAR attempts to turn off all notes that are still playing.
Depending on how your equipment is configured, it’s possible for notes to get stuck in the On
position. The Transport > Reset command is used to stop all notes from playing. The Transport >
Reset command also stops feedback from input monitoring.
Note: You can control the MIDI messages that are sent by the Transport > Reset command
by changing the Panic Strength variable in the Cakewalk.ini file. See “Initialization Files”
on page 929 for more information.
To clear stuck notes
• Choose Transport > Reset, or click
on the Large Transport toolbar.
See:
The Transport > Reset command
Looping
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181
Sometimes you want to listen to one portion of a project over and over, either so you can play along
and rehearse or because you want to edit that section of the project while it is playing and hear the
results as you make changes. SONAR has a playback looping feature that makes this simple.
Looping is defined in the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar, as shown here:
B
A
C
E
D
A. Click to turn looping on or off B. Click to copy the selection (From and Thru) times C. Click to open the Loop/
Auto Shuttle dialog box D. Loop End time E. Loop Start time
To set up a loop, you do three things:
• Set the start time of the loop
• Set the end time of the loop
• Enable looping
From then on, SONAR will automatically jump back to the start of the loop when it reaches the end.
When looping is enabled, the loop times are indicated by special markers in the Time ruler.
A
B
A. Loop From B. Loop Thru
To move a loop in the Time ruler
1. Click the yellow bar that connects the two loop markers
The cursor becomes a horizontal double-headed arrow.
2. Drag the loop to the desired location in the Time ruler.
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The Loop/Auto Shuttle dialog box, which appears when you use the Transport > Loop and Auto
Shuttle command or click the Loop and Auto Shuttle button
in the Loop toolbar, contains two
additional settings that affect the details of how looping operates:
Option
How it works
Stop at the end time
Playback does not proceed beyond the end of the loop
Loop continuously
When playback reaches the end of the loop and rewinds to the start,
playback continues automatically (this option is on by default)
Table 28.
With the default option settings, SONAR will play the loop over and over again, continuously.
If you start playback before the loop start time, SONAR will play until the loop end time is reached,
then jump back to the loop start time.
Note: If you stop playback while looping is enabled, the Now time jumps to the Now time
marker. If you disable the On Stop Rewind to Now Marker option in the General tab of the
Global Options dialog, the Now time stays wherever you stopped playback.
The Rewind command operates slightly differently when looping is in effect. The first time you
rewind, the Now time is set to the start of the loop. If the Now time is already at the start of the loop,
Rewind takes you to the beginning of the project. From then on, Rewind switches back and forth
between the loop start time and the start of measure 1.
To set up a playback loop
1. Set the loop start and end times in one of the following ways:
• Drag the mouse between two points in the The Time ruler of the Track view, Staff, or Piano Roll
view to select a range of times, then click
selection time to the loop time.
in the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar to copy the
• Click between two markers in the Track, Staff, or Piano Roll view to select a range of times,
then click
in the Loop/Auto Shuttle toolbar to copy the selection time to the loop time.
• Type the loop start and end times directly into the toolbar.
• Select a range of times, then right-click in the Time ruler and choose Set Loop Points (this
method makes the second option unnecessary).
Looping is automatically turned on when you use the Set Loop to Selection command.
To change the loop settings
1. Click
, or choose Transport > Loop and Auto Shuttle to display the Loop/Auto Shuttle
dialog box.
2. Check the options you want to use.
3. Click OK.
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183
To cancel a playback loop
• Click
on the toolbar to disable looping.
Using the Large Transport
The Large Transport consists of six sections, each of which can be shown or hidden according to
the needs of your project. Right click anywhere in the Large Transport, and deselect any section
from the pop-up menu that you wish to hide. The six sections are Markers, Record, Transport,
Loop, Tempo and System.
Figure 21.
A
The Large Transport toolbar
B
C
L
K
D
J
I
E
F
H G
A. Markers section B. Punch In/Out section C. Transport section D. Loop section E. Tempo section F. System
section G. Click to move ahead one measure H. Auto-punch toggle I. Drag Now Time to any desired position
J. Click to jump to the end K. Click to back up one measure L. Click to jump to the beginning
The Large Transport toolbar differs from the Transport toolbar in that it displays a Markers section
(numeric keypad), the Now time (which you can set by entering numbers into the display fields in
either MBT or SMPTE time), a CPU and Disk Cache Performance meter, and the Time/Key
Signature display. The Time/Key Signature display shows the current meter, key signature, and
tempo. You can edit the meter and key signature by clicking the display to open the Time/Key
Signature dialog box. You can display the Large Transport toolbar by selecting the Views >
Toolbars command to open the Toolbars dialog box, and checking Transport (Large). You can
also display and hide the Large Transport toolbar by pressing F4.
Using the Markers section
You can store up to 12 markers in the Markers section, making it easy to navigate through your
project. Assign markers to milestones in your project using the Insert > Marker command or by
pressing F11 when the now time is in the desired location for your marker. When your cursor hovers
over a button in the Markers section, the name you assigned to the marker is displayed as a tooltip.
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Controlling Playback
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B
C
D
A
E
A. Marker buttons B. Record options C. Set punch in time D. Set punch out time E. Set punch points to
selection
To use the Punch In/Out section
1. Click the Record Options button
.
The Record Options dialog box appears.
2. Select between Blending existing data with new data, or Overwriting existing data with new
data.
3. Select between storing looped takes in a single track or storing looped takes in individual tracks.
For more information see “Loop Recording” on page 262. You can also set Auto-punch from the
Record Options dialog. For details, see “To use auto-punch in the Punch In/Out section” on page
185.
To use auto-punch in the Punch In/Out section
1. Activate Auto-punch by clicking the Set punch points button
.
2. Click the Punch In M:B:T meter and enter the Punch In time using the spinners or keying in the
desired M:B:T.
3. Click the Punch Out M:B:T meter and enter the Punch Out time using the spinners or keying in
the desired M:B:T.
4. Set the Now Time far enough ahead of the Punch In point for you to be ready for it.
5. Click the Record button on the Large Transport or press R on your keyboard.
SONAR plays the project, and begins recording on the selected track at the Punch In time you
entered, then stops recording at the Punch Out time.
Buttons in the Transport section
• RTZ (Return to zero)
• Start/Stop Rewind
• Stop project
• Play project
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185
• Pause project
• Start/Stop Fast-forward
• Go to end of project
• Record
.
• Audition
.
• Toggle Auto-punch
• Reset MIDI
• Now Time measured inM:B:T, H:M:S:F
• Now Time slider
Note: The Rewind
and Fast Forward
buttons allow you to rewind and fast forward
smoothly during playback. Any audio data will continue to play normally, however the Now Time
marker will move smoothly until you release the Rewind or Fast Forward button.
To use the Loop section
1. Clip the Loop On/Off button
.
2. Set the Loop Start time in the M:B:T meter either manually or by using the spinner. Set the Loop
End time in the M:B:T meter either manually or by using the spinner.
You can also set a loop from the Large Transport toolbar by highlighting a section of your project in
the Time ruler and then clicking the Set Loop Points to Selection button
.
Reading the Key signature, Time signature, Tempo and System display
The Large Transport displays a variety of information about the project you are working on,
including tempo, key, meter, metronome settings, and CPU and disk cache performance.
.
A
B
G
F
E
D
C
A. Tempo B. CPU performance meter C. Disk cache performance meter D. Time signature E. Key signature
F. Metronome on/off during record G. Metronome on/off during playback
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Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
SONAR lets you play back any combination of tracks at one time by changing each track’s status.
You can control the status of each track with the individual controls that are on every track, or with
the global controls on the Playback State toolbar or the status bar that’s at the bottom of the
SONAR window. For more information about the status bar, see “Status Bar/CPU Meter/Disk Meter”
on page 855. For more information about the Playback State toolbar, see “The Playback state
toolbar” on page 188.
There are several different status settings for each track:
Status
What it means
Normal
The track plays unless one or more of your other tracks is soloed.
Muted
The track is not played, but you can turn it on while playback is in progress.
Archived
The track is not played, and you must stop playback to re-enable it. Archived
tracks do not tax your CPU during playback so they can be used to store
alternate takes.
Soloed
Only those tracks that are designated as solo tracks are played; all others are
muted.
Armed
The track is armed for recording.
Mono/Stereo
The track plays back in either mono or stereo, depending on what the
individual track setting is, and whether the Play in Mono button in the
Playback State toolbar is depressed.
Phase normal or inverted
If a track was accidentally recorded out of phase with another track, the Phase
button lets you reverse the phase of a track.
Table 29.
While playback is in progress, you can mute and unmute tracks in any combination, which means
you can hear only the tracks that you want. You can change the status of a track in the Track view,
the Console view, the Track menu, or the Playback State toolbar.
If a track is both muted and soloed, it does not play. Mute has precedence.
The track status is saved with the SONAR project file. If you save a SONAR project as a standard
MIDI File, however, all tracks are saved without mute, solo, or archive indicators.
See:
The Playback state toolbar
Silencing tracks
Soloing tracks
Inverting the phase of a track
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Track-by-track playback
187
Changing tracks’ mono/stereo status
The Playback state toolbar
To display the Playback State toolbar, use the Views > Toolbars command to open the Toolbars
dialog box, and make sure Playback State is checked. The Playback State toolbar is a global
control that allows you to mute or unmute, solo or unsolo, arm or disarm, and toggle the input echo
status of all tracks.
A
B
C D
E
F
A. Drag to reposition B. Mute C. Solo D. Arm E. Input echo or MIDI echo F. Solo Dim
See:
Silencing tracks
Soloing tracks
Silencing tracks
When a track is muted, SONAR processes the track while playback is in progress so that you can
unmute the track without stopping playback. If you have lots of muted tracks, this can place a heavy
load on your computer. Archived tracks, on the other hand, don’t place any load on your computer.
Therefore, if there are tracks you want to keep but don’t need to play, you should archive them
instead. Archived tracks are indicated by the letter A in the Mute button that is displayed in the Track
and Console views.
When you mute or unmute a track while playback is in progress, there may be a slight delay before
you hear the effect of the change. This is to be expected and does not indicate a hardware or
software problem.
To mute or unmute individual tracks
• To mute or unmute a track, click its M button in the Track or Console view.
• To mute or unmute several tracks at once, select the tracks and choose Tracks > Mute, or select
the tracks, right-click, and choose Mute from the pop-up menu.
To unmute all tracks
• Click the M button in the Playback State toolbar or the Mute label in the status bar.
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Controlling Playback
Track-by-track playback
To mute all tracks
• If no tracks are currently muted, click the M button in the Playback State toolbar.
Or
• Select all tracks, and then use the Tracks > Mute command.
To archive or unarchive tracks
1. Select one or more tracks in the Track view.
2. Do one of the following:
• Click the track’s Archive button
.
• Choose Tracks > Archive, or right-click and choose Archive from the menu to toggle the
archive status of the selected tracks.
Note: A track can not be archived during playback.
Tip: To show/hide the Archive and Freeze buttons in the Track view, open the Widget Tab
Manager and specify the visibility of the Track State group. For details, see Widget Tab Manager.
Soloing tracks
Sometimes you want to hear a single track, or a few tracks at once, without having to mute all the
other tracks. You can do this by soloing the tracks you want to hear.
As soon as any track is marked as a solo track, SONAR ignores all mute settings (unless a soloed
track is also muted—mute takes precedence over solo) and plays only the track or tracks that are
set to solo. Any number of tracks at one time can be marked as solo. All these tracks will play
together. As soon as the solo status of the final solo track is turned off, SONAR once again plays
back tracks based on their mute settings.
To solo or unsolo individual tracks
• To solo or unsolo a track, click the Solo button in the Track or Console view
• To solo or unsolo several tracks at once, select the tracks and choose Tracks > Solo, or rightclick, and choose Solo from the pop-up menu.
See also:
Dim Solo mode
To unsolo all tracks
• Click the S button in the Playback State toolbar or the Solo label in the status bar.
Controlling Playback
Track-by-track playback
189
To solo all tracks
• If no tracks are currently soloed, click the S button in the Playback State toolbar.
Or
• Select all tracks, and then use the Tracks > Solo command.
See also:
Dim Solo mode
Dim Solo mode
Normally when you solo a track/bus in SONAR, the tracks or buses which are not soloed are
essentially muted. Dim Solo is a mode in which non-soloed audio tracks/buses are still audible but at
a reduced level. The default gain reduction is -6dB, but can also be configured for -12dB and -18dB.
Dim Solo is useful when you want to focus on a specific track but you still want to edit/mix the track
in context with the entire mix. This allows you to hear all tracks while the soloed track stands out
from non-soloed tracks.
Note: Dim Solo mode only applies to audio tracks and buses, not MIDI tracks.
To enable/disable Dim Solo
When Dim Solo is enabled, non-soloed audio tracks will play at a reduced gain rather than 0 gain
(mute).
To enable/disable Dim Solo mode, do one of the following:
• Click the Dim Solo button
in the Playback State toolbar. The button lights up when enabled.
For more information, see “The Playback state toolbar” on page 188.
A
A. Dim Solo enable/disable toggle
• Assign Dim Solo Mode to a key binding and use the key binding to enable/disable Dim Solo
mode.
The Dim Solo Mode function is listed in the Global Bindings context. For more information, see
“Key Bindings” on page 738.
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Controlling Playback
Track-by-track playback
The Dim Solo enable/disable state is saved with each project.
To configure Dim Solo level
When Dim Solo mode is enabled, the amount of gain reduction applied to non-soloed tracks or
buses is specified in the Audio Options dialog.
1. Select Options > Audio to open the Audio Options dialog and click the General tab.
2. Set the Dim Solo Gain setting to either -6dB, -12dB or -18dB and click OK.
The Dim Solo dB setting is saved with each project.
See:
Soloing tracks
The Playback state toolbar
Audio Options dialog—General
Key Bindings
Inverting the phase of a track
A waveform’s exact opposite is called an inversion. It is a shift of 180 degrees. A waveform and its
inversion cancel each other out completely, so it is usually not desirable to have two track recordings
of the same source if one is phase inverted. It can lead to reduced volume, lowered or distorted
response in certain frequencies, or even silence in the case of two tracks which are exactly identical
(i.e. cloned tracks).
Occasionally, for example when recording a source using two microphones, one of the microphones
may be recording an inversion of the other, the resulting tracks may, to some degree, be cancelling
each other out. SONAR allows you to invert the phase of a track to match another.
To invert the phase of a track
1. Open the Track view or Console view.
2. In the track you want to invert the phase, click the Phase inversion button
.
Changing tracks’ mono/stereo status
Controlling Playback
Track-by-track playback
191
SONAR has a Mono/Stereo button in each track module in the Track and Console views. The
buttons in the track modules force each track to play in either stereo or mono, but preserve the
tracks’ pan positions in the stereo mix.
The Mono/Stereo button in each track forces the track’s audio signal to enter any patched plug-ins
as either mono or stereo, whether or not the tracks are mono or stereo. This allows you to use either
mono effects on a stereo track or stereo effects on a mono track.
Note: You may lose important stereo data by using mono effects with stereo tracks because
your stereo tracks are summed to mono in order to pass through the effect. If you never want
your stereo data to be summed to mono, select stereo.
To use a track’s Stereo/Mono button
1. Display the Track view or Console view.
2. In the track you want to force to either mono or stereo for processing effects, click the Stereo/
Mono button
to the desired position:
• Speaker icon pointing left. This choice means that you manually selected mono for this
track.
• Speaker icon pointing left and right (as pictured above). This choice means that you
manually selected stereo for this track.
Mono audio clips may be increased by 3 dB in certain scenarios
There are some situations where the level of a mono clip will be increased by 3 dB if the track's
output interleave (mono/stereo toggle) is set to mono:
1.If the track has mixed stereo and mono clips
2.The track has a synth selected as its input source
3.Input Echo is enabled or the track is armed for recording
In summary, whenever the track output interleave is mono and the data interleave is stereo, mono
data will be increased in level by 3 dB.
Using mono VST plug-ins on stereo tracks may cause out of sync audio
When using a mono plug-in on a stereo track (interleave set to Stereo), the left and right channels
will be out of sync. The left channel is processed by the mono effect, and delay compensation is
applied, while the right channel is not processed and does not have delay compensation applied.
The signal will look something like this:
• Left channel: Wet signal (delayed)
• Right channel: Dry signal (no delay)
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Controlling Playback
Track-by-track playback
A mono VST plug-in will work correctly if Enable Mono Processing is checked in the VST Plug-in
Properties dialog and the track interleave is set to mono.
Note: Enable Mono Processing is enabled by default in SONAR 8. If you are playing back a
legacy project in SONAR 8, and notice the project does not sound the same, try to disable
Enable Mono Processing for any mono plug-ins used in the project.
Changing track settings
Each track in a project contains MIDI or audio information and has a variety of settings (also called
parameters) that determine how the track sounds. By changing these parameters, you can change
the sound of your project. For audio tracks, you control parameters such as volume, stereo panning,
and the output device that is used to produce the sound. For MIDI tracks, you control many
additional parameters, including the type of instrument sound that is used to play the notes stored in
the track. Both kinds of tracks contain an Automation Read button and an Automation Write
button, which enable or disable automation playback and recording, respectively.
Note 1: You can control all sliders and knobs in the Console and Track Views by clicking a
control, then hover over it with the mouse and manipulate the mouse wheel. If you move the
mouse cursor away from the slider or knob while using the mouse wheel, you will lose control
of the slider or knob you are adjusting.
Note 2: You can hide, reorder, and visually group the controls in tracks and buses. You can
also control how the display tabs at the bottom of the Track pane function. See “Configuring
Track View Controls” on page 297 for more information.
Audio track parameters
The following pictures illustrate the parameters that audio tracks have. The pictures are of an audio
track that is located in the Track view, however most of these parameters can also be adjusted in the
Console view:
Figure 22.
Audio track
Controlling Playback
Changing track settings
193
Figure 23.
Audio track header controls
B
A
C
D
E
G
H
F
A. Strip selector B. Header icon C. Track name D. Show layers button E. Maximize track F. Minimize track
G. Peak value H. Track number
Figure 24.
Audio track interior controls
A
B
M
L
K
J
I
H
G
F
E
D
C
A. Input echo B. Volume slider C. Send pan D. Send level E. Mono/stereo switch F. Phase button G. Send
enable H. Send destination I. Input trim J. Output K. Automation Read and Write buttons L. Input M. Pan
slider
Figure 25.
Audio track FX bin, meter, and track scale
A
B
C
D
A. Currently patched effect B. FX interleave indicator C. Track scale D. FX bin
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Controlling Playback
Changing track settings
Here is a summary table of the different audio track parameters and how they are used.
Parameter
What it means
Strip selector
Click this to add a track to a Quick Group, which means that certain controls in
tracks that are in the Quick Group are grouped.
Number
A sequential track number used for reference
Name
A name that you assign the track for easy reference. Note that if you do not
assign a name to a track, the default name is the track number. This track
number will change if you change the order of your tracks.
Mute
When enabled, mutes the track
Solo
When enabled, solos the track
Arm
When enabled, arms the track for audio recording.
Input Echo
Turns input monitoring on or off.
Automation Read and Write Enable/disable automation playback and recording, respectively
buttons
Peak value
Displays the Peak value, which is the amplitude of the latest audio peak in the
track.
Show Layers button
Hides or shows track layers.
Minimize/restore track
button
Collapses track to minimum possible height, or restores it to the size it was
before it was minimized.
Maximize/restore track
button
Expands track to maximum possible height, or restores it to the size it was
before it was maximized.
Vol (volume)
The current volume level for the track, ranging from -INF (silent) to +6 dB
(maximum volume).
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output, ranging from 100% left (hard left) to 100%
right (hard right); a value of “C” indicates sound that is centered left-to-right. On
stereo tracks, pan acts as balance.
Table 30.
Controlling Playback
Changing track settings
195
Parameter
What it means
Trim (volume trim)
Volume Trim is a pre-fader control which allows the fine tuning of a single
track’s volume.
For example, let’s say you have four tracks, three tracks have their volume
fader set to 0 dB while the fourth track’s fader is set to +10 dB. You want to
group the faders and do a slow fade out, but the slightly higher level of the
fourth track causes its volume to be higher in relation to the other tracks
towards the end of the fade out. To balance the fader levels, reduce the fader
level for the fourth track to 0 dB and raise the Volume Trim value for that track to
+10 dB. The resulting volume levels for the project are the same, but now you
can group the faders and perform a fade out with no track standing out
disproportionately at the end of the fade out.
Input
The input source for the track, used in recording
Output
The output bus through which the track is played
Send Enable
Activates a send module, which sends a copy of the track signal to a bus.
Send Level
Controls volume of audio data sent by this send module.
Send Pan
Adjusts the send pan setting.
Send Pre/Post switch
Pre (pre-fader) means that the Send signal goes to the bus prior to the track’s
volume fader; post means the Send signal goes to the bus after the volume
fader.
Send destination
Displays name of bus that the Send is sending data to.
Mono/Stereo
A switch that determines whether a track’s signal enters an effect or chain of
effects as mono or stereo, regardless of the nature of the track.
Phase In/Out
A switch that inverts the phase of the track.
Effects bin
The patch point for a track’s plug-ins or soft synths.
Meters
The recording and playback levels are displayed in the Playback and Record
meters.
Table 30.
MIDI track parameters
The following pictures illustrate MIDI track parameters:
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Controlling Playback
Changing track settings
Figure 26.
A MIDI track
A
E
B
C
D
A. Output menu B. Channel menu C. Bank menu D. Patch menu E. Drop-down arrow to display menu
Figure 27.
MIDI track header controls
A
C
B
D
G
F
E
H
A. Strip selector B. Track name C. Show layers button D. Maximize track E. Minimize track F. PRV Mode
button G. Header icon H. Track number
Controlling Playback
Changing track settings
197
Figure 28.
MIDI track interior controls
Q
P
O
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
N
H
I
M
J
L
K
A. Volume slider B. Trim C. Input D. Output E. Channel F. Bank G. Patch H. Key + I. MIDI chorus J. Snap
to Scale On/Off K. Snap to Scale root note L. Snap to Scale scale type M. MIDI reverb N. Time + O. Pan
slider P. Automation Read and Write buttons Q. Input Echo button
Figure 29.
MIDI track FX bin and track scale
A
B
A. Track scale B. MIDI FX bin
Here is a summary table of the different MIDI track parameters and how they are used:
Parameter
What it means
Strip selector
Click this to add a track to a Quick Group, which means that certain controls in
tracks that are in the Quick Group are grouped.
Track number
A sequential track number used for reference
Table 31.
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Controlling Playback
Changing track settings
Parameter
What it means
Track name
A name that you assign the track for easy reference. Note that if you do not
assign a name to a track, the default name is the track number. This track
number will change if you change the order of your tracks.
Mute
When enabled, mutes the track
Solo
When enabled, solos the track
Arm
When enabled, arms the track for audio recording.
Input Echo
Controls whether the track will echo MIDI data or not.
Automation Read and Write
buttons
Enable/disable automation playback and recording, respectively
PRV Mode button
When enabled, displays a track in Inline Piano Roll view mode.
Show Layers button
Hides or shows track layers.
Minimize/restore track button Collapses track to minimum possible height, or restores it to the size it was
before it was minimized.
Maximize/restore track
button
Expands track to maximum possible height, or restores it to the size it was
before it was maximized.
Vol (volume)
The current volume level for the track, ranging from 0 (silent) to 127
(maximum volume).
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output, ranging from 100% left (hard left) to
100% right (hard right); a value of “C” indicates sound that is centered left-toright.
Velocity trim
The change in velocity (volume) that will be applied to notes in this track on
playback; ranges from –127 to +127
Input
The input source for the track, used in recording
Output
The output device through which the track is played
Ch (channel)
The MIDI channel through which the notes will be played
Bank
The set of patch names available for the track
Patch
The instrument sound that will be used for playback.
Time+
An offset applied to the start time of the events in the track
Key+
The number of steps by which the notes in the track are transposed on
playback (e.g., 12 to transpose up one octave)
Chorus
Adds MIDI chorus effect to the track
Table 31.
Controlling Playback
Changing track settings
199
Parameter
What it means
Reverb
Adds MIDI reverb effect to the track
Snap to Scale scale type
Displays current scale for Snap to Scale feature
Snap to Scale root note
Displays root note of current Snap to Scale scale
Snap to Scale on/off
Turns Snap to Scale feature on or off
Table 31.
To change a track name
1. Double-click on the current track name.
2. Enter the new track name.
3. Press ENTER.
The default track names (Track 1, Track 2, etc.) are not actually names, but placeholders until you
name a track. If you reorder the tracks these placeholders change.
You can rearrange and resize the panes in the Track view as shown in the following table:
To do this
Do this
Change the width of the Track pane and Bus pane Drag the divider that separates the Track pane from the
Clips panes to the left or right
Change the height of the Mains/Buses pane
Drag the divider that separates the Track and Clip panes
from the Bus pane up or down
Table 32.
You can customize which tracks are displayed or not displayed, and enlarge or maximize individual
tracks while other tracks remain minimized. You can also manually set the exact size of a track’s
display. The following table shows how to customize the appearance of tracks in the Track pane:
To do this
Do this
Hide or show a track
Open the Track Manager dialog (press M), and check or
uncheck a track’s check box in the dialog.
Maximize a track
Click the Maximize button in the track
Restore a track to its original size (before it was
minimized or maximized)
Click the Restore button in the track
Minimize a track
Click the Minimize button in the track
Table 33.
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Controlling Playback
Changing track settings
To do this
Do this
Change the height of a track using splitter bars
Move the cursor over the gap below a track until the
cursor looks like this
the size you want.
Lock or unlock the height of a track
. Click and drag until the track is
Right-click an empty area in the track’s controls and
choose Lock Height from the menu.
Table 33.
You can display subsets of the Track pane’s interior controls (the titlebar controls are always
displayed) by selecting one of the tabs located at the bottom of the Track view. To choose which
controls are displayed on each tab, see “To Configure Track and Bus Tabs” on page 298.
Changing audio track settings in the Track pane
You can change the values in the Track pane in a number of ways:
Control
How to change the setting
Volume, Pan, Volume Trim, Send
Output Level, and Send Pan
Click on the control and move your cursor left or right to adjust values,
or press ENTER and type a value.
Input and Output
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control and select a driver
from the menu that appears, or double-click on the control and select a
driver from the menu.
Buttons
Click to enable or disable
Table 34.
Changing MIDI track settings in the Track pane
Control
How to change the value
Channel
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control and select a channel from the
menu that appears, or double-click on the control and enter a value.
Bank
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control and select a bank from the
menu that appears, or double-click on the control and enter a value.
Patch
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control and select a patch from the
menu that appears, or double-click on the control and enter a value.
Volume, Pan, Volume Trim,
Chorus and Reverb
Click on control and move your cursor left or right to adjust values, or doubleclick on the control and enter a value.
Table 35.
Controlling Playback
Changing track settings
201
Control
How to change the value
Key+ and Time+
Double-click the control or click on the black arrow on the right of the control and
enter a new value, or double-click on the control and enter a value.
Input
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control and select a MIDI channel
from the menu that appears, or double-click on the control and select a driver
from the menu.
Output
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control and select a driver from the
menu that appears, or double-click on the control and select a driver from the
menu.
Buttons
Click to enable or disable
Table 35.
You can change numeric values in MIDI tracks as shown in the following table:
To do this
Do this
Change the value by 1
Press the - or + key on your numeric keypad, or click on the spinner
control
Change the value by 10 (for Key+,
by 12)
Press the [ or ] key, or right-click on the spinner control
Enter a new value
Press ENTER and type the new value using the keyboard, and press
ENTER
Table 36.
For numeric fields, you can press and hold both mouse buttons to change the value by increments of
10 (12, a full octave, for Key+).
You can also edit Track properties in the Track Properties dialog box. To open this dialog box, rightclick on the Track bar and select Track Properties.
Figure 30.
The Track Properties dialog
You can change the value of a track parameter for several tracks at once using commands on the
Tracks > Property menu. For example, to assign a group of tracks to the same output, select the
tracks you want to assign, then choose Tracks > Property > Output. These menu commands can
also be used to change the settings for individual tracks.
All track parameters are saved with a SONAR project. However, if you export a project to a standard
MIDI File, several of the parameters (Key+, Vel+, Time+, and Chan) are applied to the MIDI data as
the file is being exported. Other parameters, including Input, Output, Mute, Solo, and Archive, are
lost when you export the project to a MIDI file.
The following sections contain more information about many of the parameters in the Track view. For
more information about the track inputs and the track Arm button, see “Preparing to record” on page
242.
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Controlling Playback
Changing track settings
Setting up output devices
The output setting for a track determines which piece of hardware or software synthesizer will be
used to produce the sound stored in your project. In a very simple equipment setup, you might have
only a computer equipped with a basic sound card. In this case, you want to play all MIDI and audio
output through the sound card on your computer.
If your equipment setup also includes a MIDI keyboard attached to the MIDI port on your sound card,
you can choose to route MIDI data directly to the sound card or through the sound card MIDI port to
the keyboard. If you choose the former, the music will play from your computer speakers. If you
choose the latter, the sound will play from the speaker attached to your keyboard. You can even
choose to send some MIDI information to each of these devices so that they both play at once.
You can purchase MIDI interfaces that plug into your parallel, serial, or USB port to add MIDI ports to
your computer. For more information about complex system configurations, see the online help
topic: Hardware Setup.
If your computer has several MIDI outs, choose the ones you want to use and put them in a
particular order using the Options > MIDI Devices command. The order in which your MIDI devices
appear in the Output menus in the Track and Console views is based solely on the order in which
the selected outs appear in the MIDI Devices dialog box. As a result, the order in which your
devices appear in a track’s output control may not match the port numbers that appear on your
external multiport MIDI device.
Controlling Playback
Changing track settings
203
Figure 31.
The MIDI Devices dialog
A
A
A. These devices are not selected
When you first run SONAR it asks you to select MIDI devices. You may want to change these
selections in the future. You can do so by selecting different devices in the MIDI Devices dialog box.
Your computer is usually equipped with at least one audio device—your computer sound card. Your
setup may have several different audio output devices, or you may have a multichannel sound card
that presents itself to your computer as though it were several different devices, one for each stereo
pair. In SONAR, audio tracks are assigned to main outs or buses. Each main out represents a
hardware device. You use the Output control to assign a track in a project to the main or bus you
want to use.
While you need to choose the MIDI output devices you want to use before you assign them to
tracks, all of your audio devices can be assigned to tracks freely. You do not need to configure them
the way you do MIDI devices. If you have a voice modem or speakerphone in your computer,
however, you might want to set up SONAR so that it won’t use those devices. Also, note that some
dedicated audio equipment has specific setup requirements. For more information, see Improving
Audio Performance.
To choose MIDI devices
1. Choose Options > MIDI Devices to display the MIDI Devices dialog box.
2. Click on any MIDI device in the Outputs list.
3. To move any device to the top of the list, deselect all other devices and click Move to Top to
move the selected device to the top of the list.
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Changing track settings
4. When all devices are selected in the order you want, click OK.
See:
MIDI Devices dialog
Creating friendly names for MIDI output and input devices
You may find that a name you make up yourself for a MIDI device is easier to remember or more
descriptive than a device’s original name. The friendly name for a MIDI device is the name you will
see places such as MIDI track Input and Output menus, and the Controllers/Surfaces dialog, if
you enable the Use Friendly Names To Represent MIDI Devices check box at the bottom of the
MIDI Devices dialog.
To make up a friendly name:
1. Choose Options > MIDI Devices to display the MIDI Devices dialog.
2. Double-click the name of a device in the Friendly Name column, type a new name, and press
ENTER.
3. Enable the Use Friendly Names To Represent MIDI Devices check box at the bottom of the
MIDI Devices dialog.
4. Click OK.
Assigning Inputs & Outputs
You assign each track to a MIDI or an audio output using the Output drop-down in the Track view.
From then on, material on that track will be sent to the appropriate output device.
Note: If you rearrange your MIDI output devices after making output assignments, you may
find MIDI information being sent to different instruments than you expect. Also, SONAR allows
you to define instruments that are associated with certain outputs and channels. If you use this
feature, the name of the output will change to reflect the instrument you have chosen.
To assign a track to an output
1. Click the Output drop-down of the track you want to assign.
2. Select the output you want to use.
To change the output setting for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to change
and choose Tracks > Property > Output.
Note: Outputs that are used by the External Insert plug-in (see “External Insert plug-in” on
page 632) cannot be assigned to track and bus outputs. The only exceptions are master buses
that have other instances of the External Insert plug-in routed to them.
To assign the same audio input port to multiple tracks
1. In the Track view, select the tracks whose audio input port you wish to assign.
Controlling Playback
Changing track settings
205
2. Click the small drop-down arrow in any selected track’s Input control
.
The Input Port menu appears.
3. Choose Selected Track Inputs from the context menu.
The Track Inputs dialog opens with the selected tracks initially highlighted. You can modify the
track selection from within the Track Inputs dialog. For more information, see Track Inputs dialog.
Note: The Selected Track Inputs command is essentially a shortcut for the Tracks >
Property > Inputs command.
4. Select the desired audio input port and click OK.
The audio input port is assigned to all selected audio tracks.
To assign different audio input ports to multiple tracks
1. In the Track view, select the tracks whose audio input port you wish to assign.
2. Click the small drop-down arrow in the first selected track’s Input control
.
The Input Port menu appears.
3. Choose Selected Track Input Series from the context menu.
The Assign Series of Inputs dialog opens, which lets you choose the first input port in the series.
Figure 32.
The Assign Series of Inputs dialog
4. Select the audio input port that should be assigned to the first selected track and click OK.
SONAR will assign consecutive mono input ports to the selected audio tracks, beginning with the
track that was clicked in step 2. If a left or right input is selected, then mono inputs will be
assigned. If a stereo input is selected, then stereo inputs will be assigned.
To assign the same audio output port to multiple tracks
1. In the Track view, select the tracks whose audio output port you wish to assign.
2. Click the small drop-down arrow in any selected track’s Output control
The Output Port menu appears.
3. Choose Selected Track Outputs from the context menu.
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Changing track settings
.
The Track Outputs dialog opens.
Note: The Selected Track Outputs command is essentially a shortcut for the Tracks >
Property > Outputs command.
4. Select the desired audio output port and click OK.
The audio output port is assigned to all selected audio tracks.
To assign the same audio output port to all stereo buses
1. In the Track view, click the small drop-down arrow in any stereo bus’ Output control
.
The Output Port menu appears.
Note: Surround buses are ignored.
2. Choose Set All Bus Outputs from the context menu.
The Output port submenu appears.
3. Select the desired audio output port.
The audio output port is assigned to all stereo buses
Note: Only hardware main outputs may be assigned, not other buses.
Choosing the instrument sound (bank and patch)
Electronic keyboards and synthesizers often contain hundreds or thousands of different sounds.
Each sound is known as a patch. The name comes from the early days of synthesizers, for which
you physically rewired (using patch cords) the oscillators and modulators to produce different
sounds. Patches are normally organized into groups of 128, called banks. Most instruments have
between 1 and 8 banks, but MIDI supports up to 16,384 banks of 128 patches each (that’s over 2
million patches).
The bank and patch settings in the Track view control the initial bank and patch of a track during
playback. Every time SONAR starts playback at the beginning of a project, the bank and patch
settings for the track are set to these initial values. Many instruments have descriptive names for
their banks and patches. SONAR stores these names in an instrument definition. If you are using an
instrument that supports General MIDI, your patch list will contain the 128 sounds that are defined by
the General MIDI specification.
Note: Different MIDI instruments use different types of commands to change banks. SONAR
supports four common methods for changing banks. For information about the bank selection
method you should use with your MIDI gear, see your MIDI equipment’s documentation.
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Changing track settings
207
Tip: If your bank name is too long to fit in the Bank field, hold your cursor over the bank name. A
tooltip appears with the complete bank name.
Note that a single MIDI channel can only play one patch at a time on each instrument assigned to
that channel. Therefore, if two or more MIDI tracks are set to the same output and channel but have
different bank and patch settings, the patch of the highest-numbered track will be used for all the
tracks.
In some projects you want the sound played by a track to change while playback is in progress. You
can accomplish this using the Insert > Bank/Patch Change command. When you start playback in
the middle of a project, SONAR searches back through the track to find the correct patch to use—
either the initial bank and patch or the most recent bank/patch change. Note that the Track view only
shows the initial bank and patch, even while a different bank and patch are being played back. The
only way to see and edit a bank/patch change is in the Event List view. For more information, see the
online help topic “The Event List View” on page 512.
To assign an initial bank and patch to a track
1. Right-click on the Track titlebar (the top of the track which contains the track name) and select
Track Properties.
The Track Properties dialog box appears.
2. In the Track Properties dialog box, choose the desired bank and patch from the drop-down lists.
3. To search for a patch containing specific text, click the Patch Browser button to the right of the
drop-down lists. You can also open the Patch Browser by right-clicking a bank or patch control in
the Track or Console views.
4. Click OK.
Another way to assign a patch to a track
1. Select the patch you want from the Patch drop-down.
To change the bank and patch settings for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want
to change and choose Tracks > Property > Bank or Tracks > Property > Patch.
To insert a bank/patch change
1. Highlight the track whose bank and patch you want to change by clicking on the track number.
2. Set the Now time to the time at which you want the change to occur.
3. Choose Insert > Bank/Patch Change to display the Bank/Patch Change dialog box.
4. Choose a bank and patch from the lists.
5. Click OK.
SONAR inserts a change in bank and patch. When you play back the project, the initial bank and
patch shown in the Track view will be used to the point at which the bank/patch change takes place.
You can remove a bank/patch change in the Event List view.
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To choose patches with the Patch browser
1. In the Track view or Console view, right-click the patch name in the track module you want to
change patches in.
The Patch browser dialog box appears, displaying a list of all the Instrument patch names that
have been installed.
Tip: The Patch Browser can be opened for the selected MIDI track by pressing the SEMICOLON
key (;).
2. Search for a patch name, if desired, by filling in text in the Search field at the top of the dialog
box.
3. When you find the right patch, click its name and click OK.
SONAR changes the patch of the track you selected.
See:
Patch Browser dialog
Adding effects
You can add both MIDI and audio effects directly from the Track view. SONAR adds these effects in
real-time, preserving your track’s original data.
To add an audio effect in the Track pane
• In an audio track, right-click in the FX field, choose Audio Effects > Cakewalk, and select an
effect from the menu that appears.
See:
Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins)
Adjusting volume and pan
The Volume and Pan settings control the initial volume and pan of a track during playback. Every
time SONAR starts playback, the Volume and Pan settings for the track are set to these initial levels.
SONAR allows you to choose different panning laws if you want (see“Configuring panning laws” on
page 210).
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209
In some projects you want the volume or panning of a track to change while playback is in progress.
You can accomplish this by drawing a volume or pan envelope in the Track view, or by recording
automation. For more information, see the online help topic “Automation”.
Note: SONAR processes the volume and pan settings by transmitting MIDI volume and pan
events (controllers 7 and 10, respectively) when playback starts. If two or more MIDI tracks are
set to the same output and channel but have different volume or pan settings, the settings for
the highest-numbered track will prevail.
Note also that not all keyboards and synthesizers respond to these events. Check your instrument’s
manual for more information.
To set the initial volume setting
1. Move your cursor to the Volume control of the track you want to change.
2. Click and drag to the left to lower the volume or the right to raise the volume.
You can also change the volume settings in a variety of other ways. To change the volume settings
for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to change and choose Tracks >
Property > Volume.
To set the initial Pan setting
1. Move your cursor to the Pan control of the track you want to change.
2. Click and drag to the left to adjust the pan to the left or to the right to adjust the pan to the right.
Hard left is 100% left. Hard right is 100% right. Pan is centered at C.
You can also change the pan and volume settings in a variety of other ways. To change the pan
settings for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to change and choose
Tracks > Property > Pan.
Configuring panning laws
You can choose from six different panning laws, if you want. A panning law is the mathematical
formula that a sequencer or mixer uses to control panning.
To change panning laws
1. Use the Options > Audio command to open the Audio Options dialog.
2. On the General tab, in the Stereo Panning Law field, choose one of these options:
• (Default) 0 dB center, sin/cos taper, constant power. This choice causes a 3 dB boost in a
signal that’s panned hard left or right, and no dip in output level in either channel when the
signal is center panned.
• -3dB center, sin/cos taper, constant power. This choice causes no boost in a signal that’s
panned hard left or right, and 3dB dip in output level in either channel when the signal is center
panned.
• 0dB center, square-root taper, constant power. This choice causes a 3 dB boost in a
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signal that’s panned hard left or right, and no dip in output level in either channel when the
signal is center panned.
• -3dB center, square root taper, constant power. This choice causes no boost in a signal
that’s panned hard left or right, and 3dB dip in output level in either channel when the signal is
center panned.
• -6dB center, linear taper. This choice causes no boost in a signal that’s panned hard left or
right, and 6dB dip in output level in either channel when the signal is center panned.
• 0 dB center, balance control. This choice causes no boost in a signal that’s panned hard
left or right, and no dip in output level in either channel when the signal is center panned.
3. Click OK.
Adjusting volume trim
Volume Trim acts like the trim control on a mixer, raising or lower the level prior to the volume fader.
Volume trim is useful for calibrating your faders to match a dB reference level or for aligning your
faders for grouping. The Volume Trim control has a range of -18dB to +18dB. Raising or lowering
the Volume Trim raises or lowers the apparent volume of the track by that amount without affecting
the actual fader level.
To set the volume trim level
1. Move your cursor to the Volume Trim control of the track you want to change.
2. Click and drag to the left to lower Volume Trim level or to the right to raise Volume Trim level.
Assigning a MIDI channel (Chn)
MIDI transmits information on 16 channels, numbered 1 through 16. Every MIDI event is assigned to
a particular channel. Some MIDI equipment can accept MIDI information on only a single channel.
This channel may be preassigned, or you may be able to change it. Other MIDI equipment, including
many electronic keyboards and synthesizers, can accept information on several different MIDI
channels at once. Usually, these devices use a different instrument sound for each channel.
On playback, the channel number is used to direct the MIDI information to a particular piece of
equipment.
The Chn parameter in the Track view redirects all events in the track to the specified channel,
ignoring the channel number stored with each event. If this parameter is left blank, all events in the
track are sent to their original channels.
This parameter does not affect the channel information that is stored with each MIDI event. When
the track is displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll or Event List view, you will see the original
channel that is stored in the file. You can edit the channel values in those views or use the
Process > Interpolate command.
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Changing track settings
211
To set the channel for a track
1. In the track you want to change, click on the black arrow to the right of the Chn field and select
the channel you want to use.
To change the channel assignment for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to
change and choose Tracks > Property > Channel.
Adjusting the Key/transposing a track (Key+)
Each MIDI note event has a key number, or pitch. On playback, the key offset (Key+) parameter
transposes all notes in the track by the designated number of half-steps. The value can range from
-127 to +127. A value of 12 indicates that notes will be played back one octave higher than they are
written.
This parameter does not affect the note number that is stored for each note event. When the clip is
displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll, Staff, or Event List view, you will see the original notes
as they are stored in the file. To permanently change the pitches, you can edit them individually or
use the Process > Transpose command.
If the key offset value transposes the key number (MIDI note) outside the allowable MIDI range (0–
127), the key number will be transposed to the lowest or highest octave within that range.
You can use the Key+ parameter to assist in preparing scores for instruments whose music is written
in something other than “concert” key (such as Bb trumpet). For more information, see the online
help topic “Music Notation for Non-concert-key Instruments.”“Music Notation for Non-concert-key
Instruments” on page 780.
When you edit the Key+ parameter, pressing [ or ] changes the value by 12 instead of by 10. This
makes it easy to transpose by octaves.
To set the key offset for a track
1. In the track you want to change, click on the Key+ control.
2. Enter a value (1 = a semitone), or press the + or – key to change the key by a single semitone.
Use the [ or ] key to change the key by 12 semitones (one octave).
To change the key offset for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to change and
choose Tracks > Property > Key+.
Adjusting the note velocity (Vel+)
Each MIDI note event has a velocity, which represents how fast the key was struck when the track
was recorded. On playback, the velocity offset parameter adjusts the velocity data for all notes in the
track by the designated amount. The value can range from -127 to +127. The effect of changing
velocities depends on the synthesizer. Some synthesizers do not respond to velocity information.
For others, the effect varies depending on the sound or patch you have chosen. Normally, higher
velocities result in louder and/or brighter-sounding notes.
This parameter does not affect the velocity that is stored for each note event. When the clip is
displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll view, Staff view, or Event List view, you will see the
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original velocities as they are stored in the file. You can edit the velocity values in those views, or use
the Process > Scale Velocity or Process > Interpolate command.
Velocity is different from volume in that it is an attribute of each event, rather than a controller that
affects an entire MIDI channel. Here’s an example of where this distinction might be important.
Suppose you have several tracks containing different drum parts. All of these parts would probably
be assigned to MIDI channel 10 (that’s the default channel for percussion in General MIDI). If you
change the volume setting for any track that uses channel 10, all the different drum parts—
regardless of what track they’re in—would be affected. If you change the note velocity for one drum
track, it will be the only one whose volume is affected.
To set the velocity offset for a track
• In the track you want to change, click and drag the Vel+ control to the desired setting.
To change the velocity offset for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to change
and choose Tracks > Property > Vel+.
Adjusting the time alignment of a MIDI track (Time+)
Each event takes place at a known point in the project. On playback, the time offset (Time+)
parameter adjusts the times for MIDI events in the track by the designated amount. The value can
be as small as a single clock tick or as large as you want.
This parameter can be used to make a part play behind the beat or in front of it or to compensate for
tracks that sound rushed or late. The time shift can be used to create a chorus or slap-back echo
effect by making a copy of a track and then applying a small offset to the copy. You can use larger
time offsets to shift a track earlier or later by several beats or measures.
Note that you cannot shift any event earlier than 1:01:000. For example, if the first event in the track
starts at 2:01:000, you cannot shift its start time earlier by more than one measure.
This parameter does not affect the time that is stored for each note event. When the clip is displayed
in other views, like the Piano Roll, Staff, or Event List view, you will see the original times as they are
stored in the file.
To set the time offset for a track
1. In the track you want to change, click on the Time+ control.
2. Enter a value, or press the + or – key until you reach the value you want.
To change the time offset for more than one track at a time, select the tracks you want to change and
choose Tracks > Property > Time+.
Other MIDI playback settings
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Changing track settings
213
Two other MIDI settings can affect what happens when you play back your project, as described in
the following table:
Option
How it works
Zero Controllers When Play If this option is enabled, SONAR zeroes (resets) the pitch wheel, the pedal
Stops
Controller, and the modulation wheel Controller on all 16 MIDI channels
whenever playback is stopped. It also sends a “Zero All Continuous Controllers”
MIDI message, which turns off other continuous Controllers on newer
synthesizers. If you experience frequent stuck notes when playback stops, try
checking this option.
Patch/Controller
Searchback Before Play
Starts
If this option is enabled, SONAR searches for and sends the most recent patch
change, wheel, and pedal events on each output and MIDI channel before
starting playback. This ensures that all these settings are correct, even if you
start playback at an arbitrary point in your project.
Table 37.
To set these options, choose Options > Project and click the MIDI Out tab. If you have set up a
playback loop, enabling either of these options can cause an audible delay when the loop is
restarted.
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo
When you play your MIDI keyboard or controller, the sound that SONAR produces is determined by
what hardware or software synth SONAR sends the incoming MIDI data to after SONAR receives
the data. This is called MIDI echo. By default, SONAR sends the data to the MIDI output or software
synth listed in the Output field of the current track. The current track is the one whose titlebar has
the lighter color—press the up and down arrows on your computer keyboard and watch each track
turn lighter in succession as you change different tracks into the current track (you can also click any
of a track’s controls to make it current).
However, you can echo MIDI data to much more than just the current track, or turn echoing off on
the current track if you want. With a single keyboard or controller, you can echo MIDI data to as
many MIDI tracks as you want, meaning that you can simultaneously play as many hardware and
software synths as you can hook up to your MIDI interface or run on your computer. You can also
have multiple performers on different controllers sending MIDI data to either the same synth or
multiple synths. Each SONAR track allows you to select what MIDI input ports and channels the
track will respond to. The Output field of the track determines what instrument will sound when the
track receives the data. Each track’s Input Echo button determines whether the track echoes MIDI
data.
The Input Echo button
Each MIDI track has an Input Echo button, which controls whether the track will echo MIDI data or
not. The button has three states: on
214
, dimmed
, and off
Controlling Playback
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo
. When the button is on, the track
echoes MIDI data. When the button is dimmed, the track echoes MIDI data because the track is the
current track. When the button is off, the track does not echo any data, even if it is the current track.
The Off position on a current MIDI track is only available if you disable the Always Echo Current
MIDI Track option in the General tab of the Global Options dialog (Options > Global command).
The dimmed position becomes unavailable with this setting.
There are several ways to turn Input Echoing on:
• Click a track’s Input Echo button so that it is on.
• Click a track to make the track the current track (if the Always Echo Current MIDI Track option
on the General tab of the Global Options dialog is enabled). In this situation (which is the
default), if the track’s Input Echo button is not on, it appears dimmed, to show that this track
echoes data because it is the current track.
• If the Always Echo Current MIDI Track option on the General tab of the Global Options dialog
is disabled, make a track the current track, and use the Tracks > Input Monitor/Echo command
(or click the track’s Input Echo button).
Storing favorite configurations
If you want a track to respond to more than one port or channel, you must create a preset input
configuration. If you create some favorite configurations of MIDI input options, not only will they be
stored with the project you created them in, but you can save each one as a preset to load in any
MIDI track in any project you want. Clicking the drop-down arrow in a track’s Input field displays the
Inputs drop-down menu, which has the Manage Presets choice that allows you to create and store
your favorite combinations of MIDI input choices.
To play one synth at a time from one or more MIDI keyboards
• Since this is SONAR’s default behavior, simply use the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW keys on
your computer keyboard to choose the current track (the current track has a gold titlebar), and
choose the synth you want to play by using the track’s Output, Bank, Patch, and Channel fields.
With the default behavior, all MIDI input from all ports and channels is merged and sent through
the current track. Notice that the track’s Input field says Omni.
• If you’ve disabled the default behavior (see next procedure), you must make sure that the current
track’s Input Echo button is lit up (on) before you can play the synth that the track is patched to.
To disable the default MIDI echo detting
• If you want to turn off the automatic MIDI echoing of the current track, disable the Always Echo
Current MIDI Track option in the General tab of the Global Options dialog (Options > Global
command). If you then turn off the current track’s Input Echo button and play your keyboard,
SONAR will not produce sound.
To play multiple synths from a MIDI keyboard
1. Choose a synth for each track that you want to play by using each track’s Output, Channel,
Bank, and Patch fields.
2. In the Input field of each track that you want to play, click the drop-down arrow and choose the
MIDI input port and channel that you want the track to respond to from the following options:
Controlling Playback
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo
215
• None. This option actually sets the Input field to Omni. With this setting the track will
respond to any MIDI input coming in on any port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > MIDI Omni. Choosing this option causes the track to respond
to any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > MIDI ch 1-16. Choosing this option causes the track to
respond ONLY to whatever MIDI channel you choose coming from the named MIDI interface
input driver.
• Preset. If you’ve created any preset collections of input ports and channels, you can select
one here.
• Manage Presets. If you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see following procedure).
3. Make sure that the Input Echo button on each track that you want to play is turned on.
To create or edit a preset input configuration
1. In the Input field of a track that you want to select inputs for, click the drop-down arrow and
choose Manage Presets from the drop-down menu.
The MIDI Input Presets dialog appears.
2. In the Input Port column, find the input port that you want to use for this track (if you only use a
single-port MIDI interface, you’ll only see one choice).
3. To the right of the input port, select the MIDI channels that you want this track to respond to on
this MIDI port.
4. Select channels for any other MIDI port that’s listed, if you want to use channels on that port also.
5. If you want to save this configuration, type a name for it in the window at the top of the dialog, and
click the Disk icon to save it.
Now, when you choose inputs for other tracks, you can choose the preset you saved by clicking the
Presets option in the track’s Input drop-down menu. If you want to edit a preset, select it in the top
window of the MIDI Input Presets dialog, edit it, and click the Disk icon. If you want to delete a
preset, select it in the same dialog and click the X button to delete it.
To use multiple performers on multiple tracks
1. For performer number 1, click the Input drop-down menu(s) of the track(s) you want that
performer to play, and choose the port and MIDI channel that performer 1’s keyboard is sending
data to SONAR on.
2. Repeat step 1 for all other performers.
3. If there is any track that you want more than one performer to play, create a preset of the input
ports and channels that you want that track to respond to (see previous procedure).
4. Make sure the Input Echo button is on for each track you want to play.
To turn MIDI echo (and input monitoring) On or Off for all tracks
• In the Playback State toolbar (to display, use the Views > Toolbars > Playback State
command), click the Input Monitor button (last one on the right).
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Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo
Local control
You should normally disable the Local Control setting on your master keyboard to prevent notes
from being doubled when you play your keyboard. If you disable Local Control, your keyboard sends
notes that you play to SONAR, which echoes them to the synthesizer, which plays them only once.
When SONAR starts, you can have it send a special MIDI message that attempts to disable Local
Control automatically. Most modern synthesizers respond to this message. If yours does not, you will
need to disable Local Control every time you turn it on for use with SONAR.
If your synthesizer does not let you disable Local Control (this is rare), you can use the Local On
Port setting in the Input tab of the Project Options dialog box to indicate the number of the output
port connected to your synthesizer. SONAR will then refrain from sending MIDI echo data to that
port. In this configuration, you may need to turn your synthesizer’s volume control up and down from
time to time to avoid hearing it play along with your other modules. If this situation doesn’t apply to
you, the Local On Port should be set to 0.
To automatically disable all local control whenever you launch SONAR
1. In the directory where SONAR is installed, double-click on the TTSseq.ini file to open it.
2. In the [Options] section, add the line:
SendLocalOff=1
3. Save the file and close it.
4. When you launch SONAR, it automatically sends a Local Off message to your keyboard.
Note: Not all keyboards respond to Local Off messages.
Playing files in Batch mode
SONAR allows you to play several files in sequence automatically using the Play List view. You can
use this feature in live performance applications or just for fun.
SONAR’s Play List view lets you create and work with a series of project, MIDI, and bundle files. As
each file plays, SONAR loads it and displays it in the Track view and other views like any other
project file.
The Play List view
The Play List view lets you create, edit, and save a play list (or set) of up to 999SONAR projects.
Once you’ve created the list, you can play back the entire sequence automatically. You can even
program the list to pause between songs for a fixed amount of time or to wait for a keystroke before
proceeding.
Controlling Playback
Local control
217
Figure 33.
The Play List view
A
B
E
C
D
H
F
G
A. Switch to the next song B. Repeat the list C. Add a song D. Drop a song E. Set a delay F. Display full path
G. List of songs H. Enable the play list
Play lists can be saved for future use. Play list files have the extension .set.
To create and edit a play list
To create and edit a play list in the Play List view, follow the instructions in the table:
To do this
Do this
Open an existing play list
Choose File > Open, choose Play List from the Files of Type list, choose
the file you want and click Open
Create a new play list
Choose File > New, choose Play List Set from the list, and click OK
Add songs to the play list
Click
or press INSERT, choose a file from the Add Song to Play List
dialog box, and click Open
Set the delay after a song
Click on the song in the play list, click
click OK
Change the order of songs
Drag the file to a new location in the play list
Copy a song to another location
in the play list
CTRL-drag the file to a new location in the play list
Remove a song from the play list
Save the play list
Select the song and click
or press the DELETE key
Choose File > Save; or choose File > Save As, enter a file name, and click
Save
Table 38.
218
, enter the delay you want, and
Controlling Playback
Playing files in Batch mode
To play files from the Play List view
To play back files from the Play List view, follow the instructions in the table.
To do this
Activate the play list
Choose the starting song
Start playback
Stop playback
Skip to the next file
Loop continuously over the
play list
Show or hide file name
extensions and folder names
(path)
Do this
Click
in the Play List view toolbar so that the button is pressed. If this
button is not pressed, only a single file will play when you start playback.
Double-click the file you want to start with. The project is opened and
displayed as usual.
Click
, choose Transport > Play, or press the SPACEBAR.
Choose Transport > Stop, or press the SPACEBAR.
Click
in the Play List view toolbar.
Click the
button in the Play List view toolbar.
Click the
button to enable or disable the display of folders.
Table 39.
Video playback, import, and export
Video files play in the Video view in real time as your project plays. You can also view your video on
an external DV device connected to an IEEE 1394 port (“FireWire”).
The File > Import > Video command lets you include the following video file types in your project:
• AVI (also called Video for Windows)
• MPEG
• Windows Media Video
• QuickTime (.mov files only)
Note: Some .mov and .avi files contain no video. You can’t import these files with the File >
Import > Video command. You must use the File > Import > Audio command instead, and set
the Files of Type field to All Files.
The File > Export > Video command lets you export your audio tracks and your imported video as
the following file types:
• AVI (also called Video for Windows)
Controlling Playback
Video playback, import, and export
219
• Windows Media Video
• QuickTime
SONAR also has a Video Thumbnails pane at the top of the Track view, which shows individual
frames of your video at different places in your project (See “Using the Video thumbnails pane” on
page 225 for more information).
You open the Video view by using the Views > Video command. The Video view displays the Now
time (as in the Big Time view) and the video itself. The display in the Video view is synchronized with
the Now time, giving you convenient random access to the video stream. This makes it easy to align
music and digitized sound to the video.
Commands in the Video view’s right-click pop-up menu let you set the time display format, the size
and stretch options for the video display, the video start and trim times, and other options.
QuickTime issues
In order to import/export QuickTime files in SONAR, you must install both the filters AND QuickTime.
Below are some other known QuickTime issues:
• QuickTime Import/Export requires version 6.5.1 or higher of the QuickTime Player to be installed.
The QuickTime Player is not included with SONAR, but can be downloaded separately from
Apple's web site (www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html).
• Audio mixdown to QuickTime must be set to 16 bits stereo or mono, or the resulting export will
create a unusable file or abort with an error.
• Audio mixdown to QuickTime must be set to 48 KHz or less or the resulting export will create a file
that plays back incorrectly.
• When exporting to QuickTime, the frame rate of the QuickTime video compressor will default to
“best possible”. Since not all movies in a SONAR video project correctly report their frame rate,
the best practice is manually enter the desired frame rate. This is done in the video settings of the
QuickTime video compressor.
• Exports to QuickTime from a SONAR video project created from an AVI using the Indeo video
compressor will create a movie with white frames.
• Exports to QuickTime may have an extra white frame on the last frame of the movie. This extra
frame can be removed with the QuickTime Pro Player or another QuickTime editing application.
See:
Importing and playing back videos
Optimizing video performance
Importing and playing back videos
Here are step-by-step procedures for inserting and playing back videos:
To load a video file into a project
1. Choose File > Import > Video, or choose Insert from the Video view’s pop-up menu.
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The Import Video dialog appears.
Tip: You can also drag a video file from the Medai Explorer view and drop it on the Video
Thumbnails pane.
2. In the Files of Type field, select the kind of video file you’re looking for.
3. Select a file.
4. Check the Show File Info option to display information about the file in the File Info section of the
dialog.
5. Check the Import Audio Stream option if you want to load the file’s audio data.
6. Check the Import As Mono Tracks option if you want to import the file’s audio data as one or
more mono tracks.
7. Click Open.
SONAR loads the video file and displays it in the Video view. If you choose to import audio data,
SONAR inserts a new track above the currently selected track, and puts the audio data in a clip or
clips on the new track.
Note 1: When you save a project that contains video, SONAR saves the project’s video file by
reference only; the actual video data remains in the original file. Video data is not saved in
bundle files, so it must be backed up on its own.
Note 2: After you load a video file into a project, you can play it back either in the Video view,
or on an external DV device through a FireWire port. See “Video playback on a FireWire DV
device” on page 228 for more information.
To play a video file in the Video view
1. Open the Video view by choosing Views > Video.
2. Press the SPACEBAR to play or stop video playback.
3. To change the display size of the video, right-click in the Video view and choose Stretch
Options > [desired size] from the pop-up menu.
Note: When you play a video file that has high temporal compression, such as movies
optimized for web delivery, playback may not be smooth unless you disable video thumbnails,
(see “Using the Video thumbnails pane” on page 225 for more information).
To delete the video from the project
1. Open the Video view by choosing Views > Video.
2. Right-click in the Video view and choose Delete.
SONAR removes the video from the project. Note that imported audio data is not deleted.
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To enable or disable video playback
1. Open the Video view by choosing Views > Video.
2. Right-click in the Video view and choose Animate.
If your computer is not fast enough to play back video efficiently, you can get better performance by
temporarily disabling video animation during playback.
To set the Time display format
• Click the time display to cycle between MBT, SMPTE, Frames and None
Or
• Right-click in the Video view and choose an option from the Time Display Format menu:
To do this
Do this
Select a time format
Choose MBT, SMPTE, Frames or None
Change font or font color
Choose Font and select new font characteristics
Turn off the time display
Choose None
Table 40.
To adjust the SMPTE time
1. Move the Now time to the place where you want SMPTE time to be either 00:00:00:00, or a
number you can enter.
2. Use the Transport > Set Timecode At Now command to open the Set Timecode At Now Time
dialog.
3. If you want to set SMPTE time to 00:00:00:00 (the dialog’s default value) at the current Now time,
click OK to close the dialog. If you want to set SMPTE time to some other value at the current
Now time, type that value into the SMPTE/MTC Time field, and click OK to close the dialog.
To choose a frame rate
1. Use the Options > Project command to open the Project Options dialog.
2. On the Clock tab, under Timecode Format, choose the frame rate you want from the six
choices, and then click OK (for more information, see “SMPTE/MIDI Time Code Synchronization”
on page 824).
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To set the Video display format
Right-click in the Video view and choose an option from the Stretch Options menu:
To do this
Do this
Display the video in its original size
Choose Original Size
Stretch the video to fill the Video view
Choose Stretch to Window
Stretch the video as much as possible while preserving the
original aspect ratio
Choose Preserve Aspect Ratio
Make the video display as large as possible, but only enlarge by
integral multiples
Choose Integral Stretch
Display the video in full screen mode
Choose Full Screen
Table 41.
SONAR adjusts the video display according to the selected option. The stretch option is used to
recalculate the video display size whenever you resize the Video view.
To set the background color
• Right-click in the Video view and choose a color option from the Background Color menu.
To set the Start and Trim times
1. Right-click in the Video view and choose Video Properties.
2. Set options as described in the table:
Option
What it means
Start Time
The time in your SONAR project at which you want the video file to start playing
Trim-in Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to start
Trim-out Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to stop
Table 42.
SONAR synchronizes the video to the project according to the specified Start and Trim times.
Note: The project’s video file is saved in the project by reference only, the actual video data
remains in the original file. Video data is not saved in bundle files, so it must be backed up on
its own.
See also:
Controlling Playback
Video playback, import, and export
223
Exporting video
Optimizing video performance
Exporting video
After you’ve mixed your audio tracks the way you want them, you can export the inserted video file
together with your audio tracks to create a new video file.
When you export a video, any changes you’ve made to the Start, Trim-In, or Trim-Out times
determine how long your new exported video is compared to the original video that you inserted into
your SONAR project.
Note: If you’re exporting an AVI file, the No Compression option in the Video Codec field of
the AVI Encoder Options dialog is a good choice. This choice does not change or compress
your source video material. If you want your exported AVI file to be compressed, the Cinepak
option will create an AVI file that plays back smoothly with decent quality. The MJPEG option
will create an AVI file that does not play back as smoothly, but is a high quality format to archive
a file in.
To export a video
1. Make sure your audio tracks are completely mixed, and your video Start time, Trim-In time, and
Trim-Out time are set the way you want them.
2. Use the File > Export Video command.
The Export Video dialog appears.
3. In the File Name field, type a name for your new video.
4. In the Files of Type field, choose the kind of video file you want the exported file to be.
5. Click the Encoding Options button to open a dialog of encoding options for the kind of file you’re
creating. Some codecs do not work: click the Help button in the dialog for help choosing options.
Note: If you’re exporting an AVI file to either a 24-bit audio format or to a multi-channel
(surround sound) format, set the Audio Codec in the AVI Encoding Options dialog to No
Compression.
6. Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open a dialog of audio mixdown options. Click the
Help button in the dialog for help choosing options.
7. Click Save to export your video.
Optimizing video performance
Here are a few tips to optimize video performance:
• Viewing your video in on an external DV device will significantly decrease the processor load on
your computer if the video stream is a DV AVI file. See “Video playback on a FireWire DV device”
on page 228 for more information.
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• If you intend to do a lot of seeking around or looping and editing while a video file is loaded, make
sure that your video file has sufficient keyframes. Since each frame has to be computed from the
last keyframe encountered, if you have very few keyframes in the video, performance may be
slow. To change the number of keyframes, you may recompress the file using the File > Export
Video command and specify more frequent keyframes. Choose a suitable video compressor
such as Cinepak and change the KeyFrame Rate parameter to a number between 1-5. A value of
1 makes every frame a keyframe, and higher numbers insert a keyframe after that many frames.
