Cakewalk Sonar X1 User guide

Cakewalk Sonar X1 User guide
SONAR X1
Reference Guide
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of Cakewalk, Inc. The software described in this document is furnished under a
license agreement or nondisclosure agreement. The software may be used or copied only in accordance of the terms of the agreement. It is against the law to copy this software on any medium
except as specifically allowed in the agreement. No part of this document may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and
recording, for any purpose without the express written permission of Cakewalk, Inc.
Copyright © 2010 Cakewalk, Inc. All rights reserved.
Program Copyright © 2010 Cakewalk, Inc. All rights reserved.
ACID is a trademark of Sony Creative Software, Inc.
Cakewalk is a registered trademark of Cakewalk, Inc. and the Cakewalk logo are trademarks of
Cakewalk, Inc. Other company and product names are trademarks of their respective owners.
Visit Cakewalk on the World Wide Web at www.cakewalk.com.
Getting started
If you want to get up and running quickly, please use the following tutorials, which are tailored to
learning specific tasks in SONAR. If you are new to Cakewalk products, you may want to start at
Tutorial 1. If you have used previous versions of Cakewalk, or you want to do a specific task, choose
from the following tutorials:
“Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects” on page 95
“Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser” on page 107
“Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments” on page 113
“Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments” on page 119
“Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation” on page 127
“Tutorial 6 – Editing your music” on page 137
“Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects” on page 145
“Tutorial 8 – Working with video” on page 153
“Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing” on page 163
“Glossary” on page 1799. A list of defined terms.
“Introduction” on page 51.
An overview of SONAR’s features and functionality.
“Troubleshooting” on page 1177. Answers to frequently asked questions.
“New features in SONAR X1” on page 1237. Descriptions of new features in SONAR X1.
Note: This documentation covers SONAR X1 Producer, SONAR X1 Studio, SONAR X1
Essential and SONAR X1 LE. The documentation indicates if a feature only applies to a specific
edition of SONAR X1. For a list of key differences between each edition, see “Comparison” on
page 1245.
3
Getting started
4
Getting started
Table of contents
Getting started. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Music composition and exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remixing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Game sound development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sound production and engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web authoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Film and video scoring and production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Publishing music on the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Burning audio CDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computers, sound and music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digital audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing I/O devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR file types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working on a project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Screen colors and wallpaper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Color presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52
52
52
52
52
53
53
53
53
53
53
54
54
55
56
57
61
62
66
71
72
72
73
88
88
90
Installing SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Starting to use SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
2 Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Creating a new project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Opening project files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Playing project files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Configuring your sound device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Setting the tracks outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Playing the project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Looping project files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Saving project files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3 Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Finding and previewing audio loops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Previewing MIDI groove clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Adding loops to your project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
4 Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
5 Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Adding an instrument track to your project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Manually entering MIDI notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
6 Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Printing your notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
7 Tutorial 6 – Editing your music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Moving clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Splitting Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Cropping Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Undo and Redo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
6
Table of contents
8 Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Volume and pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
Adding effects (FX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Using Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
9 Tutorial 8 – Working with video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Importing video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What if I don’t see the Video Thumbnail pane or Video view? . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the video properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting your video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
153
156
156
158
160
10 Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Burning an audio CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
Cakewalk Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
11 Controlling playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
The Now time and how to use it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Now time marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Track view Now time display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the Now time in large print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other ways to set the Now time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Time ruler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling the transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling stuck notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Looping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Transport, Markers, Punch and Loop modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track-by-track playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Mix module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Silencing tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soloing tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dim Solo mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exclusive Solo mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solo Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inverting the phase of a track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing tracks’ mono/stereo status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing track settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up output devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning Inputs & Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
172
175
176
177
178
179
181
184
185
187
191
192
194
195
196
197
198
198
199
200
209
212
7
Assigning tracks to mono hardware outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Choosing the instrument sound (bank and patch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Adding effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Adjusting volume and pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Configuring panning laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Adjusting volume trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Assigning a MIDI channel (Chn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Adjusting the Key/transposing a track (Key+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Adjusting the note velocity (Vel+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Adjusting the time alignment of a MIDI track (Time+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Other MIDI playback settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Local control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Playing files in Batch mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
The Play List view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Video playback, import, and export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Importing and playing back videos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Exporting video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Optimizing video performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Using the Video Thumbnails pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Video playback on a FireWire DV device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Exporting a project to a FireWire DV device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Synchronizing external video playback to audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Locating missing audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
The Find Missing Audio dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Restoring missing audio files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Managing shared and external files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
12 Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Creating a new project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Using per-project audio folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Creating a new project file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Setting the Meter and Key signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Setting the Metronome and Tempo settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Setting the audio sampling rate and bit depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Sony Wave-64 support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Setting the MIDI timing resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Preparing to record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Recording modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Choosing an input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Arming tracks for recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
8
Table of contents
Auto arming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arming tracks during playback/recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording music from a MIDI instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input quantizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arpeggiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the arpeggiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tuning an instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Confidence recording and waveform preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Live Input PDC override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Audio Engine button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Punch recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step record keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step pattern recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording specific ports and channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing music and sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing audio files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing audio CD Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing material from another SONAR project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing OMF projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing MIDI files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing audio / MIDI files from the Clips pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving your work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using File Versioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Labeling your projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
259
260
261
262
264
267
271
273
274
275
279
280
281
283
285
291
292
293
295
296
296
298
299
299
301
302
302
304
305
307
13 Arranging and editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Arranging tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the order of tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the display of tracks in the Track view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Erasing tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with track templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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310
312
314
315
316
316
317
9
Track icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Configuring Track view controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Arranging clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Displaying clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Using the Navigator view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Opening views by double-clicking clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
Selecting clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Using the Select tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Moving and copying clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Aim Assist line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Reverting clip(s) to original time stamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Locking Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Auto scroll lock in Clips pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Clip selection groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Nudge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Nudge settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Working with partial clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Markers and the snap grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Showing gridlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Defining and using the Snap Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346
Snap offsets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Creating and using markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
TAB to transients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Working with linked clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
Splitting and combining clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Take management and comping takes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Toggling a clip’s mute status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Audition (selection playback). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Isolating (clip soloing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Track folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Adding effects in the Track view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Changing tempos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Using the Transport module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Using the Tempo commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Using the Tempo view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
Undo, redo, and the undo history. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Slip-editing (non-destructive editing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Using slip-editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Slip-editing multiple clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
10
Table of contents
Fades and crossfades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using fades and crossfades in real-time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enhanced editing with keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigating with a keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting with a keyboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing with a keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
379
379
382
384
386
387
14 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389
Selecting tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the data type to edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Smart tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Move tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trim tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timing tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Freehand tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Line tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pattern tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Erase tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mute tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scrub tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zoom tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snap to Grid settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying note durations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mouse cursors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using tools to perform common tasks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with MIDI clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with MIDI notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with automation envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with AudioSnap transients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
392
398
404
409
413
416
420
423
427
430
432
434
438
442
443
444
446
447
451
453
457
461
465
469
15 Control Bar overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Tools module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snap module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transport module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
476
480
482
485
11
Mix module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486
ACT module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488
Screenset module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
Performance module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492
Punch module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494
Select module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495
Markers module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
Event Inspector module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498
Sync Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
16 Inspectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503
Track Inspector overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508
Track Inspector controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
Properties Inspector overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524
Properties Inspector - Clip Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
Properties Inspector - Track Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
17 Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
Docking/undocking and resizing the Browser window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539
Using the Media Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541
Adding Browser objects to your project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
Using Content Location presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549
Keyboard navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
Using the Plug-in Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
Adding effects and instruments to a project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553
Using FX Chain Chain presets (.fxc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
Using the Synth Rack Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558
Managing instruments in a project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 563
18 AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565
Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568
Editing transient markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573
Enabling/disabling AudioSnap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581
Using the AudioSnap palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586
Editing a clip’s tempo map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589
Changing a project’s tempo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 592
12
Table of contents
Fixing timing problems in audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the timing of a solo performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase
relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Making multiple clips/tracks groove together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantizing audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snapping edits to audio beats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Splitting beats into clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slip-stretching audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Pool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Groove Quantize and Quantize to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Algorithms and rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
593
594
595
600
600
601
610
612
612
614
618
620
621
623
624
19 Working with loops and Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
The Loop Construction view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Construction controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using loops with the Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Groove Clip audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Groove Clips work in SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Groove Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and editing Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing slices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving Groove Clips as Wave files/ACIDized Wave files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using pitch markers in the Track view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with REX files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Groove Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting and importing MIDI Groove clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Project5 patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
630
630
635
637
638
638
639
640
643
644
644
646
647
649
651
20 Editing MIDI events and continuous controllers (CC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653
Event Inspector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Piano Roll view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note Map pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drum Grid pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
654
655
657
657
13
Notes pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657
Controller pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657
Track List pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658
Opening the view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 658
Working with multiple tracks in the Piano Roll view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659
Note names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661
Displaying notes and controllers (Piano Roll view only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662
Adding and editing notes in the Piano Roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663
Selecting notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663
Editing notes with the global tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665
Show velocity on selected notes (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670
Selection sensitive velocity drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
Hiding events in muted clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672
Adding and editing controllers in the Piano Roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 672
Multiple automation controller lanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
Adding controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
Selecting controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678
Select controllers within note duration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 679
Piano Roll Microscope mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680
The Inline Piano Roll view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683
Displaying the Inline Piano Roll view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683
The MIDI scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684
Displaying notes and controllers in the Inline Piano Roll view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685
Selecting and editing events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687
Copying and pasting MIDI data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 687
Transposing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 688
Inserting time or measures into a project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690
Stretching and shrinking events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 692
Reversing notes in a clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
Adding crescendos and decrescendos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695
Changing the timing of a recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 696
Quantizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697
Fit Improvisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705
Snap to Scale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708
Searching for events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711
Event filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and
Automation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 716
The Event List view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718
Event List buttons and overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 720
Selecting events in the Event List view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722
14
Table of contents
Event List display filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing events and event parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional event information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI effects (MIDI plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI effects presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Echo/Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filtering events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Arpeggio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzing chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing velocities with the Velocity effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transposing MIDI notes with the Transpose MIDI effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
722
723
724
726
727
727
728
729
730
731
732
734
21 Drum maps and the Drum Grid pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 737
The basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and editing a drum map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Drum Map Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working in the Drum Map Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Map Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving a drum map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using drum maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning a MIDI track to a drum map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening a drum map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying tracks in the Drum Grid pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Velocity tails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing note velocities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Previewing a mapped sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Note Map pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing mapped-note settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Drum Grid pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grid lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
737
738
738
740
741
741
742
742
742
743
744
744
745
746
746
748
748
22 Editing audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 749
Digital audio fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example—a guitar string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording a sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The decibel scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
750
750
750
753
755
756
756
15
Managing audio data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757
Basic audio editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757
Editing clip properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758
Moving, copying, pasting and deleting audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759
Audio scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 759
Splitting audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762
Bouncing to clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763
Scrubbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764
Basic audio processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765
Using the Normalize and Gain commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766
Reversing audio data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767
Advanced audio processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768
Removing silence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768
Removing DC offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770
Applying fades and crossfades offline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770
Audio effects (audio plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772
Real-time audio effects processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773
Destructive audio effects processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 774
23 Software instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775
Synth Rack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776
Synth tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777
Inserting soft synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778
Using instrument tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781
Opening a soft synth’s property page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784
Synth Rack icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785
Playing a soft synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786
Muting and soloing soft synth tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788
Rename synths in the Synth Rack view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788
Multi-port soft synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788
Converting your soft synth tracks to audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789
Using the Assignable Controls feature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 791
Automating controls from the Synth Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792
Displaying Synth Rack automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792
Remote control of the Synth Rack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793
Drawing soft synth automation in the Clips pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793
Soft synth MIDI output support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794
Recording a soft synth’s MIDI output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794
16
Table of contents
ReWire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReWire instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting a ReWire instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Routing MIDI data to ReWire instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing down ReWire instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating ReWire instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReWire troubleshooting guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stand-alone synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing a stand-alone synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording a stand-alone synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
795
795
796
798
798
798
799
800
800
801
24 Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803
Preparing to mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the Console and Track views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing a MIDI track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting MIDI to audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signal flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sidechaining signal flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Routing and mixing digital audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stereo buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround buses (SONAR Producer and Studio only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main outs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert Send Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What the meters measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hiding and showing meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the meters’ display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Segmented and non-segmented meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the meters’ performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI activity indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Peak markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Waveform preview for buses and synth tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Freeze tracks and synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using real-time effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effects parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to use real-time effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Presets and property pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bypassing effects globally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effects on clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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804
806
809
809
810
811
813
813
814
815
816
817
820
821
821
822
824
825
826
827
828
829
833
834
834
837
839
840
17
Sidechaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 842
Sidechainable Vintage Channel VC-64 plug-in (Producer only) . . . . . . . . . . . . 845
External Insert plug-in (Producer and Studio only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 846
Effects chains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852
Using FX Chain presets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853
Organizing plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856
VST configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 857
V-Vocal clips (Producer and Studio only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860
Using V-Vocal (Producer and Studio only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 862
Playing back V-Vocal clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 864
Pitch editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 864
Editing time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 868
Editing formants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 868
Editing dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 869
Context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870
V-Vocal pitch-to-MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871
Keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871
Using the per-track EQ (Studio and Essential only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873
Applying audio effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875
Applying MIDI effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875
Using control groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876
Quick Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 879
Using remote control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 881
Using the Learn option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 882
Bouncing tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 883
Real-time bounce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885
Preparing to create an Audio CD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887
Preparing audio for distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888
Exporting OMF files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 897
Dithering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 898
Burning audio CDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 899
Cakewalk Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900
25 Surround Mixing (Producer and Studio only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901
Surround basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902
Configuring SONAR for surround mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902
Using surround format templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903
Choosing a surround format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905
Surround buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906
18
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Routing in surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Downmixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Panning in surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling surround panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating surround panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Joystick support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bass management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The SurroundBridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect property pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to patch and configure surround effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing surround mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting surround mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
907
908
909
911
916
916
917
918
919
919
920
920
920
923
924
26 ProChannel (Producer only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925
Using ProChannel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 927
ProChannel modules and controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931
27 Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 945
Quick automation guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automation Read and Automation Write buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording individual fader or knob movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating an editing automation envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating track and bus mute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Envelope mode and Offset mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting MIDI controllers to envelopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snapshots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating individual effects parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording automation data from an external controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
946
947
948
949
950
959
960
963
964
965
965
967
28 Window management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 969
Docking windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 970
MultiDock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 974
Floating views and using dual video monitors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 978
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19
Locking views. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 980
Tiling windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 981
Screensets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 982
Using Screensets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 983
X-Ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 987
29 Templates and key bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 991
Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 991
Template example: three MIDI instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993
Key bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994
Importing key bindings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997
Exporting key bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 997
30 Notation and lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999
The Staff view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000
Opening the Staff view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001
Staff pane layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001
The Staff pane right-click menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1002
The Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1003
Fretboard pop-up menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1004
Basic musical editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1006
Inserting notes on the staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007
Inserting notes with the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1008
Selecting notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009
Moving, copying, and deleting notes on the staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009
Moving notes from within the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1010
Auditioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011
Changing note properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1012
Deglitch dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1013
Working with triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1013
Beaming of rests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014
Changing the way notes are displayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014
Using enharmonic spellings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1015
MIDI Channels and the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1017
Chords and marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1018
Adding chord symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1018
Adding expression marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1021
Adding hairpin symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1023
Adding pedal marks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1023
20
Table of contents
Tablature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tablature settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing Fretboard texture and orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quick TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Regenerate TAB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entering notes from the TAB staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Single note editing from the TAB staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing chords or groups of notes from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing notes and chords from the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with percussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up a percussion track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting up a percussion staff or line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ghost strokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Meter/Key view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Is meter? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Is key?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening the Meter/Key view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and editing meter/key changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Music notation for non-concert-key instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and editing lyrics in the Staff view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening the Lyrics view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding and editing lyrics in the Lyrics view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1025
1025
1026
1027
1027
1028
1028
1028
1029
1030
1031
1031
1033
1034
1035
1035
1036
1037
1037
1039
1040
1041
1042
1042
31 Instrument definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1045
Assigning instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing instrument definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating instrument definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and editing patch name and other lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying name lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning the Bank Select method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning patch names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning note names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning controller, RPN, and NRPN names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR flags in instrument definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument definition tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Why use instrument definitions?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What can they do and not do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where do instrument definitions come from? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start of tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
1046
1048
1049
1053
1054
1054
1056
1057
1059
1060
1061
1061
1061
1061
1062
21
32 System exclusive data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065
What is System Exclusive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1066
Sysx events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1066
Using the System Exclusive view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067
Sending Sysx banks at startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1068
Importing, creating, and dumping Sysx banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1069
More about Dump Request Macros. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1071
Editing Sysx banks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1071
Sysx view menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1072
Transmitting banks during playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1073
Real-time recording of System Exclusive messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1074
Sysx echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1075
Sysx .ini file settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1075
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1076
33 Synchronizing your gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1079
Synchronization overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1080
Choosing clock sources: SONAR as master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1082
MIDI synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1083
SONAR as the slave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1084
SONAR as the master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1085
Using MIDI Sync with drum machines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1086
Troubleshooting MIDI Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1086
SMPTE/MIDI time code synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1086
Playing digital audio under SMPTE/MTC sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1090
SMPTE/MTC sync and full chase lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1091
Troubleshooting SMPTE/MTC sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1092
MIDI Machine Control (MMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1093
34 Audio file management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1095
The Project Files dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096
Project files and bundle Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097
Audio folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098
Global audio folders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098
Per-project audio folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099
Imported audio files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101
Backing up projects with digital audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1102
22
Table of contents
Deleting unused audio files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103
35 Improving audio performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1105
System configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Wave Profiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling and disabling audio devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sampling rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit depths and float resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit depths for playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit depths for recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit depths for importing audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit depths for exporting audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bit depths for rendering audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing higher-quality audio for CD burning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR project file compatibility notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Improving performance with digital audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Getting the most out of your PC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing latency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ASIO drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimize driver state changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Queue buffers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiprocessor load balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reduce GUI updates to improve playback performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24-bit tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dropouts and other audio problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Optimized picture cache redrawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Improving recording performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Prepare Buffer Size and automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using audio devices in Windows Vista . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WASAPI support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MMCSS task profile support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WaveRT updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1105
1105
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1111
1112
1112
1112
1113
1114
1114
1117
1118
1118
1119
1121
1121
1122
1123
1131
1132
1132
1133
1133
1134
1135
36 External devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1137
Edirol PCR controllers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1138
Setting up control surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1140
Table of contents
23
ACT MIDI Controller plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1144
Using the ACT MIDI Controller property page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145
ACT presets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1145
Assigning controls on your controller/surface to cells in the ACT MIDI
property page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1146
Cakewalk Generic Surface plug-in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1147
Loading Cakewalk Generic Surface presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1147
Assigning faders and knobs to control SONAR parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1148
Controlling different tracks or groups of tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151
The Cakewalk Generic Surface property page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1152
Euphonix EuCon control surface support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1157
The WAI display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1158
ACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1160
Importing ACT data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1161
OPT panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1162
Working with StudioWare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1162
StudioWare panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1163
Using StudioWare panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1164
Grouping controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1166
Recording control movements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1168
Control settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1171
StudioWare Panel drawing speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1171
37 Using CAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1173
Running CAL programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1173
Sample CAL files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174
SPLIT NOTE TO TRACKS.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174
SPLIT CHANNEL TO TRACKS.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174
RANDOM TIME.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174
THIN CONTROLLER DATA.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1175
THIN CHANNEL AFTERTOUCH.cal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1175
THIN PITCH WHEEL.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1175
MAJOR CHORD.cal, MINOR CHORD.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1175
38 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1177
Installation Error: DeleteFile Failed; code 5 Access Denied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1179
Setting up an internal audio card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180
Configuring an audio interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1181
Audio dropouts or crashes during playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1182
24
Table of contents
My MP3 encoder stopped working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1182
When I play a file I don't hear anything (MIDI project) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1183
I can't record from my MIDI device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1183
I can't record any audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1184
I hear an echo when I record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1185
Dropouts happen at high bit-depths or high sample rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1185
Patching an effect into SONAR causes a dropout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1186
I can’t open my project / File Recovery mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1187
No sound from my software instrument/synth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1189
SONAR doesn't recognize new plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1189
My waveforms are gone, but I still hear audio; it says Busy in the corner of the clip1190
I get an error message when I change a project to 24-bit audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1191
Bouncing tracks takes a long time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1191
The Now time is not smooth during playback or scrolls out of view . . . . . . . . . . . 1192
Plug-in windows flicker or don't display properly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1192
I get a Burn Error or No Drive is Detected error when burning a CD directly
from SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1193
Known issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194
Session Drummer 3 performance (Producer only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194
Session Drummer 2 issues (Studio only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194
HLP files cannot be opened in Windows Vista . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1195
TTS-1 DXi does not support 88.2 kHz sample rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1195
Plug-in delay compensation re-sync. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1196
SONAR x64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1196
Backwards compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1197
Windows Vista . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1198
Windows 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1198
39 Hardware setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1199
Connect your MIDI equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1199
Set up to record digital audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1202
40 MIDI files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1207
Timebases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supported MIDI file meta-events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features not supported by MIDI files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other MIDI file handling notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special handling of GM, GS, and XG MIDI files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
1208
1209
1209
1209
1210
25
If you have problems playing MIDI files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1210
If you plan to publish your songs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1211
41 Initialization files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1213
Initialization files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1214
Initialization file format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1215
Cakewalk.ini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216
TTSseq.ini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1225
Aud.ini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1229
42 New features in SONAR X1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1237
43 Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245
44 Included plug-ins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1251
Audio effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1255
MIDI effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1288
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1291
45 Cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1303
Cyclone toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1304
Pad groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1305
Pad inspector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1306
Loop bin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1307
Loop view and Key Map view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1308
Pad editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1308
Slice inspector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1309
Using Cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1309
Controlling individual pads—volume, pan, mute, solo, sync, looping,
and content. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1312
Mixing down Cyclone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1313
Loop editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1313
Keyboard shortcuts in Cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1314
Undo and redo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1315
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46 Menu reference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1317
File > New . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Revert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Close . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Save . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Save As. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Import > Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Import > Audio CD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Import > Video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Import > MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Export > Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Export > Video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Export > MIDI Groove Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Export > OMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Export > Track Template. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Print. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Print Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Print Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Recent File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File > Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Redo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > All AudioSnap/Stretched Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > By Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > By Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > From = Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > Thru = Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > From = Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > Thru = End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > Select Track Envelopes with Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Edit > Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1325
Edit > Paste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1325
Edit > Paste Special. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1326
Edit > Delete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1326
Edit > Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1326
Groove Clip Looping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1327
Clip Mute/Unmute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1327
Split . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1327
Split Clip(s) at AudioSnap Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1327
Clip Lock > Lock Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1327
Clip Lock > Lock Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1327
Views > Control Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1328
Views > Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1328
Views > Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1328
Views > Inspector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1328
Views > Console View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1329
Views > Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1329
Views > Step Sequencer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1329
Views > Matrix View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1330
Views > Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1330
Views > AudioSnap Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1330
Views > Loop Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1330
Views > Event List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1331
Views > Lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1331
Views > Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1331
Views > Big Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1331
Views > Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1332
Views > Tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1332
Views > Meter/Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1332
Views > Sysx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1332
Views > Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1332
Views > Surround Panner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333
Views > Icons > Show Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333
Views > Icons > Track View > Show Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333
Views > Icons > Track View > Large Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333
Views > Icons > Track View > Small Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333
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Views > Icons > Track View > Show in Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Icons > Track View > Show Custom in Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Icons > Track View > Show in Strip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Icons > Track Inspector > Show Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Icons > Track Inspector > Show Large Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Icons > Track Inspector > Show Small Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Icons > Console > Show Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Icons > Console > Show Large Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Icons > Console > Show Small Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Icons > Synth Rack > Show Large Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Screenset 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Screenset 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Screenset 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Screenset 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Screenset 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Screenset 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Screenset 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Screenset 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Screenset 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Screenset 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Revert Current Screenset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Lock/Unlock Current Screenset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Rename Current Screenset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 1 . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 2 . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 3 . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 4 . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 5 . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 6 . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 7 . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 8 . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 9 . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 10 . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Import Screensets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Audio Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > MIDI Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Insert > Soft Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1341
Insert > Soft Synth > Plug-in Layouts > Manage Layouts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1341
Insert > ReWire Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1341
Insert > Multiple Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1341
Insert > Track Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1341
Insert > Track Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1342
Insert > Stereo Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1342
Insert > Surround Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1342
Insert > Bank/Patch Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1342
Insert > Series of Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1342
Process > Apply Effect > Audio Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1343
Process > Apply Effect > MIDI Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1343
Process > Apply Effect > Remove Silence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1343
Process > Apply Effect > Extract Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1344
Process > Apply Effect > Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1344
Process > Apply Effect > Normalize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1344
Process > Apply Effect > Remove DC Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1344
Process > Apply Effect > Fade/Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1345
Process > Apply Effect > Crossfade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1345
Process > Apply Effect > Reverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1346
Process > Quantize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1346
Process > Groove Quantize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1346
Process > Transpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1347
Process > Slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1347
Process > Nudge > Left 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1347
Process > Nudge > Right 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1348
Process > Nudge > Left 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1348
Process > Nudge > Right 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1348
Process > Nudge > Left 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1348
Process > Nudge > Right 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1348
Process > Nudge > Up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1349
Process > Nudge > Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1349
Process > Nudge > Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1349
Process > Find/Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1349
Process > Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1350
Process > Scale Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1350
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Process > Retrograde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Deglitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Fit to Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Fit Improvisation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Run CAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project > Info. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project > Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project > Insert Meter/Key Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project > Insert Tempo Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project > Insert Series of Tempos. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project > Insert Time/Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project > Insert Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project > Set Default Groove Clip Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project > Set Timecode at Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Project > Set Measure/Beat at Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities > Consolidate Project Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities > Clean Audio Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities > Change Audio Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities > Cakewalk Publisher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities > Burn Audio CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities > CWAF Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities > External Encoder Configuration Utility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities > Cakewalk Plug-in Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Ruler Format > M:B:T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Ruler Format > H:M:S:F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Ruler Format > Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Ruler Format > Milliseconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Window > Cascade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Window > Tile in Rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Window > Tile in Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Window > Arrange Icons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > SONAR Online > Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > SONAR Online > User’s Forum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > SONAR Online > Videos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Audio > Configuring your audio interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Help > Troubleshooting > Problems with registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1373
Help > Troubleshooting > Frequently asked questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1373
Help > View ReadMe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1373
Help > Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1373
Help > Usage Logger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1373
Help > Register Online. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1374
Help > Time Trial Activator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1374
Help > About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1374
Delete Track. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1374
Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1374
Remove From Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1374
Set Start = Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1375
Set End = Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1375
Insert Audio Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1375
Insert MIDI Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1375
Hide Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1376
Set Snap-to = Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1376
90 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1376
78 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1376
60 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1376
42 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1377
24 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1377
12 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1377
Set As Current Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1377
Delete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1377
Set Loop Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1378
Select Loop Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1378
Set Punch Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1378
Punch On/Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1378
Loop On/Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1378
Set Punch Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1378
Select Punch Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1379
Jump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1379
Linear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1379
Fast Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1379
Slow Curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1379
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Drag and Drop Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Associated Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mirror Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rosewood Hi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rosewood Lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ebony Hi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ebony Lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maple Hi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maple Lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Animate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Original Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stretch to Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preserve Aspect Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Integral Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Full Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display Format > M:B:T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display Format > SMPTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display Format > Frames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display Format > None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display Format > Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background Color > Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background Color > White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reset Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lock Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enable Floating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zoom tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Previous Zoom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show All Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record Meters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playback Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output Bus Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Record Meter Options > Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1386
Record Meter Options > RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1386
Record Meter Options > Peak + RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1386
Record Meter Options > Show Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1386
Record Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1386
Record Meter Options > Lock Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1386
Playback Meter Options > Peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1387
Playback Meter Options > RMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1387
Playback Meter Options > Peak + RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1387
Playback Meter Options > Show Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1387
Playback Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1387
Playback Meter Options > Lock Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1387
Output Bus Meter Options > Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1388
Output Bus Meter Options > RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1388
Output Bus Meter Options > Peak + RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1388
Output Bus Meter Options > Show Labels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1388
Output Bus Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1388
Output Bus Meter Options > Lock Peaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1388
Playback Meter Options > Pre Fader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1389
Output Bus Meter Options > Pre Fader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1389
Playback Meter Options > Post Fader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1389
Output Bus Meter Options > Post Fader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1389
Output Bus Meter Options > Pre Fader Post FX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1389
Percentage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1389
dB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1389
Zoom Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1390
Show and Fit Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1390
Show only Selected Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1390
Hide Selected Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1390
Show All Tracks and Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1390
Undo View Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1390
Redo View Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1390
Create Track Envelopes Using Linear Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1391
Snap to Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1391
Select tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1391
Erase tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1391
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Draw tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open Clip Effects Bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert New Track(s) or Bus(es) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mute tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exclusive Solo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add Clip to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Pool Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add MBT to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantize to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] View > Navigator Show/Hide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] View > Video Thumbnail Show/Hide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] View > Fit Tracks and Buses to Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] View > Fit Project to Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View > Fit MIDI Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
View > MIDI Microscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] View > View Undo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] View > View Redo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Auto crossfade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Fade-In Curve > Linear . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Fade-In Curve > Slow Curve .
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Fade-In Curve > Fast Curve . .
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Fade-Out Curve > Linear . . . .
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Fade-Out Curve > Slow Curve
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Fade-Out Curve > Fast Curve
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves >
Linear Out - Linear In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves >
Fast Out - Fast In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves >
Slow Out - Slow In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves >
Fast Out - Slow In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves >
Slow Out - Fast In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves >
Linear Out - Fast In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1398
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves >
Linear Out - Slow In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1398
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves >
Fast Out - Linear In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1398
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves >
Slow Out - Linear In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1399
[Track view] Options > Display > Aim Assist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1399
[Track view] Options > Display > Display Ghosted Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1399
[Track view] Options > Display > Display Track Separators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1399
[Track view] Options > Display > Display Clip Names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1399
[Track view] Options > Display > Display Clip Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1400
[Track view] Options > Display > Show Audio Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1400
[Track view] Options > Display > Vertical Grid Lines > None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1400
[Track view] Options > Display > Vertical Grid Lines > Behind Clips. . . . . . . . . . . 1400
[Track view] Options > Display > Vertical Grid Lines > In Front of Clips . . . . . . . . 1400
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Left Click Sets Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1400
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Right Click Sets Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1401
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Left Click Locks Scroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1401
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > MIDI Clips > -Nothing- . . 1401
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > MIDI Clips >
Event List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1401
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > MIDI Clips >
Staff View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1401
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > MIDI Clips >
Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1401
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > MIDI Clips >
Inline Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1402
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > Audio Clips > -Nothing- . 1402
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > Audio Clips >
Loop Construction View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1402
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Record Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1402
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Playback Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1402
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1402
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Horizontal Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1403
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[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Vertical Meters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Show Numeric Peak Values . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Show Track Peak Markers. . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Show Bus Peak Markers . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Reset All Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > Peak . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > RMS . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > Peak + RMS . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > -12 dB. . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > -24 dB. . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > -42 dB. . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > -60 dB. . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > -78 dB. . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > -90 dB. . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > Show Labels . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > Lock Peaks . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Peak . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > RMS . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Peak + RMS . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Pre Fader . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Post Fader . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > -12 dB . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > -24 dB . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > -42 dB . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > -60 dB . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > -78 dB . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > -90 dB . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Show Labels . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Lock Peaks . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Peak. . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > RMS . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Peak + RMS. . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Pre Fader . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Post Fader . . . . . .