• Changing the video properties of an AVI file, such as Trim and Start time, can make realtime
performance slightly slower. You can make these changes permanent (and thereby reduce the
load on your CPU) by using the File > Export Video command, and then re-importing the file.
• Playing videos at a resolution (video size) of 320x240 is usually a high enough resolution to
monitor the video while you’re composing a soundtrack. You can still choose to stretch the video
to full screen at this resolution. You set the video size on the Render Quality tab of the Video
Properties dialog. Using a higher resolution can bog down your computer if you’re processing
audio tracks at the same time.
See also:
Using the Video thumbnails pane
Using the Video thumbnails pane
At the top of the Track view in SONAR is the Video Thumbnails pane, which displays individual
frames of your video at certain time intervals of your project. The time interval between displayed
frames is determined by the zoom level you choose. If you zoom in far enough, you can view each
individual frame of your video.
Note 1: If you’re playing back a highly compressed movie (not many keyframes in the file), it
can take about a minute to redraw video thumbnails when you’re playing the movie or resizing
a window.
Note 2: Some Windows Media videos do not report their frame rate to SONAR. SONAR can
play these files, but cannot create thumbnails from them, so no thumbnails appear in the
Thumbnail pane.
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225
Figure 34.
The Video Thumbnails pane
A
B
C
F
E
D
A. Show/hide frame numbers button B. Show/hide thumbnails button C. Show/hide video pane button
D. Splitter bar E. Frame number F. Video track strip
Here are the various commands and functions of the Video Thumbnails pane:
• You can show or hide the pane.
• You can show or hide the video thumbnails.
• You can display absolute frame numbers.
• You can resize the thumbnails while preserving the aspect ratio by dragging the splitter bar.
• The video track strip at the top of the Track pane has display fields for Video File Name, Start
Time, Trim-In Time, Trim-Out Time, Duration, and Current Frame, as well as a toggle buttons
to show/hide the thumbnails (without hiding the Video Thumbnails pane), and to show/hide frame
numbers on individual frames. You can edit the Start Time, Trim-in Time, and Trim-Out Time
fields.
• SONAR saves the size and state of the Video Thumbnails pane on a per/project basis.
• The Video Thumbnails pane zooms horizontally when you use the standard Track view
commands for horizontal zooming. You control the height of the Video Thumbnails pane by
dragging the splitter bar up or down that’s at the bottom of the Video Thumbnails pane.
For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures:
To hide or show the Video thumbnails pane
• Drag the splitter bar that separates the Video Thumbnails pane from the Clips pane.
Or
• Use the Views > Video Thumbnails menu command.
Or
• Click the Show/Hide Video button
in the Track view toolbar.
To turn Video thumbnails On or Off
1. Right-click the Video Thumbnails pane or the Video Thumbnails track strip.
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2. Choose Show/Hide Thumbnails from the pop-up menu that appears.
Or
• Click the Show/Hide Thumbnails button
in the Track view toolbar.
To hide or show frame numbers on frames
• In the video track strip, click the Show/Hide Frame Numbers button
.
To open the Video properties dialog
• Double-click the video track strip.
To open the Video view
• Double-click the Video Thumbnails pane.
To move the Now time to a thumbnail
• Click the thumbnail.
To change the Start time
• In the video track strip, click the Start field, type a new number in Measure/Beat/Tick format, and
press ENTER. The start time is the time in your SONAR project at which your video starts to play.
To change the Trim-In time
• In the video track strip, click the Trim-In field, type a new number in SMPTE format, and press
ENTER (you can press the SPACEBAR instead of typing colons, if you want, and you can type
single zeros instead of double zeros). The Trim-In time is the time in your video file at which you
want to start video playback.
To change the Trim-Out time
• In the video track strip, click the Trim-Out field, type a new number in SMPTE format, and press
ENTER (you can press the SPACEBAR instead of typing colons, if you want, and you can type
single zeros instead of double zeros). The Trim-Out time is the time in your video file at which you
want to stop video playback.
To use the Video thumbnails context menu
1. Right-click the Video Thumbnails pane or the Video Thumbnails track strip.
2. Choose any of these options from the pop-up menu that appears:
• Show/Hide Thumbnails
• Display Absolute Frames
• Open Video View
• Insert Video
• Delete Video
• Export Video
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227
• Video Properties
Video playback on a FireWire DV device
You can view your video projects on an external FireWire DV device.
Note: This feature will decrease the processor load to your computer if the video stream is a
DV AVI file. If the stream is not DV AVI, the CPU load will significantly increase, compared to
playing back onscreen with SONAR’s Video view.
To convert a Video project to DV AVI format
1. Use the File > Export Video command.
The Export Video dialog appears.
2. In the File Name field, type a name for your new video.
3. In the Save as Type field, choose Video for Windows.
4. Click the Encoding Options button to open the AVI Encoder options dialog, and choose DV
Video Encoder in the Video Codec field. Click OK.
5. Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open a dialog of audio mixdown options. Choose the
audio options you want, but remember that if you plan to save the project to DV tape, choose the
following audio format:
• Channel Format.
Choose Stereo.
• Sample Rate. Choose 48000.
• Bit Depth.
Choose 16.
6. Click Save to export your video.
Once you save the video file, it can be re-inserted into a project (see “Importing and playing back
videos” on page 220). If the project will ultimately be exported to tape, that project will need to have
an audio sample rate of 48 KHz playing back at 16 bits.
To play video on an external DV device
1. Connect your external FireWire device. Make sure Windows recognizes the device, and displays
the device’s icon on the Windows taskbar.
2. Launch SONAR and open your video project.
3. In SONAR’s video view (Views > Video command), right-click the Video view and choose
External DV Output > <name of external DV device> from the pop-up menu.
4. Play your SONAR project.
The video disappears from the Video view and appears on your external monitor or camcorder.
Leave the Video view open so that you can move the Now Time frame-by-frame with the Video
view keyboard shortcuts.
If the Video view is the active window, you can use keyboard shortcuts to advance by a frame or a
frame increment. The +/-, and left/right arrow keys move forward/backwards by a single frame. If you
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hold down the CTRL key, then the frame increment value is used (default = 5 frames). You can also
use the [ and ] keys to seek by the frame increment.
If your video does not play back in sync with your audio, see Synchronizing external video playback
to audio.
External DV output (IEEE 1394/FireWire)
SONAR relies on the Microsoft AV/C drivers to communicate with DV devices that are connected to
a IEEE 1394 FireWire bus on your computer, in order to control and preview video to digital video
devices.
If another software application overwrites or disables these drivers, the Preview to FireWire and
Print to Tape feature may not function correctly. If you are going to install a software application that
uses DV devices connected to the IEEE 1394 FireWire bus, please check with the software vendor
about DV device drivers it may install. Also, please check with the manufacturer of your DV device
for AV/C-compliance information. The following devices have been tested and known to work
properly with SONAR:
• ADS Pyro A/V Link DV transcoder
• Canopus ADVC-100 DV transcoder
• Canon ZR-85 miniDV camcorder
Note: When using DV AVI movies, the transcoding unit must be set to the same format (NTSC
or PAL) as the video file, or Preview to FireWire and Print to Tape will fail to work properly. Also,
CPU consumption will be lower when the source material is in DV format, since the format is
native to the FireWire device and doesn't incur a CPU hit for transcoding video.
Exporting a project to a FireWire DV device
Once your project sounds the way you want it to, you can export the video and audio together to an
external FireWire DV device. This is called “printing to tape,” if your external device uses tape.
To export a project to an external DV device
1. Use the File > Export > Video command to open the Export Video dialog.
2. In the Save as Type field, choose AVC Compliant Device. You might see a different name in the
drop-down menu, depending on what type of external device you are using.
3. Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open the Audio Mixdown Options dialog.
4. In the Audio Mixdown Options dialog, choose the following options, and then click OK:
• Channel Format. Choose Stereo.
• Sample Rate. Choose 48000.
• Bit Depth. Choose 16.
5. In the Export Video dialog, click the Encoding Options button to open the property page of your
external device.
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229
6. In the property page, use the transport controls to position the tape in your external device to a
blank area for recording.
7. Close the property page, and click the Save button in the Export Video dialog to start exporting.
If you’re printing to a device that uses tape, the tape stops rolling when the export process is
finished.
Synchronizing external video playback to audio
Because there is more latency in FireWire video playback than in PC digital audio playback, video
playback on an external device will probably be playing back later than the audio tracks in SONAR.
To sync external video to audio
1. Right-click the Video view and choose Video Properties from the pop-up menu to open the
Video Properties dialog.
2. On the Render Quality tab of the dialog, under External DV Output, enter an offset number in
the Video Sync Offset field. The number you enter here causes the Video to start playing sooner
than the audio. It’s helpful if your video has some pre-roll footage that contains a visual sync point.
Note: The offset is accurate to 3 decimal places, e.g. 1 ms (a thousandth of a second). One
frame of video is approximately 33 ms long for NTSC and 40 ms for PAL; the offset will typically
be less than 1 second.
3. Click OK to close the dialog. Play your video, and readjust the Video Sync Offset number as
needed.
Locating missing audio
If you try to open a project and SONAR is unable to locate all the audio files that the project
references, the Find Missing Audio dialog appears. The Find Missing Audio dialog helps you find
any missing audio in your project.
See:
The Find missing audio file dialog
Restoring missing audio files
Managing shared and external files
The Find missing audio file dialog
Use the Locate Missing Audio File dialog to find missing audio in your project. The following is a
brief description of the options you have in this dialog:
• Open. Click this button once you have searched for and found the missing audio file.
• Skip.
230
Click this button to move to the next missing file. When you skip and audio file your project
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Locating missing audio
opens without that piece of missing audio.
• Skip All. Click this button to skip all missing audio files. When you skip all missing audio files,
you project opens without those pieces of missing audio
• Search.
file.
Click this button to begin a search of all available hard drives for your missing audio
• After locating the file Options. You can choose to either move an audio file to the project’s
audio data folder, copy an audio file to the project’s audio data folder, or leave an audio file in its
current folder.
For more information, see Find Missing Audio File dialog.
Restoring missing audio files
When you open a project file that references audio files which SONAR can not find, the Locate
Missing Audio dialog appears. Use the following procedure to restore the missing audio files to
your project.
To restore missing audio files
1. In the Locate Missing Audio dialog, click the Search button.
The Search for Missing Audio dialog appears and SONAR begins searching all available hard
drives for the missing file or files.
2. When SONAR is finished searching, the files that it has found appear in the dialog.
3. Select the file or files that SONAR has found and click OK.
The Locate Missing Audio dialog appears.
4. Select one of the following options:
• Move file to Project Audio Folder. Use this option if you are sure that no other projects are
referencing this file in its present location.
• Copy file to Project Audio Folder. Use this option if the missing file is shared with another
project and you want to keep all of your project’s audio files together.
• Reference file from present location. Use this option if you want to leave the missing file in
its current location now that SONAR knows where it is.
5. Click Open.
SONAR moves, copies or references the missing file or files as you instructed.
Managing shared and external files
Controlling Playback
Locating missing audio
231
You may want to share files between projects. The files you want to share may be frequently used
sound effects or drum loops. SONAR allows you to choose whether to copy imported audio files to
your project’s audio data directory or to link to them in their current (external) location.
Note: External files are defined as any file not in the project’s audio data folder (or a subfolder
within the project’s audio data folder).
To configure SONAR to always copy files to the project Audio data folder
Use this procedure if you want to keep all of your project’s audio in one folder (your project’s audio
data directory).
1. Select Options > Global and click on the Audio Data tab.
2. In the All Projects section, click the Always Copy Imported Audio Files option.
To configure SONAR to share external files
SONAR allows you to share external files (files not in the project’s audio data directory). There are
some exceptions, however. Files that have a different sampling rate or bit depth are always copied to
the project’s audio data directory. Also, if the Always Copy Imported Audio Files option in the
Audio Data tab of the Global Options dialog is checked, imported audio is always copied to your
project’s audio data directory.
Do the following to ensure that you are sharing files:
1. Uncheck the Always Copy Imported Audio Files option in the Global Options dialog.
2. In the Open dialog, when importing audio, make sure the Copy Audio to Project Folder option
is unchecked.
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Recording
You can add sound or music to a SONAR project in many different ways. You can record your own
material using a MIDI-equipped instrument, use a microphone or another audio input to record digital
audio information, or import sound or music data from an existing digital data file. With the Input
monitoring feature, you can hear your audio instruments exactly how they sound in SONAR,
including any plug-in effects (effects are not recorded, however). When you record audio or MIDI
tracks, SONAR displays a wave preview of your recorded data as you record it.
You can also input new material using your computer keyboard or mouse using the Piano Roll view,
the Staff view, or the Event List view. For more information about entering music using these views,
see the online help topics: The Staff View, The Piano Roll View, and The Event List View.
See:
Creating a new project
Preparing to record
Recording music from a MIDI instrument
Input quantizing
Arpeggiator
Recording audio
Input Monitoring
Loop Recording
Punch Recording
Step Recording
Recording Specific Ports and Channels
Importing Music and Sound
Saving Your Work
Creating a new project
You can add music and sound to an existing project or to a new project. Just as in any Windows
program, you open an existing project file using the File > Open command, and create a new project
file using the File > New command.
When you create a new SONAR project, there are some additional parameters you can set to make
it easier to work on your project. These include:
• Meter and key signature
• Metronome and tempo settings
• Audio sampling rate
• MIDI timing resolution
See:
Creating a new project
Setting the Meter and Key signatures
Setting the Metronome and Tempo settings
Setting the audio sampling rate and bit depth
Using per-project audio folders
For ease of backing up your audio files in a project, SONAR allows you to use a separate audio
folder for each project. This feature is off by default.
To enable per-project audio
1. Select Options > Global.
The Global Options dialog appears.
2. Click the Audio Data tab.
3. In the Audio Data tab, click the Use Per-Project Audio Folders option.
4. Click OK.
Note: If you use the default project that is created when you open SONAR, you are not using
per-project audio. You must use the Copy All Audio with Project option in the Save As dialog
to create a per-project audio folder. For more information, see “To Save an Existing Project
Using Per-project Audio” on page 838.
Creating a new project File
When you create a new project you are asked to choose a template to use for your new file. If you
have per-project audio folders enabled (for more information, see the online help topic Using perproject audio folders), you are also asked to specify a file name, the folder where you want to store
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the file, and the folder where you want to store the file’s audio. You can override per-project audio by
unchecking the Store Project Audio in its Own Folder option.
SONAR includes a set of templates you can use to create a new project. These templates include
common types of ensembles, such as rock quartets, jazz trios, and classical full orchestras. When
you create a new project using one of these templates, SONAR creates a project that has MIDI
settings predefined so that one track is set up for each of the instruments in the ensemble. SONAR
also includes a template with two MIDI and two audio tracks (called the Normal template). If you are
creating a new project that will contain only audio material, use the Audio Only template. If you are
creating a new project that will contain only MIDI material, use the MIDI Only template.
You can create your own template files and use them as the basis for other new projects. For more
information, see “Templates” on page 735.
To create a new project file
1. Choose File > New to display the New Project File dialog box.
Figure 35.
The New Project File dialog
2. If you have the per-project audio folders option enabled, enter a file name, set the folder where
you want to store the new file, and set the folder where you want to store the new file’s audio.
3. Choose a template from the list.
4. Click OK.
SONAR creates the new project file and displays it with the Track view open.
Setting the Meter and Key signatures
By default, a new SONAR project is in 4/4 time and the key of C major. You can change these
settings to any desired Meter or key. These settings apply to all the tracks in a project. You cannot
set different meter or key signatures for different tracks.
The meter or key signature of a project can change at any measure boundary. To insert changes in
the meter or key signature, use the Views > Meter/Key command to display the Meter/Key view, or
use the Insert > Meter/Key Change command.
Recording
Creating a new project
235
If you are creating a new project that will contain only audio material (no MIDI material), you do not
need to set the meter and key signature.
Note: Groove clips do not follow your project's key. Groove clips follow the project pitch (in the
Markers toolbar and pitch markers in the Time Ruler. For more information, see “Working
Groove Clip audio” on page 419.
The key signature controls how SONAR displays notes in the Staff view, the Event List view, and
elsewhere. The meter tells SONAR the number of beats per measure and the note value of each
beat. Common meters include:
• 2/4 (two beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
• 4/4 (four beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
• 3/4 (three beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
• 6/8 (six beats per measure, each eighth note gets a beat)
The top number of a meter, the number of beats per measure, can be from 1 through 99. The bottom
number of a meter is the value of each beat. You can pick from a list of values ranging from a whole
note to a thirty-second note.
The meter determines the following:
• Where the metronome accents are placed
• How the Now time is displayed
• How the Staff view is drawn
• How grid lines are displayed in the Piano Roll view
To Set the Meter and Key signature
1. Display the Views toolbar by choosing Views > Toolbars > View.
2. Click
on the View toolbar to open the Meter/Key view.
3. Click
to open the Meter/Key Signature dialog box.
The Meter/Key Signature dialog appears.
Figure 36.
The Meter/Key Signature dialog
4. Enter the top and bottom meter values in the Beats per Measure and Beat Value fields.
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Recording
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5. Choose the key signature from the Key Signature list.
6. Click OK.
You can also set the meter and key signature in the Large Transport toolbar display, or by using the
Insert > Meter > Key Change command.
Setting the Metronome and Tempo settings
The metronome counts off each beat in a measure, so you can hear the tempo of your project. You
can choose to have the metronome sound during recording, during playback, or both. When you
start recording, SONAR can play any number of beats or measures of metronome clicks before
recording begins. This can help you “get in the groove” before you start performing. These beats or
measures are called the count-in.
When you create a new project, you should set the metronome to play during the count-in and while
recording. If you are adding material to an existing project, you might only need the metronome for
the count-in.
You can customize the metronome sound to use audio or any note on a MIDI instrument. By default,
SONAR uses a hi-hat cymbal sound from a General MIDI drum kit for the MIDI metronome, but you
can change this setting to anything you like by changing the MIDI output, MIDI channel, and
duration. You can also choose the note and velocity (volume) to use for the first beat of each
measure and for all other beats. The metronome settings are stored separately with each project, so
you can use different settings for each one.
Most metronome options can be set in the Metronome toolbar:
Figure 37.
A
The Metronome toolbar
B C
D
E
F
G
H
A. Record count-in B. Measures C. Beats D. Metronome during playback E. Metronome during record F. Use
Audio Metronome G. Use MIDI metronome H. Metronome settings
If you don’t see the Metronome toolbar, use the Views > Toolbars command to open the Toolbars
dialog box, and check the Metronome check box. The metronome MIDI note parameters must be
set in the Metronome Settings dialog box.
Note: If you are synchronized to an external clock source, you cannot use the count-in feature.
For more information, see “Synchronizing Your Gear” on page 819.
To set the tempo and metronome for a new project
1. In the Metronome toolbar, select the Metronome during Recording
Playback
and Metronome during
options.
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237
2. If you want to hear a count-in before recording begins, set the count-in to 1 or more. Select
Count-in Measures
or Count-in Beats
3. Select Use Audio Metronome
.
and/or Use MIDI Metronome
.
4. Arm at least one track.
5. Press R or click
advance.
to start recording. The count-in will play, and the Now time will start to
6. If necessary, stop playback and adjust the tempo using the tempo controls in the toolbar and
restart playback. Repeat until the metronome plays the tempo you want.
7. Press the SPACEBAR or click
8. Press W, or click
to stop recording.
to rewind to the beginning of the piece.
Your tempo and metronome settings are now ready. When you save the project file, the metronome
and tempo settings will be saved as well.
To change your Metronome settings
1. Open the Metronome Settings dialog box in one of the following ways:
• Click Metronome Settings
in the Metronome toolbar.
• Choose Options > Project and click the Metronome tab.
2. Change the metronome settings as indicated in the following table:
To do this
Do this
Enable the metronome during playback
Check Playback
Enable the metronome during recording
Check Recording
Enable the count-in
Enter the number of clicks for the count-in in the Count-in
box, and select Measures or Beats
Use the audio
Check Use Audio Metronome
Use a MIDI note as the sound
Check Use MIDI Note and choose the output, channel, and
other settings
Table 43.
3. Click OK.
Your metronome settings will be saved with the project file.
To set the MIDI metronome sounds from your MIDI instrument
1. Select a track in the Track view that is assigned to the MIDI device you want to use for the
metronome sound.
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2. Click Metronome Settings
box.
in the Metronome toolbar to open the Project Options dialog
3. Make sure that the settings in the Output and Channel fields match those for the track in the
Track view.
4. Click on the Key box in the First Beat or the Other Beats section.
5. Play a note on your MIDI instrument. The note number is entered automatically. The velocity is
not updated.
6. Click OK.
Your metronome settings will be saved with the project file.
Setting the audio sampling rate and bit depth
Each SONAR project has an audio Sampling rate and an audio driver Bit depth that indicate the
level of accuracy with which audio data are sampled and processed. The same parameters are used
for all the digital audio in a project. When you create a new project, if you do not want to use the
default setting, you must choose a sampling rate before you start recording audio.
SONAR lets you choose from several different sampling rates: 11025 Hz, 22050 Hz, 44100 Hz,
48000 Hz, 88200 Hz, 96000 Hz, 176400Hz, and 192000 Hz. The default used by SONAR is 44100
Hz, the same rate as audio CDs. However, you may choose a higher rate and later mixdown to
44100. You can also enter any hardware-supported value in the Sampling Rate field. Consult your
hardware documentation for supported sampling rates.
A higher sampling rate produces better quality sound. However, a higher sampling rate also means
that each audio clip takes up more memory and disk space and requires more intensive processing
by your computer. If you have an older computer, or a slow hard drive, you might be better off with a
lower sampling rate. For more information, see “Improving Performance with Digital Audio” on page
851.
By default, the audio driver bit depth of audio data is 16 bits. If your sound card supports 18, 20, 22,
or 24 bit audio, you can choose to take advantage of these higher resolutions.
If you are creating a new project that will contain only MIDI material (no audio), you do not need to
set the audio sampling rate or bit depth. If you import audio from a Wave file or another digital audio
file, the sampling rate and audio driver bit depth of the wave file are converted to your default setting,
if necessary.
Note: If you are planning to move your project to a Digital Audio Tape (DAT) or to some other
media via a digital transfer, set your sampling rate and bit depth to match the target unit. For
example, use 44,100Hz/16-bit for a project that will be mastered to a CD, so that no sample rate
conversion is required.
To set the sampling rate and audio driver bit depth for new projects
1. Choose Options > Audio to display the Audio Options dialog box.
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239
2. On the General tab of the dialog, select a value in the Sampling Rate drop-down menu, and a
value from the Audio Driver Bit Depth drop-down menu.
3. Click OK.
The sampling rate and audio driver bit depth are saved with the project file.
Sony Wave-64 support
SONAR 6 and earlier wrote wave files based on the RIFF wave file format. The RIFF format has an
inherent file size limitation of 2GB.
SONAR fully supports reading and writing to the Sony Wave-64 format, which has a limit of
8,388,608 terabytes!
SONAR only creates Wave-64 file when needed. The Wave-64 format allows an application to
dynamically switch from classic RIFF WAVE to Wave-64 format even if the data was originally
created as a RIFF wave file. SONAR detects when a file will exceed 2GB and will dynamically switch
to the new Wave-64 format.
The table below shows the maximum duration for a stereo WAVE file before we hit the 2GB limit, as
well as the max duration for a stereo Wave-64 file before we hit the 8,388,608 terabyte limit.
Sample Rate
Bit Depth
RIFF-Wave
Sony Wave-64
44,100 Hz
16
3.38 hours
14,524,080,431 days
44,100 Hz
32
1.69 hours
7,262,040,215 days
44,100 Hz
64
50.7 minutes
3,631,020,108 days
192,000 Hz
16
46 minutes
3,335,999,724 days
192,000 Hz
32
23.3 minutes
1,667,999,862 days
192,000 Hz
64
11.65 minutes
833,999,931 days
Table 44.
When Wave-64 Files are created
Wave-64 files are created behind the scenes automatically under the following usage scenarios:
• When the number of samples recorded exceeds the file size limit of a 32-bit RIFF WAV file
(approximately 2GB file size).
• When you export, bounce or freeze tracks or clips and the resultant wave size exceeds 2GB.
• When you destructively process audio effects on a SONAR clip whose duration exceeds 2GB.
• When you import audio and choose a wave file that exceeds 2GB in size (this could be a Wave64 file).
• When you save a CWB file and the size of any chunk in the CWB file exceeds 2GB, the entire
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CWB is saved in the new Wave-64 format.
Note: 64-bit CWB files are incompatible with previous versions of SONAR.
64-bit CWB files
CWB files are RIFF files with multiple WAVE chunks. Therefore, CWB files in previous versions of
SONAR were subject to the same file size limitations of normal RIFF Wav files. This could potentially
result in a CWB file that failed to save because a chunk was too large.
SONAR will automatically use the Wave-64 format if a CWB file exceeds 2GB.
Note: 64-bit CWB files are incompatible with previous versions of SONAR.
Wave-64 file extension
Wave-64 files have a .w64 extension associated with them. Whenever a Wave-64 file is written,
SONAR saves it with an extension of w64.
CWP file persistence for 64-bit sample offsets
The SONAR project file format supports writing 64-bit sample offsets for regions and clips. When a
project containing 64-bit sample times is detected, saving that project automatically rewrites it in this
new format.
Note: Projects that contain 64-bit sample times are incompatible with SONAR 6 and earlier.
Setting the MIDI timing resolution
Each SONAR project has a setting for the timing resolution, or timebase, that indicates the
resolution of MIDI data. This resolution is measured in ticks or pulses per quarter note and is often
abbreviated as PPQ. The default resolution is 960PPQ, which is accurate enough for most
applications. In this timebase, each quarter note is represented by 960 ticks, each eighth note by
480 ticks, each eighth-note triplet by 320 ticks, and so on.
In some projects you may need a different timebase. For example, if you wanted to use eighth-note
septuplets (7 eighth notes per quarter note) and represent them accurately, you would need to have
a timebase that is divisible by 7, such as 168PPQ. SONAR uses the timebase you choose for a
project to determine the range of tick values in the Now time.
To set the timebase for a project
1. Choose Options > Project and click the Clock tab.
2. Choose the timebase you want from the Ticks per Quarter Note list.
3. Click OK.
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241
The timebase will be saved with the project file.
Preparing to record
To prepare for recording, you need to do the following:
• Set the recording mode.
• Choose your input(s).
• Arm one or more tracks for recording.
• Check your recording levels (audio only).
• Tune your instrument if necessary (audio only).
• Set the Now time to the point where recording should start.
• Start recording.
After you record, you can use the Edit > Undo command to erase the most recently recorded
material. You can use the Edit > Redo command to restore the recording and toggle between Undo
and Redo as many times as you like.
If you are using MIDI Sync or time code sync for the clock source, SONAR waits to receive external
timing data before it begins recording. For more information see the online help topicSynchronizing
Your Gear.
See:
Recording modes
Choosing an input
Arming tracks for recording
Auto arming
Recording modes
Any material you record is stored in a new clip. If you record into several tracks at once, one clip is
created in each track. If you record into a track that already contains clips, you can choose one of
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Recording
Preparing to record
three recording modes to determine what happens to those clips. When you save your project, you
also save whatever recording mode you choose together with that project:
Recording mode
How it works
Sound on Sound
The new material is merged with any existing material. This means that any
existing clips on the track are left unchanged and all newly recorded material is
stored in new clips. While recording, you will be able to hear material from
existing clips.
Overwrite
The new material replaces (overwrites) any existing material. This means that
portions of existing clips may be “wiped clean” to make room for newly recorded
material. While recording, you will not be able to hear material from existing clips.
Auto Punch
Recording only takes place between the punch-in and punch-out times. You can
use Auto Punch in either Sound on Sound or Overwrite mode.
Table 45.
To choose a recording mode
• Select a mode from the drop-down list in the Record toolbar.
Or
• Choose Transport > Record Options or click
then select the desired mode.
to display the Record Options dialog box,
SONAR saves your recording options with each project, so you can save a different recording mode
with each of your projects.
Choosing an input
To record into a track, you must choose an input for the music or sound to be recorded. Usually, you
choose All Inputs - Omni to record material from a MIDI instrument, or the left or right channel of a
digital audio device (such as a sound card) to record audio material, or stereo if you want to record
stereo audio in a single track. The input for each track is displayed in the track’s Input field and at
the top of each module in the Console view.
When you choose All Inputs > Omni as the input for a track, SONAR merges material from all MIDI
inputs and instruments. This means you don’t have to worry about input, channel, or other MIDI
settings. Sometimes, you may want to record different MIDI channels into different tracks. To learn
how to do this, see “Recording Specific Ports and Channels” on page 274.
While each track can have a different input, it is also possible for several tracks to have the same
input.
To choose a MIDI input in the Track view
1. Click the drop-down arrow of an Input field of a MIDI track (an Input field has this icon to the left
of it:
).
Recording
Preparing to record
243
A drop-down menu of MIDI inputs appears.
2. Choose an input from the following:
• None. This option actually sets the Input field to Omni with this setting the track will record
any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
• All Inputs > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). With this setting the track will record any MIDI
input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). Choosing this option causes
the track to record any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver, unless
you choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record
input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input driver.
• Preset. If you want to record multiple data from multiple ports and/or channels, you need to
select a preset collection of those ports and channels. You can select one here (to create
presets, see next line).
• Manage Presets. If you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see “To Create or Edit a Preset Input Configuration” on
page 275).
To choose an audio input in the Track view
1. Click the drop-down arrow of the Input field of an audio track (an Input field has this icon to the
left of it:
).
A drop-down menu of audio drivers appears.
2. Select the audio driver for the sound card you want to record with from these options:
• None.
This choice ensures that you do not record to the track in question.
• Left (name of your sound card).
channel of your sound card.
Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the left
• Right (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the
right channel of your sound card.
• Stereo (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a stereo signal.
If your sound card has more than one pair of inputs, a pair of numbers appears after the name of
each audio driver to indicate which pair of inputs the driver is attached to.
Note: Inputs that are used by the External Insert plug-in (see “External Insert plug-in” on page
632) cannot be assigned to track inputs.
To choose an audio input in the Console view
1. At the top of an audio track module, click the Input button.
A pop-up menu of audio drivers appears.
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Preparing to record
2. Select the audio driver for the sound card you want to record with from these options:
• None. This choice ensures that you do not record to the track in question. It also turns off
input monitoring for this track.
• Left (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the left
channel of your sound card.
• Right (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the
right channel of your sound card.
• Stereo (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a stereo signal.
If your sound card has more than one pair of inputs, a pair of numbers appears after the name of
each audio driver to indicate which pair of inputs the driver is attached to.
To choose a MIDI input in the Console view
1. At the top of a MIDI track module, click the Input button.
A pop-up menu of MIDI channels appears.
2. Choose an input from the following:
• None. This option actually sets the Input field to Omni. With this setting the track will record
any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
• All Inputs > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). With this setting the track will record any MIDI
input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). Choosing this option causes
the track to record any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver, unless
you choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record
input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input driver.
• Preset. If you want to record multiple data from multiple ports and/or channels, you need to
select a preset collection of those ports and channels. You can select one here (to create
presets, see next line).
• Manage Presets. If you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see “To Create or Edit a Preset Input Configuration” on
page 275).
Arming tracks for recording
SONAR lets you record any number of tracks at one time. You indicate the tracks you want to record
by arming the tracks. You can arm a single track or several tracks at one time. Each track records
material received though its selected input. Whenever a track is armed, not only does the track’s R
button turn red, but the Clips pane that’s to the right of that track’s controls turns a reddish hue.
To arm one or more tracks for recording
• To arm a track in the Track view, click
Recording
Preparing to record
.
245
Or
• To arm a track in the Console view, click
(to see the Arm button in the Console view, the MSR
button on the left side of the Console view must be depressed).
Or
• To arm several tracks at the same time, select one or more tracks in the Track view, then rightclick and choose Arm from the pop-up menu.
A track’s Arm button turns red to indicate that the track is armed for recording.
To disarm all tracks at once
• Click the red Arm label that’s located in the status bar at the bottom of the SONAR window.
Or
• Click the red Arm button in the Playback State toolbar, which you can display by using the
Views > Toolbars command and checking Playback State in the Toolbars dialog box.
Auto arming
You must arm tracks in order to record. To safeguard your data, there is no automatic arming of any
tracks.
If you want to record MIDI tracks without arming a track, choose Options > Global, and select the
General tab. Click the Allow MIDI Recording without an Armed Track check box.
This feature lets you start recording a new track simply by making it the current track and pressing R
or clicking the Record button in the toolbar. Auto-arming makes it possible to inadvertently record
over existing material in the current track, however.
Recording music from a MIDI instrument
Once you have set your tempo and metronome, and armed one or more tracks, you are ready to
start recording.
To record MIDI
1. Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start recording.
2. Click , press R, or choose Transport > Record. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will
play the count-in.
3. Play or perform the material you want to record. As you record, SONAR displays a clip containing
the new material in the Clips pane (unless you’ve turned off this option on the General tab of the
Global Options dialog (Options > Global command).
4. Click
246
, press the SPACEBAR, or choose Transport > Stop to stop recording.
Recording
Recording music from a MIDI instrument
To listen to the new material, set the Now time to the start of the clip and press the SPACEBAR or
click
. If you’re not happy with the recording, use Edit > Undo or press CTRL+Z to erase the
new material.
When you stop recording, if you do not see a new clip in the Clips pane, you may have a problem
with MIDI input. See “Troubleshooting” for more information.
See:
Recording Specific Ports and Channels
Input quantizing
Input quantizing allows you to automatically quantize MIDI input during recording. You can see the
results immediately, and hear the results as soon as a track is looped.
Note: Input quantizing does not destroy your original recording. If you press CTRL+Z after you
finish recording with input quantizing enabled, the quantized clip is deleted, and the original
unquantized clip appears, just as you recorded it. If you are using loop recording in Sound On
Sound mode, all the quantized clips are deleted.
You control input quantize options for single tracks from the input quantize controls in MIDI track
strips. The input quantize controls appear in Track strips by default just before the Input field when
the All tab is selected (see picture below). You control input quantize options for multiple tracks from
the Record toolbar, and from the Tracks menu. The toolbar and menu commands affect selected
tracks. If no tracks are selected, they affect ALL MIDI tracks.
A
B
A. Input Quantize enable/disable button B. Input Quantize resolution menu
You can set the input quantize options for either a single track or for multiple tracks.
To turn Input quantizing On or Off
• To turn input quantizing on or off for a single track, click the track’s Enable/Disable Input
Quantize button.
• To turn input quantizing on or off for selected tracks, select the tracks that you want to turn on or
off, then use the Tracks > Input Quantize > Enable/Disable Input Quantize command, or click
the Enable/Disable Input Quantize button in the Record toolbar.
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Input quantizing
247
• To turn input quantizing on or off for all tracks, make sure no tracks are selected (or press
CTRL+A to select all tracks), then use the Tracks > Input Quantize > Enable/Disable Input
Quantize command, or click the Enable/Disable Input Quantize button in the Record toolbar.
To set the resolution
• To set the resolution for a single track, click the track’s Input Quantize resolution menu, and
choose a resolution from the drop-down menu that appears. You can also click Quantize
Settings in the resolution menu to open the Input Quantize dialog, and type a number of ticks in
the Resolution field.
• To set the resolution for selected tracks, select the tracks that you want to configure, then use the
Tracks > Input Quantize > Quantize Settings command or click the Quantize Settings button
in the Record toolbar to open the Input Quantize dialog. Then choose a value in the Resolution
field, and click OK.
• To set the resolution for all tracks, deselect all tracks (or select all tracks), then use the Tracks >
Input Quantize > Quantize Settings command or click the Quantize Settings button in the
Record toolbar to open the Input Quantize dialog. Then choose a value in the Resolution field,
and click OK.
Note: To quantize to a custom resolution value, open the Input Quantize dialog, and type a
custom number of ticks in the Resolution field.
To set options
• To set options for a single track, click the track’s Input Quantize resolution menu, and choose
Quantize Settings to open the Input Quantize dialog, or right-click the Resolution menu. Then
choose options in the dialog, and click OK.
Note: To get explanations of the options in the Input Quantize dialog, press F1 when the
dialog is open.
• To set options for selected tracks, select the tracks that you want to configure, and use the
Tracks > Input Quantize > Quantize Settings command or click the Quantize Settings button
in the Record toolbar to open the Input Quantize dialog. Then choose options in the dialog, and
click OK.
• To set options for all tracks, deselect all tracks, then use the Tracks >Input Quantize > Quantize
Settings command or click the Quantize Settings button in the Record toolbar to open the Input
Quantize dialog. Then choose options in the dialog, and click OK.
Visual indicators
You will see the following visual indicators when Input Quantizing is enabled:
• The Enable/Disable Input Quantize button in the Record toolbar changes.
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Input quantizing
Figure 38.
The Record toolbar
A B
A. Enable/Disable Input Quantize B. Quantize Settings
• The red swath that appears in a track in the area where recording is taking place changes color.
You can choose a color for this in the Configure Colors dialog (Options > Colors command) by
choosing Clips Pane in the Color Category menu, and changing the entry for Input Quantize
Record Preview Background.
• The Arm button
in a track that has Input Quantizing enabled changes color when it is
armed, and displays Q instead of R.
Key bindings
You can choose key bindings for Input Quantize commands by opening the Key Bindings dialog
(Options > Key Bindings command), choosing Global Bindings in the Bind Context menu, and
scrolling to the Tracks > Input Quantize commands.
To set key bindings for note resolutions, choose Track View in the Bind Context menu, and scroll to
the Input Quantize Resolution commands.
For more information, see Quantizing.
Arpeggiator
The arpeggiator lets you play intricate patterns of notes that would otherwise be extremely difficult or
impossible to play manually and at speeds and octave ranges that exist beyond the physical
limitations of the player or keyboard range.
Arpeggiated events are new events that are based on notes that you play on your controller
keyboard. The new events are rhythmically and harmonically specified by the arpeggiator’s preset,
allowing you to “play” an endless variety sophisticated musical passages with simple key pressing.
The most significant capability of the arpeggiator is its ability to apply algorithmic variations on your
input as well as MIDI-based patterns.
In addition to note events, the arpeggiator can send parameter automation such as pan, volume,
and even effects automation for the current track.
Each MIDI and instrument track has its own integrated arpeggiator, visually located in the Track
view. Running multiple arpeggiators across tracks can help realize exciting melodic and rhythmic
textures.
The arpeggiator appears as a control widget above the FX bin. You can expand the arpeggiator
widget to show additional controls.
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Arpeggiator
249
Figure 39.
Click the Show/hide Arpeggiator Controls button to see additional controls.
A
B
A. Basic Arpeggiator controls visible B. Advanced Arpeggiator controls visible
Figure 40.
Arpeggiator controls
A
B
C
D
E
A. Enable/disable B. Presets C. Show/hide Arpeggiator Controls D. Rate menu E. Shapes menu
Tip: As with other widgets in the Track view, you can specify the visibility of the Arpeggiator widget
for each tab at bottom of the Track pane. For details, see Widget Tab Manager.
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Arpeggiator controls
The following table describes the controls in the Arpeggiator.
Control
Description
Enable/Disable
Enables/disables the arpeggiator on a given track. This control can be assigned to MIDI
remote control and modified in real-time during project playback.
Preset Control
You can create and edit arpeggiator presets; all user parameters are stored in the preset.
• Arpeggiator settings are included in track templates.
• Arpeggiator presets can be saved to a file and exchanged with other users.
• Arpeggiator files are stored in a shared directory.
For details, see Using patterns and presets.
Rate
Adjusts the relative speed of the arpeggiator sequence by changing all the note durations by
a factor of the current tempo. This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and
modified in real-time during project playback.
Octave Range
Sets the number of octaves through which the arpeggio will play. A value of 1 means that a
held chord will only arpeggiate the notes that are being held within the octave from which the
notes are being transmitted. A value of 2 means a held chord will arpeggiate for two octaves.
The held chord always represents the bass octave, meaning that the other octaves sound in a
higher register.
If you specify a range higher than the standard MIDI specifications, the Arpeggiator will
repeat the pattern in the highest available octave as necessary.
This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in real-time during project
playback.
Latch
Latch keeps the arpeggio playing after you let go of the keys.
This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in real-time during project
playback.
Swing
Applies swing to the arpeggio. Swing is either on or off.
Velocity
An offset control that adds whatever velocity value you select to the velocities of the notes in
the pattern.
Duration
Controls whether the notes in the pattern are held to their full value, or are held for shorter or
longer durations.
Pitch Offset
A transposition control in half-steps, up or down a maximum of 2 octaves.
Flam Amount
If a pattern contains flams, this menu controls how big a difference there is between the
attack time of the flam and the note it is attached to.
Source Mix
When 0, simultaneously held notes arpeggiate as single notes. At 50%, simultaneously held
notes are heard as a chord in addition to the usual arpeggiated notes, both at equal levels. At
100%, only the held chord is audible.
Control: Knob (0 – 100%); this control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in
real-time during project playback.
Table 46.
Arpeggiator controls
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Arpeggiator
251
Control
Description
Ch
MIDI input and output menu—the Arpeggiator only affects input data that’s on the MIDI
channels listed on this menu. The arpeggiator always obeys the track’s assigned output
channel, plus any additional channels specified in the arpeggiators Ch menu.
Shapes
Choose a shape that specifies the direction in which currently held notes are to be
sequenced. The following shapes are available:
• Rhythm (implicit rhythm mode)
• Forward
• Reverse
• Forward Circle 1
• Reverse Circle 1
• Forward Circle 2
• Reverse Circle 2
• Inward
• Outward
• Inward Circle
• Outward Circle
• As Played
• As Played Circle
• Random
Table 46.
Arpeggiator controls (Continued)
Note: Most Arpeggiator parameters can be controlled via MIDI remote control, but automation
data can not be recorded into tracks. For details, see To Set Up Remote Control for a Knob,
Button, or Fader.
See:
Using the arpeggiator
Using the arpeggiator
One arpeggiator device appears on every MIDI and instrument track, located in the Track view.
To enable/disable the Arpeggiator
• Click the Enable/Disable Arpeggiator button.
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Arpeggiator
A
A. Enable/Disable Arpeggiator toggle
To show/hide advanced Arpeggiator controls
• Click the Show/Hide Arpeggiator Controls button.
A
A. Show/Hide Arpeggiator Controls
Using patterns and presets
Pre-authored patterns are used to apply rhythmic and melodic variations to the arpeggio. SONAR
includes many professionally-authored pattern files for you to experiment with. Pattern files have a
.ptn file extension.
An Arpeggiator preset stores a pattern along with the current Arpeggiator parameter settings. Preset
files have a .arp file extension.
You use the Arpeggiator’s Preset control to load patterns and load/save presets.
When playing back through the Arpeggiator, the first pitch in the pattern is moved to the lowest note
currently played.
Note: If the pattern file is a Free Mode pattern, the steps are quantized to the nearest 128th
note value in order to better preserve timing nuances.
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To load an Arpeggiator pattern
1. Click the Preset control in the Arpeggiator widget and select Open Pattern from the drop-down
menu.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains your Arpeggiator pattern files (.ptn) and select the desired
pattern.
A
A. Click to load a pattern
To load an Arpeggiator preset
• Click the Preset control in the Arpeggiator widget, point to Presets and select the desired preset.
A
A. Click to load a preset
To load the next/previous Arpeggiator preset
• Click the Next Preset or Previous Preset button in the Arpeggiator widget.
A
A. Click to load the next/previous preset
To save an Arpeggiator preset
• Click the Preset control in the Arpeggiator widget and select Save Pattern As from the dropdown menu.
The current pattern is saved with the current Arpeggiator parameter settings.
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Arpeggiator
A
A. Click to save a new preset
See:
Arpeggiator
Recording audio
Before you record audio, you should check your input levels. If the levels are too low, you may end
up with too much hiss and background noise in your recording. If the levels are too high, your
recording will be inaccurate or distorted. To check your audio levels, use the audio meters in the
either the Track view or Console view. To adjust the input levels, you must use your sound card’s
software mixer program (or the Windows XP mixer) or an external hardware mixer for certain sound
cards.
The audio meters indicate the volume at which the audio will be recorded, in units called decibels
(dB). The meter values range from -INF (silent) to 0dB (maximum volume). You can change many
options in the way SONAR’s meters display data: see “Metering” on page 609. To maximize the
dynamic range of your recording, you want to set the levels as high as possible without clipping.
When the audio level exceeds 0dB, some of the audio information is lost. This is known as
overload. Many sound cards use clipping to deal with an overloaded signal, but clipping can distort
the audio signal. As a result, you should avoid letting the meter level exceed 0dB.
Note: Because SONAR is a digital recorder, a level of 0dB indicates digital zero. Digital
distortion will occur at 0dB. You will not get analog compression or warmth from pushing the
input levels. If you are transferring data from a DAT or another device, you may want to calibrate
the input levels of your sound card with the output levels of other devices in your studio. This will
ensure that 0dB on one unit will appear as 0dB in SONAR.
To check the Input levels
1. In the Track view, choose the inputs for the tracks you want to record, and arm the tracks for
recording. Make sure that the Show/Hide All Meters button at the top of the Track view is
enabled.
2. The default meter range is from 0 dB to -60 dB. To change the range, right-click on the meter and
choose a new range from the menu.
3. Perform at the loudest level at which you plan to record.
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255
Watch the meters respond. Increase the input volume as high as possible without ever letting the
meters move all the way to 0dB, even for an instant, or letting the Clipping indicator turn red. If
either of these things happen, reduce the input volume just enough to avoid them during the
entire performance. Note that some kinds of audio, such as percussive or plucked musical
instruments, can produce very short, high-level “transients” when struck or plucked aggressively,
which can lead to clipping if the input volume is set too high. Consider the possibility of these
transients when examining the meters and setting your record level.
Note: If the Clipping indicator is illuminated, click on it to reset.
Once you have set your sampling rate and input levels, you are ready to start recording. If the
meters do not move, check your sound card software’s mixer program and make sure that you have
the proper input enabled for recording.
When you record audio, SONAR stores each audio clip in a separate file. These files have the same
format as a Wave (.wav) file, but they have special names and are stored in a separate directory on
your hard disk. SONAR automatically manages these audio files for you, making it easier for you to
manage your projects. If you want to work with these files directly, or to learn more about how
SONAR stores audio data, see “System Configuration” on page 843.
Tuning an Instrument
SONAR Chromatic Tuner analyzes any input signal from the sound card and displays the intonation
(in cents) on the meter. The tuner automatically determines which string/pitch you are trying to tune,
so that you can keep both hands on the instrument while tuning. The VU Meter shows how loud your
input signal is–a strong signal is essential for accurate tuning.
The Tuner works just like an effect and each track can have its own instance.
With a microphone, you can also tune acoustic instruments.
To Tune an Instrument
1. In the track you want to record your instrument on, right-click in the Effects bin.
2. From the menu that appears, select Audio Effects > Cakewalk > Tuner.
3. Click the track’s Input Monitor button. If you don’t click the Input Monitor button on the track
the Tuner is patched into, you will not be able to use the tuner.
4. With your instrument plugged into your sound card and turned up, play a note.
The Tuner displays the intonation reading on the cents meter and the name of the note you
played between the three arrows. One of the three arrows lights up, indicating one of the
following:
• Up arrow indicates the note is in tune.
• Right arrow indicates the note is sharp.
• Left arrow indicates the note is flat.
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5. Adjust the pitch if necessary and repeat for the rest of the pitches you need to tune.
To Record Audio
1. Choose the audio inputs for the track(s) you want to record.
2. Arm the tracks for recording. The Clips pane next to each armed track turns a reddish hue when
the track is armed.
3. Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start recording.
4. Click
, press R, or choose Transport > Record. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will
play the count-in measures or beats.
5. Play or perform the material you want to record.
As you record, SONAR displays a waveform preview of the new material in the Clips pane, unless
you’ve turned off the Display Waveform Preview option on the General tab of the Global
Options dialog (Options > Global command). If you’ve turned off the option, SONAR displays a
red swath along the area of the Clips pane where you’re recording.
6. Click
, press the SPACEBAR, or choose Transport > Stop to stop recording.
SONAR displays a clip containing the new material in the Track window. To listen to the new
material, set the Now time to the start of the clip and press the SPACEBAR or click
. If you’re not
happy with the recording, use Edit > Undo to erase the new material.
If you do not see a new clip in the Clips pane, you may have a problem with audio input. See
“Troubleshooting” for more information.
Important: Make sure you have enough space on your hard disk when recording digital audio.
Running out of hard disk space when recording can lead to unpredictable results.
Confidence Recording and Waveform Preview
When you’re recording audio or MIDI data, SONAR gives you many visual cues that tracks are
armed and that SONAR is recording data.
When one or more tracks are armed:
• The R button in each armed track turns red.
• The Clips pane next to each armed track gets a reddish hue.
• The R button in the Playback State toolbar is depressed (to display the toolbar, use the Views >
Toolbars > Playback State command).
• The Status bar displays the red Arm message.
While you’re recording, SONAR displays these cues:
• Audio tracks display a waveform preview in the area in the Clips pane where you’re recording.
This is actually a visual record of the record meter’s progress. When you stop recording, SONAR
displays the actual waveform, which is slightly different from the preview. The preview is a
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257
snapshot taken at certain time intervals, while the actual waveform represents all the data that is
recorded.
• MIDI tracks display the actual data that they record, both in the Clips pane and the Piano Roll
view (not the Staff view).
• Automation envelopes and nodes are drawn in real time as the automation data is being
recorded.
If you want to turn off the real-time display of audio clips, see the following procedure.
To Turn Off Waveform Preview for Audio Recording
1. Use the Options > Global command to open the Global Options dialog.
2. On the General tab, uncheck the Display Waveform Preview While Recording option, and click
OK.
Now when you record audio tracks, a red swath appears in the Clips pane in the area you’re
recording.
Input Monitoring
Being able to hear plug-in audio effects applied to a live signal is an exciting feature of SONAR.
However, there are two issues that users commonly stumble upon when using the input monitoring
feature. The first is that the monitored signal seems to have an echo associated with it. The second
is that live input monitoring can lead to nasty feedback problems, particularly if you have an
outboard audio mixer, or you record from a different sound card from the one you are playing back
with.
SONAR has several buttons to control input monitoring:
• Per-track Input Echo button
.
track’s input monitoring on or off.
Each audio track has an Input Echo button that turn’s that
• Global Input Monitor button. The Playback State toolbar (to display, use the Views >
Toolbars > Playback State command) has the Input Monitor button on the right end, which
turns input monitoring on or off on all audio tracks with one click.
• Audio Engine button
. Clicking this button so that it’s in its up position turns all audio activity
in SONAR off, which includes input monitoring.
Note: When you use input monitoring, make sure that the track you’re playing through uses
the same audio interface (sound card) for both input and output. Using different audio interfaces
for a track’s input and output can produce distortion during input monitoring.
To understand the echo and feedback problems, let’s look at how audio signals travel through your
sound card, the drivers, and SONAR. The following diagram depicts a simplified version of this
signal flow.
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Input Monitoring
SONAR
The bottom block of the picture represents the sound card. The shaded area above it represents the
audio drivers. The unshaded area at the top represents the main environment of the operating
system.
As the diagram shows, analog audio flows into the card's line input (on the left), and is immediately
split in two. One branch goes up through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), where the audio is
digitized, buffered and fed to the driver (labeled Wave In in the diagram).
The digital audio data buffers are read by SONAR from the Wave In driver, processed, and then sent
out to the Wave Out driver. The driver passes the digital audio buffers through a digital-to-analog
converter (DAC), where the audio data is converted back to an analog signal.
Finally, this analog output signal is mixed with the original branch of the input analog signal, and the
summed result is presented to the sound card's line output.
With this information in hand, let's follow a simple audio signal through the system to understand
how echoes get introduced into the input monitor path.
say “1”
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Input Monitoring
SONAR
259
Suppose you are counting "1, 2, 3" into your sound card very quickly. When you say the first "1," this
sound immediately appears in all the places indicated in the illustration above. In other words, the
analog audio signal is pure electrical signal traveling at the speed of light, so it is immediately
present across all analog audio paths inside the sound card.
say “2”
SONAR
Next, you say "2." In the time it takes you do that, the ADC has converted the "1" to digital form and
the Wave In driver has fed it to SONAR for processing. SONAR processes the buffer right away and
passes the processed data right back to the Wave Out driver.
say “3”
SONAR
Finally, you say "3." By this time the original "1" has been converted back to analog audio by the
DAC, and that analog signal is mixed in with the "3" you have just said. The ultimate result is that
you hear a "1" and "3" mixed together at the line output of card—seemingly sounding like an echo,
but actually just an artifact of the signal flow through the system.
You can eliminate the echo by muting the line-in from playing back (see “To Eliminate the Echo from
Input Monitoring” on page 261); you’ll send only the processed signal to the sound card outputs. This
technique introduces a little extra latency to what you hear coming out of your sound card, but if you
use WDM or ASIO drivers with your sound cards, the latency is negligible.
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Input Monitoring
The feedback problem results whenever you have a loop in your mixer path: the output of your mixer
is patched into the input of your sound card. Feedback can happen with or without input monitoring,
but since input monitoring can add several levels of gain to the signal flow, it’s of greater concern
when you have input monitoring enabled. Input monitoring is disabled by default when you install
SONAR, and you enable it with the following procedure.
To Enable Input Monitoring
• Turn your speakers down, and on an audio track that you want to monitor, click the Input Echo
button so that it’s lit up (on) . To disable monitoring for this track, click the button off.
Or
• Turn your speakers down, and on the Playback State toolbar (to display, use the Views >
Toolbars > Playback State command), click the Input Monitor button so that it’s lit up—this
enables input monitoring on all tracks. To disable monitoring for all tracks, click the button off.
Now you can hear your instrument in real time with any plug-in effects that you want to patch into the
current track. You might also hear an echo, because the dry signal is coming out of your sound card
slightly ahead of the processed signal. To eliminate the dry signal, see the next procedure.
To Eliminate the Echo from Input Monitoring
1. Open the software mixer that controls your sound card. If your sound card uses the Windows
mixer, open the mixer by using the Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment > Volume
Control command, or double-clicking the speaker icon on the Windows taskbar.
2. In the Play Control window of the mixer, check the Mute check box in the Line-In column, or in the
column of whatever jack your instrument is plugged into, and close the mixer window.
Now you can hear only the processed sound when you use input monitoring. Using WDM or ASIO
drivers for your sound card keeps latency to a negligible amount.
Note: This procedure does not eliminate feedback from your system, only the echo. If you
experience feedback, you have a feedback loop somewhere in your mixer setup.
To Enable input monitoring when arming tracks
Warning: Be extremely careful when enabling input monitoring on an armed track if you are
working in a room that contains both live microphones and studio monitors. In such a scenario,
enabling input monitoring on an armed track can result in an extremely loud feedback loop
between the mirophones and monitors and can damage your ears and speakers.
SONAR makes it possible to automatically enable input monitoring when arming a track for
recording. To do so, hold down the SHIFT key while you click on a track’s Arm button
. Likewise,
holding down the SHIFT key while disabling record during playback will disable input monitoring.
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261
To automatically disable input monitoring during playback
1. Go to Options > Global and click the General tab.
2. Click Disable Input Monitoring during Playback (off by default).
When this option is enabled, input monitoring will be disabled on all tracks during playback but not
during recording.
See also:
Input Monitoring
Arming tracks for recording
The Audio Engine Button
SONAR has a button in the Transport toolbar called the Audio Engine button
. This button lets
you turn SONAR’s audio engine off if you’re getting distortion or feedback and want to cut the sound
off. When playback or recording are in progress, SONAR enables the button automatically—
however, the button appears greyed-out during playback or recording because you can’t control the
button at that time. Whenever the button is enabled, the Audio Running message lights up on the
Status bar that’s at the bottom of the SONAR window.
If you experience feedback during input monitoring, you can click the Audio Engine button to turn
off the audio engine. However, if playback or recording are in progress, the button is unavailable,
and you should click the Reset button
that’s just to the right of it instead, or else stop recording or
playback first and then click the Audio Engine button.
You may experience slightly better playback and recording performance by turning the Audio
Engine button off before you press the Play or Record buttons. This happens if your computer’s
resources are already stretched to the limit. When you start recording or playback with the audio
engine already functioning, there is still some processing that SONAR has to do that’s left over when
you start the transport. This places an extra load on your system that can cause dropouts if your
system is already stretched thin. A more effective solution than disabling the audio engine before
starting the transport is to reduce the load on your system by hiding some meters, increasing latency
slightly, reducing the number of plug-ins and/or tracks, etc.
See also:
Input Monitoring
Loop Recording
When recording a vocal or an instrumental section, you might want to record several different takes
so that you can choose the one you like best. You might even want to record several takes to double
a part or merge the best parts of each.
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The Audio Engine Button
Normally, to record each take you would have to arm a track, start recording, perform the take, and
then stop recording. You can record multiple takes more easily using a feature called loop
recording. Loop recording lets you start recording and record as many takes as you like, all in a
single step.
SONAR loops between the loop start and loop end time, allowing you to record one take on each
pass. SONAR creates a clip for each take. You have three choices for where these clips are stored:
• All clips can be recorded in Sound on Sound mode and stored in a single track, where they are
stacked on top of one another.
• All clips can be recorded in Overwrite mode in a single track, where each take is successively
muted except the last one.
• Each clip can be recorded to a different track. SONAR automatically places each take into a new,
empty track. No existing tracks are changed in any way.
When you finish recording, you can use the Edit > Undo command or CTRL+Z to erase all your
takes in a single step.
To Use Loop Recording
1. Choose the input for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for recording.
2. Set the loop start and end times in either the Loop/Auto Shuttle dialog box or in the Loop
toolbar.
3. Choose Transport > Record Options, or click
Options dialog box.
Figure 41.
on the Record toolbar, to display the Record
The Record Options dialog
4. Choose to stack all takes in a single track or to store them in separate tracks.
5. If you choose to stack all takes in a single track, choose either Sound on Sound or Overwrite
mode.
If you use single track and Sound on Sound with Track Layers enabled, checking the Create New
Layer on Overlap check box will create another track layer if your new clip overlaps an existing
clip.
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263
6. If you stack all takes in a single track, you can audition them later by using the Track Layers
button
in the right of the Track pane (each take will have its own Mute and Solo buttons).
7. Click OK to close the Record Options dialog, and set the Now time to the point in the project
where you want to start recording.
8. Click
, or press R, or choose Transport > Record. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it
will play the count-in measure.
9. Play or perform the material you want to record. At the end of the loop, SONAR will return to the
start of the loop and you can record the next take.
10.If you want to erase the most recent take while loop recording is underway, choose Transport >
Reject Loop Take.
11.Click
, or press the SPACEBAR, or choose Transport > Stop when you want to stop
recording.
The takes are stored in the manner you requested.
Punch Recording
Suppose you are happy with most of a track but want to replace some sound or add new material in
one small section—perhaps as small as a couple of notes. This is where punch recording comes in
handy, because it lets you record new material only within a specified range of times.
For example, suppose you recorded a 32-bar keyboard solo but made some mistakes in the 24th
and 25th bars. With punch recording, you can play the entire solo again, so you make sure you can
get the feel you want. However, only the bars you want to correct are actually recorded. That way,
you don’t have to worry about introducing new mistakes elsewhere in the recording.
To use punch recording, follow these steps:
• Enable punch recording.
• Set the start and end times of the punch.
• Choose Sound on Sound mode or Overwrite mode.
• Start recording by pressing R or clicking the
button on the Transport toolbar.
The Record toolbar shows the punch settings, as shown here:
Figure 42.
A
The Record toolbar
B
C D
E
F
G
A. Punch In Time B. Punch Out Time C. Click here to set punch times to the selection start and end times
D. Auto-punch on/off E. Record mode F. Step record G. Click to open the Record Options dialog box
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Punch Recording
When punch recording is enabled, the punch times are indicated by special markers in the Time
Ruler, which is at the top of the Clips pane:
A
B
A. Punch In B. Punch Out
After you punch record, choosing Edit > Undo both discards any new material you recorded and
restores the original material that had been deleted.
You can also combine loop and punch recording to record several takes of a punch. Say you are
working on that perfect take of a guitar solo and you need to hear a couple of bars of the project as
“pre-roll” before you punch in. By combining looping with punch, you can have each take begin
before you start to play and still have the solo cut in at the appropriate instant.
In the example mentioned previously, you could loop from bar 17 to bar 26 but record only bars 24
and 25. Here’s what this looks like:
A
B
A. The loop starts and ends here B. The punch starts and ends here
To Punch Record
1. Choose the input(s) for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for recording.
2. Enable the Auto Punch button in the Record toolbar (the button is red when enabled).
3. Set the start and end times in one of the following ways:
• Enter the times directly on the toolbar
• Select a range of time and click
on the Record toolbar
• Select a range of time, then right-click in the Time Ruler and choose Set Punch Points
4. Choose either Sound on Sound or Overwrite from the Record toolbar (or in the Record
Options dialog—use the Transport > Record Options command to open the dialog).
5. Set the Now time to a point where you want to start playback.
6. Click
, or press R, or choose Transport > Record. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it
will play the count-in measures or beats.
7. Play or perform the material you want to record.
8. Click
, or press the SPACEBAR, or choose Transport > Stop to stop recording.
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265
The material you play during the punch time is recorded in the chosen track, either replacing any
existing material (Overwrite mode) or blending with it (Sound on Sound mode).
To Use Punch While Looping
1. Choose the input for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for recording.
2. Set the loop start and end times.
3. Set the punch start and end times, as described previously.
4. Choose Transport > Record Options, or click
Options dialog box.
on the Record toolbar, to display the Record
5. Choose to stack all takes in a single track or to store them in separate tracks.
6. Set the Now time to the beginning of the loop.
7. Click
, or press R, or choose Transport > Record. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it
will play the count-in measures.
8. Play or perform the material you want to record. At the end of the loop, SONAR will return to the
start of the loop and you can record the next take.
9. If you want to erase the most recent take while loop recording is underway, choose Transport >
Reject Loop Take.
10.Click
, or press the SPACEBAR, or choose Transport > Stop when you want to stop
recording.
The takes are stored in the manner you requested.
Step Recording
Step recording is a method of recording MIDI notes one note or chord at a time. It’s a very easy and
precise way to record, but can sound mechanical if used in the wrong situation. You use step
recording in its typical form by choosing a step size, such as a quarter note, and then playing a note
on your MIDI keyboard. When you play the note, SONAR records the note, and moves the insertion
point forward by the distance of the step size (moving the insertion point every time you press a note
is the default behavior). You can then record more notes of the same duration by playing notes on
your keyboard, or you can change the step size while you’re recording and record different size
notes. You can also choose how long the notes you play will sound, as a percentage of the step size.
For example, even though you record some notes that have a step size of a quarter note, if you set
the Duration field to 50%, the notes will be recorded and displayed as a series of eighth notes, each
followed by an eighth rest. The insertion point for each recorded note in this example moves by a
quarter note (the step size) each time you record a note. If the duration is longer than the step size,
the notes will overlap with the notes recorded at the next step.
SONAR displays your step-recorded notes in the Staff view, Piano Roll view, Event List, and Clips
pane in real time as you step record them. SONAR also lets you:
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Step Recording
• Use other commands while step recording
Note: SONAR doesn't respond to sync signals while the Step Record dialog is open and
enabled.
• Change tracks while recording
• Add two step sizes together by pressing the + key between each step size selection
• Delete as many step-recorded notes as you want, while moving the insertion point back through
the steps you delete
• Configure step recording key bindings (see Step Record Keyboard Shortcuts)
• Make any kind of tuplet
• Create a custom step size lasting any number of ticks (ticks are divisions of a beat—SONAR uses
960 by default); SONAR will remember the custom step size until you change it
• Move the insertion point by beats, measures, or step size
• Link the position of the Now Time to the insertion point
• Offset the insertion point by the number of ticks that you specify
• Randomize duration
• Record notes with constant pitch, and/or velocity, and/or channel
• Hold notes across steps
Tip: With the new keyboard shortcuts, you can leave your left hand on your MIDI keyboard to enter
notes with, and control most step recording functions with your right hand on the NumPad.
MIDI data is recorded using step record even if the track is not armed. Loop markers are ignored.
And step recording always uses the Sound on Sound (blend) record mode, regardless of the
current record mode.
With Auto Advance disabled, you must click Advance each time you want to advance to the next
step. While this requires more effort, it also provides you with more flexibility. For example, with Auto
Advance disabled, you do not even need to play the notes at a single step at the same time! You
can play any number of notes one at a time, and they will all be recorded at the same step until you
click the Advance button. You can even record notes of different durations at the same step—simply
record the notes of one duration, change the duration, and play more notes, without clicking
Advance.
The Step Record dialog has two modes: Basic (smaller with fewer options), and Advanced (larger,
more options). To use Basic mode, click the Bas./Adv. button so that the Adv. button is displayed.
To use Advanced mode, click the Bas./Adv. button so that the Bas. button is displayed.
Here’s a picture of Basic mode:
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267
Figure 43.
The Step Record - Basic window
G
F
E
A
B
C
D
A. Insertion point location B. Position slider C. Basic/Advanced button D. Step Record Toggle button to enable/
disable step recording E. Click to move insertion point by step size F. Total step size display G. Custom tick size
field
Here’s a picture of Advanced mode:
Figure 44.
The Step Record - Advanced window
A
B
D
C
A. Randomize durations field B. Step pattern recording field C. Click to move insertion point by single beat
D. Click to move insertion point by single measure
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Step Recording
To Use Basic Step Recording
1. Open the Step Record dialog by using the Transport > Step Record command, or by clicking
in the Record toolbar to display the Step Record dialog box, or press SHIFT+F4.
2. Make sure that the Basic mode of the Step Record dialog is displayed (the Adv. button will be
showing if the Basic mode is displayed; if the Bas. button is showing, click it).
3. Set the insertion point by doing one or more of the following:
• Click the Step Advance button
to move the insertion point forward by the current step size,
or click the Step Backwards button
to move the insertion point backward by the current
step size. SONAR displays the insertion point location in the Insertion point location field
(see Basic mode picture above).
• Drag the position slider left or right to move the insertion point one measure at a time.
• Type a location in MBT (Measure-Beat-Tick) format in the Insertion point location field.
4. Choose a step size by doing one of the following:
• For common step sizes, click one of the notehead icons to choose a step size as large as a
whole note
or as small as a 64th note
. You can increase the step size you choose by
50% or 75% by clicking the dot icon
, or double-dot icon
, respectively. You can add
different step sizes together by holding down the CTRL key while you click extra icons, or by
pressing the + key on the NumPad.
• For a tuplet step size, click a notehead icon to choose the “tuplet unit” (for example, for eighthnote triplets, choose an eighth note). Then enable the Tuplet check box and fill in the “n” in
time of “n” fields. For example, if you want quarter-note triplets, click the quarter-note icon
,
enable the Tuplet check box, and fill in 3 in the time of 2, which means 3 quarter notes in the
time of 2 quarter notes. If you want eighth-note triplets, click the eighth-note icon
, enable
the Tuplet check box, and fill in 3 in the time of 2. If you wanted 5 notes in one beat, click the
quarter-note icon, enable the Tuplet check box, and fill in 5 in the time of 1.
• If you want to create a custom step size, click the n button
the Ticks field.
, and fill in the number of ticks in
5. Choose a duration by doing one of the following:
• If you want duration and step size to be the same, enable the Follow Step Size check box.
• If you want duration and step size to be different, disable the Follow Step Size check box and
fill in a percentage value in the % of Note Value field.
6. Choose a destination track for your recording in the Destination Track field.
7. If you want the insertion point to advance automatically when you play your MIDI controller,
enable the Auto Advance check box.
8. Play a note or chord on your MIDI controller. When you release the note(s), the insertion point
moves by the step size, if the Auto Advance check box is enabled. If Auto Advance is not
enabled, you can release the notes and record more notes, or you can use the Navigation
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269
controls to advance the insertion point. If you are still holding down a note or notes when you
advance the insertion point, the step size of the held notes is extended by the current step size.
9. Continue recording notes of the same step size and duration to the same track, or change any of
those parameters and continue recording. To create a rest, advance the insertion point without
playing any notes. To delete notes on previous steps, you can press CTRL+Z for each recorded
step. If you want to delete previous steps and move the insertion point back at the same time,
check the Delete on Back Step check box, and click the Step Backward button.
10.When you’re finished recording, close the dialog by clicking the X icon in the upper right corner,
or by pressing SHIFT+F4.
You can press CTRL+Z during or after recording to undo your recording one step at a time.
Note: Options that you choose in Advanced mode, such as Link to Now Time, are still in force
when you use Basic mode.
To Use Advanced Step Recording
The procedure for Advanced step recording is the same as for Basic, but with these extra options,
which become available when you click the Bas./Adv. button in the Step Record dialog so that it
displays Bas.:
To do this
Do this
Randomize the note duration
Disable the Follow Step Size check box, enter a number
into the % of Note Value field (leave it at 100 if you want to
follow step size), and enter the maximum duration that the
step size should be randomized in the Randomize By field.
Choose a constant pitch and/or velocity and/or
MIDI channel for the recorded note(s)
To choose a constant value for pitch, velocity, or channel,
disable the Use Input check box next to the desired field,
and fill in the value you want to use for that particular
parameter.
Add two step sizes together
See “To Add Two Step Sizes Together” on page 271
Link the insertion point to the Now Time
Enable the Link to Now Time check box.
Enter notes at an offset distance from the
displayed insertion point.
Enter a positive or negative number of ticks in the Offset
field.
Move the insertion point back or forward by one
beat.
Click the Beat Backward button
Move the insertion point back or forward by one
measure.
Click the Measure Backward button
Use step pattern recording.
See “Step Pattern Recording” on page 273.
Table 47.
270
Recording
Step Recording
or the Beat Advance
button.
Advance
or the Measure
button.
To Add Two Step Sizes Together
1. Choose your first step size. If desired, use any combination of tuplet and dotted values.
2. Press the + key on the Num Pad.
A plus sign appears after the value in the Step Size “n” Ticks field.
3. Choose your second step size. If desired, use any combination of tuplet and dotted values.
The total step size appears in the Step Size “n” Ticks field.
4. Press the note on your MIDI keyboard that you want to enter.
The new note appears in your track, and the Now Time moves the distance of the two combined
steps that you entered. To toggle the plus sign on or off in the Step Size “n” Ticks field, press the +
key on the Num Pad. To clear a large value from the Step Size “n” Ticks field, click a smaller value,
or use a keyboard shortcut for a smaller value.
To Use Other Commands While Step Recording
• Use the mouse to click the command you want to use.
or
• Click the Activate Step Recording button
in the Step Record dialog so that the button is not
red. This disables step recording, allowing you to use both the mouse, and any keyboard
shortcuts that the Step Record dialog uses, for other commands.
By default, opening the Step Record window will automatically enable step recording. SHIFT+R is
the default shortcut to open the Step Record dialog. Once the Step Record window is open, you
can enable/disable step recording at will without closing the Step Record window: just click the
Activate Step Recording button
in the Step Record dialog, or press SHIFT+R.
See also:
Step Record Keyboard Shortcuts
Step Pattern Recording
Step Record Keyboard Shortcuts
The default keyboard shortcuts for step recording are on the NumPad, so that you can keep one
hand on your MIDI keyboard to play notes with, and use the other hand on the NumPad to use
shortcuts.
To configure your own shortcut, use the Options > Key Bindings command to open the Key
Bindings dialog, choose Step Record in the Bind Context field, select a key and a function you
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271
want to bind, and click the Bind button to bind them together. Bind additional keys and commands
as needed.
Default setting or option
Default shortcut
Whole note
NumPad 1
Half note
NumPad 2
Quarter note
NumPad 4
Eighth note
NumPad 8
16th note
NumPad 6
32nd note
NumPad 3
64th note
NumPad 7
Custom step size
NumPad 9
Tuplet
NumPad /
Dot
NumPad *
Double dot
SHIFT+NumPad *
Add next step size to previous step size
NumPad plus key “+”
Toggle the Delete on Back Step option
NumPad minus key “-”
Follow step size
CTRL+Num Lock (does not change Num Lock state)
Step backward
NumPad 0
Step advance
NumPad Enter
Beat backward
SHIFT+NumPad 0
Beat advance
SHIFT+NumPad Enter
Measure backward
CTRL+NumPad 0
Measure advance
CTRL+NumPad Enter
Auto Advance
NumPad Period “.”
Toggle step recording
SHIFT+ R
Table 48.
See:
Step Pattern Recording
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Step Pattern Recording
The Pattern option lets you define a repeating rhythmic pattern of notes and rests so that you can
use step recording more efficiently. For example, suppose your project is in 4/4 time, and one track
has a pattern that is two measures long: quarter notes in the first measure and on the first two beats
of the second measure, followed by a half-note rest on the last two beats. This pattern has six
quarter notes followed by two quarter-note rests.
When you use step recording with Auto Advance, you can play the six quarter notes and SONAR
will automatically advance to the next step. However, to skip over the rests, you need to click the
Advance button two times.
With pattern recording, you define a pattern that indicates where the rests appear in the pattern.
SONAR will then skip over the rests automatically, so you don’t need to click the Advance button at
all.
SONAR displays patterns as a combination of digits (which represent beats that contain notes) and
dots (which represent beats that contain rests). The pattern described previously looks like this:
123456..
Here is another example:
12.4
This pattern automatically skips over every third beat; SONAR interprets this pattern as “one, two,
rest, four.”
Here is one final example based on 4/4 time, with a step size of eighth-note triplets (twelve steps per
measure):
1234.67.90.2
No matter how you enter a pattern, SONAR displays the digits in sequence, with periods replacing
digits at each step where a rest would occur. You can create patterns with up to 64 steps.
To Use Pattern-Based Step Recording
1. Choose Transport > Step Record to display the Step Record dialog box.
2. Set the insertion point where you want to start recording.
3. Click in the Pattern field.
4. Press any number key to indicate a beat at which notes will be played.
5. Press the SPACEBAR, period, or the letter R to indicate a beat on which there is a rest.
6. When the pattern is complete, click elsewhere in the dialog box.
7. Step record as before.
From now on, after you record each step, SONAR automatically advances past all rests to the next
step on which notes will be played. If you change step sizes while recording, the size of each rest
changes also. To stop pattern-based step recording, simply delete the pattern from the Pattern box.
SONAR stores up to 10 patterns in the Pattern field.
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Recording Specific Ports and Channels
Most MIDI instruments are capable of sending information on several different channels at once. By
default, SONAR merges all incoming MIDI data and records it on whatever MIDI tracks are armed.
However, SONAR also allows you to control which MIDI input ports and channels each track will
record. Here are some examples of when this feature might be useful:
• There are several performers, each playing a different MIDI instrument. By setting each
instrument to transmit MIDI on a different channel and/or port, you can record each player’s
performance into a separate track, even though they are all playing at the same time.
• You are using a MIDI guitar controller and want to record the notes played on each string on a
separate track.
• Your electronic keyboard has a built-in auto accompaniment feature that plays a drum part and an
accompaniment while you play lead. You want to record each of these three parts into a different
track in a SONAR project.
• You have a MIDI sequence stored on your synthesizer’s built-in sequencer, and you want to
record each channel onto a different track.
You can use external MIDI synchronization to automate the process of loading multichannel
sequences from other MIDI devices. For more information, see Synchronizing Your Gear.
You can choose MIDI inputs for a track by using either the Inputs field on each individual track, or by
using the Tracks > Property > Inputs command to display the Track Inputs dialog box.
SONAR allows you to filter MIDI input so that you can record only certain kinds of MIDI data (see
“Input Filtering” on page 275), and also allows you to automatically turn off the Local On setting of
your master keyboard.
To Assign Input Ports and Channels to MIDI Tracks
1. Click the drop-down arrow on an individual track’s Input field to display the Input drop-down
menu (jump to step 4, below).
Or
1. Use the Tracks > Property > Inputs command to display the Track Inputs dialog box.
2. In the Track column, select a MIDI track or tracks that you want to choose inputs for.
3. Click the MIDI Inputs button that’s at the bottom of the dialog to open the MIDI inputs drop-down
menu.
4. Choose track inputs from these choices:
• None. This option actually sets the Input field to Omni. With this setting the track will record
any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
• All Inputs > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). With this setting the track will record any MIDI
input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
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that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). Choosing this option causes
the track to record any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver, unless
you choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record
input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input driver.
• Preset. If you’ve created any preset collections of input ports and channels, you can select
one here.
• Manage Presets. If you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see following procedure).
5. Click OK.
SONAR shows new track inputs in the Input fields in the Track pane.
To Create or Edit a Preset Input Configuration
1. In the Input field of a track that you want to select inputs for, click the drop-down arrow and
choose Manage Presets from the drop-down menu (this menu is also available from the MIDI
Inputs button in the Track Inputs dialog).
The MIDI Input Presets dialog appears.
2. In the Input Port column, find the input port that you want to use for this track (if you only use a
single-port MIDI interface, you’ll only see one choice).
3. To the right of the input port, select the MIDI channels that you want this track to respond to on
this MIDI port. Clicking the OMNI button in this row of MIDI channels clears or fills all the check
boxes in this row.
4. Select channels for any other MIDI port that’s listed, if you want to use channels on that port also.
5. If you want to save this configuration, type a name for it in the window at the top of the dialog, and
click the disk icon to save it.
Now, when you choose inputs for other tracks, you can choose the preset you saved by clicking the
Presets option in the track’s Input drop-down menu. If you want to edit a preset, select it in the top
window of the MIDI Input Presets dialog, edit it, and click the disk icon. If you want to delete a
preset, select it in the same dialog and click the X button to delete it.
Input Filtering
SONAR lets you filter out specific types of MIDI messages or filter the MIDI input stream channel by
channel. Any MIDI information that is filtered out is neither recorded nor echoed to any other MIDI
devices.
You can use the message type filter to screen out resource-intensive MIDI messages like key and
channel aftertouch. By default, SONAR records all types of events except these two.
You can use message-type filtering to record short System Exclusive (Sysx) messages in real-time.
These will end up in the track as Sysx data events, which can hold System Exclusive messages up
to 255 bytes. Leave the Buffers setting at 128 unless you experience data not being recorded. For
more information about Sysx, see “System Exclusive Data” on page 805.
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To Filter Event Types
1. Choose Options > Global and click the MIDI tab.
2. Check the message types you want recorded.
3. Click OK.
From now on, SONAR records only the types of events you have chosen.
Importing Music and Sound
While recording is perhaps the most common way of adding material to a SONAR project, there are
several other methods you can also use. SONAR lets you import music into a project from several
different types of digital data files, including MIDI files; audio files in Wave, MP3, AIFF, and other
formats; audio CD tracks and other SONAR project files.
See:
Importing Audio CD Tracks
Importing Material from Another SONAR Project
Importing MIDI Files
Importing Audio Files
SONAR lets you insert digital audio information into any track of a project. If the audio file you are
importing is in stereo, then it can be imported into a single stereo track, a pair of mono tracks or a
single mono track.
The File > Import > Audio command supports the following digital audio file types:
• Wave (extension .wav)
• MPEG (extensions .mpeg, .mpg, .mp2, and .mp3)
• Apple AIFF (extensions .aif and .aiff)
• Active Streaming (extension .asf)
• Next/Sun (extensions .au and .snd)
• REX (extensions .rex, .rx2, and.rcy)
• Sony Wave64 (extension .w64)
• FLAC (extension .flac)
• Sound Designer II (extension .sd2)
• Core Audio Format (extension .caf)
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The sampling rate and bit depth for a project is set based on your default settings in the Audio
Options dialog. If the sampling rate from the Wave file does not match the sampling rate in your
project, then it will be converted to the current project’s sampling rate and bit depth.
To Import an Audio File
1. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the audio should be placed.
2. Choose File > Import > Audio to display the Open dialog box.
3. Choose the audio file you want to import. SONAR displays information about the file at the bottom
of the dialog box.
4. Click Play to listen to the audio file before importing.
5. If the new file is stereo, check the Stereo Split option if you want to insert the file into two
separate tracks.
6. Click Open.
SONAR loads the audio data from the audio file and places it in the selected track at the Now time.
Preview bus
Files in the Import Audio dialog box may be selected and previewed in any existing bus in SONAR.
To preview a file
1. Select the desired output bus in the Preview Bus combo box
2. Click on the file in the file explorer pane
3. Click the Play button.
4. During playback, the Play button becomes a Stop button. Click Stop to stop playback.
Broadcast Wave Files
Broadcast Wave files are wave files with some additional information stored in them. Broadcast
Wave files have the following information:
• Description. A brief description of the contents of the Broadcast wave. Limited to 256
characters.
• Originator. The author of the Broadcast wave. This information is taken from the Author field in
the File Info dialog.
• Originator Reference. A unique reference identifier created by SONAR.
• Origination Date.
The date the file was created.
• Origination Time.
The time the file was created.
• Time Reference. The SMPTE time stamp for the beginning of broadcast wave.
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To import a Broadcast Wave file:
1. If you want SONAR to import Broadcast Wave files always at their timestamped location, select
Options > Global, click the Audio Data tab and check the Always Import Broadcast Waves At
Their Timestamp option. Otherwise, set the Now Time and current track to indicate where the
audio should be placed.
2. Choose File > Import > Audio to display the Open dialog box.
3. Choose the audio file you want to import. SONAR displays information about the file at the bottom
of the dialog box.
4. Click Play to listen to the audio file before importing.
5. If the new file is stereo, check the Stereo Split option if you want to insert the file into two
separate tracks.
6. Click Open.
If the Always Import Broadcast Waves At Their Timestamp option is selected in the Global
Options dialog, the imported Broadcast Wave file appears at its timestamp on the selected track.
Otherwise, the file appears at the Now Time on the selected track.
Importing Audio CD Tracks
The File > Import > Audio CD command lets you import tracks from audio CD’s into any track of a
project.
Audio tracks on a CD always have a bit depth of 16, but you can choose to import the tracks at a
higher bit depth if desired.
To Import a track from an Audio CD
1. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the audio should be placed.
2. Insert an audio CD into the computer’s CD drive.
3. Choose File > Import > Audio CD to display the Import Audio CD Tracks dialog box.
4. Make sure the correct CD drive is selected in the Target Drive drop-down list.
5. Choose the audio track you want to import. SONAR displays the length and size of all audio
tracks.
6. Click Play to listen to the audio track before importing.
7. If you wish to import the audio with a different bit depth than the original audio track, choose the
desired bit depth from the Import Bit Depth drop-down list.
8. Click OK.
SONAR loads the audio data from the audio CD and places it in the selected track at the Now time.
Importing Material from Another SONAR Project
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Importing Music and Sound
You use the Edit > Copy and Edit > Paste commands to import material from one project to another
using the Windows clipboard. The project that contains the material you want to import is the source
project. The project into which the material is imported is the target project.
Normally, if you copy material from several different tracks to the Windows clipboard, the information
will be pasted back into separate tracks. You can choose to paste all the material from the clipboard
into a single destination track in the target project.
You can also copy material from one project to another by displaying the Track view for both projects
side by side, then using drag-and-drop editing.
To Import Material from Another Project
1. Open the source project, or click in the Track view for that project.
2. In the Track view, select the material you want to import.
3. Choose Edit > Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
4. Make sure that Events in Tracks is checked. If you don’t want to import tempo changes, meter/
key changes, or markers, uncheck those options. Click OK.
5. Open the target project, or click in the Track view for that project.
6. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the material should be placed.
7. Choose Edit > Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
8. Check Paste to One Track if you want all material imported into the current track (not
recommended if you’re importing both MIDI and audio data).
9. Click OK.
SONAR imports the material and displays it in the Track view.
Importing OMF Projects
With OMFI (Open Media Framework Interchange) support & Broadcast WAVE support SONAR lets
you collaborate and exchange project files with users of other programs and platforms. Support for
OMFI and Broadcast Wave files provides cross-platform compatibility with OMFI host applications
such as Pro Tools, Avid and Logic systems. SONAR also exports projects as OMF files that you can
open in Pro Tools and other audio software.
SONAR now allows you to select sample rate and bit depth during OMF import.
A few general guidelines for preparing OMF files for import into SONAR:
• OMF version 2 is preferred.
• AIFC can take slightly longer to open, as the data must be converted to WAVE on read, so WAVE
is the best choice.
• If exporting from Avid Xpress DV, select "embed" (not "link") when exporting the OMF file, and
don't include any video.
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OMF Explained
The OMF format, or OMFI (Open Media Framework Interchange, means the same as OMF), is a file
format that can be read by many professional-level audio programs. OMF files contain two basic
types of information:
• Audio and/or video files, referred to as media
• Information needed to put the media data in sequence—known as the Composition
The OMF file supplies the following data and information:
• Tracks
• Clip positions—an OMF file's EDL edit resolution can be either frame accurate or sample
accurate. SONAR can read either, but always writes sample accurate. The clip position is
specified in absolute samples.
• Slip edits
• Fades and crossfades (as destructive edits)—SONAR renders any fades when it writes OMFs,
creating separate clips for any fade-ins or fade-outs. SONAR slip-edits the original clip to make
room for the fade-in and fade-out clips. If you export to an audio program that supports slip
editing, the user can delete the fade clips and roll out the original clip to return to the original raw
audio (without fades) if desired.
• Sample rate and audio bit depth, but only if the media are embedded in the OMF
The OMF file does NOT supply the following data and information:
• Volume and pan envelopes—OMF does actually support limited automation. However, as with
Nuendo and most other OMF host programs, gains and pans are ignored (on both read and write)
in SONAR as they are only supported on MONO tracks (OMF limitation).
• Plug-in effects.
• MIDI data
• Tempo
Whoever supplies the OMF file that you want to open in SONAR should also send along a text file
containing all pertinent information about the project, especially tempo.
To Open OMF Files in SONAR
1. Use the File > Open command, which opens the Open dialog.
2. In the Files Of Type field, select OMF File.
3. Navigate to the folder that contains your OMF files, select the OMF file you want to open, and
then click the Open button, which opens the Unpack OMF dialog.
4. If you know the exact tempo of the file, enter it into the Initial Tempo field. It is always preferable
to know and enter the project tempo at this point. If you don't know the project tempo you can
open the file at the default tempo and then change the file's tempo later, but this will cause the
clips to move.
5. The Sample Rate field displays the sample rate of the imported audio (if the audio is embedded
in the OMF). Use this field to change the sample rate, if you need to.
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6. The Bit Depth field displays the bit depth of the imported audio if the audio is embedded. If the
audio is external, the Bit Depth field defaults to the Original menu option, which will import the
audio at the bit depth the audio is currently using. If you want to import the audio at a different bit
depth, you can choose the bit depth in this field.
7. If you have previously enabled SONAR's Use Per-Project Audio Folders option, which is
located in SONAR's Global Options dialog, then the Store Project Audio In Its Own Folder
check box is already enabled, and the fields under it are available. If you want to use this option,
fill out the fields below the check box; otherwise, disable the check box.
8. Click OK.
SONAR opens the OMF file.
You can also export SONAR projects as OMF files (File > Export > OMF command).
See “Exporting OMF Files” on page 678.
Importing MIDI Files
You can create a new SONAR project from a MIDI file simply by opening the file. SONAR takes
material from the file and places it into one or more tracks in the Track view.
To Import Data from a MIDI File into a Project
1. Open the MIDI file as a new, separate project.
2. Choose Edit > Select > All.
3. Choose Edit > Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
4. Make sure that Events in Tracks is checked. If you don’t want to import tempo changes, meter/
key changes, or markers, uncheck those options. Click OK.
5. Open the target project, or click in the Track view for that project.
6. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the material should be placed.
7. Choose Edit > Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
8. Check Paste to One Track if you want all material imported into the current track.
9. Click OK.
SONAR imports the material and displays it in the Track view.
Importing audio / MIDI files from the Clips pane
It is possible to import audio and MIDI files via the Clips pane context menu. Imported files are
inserted at the Now time.
To import audio/MIDI files
1. In the Clips pane, right-click the track to which you want to import an audio or MIDI file.
The Clips pane context menu appears.
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2. Do one of the following:
• Select Import Audio to import an audio file.
• Select Import MIDI to import a MIDI file.
See:
Importing Music and Sound
Saving Your Work
Like most Windows programs, SONAR has a File > Save command and a File > Save As
command to save your work. Normally, you save your projects in the standard project file format,
with a file extension of .cwp. This file contains all your MIDI data and all your project settings. Any
digital audio that is part of your project is stored in a separate file, as described in “System
Configuration” on page 843.
SONAR also lets you save files in several other formats, as described in the table:
File type
Format
Explanation
Standard MIDI
.mid
Used to transfer MIDI-only projects to other software products that support
Standard MIDI files.
Bundle
.cwb
A single file that includes all the material in your project: MIDI data, project
settings, and audio data. This format is used for projects that contain digital
audio, when you want to back up your work or transfer a project to a different
computer. See “Backing Up Projects with Digital Audio” on page 839 for
more information.
Note: Bundle files do not save video data.
Template
.cwt
A file that is used as a pattern to create another. Templates make it easy to
create and configure new projects. See “Layouts, Templates and Key
Bindings” on page 731 for more information.
Table 49.
If you have made changes to a project and then attempt to close the project, either by closing the
Track view or by choosing File > Close, SONAR asks if you want to save the changes you have
made. This prevents you from accidentally losing your work. You can tell whether changes have
been made to a project by looking for an asterisk (*) after the project name in the SONAR title bar.
SONAR has an Auto Save feature that periodically saves your work into a special backup file. You
can request automatic backups at fixed time intervals or every time a certain number of changes
have been made to the file. When the limit is reached, the file is saved automatically. If your original
project is called MyProject.cwp, the Auto Save version is called Auto Save Version of
MyProject.cwp.
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Recording
Saving Your Work
If there is a power failure or if you make a significant mistake, you can recover the last-saved version
of your project by opening this file. You should then save your project under a different name by
using the File > Save As command.
To Save a Project
1. Choose File > Save As to display the Save As dialog box.
2. Choose the type of file you want to save from the Save as Type list.
3. Enter a file name and click Save.
SONAR saves the file. You can also use File Versioning instead of using Save As. For more
information, see “To Use File Versioning” on page 283.
To Change the Auto Save Settings
1. Choose Options > Global and click the Autosave and Versioning tab.
2. To enable Auto Save, set the number of minutes and/or the number of changes between saves.
3. To disable Auto Save, set both values to zero.
4. Click OK.
From now on, your projects are saved automatically according to the settings you entered.
Using File Versioning
SONAR can be enabled to keep previously saved versions of your project in a temporary file. You
can revert to any of these saved versions or use the default of the most recently saved version.
When file versioning is enabled, SONAR retains a list of previously saved project files in your project
folder. The most recent version retains the original name of the project. Previously saved versions
are saved with a time stamp following the original project name in order of most recently saved.
To Use File Versioning
1. Choose Options > Global and click the Autosave and Versioning tab.
2. Check the Enable Versioning Of Project Files check box.
3. Use the spinner to select the number of versions of your project you would like SONAR to keep.
Note: If you exceed the maximum number of saved file versions selected in Step 3, the oldest
version is discarded.
To Revert to a Previously Saved File
1. Choose File > Revert.
A dialog box appears containing a list of dates and file sizes for all previously saved versions of
the current project.
2. Select the file version you want to work on.
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3. Click OK.
Note: If the current project is unsaved at the time you choose File > Revert, you will be
prompted with a warning that reverting the project will cause all unsaved changes to be lost.
When the reverted project is loaded, the timestamp is stripped off, and the reverted project
assumes the project’s original name.
Labeling Your Projects
SONAR lets you attach subtitles, composer credits, copyright, and other information to your projects,
as shown in the following table:
Label
Description
Title
The title for your project; prints automatically at the top of a Staff view printout.
Subtitle
For a subtitle or dedication; prints directly below the title in a Staff view printout.
Instructions
Use for performance instructions; prints flush left in a Staff view printout.
Author
Put your name here if you are the composer. Prints flush right in a Staff view printout.
Copyright
Copyright information prints flush right, under the author name, in a Staff view
printout.
Keywords
Put keywords describing the project here for future reference.
Comments
Free text comments. Type as much as you like. You can enter approximately the
same amount of text as you can in Windows Notepad.
Table 50.
This information is shown in the File Info dialog box, which is displayed using the File > Info
command. If the File Info window is open when you save a file, then this window is displayed
automatically the next time the file is opened. This is useful if you:
• Share files with others and want them to see special instructions when they open the file
• Want your copyright information to be displayed automatically
If the File Info window is closed when you save the file, it will not be automatically displayed the next
time the file is opened.
Although you cannot use Edit menu commands while working in the File Info window, standard
Windows hot keys like CTRL+X, CTRL+C, and CTRL+V can be used to cut, copy, and paste text.
To Display and Edit Project Information
1. Choose File > Info to display the File Info window.
2. Edit the information as desired.
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Figure 45.
The File Info window
3. If you want the File Info window to display automatically, save the file.
4. Click Stats to see statistics about the contents of the file.
5. Choose File > Print Preview if you want to print the project information
6. Close the File Info window.
File Statistics
To open the File Statistics dialog, select File > Info and click the Stats button in the File Info
dialog. The File Statistics dialog box displays the following information about the contents of the
project file:
Statistic
What it means
Created
The date the project was first saved.
Editing time
The total time you’ve had the project open, from the time it was created to the last
time it was saved. This does not include time spent editing the project since you
last saved it. If you want to update this value, save the project.
Revision
Each time you save a file that has been changed, this number is incremented. If
you open a project, make no changes, then save it, the revision number is not
changed.
Events
The total number of events in the project.
Sample rate
The sample rate for digital audio.
Bit depth
The audio driver bit depth of digital audio.
File version
The SONAR version number.
Table 51.
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Arranging and editing
The Track view makes it easy to arrange and mix your projects from a single view. From one
location, you can select, copy, move, mix, and rearrange the parts of your project, using menu
commands or drag-and-drop tools. You can add real-time audio and MIDI effects from the Effects bin
and buses. Markers provide easy-to-use reference points and labels for the different parts of your
project, and the snap grid makes it easy to align your clips to the desired time points. Slip-editing
allows you to non-destructively change the start and/or end time of a clip, just by dragging its
borders. With Groove clips, you can easily create repetitions of your clips using your mouse. Both
the Track view and Console view have a full set of record and playback meters, which you can
configure in several ways. SONAR also has a variety of tools and commands for changing the
tempo of your project. Composite tracks allow you to keep all your takes in one track if you want, and
selectively mute and solo the various clips in the track. Track folders let you edit multiple tracks at
once and conserve screen space.
Arranging Tracks
Working with Track Templates
Track Icons
Arranging Clips
Working with Partial Clips
Markers and the snap grid
Working with Linked Clips
Splitting and Combining Clips
Take Management and Comping Takes
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Track Folders
Adding Effects in the Track View
Changing Tempos
Undo, Redo, and the Undo History
Slip-editing (Non-destructive Editing)
Arranging Tracks
SONAR provides a variety of commands that let you work with the tracks in your project. Here are
some of the things you can do:
You can
Here’s why
Rearrange the tracks in the Track
view so that they appear in a
different order
This makes it easier to see and work with a subset of tracks, like the
rhythm section, or the vocals and vocal backing tracks, or all muted tracks.
Hide individual tracks
This makes it easier to work in a large project. You can display only the
tracks you want to see at a given time.
Move tracks into a track folder
Lets you group tracks by function, edit several tracks at once, hide groups
of tracks easily, and mute, solo, archive, arm, or input monitor a group or
tracks with one click. See “Track Folders” on page 334 for more
information.
Make copies of a track
Copying a track and then adding a time offset or changing the patch is an
easy way to double a part. You can also copy and then transpose a track to
add harmony.
Erase or delete a track
Tracks and clips that you are no longer using in your project are distracting
and take up space in your project file.
Table 52.
All the commands you use to arrange tracks work on selected tracks. The current track (the one with
the lighter titlebar) is always selected. You can select additional tracks as shown in the table:
To do this
Do this
Select a track
Click the track number (click the right side of the track number; the
upper left corner of the track number is for grouping tracks) in the Track
view. The track is selected, and all other tracks—except the current
track—are deselected.
When a track is selected, both the track number and all the data in the
track appear highlighted.
Select several adjacent tracks
Click the track number for the first track in the group, drag the mouse to
the last track number in the group, and release the mouse button.
Select/deselect all tracks
Double-click a track number.
Add or remove a single track from
the selection
Hold the SHIFT key and click the track number to add it to the selection;
hold the CTRL key and click the track number to toggle its selection
status.
Table 53.
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Arranging Tracks
See:
Changing the Order of Tracks
Configuring the Display of Tracks in the Track View
Inserting Tracks
Copying Tracks
Erasing Tracks
Changing the Order of Tracks
There are several ways you can change the order of tracks in the Track view:
• Drag a track to a new position in the Track view.
• Use the Tracks > Sort command to rearrange the tracks in order based on the track name,
status, or other setting.
To Drag a Track to a New Position
1. Position the mouse just to the right of the track number, over the track icon of the track you want
to move.
The cursor changes to an up/down arrow.
2. Drag the track to its new location, and release the mouse button.
SONAR rearranges and renumbers the tracks.
You can sort the tracks in a project based on several parameters, in either ascending or descending
order:
Sort by
What happens
Name
Ascending puts track in alphabetic order, descending puts them in
reverse order
Size, output, or channel
Ascending puts them in increasing numeric order, descending puts them
in decreasing numeric order
Muted, archived, selected
Ascending puts qualifying tracks at the end, descending puts them at
the beginning
Table 54.
No matter how you sort, blank tracks always go to the end of the list.
Note that track numbers are used for reference only. When you re-arrange the order of tracks, they
are automatically assigned sequential numbers based on the order in which they are displayed in
the Track view.
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To Sort the Tracks
1. Choose Tracks > Sort to display the Sort Tracks dialog box.
2. Choose the attribute by which to sort from the Sort By list:
Attribute
How it works
Name
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts the tracks into alphabetical order, either ascending
or descending, depending on what you choose in the Order list.
Muted
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the muted tracks at either the top or bottom of
the Tracks window, depending on whether you choose descending (top) or ascending
(bottom) in the Order list.
Archived
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the archived tracks at either the top or bottom
of the Tracks window, depending on whether you choose descending (top) or ascending
(bottom) in the Order list.
Selected
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the selected tracks at either the top or bottom of
the Tracks window, depending on whether you choose descending (top) or ascending
(bottom) in the Order list.
Size
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts the tracks in order by size, either in descending or
ascending order.
Output
If you choose this attribute, SONAR sorts the tracks by output number, either in descending
or ascending order. SONAR considers non-numbered outputs to have lower numbers than
numbered outputs.
Channel
If you choose this attribute, SONAR sorts the tracks by channel number, either in
descending or ascending order:
• If you choose ascending order, SONAR puts all MIDI tracks at the bottom of the Tracks
window, with the lower channel numbers first.
• If you choose descending order, SONAR puts all MIDI tracks at the top of the Tracks
window, with the higher channel numbers first.
Table 55.
3. Choose the order in which to sort from the Order list.
4. Click OK.
SONAR sorts the tracks according to the settings you chose.
Inserting Tracks
You can insert new tracks by a variety of methods. When you insert multiple tracks, you can set track
output properties at the same time. If you want new audio tracks to always use the same output bus,
you can set that bus as the default bus.
For step-by-step instructions, follow these procedures:
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To Insert a Single Track
• Click the Insert New Tracks or Buses button
options from the pop-up menu.
that’s in the Track View toolbar, and choose
Or
• Right-click in the Track pane at the place where you want to insert a track, and select Insert
Audio Track to add an audio track or Insert MIDI Track to add a MIDI track.
Or
• Press INSERT to add a track of the same type (audio or MIDI) as the current track.
SONAR shifts the current track and all tracks below it down by one, and inserts a blank, new track at
the location of the highlight.
To Insert Multiple Tracks
1. Use the Insert > Multiple Tracks command to open the Insert Tracks dialog.
2. If you want to insert audio tracks, do the following:
• Fill in the number of audio tracks you want to insert in the Audio section’s Track Count field.
• Pick a main audio output for the tracks in the Main Destination field.
• If you want the main output that you chose to be the default output for new audio tracks, enable
the Set as Default Bus check box. You can also choose the default bus by right-clicking a bus,
and choosing Set as Default Bus from the pop-up menu.
• If you want your new audio tracks to contain a Send module that outputs to a specific bus,
choose the bus in the Send field. If you choose None, the new audio tracks will not contain a
Send module.
3. If you want to insert MIDI tracks, do the following:
• Fill in the number of MIDI tracks you want to insert in the MIDI section’s Track Count field.
• Pick a MIDI output for the tracks in the Port field.
• Pick a MIDI output channel for the tracks in the Channel field.
4. Click OK to insert your tracks, or click Cancel to cancel the operation.
Your new tracks appear below any pre-existing tracks, with new audio tracks appearing above new
MIDI tracks.
Note: You can also choose the default output bus for new audio tracks by right-clicking a bus,
and choosing Set as Default Bus from the pop-up menu.
Configuring the Display of Tracks in the Track View
There are several commands in the Zoom tool drop-down menu that allow you to configure the
appearance of your tracks in the Track view. You can use these commands to zoom in or out, show
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291
or hide any combination of tracks, and revert back to previous display settings. The following table
lists each of these commands and provides an explanation of each:
Command
Description
Shortcut
Show and Fit Selection
SHIFT+S
This command hides all tracks which are not selected. The
remaining tracks are adjusted in size vertically and horizontally to fit
in the Track view, without scrolling if possible. All track selections
are lost after this command is executed.
Fit Tracks to Window
All currently displayed tracks are adjusted in size vertically to fit in
the Track view, without scrolling if possible.
F
Fit Project to Window
This command resizes all tracks both vertically and horizontally to
fit in the Tracks view.
SHIFT+F
Lock Height
This command maintains the track’s height when you use a zoom
or fit command. See “To Lock or Unlock the Height of a Track” on
page 292.
n/a
Show Only Selected
Tracks
This command hides all tracks which are not selected. The
remaining tracks are adjusted in size vertically.
H
Hide Selected Tracks
Hides all selected tracks.
SHIFT+H
Show All Tracks
Shows all tracks in your project, including these hidden using the
Track Manager.
A
Track Manager
Opens the Track Manager dialog. For more information about the
Track Manager dialog, see Track Manager dialog.
M
Undo View Change
This command restores the view to its previous state. There are up
to 16 levels of undo.
U
Redo View Change
This command restores the view to the state prior to the Undo View
Change command.
SHIFT+U
Vertical FX Bins
Changes track FX bins from vertical position into horizontal FX
fields located with other track property fields.
n/a
Table 56.
To Lock or Unlock the Height of a Track
1. Right-click an empty area in one of the desired track’s controls to display the Track pane context
menu.
2. Choose Lock Height from the menu.
When a track is locked, the Maximize Strip button in the track appears filled-in:
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A
A. Maximize Strip button
When you lock the height of a track, its height does not change when you use a Zoom or Fit
command. When a track’s height is locked, you can still drag the track strip’s lower border to adjust
the track’s height. After you drag the border, the altered track height becomes the track’s locked
height.
Copying Tracks
When you copy one or more tracks using the Tracks > Clone command, you can choose any of the
following options:
• What to copy: events, properties, effects, sends
• Repetitions: how many copies of each selected track
• Starting track: where you want the first new track to appear
To Copy Tracks
1. Select the tracks that you want to copy.
2. Choose Tracks > Clone to display the Clone Track(s) dialog.
3. Check the Clone Events, Clone Properties, Clone Effects, and/or Clone Sends boxes to
indicate which items you want to copy.
4. If you want copied events to become linked clips, check the Link to Original Clips check box.
5. Select the number of repetitions of each selected track that you want to create.
6. Select the track number where you want the first new track to appear. The other new tracks
appear right after it.
7. Click OK.
SONAR copies the tracks and pastes the selected tracks, with the first new track appearing at the
track number you selected. All tracks appear consecutively.
Erasing Tracks
You can easily delete an entire track, including all of the track properties and all of its clips and
events. Sometimes, you only want to erase, or wipe, the contents of a track, leaving the track
properties as they are. If you delete or wipe a track by mistake, you can use Edit > Undo to restore
the deleted material.
When you delete or wipe a track, the track information is not placed on the SONAR clipboard. To
remove material from a track and place it on the clipboard, use the Edit > Cut command instead.
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To Delete Tracks
1. Select the tracks you want to delete.
2. Choose Tracks > Delete.
SONAR deletes the selected tracks. You can also right-click individual tracks and choose Delete
Track from the pop-up menu.
To Wipe Tracks
1. Select the tracks you want to wipe.
2. Choose Tracks > Wipe.
SONAR deletes all clips and events from the selected tracks, but leaves the track properties intact.
Working with Track Templates
You can create an unlimited number of track templates for quickly recalling your most often used
track settings including the following:
• Track type (MIDI or Audio)
• Mute, Solo and Record state
• Hardware input
• Output destination
• Bus send settings
• Track parameters
• Track icons
• Effects and their settings
• Instrument and Bank/Patch
• Track name
To Create a Track Template
1. Select the track or tracks you want to save as a preset.
2. Select File > Export > Track Template from the main menu.
The Save As dialog appears.
3. Enter a name for the template and click Save.
Track templates use the file extension .cwx.
To Insert a Track or Tracks from a Template
• Select Insert > Insert From Track Template > [track template name] or select More Track
Templates if you don’t see the one you want on the menu.
Or
• Right-click in the Tracks pane and select Insert From Track Template > [track template name]
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or select More Track Templates.
This inserts tracks that are exactly like the template. If you don’t want to use all of the track
characteristics that are in the template, you can filter the characteristics that you don’t want by
selecting Import Filter from the pop-up menu. This opens the Track Template Import Options
dialog, which allows you to specify what track characteristics you want to import.
Note: If the template you insert contains buses, using the Edit > Undo command after you
insert the template will remove the new tracks, but not the new buses. If you don’t want to insert
buses, deselect buses in the Track Template Import Options dialog before you insert a
template. You can delete a bus by right-clicking just left of the bus name, and selecting Delete
Bus from the pop-up menu.
Track Icons
Track icons allow you to quickly identify a track’s contents by instrument. You can assign a new track
icon, create your own track icons, and save an icon as part of a track template.
To Show or Hide Track Icons
• To show or hide Track Icons in all views, use the Options > Icons > Show Icons command.
• To show or hide Track Icons in a specific view, use the Options > Icons > [name of desired
view] > Show Icons command.
Or
• To hide a track icon, right-click a track icon in the desired view, and choose Show Icons from the
pop-up menu. This option is not available in Track view headers.
To Configure Track View Icons
• To show standard track icons in the header of each track in the Track view, use the Options >
Icons > Track View > Show in Header command.
• To show custom track icons in the header of each track in the Track view, use the Options >
Icons > Track View > Show Custom In Header command.
• To show track icons on the left side of the track controls of each track in the Track view, use the
Options > Icons > Track View > Show In Strip command.
To Change the Size of Track Icons
• Right-click a track icon in the desired view, and choose Small Icons or Large Icons from the
pop-up menu.
Or
• Select Options > Icons > [name of desired view] > Small Icons or Large Icons from the main
menu
4. Select Small Icons or Large Icons from the menu that appears.
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To Change a Track Icon
1. Right-click on the icon you want to change.
2. Select Load Track Icon from the menu that appears.
The Open dialog appears.
3. Select an icon and click Open.
Or
1. Put the focus on the track you want to change.
2. Use the Tracks > Property > Icon > Load Icon command.
The Open dialog appears.
3. Select an icon and click Open.
Note: The right-click option is not available when you right-click a track icon in a track header
in the Track view. However, you can load a new track icon into a track header by ALT-clicking
the track icon to display the Open dialog, and then choosing a new icon. You can ALT-click a
track icon in any view to display the Open dialog.
To Reset a Track Icon to its Original Icon
1. Right-click on the icon you want to reset.
2. Select Reset Track Icon from the menu that appears.
Or
1. Put the focus on the track you want to change.
2. Use the Tracks > Property > Icon > Reset Icon command.
To Create a Track Icon
1. Create or edit a graphics file in .bmp format, preferably 128 by 128 pixels.
You can use any image as a track icon. You can use any size image, but for best results scale the
image to 128 pixels square. Images must be in the .bmp format.
2. Save the image as a .bmp file in the Track Icons directory in your SONAR program folder.
Track Icon Size(s) and Transparency
You can configure the size of small and large icons in Cakewalk.ini. By default, small icons are
32x32 pixels and large icons are 48x48 pixels. Use the following INI variables to change the default
size:
[WinCake]
SmallIconHeight=32
LargeIconHeight=48
If you wish to create custom track icons, we recommend that you author them as 96x96 pixel 24-bit
bitmaps (.BMP).
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The top left pixel in the BMP determines the transparent color. If you prefer to not have transparent
icons, add the following variable to Cakewalk.ini:
[WinCake]
IconTopLeftPixelTransparent=0
When transparency is enabled, the global color entry (Options > Colors) called "Track View Icons
Background" determines the background color ("Console Strips Icons background" does the same
for the Console view and Track Inspector).
Configuring Track View Controls
The Track view strips no longer have a special header section:
• The Number, Name, Peak Meter Indicator and Size buttons still have fixed placements in the
top row of the strip.
• All other parameter controls now flow over the full available space in the entire strip.
As a result:
• The MSR buttons (and the Automation Read/Write) buttons follow the same layout rules as any
other parameter widget.
• The Vertical VU meter spans the full height of the strip. So even when a strip is minimized, you
can still see a 22 pixel high meter.
• The min track height has been slightly increased from 18 to 22 pixels.
• SHIFT-clicking on the minimize or maximize buttons in a Track view strip resizes that strip to its
default height.
You can hide, reorder, and visually group the controls in tracks and buses. You can also control how
the display tabs at the bottom of the Track pane function.
Changes you make to tracks affect tracks of the same kind in all projects. In other words, the way
you configure a MIDI track controls the display of all MIDI tracks in all projects. The way you
configure an audio track controls the way all audio tracks appear in all projects. The way you
configure a bus controls the way buses appear in all projects. Synth audio tracks follow audio track
configuration, and synth MIDI tracks follow MIDI track configuration.
You can reorder each individual control with the exception of AUX controls: these all move as a
group. For tracks with more than one send, all send controls move as one.
To Reorder a Track or Bus Control
1. Hold down the ALT key, and drag the control that you want to move. A rectangle appears around
the control you are dragging.
A small vertical insertion line appears just to the left of the area where the control will be placed.
2. Release the mouse button at the location where you want the control to appear.
The control moves to the location where you dropped it.
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To Restore the Default Order
• Right-click the kind of track that you want to restore to the default order, and choose Restore
Default Widget Order from the pop-up menu. If you want to restore buses to the default order,
right-click a bus. Surround buses are separate from stereo buses.
To Configure Track and Bus Tabs
1. Right-click a tab, and choose Widget Tab Manager from the pop-up menu.
The Widget Tab Manager dialog appears.
2. In the Tab Name field, choose the tab that you want to configure, or choose <new>, and type a
name to create a new tab.
3. In each of the four Strip columns (Audio Strip, MIDI Strip, etc.), check all the controls you want to
see on this type of tab in each track or bus type (Audio track, MIDI track, Bus, Surround Bus).
4. To select all available controls, click Select All Widgets; to select the default controls, select
Restore Tab Defaults (this will delete any new tabs you’ve created).
5. To configure a different tab, select it in the Tab Name field.
6. Click OK to implement your changes, or Cancel to delete them.
The order that a control (also called a widget) appears in is the same for all tabs in the same strip
type. For example, if the pan control appears first on the Mix tab of audio tracks, it also appears first
on any other tabs for audio tracks that display the pan control.
To Change the VU Meter to Horizontal or Vertical Display
• Click the drop-down arrow next to the Show/Hide Meters button
Horizontal Meters or Vertical Meters from the menu.
, and choose either
Track view control size and layout
It is possible to alter the default size and layout of the controls in the Track view. This requires
adding entries to the Cakewalk.ini file.
This variable should be set in the [WinCake] section. For example:
[WinCake]
TVBoldStripNames=0
Below are the variables that affect the control appearance:
TVControlHeight=<number of pixels>, default = 17
Specifies the height of controls. The default height is 17 pixels. This value shouldn't be changed
more than 1 or 2 from the default value, or you may experience unexpected results.
TVControlWidth=<number of pixels>, default = 41
Specifies the width of controls. The default width is 41 pixels.
TVControlSpacingX=<number of pixels>, default = 3
Specifies the horizontal space, in pixels, between controls. The default spacing is 3 pixels.
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TVControlSpacingY=<number of pixels>, default = 3
Specifies the vertical space, in pixels, between controls. The default spacing is 3 pixels.
TVSpacingXInCluster=<number of pixels>, default = 2
Specifies the horizontal space between each button in a “cluster”. The default value is 2 pixels. The
following controls are grouped into clusters:
• Mute, Solo, Arm for Recording (MSR)
• Automation Read, Automation Write
• Phase, Interleave (mono/stereo)
TVBoldStripNames=<0 or 1>, default = 1
Specifies whether track/bus names use bold (value=1) or regular (value=0) font style.
TVLargeStripNames=<0 or 1>, default = 1
Specifies the size of track/bus names. The default size is large (value=1).
Arranging Clips
The Track view provides many ways for you to rearrange, copy, and paste clips to arrange your
music the way you want. The easiest is to select the clips or portions of clips you want to arrange
and then drag and drop them wherever you want. You can drag and drop clips in the Track view
even while playback is in progress. You can also arrange clips via the clipboard using the Edit >
Cut, Edit > Copy, and Edit > Paste commands, which work like those in almost all Windows
programs.
The snap grid enables you to move clips to or by an exact amount of time, such as a quarter note or
whole measure. See “To Change the Snap Options” on page 317.
Displaying Clips
Opening Views by Double-clicking Clips
Selecting Clips
Moving and Copying Clips
Displaying Clips
Clips are displayed as rectangles in the Clips pane. Their position and length show you at a glance
their starting times and lengths. You can control four aspects of their appearance:
• Color. By default, each track’s clips are drawn in a different color. The clip colors restart at the
tenth track. You can customize the default colors of clips in the Configure Colors dialog or
change the color of any individual clip in the Clip Properties dialog.
Note: In audio clips, the waveform changes color, unless no clip contents are displayed. In
MIDI clips, the clip background changes color.
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• Name. You can also assign each clip a descriptive name, which is displayed in the upper-left
corner of the clip.
Contents. At your option, clips can be displayed with a graphical representation of the events in
the clip. The effect is slightly different for MIDI and audio information.
A
B
C
A. A MIDI clip shows each event; by looking at the clips, you can “see” the notes that are being played B. An
audio clip shows the actual waveform C. Controller or automation data are also displayed
To inspect the clip contents more closely, use the zoom tools to increase the size in which clips are
displayed. Note that displaying the contents of each clip makes your computer work a little harder.
As a result, if your computer has an older, slower CPU you may want to turn off the display of clip
contents.:
Figure 46.
Zoom controls
A
B
C
D
E
H
G
F
A. Zoom Clips pane out vertically B. Vertical Zoom fader for Clips pane C. Zoom Clips pane in vertically
D. Zoom Bus pane out vertically E. Vertical Zoom fader for Bus pane F. Zoom in horizontally G. Horizontal
zoom fader H. Zoom out horizontally
The Track view toolbar contains the Zoom tool:
To Zoom Horizontally
• Click the horizontal zoom buttons to zoom in or out by a fixed percentage each time you click.
Or
• Drag the horizontal zoom fader to zoom in or out by the amount you drag.
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Or
• Hold down the CTRL key and press the right arrow key (to zoom in) or the LEFT ARROW key (to
zoom out).
To Zoom Vertically
• Click the vertical zoom buttons to zoom in or out by a fixed percentage each time you click.
Or
• Drag the vertical zoom fader to zoom in or out by the amount you drag.
Or
• Hold down the CTRL key and press the UP ARROW key (to zoom out) or the DOWN ARROW
key (to zoom in).
To Zoom into a Selected Area
• Use the Zoom tool to drag-select an area of a clip or clips that you want to zoom to. When you
release the mouse, the area you selected expands to fill the Clips pane window.
Zoom command keyboard shortcuts:
To do this
Use this shortcut
Zoom in vertically
CTRL+DOWN ARROW
Zoom in horizontally
CTRL+right arrow
Zoom out vertically
CTRL+UP ARROW
Zoom out horizontally
CTRL+LEFT ARROW
Undo Zoom
U
Redo Zoom
SHIFT+U
Turn On Zoom tool (use the Zoom tool to select the area to
zoom to)
Hold down Z
Display Now Time in Center of Clips Pane
G
Fit project to window
SHIFT+F
Fit tracks and buses to window
F
Table 57.
To Zoom Using the Mouse Wheel (Fast Zoom)
• Hold down the ALT key and roll the mouse wheel forward to zoom in, backward to zoom out.
• Hold down ALT+SHIFT to intensify mouse wheel zoom effect.
• Hold down ALT+CTRL to adjust track scale (Track View Clips Pane only)
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To Select Fast Zoom Options
1. Select Fast Zoom Options from the Zoom tool drop-down menu.
The Fast Zoom dialog box opens.
2. Select the intensity of the Zoom effect in Zoom Factor by using the spinners or manually entering
a value.
3. Select the vertical and horizontal Zoom focus.
4. Check or uncheck Simultaneous Vertical and Horizontal Zoom.
The default is for Simultaneous Vertical and Horizontal Zoom to be checked. If you uncheck it,
Fast Zoom exhibits the following behaviors.
• ALT+Mouse Wheel zooms vertically
• ALT+SHIFT+Mouse Wheel zooms faster vertically
• CTRL+ALT+Mouse Wheel zooms horizontally
• CTRL+ALT+SHIFT+Mouse Wheel zooms faster vertically
5. Click OK.
To Display Clip Names and Contents
1. Right-click in the Clips pane, and choose View Options from the menu.
2. Check the Display Clip Names option to show clip names, or leave it unchecked to hide them.
3. Check the Display Clip Contents option to show clip contents, or leave it unchecked to hide
them.
4. Click OK.
SONAR modifies the clips pane to show the information you want.
To Change Clip Names
1. Select the clips you want to rename.
2. Right-click on one of the selected clips and choose Clip Properties. SONAR opens the Clip
Properties dialog box.
Figure 47.
The Clip Properties dialog
3. Enter a name for the selected clips, and click OK.
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SONAR renames the selected clips.
To Change Clip Colors
1. Select the clips whose color you want to change.
2. Right-click on one of the selected clips and choose Clip Properties. SONAR opens the Clip
Properties dialog box.
3. Choose a color as follows:
To do this
Do this
Use the default color
Check the Default Color box
Use a custom color
Click the Choose Color button and pick a color from the Color dialog box
Table 58.
4. Click OK.
SONAR changes the color of the selected clips.
Using the Navigator View
The Navigator view displays a large part of your project so you can see an overview of your song.
The Navigator view is a floating version of the Navigator pane found at the top of the Track view.
Track Rectangle
The Track Rectangle appears as a green rectangle within the Navigator view. The Track Rectangle
indicates the section of your project which appears in the Clips pane of the Track view. You can
move the Track Rectangle or change its size.
To Move the Track Rectangle
1. Position your cursor inside the Track Rectangle until the icon changes to look like this:
.
2. Click and drag the rectangle where you want and release.
To Change the Size of the Track Rectangle
1. Click one of the nodes on the rectangle border.
2. Drag to change the rectangle size.
To Change the Now Time in the Navigator view
1. Hold down the CTRL key.
2. Click where you want the Now Time to be.
Opening Views by Double-clicking Clips
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303
By default, double-clicking a MIDI clip in the Clips pane opens a Piano Roll view for that track, and
double-clicking an Audio clip opens the Loop Construction view for that track.
To Open a View From a Clip
1. Right-click in the Clips pane, and choose View from the pop-up menu.
2. Choose the type of view you want to work with from the submenu.
Selecting Clips
Before you move, copy, edit, or delete clips you need to select them. There are several ways to
select whole clips, as shown in the table:
To do this
Do this
Select a single clip
Click on the clip in the Clips pane.
Select several clips at once
Drag in a rectangular pattern that touches each clip.
Select all the clips in a track
Click on the track number in the Track view.
Select a portion of one or more clips
Press and hold the ALT key and drag across the clips. The Snap to
Grid setting determines the size portion you can select.
Add clips to the selection
Hold the SHIFT key and either click on the clips or drag a rectangle
around the clips.
Add or remove clips from the selection
Hold the CTRL key and either click on the clips or drag a rectangle
around the clips.
Add or remove all clips in a track from
the selection
Hold the CTRL key and click on the track number.
Table 59.
Moving and Copying Clips
You can copy or move clips using drag-and-drop editing or the Cut, Copy, and Paste commands. If
you copy or move clips into tracks that contain existing material, you need to let SONAR know how
to combine the two.
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You have these options:
Option
How it works
Blend Old and New
Events in the copied or moved clip are placed into a new clip that overlaps with
the existing clip. This is the same effect as sound-on-sound recording.
Replace Old with New
Events in the copied or moved clip are placed into a new clip, and any
overlapping events in the existing clip are erased. This is the same effect as
overwrite recording.
Slide Over to Make Room
The existing clips are shifted in time to make room for the new clips, so they will
not overlap. If you check the Align to Measures option, shifted clips are
always aligned to measure boundaries; otherwise, the clips are placed end to
end.
Table 60.
When you use the Edit > Paste command to add information to a track that contains existing
material, there is one final option you can choose.
Option
What it means
Paste as New Clips
New clips are created containing the events on the clipboard,
exactly as described in the preceding table.
Paste into Existing Clips (MIDI clips only)
The events on the clipboard are merged into any existing clips
that occupy the same region of time. This means you will never
end up with clips that overlap.
Table 61.
Note that if you copy or move clips to new, empty tracks, you don’t have to worry about these
settings. In this case, the track properties that go with the clips are automatically applied to the new
track.
When you use drag-and-drop editing:
• You can set the above options every time you perform an edit, or you can set them once and have
the same settings carry over automatically. Check or uncheck the Ask This Every Time box in
the Drag and Drop Options dialog to indicate your preference. Open the Drag and Drop
Options dialog by right-clicking in the Clips pane and choosing Drag and Drop Options from the
pop-up menu.
• If you drag to the edge of the Clips pane, it will scroll automatically in the direction you drag.
• If you change your mind while dragging clips, press the ESC key to cancel the operation.
SONAR also lets you move and copy clips between projects.
To Move Clips Using Drag and Drop
1. Select the clips you want to move.
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305
2. If you want to move the clips by an exact amount of time, enable the snap grid (see “To Change
the Snap Options” on page 317).
3. Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
4. Press and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed around the selected clips.
5. Drag the clips to their new location, and release the mouse button.
6. If necessary, choose the options you want from the Drag and Drop Options dialog box (use
Options > Global and open the Editing tab, or right-click in the Clips pane and select Drag &
Drop Options from the menu that appears), and click OK.
Figure 48.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog
SONAR moves the clips to their new location.
Note: Moving an audio clip (other than a Groove clip) to a part of your project that has a
different tempo changes the size of the clip.
To Move Clips Using Cut and Paste
1. Select the clips you want to move.
2. Choose Edit > Cut to display the Cut dialog box.
Figure 49.
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The Cut dialog
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3. Choose the options you want and click OK. SONAR cuts the clips from the project and places
them on the Windows clipboard.
4. Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips should be pasted.
5. Set the Now time to be the time at which the clips should be pasted.
6. Choose Edit > Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
Figure 50.
The Paste dialog
7. Choose the options you want and click OK.
SONAR places the clips in their new location.
To Choose a Specific Start Time and/or Length for a Clip
1. Select the clip you want to edit.
2. Right-click on the selected clip and choose Clip Properties. SONAR opens the Clip Properties
dialog box.
3. Choose the units you want to use for the new start time and/or length by clicking one of the radio
buttons:
• M:B:T.
Click this if you want the clip to begin and end on a specific measure, beat, or tick.
• Samples. Click this is you want the clip to begin and end on a specific sample.
• H:M:S:F. Click this is you want the clip to begin and end on a specific hour, minute, second,
or frame. This is also known as SMPTE time, and lets you start the clip at an absolute-timebased (as opposed to musical-time-based) point in your project.
• Seconds.
Click this is you want the clip to begin and end on a specific second.
4. Enter a new start time and/or length, or use the spinners or keyboard to change values.
5. Choose a value in the Time Base field—choose one of the two options in this section to control
what happens to the clip’s start time when you change the tempo:
• Musical (M:B:T). If the clip is set to the Musical time base, the clip’s M:B:T position stays
constant, and its Absolute (SMPTE) position shifts.
• Absolute (SMPTE). If the clip is set to the Absolute (SMPTE) time base, its Absolute position
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307
stays constant, and its M:B:T position shifts.
Note: The length of a clip may also change when you change the tempo—audio clips maintain
their absolute (SMPTE) length, while a MIDI clip will follow the value in the Time Base field. If a
MIDI clip is set to use musical time, the clip maintains its M:B:T length. If a MIDI clip is set to use
absolute time, the clip maintains its absolute length.
6. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR adjusts the clip to the values you chose.
Note: The Snap Offset field is for audio clips only. The value of this field is the snap offset of
the selected clip, in samples. When you set a snap offset value for a clip, and then drag the clip,
the left edge of the clip does not snap to the current snap resolution--the clip snaps to a point on
the clip that is the distance from the left edge of the clip to the snap offset value. For example,
if you set the snap resolution to move to a measure, and the snap offset of a clip to 1500
samples, when you drag the clip, instead of the left edge of the clip moving to a measure line,
the spot on the clip that's 1500 samples right of the beginning of the clip moves to the measure
line.
To Copy Clips Using Drag and Drop
1. Select the clips you want to copy.
2. Enable the snap grid, if desired.
3. Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
4. Press and hold the CTRL key and click and hold the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed
around the selected clips.
5. Drag the clips to the new location, and release the mouse button.
6. If necessary, choose the options you want from the Drag and Drop Options dialog box, and click
OK.
SONAR copies the clips to their new location.
To Copy Clips Using Copy and Paste
1. Select the clips you want to copy.
2. Choose Edit > Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
3. Choose the options you want and click OK. SONAR copies the clips to the Windows clipboard.
4. Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips should be pasted.
5. Set the Now time to be the time the clips should be pasted.
6. Choose Edit > Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
7. Choose the options you want and click OK.
SONAR copies the clips to their new location.
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To Delete Clips
1. Select the clips you want to delete.
2. Do one of the following:
• Choose Edit > Delete, which brings up a dialog box—choose options and click OK.
• Press the DELETE key.
SONAR deletes the selected clips.
See:
Splitting and Combining Clips
Working with Partial Clips
Working with Linked Clips
Reverting clip(s) to original time stamp
All audio and MIDI clips in SONAR have a Original Time property, which stores the original SMPTE
time stamp associated with a clip. The Original Time clip property is based on absolute time, not
tempo. This allows you to freely re-arrange clips and later revert them back to their original time.
SONAR automatically assigns the Original Time property during import or immediately after record.
When an audio clip containing a SMPTE time stamp is imported into SONAR (such as a Broadcast
Wave file), the Original Time field is populated with this time stamp. When opening previous
SONAR projects, existing clips will be populated with their current time.
Note: The Original Time property can not be edited. If a clip is bounced to a new clip, the
Original Time stamp will not propagate to the new clip.
A
B
A. Original Time property B. Click to revert clip to the original time stamp
To revert clip(s) to original time stamp
To revert selected clips to their original SMPTE time stamp, do one of the following:
• Choose Edit > Revert Clip(s) to Original Time Stamp.
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309
• Right-click a clip and choose Revert Clip(s) to Original Time Stamp from the context menu.
• Open the Clip Properties dialog and click Revert. See Clip Properties dialog—General.
Locking Clips
You can lock a clip so that it can’t be accidentally modified or deleted. You can lock the clip’s position
and/or its data.
To Lock or Unlock a Clip’s Position and/or Data
1. Right-click the clip, and choose Clip Properties from the pop-up menu to open the Clip
Properties dialog.
2. In the Clip Properties dialog, click the Lock check box.
3. If you’re locking the clip, use the drop-down menu next to the Lock check box to choose what clip
attributes you want to lock:
• Position and Data. This choice locks position and data, and causes a lock icon to appear on
the clip .
• Position Only.
This choice locks position only, and causes a yellow lock icon with the clasp
unlocked to appear on the clip
.
• Data Only. This choice locks data only, and causes a blue lock icon with the clasp unlocked
to appear on the clip
.
4. Click OK.
Or
1. Select a clip.
2. Use one of the following commands:
• Edit > Clip Lock > Lock Position. In lock mode, this choice locks position only, and causes
a yellow lock icon with the clasp unlocked to appear on the clip, If data is already locked, then
both position and data become locked, and a “locked” lock icon appears on the clip. In unlock
mode, if both position and data are locked, and you unlock position, then the blue “unlocked”
lock icon appears on the clip, meaning that only data is locked.
• Edit > Clip Lock > Lock Data. In lock mode, this choice locks data only, and causes a blue
lock icon with the clasp unlocked to appear on the clip. If position is already locked, then both
position and data become locked, and a “locked” lock icon appears on the clip. In unlock mode,
if both position and data are locked, and you unlock data, then the yellow “unlocked” lock icon
appears on the clip, meaning that only position is locked.
Or
1. Right-click a clip.
2. From the pop-up menu, choose one of the following commands:
• Clip Lock > Lock Position. In lock mode, this choice locks position only, and causes a
yellow lock icon with the clasp unlocked to appear on the clip. If data is already locked, then
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both position and data become locked, and a “locked” lock icon appears on the clip. In unlock
mode, if both position and data are locked, and you unlock position, then the blue “unlocked”
lock icon appears on the clip, meaning that only data is locked.
• Clip Lock > Lock Data. In lock mode, this choice locks data only, and causes a blue lock
icon with the clasp unlocked to appear on the clip. If position is already locked, then both
position and data become locked, and a “locked” lock icon appears on the clip. In unlock mode,
if both position and data are locked, and you unlock data, then the yellow “unlocked” lock icon
appears on the clip, meaning that only position is locked.