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[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Pre Fader Post FX 1410
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > -12 dB . . . . . . . . . . 1410
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > -24 dB . . . . . . . . . . 1410
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > -42 dB . . . . . . . . . . 1410
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > -60 dB . . . . . . . . . . 1411
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > -78 dB . . . . . . . . . . 1411
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > -90 dB . . . . . . . . . . 1411
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Show Labels . . . . . 1411
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . . . . 1411
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Lock Peaks . . . . . . 1412
[Track view] Options > Drag and Drop Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412
[Track view] Options > Zoom Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412
[Track view] Options > On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412
[Track view] Options > Set Now Time With Full Restart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412
[Track view] Options > Stop at Project End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412
Make Instrument Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1413
Split Instrument Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1413
[Track view] Tracks > Bounce to Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1413
[Track view] Tracks > Clone Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1413
Delete Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1413
[Track view] Tracks > Wipe Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1413
[Track view] Tracks > Copy Track Name(s) to Clip Name(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414
[Track view] Tracks > Hide Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414
Track Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414
[Track view] Tracks > Sort Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414
[Track view] Layers > Show Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414
[Track view] Layers > Rebuild Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414
[Track view] Layers > Remove Empty Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1415
[Track view] Clips > Apply Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1415
[Track view] Clips > Bounce to Clip(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1415
[Track view] Clips > Convert to Mono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1415
[Track view] Clips > Fade clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1415
[Track view] Clips > Create Clip Selection Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1416
[Track view] Clips > Remove from Clip Selection Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1416
[Track view] Clips > Revert Original Time Stamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1416
[Track view] Clips > Set Snap Offset to Now Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1416
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[Track view] Clips > Select All Siblings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Clips > Unlink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Clips > Unlink Step Sequencer Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Clips > Convert MIDI Clip(s) to Step Sequencer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Clips > Convert MIDI Controllers to Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show/Hide Velocity Tails. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Velocity on Selected Notes Only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show All Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] MIDI > Show Controllers > <list of controllers>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] MIDI > Select Controllers Along With Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Controller Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Clip Outlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hide Muted Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] V-Vocal > Create V-Vocal Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] V-Vocal > Remove V-Vocal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] V-Vocal > V-Vocal Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] V-Vocal > Bypass/Unbypass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] V-Vocal > Bypass all V-Vocal Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Save as groove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copy as MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set project tempo from clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clip follows project tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit clip tempo map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show/Hide Track Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Show/Hide Controller Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Show/Hide Drum Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Show Vertical Gridlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Quarter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Quarter Triplet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Eight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Eight Triplet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Sixteenth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Sixteenth Triplet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > 32nd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > 32nd Triplet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1423
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > 64th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1423
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Follow snap settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1423
Pick Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1423
Show Next Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1423
Show Previous Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
Show All Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
Hide All Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
Invert Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
[Staff view] Edit > Fill Durations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
[Staff view] Edit > Trim Durations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
[Staff view] Edit > Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
[Staff view] Edit > Quick TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
[Staff view] Edit > Regenerate TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
[Staff view] Edit > Export to ASCII Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
[Staff view] Edit > Play Previous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
[Staff view] Edit > Play Next. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
[Staff view] View > Show/Hide Fret Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
[Staff view] View > Display Resolution > 1/4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
[Staff view] View > Display Resolution > 1/8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
[Staff view] View > Display Resolution > 1/16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
[Staff view] View > Display Resolution > 1/32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
[Console view] Strips > Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
[Console view] Strips > Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
[Console view] Strips > Mains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
[Console view] Strips > Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
[Console view] Strips > MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
[Console view] Strips > Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
[Console view] Strips > Muted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
[Console view] Strips > Archived . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
[Console view] Strips > Frozen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
[Console view] Strips > Widen All Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
[Console view] Strips > Narrow All Strips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
[Event List view] View > Event Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1428
[Event List view] View > Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1428
[Event List view] View > Key Aftertouch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1428
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Table of contents
[Event List view] View > Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > Patch Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > Channel Aftertouch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > Pitch Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > RPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > NRPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > Sysx Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > Sysx Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > Lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > MCI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > Shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > Hairpin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] View > Chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Event List view] Tracks > Show cropped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Lyrics view] Fonts > Font A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Lyrics view] Fonts > Font B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Lyrics view] Fonts > Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Lyrics view] Fonts > Hyphenate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Lyrics view] Tracks > Pick Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] File > Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] File > Send. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] File > Send All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] File > Receive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] File > Save . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] File > Clear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] Edit > Edit Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] Edit > Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] Settings > Auto Send on/off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] Settings > Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Left Click Positions Rectangle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horz Zoom Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horz Zoom Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horz Zoom Level 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1429
1429
1429
1429
1429
1429
1430
1430
1430
1430
1430
1430
1431
1431
1431
1431
1431
1431
1431
1432
1432
1432
1432
1432
1432
1433
1433
1433
1433
1433
1434
1434
1434
1434
41
Horz Zoom Level 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1435
Horz Zoom Level 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1435
Horz Zoom to Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1435
Track Height Short . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1435
Track Height Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1436
Track Height Tall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1436
47 Beginner’s guide to Cakewalk software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1437
MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1439
MIDI channels, interfaces, inputs, and outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1440
MIDI drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1442
MIDI files, projects, tracks, and clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1443
Controlling which sounds you hear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1445
Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1447
Audio playback in SONAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1448
Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1450
Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1451
Track-by-track playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1452
Audio recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1454
Connecting an instrument, home stereo, or microphone to your sound card . 1454
Choosing inputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1460
Audio hardware (sound cards) and drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1463
Consumer and professional. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1463
How do I know if I have a hardware conflict? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1464
Installation and drivers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1465
48 Dialog reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1471
About SONAR dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1471
Apply Audio Effects dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1471
Apply MIDI Effects dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1472
Assign Series of Inputs dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1472
Audio CD Burner dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1472
Audio Mixdown Options dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1474
Automation Read/Write Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1474
Auto-Send Sysx dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1475
AVI Encoder Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1475
Bank Name dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1477
Bank Output dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1477
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Table of contents
Bank/Patch Change dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bounce to Track(s) dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Change Audio Format dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chord Fret Number dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chord Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choose Track Type dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chromatic Tuner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clean Audio Folder dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Associated Audio Files dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clone Track(s) dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Registration dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller/Surface Settings dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convert MIDI To Shapes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convert MIDI Clip(s) To Step Sequencer dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copy dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create Fx Envelopes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crossfade dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller/Surface Settings dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cut dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Define Groove dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Define Instruments and Names dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deglitch dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delay dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete dialog (with multiple selection). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drag and Drop Options dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dump Request Macro needs your input—Channel/Unit Number . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dump Request Macro needs your input--Patch/Voice/Config Number. . . . . . . . .
Edit Node dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit System Exclusive Bytes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Filter dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Filter Select Some/Search/Replace dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Export Audio dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Export Color Set dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Export MIDI Groove Clip dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1483
1483
1483
1485
1485
1486
1487
1487
1488
1488
1489
1490
1490
1491
1492
1492
1493
1494
1494
1495
1495
1496
1497
1497
1497
1498
1498
1500
1501
1504
1505
43
Export OMF dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1506
Expression Text Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1507
Export Track Template. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1507
Fade/Envelope dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1508
Fade Selected Clips dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1508
File Info dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1510
File Statistics dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1511
File Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1511
Find Missing Audio dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1512
Fit to Time dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1512
Freeze Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1514
Gain dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1515
Go dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1516
Groove Quantize dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1517
Group Attributes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1519
Group Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1519
Hairpin Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1521
Import Audio dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1521
Import Audio CD Tracks dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1523
Import Color Set dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1524
Import Instrument Definitions dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1524
Import MIDI dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1525
Import Video File dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1525
Insert Pitch Change dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1527
Insert Series of Controllers dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1527
Insert Series of Tempos dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1528
Insert Soft Synth Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1528
Insert Time/Measures dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1530
Insert Tracks dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1531
Find/Change and Event Filter dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1531
Kind of Event dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1531
Length dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1532
Load Pattern dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1533
Lyric Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1533
Map Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1534
Marker dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1535
44
Table of contents
Markers dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measure Beat/Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meter/Key Signature dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Microsoft Media Format Encode Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Envelope dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Event Type dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Input Presets dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrate Cakewalk Preferences dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Missing Plug-ins dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MP3 Export Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rename Screenset dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Project File dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No MIDI Inputs—SONAR dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No MIDI Outputs—SONAR dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Normalize dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note Names dialog dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note Properties dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Online Registration dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open Groove File dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paste dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patch Browser dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pedal Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percent Done dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percussion Notation Key dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pick Track(s) dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preferences dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio - Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio - Driver Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio - Playback and Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio - Audio Profiles (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio - Configuration File (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio - Sync and Caching (Advanced). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI - Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI - Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI - Control Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI - Playback and Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI - Drum Map Manager (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
1535
1535
1536
1536
1537
1537
1538
1538
1539
1539
1541
1541
1542
1542
1542
1543
1543
1543
1544
1544
1545
1547
1548
1548
1548
1549
1550
1553
1555
1559
1562
1564
1566
1569
1571
1574
1577
1579
45
File - Folder Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1581
File - Audio Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1585
File - VST Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1587
File - Initialization File (Advanced). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1590
File - Advanced (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1592
Project - Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1594
Project - MIDI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1597
Project - Metronome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1600
Project - AudioSnap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1602
Project - Clock (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1604
Project - Surround (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1606
Customization - Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1610
Customization - Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1612
Customization - Snap and Nudge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1625
Customization - Editing (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1627
Customization - Key Bindings (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1631
Customization - Audio Meter (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1634
Print dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1636
Print Preview dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1636
Print Setup dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1637
Project Files dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1638
Quantize dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1639
Fast Zoom Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1641
Reassign Envelopes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1641
Receive System Exclusive dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1642
Regenerate Tablature dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1642
Remote Control dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1644
Remove DC Offset dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1645
Remove Silence dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1646
Retain Cakewalk Preferences dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1647
Revert dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1647
Safe Mode dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1648
Save As dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1648
Save Pattern dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1650
Scale Defaults dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1650
Scale Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1651
Scale Velocity dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1652
Search for Missing Audio dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1653
Select By Time dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1653
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Table of contents
Set Default Velocities for Steps dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Fretboard Track dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Timecode at Now Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slide dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR Quick Start dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sort Tracks dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split Clips dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Staff View Layout dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Staff View Print Configure dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Record dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Size dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SurroundBridge Plug-in Linker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sysx Bank Name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tablature Settings dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tempo dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Inputs dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Outputs dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transpose dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Undo History dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unlink Clips dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unpack Bundle dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unpack OMF dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unreadable Files dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video Export dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Control Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windows Media Format Encode Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WMV Encoder Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert Send Assistant dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Missing MIDI Ports dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Silent Buses Detected dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rename Cell dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjust Velocity Multiplier dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantize to AudioSnap Pool dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
1653
1654
1654
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1659
1661
1661
1662
1662
1664
1664
1665
1666
1666
1667
1668
1668
1669
1670
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1676
1676
1677
1677
1678
47
Choose File Type dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1678
Usage Logging dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1679
49 View reference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1681
Track view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1682
SONAR empty view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1690
Piano Roll view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1691
Piano Roll view menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1692
Note Map pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1694
Drum Grid pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1694
Notes pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1695
Controller pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1695
Track List pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1696
Step Sequencer view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1696
Step sequencer interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1697
Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1698
Rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1700
Notes pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1702
Controllers pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1703
Keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1704
Using the Step Sequencer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1706
Working with rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1706
Working with steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1709
Working with Controller events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1717
Working with patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1719
Using the Step Sequencer with drum maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1721
Working with Step Sequencer clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1723
Event List view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1725
Staff view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1726
Lyrics view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1728
Console view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1729
The Console view interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1730
Channel strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1732
Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1745
Console view menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1751
Customizing the Console view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1754
Using the Console view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1758
Video view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1763
Tempo view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1764
Meter/Key view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1766
48
Table of contents
Markers view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SYSX view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Big Time view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Construction view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix view user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Matrix view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix view shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigator view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Play List view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround panner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1766
1766
1767
1767
1771
1772
1773
1783
1794
1795
1795
1796
50 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1799
49
50
Introduction
SONAR is a professional tool for authoring sound and music on your personal computer. It’s
designed for musicians, composers, arrangers, audio and production engineers, multimedia and
game developers, and recording engineers. SONAR supports Wave, MP3, ACIDized waves, WMA,
AIFF and other popular formats, providing all the tools you need to do professional-quality work
rapidly and efficiently.
SONAR is more than an integrated MIDI and digital audio authoring software package—it’s an
expandable platform that can function as the central nervous system of your recording studio. With
drivers for common high-end audio hardware, full support for audio plug-ins, software synthesizers,
StudioWare, MFX MIDI plug-ins, and MIDI Machine Control (MMC) of external MIDI gear, SONAR
can handle your most demanding projects.
In This Chapter
About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Computers, sound and music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Starting SONAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
SONAR basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Screen colors and wallpaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Installing SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
About SONAR
SONAR is the flagship product of the Cakewalk line of integrated MIDI and digital audio sequencers
for the Windows platform. SONAR has a comprehensive feature set that makes it the single most
productive tool for sound and music authoring. Here are some of the ways you can use SONAR.
Publish
Publishing usually means printing your music; it’s one way to share your finished product with other
performers. After you’ve recorded and arranged a song in SONAR, you can produce printed lead
sheets and small scores with lyrics for sharing. You can also share the music files themselves.
SONAR will save your music in a format that you can put on a web site or email to other people.
Music composition and exploration
SONAR is a powerful music-composition application, providing tools to record your own musical
performances; enhance or improve the quality of those performances; and edit, arrange, and
experiment with the music. With a few simple clicks of the mouse, you can arrange, orchestrate, and
audition your composition. Fully integrated sequencing allows you to combine the convenience and
flexibility of MIDI composition with the high-quality sound and subtlety of digital audio sound
recording and reproduction. Change the feel of a piece by locking it to a musical groove, or add
delicate delays, anticipations, or echoes that add richness to the music.
SONAR displays and lets you edit your music using standard musical notation and guitar tablature,
so you can adjust individual notes, add performance markings, and print individual parts or full
scores. You can graphically draw tempo and volume changes, or add lyrics to display on-screen or
to include with printed scores.
Remixing
SONAR’s Groove clips allow you to import, create, export and edit loops, making it possible to
quickly change tempos and keys for an entire project. The Browser view lets you preview loops in
the project’s tempo and key before dragging and dropping them onto a track.
Game sound development
There’s no better tool than SONAR for composing music for electronic games. Clip-based
sequencing lets you create and reuse musical themes freely, so you can associate musical sections
with game characters, locations, objects, and actions. Your creations can be saved and replayed
using the compact MIDI file format, which adapts its sound automatically to the target hardware for
the best possible sound reproduction.
52
Introduction
About SONAR
Sound production and engineering
If you want to produce music CDs or master tapes, SONAR has virtually everything you need from
recording to mixing and mastering. Multichannel recording lets you capture studio or live
performances track by track. Reconfigurable buses provide full control over your mix. Real-time
stereo effects like chorus, flange, reverb, and delay/echo can be applied as track inserts, in effects
loops, or to the master mix. SONAR supports 44.1 KHz sampling for CD-quality sound, 24-bit/96
kHz sound for DVD-quality sound, and lets you choose from lower or higher sample rates as well. All
audio effects are 32-bit floating point for faster processing and high-quality sound reproduction.
Many effects now support 64-bit processing for pristine quality.
Web authoring
SONAR is the ideal tool for developing and producing music and sound for the World Wide Web,
because it lets you save your work in the formats that are most commonly used on web sites: MIDI,
MP3, and Windows Media Advanced Streaming Format. Any SONAR project—musical composition,
audio clip, commercial spot, jingle with voice-over—can be stored in a web-compatible format with a
few simple mouse clicks.
Film and video scoring and production
SONAR has many of the tools you need to execute audio post-production projects quickly and
efficiently. SONAR provides chase lock sync to time code for frame-by-frame accuracy when
synchronizing audio or MIDI to film or video. Or, you can turn chase lock off to conserve CPU power.
SONAR provides high-quality time stretching and sample-accurate editing with zero-crossing
detection so you can make the fine adjustments you need very quickly and easily. In addition,
SONAR’s support for video files gives you convenient synchronized access to digitized video,
making film and video scoring easier than ever.
Publishing music on the Internet
Cakewalk Publisher allows you to easily present and share your music online. With Cakewalk
Publisher, you can create a customized streaming music player with a playlist of your music, upload
it to your personal or band's website, and embed it in any other website. You can also update your
playlist with album art, links (URLs), and artist, track, & album information.
Burning audio CDs
SONAR has integrated Audio CD burning, which allows you to write your audio tracks to an audio
CD that can be played in any standard CD player.
Flexibility
SONAR works the way you want to work—you can customize screen layouts and audio and MIDI
system configurations to make your work more efficient. SONAR integrates with other sound editing
tools so you can access them in an instant without leaving SONAR. There are custom software
modules to support specialized audio devices from Roland and Yamaha. SONAR’s unique
StudioWare technology provides software interfaces for common studio hardware.
Introduction
About SONAR
53
Computers, sound and music
This section provides some background on the different ways that computers store and play sound
and music. Computers work with sound and music in two different forms: MIDI and digital audio.
MIDI
MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is the way computers communicate with most
sound cards, keyboards, and other electronic instruments. MIDI refers to both the type of cables and
plugs used to connect the computers and instruments, and to the language those computers and
instruments use to talk to each other. The MIDI standard is accepted and used worldwide. Almost
any electronic instrument you buy today will have MIDI connectors and can be used with other MIDI
instruments and with your computer’s MIDI interface. To record MIDI in SONAR, you have to have a
MIDI cable connecting the MIDI OUT port on your MIDI instrument to a MIDI IN port on either your
sound card or your MIDI interface. You must also make sure that you have installed the software
MIDI driver that came with your sound card or MIDI interface.
The MIDI language conveys information and instructions, both from the computer to the instrument
and from the instrument to the computer. For example, if your computer wants your keyboard to play
a note, it sends a MIDI “Note On” message and tells the keyboard which note to play. When your
computer wants the keyboard to stop playing that note, it sends another message that stops the
note from playing.
The MIDI language has many other instructions, such as messages to change the sound that is
used to play the notes (the bank and patch), messages that enable working with the sustain pedal
and the pitch-bend wheel, and others. By sending the right messages at the right times, your
computer can control your electronic instrument and make it play music.
MIDI information can be sent on 16 different channels. You can set up your MIDI equipment to listen
for messages on all channels or on only a few.
MIDI files contain all the MIDI messages and timing information that are needed to play a song. MIDI
files can be read and played by many different programs, including SONAR, and can even be played
by programs on other types of computers. MIDI files have the extension .mid.
There are several important advantages of the MIDI format:
• Large amounts of music can be stored in a very compact form
• Different parts of a piece can easily be assigned to any instrument you can imagine
• The music contains information on notes, tempos, and key signatures that makes it possible to
display and edit the piece using standard musical notation
The primary disadvantage of MIDI is that the quality of the sound a listener hears will vary depending
on the MIDI equipment the listener is using. For example, MIDI usually sounds much better on an
expensive synthesizer than it does on an inexpensive sound card.
54
Introduction
Computers, sound and music
Digital audio
Digital audio (frequently referred to here as just “audio”) is a simple way to record and play sounds of
any type. It works like a tape recorder—you record something, then later play it back. Digital audio
stores the sound as a long series of numbers. To record audio in SONAR, you have to have an
audio cable connecting the audio output of your electronic instrument to the audio input on your
sound card or audio hardware. If you’re recording vocals or an acoustic instrument, you need to
connect a microphone to the audio input on your sound card or audio hardware.
Sound Waves
Sound waves are vibrations in the air. Sound waves are generated by anything that vibrates; a
vibrating object causes the air next to it to vibrate, and the vibration is passed through the air in all
directions. When the vibrating air enters your ear, it makes your eardrum vibrate, and you hear a
sound. Likewise, if the vibrating air hits a microphone, it causes the microphone to vibrate and send
electrical signals to whatever it's connected to.
These vibrations are very fast. The slowest vibration frequency you can hear is about 20 vibrations
per second, and the fastest is around 16,000 to 20,000 vibrations per second.
Recording digital audio
To record digital audio, your computer monitors the electrical signal generated by a microphone, an
electric guitar, or another source. At equal intervals of time (for CD-quality sound, this means 44,100
times a second), the computer measures and saves the strength of the electrical signal from the
microphone, on a scale from 0 to 65,535.
That's it. Digital audio data is just a long series of numbers. The computer sends these numbers, in
the form of electrical signals, to a speaker. The speaker then vibrates and generates the same
sound that was recorded.
The primary advantage of digital audio is the quality of the sound. Unlike MIDI, a digital audio
recording is very rich, capturing all the nuances, overtones, and other characteristics of the sound
exactly as performed. The main drawback of digital audio is that it takes up a lot of disk space. To
record a 1-minute segment of stereo, CD-quality digital audio, you need about 10 megabytes of disk
space.
On the PC, digital audio is usually stored in Wave files (extension .wav). There are many programs
available that let you create, play, and edit these files. SONAR reads, writes, and lets you edit Wave
files.
Introduction
Computers, sound and music
55
Setup
You can install SONAR on any computer that runs Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows XP or x64
and has a sound card or built-in sound module. If you want to hook up other devices, like a MIDI
keyboard, an electric guitar, or a microphone, you need the right cables, and you need to find the
right connectors on your computer.
Note: SONAR X1 Producer and Studio provide native Windows x64 support. SONAR X1
Essential runs as a 32-bit program on a Windows x64 system.
Before you install SONAR, take a minute to register the software so we can let you know when
updates become available and provide you with technical support. To register anytime log onto
www.cakewalk.com/register, or call 1.888.CAKEWALK (+1.617.423.9004 outside the U.S.) between
9 AM and 8 PM Eastern Standard Time. If you live outside of North America, please visit our
distributor’s page at www.cakewalk.com/Dealers/International.asp to get the telephone number of
your local distributor. You’ll need to supply your serial number, your name, and a valid email
address.
To connect a MIDI keyboard to your computer you will need a MIDI interface. Some sound cards
include a builti-in MIDI interface. If your model does not, there are many options available at your
local music store. Many of these will connect to your computer via USB.
If you have a dedicated MIDI interface, lots of electronic music gear, or work with many different
music software packages, see “Hardware setup” on page 1199.
Before you attach or detach any cables from your computer, you should shut down your computer
and turn off the power to all your equipment. This greatly reduces the chance of electrical damage to
your equipment while plugging and unplugging cables.
User accounts
Previous versions of SONAR required a user to have Windows Administrator status. This is no
longer the case. Any level of user can now install and run SONAR. Only one copy of SONAR per
machine is necessary for multiple users to run SONAR with each user’s personal settings.
When you first install SONAR, all application data files and .ini files are installed to the systemspecified “all users” application data folders:
Windows XP:
C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Cakewalk
Windows Vista / Windows 7:
C:\ProgramData\Cakewalk
When you launch SONAR for the first time, all content files (such as track templates and project
templates) will be copied from the global application data folder (All Users) to the user application
data folder (User Account), before the program launches.
56
Introduction
Setup
If you install a SONAR patch on top of the original installation, any updated content files in the patch
will not overwrite existing content files in your personal user application data folder. However, you
can force SONAR to update the default content files in your personal user data folder.
Warning: The following action will overwrite any SONAR data files such as track templates and
project templates that you may have customized. A message box will prompt you if you wish to
continue or cancel. Only proceed if you are certain that you will not overwrite any important
customized files.
To force SONAR to update and overwrite any default content files, hold down the CTRL key while
starting SONAR.
Data in the Program Files folder will be common to all users.
Audio connections
There are several types of audio interfaces (soundcards). CardBus (PCI), USB/USB2 and FireWire
are the most common. Laptops can use an audio PCMCIA card. Many audio interfaces also have
MIDI inputs and some have built in MIDI synthesizers as well. This section covers the various audio
connection options.
Analog and digital Inputs
There are two basic types of audio inputs, analog and digital. Analog inputs allow you to connect a
guitar, mic or other instrument to your computer directly. The audio interface converts the analog
input to digital. Digital inputs allow other digital devices to connect directly to your computer.
Common digital inputs include external analog to digital converters, popular guitar processors like
the Line 6 POD, and other digital recording systems like the ADAT decks. Analog inputs are very
common, and are standard in virtually all consumer sound cards (the ones that come with your PC).
Digital inputs are becoming more popular and are very common on professional and mid-level,
“prosumer” interfaces. Analog inputs allow you to record a mono or stereo signal (assuming you
have a stereo input) while digital inputs allow you to record 1 to 8 signals depending on the type of
digital connection.
Introduction
Setup
57
The following table describes the various types of analog and digital connections you may
encounter.
Cable
Type
Description
1/4 inch TRS
Balanced analog connection
XLR
Balanced analog connection
Microphones, professional audio equipment
1/4 inch TS
Unbalanced analog connection Guitar cable,
“Hi-Z”
1/8 inch “Mini” Plug
Balanced analog connection
Headphones, desktop computer speakers
RCA - Phono
Phono analog connection
Turntables, analog cassette recorders
SPDIF
Stereo digital connection
Optical (Lightpipe)
Stereo digital connection
MIDI
MIDI connection
Read your hardware documentation carefully to determine what kind of connections you have on
your audio interface.
58
Introduction
Setup
To connect an electric guitar or keyboard to your computer
• If your sound card has a 1/8 inch input jack (built-in sound cards that come with your PC usually
do), plug your 1/4 inch mono guitar or audio cable into a 1/8 inch stereo adapter, and then plug
the 1/8 inch adapter into the microphone input or line input jack on your computer sound card. If
you are connecting a keyboard, the audio cable must go from the keyboard’s audio out or line out
jack to the sound card input jack. 1/8 inch stereo adapters are available at consumer electronic
supply stores.
Or
• If you use a professional or “prosumer” sound card, there is probably a 1/4 inch input jack on your
sound card or audio hardware interface that you can plug your guitar cable or audio cable into.
Guitar
DI Box
Computer Sound Card
(or external audio interface)
Headphones or
Speakers
To connect a microphone to your computer
• If your sound card has a 1/8 inch input jack (built-in sound cards that come with your PC usually
do), and your microphone cable has a 1/4 inch plug on the end, plug the mic cable into a 1/8 inch
stereo adapter, and then plug the 1/8 inch adapter into the microphone input jack on your
computer sound card. 1/8 inch stereo adapters are available at consumer electronic supply
stores.
• If you use a professional or “prosumer” sound card, there is probably a 1/4 inch input jack on your
sound card or audio hardware interface that you can plug your mic cable into.
• If your mic has a cable with an XLR plug on the end, and your sound card or audio hardware
interface has a 1/4 inch input jack, plug the mic cable into an XLR-to-quarter inch adapter, and
then plug your mic cable into your audio hardware. If your audio hardware has an XLR input, of
course it’s better to use that.
• You can also plug your mic into a mixer or pre-amp, and connect the mixer or pre-amp to an input
jack on your audio hardware. This is usually the best method.
Introduction
Setup
59
Microphone input
Microphone
Computer Sound Card
(or external audio interface)
Headphones or Speakers
USB connection
USB Microphone
Computer Sound Card
(or external audio interface)
Headphones or Speakers
That's it! Now that your instruments are all set to go, you can restart your computer and turn on your
keyboard, guitar, and microphone.
For a complete description of audio input options, see the online help topic “Hardware Setup.”
See:
“Changing I/O devices” on page 62
60
Introduction
Setup
MIDI connections
There are three types of MIDI cables in common use. Here’s how to connect each of the three types:
• USB cable. This is extremely common. Many electronic keyboards and stand-alone MIDI
interfaces use this type of connection. To use this type of connection, simply plug one end of the
USB cable into the USB jack on your MDI keyboard or stand-alone MIDI interface, and plug the
other end into your computer. If you are using a stand-alone USB MIDI interface, you then need
to connect standard MIDI cables between your MIDI keyboard and your stand-alone MIDI
interface (see the next procedure, below). If you haven’t already installed the software MIDI driver
that came with your keyboard or interface, make sure you do so.
• Standard MIDI cable. This is also very common. MIDI keyboards usually have jacks for these
cables even if they have a USB connection. You need two of these cables. To use this type of
cable, use one cable to connect the MIDI OUT jack on your MIDI instrument to the MIDI IN jack
on your stand-alone MIDI interface or sound card, and one to connect the MIDI IN jack on your
MIDI instrument to the MIDI OUT jack on your stand-alone MIDI interface or sound card. Many
stand-alone MIDI interfaces and audio interfaces use this type of connector.
Note: If you are only using an external MIDI controller to trigger software instruments, you only
need to connect a single MIDI cable from the MIDI controller’s MIDI OUT jack to the MIDI IN jack
on your MIDI interface.
Figure 1.
Standard MIDI cable—use this if your MIDI interface has standard 5-pin input and output ports
• Joystick connector. This is becoming less common. This is the type of connection seen on
older SoundBlaster type sound cards. To use this type of connection, find the end of one of the
MIDI cables that is labeled OUT. Plug this connector into the MIDI IN jack on your electronic
keyboard. The other 5-pin connector on the MIDI cable is labeled IN. Plug this connector into the
MIDI OUT jack on your electronic keyboard. Plug the 15-pin connector on the MIDI cable into the
MIDI/joystick port on your sound card. If you have a joystick, unplug it, plug in the MIDI cable, and
plug the joystick into the pass-through connector on the MIDI cable.
Introduction
Setup
61
Figure 2.
Joystick connector—use this if your MIDI interface is the joystick port on your sound card.
A
C
B
A. Insert this MIDI IN plug into the MIDI OUT port on your MIDI instrument B. Insert this MIIDI OUT plug into the
MIDI IN port on your MIDI instrument C. Insert this plug into the joystick port on your sound card
USB connection
USB MIDI Keyboard
Microphone input
Microphone
Computer Sound Card
(or external audio interface)
Headphones or Speakers
See:
“Changing I/O devices” on page 62
Changing I/O devices
You can add or remove USB/FireWire audio and MIDI devices while SONAR is running, and the
audio and MIDI engines will dynamically respond to any changes.
When a device is added or removed, SONAR prompts you to confirm or cancel the change. If you
click Yes, playback stops and the audio and MIDI engines reload.
Preserve selected audio devices on device changes
Enabled inputs and outputs are persisted per device and per driver mode. This prevents audio ports
from shifting around and causing unwanted devices to become selected as active audio inputs and
outputs. You can add a device back at any time and SONAR will remember the last set of enabled
inputs and outputs for that device.
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You can freely add or remove devices without impacting the current working set of enabled devices.
Adding a device back will remember its last selected inputs and outputs. You can also switch driver
modes and the existing enabled devices will be remembered for the next time when you switch back
to that mode.
Loading a project after changing audio devices
When loading a project after changing audio devices, SONAR will attempt to automatically remap
any missing device to an equivalent new device. If an equivalent match is not found, the Missing
Audio Outputs dialog appears, allowing you to manually reassign any unresolved output ports.
The Missing Audio Outputs dialog will suggest default assignments for any missing devices. You
can click OK to accept the assignments, or click Cancel to preserve the original missing device
assignments. You can also preserve the original missing device by selecting [Unassigned] from the
Available Devices list. If you choose not to reassign a missing device, the Output port selection in
SONAR will show the missing device name prefixed by MISSING.