Note: If a clip’s position is locked, and you change tempo, what happens to the clip’s position
depends on what option the Clip Properties Time Base field is set to: Musical (M:B:T), or
Absolute (SMPTE). If the clip is set to the Musical time base, the clip’s M:B:T position stays
constant, and its Absolute position shifts. If the clip is set to the Absolute time base, its Absolute
position does not move, but its M:B:T position shifts.
Auto Scroll Lock in Clips pane
While editing, you can prevent the Clips pane from scrolling horizontally during playback. This allows
you to focus on the edit location without worrying that the screen will eventually scroll away from the
edit location.
When the Left Click Locks Scroll option is enabled (default behavior), the Clips pane will not scroll
if you click any object in the Clips pane. When you are done with the edit and want the Clips pane to
scroll again during playback, click in the background of the Clips pane to clear auto scroll lock.
To enable/disable auto scroll lock
1. On the Options menu, click Clips Pane to open the View Options dialog.
2. Select the Left Click Locks Scroll check box.
3. Click OK to close the View Options dialog.
Figure 51.
View Options dialog
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311
Nudge
Nudging is moving a clip or a MIDI note by a small amount to the left or right or up and down. There
are three customizable settings for the Nudge feature. You can also nudge clips (in the Track view)
or notes (in the Piano Roll view) up or down, and you can use keyboard shortcuts (see “To Nudge a
Clip Using Keyboard Shortcuts” on page 313).
See: Nudge Settings
Nudge Settings
The Nudge tab in the Global Options dialog allows you to set the three Nudge settings.
To Nudge a Clip Left or Right
Use the following procedure to nudge a clip.
1. Select the clip you want to nudge.
2. Select Process > Nudge Left(1-3) from the menu to move the clip left or Process > Nudge
Right(1-3) to move the clip right.
The amount the clip or note moves is determined by the settings in the Nudge tab of the Global
Options dialog.
To Nudge a Clip Up and Down
Use the following procedure to nudge a clip (in the Track view) or MIDI note (in the Piano Roll view)
up or down.
1. Select the clip or note you want to nudge.
2. Select Process > Nudge > Up to move the clip or note up or Process > Nudge > Down to move
a clip or note down.
Clips move up or down one track at a time. Notes move up or down one pitch at a time.
To Change Nudge Settings
1. Select Process > Nudge > Settings to open the Nudge tab in the Global Options dialog box.
2. In one of the three Nudge groups, select one of the following:
• Musical Time. Select a note length setting.
• Absolute Time.
312
Select one of the following absolute time options and a number in the first
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Nudge
field:
Absolute time setting
Description
Seconds
Whole seconds.
Milliseconds
Thousands of a second.
Frames
Number of frames. The default frame count is 30 frames per second. The
number of frames varies depending on the setting in the Project Options
dialog’s Clock tab.
Samples
A very small amount of time. For CD-quality audio there are 44,100 samples
per second, so a value of 1 here would not move a clip by a perceptible
amount.
Ticks
The number of ticks per quarter note varies depending on the setting in the
Project Options dialog’s Clock tab. The default setting is 960.
Table 62.
• Follow Snap Settings. Moves the clip or note by the current snap setting.
To Nudge a Clip Using Keyboard Shortcuts
1. Select the clip you want to nudge.
2. If necessary, turn on Num Lock (press the Num Lock key on your keyboard).
3. Press the appropriate Num Key.
Nudge
Shortcut
Left 1
NumPad 1
Right 1
NumPad 3
Left 2
NumPad 4
Right 2
NumPad 6
Left 3
NumPad 7
Right 3
NumPad 9
Up
NumPad 8
Down
NumPad 2
Table 63.
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Working with Partial Clips
SONAR lets you select, copy, move, and delete portions of a project even if they do not match clip
boundaries. There are two ways to do this:
• Directly select portions of one or more clips.
• Select a range of times and one or more tracks. SONAR automatically selects the portions of clips
that are in both the selected time range and the selected tracks.
You can then copy, move, or delete the material the same way you do with whole clips.
When you select portions of a clip, SONAR may round off the start and end times of your selection
based on the snap grid. For more information, see “Defining and Using the Snap Grid” on page 316.
To Select a Portion of a Clip
1. Press and hold the ALT key.
2. Drag the mouse across part of a clip.
SONAR highlights the selected portion of the clip. You can edit this portion of the clip using all the
normal editing commands.
To Select a Portion of Several Clips
1. Press and hold the ALT key.
2. Drag the mouse across part of several clips in adjacent tracks.
SONAR highlights the selected portions of all the clips. You can edit these portions of clips using all
the normal editing commands.
To Select Partial Clips Using Time Ranges and Tracks
1. Select a range of time in one of the following ways:
• Drag the mouse in the Time Ruler.
• Click between two markers to select the time between the markers.
• Use the F9 and F10 keys to set the beginning and end selection times.
• Select a clip (SONAR selects the range of time covered by the clip).
• Choose Edit > Select > By Time, enter the start and end time, and click OK.
2. Select one or more tracks by clicking, SHIFT-clicking, or CTRL-clicking on the track numbers in
the Track view.
3. To adjust the start and end time of the selection, hold the SHIFT key while clicking on the Time
Ruler.
The relevant portions of clips in the selected tracks are highlighted. You can edit these portions of
clips using all the normal editing commands.
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To Clear the Partial Clip Selection
You can clear the time-restricted selection in any of the following ways:
• Click in an empty area of the Clips pane to completely clear the selection.
• Choose Edit > Select > None or press CTRL+SHIFT+A to completely clear the selection.
• Click on a single clip in the Clips pane to clear the time selection and select the clip.
Markers and the snap grid
SONAR has a collection of features you can use to simplify and speed the work you do arranging
your projects. Here are a few of the most important things you can do:
• Show gridlines on measure boundaries in the Track view.
• Define and use the snap grid to make drag-and-drop editing more accurate.
• Create markers to identify and work with key time points in your project.
See:
Showing gridlines
Defining and Using the Snap Grid
Snap Offsets
Creating and Using Markers
Showing gridlines
Displaying gridlines, or vertical rules, in the Clips pane of the Track view makes it easy to see at a
glance how clips align with each other, how they align with measure boundaries, and when they start
and end.
To show/hide vertical grid lines
1. On the Options menu, click Clips Pane to open the View Options dialog.
2. Under Vertical Rules, select one of the following options in the Show list:
• None.
No vertical grid lines are displayed
• Behind Clips. Vertical grid lines are displayed, but clips will draw on top of them, so clip
contents will not be obstructed.
• In Front of Clips. Vertical grid lines are displayed and drawn on top of clips, always visible.
3. Click OK to close the View Options dialog.
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315
Figure 52.
View Options dialog
SONAR displays the Track view as you requested.
Defining and Using the Snap Grid
SONAR lets you define a snap grid that makes it easier to arrange clips, select time ranges, and
control envelope shape drawing. To use the snap grid, enable the Snap to Grid button and set the
grid resolution to an interval of musical time, such as a whole note, half note, or quarter note; a unit
of absolute time: a number of frames, seconds or samples; an event; the start or end of a clip; a
marker; or audio transients. The grid can use multiple resolutions at the same time, such as a whole
note, and audio transients. When the Snap to Grid button is enabled, if you move or paste clips or
markers, items will be snapped to the nearest point on the snap grid.
You can also use the snap grid to move clips by a certain interval, rather than snap them to the
interval. Moving by an interval can be useful during drag-and-drop operations, if your data are not
exactly aligned with measure or note boundaries.
The snap grid in each view is independent. For example, you can enable the snap grid in the Track
view without enabling it in the Piano Roll or Staff views. You can also enable the snap grid in several
different views, with different grid intervals in each one.
In the Clips pane, the snap grid in the Inline Piano Roll view is independent from the snap grid in
Clips view. When you open the Snap to Grid dialog in the Clips pane, the dialog has separate tabs
for Clips view and Inline Piano Roll view (called PRV mode in the dialog).
Magnetic snap. Cakewalk’s snap grid has an option (on by default) called magnetic snap. This
means that when you’re dragging the boundary of an object, you can move the boundary freely until
the boundary gets within a certain number of ticks from the snap target. The closer the object gets to
the snap target, the more strongly the object is pulled to the target. You can set the strength of
magnetic snap to low, medium, high, or off. Note that if you are zoomed out a certain amount, the
time boundary around the snap target will appear to be quite small, and you might think that the
snap grid is not functioning. If this is the case, zoom in closer to enhance your editing experience. If
you’re dragging a whole clip, magnetic snap is not in effect.
To Enable or Disable the Snap Grid
• To toggle the Snap to Grid button
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on or off, press N, or click the button.
To Change the Snap Options
1. Click the down arrow in the Snap to Grid combo button
or right-click on the Time Ruler and
select Snap Properties from the pop-up menu to display the Snap to Grid window
Figure 53.
The Snap to Grid window
2. If you open the Snap to Grid window in the Track view, the window contains two tabs: one for the
Inline Piano Roll view (the PRV Mode tab), and one for the Clips pane (the Clips tab). Click the tab
of the area that you will be editing in.
3. Select one or more of the following resolution options:
• Musical Time. Note intervals (whole, half, etc.)
• Absolute Time. A number of samples, frames, or seconds set by you (choose the units in
the drop-down menu on the right)
• Events. Any data in a clip
• Clips. The start or end of any clip
• Markers.
Any marker in a project
• Audio transients. These are represented by vertical grid lines, which you can display by
using the AudioSnap Palette.
• Snap to Audio Zero Crossings. This option automatically snaps edited audio clips to the
nearest zero crossing of the waveform, the point at which there is no volume, to minimize the
glitches that can happen when waveforms are spliced together.
4. Select Move To to align data to the grid, or Move By to move data by the grid resolution.
5. If you want to change the magnetic snap strength, or turn off magnetic snap, select one of the
buttons in the Magnetic Strength section.
6. If you’re using the Snap to Grid dialog in the Track view, you can leave it open or close it while
you edit. If you’re using it in another view, click OK to close the dialog.
All time selections and drag-and-drop editing operations use the new snap grid resolution(s).
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317
Snap Offsets
Snap offsets allow you to set a point other than the beginning of a clip as the “snap” point used by
the Snap to Grid. A snap offset is the number of samples from the beginning of the clip. Snap offsets
affect all edits that obey the Snap to Grid setting. Once the snap offset is added, you can set the
Timer Ruler to SMPTE or MBT time.
Note: You cannot set a snap offset for a Groove clip.
Creating a Snap Offset
Use the following to add a snap offset to a clip:
1. Locate the place in the clip where you want to put the snap offset, and set the Now Time to that
location. Use the Scrub tool if necessary.
2. Right-click on the clip and select Set Snap Offset to Now Time from the menu that appears.
Edits to that clip, when the Snap to Grid button is depressed, now snap to the snap offset rather
than the beginning of the clip.
Deleting a Snap Offset
1. Right-click on the clip and select Clip Properties from the menu that appears.
2. In the Snap Offset field enter 0 (zero) and click OK.
Creating and Using Markers
Markers are a way of associating a name with a time point in your project. You use markers to name
sections of a project, to mark hit points in a film score, or simply to provide a shortcut for working with
any time point in a project. Markers make it easy to:
• Jump to a specific time point in a project.
• Select a portion of a project.
• Enter a time in any dialog box, by pressing F5 and choosing the marker you want.
You can see and work with markers in four ways:
• They are displayed in the Time Ruler at the top of the Track, Staff, and Piano Roll view.
• The Markers toolbar lets you add markers and jump to specific marker locations.
• The Markers view displays all markers and lets you add, edit, and delete markers.
• You can press F11 while playback is in progress to add a marker on the fly.
The time associated with a marker can be expressed in musical time or as a locked SMPTE time. If
a marker has a musical time (measures, beats, and ticks), the marker stays at that musical time
regardless of changes in tempo. If a marker has a locked SMPTE time (hours, minutes, seconds,
and frames), the marker stays at the same time even when the tempo is changed. Locked markers
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are useful for projects that require you to sync the music or sound with film scores or multimedia
presentations. See “To Add a Marker” on page 319.
SONAR takes the current snap grid settings into account when you move or copy markers. For
example, if the snap grid is set to even measure boundaries, any time you move or copy a marker,
the marker will be snapped to the beginning of the nearest measure. You are allowed to have any
number of markers at a single time point.
To display the Markers view, choose View > Markers or click
on the Views toolbar. From the
Markers view, you can use the File > Print and File > Print Preview commands to print a listing of
markers.
Figure 54.
The Markers view
You can add markers while playback is stopped or while playback is in progress (on the fly). When
you add a marker while playback is stopped, you can enter a name for the marker and either use the
Now time or enter a different time. When you add a marker on the fly, the marker is named
automatically and assigned the Now time. Using the Markers view, you can edit the names and
times whenever you want.
To Add a Marker
1. Open the Markers dialog in one of the following ways:
• Click
in the Markers toolbar.
• Press F11.
• Choose Insert > Marker.
• Click
in the Markers view.
• CTRL-click in the marker section of the Time Ruler.
• Right-click in the Time Ruler and select Insert Marker.
SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
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Markers and the snap grid
319
Figure 55.
The Marker dialog
2. Enter a name for the marker in the Name box.
3. The time is set to the Now time. If you want, use the spinners to change the time or type in a new
marker time.
4. Check the Locked to SMPTE box if you want to lock the marker to the SMPTE time.
5. Click OK.
SONAR adds the marker and displays it in the Time Ruler, the Markers view, and the Markers
toolbar.
To Add a Marker on the Fly
• Click
in the Markers toolbar, or Press F11.
SONAR adds a marker at the Now time and displays it in the Time Ruler, the Markers view, and the
Markers toolbar.
To Edit a Marker
1. Either right-click on the marker in the Time Ruler, or choose a marker in the Markers view and
click
. SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
2. Change the marker name, time, or other settings as desired.
3. Click OK.
SONAR updates the marker in the Time Ruler and the Markers view.
To Copy a Marker
1. Press and hold the CTRL key.
2. Drag a marker in the Time Ruler of the Track view, Staff view, Tempo view, or Piano Roll view.
SONARdisplays the Marker dialog box.
3. Enter the desired marker settings and click OK.
SONAR copies the marker and displays it in the Time Ruler and the Markers view. You can also cut
and paste markers directly from the Markers view.
To Lock or Unlock Several Markers
1. In the Markers view, select one or more markers. Use the CTRL and SHIFT keys if necessary to
modify the selection.
2. Select or deselect
320
.
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Markers and the snap grid
SONAR updates the markers.
To Move a Marker
• Drag the marker in the Time Ruler.
SONAR updates the marker time and shows it at the new location.
To Delete a Marker
1. Press and hold the left mouse button while pointing to a marker in the Time Ruler.
2. Press DELETE, and release the mouse button.
SONAR deletes the marker. You can use Edit > Undo if you make a mistake.
To Delete Markers from the Markers View
1. In the Markers view, select one or more markers. Use the CTRL and SHIFT keys if necessary to
modify the selection.
2. Click
or press DELETE.
SONAR deletes the selected markers. You can use Undo if you make a mistake.
To Jump to a Marker
There are many different ways to jump to a specific marker:
• Choose a marker from the drop-down list in the Markers toolbar to jump to that marker.
• Click the Now time in the Position toolbar, press F5 to display a list of markers, choose the
marker you want, and click OK.
• Press F5 twice to display a list of markers, choose the marker you want, and click OK.
• Click on a marker in the Markers view to set the Now time to that marker.
• Click
or
in the Markers toolbar to jump to the next or previous marker.
• Choose Go > Next Marker or Go > Previous Marker to jump to the next or previous marker.
To Select a Time Range Using Markers
You can select a range of times by clicking in the marker section of the Time Ruler:
• Click to the left of the first marker to select the time between the start of the project and the first
marker.
• Click to the right of the last marker to select the time between the marker and the end of the
project.
• Click between two markers to select the time between the markers.
• If looping is enabled, click to the right of the Loop Start marker to select the loop region
Arranging and editing
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321
• If punch recording is enabled, click to the right of the Punch In marker to select the punch region
Tip: If you press TAB or right-click while holding down the left mouse button over the markers, you
can toggle through which of the overlaid markers you'd like to move.
For example, if the Now Time marker, a regular Marker, a Loop point, and a Punch point are all at
measure 5, pressing Tab (while holding down the left mouse button) toggles through T (Now Time),
M (regular), L (Loop), and P (Punch). If you want to change the regular marker, simply drag the
mouse when M is displayed; if you want to adjust the position of the Loop point, tab through to L, and
so on.
TAB to transients
You can use the TAB and SHIFT+TAB keys to jump to audio transients, and MIDI Note events.
Tabbing is only possible when the transport is not rolling.
TAB to transients is selection-based, which means tabbing will go to the next/previous transient
amongst all selected clips. If there is no selection, tabbing operates on the current track.
Note: When using the Free Edit Point, TAB to transients always operates on the current track,
regardless of selection.
To move the Now Time to the next transient
• Press TAB.
To move the Now Time to the previous transient
• Press SHIFT+TAB.
TAB to transients landmarks
The following table shows how TAB to transients applies to different SONAR clip types.
Clip type
TAB target
Audio Groove clips.
Each slice.
"Stretch to tempo" clips (clips that are
not groove clip looped but use groove
clip for rendering).
Each slice.
Regular audio clips.
Each transient as detected by AudioSnap.
Slip stretched audio clips.
Each transient as detected by AudioSnap, scaled to the stretch
amount so tabbing continues to line up perfectly.
Table 64.
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TAB to transients landmarks
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TAB to transients
Clip type
TAB target
MIDI clips.
Each Note event (MIDI Controller data is ignored).
Note: If there are multiple Note events at the exact same tick
position, only one of the notes will be tabbed to.
MIDI Groove clips.
Each Note event.
Step Sequencer clips.
Each step that contains a note.
Table 64.
TAB to transients landmarks (Continued)
TAB to transients in the Piano Roll view
In addition to the Track view inline Piano Roll, TAB to transients also works in the Piano Roll view. If
multiple tracks are displayed in the Piano Roll view, tabbing only operates on the current track.
Working with Linked Clips
SONAR makes it easy to repeat a pattern over and over using a feature called linked clips. Linked
clips always have the same contents, name, and display color. Any change you make to the internal
contents of one of the clips, such as adding or editing notes or effects, automatically applies to all of
them. Any number of clips may be linked with each other.
To create linked clips, copy the clips and when pasting, check the Linked Clips option in the Paste
dialog box or the Drag and Drop Options dialog box. Linked clips are displayed with a dotted
border, so they are easy to spot. You can also identify linked clips using the Clip Properties dialog
box or the Select All Siblings (available in the Clips pane pop-up menu) command.You can easily
unlink linked clips, and then edit them individually. You have two options when unlinking linked clips:
Option
How it works
New linked group
The clips you selected will still be linked to each other, but won’t be linked to any
clips that are not selected
Independent
Every selected clip will be completely independent
Table 65.
Once you have unlinked linked clips, you cannot re-link them except by using Edit > Undo.
If you attempt to copy only a portion of a linked clip, the copy will not be linked to the original. Copies
of a clip can be linked to the original only when you select and copy the entire clip.
To Make Linked Copies of a Clip Using Drag and Drop
1. Right-click in the Clips pane and choose Drag & Drop Options to display the Drag and Drop
Options dialog box.
2. Check the option labeled Copy Entire Clips as Linked Clips.
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323
3. Click OK.
4. Select the clips you want to copy.
5. Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
6. Press and hold down the CTRL key.
7. Press and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed around the selected clips.
8. Drag the clips to their new location, and release the mouse button.
9. If necessary, confirm the options in the Drag and Drop Options dialog box, and click OK.
SONAR creates copies of the selected clips that are linked to the originals. Any change you make to
one of the clips is applied to all linked clips, including the original clip.
To Make Linked Copies of a Clip Using Copy and Paste
1. Select the clips you want to copy.
2. Choose Edit > Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
3. Choose options as desired and click OK. SONAR copies the clips to the Windows clipboard.
4. Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips should be pasted.
5. Set the Now time to be the time at which the clips should be pasted.
6. Choose Edit > Paste to display the Paste dialog box.
7. In the Paste dialog, choose one of two options:
• Linked Repetitions. If you choose this option, only the new copies of the original clip are
linked together. Edits you make to the new copies do not affect the original, and vice versa.
• Link to Original Clip(s). If you choose this option, the new copies and the original clip are
linked together. Edits you make to any of the linked clips, including the original, affect all other
linked clips in the group.
8. Choose the other options you want and click OK.
SONAR creates copies of the selected clips that are linked in the way you chose.
To Unlink Linked Clips
1. In the Clips pane, select the clips you want to unlink.
2. Right-click on any selected clip and choose Unlink from the pop-up menu. SONAR displays the
Unlink Clips dialog box.
3. Choose the unlink option you want, and click OK.
SONAR unlinks the clips and updates the Clips pane accordingly. From now on, any changes you
make to one of the clips are applied only to remaining linked clips, if any.
To Select the Clips That Are Linked to Another Clip
1. Select one or more clips in the Track view.
2. Right-click on any selected clip and choose Select All Siblings from the pop-up menu.
SONAR selects any clip that is linked to one of the currently selected clips.
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Splitting and Combining Clips
SONAR provides several commands that are used to split and combine clips. Specifically, you can:
• Split a clip into several smaller clips
• Create a new clip from a selected portion of an existing clip
• Combine adjacent or overlapping clips into a single, longer clip
The following table summarizes the commands you can use:
To do this
Use this command
Notes
Split clips into parts
Edit > Split
Works on all selected clips. You can also press the s
key to split all selected clips at the Now Time.
Combine several clips
into one
Edit > Bounce to Clip(s)
If the selected clips are in separate tracks, one clip is
created for each track. All clip automation is applied
destructively to the new clip.
Table 66.
Note: Combining a stereo and mono clip always produces a stereo clip.
The Split command lets you split clips four different ways:
Option
How it works
Split at Time
Splits selected clips at a specific point in time. By default, the split occurs at the
Now time, but you can choose any time you want.
Split Repeatedly
Splits selected clips at regular intervals, beginning at a specified time, with a
specified duration. For example, you could split a long clip into 4-bar clips starting
at measure 5.
Split at Markers
Splits selected clips at any marker location. This option is available only if your
project has markers.
Split when Silent
Removes “silent” stretches of one measure or more from selected clips. The
presence in a measure of any event—including those that make no sound, such as
a patch change or lyric event—will cause that measure to be retained.
Table 67.
While the Split command works for both MIDI and audio clips, for audio clips, the Split command
provides sample accurate editing and snap-to-zero capability.
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325
Note that the Edit > Undo and Edit > Redo commands work with all three of these editing
commands.
To Split Clips into Smaller Clips
1. Select the clips you want to split.
2. Right-click on any selected clip, and choose Split from the pop-up menu. SONAR shows the Split
dialog box or press the S key to split the clip(s) at the Now Time.
3. Choose the Split option you want to use, and enter the settings you want to use.
4. Click OK.
Or
1. Select the clips you want to split.
2. Set the Now Time to the time you want to split the clips.
3. Press the S key.
SONAR splits the selected clips according to your instructions.
To Combine Clips
1. Select the clips you want to combine (the clips must be on the same track).
2. Right-click on of the clips and select Bounce to Clip(s) from the pop-up menu.
SONAR combines the selected clips into a single, new clip.
Take Management and Comping Takes
By default, SONAR stacks any overlapping clips on top of each other, but you can choose to display
them in separate layers (lanes) in the same track. When you store clips in separate layers, it’s easy
to mute and solo them individually and eventually come up with a composite take, with only the best
clips playing back. You can also mute and solo whole layers.
When you use loop recording, you can store all your takes in the same track, and then use the Mute
tool or Audition (Selection Playback) to hear only the ones you want.
If you enable a track’s Show Layers option, SONAR stores the track’s clips in separate layers
whenever any of the following happens:
• You use loop recording in Sound on Sound mode, and choose to store takes in a single track.
• You record over some pre-existing data while in Sound on Sound mode.
• You enable the Tracks > Show Layers menu option for a track that contains at least one
overlapping clip.
Note 1: You can create as many layers as you want.
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Note 2: A multi-layer layer track has only one set of track automation envelopes.
For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures:
To Enable or Disable the Multi-layer Option
• For single tracks, you can right-click the Track Scale, and choose Show Layers from the pop-up
menu, or use the Layers > Show Layers command on the Track pane right-click menu, or click
the Track Layers On/Off button.
A
B
A. Track Layers On/Off button B. Track Scale before showing layers
• For multiple tracks, select the tracks you want to configure by CTRL-clicking the track number of
each track, and use the Tracks > Layers > Show Layers menu option.
When the option is first enabled, SONAR moves all overlapping clips in the affected tracks to
separate layers, and displays Mute and Solo buttons on the Track Scale for each layer.
A
A. Track Layers Mute and Solo on/off buttons
After the option is enabled, you can move clips on top of each other without creating new layers. To
move overlapping clips back into separate layers, use the Rebuild command (see below).
Note 1: If you want to move a clip to the exact same time placement in an adjacent layer, hold
the SHIFT key down while you drag.
Note 2: If the Automatic Crossfades button is enabled, SONAR adds a crossfade between
any newly overlapped clips that are on the same layer.
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Take Management and Comping Takes
327
To Mute or Unmute One or More Layers
• On the Track Scale, click the M button that’s at the same vertical level as the layer you want to
mute or unmute. You can drag across multiple mute buttons to mute or unmute multiple layers.
Note: If you mute a layer and then disable the Show Layers feature, the Track Scale displays a
small blue indicator to show that a hidden layer is muted:
A
A. Hidden layer mute indicator
To Solo or Unsolo a Layer
• On the Track Scale, click the S button that’s at the same vertical level as the layer you want to
solo. You can solo one layer at a time.
Note: If you solo a layer and then disable the Show Layers feature, the Track Scale displays a small
yellow indicator to show that a hidden layer is soloed:
A
A. Hidden layer solo indicator
To Rebuild Layers
• To rebuild layers (move overlapping clips to separate layers) in a single-track, right-click the Track
Scale and choose Rebuild Layers from the pop-up menu.
• For multiple tracks, select the tracks you want to rebuild, and use the Tracks > Layers > Rebuild
Layers command.
To Remove Empty Layers
• To remove empty layers in a single-track, right-click the Track Scale and choose Remove Empty
Layers from the pop-up menu.
• For multiple tracks, select the tracks you want to compact, and use the Tracks > Layers >
Remove Empty Layers command.
To Add an Empty Layer to a Track
• Right-click the Track Scale at the position where you want the new layer, and choose Insert
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Arranging and editing
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Layer from the pop-up menu.
To Delete a Layer from a Track
• Right-click the Track Scale at the position where you want to delete a layer, and choose Delete
Layer from the pop-up menu.
To Select a Layer
• Right-click the Track Scale at the same vertical position where the desired layer is, and choose
Select Layer from the pop-up menu. You can de-select the layer by clicking an empty area of the
Clips pane.
To Loop Record Multiple Takes into Separate Track Layers
1. Use the Transport > Record Options command to open the Record Options dialog.
2. Under the Recording Mode options, choose Sound on Sound (Blend).
3. Under Loop Recording, choose Store Takes in a Single Track, and click OK.
4. Make sure that the armed track has its Show Layers option enabled.
5. Set your loop boundaries and start recording multiple passes through the looped area.
6. Stop recording.
When you finish recording, SONAR displays all your takes in separate layers in the recording track.
To Crop Overlapping Clips to Eliminate Overlap
1. In a multi-layer track, move either the Select tool or the Mute tool between two overlapping clips
until the cursor turns into the overlap cropping tool.
A
A. Overlap cropping tool
2. In the space between the clips, click the spot where you want the first clip to end and the second
one to begin. SONAR crops both clips so that they no longer overlap.
See:
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Together with multi-layer tracks, clip muting and isolating (clip soloing) make it easy to build a
composite take from multiple takes.
Arranging and editing
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing)
329
With the new Mute tool
muting:
, that’s in the Track view toolbar, SONAR offers two styles of clip
• Default style. After you activate the Mute tool, you can drag through time ranges to mute all or
part of a clip: dragging through the bottom half of a clip mutes the time range you drag through;
dragging through the top half of a clip unmutes the range you drag through. The default setting in
the Mute tool drop-down menu produces this behavior (you’ll see a checkmark next to Mute Time
Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior). If you want to temporarily switch to the Alternate style
(see below), hold down the ALT key while you click.
• Alternate style. Use the Mute tool to mute or unmute entire clips by clicking clips instead of
dragging through time regions. A clip that is completely muted displays the Mute icon
in its
upper left corner. You can choose this behavior by choosing Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag
Behavior in the Mute tool drop-down menu. If you decide you want to temporarily switch to the
Default style, hold down the ALT key while you drag.
In addition, you can also play back only selected data if you want by pressing the SHIFT key and the
SPACEBAR at the same time.
See:
Clip Muting with the Default Style
Clip Muting with the Alternate Style
Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Audition (Selection Playback)
Clip Muting with the Default Style
When you choose Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool drop-down
menu, you can use the following procedures to mute all or parts of clips. This is the default behavior.
To Enable or Disable the Mute Tool
• Click the tool or press K on your keyboard. The Mute tool turns blue when it is enabled.
To Mute a Time Range Using Default Style
1. Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool drop-down
menu has a check mark.
2. If you want to mute a precise amount of time, enable the Snap to Grid button and set its menu to
an appropriate value.
3. Using the Mute tool, drag inside the lower half of a clip.
SONAR mutes the area you dragged through and displays the muted waveform or MIDI data as a
dotted line.
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Arranging and editing
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A
A. Muted area of clip
To Unmute a Time Range Using Default Style
1. Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool drop-down
menu has a check mark.
2. Using the Mute tool, click inside the upper half of a clip in the muted area.
To Mute or Unmute an Entire Clip Using Default Style
1. Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool drop-down
menu has a check mark.
2. Using the Mute tool, ALT-click anywhere in the clip (hold down the ALT key while you click).
When a clip is currently muted, SONAR displays the Mute icon in the upper left corner of the clip.
A
A. Mute icon
Note: If the clip you’re muting or unmuting with this method already has one or more muted
time ranges, these time ranges remain muted while you ALT-click the clip, so you don’t lose any
precise mute edits you’ve performed. To completely unmute the clip in the picture below, first
ALT-click the clip to remove the Mute icon, and then drag through the upper half of the clip in the
muted area(s).
See:
Arranging and editing
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing)
331
Clip Muting with the Alternate Style
Clip Muting with the Alternate Style
When you choose Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool drop-down
menu, you can use the following procedures to mute all or parts of clips. This is the alternate style.
To Enable or Disable the Mute Tool
• Click the Mute tool or press K on your keyboard. The Mute tool turns blue when it is enabled.
To Mute or Unmute an Entire Clip Using Alternate Style
1. Make sure that Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool drop-down menu
has a check mark.
2. Using the Mute tool, click anywhere in the clip.
SONAR displays the Mute icon in the upper left corner of a muted clip.
Note: If the clip you’re muting or unmuting with this method already has one or more muted
time ranges, these time ranges remain muted while you ALT-click the clip, so you don’t lose any
precise mute edits you’ve performed.
To Mute a Time Range Using Alternate Style
1. Make sure that Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool drop-down menu
has a check mark.
2. If you want to mute a precise amount of time, enable the Snap to Grid button and set its menu to
an appropriate value.
3. Using the Mute tool, ALT-drag inside the lower half of a clip.
SONAR mutes the area you dragged through and displays the muted waveform or MIDI data as a
dotted line.
To Unmute a Time Range Using Alternate Style
1. Make sure that Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool drop-down menu
has a check mark.
2. Using the Mute tool, ALT-click inside the upper half of a clip in the muted area.
Toggling a Clip’s Mute Status
You can mute or unmute a clip without using the Mute tool if you want. Pressing Q on your keyboard
toggles the mute status of all selected clips. Any muted time ranges remain muted.
See:
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Arranging and editing
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Audition (Selection Playback)
Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Audition (Selection Playback)
The Transport > Audition command plays back only selected clips and/or time ranges.
To use the command, hold down the SHIFT key and then press the SPACEBAR. Only the selected
data plays back.
Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Isolating works by muting all the clips in a track in the same time region except the ones that you
want to hear. Just like clip muting, isolating has two styles:
• Default style. After you activate the Mute tool, you can CTRL-drag through time ranges to
isolate all or part of a clip. The default setting in the Mute tool drop-down menu produces this
behavior (you’ll see a checkmark next to Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior). If you
want to temporarily switch to the Alternate style (see below), hold down the ALT key along with
the CTRL key, and click whole clips instead of dragging through regions.
• Alternate style. Use the Mute tool to isolate entire clips by CTRL-clicking clips instead of
dragging through time regions. You can choose this behavior by choosing Mute Entire Clips
under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool drop-down menu. If you decide you want to
temporarily switch to the Default style, hold down the ALT key along with the CTRL key, and drag
through the regions you want isolated.
To Isolate a Region with the Default Style
1. Make sure that Mute Time Ranges under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool drop-down
menu has a check mark.
2. Using the Mute tool, hold down the CTRL key and drag through the region of a clip or clips that
you want isolated (soloed).
Any overlapping regions become muted. To de-isolate the isolated region, release the CTRL key,
and drag through the upper half of any muted regions.
If you want to temporarily switch to the Alternate style of isolating (see procedure below), hold down
the ALT key along with the CTRL key, and click whole clips instead of dragging through regions.
To Isolate Clips with the Alternate Style
1. Choose Mute Entire Clips under Click+Drag Behavior in the Mute tool drop-down menu.
2. Using the Mute tool, hold down the CTRL key and click the clips that you want isolated.
Any overlapping clips become muted. To de-isolate the isolated clips, release the CTRL key, and
click any muted clips.
If you want to temporarily switch to the Default style of isolating, hold down the ALT key along with
the CTRL key, and drag through the regions you want isolated.
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Track Folders
A track folder contains tracks in the Track pane of the Track view. Track folders make larger projects
much easier to manage—you can group different types of tracks in their own folder: vocals, soft
synths, ReWire instruments, drums, etc.
The main characteristics of a track folder are:
• You can edit all the tracks in the folder as if you were editing a single track—especially valuable
for drum tracks. The track folder displays a composite clip in the Clips pane of all the clips in the
folder. Selecting a time range in the composite clip selects data in all the enclosed tracks in the
same time range; now you can edit all the tracks in the folder by editing the selected area of the
composite clip.
• You can hide tracks in a folder, freeing up space on your screen.
• A folder can contain any type of track—you can put MIDI, audio, and synth tracks in the same
folder.
• You can archive, mute, solo, arm, or input monitor all the tracks in a folder with one click—just
click the A, M, S, R, or Input Echo button on the track folder.
E
F
D
C
B
G
H
A
A. The tracks in a track folder are indented B. Description box C. Track folder info D. Open/Close folder
E. Track folder—click here to select all data in track folder F. A, M, S, R, and Input Echo buttons G. Selected
area of composite clip H. Composite clip
To Create a Track Folder
• Right-click in the Track pane of the Track view, and choose Insert Track Folder from the pop-up
menu.
Or
• Use the Insert > Track Folder menu command.
Or
• Right-click a track that’s not in a track folder and select Move to Folder > New Track Folder from
the pop-up menu.
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Track Folders
A new track folder appears in the Track pane.
To Add a Track to a Track Folder
• In the Track view, move the mouse cursor just to the right of the track number of a pre-existing
track until the cursor turns into a black, double-ended arrow, and then click and drag the track’s
titlebar onto the track folder. Release the mouse.
Or
• Insert a track when a track within a track folder has focus.
Or
• Right-click a track that’s not in a track folder and select Move to Folder > Track Folder “n” from
the pop-up menu.
Or
• Select the tracks you want to add to the folder, right-click on the folder and select Add Track(s) to
Folder from the menu that appears.
The added track appears in the track folder, and is indented a little to show that it’s inside the track
folder.
To Remove a Track from a Track Folder
• In the Track view, move the cursor just to the right of the track number of a track until the cursor
turns into a black, double-ended arrow, and then click and drag the track’s titlebar out of the Track
Folder. Release the mouse.
Or
• Right-click the track and select Remove From Folder from the pop-up menu.
To Add Multiple Tracks to a Track Folder
1. Select the tracks you want to add.
2. Right-click a selected track and choose Move to Folder > Track Folder “n” from the pop-up
menu.
To Remove Multiple Tracks from a Track Folder
1. Select the tracks you want to remove.
2. Right-click a selected track and choose Remove From Folder from the pop-up menu.
To Delete a Track Folder
1. In the Track view, right-click and select Delete Track Folder from the menu that appears.
2. SONAR asks you if you want to delete all the tracks in the folder along with the track folder—click
Yes or No.
SONAR deletes the track folder. If you didn’t choose to delete the tracks in the track folders, SONAR
moves these tracks to the top level.
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To Open or Close a Track Folder
• Click the folder icon that’s just left of the track folder’s name.
To Select or Deselect all the Tracks in a Track Folder
• Click just to the left of the folder icon.
To Rename a Track Folder
• Double-click the track folder’s name, type a new name, and press ENTER.
Or
• Right-click the track folder, choose Folder Properties from the pop-up menu, type a name in the
Name field of the Folder Properties dialog, and click OK.
To Add a Description to a Track Folder
• Double-click the Description box, type a description, and press ENTER.
Or
• Right-click the track folder, choose Folder Properties from the pop-up menu, type a description
in the Description field of the Folder Properties dialog, and click OK.
To Select all Clips in a Time Range
• Hold down the ALT key while dragging a selection on the composite clip.
Now you can edit, move, cut and paste all the selected clips by editing the selected part of the
composite clip.
Adding Effects in the Track View
You can add both MIDI and audio effects directly from the Track view. SONAR adds these effects in
real-time, preserving your track’s original data.
To Add Effects in the Track View
1. Right-click in the FX bin of the track you want to add effects to. You may have to click the FX tab
or the All tab that’s at the bottom of the Track pane to display the FX bin, and also expand the
track pane a little.
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A
A. Right-click here to add an effect
An effects pop-up menu appears. SONAR displays MIDI effects if you are editing a MIDI track,
and audio effects for an audio track.
2. Select an effect from the menu.
The name of the effect appears in the Effects bin and the effect’s property page appears. To
delete the effect, right-click the effect name and choose Delete from the pop-up menu.
3. Set the effects parameters or choose a preset.
Play your track and listen to the effect(s).
Note: If you use the same effects for more than one track, it’s more efficient to add the effects
to an bus. See “To Patch a Track Through a Bus” on page 608.
Changing Tempos
Your project can incorporate all kinds of tempo changes, including step changes from one tempo to
another, gradual increases (accelerandos) or decreases (ritardandos), and almost any other type of
change you can imagine. The tempo changes you add to your project become part of the project and
are saved with the project file.
You can add tempo changes to your project in the following ways:
• Using the Tempo toolbar.
• Using the Insert > Tempo Change and Insert > Series of Tempos commands.
• By drawing tempo changes graphically in the Tempo view.
• Inserting tempo changes in the Tempo view’s Tempo List pane.
The Process > Fit to Time and Process > Fit Improvisation commands can also be used to
introduce tempo changes into your work file. For more information, see “Stretching and Shrinking
Events” on page 486 and “Fit Improvisation” on page 498.
When you change the tempo of a project that contains audio, SONAR allows you to stretch or shrink
audio clips when you have converted them to Groove clips and have enabled the Follow Project
Pitch option in the Loop Construction view. Otherwise, the MIDI tracks will speed up or slow down
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337
while the audio tracks will play at the same speed. For more information about Groove clips, see
“Working Groove Clip audio” on page 419. Audio clips that are not Groove clips change in size when
moved to a part of your project that has a different tempo.
Sometimes you don’t want to adjust the speed of your audio. Here are some examples:
• If your project contains background music and a voice-over, you might want to change the tempo
of the background music without altering the voice-over.
• If you’re trying to modify the speed of some MIDI tracks to match a sampled drum groove, you
want to leave the audio unchanged.
When you change the tempo of your project, clips having stretching enabled change tempo along
with the project, while those that do not have stretching enabled do not. For more information about
stretch-enabling clips, see “Enable Stretching” on page 413.
Tempos set when the clock source is set to MIDI Sync do not have any effect, because SONAR
follows the external tempo. For more information, see “Synchronizing Your Gear” on page 819.
See:
Using the Tempo Toolbar
Using the Tempo Commands
Using the Tempo View
Using the Tempo Toolbar
The Tempo toolbar displays the current tempo and lets you change the tempo as shown below:
Figure 56.
The Tempo toolbar
A
C
B
A. Click to insert a tempo change B. Tempo ratio buttons C. Click to enter a new tempo
When you enter a new tempo directly in the toolbar, you change the most recent tempo setting in the
project.
The tempo ratio buttons temporarily change the speed of playback, without affecting the actual
tempo that is stored with your project (see Note, below). During playback, the tempo is multiplied by
the current tempo ratio. By default, the three tempo ratios are 0.50 (half speed), 1.00 (normal
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speed), and 2.00 (double speed). You can change the tempo ratios that are associated with each
button.
Note: Tempo ratios can only be used in projects that contain no audio tracks and cannot be
used when using any form of synchronization. For more information, see Synchronizing Your
Gear.
To Change the Current Tempo in the Tempo Toolbar
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Click the current tempo in the Tempo toolbar.
3. Type a new value and press ENTER, or use the spinners to change the tempo value.
SONAR changes the current tempo to the desired value.
To Set the Tempo Ratio
You can set the tempo ratio in several ways (remember, this function is not available if you have
audio clips in your project):
• Click one of the tempo ratio buttons.
• Choose Transport > Tempo Ratio 1, 2, or 3.
• Press CTRL+1, CTRL+2, or CTRL+3.
SONAR changes the speed of playback.
To Change the Tempo Ratio
1. SHIFT-click one of the tempo ratio buttons to display the Tempo Ratio dialog box.
Figure 57.
The Tempo Ratio dialog
2. Enter a new value for the tempo ratio.
3. Click OK.
From now on, that tempo ratio button uses the ratio you entered.
Using the Tempo Commands
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339
The Insert > Tempo Change and Insert > Series of Tempos commands can be used to change
the existing tempo of a project or to introduce one or more tempo changes at various points in a
project. You can enter tempo values directly, introduce smooth increase or decreases in tempo, or
even use your mouse to tap out the tempo you want for some portion of a project.
To Insert a Tempo Change
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Click
in the toolbar or choose Insert > Tempo Change to display the Tempo dialog box.
Figure 58.
The Tempo dialog
3. Check the Insert a New Tempo box.
4. Enter a new tempo in one of the following ways:
• Type a value in the Tempo field.
• Click the arrows to change the value.
• Tap a new tempo in the space indicated in the dialog box.
5. Enter a starting time for the new tempo.
6. Click OK.
SONAR inserts a tempo change at the designated time.
To Insert a Series of Tempos
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove clip Looping enabled.
2. Choose Insert > Series of Tempos to display the Insert Series of Tempos dialog box.
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Figure 59.
The Insert Series of Tempos dialog
3. Enter a starting tempo, ending tempo, and step size.
4. Enter a starting and ending time for the series of tempo changes.
5. Click OK.
SONAR erases any existing tempo changes between the starting and ending time, and inserts a
series of tempo changes that change smoothly between the starting and ending time. This
command never inserts more than one tempo change on the same clock tick. Audio clips which you
want to follow tempo changes can also be converted to Groove clips in the Loop Construction view.
To Modify the Most Recent Tempo Change
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Choose Insert > Tempo Change to display the Tempo dialog box.
3. Check the Change the Most Recent Tempo box.
4. Enter a new tempo in one of the following ways:
• Type a value in the Tempo field.
• Click the arrows to change the value.
• Tap a new tempo in the space indicated in the dialog box.
5. Click OK.
SONAR changes the most recent tempo to the new value.
Using the Tempo View
The Tempo view provides a graphic display of the tempo. In the Tempo view you can use your
mouse to draw tempo changes directly onto the graph. Choose View > Tempo or click
toolbar to display the Tempo view
on the
The Tempo view provides both a graphic display of the tempo and a list of all tempo changes in your
project. In the graphical display you can use your mouse to draw tempo changes directly onto the
graph. In the tempo list, you can insert, edit, and delete individual tempo changes. Choose View >
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341
Tempo or click
on the toolbar to display the Tempo view. Click the Tempo List button
display or hide the tempo list.
to
The Tempo view If an entire project has a single tempo, the graph shows a straight horizontal line, and
a single tempo in the list.
The graph has several tools you can use to add or modify tempo changes:
Tool
Name
What it’s for
Select
Drat the Select tool in either the Tempo list or graphic display to select tempos
to edit
Draw
Draw a custom curve indicating changes in tempo
Line
Draw a straight line indicating a steady increase or decrease in tempo
Erase
Eliminate tempo changes already in place for some portion of a project
Snap grid
Controls how often you can insert tempo changes—for example, every
measure, every eighth note, every 3 samples, etc.
Table 68.
If you make a mistake using any of these tools, you can use Edit > Undo to correct the error. When
you use the Draw tool, the speed with which you drag the mouse determines the density of tempo
events. To insert a larger number of relatively small tempo changes, move the mouse slowly. To
insert a smaller number of relatively large tempo changes, drag the mouse quickly.
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The Tempo List Pane has its own tools for editing tempo changes:
Tool
Name
What it’s for
Insert Tempo
Insert a new tempo change
Delete Tempo
Delete a tempo change
Tempo Properties
Edit a tempo change
Table 69.
To Insert a Tempo Change in the Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Select the
or the
tool.
3. Click in the Tempo view at any desired time point and tempo level.
SONAR introduces a tempo change at the indicated point.
To Steadily Increase or Decrease the Tempo in the Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Select the
tool.
3. Drag a line in the graph from the starting time and tempo to the ending time and tempo.
SONAR introduces a linear series of tempo changes.
To Draw a Series of Tempo Changes in the Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Select the
tool.
3. Drag the cursor across the graph, adjusting the tempo level as you move left to right.
SONAR introduces a series of tempo changes.
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343
To Erase Tempo Changes in the Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Select the
tool.
3. Drag the mouse over the graph to highlight the region you want to erase.
4. Release the mouse button.
SONAR deletes all tempo changes in the area you marked. The last tempo setting prior to the
erased region is now in effect in that region.
To Insert a Tempo Change in the Tempo List in the Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Click the Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
3. Select any tempo change in the list.
4. Click Insert Tempo
to open the Tempo dialog box.
5. Set the tempo, time, and other properties.
6. Click OK.
SONAR inserts the new tempo into the list.
To Edit a Tempo Change in the Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Click the Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
3. In the tempo list, select the tempo change to be edited.
4. Click Tempo Properties
or double-click the tempo change to open the Tempo dialog box.
5. Edit the tempo properties as desired.
6. Click OK.
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To Delete a Tempo Change from the Tempo List in the Tempo View
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Click the Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
3. In the Tempo list, select the tempo change to be deleted.
4. Click Delete Tempo
, or press DELETE.
SONAR deletes the selected tempo change. You cannot delete the first tempo in the list.
Undo, Redo, and the Undo History
SONAR provides very powerful Undo and Redo commands that let you move forward or backward
through any portion of an editing session. Every project has its own independent undo history. This
means you can return to any open project and use the Undo and Redo commands, even if you’ve
spent the last hour working on a different project. The undo history of a project is lost when you close
the project.
Remembering everything that is necessary to undo the changes you have made can use a lot of
memory. If a change you are about to make requires too much memory and cannot be undone, you
will be advised that the operation is too big to undo later and asked if you want to go ahead anyway.
If you do choose to perform the operation, you will not be able to undo it. Therefore, you may want to
save your project first.
The Edit > History command displays a complete history of the commands and actions you can
undo for the current project. The Undo History dialog box looks like this:
Figure 60.
The Undo History dialog
A
B
C
A. Most recent change B. Click to clear the undo history C. Adjust the number of steps you can undo
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345
The History command is grayed out until you make a change to the current project that can be
undone.
The History list is updated every time you make a change to a project. For example, if you insert a
new note into a project using the Piano Roll view, that action is added to the History list. This entry
remains on the list—even if you undo the change—so that you can redo the change later on. If you
delete the note, this change is added to the History list.
You can click the Clear button in the Undo History dialog box to erase the undo history for the
current project and free up some memory. If SONAR is low on memory, it may offer to erase the
History list.
To revert to an earlier version of a project, highlight the entry in the History list that represents the
point to which you’d like to return, and click OK. SONAR performs the necessary undo or redo
actions to take you to that point. Once you edit the project (for example, by inserting a note), the
History list is truncated at that point. Then, as you do further work, the History list grows again. Any
events occurring before the event you highlighted remain on the list.
By default, SONAR keeps a history of up to 128 editing actions for each open project. Once that limit
is reached, each new action pushes out the oldest item from the History list. You can raise or lower
that number in the Undo History dialog box.
Slip-editing (Non-destructive Editing)
Slip-editing allows you to non-destructively hide or reveal the beginning of a clip, the end of a clip, or
both. The hidden material in a clip is not heard during playback. All hidden material remains intact
and can be restored. All slip-editing movements correspond to the current snap to resolution. For
more information about the snap to grid, see “Defining and Using the Snap Grid” on page 316.
A
B
A. Clip handle B. Slip-edit cursor
Important: Like any clips, slip-edited clips can be combined with other clips using the Bounce
to Clip(s) command and slip-edited clips in a track can be mixed down to another track. When
a slip-edited clip is combined with another clip or an effect is applied to a clip using the Edit >
Apply Audio Effects command, any slip-edited data (audio clips or MIDI events that are
cropped from view) is overwritten.
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See also:
Using Slip-editing
Using Slip-editing
SONAR makes it easy to edit audio and MIDI clips by way of prominent clip handles that appear as
your cursor comes close to the edges of clips. The clip handles are easy to see and are equipped
with broad functionality for fade-ins, fade-outs, and crossfades, as well as non-destructive editing of
the beginning and end of clips.
To Slip-edit a Clip
1. Set the Snap to Grid
to an appropriate interval.
2. If you’re slip editing an audio clip, right-click the clip to open the Clip Properties dialog. Select the
Audio Stretching tab, make sure the Enable Looping check box is unchecked, and click OK.
3. Move the cursor over the beginning of the clip until the clip handle appears.
.
A
A. Clip handle
4. Click and drag the clip handle until the unwanted information has been removed.
The hidden information in the slip-edited clips remains intact but is not heard during playback.
To Move Data Without Moving its Clip
1. Hold down ALT+SHIFT while moving the cursor over the middle of the clip you wish to edit.
The cursor changes to look like this
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.
347
2. Click and drag the clip to the left or right as desired.
As in the case of slip-editing, the hidden information in the clip remains intact but is not heard
during playback.
To Move Data and the Clip Edge
1. Hold down ALT+SHIFT and move the cursor to the edge of the clip you wish to edit.
A clip handle appears at the edge of the clip you are editing.
2. Click and drag the edge of the clip to the desired location.
The hidden information in the clip remains intact but is not heard during playback.
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To Permanently Delete Slip-edited Data
1. Select the clips that contain the slip-edited data you want to delete.
2. Select the Edit > Apply Trimming command.
SONAR permanently deletes the slip-edited data from the clips you selected.
Slip-editing Multiple Clips
You can slip-edit multiple clips at the same time.
To Slip-edit Multiple Clips at Once
1. Make sure all clips are not loop-enabled.
2. Select the clips you want to slip-edit.
3. Move your cursor over the beginning or end range of the selected clips until the blue clip handle
appears.
4. Drag the boundary to the desired location and release.
Fades and Crossfades
Fades are a gradual increase or decrease in volume at the beginning (fade-in) or end (fade-out) of a
clip. A crossfade is when one clip fades out while another fades in. There are two ways to create
fades and crossfades in SONAR: offline (destructive) and real-time (non-destructive). To create
fades and crossfades offline, see “Applying Fades and Crossfades Offline” on page 565.
See:
Using Fades and Crossfades in Real Time
Using Fades and Crossfades in Real Time
You can create real-time fades and crossfades in the Track view’s Clips pane. Real-time fades and
crossfades do not change the data in the clip. SONAR reads the fade-in, fade-out, or crossfade in
the clip and adjusts the gain accordingly. You can edit the crossfade’s start time and end times. You
can set the type of fade-in or fade-out you want to use as a default:
• Linear.
A straight line, raising or lowering the volume at a steady rate.
• Slow Curve. A curved fade which starts to change the volume slowly at first and then rapidly
increasing (fade-in) or decreasing (fade-out) the volume.
• Fast Curve. A curved fade which starts to change the volume quickly at first and then rapidly
decreasing (fade-out) or increasing (fade-in) the volume.
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349
To Choose the Fade Type
1. Click the drop-down arrow located at the right of the Fade tool
2. Choose Fade-in, Fade-out, or Crossfade from the drop-down menu by hovering your cursor
over the type of fade you want to make.
A second menu of available fade-in, fade-out, and crossfade envelopes appears.
3. Click the envelope you want as your default.
To Create a Real-time Fade-in in a Clip
1. In the Track view’s Clips pane, move your mouse over the top part of the beginning of a clip until
the cursor looks like this:
, and a red line appears at the edge of the clip.
A filled red triangle appears at the top of the red line indicating the fade marker is ready to be
dragged.
A
A. Filled red triangle
2. When your cursor changes and the filled red triangle appears, click and drag to the right until you
reach your desired fade-in length.
As you drag your mouse, a fade-in appears on your clip, and the red line moves with the mouse to
mark the end of the fade-in.
To Edit a Fade-in in a Clip
• To move the entire fade-in to a later point in the clip, drag above the blue horizontal line located a
quarter of the way up the blue vertical line
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.
A
B
A. Cursor above horizontal blue line B. Horizontal blue line
• To move only the starting point of the fade-in, drag below the horizontal blue line.
• To delete a fade-in from an audio clip, simply drag the triangular fade handle
edge of the clip.
to the front
The filled blue triangle at the top of the clip handle indicates that dragging the top edge of the clip
handle will move the fade along with the crop. The filled blue rectangle at the bottom of the clip
handle indicates that dragging the bottom of the clip handle will slip edit the edge, but leave the
end of the fade-in where it is.
To Create an Automatic Crossfade (Real-time)
1. In the Track view, click the Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades combo button located next to
the Snap to Grid button or press the X key.
2. Click the down arrow on the Enable/Disable Automatic Crossfades combo button, select
Default Crossfade Curves and select a crossfade curve.
3. Select and drag an audio clip so that it overlaps another audio clip. You should overlap the clips
by the length you want the crossfade.
4. When you have the clip positioned where you want it, release the mouse button to drop the clip.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears.
5. In the Drag and Drop Options dialog, check the Blend Old With New check box and click OK.
6. The two clips now overlap with a crossfade, looking something like this:
Arranging and editing
Fades and Crossfades
351
A
B
C
D
E
A. First clip B. Fade-out C. Fade-in D. Second clip E. Crossfade
You can edit fade-ins and fade-outs. You can change the start, end and position of a fade. The
following procedures all demonstrate edits to a fade-in, but fade-outs work exactly the same.
To Change an Existing Fade
1. Move your cursor over the beginning of a fade-out or the end of a fade-in, until your cursor looks
like this:
.
2. Right-click to and select the desired fade type from the menu that appears.
To Change an Existing Crossfade
1. Move your cursor over the region where the crossfade is.
2. Right-click and select the desired crossfade from the menu that appears.
To Edit or Create Fades from the Process Menu
1. Select the clip or clips in which you want to create or edit fade-ins and/or fade-outs.
2. Select Process > Fade Selected Clips.
The Fade Selected Clips dialog appears.
3. Adjust parameters according to the following table:
Parameter
Description
Fade In (mS)
Select the number of milliseconds you want the fade-in to last.
Fade Out (mS)
Select the number of milliseconds you want the fade-out to last.
Fade In Curve
Choose a fade-in type. Options are linear, slow or fast curve.
Fade Out Curve
Choose a fade-out type. Options are linear, slow or fast curve.
Table 70.
352
Arranging and editing
Fades and Crossfades
Parameter
Description
Alter Existing Times
Select this option if you wish to change the existing fade lengths. You don’t need to
check this option if you’re creating new fades.
Alter Existing Curves
Select this option if you wish to change the existing fade types. You don’t need to
check this option if you’re creating new fades.
Only Show if Pressing
Shift
Select if you want to apply previous dialog settings without opening the dialog. Hold
shift when selecting command to override this option.
Table 70.
4. Click OK to close the dialog.
SONAR creates or edits the fade(s) according to the options you chose in the dialog.
Arranging and editing
Fades and Crossfades
353
354
Arranging and editing
Fades and Crossfades
AudioSnap
SONAR’s AudioSnap engine and tempo analysis features give you unprecedented rhythmic and
tempo control over your audio. Employing sophisticated transient detection technology, the
AudioSnap engine automatically analyzes all recorded and imported audio files for rhythmic content
to determine where the beats are in the music.
AudioSnap is completely non-destructive, similar to Groove clips and V-Vocal clips. AudioSnap,
V-Vocal, and Groove clips are mutually exclusive. Groove clip markers are typically placed at a zerocrossing point before a transient; AudioSnap transient markers are placed where musical changes
occur, but may not be exactly at a zero crossing.
What is AudioSnap?
AudioSnap is not a single feature, but rather a collection of different tools that can be used for
different tasks. The AudioSnap palette ties it all together in a task-oriented layout.
AudioSnap does several things, in a variety of ways:
• Stretches audio clips to fit project tempo or for quantizing.
• Changes project tempo to fit audio or MIDI clips.
• Copies audio rhythms for groove quantizing or doubling sounds.
Figure 61.
The AudioSnap palette
How does it work?
AudioSnap works by finding the transients in audio clips. Transients are the areas in an audio clip
where the level increases suddenly. These make good locations to shrink, stretch, or split a clip,
without changing its sound quality too drastically. SONAR contains a variety of high-quality
stretching algorithms for different kinds of material. You can choose a lower-quality algorithm for
real-time playback of your edits, and then choose a better algorithm for mixdown or bouncing to
track (see “Algorithms and rendering” on page 406).
SONAR lets you define the default online and offline algorithms via the AudioSnap palette, and you
can override the default algorithm(s) on a clip-by-clip basis.
Note: The online algorithm is for preview purposes only during playback. The final audio
quality will be greatly improved after the offline algorithm is applied during mixdown/export.
The transients also make it possible for SONAR to calculate a clip’s tempo map (see “Editing a clip’s
tempo map” on page 375).
Figure 62.
Audio clip
Figure 63.
Audio clip showing transient markers
AudioSnap finds transients automatically, but the transient markers don’t always appear exactly
where you might want them for the kind of editing you want to do. You can edit the markers by
moving them to new locations, adding markers, filtering out markers, deleting markers, and
promoting markers (protecting them from being filtered). For information about editing transient
markers, see “Editing transient markers” on page 360.
Why would I use it?
Here are some common uses for AudioSnap:
• Aligning measure lines and tempo to audio or MIDI tracks that were recorded without a
metronome (see Synchronizing audio and the project tempo).
• Fixing timing errors (see Fixing timing problems in audio clips).
• Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks (see Making multiple clips/tracks groove
together).
• Doubling existing sounds with other sounds (see Extracting MIDI timing information from audio).
• Changing the tempo of existing projects (see Changing a project’s tempo).
• Snapping both audio and MIDI edits to audio beats (see Snapping edits to audio beats).
356
AudioSnap
• Fixing timing errors in multi-track recordings while maintaining phase relationships (see Adjusting
the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships).
If you want to edit audio right away with AudioSnap, see Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
and Fixing timing problems in audio clips. If you want to learn more about all the AudioSnap tools
and options, see the following links.
See:
Using the Transient tool
Editing transient markers
Using the AudioSnap palette
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
General editing
Using the Pool
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
Using the Transient tool
At the heart of AudioSnap are transient markers. SONAR automatically detects transients for all
audio clips in your project. The Transient tool lets you exclusively edit transient markers without
worrying about accidentally editing clips or automation data.
Although you can also edit transient markers with the Select tool and Free Edit tool, this chapter
focuses on the Transient tool since it is the easiest way to edit transient markers.
To enable the Transient tool
• Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
All audio clips show transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
Note: Displaying transient markers does not mean that AudioSnap is enabled. AudioSnap is
only active on a clip when at least one transient marker has been stretched.
If you select another tool, transient markers will no longer be visible and the AudioSnap palette
closes.
AudioSnap
Using the Transient tool
357
The following table describes how the Transient tool behaves when interacting with transient
markers and clips.
Action
On transient marker
On clip
Click
Selects the transient marker.
Selects the clip and opens the
AudioSnap palette.
Right-click
Opens the transient marker context menu.
Opens the AudioSnap context menu.
Double-click
-Selects transients from other tracks (from
selected clips) that fall within a certain window of
time of the transient the user is clicking on. If no
clips are selected, only non-hidden tracks are
affected.
Drag
Non-proportional stretch with selected
transients.
Note: You can drag a marker from either the
head or the line of the marker. Drag the line to
stretch a marker and drag the head to move a
marker.
Lasso selects transient markers.
Hold down the
Proportionally stretches selected transients.
CTRL key and drag
Lasso selects transients to add to the
current selection.
Hold down the
Adds transient marker to current selection.
CTRL key and click
--
Hold down the
CTRL key and
double-click
Like double-click, but adds transients to the
current selection.
--
Hold down the
CTRL and SHIFT
keys and doubleclick
Like double-click, but extends the range of
selected transients.
--
Hold down the ALT
key and click
--
Inserts a new transient marker.
Table 71.
Transient tool actions
For more information about editing transient markers, see Editing transient markers.
Transient tool (clip) context menu
The Transient tool context menu gives you quick access to commands related to time stretching and
tempo mapping:
• Set project tempo from clip. This command copies the clip’s tempo map to the project’s global
tempo map. This allows the project’s measure boundaries to align with the audio clip. Whenever
the project’s tempo map is generated from a clip, the clip’s Lock Position property is enabled
358
AudioSnap
Using the Transient tool
automatically.
• Clips follow project tempo.
map.
This command forces the clip to follow the project’s global tempo
Note: The Clips follow project tempo command only works on clips that are configured to
use musical time (the Time Base property is set to Musical (M:B:T) in the Clip Properties
dialog).
• Edit clip tempo map. Each audio clip has an internal tempo map. This command exposes
controls that allow you to edit a clip’s tempo map. For details, see Editing a clip’s tempo map.
• Merge and Lock Markers. This command combines all transient markers on all selected
tracks, so that all selected tracks share identical transient markers. The clip positions are also
locked. This will ensure that phase relationships are maintained when quantizing or moving clips
across multiple tracks. When using the Transient tool to drag transient markers, all transient
markers at exactly the same point in time on selected clips move together as a group.
• Save as groove. This command opens the Define Groove dialog, which lets you save the
groove to a file. The groove can then be applied to other audio or MIDI clips.
• Copy as MIDI. This command saves the selected audio as a MIDI clip, which you can paste
from the Clipboard into a MIDI track. You select the MIDI note that the transients in the audio clip
will be converted to in the AudioSnap Options dialog, which opens when you click the Options
button.
• Quantize. This command opens the Quantize dialog, which has options to quantize
AudioSnap Beats and Audio Clip Start Times, and also to set automatic crossfade options.
• Groove Quantize. This command opens the Groove Quantize dialog, which has an option to
quantize AudioSnap Beats, and controls to set automatic crossfade options.
• Reset transient markers.
their default state.
This command resets all transient markers on the selected clips to
• Pool > Add MBT to pool. The Track view Time Ruler can be added to the Pool (see Using the
Pool). This command adds the current Musical Time snap resolution to the pool, and also
displays dotted pool lines in the Clips pane. This can be useful as either a basic visual guide, or
for adding the Musical Time to an extracted groove, or to fill in any transients that may be
“missing” in a syncopated or sparse section. In the Snap to Grid dialog, set the Musical Time
value to the resolution you would like to add to the Pool.
• Pool > Add clip to pool. This command adds or deletes the clip’s transient markers from the
Pool. The markers do not have to be visible to be added to the Pool. See “Using the Pool” on
page 404 for more information.
• Pool > Show pool lines. This command hides or shows the Pool lines.
• Pool > Quantize to pool. This command quantizes the selected clips to the Pool.
• Enable AudioSnap.
This command enables or disables AudioSnap on selected audio clips.
See:
AudioSnap
Using the Transient tool
359
Editing transient markers
Using the AudioSnap palette
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
General editing
Using the Pool
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
Editing transient markers
Transient markers show where the transients of a clip are (areas where the level increases
suddenly), and are used to edit the timing of audio clips.
AudioSnap finds transients automatically, but the transient markers don’t always appear exactly
where you might want them for the kind of editing you want to do.
Most AudioSnap commands edit transient markers automatically as a result of an editing operation,
but sometimes you achieve the best results by editing the markers manually.
You can edit the markers by moving them to new locations, adding markers, filtering out markers,
deleting markers, and promoting markers (protecting them from being filtered).
Figure 64.
Transient markers
See:
To show/hide transient markers
To select a transient marker
To select multiple adjacent transient markers
To select multiple discontiguous transient markers
To select the same transient in multiple clips
To extend a multi-track marker selection
To select all similar transient markers in a clip
To move a transient marker (without stretching audio)
360
AudioSnap
Editing transient markers
To drag a transient marker and stretch audio
To stretch multiple transient markers in a clip
To stretch multiple transient markers in a clip proportionally
To reset a transient marker
To disable a transient marker
To delete a transient marker
To insert a new transient marker
To copy transient markers from one track to another track
To enable/disable transient markers
To navigate to the next/previous transient (TAB to transients)
Transient marker appearance
Transient marker context menu
To show/hide transient markers
• Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
or
1. On the Views menu, click AudioSnap Palette to open the AudioSnap palette.
2. Select the clips you want to display transient markers on.
3. In the AudioSnap palette, click the Show Transient Markers button
.
Note: Showing/hiding transient markers only affects the display of transient markers, but does
not enable/disable AudioSnap.
To select a transient marker
1. Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
2. Click the desired transient marker.
The marker is highlighted.
To select/deselect all transient markers in a clip
1. Select the desired clip.
2. Do one of the following:
• To select all transient markers, press ALT+SHIFT+A.
• To deselect all transient markers, press ALT+SHIFT+C.
To select multiple adjacent transient markers
1. Click the Transient Tool button
AudioSnap
Editing transient markers
in the Track View toolbar.
361
2. Do one of the following:
• Draw a lasso around the desired transient markers.
• Click the first marker in the range, hold down the SHIFT key, and click the last marker in the
range.
The markers are highlighted.
To select multiple discontiguous transient markers
1. Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
2. Hold down the CTRL key and click the desired transient markers.
The markers are highlighted.
To select the same transient in multiple clips
1. Select the clips that you wish to edit.
2. Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
3. Double-click a transient marker in any selected clip.
All transient markers near the same position (within a defined time window) in all selected clips
are selected.
Note 1: If no clips are selected, transient markers from all clips are eligible to become selected.
Note 2: To specify the size of the time window, click the AudioSnap Options button
in the
AudioSnap palette to open the AudioSnap Options dialog, then specify the desired Pool
Transient Window value.
To extend a multi-track marker selection
When editing multi-track instruments, you may want to simultaneously adjust a range of transients
across multiple tracks. In order to do so, you need to select the tracks and time region you wish to
edit.
1. Select the clips that you wish to edit.
2. Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
3. Double-click a transient marker in any selected clip.
All transient markers near the same position (within a defined time window) in all selected clips
are selected.
4. Hold down the CTRL key and double-click another transient marker in any selected clip.
A range or transient markers are selected across all selected clips.
362
AudioSnap
Editing transient markers
To select all similar transient markers in a clip
1. Click the Select Tool button in the Track view toolbar.
2. Right-click the desired clip and choose from the following options from the pop-up menu:
•
AudioSnap > Select > Moved
•
AudioSnap > Select > Stretched
•
AudioSnap > Select > Disabled
•
AudioSnap > Select > Enabled
•
AudioSnap > Select > Promoted
•
AudioSnap > Select > User
Selecting all markers of a certain type makes it easy to perform operations such as resetting only the
stretched markers, or promoting only the disabled markers.
To move a transient marker (without stretching audio)
• Drag the marker handle (diamond).
Figure 65.
To move a transient marker, drag the marker head (diamond)
To drag a transient marker and stretch audio
• Drag the marker line.
Figure 66.
To stretch a transient, drag the marker line
AudioSnap
Editing transient markers
363
When you drag and drop the line of a marker, the marker moves to the place where you drop it, and
the audio that is located between the dragged marker and the following marker stretches.
Note: If you stretch a transient marker, AudioSnap is enabled on the clip.
You can find additional marker editing commands on the transient marker context menu.
To stretch multiple transient markers in a clip
1. Select the desired transient markers.
2. Drag any of the selected transient markers.
To stretch multiple transient markers in a clip proportionally
1. Select the desired transient markers.
2. Hold down the CTRL key and drag any of the selected transient markers.
To reset a transient marker
• Right-click the marker you want to reset and select Reset from the pop-up menu.
To reset all selected transient markers
SONAR has a quick way to reset transient markers.
1. Select all clips you wish to reset.
2. Press CTRL+ALT and click the Reset button on the AudioSnap Palette. This brings up a dialog
asking if you want to Clear All AudioSnap Markers. Clicking Yes will delete all the existing edits
and restore clips to the analyzed transients.
Note: This gesture is not undoable, so make sure you really want to reset the transient
markers.
An alternate solution is to turn off AudioSnap on the clips and then use Edit > Bounce to Clip(s).
However, this will also render any clips fades.
To disable a transient marker
• Right-click the marker you want to disable and select Disable from the pop-up menu.
To delete a transient marker
• Right-click the marker you want to reset and select Delete Marker from the pop-up menu.
Note: You can only delete user-created transient markers.
364
AudioSnap
Editing transient markers
To insert a new transient marker
1. Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
2. Hold down the ALT key and click where you would like to insert a new transient marker.
A new transient marker is inserted.
or
1. Disable the Snap to Grid button (or press the N key) if the place you need the marker is not on a
convenient snap location.
2. Select the clip or clips that need the marker.
3. Move the Now Time to the place where you want the marker.
4. Press CTRL+ALT+I.
The marker appears in the selected clip(s) and displays a hollow square to show that it is a manually
created marker:
Note: You can also add markers at Pool lines with a single command. See “To add markers at
Pool lines” on page 398.
To copy transient markers from one track to another track
1. Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
The AudioSnap palette appears and all audio clips show transient markers.
2. Select the target clip (the clip that you want to copy markers to) and drag the Threshold slider in
the AudioSnap palette until all transient markers are disabled.
3. Select both the source clip (the clip you want to copy markers from) and the target clip.
4. Right-click either of the selected clips and select Merge and Lock Markers from the pop-up
menu.
The transient markers on the source clip are copied to the target clip.
To enable/disable transient markers
It’s sometimes necessary to disable some of the markers so you can extract a clearer groove, or
snap or quantize data to only the more important markers. Disabling markers is a way to thin the
data so that it creates a clearer time grid to work with. It also avoids stretching any transients that
you don’t want to stretch as a result of quantizing audio. Disabled markers are not deleted, but are
ignored by all AudioSnap functions. Only the head of a disabled marker remains visible.
There are several ways to disable/enable the transient markers in a selected clip:
• The Resolution drop-down list in the AudioSnap palette. The selected Resolution value
lets you disable markers based on their time location. This clears out unwanted markers to make
editing easier. Larger values create a bigger time window, based on musical time values, which
AudioSnap
Editing transient markers
365
preserves markers that are closest to the displayed musical time value, and disables others.
Note: The Resolution setting will only work reliably if the audio clip’s internal tempo map is
accurate. For details, see Editing a clip’s tempo map.
• The Threshold slider in the AudioSnap palette. This slider works by disabling markers based
on their volume. Dragging the slider to the right creates a larger volume threshold, so that
transients that fall below the current volume threshold that the slider defines are disabled.
• The transient marker context menu.
the pop-up menu.
You can right-click a marker, and choose Disable from
• Press CTRL+ALT+D to disable or re-enable all selected markers.
Tip: If you want to protect a marker from being disabled by the Sensitivity slider or the Threshold
slider, you can right-click the marker and enable the Promote option from the transient marker popup menu. You can also promote a disabled marker to ensure that it never becomes enabled by the
Sensitivity slider.
To navigate to the next/previous transient (TAB to transients)
• Do one of the following:
• To move the Now Time to the next transient, press TAB.
• To move the Now Time to the previous transient, press SHIFT+TAB.
Note: TAB to transients is selection-based, which means tabbing will go to the next/previous
transient amongst all selected clips. If there is no selection, tabbing operates on the current
track.
For more information, see TAB to transients.
Transient marker appearance
Each transient marker changes its appearance when it is selected, moved, new, disabled, or has
certain other characteristics.
The following table lists the variations in appearance that a marker can display. For updated
information about AudioSnap and marker colors, please see the ReadMe file.
Marker appearance
Soft yellow hollow diamond shape
Standard active marker.
Solid diamond shape
User inserted marker or promoted marker.
A promoted marker is never disabled by the Resolution or
Threshold controls in the AudioSnap palette.
Table 72.
366
Description
Transient marker shapes and colors
AudioSnap
Editing transient markers
Marker appearance
Description
Bright yellow
Selected marker.
Grey; only the head of the marker is
visible
Disabled marker.
Arrow
Stretched marker. Any given transient can only be stretched or
shrunk to 25-400% of original length.
A small arrow indicates in which direction the audio has been
stretched.
Note: An important difference between quantizing MIDI and
audio is that two or more audio transients can never collapse on
top of each other like MIDI notes can.
Table 72.
Transient marker shapes and colors
Transient marker context menu
The transient marker context menu appears when you right-click a transient marker. The command
you choose from this menu acts on the marker that you right-click, and most commands also act on
any markers that are selected. The following table describes each command.
Command
Description
Reset
Moves a marker back to its original position. Shortcut for selected markers is
CTRL+ALT+R.
Disable
The marker is ignored. Shortcut for selected markers is CTRL+ALT+D.
Promote
By “promoting” a marker, you can set emphasis on certain beats and prevent the
marker from becoming disabled when you adjust the Resolution or Threshold
controls. Shortcut for selected markers is CTRL+ALT+P.
Delete marker
Only available for manually added markers; the command is greyed-out if you rightclick an automatically generated marker. Shortcut for selected markers is
CTRL+ALT+BACKSPACE.
Snap (stretch) to
nearest transient
Moves marker to nearest Pool marker.
Note: You can also snap transient markers to the time ruler and other transient
markers. For details, see To add the Time Ruler to the Pool and Snapping edits to
audio beats.
Snap (stretch)
backward
Moves marker backward to nearest Pool marker.
Snap (stretch) forward
Moves marker forward to nearest Pool marker.
Table 73.
Transient marker context menu commands
AudioSnap
Editing transient markers
367
Command
Description
Stretch to
Moves the marker to the project time that you enter in the To Time field, and stretches
the audio that is between the previous and next markers.
Move to
Moves the marker to the project time that you enter in the To Time field.
Audition Beat
Auditions the clip up to the next marker. Default shortcut is
CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR.
Split Beat
Splits the beat at the marker.
AudioSnap Palette
Table 73.
Opens the AudioSnap palette. Shortcut is SHIFT+A to show (but not hide) the palette.
Transient marker context menu commands
See:
Using the Transient tool
Using the AudioSnap palette
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
General editing
Using the Pool
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
Enabling/disabling AudioSnap
You can enable/disable AudioSnap processing on a clip-by-clip basis. Transient markers are always
available to be edited, but AudioSnap is not active on a clip unless at least one transient marker has
been stretched.
By disabling AudioSnap on a clip that has stretched transient markers, you can compare how the
clip sounds with and without AudioSnap processing. Disabling AudioSnap can also temporarily free
up CPU processing power.
To enable or disable AudioSnap
1. Select the audio clips you want to enable/disable AudioSnap on.
2. Do one of the following:
• Click the Bypass button
in the AudioSnap palette.
• Right-click a clip and choose AudioSnap > AudioSnap Enable from the pop-up menu.
368
AudioSnap
Editing transient markers
• Press F12.
AudioSnap is enabled/disabled on the selected audio clips, and transient markers are shown/
hidden.
Note: AudioSnap is automatically enabled on a clip if you stretch a transient marker on the clip.
See:
Using the Transient tool
Using the AudioSnap palette
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
General editing
Using the Pool
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
Using the AudioSnap palette
The AudioSnap palette provides easy access to time stretching and tempo-related tools.
Except for the AudioSnap enable/disable command, the AudioSnap palette’s controls apply to the
currently selected audio clip or clips.
To show the AudioSnap palette
• Do one of the following:
• On the Process menu, click AudioSnap Palette.
• Press SHIFT+A.
or
1. Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
2. Click an audio clip that you want to edit.
The AudioSnap palette contains the following controls.
AudioSnap
Using the AudioSnap palette
369
Figure 67.
AudioSnap palette controls
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
P
I
J
Q
R
K
L
M
N O
A. Bypass B. Save as groove C. Copy as MIDI D. Show transient markers E. Split into clips by transient
markers F. Toggle sample/musical based clip start time G. AudioSnap properties H. Set project tempo from clip
I. Set clip tempo from project J. Clip follows project tempo K. Edit clip tempo map L. Quantize M. Groove
quantize N. Threshold O. Resolution P. Applies to Q. Online render mode R. Offline render mode
Tool Bar section
• Bypass
.
This button enables or disables AudioSnap on selected audio clips.
• Save as groove
. This button opens the Define Groove dialog, which lets you save the
groove to a file. The groove can then be applied to other audio or MIDI clips.
• Copy as MIDI
. This button saves the selected audio as a MIDI clip, which you can paste
from the Clipboard into a MIDI track. You select the MIDI note that the transients in the audio clip
will be converted to in the AudioSnap Options dialog, which opens when you click the Options
button.
• Show Transient markers
audio clips.
• Split Beats into Clips
. This button shows or hides the transient markers on selected
. This button splits a clip at each transient marker into multiple clips.
• Clip Timebase (Absolute or Musical)
SONAR:
• Musical (default)
Time (MIDI Tick).
• Absolute
(SMPTE).
.
.
/
. There are two timebase settings for a clip in
Musical Timebase means the clip start position will follow Musical
Absolute Timebase means that the clip start time will follow Absolute Time
• AudioSnap Options
. This button opens the AudioSnap Options button. This dialog has
its own Help topic, which appears when you click its Help button.
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AudioSnap
Using the AudioSnap palette
Tempo section
• Set Project Tempo From Clip
. This button copies the clip’s tempo map to the project’s
global tempo map. This allows the project’s measure boundaries to align with the audio clip.
• Set Clip Tempo From Project
. This button copies the project’s tempo map to the clip’s
tempo map. This allows the project’s measure boundaries to align with the audio clip.
• Clip Follows Project Tempo
tempo map.
.
This button forces the clip to follow the project’s global
Note: The Clips follow project tempo command only works on clips that are configured to
use musical time (the Time Base property is set to Musical (M:B:T) in the Clip Properties
dialog).
• Edit Clip Tempo Map
. Each audio clip has an internal tempo map. This button exposes
controls that allow you to edit a clip’s tempo map. For details, see Editing a clip’s tempo map.
Timing section
• Quantize
. This button opens the Quantize dialog, which has options to quantize
AudioSnap Beats and Audio Clip Start Times, and also to set automatic crossfade options.
• Groove Quantize
. This button opens the Groove Quantize dialog, which has an option to
quantize AudioSnap Beats, and controls to set automatic crossfade options.
Filter section
• Threshold. This slider is available when a clip’s transient markers are showing. The slider
disables markers based on their volume. This clears out unwanted markers to make editing
easier. Dragging the slider to the right creates a bigger volume threshold, which disables markers
that are fall below that threshold. Works on selected clips.
• Resolution. This drop-down list is available when a clip’s transient markers are showing. The
selected Resolution value lets you disable markers based on their time location. This clears out
unwanted markers to make editing easier. Larger values create a bigger time window, based on
musical time values, which preserves markers that are closest to the displayed musical time
value, and disables others. Works on selected clips.
Render mode section
• Applies To. This drop-down menu lets you choose whether any changes to the Online and
Offline settings apply to clips, tracks, or the default settings. The choices in the drop-down menu
are as follows:
• Clips. When selected, the Online and Offline render mode settings apply to any selected
clips. The Online and Offline lists display the current render modes for the selected clip. If you
select multiple clips that have different render modes, the Online and Offline lists display
(Multi). If the selected clip has inherited render mode settings from the track or from the
Default Settings settings, the Online and Offline lists display the inherited render mode in
parenthesis.
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371
• Tracks. When selected, the Online and Offline render mode settings apply to all current and
future clips in the selected tracks.
• Default Settings. When selected, the Online and Offline render mode settings apply to the
Default (track/global) render mode.
• Online. This choice determines what stretch algorithm is used during real-time playback. The
Percussion options works better than the Groove Clip option on percussive material, especially
if the stretching is by more than a few beats per minute. For more information about render
modes, see Algorithms and rendering.
Note: The Online render mode is for preview purposes only during playback. The final audio
quality will be greatly improved after the Offline render mode is applied during mixdown/export.
• Offline. This drop-down menu lets you choose the algorithm that is used when you export or
freeze stretched audio. The choices in the drop-down menu are as follows:
• Groove clip. This choice works faster, using less processing power.
• iZotope Radius Mix.
This is better for clips containing polyphonic, stereo data.
• iZotope Radius Mix Advanced. This choice is similar to iZotope Radius Mix, but exposes
a Smoothing slider that adjust how much detail to preserve.
• iZotope Radius Solo.
• Percussion.
This is better for clips containing monophonic, solo instruments.
This is the best choice for percussion sounds.
AudioSnap palette auto load
AutoLoadAudioSnapPalette=<0 or 1>, default = 1
By default, the AudioSnap palette appears automatically whenever you enable AudioSnap on a clip.
If you prefer to never auto-show the AudioSnap palette, you can change this behavior by adding a
variable to the Cakewalk.ini file.
This variable should be set in the [WinCake] section. For example:
[WinCake]
AutoLoadAudioSnapPalette=0
See:
Using the Transient tool
Editing transient markers
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
General editing
Using the Pool
372
AudioSnap
Using the AudioSnap palette
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
There are many reasons why you may want to synchronize audio clips with the project tempo. The
following list presents a few common examples.
AudioSnap provides two ways to quickly synchronize audio and the project tempo map:
• Applying an audio clip’s internal tempo map to the project’s global tempo map. Use this
method if you want the project tempo to match an audio clip’s tempo and have audio beats
aligned with the project’s time ruler.
This is useful in the following scenarios:
• If you recorded an audio track without using the metronome, and you want the project’s
measure and beat boundaries to align with the audio. For example, you may have recorded an
audio track that you would like to use as the tempo reference when recording additional tracks.
• If you want both audio and MIDI edits to snap to audio beats.
• If you want to use the Quantize and Groove Quantize commands on audio clips, and have
audio beats quantized correctly.
• If you want to remix an existing song that has been imported into SONAR (from an audio CD or
MP3 file, etc.). In order to add new drum loops and MIDI instruments that play in time with the
original song, you need to create a tempo map from the original song.
For details, see To sync the project tempo to an audio clip.
• Applying the project’s tempo to a clip’s tempo map.
follow the project tempo.
Use this method if you want a clip to
This is useful in the following scenarios:
• If you want to synchronize new audio with existing audio.
• If you want to tighten up a new audio track so it fits well with the timing and tempo of an existing
track.
• If you want to globally change the project’s tempo after audio has been recorded.
For details, see To sync an audio clip to the project tempo and To copy the project tempo to an
audio clip’s tempo map.
How does it work?
Each audio clip has an internal tempo map, which makes it possible to synchronize the audio clip
with the project’s global tempo map (see Editing a clip’s tempo map).
SONAR automatically creates a tempo map for each audio clip. In some cases, SONAR can detect
the wrong tempo. For example, SONAR might detect a tempo of 120 BPM when the actual tempo is
240 BPM, or a beat may be mapped to the wrong transient. You can easily remap the tempo map, if
necessary.
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You should make sure a clip’s internal tempo map is correct before using any of the tempo-related
commands in the AudioSnap palette. For details, see Editing a clip’s tempo map.
To sync the project tempo to an audio clip
1. Select the audio clip(s) that has the desired tempo map.
2. Press SHIFT+A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Set Project Tempo From Clip button
on the AudioSnap palette.
The clip tempo map is copied to the project tempo map so the tempo maps are identical.
Note: If multiple audio clips have their Clip Timebase property set to Musical, changing the
project tempo will affect the relative positions of the audio clips. When using the Set Project
Tempo from Clip command, SONAR will offer to convert the timebase to Absolute.
If you need to align the project tempo with freely played MIDI notes, see To sync the project
tempo to freely played MIDI.
To sync an audio clip to the project tempo
1. Select the audio clip(s) that you want to follow the project tempo.
2. Press SHIFT+A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Clip Follows Project Tempo button
on the AudioSnap palette.
The clip is synchronized to the project’s tempo map.
Note: If the audio clip does not play back at the expected tempo, the clip might not have an
accurate internal tempo map. For details about editing a clip’s tempo map, see Editing a clip’s
tempo map.
To copy the project tempo to an audio clip’s tempo map
1. Configure the project’s tempo as desired (either specity the tempo manually, or extract the tempo
from another audio clip by using the Set Project Tempo from Clip button
on the AudioSnap
palette).
1. Select the audio clip(s) that you want to follow the project tempo.
2. Press SHIFT+A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Set Clip Tempo From Project button
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on the AudioSnap palette.
The global project tempo map is copied to the clip tempo map so the tempo maps are identical.
Note: AudioSnap will always attempt to find the tempo of any clip recorded or imported into
SONAR. While several possible tempos are normally generated, in some cases AudioSnap
may be unable to detect the correct tempo or may not detect a tempo at all. This can occur if
the source material is highly compressed or does not contain transient markers on all actual
beats.
If AudioSnap is unable to detect a tempo from the clip, new transient markers are inserted on each
beat corresponding to the project’s global tempo map.
If AudioSnap detects possible tempos for the clip, existing transient markers (that appear within a
defined window of the project’s beats) are reassigned to nearby beat markers on the clip’s tempo
map.
See:
Editing a clip’s tempo map
Changing a project’s tempo
Using the Transient tool
Editing transient markers
Using the AudioSnap palette
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
General editing
Using the Pool
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
Editing a clip’s tempo map
Each audio clip has an internal tempo map, which makes it possible to synchronize the audio clip
with the project’s global tempo map (see Editing a clip’s tempo map).
SONAR automatically creates a tempo map for each audio clip. In some cases, SONAR can detect
the wrong tempo. For example, SONAR might detect a tempo of 120 BPM when the actual tempo is
240 BPM, or a beat may be mapped to the wrong transient. You can easily remap the tempo map, if
necessary.
SONAR provides a convenient graphical interface for editing a clip’s tempo map.
You should make sure a clip’s internal tempo map is correct before using any of the tempo-related
commands in the AudioSnap palette.
The following figure shows what a SONAR-generate clip tempo map might look like.
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375
Figure 68.
You can edit the internal tempo map of each audio clip
The following controls are available when editing a clip’s tempo map:
• Beat markers. Each detected beat has a corresponding beat marker. You can remap a beat
marker by dragging the marker to any active transient marker.
• Average Tempo. This list shows the average tempo candidates: original, 0.5x and 2x. SONAR
will do its best to detect the correct average tempo, but a clip can often have multiple potential
tempos (60 BPM, 120 BPM, 240 BPM, etc.). If you change the Average Tempo setting, all clip
tempo changes are adjusted to scale.
• Beats per measure. This list lets you specify the number of beats per measure. The value
range is 2 to 14, and the default value is 4.
To edit a clip’s tempo map
1. Select the clip or clips you want to edit.
2. Click the Edit clip tempo map button
on the AudioSnap palette.
A simple tempo map guide appears above the clip, indicating where SONAR has mapped the
bars/beats of the clip.
3. If the Average Tempo list does not show the correct tempo, select the correct tempo.
4. If the Beats per measure box does not show the correct number of beats, specify the correct
number of beats per measure.
5. Inspect the beat markers above the clip. If any beat marker is mapped to the wrong transient,
drag the beat marker to the correct transient.
Figure 69.
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Drag beat markers to edit the clip tempo map
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Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Note 1: Beat markers can only be dragged to active transient markers. If you need to drag a
beat marker to a position that doesn’t have a corresponding transient marker, first insert a new
transient marker at the desired position. For details, see To insert a new transient marker.
You can also use the Merge and Lock Markers command to merge transient markers from other
tracks. This is useful, for example, if one track contains beats 1 and 3 and another track contains
beats 2 and 4. For details, see To copy transient markers from one track to another track.
Note 2: If you hold down the CTRL key when you drag a beat marker to the left, the original
beat marker and all subsequent beat markers will be renumbered accordingly.
If you hold down the CTRL key when you drag a beat marker to the right, all subsequent beat markers
will be moved by the same number of transient markers.
The clip’s tempo map is recalculated.
If a beat marker is dragged to a transient marker that is already assigned to a later beat marker,
SONAR will automatically re-number all subsequent beat markers accordingly.
A beat marker cannot be dragged to an earlier transient marker if that transient is already
assigned to a beat marker.
6. To hide the tempo map guide, click the Edit clip tempo map button
palette again.
on the AudioSnap
Tip: You can also enable/disable Edit clip tempo map from the Transient tool context menu.
To audition an audio clip when editing the clip tempo map
When you are editing a clip’s tempo map, you may frequently need to audition the audio to make
sure you are positioning the beat markers at the correct transients.
1. Right-click the clip tempo map (above the clip) where you want to audition the clip, and keep the
right mouse button pressed.
SONAR creates a one-measure selection, starting from one measure before the position clicked.
The selected time will gradually increase the longer you keep the mouse button pressed.
2. Release the right mouse button.
SONAR auditions the selection.
See:
Using the Transient tool
Editing transient markers
AudioSnap
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
377
Using the AudioSnap palette
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
General editing
Using the Pool
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
Changing a project’s tempo
Changing a whole project’s tempo is simple with AudioSnap, if the tempo change is not drastic.
Before you change the global tempo of a project that contains audio, you must first make sure the
audio clips are configured to follow tempo changes.
After you change the tempo, you may want to bounce some or all of the tracks to new tracks with the
Radius algorithms to correct any unwanted change to each track’s sound.
To change a project’s tempo
1. Use the File > Open command to open the desired project.
2. Use the Edit > Select All command.
3. Press SHIFT+A to open the AudioSnap palette.
4. Zoom in (or press F) to get a better look at your clips.
5. With all clips still selected, enable the Clip Follows Project Tempo button
palette.
in the AudioSnap
Note: The Clips follow project tempo command only works on clips that are configured to
use musical time (the Time Base property is set to Musical (M:B:T) in the Clip Properties
dialog).
All the clips display the Auto Stretch icon
changes.
, and will now conform to any new or future tempo
6. In the User1 toolbar, or the Tempo toolbar, click the Tempo value
tempo value, and press ENTER.
, type the desired
All the tracks stretch to conform to the new tempo. Listen to the project as a whole, and also solo
each track to hear how different the sound is after stretching.
See:
Using the Transient tool
378
AudioSnap
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Editing transient markers
Using the AudioSnap palette
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
General editing
Using the Pool
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
AudioSnap provides several ways to fix timing errors in audio clips:
• You can drag individual beats or groups of beats to new positions. This gives you complete
control over where each transient ends up.
• You can quantize to a particular note resolution. This can be a very quick way to fix a clip, if your
markers are fairly close to where you want them to end up.
• You can quantize to another clip’s beats, making the clips share the same groove.
• You can slip-stretch the clip, to make it fit a larger or smaller block of time. This is a very quick way
to adjust a clip that has good timing, but whose tempo may be a little different from the project you
want to use it in.
• You can combine techniques: slip-stretch a clip to fit a new tempo, then quantize or drag any
markers that are out of sync.
The following is a list of common timing problems and solutions:
• If the audio contains various timing problems, but you want to fix them manually instead of letting
AudioSnap fix them automatically, see Adjusting the timing of a solo performance. This gives you
complete control over every aspect of your audio, and allows you to manually drag audio beats
around to perfect the timing.
• If you need to fix a multi-track performance, such as a multi-mic drum kit or a full band, and you
need to maintain phase relationships between tracks, see Adjusting the timing of a multi-track
performance while maintaining phase relationships.
• If you want to synchronize the timing of clips on different tracks, you can fix this with AudioSnap if
the sync errors aren’t huge. For details, see Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks.
• If you want to quantize audio to the project’s time ruler, see To quantize audio to the project’s time
ruler.
• If you want to quickly tighten up a performance in a project that already has a fixed tempo or
varying tempo map, see Quantizing audio. This is useful if you like the performance, but the
timing is off in a few places.
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• If you want to extract the groove from one clip and apply it to another clip, see To Groove
Quantize an audio clip. You can extract a groove from both audio and MIDI clips.
• If you need to synchronize audio with the projects tempo map, see Synchronizing audio and the
project tempo.
See:
Adjusting the timing of a solo performance
Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships
Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks
Making multiple clips/tracks groove together
Quantizing audio
To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler
To Groove Quantize an audio clip
To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)
Adjusting the timing of a solo performance
When adjusting the timing of a solo performance (for example, a single instrument recorded with a
single microphone, or a pre-recorded drum loop, etc.), you can freely drag beats around without
worrying about potential phase problems.
By manually adjusting beats, you have complete control over the timing of your audio.
To manually adjust the timing of a solo performance
1. Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
Audio clips display transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
2. Drag the desired transient markers around to perfect the timing.
For more information about editing transient markers, see Editing transient markers.
See:
Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships
Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks
Making multiple clips/tracks groove together
Quantizing audio
To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler
To Groove Quantize an audio clip
To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)
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Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while
maintaining phase relationships
Editing a multi-track instrument, such as a multi-microphone drum kit or a full band, requires a little
more care than editing a solo performance.
When stretching or quantizing multi-track audio, it is critical to maintain the phase relationships of
the original recording. This can only be achieved if the tracks are stretched at the same exact points
in time across all tracks.
AudioSnap provides tools that make it easy to preserve the phase relationship across tracks when
editing beats on individual tracks.
In the following example, you will learn how to use AudioSnap to edit a multi-track drum kit alongside
a piano track. The drum kit was recorded with three microphones (kick, snare, and overhead), each
routed to its own track.
To adjust the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining
phase relationships
The following figure shows the last three hits of a song. The top track is piano and the rest are
drums: kick, snare and overhead.
Figure 70.
The drum hits are rushed and are not in sync with the Piano track
A
B
A. Piano track B. Drum tracks
As you can see, the drummer has rushed and is not in time with the piano. At the beginning of the
measure, the drummer is in time with the piano. Over the course of the measure, the drummer is
performing a fill and on the next three beats is way ahead of the piano player. You can see how the
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381
transient markers on the drum tracks are progressively earlier as the measure goes on (the
drummer is rushing).
Our job is to align the drum hits with the piano hits so that the drum and piano tracks in time all the
way through the measure.
1. Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
Audio clips display transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
2. Select the three drum tracks and make splits right before and right after the area you want to edit.
For details, see To Split Clips into Smaller Clips.
3. Select only the kick and snare clips.
4. On the AudioSnap palette, set Resolution to 1/16.
5. Select only the drum overhead track.
6. On the AudioSnap palette, set Threshold to 100% to ensure that there are no transients
detected. This step is necessary because the overhead track contains audio from both the kick
and the snare, and you want to make sure the kick, snare and overhead tracks are always
synchronized when stretching beats.
7. Select all three drum tracks.
8. Right-click any selected clip and select Merge and Lock Markers on the pop-up menu.
All three drum tracks now share the exact same transient markers, and each clip’s position is
locked.
Note: When you fix timing errors in multi-tracked drum parts, you typically need to adjust all
the drum parts in exactly the same way, because drum parts often contain “bleed”—the sound
of other drums in the track of the drum that you are trying to record. For example, if your snare
mic also picks up some of the hi-hat sound, you can’t move hi-hat clips around without also
moving the snare clips in exactly the same way, otherwise the sound of the hi-hat in the hi-hat
track will conflict with the sound of the hi-hat in the snare track.
Any time you have a track that contains “bleed” from other audio tracks, such as drum overhead
tracks or room ambiance tracks, you want to make sure the track has the same identical
transient markers as the individual close-mic tracks. The first step is to disable all transient
markers in the overhead/room track, then use the Merge and Lock Markers command to copy
the transient markers from all individual close-mic tracks.
382
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Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Figure 71.
tracks.
The Merge and Lock Markers command has copied the same transient markers to all three drum
The drum tracks are now ready to be edited.
We want to keep the feel of the piano track, so our goal is align the drum tracks with the piano track,
while preserving the phase relationship between the three drum tracks.
When editing multiple transients to adjust the timing of a performance, often times you need to
speed up or slow down a section rather than just move an entire section later or earlier. In this
example, the drummer was speeding up through the drum fill and then hits next downbeat too early.
To fix this, you need to proportionally drag the drum transients so they are better aligned with the
piano track.
9. Using the Transient tool, lasso select all transient markers from the first hit through the third hit,
across all drum tracks.
10.Hold down the CTRL key and drag any selected drum transient marker until the third drum hit is
aligned with the third piano hits.
The selected transients are stretched proportionally. The first and last drum and piano hits are
now aligned. The effect of this edit is that the drummer no longer rushes through the fill and he
lands on the downbeat much closer with the piano.
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Figure 72.
The drum and piano hits are aligned
The second drum and piano hits are close but not perfect, so we need to fix this single beat.
11.Hold down the CTRL key and double-click any drum transient marker on the second hit.
All drum transient markers for the second hit are selected
12.Drag any selected transient markers until it aligns with the second piano hit.
All three drum and piano hits are now aligned properly, and the phase relationships between all
drum tracks have been preserved.
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Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Figure 73.
All three drum and piano hits are perfectly aligned
For information about maintaining phase relationships without stretching audio, see To quantize
multi-tracked drums without stretching audio.
See:
Adjusting the timing of a solo performance
Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks
Making multiple clips/tracks groove together
Quantizing audio
To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler
To Groove Quantize an audio clip
To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)
Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks
A common problem arises when two or more clips aren’t quite in sync with each other. You can fix
this with AudioSnap if the sync errors aren’t huge. The AudioSnap command that is most helpful in
this situation is the Quantize to Pool command. The way it works is you decide which clip has the
correct rhythm, you add that clip’s transient markers to the Pool, and then you quantize the other
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385
clip’s transient markers to the Pool. For details, see To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip
(Quantize to Pool).
Tip: You can also copy one clip’s tempo to the project tempo, then configure other clips to follow the
project tempo. For details, see To sync the project tempo to an audio clip and To sync an audio clip
to the project tempo.
See:
Adjusting the timing of a solo performance
Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships
Making multiple clips/tracks groove together
Quantizing audio
To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler
To Groove Quantize an audio clip
To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)
Making multiple clips/tracks groove together
You can extract the groove from one audio clip and apply it to another audio clip. You can also apply
a pre-existing groove file to all selected audio clips.
For details, see To Groove Quantize an audio clip.
See:
Adjusting the timing of a solo performance
Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships
Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks
Quantizing audio
To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler
To Groove Quantize an audio clip
To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)
Using the Transient tool
Editing transient markers
Quantizing audio
Quantizing audio is a quick way to tighten up the feel of an audio track. AudioSnap provides several
ways to quantize audio:
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AudioSnap
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
• You can quantize audio to the project’s time ruler. This is useful for tightening up a performance in
a project that already has a fixed tempo or varying tempo map. For details, see To quantize audio
to the project’s time ruler.
• You can copy the feel of one track and apply it to another track. There are two ways to accomplish
this with AudioSnap:
• Method 1: Extract MIDI timing from the source track, then use Groove Quantize on the target
track. For details, see To extract MIDI timing from an audio clip and To Groove Quantize an
audio clip.
• Method 2: Add the source track to the Pool, then quantize the target track to the pool. For
details, see To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool) and Using the
Pool.
To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler
1. Select the audio clip you want to quantize.
2. Press SHIFT+A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Quantize button
in the AudioSnap palette.
The Quantize dialog appear
4. Make sure the AudioSnap Beats check box is selected.
5. Configure the Quantize options as desired, then click OK.
SONAR quantizes the selected clips.
Note: You can only quantize to one rhythmic value at a time. If you don’t want to quantize all
beats in an audio clip (to ensure the Quantize command doesn’t move them to a rhythmic
placement where they don’t belong), temporarily disable any transient markers you don’t want to
quantize. For details, see To disable a transient marker.
To Groove Quantize an audio clip
The Groove Quantize command aligns transients with a groove that’s on the Clipboard or a preexisting groove file. If you want to copy the timing from another audio clip to the Clipboard, see To
extract MIDI timing from an audio clip.
1. Select the audio clip you want to groove quantize.
2. Press SHIFT+A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Groove Quantize button
in the AudioSnap palette.
The Groove Quantize dialog appear
4. In the Groove File field, select either Clipboard or the file that the groove pattern you want to use
is saved in.
5. In the Groove Pattern field, select the groove pattern that you want to use.
6. Select the Resolution value that you want to quantize to.
7. Make sure the AudioSnap Beats check box is selected.
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8. Click OK.
To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)
A common problem arises when two or more clips aren’t quite in sync with each other. You can fix
this with AudioSnap if the sync errors aren’t huge. The AudioSnap command that is most helpful in
this situation is the Quantize to Pool command. The way it works is you decide which clip has the
correct rhythm, you add that clip’s transient markers to the Pool, and then you quantize the other
clip’s transient markers to the Pool.
1. Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
Audio clips show transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
2. Select the audio clip that you want to use as the rhythm guide.
3. Disable any transient markers that you want to exclude from the Pool (see To disable a transient
marker).
4. Do one of the following to add the selected clip to the Pool:
• Press CTRL+F12.
• Right-click the selected clip and select Pool > Add clip to pool on the pop-up menu.
The selected clip is added to the Pool, and its transient markers turn purple.
5. Select the audio clip that you want to quantize.
6. Right-click the selected clip and select Pool > Quantize to pool on the pop-up menu.
The Quantize to AudioSnap Pool dialog appears.
7. Configure the following settings as desired:
• Max Distance From Pool. The value in this menu determines which notes are affected by
the Quantize to Pool command. For example, if you choose Quarter in the menu, notes that
are farther than a quarter note from a Pool line are not quantized.
• Quantize Window. This slider fine tunes the value in the Max Distance From Pool menu. A
window of 100 percent includes all markers that lie within the Max Distance From Pool value.
• Quantize Strength. This slider controls quantize strength, which determines how closely the
selected notes move to the Pool markers.
8. Click OK.
The transients in the selected clips are quantized to the Pool.
To quantize multi-tracked drums without stretching audio
When you fix timing errors in multi-tracked drum parts, you will frequently need to adjust all the drum
parts in exactly the same way, because drum parts often contain “bleed”—the sound of other drums
in the track of the drum that you are trying to record. For example, if your snare mic also picks up
some of the hi-hat sound, you can’t move hi-hat clips around without also moving the snare clips in
exactly the same way, because if you don’t, the sound of the hi-hat in the hi-hat track will conflict with
the sound of the hi-hat in the snare track.
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AudioSnap’s Add Transients to Pool command and Split Beats into Clips command allow you to
slice your drum tracks at identical locations, so you can then drag or quantize whole clips without
stretching any audio. This method of aligning clips does not change the phase relationships between
the clips, as long as you move all the clips identically.
Let’s take a look at some multi-tracked drum parts, and see how to quantize them all in exactly the
same way. The following project uses 10 mics, including room mics and overhead mics:
1. Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
Audio clips display transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
2. If necessary, edit each drum track’s transient markers so that there are no extraneous transients
(use the Threshold slider, disable some transients, move others, etc.).
3. Disable all the transient markers in the overhead mic and room mic tracks.
Note: The room mics and overhead mics are much farther from the drums than the close mics,
so the transients in their tracks occur a little later than the close mic tracks. Because you will
eventually split each beat into a separate clip, you only want to use the transient markers from
the close mic tracks to avoid cutting off any transients.
4. Select all the drum tracks.
5. Right-click any selected drum track and select Merge and Lock Markers on the pop-up menu.
6. All transient markers on all selected tracks are copied to each drum track, so all drum tracks
share identical transient markers. The clip positions are also locked.
7. On the Edit menu, point to Clip Lock and click Lock Position.
The clip positions are no longer locked.
8. Select a drum track that has steady beats throughout the song.
Tip: If there is not a single drum track that has steady beats throughout the song, you can create a
temporary guide track by bouncing all the drum tracks to a single track (select all the tracks, use the
Edit > Bounce to Tracks command, select Main Outputs in the Source Category field in the
Bounce to Tracks dialog, and click OK).
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389
9. Click the Set Project Tempo From Clip button
establish a tempo map.
to align measure lines with drum track and
The project’s measure boundaries line up with the transients in the drum tracks.
Note: If the measure boundaries do not line up properly with the drum tracks, you may need
to edit the guide track’s tempo map. For details, see To edit a clip’s tempo map.
10.Select all the drum tracks.
11.Click the Split Beats into Clips button
on the AudioSnap palette.
Each beat is split into a separate clip.
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Now we can quantize all the clips at the same time. Let’s quantize this example to eighth notes:
12.Select all the clips that you want to quantize.
13.Use the Process > Quantize command to open the Quantize dialog.
14.In the Duration field, choose Eighth (for this example).
15.Configure the other settings as follows:
• Make sure the AudioSnap Beats check box is cleared.
• Make sure the Audio Clip Start Times is selected.
• Make sure the Auto XFade Audio Clips check box is selected, and the XFade and Max Gap
values are set at their default values.
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16.Click OK to close the Quantize dialog.
After some processing time, the clip start times move to the eighth note boundaries:
Some clips now overlap, and some clips have small gaps between them. Because the Auto XFade
Audio Clips check box was enabled, and the XFade and Max Gap values were set at their default
values, crossfades have been automatically added between clips, and any gaps that were smaller
than the Max Gap value have been filled in. Let’s zoom in to take a closer look:
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A
A. Crossfades
Now the clips line up with eighth note boundaries, no audio has been stretched, and phase
relationships have been maintained.
For information about maintaining phase relationships when stretching audio, see Adjusting the
timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships.
See:
Quantizing
To split a clip, quantize it, and fill in the gaps
Using the Transient tool
Editing transient markers
Using the AudioSnap palette
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
General editing
Using the Pool
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
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393
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio allows you to:
• Double an audio rhythm with a MIDI instrument.
• Replace sounds in an audio clip (commonly used for drum replacement).
• Notate the rhythm of an audio clip.
• Align lyrics with an audio rhythm.
After you extract the timing information from an audio clip, the timing information is copied to the
clipboard as MIDI note events. You can paste the MIDI notes to a new MIDI track or use the
clipboard as a source for the Groove Quantize command.
To extract MIDI timing from an audio clip
1. Press SHIFT+A to open the AudioSnap palette.
2. Select the audio clip whose rhythm you want to extract.
3. Do any necessary quantizing, and disable any transient markers that you don’t want to extract
(see Quantizing audio and To disable a transient marker).
4. With the clip still selected, click the AudioSnap Options button
open the AudioSnap Options dialog.
in the AudioSnap palette to
5. In the Convert to MIDI Note box, choose C3. This is the note most drum synths use for the bass
drum. If your favorite synth uses a different note, choose it now.
6. Choose a Note Velocities option: either accept the extrapolated velocities in the audio clip (the
Vary With Pulse Level option), or set a constant velocity for the notes in the Set All To Same
Value field.
7. Click OK to close the AudioSnap Options dialog.
8. Click the Copy As MIDI button
.
This adds the extracted groove to the Windows clipboard.
SONAR copies the audio rhythm to the Clipboard as a MIDI clip, with the same pitch assigned to
each note.
You can now paste the MIDI notes to a new MIDI track, use the clipboard as a source for the Groove
Quantize command, or save the extracted groove as a Groove Quantize file.
To paste the extracted MIDI timing to a MIDI track
1. Click the track number of a MIDI track to select it.
2. Move the Now Time to the measure where you want the data (we’ll use measure 1).
Tip: If you want the MIDI notes to align perfectly with the audio data, press F7 to move the Now time
to the beginning of the selected audio clip.
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3. Press CTRL+V to paste the data.
A new MIDI clip is inserted in the track
Note: All the new MIDI notes have the same pitch, and the tails of the preceding notes reach
all the way to the following notes, so you can’t see the actual rhythm. You can easily shorten the
duration of each note event in order to clearly see each note event. To do so, click Process >
Length to open the Length dialog. In the Length dialog, disable the Start Times check box,
enable the Duration check box, and type 50 in the Percent field. Click OK to close the dialog.
Then click the PRV Mode button in the MIDI track (you can see the rhythm if you enable the
Inline Piano Roll view and zoom in).
To save the extracted MIDI timing as a Groove Quantize file
1. Press SHIFT+A to open the AudioSnap palette.
2. Click the Save as Groove button
.
The Define Groove dialog appears.
3. In the File field, choose a file to save the pattern in, or type a name to create a new file.
4. In the Pattern field, type a name for the pattern, and click OK.
The extracted MIDI groove is saved as a Groove Quantize file, and can be used at any time with
the Groove Quantize command.
See:
Using the Transient tool
Editing transient markers
Using the AudioSnap palette
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
General editing
Using the Pool
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
General editing
If you want to snap edits in the Clips pane to transient markers, see Snapping edits to audio beats.
If you want to split each beat into a separate clip, see Splitting beats into clips.
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395
If you want to stretch the duration of an audio clip, see Slip-stretching audio.
If you want to automatically create envelope nodes that are aligned with transient markers, see
Adding automation.
Snapping edits to audio beats
The Snap to Grid dialog has an Audio Transients check box on the Clips tab that allows you to
snap edits in the Clips pane to transient markers in selected audio clips. You can toggle this check
box on and off by pressing CTRL+ALT+N. The same check box is on the PRV tab of the Snap to
Grid dialog, but the Snap to Transients button does not toggle that check box.
In the following example, you will learn how to snap MIDI notes to audio beats.
To snap to audio transients
1. Select the audio clips whose rhythm you want to snap to.
2. Open the Snap to Grid dialog (press SHIFT+N), and enable the Audio Transients check box on
the Clips tab and/or the PRV Mode tab. Deselect Musical Time and all other options.
Figure 74.
The Snap to Grid window
3. In this example, we’re using the Inline Piano Roll view: to enable it, click a MIDI track’s PRV Mode
button . Zoom in enough to see where the edits need to be. Make sure that the Audio
Transients check box on the PRV Mode tab of the Snap to Grid dialog is enabled.
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A
A. These notes don’t line up with the audio beats
4. Drag the misaligned MIDI notes so they line up with the audio beats. As you’re dragging notes,
they will automatically snap to the nearest audio beat.
Splitting beats into clips
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397
Clicking the Split Beats Into Clips button
on the AudioSnap palette splits a selected
AudioSnap-enabled clip into new clips starting at every enabled transient marker. The main reason
you might want to do this is to align a clip with a new tempo or quantize it, without stretching the
audio. Once you split a clip at its transients, you can move the new clips by dragging or quantizing
so that they are aligned the way you want them to be. The advantage is that moving clips instead of
transient markers does not stretch any audio, so that the original sound quality is unchanged. The
possible disadvantage is that you can create gaps between the new clips when you move them.
However, the Quantize, Groove Quantize, and Fade Selected Clips dialogs all have an option to
automatically fill in the gaps. This is the Fill Gaps, XFade between Audio Clips option in the Fade
Selected Clips dialog, and is the Auto XFade Audio Clips option in the Quantize and Groove
Quantize dialogs. Filling the gaps is accomplished automatically by “rolling out” the first clip’s right
edge and the second clip’s left edge to create a crossfade. This option will often be used when
quantizing drum parts, which results in smooth-sounding audio without introducing phase problems.
Note: When you align clips on multiple tracks, it is necessary to split and/or quantize all clips
at the exact same position in order to avoid phase problems. In order to do so, it is necessary
to establish a common, or master, transient pool that all tracks can reference. The Merge and
Lock Markers command will use the transient pool as a reference, and insert identical transient
markers on all selected clips.You can then use the Split Beats Into Clips button
clips at audio beats.
to split
To add markers at Pool lines
1. Make sure that the Pool contains markers from at least one clip, or from the Time Ruler.
2. Select the clips that you want to add markers to.
3. Right-click a selected clip, and choose AudioSnap > Apply AudioSnap Pool Transient
Markers from the pop-up menu.
Markers appear on the selected clips at Pool lines.
Note: If a selected clip is not AudioSnap-enabled, choosing the Apply AudioSnap Pool
Transient Markers command will automatically enable AudioSnap for the clip.
To split a clip at beats
1. Select the clip(s) that you want to split.
2. Press SHIFT+A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Split Beats into Clips button
.
The clip’s beats are split into separate clips.
To split a clip, quantize it, and fill in the gaps
1. The following picture shows a clip whose transient markers don’t line up with the measure lines:
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2. If we quantize it, the audio will stretch and we may or may not like the resulting sound. Let’s try
splitting it, and quantizing the clips instead of the transients: click the Split Beats Into Clips
button
on the AudioSnap palette.
The clip splits at the transients, and only the first new clip is still selected:
3. Let’s quantize the clips: drag through the clips to select them.
4. Click the Quantize button
in the AudioSnap palette.
The Quantize dialog appears:
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399
5. Make sure that Audio Clip Start Times is selected, and that (for this example) Sixteenth is
selected in the Duration field. Leave the Auto XFade Audio Clips option unchecked for now,
and click OK. Let’s zoom in and look at the quantized clips:
6. The start of each clip now lines up where we want it to, but there are gaps between some of the
clips. Let’s undo what we just did (press CTRL+Z), and quantize again. This time, however we will
enable the Auto XFade Audio Clips option in the Quantize dialog, and click OK:
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A
A. Crossfades
7. Where the gaps were between clips, we now see crossfades. The default length of the crossfade
is 20 milliseconds, but you can change that by entering a number in the XFade <number goes
here> ms field in the dialog.
8. If you don’t want wide gaps to be filled in, you can enter a number of up to 200 milliseconds in the
Max Gap field. Any gap that is wider than the number in this field will not be filled in.
If we wanted to drag the clips to new locations instead of quantizing them, we could fix any resulting
gaps by selecting the clips that have gaps, and using the Process > Fade Selected Clips
command.
The Fade Selected Clips dialog has the Fill Gaps, XFade between Audio Clips radio button, the
XFade <number goes here> ms field, and the Max Gap field.
Figure 75.
The Fade Selected Clips dialog
To fill in gaps with the Fade Selected Clips command
1. Select the clips that have gaps you want to fill.
2. Use the Process > Fade Selected Clips command to open the Fade Selected Clips dialog.
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401
3. Enable the XFade between Audio Clips radio button, and set any options you want in the XFade
<number goes here> ms field, and Max Gap field.
4. Click OK.
See:
Using the Transient tool
Editing transient markers
Using the AudioSnap palette
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
Using the Pool
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
Slip-stretching audio
You can slip-stretch an audio clip in order to expand or compress its duration. Slip-stretching only
works on regular audio clips, not Groove clips or REX loops.
To slip-stretch an audio clip
• Hold down the CTRL key, move the mouse pointer over the end of the clip until the cursor
changes into the slip-stretch icon
, then drag the end of the clip to the desired position.
The clip is stretched and displays a yellow bar at the bottom of the clip along with the stretch
amount (percentage of original duration).
A
A. Stretch amount
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Alpha-blended bars on slip-stretched clips
AlphaStretchIndicator=<0 or 1> (default=1)
When an audio clip is slip-stretched, a yellow alpha-blended bar is displayed on the clip. This may
affect performance on some systems if there are many slip-stretched clips. There is a new
Cakewalk.ini variable to disable the alpha-blended bars, and instead only show the percent
value in the lower right corner of the clip.
This variable should be set in the [Wincake] section. For example:
[Wincake]
AlphaStretchIndicator=0
See:
Using the Transient tool
Editing transient markers
Using the AudioSnap palette
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
Using the Pool
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
Adding automation
If you have an automation envelope on a track, AudioSnap can automatically add nodes to the
envelope that align with a selected clip’s transient markers. This makes it easy to add special
processing at transient locations.
To Add Nodes at Transients
1. Select the audio clip(s) that contain the transient markers you want to use as a guide.
2. Right-click an automation envelope on the clip, and choose Add Nodes at Transient Markers
from the pop-up menu.
Now you can easily edit your envelope at transient locations.
See:
Using the Transient tool
Editing transient markers
Using the AudioSnap palette
AudioSnap
General editing
403
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
Using the Pool
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
Using the Pool
The Pool is a collection of transient markers that can be extracted as a groove, and also function as
snap locations. A transient marker that belongs to the pool is displayed in the Clips pane as a solid
line within the parent track, and as a dotted line outside the parent track. Hovering the mouse over a
dotted line will display a tooltip containing the parent track and position. You can show or hide the
dotted pool lines by selecting Pool > Show pool lines on the Transient tool pop-up menu, or by
pressing CTRL+ALT+F12.
Figure 76.
Pool lines
B
C
A
A. Tooltip B. Solid line C. Dotted line
The Track view Time Ruler can be added to the Pool (see To add the Time Ruler to the Pool).
To add a clip’s transients to the Pool
1. Select the an AudioSnap-enabled clip.
2. Do one of the following:
• Right-click the clip and select AudioSnap > AudioSnap Add Transients to Pool from the
pop-up menu.
• Select the Add Transients to Pool check box in the Clip Properties dialog.
• Press CTRL+F12.
To hide or show the Pool
1. Click the Transient Tool button
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in the Track View toolbar.
2. Right-click in the Clips pane and select Pool > Show pool lines on the pop-up menu.
To add the Time Ruler to the Pool
1. In the Snap to Grid dialog, set the Musical Time value to the resolution you would like to add to
the Pool.
2. Click the Transient Tool button
in the Track View toolbar.
3. Right-click in the Clips pane and select Pool > Add MBT to pool on the pop-up menu.
The current Musical Time snap resolution to the pool, and also displays dotted pool lines in the
Clips pane. This can be useful as either a basic visual guide, or for adding the Musical Time to an
extracted groove, or to fill in any transients that may be “missing” in a syncopated or sparse
section.
To add transient markers at Pool lines
1. Make sure that the Pool contains markers from at least one clip, or from the Time Ruler.
2. Select the clips that you want to add markers to.
3. Right-click a selected clip, and choose AudioSnap > Apply AudioSnap Pool Transient
Markers from the pop-up menu.
Markers appear on the selected clips at Pool lines. When aligning clips on multiple tracks, it is
necessary to split and/or quantize all clips at the exact same position in order to avoid phase
problems when quantizing audio. In order to do so, it is necessary to establish a common, or
“master”, transient reference pool which can be applied to all tracks. The Apply AudioSnap Pool
Transient Markers command will use the transient pool as a reference, and insert identical transient
markers on all selected clips.
Note 1: If a selected clip is not AudioSnap-enabled, choosing the Apply AudioSnap Pool
Transient Markers command will automatically enable AudioSnap for the clip.
Note 2: Adding markers at Pool lines can add a lot of markers to a clip. If you later decide that
you want to work with the clip’s original markers, you can remove only the markers that you
added by right-clicking the transient marker, and choosing Reset from the pop-up menu.
Groove Quantize and Quantize to Pool
You can use two kinds of groove quantizing on audio clips: the Groove Quantize command aligns
transients with a groove that’s on the Clipboard, and the Quantize to pool command aligns
transients with the Pool.
When you use the Groove Quantize command, you can align a clip with a pre-existing groove, or
you can extract a groove from another clip.
For information about extracting a groove, see To extract MIDI timing from an audio clip.
For information about groove quantizing an audio clip, see To Groove Quantize an audio clip.
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405
For information about quantizing to the Pool, see To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip
(Quantize to Pool).
See:
Using the Transient tool
Editing transient markers
Using the AudioSnap palette
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
General editing
Algorithms and rendering
Keyboard shortcuts
Algorithms and rendering
When you stretch an audio clip, AudioSnap uses a particular formula, or algorithm, to stretch the
audio. The best algorithms take the most computing time and power to complete, so if AudioSnap
always used the best available algorithms (the iZotope Radius algorithms), you would not be able to
play back your clip in a reasonable amount of time to listen to the timing. That’s why you can choose
a quick algorithm for “online” rendering (real-time playback), and a different algorithm for “offline”
or non-real-time rendering. Offline rendering in an AudioSnap context usually means bouncing to
track, but it also refers to other offline processes such as freezing tracks and applying effects. When
you do any of these mixdown operations such as bouncing, exporting, or freezing, audio clips use
the offline rendering algorithm you have chosen for them.
Note: The Online render mode is for preview purposes only during playback. The final audio
quality will be greatly improved after the Offline render mode is applied during mixdown/export.
Typical algorithm choices for an AudioSnap session work like this:
• Do your AudioSnap time stretching, error correction, etc., with a quick algorithm: choose either
Percussion or GrooveClip.
• After your AudioSnap editing is finished, bounce to track with a better algorithm: choose one of
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the Radius choices, or for drum tracks, Percussion is usually the best choice.
Note: You should avoid rendering AudioSnap clips more than once. Applying stretch
algorithms multiple time in succession can degrade the audio quality (similar to transcoding an
MP3 file).
Until your project is mixed and finalized, it is recommended that you use the Freeze function
instead of Bounce to Track(s) or Bounce to Clip(s) if you need to temporarily off-load CPU
processing power. For details, see To freeze an AudioSnap-enabled clip.
The following table describes the available algorithms:
Algorithm
Description
GrooveClip
Good all-around algorithm to use while stretching audio
Percussion
Gives a better sound on percussion clips while stretching audio
iZotope Radius Mix
Best all-around choice when bouncing to track with audio clips that
contain a mix of different sounds
iZotope Radius Mix Advanced
This choice is similar to iZotope Radius Mix, but exposes a
Smoothness parameter (pitch coherence). Pitch coherence preserves
naturalness of timbre for pitched solo voices, such as human speech,
saxophone or vocals. While traditional vocoders can smear these
signals in time and randomize phase, the pitch coherence parameter of
Radius preserves phase coherence for these signals. High values of
pitch coherence will avoid phasiness in Radius's output at the expense
of roughness (modulation) in processed polyphonic recordings.
The Smoothness parameter can be adjusted in the AudioSnap
Options dialog.
iZotope Radius Solo
Best choice when bouncing to track with audio clips of a solo
instrument. Although a guitar is a “solo” instrument, if you play chords
instead of single notes you may want to select “Radius Mix” instead.
Tip: if a clip/track contains a mixture of polyphonic and monophonic
parts, you may wish to split the parts into separate clips and experiment
with different algorithms for each clip.
iZotope Radius Solo (Bass)
Best choice when bouncing to track with audio clips of a bass
instrument
iZotope Radius Solo (Vocal)
Best choice when bouncing to track with audio clips of a solo voice
Table 74.
To choose default algorithms
1. Press SHIFT+A to open the AudioSnap palette.
2. In the Applies To list, select Default Settings.
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407
3. Under Render Mode, select the desired Online and Offline render modes
Every AudioSnap-enabled clip that you stretch or bounce uses the settings you choose for default
stretch algorithms, except clips that you choose individual settings for.
To choose render algorithms for an individual clip
1. Select the clip or clips you want to edit.
2. Press SHIFT+A to open the AudioSnap palette.
The AudioSnap palette displays the current render mode of the selected clip. If you select multiple
clips that have different render modes, the Online and Offline lists display (Multi).
3. In the Applies To list, select Clips.
4. Under Render Mode, select the desired Online and Offline render modes.
To choose render algorithms for all current and future clips on a track
1. Select the track or tracks you want to edit.
2. Press SHIFT+A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. In the Applies To list, select Tracks.
4. Under Render Mode, select the desired Online and Offline render modes.
All current and future clips in the selected tracks will inherit the selected render modes.
To freeze an AudioSnap-enabled clip
1. Do one of the following to open the Freeze Options dialog:
• In the Track view, right-click any track’s Freeze button
.
• Right-click an audio track, and select Freeze > Freeze Options from the pop-up menu.
2. Make sure the Track FX check box is cleared.
3. Click OK to close the Freeze Options dialog.
4. Do one of the following:
• In the Track view, click the desired track’s Freeze button
.
• Right-click the track and select Freeze > Freeze Track from the pop-up menu.
SONAR bounces the audio in the track to a new audio clip or clips.
To bounce an AudioSnap-enabled clip
1. Select the clip you want to bounce.
2. Use the Edit > Bounce to Tracks command to open the Bounce to Track(s) dialog.
3. In the Destination field, choose the track where you want your new audio clip to go.
4. In the Source Category field, choose Tracks.
5. Choose the Channel Format and Dithering options you want.
6. Enable all the options in the Mix Enables section.
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7. Click OK.
See:
Freeze Tracks and Synths
To Bounce Multiple Audio Clips to a New Track
To Bounce to Clips
Using the Transient tool
Editing transient markers
Using the AudioSnap palette
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
General editing
Using the Pool
Keyboard shortcuts
Keyboard shortcuts
All the AudioSnap features become much more efficient if you use keyboard shortcuts. The following
table describes each shortcut.
Command
Shortcut
AudioSnap Enable
F12
AudioSnap Add Transients To Pool
CTRL+F12
AudioSnap Show Transient Markers
SHIFT+F12
AudioSnap Go to Next Transient Marker
TAB
AudioSnap Go to Previous Transient Marker
SHIFT+TAB
Set Measure Beat at Now
CTRL+M
AudioSnap Auto Stretch (Follow Tempo)
ALT+F12
AudioSnap Insert Marker
CTRL+ALT+I
AudioSnap Reset Selected Transient Marker(s)
CTRL+ALT+R
Table 75.
AudioSnap keyboard shortcuts
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409
Command
Shortcut
AudioSnap Delete Inserted Marker
CTRL+ALT+BACKSPACE
AudioSnap Disable Marker
CTRL+ALT+D
AudioSnap Promote Marker
CTRL+ALT+P
AudioSnap Snap to Transients
CTRL+ALT+N
AudioSnap Audition Beat
CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR
AudioSnap Show Palette
SHIFT+A
AudioSnap Show Transient Pool
CTRL+ALT+F12
AudioSnap Select All Markers
ALT+SHIFT+A
AudioSnap Clear Selection
ALT+SHIFT+C
AudioSnap Select Moved Markers
ALT+SHIFT+M
AudioSnap Select Stretched Markers
ALT+SHIFT+S
AudioSnap Select Disabled Markers
ALT+SHIFT+D
AudioSnap Select Enabled Markers
ALT+SHIFT+E
AudioSnap Select Promoted Markers
ALT+SHIFT+P
Table 75.
AudioSnap keyboard shortcuts
AudioSnap shortcuts are also listed in the Key Bindings dialog (Options > Key Bindings
command): select Track View in the Bind Context menu of the dialog to view or edit the default
bindings.
See:
Using the Transient tool
Editing transient markers
Using the AudioSnap palette
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
General editing
Using the Pool
Algorithms and rendering
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Working with Loops and Groove Clips
Loops are short digital audio clips which are often designed to be repeated over and over or
“looped,” although some loops, called one-shots, are intended to play just once. Groove clips, often
used as loops, are digital audio clips that “know” their tempo and pitch information. Groove clips
automatically respond to changes in a project’s tempo and can have their root note pitch adjusted
using pitch markers. In SONAR, you can import ACID™ loops, or digital audio clips and convert
them to Groove clips. You can also record your own audio and create Groove clips. To download
more Groove clips and loops, visit www.cakewalk.com.
Note: Groove clips and ACIDized loops are loaded into RAM, and can take up a lot of memory.
Copying them does not increase the amount of memory they take up, but loading the initial copy
does.
The Loop Construction View
The Media Browser View
Working with Loops
Working Groove Clip audio
MIDI Groove Clips
Importing Project5 Patterns
The Loop Construction View
The Loop Construction view is where you create and edit Groove clips.
Figure 77.
The Loop Construction view
The Loop Construction view toolbar has tools for editing slicing markers and controls for
previewing loops.
See:
Loop Construction Controls
See also:
Working with Loops
Working Groove Clip audio
Loop Construction view
Loop Construction Controls
The following is a list of the tools and controls in the Loop Construction view, followed by a
description:
Save Loop as WAV
This button opens the Save As dialog. The clip in the Loop Construction view is saved as a Groove
Clip/Wave file that has tempo and pitch information stored in it, and can be opened in SONAR or
ACID™. For more information, see “Saving Groove Clips as Wave Files/ACIDized Wave Files” on
page 424.
Enable Looping
The Enable Looping button allows a clip to be looped by dragging in the Track view. Loop-enabled
clips follow changes in the project tempo. Click the Enable Looping button to loop clips in the Track
view by dragging the left or right side of a clip with your mouse. When you loop-enable a clip it
automatically snaps to the nearest beat boundary (at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 etc. beats). SONAR calculates
the appropriate beat number. Change the number in the Beats in Clip field if you want to change the
total number of beats in the clip.
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The Loop Construction View
Enable Stretching
The Enable Stretching button allows a clip to follow a project’s tempo as it changes. It instructs
SONAR to stretch or shrink the clip to fit the project’s tempo. SONAR uses the Original BPM
parameters to make the change.
Beats in Clip
The number of beats in the clip.
Original BPM
The tempo at which the clip was recorded.
Follow Project Pitch
The Follow Project Pitch option transposes the loop, if necessary, to the project pitch which you
can set in the Markers toolbar. A loop recorded in the key of C, used in a project with a default
project pitch of A, would be transposed down three semitones if the Follow Project Pitch check box
was checked. You can also insert markers in the Time Ruler which change the project pitch. These
markers, called pitch markers affect only Groove clips with Follow Project Pitch enabled.
Root Note
The Root Note represents the key in which the loop was originally recorded. The Follow Project
Pitch feature uses this information, when checked, to transpose the loop to match the project’s
default project pitch and pitch markers.
Pitch (coarse)
You can set the transposition of a clip, independent from the project pitch, using the Pitch (Coarse)
field. A positive number transposes the clip up by that number of semitones. A negative number
transposes the clip down by that number of semitones. Remember that, if the Follow Project Pitch
option is checked, the clip follows the project’s pitch. Any transposition changes to the pitch with this
option checked are changes to the project pitch, not the clip pitch.
An example: The project key is C. The clip key is D. If the Follow Project Pitch is enabled, the clip
is transposed down by two semitones. A value entered into the Pitch (coarse) field adjusts the pitch
from C. If you enter -1, the pitch would be transposed down by one additional semi tone to B.