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Note: The Missing Audio Outputs dialog is not shown if there is only a single missing output
port and only one available output port. In this case, SONAR will automatically assign the
missing output port to the available output port.
Remapping using friendly driver names
When Use friendly names to represent audio drivers is selected in Edit > Preferences > Audio Devices, SONAR can intelligently remap devices across different hardware configurations or driver
models by using your assigned friendly driver names, even if the hardware names do not match.
This can be very useful if you switch driver modes and load projects you worked on earlier in another
driver mode, or if you collaborate with other people who have different hardware configurations. As
long as you set up friendly names that match, all outputs will be automatically remapped.
Note: Remapping with friendly names takes precedence over the actual hardware device
names.
Changing MIDI Output devices
Changing MIDI output ports in Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices has the following effect:
• Enabling a new output port. All MIDI tracks and control surfaces retain their current output
port assignments.
• Disabling an unassigned output port.
output port assignments.
• Disabling an assigned output port.
All MIDI tracks and control surfaces retain their current
The result is different for MIDI tracks and control surfaces:
• MIDI tracks. The Missing MIDI Ports dialog appears and lets you remap the missing output
ports to available output ports.
Note: If you do not remap a missing device, the track’s Output control will display MISSING:
<name of missing device>. If the missing device becomes available in the future, the track will
automatically be assigned to the correct device.
• Control surfaces.
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The control surface output port is assigned to None.
Figure 3.
The Missing MIDI Ports dialog lets you remap missing output devices
Figure 4.
A track’s Output control shows the name of the missing device
Opening projects after MIDI configuration has changed
If any assigned MIDI output devices are missing when you load a project, which is likely to happen if
you transfer projects between different computers, SONAR will do the following:
• MIDI tracks. The Missing MIDI Ports dialog appears and lets you remap the missing devices
to available devices.
Note: If you do not remap a missing devices, the track’s Output control will display MISSING:
<name of missing device>. If the missing device becomes available in the future, the track will
automatically be assigned to the correct device.
• Control surfaces.
Control surface output ports are assigned to None.
Automatic MIDI port remapping for control surfaces
SONAR persists the names of MIDI ports that are assigned to control surfaces. This ensures that
the correct MIDI ports are assigned to control surfaces, even if you add or remove other MIDI
devices.
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Starting SONAR
There are many different ways to start SONAR. Here are a few:
• Double-click the SONAR icon on your desktop.
• Click the Start button, and choose Programs > Cakewalk > SONAR X1 (Producer, Studio or
Essential) > SONAR X1 (Producer, Studio or Essential).
• Click the Start button, point to Documents, and choose a SONAR project from the menu.
• Double-click the SONAR program or any SONAR document from the Windows Explorer or the
Find menu.
When starting SONAR, you will see the Quick Start dialog box.
Figure 5.
The Quick Start dialog
The Quick Start dialog box has several options:
Option
How to use it
Open a Project
Choose a project from the Open File dialog box to open it
Open a Recent Project
Select a project from the list, and click this button to open it
Create a New Project
Click here to create a new project.
Table 1.
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Option
How to use it
Online Videos and more
Click this link to view our tutorial videos online. An active Internet
connection is needed in order to access this content.
Getting Started
Click here to view the “Getting started” on page 3 topic in the Help file.
This topic has links to a glossary of terms, as well as some basic
procedures.
Table 1.
If you don’t want to see the Quick Start dialog box in the future, uncheck the box at the bottom of
the dialog box, and click Close. You can see the Quick Start dialog box later by choosing Help >
Quick Start.
RIFF/MID will not launch SONAR when double-clicked
Note: Double-clicking RIFF MIDI files and Standard MIDI files will fail to launch SONAR even if
these file types are associated with SONAR.
Migrating preferences
If you have a previous version of Cakewalk installed, SONAR will detect it and give you the option of
migrating certain preferences from a single earlier version.
When you choose to migrate preferences, SONAR migrates the following settings from an earlier
Cakewalk version:
Setting
Description
Global Options
Global settings in the Preferences dialog. Open by selecting Edit >
Preferences.
Key Bindings
Your customized key bindings for controlling SONAR using your MIDI
keyboard or computer keyboard.
Instrument Definitions
Files used to control specific MIDI instruments.
Audio data directory (WaveData
folder) and Picture Cache directory
locations
SONAR uses the Data directory and Picture Cache directories from the
previous Cakewalk version for storing project wave files and their
waveform image files.
Table 2.
Running Wave Profiler
The first time you start SONAR, it automatically runs the Wave Profiler utility. Wave Profiler
determines the proper MIDI and Audio timings for your sound card and writes them to a file that
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SONAR refers to when using the card. Wave Profiler does not change the sound card’s DMA, IRQ,
or port address settings.
Wave Profiler detects the make and model of your sound card, which determine the card’s audio
characteristics. If Wave Profiler finds a card that has a WDM driver, it only profiles that card. If you
want to use more than one sound card at a time, and they don’t both have WDM drivers, you must
force the one with the WDM driver to use that driver as an older, MME driver. It is not necessary to
run the Wave Profiler for a sound card using an ASIO driver. For more information about Wave
Profiler, WDM, and MME, see “The Wave Profiler” on page 1105.
When Wave Profiler determines the kind of card you have, always accept the default settings.
Note: You can run the Wave Profiler again at a later time (for example, if you install a new sound
card or driver) by choosing the Edit > Preferences > Audio - Driver Settings command and
clicking Wave Profiler.
Setting up the MIDI In and MIDI Out devices
When you start SONAR for the first time, it checks your computer to find all the MIDI input and
output devices you have installed (such as sound cards and MIDI interfaces). However, sometimes
you need to tell SONAR exactly which devices you want it to use. If you’re not getting sound from
your sound card or MIDI keyboard, or if you just want to change the MIDI outputs and devices that
you are using, follow the steps in this section.
Choose Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices to open a dialog box in which you select the MIDI In
and MIDI Out devices that SONAR will use. Each item in the list is a MIDI Input or MIDI Output from
drivers installed using the Windows Control Panel.
1. Select Edit > Preferences to open the Preferences dialog, then click MIDI - Devices. This
dialog lets you choose instruments on MIDI inputs and outputs.
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Figure 6.
The MIDI - Devices section
2. Look at the top window. Notice that it shows devices on MIDI Inputs; make sure that all devices
in this window are checked. If a device isn’t checked, click on it once to select it for MIDI Input.
3. Look at the window on the bottom. Notice that it shows devices on MIDI Outputs. SONAR
numbers its MIDI Outputs by the order of the devices in this window. The device on top is on
Output 1, the one below it is on Output 2, and so on.
4. Check one device at a time in the Outputs window and click Move Checked Devices to Top to
change its order. Then check all the devices that appear in the window to select them for output.
Tip: Be sure to select MIDI output devices in Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices. If you don’t do
this, you won’t hear any of your MIDI instruments when you play songs in SONAR. You do not need
to enable any MIDI output devices if you are strictly using software instruments.
See “MIDI - Devices” on page 1569.
Using MIDI devices after making driver changes
If you later add or remove drivers using the Drivers icon of the Windows Control Panel, SONAR
reacts in the following way:
• If you remove a Control Panel driver, SONAR will not use the device it belongs to the next time
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you run the program. Any other devices you had selected using the Edit > Preferences > MIDI Devices command will remain selected.
• If you add a driver through the Control Panel, SONAR does not automatically use it. You must
use the Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices command to enable the new driver in SONAR’s list.
Note: After you add or remove a driver with the Drivers icon in the Windows Control Panel, you
must restart Windows for the change to take effect.
Defining your MIDI instrument or sound card
Once you have selected your MIDI Input and Output devices, SONAR, by default, plays back MIDI
sequences using a General MIDI instrument definition. If you are using a synthesizer or sound card
that does not adhere to the General MIDI standard, you may want to define that instrument. See the
online help topic “Instrument definitions” on page 1045 for more information.
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SONAR basics
SONAR’s menus and tools give you quick access to all the features of SONAR. Some menu choices
and tools display dialog boxes that let you choose among various options, or type in the values you
want. If you click in most views, in time rulers, or on certain other items with the right mouse button,
you see a pop-up menu that provides quick access to many common operations.
The project is the center of your work in SONAR. If you’re a musician, a project might contain a
song, a jingle, or a movement of a symphony. If you’re a post-production engineer, a project might
contain a 30-second radio commercial or a lengthy soundtrack for a film or videotape production. By
default, every project is stored in a file (known as a project file). The normal file extension for a
SONAR work file is .cwp.
SONAR organizes the sound and music in your project into tracks, clips, and events.
Tracks are used to store the sound or music made by each instrument or voice in a project. For
example, a song that is arranged for four instruments and one vocalist may have 5 tracks—one for
each instrument and one for the vocals. Each project can have an unlimited number of tracks
(SONAR X1 Essential supports unlimited MIDI tracks and up to 64 audio track). Some of these
tracks may be used in your finished project, while others can hold alternate takes, backup tracks,
and variations that you might want to keep for future use. Each track can be made up of one or many
clips.
Clips are the pieces of sound and music that make up your tracks. A clip might contain a horn solo,
a drum break, a bass or guitar riff, a voice-over, a sound effect like the hoot of an owl, or an entire
keyboard performance. A track can contain a single clip or dozens of different clips, and you can
easily move clips from one track to another.
Groove clips are audio clips which have tempo and pitch information embedded within them,
allowing them to follow changes to the project tempo or project pitch. You can click on either edge of
a Groove clip and drag out repetitions in the track.
Events are MIDI data (in MIDI tracks) or automation data.
See:
“SONAR file types” on page 72
“Opening a file” on page 72
“Views” on page 73
“Working on a project” on page 88
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SONAR file types
Projects in SONAR can be saved as a project file with the extension .cwp or as a Bundle file with the
extension .cwb.
For a complete description of the differences between project files and bundle files, see the online
help topic “Project files and bundle Files” on page 1097.
Other types of files
SONAR lets you create and work with several other types of files, in addition to project (.cwp) and
bundle (.cwb) files that store your projects:
File type
Description
MIDI files (extension .mid)
Standard MIDI files.
Template files (extension .tpl)
Templates for new files you create
StudioWare (extension
.CakewalkStudioware)
To control external MIDI devices from SONAR
OMF (extension .omf)
Open Media Framework format files.
Table 3.
Opening a file
Use the following procedure to open a file.
To open a file in SONAR
1. If you haven't already done so, start SONAR.
2. Choose File > Open.
3. In the Open dialog box, navigate to the directory where the project you want to open is located
and select it.
4. Click the Open button.
5. If you are opening an OMF file, the Unpack OMF dialog appears. Set the initial tempo and
specify the directory where you want to save the file and its audio. For more information about
opening OMF files, see “Unpack OMF dialog” on page 1669 in the online help.
SONAR loads the project.
See:
“Working on a project” on page 88
“I can’t open my project / File Recovery mode” on page 1187
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Views
SONAR displays your project in windows on the screen that are known as views. You can have
many views open at once, all showing the same project. When you edit a project in one view, the
other related views are updated automatically.
The Track view
Track view is the main window that you use to create, display, and work with a project. When you
open a project file, SONAR displays the Track view for the project. When you close the Track view
for a project, SONAR closes the file.
The Track view is divided into several sections: menu bar (at the top), the Navigator pane, the
Video Thumbnails pane, the Track pane, the Inspector pane, the Clips pane, the Bus pane, the
Browser pane, and the MultiDock.
Figure 7.
The Track view.
C
D
E
A
F
B
G
A. Control Bar B. Inspector pane C. Track pane D. Clips pane E. Video Thumbnail pane F. Browser
G. MultiDock
All of the current track’s controls are contained in the Track Inspector, which is an expanded version
of the current track’s controls located on the far left side of the Track view. You can hide or show the
Track Inspector by pressing I on your keyboard (see “Inspectors” on page 503, for more
information).
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The Track pane lets you see and change the initial settings for each track. To change the current
track, move the highlight using the mouse or the keyboard as follows:
What it does
Key
Moves the highlight to the next or previous control.
LEFT/RIGHT ARROW
Moves to the same control in the adjacent track, or the next track of the same type
if the control only applies to a specific track type (for example, the Patch control
only applies to MIDI tracks).
UP/DOWN ARROW
Displays the next page of tracks.
PAGE DOWN
Displays the previous page of tracks.
PAGE UP
Moves the focus to the first track.
HOME
Moves the focus to the last track.
END
Table 4.
The Clips pane shows the clips in your project on a horizontal timeline called the time ruler that
helps you visualize how your project is organized. Clips contain markings that indicate their
contents. The Clips pane lets you select, move, cut and copy clips from place to place to change the
arrangement of music and sound in your project.
The Bus pane shows the buses in the project, and also shows any editing views that are in tabbed
(docked) format. The Show/Hide Bus pane button
allows you to show or hide the Bus pane at
the bottom of the Track view.
The Navigator pane displays a large part of your project so you can see an overview of your song.
The Navigator pane displays all of your project’s tracks.
The Track view makes it easy to select tracks, clips, and ranges of time in a project.
For more information, see “Track view” on page 1682 and “Configuring the display of tracks in the
Track view” on page 315.
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Inspector pane
When working on a project, you will frequently need to access track and clip parameters and mix
controls. The Track Inspector and Properties Inspector provide easy access to relevant settings for
the selected track(s) or clip(s).
Figure 8.
Use the Track Inspector and Properties Inspector to configure track and clip settings.
A
B
C
D
H
E
F
G
I
A. Dock/undock Inspector B. Show/hide Clip Properties Inspector C. Show/hide Track Properties Inspector
D. Show/hide ProChannel E. Display area for Properties Inspector F. Display area for Track Inspectors
G. Show/hide/configure Track Inspector modules H. Section header bars (click to show controls) I. Show audio
output or MIDI settings (Instrument tracks only)
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The Inspector pane appears to the left of the Track view, but can also be moved to the right side.
There are three separate inspectors:
• Track Inspector. The Track Inspector shows mix settings for the current track, bus, or main,
and is essentially identical to a channel strip in the Console view. Advanced MIDI settings are
also available for MIDI tracks and Instrument tracks. For details, see “Track Inspector overview”
on page 508.
• Properties Inspector. The Properties Inspector shows properties for the selected clip(s) or
track(s). For details, see “Properties Inspector overview” on page 524. The Properties Inspector
has two modes:
• Clip. The Clip Properties Inspector displays settings for the currently selected clip(s). For
details, see “Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 526.
• Track. The Track Properties Inspector lets you type a track name, specify an audio track’s
AudioSnap render modes, specify the default clip colors, and enter a text description. For
details, see “Properties Inspector - Track Properties” on page 533.
• ProChannel (Producer only). ProChannel combines compression, equalization, and tube
saturation modeling in one convenient processor. ProChannel is available on each audio track,
Instrument track and bus. For details, see “ProChannel (Producer only)” on page 925.
For more information about the Inspector pane, see “Inspectors” on page 503.
Control Bar
Much of your time in SONAR is spent recording and listening to your project as it develops. The
Control Bar contains the most important tools and other pieces of information you will need to
record, edit and play back your project.
The Control Bar consists of several modules that each contain various related controls. You can rearrange and show/hide each individual module, which allows you to only show the functions you
need most often. By default, the Control Bar is docked at the top of SONAR’s screen, but can also
be undocked or docked at the bottom.
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Figure 9.
The Control Bar.
For more information about the Control Bar, see “Control Bar overview” on page 473.
The Console view
The Console view is where you can mix the sounds on all the different tracks to create the final mix
of your project. While the Track view provides most of the same controls, you may want to use the
more familiar interface of the Console view for mixing.
You use the Console view to adjust the levels of sound for the different tracks in your project, to
change the stereo panning, and to apply real-time effects to an individual track, combinations of
tracks, or the final mix.
The Console view contains several modules of controls. There is one channel strip for each track
and bus in your project. You can use bus sends to direct certain tracks to special modules that are
known as buses.
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Figure 10.
The Console view
B
C
A
D
E
F
A. Console view menu B. ProChannel (Producer only) C. Pane splitter bars D. Track channel strips E. Bus
channel strips F. Main channel strips
As in the Track view, you can change track settings or record new music or sound in the Console
view. You may choose to use one view or the other, or the choice you make may depend on which
project you are working on.
Other views
SONAR has a number of other views you can use to display and work on your project. To display
these view, choose the desired view from the Views menu, or press the view’s keyboard shortcut.
The Piano Roll view shows the notes from a MIDI track or tracks as they would appear on a playerpiano roll. You can move the notes around, make them longer or shorter, and change their pitches
by just dragging them with the mouse. You can also use the Piano Roll view to display and edit MIDI
velocity, controllers, and other types of information. The Piano Roll view also contains the Drum
Editor, which allows you to play different drum modules from a single track. For more information,
see “Piano Roll view” on page 1691.
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Figure 11.
The Piano Roll view
C
A
B
A. Piano Roll view menu B. Key/Pitch pane C. Note pane
The Staff view displays the notes from one or more MIDI tracks using standard music notation,
similar to the way the notation would appear on a printed page. You can add, edit, or delete notes;
create percussion parts; add guitar chords and other notation markings; display guitar tablature;
display the Fretboard pane; and print whole scores or individual parts to share with other musicians.
Figure 12.
The Staff view
E
D
A
B
F
G
C
H
A. Staff view menu B. Zoom in/out C. Staff pane D. Editing tools E. Time and pitch locator F. Dock/undock
and expand/collapse G. Track list pane H. Fretboard pane
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The Loop Construction view allows you to create and edit Groove clips (SONAR loops that “know”
the tempo and key in which they were recorded), and export these clips as ACIDized files. For more
information, see “Loop Construction view” on page 1767.
Figure 13.
The Loop Construction view
The Browser lets you find and import various types of content into your projects, including audio and
MIDI files, track and project templates, track icons, FX Chain presets, effect plug-ins and
instruments. You can drag content and plug-ins directly into tracks.
Figure 14.
A
The Browser.
B
C
A. Media Browser B. Plug-in Browser C. Synth Rack Browser
The Event List view displays the events in a project individually, so that you can make changes at a
very detailed level. For more information, see “Event List view” on page 1725.
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Figure 15.
The Event List view
SONAR has several other views that are used for very specific purposes:
View
How you use it
Meter/Key
To change the meter (time signature) or key signature, or to insert changes
in the meter or key signature at specific times in a project. For more
information, see “Meter/Key view” on page 1766.
Big Time
To display the Now time in a large, resizable font that you can read more
easily. For more information, see “Big Time view” on page 1767.
Markers
To add, move, rename, or delete labels for parts of your project that make it
easier to move from one point to another. For more information, see
“Markers view” on page 1766.
Lyrics
To add and display lyrics for a track. For more information, see “Lyrics
view” on page 1728.
Video
To display a loaded video file. For more information, see “Video view” on
page 1763.
Navigator
Manage the Now Time in a project
Surround Panner (Producer and
Studio only)
Pan a surround track
Sysx
To create, display, store, and edit System Exclusive MIDI messages used
to control instruments and other gear that are MIDI capable. For more
information, see “SYSX view” on page 1766.
Tempo
To view and edit the project's tempo changes. For more information, see
“Tempo view” on page 1764.
Table 5.
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View
How you use it
Step Sequencer
Lets you compose patterns by clicking cells in a grid to turn notes on or off.
For more information, see “Step Sequencer view” on page 1696.
Matrix
Lets you trigger multiple audio and MIDI patterns, either with a mouse or via
MIDI remote control. For more information, see “Matrix view” on page 1772.
Table 5.
Zoom controls
Many of the views contain Zoom tools that let you change the horizontal and vertical scale of the
view.
Figure 16.
Zoom controls
A
B
C
D
E
F
I
H
G
A. Zoom Clips pane out vertically B. Vertical Zoom fader for Clips pane C. Zoom Clips pane in vertically
D. Zoom Bus pane out vertically E. Vertical Zoom fader for Bus pane F. Zoom Bus pane in vertically G. Zoom
in horizontally H. Horizontal zoom fader I. Zoom out horizontally
The Zoom tools are used as described in the following table:
Tool
How you use it
Zoom out (Clips pane or Bus pane)
Click to zoom out incrementally, or press SHIFT and click to zoom all
the way out
Zoom in (Clips pane or Bus pane)
Click to zoom in incrementally, or press SHIFT and click to zoom all the
way in
Zoom fader
Table 6.
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Click and drag to zoom continuously
You can also zoom with the keyboard:
Key
What it does
CTRL+UP ARROW
Zoom out vertically
CTRL+DOWN ARROW
Zoom in vertically
CTRL+RIGHT ARROW
Zoom in horizontally
CTRL+LEFT ARROW
Zoom out horizontally
G
Go to (center) the Now time, without zooming
Hold down Z
Arm the Zoom tool
U
Undo the current zoom
F
Fit tracks to window
A
Show all tracks
SHIFT+F
Fit project to window
SHIFT+double-click a clip
Maximize track height
Table 7.
Zooming and scrolling in the time ruler
You can zoom and scroll horizontally by dragging in the top half of the time ruler.
To zoom, drag up/down in the top half of the time ruler.
To scroll, drag left/right in the top half of the time ruler.
To lock the time when zooming in or out, hold down the ALT key.
Figure 17.
Drag in the top half of the time ruler to zoom and scroll horizontally.
Note: If multiple time rulers are showing, drag in the top half of the topmost
ruler.
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Docking views in the MultiDock
You can dock any view other than the Console view in the MultiDock by enabling a view’s Dock in
MultiDock option. You can have as many views open in tabbed format as you want. You can toggle
through the different views by clicking the tab of the view you want to see (or use the
CTRL+SHIFT+LEFT/RIGHT ARROW shortcut). You can also maximize the pane to do detailed
work in a view, or drag the splitter bar at the top of the view to enlarge the tabbed view area.
Figure 18.
The MultiDock.
A
B
C
A. Each docked window has its own tab B. Click to the right of the tabs and drag the MultiDock away from the
bottom of the screen in order to undock the MultiDock C. Dock/undock and expand/collapse the MultiDock
For more information about docking view, see “MultiDock” on page 974.
Locking views
By default SONAR allows only one instance of each view, but you can lock the contents of most
views, preserving the current view by forcing a new instance of the view to appear if necessary.
Locking views is the only way you can have multiple instances of the same view open. Only the
Track and Console views cannot be locked.
To lock a view, click the Lock button
, and a locked view looks like this
key when opening the view.
at the top right of the view. An unlocked view looks like this
. A view can be locked automatically by pressing the CTRL
For more information about locking view, see “Locking views” on page 980.
Floating views
When a view is float enabled, you can move it outside of the confines of SONAR. This is particularly
useful if you take advantage of SONAR’s dual monitor support. Using dual monitor support, you can
keep the Track or Console view on one monitor and “float” other views to the other monitor by
dragging them to the second screen.
For more information about floating view, see “Floating views and using dual video monitors” on
page 978.
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X-Ray windows
The X-Ray Windows feature eliminates the need to constantly minimize, move, or close windows in
order to work in other windows. It works by decreasing the opacity of the current window enough so
that you can see and work with the window that’s behind the current window. You activate the
feature by pressing a keyboard shortcut (default shortcut is SHIFT+X) when the mouse cursor is
over a window you want to x-ray. You can choose to X-Ray whichever window is underneath the
mouse cursor, or automatically X-Ray all FX/synth property pages in one step (Note: the mouse
cursor does not need to be over any plug-in property pages).
The X-Ray Windows feature works on the following windows:
• AudioSnap palette
• Piano Roll view (when float-enabled)
• Snap To Grid dialog
• Plug-in effects and synths
• Controller/Surface plug-ins
To select key bindings for X-Ray windows
1. Use the Edit > Preferences command to open the Preferences dialog, then select
Customization - Key Bindings.
2. If you want to use currently unassigned keys or key combinations, scroll through the options in
the Key window until the Global Key Assignment field that is just under the window reads
Unassigned. It’s a good idea to find two unassigned options that are next to each other or easy
to remember.
Note: For best results with X-Ray Windows, avoid using ALT key combinations.
3. Once you’ve decided on two keys or key combinations that you want to use, select Global
Bindings in the Bind Context field, and scroll to the bottom of the list of commands that are in
the window below that field.
4. In the Key window, highlight the key or key combination that you want to use for the X-Ray
command, then highlight X-Ray in the function column of the list of commands, then click the
Bind button to bind them together.
5. Now highlight the key or key combination that you want to use for the X-Ray All FX/Synths
command, then highlight X-Ray All FX/Synths in the function column of the list of commands,
then click the Bind button to bind them together.
6. Click OK to close the dialog.
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To use X-Ray windows
1. Use the Edit > Preferences command to open the Preferences dialog, click Customization Display and make sure the Enable X-Ray check box is selected.
2. Make sure that the view windows you want to X-Ray are in the Floating-enabled state: to check
this, click the view or fx icon that’s in the upper left corner of a window, and select Enable
Floating from the drop-down menu. If Disable Floating is in the menu, then the Floating option
is already enabled.
Note: All FX/Synth/Control surface property pages are float-enabled by default.
3. To X-Ray or un-X-Ray a single window, move the mouse cursor over the window, and press the
keyboard shortcut (default is SHIFT+X) for the X-Ray command. The window does not need to
have focus (does not need to be the highlighted window).
4. To X-Ray or un-X-Ray all plug-in windows at once, press the key binding for the X-Ray All FX/
Synths command.
Note: If a window has focus, and the window’s Give All Keystrokes To Plug-in button
enabled, X-Ray keyboard commands won’t work.
is
To Adjust X-Ray Windows Options
5. Use the Edit > Preferences command to open the Preferences dialog, then click
Customization - Display.
6. On the General tab, you can adust these options:
• Enable X-Ray. Enable or disable this check box to turn the X-Ray Windows feature on or off.
• Opacity. Adjust this value by typing in a value, or by clicking and holding the + or - button to
adjust the final opacity percentage value that an X-Rayed window reaches.
• Fade Out Time. Adjust this value by typing in a value, or by clicking and holding the + or button to adjust the amount of time that an X-Rayed window takes to reach its final opacity
percentage value.
• Fade In Time. Adjust this value by clicking and holding the + or - button to adjust the amount
of time that an X-Rayed window takes to restore its original opacity.
7. Click OK to close the dialog and accept your changes.
To exclude a plug-in from X-Ray capablity
Some plug-ins (very few) use DirectDraw to create their windows. These windows appear jittery
when x-rayed.
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To exclude a plug-in from X-Ray capablity, follow these steps:
1. Open the Cakewalk Plug-in Manager: use the Utilities > Cakewalk Plug- in Manager
command.
2. In the Plug-in Categories window, select the category that the plug-in you want to exclude is in.
3. In the Registered Plug-ins window, select the plug-in that you want to exclude.
4. If the plug-in is a DirectX effect or an MFX, write down (or select and copy) the CLSID value
that’s in the CLSID field at the bottom of the dialog.
5. If the plug-in is a VST or VSTi, write down the VST ID value that’s in the VST ID field at the
bottom of the dialog.
6. Close the Plug-in Manager dialog.
7. Open the Xrayexclude.ini file that’s in your SONAR program folder (use Notepad).
8. At the end of the file, find the [EffectProps View] section.
You will see entries such as the following:
; Waves SSL EQ Stereo
XRayExclude11=1397510483
XRayExclude12={E451379E-F7E1-4E82-98D9-BEB87AC45E90}
9. Exclude your plug-in by creating a blank line below the last entry in the [EffectProps View]
section, and then typing:
;[name of your plug-in, but withour brackets]
XRayExclude[type the next available number in XRayExclude list, but without brackets]=[VST ID
number, with no brackets, or CLSID number, with curly braces at start and finish]
For example, if the last entry in the [EffectProps View] section was:
; Waves SSL EQ Stereo
XRayExclude11=1397510483
XRayExclude12={E451379E-F7E1-4E82-98D9-BEB87AC45E90}
And you wanted to exclude the Cakewalk FxDelay from the X-Ray Windows feature, after
creating a blank line you would type:
; Cakewalk FxDelay
XRayExclude13={985DAF67-589F-4B8D-8BBC-D7AD651B9022}
If there was also a VST version of the Cakewalk FxDelay, you would add another line:
XRayExclude14=[some VST ID number, with no brackets]
10. Save and close the Xrayexclude.ini file, and restart SONAR to implement your changes.
Introduction
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87
Screensets
You may spend a lot of time making sure that all the views are laid out on the screen just the way
you want. When you save your work, SONAR automatically saves the screen layout along with it.
You can create up to 10 screensets per project and freely switch between screensets at any time.
For more information, see “Screensets” on page 982.
Working on a project
Every project has a current time, known as the Now time (see: “The Now time and how to use it” on
page 172). As you record or play back a project, the Now time shows your current location in the
project. When you create a project, the Now time is set to the beginning of the project. The current
Now time is saved with your project.
As you work with a project, you can use SONAR’s mute and solo features to choose which tracks
are played, or you can create loops to play a particular section over and over again. You can also
create markers, which are named time points you add to your project to make it easy to jump to a
particular location.
Screen colors and wallpaper
SONAR lets you customize the colors that are used for virtually all parts of the program using the
Edit > Preferences > Customization - Colors command. This command also lets you change the
background bitmap that is displayed in the SONAR window.
For any SONAR screen element, you can assign a color in two ways:
• Choose one of the colors that is part of your Windows color scheme.
• Assign a custom color.
To assign custom colors
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Choose the screen element whose color you want to change from the Screen Element list.
3. Assign a color to the screen element in one of two ways:
• To use a color from the Windows color scheme, choose one of the options in the Follow
System Color list
• To use a custom color, check Use Specific Color, click the Choose Color button, and select
the color you want
4. To save these changes from session to session, check the Save Changes for Next Session
box.
5. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR uses the colors you have chosen.
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Screen colors and wallpaper
To restore the default colors
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. In the Screen Elements window, select the elements that you want to restore; you can CTRLclick or SHIFT-click to select multiple elements.
3. Click the Defaults button.
4. Click OK.
SONAR uses the default colors for all selected screen elements.
To change the wallpaper
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Choose the desired wallpaper according to the table:
To do this
Do this
Use the default wallpaper
Check Default in the Wallpaper list
Not use any wallpaper
Check None in the Wallpaper list
Use a custom bitmap
Check Custom, choose a bitmap, and click Open
Table 8.
3. Click OK when you are done.
See also:
“Customization - Colors” on page 1612
“Color presets” on page 90
Introduction
Screen colors and wallpaper
89
Color presets
Once you create a color arrangement that you like, you can save it as a preset, and then load it
whenever you want to use that arrangement. You can also load any of the many factory presets,
some of which duplicate the colors of earlier versions of SONAR. You can also import and export
color arrangements in the form of .clr files so that SONAR users can share color layouts. And you
can back up or export all of your presets with a single command, and import a group of presets that
you or another SONAR user created.
Note: Both single color presets, and collections of presets use the file extension .clr, so when
you export either the current color arrangement, or all of your presets at once, give the exported
file a name that clearly labels it as either a single preset, or as a collection of presets.
Figure 19.
The Colors section
A
B
A. Presets menu B. Import and Export buttons
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Screen colors and wallpaper
To load a color preset
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Click the drop-down arrow on the Presets menu to display the list of presets, then click the name
of the preset you want to load.
To save a color preset
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Adjust the color settings you want to save.
3. Type a name for your preset in the Presets menu.
4. Click the floppy disk icon
that’s next to the Presets menu to save your preset.
To export the current color arrangement
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Arrange or load the color arrangement you want to export.
3. Click the Export Colors button
.
The Export Color Set dialog appears.