Another example: The clip pitch is E. The desired clip pitch is D. If the Follow Project Pitch option
is not enabled, and a value of -2 is entered in the Pitch (coarse) field, the clip is transposed down
two semitones to D from the original pitch of E.
Pitch (fine)
The Pitch (fine) field allows you to make tuning adjustments or to transpose the pitch of a clip up to
50 cents. There are 100 cents in one semi tone. A Pitch (fine) setting of 1 adjusts the pitch up one
hundredth of a semi tone. The Pitch (fine) option can “fine tune” a slightly out of tune clip so that it is
in pitch with the remaining clips in a project.
Working with Loops and Groove Clips
The Loop Construction View
413
Slices Menu
The Slices menu sets the resolution for the creation of markers, or the “slicing” of the looped clip.
This menu uses note lengths, so the settings are:
• Whole notes
• Half notes
• Quarter notes
• Eighth notes
• Sixteenth notes
• Thirty-second notes
The automatic markers appear at the note resolutions according to the slider setting. At the eighth
note setting, there are eight markers per measure.
This control works well for slicing audio that has more subtle changes in volume with few dramatic
transients.
The markers in a loop clip preserve the timing of the audio at that moment. Too few or too many
markers can cause unwanted “artifacts” when a loop clip is stretched.
Trans Detect (%)
The Trans Detect control senses transients in your audio clip and assigns a marker at the beginning
and end of each one it finds. As the you increase the sensitivity (by using larger numbers) smaller
transients are detected and the number of markers increases.
Stop Preview
Stops loop preview playback.
Preview Loops
Plays the current loop repeatedly. Use the Stop Preview control to stop playback.
Enable Slice Auto-Preview
Plays a slice when you click on it.
Click Auto-Preview Loop
Repeatedly plays a selected slice.
Preview Bus
Select the output through which you want to listen to the clip.
Properties
The Properties button opens the Clip Properties dialog.
Select
Use the Select tool to move markers in the Markers bar.
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Working with Loops and Groove Clips
The Loop Construction View
Erase
Use the Erase tool to delete markers in the Markers bar.
Default All Markers
The Default All Markers tool restores all automatically generated markers to the original position and
enables all those that were disabled. Manually created markers remain as is.
Previous Slice
Moves slice selection to the previous slice. Click on a slice to select it.
Next Slice
Moves slice selection to the next slice. Click on a slice to select it.
Show/Hide Gain Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s gain envelope. Each slice of the clip has its own
segment of the envelope, which you can adjust by dragging the segment up or down.
Show/Hide Pan Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s pan envelope. Each slice of the clip has its own
segment of the envelope, which you can adjust by dragging the segment up or down.
Show/Hide Pitch Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s pitch envelope. Each slice of the clip has its own
segment of the envelope, which you can adjust by dragging the segment up or down.
Slice Gain
Changes the selected slice’s gain.
Slice Pan
Adjusts the selected slice’s pan. Negative is left and positive is right.
Slice Pitch
Adjusts the selected slice’s pitch. The first field is in half steps, the second field is in cents.
Slicing Markers
There are two types of slicing markers in the Loop Construction view: automatic and manual.
Automatic markers appear in red and are automatically generated by SONAR when you loop enable
a clip. The one exception to this is if you import an ACIDized wave file into SONAR. ACIDized files
always appear with manual slicing markers. Manual markers appear in purple. If you add a marker
or move an automatic marker, it turns purple to show you that it has been edited. For information on
editing slicing markers, see “To Edit the Slicing Markers in a Groove Clip” on page 423.
Working with Loops and Groove Clips
The Loop Construction View
415
Audio Scaling
Audio scaling is the increase or decrease in the size (scale) of the waveform in clip. Audio scaling
allows you to make detailed edits by zooming in on the parts of the waveform closest to the zero
crossing (silence) while preserving the track size. By showing just the quietest parts of a clip, you
can make very precise edits.
The Audio Scale Ruler is located on the far left of the Loop Construction view.
Figure 78.
Audio scale ruler
A
B
A. Audio Scale Ruler B. Clip
There are three right-click display options in the Audio Scale Ruler:
• Percentage. Shows audio scaling by percentage. For example, if the highest percentage in the
Audio Scale Ruler reads 2.0%, then only the parts of the waveform which are within 2% of the
zero crossing appear in the clip.
• dB. Shows audio scaling by dB. For example, if the highest dB in the Audio Scaling Ruler reads
-36, then only the parts of the waveform which are 36 dB below 0 dB appear in the clip.
• Zoom Factor. Shows audio scaling by a factor. For example, if the Zoom Factor reads 10, then
the waveform is zoomed in by a factor of 10.
The Media Browser View
The Media Browser view allows you to browse and preview your audio files (.wav, .mp3, .wma, etc.),
MIDI loops (.mid), Project5 patterns (.ptn), step sequencer patterns (.ssp) and REX loops (.rex)
before you drag them into your project. If you preview a Groove clip, it plays back at tempo and in
the key of your current project.
You can open the Media Browser view in any of the following methods:
• Select Views > Media Browser from the menu.
• Click the Media Browser button
on the Views toolbar.
• Press ALT+1
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The Media Browser View
The Media Browser view toolbar has the following controls:
Tool
Name
What It Does
Move Up
Opens the folder one level above the active folder.
Refresh
Refreshes the active folder.
Windows Explorer
Opens Windows Explorer at the same directory being viewed
in the Media Browser view.
Play
Plays the selected media file.
Stop
Stops the playback of the selected file.
Auto Preview
Automatically preview files when you click on them in the
Media Browser view. If the selected file is a Groove clip, it
plays back in the project tempo and key.
Views
Allows you to change the way the files are viewed in the list
view:
• Large icons
• Small icons
• List
• Details—displays the file size, date and when the file was
created and last modified
Content Location
Allows you to save and recall presets to quickly access your
favorite folders.
Preview Bus
Select the output through which you want to listen to the loop.
Insert soft synth
Inserts a new soft synth, which can be used to audition MIDI
files.
Delete soft synth
Deletes the selected soft synth.
Properties
Opens the user interface for the selected soft synth.
Table 76.
Folders Pane
The Folders pane shows all of the available files and folders in the selected drive.
See also:
To Preview a Groove Clip
Working with Loops and Groove Clips
The Media Browser View
417
Contents List Pane
The Contents List pane displays the folders and files contained in the active folder.
To Preview a Groove Clip
1. Click the Auto-preview button in the Media Browser toolbar.
2. Click on a Wave file in the Content List pane.
Each successive Wave file you select is previewed. You can also select multiple files and play
them simultaneously.
Or
1. Select a Wave file in the Content List pane.
2. Click the Play button in the Media Browser toolbar.
3. Click the Stop button to stop playing the selected Wave file.
When you preview a Groove clip in the Media Browser view, the clip plays in the project key and at
the project tempo.
To Drag a Loop into a Project
1. Click and drag the Wave file from the Media Browser view to the Track view.
2. Drop the Wave file in the track and at the time in which you want it in your project. If you drop the
file after the last track in your project, a new track is created for the file.
To Drag Multiple Loops into a Project
1. Select a Wave file and select additional by holding down the CTRL key and selecting them.
2. Drag the Wave files from the Media Browser view to the Track view.
3. Drop the Wave files into the Track view at the time in which you want them in your project.
The Wave files appear on consecutive tracks in the Track view at the time selected.
Working with Loops
You can make any audio clip into a loop by checking the Enable Looping check box in the Clip
Properties dialog. Once looping is enabled, you can drag out loops to create multiple repetitions.
There are several other ways to enable looping:
To Enable or Disable a Clip for Looping
1. Double-click on the clip you want to loop.
The Loop Construction view appears.
2. In the Loop Construction view, click the Enable Looping button
Or
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Working with Loops and Groove Clips
Working with Loops
.
In the Track view, select a clip and press CTRL+L or select Edit > Groove Clip Looping.
To Create Repetitions of a Loop
1. Set the Snap value if you want the loop to repeat at precise time boundaries.
2. Move the cursor over the end of the loop-enabled clip until the cursor looks like this
.
3. When the cursor changes, click the end or beginning of the clip and drag it to the right (if you are
dragging out from the end) or left (if you are dragging from the beginning).
The clip repeats itself until you stop dragging.
To Create Partial Repetitions of a Loop
1. Move the cursor over the end of the loop-enabled clip until the cursor looks like this
.
2. When the cursor changes, click the end or beginning of the clip and drag it to the right (if you are
dragging out from the end) or left (if you are dragging from the beginning).
If the Snap to Grid button is on, you can create a partial loop as small as the Snap to Grid setting
allows. For example, if your Snap to Grid setting is set to quarter notes, you can create partial
repetitions as small as a quarter of a measure.
Working Groove Clip audio
Groove clips are .wav files that behave similarly to Sony Media Software’s ACIDized loops (SONAR
also has MIDI Groove clips—see “MIDI Groove Clips” on page 427). Groove clips contain
information about the audio content, including the original tempo, original reference pitch, number of
beats in the loop, and audio transient information.
See:
How Groove Clips Work in SONAR
Using Groove Clips
Creating and Editing Groove Clips
Using Pitch Markers in the Track View
“Working with REX files”
How Groove Clips Work in SONAR
Groove clips have information saved within them which allow them to adjust to changes in tempo
and pitch. Groove clips can read a project’s tempo and tempo changes, and can adjust their root
note pitch when they read pitch markers. You can add pitch markers in the Track view’s Time Ruler
to transpose the Groove clip. As your project passes over a pitch marker, SONAR transposes your
Working with Loops and Groove Clips
Working Groove Clip audio
419
Groove clips based on the clip’s root note reference pitch. If you insert no pitch markers in your
project, there are no pitch changes in your Groove clips. The default project pitch is C.
Note 1: When working with Groove clips, it is important to know the difference between key
and pitch. Your project’s key signature has no effect on Groove clips. The pitch of your Follow
Project Pitch-enabled Groove clips is dictated by pitch markers in the Time Ruler. If there are no
pitch markers in your project, these Groove clips play at the pitch set in the Markers toolbar (the
default is C).
Note 2: Groove clips must be at least one beat in length. If you try to loop-enable a clip of a
shorter duration you may experience distortion or artifacts.
See also:
Working Groove Clip audio
Using Groove Clips
Creating and Editing Groove Clips
Using Groove Clips
Groove clips are easy to use because they automatically adjust to your project’s pitch markers and
tempo. You can import existing loops or create your own, using the Loop Construction view.
To Import a Groove Clip into Your Project
1. Select a Track in the Track view.
2. Set the Now Time to the place you want the clip to begin.
3. Select File > Import > Audio from the menu.
The Open dialog appears.
4. Navigate to a directory that contains Groove clips and select one.
5. Click Open.
Or
1. Open the Media Browser view.
2. Navigate to a directory that contains Groove clips.
3. Drag and drop a clip into the Track view, or double-click it to insert it at the Now Time.
4. The clip appears on the track and at the time in your project where you drop it, so if you want the
clip on a new track, drop it after the last track in your project.
By default, Groove clips are loop-enabled and transposed to match the project’s pitch.
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Working Groove Clip audio
Setting the Default Project Pitch
1. If necessary display the Markers toolbar by selecting Views > Toolbars to open the Toolbars
dialog. In the toolbar dialog click Markers and OK.
2. In the Markers toolbar, click the Default Groove Clip Pitch drop-down menu and select a pitch.
Your project now uses the root note of your clips to transpose to the project pitch. Use Pitch markers
at different points in your project to change the pitch. For more information about Pitch markers, see
“Using Pitch Markers in the Track View” on page 425.
Creating and Editing Groove Clips
Any audio clip can be converted to a Groove clip. Groove clips contain tempo, beat, and pitch
information which SONAR uses to stretch and transpose the clips to match the project. Most Groove
clips are loop-enabled, meaning that you can use the mouse to drag clip repetitions in the Track
view. Groove clips can be either loop-enabled or not, although they usually are. When a Groove clip
is loop-enabled, its edges appear beveled. It is sometimes desirable to create clips that follow the
project’s tempo and key, but are not intended to loop. The following is a list of the attributes
contained in a Groove clip:
• Beats in clip. The number of quarter notes in a clip. A four measure clip in 4/4 time should have
16 beats. When you enable looping for a clip, SONAR calculates the number of beats in the clip
using an algorithm. This calculation is very often accurate, but in some cases, for instance when
the clip has a very slow or very fast tempo or if the clip has an unusual number of beats, then the
number of beats in a clip may have to be edited manually in the Beats in clip field.
• Original tempo. The original tempo of the recording. SONAR uses the original tempo to adjust
to your project’s tempo. The original tempo must be specified for stretching clips.
Note: When you loop-enable a clip, SONAR calculates the original tempo of the clip, and
unless the clip’s length is in exact beat or measure increments, the original tempo that SONAR
calculates may vary from the recorded tempo. These fluctuations are usually quite small and do
not affect the quality of the Groove clip you create.
• Reference note. The original key of the recorded clip. SONAR uses the Reference note when it
transposes Groove clips to match your project’s pitch.
These attributes can be edited in the Loop Construction view. For more information about the Loop
Construction view, see Loop Construction view.
To Set the Number of Beats in a Groove Clip
When you open a clip in the Loop Construction view, SONAR determines the number of beats in the
clip. In some cases the beat value may not be correct. The beats in clip value can only be changed if
the clip is loop enabled.
Do the following to change value in the Beats in clip field.
• Click the Plus or Minus button to the right of the Beats in clip field until the correct value is
displayed.
Working with Loops and Groove Clips
Working Groove Clip audio
421
To Change the Loop Construction View Time Ruler Display
You can display the Loop Construction view Time Ruler in measures or in samples. To toggle
between the two modes, double click the Time Ruler.
To Set the Tempo of a Groove Clip
When creating a new Groove clip, SONAR sets the clip’s tempo to the current project tempo. To
ensure proper stretching behavior you must set the value in the Original BPM field to the tempo at
which you recorded the clip. The tempo value of a clip can only be changed if the clip is stretchenabled.
Do the following to change the value in the Original BPM field.
• Click the Plus or Minus button to the right of the Original BPM field until the correct value is
displayed. For more precise tempos you can double-click in the Original BPM field and enter a
tempo.
To Slice a Groove Clip
1. Double-click on a clip in the Clips pane.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2. Slice the clip using one or all of the following methods:
To do this
Do this
Slice the clip on note divisions
Move the Basic Slicing slider to the note resolution you want. The Basic
Slicing slider’s settings range from whole notes to 64th notes. Selecting
quarter notes, for example, would create four markers per measure.
Slice the clip at transient peaks
Enter a value into the Transient Detection (Trans Detect %) text field or
use the increment/decrement buttons. The larger transients in the clip
will be flanked by markers.
Slice the clip manually
Move your mouse to the space above the Time Ruler and double-click to
add a marker. Click and drag the marker, if necessary, so it aligns with
the beginning or end of a transient.
Table 77.
3. Play your project and adjust the slicing of your clip as necessary.
Note: You can use any or all of these methods to slice a clip. If you adjust both the Slices and
Trans Detect menus, two markers may be placed right next to each other. If these markers are
too close, the markers will automatically merge. Manual markers will not automatically merge.
To Transpose a Groove Clip to Match Your Project’s Pitch
Follow this procedure to force the Groove clip to follow the project’s default pitch.
1. Double-click the clip you want to transpose to the project’s pitch.
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Working Groove Clip audio
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2. Click the Follow Project Pitch button.
To Transpose a Groove Clip by Semitones
Follow this procedure to transpose a Groove clip by any number of semitones.
1. Double-click the clip you want to transpose to the project’s pitch.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2. If the Follow Project Pitch button is enabled, click it to disable it.
3. In the Pitch (semitones) field, enter the number of semitones you want to transpose the clip by.
A negative number in the Pitch (semitones) field transposes a clip down. A positive number in
the Pitch (semitones) field transposes the clip up.
To “Fine Tune” a Groove Clip
Follow this procedure to make slight pitch changes to a clip.
1. Double-click the clip you want to transpose to the project’s pitch.
The clip appears in the Loop Construction view.
2. In the Fine Pitch (cents) field, enter the number of cents you want to adjust the pitch. You can
enter a number from -50 (transpose the pitch down by a quarter tone) to 50 (transpose the pitch
up by a quarter tone).
To Edit the Slicing Markers in a Groove Clip
The table below describes how to create and edit the slicing markers in the Loop Construction view.
To do this
Do this
Add a slicing marker
Move the mouse cursor to the Markers bar, at the
beginning of a transient and double-click.
Delete a slicing marker
Select the Eraser tool
Move a slicing marker
Click and drag a marker
Reset slicing markers to original positions
Click the Default All Markers button
and click on a marker.
.
Table 78.
For more information about slicing markers, see “Slicing Markers” on page 415.
Editing Slices
Each slice (space between the slicing markers) can be adjusted in the Loop Construction view. You
can adjust the following slice attributes:
• Gain
Working with Loops and Groove Clips
Working Groove Clip audio
423
• Pan
• Pitch
To Preview a Groove Clip Slice
1. Double-click on a clip to open the Loop Construction view.
2. Click the Enable Slice Auto-preview button.
3. Click a slice to hear it.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Gain
1. In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to adjust the gain.
2. In the Slice Gain field, click the Plus or Minus buttons to change the gain value.
Or
Click between the plus and minus keys until the cursor becomes a double arrow and drag up to
increase the value or down to decrease the value.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Pan
1. In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to adjust the pan.
2. In the Slice Pan field, click the Plus or Minus buttons to change the pan value. Negative is Left
pan and positive is right pan.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Pitch (Half Steps)
1. In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to adjust the pitch.
2. In the first Slice Pitch field, click the Plus or Minus buttons to change the pitch value.
To Adjust a Groove Clip Slice Pitch (Cents)
1. In the Loop Construction view, select the slice on which you want to adjust the pitch.
2. In the second Slice Pitch field, click the Plus or Minus buttons to change the pitch value.
To Adjust Slice Gain, Pan and Pitch Using Slice Envelopes
You can change an envelope’s gain, pan and/or pitch settings by dragging the envelope up or down
in that slice.
Saving Groove Clips as Wave Files/ACIDized Wave Files
Once you have created a Groove clip in SONAR, you can save the clip as a Groove Clip/Wave file,
compatible with ACIDized wave files.
To Save a Groove Clip as a Riff Wave File/ACIDized Wave File
1. If you have not already done so, create a Groove clip. See “Creating and Editing Groove Clips” on
page 421.
2. In the Loop Construction view, click the Save icon.
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Working Groove Clip audio
The Save As dialog appears.
3. Use the toolbar in the Save As dialog to navigate to the location where you want to save the file.
4. In the File name field, enter a name for the file.
5. Click the Save button.
To Drag and Drop a Groove Clip Into Another Application
You can drag and drop clips from SONAR to another application or to a directory in Windows. When
you drag a file from SONAR, the source file is copied and the copy is placed in the new directory or
application.
Using Pitch Markers in the Track View
Pitch markers change the pitch at which Groove clips sound. All Groove clips in SONAR that have
the Follow Project Pitch option enabled adjust their pitch as they encounter pitch markers in
SONAR. If there are no pitch markers, all Groove clips play at the default project pitch, unless the
Follow Project Pitch parameter is disabled.
C
A
B
A. Pitch marker: Groove clips with Follow Project Pitch enabled play with the Root Note transposed to C B. Time
Ruler C. Pitch marker: Groove clips with Follow Project Pitch enabled play with the Root Note transposed to D
To Enable a Clip’s Follow Project Pitch Option
1. Right-click the clip and choose Clip Properties from the pop-up menu.
The Clip Properties dialog appears.
2. On the Groove Clips tab, check the Follow Project Pitch check box.
3. Make sure that the Reference Note field is correct. When your project reaches a pitch marker,
SONAR transposes each groove clip that has the Follow Project Pitch option enabled by the
difference between the clip’s Reference Note and the current Project Pitch.
4. Click OK to close the dialog.
To Change Your Project’s Default Pitch
1. Display the Markers toolbar, if it’s not already displayed, by using the Views > Toolbars >
Markers command.
2. In the Default Groove-Clip Pitch drop-down menu at the right end of the toolbar, choose your
project’s default pitch.
SONAR transposes each groove clip that has the Follow Project Pitch option enabled by the
difference between the clip’s Reference Note and the current Project Pitch. Your project’s pitch
Working with Loops and Groove Clips
Working Groove Clip audio
425
changes wherever you insert a pitch marker. If you don’t insert any pitch markers, your project stays
at its default pitch.
To Create a Pitch Marker
1. In the Track view, right-click in the Time Ruler.
2. Select Create a Marker from the menu that appears.
3. The Marker dialog appears.
4. In the Groove Clip Pitch drop-down, select a pitch.
5. Click OK.
To Move a Pitch Marker
• Click and drag a pitch marker to a new location on the Time Ruler.
See:
“Working with REX files”
Working with REX files
SONAR supports two types of Groove Clips:
• ACIDized Groove Clip
• REX-based Groove Clip
Like ACIDized WAVE files, REX files are audio files that are designed to be looped and follow the
project’s tempo. The time stretching technology that REX files use is well suited for percussive
sounds, such as drums.
You can import REX files into a SONAR project. Once imported, you can work with REX files just as
if they were regular Groove Clips (see Working Groove Clip audio).
Note: REX-based Groove Clips can be edited in the Loop Construction view, but certain Loop
Construction view tools only apply to ACIDized Groove Clips. The following Loop Construction
view commands, settings and tools do not apply to REX files:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Enable Looping
Beats in Clip
Enable Stretching
Marker tools
Slice Resolution
Transient Detection
To import a REX file
1. On the File menu, point to Import and click Audio.
The Import Audio dialog appears.
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Working Groove Clip audio
2. In the Files of type list, select All Audio or REX (*.rex, *.rx2, *.rcy).
3. Find and select the REX file you want to import.
If you want to preview the selected file, click Play. The file will play at the current project tempo.
4. Click Open.
The REX file is imported into SONAR as a Groove Clip.
You can also drag REX files into SONAR, paste from the Clipboard, or import from the Media
Browser view.
To disable looping of a REX-based Groove Clip
Unlike ACIDized-based Groove Clips, looping can not be disabled for REX based Groove Clips. If
you want to disable looping of REX based Groove Clips, use the Edit > Bounce to Clip(s) or
Tracks > Freeze > Freeze Tracks commands to render the REX based Groove Clip to a standard
audio clip.
For details, see Bouncing to Clips and Freeze Tracks and Synths.
To use pitch markers with REX-based Groove Clips
Unlike ACIDized audio loops, REX files do not store the original pitch (root note) value. If you want a
pitched REX file to properly follow your project’s pitch markers, you must manually specify the
original root note for each REX clip. By default, SONAR assigns a root note value of G#.
Due to limitations of the REX file format, the root note value can not be saved back to the REX file,
and must be manually specified each time you import a REX file into a SONAR project. If you want
to permanently save the root note value with a REX loop, export the REX Groove clip as an
ACIDized .wav file.
For details, see Root Note and Saving Groove Clips as Wave Files/ACIDized Wave Files.
See:
Creating and Editing Groove Clips
MIDI Groove Clips
MIDI Groove clips are MIDI clips that you can roll out like audio Groove clips, and you can also
choose to have SONAR transpose MIDI Groove clips when your project reaches a pitch marker.
You can change any MIDI clip into a MIDI Groove clip (or back into a regular MIDI clip) by selecting
the clip and using the Edit > Groove Clip Looping command. A MIDI clip that has its Groove clip
feature activated appears with beveled edges in the Clips pane.
Here are some other features of MIDI Groove clips:
• You can roll out copies in either direction (just like audio Groove clips). The Snap-to-Grid setting
determines what beat boundaries (if any) you can roll to.
Working with Loops and Groove Clips
MIDI Groove Clips
427
• You can edit individual repetitions without altering any other copies (unlike audio Groove clips).
Note: If you then roll the edge of your MIDI Groove clip back over the area you edited, you will
lose your edits.
• All new repetitions are based on the first clip (just like audio Groove clips). However, if you split a
repetition from its original source clip, the repetition becomes independent: if you copy this clip,
SONAR treats it as an original clip.
• You can import MIDI Groove clips from the Import MIDI dialog, the Media Browser view, and by
dragging and dropping from the Windows Explorer.
• You can preview MIDI Groove clips in the Import MIDI dialog.
• You can edit MIDI Groove clips wherever you can edit regular MIDI clips.
For step-by-step information, see the following procedures, and also “Exporting, and Importing MIDI
Groove Clips” on page 429.
To Enable or Disable a MIDI Clip’s Groove Clip Function
To Create Repetitions of a MIDI Groove Clip
To Transpose a MIDI Groove Clip
To Transpose a MIDI Groove Clip with Pitch Markers
To Enable or Disable a MIDI Clip’s Groove Clip Function
• Select the clip and press CTRL+L.
Or
• Select the clip and use the Edit > Groove Clip Looping command.
Or
• Right-click the clip and choose Groove Clip Looping from the pop-up menu.
A MIDI clip that has its Groove clip feature activated appears with beveled edges in the Clips pane.
To Create Repetitions of a MIDI Groove Clip
1. Set the Snap value if you want the clip to repeat at precise time boundaries.
2. Move the cursor over the end or beginning of the clip until the cursor looks like this
.When the
cursor changes, click the end or beginning of the clip and drag it to the right (if you are dragging
out from the end) or left (if you are dragging from the beginning).
The clip repeats itself until you stop dragging.
To Transpose a MIDI Groove Clip
1. Select the MIDI Groove clip.
2. Hold down the ALT key, and press the + or - key on your computer keyboard to raise or lower the
clip’s pitches a half-step at a time. You don’t have to stop playback.
Or
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Working with Loops and Groove Clips
MIDI Groove Clips
1. Right-click the clip and choose Clip Properties from the pop-up menu.
The Clip Properties dialog appears.
2. On the Groove Clips tab, in the Pitch (semitones) field, choose the number of half-steps you
want to transpose the clip by: choose negative numbers to transpose down, or positive numbers
to transpose up.
Either method transposes the original clip and all repetitions. The original clip displays a positive or
negative number in parentheses showing any transposition value you’ve added to the clip.
If you use pitch markers to transpose a clip, any transposition value you add to the clip by the above
two methods changes the final pitch by whatever transposition value you’ve added.
To Transpose a MIDI Groove Clip with Pitch Markers
Use the same method you use for audio Groove clips: see “Using Pitch Markers in the Track View”
on page 425.
See also:
Exporting, and Importing MIDI Groove Clips
Exporting, and Importing MIDI Groove Clips
You can not export MIDI Groove clips by saving your project as a Standard MIDI File—Standard
MIDI Files do not contain MIDI Groove clip data, such as transposition value, etc. When you import
MIDI Groove clips, you can preview them in the Import MIDI dialog.
There are two methods for exporting MIDI Groove clips:
• Using the File > Export > MIDI Groove Clip command
• Dragging a MIDI Groove clip from SONAR to the Windows Explorer
There are three methods for importing MIDI Groove clips:
• Using the File > Import > MIDI command
• Using the Media Browser view
• Dragging a MIDI Groove clip from the Windows Explorer to a MIDI track in SONAR
For step-by-step information, see the following procedures:
To Export MIDI Groove Clips with the File Command
1. Highlight the MIDI Groove clip that you want to export.
2. Use the File > Export > MIDI Groove Clip command.
The Export MIDI dialog appears.
3. to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips.
4. Type a name for the clip in the File Name field.
5. Click the Save button.
Working with Loops and Groove Clips
MIDI Groove Clips
429
SONAR exports the MIDI Groove clip, which contains the information displayed in the Clip
Properties dialog, on the Groove-Clips tab, except for the Pitch (semitones) field, which does not
get exported.
To Export a MIDI Groove Clip with Drag and Drop
• Drag the MIDI Groove clip that you want to export to the folder in the Windows Explorer where
you want to keep it.
To Import MIDI Groove Clips with the File Command
1. Move the Now Time to the place where you want to import the clip.
2. Highlight the track you want to import the clip into.
3. Use the File > Import > MIDI command.
The Import MIDI dialog appears,
4. to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips. Make sure that the Files of Type field is set to
MIDI File.
5. Highlight the file you want to import—the File Info field displays the file’s MIDI Groove clip data, if
any.
6. If you want to preview (listen to) the highlighted file, click the Play button in the Import MIDI
dialog. When you decide to import the highlighted file, click the Open button.
To Import MIDI Groove Clips from the Media Browser View
1. Make sure that the Snap-to-Grid setting is appropriate for what you want to do.
2. If the Media Browser view is not open, use the Views > Media Browser command to display it.
3. to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips.
4. Do either of the following:
• Drag the file you want to the track and time where you want it.
• Move the Now Time to the place where you want to import the file, highlight the track you want
to import the file into, and double-click the file.
To Import a MIDI Groove Clip with Drag and Drop
1. Make sure that the Snap-to-Grid setting is appropriate for what you want to do.
2. In the Windows Explorer, navigate to a folder where you store MIDI Groove clips.
3. Drag the MIDI Groove clip to the track and time where you want it to go.
Importing Project5 Patterns
Project5 is Cakewalk’s pattern-based soft synth work station that has its own library (pattern bin) full
of MIDI and audio patterns, stored on disk. If you have Project5 MIDI patterns on your hard disk, you
can import them directly into SONAR.
430
Working with Loops and Groove Clips
Importing Project5 Patterns
To Import a Project5 Pattern
1. Move the Now Time to the place where you want to import the pattern.
2. Highlight the track you want to import the pattern into.
3. Use the File > Import > MIDI command.
The Import MIDI dialog appears,
4. Change the Files of Type field to P5 Pattern.
5. to a folder where you store Project5 MIDI patterns.
6. Highlight the file you want to import.
7. To import the highlighted file, click the Open button.
SONAR imports the pattern to the selected track at the Now Time.
Tip: You can preview Project5 patterns in the Media Browser view. (new S8.5)
Working with Loops and Groove Clips
Importing Project5 Patterns
431
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Working with Loops and Groove Clips
Importing Project5 Patterns
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous
Controllers (CC)
SONAR lets you edit the events in your projects in dozens of different ways. The Piano Roll view lets
you add and edit notes, controllers, and automation data interactively, using a graphic display.
SONAR’s many editing commands can improve the quality of recorded performances, filter out
certain types of events, and modify the tempos and dynamics of your projects. The Event List view
lets you see and modify every detail of your project. Finally, you can apply a variety of effects and
filters to enhance your MIDI data.
SONAR has many additional commands and features for working with audio. For more information,
see “Editing Audio” on page 545.
See:
The Piano Roll View
The Inline Piano Roll View
Selecting and Editing Events
Changing the Timing of a Recording
Searching for Events
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and Automation Data
The Event List View
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
To sync the project tempo to freely played MIDI
Event Inspector Toolbar
The Event Inspector toolbar is available from the Views menu by selecting Views > Toolbars and
checking Event Inspector in the Toolbars dialog. The Event Inspector has the following:
• Time
• Pitch
• Velocity
• Duration
• Channel
To Display a Note’s Properties in the Event Inspector Toolbar
• Select a note.
If you select multiple notes, the Event Inspector toolbar displays the note value if all selected
note values are the same. If the note values are different, the Event Inspector does not display
anything.
To Change a Note’s Properties Using the Event Inspector Toolbar
1. Select a note.
2. In the appropriate Event Inspector toolbar field, change the value. See the table below for a
description of valid value entries for each field in the Event Inspector toolbar.
Event Inspector Field
Valid Values
Time
Any valid M:B:T time value. Separate values with a colon or a space. For
example, measure 2, Beat 3, Tick 720 would be written as 2:3:720.
Pitch
Note names (C0 through G10) and note numbers (0 through 127) are valid in
this field. Also, you can use a modifier to raise or lower the value by a number of
half-steps. To raise the pitch by 2 half-steps, type +2 and press enter. To lower
the pitch by 2 half-steps, type -2 and press enter.
Velocity
A velocity value or modifier value are valid in this field. Valid velocity values are
0 through 127. Valid modifier values are +/- 0 through 127.
Duration
A PPQ value.
Channel
1 through 16.
Table 79.
The Piano Roll View
The Piano Roll view displays all notes and other events from one or more MIDI tracks in a grid
format that looks much like a player piano roll. Notes are displayed as horizontal bars, and drum
notes as diamonds. Pitch runs from bottom to top, with the left vertical margin indicating the pitches
as piano keys or note names. Time is displayed running left to right with vertical measure and beat
boundaries. The Piano Roll view makes it easy to add, edit, and delete notes from a track.
A single-track version of the Piano Roll view is available in each track in the Track view. This view is
called the Inline Piano Roll view, and replaces the Clips pane in any track that you choose to display
in Inline Piano Roll mode.
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Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
The Piano Roll View
The Piano Roll view consists of the Note Map pane, the Drum Grid pane, the Notes pane, the
Controller pane, the Piano Roll view toolbar, and the Track List pane.
Figure 79.
The Piano Roll view
J
A
B
I
C
D
E
F
G
H
A. Show/Hide MIDI Events menu B. Edit MIDI Event Type menu C. Note Map pane D. Drum Grid pane
E. Notes pane F. Controller pane G. Tooltip shows cursor position and editing data while you edit an event
H. Track List pane I. Selected track J. Toolbar
See:
Opening the View
Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll View Only)
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
Note Map Pane
Drum Grid Pane
Notes Pane
Controller Pane
Note Names
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
The Piano Roll View
435
Track List Pane
Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View
Note Map Pane
This pane displays your drum map settings. You can mute or solo individual pitches, and preview
individual pitch sounds. For more information about the Note Map Pane, see “The Note Map Pane”
on page 537.
See also:
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
Drum Grid Pane
In the Drum Grid pane you can add, delete, and edit notes and note properties in any MIDI track(s)
assigned to a drum map. You can also edit controllers in this pane if you choose to hide the
Controller pane.
For more information, see “The Drum Grid Pane” on page 539, and “Adding and Editing Controllers
in the Piano Roll” on page 466.
See also:
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
Notes Pane
In this pane you can add, edit, and delete notes in any MIDI track(s) not assigned to a drum map.
You can also edit controllers in this pane if you choose to hide the Controller pane.
See also:
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll
Controller Pane
This pane displays controller events, which you can edit. You can show or hide this pane by clicking
the Use Controller Pane button
that is in the Piano Roll view toolbar, or by pressing C. When
the Controller pane is hidden, all controller events appear in the Notes pane.
See also:
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
436
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
The Piano Roll View
Track List Pane
The Track List pane is home to a list of all tracks currently displayed in the Piano Roll view. In this
pane you can enable and disable editing of a track’s data; mute, solo and arm a track; and show or
hide the track’s data in the Notes pane or Drum Grid pane. Track numbers, names and output ports
appear in the Track List pane. You can show or hide the Track List pane by clicking the Show/Hide
Track Pane button
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
If you see an error message saying that you have masked the active track, it means that the active
track is not visible at the moment. To unmask the track click the track’s Show/Hide Track button
in the Track List pane so that the button appears in color.
See also:
Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View
Opening the View
There are several ways to open the Piano Roll view:
• In the Track view, select the track you want to see, then choose Views > Piano Roll or press
ALT+5
• In the Track view, right-click on a track and choose Views > Piano Roll from the pop-up menu
• Double-click on a MIDI clip in the Clips pane
Each selected track is displayed. You can always switch to a different track or tracks—simply click
the
button (or press T) and choose the track you want.
The Piano Roll view lets you edit notes and controllers during playback or recording, in real time.
This means you can loop over a portion of your project and hear any change you make on the next
loop. The Piano Roll view also shows notes on-screen as you record them.
Like the Track view, the Piano Roll view includes zoom tools that let you change the vertical and
horizontal scale of the view. The Piano Roll view also has a Snap to Grid
button. For more
information about this feature, see “Defining and Using the Snap Grid” on page 316.
See:
Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View
Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll View Only)
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
The Piano Roll View
437
You can view as many tracks as you want in the Piano Roll view. When you display several tracks at
the same time in the Piano Roll view, you control which track(s) you can see and/or edit by using the
buttons in the Track List pane. You can show or hide the Track List pane by clicking the Show/Hide
Track Pane button
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
If you want to edit the data in a track, you must make the track you want to edit the current track. The
name of the current track appears highlighted in the Track List pane. To display the Track List pane
in the Piano Roll view, click the Show/Hide Track List Pane button . The following shows three
tracks in the Track List pane:
G
A
H
B
I
C
D
E
F
A. Track’s data shown in Notes pane B. Track’s data hidden in Notes pane C. Mute D. Track enabled for track
editing E. Solo F. Arm G. Track disabled for track editing H. Output I. Current track
To make a track the current track in the Track List pane, click on the track. When a thin dotted line
surrounds the track, it is the current track.
Tip: Clicking a note will make the note’s parent track the current track.
The following is a list of ways to optimize the multiple track functionality in the Piano Roll view.
Selecting Tracks to View
Use the Pick Tracks combo button
to assign tracks to the Track List pane. Click on the left side
of the Pick Tracks combo button to open the Pick Tracks dialog box. Click on a track name to
select it. Hold down the CTRL key and click more track names to select additional tracks. Click on
the right side of the Pick Tracks combo button to show the Show Previous/Next Tracks pop-up
menu. Selecting Show Previous Track(s) moves the track or range of tracks down by one track
number. Selecting Show Next Track(s) moves the track or range of tracks up by one track number.
For example, if you have tracks 2, 3 and 7 displayed in the Track List pane and you select Show
Previous Track(s), the Track List pane displays tracks 1, 2, and 6.
Display
If the notes of two tracks overlap, the notes of the topmost track in the Track List pane appear over
the notes of the other track. You can move a track up or down by in the Track List pane by clicking
and holding on the track and moving the track to the desired position.
438
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
The Piano Roll View
All tracks ending in the same digit (2, 12, 22, etc.) share the same color. The default colors can be
changed using Options > Colors.
The Enable/Disable Track Editing Button
The Enable/Disable Track Editing button
sets whether or not you can edit the notes of a track
in the Piano Roll view. When the button appears white, editing is enabled and the track appears in
color. When the button appears gray, editing is disabled and the track appears in gray.
Note: The Enable/Disable Track Editing button only disables the Piano Roll view tools; other
editing commands are still operational.
The Show/Hide Track Button
The Show/Hide Track button
controls whether or not a track appears in the Notes pane. The
button appears in color when toggled on, white when off.
The Invert Tracks Button
If you use the Show/Hide Track button to hide any tracks in the Track List pane, you can show all
these tracks and hide the ones that are currently displayed by clicking the Invert Tracks button.
See:
Note Names
Note Names
You can change the instrument definition for the active track in the Piano Roll view. Right-click the
piano keys in the Notes pane to open the Note Names dialog where you can use note names that
are defined as part of any instrument definition. For more information about instrument definitions,
see Instrument Definitions.
To Change the Active Track’s Instrument Definition
1. Right-click the left side of the Notes pane (where the piano keys or note names are displayed) to
display the Note Names dialog box.
Figure 80.
The Note Names dialog
2. To use the note names from the assigned instrument (the default), click Use the Assigned
Instrument Settings. Click Configure to change the instrument definitions.
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
The Piano Roll View
439
3. To override the default setting, click Use These Settings Instead, and choose the note names
and mode you want to work with.
4. Click OK when you are done
The Piano Roll view is updated with the settings you request.
Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll View
Only)
The Show/Hide MIDI Events button
in the Piano Roll view lets you quickly hide or show any
combination of the data in a MIDI track or in multiple MIDI tracks. This button is independent of the
Show/Hide MIDI Events button in a track’s Inline Piano Roll view (see also “Displaying Notes and
Controllers in the Inline Piano Roll View” on page 480)).
The Show/Hide MIDI Events button is located in the upper left corner of the Piano Roll view.
To Hide or Show Data in the Piano Roll View
1. If you want to display the data from multiple MIDI tracks, first choose and configure the tracks
from which you want to display data (see “Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View” on
page 437).
2. Click the drop-down arrow on the Show/Hide MIDI Events button
to display the menu of
MIDI data in the current track (the track that is highlighted in the Track List pane, or in the Track
view).
3. Choose from the following menu options:
• To hide or show notes for all displayed tracks, click Show Notes.
• To hide or show the outline(s) of the clip(s) you’re looking at, choose Show Clip Outlines.
• To hide or show a controller type for all displayed tracks, click the name of the controller.
• To hide or show the edit handles on controllers, click Show Controller Handles.
• To hide or show the velocity columns on all tracks except the active track, click Show Velocity
on Active Track Only.
• To show all controllers in all displayed tracks, click Display All Continuous Events, or just
click the left side of the Show/Hide MIDI Events button
. The button turns white when all
controllers are hidden, and blue when all controllers are showing.
4. After you choose an option, the menu closes. You can repeat steps 2 and 3 to choose more
options.
See:
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
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Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll View Only)
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll
You add notes in the Piano Roll view or Inline Piano Roll view by first choosing a note duration in the
Piano Roll toolbar (or in the current track’s Note Duration menu if you’re using the Inline Piano Roll
view), and then clicking in the view with the Draw tool at the pitch location and time location where
you want the note to go. The pitch locations are marked by grey rows for the sharps or flats, and
white rows for naturals. Octaves are labeled on the keyboard display on the left side of the Piano
Roll view, and by the MIDI Scale in the Inline Piano Roll view. You can display different octaves by
dragging the vertical scroll bar that’s on the right side of the Piano Roll view, or by dragging the MIDI
Scale in the Inline Piano Roll view. The time locations are marked by the measure numbers in the
horizontal time ruler that’s at the top of the view, and by the vertical grid lines that mark the beats in
the measure. The Snap to Grid menu determines how precisely you can place your notes in time.
You can edit notes by a variety of methods:
• Select notes, and then use editing commands from the Edit menu, the Process menu, or the
Event Inspector toolbar
• Move single or groups of selected notes with the Select tool
• Edit the pitch, location, duration, start time, and velocity of individual or groups of selected notes
with the Draw tool
• Delete notes with the Erase tool, or by holding the ALT key down while you use the Draw tool
For step-by-step procedures, see the following topics:
Selecting Notes
Editing Notes with the Draw Tool and the Select Tool
Flexible Piano Roll tools
Selecting Notes
There are several ways to select notes in the Piano Roll view and Inline Piano Roll view:
• Click and drag in the Piano Roll view’s Time Ruler to select notes (and other MIDI events) that
start playing within the time range that you select.
• In the Inline Piano Roll view, click and drag in the Track view’s Time Ruler to select notes (and
other MIDI events) that start playing within the time range that you select. This selects data in the
current track, or all selected tracks.
• Click notes or drag around them with the Select tool
.
• In the Piano Roll view only (not the Inline Piano Roll view): click or drag the piano keys to the left
of the Notes pane or the drum map rows in Note Map pane to select all notes of the desired
pitch(es).
• In the Inline Piano Roll view: SHIFT-click or SHIFT-drag the piano keys on the MIDI Scale to
select all notes of the desired pitch(es).
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll
441
To Select Notes with the Select Tool
1. Activate the Select tool by clicking it in either the Piano Roll view toolbar or the Inline Piano Roll
toolbar (depending on which view you’re working in).
2. Select notes as shown in the table:
To do this
Do this
Select a single note
Click on the note
Select several notes at once
Drag a rectangle around the notes you want to select
Add to the selection
Hold the SHIFT key while selecting notes
Toggle the selection
Hold the CTRL key while selecting notes
Select notes in a certain time range.
Set the desired Snap to Grid value in either the Piano Roll view or the
Inline Piano Roll view (depending on which view you’re working in),
and drag in the Time Ruler of the appropriate view.
Table 80.
Selected notes are highlighted (50% gray mask).
To Select All Notes of Certain Pitches (Piano Roll View Only)
Click the piano keys on the left side of the Notes pane or the drum map rows in the Note Map pane
as shown in the table:
To do this
Do this
Select all notes of a single pitch
Click on the piano key or drum map row
Select all notes of several pitches
Drag across the keys or drum map rows
Add to the selection
Hold the SHIFT key while clicking on a piano key or drum map row
Toggle the selection
Hold the CTRL key while clicking on a piano key or drum map row
Table 81.
To Select All Notes of Certain Pitches (Inline Piano Roll View Only)
1. Zoom the MIDI Scale in far enough to see the keys clearly (left-click and drag on the MIDI Scale).
2. SHIFT-click a piano key to select all the notes of that pitch, or SHIFT-drag through multiple notes
to select them.
CTRL-clicking to select multiple non-adjacent notes is not possible in the MIDI Scale.
See:
Editing Notes with the Draw Tool and the Select Tool
442
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
Editing Notes with the Draw Tool and the Select Tool
You can edit notes in the Piano Roll view and the Inline Piano Roll view with the same methods. The
Draw tool and the Select tool are useful for quick note editing. You can do the same edits with
commands in the Process menu (Length, Slide, Transpose). If you want to edit multiple notes at
the same time, first select them with the Select tool.
MIDI notes display their velocity value as a wide or narrow column. You can drag the column up or
down to edit the note’s velocity. Holding the Draw tool over the middle of the note in the upper third
of the note displays a small velocity column on the Draw tool to show that the tool is in the target
zone.
A
B
C
A. Draw tool in velocity-edit mode B. Tooltip showing cursor position C. Velocity column
Tooltips give you a constant readout of the cursor position, how much you’ve edited the selection,
and how many notes you’re editing.
In the picture below, the tooltip lists the current location of the cursor, how far the selection has
moved from its original location (1252 ticks to the right), the current pitch level and MIDI note number
of the cursor (E8 100), how far from the note’s original pitch the cursor has moved (1 half-step
higher), and how many notes are in the selection.
When you drag multiple notes, if you enable Polyphonic Note Audition in the Edit MIDI Event
Type drop-down menu, the Piano Roll view “auditions” them, so you can hear all of them as they
pass through different pitch levels.
To Edit Notes with the Draw Tool
1. If you want to edit multiple notes at the same time, select them with the Select tool (see “Selecting
Notes” on page 441). Editing any of the notes in the selection edits all the selected notes in the
same way.
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll
443
2. Click
to select the Draw tool. If the Draw tool button is in Auto-Erase mode, it looks like this:
. If the Draw tool is in Auto-Erase mode, use the drop-down menu that’s next to it to disable
Auto-Erase mode, unless you want to delete notes.
3. Set the Snap to Grid to the desired value (if you’re editing in the Inline Piano Roll view, make sure
you use the PRV tab of the Snap to Grid dialog).
4. Edit notes as described in the table:
To do this
Do this
Change the start time, but not the Drag the left edge of the note in either direction.
duration
The start time of the note is moved to the new location.
Change the pitch
Drag the middle of the note up or down.
Move the note horizontally
Move the cursor just inside the left edge of the note until it looks like this:
Then drag left or right.
Change the duration
Drag the right edge of the note in either direction.
Copy and paste notes
Hold the CTRL key down, and drag notes so as to either move them
horizontally or change the pitch (see above), and release the mouse at the
desired location.
Add a note
See “To Draw Notes” on page 444.
Edit velocity
See “To Edit Velocity” on page 445.
Delete notes
Enable the Draw tool’s Auto-Erase mode (in the drop-down menu next to it),
and click notes. When the Draw tool’s Auto-Erase mode is enabled, a small
eraser icon appears at the bottom of the Draw tool when the Draw tool
approaches notes from below. Alternatively, click the Erase tool to enable it,
and click each note that you want to delete, or drag through multiple notes.
Tip: Hold the ALT key down to toggle the Draw tool’s Auto-Erase mode, or
to temporarily turn the Erase tool into the Draw tool.
Table 82.
To Draw Notes
1. In the Edit MIDI Event Type menu in the Piano Roll view, or the Inline Piano Roll view (depending
on which view you’re working in), select Notes/Velocity.
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2. Enable the Draw tool in the Piano Roll toolbar, or the Inline Piano Roll toolbar.
3. Choose a duration for the note by clicking a note-head button in the Piano Roll toolbar, or the
Note Duration menu in the track controls if you’re using the Inline Piano Roll view.
4. Set the Snap to Grid to the desired value (if you’re editing in the Inline Piano Roll view, make sure
you use the PRV tab of the Snap to Grid dialog).
5. Click in the Notes pane at the pitch and location where you want the note; pitch locations are
marked by grey rows for the sharps or flats, and white rows for naturals. Octaves are labeled on
the keyboard display on the left side of the view (this is called the MIDI Scale in the Inline Piano
Roll view). You can display different octaves by dragging the vertical scroll bar that’s on the right
side of the Piano Roll view, or by dragging the MIDI Scale in the Inline Piano Roll view. The time
locations are marked by the measure numbers in the horizontal time ruler that’s at the top of each
view. You can display vertical grid lines that mark the beats in the measure by clicking the Show/
Hide Grid button
in the Piano Roll view, or by right-clicking the Clips pane (not the Inline
Piano Roll view), choosing View Options from the pop-up menu, and checking the Display
Vertical Rules check box.
To Use the Erase Tool
1. Enable the Erase tool
view has focus.
(make it turn blue) by clicking it, or by pressing E when the Piano Roll
2. Click or drag through the notes or controllers you want to delete.
3. To turn the Erase tool into the Draw tool temporarily, hold the ALT key down.
To Edit Velocity
1. If you want to edit multiple notes at the same time, select them with the Select tool (see “Selecting
Notes” on page 441 for help). Editing any of the notes in the selection edits all the selected notes
in the same way.
2. Make sure Velocity has a checkmark next to it in the Show/Hide MIDI Events menu.
3. Enable the Draw tool.
4. Move the cursor over the upper third of the middle of the note. When you reach the target area,
the Draw tool displays a small velocity column to show that you have enabled velocity editing (this
only happens if you’ve hidden the Controller pane).
5. Drag up or down to edit velocity. The tooltip shows you the velocity value that the cursor is
passing through, the difference from the original value, and how many notes you’re editing. If you
want to hear the changes in velocity as you make them, enable Velocity Audition in the Edit
MIDI Event Type drop-down menu.
Note 1: Instead of moving the cursor over the upper third of the note to activate velocity editing,
you can hold down the CTRL key instead. This allows you to drag the Draw tool horizontally to
draw the desired velocity level(s).
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Note 2: If you prefer to edit velocity in the Controller pane, display the Controller pane (press
C), and use the Draw tool to drag horizontally through the vertical lines in the Controller pane
that represent the velocity of each note. You can also use the Draw tool or the Select tool to drag
the tip of a vertical line up or down. While you drag, a tooltip displays velocity and location data.
MIDI note velocity colorization
PRVColorizeVelocity=<0 or 1>, default = 1
MIDI note colors are tinted depending on their velocities. Notes will appear darker for higher
velocities and lighter for lower velocities.
This feature may be enabled (1) or disabled (0) in the [WinCake] section of the Cakewalk.ini
file. For example:
[WinCake]
PRVColorizeVelocity=0
Note event colors based on velocity
By default, note events in the Piano Roll are colorized based on velocity. Darker shades of the basic
track color indicate higher velocities. Lighter shades of the basic track color indicate lower velocities.
This behavior can be bypassed by adding the following INI variable to the WinCake section of
Cakewalk.ini (see Cakewalk.ini):
PRVColorizeVelocity=0
To Edit Notes with the Select Tool
1. If you want to edit multiple notes at the same time, select them with the Select tool. Editing any of
the notes in the selection edits all the selected notes in the same way.
2. Set the Snap to Grid to the desired value (if you’re editing in the Inline Piano Roll view, make sure
you use the PRV tab of the Snap to Grid dialog).
3. Edit notes as described in the table:
To do this
Do this
Change the start time, but not the
duration
Drag the note left or right
Change the pitch
Drag the note up or down.
Move selected notes, or a single note Hold the SHIFT key down, and move the Select tool over a note so that
only vertically, or only horizontally
the cursor displays a horizontal double-ended arrow (if you want to drag
horizontally) or a vertical double-ended arrow (if you want to drag
vertically), and then move the note(s).
Table 83.
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To do this
Do this
Copy and paste notes
Hold the CTRL key down, and drag notes horizontally and/or vertically,
and release the mouse at the desired location.
Delete notes
Press the DELETE key.
Table 83.
To Change Note Properties
1. Right-click a single note to display the Note Properties dialog box.
2. Edit the desired start time, pitch, duration, velocity, or channel.
3. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR updates the note event accordingly. Note that you can also edit note velocity in the Notes
pane and the Event Inspector toolbar. For information on changing note velocities in the Drum Grid
Editor, see “Editing Note Velocities” on page 536. For more information, see “Velocity, Pitch Wheel,
and Aftertouch” on page 512.
To Scrub (Audition) Tracks in the Piano Roll View
1. Click
or press B to select the Scrub tool.
2. Press and hold the left mouse button in the Piano Roll view. SONAR displays a vertical line and
plays any notes that are underneath the line.
3. Drag the line to the left or right, at any desired speed.
Note that the Mute, Solo and Arm buttons do not affect Scrub. If the track is hidden, however, you
do not hear notes in that track.
To Audition Notes
• To audition multiple notes, select them, make sure that Polyphonic Note Audition is selected in
the Edit MIDI Event Type drop-down menu, and move the notes with either the Select tool or the
Draw tool. You can also click one of the selected notes with the Draw tool, if you first move the
Draw tool to the center of a selected note so that the Draw tool cursor becomes a double-ended
vertical arrow.
Show velocity on selected notes (optional)
SONAR has an option to show velocities for selected Note events. This option makes it easier to see
and edit velocities when many Note events are present. It also makes it easier to change the velocity
for individual Note events that are stacked (such as chords).
If there is no selection, velocities are shown for all Note events.
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To only show velocity for selected note events
1. In the Piano Roll view or inline Piano Roll, click the small drop-down arrow in the Show/Hide MIDI
Events button
.
2. Choose Show Velocity on Selected Notes from the pop-up menu.
The state of the Show Velocity on Selected Notes option is saved with the project, and the setting
is separate for the Piano Roll view and inline Piano Roll.
See:
Editing Notes with the Draw Tool and the Select Tool
Selection sensitive velocity drawing
If any Note events are selected, velocity painting will only affect those selected Note events. If no
Note events are selected, then velocity painting will affect all Note events.
Example 1. Painting velocity when some Note events are selected. Only those Note events are changed.
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Example 2. Painting velocity when no Note events are selected. All Note events are changed.
See:
Editing Notes with the Draw Tool and the Select Tool
Note/controller painting (freehand)
Paint Notes/Controllers Free is one of the programmable mouse Actions, which can be assigned
to any mouse button and key combination. For more information, see “Flexible Piano Roll tools” on
page 457.
When you use the Paint Notes/Controllers Free action, events are painted from the mouse click
position to the current mouse position. The start time and duration of events are determined by the
Snap to Grid resolution if snap is enabled or by the current default note duration if Snap to Grid is
disabled.
See:
To configure a Mouse Action
Note/controller painting (linear)
Paint Notes/Controllers Linear is one of the programmable mouse Actions, which can be
assigned to any mouse button and key combination. For more information, see “Flexible Piano Roll
tools” on page 457.
When you use the Paint Notes/Controllers Linear action, events are painted in a straight line from
the mouse click position to the current mouse position. The start time and duration of events are
determined by the Snap to Grid resolution if snap is enabled or by the current default note duration if
Snap to Grid is disabled.
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See:
To configure a Mouse Action
Controller/velocity painting (freehand)
Paint Controllers/Velocities Free is one of the programmable mouse Actions, which can be
assigned to any mouse button and key combination. For more information, see “Flexible Piano Roll
tools” on page 457.
When you use the Paint Controllers/Velocities Free action, Controller events of the current edit
type are painted from the mouse click position to the current mouse position. Controller events are
painted at the snap positions if Snap to Grid is enabled. If Snap to Grid is disabled, Controller events
will be placed anywhere in time. Regardless of the Snap to Grid state, Controller events are only
inserted where there is a change in value.
When painting velocities in the Notes pane, existing velocities are updated as the mouse passes
through Note events. When painting velocities in the Controllers pane, the behavior is the same as
the Paint Notes/Controllers Free action.
See:
To configure a Mouse Action
Controller/velocity painting (linear)
Paint Controllers/Velocities Linear is one of the programmable mouse Actions, which can be
assigned to any mouse button and key combination. For more information, see “Flexible Piano Roll
tools” on page 457.
When you use the Paint Controllers/Velocities Linear action, Controller events of the current edit
type are painted linearly from the mouse click position to the current mouse position. Controller
events are painted at the snap positions if Snap to Grid is enabled. If Snap to Grid is disabled,
Controller events will be placed anywhere in time. Regardless of the Snap to Grid state, Controller
evetns are only inserted where there is a change in value.
When painting velocities in the Notes pane, velocities are updated as the mouse passes through
Note events. When painting velocities in the Controllers pane, the behavior is the same as the Paint
Notes/Controllers Linear action.
See:
To configure a Mouse Action
Note split
SONAR now allows you to click on a Note event to split it into two separate Note events. The split
occurs at the mouse position where the Note event is clicked.
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Note Split is one of the programmable mouse Actions, which can be assigned to any mouse button
and key combination. By default, Note Split is assigned to the middle mouse button when using the
Select tool. For more information, see “Flexible Piano Roll tools” on page 457.
Note: The Note Split action only works on one note at a time.
To split a note
1. In the Piano Roll view or inline Piano Roll, click the Select button
to enable the Select tool.
2. Click the middle mouse button at the exact position you wish to split a Note event.
The Note event is split into two separate Note events at the mouse position.
Note: These instructions apply to the default mouse assignments and will not apply if you have
re-assigned the Note Split mouse action to different settings (see “Flexible Piano Roll tools” on
page 457). If your mouse does not have a middle button, you may want to reassign Note Split
to another button.
Note glue
SONAR now allows you to glue multiple Note events together so they form a single Note event.
The Note events you glue together don't have to be consecutive—you can skip some Note events if
you like, but only Note events of the same pitch can be glued together.
Note Glue is one of the programmable mouse Actions, which can be assigned to any mouse button
and key combination. By default, Note Glue is assigned to ALT+middle-click when using the Select
tool. For more information, see “Flexible Piano Roll tools” on page 457.
To glue notes together
1. In the Piano Roll view or inline Piano Roll, click the Select button
to enable the Select tool.
2. Hold down the ALT key and click with the middle mouse button on an empty area or on the first
Note event you wish to glue.
3. While still holding down the ALT key and middle mouse button, drag across the Note events you
wish to glue together.
The first Note event encountered will become the anchor pitch. Any other Note events
encountered on that same pitch will be glued together when the mouse button is released,
forming a single note event.
The Note events that will be glued together turn red when the mouse crosses them.
Note: These instructions apply to the default mouse assignments and will not apply if you have
re-assigned the Note Glue mouse action to different settings (see “Flexible Piano Roll tools” on
page 457). If your mouse does not have a middle button, you may want to reassign Note Glue
to another button.
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Drag-quantize
SONAR makes it very easy to quantize individual Note events (or other MIDI events) without having
to use the Process > Quantize command.
Drag Quantize works by clicking on an event (or one of many selected events), and moving the
mouse up and down. The up direction moves the events toward the quantize target times; downward
motion moves them away from the quantize target times. You immediately see the data being moved
towards the target in real-time as you adjust the mouse position.
Drag Quantize is one of the programmable mouse “Actions”, which can be assigned to any mouse
button and key combination. By default, Drag Quantize is assigned to CTRL+middle-click when
using the Select tool. For more information, see “Flexible Piano Roll tools” on page 457.
Drag quantize strength
The quantize strength is continuously variable based on mouse dragging and the results are visible
in real-time. It is even possible to have “negative” strength, which allows you to un-quantize events
(move them away from the target quantize time).
As you drag the mouse up or down, a dynamic tooltip shows the current quantize strength (-100% to
+100%). A “deadband” around 0% allows the Drag Quantize tool to easily position the selected MIDI
events at their original position.
Drag quantize resolution
The quantize resolution is determined by the current Snap to Grid resolution if snapping is enabled
(see “Defining and Using the Snap Grid” on page 316). If Snap to Grid is disabled, SONAR will
analyze the selected events and automatically determine a suitable resolution.
To drag-quantize MIDI events
1. Select the MIDI events you wish to quantize (see “Selecting Notes” on page 441 and “Selecting
Controllers” on page 472).
2. In the Piano Roll view or inline Piano Roll, click the Select button
to enable the Select tool.
3. Hold down the CTRL key and click the middle mouse button on any of the selected events and do
one of the following:
• Move the mouse upward to move the selected events toward the quantize target times.
• Move the mouse downward to move the selected events away from the quantize target times.
As you drag the mouse up or down, a dynamic tooltip shows the current quantize strength (-100%
to +100%).
Note: These instructions apply to the default mouse assignments and will not apply if you have
re-assigned the Drag Quantize mouse action to different settings (see “Flexible Piano Roll tools”
on page 457). If your mouse does not have a middle button, you may want to reassign Drag
Quantize to another button.
MIDI event mute
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SONAR allows you to mute individual Note events directly in the Piano Roll view or inline Piano Roll.
Muted events are excluded from rendering during playback and MIDI meters do not light up for
muted events.
Event Mute is one of the programmable mouse Actions, which can be assigned to any mouse
button and key combination. By default, Event Mute is assigned to SHIFT+middle-click when using
the Select tool. For more information, see “Flexible Piano Roll tools” on page 457.
Muted events are shown using a variation of the Clip Mute color but only the outline of the events
are shown. In the following example, the first four Note events are Event-Muted. The last four Note
events are muted using the Mute tool on the clip. The Note events in the middle are not muted at all.
A
B
C
A. Event-Muted (hollow; the note outline uses the Clip Mute color) B. Unmuted events (track color) C. Muted
using the Mute tool on the clip (Clip Mute color)
To mute/unmute Note/Controller events
1. In the Piano Roll view or inline Piano Roll, click the Select button
to enable the Select tool.
2. Hold down the SHIFT key and do one of the following:
• To mute/unmute only a single Note or Controller event. Click the middle mouse button on
the Note/Controller event you want to mute/unmute and release the mouse button.
• To mute/unmute multiple Note or Controller events. Click the middle mouse button on
any Note/Controller event you want to mute/unmute and drag the mouse over all other events
you also want to mute/unmute, then release the mouse button.
When dragging over multiple events, the events are temporarily drawn in a different color. All
touched events will automatically inherit the opposite mute state of the first event you click,
regardless of their current mute state. That is, all touched events are set to the opposite mute
state of the first event.
You can choose to abort the mute/unmute operation by pressing Esc before you release the
mouse button.
Note: These instructions apply to the default mouse assignments and will not apply if you have
re-assigned the Event Mute mouse action to different settings (see “Flexible Piano Roll tools” on
page 457). If your mouse does not have a middle button, you may want to reassign Event Mute
to another button.
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See:
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Silencing tracks
Flexible Piano Roll tools
Erase tool behavior
The Erase tool marks events for deletion instead of automatically deleting them. When you touch
events with the Erase tool, the events are not actually deleted until you release the mouse button.
Events that are marked for deletion are temporarily drawn in a different color. You can choose to
abort the delete operation by pressing Esc before you release the mouse button.
Note hit testing improvements
Note events are painted in chronological order. Note events that are later in time will be at a higher zorder (toward the top) than earlier Note events. As a result, the end time of a Note event may be
obscured by a later Note event.
Example 1. Two overlapping Note events. It is not clear where the first Note event ends.
Example 2. The same two overlapping Note events shown as different pitches.
When multiple Note events exist at the mouse location, SONAR will prioritize the best candidate
Note event by comparing the mouse location’s proximity to the left and right edges of each Note
event. When the best candidate is found among the overlapping Note events, SONAR will
temporarily show the full duration of that candidate Note event while the mouse is hovering over it.
This allows you to alter the right edge of the earlier Note event without having to temporarily move
the later Note event out of the way.
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Example 3. In SONAR, the full duration of the earlier Note event is shown when hovering the mouse near the
end of the Note event.
Velocity Audition options
The Velocity Audition and Polyphonic Velocity Audition options have been moved to a more
convenient location in the PRV Tool Configuration dialog.
These two options were previously available in the Edit MIDI Event Type drop-down menu in the
Piano Roll view and inline Piano Roll.
See:
To Edit Velocity
PRV Tool Configuration dialog
Hiding events in muted clips
By default, events in muted MIDI clips are shown in the Piano Roll view. SONAR provides an option
to exclude muted clips from displaying in the Piano Roll view.
To show/hide events in muted clips
1. In the Piano Roll view or inline Piano Roll, click the small drop-down arrow in the Show/Hide MIDI
Events button
.
2. Choose Hide Muted Clips from the pop-up menu.
The state of the Hide Muted Clips option is saved with the project, and the settings are separate for
the Piano Roll view and the inline Piano Roll.
See:
Clip Muting and Isolating (Clip Soloing)
Adjust velocity without changing the Display Type
In previous versions of SONAR, clicking on the Velocity section of a note event would automatically
switch the current Edit Type to Velocity and also make velocity tails visible. This is normally not
desirable since you may frequently want to adjust velocities while primarily working with a different
edit type (Controllers, etc.).
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Because Velocity is really an attribute of another event type (Note), SONAR treats Velocity
differently than other controller events. This allows you to configure the visibility of continuous
controllers (CCs, xRPNs, etc.) and still perform an occasional velocity edit without the need to revert
back to the previous display and edit settings.