4. Navigate to the folder where you want to store your new color set file.
5. Type a name for your color set file in the File Name field.
6. Make sure that the Export Current Color Set check box is enabled.
7. Click the Save button.
To import one or more color presets
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Click the Import Colors button
.
The Import Color Set dialog appears.
3. Navigate to the folder where the color set file you want to import is. Both single presets and
groups of presets are stored in color set files, which use the .clr file extension.
4. Click the file that you want to import.
5. Click the Open button.
6. If your Preset menu in SONAR already contains a preset that is included in the preset collection
file you are importing, SONAR asks you if you want to overwrite the file. This happens for each
file that has the same name as a preset in the preset collection you are importing. Click Yes or
No for each file in question, or Yes All or No All to either overwrite or protect all of your current
preset files.
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Screen colors and wallpaper
91
To export all your color presets
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Click the Export Colors button
.
The Export Color Set dialog appears.
3. Navigate to the folder where you want to store your the exported file. This file will contain all or
your color presets.
4. Type a name for your file in the File Name field. Use a file name that you will recognize as a
collection of presets, rather than as a single color arrangement.
5. Make sure that the Export Color Presets check box is enabled.
6. Click the Save button.
Note: A file of color presets can be large, and might take a minute or so to export.
Installing SONAR
SONAR is easy to install. All you need to do is choose the folder where the program and sample
project files should be stored. Before you start, make sure you have your serial number handy. Your
serial number is located on the back of your DVD case.
Note: If you choose to not install the Sample files, you will not have the necessary content to
use the tutorials in Chapter 2.
To install SONAR
1. Start your computer.
2. Close any open programs you have running.
3. Place the SONAR installation disc in your disc drive.
If you have autorun enabled, the SONAR AutoRun menu opens automatically, showing you a
dialog box with several buttons. If autorun is not enabled, you can open the SONAR AutoRun
menu by selecting Start > Run and entering d:\AutoRun.exe (where d:\ is your disc drive).
4. Click the Install SONAR button.
Note: If you exit Setup without completing the installation, choose Start > Run, type
D:\AutoRun.exe (where D:\ is your DVD drive), and click OK. This will reopen the AutoRun
window, and you can click Install to start installation again.
5. Follow the installation instructions on the screen.
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Installing SONAR
You can also install SONAR by choosing Start > Run and running the application named SETUP.EXE
from the DVD.
Uninstalling SONAR
When you installed SONAR, the setup program placed an Uninstall icon in the Start menu. To
uninstall SONAR, click the Start button and choose Programs > Cakewalk > SONAR X1
(Producer, Studio or Essential) > Uninstall SONAR X1 (Producer, Studio or Essential).
Starting to use SONAR
This chapter has provided you with an overview of SONAR and basic information on how to install
the software and configure your system.
The following tutorials will give you some hands-on practice in playing, recording, and mixing your
projects. If you have not already done so, you may want to refer to “SONAR basics” on page 71 to
get the most out of these tutorials.
Note: If, during installation, you chose in the Select Components dialog not to install the
Tutorials folder (part of the Sample files), you will not have access to the sample tutorial files
needed to follow the tutorials in this chapter. If you didn’t install these files, insert your product
disc and copy the files to your hard drive.
See:
“Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects” on page 95
“Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser” on page 107
“Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments” on page 113
“Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments” on page 119
“Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation” on page 127
“Tutorial 6 – Editing your music” on page 137
“Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects” on page 145
“Tutorial 8 – Working with video” on page 153
“Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing” on page 163
Introduction
Starting to use SONAR
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Starting to use SONAR
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving
projects
Understanding and managing project files is central to your work flow in SONAR. In this tutorial, we are
going to cover the basics of getting started with project files and some of the operations that can be
performed with them. Whenever you write or record music in SONAR, you are writing it to be saved into
a project. A project can contain a variety of elements, including:
• Audio tracks
• MIDI tracks
• Instrument tracks
• DirectX and VST audio effects
• Project settings such as Tempo, Key and Meter changes
• Lyrics
See:
“Creating a new project” on page 96
“Opening project files” on page 98
“Playing project files” on page 100
“Looping project files” on page 104
“Saving project files” on page 105
Creating a new project
There are several ways to get started with a project in SONAR. When SONAR is opened, you will be
greeted with the Quick Start dialog. Let’s take a look at the options available in this dialog.
Open a Project.
want to open.
Opens a standard File Open dialog, which lets you select the project that you
Open a Recent Project. The drop-down list shows the most recent projects that have been
opened in SONAR. Select the desired project from the list and click the button to the left of the list to
open the project.
Create a New Project. Click this button to open the New Project File dialog, which lets you create
a new project based on any available template.
Online Videos and more. Click this link to view our tutorial videos online. An active Internet
connection is needed in order to access this content.
Getting Started.
Click this button to open the SONAR online Help.
Show this at Startup. Clear this check box if you don’t want the Quick Start dialog to launch the
next time you start SONAR.
Close. Use this button to close the Quick Start dialog.
For this tutorial, we want to create a new project.
• Click the Create a New Project button
.
Tip: You can also perform this same operation by clicking File > New from the main menu across
the top of SONAR’s screen.
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Creating a new project
The New Project File dialog appears. Whenever you create a new project, you will be presented
with this dialog.
Let’s explore some of the things you can do in this window.
Note: The list of available project templates shown may vary depending on your version of
SONAR (Producer, Studio or Essential).
Name. Type the name of your project in the Name box. For this exercise, let’s name your project
Tutorial 1.
Location. Use the Location box to specify where the project should be saved. Click
to
browse to a specific location. For this tutorial, use the default, as shown in the preceding figure.
Audio Path.
Click
Use the Audio Path box to specify where to save audio recordings for your project.
to browse to a specific location.
Store Project Audio in its own Folder. Select this check box if you want to store the project’s
audio files in a separate folder. It is recommended that you select this option.
Template. This list shows all available pre-made templates that are included with SONAR. This list
will also include any custom templates that you create. Your Template list may vary from the
preceding figure. For this tutorial, select the template named Normal.
OK. Click OK to create a new project based on the specified settings.
Cancel.
Help.
Click Cancel to close the New Project File dialog.
Click Help to open the online Help topic for the New Project File dialog.
Click OK now to move forward with this tutorial.
Congratulations, you have just created a new project in SONAR!
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Creating a new project
97
See:
“Opening project files” on page 98
“Playing project files” on page 100
“Looping project files” on page 104
“Saving project files” on page 105
Opening project files
Next, we are going to cover how to open existing project files. There are two ways this can be done
in SONAR:
• Click the Open a Project button in the Quick Start dialog that is first presented when SONAR
starts.
• Select File > Open from the menu bar across the top of SONAR’s screen.
Let’s go ahead and try one of the above methods. Either of them will bring you to the Open dialog as
shown in the following figure. The Open dialog functions like any other file browsing dialog in
Microsoft Windows.
• The vertical navigation buttons let you jump to popular locations on your computer’s hard disk.
• The browsing pane lists all the project files and folders that are available in the selected folder.
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Opening project files
• The Go to Folder drop-down list allows you to quickly move to commonly used folders for
project files in SONAR. Typically, you can get to your projects by selecting Project Files.
• For more detailed information about all of the options and functions in this dialog, click Help.
For this tutorial we want to open one of the sample project files that are included with SONAR.
Navigate to the Cakewalk Content folder (default location is C:\Cakewalk Content\SONAR
X1 [Producer, Studio or Essential]\Tutorial Projects\Audio Tutorial
Project) and locate the project named SONAR_AudioDemo.cwb.
You can load project files into SONAR in one of two ways:
• Select a file by clicking on it so that it is selected, then click Open.
• Double-click the file from the browsing pane.
Note: If prompted to unpack the bundle, accept the default locations and click OK.
Let’s now use one of these methods to open the project file SONAR_AudioDemo.cwb. When the
project opens, the File Information window appears. This window can be used for storing notes,
comments, credits and other helpful information about a project. For now, close File Information
window by clicking the Close button
in the upper right corner of the window.
See:
“Creating a new project” on page 96
“Playing project files” on page 100
“Looping project files” on page 104
“Saving project files” on page 105
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Opening project files
99
Playing project files
For this next section we are going to configure the project named SONAR_AudioDemo1.cwb for
playback in SONAR. If you have not opened the project yet using the steps from the previous
section Opening project files, do so before continuing.
Configuring your sound device
Before we can get any sound, we need to ensure that SONAR is communicating with your
computer’s sound card or audio interface. To do so, click on the Edit menu across the top of
SONAR’s screen, choose Preferences, then click Audio - Devices.
Before you can hear any sound play in SONAR, you have to ensure that the devices you want to use
are selected. An Edirol audio interface is used in the following example, so all the Input Drivers and
Output Drivers check boxes for the Edirol device are selected. Your device list will most likely be
different from the following image.
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Playing project files
After you have selected the desired Input and Output devices that you plan to use with SONAR, click
the Audio - Driver Settings page. In the Playback Timing Master list, select the audio output
device that you want SONAR to treat as the default or main output device. This should be the output
on your sound card that has either speakers or headphones connected to it. In the Record Timing
Master list, select the input on your sound card that you plan to plug devices into, such as a
microphone, keyboard or other instrument.
If you are having trouble with any of the steps in the last section thus far, we have created a helpful
set-up guide on our web site that provides step-by-step instructions for configuring your audio
hardware. You can find it here: www.cakewalk.com/Support/hardwaresetup/
Setting the tracks outputs
The next important step is telling SONAR which output on your sound device you would like audio
tracks to play on. In some cases, it is desirable to have tracks playing different outputs (such as if
you are using external hardware processing for effects). In this scenario, you’ll want to set all of the
audio tracks to the same output.
Let’s start with the Bass track. Locate the track named Bass in the project. Let’s take a closer look at
a few of the track’s controls. If the track controls are not all visible, you may need to expand the track
to see them all.
To expand a track to make all of its controls visible
1.
Point the cursor to the bottom edge of the track.
2.
Click and drag down to reveal all track controls.
Tip: You can also double-click an empty space in the track strip to maximize/restore the track strip.
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Playing project files
101
Control
Description
This is the Mute button. It is used to silence a track during playback. Any tracks that are
muted will not be heard.
This is the Solo button. It is used to silence every track except the one that is soloed. This
can be handy for isolating a particular performance or recording for monitoring or mixing
purposes. SONAR allows you to solo multiple tracks simultaneously.
This is the Arm or Record Enable button, which must be enabled on any track that you want
to record onto. For more details, see Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments.
This is the Input Echo or Input Monitor button. When clicked, this enables the track’s input
to be heard directly through its output. For more details, see Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals
and musical instruments.
This is the Write Automation button. When enabled, changes to adjustable track
parameters during playback are recorded. For more details, see Tutorial 7 – Mixing and
adding effects.
This is the Freeze button. It is used to temporarily convert a synth or instrument track into an
audio track to conserve CPU power.
Locate the drop-down list for Output and click the small arrow to show all available outputs. Select
the output that your speakers or headphones are connected to. If you can’t find the Output dropdown list, make sure you have expanded the track fully by dragging it down.
Note: Your options will be different from the preceding image. Select the output that
corresponds to your sound card or audio device.
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Playing project files
Next, you will want to repeat the above process for all of the tracks in your project.
Tip: If you need to change multiple outputs simultaneously, select the tracks, then hold down the
CTRL key while you change the Output setting in any selected track. You can also click a track’s
Output control and choose Selected Track Outputs, which opens a dialog that allows you to
change the Audio and MIDI outputs of all selected tracks.
Playing the project
Now that all of the track’s outputs are set to the appropriate device, the next step is to play the
project to make sure it can be heard and sounds right.
Locate the Control Bar at the top of SONAR’s screen.
The Control Bar contains many useful functions related to projects in SONAR. For now, simply click
the Play button
to hear the project.
Experiment with the Mute
and Solo
buttons on each track. If you solo multiple tracks you will
hear all of the soloed tracks. If you mute any tracks, they will not be heard.
Tip: You can also use your keyboard’s SPACEBAR key to start and stop playback in SONAR.
Once you are done listening, click the Stop button
.
See:
“Creating a new project” on page 96
“Opening project files” on page 98
“Looping project files” on page 104
“Saving project files” on page 105
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Playing project files
103
Looping project files
SONAR features a really handy tool that allows you to repeat specified sections of a project file. You
may want to do this for many reasons, such as to rehearse a part or phase or to listen closely to a
specific section. Perhaps you might set up a loop just because it’s your favorite part of the song and
you want to hear it over and over again. For all of the above, you will need to loop a section of the
song.
You may have noticed this demo file is an example of rock music. Let’s pretend for a second that
you are the guitar player and you wanted to practice your solo section right before measure 10. This
requires you do two things:
1. Create a looped section of the GTR_Rhythm, Bass and Drums tracks for you to practice with.
2. Mute the existing GTR_Lead 1 track.
To enable looping in SONAR is easy. Simply click the Loop button
module. When enabled, the Loop button is lit
in the Control Bar’s Loop
.
Take note of the measure numbers displayed in the preceding image. The first number (10:01:000)
indicates the start of the loop region and second number (19:01:000) indicates the end of the loop
region.
When looping is enabled, the time ruler across the top of SONAR's track view displays yellow flag
markers that indicate where the loop region starts and ends. If you want to change the loop region,
you can drag the loop markers to a new location. Drag the loop start marker to measure 10 and the
loop end marker to measure 19. This will create a loop of the first solo section.
Finally, mute both the GTR_Lead 3 and GTR_Lead 2 tracks and click Play
to audition the loop
region. You will now hear only the Bass and GTR_Rhythm tracks so that you, the guitarist in our
scenario, can practice your solo section.
See:
“Creating a new project” on page 96
“Opening project files” on page 98
“Playing project files” on page 100
“Saving project files” on page 105
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Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Looping project files
Saving project files
SONAR offers you many options for saving your work. To investigate these options, click on the File
menu and choose Save As. This opens the Save As dialog. Before doing anything in this window,
the first thing you should do is select Project Files in the Go to Folder list. Even if it already says
Project Files, click it anyway.
You will notice this window looks very familiar to the Open dialog we looked at earlier in this tutorial.
The Save As dialog navigates files much in the same way as Windows does. If you would like to
read the finer points and in-depth information about using this window, click the Help button. For this
exercise, we are going to look at the different types of project files you can save with SONAR.
Take a look at the drop-down list labeled Save as type. Click the Save as type arrow to see a list of
supported file formats. Let’s look at these different files formats now:
• Normal. This is the first option listed and the most common format used for saving project files.
Choosing this will create a Cakewalk Project file with the .cwp file extension. It is important to
remember that Cakewalk Project files do not actually store any audio data, but rather reference
audio files from where they are saved on your computer’s hard drive.
• Template. Template files are used as a starting point for new projects. Templates can store
layout information about your project, such as how many audio and MIDI tracks there are and
which Output ports they are assigned to. Detailed information about using templates can be found
in SONAR’s help topic Templates
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Saving project files
105
• Cakewalk Bundle. This format is typically only used when transferring projects to other people or
other computers. Cakewalk Bundle files use the .cwb file extension and are similar to Cakewalk
Project files. The main difference is that Cakewalk Bundle files actually contain all of a project’s
audio data. Cakewalk Bundle files are much larger in size than regular Cakewalk Project files
because they contain all of the audio data for a project, so try to avoid using this format unless
you need to move a project between computers. When opening a Cakewalk Bundle file, SONAR
will “unpack” the embedded audio data and save it to a new audio folder on your computer.
• MIDI. This option lets you save a standard MIDI file of your project. MIDI files do not contain any
embedded audio or references to external audio files, so any audio data in a project will be
discarded when you save a MIDI file. MIDI files can be either Format 0 or Format 1. Format 0
combines all the MIDI events into a single track. This is compatible with many older sequencers
and keyboards. MIDI Format 1 files can store up to 7256 tracks and are a better choice if you plan
on using your MIDI file with another computer-based sequencing application. Although not as
common, SONAR also allows you to save in the RIFF MIDI format. Unless you are positive that
the playback system requires a RIFF MIDI file, you will want to use the MIDI format.
In most cases, the best choice for saving your files is Normal. To save this project, do the following:
1. In the Go to Folder list, select Project Files. Even if Project Files is already selected, select it
again for good practice.
2. In the Save as type list, select Normal.
3. Type a name in the File Name box.
4. Click Save to save the project.
This completes the tutorial.
See:
“Creating a new project” on page 96
“Opening project files” on page 98
“Playing project files” on page 100
“Looping project files” on page 104
106
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Saving project files
Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser
The Browser lets you find and import various types of content into your projects, including audio and
MIDI files, track and project templates, track icons, FX Chain presets, effect plug-ins and
instruments. You can drag content and plug-ins directly into tracks. By default, the Browser is
docked on the right side of the screen.
To show or hide the Browser, click the Views menu and choose Browser, or press B.
Now that we know how to show and hide the Browser, let’s take a closer look at some of its features,
starting with the controls that span across the top of the Browser. Locate the section on your
computer screen that looks like the following image.
First, let’s review the controls at the top of the Browser.
Control
Description
This is the Move up button. It is used to open the folder one level above the
active folder.
Stop is used to stop play back of the selected loop.
Play is used to listen to the currently selected loop.
Allows you to save and recall presets to quickly access your favorite folders.
The Content Location drop down box shown below allows you to quickly jump to popular locations
on your hard drive.
Figure 20.
Media Browser
A
B
C
DE F
G
J
H
K
L
I
A. Show Media Browser B. Browser menu C. Content Location menu D. Dock/undock E. Docking options
F. Expand/collapse G. Move up one level to the parent directory H. Search filter I. File list J. Play/Stop
K. Delete content preset L. Save content preset
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Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser
To specify the output device to use for previewing loops and files from the Browser, click the Media
button
, point to Audio Preview Bus, and choose an output device from the submenu.
To work with software instruments, click the Synth button
Rack contains the following controls:
Figure 21.
to open the Synth Rack. The Synth
Synth Rack Browser
A
B
C
D
E
FGH
J
I
A. Insert Synth B. Delete Synth C. Insert Synth Options D. Show Synth Rack Browser E. Synth Settings menu
F. Dock/undock G. Docking options H. Expand/collapse I. Instrument list J. Synth Automation menu
See:
“Finding and previewing audio loops” on page 109
“Previewing MIDI groove clips” on page 110
“Adding loops to your project” on page 112
Finding and previewing audio loops
Now that we have a general idea of how the Browser is laid out, let’s find some of the content that is
included with SONAR and give it a listen.
1. Create a new project using the Normal Template as explained in the previous tutorial titled
“Saving project files” on page 105.
2. Make sure the Browser is open and visible. If it is not, click the Views menu and choose
Browser, or press the B key.
3. Click the Media button
to show the Media Browser.
4. In the Browser, click the Content Location drop-down list and select Audio Library.
5. Double-click the Loops folder to open the folder.
6. Double-click the Loopmasters folder.
7. Double-click the ROCK AND FUNK folder.
8. Double-click the RAW POWER and click the loop named RP_Baggy_140.rx2.
Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser
Finding and previewing audio loops
109
The Browser should look something like the image below.
9. Click the Play button
in the Browser.
The selected file is previewed.
If you don’t hear anything, revisit the settings of your Audio Preview Bus, as discussed above, and
ensure that it is set to the audio device that your headphones or speakers are connected to.
If you need to preview a lot of loops quickly, click the Media button
and enable the AutoPreview option. When enabled, an audio loop will start playing as soon as you select it.
See:
“Previewing MIDI groove clips” on page 110
“Adding loops to your project” on page 112
Previewing MIDI groove clips
In addition to audio loops, the Browser also allows you to preview MIDI groove clips. Let’s try this
now with one of the clips included with SONAR. Unlike audio loops, MIDI groove clips require a soft
synth or instrument track to play through.
1. Click the Browser’s Synth button
2. Click the Insert button
to open the Synth Rack.
, point to Insert Synths and select Cakewalk TTS-1.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears.
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Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser
Finding and previewing audio loops
3. Clear all of the check boxes except for Single Track Instrument, Recall Assignable Controls,
and Ask This Every Time.
4. Click OK.
Cakewalk TTS-1 is added to your project.
Now that we have a synth in our project that we can preview MIDI groove clips with, let’s find some
and give them a listen.
1. Click the Media button
to show the Media Browser.
2. In the Browser, click the Content Location drop-down list and select MIDI Library.
3. Double click the Smart Loops folder and select the file named Bangin 10.mid.
Before we can preview a MIDI groove clip, we need to tell SONAR what instrument or synth we
would like to preview it with.
4. Click the Media button
the submenu.
, point to Synth Preview Output and select Cakewalk TTS-1 1 on
5. Now that SONAR knows what synth to play MIDI groove clips through, select the groove clip
named Bangin 10.mid just as you did with the audio loop previously.
6. Click the Play button
in the Browser.
Just like with audio loops, you can set MIDI groove clips to auto-preview by clicking the Media
button
and enabling the Auto-Preview option.
In addition to using soft synths to preview MIDI groove clips, soft synths also have many other useful
and powerful features. For more details and instructions on using them, see “Tutorial 4 – Playing
and recording software instruments” on page 119.
See:
“Adding loops to your project” on page 112
Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser
Finding and previewing audio loops
111
Adding loops to your project
Once you have found an audio loop or MIDI groove clip that you would like to use in your project, the
next important step is to add it to your project. Adding loops is easy with SONAR’s intuitive drag and
drop interface.
To add a loop to your project, do the following:
1. In the Browser, locate the loop you would like to use in your project.
2. Drag the loop to a track. If you are selecting an audio loop, you must drag it to an audio track. If
you would like to use a MIDI groove clip, be sure you drag it to a MIDI track.
You should also notice that, as you drag the file, your mouse pointer changes to an arrow with a
plus sign
.
3. When you drag a loop or groove clip into a project, it will only show one repetition. You can
extend how long a loop is by pointing the mouse pointer to the clip’s right edge, then drag the clip
edge to the desired duration. When you point the mouse pointer to the right clip edge, a blue
vertical line appears and the mouse pointer looks like this
.
This completes the tutorial. You should now be able to drag loops into your projects and loop them.
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Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser
Finding and previewing audio loops
Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical
instruments
One of the most important aspects of creating music in SONAR is digital audio recording. This is the
process of taking the sound from a microphone or an instrument and recording it to an audio track. Once
this step is completed you can edit and mix the song to prepare it to share with the world.
This tutorial will walk you through the steps involved and provide you with some insight on how to get the
best possible audio recordings.
Adding an audio track
In Tutorial 1, you learned about opening project templates. Let's open a blank project for this tutorial:
1. On the File menu, click New.
2. Select the Blank (no tracks or buses) template and click OK.
A new blank project is created.
With the blank project open, you can insert new tracks as you need them. For the task of recording
digital audio you'll need a new audio track. Follow these steps to insert one:
1. Do one of the following:
• Click Insert and then click Audio Track.
• Right-click on the Tracks pane and select Insert Audio Track on the pop-up menu.
A new audio track is added to your project.
2. In the new audio track, expand the track to expose all of its controls (for details, see “To expand a
track to make all of its controls visible” on page 101).
The track's controls are exposed.
3. Click the Input drop-down menu to select the track’s input.
The available inputs for the track are displayed.
4. Select the physical jack that your instrument is plugged in to. If you know, for instance, that your
guitar is plugged into input 1, click the Input control and select the first option. Some audio interfaces
refer to their stereo inputs as pairs, like 1/2, 3/4 or 5/6. Most often left channels are represented by
odd numbers and right channels are represented by even numbers.
Note: Most microphones and guitars are mono, so you'll want to select either the left or right
channel accordingly.
5. Click the Output drop-down menu to select the track’s output.
The available outputs for the track are displayed.
6. Select the output port that you want the audio track to play through during playback. This is how
you ultimately route the audio to your speakers. You will usually choose 1 and 2, because these
are most commonly the outputs that speakers or audio monitors are connected to.
7. Click the track's Record Enable button
.
Note: SONAR only allows recording to tracks that have been record enabled. This is necessary
since SONAR allows for multi-track recording. This tells SONAR what track you want your new
material recorded to. Otherwise, every track would be recorded to during every take.
8. Click the Input Echo button
if you want to hear the input during recording. Many sound cards
and audio interfaces have an option to do this automatically on the hardware level. If you can
already hear the input signal, simply move on to the next section.
Getting ready to record
At this point, we need to check the input levels to make sure they are sufficient and not distorting.
Perform as you would if you were recording and watch the meter on the track respond to the sounds
you produce.
If the meter never even comes close to the maximum, increase the input level. If the meter even
occasionally reaches the maximum, decrease the input level.
Input levels are usually adjusted via a knob next to the input jack on the sound card, but features like
this may vary slightly between devices. So, if you have never recorded an instrument or microphone
with your sound card, you may want to read about doing so in the device's manual.
Figure 22.
The record meter shows the input level
Input may be too low
114
Input is too loud
Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments
Recording your performance
Now that everything is set up, let's record something!
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Metronome to access metronome settings. You can also
right-click the Playback Metronome on/off button
or Record Metronome on/off button
in the Control Bar’s Transport module to access metronome settings.
2. Set the metronome for a 2 measure count-in.
• Click Use Audio Metronome, select the Recording check box and set Record Count-in to 2
Measures. For details about each metronome option, click Help.
3. Make sure the track has been record enabled by clicking the track’s Record Enable button. The
Record Enable button on the track should be lit in red like this:
.
4. Click the Record button in the Control Bar’s Transport module, or press R on your computer
keyboard.
5. You'll hear two measures counted in by the metronome and then recording will begin. Start
performing at the beginning of the third count.
6. When you finish recording, click the Stop button
or press the SPACEBAR.
A new audio clip appears.
Press Play to play back the project. If you would like to redo the take, go to Edit > Undo to undo the
previous recording, then repeat steps 3, 4 and 5 above until you get a perfect take.
Now that your first track has been recorded, you can “over-dub” another part. To do so, disable
recording on track 1 and repeat the steps in this tutorial. After repeating the steps, you will have
recorded to track 2. Both recorded tracks will play during playback. Each will also have its own
exclusive volume and pan control, effects bin, and can be muted or soloed. You'll learn more about
this in future tutorials.
See:
“Troubleshooting” on page 116
Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments
115
Troubleshooting
If you weren't able to record successfully by following this tutorial, please check the following:
I only get one side of my guitar/microphone recorded
You may be recording a mono signal through a stereo input. Guitars and microphones produce
mono signals. Click the tracks Input control and select the appropriate side of your stereo pair, either
left or right as opposed to stereo.
Also make sure you don't have a mono adapter going into the Line-in and that you have the Left side
of your sound card (mono) chosen for input in SONAR.
Previously recorded tracks are mixed into my new recordings
This can happen when your soundcard is set to record everything that comes out of your computer
speakers.
1. Open the Windows Volume Control window:
• Windows 7: Click the Windows Start button and go to Control Panel > Hardware and
Sound > Volume Control.
• Windows XP: Click the Windows Start button and go to All Programs > Accessories >
Entertainment > Volume Control.
The Volume Control window appears.
2. On the Options menu, click Properties.
The Properties dialog appears.
3. In the Adjust Volume For section, click Recording.
4. Click OK to close the Properties dialog.
The Record Mixer appears.
5. Make sure What You Hear or Stereo Mix (exact name various depending on the sound card
manufacturer) is not selected. If this option is enabled, click the Select check box below the
desired input (normally Line In or Mic).
This problem can also occur when you are using an analog mixer in your setup. Carefully follow all
of your signal paths to ensure that your sound cards audio output is not being looped back into itself.
You should also consider the possibility of your microphone picking up the signal from your speakers
or headphones.
Only a flat line/silence is recorded
Open the Windows Volume Control window:
• Windows 7: Click the Windows Start button and go to Control Panel > Hardware and Sound >
Volume Control.
• Windows XP: Click the Windows Start button and go to All Programs > Accessories >
Entertainment > Volume Control.
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Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments
The Windows Mixer controls the volume levels of your sound card inputs and can also mute any
input or output device.
The Windows Mixer looks like this:
When you open the Windows Mixer it may be labeled Play Control or Recording Control. We want
to see the recording controls.
To view the recording controls in Windows XP:
1. On the Options menu, click Properties.
The Properties dialog appears.
2. In the Adjust Volume For section, click Recording.
3. In the Show the Following Volume Controls section, click Line-in and Microphone.
4. Click OK to close the Properties dialog.
The recording controls appear in the Windows Mixer.
5. Click the Select check box under the input you wish to use (normally Line In or Mic).
To view the recording controls in Windows Vista / Windows 7:
1. Go to the Windows Start Menu and type the word SOUND in the Start Search box.
2. The search results appear.
3. Click Sound to open the Windows Sound Control Panel.
4. Click the Recording tab.
All available input devices are listed along with a meter for each device.
5. Play your instrument or speak into the microphone.
Meter activity is visible on one of the input devices.
6. Right-click the input device that has meter activity and select Set As Default from the pop-up
menu.
Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments
117
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Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments
Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software
instruments
Software instruments, which are also referred to as soft synths, are a major part of computer music. Our
goal in this tutorial is to add a software instrument to a project. We'll explore a few different ways they can
be used with SONAR and look at some options to really make the most of them.
A brief history
Note: Feel free to skip to the next section if you want to start using synths right away.
For our purposes, a synth has two basic functions:
• Receive a digital message
• Make a sound based on the information contained in that message
In the early 1980's, all of the major manufacturers of keyboards and drum machines got together to
decide on a way for their products to work well with each other. Since they all operated under some
version of the two functions listed above, it was a simple goal.
They needed to standardize what messages were used to represent particular expressions. For
example: if it was a drum machine, everyone would need to use the C note for the bass drum, the D note
for the snare drum and so on. That way, messages sent from one drum machine can be fed to another
made by a different company. It will play the same beat, but using the drum sounds from the different
module.
The standard they established is known as MIDI (usually pronounced [mid-ee]). As soon as computers
entered the scene, it was clear that there could (and should) be a way to connect a synth and send MIDI
messages to it from a software sequencer. That's how Cakewalk was born. Our first application was a
DOS program that would allow a user to edit the MIDI data in detail, and play it out to a connected synth.
You could also record the events from a performance into the computer.
Things have evolved a lot since then. As computers have grown more powerful, the capabilities of
Cakewalk software have expanded. Computers are now so fast that software companies are able to
make synths and drum machines that are completely software-based. They are essentially the guts of a
keyboard in a computer program.
See:
“Adding an instrument track to your project” on page 120
“Recording MIDI” on page 122
“Manually entering MIDI notes” on page 122
Adding an instrument track to your project
Adding instrument tracks to your project is easy and something you’ll find yourself doing often, so
let’s explore some of the basics. For this exercise, we'll start with a blank project:
1. On the File menu, click New.
2. Select the Blank (no tracks or buses) template and click OK.
A new project opens.
3. Click Insert >Soft-Synths.
A menu lists all available software synths that are installed on your computer.
4. Click DropZone.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog appears.
5. Select the following options:
• Simple Instrument Track
• Synth Property Page
• Recall Assignable Controls
• Ask This Every Time
A new track is inserted in your project. This track is a combination of the two types of tracks you
have learned about in the previous tutorials. It holds MIDI data and accepts a MIDI input, but it
outputs the sound of the synth, like an audio track would. The DropZone window may also open.
If not, you can open it manually by double-clicking on the track icon.
Note: You can always launch a given software instrument's window by double-clicking its track
icon.
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Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
Let's take a quick look at DropZone.
One of the first things you'll typically need to do is choose a sound. In DropZone and most other
Cakewalk synths, a sound preset is referred to as a program.
1. In DropZone's Program window, click Empty Program.
The Program Browser appears.
Note: It may take a minute the first time the Program Browser opens. This is because DropZone
is building a list of all available sounds. Once the list has been built, the Program Browser will
open faster the next time.
2. Select a program by double-clicking its name. For this tutorial we'll use Acid Quinda from the
Basses section.
DropZone loads the program and displays the program name.
3. Click the keyboard image to hear what the program sounds like.
Note: Each soft synth uses a different method of choosing and auditioning sounds. This is often
outlined in the synth's documentation. You can press the F1 key to open the online help for a
synth.
Now that we have inserted an instrument and selected one of its sounds we can make use of these
sounds in our project. This is where you can get creative. You have the option of recording a
performance that you play on a MIDI keyboard (also referred to as a controller) or manually entering
notes and events to play out to the software synth. We'll explore each method in the following
sections.
See:
“Recording MIDI” on page 122
“Manually entering MIDI notes” on page 122
Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
121
Recording MIDI
First, we'll try recording. This only works if you have a MIDI controller. If you do not have a MIDI
controller, skip ahead to the next section of this tutorial.
For recording, you don't need the DropZone window open. You can close an instrument by clicking
in the upper right corner. This doesn't cause the synth to stop functioning—it will continue to
work in the background.
Note: If you need to see the DropZone window again, just double-click the track icon.
In the Track view, we can assign the input port. If you only have one MIDI keyboard this should be
set up already. Try playing some notes to see if it works. If not, go to Edit > Preferences > MIDI Devices and make sure your keyboard is enabled in the Input Port list.
The next step is arming the track for recording. Click the track's Record Enable button
enables recording on the track.
Now, click the Record button
. This
in the Control Bar’s Transport module. The Now Time cursor
starts to roll. Play some notes and click the Stop button
when you're done.
You have just recorded your first MIDI performance through a software instrument. Press the Play
button
to hear it play back.
See:
“Adding an instrument track to your project” on page 120
“Manually entering MIDI notes” on page 122
Manually entering MIDI notes
Using this method, you can manually draw notes on a grid called the Piano Roll view (often referred
to as the PRV). This is the preferred method if you're not much of a keyboard player or don't have
access to a MIDI controller. It allows you to edit every detail of a performance.
To get to the PRV, you first need to select the track you would like to see in it. Simply click the track
icon once so that it changes color. Next, go to Views > Piano Roll View to open the PRV. The PRV
opens in the MultiDock below the Track view. To expand the MultiDock, double-click the PRV tab in
the MultiDock, or press SHIFT+D.
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Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
The ruler at the top of this view represents musical measures and beats. The keyboard image on the
left represents what notes are being played.
Click on the Smart tool
in the Control Bar. You can also enable this tool by pressing the F5 key
on your computer keyboard. To draw a note with the Smart tool, hold down the ALT key and click on
the grid.
Tip: You can also draw notes with the Freehand tool (press F9),without having to hold down the ALT
key.
To create a note, click on the grid at measure 1.
If you click on various sections of a note, the Smart tool performs a different function:
• Left edge.
Adjusts the start time.
• Right edge. Adjusts the end time or the duration.
• Top.
Adjusts the velocity of the note, which indicates how hard the note is played.
• Bottom. Allows you to move the note to another location on the PRV grid.
Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
123
Try to create a melody using this technique. You might find that you can only create 16th notes or
longer. If you want 32nd notes or triplets, specify the desired Musical Time resolution in the Control
Bar’s Snap module.
Figure 23.
The Snap to Grid module.
You can now draw notes at shorter distances from each other.
To specify the duration of new notes, select the desired duration in the Control Bar’s Tools module.
Figure 24.
The Tools module.
What if I already have a project that contains MIDI tracks?
If you already have a MIDI track that you would like to play through a software instrument, the steps
are a bit different.
Let's start by opening a sample project.
1. On the File menu, click Open.
2. Navigate to C:/Cakewalk Content/SONAR X1/Tutorial Projects.
3. Click on the file named Latin.cwp and click OK.
If you press Play, you are not likely to hear anything. That's because this project does not contain a
software synth for the MIDI tracks to play through. Since there are 11 tracks in this project, it would
be best to use one synth track and route them all to the same instrument. Some instruments, such
as the Cakewalk TTS-1 can output more than one type of sound. These instruments are known as
multi-timbral synths. They know what notes are played through each sound based on the MIDI
channel they are sent over. If you examine each track in this project in the Track Inspector or
Console view, you'll notice that each one is set to its own channel. No two tracks share the same
channel.
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Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
Let's insert the Cakewalk TTS-1:
1. Go to Insert > Soft Synths > Cakewalk TTS-1.
The Insert Synth Options dialog appears.
2. In the Create These Tracks area, click First Synth Audio Output.
3. In the Open These Windows area, click Synth Property Page.
Note: If you would like a detailed explanation of each option, click Help.
4. Click OK.
A new synth track is inserted in your project.
On some computers, the tracks may play back through the TTS-1 at this point. However, on
computers that have hardware MIDI outputs available, you may need to specify the TTS-1 as each
track's output. Here's a fast way to do that:
1. Hold down the CTRL key and click each track to select them.
The tracks are highlighted to indicate they are selected.
2. Hold down the CTRL key and click any selected track’s Input control and select Cakewalk TTS1.
All selected tracks are assigned to the same input.
Press Play to play back the project. If you'd like to add your own track to play through the TTS-1,
click Insert menu and select MIDI Track. On your new MIDI track, set the output to Cakewalk TTS1. Remember, it needs to be on its own discreet MIDI channel. In this project, MIDI channels 1-11
are already used, so let's assign this track to channel 12 in the Track Inspector or Console view. You
can also select the sound via the track's Patch control. Then use one of the methods described
above to create MIDI data. You can also add MIDI data to your new track from the Browser. See
Tutorial 2 for details about the Browser. Another option is using the Staff view as an alternative to
the Piano Roll view. That will be covered in the next tutorial: Tutorial 5 - Working with music notation.
Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
125
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Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
A great way to compose in SONAR is by using the Staff view. The Staff pane displays MIDI note events
as musical notation. For some musicians, this may be the most familiar and comfortable view in which to
work. The Staff pane provides many features that make it easy for you to compose, edit, and print music.
You can add notes to your composition with simple point-and-click techniques.
This tutorial will introduce you to the tools and features that SONAR provides for working with notation.
Let’s start by opening the Staff view in a new project:
1. On the File menu, click New.
The New Project File dialog appears.
2. Select the Normal template, specify a project name and save location, then click OK.
SONAR loads the new project, which contains two audio tracks and two MIDI tracks.
3. Click on track 3 labeled “MIDI 1”.
4. On the Views menu, click Staff View.
The Staff view opens.
Next we need to configure the Staff view tools for the purpose of this tutorial:
1. Click the Staff view View menu, point to Display Resolution and select the smallest note value on
the submenu.
2. Click the Staff view Edit menu and disable the Fill Durations and Trim Durations options.
3. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
For this tutorial we will also change the time signature to ¾, the key to G and the staff layout to
display a treble and bass clef.
1. On the Project menu, click Insert Meter/Key Change.
The Meter/Key Signature dialog appears.
2. Change Beats per Measure to 3 and Key Signature to 1 Sharp (G), then click OK to close the
Meter/Key Signature dialog.
3. Click the Staff view Edit menu and choose Layout.
The Staff View Layout dialog appears.
4. In the Clef list, select Treble/Bass, then click OK to close the Staff View Layout dialog.
The Staff view now looks like this:
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Now that you know how to set up the Staff view, it's time to play! You can either record a MIDI track
in this project or manually add notes. The rest of this tutorial will provide you with a basic overview of
the notation tools. For more in depth information about all the features and functionality of the Staff
view, including using the Fretboard and the Lyrics view, see “Notation and lyrics” on page 999.
Selecting the note value
In the Control Bar’s Tools module, click the Duration button and select the desired note duration.
Figure 25.
The Tools module.
Adding a note
To add a note:
1. Select the Smart tool
or Freehand tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
• With the Freehand tool
, hold down the ALT key and click where you want to insert a new note.
, click where you want to insert a new note
A note event is inserted.
Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
129
Selecting notes
To select notes:
1. Select the Smart tool
or Select tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Do one of the following:
• To select a single note, click the note head.
• To select multiple adjacent notes, click outside the first note you want to select and drag the
mouse to draw a rectangle around the desired notes.
• To select discontiguous notes, hold down the CTRL key and click the desired notes.
Moving Notes - Change timing or pitch
To move notes:
1. Select the Smart tool
or Move tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the bottom half center of the note, then drag
the note to the desired location.
• With the Move tool
, drag the note or selection to the desired location.
Tip: When moving a note, hold down the SHIFT key to constrain vertical or horizontal movement,
depending on the direction you first move.
Copying notes
To copy notes:
1. Press and hold the CTRL key down while you click the desired note(s).
2. While still holding the CTRL key and the left mouse button, drag the note(s) to the desired
location, then release the mouse button.
The note(s) is copied.
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Changing the duration of a note
1. Right click the note head to open the Note Properties dialog.
2. In the Duration field, enter in the number of ticks you want for the note, then click OK to close
the Note Properties dialog.
1. Select the Smart tool
or the Trim tool
.in the Control Bar.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Trim tool
, position the pointer over the note’s start or end point, then drag left/right
to adjust the start/end position.
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the note’s start or end point, then drag left/
right to adjust the start/end position. You can also double-click the note to open the Note
Properties dialog, then enter in the number of ticks you want for the note duration.
The following table shows the relationship between note durations and ticks (with the default
timebase of 960 ticks per quarter note).
Note
Duration in ticks
Whole
4:000
Half
2:000
Quarter
1:000
Eighth
480
Sixteenth
240
Thirty-second
120
Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
131
Deleting a note
1. Select the Smart tool
or the Erase tool
.in the Control Bar.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, right-click a note to erase a single note, or keep the right mouse
button pressed and drag over notes to erase multiple notes.
• With the Erase tool
notes.
, click a note to erase a single note, or drag over notes to erase multiple
Adding lyrics
To add a lyric event below a note:
1. Select the Freehand tool
2. Click the Lyric button
in the Control Bar.
in the Staff view.
3. Position the pointer just below the note and click.
A box appears where lyrics can be typed.
4. Press the space bar to quickly jump to the next note.
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Adding chord symbols
To add a chord symbol above a note:
1. Select the Freehand tool
2. Click the Chord button
in the Control Bar.
in the Staff view.
3. Position the pointer above the note you want to add the chord to and click.
A chord symbol is added above the note.
4. To change the chord properties or show a guitar chord grid, right-click the chord name.
The Chord Properties dialog appears.
Adding expressions
1. Select the Freehand tool
2. Click the Expression button
in the Control Bar.
in the Staff view.
3. Position the pointer just below a note and click.
A box appears where expressions can be entered.
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133
Adding a crescendo or decrescendo/diminuendo
1. Select the Freehand tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Click the Hairpin button
in the Staff view.
3. Position the pointer just below a note and click.
A hairpin event (crescendo or decrescendo) is inserted.
4. To change the hairpin type and duration, right-click the hairpin event.
The Hairpin Properties dialog appears.
Note: Hairpin events are ornamental only and do not affect playback.
Adding pedal marks (sustain)
1. Select the Freehand tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Click the Pedal button
in the Staff view.
3. Position the pointer below the staff and click.
Pedal down
and Pedal up
marks are inserted.
4. Click and drag to move the marks to a new time if needed.
See:
“Printing your notation” on page 135
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Printing your notation
Once you are finished entering and editing notes you can print out the score or individual parts.
1. Select the MIDI track or tracks you want to print the notation for.
2. On the Views menu, click Staff View.
The Staff view opens.
3. On the File menu, click Print Preview.
The Print Preview window opens, allowing you to see how the printed score will look.
4. To change the rastral size of the score, click Configure.
The Staff View Print Configure dialog appears. For more information about the different rastral
sizes, see “Printing” on page 1034.
5. To print the score, click Print.
Tip: To change the title, composer and copyright information, select Project > Info to open the File
Info window.
See:
“Notation and lyrics” on page 999
Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
135
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
While working on your music, you are likely to find that editing is a major part of the song creation
process. Before people started making music on computers, all of the editing was done by cutting tape
with a razor blade and piecing it together. You can imagine how difficult it could become. In SONAR, you
can actually select a part of your music with the mouse and delete/copy/paste/move it all very easily. This
Tutorial will introduce SONAR's tools for making some common edits and offer a few tips to make it
faster and more fun.
See:
“Selection” on page 138
“Moving clips” on page 140
“Splitting Clips” on page 140
“Cropping Clips” on page 141
“Undo and Redo” on page 143
Selection
Let's start by opening the tutorial project Cakewalk Audio Demo.cwb that we used in earlier
tutorials.
One of the most important things to understand in order to edit your music successfully is selection.
Once you become familiar with selecting, the rest is easy. You typically need to have the appropriate
parts selected in order to make edits on them.
There are two aspects of selection:
• Time Range
• Tracks
Let's say you'd like to delete the second measure of a certain track. The time range specifies that the
edit will need to occur between measures 2 and 3. The track selection specifies what track's clips
will be deleted, while leaving its surrounding tracks unchanged.
In order to edit clips, you must set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
Figure 26.
Assign the track’s Edit Filter to Clips in order to edit clips with the global tools.
Let's explore some different ways to do this in a sample project. All of the tools described are
available in the Tools module in the Control Bar. For a complete description of each tool in the Tools
module, see “Tools” on page 389.
Figure 27.
The Tools module.
Note: If you would like to try both of the following methods, select Edit > Undo after
completeting the first method. Doing so will revert the project to its previous state.
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Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
Method 1:
1. Select the track that you want to delete measure two from. For this tutorial, let’s use the track
named GTR_Lead 1.
Tip: Click in the Tracks pane on the left, not the Clips pane on the right.
2. Drag in the time ruler from measure 1 through measure 6.
The selected time range is highlighted.
3. Press DELETE or select Edit > Delete.
Measure two is deleted from the selected track.
Method 2:
1. Select the Select tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Click in the center of the clip and drag to select the section you want to delete.
The selected section is highlighted.
3. Press DELETE or select Edit > Delete.
You might have noticed that you're only able to select full measures. What if you need to edit a
smaller amount of time? You'll need to turn off Snap To Grid. To do so, click the Snap to Grid
button
in the Control Bar’s Snap module.
With this button disabled, you will be able to make finer selections. You can also choose different
Snap To Grid options in the Snap module.
See:
“Moving clips” on page 140
“Splitting Clips” on page 140
“Cropping Clips” on page 141
“Undo and Redo” on page 143
Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
139
Moving clips
From time to time, you may need to move clips around. If you understand selection, you're half way
there already.
1. Select the section you want to move. Let's go back to the track named GR_Lead 1 and select
measures 6 through 10.
2. With the Smart tool, click the bottom half of the selection and drag the clip to the desired location.
For this tutorial, let’s drag the selection to the bottom of the project and create a new Audio track
that contains the selected clip.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears, which lets you specify what to do with any existing
data in the target location. You can either replace the existing data or blend the old and new data.
See:
“Selection” on page 138
“Splitting Clips” on page 140
“Cropping Clips” on page 141
“Undo and Redo” on page 143
Splitting Clips
In some cases, you might want to split a clip. As described later in this tutorial, it can be beneficial to
have clip borders at different points on a track. You can split a clip with the Smart tool
tool
or Split
.
To split a clip, do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the clip, then hold down ALT
and click (or lasso to split a region).
• With the Split tool
140
, position the pointer where you want to split the clip, then click (or drag to
Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
split one or more clips at the mousedown and mouseup points).
Note: The Split tool obeys the Snap to Grid settings. If a split does not occur exactly where you
click, disable Snap to Grid and try again.
Tip: You can also press the S key to split the selected clip(s) at the current Now time.
For this tutorial, select the Split tool
, position the Now time at measure 10 in the track named
GTR_Lead1, then click to split the clip·
See:
“Selection” on page 138
“Moving clips” on page 140
“Cropping Clips” on page 141
“Undo and Redo” on page 143
Cropping Clips
You can crop a clip by using a gesture called slip editing. Slip editing lets you “roll out” the beginning
or the end of a clip to different places without changing the position of the music. Imagine that the
clips are “windows” that allow you to see and hear pieces of audio or MIDI. You can change the size
of that window so that less of the data is visible. If it's not visible, it won't be heard during playback.
The data still exists, so you can enlarge the “window” by slip editing the clip. The visible data will
then be audible.
Select the Smart tool
or Trim tool
in the Control Bar to enable slip editing.
Now, if you point to the left or right clip edge, the cursor changes and you can drag the clip edge to a
new location.
Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
141
Tip: When cropping clips, you can choose to also move clip fades proportionally, or retain the original
fade position. To move the fade position, click the top three quarters of the clip edge when cropping.
To retain the clip fade position, click the bottom quarter of the clip edge when cropping. You can also
hold down the ALT key while cropping in order to move a clip fade.
Fading Clips
You can fade individual clips by using the Smart tool
or Trim tool
. Drag the upper left corner
of a clip to create a fade-in. Drag the upper right corner of a clip to create a fade-out.
To change the fade characteristics, right-click an existing fade and select the desired fade type from
the popup menu.
See:
“Selection” on page 138
“Moving clips” on page 140
“Splitting Clips” on page 140
“Undo and Redo” on page 143
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Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
Undo and Redo
While editing a project, you might make mistakes or experiment with an idea that doesn't produce
the desired results. SONAR has unlimited Undo for such occasions. You can undo one step at a
time by selecting Edit > Undo or by pressing CTRL+Z. You can also look at your edit history and
select a time to go back to. To do so, go to Edit > History, choose the edit you'd like to return to and
click OK.
Note: When you close a project, the undo history is erased.
If you change your mind and want to revert to the previous undo state, select Edit > Redo or press
CTRL+SHIFT+Z.
This tutorial has shown you how to use different tools to shape your recordings into well-organized
and great sounding projects. The next step is mixing, which is covered in “Tutorial 7 – Mixing and
adding effects” on page 145.
Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
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Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
Mixing is an important part of recording that can really help the music you create in SONAR sound
its best. Mixing involves placing different instruments and sounds in layers of the frequency
spectrum, adjusting levels so that tracks blend nicely, spreading them across the stereo field and
adding effects where appropriate.
There are many important decisions to make when mixing; things that are sometimes not
considered while writing a song. The choices you make can have a major effect on how pleasurable
the listening experience is for your audience.
In this tutorial, we'll discuss some general guidelines. But, it's important to remember that there are
no rules. This is another artistic stage of song creation.
We'll start by opening the MixingTutorial project:
1. Go to File > Open and select the file named MixingTutorial.cwb.
Note: Tutorial files are located in the /Cakewalk Content/SONAR X1/Tutorial
Projects folder, by default. If you specified another location during installation, navigate to the
tutorial folder you specified during installation.
2. Go to File > Save As and save it under a new name. This way, you can save your work without
overwriting the original, in case you'd like to start over.
In the same folder is a file named MixingTutorial-Complete.cwb, which is a copy of the same
project, but after the tutorial has been completed. You can use this project as a reference to which
you can compare settings and levels.
See:
“Volume and pan” on page 146
“Adding effects (FX)” on page 147
“Using Automation” on page 152
Volume and pan
Adjusting volume and pan is always a good place to start when mixing. One of the biggest benefits
of SONAR's Console view is that you can easily see the volume and pan controls for many tracks
simultaneously, in addition to large meters. Some people also enjoy working in the Console view
because it doesn't offer a graphical representation of what the music “looks like”. Since the final
outcome will be an audio file, the listener will not be distracted by the visual cues that are shown in
the project's Track view. You may find that you are better able to focus on the actual sound when not
seeing the clips.
To open the Console view
• Do one of the following:
• Click Views > Console View.
• Press ALT+2.
Here, we'll be shaping the song's foundation. If you listen to the project as it is, you'll probably notice
that it sounds pretty “muddy” and bland. This usually happens because all of the instruments are
fighting each other for space in the frequency spectrum and stereo field. They're all trying to be
heard at the same level in the same location.
Normally, when recording a track, it is common to try to get a relatively loud signal. This is done to
achieve the best signal-to-noise ratio and knowing that you will eventually adjust levels during the
mixing stage.
Some people like to begin this process by turning down every track and then gradually turning up
one track at a time, starting with the rhythm section. Begin by increasing the volume of the bass
drum to the desired level. Continue with the snare, the rest of the drums and finally the bass guitar-moving on in order of importance. If there is a lead vocal in the song, that would come last, so that it
sits on top of the instrumental foundation you've established.
Other people approach mixing the opposite way, turning things down a bit one at a time. If one
method doesn't seem more appealing than the other, try both to see which one is more comfortable
for you.
Important: Pay close attention to the master bus meter while mixing. You never want the meter
to reach the very top, which will result in undesirable audible noise. This is called clipping.
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Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
Note: You can find the Mains meters on the far right side in the Console view. If you don’t see
the Mains meters, click the Console view Strips menu and make sure Mains is selected.
The next thing we'll try is panning. As with mixing in general, there are no rules when it comes to
panning. Be creative, trying different ideas to see how they sound. One important thing to consider is
that when you pan two tracks that share the same frequency range away from each other they will
become clearer. This especially applies to instruments that have been double-tracked. Try it with the
two tracks labeled Cymbals Left and Cymbals Right. Notice how you can hear more definition and
detail in the two tracks as you pan them away from each other. When panning double-tracked
instruments, try to avoid panning them all the way to the left or right. Doing so may cause the tracks
to sound too “separated”, which can take away from the fullness of the sound.
See:
“Adding effects (FX)” on page 147
“Using Automation” on page 152
Adding effects (FX)
At this point, you should have a basic mix. Everything is generally where you want it to be and it's
time to use some audio effects to tweak it all to perfection. Effects placed directly on an audio track
are called inserts.
Choose an audio track you would like to start with:
1. In the Console view, locate the effects bin for the track you’d like to work with. If you don’t see
the effects bin, click the Console view Modules menu and make sure FX Bin is selected.
2. Right-click the effects bin to open the pop-up menu.
Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
147
3. Point to Audio FX, then point to Cakewalk or Sonitus:fx and choose any one of the available
effects.
The selected effect is inserted into the track’s effects bin.
4. Experiment with the controls on the plug-in while the music is playing back. You will hear
noticeable changes to the sound.
5. Right-click on the effect and choose Delete to remove the effect.
Each of the effect plug-ins listed is designed to change the sound in some specific way. Here's a
quick list of some of the included plug-ins and what they're typically used for:
Compressor/Gate. This plug-in affects the loudness of the sound. It can limit how loud a sound
can get. It can also limit how soft a sound can get before it's completely turned off.
EQ. EQ can accentuate or turn down a certain frequency range in a sound. For example, if you
have an unwanted high-pitched buzz on one of your tracks, an EQ may be able to turn that high
frequency down without affecting the sound of the instrument.
Reverb. Reverb creates an artificial space. It produces echoes that are similar to the natural
echoes that happen when a sound bounces off the walls in a room.
Delay. Delay plug-ins have the ability to create an echo. However, it's typically more distinct than
that of a reverb. It makes a sound repeat, often in a rhythmic, musical manner.
These are the effects we'll be focusing on in this tutorial. However, other effects are available and
you should experiment with each one to discover how they can be used in your mixes. To get online
Help for a particular plug-in, simply click one of its controls and press the F1 key on your computer
keyboard.
Compression and EQ
While adjusting track levels in a song, you might notice that some tracks are too dynamic.
Sometimes they're too loud, other times too soft. In most modern music, the important elements in a
mix are focused in a specific volume range. This is done with a compressor.
The purpose of a compressor is to limit the dynamic range of music or sound. Compression will
make the loud parts of the signal quieter, resulting in a more or less even level. That even level can
then be increased to fit more specifically in the mix.
Many compressors have an option to allow that loud peak to remain untouched for a certain time,
which can add some “punch”.
Let's try it on the bass drum:
1. Add the Compressor plug-in to the track labeled Kick.
2. Adjust the Threshold. The threshold value represents the dB level at which compression starts to
take place.
3. Adjust Attack. The attack value represents the time the compressor takes to respond to an
increase in the input audio's level once the threshold level has been reached.
4. Adjust the Level to the desired output volume.
This approach can be applied to any track you like. It's especially useful when trying to get vocals to
stand out in a mix.
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Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
Now, we can apply some EQ. One of the primary uses for EQ is to prevent different instruments
from stepping on each other in the frequency spectrum. One instrument might be intended for a
certain frequency range, but extends into another instrument's frequency range. If you turn down the
overlapping frequency range for one of the instruments, it will allow the other instrument to stand out
better in the mix.
Let's give it a try:
1. Solo the tracks named Tension Climbing and Chirppy Synth.
2. Add the Sonitus:fx Equalizer plug-in to the Tension Climbing track.
The Sonitus:fx Equalizer interface appears.
3. Grab one of the numbered nodes and drag it around. Boost the selected band until you find the
frequency range that interferes with Chirppy Synth. When you find it, turn down the selected
band by dragging the node downward.
Tip: Try to cut the band around 1kHz.
Experiment with the other controls on the EQ to get the best possible results. As with the
compressor plug-in, this approach can be applied to any track you like.
Reverb and Delay
Next, we'll add some space to the song. This is done by using time-based effects.
The first thing we'll do is add a delay effect. A delay effect can really enhance an instrument. In our
tutorial project, we will add the Delay effect to the track name Chirppy Synth, which sounds very dry
and lifeless. Applying a delay might give it more depth.
1. Add the Delay plug-in to Chirppy Synth.
2. Configure the controls as follows:
• Tempo Sync = Host
• Factor = 1/2 (set for both Left & Right channels)
This is a good starting point. Sometimes the best way to familiarize yourself with a new effect plug-in
is to dig in and start tweaking.
Next, we'll apply some reverb to the project. Think of a reverb effect as an artificial room. We could
add a separate reverb to each track, but when multiple reverbs are running at the same time it can
sound “cloudy”. This might be because our ears are used to hearing sounds bounce of walls
naturally. A reverb on each track would sound like you have one instrument in one room, another
instrument in another room, and so on.
Instead, we will add a single reverb effect to a bus, then send each track to that bus, at varying
levels. This is where SONAR's advanced mixing environment offers a lot of flexibility. We will add a
control to each track, which adjusts how loud a copy of the track's sound is sent to the bus. This will
sound more natural since it's similar to the behavior of an actual acoustic space. All of the different
sounds can interact with each other in the “virtual room” we're creating with the reverb.
Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
149
Follow these steps to create your reverb send from the Console view:
1. We want to add this send to all tracks, so go to Edit > Select > All to select all tracks.
2. Right-click on one of your tracks in the Sends section of the strip and choose Insert Send
Assistant. If you don’t see the Sends section in your Console view, click the Console view
Modules menu and make sure Sends/Bank/Patch is selected.
The Insert Send Assistant appears.
3. Configure the Send Assistant as follows:
• Click New Bus. This will create a new reverb bus instead of routing the tracks to an existing
bus.
• Select Stereo
• In the Name box, type Reverb.
• Click Choose Effect and select Audio Effects > Sonitus:fx > Reverb.
• Make sure Pre Fader is not selected.
• Select the Show Effects Property Page check box.
• In the Bus Output list, select Master.
4. Click OK.
The Reverb property page appears.
5. Set the Reverb control to 0.0 dB and the Dry control to -Inf..
Notice that a send control named Reverb has been added to each track. To enable or disable a
send, click the On/Off button located on each track’s Send control.
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Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
When a send is enabled, you will hear the reverb effect during playback. To adjust how much reverb
is applied to each track, use the send's LEVEL control.
Enable the send control for each track that you want reverb on. You'll probably want at least a little
reverb on every track except for the kick drum and the bass guitar.
See:
“Volume and pan” on page 146
“Using Automation” on page 152
Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
151
Using Automation
Another feature that is important to mixing is automation. Automation lets you record changes to
almost any parameter in SONAR, including track parameters, effects, synths and buses. SONAR
makes this very easy.
1. Click a track's Write Automation button
2. Press Play
to enable automation recording for that track.
to start playback.
3. During playback, simply make the changes to the parameters in realtime, using either your
mouse or a control surface.
4. To disable automation recording, stop playback and click the track's Write Automation button
again.
When you play back, the parameters will update automatically.
Automation allows you to make gradual or sudden changes to make your song more dynamic. For
example, in the tutorial project, you might find that Whiney Synth should become lower in volume at
measure 25, when the drums and bass change. Try it:
1. Click the Write Automation button
2. Click Play
on the Whiney Synth track.
or press SPACEBAR to start playback.
3. At measure 25, turn the track volume down to the desired level.
4. At measure 33, turn the track volume back up.
5. Press Stop
to stop playback.
6. Disable Write Automation by clicking the
7. Press Play
button again.
and notice how the track volume changes automatically.
Repeat this process with any other automation you feel the project needs.
That concludes this tutorial. But don't stop here. Continue to experiment by adding different effects,
adding loops through the Media Browser view, etc.
Be creative and listen closely to the mix details in your favorite songs and albums. It's sure to
provide you with inspiration for your own projects. There are also many books available on the topic,
as well as thousands of add-on plug-ins that can expand your arsenal of FX. For more information,
visit www.cakewalk.com.
Tips: www.cakewalk.com/Support
Videos: www.cakewalk.com/CakeTV
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Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
SONAR allows you to add music and sound to your videos. This tutorial will guide you through the
basics of working with video inside SONAR. If you are new to SONAR, it is highly recommended you
review “Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects” on page 95 before going any further.
See:
“Importing video” on page 153
“Working with markers” on page 158
“Exporting your video” on page 160
Importing video
Before you can start working with video, you first need to import a video file. Let’s try this out with a
new project.
1. On the File menu, click New to open the New Project File dialog.
2. Select the Normal template, give your project a name and then click OK.
If you are having trouble with this, please refer to “Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving
projects” on page 95.
3. On the File menu, point to Import and select Video.
The Import Video dialog appears.
Let’s explore some of the options in the Import Video dialog.
The first thing you will notice is that this dialog is very similar to the Open dialog that was discussed
in Tutorial 1. The Import Video dialog functions in very much the same way with the exception of
two sections.
First, outlined in the image above is the drop down box Files of type. Making a selection here will
determine which video formats are displayed in the dialog. SONAR supports the following digital
video formats:
• Windows Media (.wmv and .asf)
• Video For Windows (.avi)
• MPEG Video (.mpg)
• QuickTime Video (.mov)
The file we are interested in for this tutorial is a Windows Media file, so let’s select Windows Media
(*.wmv, *.asf) in the Files of type list.
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Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Importing video
Next, outlined in the above image you will see the File info area on the left and three options on the
right. Let’s review what each of these options do.
Option
What it does
Show file info
When selected, this tells SONAR to display video information about the
selected file in the File info area of the dialog.
Import Audio Stream
Select this option if you want to import the video file’s embedded audio
into a new audio track in SONAR.
Import as mono tracks
Select this option if you want to import the video file's embedded audio
data as one or more mono tracks.
Table 9.
For now, let’s leave the Import Audio Stream and Show file info check boxes selected.
Just as you would with the Open dialog, navigate to the following location:
/Cakewalk Content/SONAR X1/Tutorial Projects/Video Tutorial
Locate and import the file named Boarding.wmv. You can open it by either double-clicking on it or
highlighting it and then clicking the Open button.
Tip: You can quickly get to the My Documents folder by clicking on its button along the left side of
the Import Video dialog.
Notice that SONAR imported any audio that is a part of the video as well. If the video does not have
any audio already associated with it, then SONAR will create a silent audio track like in our example.
You should now see the Boarding video in the Video view as well as the Video Thumbnail pane in
the Track view.
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Importing video
155
What if I don’t see the Video Thumbnail pane or Video view?
To show or hide the Video Thumbnail pane, drag the splitter bar that separates the Video Thumbnail
pane from the Clips pane.