Example:
1. CC7 is the current Edit Type and note velocity tails are hidden.
2. When clicking the Velocity section of a note event, the Edit Type remains CC7 and only the dragged velocity is
temporarily shown.
3. When the mouse button is released, the Edit Type remains CC7 and velocity tails remain hidden.
See:
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
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Flexible Piano Roll tools
SONAR has three different Piano Roll mouse tools. Each tool can be customized to perform any
available mouse action. There can be as much or as little overlap in functionality as you want
between the tools.
Don’t care for some of SONAR’s default Piano Roll tool behaviors? No problem, simply re-assign the
tools to suit your preferred editing style.
There are approximately 20 different mouse actions that the Piano Roll tools can perform, such as
selecting, drawing, erasing, slip-editing, transposing, etc. It’s difficult to make a single tool that can
perform all of these actions, so SONAR allows you to customize the Piano Roll tools to suit your own
editing requirements.
There are three mouse buttons (left, middle and right) and three modifier keys (CTRL, SHIFT and
ALT) that can be used in any combination. Your custom Piano Roll tool assignments can be saved
as presets and apply to both the Piano Roll view and the inline Piano Roll.
See:
The PRV Tool Configuration dialog
To configure a Mouse Action
Mouse Location
Tool Action
Default PRV tool assignments
The PRV Tool Configuration dialog
You use the PRV Tool Configuration dialog to configure the Piano Roll tools. In order to assign a
specific action to a Piano Roll tool, you must specify the following:
• Piano Roll tool. Specify PRV Tool 1 (
), PRV Tool 2 (
) or PRV Tool 3 (
).
• Mouse button. Specify the left, middle or right mouse button.
• Keyboard modifier key(s) (optional). Specify the CTRL, SHIFT or ALT key, or any
combination of the three.
• Mouse location (context). Specify one of the seven clickable mouse locations (see “Mouse
Location” on page 459).
• Tool action. Specify one of the many available mouse actions (see “Tool Action” on page 460).
The objective is to map each of the contexts (mouse locations) to a tool action.
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A
C
B
D
E
F
A. Tool B. Context C. Keys D. Mouse Button E. Mouse Location F. Tool Action
See:
Tool
Mouse Button
Keys
Mouse Location
Tool Action
To configure a Mouse Action
Default PRV tool assignments
Tool
The Tool combobox lists the three Piano Roll tools:
• PRV Tool 1. This tool corresponds to the Select tool (
) in the Piano Roll toolbar.
• PRV Tool 2. This tool corresponds to the Draw tool (
) in the Piano Roll toolbar.
• PRV Tool 3. This tool corresponds to the Erase tool (
) in the Piano Roll toolbar.
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See:
To Edit Notes with the Draw Tool
To Edit Notes with the Select Tool
To Use the Erase Tool
Mouse Button
SONAR allows you to assign the following mouse buttons:
• Left
• Middle (if available)
• Right
Keys
In addition to a mouse button, you can optionally configure a mouse action to also use any
combination of the following keys:
• CTRL
• SHIFT
• ALT
Note: Because Windows has a long-established standard of using CTRL-drag for copy
operations, there is a potential conflict when using the CTRL key to program actions that involve
moving events. Therefore, the CTRL key requires some special attention:
If the CTRL key is part of a context for a move action, copying will be disabled if the CTRL key is
pressed.
Mouse Location
Each Piano Roll tool can perform various actions depending on where you click. The following is a
list of the seven clickable mouse locations with regard to events:
• Controller.
Click the handle (top part) of a Controller event.
• Note Slip Start (left edge).
Click the left edge of a Note event.
• Note Time Adjust.
zone.
Click near left edge of a Note event, slightly to the right of the Note Slip Start
• Note Pitch Adjust.
Click the center part of a Note event.
• Note Slip End (right edge).
• Note Velocity Adjust.
Click the right edge of a Note event.
Click the top part of a Note event.
• Nowhere. Click anywhere outside a Note event or Controller event.
A diagram displays the possible mouse locations in regards to Note events and Controller events:
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G
A
F
BC
D
E
A. Controller B. Note Slip Start C. Note Time Adjust D. Note Pitch Adjust E. Note Slip End F. Note Velocity
Adjust G. Nowhere
The Note event in the previous diagram has dotted lines that outline the various hit zones on Note
events as possible context locations. It also shows a single value (controller) event as another
context location. Clicking outside the Note event and value event is referred to as the “Nowhere”
context location.
Tool Action
Below is a list of all possible Piano Roll mouse tool actions. Depending on the mouse location
(context), only a subset of these actions may be available.
Note: As described in the “Mouse Move” column in the following table, a tool action may
behave differently depending on where it is used in the Piano Roll view. The Piano Roll view has
three different environments:
• Note-only grid. This refers to the Notes pane when the Controllers pane is shown (see
“Notes Pane” on page 436).
• Value-only grid. This refers to the Controllers pane (see “Controller Pane” on page 436).
• Mixed grid. This refers to the Notes pane when both Note events and Controller events
are displayed together (the Controllers pane is hidden).
Action
Mouse Down
Mouse Move
Mouse Up
No Action
n/a
n/a
n/a
Insert/Move Note/
Controller
Add Note/Controller to edit
buffer
Move inserted Note/
Controller horizontally and
vertically
Commit edit buffer.
Table 84.
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Action
Mouse Down
Mouse Move
Mouse Up
Paint Notes/Controllers
See Note/controller
painting (freehand)
Add Note/Controller to edit
buffer
Insert additional events at
mouse position. For notes,
use snap as interval
between and duration of
notes. For Controllers, use
snap as interval between.
Commit edit buffer.
Paint Notes/Controllers
Linear
See Note/controller
painting (linear)
Add Note/Controller to edit
buffer
Commit edit buffer.
Insert additional events at
mouse position in straight
line from where mouse was
originally clicked.
Paint Controllers/
Velocities
See Controller/velocity
painting (freehand)
Commit edit buffer.
Add Controller to edit buffer In note grid, paint existing
velocities as mouse passes
through notes. In value
grid, do same as Paint
Notes/Controllers
Paint Controllers/
Velocities Linear
See Controller/velocity
painting (linear)
Add Controller to edit buffer In note grid, paint existing
velocities linearly from
original mouse click point.
In value grid, do same as
Paint Notes/Controllers
Linear.
Commit edit buffer.
Lasso Selection
Begin lasso drag
Continue lasso rectangle
Select all events
within lasso rectangle.
Obey CTRL/SHIFT as
standard modifiers.
Erase Sweep
See Erase tool behavior
Mark any hit event as
deleted
Mark notes that are hit in
both pitch and time for
deletion. Mark Controllers
that are crossed in time for
deletion
Commit edit buffer.
Move Notes/Controllers
n/a
Move selected notes/
Controllers horizontally (in
time) and vertically
Commit edit buffer
Move Notes/Controllers
(Vert)
n/a
Move selected notes/
Controllers vertically only
Commit edit buffer
Move Notes/Controllers
(Time)
n/a
Move selected notes/
Controllers in time only
(horizontally)
Commit edit buffer
Table 84.
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
Flexible Piano Roll tools
461
Action
Mouse Down
Mouse Move
Mouse Up
Sel and Move Notes/
Controllers
Select any hit event. Obey
SHIFT/CTRL as standard
modifiers
Move selected notes/
Controllers horizontally (in
time) and vertically
Commit edit buffer
Sel and Move Notes/
Controllers (Vert)
Select any hit event. Obey
SHIFT/CTRL as standard
modifiers
Move selected notes/
Controllers vertically only
Commit edit buffer
Sel and Move Notes/
Controllers (Time)
Select any hit event. Obey
SHIFT/CTRL as standard
modifiers
Move selected notes/
Controllers in time only
(horizontally)
Commit edit buffer
Note Slip Start Adjust
n/a
Adjust start time and
duration of selected notes.
Obey snap settings
Commit edit buffer
Note Slip End Adjust
n/a
Adjust duration of selected
notes. Obey snap settings
Commit edit buffer
Note Velocity Adjust
n/a
Adjust velocity of selected
notes
Commit edit buffer
Note Split
See Note split
Split hit note in to two notes
at mouse time. Obey snap
settings
n/a
Commit edit buffer.
Note Glue
See Note glue
Add any hit note to the edit
buffer
Add any notes hit to edit
buffer if same pitch as
clicked note
Make one long note
out of notes in edit
buffer. Commit edit
buffer.
Drag Quantize
See Drag-quantize
Add Note/Controller to edit
buffer
Commit edit buffer.
Move mouse upward to
move selected events
toward quantize target
times.
Move mouse downward to
move selected events away
from quantize target times.
Event Mute
See MIDI event mute
Add Note/Controller to edit
buffer
Mute any hit event.
Commit edit buffer
Context Menu
n/a
n/a
Show context menu
Table 84.
To configure a Mouse Action
1. Select Options > PRV Tool Configuration to open the PRV Tool Configuration dialog.
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The PRV Tool Configuration dialog appears.
2. In the Tools combobox, choose the Piano Roll tool you wish to assign (PRV Tool 1, PRV Tool 2 or
PRV Tool 3).
3. Do one of the following:
• Hold down the key(s) you wish to use (if any) and click with the desired mouse button directly
on a context (mouse location) in the diagram. The appropriate Key and Mouse Button check
boxes and radio buttons will be automatically checked.
• In the diagram, click on one of the seven contexts (mouse locations) you wish to assign, then
select the Mouse Button and Key settings you wish to use.
The clicked mouse location is indicated in the diagram and the Mouse Location box shows the
name of the clicked mouse location.
4. In the Tool Action combobox, select the desired action (for a description of each action, see “Tool
Action” on page 460).
Note: The possible actions will vary depending on the clicked mouse location.
5. Click OK to close the PRV Tool Configuration dialog.
See:
The PRV Tool Configuration dialog
Default PRV tool assignments
When using the default tool assignments, the ALT modifier key generally swaps the behavior of the
Draw and Select tools, allowing you to perform most common edit operations without having to
actually switch tools.
Note: Some of the new tool actions, such as Note Split and Event Mute, are assigned by
default to the middle mouse button. If your mouse does not have a middle button, you may want
to reassign these actions to another button (see “To configure a Mouse Action” on page 462).
Below is a list of each tool’s default assignments.
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
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463
PRV Tool 1 (Select
) default settings
Location
Mouse
Button
Nowhere
Left
Lasso Selection
Note (all zones)
Left
Select and Move Notes
Controller
Left
Select and Move Controllers
Controller
Left
ALT
Move Notes/Controllers
Nowhere
Left
ALT
Insert/Move Note/Controller
Note (Slip Start)
Left
ALT
Note Slip Start Adjust
Note (Time Adjust)
Left
ALT
Move Notes (Time)
Note (Pich Adjust)
Left
ALT
Move Notes (Vertically)
Note (Slip End)
Left
ALT
Note Slip End Adjust
Note (Velocity Adjust)
Left
ALT
Note Velocity Adjust
Note (all zones)
Middle
CTRL
Drag-Quantize
Controller
Middle
CTRL
Drag-Quantize
Note (all zones)
Middle
SHIFT
Event Mute
Controller
Middle
SHIFT
Event Mute
Note (all zones)
Middle
Note
Middle
Key(s)
Action
Note Split
ALT
Note Glue
Table 85.
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PRV Tool 2 (Draw
) default settings
Location
Mouse Button
Key(s)
Action
Nowhere
Left
Insert/Move Note/Controller
Note (Slip Start)
Left
Note Slip Start Adjust
Note (Time Adjust)
Left
Move Notes (Time)
Note (Pich Adjust)
Left
Move Notes (Vertically)
Note (Slip End)
Left
Note Slip End Adjust
Note (Velocity
Adjust)
Left
Note Velocity Adjust
Controller
Left
Move Controllers
Nowhere
Left
CTRL
Paint Notes/Controllers Free
Nowhere
Left
CTRL+SHIFT
Paint Notes/Controllers Linear
Nowhere
Left
ALT
Lasso Selection
Note
Left
ALT
Select and Move Notes
Controller
Left
ALT
Select and Move Controllers
Nowhere
Middle
Erase Sweep
Note
Middle
Erase Sweep
Controller
Middle
Erase Sweep
Table 86.
PRV Tool 3 (Erase
) default settings
Location
Mouse Button
Key(s)
Action
Nowhere
Left
Erase Sweep
Note
Left
Erase Sweep
Controller
Left
Erase Sweep
Table 87.
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
Flexible Piano Roll tools
465
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
Controller events (MIDI continuous controllers, pitch wheel, NRPN’s, and RPN’s) appear in either
the Notes Pane or the Controller pane, depending on whether you choose to display the Controller
pane or not. Each controller event has an edit handle at the top, which you can drag to edit, and a
tail under the edit handle, which graphically demonstrates the controller event’s current value. The
tail changes colors to show whether you can edit a particular type of controller, and also turns dark to
show that the controller event is selected. Controller events appear in different colors so you can
differentiate them when you’re displaying multiple controller events, possibly in multiple tracks.
Note: Only the current track and current events appear in a solid color. All other tracks and
events appear in de-saturated colors.
A
B
C
A. A single controller event B. Edit handle (also called Controller handle C. Controller tail
To show which events belong to which track, and which ones are the “current” events (the ones you
can edit), and which events are selected, controller events use the following color patterns:
• Controller tail. Uses the same color as the edit handle when the controller can be edited (in
other words, when the controller is selected in the Edit MIDI Event Type menu). You can
automatically enable a controller type for editing by clicking its edit handle with the Draw tool.
• Selected. If a controller event is selected, both the edit handle and the tail darken in shade the
way that selected notes do.
See:
Adding Controllers
Selecting Controllers
Editing Controllers
Multiple automation controller lanes
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Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
The Controller pane in the multi-track Piano Roll view (not the inline Piano Roll) is split up into
multiple lanes—one lane for each unique event type in the track.
You can freely create new lanes to display and edit MIDI data such as velocity, modulation, pitch
bend and CCs (Continuous Controllers) and events can be moved and copied between lanes.
G
H
A
B
C
D
E
F
A. Velocity lane B. Wheel lane C. CC92 lane D. Add new lane E. Remove lane F. “Active” lane (darker shade)
G. Scale pane H. Controller pane
See:
Working with MIDI data lanes.
To create a new lane.
To delete a lane.
To assign an Event Type to a lane.
To copy events between lanes.
To move events between lanes.
Working with MIDI data lanes
The Controller pane allows you to display and edit non-note MIDI data, such as velocity, modulation,
pitch bend and continuous controllers (CCs), in multiple lanes at the bottom of the Piano Roll view.
When you open the Piano Roll view, SONAR will automatically create a separate MIDI data lane for
each unique data type that is present in the selected track(s).
When you click on a lane—either in the controller pane or in the scale pane—that lane becomes
“active” and turns a slightly darker shade. The significance is that the active lane is the one that
becomes controlled by the Event Type pickers in the top left corner of the Piano Roll view.
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467
Each lane can be configured to show one or more event types.
B
C
A
A. The Event Type pickers apply to the active lane B. Show/Hide MIDI Events picker C. MIDI Event Type picker
See:
To assign an Event Type to a lane.
To create a new lane
1. In the multi-track Piano Roll view, make sure the Controllers pane is shown at the bottom. If it is
not displayed, do one of the following:
• Click the Use Controller Pane button
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
• Press C.
2. Do one of the following:
• Click the Plus button
in the bottom left corner of any existing lane.
• Press SHIFT+L.
A new lane is inserted below the lane that was clicked (or below the active lane if you pressed
SHIFT+L). SONAR will try to automatically assign the lane to any event type that exists in the
track, provided the event type is not already assigned to another lane.
To delete a lane
To delete an existing lane, click the Minus button
in the bottom left corner of the lane.
If there is only one lane that is opened, this command will close the Controller Pane.
Note: Deleting a lane does not delete any MIDI events from the track.
To assign an Event Type to a lane
Use the MIDI Event Type drop-down lists in the Piano Roll to select which MIDI data type you want
to display and edit in the active lane.
1. Click the lane you wish to assign to a specific event type.
The lane appears darker than other lanes to indicate that it is the active lane.
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2. Click the MIDI Event Type picker
.
The MIDI Event Type pop-up menu appears.
3. Do one of the following:
• To specify a new event type that doesn’t already exist in the track, choose New Value Type
and select the desired event type in the MIDI Event Type dialog.
• To specify an event type that already exists in the track, select the event type from the MIDI
Event Type pop-up menu.
The name of the current edit type is displayed in the lane.
See:
Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll View Only)
To show/hide multiple Event Types in a lane
1. Click the lane in which you wish to display multiple event types.
The lane appears darker than other lanes to indicate that it is the active lane.
2. Click the small drop-down arrow in Show/Hide MIDI Event Type picker
.
The Show/Hide MIDI Event pop-up menu appears.
3. Select the event type you wish to show/hide in the lane.
Visible event types appear checked and hidden event types appear unchecked.
Note: The event types you wish to display must already exist in the track before you can
choose them from the Show/Hide MIDI Events picker.
4. Repeat steps 2-3 for any additional event types you wish to show/hide in the active lane.
See:
Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll View Only)
To copy events between lanes
When you copy events from one lane to another lane, the MIDI data is transformed to match the edit
type in the target lane.
1. Select the event types you wish to copy to another lane. See “Selecting Controllers” on page 472
for more information.
2. In the Scale pane, right-click the lane you wish to copy the selected events to.
The lane context menu appears.
3. Click Copy selected events to this lane.
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
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469
The selected events are copied to the destination track.
Note: It is impossible to copy selected events to a lane that has an edit type of Velocity; the
type of event to transform to would be Note and the pitch could not be specified in this case. In
this case, the Copy selected events to this lane menu command will be disabled and appear
grayed out.
A
B
A. Scale pane B. Right-click the lane in the scale pane
To move events between lanes
When you move events from one lane to another lane, the MIDI data is transformed to match the
edit type in the target lane.
1. Select the event types you wish to move to another lane. See “Selecting Controllers” on page 472
for more information.
2. In the Scale pane, right-click the lane you wish to move the selected events to.
The lane context menu appears.
3. Click Move selected events to this lane.
The selected events are moved to the destination track.
Note: It is impossible to move selected events to a lane that has an edit type of Velocity; the
type of event to transform to would be Note and the pitch could not be specified in this case. In
this case, the Move selected events to this lane menu command will be disabled and appear
grayed out.
Adding Controllers
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Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
When you add a new controller type to a track, the controller type is automatically chosen in the
Show/Hide MIDI Events menu, so that you can see it. For help showing and hiding all the other
MIDI data you may have in your track or tracks, see “Displaying Notes and Controllers in the Inline
Piano Roll View” on page 480, “Displaying Notes and Controllers (Piano Roll View Only)” on page
440, and “Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View” on page 437.
To Add Controller Data with the Draw Tool
1. Click the Edit MIDI Event Type menu
menu.
, and choose New Value Type from the pop-up
The MIDI Event Type dialog appears.
2. Choose options from the following fields:
• Type. Choose the type of controller you want to add (for example, choose Control if you want
to edit volume).
• Value. This field is greyed-out if you choose Wheel or ChanAft in the Type field. If you
choose Control, RPN, or NRPN in the Type field, choose which Control, RPN, or NRPN you
want to add. For example, to edit volume, choose 7-Volume in this field if you chose Control in
the Type field.
• Channel. Choose a MIDI channel for the controller if you want. If your track has a MIDI
channel listed in the Ch field, all MIDI data in your track uses the listed MIDI channel.
3. Click OK to close the dialog.
4. Activate the Draw tool in either the Piano Roll view toolbar or the Inline Piano Roll toolbar
(depending on which view you’re working in), and add your controller values by using one of the
following methods:
• Depress the mouse at the point where you want your controller messages to start, and drag
the Draw tool to draw the kind of curve you want your controller messages to follow. A tooltip
appears when you depress the mouse, and constantly reports the controller name, channel,
value, and location of the controller value that you are entering. Release the mouse where you
want your curve to end.
Tip: To draw a straight line, hold the SHIFT key down while you draw.
• To add one controller event at a time, click each place that you want to add a controller value.
A tooltip appears when you click, and reports the controller name, channel, value, and location
of the controller value that you are entering.
The controller events you added appear as vertical lines, each with an edit handle at the top that you
can drag. Each different type of controller event appears with a different color (see “Adding and
Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll” on page 466 for more information).
When you use the Draw tool, the speed with which you drag the mouse determines the density of
controller events. To insert a larger number of controller events with relatively small changes in
value, move the mouse slowly. To insert a smaller number of controller events with relatively large
changes in value, drag the mouse quickly.
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
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471
To Insert a Series of Controllers
1. Choose Insert > Controllers to display the Insert Series of Controllers dialog box.
2. Choose the controller type from the Insert list.
3. Choose the controller number or type from the Number list.
4. Use the spinners or enter the desired MIDI channel.
5. Enter a starting and ending value in the Begin and End boxes.
6. Enter a starting and ending time in the From and Thru boxes.
7. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR inserts a series of controller events with values that change smoothly over time from the
starting to the ending value indicated in the dialog box. This command never inserts more than one
event on the same clock tick. If any controllers of the type you have selected already exist in the time
region, SONAR deletes these before inserting the new ones.
See:
Selecting Controllers
Editing Controllers
Selecting Controllers
To perform many editing procedures on controllers, you first need to select the controller events you
want to edit. A selected controller event turns dark when it is selected. You can select a single
controller event, multiple controller events of the same type, or all controller events.
To Select Controller Events of the Same Type
1. Click the Edit MIDI Event Type menu
from the pop-up menu.
, choose the type of event you want to select
2. Activate the Select tool in the Piano Roll toolbar or the Inline Piano Roll toolbar (depending on
which view you’re working in), and select one or more controller events by using the following
techniques:
• Drag a rectangle around the edit handles of the controller events that you want to select.
• SHIFT-click or SHIFT-drag to add other controllers to the selection.
• CTRL-click to or CTRL-drag toggle the selection state of a controller.
• Click and drag in the Time Ruler.
Select controllers within note duration
When editing MIDI data it is often necessary to align the timing of Controller events with that of Note
events. For example, Sustain Pedal (CC64) events need to move along with the notes they are
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Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
supposed to sustain, and Pitch Wheel events need to move along with the notes whose pitch they
are supposed to modify.
When the Select Controllers within Note Duration mode is enabled, selecting a Note event or a
range of Note events will also automatically select any Controller events that exist within the time
range of the Note event(s).
Note events can be selected by clicking the notes or by lasso-selecting the notes. For more
information, see “Selecting Notes” on page 441.
The following rules apply when multiple Note / Controller event types are selected:
• Dragging a Note event vertically will not affect the selected Controller event(s).
• Dragging a Note event in time (horizontally) will also drag the Controller event(s) along with it in
time.
• Dragging Controller events vertically will not affect the selected Note event(s).
• Dragging Controller events in time will also drag Note events along with them in time.
• If multiple Controller types are selected, only the type you click on can be dragged vertically. The
rest will only move in time (horizontally).
To enable/disable ‘Select Controllers within Note Duration’
Click the Select Controllers within Note Duration button
or the Inline Piano Roll toolbar in the Track view.
in either the Piano Roll view toolbar
The toolbar button lights up when enabled.
Note: The state of the Select Controllers within Note Duration mode is global and applies to
both the Piano Roll view and inline Piano Roll.
Editing Controllers
Each controller value appears with a handle at the top of it, which you can drag vertically with the
Select tool or the Draw tool, or horizontally (Select tool only).
Activate the Select tool or the Draw tool by clicking their respective icons in either the Piano Roll
view toolbar, or the Inline Piano Roll toolbar, depending on which view you’re working in.
Tip: You can assign the Inline Piano Roll view tools to key bindings.
To Edit or Delete Controller Events with the Select Tool
1. Select the type of controller events you want to edit by clicking the Edit MIDI Event Type menu
, and choosing the controller type from the pop-up menu.
The controller events you chose change shade to show that you can edit them.
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
473
2. Drag the edit handle of each controller event that you want to edit vertically and/or horizontally. A
tooltip appears when you depress the mouse, and constantly reports the controller name,
channel, value, and location of the controller value that you are editing. Release the mouse where
you want your controller value to be.
3. To delete controller events, select them, and press the DELETE key.
To Edit or Delete Controller Events with the Draw Tool
1. Select the type of controller events you want to edit by clicking the Edit MIDI Event Type menu,
and choosing the controller type from the pop-up menu.
Or
1. Click an edit handle on the type of controller events you want to edit. This automatically chooses
the controller in the Edit MIDI Event Type menu.
The tails of the controller events you choose change to the same color as their edit handles to
show that you can edit them.
2. Edit the controller by using any of the following methods:
• To edit a single event, drag an edit handle vertically.
• Redraw a series of controller events by dragging a new curve through the events.
• Delete a single controller event by activating the Erase button, and clicking a controller’s edit
handle. You can override the Erase button (temporarily reverse its current state) by holding
down the ALT key while you click.
See:
Working with Multiple Tracks in the Piano Roll View
Piano Roll Microscope mode
The Piano Roll Microscope mode makes it much easier to edit MIDI data without constantly needing
to change zoom settings. This is especially useful in the inline Piano Roll where track heights are
typically sized such that MIDI notes become very small.
When Microscope mode is enabled, a transparent rounded square centered on the mouse cursor
shows a zoomed in region of the Piano Roll data underneath it:
Only the work area under the mouse is zoomed in while the rest of the data retains its normal size.
Here is an example of dense MIDI data that is difficult to edit at the current zoom level:
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With Microscope mode turned on, the area under the mouse looks like this:
Microscope mode also works with Drum Maps:
To enable/disable Microscope mode
To enable/disable Microscope mode, do one of the following:
• Click the Microscope Enable button
Piano Roll toolbar in the Track view.
in either the Piano Roll view toolbar or the Inline
• Choose Options > PRV Tool Configuration and toggle the Microscope check box.
How Microscope mode works
Position. The Microscope is always centered on the mouse position.
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
475
Size. The size of the Microscope is configurable. The default diameter is 100 pixels. See
“Configuring Microscope mode options” on page 476 for more information.
Transparency. The Microscope maintains a certain level of transparency so that the real-sized
data can always be seen.
Zoom Factor (vertical). The amount of vertical zoom varies with the existing zoom level of the
data. Generally, the note height under the microscope has a minimum height of 8 pixels and scales
up from there depending on the existing zoom of the data. The microscope data will always be
bigger than the original regardless of how far it is zoomed in.
Zoom Factor (horizontal/time). The microscope will provide some horizontal magnification when
the view zoom is such that notes become very narrow.
Tip: Use Fast Zoom in combination with Microscope mode if you wish to quickly zoom around the
current mouse position. See “To Zoom Using the Mouse Wheel (Fast Zoom)” on page 301 for more
details.
Configuring Microscope mode options
There are several settings that let you configure the size and zoom level of the microscope.
To Configure Microscope Mode Options
To configure the Microscope mode settings, choose Options > PRV Tool Configuration to open
the PRV Tool Configuration dialog.
The following options are available:
Microscope.
Use this check box to enable/disable Microscope mode (enabled by default).
Diagonal Size. Use this numeric entry box to specify the diameter size in pixels of the microscope.
The valid range is 20-250 and the default value is 100.
Show When Note Height Less Than. Microscope mode will only be enabled if the note heights
(in pixels) are equal or less than this number. The valid range is 2-20 and the default value is 6.
Magnifying Time. Use this check box to enable/disable horizontal magnification when the Piano
Roll view zoom is such that notes become very narrow.
In addition to these options, there are some other parameters that can be configured by adding the
following INI variables to the WinCake section of Cakewalk.ini (see Cakewalk.ini):
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Variable
Type
Default
value
MicroscopeHZoomThreshold=<1..20>
Integer
8
By default, the Microscope mode begins
horizontal magnification when a 32nd note
is narrower than 8 pixels. This line lets you
specify the horizontal zoom threshold (1-20
pixels).
MicroscopeHZoomMax=<2.0 - 8.0>
Integer
3.0
This line specifies the highest horizontal
magnification that will result when using
Microscope mode.
What it does
Table 88.
The Inline Piano Roll View
The Inline Piano Roll view lets you edit note and continuous controller events for a single track
directly in the Track view. Clicking the PRV Mode button in a track changes the Clips pane for that
track into a single-track Piano Roll view which displays all the track’s MIDI data, including data from
all track layers. If a track uses a Drum Map, the Inline Piano Roll view for that track displays the
Drum Map’s note names on the track’s MIDI Scale (see “The MIDI Scale” on page 479 for more
information).
In this view, you can:
• Edit notes and controller events
• Edit multiple notes or events
• Display multiple controller types simultaneously
• Choose which MIDI events you want to display
• Use separate Snap to Grid settings in the Clips pane mode and Inline Piano Roll mode
You control the Inline Piano Roll view with controls in the Inline Piano Roll toolbar, the MIDI Scale,
and four buttons found in the Track strip controls of each track: the PRV Mode button, the Show/
Hide MIDI Events button, the Edit MIDI Event Type button, and the Note Duration button. These
three buttons appear when you enable the PRV Mode button.
The Inline Piano Roll toolbar is part of the Track view toolbar.
See the following two figures:
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
The Inline Piano Roll View
477
Figure 81.
Track strip in PRV mode
C
D
B
A
E
A. Edit MIDI Event Type menu B. Note Duration menu C. Show/Hide MIDI Events button D. PRV Mode button
E. MIDI Scale
Figure 82.
A B
Inline Piano Roll toolbar
C D
E
F
G
H
I
A. PRV Select tool B. Draw tool C. Draw tool Auto Erase menu D. Erase tool E. Show/Hide Notes F. Show/
Hide Controllers G. Show/hide velocity tails (on drum-mapped tacks) H. Fit Content I. PRV Mode
See also:
Displaying the Inline Piano Roll View
The MIDI Scale
Displaying Notes and Controllers in the Inline Piano Roll View
Drawing and editing notes and controllers in the Inline Piano Roll view is the same in the Piano Roll
view, with a few exceptions (noted in the appropriate topics). The major difference is that you can
display and edit multiple tracks in the Piano Roll view.
To draw and edit notes and controllers in the Inline Piano Roll view, see “Adding and Editing Notes in
the Piano Roll” on page 441, and “Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll” on page 466.
Displaying the Inline Piano Roll View
Use the following methods to hide or show the Inline Piano Roll view.
To Hide or Show an Individual Track’s Inline Piano Roll View
• In the Track pane, click the PRV Mode button of the track that you want to display in Inline Piano
Roll view mode.
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Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
The Inline Piano Roll View
Or
• Double-click a MIDI clip in the Clips pane, if Inline Piano Roll Mode is selected in the MIDI Clips
field of the Clip Pane Options dialog. To open the Clips Pane Options dialog, right-click in the
Clips pane, and select View Options from the pop-up menu.
To Hide or Show All Tracks’ Inline Piano Roll Views
• In the Inline Piano Roll toolbar, click the PRV Mode button. The Inline Piano Roll toolbar is part of
the Track view toolbar.
Or
• Use the Tracks > In-line PRV > PRV Mode command.
See also:
The MIDI Scale
Displaying Notes and Controllers in the Inline Piano Roll View
The MIDI Scale
MIDI tracks have a control called the MIDI Scale. This control displays a vertical ruler labeled with
MIDI values (in 7bit Values mode) or MIDI notes (in Notes mode), giving you a visual guide for
editing notes and controllers. The MIDI Scale is also a vertical zoom control. If a track uses a Drum
Map, the MIDI Scale for that track displays the Drum Map’s note names on the track’s MIDI Scale (in
Notes mode).
Figure 83.
MIDI Scale in Notes mode
A
A. MIDI Scale
To Zoom Vertically with the MIDI Scale
1. Put the MIDI Scale into notes mode by right-clicking the MIDI Scale and choosing Notes from the
pop-up menu.
2. Hold the mouse over the MIDI Scale so that the cursor changes to a small vertical keyboard, and
drag upward to zoom in. The Inline Piano Roll view zooms in.
Note: In Notes mode, if the track is zoomed-out too far, there is not enough room in the MIDI
Scale to display the keyboard. To see the keyboard, you need to zoom in far enough to display
the keyboard.
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3. To zoom out, drag downward on the keyboard display.
You can also zoom by using the Track view zoom controls.
To Scroll Vertically with the MIDI Scale
• Right-click the MIDI Scale and drag up or down to scroll.
To Fit a Single Track’s Content into its Inline Piano Roll View
• Right-click the MIDI Scale and choose Fit Content from the pop-up menu.
Or
• CTRL-double-click the MIDI Scale.
To Audition and Select Notes
• To audition and select a note, SHIFT-click the note’s pitch in the MIDI Scale.
• To audition and select all notes within a certain range, SHIFT-drag through the notes’ range of
pitches in the MIDI Scale.
To Fit All Tracks’ Contents into their Inline Piano Roll Views
1. If you only want to use this command on certain tracks, select the tracks first. If no MIDI tracks are
selected, or if all MIDI tracks are selected, the command works on all MIDI tracks.
2. Do one of the following:
Use the Tracks > In-line PRV > Fit Content command.
Or
Click the Fit Content button on the Inline Piano Roll toolbar. The Inline Piano Roll toolbar is
part of the Track view toolbar.
To Change the MIDI Scale’s Display Mode
• Right-click the MIDI Scale to display the pop-up menu, and choose either 7bit Values (this
displays MIDI values), or Notes (this displays the keyboard).
See also:
Displaying the Inline Piano Roll View
Displaying Notes and Controllers in the Inline Piano Roll View
Displaying Notes and Controllers in the Inline Piano Roll View
Every MIDI track in the Track pane displays a Show/Hide MIDI Events button when the track is in
Inline Piano Roll mode. These buttons work independently in each track, and are also independent
from the Show/Hide MIDI Events button in the Piano Roll view.
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To Hide or Show Data in Individual Tracks
1. Click the drop-down arrow on the Show/Hide MIDI Events button
MIDI data in the track.
to display the menu of
2. Choose from the following menu options:
• To hide or show notes, click Show Notes.
• To hide or show a controller, click the name of the controller (for example, click CC: 1Modulation (Chan: 2)).
• To show all controllers in the current track, click Display All Continuous Events, or use step 4
below.
• To show or hide all the outlines of any clips in the track, click Show Clip Outlines.
3. After you choose an option, the menu closes. You can repeat steps 1 and 2 to choose more
options.
4. To hide or show all controllers, click the left side of the Show/Hide MIDI Events button. The
button turns white when all controllers are hidden, and blue when all controllers are showing.
To Hide or Show Notes in All Tracks
• Click the Show/Hide Notes button in the Inline Piano Roll toolbar.
or
• Use the Tracks > Show/Hide Notes command.
Both of these commands override the Show/Hide MIDI Events buttons in individual tracks.
To Hide or Show Controllers in All Tracks
• Click the Show/Hide Continuous button in the Inline Piano Roll toolbar.
or
• Use the Tracks > In-line PRV > Show/Hide Continuous Events command.
Both of these commands override the Show/Hide MIDI Events buttons in individual tracks.
You can zoom in to or out of individual MIDI Tracks by dragging the MIDI Scale up or down. See The
MIDI Scale for more information.
See also:
Selecting Notes
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
Adding and Editing Notes in the Piano Roll
Adding Controllers
Selecting Controllers
Editing Controllers
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Selecting and Editing Events
SONAR has many editing commands that you can use to modify the events that make up your
project. Here are some of the things you can do:
• Transpose events, clips, tracks, or an entire project to a different key
• Shift events to an earlier or later time
• Stretch or shrink material to a different length
• Reverse the notes in a clip to create new arrangements
• Modify the note velocities
The following sections describe these editing commands and how to use them. SONAR also has
some special commands you can use to modify or clean up a performance or to search for or select
events that meet certain criteria.
See:
Transposing
Shifting Events in Time
Stretching and Shrinking Events
Reversing Notes in a Clip
Adding Crescendos and Decrescendos
Copying and Pasting MIDI Data
You can copy and paste both notes and controller data in SONAR.
To Copy and Paste MIDI Data with the Copy/Paste Commands
1. Select the data you want to copy.
2. Use the Edit > Copy command, or press CTRL+C.
3. Use the Edit > Paste command, or press CTRL+V.
The Paste dialog appears.
4. Fill in options, and click OK. Click the Help button in the dialog for an explanation of each option.
SONAR pastes the copied data to the desired location.
Transposing
The Process > Transpose command transposes the pitches of selected note events up or down by
a fixed number of steps. It does so by changing the MIDI key numbers of note events. Simply enter
the number of half-steps—a negative number to transpose down, a positive number to transpose up.
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SONAR can also perform diatonic transposition, which shifts all the notes up and down the major
scale of the current signature by the designated number of steps. For instance, if you specify an
amount of +1 and the key signature is C-major, a C becomes a D (up a whole step), an E becomes
an F (up a half step), and so on. Diatonic transposition assures you that the transposed notes fit with
the original key signature.
As an option, you can choose to transpose selected audio clips along with any selected MIDI clips.
SONAR uses pitch-shifting (a plug in for changing audio pitch) to perform the transposition. You can
transpose audio only a single octave in either direction (-12 to +12), and you cannot transpose audio
when you are using diatonic transposition.
To Transpose Selected Events
1. Select the tracks, clips, or events you want to transpose.
2. Choose Process > Transpose to display the Transpose dialog box
Figure 84.
The Transpose dialog.
3. Use the spinners or enter the number of semi-tones to transpose.
Or
Use the + and - keys on your keypad to go up or down by one or [ and ] to go up or down by
octaves.
4. Check Diatonic Math if you want to transpose along the major scale of the current key.
5. Choose Transpose Audio if you want to pitch-shift selected audio clips. If you check this check
box. SONAR transposes any selected audio data up or down, but only by half-steps, not
diatonically. When this check box is enabled, the following two options become available:
• Type. Choose the type of audio data you're transposing. Choose options based on the
source material: single voice or instrument versus a group of instruments (ensemble or
polyphonic), and how long you want to wait for processing to finish: better quality can take a
long time if you're processing several tracks.
• Formant scaling. Possible values range from -2.000 to 2.000 octaves. Formants give a
voice its characteristic sound. You can use the Formant Scaling value to offset the pitch
transposition you're applying. For example, if you're transposing the pitch down, you can raise
the formant to try and maintain the characteristics of the sound.
6. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR transposes the selected events.
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Shifting Events in Time
The Track view lets you move entire clips forward or backward in time by using drag and drop editing
or by changing the start time of selected clips. The Process > Slide command is slightly more
flexible—you can use it to shift individual events and markers (or selected events and markers)
either forward or backward in time. This has an effect that is similar to the Time+ parameter in the
Track view. However, the Process > Slide command modifies the time stored with each event, while
the Time+ parameter simply applies a temporary change during playback.
You can also use the Process > Slide command to move markers located within the selection. If
you have selected any locked markers, SONAR will ask whether they should slide, too.
To Shift Events in Time
1. Select the events and/or markers you want to shift.
2. Choose Process > Slide to display the Slide dialog box.
3. Check the types of event you want to slide (events and/or
markers).
4. Enter the number of measures, ticks, seconds, frames or samples to slide. Enter a negative
number to shift material earlier. Note that you cannot slide any event earlier than 1:01:000. For
example, if the current selection starts at 2:01:000, you cannot slide events earlier by more than
one measure.
5. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR shifts the selected events and/or markers. You can also use the Process > Nudge
command to move events. See “Nudge” on page 312 for more information.
Inserting Time or Measures into a Project
The Insert > Time/Measures command lets you insert any number of blank measures, ticks,
seconds, or frames into a project. You can insert the blank measures (or other period of time) into all
tracks or into one or more selected tracks. If you insert the blank time into the entire project, all
events in each track—markers, meter and key settings, and tempo changes—are shifted
automatically by default. If you insert the blank time into one or more selected tracks, only the events
in those tracks are shifted by default. You can always choose which types of events should be
shifted.
To Insert a Single Blank Measure into a Project
1. Press CTRL+SHIFT+A or select Edit > Select > None to make sure that no track or time range is
selected.
2. Set the Now time to the place where you want to insert the measure.
3. Choose Insert > Time/Measures to display the Insert Time/Measures dialog box.
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Figure 85.
The Insert Time/Measures dialog
4. Verify that the settings are correct and click OK.
SONAR inserts a blank measure at the Now time.
To Insert Blank Time or Measures into a Project
1. Select Edit > Select > None to make sure that no track or time range is selected.
2. Select the range of time you want to insert by dragging in the Time Ruler.
3. Choose Insert > Time/Measures to display the Insert Time/Measures dialog box.
4. If necessary, adjust the time at which blank space will be inserted.
5. If necessary, change the length of time to insert by entering a number and choosing the units you
want from the list.
6. Choose the types of events that should be shifted automatically from the Slide list.
7. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR inserts the desired amount of blank time into the project.
To Insert Blank Time or Measures into Selected Tracks
1. Select the range of time you want to insert by dragging in the Time Ruler.
2. Select one or more tracks by CTRL-clicking on the track numbers.
3. Choose Insert > Time/Measures to display the Insert Time/Measures dialog box.
4. If necessary, adjust the time at which blank space will be inserted.
5. If necessary, change the length of time to insert by entering a number and choosing the units you
want from the list.
6. Choose the types of events that should be shifted automatically from the Slide list.
7. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR inserts the desired amount of blank time into the project.
Deleting Measures or Time from One or More Tracks
There are two methods for deleting time or measures:
• If there is any audio or MIDI data in the area you want to delete, you can use the Edit > Delete
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command to delete the area that you select. Portions of MIDI clips may have no data in them:
they have boundaries but no dark lines inside—if that’s the case, use the following method.
• If there is no data in the area you want to delete, you can simply drag any clips that come after the
empty area to their proper destinations. You can also use this method if there is data in the area
you want to delete—you just have to choose whether you want to replace the data in the deleted
area, blend it with the data you’re moving, or slide it over to make room.
To delete time when there is audio or MIDI data in the area you want to delete:
1. In the Track view, select the track(s) you want to delete measures or time from by doing one of the
following:
• Select a single track by clicking the track number.
• Select multiple tracks by CTRL-clicking the track numbers.
2. Set the Snap to Grid value to the unit of time you want to delete. For example, if you want to
delete whole measures, set the Snap to Grid value to a whole measure.
3. In the Clips pane, select the measures or time you want to delete by dragging in the Time Ruler
located just above the first track.
4. Select Edit > Delete.
The Delete dialog box appears.
5. Click the following check boxes:
• Events in Tracks
• Delete Hole. If you want the data that comes after the hole to retain its same placement in a
measure, check the Shift by Whole Measures option.
6. Click any of the other options you want to delete.
7. Click OK.
SONAR deletes the time or measures you selected.
To delete time when there is no audio or MIDI data in the area you want to delete (or if there is data,
but you like to drag and drop):
1. Set the Snap to Grid value to the unit of time you want to delete. For example, if you want to
delete whole measures, set the Snap to Grid value to a whole measure.
2. In the Track view, select the clips you want to move.
3. Drag one of the selected clips to its proper destination—the Drag and Drop Options dialog box
appears.
4. Choose options and click OK.
All the selected clips move by the amount that you dragged the mouse.
Stretching and Shrinking Events
The Process > Length and Process > Fit to Time commands can be used to stretch or shrink a
portion of a project. Process > Length lets you stretch or shrink the selection by a fixed percentage
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and makes the adjustment by altering the individual events. A value of 200 percent, for example,
stretches the selection to twice its original length, while a value of 50 percent shrinks the selection to
half its original length.
Process > Fit to Time stretches or shrinks the selection so that it ends at a specific time, expressed
in either measure:beat:tick (MBT) or hours:minutes:seconds:frames (SMPTE) format. This
command gives you a choice of modifying the events or modifying the underlying tempo. This is
useful when you want a portion of a project to have an exact length. The start time of the selection
does not change, but the end time is altered as necessary to fit the required time interval.
Both of these commands offer the option to stretch audio clips along with the MIDI information.
Sometimes you don’t want to adjust the speed of your audio.
Here are some examples:
• If your project contains background music and a voice-over, you might want to change the tempo
of the background music without altering the voice-over
• If you’re trying to modify the speed of some MIDI tracks to match a sampled drum groove, you
want to leave the audio unchanged
• If your audio consists solely of sound effects, you most likely do not want to adjust them
Audio can be stretched or condensed up to a factor of 4 (e.g., it can be shrunk to as little as 25
percent of its original length, or expanded to as much as 400 percent of its original length).
You can also use the Process > Length command to alter only the start times or the durations of
notes. For example, changing the durations of notes to 50 percent of their original length can create
a staccato effect.
To Stretch or Shrink Using Percentages
1. Select the events you want to change.
2. Choose Process > Length to display the Length dialog box.
Figure 86.
The Length dialog
3. Choose to change the Start Times and/or Durations of selected notes by checking the boxes.
4. If you want to stretch selected audio clips, check the Stretch Audio box. When this check box is
enabled, the following two options become available:
• Type. Choose the type of audio data you're stretching. Choose options based on the source
material: single voice or instrument versus a group of instruments (ensemble or polyphonic),
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and how long you want to wait for processing to finish: better quality can take a long time if
you're processing several tracks.
• Formant scaling. Possible values range from -2.000 to 2.000 octaves. Formants give a
voice its characteristic sound. If you find that changing the length of your audio changes the
timbre too much, you can raise or lower the formant to try and maintain the characteristics of
the sound
5. Use the spinners or type in the desired percent change in length.
6. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR modifies the length of selected events.
To Stretch or Shrink to a Specific Length
1. Select the events you want to change.
2. Choose Process > Fit to Time to display the Fit to Time dialog box.
Figure 87.
The Fit to Time dialog
3. Enter the desired end time in the New Thru box. Click Format to switch between MBT and
SMPTE format.
4. Choose one of the following:
• Tempo Map. Choose this option if you want the tempo to change but not the duration of
notes and events. For example, if your clip contains quarter notes, and you want those notes to
stay quarter notes even though the elapsed time of the clip changes, choose Tempo Map.
SONAR alters the tempo but not the events in the track.
• Event Times. Choose this option if you want the tempo(s) to remain unchanged while note
durations and event start times change.
Note: This option is unavailable if your selected data includes any Groove clips.
5. If you want to stretch selected audio clips, check the Stretch Audio box. The following options
become available:
• Type (disabled unless Stretch Audio is checked). Choose options based on the source
material: single voice or instrument versus a group of instruments (ensemble or polyphonic),
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and how long you want to wait for processing to finish: better quality can take a long time if
you're processing several tracks.
• Formant Scaling (disabled unless Stretch Audio is checked). The possible values range
from -2.000 to 2.000 octaves. Formants give a voice its characteristic sound. If you find that
changing the length of your audio changes the timbre too much, you can raise or lower the
formant to try and maintain the characteristics of the sound
6. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR modifies the length of selected events or changes the tempo map, as you requested.
High-resolution audio boosted by 6 dB when stretched using MPEX
When using a sample rate of 88.2 kHz or higher and performing any operation that uses MPEX time/
pitch stretching, the stretched audio will be boosted by 6 dB.
Reversing Notes in a Clip
The Process > Retrograde command reverses the order of events in a selection. If one or more
clips are selected, then the events within each clip are reversed. If several clips are selected from
the same track, then the order of the clips is also reversed. You could use this command, for
example, to take a scale or other long run of notes and reverse the order in which they are played.
The Process > Retrograde command does not reverse the contents of audio clips. It only changes
their start times. You can use the Process > Audio > Reverse command to reverse audio clips.
To Reverse the Sequence of Notes or Other Events
1. Select the notes you want to reverse.
2. Choose Process > Retrograde.
SONAR reverses the order of the selected events.
Adding Crescendos and Decrescendos
The Process > Scale Velocity command lets you create crescendos and decrescendos on those
instruments that respond to MIDI velocity. Most such instruments map changes in velocity to
changes in note loudness. Many synthesizer patches alter the timbre of the sound as well, so that
higher velocities produce brighter, as well as louder, sounds. Changes in velocity also affect the
playback of audio clips.
This command lets you set a starting and ending velocity for the entire time range of the selection.
SONAR scales the velocity of each event to create a smooth linear change in velocity. As an option,
you can enter a starting and ending percentage; existing velocity values are modified by the
designated percentage.
You can also edit note velocities in the Notes pane of the Piano Roll view, which lets you draw
shapes other than straight line changes. For more information, see “Adding and Editing Notes in the
Piano Roll” on page 441.
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To Scale Velocities
1. Select the events whose velocity data you want to change.
2. Choose Process > Scale Velocity to display the Scale Velocity dialog box.
Figure 88.
The Scale Velocity dialog
3. Enter the starting and ending velocity values.
4. Check the Percentages box if the values are percentages.
5. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR alters the velocity of selected events.
Changing the Timing of a Recording
When you record a performance, there may be problems you’d like to correct. For example, the note
timing may not have been as accurate as you would like. Or, you may have recorded without using a
metronome and strayed from the tempo in one direction or another.
SONARhas two types of commands that you can use to modify the timing of a clip. The Quantize
commands alter the timing of the notes in your recording so that they fit a time grid.
The grid can have fixed time intervals or intervals that are based on some existing note pattern. The
Fit to Improvisation command, on the other hand, sets up a series of tempos that fit the material
you have recorded. Here’s a summary of when to use each type of command:
Use this command
To do this
Quantize
Change the timing of the notes you’ve recorded to fit with the tempo of a project
Fit to Improvisation
Change the tempos of a project to fit with the performance you’ve recorded
Table 89.
These two types of commands are discussed in the following topics.
See:
Quantizing
Fit Improvisation
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Quantizing
Quantizing is one of the most important editing functions in SONAR. You use this feature to correct
timing errors you make when recording from a MIDI instrument or to adjust the timing of audio clips.
Very few musicians are capable of performing in perfect time. As you play, you are likely to strike
some notes slightly before or after the beat or to hold some notes slightly longer than you intended.
The Quantize commands can help to correct these types of timing mistakes.
SONAR has two different quantize commands:
Command
How it works
Process > Quantize
Adjusts the start time and duration of selected notes so that they line up with a
fixed size grid
Process > Groove Quantize
Lays a grid over an existing piece of music (the groove pattern), and then
adjusts the start time, duration, and velocity of selected notes so that they line
up with the grid
Table 90.
See also:
Drag-quantize
These commands have quite a few settings, making them very flexible and powerful. In addition,
both of these commands lets you create, save, and re-use presets. This means that once you find
the settings you like, you can save them and then apply them to other projects in a consistent way.
Resolution
The resolution indicates the spacing of the grid. You can use any value from a whole note down to
a thirty-second note triplet. You can also specify resolution in clock ticks. A rule of thumb is to select
a resolution that matches the smallest note in the region you are quantizing. If you are quantizing a
run of sixteenth notes, use a sixteenth note as the resolution. If you are quantizing a mix of sixteenth
and eighth notes, you should still use a sixteenth note. At the default timebase of 480 PPQ, 480
clock ticks is equal to quarter-note resolution.
When you use Groove Quantize, SONAR creates a grid at the desired resolution on top of the
notes in the groove. For example, if the groove contains only quarter notes but you choose
sixteenth-note resolution, SONAR builds the grid by dividing the space between each quarter note
into four equal sections. In places where the groove file contains no notes, SONARbuilds a fixed grid
of the desired resolution.
Offset
Normally, the resolution grid is aligned evenly with the start of measures and beats. As an option,
you can shift the grid earlier or later by any desired number of clock ticks. If the resolution is a
quarter note and you’ve set the offset to +3 ticks, then a note that is originally near 1:01:000 would
be moved to 1:01:003—three ticks beyond the beat boundary.
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Duration
As an option, SONAR can adjust the duration of note events so that each note ends one clock tick
before the start of the nearest resolution-sized note. This ensures that the notes do not overlap,
which can cause problems on some synthesizers. The adjustment may lengthen the duration of
some notes and shorten the duration of others.
When you use Groove Quantize, the duration adjustment compares the note length to the duration
of the sample note in the groove. If no duration information is available, SONAR uses the distance to
the start of the groove event closest to the end of the note.
Velocity
The velocity adjustment, which is only available with the Groove Quantize command, adjusts the
note velocity to the velocity of the corresponding notes in the groove.
Strength
The human ear is tuned to the slight “imperfections” we hear from most musicians. If you quantize a
project so that all notes are perfectly in position, it may end up sounding mechanical or rigid. To
avoid this, SONAR lets you adjust the strength of the adjustment. A strength of 100 percent
indicates that all notes are moved so that they are in perfect time, while a strength of 50 percent
means that all notes are moved half-way towards the desired position. This lets you “tighten up” the
timing as much as you want, without going too far.
The Groove Quantize command also lets you control the strength of duration and velocity
adjustments. As you work with this command, you will notice that the note start time has a greater
effect than the duration on the rhythmic feel of the track. For this reason, changing the starting times
(time strength close to 100 percent) has a more noticeable effect than changing durations (duration
strength close to 100 percent). However, there are situations in which you might want to change
both to avoid ending up with notes that overlap or with unwanted rests.
Swing
Many projects do not have notes positioned on a perfectly even time grid. For example, projects with
a swing feel, though they may be written entirely in eighth notes, are often played more like eighthnote triplets, with the first note extended and the second one shortened. The Swing option lets you
distort the timing grid so each pair of notes is spaced unevenly, giving the quantized material a swing
feel.
A swing value of 50 percent (the default) means that the grid points are spaced evenly. A value of 66
percent means that the time between the first and second grid points is twice as long as the time
between the second and third points.
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Swing = 50%
Swing = 66%
Swing = 33%
Window
When you quantize some portion of a project, you might not want to adjust notes that are very far
from the grid. The window, or sensitivity, setting lets you choose how close to the resolution grid a
note must be located for quantize to move it.
A window of 100 percent includes all notes and guarantees that all notes will be shifted to lie exactly
on the grid. The window extends half the resolution distance before and after the quantization point.
A window of 50 percent extends only a quarter of the way toward the adjacent quantization points.
When you use Groove Quantize, you can also perform adjustments on out-of-window events.
There are four options:
Option
How it works
Do Not Change
Notes outside the window are not changed.
Quantize to Resolution
Notes outside the window are snapped to a regular grid of the specified resolution.
Move to Nearest
The window or sensitivity setting is ignored—all notes are moved toward the
nearest reference event, regardless of how far off the grid they are located.
Scale Time
SONAR finds the two closest events before and after the event in question that
are within the window sensitivity and adjusts any bracketed out-of-window events
so that their relative timing is the same. This option can uniformly speed up, slow
down, or shift out-of-window events.
Table 91.
Other Settings
If you want, you can restrict the types of events that are affected by the Quantize commands to only
notes, lyrics, and audio clips. If you choose this option, SONAR will not modify other events, like
controllers.
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To Use the Quantize Command
1. Select the material you want to quantize using any of the selection tools and commands.
2. Choose Process > Quantize to display the Quantize dialog box.
Figure 89.
The Quantize dialog
3. Choose one of your own presets from the list, or enter the settings you want according to the
table:
Setting
What to do
Resolution
Choose a note size or enter the number of clock ticks
Change
Check the event types and characteristics you want to change
Options
Enter values for Strength, Swing, Window, and Offset
Table 92.
4. Click Audition if you want to hear how the quantization will sound; press Stop to stop auditioning
the change.
5. Make adjustments as necessary.
6. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR quantizes the selected MIDI information and audio clips. You can use Undo to restore the
material to its original state.
To Use the Groove Quantize Command
1. Select the track or clip you want to quantize, using any of the selection tools and commands.
2. Choose Process > Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize dialog box.
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Figure 90.
The Groove Quantize dialog
3. Choose a groove file from the Groove File field.
4. Choose a groove pattern from the Groove Pattern field.
5. Use the following fields to configure your pattern:
Setting
What to do
Resolution
Choose a note size or enter the number of clock ticks
Window Sensitivity
Enter the window sensitivity value (percentage)
If Outside Window
Choose what should happen to events outside the window
Only Notes, Lyrics and Audio
Check to prevent MIDI controller, aftertouch, and xRPN data from being
adjusted
Stretch Audio
Check to stretch audio clips to adjust their duration
Strength
Use the sliders or enter values for Note strength, Duration strength, and
Velocity strength
Table 93.
6. Click Audition if you want to hear how the quantization will sound; press Stop to stop auditioning
the change.
7. Make adjustments as necessary.
8. Optionally, type a name in the Preset field (located at the top of the dialog box) and click the Save
button to save your settings.
9. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR quantizes the selected MIDI information and audio clips. You can use Undo to restore the
material to its original state. If you saved your settings, you can apply them to any pattern you want
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by selecting the pattern and choosing a preset from the Preset field. To delete a group of settings,
select the group from the Preset field and click the Delete button.
Defining a Groove
To use the groove quantize feature, you must create or choose a small snippet of music—the groove
pattern—for SONAR to use as the timing and accent reference. You can use either of the following:
• A track, clip, or portion of a clip stored on the Windows clipboard
• A groove stored in a SONAR groove file
Any MIDI data that you place onto the Windows clipboard can be used as a groove pattern. With a
carefully defined groove pattern, you can give an old project an entirely new feel. If you like the
groove pattern you have created, you can save it to a groove file.
Groove files can store one or more groove patterns. SONAR supports two types of groove files:
• DNA™ grooves, which contain only timing information but are compatible with some other MIDI
sequencer software products
• SONAR’s native groove format, which stores timing, duration, and velocity information and can
handle longer patterns and longer gaps between quantization points
You can add groove patterns to these files from the Windows clipboard, edit existing patterns, or
delete patterns you do not want to keep. There is no limit to the number of groove patterns that can
be stored in a single file. You can organize your grooves into several files or keep them all together
in a single file. Groove files have an extension of .grv.
A groove pattern can be as short or long as you like. If the groove pattern is shorter than the material
to be quantized, the pattern will be repeated as many times as necessary.
To Define a New Groove
1. Select the music that defines the groove using any of the selection tools and commands.
2. Choose Edit > Copy to place the music onto the Windows clipboard.
You can now use the Groove Quantize command with the clipboard as the “Groove File.”
To Save a Groove Pattern
1. Select the music that defines the groove using any of the selection tools and commands.
2. Choose Edit > Copy to place the music onto the Windows clipboard.
3. Choose Process > Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize dialog box.
4. Choose the Clipboard as the groove “Groove File.”
5. Click the Define button to display the Define Groove dialog box.
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Figure 91.
The Define Groove dialog
6. Select an existing groove file, or enter the name for a new groove file.
7. Enter a pattern name, or choose an existing pattern to replace.
8. Click OK.
9. If you are replacing a groove, verify that you want to delete the existing version.
10.Click Close when you are done to return to the Groove Quantize dialog box.
SONAR stores the groove in the file and chooses the new groove as the current groove source.
To Copy an Existing Groove
1. Choose Process > Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize dialog box.
2. Choose the groove file and groove pattern you want to copy.
3. Click the Define button to display the Define Groove dialog box.
4. Select an existing groove file, or enter the name for a new groove file.
5. Enter a pattern name, or choose an existing pattern to replace.
6. Click OK.
7. If you are replacing a groove, verify that you want to delete the existing version.
8. Click Close when you are done to return to the Groove Quantize dialog box.
SONAR stores the groove on the Windows clipboard and chooses the new groove as the current
groove source.
To Delete a Groove
1. Choose Process > Groove Quantize to display the Groove Quantize dialog box.
2. Click the Define button to display the Define Groove dialog box.
3. Select the file containing the groove to delete.
4. Select the pattern name of the groove.
5. Click the Delete button, and confirm that you want to delete the groove pattern.
6. Repeat steps 3 to 5 for each groove you wish to delete.
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7. Click Close when you are done to return to the Groove Quantize dialog box.
Groove Quantize Tips
Here are some tips to help you with groove quantizing:
Aligning sloppy tracks with a good one. Select the portion of the “good” track that you want to
apply to the “sloppy” tracks and copy it to the Clipboard. Select the portion of the sloppy tracks you
want to modify. Choose Process > Groove Quantize, choose the Clipboard as the groove source,
and click OK.
Accenting beats in each measure. Create a sample measure containing note events at the
desired accent points. Give the notes on the accented beats a greater velocity and the others a
lesser velocity. Select the measure, copy it to the Clipboard, and then choose Process > Groove
Quantize. Set the velocity strength as high as necessary so that the notes get accented the way you
want.
Stealing that feeling. Suppose you have a dry piece that was composed and entered into SONAR
with a rigid sense of timing (for example, using step recording). You’ve recorded a bass line that has
exactly the off-beat rhythmic dynamic you want for the dry piece. You’d like to force your other tracks
to share that feel. Copy the bass track to the Clipboard; from the Groove Quantize dialog box,
select the Clipboard as the groove source; choose a resolution value roughly on the order of the
duration of the bass notes and a window of 100 percent. SONAR aligns the melody note events with
the nearest bass notes.
Synchronizing rhythm and solo tracks. If you want to preserve the unique rhythm of each track
but want to synchronize them together in time, try a larger resolution value and a smaller window.
For example, suppose you have one track with a highly stylized drum beat and another track
containing a jazz solo with some very nice runs in it. The drum beats fall primarily on quarter notes,
but the solo consists of runs of fast notes that aren’t quite sixteenth triplets. Copy the drum track to
the Clipboard, and groove quantize using a quarter-note resolution and a window of perhaps 10
percent. SONAR aligns the solo notes near the quarter-note drum beats but maintains the feel of the
solo during the fast runs of notes in between.
Correcting off-tempo tracks. Suppose you have both rhythm and melody tracks recorded, but
the melody was played erratically. First, copy the rhythm track to the Windows clipboard. Then use
groove quantize with a whole-note resolution, a window of 25 percent or less, and with the Scale
Time option selected. The Groove Quantize command will synchronize the melody track with the
groove source at roughly measure boundaries, while maintaining the relative timing of the notes in
each measure.
Fixing a bad verse. Copy a good verse to the Clipboard. Then change the selected range to cover
only the bad verse. Perform a groove quantize using the Clipboard contents as the groove source.
The rhythms of the two verses then match.
Fit Improvisation
SONAR lets you record music from a MIDI controller without requiring that you use a fixed tempo. In
fact, if you record without using a metronome, you are very likely to end up with a recording that
does not fit onto a fixed tempo grid.
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The Process > Fit Improvisation command lets you take a recording and create a tempo map (with
measure and beat boundaries) that fits what you played. Your performance is not changed in any
way, even though the note start times and durations are adjusted to fit the new tempo map. This is
important if you later want to use any of SONAR’s editing features that depend on a proper tempo
map for best results.
To use this command, you must record a reference track containing a single clip that matches your
original track or tracks but has only a single note on each beat boundary. You should make sure that
the reference track has one event for every single beat, with no extra beats or missing beats. The
first beat of the reference track should be at 1:01:000. You can use any editing command to adjust
the reference track.
If you want, you can use other types of events as markers on the reference track, such as a sustain
pedal. Remember, however, that MIDI sustain pedals generate one event when the pedal is pressed
and another when it is released. So if you want to use the sustain pedal for the reference track, keep
this in mind. Click down, up, down, up, for one, two, three, four.
Remember that the better the quality of your reference track, the better job the Fit Improvisation
command can do. You want each of your reference track events to be as close as possible to the
beat of the music. Note that some keyboards transmit aftertouch events when you record your
reference track. These extra events will prevent Process > Fit Improvisation from working
properly. Therefore, you should delete these events before using this command, or filter them out
when recording the reference track (using Options > Global > MIDI).
To Fit Tempos to an Improvisation
1. Record the reference track.
2. Select the reference track.
3. If necessary, combine all clips in the reference track into a single clip using the Edit > Bounce to
Clip(s) command.
4. Choose Process > Fit Improvisation.
SONAR adds tempo changes as necessary to fit the tempo grid to the reference track. When you’re
done, you should mute the reference track, since the reference track events are not rescaled.
Note: If the resulting tempo grid exceeds 250 beats per minute, you will see an error message.
If this happens, you can shorten the start times of each event using the Process > Length
command, decrease the tempo to compensate for the change, and then try again.
You can also use the Set/Measure Beat At Now command to align a freely played MIDI
performance with the Time Ruler.
To sync the project tempo to freely played MIDI
If you have recorded a MIDI track without a metronome, you may want to align the project’s tempo
map with the MIDI performance. The Set/Measure Beat At Now command allows you to create new
bar lines to fit your project. This command does not stretch audio. It works by adjusting tempo so
that measure lines line up with audio transients or MIDI data. The tempo will ramp up/down from the
previous tempo change in order to arrive at the required tempo.
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To use the Set Measure/Beat At Now command, you need to be able to identify where you want to
put the downbeats of each measure, and possibly where you want to place some other beats of the
measure, if the tempo varies a lot.
1. Display the MIDI clip that you want the measure/beats to align with in the Inline Piano Roll view:
click the MIDI track’s PRV Mode button . Zoom in enough to see the MIDI data clearly (you can
also use the regular Piano Roll view).
Tip: To make it easier to visually align note events with the Time Ruler, drag the MIDI track to the
top position so it appears right below the Time Ruler.
2. If you want other MIDI clips that exist in the project to retain their current M:B:T positions, select
the clips, right-click one of them, and choose Clip Lock > Lock Position from the pop-up menu.
3. Turn off the Snap to Grid button, and use the PRV Select tool
(it’s in the Track view toolbar)
to click the MIDI clip at the place where you want to set a measure or beat. The Now Time cursor
moves to the place you clicked:
A
A. Now Time cursor
4. Press CTRL+M to open the Measure Beat/Meter dialog.
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5. Enter the desired measure and beat values, and click OK.