To restore the Video Thumbnail pane, point the mouse pointer over the splitter bar (the mouse
pointer will look like
), then drag the splitter bar down to restore and resize the Video Thumbnail
pane to your liking. You can also press the V key to show or hide the Video Thumbnail pane.
If you closed the Video view, or if it did not open automatically when you imported the video, you can
open it by selecting Views > Video or pressing ALT+SHIFT+2.
Changing the video properties
SONAR allows you to make some useful changes to a video's settings for film scoring purposes. To
access these settings, simply right-click in the Video view and choose Video Properties from the
popup menu to open the Video Properties dialog.
The Video Properties dialog has three tabs: the Video Settings tab, the Info tab and the Render
Quality tab. For detailed information about all of these options and settings, see “Video Properties
dialog” on page 1671. For this tutorial, we are only going to look at the tools on the Video Settings
tab.
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Importing video
There are three options on this tab that are very important to understand and extremely helpful when
working with video. Let's take a closer look at them
Option
What it does
Start Time
The time in your SONAR project at which you want the video file to start playing.
Trim-in Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to start, this is useful if
you don’t want to see the opening credits or the first few scenes. This is expressed
in SMPTE time code.
Trim-out Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to stop, this is also
expressed in SMPTE time code.
Table 10.
Let’s change the Start Time value to measure 2. To do this, enter the number 2 in the Start Time
box.
Now, click the RTZ button in the transport and then click Play. Notice how the video doesn’t start
playing until measure 2 in your project.
See:
“Working with markers” on page 158
“Exporting your video” on page 160
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Importing video
157
Working with markers
When syncing up audio events to film cues or video, it is common to use markers. Markers are a
powerful feature in SONAR that helps to simplify the task of identifying major events in a song or
video. They can be used to clarify where a verse or chorus begins in a rock tune or, in the case of
film scoring, they can be used to identify hit points (points in the film where you want a musical event
to synchronize with a visual event). Before we get started on this next exercise, return to the Video
Properties dialog and click the Video Settings tab. Set Start Time to 1:01:000, Trim-in Time to
00:00:00:00 and Trim-out Time to 00:00:44:23.
Let’s say we want our music to start at the beginning of the video right when the sun comes out. This
occurs about 4 seconds into the movie. Taking a closer look, this happens at 4 seconds and 10
frames into the clip, which, expressed in SMPTE time code, is 00:00:04:10.
There are several ways to add markers in SONAR:
• Place the Now Time at the location where you would like a marker, then select Project > Insert
Marker or press M.
• Click the Insert Marker
button in the Control Bar’s Markers module.
• Click the Add Marker button in the Markers view.
Let’s open the Markers view by selecting Views > Markers.
The Markers view is very handy when working with events in a film. The first thing we want to do is
add a new marker to the project, indicating the start of the project. To do this, click the Insert
Markers button
158
to open the Marker dialog.
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Working with markers
From this dialog you can do a lot of very important things. First let’s name this marker by typing Intro
in the Name field.
Next, select the Lock to SMPTE (Real World) Time check box. This option is very important when
working with video. If a marker is not locked to SMPTE time, its position in relation to events on the
video will change with tempo and meter changes in the project.
You might also notice that the Time value changes to the SMPTE format after you selected the
check box. This determines where the location of the marker will be. We know in the video that the
sun comes out at about four seconds and ten frames into the video. Let’s set the Time value to
00:00:04:10.
Click OK to insert the marker and close the Marker dialog. You can place as many markers as you
need for a project to sync up all of your events.
The Markers view will now display the marker you just created, with the name Intro assigned to it.
The Marker view toolbar contains the following commands that apply to selected markers.
Control
Description
Click the Delete Marker button to delete the currently selected marker.
Click the Change Marker Properties button to open the Marker dialog for the selected
marker. This is useful if you want to change the location of a marker.
Click the Lock/Unlock Marker button to lock or unlock the marker to SMTPE time.
Table 11.
Close the Markers view now and take a look at the time ruler in SONAR, which spans the top of the
Clips pane in the Track view. You will notice there is now a flag named Intro indicating where your
new marker is in the project.
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Working with markers
159
See:
“Importing video” on page 153
“Exporting your video” on page 160
Exporting your video
Once you have finished with all of your music and have your video synced up as you would like it,
you’ll want to mix it down to a video file that you can share with the world.
1. Select everything in the project that you want to export. If you want to export the entire project,
simply select Edit > Select > All or press CTRL+A.
2. On the File menu, point to Export and click Video.
The Export Video dialog opens. You will notice this is very similar to both the Save As and
Export Audio dialogs that were explored in Tutorial 1 and Tutorial 9.
3. Similar to saving project files, you will first want to give your video a name by typing one into the
File name field.
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Exporting your video
4. Choose the desired video format by selecting it from the Save as type list.
Clicking the Encoding Options button at the bottom will allow you to explore some advanced
settings for your video. From this dialog you will be able to change the quality and size of your
video. This is particularly important if you plan to upload your video to the web. Some codecs
work better than others and are more appropriate for different scenarios. Click the Help button in
this dialog for more specific details about different formats.
The Audio Mixdown Options button will bring up settings specific to the audio in your project.
Click the Help button for detailed instructions on how to use these settings.
5. Specify the location you wish to save the file to and click Save to export it.
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Exporting your video
161
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Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Exporting your video
T u t o r ia l 9 – E x p o r t in g , C D b u r n in g a n d
s h a r in g
Once your SONAR project is complete, you will want to share it with the world or burn a CD. SONAR
offers many tools to help you do this. In this tutorial, we are going to explore some of the basics of these
tools.
Before we get started, let’s open one of the example audio projects included with SONAR. If you have
your own project that already contains audio, you can load that instead. However, your screen will look
different from the images in this tutorial.
1. On the File menu, click Open.
The Open dialog appears.
2. In the Go to Folder list, select Template Files and then open the Tutorials folder.
3. Browse to the project named SONAR_AudioDemo.cwb and click Open to load the project.
Note: You may have to rename the file if you saved it with the same name during Tutorial 1.
Now that you have opened the demo project (or your own audio project) click the Play button
or
press SPACEBAR listen to it. If you do not hear any audio, review the steps in Tutorial 1 to ensure
SONAR and your audio device are configured correctly.
Cakewalk Project Files are different from the audio you hear on a CD in that they are often multi-track. In
this example, you will notice that there are four audio tracks. In order to burn this mix to a CD or prepare
it for distribution, we need to export or mix it down to a stereo track.
First, we need to click File > Export > Audio.
This will bring us to the Export Audio dialog. This has many useful functions. Let’s explore some of them
in detail.
You should notice that the top half of this window is very similar to the Open and Save dialogs that
were discussed in “Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects” on page 95. This is used to
navigate to locations on your computer’s hard drive and tell SONAR where you want to store the
exported audio.
For this Tutorial, we are only going to explore some of the more common settings. If you would like
to read about all of the options and settings click the Help button.
Control
Function
Channel Format
Specifies if the audio should be exported as stereo or mono.
Sample Rate
Allows you to set the sample rate of your export. 44100 Hz is used for CD
quality audio.
Table 12.
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Control
Function
Bit-Depth
Allows you to set the bit-depth of your export. 16-bit is used for CD quality
and 24-bit is often used for DVD quality audio.
Add to Cakewalk Publisher
Select this option to send your file to Cakewalk Publisher, which is used to
put your music on the Internet.
Table 12.
If you would like to burn an audio CD of your music
1. Click File > Export > Audio to open the Export Audio dialog.
2. In the Channel Format list, select Stereo.
3. In the Sample Rate list, select 44100.
4. In the Bit-Depth list, select 16.
5. Enter a name for you mix in the File name box.
6. In the File type list, select Wave.
7. Specify where you want to save the file. Make note of this location, because you will need to use
it later.
8. Click Export.
A progress bar appears across the bottom of SONAR’s screen while a CD quality audio file is
exported. When the progress bar disappears, SONAR has finished exporting your project.
Now we need to burn our mix to a CD. SONAR features a powerful built-in CD burning application
that can do this for us. Let’s open Audio Creator LE and briefly explore its features and how to use it.
See:
“Burning an audio CD” on page 166
“Cakewalk Publisher” on page 168
Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing
165
Burning an audio CD
Select Utilities > Burn Audio CD to open the Audio CD Burner dialog.
Simply browse to the audio files you wish to burn and click the Add Track button. You can also drag
audio files into the Burner tracklist.
Note: Any files that are not in 16 bit, 44.1kHz wav files will automatically be converted to the
proper CD format.
Depending on the type of blank CD you are using, you can fit up to 80 minutes of audio on one CD.
Make note of the Space Available and Space Used fields; these will let you know how many more
tracks you can fit on your CD. For the best compatibility with most consumer CD players, you should
use a CD-R disc. CD-RW discs, while compatible with some newer CD players, may not play back in
all systems.
Once you have finished adding all the songs you would like to burn to a CD, the final step is to burn
your disc. To do so, do the following:
1. Insert the writable CD into the CD-R drive.
The drive containing the writable CD should automatically be detected. If for some reason it isn’t
detected, manually select the drive letter of your CD Burner from the Target Drive drop down list.
2. Click Burn CD.
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If you would like to share your music on the Internet
Note: Due to licensing restrictions, your Cakewalk software only includes a 30 day free trial of
the MP3 encoder. If your 30 day trial period has expired, a full license can be purchased for
unlimited use from the Cakewalk web store.
1. Click the Export Audio button to open the Export Audio dialog.
2. In the Channel Format list, select Stereo.
3. In the Sample Rate list, select 44100.
4. In the Bit-Depth list, select 16.
5. Select the Add to Cakewalk Publisher check box.
6. Enter a name for you mix in the File name box.
7. In the File type list, select MP3.
8. Click Export.
The MP3 Export Options dialog appears. For detailed information about the different options,
click Help.
9. For our exercise, accept the default settings by clicking OK.
A progress bar appears across the bottom of SONAR’s screen. When the progress bar
disappears, SONAR has finished exporting your project.
See:
“Cakewalk Publisher” on page 168
Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing
167
Cakewalk Publisher
SONAR includes Cakewalk Publisher, which is a powerful tool to share your music, artwork and
playlists on the Internet. A detailed description of Publisher is beyond the scope of this tutorial, but
let’s take a quick look at its basic features and how it integrates with SONAR.
To open Publisher, select Utilities > Publish to Web.
Notice that your recently exported project is already listed in the Track list. This is because you
selected the Add to Cakewalk Publisher check box in the Export Audio dialog.
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The following table describes a few of the buttons in the publisher interface. If you would like to
explore all of the features in Publisher, click the button labeled HELP in the upper right corner of the
Publisher window.
Control
Function
Used to configure the player and generate the HTML code for
pasting into your web site.
Lets you associate an image with the selected track. This is
useful if you want to include album artwork when you upload
your music.
Adds new tracks to the current playlist.
Deletes selected tracks from the current playlist.
Once your player has been configured and your playlist is put
together, click Publish to upload your files to the Internet.
Table 13.
Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing
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Controlling playback
When you play your SONAR project, you have full control over the tempo or speed of playback,
which tracks are played, which sound cards or other devices are used to produce the sound, and
what the tracks sound like. You can access all of the playback functions from the Control Bar (see
“Control Bar overview” on page 473).
SONAR’s multi-MIDI enhancements give you the ability to play multiple synths or tracks from a
single keyboard or controller, or let multiple performers play the same or different tracks. You have
total control over MIDI echo (MIDI echo refers to where MIDI input signals are sent once SONAR
receives them).
Note: SONAR has a button called the Audio Engine button
in the Control Bar’s Transport
module, which you click to stop any feedback you may experience if there is a loop somewhere
in your mixer setup. Whenever you play a project, SONAR automatically enables the audio
engine.
See also:
“The Now time and how to use it” on page 172
“Using the Transport, Markers, Punch and Loop modules” on page 187
“Controlling the transport” on page 181
“Track-by-track playback” on page 191
“Changing track settings” on page 200
“Video playback, import, and export” on page 230
“Locating missing audio” on page 242
“Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo” on page 224
“Local control” on page 227
The Now time and how to use it
Every project has a current time, known as the Now time, which keeps track of where you are in a
project. The Now time appears as a vertical line in the Track view and is displayed in the Transport
module in the Control Bar (see “Transport module” on page 482).
Figure 28.
The Transport module in the Control Bar.
A
B
C
A. Current Now time (click to cycle through the available display formats) B. Position C. Meter
The Transport module can show the Now time in several formats. Click the time display to toggle
between the following time formats:
• MBT. Display time as Measure:Beat:Tick.
• HMSF. Display time as Hour:Minute:Second:Frame. This format is also referred to as SMPTE
time.
• Milliseconds. Display time in milliseconds.
• Samples. Display time in samples.
The measure, beat, and tick number (MBT) identifies the Now time in musical time units. Ticks are
subdivisions of quarter notes and indicate the timebase of the project. For more information about
the timebase, see “Setting the MIDI timing resolution” on page 254.
Here are some examples of times expressed in measure, beat, and tick (MBT) format:
Time
What it means
1:01:000
First beat of the first measure
9:04:000
Fourth beat of the ninth measure
4:02:060
The 60th tick of the second beat of the fourth measure
Table 14.
The hours-minutes-seconds-frames format is commonly referred to as the SMPTE time. SMPTE is
the acronym for the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. In this format, time is
measured in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames. It’s not necessary for a project to begin at time
zero in this format—any time can be used to represent the start of a project. If you are synchronizing
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SONAR with an external device whose start time is not 0, you must offset SONAR to match the
external device’s start time. For more information, see “Synchronizing your gear” on page 1079.
Here are some examples of times expressed in this format (assuming that zero is the start time):
Time
What it means
00:00:00:00
The beginning of the project
00:05:10:00
Five minutes and ten seconds from the beginning of the project
01:30:00:00
One hour and thirty minutes into the project
00:00:00:05
Five frames into the project
Table 15.
SONAR provides many ways to set the Now time. Here are just a few:
To change the Now time
• Click the desired time on the Time Ruler in the Track view, Piano Roll view, or Staff view.
• In the Navigator pane, click anywhere in the view while holding down the CTRL key to change the
Now Time to that location.
• Drag the Position slider in the Transport module.
• Click the transport buttons in the Transport module.
• Click on an event in the Event List view.
You can also set the Now time by right-clicking in the Clips pane if you enable the Right Click Sets
Now option in Track view Options > Click Behavior menu.
When entering a time in MBT format, the beat and tick values are optional. You can use a colon,
space, decimal point, or vertical bar to separate the parts of the Now time:
You enter
The Now time is set to
2
2:01:000
420
4:02:000
9
9:01:000
5|1:30
5:01:030
Table 16.
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
173
When entering a time in SMPTE format, you can enter a single number (hour), two numbers (hour
and minutes), three numbers (hour, minutes, and seconds), or all four numbers.
If you click in the Time Ruler while the snap grid is enabled, the Now time will be snapped to the
nearest point in the grid. By setting the grid size to a whole note or quarter note, you can easily set
the Now time to a measure or beat boundary.
Note: The Time Ruler only obeys snap when Musical Time or Absolute Time is selected in
the Control Bar’s Snap module.
When playback or recording is stopped, the Now Time either remains at the point where the project
stopped or snaps back to the Now Time Marker. This behavior is specified with the Track view
Options >On stop, Rewind to Now Marker command. For more information, see “The Now time
marker” on page 175.
MIDI note will continue to play If Now time is moved
Changing the Now time while a MIDI note is sounding will cause SONAR to play the full duration of
the note. This behavior was introduced in SONAR 4.0.3, and is necessary as a result of addressing
various gapping issues when editing MIDI data during playback.
If you prefer a slight hiccup instead of hearing the full note duration, you can change the default
behavior with the Set Now Time with Full Restart option in the Track view Options menu.
Note: Moving a MIDI note event during playback is affected by this same issue.
See:
“Displaying the Now time in large print” on page 177
“Other ways to set the Now time” on page 178
174
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
The Now time marker
In the Track view, the Now time appears as a black vertical line. When you set the Now time in the
Track view a green triangle called the Now time marker appears in the Time Ruler. This marker
represents the point at which the Now time will snap back to after you stop playback or recording.
Figure 29.
The Now Time marker
You can drag the Now Time marker during playback. When the mouse button is released, the
transport immediately jumps to the new location.
Note: You can only drag the Now Time marker during playback, not while recording.
You can change the Now time marker behavior so that the marker moves to the current Now time
when playback or recording is stopped (on the Track view Options menu, clear the On Stop,
Rewind to Now Marker option).
To change the Now time marker behavior
On the Track view Options menu, clear the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option to have the
Now time marker move to follow the current Now time when you stop playback.
Or
On the Track view Options menu, select the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option to have the
Now time snap back to the Now time marker when you stop playback.
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
175
The Track view Now time display
The Track view displays the Now Time above the track strips in a large and configurable format.
Figure 30.
The Track view Now time display
Click the display to display the following time formats:
• M:B:T (Measure:Beat:Tick). Example: 8:01:000.
• SMPTE (Hours:Minutes:Seconds:Frames). Example: 00:00:21:00.
• Frames. Example: 629 (only available if project contains video).
• Milliseconds (Hours:Minutes:Seconds:Milliseconds).
Example: 00:00:21:000.
• Samples. Example: 926100.
You can also right-click the display, and choose time formats from the pop-up menu.
The pop-up menu also lets you choose the following display options:
• To hide the time display, choose None.
• To show the time display, right-click the empty area and choose one of the available time formats
from the pop-up menu.
The time display settings are global and persist between sessions.
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The Now time and how to use it
Displaying the Now time in large print
SONAR can display the Now time in large print so that it’s easier to see when you are far from your
monitor (for example, when you’re at your keyboard or another instrument) or when several people
need to read the Now time from a distance. Here’s how:
To display the Big Time view
1. Choose Views > Big Time to display the Big Time view.
Figure 31.
The Big Time view
2. Change the settings according to the table:
To do this
Do this
Switch time format
Click on the view to toggle between MBT and SMPTE time
Change font or color
Right-click on the view, choose the font and color you want,
and click OK
Change the size of the view
Drag any corner of the view to change its size
Table 17.
Note that SONAR ignores font styles and effects such as strikeout and underline.
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
177
Other ways to set the Now time
There are a variety of commands and keyboard shortcuts you can use to set the Now time:
Shortcut
What it does
G
Lets you enter the Now time in the Position toolbar or in a dialog box
SHIFT+G
Sets the Now time to the From time (the start time of the current time selection)
CTRL+G
Sets the Now time to the Thru time (the end time of the current time selection)
CTRL+HOME
Sets the Now time to the beginning of the project
CTRL+END
Sets the Now time to the end of the project
CTRL+PAGE UP Sets the Now time to the start of the current measure if the Now time is not on a barline, or
to the start of the previous measure if the Now time is on a barline.
CTRL+PAGE
DOWN
Sets the Now time to the start of the next measure
Table 18.
If your project has markers, you can use Markers module in the Control Bar to set the Now time:
To do this
Do this
Skip to the next marker
Click
on the Markers module (or press CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE
DOWN).
Skip to the previous marker
Click
Jump to any marker
on the Markers module (or press CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE UP).
Click the drop-down menu on the Markers module and select the
marker you want to jump to.
Table 19.
Figure 32.
A
The Markers module.
B
C
D
A. Jump to previous marker B. Jump to next marker C. Insert marker D. Current marker
For more information about markers, see “Creating and using markers” on page 348.
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Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
The Time ruler
The Time ruler appears in the Track view, Tempo view, Staff view and Piano Roll view. It has several
functions, including:
• Making a time selection.
The Time ruler follows the Snap to Grid settings, if enabled.
• Changing the Now time
• Adding loop, punch, and pitch markers.
You can right-click in the Time ruler to add markers.
In the Track view, the Time ruler has the following time display options or formats:
• Measures, Beats and Ticks (M:B:T)
• Hours, Minutes, Seconds and Frames (H:M:S:F—also called SMPTE)
• Samples
• Milliseconds
Figure 33.
The Time ruler
A
B
C
D
E
F
A. M:B:T B. H:M:S:F C. Samples D. Milliseconds E. Remove ruler F. Add ruler
The M:B:T setting follows your settings in the Meter/Key view. If you project is set to 4/4 time, you
have four beats in the Time ruler for each measure. If your project is set to 6/8 time, you have six
beats in the Time ruler for each measure.
If there is only one format displayed in the Time ruler, you can switch the format by right-clicking in
the Time ruler and selecting the format you prefer.
To switch the Time ruler format to M:B:T
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format > M:B:T.
To switch the Time ruler format to H:M:S:F (SMPTE)
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format > H:M:S:F.
To switch the Time ruler format to samples
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format > Samples.
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
179
To switch the Time ruler format to milliseconds
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format > Milliseconds.
Additionally, you can add or remove Time ruler formats using the Plus/Minus buttons located just
outside the right edge of the Time ruler.
Note: If only one Time ruler format is being used, only the Plus button is displayed.
To add or remove Time ruler formats using the Plus/Minus buttons
• Click the Plus button and select a Time ruler format from the pop-up menu.
• Click the Plus button and select a Time ruler format you would like to add from the pop-up menu.
• Click the Minus button and select from the pop-up menu to remove an active Time ruler format.
• Right-click in the Time ruler and move the cursor to Time ruler format in the pop-up menu. A list of
all Time ruler formats appears. Active formats are checked, inactive formats are unchecked.
• Click a checked format to move it down one row.
• Click an unchecked format to replace the topmost displayed format.
Note: Selecting the Display All Times as SMPTE check box in Edit > Preferences >
Customization - Display forces all times in the project to be displayed in SMPTE time,
regardless of your setting in the Time ruler.
See:
“Controlling the transport” on page 181
180
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
Controlling the transport
To control playback, you have your choice of tools, menu commands, and shortcut keys for most
common operations.
When you start playback, the Now time updates continuously to show the current time. When you
stop playback, the Now time rewinds to the Now Time Marker. When you start playback again, it
continues from the same point.
If the Now time is advancing but you don’t hear any sound, see Troubleshooting. If you are using
MIDI sync or syncing to MIDI time code, SONAR waits to receive external timing data before it
begins playing. If the various views are not updating during playback, make sure the SCROLL LOCK
key on your computer keyboard is not enabled. For more information, see “Synchronizing your gear”
on page 1079.
Note: If your Windows setup uses any system sounds that are associated with any typical
activity, such as minimizing a window, etc., you should disable these sounds. They can sound
extremely loud through your monitors, and also interrupt playback and recording, if you open
any dialog boxes or do anything that has a system sound attached to it while a project plays.
The quickest way to disable all system sounds is to open the Control Panel (Start > Settings >
Control Panel), double-click the Sounds icon to open the Sounds Properties dialog box, and
in the Schemes field select No Sounds. Click Apply, and then click OK.
To start and stop playback
To do this
Start playback
Stop playback
Rewind to the start of the project
Skip to the end of the project
Do this
Press the SPACEBAR key, click
click in the Time Ruler
Press the SPACEBAR key or click
in the Transport module, or double-
in the Transport module
Click
in the Transport module, or press the G key
Click
in the Transport module, or press SHIFT+G
Table 20.
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
181
Note: The default behavior for the Now time when you click the Stop button is for it to return to
the Now time marker where playback began. If you want the Now time to remain where it is when
you stop playback, you can use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+SPACEBAR. If you want to
change the default behavior, clear the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option on the Track
view Options menu.
To pause playback
• Click the Pause button
.
Playback stops, but the Now Time cursor and the Now Time marker do not move.
To resume playback again
• Do one of the following:
• Click the Pause button
• Click the Play button
.
.
• Press SPACEBAR.
Playback resumes.
Rewinding and fast forwarding
The Transport module has dedicated Rewind
and Fast Forward
to rewind and fast forward smoothly during playback.
To rewind or fast forward, click the Rewind
pressed until you want to resume playback.
or Fast Forward
buttons, which allow you
button and keep the button
To audition a selection
1. Select the clips that you want to audition.
2. Press SHIFT+SPACEBAR.
Only the selected clips play back.
Allow playback with no data
SONAR is able to start playback even if there is no data in a project. This is useful in various cases,
such as:
• If you need to trigger playback of external devices.
• If you need to continue playback beyond the end of the project, for example, to allow MIDI notes
and sustains to decay naturally and not end abruptly.
To allow playback with no data:
182
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
On the Track view Options menu, make sure Stop at Project End is not selected.
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
183
Stop at Project End option
The Track view Options > Stop at Project End option determines whether or not playback is
allowed beyond the last event in a project. This option is enabled by default.
When enabled (default setting):
• Playback will not engage if there is no data present in the project at all.
• Playback will stop when no more data is present going forward.
When disabled:
• Playback will engage if there is no data present in the project at all.
• Playback will continue past the end of a project until the user manually stops playback.
Auto fade when starting/stopping playback
SONAR makes it possible to render a smooth fade in/out whenever audio playback is interrupted.
This can be useful to smooth out abrupt transitions while stopping and starting the transport rapidly
and will reduce ear fatigue during long sessions.
The fade is only applied during playback and is ignored while recording or bouncing audio.
To configure the auto fade times
1. Select Edit > Preferences to open the Preferences dialog, then click Audio - Playback and
Recording.
2. Adjust the following options:
• Fade On Start (milliseconds). When this option is set to a value greater than zero, starting
playback will cause a gradual fade in of the audio for the specified duration. The valid range is
0–100000 and the default value is 0.
• Fade On Stop (milliseconds). When this option is set to a value greater than zero, stopping
playback will cause a gradual fade out of the audio for the specified duration. The valid range is
0–100000 and the default value is 0.
Handling stuck notes
Under MIDI, the events that turn notes on are separate from the events that stop notes from playing.
Normally, when you stop playback, SONAR attempts to turn off all notes that are still playing.
Depending on how your equipment is configured, it’s possible for notes to get stuck in the On
position. The Reset MIDI and Audio button
in the Transport module is used to stop all notes
from playing. The Reset MIDI and Audio command also stops feedback from input monitoring.
Note: You can control the MIDI messages that are sent by the Reset MIDI and Audio button
by changing the Panic Strength variable in the Cakewalk.ini file. See “Initialization
files” on page 1213 for more information.
184
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
To clear stuck notes
Click the Reset MIDI and Audio button
in the Transport module.
See:
“Transport module” on page 482
Looping
Sometimes you want to listen to one portion of a project over and over, either so you can play along
and rehearse or because you want to edit that section of the project while it is playing and hear the
results as you make changes. SONAR has a playback looping feature that makes this simple.
Looping is defined in the Loop module in the Control Bar.
Figure 34.
The Loop module.
A
C
B
D
A. Loop On/Off B. Set Loop Time to Select C. Loop Start Time D. Loop End Time
To set up a loop, you do three things:
• Set the start time of the loop
• Set the end time of the loop
• Enable looping
From then on, SONAR will automatically jump back to the start of the loop when it reaches the end.
When looping is enabled, the loop times are indicated by special markers in the Time ruler.
A
B
A. Loop From B. Loop Thru
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
185
To move a loop in the Time ruler
1. Click the yellow bar that connects the two loop markers
The cursor becomes a horizontal double-headed arrow.
2. Drag the loop to the desired location in the Time ruler.
With the default option settings, SONAR will play the loop over and over again, continuously.
If you start playback before the loop start time, SONAR will play until the loop end time is reached,
then jump back to the loop start time.
Note: If you stop playback while looping is enabled, the Now time jumps to the Now time marker.
If you disable the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option in the Track view Options menu,
the Now time stays wherever you stopped playback.
The Rewind command operates slightly differently when looping is in effect. The first time you
rewind, the Now time is set to the start of the loop. If the Now time is already at the start of the loop,
Rewind takes you to the beginning of the project. From then on, Rewind switches back and forth
between the loop start time and the start of measure 1.
To set up a playback loop
• Set the loop start and end times in one of the following ways:
• Drag the mouse between two points in the Time Ruler of the Track view, Staff, or Piano Roll
view to select a range of times, then click
selection time to the loop time.
in the Control Bar’s Loop module to copy the
• Click between two markers in the Track, Staff, or Piano Roll view to select a range of times,
then click
in the Control Bar’s Loop module to copy the selection time to the loop time.
• Type the loop start and end times directly into the Loop module.
• Select a range of times, then right-click in the Time ruler and choose Loop > Set Loop Points.
Looping is automatically turned on when you use the Set Loop to Selection command.
To cancel a playback loop
• Click
186
in the Control Bar’s Loop module, or press the L key, to disable looping.
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
Using the Transport, Markers, Punch and Loop modules
The Control Bar contains various modules that provide powerful control over playback. To show the
Control Bar, click the Views menu and choose Control Bar, or press the C key.
For controlling playback, the most important Control Bar modules are the Transport, Markers, Punch
and Loop modules. For detailed information about all Control Bar modules, see “Control Bar
overview” on page 473.
Figure 35.
The Transport module.
A
B
C
D
E
F
H
G
Q
R
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
A. Rewind B. Stop C. Play D. Pause E. Fast Forward F. Record G. Dropout indicator H. Current Now time
(this space is also used for progress bars and “Waiting for sync” messages) I. Return to zero (RTZ) J. Position
K. Jump to project end L. Audio Engine on/off M. Reset/Panic N. Sample rate and bit depth O. Tempo
P. Meter Q. Metronome during record R. Metronome during playback
Using the Markers module
The Markers module lets you navigate by markers and insert new markers. Inserting markers at
important milestones in your project makes it easy to navigate through your project.
To insert a marker, do one of the following:
• Click the Insert Marker button
in the Markers module.
• Click the Project menu and choose Insert Marker.
• Press the M key when the Now time is in the desired location for your marker.
• Hold down the CTRL key and click the top half of the time ruler.
To jump to a marker, do one of the following:
• Click the Previous Marker button
or Next Marker button
in the Markers module.
• Click the Marker list in the Markers module and select a marker from the drop-down menu.
• Press the G key twice and select a marker from the list.
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
187
Figure 36.
A
The Markers module.
B
C
D
A. Jump to previous marker B. Jump to next marker C. Insert marker D. Current marker
To set options for punch and loop recording
1. Right-click the Record button
in the Transport module to open recording settings.
2. Specify how newly recorded data should affect existing data. Choose either Sound in Sound
(Blend) or Overwrite (Replace).
3. Select between storing looped takes in a single track or storing looped takes in separate tracks.
For more information see “Loop recording” on page 281.
To use the Punch module
Figure 37.
The Punch module.
A
C
B
D
A. Auto-Punch On/Off B. Set Punch Time to Select C. Punch In Time D. Punch Out Time
The Punch module contains the following controls:
• Auto-Punch on/off
. Enable/disable punch recording. Toggles punch recording on/off.
• Set Punch Time to Selection
. Set the Punch In time to the start (From) time of the
selection, and the Punch Out time to the end (Thru) time of the selection.
• Punch In Time. The current Punch In time. Click to modify.
• Punch Out Time. The current Punch Out time. Click to modify.
Tip: If a numeric time field has focus, you can press G to access a list of marker positions.
188
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
To punch record:
1. Click the Auto-Punch Toggle button
in the Punch module to activate Auto Punch.
2. To set the auto punch region, do one of the following:
• Drag in the time ruler to make a time selection, then click the Set Punch Time to Selection
button
in the Punch module.
• Click the Punch In TIme field in the Punch module and specify the desired punch in location,
then click the Punch Out Time field and specify the punch out location.
3. Set the Now Time far enough ahead of the Punch In point for you to be ready for it.
4. Click the Record button in the Transport module or press the R key.
SONAR plays the project, and begins recording on the selected track at the Punch In time you
entered, then stops recording at the Punch Out time.
To use the Transport module
The Transport module contains the following controls:
• Rewind
.
Gradually rewind the project.
• Stop
. Stop playback.