Note: SONAR attempts to guess the correct measure/beat, so you usually can just click OK
to accept the default values.
6. Move the Now Time to the next desired beat (click the start of the next note)..
Tip: Press TAB to jump to the next note, or SHIFT+TAB to jump to the previous note.
7. Press CTRL+M to open the Measure Beat/Meter dialog, enter the desired values, and click OK
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until the Time Ruler is correctly aligned.
After you align the Time Ruler to your clip, you can smooth out the tempo changes in the Tempo
view, and your clip will retain its M:B:T position.
Snap to Scale
When Snap to Scale is enabled, any notes that you draw in the Piano Roll view (or Inline Piano Roll
view) stay within the selected scale. Also, any notes that you move with the Select tool stay within
the selected scale. When Snap to Scale is enabled, both Piano Roll views display grey rows at the
pitch levels that are not in the selected scale. Also, both the Select tool and the Draw tool display a
tuning fork icon when you create or modify notes to show that Snap to Scale is enabled.
You can create custom scales, modify existing ones, and choose how SONAR handles non-scale
notes.
To Enable or Disable Snap to Scale for a Single Track
• In the Track view, in the track that you want to affect, click the Scale Snap button.
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
Snap to Scale
501
A
B
C
A. Scale menu B. Scale Snap button C. Root Note menu
Or
• In the Piano Roll view, in the Track List pane, right-click the track that you want to affect, and
choose Enable Snap to Scale from the pop-up menu.
To Momentarily Bypass the Snap to Scale Feature
• Hold down both mouse buttons while you edit.
To Enable or Disable Snap to Scale for Multiple Tracks
1. Select the tracks in which you want to enable or disable Snap to Scale.
2. Use the Tracks > Snap to Scale > Enable/Disable Snap to Scale command.
To Choose a Root Note for a Single Track
• Do either of the following:
• In the Track view, click the drop-down arrow in a track’s Root Note menu, and choose a root
note from the menu that appears.
• In the Piano Roll view, right-click a track’s name in the Track List pane, and choose Root
Note > (name of root note) from the pop-up menu.
To Choose a Scale for a Single Track
• Do either or the following:
• In the Track view, click the drop-down arrow in the track’s Scale menu, and choose a scale
from the menu that appears. The scale options in the menu contain both factory-supplied
scales and ones that you create and/or edit.
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Snap to Scale
• In the Piano Roll view, right-click a track’s name in the Track List pane, and choose Scales >
(kind of scale) > (name of scale) from the pop-up menu.
To Choose a Root Note and/or a Scale for Multiple Tracks
1. Select the tracks for which you want to choose root notes and/or scales.
2. To select a root note for the selected tracks, use the Tracks > Snap to Scale > Root Note
command, and select the desired root note from the submenu.
3. To select a scale for the selected tracks, use the Tracks > Snap to Scale > Scales command,
and select the desired scale from the submenu.
To Create a Scale
1. Open the Scale Manager dialog by clicking the drop-down arrow in the Scale menu, and
choosing Scale Manager from the menu that appears (you can also use the Tracks > Snap to
Scale > Scales > Scale Manager command, or the right-click menu in the Piano Roll view’s
Track List pane).
2. In the Scale Family field, click the scale family that you want your scale to appear under when
your scale appears in the Scale menu.
3. Click the Create New Scale button
.
The Scale Manager displays a default name (New Scale “n”) for the new scale, and automatically
selects C as the root note of the scale.
Note: All scales in the Scale Manager dialog use C as the root note.
4. Edit the name of the new scale by clicking the default name (New Scale “n”) where it appears at
the very top of the Scale field, and then typing a new name for the scale.
5. Include or exclude individual notes for the scale by clicking either the keys in the keyboard
display, or by clicking the scale degree buttons under the Scale Degrees field. Included notes
appear as blue dots in the keyboard display, as depressed scale degree buttons, and as scale
degrees in the Scale Degrees field.
Figure 92.
The Scale Manager dialog
A
B
A. Keyboard display B. Scale degree buttons
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503
6. When you’re through choosing scale degrees, click the Close button to save your changes. If you
want to delete your scale, just highlight it in the Scale field, and click the Delete button
.
To Edit or Delete a Scale
1. Open the Scale Manager dialog (click the drop-down arrow in the Scale menu, and choose
Scale Manager from the menu, or use the Track menu command, or the right-click menu in the
Track List pane of the Piano Roll view).
2. In the Scale Family field, click the scale family that the desired scale is filed under.
3. Select the desired scale by clicking the scale’s name in the Scale field. If you want to delete the
scale, click the Delete button
.
4. Include or exclude individual notes for the scale by clicking either the keys in the keyboard
display, or by clicking the scale degree buttons under the Scale Degrees field. Included notes
appear as blue dots in the keyboard display, as depressed scale degree buttons, and as scale
degrees in the Scale Degrees field.
A
B
A. Keyboard display B. Scale degree buttons
5. When you’re through choosing scale degrees, click the Close button to save your changes.
To Restore a Scale or Scales to Factory Settings
1. Open the Scale Manager dialog.
2. If you want to restore a particular scale to factory settings, select it in the Scale field, click the
Defaults button, and in the Scale Defaults dialog, select Restore Current Scale (if factory),
and click OK.
3. If you have deleted a factory-supplied scale and want to replace it with the original version, click
the Defaults button, and in the Scale Defaults dialog, select Restore Any Missing Scales, and
click OK.
4. If you want to restore all factory-supplied scales to factory settings, click the Defaults button, and
in the Scale Defaults dialog, select Restore All Factory Scales, and click OK.
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To Choose How SONAR Handles Non-scale Notes
1. Open the Snap Settings dialog by clicking the drop-down arrow in the Scale menu, and choosing
Snap Settings from the menu that appears. You can also use the Tracks > Snap to Scale >
Scales > Snap Settings command, or the right-click menu in the Track List pane of the Piano
Roll view.
2. Choose one of the following options:
• Adjust to Next, Higher Note. If you choose this option, SONAR moves any non-scale note
that you move to the next higher note in the selected scale.
• Adjust to Previous, Lower Note. If you choose this option, SONAR moves any non-scale
note that you move to the previous, lower note in the selected scale.
• Adjust to Nearest Note. If you choose this option, SONAR moves any non-scale note that
you move to the note that is closest in pitch in the selected scale.
Searching for Events
The events in a project have many different parameters. For example, all MIDI notes have a
channel, starting time, pitch, velocity, and duration. Controllers have a controller number and value.
SONAR makes it simple to find, select, and modify events that have certain values for specific
attributes.
Here are some of the things you can do and the commands that you would use to do them:
These capabilities can help you find problem spots or errors in a project or make systematic
Action
Command
Search through a project to find the first event that has specific attributes,
and then search again to find the next such event
Go > Search, Go > Search Next
Select all the events in a project that have the specified attributes
Edit > Select > By Filter
Modify an existing selection to keep only those events that have the
specified attributes
Edit > Select > By Filter
Table 94.
changes to events that have particular attributes. All of these capabilities rely on the use of an event
filter, which lets you choose the types of events you want to work with and the range of values in
which you are interested.
See:
Event Filters
Event Filters
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When you select individual clips, or select portions of clips by dragging the Time Ruler, you
automatically select all the events that fall within the designated time range. Sometimes you need
finer control over which events are selected. For example, you might want to:
• Select the notes that are played in a certain octave, so you can copy them to another track
• Select and boost the velocity of notes that have a velocity below a certain threshold
• Find the first patch change event on a particular track
• Select and change the duration of all notes that occur on the third beat of any measure
The Event Filter dialog box looks like this:
Figure 93.
The Event Filter - Search dialog
A
B
A. Check to include this type of event B. Enter the range of values for the events you want
Different types of events have different parameters, as shown in the table:
This event type
Has these parameters
Note
Pitch, velocity, and duration
Key Aftertouch
Pitch and pressure value
Table 95.
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This event type
Has these parameters
Controller
Controller number and value
RPN/NRPN
RPN/NRPN number and value
Patch Change
Bank and patch numbers
Channel Aftertouch
Pressure value
Pitch Wheel
Value
Table 95.
The event filter only accepts events that meet all the specified ranges. This means that a note event
must fall within the pitch range, the velocity range, and the duration range in order to be included.
The event filter can also be used to accept events that occur in a range of channel numbers, beats,
and clock ticks.
You can choose either to include or exclude the events that meet the specified criteria. To exclude
events within the designated range and select the ones outside the designated range, check the exc
check box for that value range.
The event filter can also be used to identify several special event types: audio, System Exclusive
events, Lyrics, MCI commands, envelope shades, and a few others. You do not enter a range of
values for these special events; SONAR finds all events of the types you choose.
The All and None buttons help you set up the event filter the way you want:
Click this button
To do this
All
Set the event filter to include all events. You can then modify the value ranges
to narrow down your search or uncheck the types of events you want to
exclude.
None
Set the event filter to not include any events. Starting from a blank slate, you
can check off the types of events you want to find or select and enter the
desired ranges of values.
Table 96.
In any place in the event filter where you would normally enter a pitch string, you can also enter the
pitch by pressing a key on your MIDI keyboard. Also, you can use the question mark in place of the
octave number as a wild card. This lets the event filter accept a single note, regardless of the octave.
For example, the pitch string C? will match a C in any octave.
Searching for an Event
The Go > Search command is used to find the next event (searching forward from the Now time)
that meets the criteria you lay out in an event filter. Once you have found the first such event, you
can find the next event that meets the criteria using the Go > Search Again command (or by
pressing F3).
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To Search for an Event
1. Choose Go > Search to display the Event Filter dialog box.
2. Set up the event filter to find the events you want.
3. Click OK.
SONAR finds the next event that meets the criteria and sets the Now time to the start time of that
event. To find the next occurrence, press F3 or choose Go > Search Again.
Selecting Events
The Edit > Select > By Filter command is used to refine a selection by applying an event filter to an
initial selection. You can use this command any number of times to refine the selection even further.
Before using this command, use any of the selection commands and tools to create an initial set of
selected event. You can use the Edit > Select > All command to select all events in the current
view.
The Track view cannot display individual selected events. As a result, the Edit > Select > By Filter
command will not necessarily change the appearance of the Track view. SONAR applies the event
filter rule, but the change is not visible. However, once you change the selection in any way (for
example, by clicking on a track number or by clicking in the Time Ruler), the effects of the event filter
are erased. If you want to use the filter, you must choose Edit > Select > By Filter again and click
OK to use the same filter values.
Note: The shading of a clip in the Track view indicates how many of the events in the clip are
selected. If the clip is shown in solid black, all events in the clip are selected. If a portion of a clip
is shown in medium gray, all the events in that time range are selected. If the clip is shown in
light gray, only some of the events in the shaded time range are selected.
To Select Events Using the Event Filter
1. First, select an initial set of tracks, clips, or events.
2. Choose Edit > Select > By Filter to display the Event Filter dialog box.
3. Set up the event filter to find the events you want.
4. Click OK.
SONAR searches the currently selected events and weeds out those that do not meet the
requirements of the event filter.
Example: Splitting Left-Hand and Right-Hand Parts
Suppose you recorded a keyboard riff on Track 1 but want to split the left and right hands apart into
separate tracks so you can edit them separately. Suppose that all the right-hand notes are above
C4. Here’s how to proceed:
1. Select all of Track 1 by clicking on the track number in the Track view.
2. Choose Edit > Select > By Filter to display the Event Filter dialog box.
3. Click the None button to clear the dialog box.
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4. Check the Note check box, and enter a minimum value of C4. The maximum should already be
set to C9.
5. Click OK. SONAR selects all the notes from C4 up.
6. Choose Edit > Cut to move the selected notes to the clipboard.
7. Choose Edit > Paste and paste the events to a different track.
Process > Interpolate
The Process > Interpolate command is an extremely flexible way of manipulating the data
parameters of events. It works something like the search-and-replace function in a word processor
but with scaling rather than simple replacement.
This command uses two event filters. The first event filter lets you set up your search criteria. The
second event filter is used to define the replacement value ranges. When an event satisfies the
search criteria, its parameters are scaled between the search ranges and the replacement ranges.
This permits transposition, inversion, key signature changes, and other operations to be
accomplished with this one simple command.
In the second Event Filter dialog box, the check boxes and value ranges for beats and ticks are
ignored. Only the replacement value ranges for the selected event types are used.
The Process > Interpolate command understands a wild card octave number in the second event
filter to mean, “replace the original note with a different note in the original octave.” Using octave wild
cards for both the search and replacement event filters lets you, for instance, change all E-flats to Enaturals, preserving the octave of each note.
A few examples will illustrate some of the many uses of the Process > Interpolate command.
These examples apply to the note event type, though the command can be used on any type of
event.
Parameter
Search range
Replacement
range
Pitch (key)
From C2 to C4
From C4 to C6
Transposes all notes in the search range up
two octaves
Pitch
From E2 to E2
From Eb2 to Eb2
Converts all Es in octave 2 to Eb in the same
octave
Pitch
From E? to E?
From Eb? to Eb?
Converts all Es in all octaves to Eb in the
same octave
Pitch
From E? to E?
From E? to Eb5
Converts all Es to Eb in octave 5
Pitch
From C1 to C8
From C8 to C1
Inverts all the notes in the specified range
Velocity
From 0 to 127
From 80 to 127
Compresses the velocity values into a
narrower range
Effect
Table 97.
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Parameter
Search range
Replacement
range
Velocity
From 0 to 127
From 127 to 0
Inverts the velocity values (makes loud notes
soft, and soft notes loud)
Duration
From 0:01:00 to
0:02:000
From 0:01:000 to
0:01:000
Converts all notes that are between a quarter
note and half note in length, and makes them
all quarter notes
Channel
From 1 to 1
From 2 to 2
Changes all events on MIDI channel 1 to MIDI
channel 2
Channel
From 1 to 16
From 4 to 4
Reassigns all events to MIDI channel 4
Effect
Table 97.
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and
Automation Data
SONAR projects contain a lot more information than the notes and digital audio files that are at the
heart of your work. Controllers, RPNs, and NRPNs (xRPNs, for short) are special types of events
used by MIDI software and hardware to control the details of how MIDI music is played. Automation
data are used to adjust volume, pan, and other parameters of MIDI and audio tracks on the fly while
playback is in progress.
SONAR lets you enter or edit controller, xRPN, and automation data in several ways:
• Using envelopes in the Track view
• Using the Piano Roll view and Inline Piano Roll view
• Using the Insert > Controllers command
• Editing controller events in the Event List view
Editing data in the Track view’s Clips pane or the Piano Roll view gives you great flexibility. You can
examine the controllers in graphical form and edit them even while recording or playback is in
progress. This means you can loop over a portion of your project and hear any change you make on
the next loop.
Note: MIDI envelopes you create in the Piano Roll view and MIDI envelopes you create in the
Track view Clips pane are actually separate envelopes, even if they control the same parameter.
Both kinds of envelopes are visible in the Clips pane, and should generally not be used to control
the same parameter. You can convert Piano Roll view envelopes to Track view envelopes by
selecting the time range and tracks that the Piano Roll envelopes occupy, and using the Edit >
Convert MIDI To Shapes command.
For more information about automation, see the online help topics “Automation,” and “Mixing.” For
more information about the Event List view, see “The Event List View” on page 512.
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Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and Automation Data
See also:
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
Controllers
Controllers are the MIDI events such as volume, sustain pedal, and pan that you use to change the
sound while you're playing. You can enter controller data from within SONAR, or record them from
external devices such as MIDI keyboards.
Controllers let you control the detail and character of your music. Say you’re playing a guitar sound
on your synthesizer, but it sounds lifeless and dull. That’s partly because a guitar player doesn’t just
play notes one after another—he often bends or slides on the strings to put emotion into his playing.
You can use controllers in the same way, creating bends, volume swells, and other effects that make
sounds more realistic and more fun to listen to.
Your computer can work the controllers on your electronic instrument by sending MIDI Controller
messages. The MIDI specification allows for 128 different types of controllers, many of which are
used for standard purposes. For example, controller 7 is normally used for volume events, and
controller 10 is normally used for pan. Every controller can take on a value ranging from 0 to 127.
The Piano Roll toolbar contains several drop-down lists that let you choose the controller you want to
see and edit. The contents of these lists depend on the output and channel settings and on the
instrument assigned to that output and channel. Different instruments use controllers in different
ways. See the online help topic: Instrument Definitions.
Note: SONAR has automatic searchback for all continuous controller data to ensure that the
correct controller values are in effect regardless of where you start playback. Suppose you start
playback halfway through a project. SONAR searches back from that point to find any earlier
controller values that should still apply.
RPNs and NRPNs
RPNs (Registered Parameter Numbers) and NRPNs (Non-Registered Parameter Numbers) are
similar to controllers, except that both the parameter number and data value can be any number
between 0 and 16,383.
When RPNs and NRPNs are transmitted via MIDI or stored in a standard MIDI file, they are
converted into four separate controller messages. SONAR detects incoming xRPN messages from
MIDI inputs or files and reassembles them into a single RPN or NRPN event. This provides the
convenience of single RPN or NRPN events in SONAR plus compatibility with existing files,
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
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511
equipment, and software. The following table shows the controller numbers SONAR uses for RPN
and NRPN events:
Message
Parameter
number MSB
Controller
Parameter
number LSB
Controller
Data value MSB
Controller
Data value LSB
Controller
RPN
101
100
6
38
NRPN
99
98
6
38
Table 98.
Automation Data
The Track and Console views allow you to record automation data that define changes in volume,
pan and many other parameters throughout a project. The automation data can include step
changes recorded using the Snapshot button or continuous changes recorded while using the
knobs, faders, and buttons.
The Track view allows you to create envelopes to adjust several parameters. For more about
automation, see the online help topic “Automation.”
Velocity, Pitch Wheel, and Aftertouch
SONAR lets you display and edit several other types of data the same way you do controller data.
These data include:
• MIDI pitch wheel or pitch-bend messages
• MIDI channel aftertouch (ChanAft) values
• MIDI key aftertouch (KeyAft) values
Remember that note velocity is an attribute of each note and not a completely separate event. You
cannot add or remove velocity events in the Notes pane, but you can use the draw tool to adjust the
velocity values for existing notes. You can also edit velocities with the Edit > Scale Velocities
command. For more information, see “Adding Crescendos and Decrescendos” on page 489. You
can edit individual note velocities in the Note Properties dialog box, described in “Changing Note
Properties” on page 754.
The Event List View
The Event List view shows events in a list format. You can insert, delete, or modify any kind of event,
including notes, pitch-wheel data, velocity, MIDI controllers, patch changes, Wave files, lyrics, text
strings, MCI commands, System Exclusive meta-events, and more.
There are three ways to open the Event List view:
• Select one or more tracks and choose Views > Event List
512
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
The Event List View
• Select one or more tracks and click
in the Views toolbar
• Right-click a clip in the Clips pane and choose Views > Event List from the pop-up menu
Figure 94.
The Event List view
A
B
C
D
F
E
A. Toolbar B. Track C. This event is selected D. Event time E. Event channel F. Event type
Figure 95.
The Event List toolbar
A
B
C
D E
F
A. Hide different kinds of events buttons B. Event Manager C. Show events outside slip edit boundary D. Insert
E. Delete F. Pick Tracks
The events in the selected tracks are listed one per line, from top to bottom. As you move the
highlight through the event list, SONAR updates the Now marker (time display). During playback,
the event list scrolls to display the events at the current time. The current event is centered in the
Event List during playback, and the highlight is on the correct event when playback stops. Any time
you change the Now time, the event list is updated and the highlight is moved to the event that will
be played next.
When the Event List view includes more than one track, events are mixed together in chronological
order. For example, if you select tracks 1 and 3 when you open the Event List view, you see a single
list of intermingled events from tracks 1 and 3. You can have any number of Event List views, each
containing any number of tracks, open at the same time. You can change the tracks shown in the
Event List view by clicking the
button and choosing the tracks you want.
See:
Event List Buttons and Overview
Event List Display Filter
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
The Event List View
513
Editing Events and Event Parameters
Additional Event Information
Event List Buttons and Overview
Each line of the Event List view shows a single event along with all of its parameters. There are
many different types of events. All share the following parameters:
• The time of the event, displayed in SMPTE (hours:minutes:seconds:frames) format
• The time of the event, displayed in MBT (measures:beats:ticks) format
• The event type, or kind of event
The remaining parameters vary by event type. You can hide or show each kind of event by clicking
its button in the Event List toolbar or by checking its check box in the Event Manager dialog box.
Here is a summary listing of the parameters that apply to each type of event.
Short name and
display button
Type of event
Parameters
Note
MIDI note
Pitch (MIDI key number), velocity (0-127), duration
(beats:ticks or simply ticks), MIDI channel (1-16)
KeyAft
MIDI key aftertouch
Pitch (MIDI key number), pressure amount (0-127), MIDI
channel (1-16)
Control
MIDI controller change
Controller number (0-127), controller value (0-127), MIDI
channel (1-16)
Patch
MIDI patch change
Bank select method, bank number, number or name of the
patch, MIDI channel (1-16)
ChanAft
MIDI channel aftertouch
Pressure amount (0-127), MIDI channel (1-16)
Wheel
MIDI pitch wheel position
Wheel position (-8192 to 8191, where the center is 0)
RPN
Registered Parameter
Number
Parameter number (0-16383), parameter value (0-16383),
MIDI channel (1-16)
NRPN
Non-registered Parameter
Number
Parameter number (0-16383), parameter value (0-16383),
MIDI channel (1-16)
Sysx Bank
System Exclusive data
bank
Sysx bank number (0-8191)
Sysx Data
System Exclusive data
message
Sysx message up to 255 bytes long
Text
Text
Text
Table 99.
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The Event List View
Short name and
display button
Type of event
Parameters
Lyric
Lyric
Text (a single word or syllable)
MCIcmd
Windows Media Control
Interface (MCI) command
MCI command text
Wave Audio
Digital audio wave
Name, velocity (0-127), and number of samples
Shape Events
Automation graph
segments made up of a
solid line between two
nodes
Change in values, kind of shape, and length in MBT
format.
Note: Shape events cannot be edited, only deleted.
Expression
Staff view expression
marking
Text of expression mark
Hairpin
Staff view dynamics
marking
Direction (crescendo or diminuendo) and duration
Chord
Staff view chord symbol
The name of the chord
Event List Manager
Opens Event Manager
dialog box
Shows or hides various kinds of events
Events Out of Slip
Events that are outside of
slip-edited boundaries
Note, audio, or controller data
Edit Boundaries
Insert Event
Whatever the highlighted event’s parameters are
Inserts a copy of
highlighted event—doubleclick the event’s Kind
parameter to change it to
the kind of event you want
Delete Event
Deletes the highlighted
event
Whatever the highlighted event’s parameters are
Pick Tracks and
Show Next/Previous
Left side of button opens
Pick Tracks dialog; right
side of button opens Next
Track/Previous Track
drop-down menu
Allows you to pick what tracks the Event List shows events
for
Track
Table 99.
Here are some notes about events and their parameters:
• The Channel parameter in the Track view can force an event to play on a different MIDI channel
from the one shown in the event list.
• Pedal marks entered in the Staff view are displayed in the Event List view as controller events
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
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515
(64).
• Many keyboards do not support key aftertouch and channel aftertouch. Consult the User’s Guide
for your keyboard for more information.
• When you double-click the value of a patch event, SONAR displays the Bank/Patch Change
dialog box. For more information about bank and patch changes, “To insert a bank/patch change”
on page 208.
• See “System Exclusive Data” on page 805, for more information about System Exclusive banks.
• See “Editing Audio” on page 545, for more information about audio clips.
Selecting Events in the Event List View
The following table describes how to select events in the Event List view:
To do this
Do this
Select a single event
Click on the event.
Select multiple, contiguous events
Select the first event, hold the SHIFT key down and click
the last event.
Select multiple, contiguous events using the arrow
keys
Hold down the CTRL and SHIFT keys while pressing the
up or down arrows.
Select multiple, non-contiguous events
Select an event, hold the CTRL key while selecting
additional events
Table 100.
Event List Display Filter
You can configure the Event List view to display different event types, as described in the following
table:
To do this
Do this
Hide events of a certain type
Select the event type in the toolbar, in the Event List view pop-up menu,
or in the Event Manager. To display a type of event, deselect it.
Open the Event Manager
Choose Event Manager from the pop-up menu, or click
Show or hide slip-edited events
As a default, if you slip edit the boundaries of a clip, all events outside
those boundaries are hidden in the Event List view. If you want to see
these events, click this button
.
Note: You can not edit slip-edited material in the Event List view.
Table 101.
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The Event List View
.
Editing Events and Event Parameters
The Event List view lets you add, delete, or change events one by one. You can also print the list of
events or audition the events one at a time to see how they sound.
You can change the parameters of any event by moving the rectangular highlight to the cell you want
to change and doing one of the following:
• Type a new value and then press ENTER.
• Press the - and + keys on the numeric keypad to decrease or increase values by a small amount.
• Press the [ and ] keys to decrease or increase values by a larger amount.
• Click and hold the mouse button, and then drag the mouse up or down to change the value by a
small amount.
• Click and hold both mouse buttons, and then drag the mouse up or down to change the value by
a larger amount.
• Double-click a cell, and then enter or choose a new value.
If you change the time of an event, it may also change its position in the event list. The Event List
view follows that event to its new location.
If you try to change the event type (kind of event), SONAR lets you choose the kind of event you
want from a dialog box. When you change one kind of MIDI event into another kind of MIDI event,
SONAR preserves the parameters as fully as possible.
Note: Shape events cannot be edited, only deleted.
To Insert a New Event
1. Move the highlight (use the mouse or arrow keys) to the point at which you want to insert an
event.
2. Press INSERT, or click
. SONAR makes a copy of the highlighted event.
3. Change the event to the kind of event you need by double-clicking the name of the event that’s
listed in the Kind column. The Kind of Event dialog box appears.
4. Choose what kind of event you want and click OK. SONAR changes the highlighted event to the
kind you chose.
5. Edit the event time and other parameter values as required.
If the Event List is initially empty, pressing the INSERT key creates a default note event.
To Delete an Event
1. Move the highlight (use the mouse or arrow keys) to the event you want to delete.
2. Press DELETE, or click
.
SONAR deletes the event.
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The Event List View
517
To Delete Several Events
1. Select the events you want to delete by clicking, dragging, or CTRL or SHIFT-clicking in the first
column of the Event List view.
2. Choose Edit > Cut.
SONAR deletes the selected events.
To Print the Event List
1. Choose File > Print Preview to display a preview of the printed event listing.
2. Click the Zoom button (or just click the page) to zoom in and out, and use the PAGE UP and
PAGE DOWN to review the pages.
3. Click Print to print the event list, or click Close to close the Preview window without printing.
To Play Events Step by Step
1. Using the keyboard, hold the CTRL and SHIFT keys and press the SPACEBAR to play the
currently highlighted event. If the event is a note event, it plays until you release the SPACEBAR.
2. When you release the SPACEBAR, the highlight moves to the next event.
3. Continue pressing the SPACEBAR to play events one by one.
4. To edit the last event you heard, release the SHIFT key.
The highlight moves back to the last event you heard, so you can make changes. You can also
audition a single event using the mouse. CTRL-click on an event to play the event. If the event is a
note or Wave event, it plays until you release the mouse button.
Additional Event Information
Note Events.
There are three values parameters for note events:
• A pitch, which represents the MIDI key number as a note and an octave.
• A velocity (0–127), which is how fast the key is struck. Some keyboards don’t transmit or receive
velocity messages.
• A duration, which is how long the note lasts. This amount is shown in beats:ticks format. (If the
note lasts less then one beat, then only the number of ticks is shown.)
Note names may also represent percussion instruments, and lists of such note names are
sometimes associated with a particular percussion patch. The note C3, for example, may really be
“kick drum.” If a patch is associated with a percussion note name list, the name of the percussion
instrument appears in Event List view rather than a note and an octave from the piano keyboard.
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The Event List View
SONAR uses the following notation to display flats and sharps in this and other views:
Character
Meaning
b
flat
#
sharp
"
double flat
x
double sharp
Table 102.
MCIcmd Events
Media Control Interface (MCI) commands are special events that let you control other multimedia
hardware and software (e.g., CD-ROM drives, laserdiscs, sound cards, animations, video) during
playback. MCI commands are part of the multimedia extensions in Windows. MCIcmd events have
one parameter—the command line text of the MCI command. Here are some examples:
This command
Does this
PLAY C:\Train.wav
Plays the Wave file Train.wav
PLAY C:\Videos\Vacation.avi
Plays the video file Vacation.avi from the VIDEOS folder
SET CDAUDIO TIME FORMAT TMSF PLAY
CDAUDIO 3
Plays a specific track from the CD drive
STOP CDAUDIO
Stops the CD from playing
Table 103.
While MCI commands can be used to play Wave files, these files are played at their normal speed
and are not necessarily synchronized with MIDI or other audio data. By contrast, Wave audio clips
are played in lock-step synchronization with MIDI and other audio data.
For complete documentation of Windows MCI commands, search for MCI on the Microsoft World
Wide Web site (www.microsoft.com).
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
SONAR provides the ability to use plug-in MIDI effects. Using plug-in effects is similar to using the
MIDI processing commands off-line. The overall procedure is as follows:
• Select the MIDI data to be affected.
• Choose the effect you want from the Process > MIDI Effects menu or from the pop-up menu’s
MIDI Effects menu.
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
519
• Set effect parameters (or select a preset if you’ve made one for this purpose).
• Click Audition to preview the music with the effect applied.
• Click OK to apply the effect to the selected MIDI data.
If you're not happy with the result, choose Edit > Undo before doing any additional work.
MIDI effects can be applied to whole or partial clips. For example, you can apply an echo to just one
note.
MIDI effects can also be applied to MIDI tracks in real time (during playback) in the Track and
Console views. Unlike any of the processing described so far, using effects in real time is nondestructive. This means that the MIDI data itself is not modified.
Note: Offline effects may cause your MIDI events to grow in size. For example, when you apply
echo, the clip may need to grow to accommodate the tail end of the echo.
See:
MIDI Effects Presets
Quantizing
Adding Echo/Delay
Filtering Events
Adding Arpeggio
Analyzing Chords
Changing Velocities with the Velocity Effect
Transposing MIDI Notes with the Transpose MIDI Effect
MIDI Effects Presets
The MIDI effects dialogs support the use of presets. For information about presets, see “Presets and
Property Pages” on page 625.
Quantizing
Figure 96.
520
MFX Quantize
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
The Quantize command moves events to (or towards) an evenly-spaced timing grid. The Quantize
effect is similar to the Process > MIDI Effects > Cakewalk FX > Quantize command. For more
information, see “Other Settings” on page 493.
The quantize effect parameters are as follows:
Parameter/Option
Meaning
Start Times
Quantize event start times.
Durations
Quantize event durations.
Resolution
The spacing of the grid used for quantization.
Tuplet
Specify the resolution as a tuplet note, for example 5 notes in the time of 4.
Strength (%)
The strength of the adjustments. 100% indicates perfect quantization;
otherwise, the command moves the notes only part way towards the desired
position.
Swing (%)
The distortion of timing used to produce a swing feel. A value of 50% indicates
a straight rendition; negative and positive values produce distortion of the timing
grid. For more information about swing, see “Swing” on page 492.
Window (%)
The sensitivity of quantization. A value of 100% causes all notes to be
quantized. Lower values cause the effect not to quantize notes that are far from
the timing grid.
Offset (Ticks)
The offset of the quantization grid from the start of measure boundaries. A value
of 0 indicates perfect alignment. Values less than 0 shift the grid points earlier;
values greater than 0 shift the grid later.
Randomize
Causes a random time offset to be added to or subtracted from each new event
time. You must also specify the maximum offset, as a percentage of the
quantization resolution.
Table 104.
To Quantize MIDI Data
1. Select the data to be affected.
2. Choose Process-Quantize to open the Quantize dialog box.
3. Set the quantization parameters, as described in the table above.
4. Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified quantization to the selected data.
Adding Echo/Delay
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
521
Figure 97.
MFX Echo/Delay
The Echo Delay command creates a series of repeating echoes of each note. The echo notes can
decrease or increase in velocity, and can be transposed from the original by regular intervals.
The parameters used to specify the echo/delay effect are as follows:
Parameter/Option
Meaning
Decay (%)
The reduction in velocity with each echo. A value greater than 100% indicates
an increase in velocity.
No. Echoes
The number of echo notes for each original note. If the velocity reaches 0
before the specified number of echoes, the effect generates no more echo
notes.
Delay
The delay between successive echo notes.
Delay Units
The units used to specify the delay. You may specify delay in ticks, in
milliseconds, or as a note duration.
Tap
The delay you specify by tapping the control with the mouse.
Swing (%)
The distortion of timing used to produce a swing feel to the echo. A value of 0%
indicates a straight rendition; negative and positive values produce distortion of
the timing grid. For more information about swing, see “Swing” on page 492.
Pitch (Steps)
The number of steps to transpose each echo note from the previous. You can
specify a Diatonic or Chromatic scale.
Table 105.
To Apply Echo/Delay to MIDI Data
1. Select the data to be affected.
2. Choose MIDI Effects > Cakewalk FX > Echo Delay from the Process menu or from the pop-up
menu to open the Echo Delay dialog box.
3. Set the echo/delay parameters, as described in the table above.
4. Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified echo effect to the selected data.
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MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
Filtering Events
Figure 98.
MFX Event Filter
The Event Filter command lets you remove events from the MIDI data, keeping or passing through
only those events that you specify. The Event Filter effect works almost identically to the event filter
used by the Edit > Select > By Filter command. For more information, see “Event Filters” on page
505.
To Apply an Event Filter to MIDI Data
1. Select the data to be affected.
2. Choose MIDI Effects > Cakewalk > FX MIDI Event Filter from the Process menu or from the
pop-up menu to open the Event Filter dialog box.
3. Set the event filter parameters.
4. Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified event filter to the selected data, removing all those events that do not
meet the filter criteria.
Adding Arpeggio
Figure 99.
MFX Arpeggiator
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
523
The Arpeggiator command applies an arpeggio to its input and plays it back in real time. You can
make it arpeggiate with a swing feel, or straight and staccato or legato, vary its speed and direction,
and specify its range.
The parameters used to specify the arpeggiator effect are as follows:
Parameter/Option
Meaning
Swing (%)
The distortion of timing used to produce a swing feel. A value of 0% indicates
a straight rendition; negative and positive values produce distortion of the
timing grid. For more information about swing, see “Swing” on page 492.
Rate
The delay between successive notes.
Units
The units used to specify the delay. You may specify delay in ticks, in
milliseconds, or as a note duration.
Legato (%)
The smoothness of the notes of the arpeggio. 1 percent plays each notes and
releases it instantly. 99 percent plays each note up to the start of the next
note.
Path
The direction of the arpeggio. Options are Up, Up (arpeggios go up), Up,
Down (arpeggios go up, then down), Down, Down (arpeggios go down),
Down, Up (arpeggios go down, then up).
Play thru
The disposition of the notes you play to specify the arpeggio. Checked plays
the original notes. Unchecked filters out the original notes.
Specify output range
The range over which the arpeggio plays. Checked specifies that the
arpeggiator repeats notes at each octave over the entire specified range.
Unchecked specifies that the arpeggiator includes only the notes you actually
play.
Lowest note
The MIDI number of the lowest note of the arpeggio. Numbers run from 0 to
127.
Span (Notes)
The number of half-steps in the range. Numbers run from 12 to 127.
Use chord control
The chord you specify. Checked specifies that the arpeggiator infers the chord
from the notes played in the range. It identifies the chord in the Chord
recognized box and uses it to play arpeggios for notes outside the range.
Lowest note
The MIDI number of the lowest note the arpeggiator uses for chord
recognition (0 to 126).
Span (Notes)
The number of half-steps in the range. Numbers run from 1 to 127.
Chord recognized
The chord the Arpeggiator recognizes and plays.
Table 106.
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MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
To Apply the Arpeggiator to MIDI Data
1. Select the data to be affected.
2. Choose MIDI Effects > Cakewalk FX > Arpeggiator from the Process menu or from the pop-up
menu to open the Arpeggiator dialog box.
3. Set the arpeggiator parameters, as described in the table above.
4. Click OK.
SONAR applies the specified arpeggio effect to the selected data.
Analyzing Chords
Figure 100. MFX Chord Analyzer
The Chord Analyzer command analyzes chords. You select the notes to be analyzed in one of
SONAR’s windows, then open the Chord analyzer and press the Audition button. The chord
appears on the MIDI display and the staff, and its name with possible alternatives appears in the
Chords recognized box.
You can play the notes on your MIDI input device and have the Chord Analyzer identify the chords in
real time. You do not have to set to playback.
You can open the Chord Analyzer in the Track and Console views, press Playback and have the
Chord Analyzer identify the chords in real time.
The Chord Analyzer has a single parameter:
Parameter/Option
Meaning
Analysis window
The frequency with which the Chord Analyzer samples the chord. Lower numbers
(smaller intervals) are more accurate, but require more computation.
Table 107.
To Analyze a Chord
1. Select the notes to be analyzed.
2. Choose MIDI Effects > Cakewalk FX > Chord Analyzer from the Process menu or from the
pop-up menu to open the Transpose dialog box.
3. Click the Audition key.
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525
SONAR displays the chord and its name.
To clear the display, press the Clear button.
Note: When analyzing chords you may see chords being displayed before you hear them. You
can reduce the amount of time these chords appear ahead of playback. To do so, open the MIDI
tab in the Global Options dialog (Options > Global) and enter a lower value in the Prepare
Using “N” Milliseconds Buffer option. Excessively low values may cause glitches during
playback, so it is best to gradually reduce the value in this option until the desired result is
achieved.
Changing Velocities with the Velocity Effect
Figure 101. MFX Velocity
The Velocity effect lets you adjust velocities of MIDI notes. You can set velocity values, set scale
values, add specific or random offsets, create smooth transitions, and limit the velocity range.
The velocity effect options are as follows:
Parameter/Option
Meaning
Set all velocities to X
Sets all velocities to the specified value.
Change velocities by X
Adds a specified increment to all velocities.
Scale velocities to X% of their
current value
Multiplies all velocities by a constant factor.
Change gradually from X to Y
Creates a smooth velocity change across the selection.
Change gradually from X% to
Y%
Scales velocities by a gradually changing factor.
Limit range from X to Y
Brings all velocities into the specified range.
Table 108.
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Parameter/Option
Meaning
Randomize by +/- X
Adds or subtracts a random offset from each velocity. You must also specify
the maximum offset. You can select this option in addition to one of the
previous options.
Tendency
The tendency of the random offset to be lower or higher, on a scale from -10
to 10.
Table 108.
To Change Note Velocities
1. Select the data to be affected.
2. Choose MIDI Effects > Cakewalk FX > Velocity from the Process menu or from the pop-up
menu to open the Velocity dialog box.
3. Select options as described in the table above.
4. Click OK.
SONAR changes note velocities according to the specified options.
Transposing MIDI Notes with the Transpose MIDI Effect
Figure 102. MFX Transpose
The Process > MIDI Effects > Cakewalk FX > Transpose command is a flexible transposition
feature. You can perform simple chromatic or diatonic transpositions, transpose from one key to
another, or define your own custom transposition.
The transpose options are as follows:
Parameter/Option
Meaning
Interval
Specifies chromatic transposition. Transposes notes by the specified number of
steps.
Diatonic
Specifies diatonic transposition. Transposes notes by the specified number of
scale steps within the specified scale.
Key/Scale
Specifies transposition from one scale and key to another.
Table 109.
Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
527
Parameter/Option
Meaning
Custom Map
Specifies custom transposition as defined by the map.
Offset
For Interval transposition, the number of steps for the transposition.
For Diatonic Transposition, the number of scale degrees for the transposition.
For Key/Scale transposition, a number of octaves added to each note after
transposition.
Key
For Diatonic transposition, the key in which the transposition is made.
From, To
For Key/Scale transposition, the starting and ending key and scale.
Transposition Map
A table of pitch mappings for the specified transposition. You can select to show
the pitches as note names or as note numbers. For Diatonic and Key/Scale
transpositions, pitches not in the starting (from) key are indented.
To change a pitch mapping, click on a From pitch and select a To pitch with the
pop-up slider. If you change a pitch mapping, the transposition type is
automatically set to Custom Map.
Constrain to Scale
For Diatonic and Key/Scale transpositions, forces all non-scale notes to be
transposed to the nearest appropriate scale tone.
Table 109.
To Transpose MIDI Data
1. Select the data to be affected.
2. Choose MIDI Effects > Cakewalk FX > Transpose from the Process menu or from the pop-up
menu to open the Transpose dialog box.
3. Set the transposition options as described in the table above.
4. Click OK.
SONAR transposes the selected data according to the options you specified.
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Editing MIDI Events and Continuous Controllers (CC)
MIDI Effects (MIDI Plug-ins)
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
There are several panes in the Piano Roll view designed for use with MIDI drum tracks: the Note
Map pane which lists the original pitch values and the mapped values for each note, and the Drum
Grid pane which displays your drum tracks (any track assigned to a drum map) and where you can
edit your drum tracks.
The Basics
The Note Map Pane
The Drum Grid Pane
Creating and Editing a Drum Map
Using Drum Maps
The Basics
Drum maps are virtual MIDI ports that you create and edit. Drum maps give you total control over all
the MIDI drum sounds you have access to either in the form of software (soft synths) or hardware
(external MIDI sound modules).
Drum maps in SONAR allow you to do the following:
• Re-map note events, for example, map a General MIDI drum kit to a non-General MIDI drum kit.
• Create a custom drum kit from several MIDI devices (soft synths, hardware synths) and play it
from a single MIDI track if desired.
• Use the Drum Grid Editor to show only the drum sounds you want to see.
• Sort drum sounds to suit your needs.
• Mute and solo individual drum sounds
See:
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
Opening a Drum Map
To Preview a Mapped Sound
Creating and Editing a Drum Map
You can create a drum map by either modifying an existing drum map or by creating a new drum
map.
See:
The Drum Map Manager
The Map Properties Dialog
Saving a Drum Map
The Drum Map Manager
In the Drum Map Manager dialog you can create and save drum maps for use with hardware or
software synths and samplers. You can customize drum maps to select specific sounds on any of
your available sound sources.
To Open the Drum Map Manager Dialog
You can open the Drum Map manager in one of the following ways:
• Select Options-Drum Map Manager from the menu
Or
• Click on the Output field of your MIDI drum track and select Drum Map Manager
530
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
Creating and Editing a Drum Map
Figure 103. The Drum Map Manager
A
B
C
D
G
F
E
A. New Drum Map button B. Delete Drum Map button C. Current Drum Map D. Preset list E. Port/Channel
pairs F. Rows G. Click to create a new row
Drum Maps Used in Current Project
This field displays all the currently available drum maps. click the New button
to create a new
drum map and Delete
to delete a drum map. Select a drum map to display the drum
mappings in the Drum Map Manager. All drum maps in this field are saved with the current project.
Presets
Presets can be used to populate the fields in the Drum Map Manager. This field is also used to save
new drum maps by entering a name in the field and clicking the Save button.
Settings
The Settings section is where you map the following for each In Note (source):
• In Note.
• Out Note.
The source MIDI note value.
The MIDI note value that plays on the destination sound source.
• Name. The user-defined name for the row.
• Chn. The channel on which the note is transmitted.
• Out Port. The hardware output port or software virtual output port to which you are sending the
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
Creating and Editing a Drum Map
531
note.
• Vel+. Apply a velocity offset setting to an individual mapped pitch.
• V Scale. The V Scale value sets a level of compression or expansion. A value below 100% is
compression. A value above 100% is expansion. The Vel+ setting allows for gain make-up.
Ports and Channels
This section lists each unique Port and Channel pairing. This allows you to make quick global
changes that Port and Channel pairing’s Bank and Patch settings.
See:
Working in the Drum Map Manager
Working in the Drum Map Manager
The following table lists several ways of editing settings in the Drum Map Manager.
To do this
Do this
Audition a row
Select the row and press SHIFT+SPACEBAR
Sort rows
Drag and drop a row to a new location
Select multiple rows
Click a row, hold down the CTRL key while selecting additional rows
Change the Output Port for all rows
with the same Channel/Port
Press CTRL+SHIFT while changing the port.
Undo an edit
Press the Undo button
Table 110.
See:
The Drum Map Manager
Creating and Editing a Drum Map
Working in the Drum Map Manager
The Map Properties Dialog
The Map Properties dialog lets you change all the settings for an individual mapped note in your
drum map. The settings in the Map Properties dialog are the same as a single row in the Drum Map
Manager. If you want to edit more than one drum note pitch mapping, click the Map Mgr button to
open the Drum Map Manager dialog.
532
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
Creating and Editing a Drum Map
Figure 104. The Map Properties dialog
To Open the Map Properties Dialog
• Double-click on a row in the Note Map pane.
Or
• Right-click on a row in the Note Map pane and select Map Properties from the menu that
appears.
See:
The Drum Map Manager
Working in the Drum Map Manager
Creating and Editing a Drum Map
Saving a Drum Map
Use the following procedure to save a new or modified drum map.
1. In the Drum Map Manager, enter a name for the new drum map in the Preset field.
2. Click the Save button
.
Drum map presets are saved and available for all projects. Drum maps are saved on a per-project
basis.
Using Drum Maps
The following topics cover using drum-mapped tracks, including how to display drum tracks in the
Drum Grid pane and how to edit note velocities.
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
Using Drum Maps
533
See:
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
Opening a Drum Map
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane
Velocity TailsEditing Note Velocities
To Change the Order of Mapped Notes in the Drum Map Pane
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
Use the following procedure to assign a MIDI track to a drum map:
To Assign a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
1. Display the Track view if it is minimized.
2. In the track you want to assign to a drum map, click the Output drop-down and select a drum
map from the options in the menu that appears.
See:
Opening a Drum Map
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane
Velocity TailsEditing Note Velocities
To Change the Order of Mapped Notes in the Drum Map Pane
Opening a Drum Map
Use the following procedure to open a drum map in the Drum pane:
To Open a Drum Map
1. In the Track view, assign the drum map you want to open to a MIDI track. See “Assigning a MIDI
Track to a Drum Map” on page 534.
2. Select the MIDI track you just assigned the drum map to and select Views > Piano Roll.
To Open All Tracks Assigned to a Drum Map
1. Select a single track assigned to the drum map.
2. Hold down CTRL+SHIFT while selecting Views > Piano Roll.
See:
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane
534
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
Using Drum Maps
Velocity TailsEditing Note Velocities
To Change the Order of Mapped Notes in the Drum Map Pane
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane
Use the following procedure to display a drum track or tracks in the Drum Grid pane.
To Display Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane
1. Create a drum map if you have not already done so. See “Creating and Editing a Drum Map” on
page 530.
2. Change the focus to the Track view.
3. In the track(s) you want to view in the Drum Grid Editor, select a drum map from the Output dropdown menu.
4. Select the tracks you want to view in the Drum Grid Editor and select Views > Piano Roll.
The Piano Roll view appears with the selected track’s data appearing in the Drum Grid Editor.
See:
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
Opening a Drum Map
Velocity TailsEditing Note Velocities
To Change the Order of Mapped Notes in the Drum Map Pane
Velocity Tails
In the Drum Grid pane, you have the option of showing the velocity of each note as a series of bars.
The higher the bars, the higher the velocity value.
Figure 105. Velocity tails can be shown or hidden
A
B
A. Notes with velocity showing B. Notes without velocity showing
To Display Velocity Tails in the Drum Grid Pane
• Click the Show/Hide Velocity Tails button
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
Or
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
Using Drum Maps
535
• Press the Y key.
See:
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
Opening a Drum Map
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane
Editing Note Velocities
To Change the Order of Mapped Notes in the Drum Map Pane
Editing Note Velocities
In the Drum Map Editor you can display note velocities as a series of horizontal bars behind the
note. Click the Show/Hide Velocity Tails button
to display note velocities.
To Edit a Note Velocity in the Drum Grid Pane
1. Click the Draw tool button
.
2. Move your cursor over the velocity tail you want to edit until the cursor changes to look like this:
3. Click and drag the velocity tail. Drag it up to increase the velocity. Drag it down to decrease the
velocity.
To Edit Multiple Note Velocities in the Drum Grid Editor
When you edit multiple notes that have different initial velocities, the velocities are adjusted on a
relative basis, so if you reduce a velocity by 50%, all other selected notes have their velocities
reduced by the same percentage. For example: you select three notes. The first has a velocity of
100, the second a velocity of 50, and the third a velocity of 30. You click and drag the velocity of the
first note down to 50. The second note’s velocity changes from 50 to 25 and the third note’s velocity
changes from 30 to 15.
1. Select the notes you want to change the velocity of.
2. Click the Draw tool button
.
3. Move your cursor over one of the selected notes.
4. Hold down the SHIFT key.
5. Click and drag the velocity tail. Drag it up to increase the velocity. Drag it down to decrease the
velocity.
See:
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
Opening a Drum Map
536
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
Using Drum Maps
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane
Velocity TailsTo Change the Order of Mapped Notes in the Drum Map Pane
Previewing a Mapped Sound
Use the following procedure to hear the drum sound you have mapped a note to.
To Preview a Mapped Sound
• In the Note Map pane, click on the name of the sound you want to hear.
See:
Assigning a MIDI Track to a Drum Map
Opening a Drum Map
Displaying Tracks in the Drum Grid Pane
Velocity TailsTo Change the Order of Mapped Notes in the Drum Map Pane
The Note Map Pane
The Note Map pane displays the current drum map. In the Note Map pane each row represents a
pitch. The Note In pitch is the recorded pitch. You map the recorded pitch to whatever pitch you want
using the Note Out pitch setting. You can also change the name of the mapped note and mute or
solo the mapped note.
Changing Mapped-note Settings
Changing Mapped-note Settings
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
The Note Map Pane
537
You can change the following settings in the Note Map pane:
• Mapped-note name
• Note Out
• Mute
• Solo
To Change the Name Setting
The name of a mapped note in the Note Map pane is a user-assigned variable. Make it descriptive
for easy reference. To change the Name setting, use the following procedure:
1. In the Note Map pane, double-click on the appropriate row.
The Map Properties dialog appears.
2. In the Map Properties dialog, enter a new name in the Name field and press the ENTER key.
To Change the Note Out Setting
The Note Out setting is the actual note you hear when the Note In value is played. To change the
Note Out setting, use the following procedure:
1. In the Note Map pane, double-click on the appropriate row.
The Map Properties dialog appears.
2. In the Map Properties dialog, enter a new value in the Note Out field and press the ENTER key,
or use the +/- buttons to change the value and press the ENTER key.
To Change Multiple Note Out Settings
1. Open the Drum Map Manager.
2. In the Drum Map Manager, select a contiguous range of rows by selecting the first in the range,
and holding down the SHIFT key while selecting the last in the range.
Or
Select a non-contiguous range by selecting one row and holding down the CTRL key while
selecting additional rows.
3. Hold down both the CTRL and SHIFT keys while selecting a new Output in the Output column.
To Mute or Solo a Mapped Note
The Mute and Solo controls in the Note Map pane allow you to mute or solo an individual mapped
note. To mute or solo a mapped note, use the following procedure:
• In the Note Map pane, click the Mute
or Solo
button in the appropriate row.
Or
• Right-click on the row you want to mute or solo and select Mute or Solo from the menu that
appears.
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Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
The Note Map Pane
To Display the Note In and Note Out Values By Their Pitch Name
You have the option of showing the Note In and Note Out values by their pitch names. To do so, use
the following procedure:
• Right-click on any row in the Note Map pane and select the Display Pitch Names command from
the menu that appears.
To Change the Order of Mapped Notes in the Drum Map Pane
Use the following procedure to change the order of mapped notes in the Note Map pane.
1. Move your cursor over the row you want to move in the Note Map pane.
2. When your cursor changes to look like this
be and release the mouse button.
, click and drag the row to the place you want it to
The Drum Grid Pane
The Drum Grid pane is where you edit your drum tracks. The Drum Grid pane is the top pane in the
Piano Roll view and opens automatically when you open a MIDI drum track.
The Drum Grid pane is for MIDI drum tracks what the Note pane is for other MIDI tracks. In the Drum
Grid pane you can add, delete and edit notes and note properties. You can edit controllers in this
pane if you hide the Controller pane. You can customize the number of grid lines in the Drum Grid
pane and choose whether or not to show note velocity “tails.”
See:
Event Inspector Toolbar
Adding and Editing Controllers in the Piano Roll
Velocity Tails
Grid Lines
Grid Lines
The Drum Grid pane is divided into a time grid. You can set the resolution of the grid lines from 1/4
note to 1/64 note, or to follow the current snap grid setting.
The Show/Hide Grid Lines combo button
pane and sets the grid line resolution.
toggles on and off the grid lines in the Drum Grid
To Turn on Grid Lines in the Drum Map Pane
• Click the Show/Hide Grid Lines combo button
in the Piano Roll view toolbar.
Or
• Press the I key.
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
The Drum Grid Pane
539
To Set the Drum Map Pane Grid Line Resolution
• Click the down arrow on the Show/Hide Grid Lines combo button
the menu that appears.
and select an option from
See:
Piano Roll View
The Pattern Brush Tool
The Pattern Brush Tool
The Pattern Brush tool
, on the Piano Roll View toolbar, allows you to insert multiple notes
using your mouse, either following a pattern used in an existing MIDI file or at the current note
duration setting.
See:
Piano Roll View
How the Pattern Brush Tool Works
Creating Custom Patterns
How the Pattern Brush Tool Works
When you select the Pattern Brush tool you can click and drag in the Drum Grid pane (also works in
the Note pane) to produce a series of notes. Which notes appear in the Drum Grid depends on the
settings you make in the Pattern Brush tool’s drop-down menu. To open the Pattern Brush tool’s
drop-down menu, click the right side of the Pattern Brush tool.
The following table covers the options found in the Pattern Brush tool’s drop-down menu:
Option
Description
Velocity
Select this option to open the Pattern Velocity dialog. The value you enter in
this dialog sets the default velocity for all notes entered using the Pattern
Brush tool unless you select Use Pattern Velocities.
Use Pattern Velocities
Select this option to use the note velocities used in the custom pattern file you
are using. If you are using the Note Duration option, this option is not
available.
Table 111.
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Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
The Pattern Brush Tool
Option
Description
Use Pattern Polyphony
Select this option to use the pitch values from the custom pattern file you are
using. If you are using the Note Duration option, this option is not available.
When using this option, the vertical position of your mouse does not affect the
note pitches draw; that information is read from the pattern.
Note Duration
This option uses the current note duration setting in the Piano Roll View
toolbar as the interval between notes.
Table 111.
To Paint Notes Using the Pattern Brush Tool
1. Open a track in the Drum Grid pane or the Note pane.
2. In the Pattern Brush tool’s drop-down menu, select Note Duration.
3. In the Piano Roll View toolbar, select a note duration. This value is the interval between notes
when using the Pattern Brush tool.
4. Click the Pattern Brush tool button
Your cursor should appear like this
to select it.
when in the Drum Grid pane.
5. Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have inserted all the notes you
want.
6. Release the mouse button.
SONAR creates a series of notes, at equal intervals.
To Paint a Custom Pattern of Notes Using the Pattern Brush Tool
1. Open a track in the Drum Grid pane.
2. In the Pattern Brush tool’s drop-down menu, select the custom pattern you want to use. If you
need to create a custom pattern, see “Creating Custom Patterns” on page 542.
3. Click the Pattern Brush tool button
to select it.
Your cursor should appear like this when in the Drum Grid pane.
4. Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have inserted all the notes you
want.
5. Release the mouse button.
To Use a Custom Pattern’s Note Velocities
1. Open a track in the Drum Grid pane.
2. In the Pattern Brush tool’s drop-down menu, select the custom pattern you want to use. If you
need to create a custom pattern, see Creating Custom Patterns.
3. In the Pattern Brush tool’s drop-down menu, select Use Pattern Velocities.
4. Click the Pattern Brush tool button
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
The Pattern Brush Tool
to select it.
541
Your cursor should appear like this when in the Drum Grid pane.
5. Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have inserted all the notes you
want.
6. Release the mouse button.
To Use a Custom Pattern’s Pitch Values
1. Open a track in the Drum Grid pane.
2. In the Pattern Brush tool’s drop-down menu, select the custom pattern you want to use. If you
need to create a custom pattern, see Creating Custom Patterns.
3. In the Pattern Brush tool’s drop-down menu, select Use Pattern Polyphony.
4. Click the Pattern Brush tool button
to select it.
Your cursor should appear like this when in the Drum Grid pane.
5. Click where you want to begin placing notes and drag until you have inserted all the notes you
want.
6. Release the mouse button.
See:
Piano Roll View
How the Pattern Brush Tool Works
Creating Custom Patterns
Creating Custom Patterns
You can create custom patterns and use the Pattern Brush tool to quickly paint them into the Drum
Grid pane. Use the following procedure to create a custom pattern.
To Create a Custom Pattern
1. Create a new file, or open an existing MIDI file or pattern file that you want to edit.
2. Right-click in the Time Ruler where you want the pattern to start and select Insert Marker from
the menu that appears.
The Marker dialog appears.
3. Enter the name you want to use for the first pattern and click OK.
4. In a MIDI track, enter a pattern of notes.
5. If you want to create a second pattern, repeat steps 2 through 4.
6. Create as many patterns as you want, ending the last pattern with a marker called “end”.
542
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
The Pattern Brush Tool
7. Save the file as a MIDI file (.mid) in the Pattern Brush Patterns folder in the directory where you
installed SONAR.
Note: You can change the default directory where SONAR looks for patterns in the Folders
tab of the Global Options dialog.
You may need to re-start SONAR to see the new patterns in the drop-down menu next to the Pattern
Brush. The name you gave the file appears with an arrow next to it. Move your mouse over it to see
a subdirectory which contains each of the patterns you created.
See:
Piano Roll View
How the Pattern Brush Tool Works
Creating Custom Patterns
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
The Pattern Brush Tool
543
544
Drum Maps and the Drum Grid Pane
The Pattern Brush Tool
Editing Audio
The Track view lets you edit and arrange audio clips. You can perform basic tasks such as cut, copy,
paste, and move; apply simple audio processing such as gain change, fades, and equalization; and
use sophisticated audio effects such as stereo chorus and reverb. The Track view lets you see your
audio clips on a timeline, arranged by track, to help you visualize the organization of your project’s
audio data.
Most audio processing commands and audio effects can be used from the Event List view as well,
by selecting one or more audio clips, then choosing the desired command from the Process >
Audio or Process > Audio Effects menu. Plug-in effects can also be applied to audio data nondestructively, in real time, in both the Console and Track views. For more information, see the online
help topic “Mixing.”
See:
Digital Audio Fundamentals
Basic Audio Editing
Basic Audio Processing
Advanced Audio Processing
Applying Fades and Crossfades Offline
Audio Effects (Audio Plug-ins)
Digital Audio Fundamentals
Digital audio is a numeric representation of sound; it is sound stored as numbers. In order to
understand what the numbers mean, you need to start with the basic principles of acoustics, the
science of sound.
See:
Basic Acoustics
Example—A Guitar String
Waveforms
Recording a Sound
The Decibel Scale
Audio Clips
Managing Audio Data
Basic Acoustics
Sound is produced when molecules in the air are disturbed by some type of motion produced by a
vibrating object. This object, which might be a guitar string, human vocal cord, or a garbage can, is
set into motion because energy is applied to it. The guitar string is struck by a pick or finger, while the
garbage can is hit perhaps by a hammer, but the basic result is the same: they both begin to vibrate.
The rate and amount of vibration is critical to our perception of the sound. If it is not fast enough or
strong enough, we won't hear it. But if the vibration occurs at least twenty times a second and the
molecules in the air are moved enough, then we will hear sound.
See:
Digital Audio Fundamentals
Example—A Guitar String
To understand the process better, let's take a closer look at a guitar string.
When a finger picks a guitar string, the entire string starts to move back and forth at a certain rate.
This rate is called the frequency of the vibration. Because a single back and forth motion is called a
cycle, we use a measure of frequency called cycles per second, or cps. This measure is also
known as Hertz, abbreviated Hz. Often the frequency of vibration of an object is very fast, so we can
also express the frequency in thousands of cycles per second, or kilohertz (abbreviated kHz)
546
Editing Audio
Digital Audio Fundamentals
The actual distance the string moves is called its displacement. This is proportional to how hard the
string is plucked. A greater displacement results in a louder sound.
The displacement of the string changes as the string vibrates, as shown here:
The segment marked “A” represents the string as it is pulled back by the pick; “B” shows it moving
back towards its resting point, “C” represents the string moving through the resting point and onward
to its outer limit; then “D” has it moving back towards the point of rest. This pattern repeats
continuously until the friction of the molecules in the air gradually slows the string to a stop. As the
string vibrates, it causes the molecules of air around it to vibrate as well. The vibrations are passed
along through the air as sound waves. When the vibrations enter your ear, they make your eardrum
vibrate, and you hear a sound. Likewise, if the vibrating air hits a microphone, it causes the
microphone to vibrate and send out electrical signals.
In order for us humans to hear the sound, the frequency of the vibration must be at least 20 Hz. The
highest frequency sound we can hear is theoretically 20 kHz, but, in reality, it's probably closer to 15
or 17 kHz. Other animals, and microphones, have different hearing ranges.
If the simple back-and-forth motion of the string was the only phenomenon involved in creating a
sound, then all stringed instruments would probably sound much the same. We know this is not true,
of course; the laws of physics are not quite so simple. In fact, the string vibrates not only at its entire
length, but at one-half its length, one-third, one-fourth, one-fifth, and so on. These additional
vibrations (overtones) occur at a rate faster than the rate of the original vibration (the fundamental
frequency), but are usually weaker in strength. Our ear doesn't hear each frequency of vibration
individually, however. If it if did, we would hear a multinote chord every time a single string were
played. Rather, all these vibrations are added together to form a complex or composite sound that
our ear perceives as a single tone.
Editing Audio
Digital Audio Fundamentals
547
Fundamental
frequency (1f)
100% amplitude
2x fundamental (2f)
50% amplitude
3x fundamental (3f)
33% amplitude
4x fundamental (4f)
25% amplitude
5x fundamental (5f)
20% amplitude
This composite waveform still doesn't account for the uniqueness of the sound of different
instruments. For example, stringed instruments usually have a resonator. In the case of the guitar,
the resonator is the big block of hollow wood to which the string is attached (the guitar body). This
has a major impact on the sound we perceive when a guitar is played because it enhances or
amplifies some of the vibrations produced by the string and diminishes or attenuates others. The
ultimate effect of all the vibrations occurring simultaneously, being altered by the resonator, adds up
to the sound we know as guitar.
See:
Digital Audio Fundamentals
Waveforms
A sound wave can be represented in many different ways: as a mathematical formula, as a series of
numbers, or graphically as a waveform. A waveform displays the size, or amplitude, of the
vibration as a function of time. For example, the waveform of the sound of the plucked guitar string
might look like this:
548
Editing Audio
Digital Audio Fundamentals
The waveform of a trumpet blast might look like this:
And the waveform of a spoken word might look like this:
The three waveforms shown above are quite different from one another, both in appearance and
sound. Each has its own characteristic shape, or envelope, and each has its own complex
combination of frequency components, which can change across the duration of the sound.
The center line of a waveform is the zero line; it corresponds to the rest position (displacement of 0)
of the original vibrating object. (A waveform for perfect silence would be a horizontal line at zero.)
Editing Audio
Digital Audio Fundamentals
549
Back and forth motions of the vibrating object translate to upward (positive) and downward
(negative) excursions of waveform amplitude. For example, a close-up of a portion of the guitar
waveform might look like this:
The waveform crosses the zero line twice during each complete vibration. These zero-crossings
are important in digital audio processing; they are good places to cut waveforms apart and splice
them together. If waveforms are cut or spliced at other locations, clicks and pops can occur. The
maximum amplitude of the waveform in each vibration is also important: it determines the strength of
the vibration, and thus the loudness of the sound.
See:
Digital Audio Fundamentals
Recording a Sound
To record digital audio, your computer monitors the electrical signal generated by a microphone (or
some other electroacoustical device). Because the signal is caused by a sound, the signal strength
varies in direct proportion to the sound’s waveform. The computer measures and saves the strength
of the electrical signal from the microphone, thus recording the waveform.
There are two important aspects of this measuring process. First is the sampling rate, the rate at
which the computer saves measurements of the signal strength. It is a known fact of physics that
you must measure, or sample, the signal at a rate at least twice that of the highest frequency you
wish to capture. For example, suppose you want to record a moderately high note on a violin—say
the A whose fundamental frequency is 440 Hz and all overtones up to five times the fundamental.
The highest frequency you want to capture is 2,200 Hz, so you need to measure the electrical signal
from the microphone at least 4,400 times per second.
Since humans can hear frequencies well above 10 kHz, most sound cards and digital recording
systems are capable of sampling at much higher rates than that. Typical sampling rates used by
modern musicians and audio engineers are 22 kHz, 44.1 kHz, and 48 kHz. The 44.1 kHz rate is
called CD-quality, since it is the rate used by audio compact discs.
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Editing Audio
Digital Audio Fundamentals
The other important aspect of the measuring process is the sampling resolution.