• Play
. Start/stop playback.
• Pause
. Pause/resume playback.
• Fast Forward
.
Gradually fast forward the project.
• Record
. Start recording (requires at least one track to be armed for recording). Right-click
to access global record options. Click and keep the mouse button pressed for a brief moment to
enable step recording.
• Step Record. Open the Step Record window. For details, see “Step recording” on page 285.
• RTZ
. Rewind to the start of the project.
• Progress Bar
• Go to End
.
.
Current position in the project. Drag to skip around in the project.
Skip to the end of the project.
• Time Display. The time display section shows useful information about the current project,
including the Now time, sample rate and bit depth, tempo and meter. The following information is
shown:
• Current Now Time. The Now time shows your current location in the project. For details, see
“The Now time and how to use it” on page 172. Click the time display to toggle between the
following time formats:
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
189
• MBT. Display time as Measure:Beat:Tick.
• HMSF. Display time as Hour:Minute:Second:Frame. This format is also referred to as
SMPTE time.
• Milliseconds. Display time in milliseconds.
• Samples. Display time in samples.
• Current Tempo.
tempo.
The current tempo at the Now time. Double-click to change the current
• Current Meter. The number of beats per measure and the note value of each beat at the
current Now time. Click to change the meter. For details, see “Setting the Meter and Key
signatures” on page 248.
• Metronome Playback on/off
access Metronome settings.
• Metronome Record on/off
access Metronome settings.
. Enable/disable the metronome during playback. Right-click to
. Enable/disable the metronome during recording. Right-click to
To use the Loop module
Figure 38.
The Loop module.
A
C
B
D
A. Loop On/Off B. Set Loop Time to Select C. Loop Start Time D. Loop End Time
The Loop module contains the following controls:
• Loop on/off
.
Enable/disable playback looping.
• Set Loop Times to Selection
. Set the Loop Start time to the start (From) time of the
selection, and the Loop End time to the end (Thru) time of the selection.
• Loop Start Time. The current Loop Start time. Click to modify.
• Loop End Time.
The current Loop End time. Click to modify.
Tip: If a numeric time field has focus, you can press the G key to access a list of marker positions.
See:
“Track-by-track playback” on page 191
190
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
Track-by-track playback
SONAR lets you play back any combination of tracks at one time by changing each track’s status.
You can control the status of each track with the individual controls that are on every track, or with
the global controls in the Control Bar’s Mix module. For more information about the Mix module, see
“Mix module” on page 486.
Figure 39.
The Mix module.
A
B
C
D
G H
I
J
E
F
A. Mute B. Solo C. Arm D. Input Echo E. Live Input PDC Override F. Bypass All Effects G. Exclusive Solo
H. Dim Solo I. Automation Read (playback) J. Automation Write (recording)
There are several different status settings for each track:
Status
What it means
Normal
The track plays unless one or more of your other tracks is soloed.
Muted
The track is not played, but you can turn it on while playback is in progress.
Archived
The track is not played, and you must stop playback to re-enable it. Archived
tracks do not tax your CPU during playback so they can be used to store
alternate takes.
Soloed
Only those tracks that are designated as solo tracks are played; all others are
muted.
Armed
The track is armed for recording.
Mono/Stereo (audio tracks
only)
The track plays back in either mono or stereo, depending on what the
individual track setting is in the Track Inspector (see “Track Inspector
overview” on page 508).
Phase normal or inverted
(audio tracks only)
If a track was accidentally recorded out of phase with another track, the Phase
button in the Track Inspector lets you reverse the phase of a track.
Table 21.
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
191
While playback is in progress, you can mute and unmute tracks in any combination, which means
you can hear only the tracks that you want. You can change the status of a track in the Track view,
the Console view, the Track Inspector, or the Mix module in the Control Bar.
If a track is both muted and soloed, it does not play. Mute has precedence.
The track status is saved with the SONAR project file. If you save a SONAR project as a standard
MIDI File, however, all tracks are saved without mute, solo, or archive indicators.
See:
“The Mix module” on page 192
“Silencing tracks” on page 194
“Soloing tracks” on page 195
“Inverting the phase of a track” on page 198
“Changing tracks’ mono/stereo status” on page 199
The Mix module
The Mix module lets you configure various playback settings. You can quickly mute/unmute, solo/
unsolo and arm/disarm all tracks. You can also configure automation settings and specify the solo
behavior.
To show/hide the Mix module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Mix Module.
Figure 40.
The Mix module.
A
B
C
D
G H
I
J
E
F
A. Mute B. Solo C. Arm D. Input Echo E. Live Input PDC Override F. Bypass All Effects G. Exclusive Solo
H. Dim Solo I. Automation Read (playback) J. Automation Write (recording)
192
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
The Mix module contains the following controls:
• Mute / Unmute All Tracks
track is muted.
. Click to mute/unmute all tracks. The button is lit if at least one
• Solo / Unsolo All Tracks
track is soloed.
. Click to solo/unsolo all tracks. The button is lit if at least one
• Dim Solo enable/disable . Enable/disable Dim Solo mode. Dim Solo is a mode in which
non-soloed audio tracks/buses are still audible but at a reduced level. For details, see “Dim
Solo mode” on page 196.
• Exclusive Solo enable/disable . Enable/disable Exclusive Solo mode. With Exclusive
Solo mode, you can only solo one track and one bus at a time. For details, see “Exclusive Solo
mode” on page 197.
• Arm / Disarm All Tracks
is armed.
.
Click to arm/disarm all tracks. The button is lit if at least one track
• Input Monitor On/Off All Tracks
• Bypass all Effects
on page 839.
. Enable/disable Input Monitoring on all tracks.
. Bypass all effects globally. For details, see “Bypassing effects globally”
• Live Input PDC Override
. Enable/disable delay compensation on live tracks, thereby
removing the latency during playback and recording of such tracks. Because it's a toggle, you can
quickly turn it on to complete your tracking at low latency, and turn it off when finished to hear the
track compensated as normal. For details, see “Live Input PDC override” on page 279.
• Allow Automation Recording
.
Globally enable/disable the ability to record automation.
• Global Automation Playback
. Globally enable/disable all automation playback.
See:
“Silencing tracks” on page 194
“Soloing tracks” on page 195
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
193
Silencing tracks
When a track is muted, SONAR processes the track while playback is in progress so that you can
unmute the track without stopping playback. If you have lots of muted tracks, this can place a heavy
load on your computer. Archived tracks, on the other hand, don’t place any load on your computer.
Therefore, if there are tracks you want to keep but don’t need to play, you should archive them
instead.
When you mute or unmute a track while playback is in progress, there may be a slight delay before
you hear the effect of the change. This is to be expected and does not indicate a hardware or
software problem.
To mute or unmute individual tracks
• To mute or unmute a track, click its Mute button
in the Track, Console view or Track Inspector.
• To mute or unmute several tracks at once, select the tracks and do one of the following:
• Right-click a track strip and choose MSR > Mute on the pop-up menu.
•
To mute all selected tracks of the same track type, hold down the CTRL key and click any
selected track’s Mute button
.
• To mute all tracks, hold down the CTRL key and click any non-selected track’s Mute button
To unmute all tracks
Click the Mute / Unmute All Tracks button
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
To mute all tracks
Do one of the following:
• Click the Mute / Unmute All Tracks button
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
• Hold down the CTRL key and click any track’s Mute button
.
To archive or unarchive tracks
1. Select one or more tracks in the Track view.
2. Do one of the following:
• Click the track’s Archive button
.
• Right-click a track strip and choose MSR > Archive on the pop-up menu.
Note: A track can not be archived during playback.
194
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
.
Soloing tracks
Sometimes you want to hear a single track, or a few tracks at once, without having to mute all the
other tracks. You can do this by soloing the tracks you want to hear.
As soon as any track is marked as a solo track, SONAR ignores all mute settings (unless a soloed
track is also muted—mute takes precedence over solo) and plays only the track or tracks that are
set to solo. Any number of tracks at one time can be marked as solo. All these tracks will play
together. As soon as the solo status of the final solo track is turned off, SONAR once again plays
back tracks based on their mute settings.
To solo or unsolo individual tracks
• To solo or unsolo a track, click its Solo button
in the Track, Console view or Track Inspector.
• To solo or unsolo several tracks at once, select the tracks and do one of the following:
• Right-click a track strip and choose MSR > Solo on the pop-up menu.
•
To solo all selected tracks of the same track type, hold down the CTRL key and click any
selected track’s Solo button
.
• To solo all tracks, hold down the CTRL key and click any non-selected track’s Solo button
.
See also:
“Dim Solo mode” on page 196
To unsolo all tracks
Click the Solo / Unsolo All Tracks button
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
To solo all tracks
Do one of the following:
• Click the Solo / Unsolo All Tracks button
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
• Hold down the CTRL key and click any track’s Solo button
.
See also:
“Dim Solo mode” on page 196
“Exclusive Solo mode” on page 197
“Solo Override” on page 198
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
195
Dim Solo mode
Normally when you solo a track/bus in SONAR, the tracks or buses which are not soloed are
essentially muted. Dim Solo is a mode in which non-soloed audio tracks/buses are still audible but at
a reduced level. The default gain reduction is -6dB, but can also be configured for -12dB and -18dB.
Dim Solo is useful when you want to focus on a specific track but you still want to edit/mix the track
in context with the entire mix. This allows you to hear all tracks while the soloed track stands out
from non-soloed tracks.
Note: Dim Solo mode only applies to audio tracks and buses, not MIDI tracks.
To enable/disable Dim Solo
Click the Dim Solo button
Figure 41.
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
The Mix module.
When Dim Solo is enabled, non-soloed audio tracks will play at a reduced gain rather than 0 gain
(mute).
The Dim Solo enable/disable state is saved with each project.
To configure Dim Solo level
When Dim Solo mode is enabled, the amount of gain reduction applied to non-soloed tracks or
buses is specified in the Preferences dialog.
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Audio - Driver Settings.
2. Set the Dim Solo Gain setting to either -6dB, -12dB or -18dB and click OK.
The Dim Solo dB setting is saved with each project.
See:
“Soloing tracks” on page 195
“Exclusive Solo mode” on page 197
“Solo Override” on page 198
“The Mix module” on page 192
“Audio - Playback and Recording” on page 1559
“Key bindings” on page 994
196
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
Exclusive Solo mode
By default, SONAR allows you to solo multiple tracks and buses simultaneously. With Exclusive
Solo mode, you can only solo one track and one bus at a time.
When you solo a track or bus in Exclusive Solo mode, all other soloed tracks or buses are
automatically unsoloed. This allows you to quickly listen to individual tracks and buses in isolation
without having to manually unsolo other tracks or buses.
To enable/disable Exclusive Solo mode
Click the Exclusive Solo button
Figure 42.
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
The Mix module.
Note: When you enable Exclusive Solo mode, currently soloed tracks and buses are not
affected until the next time you solo a track or bus.
There are several situations where soloing one track actually solos more than one track, even when
Exclusive solo mode is enabled:
• If you solo a track folder, all tracks within the folder are soloed.
• If you solo a track that is assigned to a soft synth, all other tracks that are assigned to the same
soft synth are also soloed.
• If you solo a track or bus that belongs to a Quick Group, all other tracks or buses are also soloed.
See:
“Soloing tracks” on page 195
“Dim Solo mode” on page 196
“Solo Override” on page 198
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
197
Solo Override
When you enable Solo Override on a track or bus, that track/bus will never be muted as a result of
soloing any other track/bus.
This is a very useful feature when you want to always hear a particular track regardless of which
other tracks are soloed. For example, you may want to always hear the vocal track while you solo
other instrument tracks. This can be accomplished easily by using Exclusive Solo mode (see
“Exclusive Solo mode” on page 197) and enabling Solo Override on the vocal track.
To enable/disable Solo Override
• Hold down the SHIFT key and click a track’s or bus’ Solo button
.
The Solo button is displayed as
to indicate that Solo Override is enabled. Solo Override
prevents the track or bus from being muted when other tracks or buses are soloed.
Note: Mute always takes precedence over Solo. A track or bus can still be muted even if Solo
Override is enabled.
See:
“Soloing tracks” on page 195
“Dim Solo mode” on page 196
“Exclusive Solo mode” on page 197
Inverting the phase of a track
A waveform’s exact opposite is called an inversion. It is a shift of 180 degrees. A waveform and its
inversion cancel each other out completely, so it is usually not desirable to have two track recordings
of the same source if one is phase inverted. It can lead to reduced volume, lowered or distorted
response in certain frequencies, or even silence in the case of two tracks which are exactly identical
(i.e. cloned tracks).
Occasionally, for example when recording a source using two microphones, one of the microphones
may be recording an inversion of the other, the resulting tracks may, to some degree, be cancelling
each other out. SONAR allows you to invert the phase of a track to match another.
To invert the phase of a track
1. Open the Track Inspector or Console view.
2. In the track you want to invert the phase, click the Phase inversion button
198
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
.
Changing tracks’ mono/stereo status
SONAR has a Mono/Stereo button
in each track module in the Track Inspector and Console
views. The buttons in the track modules force each track to play in either stereo or mono, but
preserve the tracks’ pan positions in the stereo mix.
The Mono/Stereo button
in each track forces the track’s audio signal to enter any patched plugins as either mono or stereo, whether or not the tracks are mono or stereo. This allows you to use
either mono effects on a stereo track or stereo effects on a mono track.
Note: You may lose important stereo data by using mono effects with stereo tracks because
your stereo tracks are summed to mono in order to pass through the effect. If you never want
your stereo data to be summed to mono, select stereo.
To use a track’s Stereo/Mono button
1. Open the Track Inspector or Console view.
2. In the track you want to force to either mono or stereo for processing effects, click the Stereo/
Mono button
to the desired position:
• When the button is lit, the track streams in stereo.
• When the button is unlit, the track streams in mono.
Mono audio clips may be increased by 3 dB in certain scenarios
There are some situations where the level of a mono clip will be increased by 3 dB if the track's
output interleave (mono/stereo toggle) is set to mono:
• If the track has mixed stereo and mono clips
• The track has a synth selected as its input source
• Input Echo is enabled or the track is armed for recording
In summary, whenever the track output interleave is mono and the data interleave is stereo, mono
data will be increased in level by 3 dB.
Using mono VST plug-ins on stereo tracks may cause out of sync audio
When using a mono VST plug-in on a stereo track (interleave set to Stereo), the left and right
channels will be out of sync. The left channel is processed by the mono effect, and delay
compensation is applied, while the right channel is not processed and does not have delay
compensation applied. The signal will look something like this:
• Left channel: Wet signal (delayed)
• Right channel: Dry signal (no delay)
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
199
A mono VST plug-in will work correctly if Enable Mono Processing is checked in the VST Plug-in
Properties dialog and the track interleave is set to mono.
Note: Enable Mono Processing is enabled by default in SONAR. If you are playing back a
legacy project in SONAR and notice the project does not sound the same, try to disable Enable
Mono Processing for any mono plug-ins used in the project.
See:
“Changing track settings” on page 200
Changing track settings
Each track in a project contains MIDI or audio information and has a variety of settings (also called
parameters) that determine how the track sounds. By changing these parameters, you can change
the sound of your project. For audio tracks, you control parameters such as volume, stereo panning,
and the output device that is used to produce the sound. For MIDI tracks, you control many
additional parameters, including the type of instrument sound that is used to play the notes stored in
the track. Both kinds of tracks contain an Automation Read button
button
and an Automation Write
, which enable or disable automation playback and recording, respectively.
Note 1: You can control all sliders and knobs in the Console and Track views by clicking a
control, then hover over it with the mouse and manipulate the mouse wheel. If you move the
mouse cursor away from the slider or knob while using the mouse wheel, you will lose control
of the slider or knob you are adjusting.
Note 2: You can show and hide controls in track and bus strips in the Track view, and even
create presets for your favorite control layouts. For details, see “Configuring Track view controls”
on page 319 for more information.
200
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Audio track parameters
The following figures show the various parameters in audio track strips. The figures are of an audio
track that is located in the Track view, however most of these parameters can also be adjusted in the
Console view and Track Inspector. Some parameters are only available in the Console view or
Track Inspector.
Figure 43.
Audio track
Figure 44.
Audio track header controls
A
B
C
D
E F G
A. Track number B. Header icon C. Track name D. Peak value E. Show layers button F. Maximize/restore
G. Meter
Note: MSR buttons may appear in the header bar if the Track pane is wide.
Figure 45.
Audio track controls
A
B
C
D E F G H I J K
L
M N
O
V
P
Q
R
S
T
U
A. Track number B. Track name C. Edit Filter D. Mute E. Automation Read F. Solo G. Automation Write
H. Arm for recording I. Freeze J. Input echo K. Archive L. Peak level M. Show layers N. Expand/collapse
O. Track icon P. WAI display Q. Volume slider R. Input S. Output T. Pan slider U. Effects bin V. Meter
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
201
Figure 46.
A
Audio track effects bin, meter, and track scale
C
B
D
E
A. Scroll up B. Scroll down C. Insert plug-in D. Enable/disable plug-in E. Plug-in name
Here is a summary table of the different audio track parameters and how they are used.
Parameter
What it means
Number
A sequential track number used for reference
Name
A name that you assign the track for easy reference. Note that if you do not
assign a name to a track, the default name is the track number. This track
number will change if you change the order of your tracks.
Mute
When enabled, mutes the track
Solo
When enabled, solos the track
Arm
When enabled, arms the track for audio recording.
Input Echo
Turns input monitoring on or off.
Automation Read and Write Enable/disable automation playback and recording, respectively
buttons
Peak value
Displays the Peak value, which is the amplitude of the latest audio peak in the
track.
Show Layers button
Hides or shows track layers.
Expand/collapse
Expands the track to show more controls, or collapses the track to only show
the header bar.
Edit Filter
Specify which data type the global tools should operate on.
Vol (volume)
The current volume level for the track, ranging from -INF (silent) to +6 dB
(maximum volume).
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output, ranging from 100% left (hard left) to 100%
right (hard right); a value of “C” indicates sound that is centered left-to-right. On
stereo tracks, pan acts as balance.
Table 22.
202
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Parameter
What it means
Trim (volume trim) (Track
Inspector and Console view
only)
Volume Trim is a pre-fader control which allows the fine tuning of a single
track’s volume.
For example, let’s say you have four tracks, three tracks have their volume
fader set to 0 dB while the fourth track’s fader is set to +10 dB. You want to
group the faders and do a slow fade out, but the slightly higher level of the
fourth track causes its volume to be higher in relation to the other tracks
towards the end of the fade out. To balance the fader levels, reduce the fader
level for the fourth track to 0 dB and raise the Volume Trim value for that track to
+10 dB. The resulting volume levels for the project are the same, but now you
can group the faders and perform a fade out with no track standing out
disproportionately at the end of the fade out.
Input
The input source for the track, used in recording
Output
The output bus through which the track is played
Send Enable (Track
Inspector and Console view
only)
Activates a send module, which sends a copy of the track signal to a bus.
Send Level (Track Inspector
and Console view only)
Controls volume of audio data sent by this send module.
Send Pan (Track Inspector
and Console view only)
Adjusts the send pan setting.
Send Pre/Post switch (Track
Inspector and Console view
only)
Pre (pre-fader) means that the Send signal goes to the bus prior to the track’s
volume fader; post means the Send signal goes to the bus after the volume
fader.
Send destination (Track
Inspector and Console view
only)
Displays name of bus that the Send is sending data to.
Mono/Stereo (Track
Inspector and Console view
only)
A switch that determines whether a track’s signal enters an effect or chain of
effects as mono or stereo, regardless of the nature of the track.
Phase In/Out (Track
Inspector and Console view
only)
A switch that inverts the phase of the track.
Effects bin
The patch point for a track’s plug-ins or soft synths.
Meters
The recording and playback levels are displayed in the Playback and Record
meters.
WAI display
Shows a color-coded bar if the track is being controlled by a control surface.
Table 22.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
203
For more information about audio track controls in the Track Inspector, see “Audio track controls” on
page 515.
For more information about audio track controls in the Console view, see “Audio track controls” on
page 1739.
MIDI track parameters
The following pictures illustrate MIDI track parameters:
Figure 47.
A
MIDI track header controls
B
C
D E F
A. Track number B. Header icon C. Track name D. Show layers button E. Maximize/restore F. Meter
Note: MSR buttons may appear in the header bar if the Track pane is wide.
Figure 48.
MIDI track controls
B
A
C
D E F G H
I J
K L
M
X
N
O P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
A. Track number B. Track name C. Edit Filter D. Mute E. Automation Read F. Solo G. Automation Write
H. Arm for recording I. Input echo J. Archive K. Show layers L. Expand/collapse M. Track icon N. WAI
display O. Volume slider P. Velocity+ Q. Input R. Channel S. Patch T. Output U. Bank V. Pan slider
W. Effects bin X. Meter
204
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Figure 49.
MIDI track effects bin and track scale
A
B
A. Track scale B. MIDI effects bin
Here is a summary table of the different MIDI track parameters and how they are used:
Parameter
What it means
Track number
A sequential track number used for reference
Track name
A name that you assign the track for easy reference. Note that if you do not
assign a name to a track, the default name is the track number. This track
number will change if you change the order of your tracks.
Mute
When enabled, mutes the track
Solo
When enabled, solos the track
Arm
When enabled, arms the track for MIDI recording.
Input Echo
Controls whether the track will echo MIDI data or not.
Automation Read and Write
buttons
Enable/disable automation playback and recording, respectively
Show Layers button
Hides or shows track layers.
Expand/collapse
Expands the track to show more controls, or collapses the track to only show
the header bar.
Edit Filter
Specify which data type the global tools should operate on.
Vol (volume)
The current volume level for the track, ranging from 0 (silent) to 127
(maximum volume).
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output, ranging from 100% left (hard left) to
100% right (hard right); a value of “C” indicates sound that is centered left-toright.
Velocity trim (Track Inspector
and Console view only)
The change in velocity (volume) that will be applied to notes in this track on
playback; ranges from –127 to +127
Table 23.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
205
Parameter
What it means
Input
The input source for the track, used in recording
Output
The output device through which the track is played
Ch (channel) (Track Inspector
and Console view only)
The MIDI channel through which the notes will be played
Bank (Track Inspector and
Console view only)
The set of patch names available for the track
Patch (Track Inspector and
Console view only)
The instrument sound that will be used for playback.
Time+ (Track Inspector only)
An offset applied to the start time of the events in the track
Key+ (Track Inspector only)
The number of steps by which the notes in the track are transposed on
playback (e.g., 12 to transpose up one octave)
Chorus (Track Inspector only)
Adds MIDI chorus effect to the track
Reverb (Track Inspector only)
Adds MIDI reverb effect to the track
Snap to Scale scale type
(Track Inspector only)
Displays current scale for Snap to Scale feature
Snap to Scale root note (Track
Inspector only)
Displays root note of current Snap to Scale scale
Snap to Scale on/off (Track
Inspector only)
Turns Snap to Scale feature on or off
WAI display
Shows a color-coded bar if the track is being controlled by a control surface.
Table 23.
For more information about MIDI track controls in the Track Inspector, see “MIDI track and
Instrument track controls” on page 517.
For more information about MIDI track controls in the Console view, see “MIDI track controls” on
page 1740.
206
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
To change a track name
1. Double-click on the current track name.
2. Enter the new track name.
3. Press ENTER.
The default track names (Track 1, Track 2, etc.) are not actually names, but placeholders until you
name a track. If you reorder the tracks these placeholders change.
You can rearrange and resize the panes in the Track view as shown in the following table:
To do this
Do this
Change the width of the Track pane and Bus pane Drag the divider that separates the Track pane from the
Clips panes to the left or right
Change the height of the Mains/Buses pane
Drag the divider that separates the Track and Clip panes
from the Bus pane up or down
Table 24.
You can customize which tracks are displayed or not displayed, and enlarge or maximize individual
tracks while other tracks remain minimized. You can also manually set the exact size of a track’s
display. The following table shows how to customize the appearance of tracks in the Track pane:
To do this
Do this
Hide or show a track
Open the Track Manager dialog (press H), and check or
uncheck a track’s check box in the dialog.
Expand/collapse a track
Click the Expand/collapse button in the track
Change the height of a track using splitter bars
Move the cursor over the gap below a track until the
cursor looks like this
the size you want.
Lock or unlock the height of a track
. Click and drag until the track is
Right-click an empty area in the track’s controls and
choose Lock Height from the menu.
Table 25.
You can display subsets of the Track pane’s controls (the titlebar controls are always displayed) by
selecting a Control preset from the Track Control drop-down list above the track strips. To choose
which controls are displayed in track strips, see “Configuring the display of tracks in the Track view”
on page 315.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
207
Changing track settings in the Track pane
You can change the values in the Track pane in a number of ways:
Control
How to change the setting
Volume and Pan
Click on the control and move your cursor left or right to adjust values,
or press ENTER and type a value.
Input and Output
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control and select a driver
from the menu that appears, or double-click on the control and select a
driver from the menu.
Buttons
Click to enable or disable
Table 26.
You can also edit Track properties in the Track Inspector. To show or hide the Inspector, select
Views > Inspector or press the I key.
Figure 50.
208
The Track Inspector
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
You can change the value of a track parameter for several tracks at once by using Quick Groups:
• To adjust the same control in all tracks, hold down the CTRL key and adjust a control in a nonselected track.
• To adjust the same control in all selected tracks of the same type, hold down the CTRL key and
adjust a control in any selected channel strip.
For example, to assign a group of tracks to the same output, select the tracks you want to assign,
then hold down the CTRL key and assign the Output control in any selected track. All selected tracks
will be assigned to the same output.
All track parameters are saved with a SONAR project. However, if you export a project to a standard
MIDI File, several of the parameters (Key+, Vel+, Time+, and Chan) are applied to the MIDI data as
the file is being exported. Other parameters, including Input, Output, Mute, Solo, and Archive, are
lost when you export the project to a MIDI file.
The following sections contain more information about many of the parameters in the Track view. For
more information about the track inputs and the track Arm button, see “Preparing to record” on page
255.
Setting up output devices
The output setting for a track determines which piece of hardware or software synthesizer will be
used to produce the sound stored in your project. In a very simple equipment setup, you might have
only a computer equipped with a basic sound card. In this case, you want to play all MIDI and audio
output through the sound card on your computer.
If your equipment setup also includes a MIDI keyboard attached to the MIDI port on your sound card,
you can choose to route MIDI data directly to the sound card or through the sound card MIDI port to
the keyboard. If you choose the former, the music will play from your computer speakers. If you
choose the latter, the sound will play from the speaker attached to your keyboard. You can even
choose to send some MIDI information to each of these devices so that they both play at once.
You can purchase MIDI interfaces that plug into your parallel, serial, or USB port to add MIDI ports
to your computer. For more information about complex system configurations, see the online Help
topic “Hardware setup” on page 1199.
If your computer has several MIDI outs, select Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices and put them
in the desired order. The order in which your MIDI devices appear in the Output menus in the Track
and Console views is based solely on the order in which the selected outs appear in Edit >
Preferences > MIDI - Devices. As a result, the order in which your devices appear in a track’s
output control may not match the port numbers that appear on your external multiport MIDI device.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
209
Figure 51.
The MIDI - Devices section
A
A
A. These devices are not selected
When you first run SONAR it asks you to select MIDI devices. You may want to change these
selections in the future. You can do so by selecting different devices in Edit > Preferences > MIDI Devices.
Your computer is usually equipped with at least one audio device—your computer sound card. Your
setup may have several different audio output devices, or you may have a multichannel sound card
that presents itself to your computer as though it were several different devices, one for each stereo
pair. In SONAR, audio tracks are assigned to main outs or buses. Each main out represents a
hardware device. You use the Output control to assign a track in a project to the main or bus you
want to use.
210
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
While you need to choose the MIDI output devices you want to use before you assign them to
tracks, all of your audio devices can be assigned to tracks freely. You do not need to configure them
the way you do MIDI devices. If you have a voice modem or speakerphone in your computer,
however, you might want to set up SONAR so that it won’t use those devices. Also, note that some
dedicated audio equipment has specific setup requirements. For more information, see “Improving
audio performance” on page 1105.
To choose MIDI devices
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices.
2. Click on any MIDI device in the Outputs list.
3. To move any device to the top of the list, deselect all other devices and click Move to Top to
move the selected device to the top of the list.
4. When all devices are selected in the order you want, click OK.
See:
“MIDI - Devices” on page 1569
Creating friendly names for MIDI output and input devices
You may find that a name you make up yourself for a MIDI device is easier to remember or more
descriptive than a device’s original name. The friendly name for a MIDI device is the name you will
see places such as MIDI track Input and Output menus, and the Controllers/Surfaces dialog, if
you enable the Use Friendly Names To Represent MIDI Devices check box at the bottom of the
MIDI Devices dialog.
To make up a friendly name:
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices.
2. Double-click the name of a device in the Friendly Name column, type a new name, and press
ENTER.
3. Select the Use Friendly Names To Represent MIDI Devices check box.
4. Click OK.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
211
Assigning Inputs & Outputs
You assign each track to a MIDI or an audio output using the Output drop-down in the Track view.
From then on, material on that track will be sent to the appropriate output device.
Note: If you rearrange your MIDI output devices after making output assignments, you may find
MIDI information being sent to different instruments than you expect. Also, SONAR allows you
to define instruments that are associated with certain outputs and channels. If you use this
feature, the name of the output will change to reflect the instrument you have chosen.
To assign a track to an output
1. Click the Output drop-down of the track you want to assign.
2. Select the output you want to use.
To assign a group of tracks to the same output, select the tracks you want to assign, then hold down
the CTRL key and assign the Output control in any selected track. All selected tracks will be
assigned to the same output.
Note: Outputs that are used by the External Insert plug-in (see “External Insert plug-in (Producer
and Studio only)” on page 846) cannot be assigned to track and bus outputs. The only
exceptions are master buses that have other instances of the External Insert plug-in routed to
them.
Notification when track/bus outputs are assigned to silent output
When you load a project, SONAR checks to see if the exact same output ports are assigned as
when the project was saved. SONAR’s port assignments can change if you load the project on a
different hardware configuration or change driver models. If there is any discrepancy between the
port assignments that were saved and the ports that are used in the current configuration, the ports
are set to “None” and the Silent Buses Detected dialog displays all track and bus outputs from the
current project that have been assigned to a silent output.
The Silent Buses Detected dialog also appears if any track or bus output is assigned to None as a
result of changing the audio configuration. For more information, see “Silent Buses Detected dialog”
on page 1676.
212
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
To assign the same audio input port to multiple tracks
1. In the Track view, select the tracks whose audio input port you wish to assign.
2. Click the small drop-down arrow in any selected track’s Input control
.
The Input Port menu appears.
3. Choose Selected Track Inputs from the context menu.
The Track Inputs dialog opens with the selected tracks initially highlighted. You can modify the
track selection from within the Track Inputs dialog. For more information, see “Track Inputs
dialog” on page 1664.
4. Select the desired audio input port and click OK.
The audio input port is assigned to all selected audio tracks.
To assign different audio input ports to multiple tracks
1. In the Track view, select the tracks whose audio input port you wish to assign.
2. Click the small drop-down arrow in the first selected track’s Input control
.
The Input Port menu appears.
3. Choose Selected Track Input Series from the context menu.
The Assign Series of Inputs dialog opens, which lets you choose the first input port in the
series.
Figure 52.
The Assign Series of Inputs dialog
4. Select the audio input port that should be assigned to the first selected track and click OK.
SONAR will assign consecutive mono input ports to the selected audio tracks, beginning with the
track that was clicked in step 2. If a left or right input is selected, then mono inputs will be
assigned. If a stereo input is selected, then stereo inputs will be assigned.
To assign the same audio output port to multiple tracks
1. In the Track view, select the tracks whose audio output port you wish to assign.
2. Click the small drop-down arrow in any selected track’s Output control
.
The Output Port menu appears.
3. Choose Selected Track Outputs from the context menu.
The Track Outputs dialog opens.
4. Select the desired audio output port and click OK.
The audio output port is assigned to all selected audio tracks.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
213
To assign the same audio output port to all stereo buses
1. In the Track view, click the small drop-down arrow in any stereo bus’ Output control
.
The Output Port menu appears.
Note: Surround buses are ignored.
2. Choose Set All Bus Outputs from the context menu.
The Output port submenu appears.
3. Select the desired audio output port.
The audio output port is assigned to all stereo buses
Note: Only hardware main outputs may be assigned, not other buses.
Assigning tracks to mono hardware outputs
SONAR lets you assign audio track and bus outputs to individual (mono) hardware outputs in
addition to stereo pairs.
This is very useful, for example, if you record in SONAR but want to use an external mixing console
to mix.
To show mono hardware outputs
SONAR does not show mono hardware outputs by default. To show mono outputs, do the following:
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Audio - Devices.
2. Select the Show Mono Outputs check box and click OK.
Mono hardware outputs are now available in all locations that display audio output ports, with the
exception of the Media Browser view, Loop Construction view and Import Audio dialog. Each
available audio port exposes Left, Right and Stereo channels.
Note: The Show Mono Outputs option only affects the display of mono hardware outputs in
SONAR; it does not affect current output port assignments on tracks and buses. Existing mono
output assignments are retained even if you disable the Show Mono Outputs option.
Assigning stereo tracks to mono outputs
When a stereo track is assigned to a mono hardware output, the left and right channels are
downmixed to mono. All track/bus gain and pan settings are applied prior to mono conversion.
Backward compatibility
Loading a SONAR X1 project with mono output assignments in an earlier version SONAR will cause
the mono assignments to be lost.
214
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Choosing the instrument sound (bank and patch)
Electronic keyboards and synthesizers often contain hundreds or thousands of different sounds.
Each sound is known as a patch. The name comes from the early days of synthesizers, for which
you physically rewired (using patch cords) the oscillators and modulators to produce different
sounds. Patches are normally organized into groups of 128, called banks. Most instruments have
between 1 and 8 banks, but MIDI supports up to 16,384 banks of 128 patches each (that’s over 2
million patches).
The Bank and Patch controls in the Console view and Track Inspector control the initial bank and
patch of a track during playback. Every time SONAR starts playback at the beginning of a project,
the bank and patch settings for the track are set to these initial values.
Many instruments have descriptive names for their banks and patches. SONAR stores these names
in an instrument definition. If you are using an instrument that supports General MIDI, your patch list
will contain the 128 sounds that are defined by the General MIDI specification.
Note: Different MIDI instruments use different types of commands to change banks. SONAR
supports four common methods for changing banks. For information about the bank selection
method you should use with your MIDI gear, see your MIDI equipment’s documentation.
Tip: If your bank name is too long to fit in the Bank field, hold your cursor over the bank name. A
tooltip appears with the complete bank name.
Note that a single MIDI channel can only play one patch at a time on each instrument assigned to
that channel. Therefore, if two or more MIDI tracks are set to the same output and channel but have
different bank and patch settings, the patch of the highest-numbered track will be used for all the
tracks.
In some projects you want the sound played by a track to change while playback is in progress. You
can accomplish this using the Insert > Bank/Patch Change command. When you start playback in
the middle of a project, SONAR searches back through the track to find the correct patch to use—
either the initial bank and patch or the most recent bank/patch change. Note that the Console view
and Track Inspector only show the initial bank and patch, even while a different bank and patch are
being played back. The only way to see and edit a bank/patch change is in the Event List view. For
more information, see “The Event List view” on page 718.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
215
To assign an initial bank and patch to a track
1. Open the Track Inspector or Console view and select the MIDI track you want to configure.
2. Select the desired settings in the Bank and Patch controls.
3. To search for a patch containing specific text, click the Patch Browser button in the Track
Inspector. You can also open the Patch Browser by right-clicking a bank or patch control in the
Track Inspector or Console views.
To insert a bank/patch change
1. Highlight the track whose bank and patch you want to change by clicking on the track number.
2. Set the Now time to the time at which you want the change to occur.
3. Choose Insert > Bank/Patch Change to display the Bank/Patch Change dialog box.
4. Choose a bank and patch from the lists.
5. Click OK.
SONAR inserts a change in bank and patch. When you play back the project, the initial bank and
patch shown in the Track view will be used to the point at which the bank/patch change takes place.
You can remove a bank/patch change in the Event List view.
To choose patches with the Patch browser
1. Do one of the following:
• In the Track Inspector or Console view, right-click the patch name in the track module you want
to change patches in.
• In the Track Inspector, click the Patch Browser button in the track you want to change patches
in.
The Patch browser dialog box appears, displaying a list of all the Instrument patch names that
have been installed.
2. Search for a patch name, if desired, by filling in text in the Search field at the top of the dialog
box.
3. When you find the right patch, click its name and click OK.
SONAR changes the patch of the track you selected.
See:
“Patch Browser dialog” on page 1547
216
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Adding effects
You can add both MIDI and audio effects directly from the Track view. SONAR adds these effects in
real-time, preserving your track’s original data.
To add an audio effect in the Track pane
Do one of the following:
• In an audio track, right-click in the effects bin and choose a plug-in from the pop-up menu.
• Click the Insert Plug-in button at the top of the effects bin and choose a plug-in from the pop-up
menu.
Figure 53.
A
Use the effects bin to add real-time effects
C
B
D
E
A. Scroll up B. Scroll down C. Insert plug-in D. Enable/disable plug-in E. Plug-in name
You can also drag plug-ins from the Browser to an effects bin. For details, see “Adding effects and
instruments to a project” on page 553.
See:
“Audio effects (audio plug-ins)” on page 772
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
217
Adjusting volume and pan
The Volume and Pan settings control the initial volume and pan of a track during playback. Every
time SONAR starts playback, the Volume and Pan settings for the track are set to these initial levels.
SONAR allows you to choose different panning laws if you want (see “Configuring panning laws” on
page 219).
In some projects you want the volume or panning of a track to change while playback is in progress.
You can accomplish this by drawing a volume or pan envelope in the Track view, or by recording
automation. For more information, see “Automation” on page 945.
Note: For MIDI tracks, SONAR processes the volume and pan settings by transmitting MIDI
volume and pan events (controllers 7 and 10, respectively) when playback starts. If two or more
MIDI tracks are set to the same output and channel but have different volume or pan settings,
the settings for the highest-numbered track will prevail.
Note also that not all keyboards and synthesizers respond to these events. Check your instrument’s
manual for more information.
To set the initial volume setting
1. Move your cursor to the Volume control of the track you want to change.
2. Click and drag to the left to lower the volume or the right to raise the volume.
You can also change the volume settings in a variety of other ways, as described under “Changing
track settings in the Track pane” on page 208.
To set the initial Pan setting
1. Move your cursor to the Pan control of the track you want to change.
2. Click and drag to the left to adjust the pan to the left or to the right to adjust the pan to the right.
Hard left is 100% left. Hard right is 100% right. Pan is centered at C.
You can also change the pan and volume settings in a variety of other ways, as described under
“Changing track settings in the Track pane” on page 208.
See also:
“Configuring panning laws” on page 219
218
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Configuring panning laws
You can choose from six different panning laws. A panning law is the mathematical formula that a
sequencer or mixer uses to control panning.
To change panning laws
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Audio - Driver Settings.
2. In the Stereo Panning Law field, choose one of these options:
• (Default) 0 dB center, sin/cos taper, constant power. This choice causes a 3 dB boost in a
signal that’s panned hard left or right, and no dip in output level in either channel when the
signal is center panned.
• -3dB center, sin/cos taper, constant power. This choice causes no boost in a signal that’s
panned hard left or right, and 3dB dip in output level in either channel when the signal is center
panned.
• 0dB center, square-root taper, constant power. This choice causes a 3 dB boost in a
signal that’s panned hard left or right, and no dip in output level in either channel when the
signal is center panned.
• -3dB center, square root taper, constant power. This choice causes no boost in a signal
that’s panned hard left or right, and 3dB dip in output level in either channel when the signal is
center panned.
• -6dB center, linear taper. This choice causes no boost in a signal that’s panned hard left or
right, and 6dB dip in output level in either channel when the signal is center panned.
• 0 dB center, balance control. This choice causes no boost in a signal that’s panned hard
left or right, and no dip in output level in either channel when the signal is center panned.
3. Click OK.
Pan Law compatibility mode
When using a non-default pan law with floating point or 24-bit audio, SONAR would previously apply
the pan law twice; once at the clip level and once more at the track level.
In SONAR 8.5.2 and later, pan laws are only applied once at the track level and only for mono
tracks. Any clip pan envelopes will continue to work, but behave strictly as a balance control.
If you have existing projects that use a non-default pan law (i.e. other than 0dB center sin/cos
taper), the mix might sound louder in SONAR X1. To address backwards compatibility with projects
that were mixed in previous versions of SONAR, the following Aud.ini variable is available to set the
pan law compatibility mode:
PanLawCompatMode=<0 or 1> (default=0)
This variable should be set in the [Wave] section. For example:
[Wave]
PanLawCompatMode=1
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
219
When the value is 0 (default), non-default pan laws are not applied at the clip level. Clip pan
envelopes always use the 0dB center sin/cos taper law.
When the value is 1, pan laws are applied at the clip level. It is not recommended that you use this
value unless you need to retain backwards compatibility with pre-SONAR X1 projects that use a
non-default pan law.
Adjusting volume trim
Volume Trim acts like the trim control on a mixer, raising or lower the level prior to the volume fader.
Volume trim is useful for calibrating your faders to match a dB reference level or for aligning your
faders for grouping. The Volume Trim control has a range of -18dB to +18dB. Raising or lowering
the Volume Trim raises or lowers the apparent volume of the track by that amount without affecting
the actual fader level.
To set the volume trim level
In the Track Inspector or Console view, adjust the Gain control at the top of the channel strip.
Assigning a MIDI channel (Chn)
MIDI transmits information on 16 channels, numbered 1 through 16. Every MIDI event is assigned to
a particular channel. Some MIDI equipment can accept MIDI information on only a single channel.
This channel may be preassigned, or you may be able to change it. Other MIDI equipment, including
many electronic keyboards and synthesizers, can accept information on several different MIDI
channels at once. Usually, these devices use a different instrument sound for each channel.
On playback, the channel number is used to direct the MIDI information to a particular piece of
equipment.
The Chn control in the Track Inspector and Console view redirects all events in the track to the
specified channel, ignoring the channel number stored with each event. If this parameter is left
blank, all events in the track are sent to their original channels.
This parameter does not affect the channel information that is stored with each MIDI event. When
the track is displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll or Event List view, you will see the original
channel that is stored in the file. You can edit the channel values in those views or use the
Process > Find/Change command.
To set the channel for a track
In the Track Inspector or Console view, click the Chn control and select a MIDI channel.
220
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Adjusting the Key/transposing a track (Key+)
Each MIDI note event has a key number, or pitch. On playback, the key offset (Key+) parameter
transposes all notes in the track by the designated number of half-steps. The value can range from
-127 to +127. A value of 12 indicates that notes will be played back one octave higher than they are
written.
This parameter does not affect the note number that is stored for each note event. When the clip is
displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll, Staff, or Event List view, you will see the original notes
as they are stored in the file. To permanently change the pitches, you can edit them individually or
use the Process > Transpose command.
If the key offset value transposes the key number (MIDI note) outside the allowable MIDI range (0–
127), the key number will be transposed to the lowest or highest octave within that range.
You can use the Key+ parameter to assist in preparing scores for instruments whose music is written
in something other than “concert” key (such as Bb trumpet). For more information, see “Music
notation for non-concert-key instruments” on page 1039.
When you edit the Key+ parameter, pressing [ or ] changes the value by 12 instead of by 10. This
makes it easy to transpose by octaves.
To set the key offset for a track
1. Select the track and open the Track Inspector.
2. In the Track Inspector, click the Key+ control.
3. Enter a value (1 = a semitone), or press the + or – key to change the key by a single semitone.
Use the [ or ] key to change the key by 12 semitones (one octave).
Figure 54.
The Track Inspector contains advanced MIDI controls.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
221
Adjusting the note velocity (Vel+)
Each MIDI note event has a velocity, which represents how fast the key was struck when the track
was recorded. On playback, the velocity offset parameter adjusts the velocity data for all notes in the
track by the designated amount. The value can range from -127 to +127. The effect of changing
velocities depends on the synthesizer. Some synthesizers do not respond to velocity information.
For others, the effect varies depending on the sound or patch you have chosen. Normally, higher
velocities result in louder and/or brighter-sounding notes.
This parameter does not affect the velocity that is stored for each note event. When the clip is
displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll view, Staff view, or Event List view, you will see the
original velocities as they are stored in the file. You can edit the velocity values in those views., or
use the Process > Scale Velocity or Process > Find/Change command.
Velocity is different from volume in that it is an attribute of each event, rather than a controller that
affects an entire MIDI channel. Here’s an example of where this distinction might be important.
Suppose you have several tracks containing different drum parts. All of these parts would probably
be assigned to MIDI channel 10 (that’s the default channel for percussion in General MIDI). If you
change the volume setting for any track that uses channel 10, all the different drum parts—
regardless of what track they’re in—would be affected. If you change the note velocity for one drum
track, it will be the only one whose volume is affected.
To set the velocity offset for a track
1. Open the Track Inspector or Console view.
2. Select the track you want to edit.
3. Adjust the Vel+ knob at the top of the channnel stip.
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Changing track settings
Adjusting the time alignment of a MIDI track (Time+)
Each event takes place at a known point in the project. On playback, the time offset (Time+)
parameter adjusts the times for MIDI events in the track by the designated amount. The value can
be as small as a single clock tick or as large as you want.
This parameter can be used to make a part play behind the beat or in front of it or to compensate for
tracks that sound rushed or late. The time shift can be used to create a chorus or slap-back echo
effect by making a copy of a track and then applying a small offset to the copy. You can use larger
time offsets to shift a track earlier or later by several beats or measures.
Note that you cannot shift any event earlier than 1:01:000. For example, if the first event in the track
starts at 2:01:000, you cannot shift its start time earlier by more than one measure.
This parameter does not affect the time that is stored for each note event. When the clip is displayed
in other views, like the Piano Roll, Staff, or Event List view, you will see the original times as they are
stored in the file.
To set the time offset for a track
1. Select the track and open the Track Inspector.
2. In the Track Inspector, click the Time+ control.
3. Enter a value, or press the + or – key until you reach the value you want.
Figure 55.
The Track Inspector contains advanced MIDI controls.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
223
Other MIDI playback settings
Two other MIDI settings can affect what happens when you play back your project, as described in
the following table:
Option
How it works
Zero Controllers When Play If this option is enabled, SONAR zeroes (resets) the pitch wheel, the pedal
Stops
Controller, and the modulation wheel Controller on all 16 MIDI channels
whenever playback is stopped. It also sends a “Zero All Continuous Controllers”
MIDI message, which turns off other continuous Controllers on newer
synthesizers. If you experience frequent stuck notes when playback stops, try
checking this option.
Patch/Controller
Searchback Before Play
Starts
If this option is enabled, SONAR searches for and sends the most recent patch
change, wheel, and pedal events on each output and MIDI channel before
starting playback. This ensures that all these settings are correct, even if you
start playback at an arbitrary point in your project.
Table 27.
To set these options, go to Edit > Preferences > Project - MIDI. If you have set up a playback loop,
enabling either of these options can cause an audible delay when the loop is restarted.
See:
“Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo” on page 224
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo
When you play your MIDI keyboard or controller, the sound that SONAR produces is determined by
what hardware or software synth SONAR sends the incoming MIDI data to after SONAR receives
the data. This is called MIDI echo. By default, SONAR sends the data to the MIDI output or software
synth listed in the Output field of the current track. The current track is the one whose titlebar has
the lighter color—press the up and down arrows on your computer keyboard and watch each track
turn lighter in succession as you change different tracks into the current track (you can also click any
of a track’s controls to make it current).
However, you can echo MIDI data to much more than just the current track, or turn echoing off on
the current track if you want. With a single keyboard or controller, you can echo MIDI data to as
many MIDI tracks as you want, meaning that you can simultaneously play as many hardware and
software synths as you can hook up to your MIDI interface or run on your computer. You can also
have multiple performers on different controllers sending MIDI data to either the same synth or
multiple synths. Each SONAR track allows you to select what MIDI input ports and channels the
track will respond to. The Output field of the track determines what instrument will sound when the
track receives the data. Each track’s Input Echo button determines whether the track echoes MIDI
data.
224
Controlling playback
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo
The Input Echo button
Each MIDI track has an Input Echo button, which controls whether the track will echo MIDI data or
not. The button has three states: On
, Auto
, and Off
. When the button is on, the track
echoes MIDI data. In Auto mode, the track echoes MIDI data because the track is the current track.
When the button is off, the track does not echo any data, even if it is the current track. The Off
position on a current MIDI track is only available if you disable the Always Echo Current MIDI
Track option in Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Playback and Recording. The Auto position becomes
unavailable with this setting.
There are several ways to turn Input Echoing on:
• Click a track’s Input Echo button so that it is on.
• Click a track to make the track the current track (if the Always Echo Current MIDI Track option
in Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Playback and Recording is enabled). In this situation (which is
the default), if the track’s Input Echo button is not on, the button appears as
this track echoes data because it is the current track.
to indicate that
• If the Always Echo Current MIDI Track option in Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Playback and
Recording is disabled, make a track the current track, and click the track’s Input Echo button
.
Storing favorite configurations
If you want a track to respond to more than one port or channel, you must create a preset input
configuration. If you create some favorite configurations of MIDI input options, not only will they be
stored with the project you created them in, but you can save each one as a preset to load in any
MIDI track in any project you want. Clicking the drop-down arrow in a track’s Input field displays the
Inputs drop-down menu, which has the Manage Presets choice that allows you to create and store
your favorite combinations of MIDI input choices.
To play one synth at a time from one or more MIDI keyboards
• Since this is SONAR’s default behavior, simply use the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW keys on
your computer keyboard to choose the current track (the current track is highlighted), and use the
Track Inspector or Console view to choose the synth you want to play by using the track’s
Output, Bank, Patch, and Channel fields. With the default behavior, all MIDI input from all ports
and channels is merged and sent through the current track. Notice that the track’s Input field says
Omni.
• If you’ve disabled the default behavior (see next procedure), you must make sure that the current
track’s Input Echo button is lit up (on) before you can play the synth that the track is patched to.
To disable the default MIDI echo detting
• If you want to turn off the automatic MIDI echoing of the current track, disable the Always Echo
Current MIDI Track in Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Playback and Recording. If you then turn
off the current track’s Input Echo button
sound.
and play your keyboard, SONAR will not produce
Controlling playback
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo
225
To play multiple synths from a MIDI keyboard
1. Choose a synth for each track that you want to play by using each track’s Output, Channel,
Bank, and Patch fields in the Track Inspector or Console view.
2. In the Input field of each track that you want to play, click the drop-down arrow and choose the
MIDI input port and channel that you want the track to respond to from the following options:
• None. This option actually sets the Input field to Omni. With this setting the track will
respond to any MIDI input coming in on any port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > MIDI Omni. Choosing this option causes the track to respond
to any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > MIDI ch 1-16. Choosing this option causes the track to
respond ONLY to whatever MIDI channel you choose coming from the named MIDI interface
input driver.
• Preset. If you’ve created any preset collections of input ports and channels, you can select
one here.
• Manage Presets. If you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see following procedure).
3. Make sure that the Input Echo button
on each track that you want to play is turned on.
To create or edit a preset input configuration
1. In the Input field of a track that you want to select inputs for, click the drop-down arrow and
choose Manage Presets from the drop-down menu.
The MIDI Input Presets dialog appears.
2. In the Input Port column, find the input port that you want to use for this track (if you only use a
single-port MIDI interface, you’ll only see one choice).
3. To the right of the input port, select the MIDI channels that you want this track to respond to on
this MIDI port.
4. Select channels for any other MIDI port that’s listed, if you want to use channels on that port
also.
5. If you want to save this configuration, type a name for it in the window at the top of the dialog,
and click the Disk icon to save it.
Now, when you choose inputs for other tracks, you can choose the preset you saved by clicking the
Presets option in the track’s Input drop-down menu. If you want to edit a preset, select it in the top
window of the MIDI Input Presets dialog, edit it, and click the Disk icon. If you want to delete a
preset, select it in the same dialog and click the X button to delete it.
To use multiple performers on multiple tracks
1. For performer number 1, click the Input drop-down menu(s) of the track(s) you want that
performer to play, and choose the port and MIDI channel that performer 1’s keyboard is sending
data to SONAR on.
2. Repeat step 1 for all other performers.
226
Controlling playback
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo
3. If there is any track that you want more than one performer to play, create a preset of the input
ports and channels that you want that track to respond to (see previous procedure).
4. Make sure the Input Echo button
is on for each track you want to play.
To turn MIDI echo (and input monitoring) on or off for all tracks
Click the Input Echo On/Off All Tracks button
Figure 56.
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
The Mix module.
See:
“Local control” on page 227
Local control
You should normally disable the Local Control setting on your master keyboard to prevent notes
from being doubled when you play your keyboard. If you disable Local Control, your keyboard sends
notes that you play to SONAR, which echoes them to the synthesizer, which plays them only once.
When SONAR starts, you can have it send a special MIDI message that attempts to disable Local
Control automatically. Most modern synthesizers respond to this message. If yours does not, you
will need to disable Local Control every time you turn it on for use with SONAR.
To automatically disable all local control whenever you launch SONAR
1. In the directory where SONAR is installed, double-click on the TTSseq.ini file to open it.
2. In the [Options] section, add the line:
SendLocalOff=1
3. Save the file and close it.
4. When you launch SONAR, it automatically sends a Local Off message to your keyboard.
Note: Not all keyboards respond to Local Off messages.
See:
“Playing files in Batch mode” on page 228
Controlling playback
Local control
227
Playing files in Batch mode
SONAR allows you to play several files in sequence automatically using the Play List view. You can
use this feature in live performance applications or just for fun.
SONAR’s Play List view lets you create and work with a series of project, MIDI, and bundle files. As
each file plays, SONAR loads it and displays it in the Track view and other views like any other
project file.
See:
“The Play List view” on page 228
The Play List view
The Play List view lets you create, edit, and save a play list (or set) of up to 999 SONAR projects.
Once you have created the list, you can play back the entire sequence automatically. You can even
program the list to pause between songs for a fixed amount of time or to wait for a keystroke before
proceeding.
The Play List view looks like this:
Figure 57.
The Play List view
A
B
C D E
F
H
G
A. Switch to the next song B. Repeat the list C. Add a song D. Drop a song E. Set a delay F. Display full path
G. List of songs H. Enable the play list
Play lists can be saved for future use. Play list files have the extension .set.
228
Controlling playback
Playing files in Batch mode
To create and edit a play list
To create and edit a play list in the Play List view, follow the instructions in the table:
To do this
Do this
Open an existing play list
Choose File > Open, choose Play List from the Files of Type list, choose
the file you want and click Open
Create a new play list
Choose File > New, choose Play List Set from the list, and click OK
Add songs to the play list
Click
or press INSERT, choose a file from the Add Song to Play List
dialog box, and click Open
Set the delay after a song
Click on the song in the play list, click
click OK
Change the order of songs
Drag the file to a new location in the play list
Copy a song to another location
in the play list
CTRL-drag the file to a new location in the play list
Remove a song from the play list
Save the play list
Select the song and click
, enter the delay you want, and
or press the DELETE key
Choose File > Save; or choose File > Save As, enter a file name, and click
Save
Table 28.
To play files from the Play List view
To play back files from the Play List view, follow the instructions in the table.
To do this
Activate the play list
Choose the starting song
Start playback
Stop playback
Skip to the next file
Do this
Click
in the Play List view toolbar so that the button is pressed. If this
button is not pressed, only a single file will play when you start playback.
Double-click the file you want to start with. The project is opened and
displayed as usual.
Click
in the Control Bar or press the SPACEBAR.
Click
in the Control Bar or press the SPACEBAR.
Click
in the Play List view toolbar.
Table 29.
Controlling playback
Playing files in Batch mode
229
To do this
Do this
Loop continuously over the
play list
Click the
button in the Play List view toolbar.
Click the
button to enable or disable the display of folders.
Show or hide file name
extensions and folder names
(path)
Table 29.
Video playback, import, and export
Video files play in the Video view in real time as your project plays. You can also view your video on
an external DV device connected to an IEEE 1394 port (“FireWire”).
The File > Import > Video command lets you include the following video file types in your project:
• AVI (also called Video for Windows).
• MPEG.
• Windows Media Video.
• QuickTime (.mov files only). SONAR supports QuickTime 7, including H.264 support and the
ability to import AAC audio files.
Note: Some .mov and .avi files contain no video. You can’t import these files with the File >
Import > Video command. You must use the File > Import > Audio command instead, and set
the Files of Type field to All Files.
The File > Export > Video command lets you export your audio tracks and your imported video as
the following file types:
• AVI (also called Video for Windows)
• Windows Media Video
• QuickTime
SONAR also has a Video Thumbnails pane at the top of the Track view, which shows individual
frames of your video at different places in your project (See “Using the Video Thumbnails pane” on
page 236 for more information).
You open the Video view by using the Views > Video command. The Video view displays the Now
time (as in the Big Time view) and the video itself. The display in the Video view is synchronized with
the Now time, giving you convenient random access to the video stream. This makes it easy to align
music and digitized sound to the video.
Commands in the Video view’s right-click pop-up menu let you set the time display format, the size
and stretch options for the video display, the video start and trim times, and other options.
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Controlling playback
Video playback, import, and export
QuickTime issues
In order to import/export QuickTime files in SONAR, you must install both the filters AND QuickTime.
Below are some other known QuickTime issues:
• It is presently only possible to export QuickTime videos on a 32-bit system. This is a limitation of
QuickTime, not SONAR.
• QuickTime Import/Export requires version 6.5.1 or higher of the QuickTime Player to be installed.
The QuickTime Player is not included with SONAR, but can be downloaded separately from
Apple's web site (www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html).
• Audio mixdown to QuickTime must be set to 16 bits stereo or mono, or the resulting export will
create a unusable file or abort with an error.
• Audio mixdown to QuickTime must be set to 48 KHz or less or the resulting export will create a file
that plays back incorrectly.
• When exporting to QuickTime, the frame rate of the QuickTime video compressor will default to
“best possible”. Since not all movies in a SONAR video project correctly report their frame rate,
the best practice is manually enter the desired frame rate. This is done in the video settings of the
QuickTime video compressor.
• Exports to QuickTime from a SONAR video project created from an AVI using the Indeo video
compressor will create a movie with white frames.
• Exports to QuickTime may have an extra white frame on the last frame of the movie. This extra
frame can be removed with the QuickTime Pro Player or another QuickTime editing application.
See:
“Importing and playing back videos” on page 232
“Optimizing video performance” on page 236
Controlling playback
Video playback, import, and export
231
Importing and playing back videos
Here are step-by-step procedures for inserting and playing back videos:
To load a video file into a project
1. Choose File > Import > Video, or choose Insert from the Video view’s pop-up menu.
The Import Video dialog appears.
Tip: You can also drag a video file from the Browser and drop it on the Video Thumbnails pane.
2. In the Files of Type field, select the kind of video file you’re looking for.
3. Select a file.
4. Check the Show File Info option to display information about the file in the File Info section of
the dialog.
5. Check the Import Audio Stream option if you want to load the file’s audio data.
6. Check the Import As Mono Tracks option if you want to import the file’s audio data as one or
more mono tracks.
7. Click Open.
SONAR loads the video file and displays it in the Video view. If you choose to import audio data,
SONAR inserts a new track above the currently selected track, and puts the audio data in a clip or
clips on the new track.
Note 1: When you save a project that contains video, SONAR saves the project’s video file by
reference only; the actual video data remains in the original file. Video data is not saved in
bundle files, so it must be backed up on its own.
Note 2: After you load a video file into a project, you can play it back either in the Video view, or
on an external DV device through a FireWire port. See “Video playback on a FireWire DV
device” on page 239 for more information.
To play a video file in the Video view
1. Open the Video view by choosing Views > Video.
2. Press the SPACEBAR to play or stop video playback.
3. To change the display size of the video, right-click in the Video view and choose Stretch
Options > [desired size] from the pop-up menu.
Note: When you play a video file that has high temporal compression, such as movies optimized
for web delivery, playback may not be smooth unless you disable video thumbnails, (see “Using
the Video Thumbnails pane” on page 236 for more information).
232
Controlling playback
Video playback, import, and export
To delete the video from the project
1. Open the Video view by choosing Views > Video.
2. Right-click in the Video view and choose Delete.
SONAR removes the video from the project. Note that imported audio data is not deleted.
To enable or disable video playback
1. Open the Video view by choosing Views > Video.
2. Right-click in the Video view and choose Animate.
If your computer is not fast enough to play back video efficiently, you can get better performance by
temporarily disabling video animation during playback.
To set the Time display format
• Click the time display to cycle between MBT, SMPTE, Frames and None
Or
• Right-click in the Video view and choose an option from the Time Display Format menu:
To do this
Do this
Select a time format
Choose MBT, SMPTE, Frames or None
Change font or font color
Choose Font and select new font characteristics
Turn off the time display
Choose None
Table 30.
To adjust the SMPTE time
1. Move the Now time to the place where you want SMPTE time to be either 00:00:00:00, or a
number you can enter.
2. Use the Project > Set Timecode At Now command to open the Set Timecode At Now Time
dialog.
3. If you want to set SMPTE time to 00:00:00:00 (the dialog’s default value) at the current Now
time, click OK to close the dialog. If you want to set SMPTE time to some other value at the
current Now time, type that value into the SMPTE/MTC Time field, and click OK to close the
dialog.
To choose a frame rate
Do one of the following:
• Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Clock and choose the frame rate you want from the six
choices, then click OK.
• In the Control Bar’s Sync module, click the Timecode Format list and select the desired format.
For more information, see “SMPTE/MIDI time code synchronization” on page 1086).
Controlling playback
Video playback, import, and export
233
To set the Video display format
Right-click in the Video view and choose an option from the Stretch Options menu:
To do this
Do this
Display the video in its original size
Choose Original Size
Stretch the video to fill the Video view
Choose Stretch to Window
Stretch the video as much as possible while preserving the
original aspect ratio
Choose Preserve Aspect Ratio
Make the video display as large as possible, but only enlarge by
integral multiples
Choose Integral Stretch
Display the video in full screen mode
Choose Full Screen
Table 31.
SONAR adjusts the video display according to the selected option. The stretch option is used to
recalculate the video display size whenever you resize the Video view.
To set the background color
• Right-click in the Video view and choose a color option from the Background Color menu.
To set the Start and Trim times
1. Right-click in the Video view and choose Video Properties.
2. Set options as described in the table:
Option
What it means
Start Time
The time in your SONAR project at which you want the video file to start playing
Trim-in Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to start
Trim-out Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to stop
Table 32.
SONAR synchronizes the video to the project according to the specified Start and Trim times.
Note: The project’s video file is saved in the project by reference only, the actual video data
remains in the original file. Video data is not saved in bundle files, so it must be backed up on
its own.
See also:
“Exporting video” on page 235
“Optimizing video performance” on page 236
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Controlling playback
Video playback, import, and export
Exporting video
After you’ve mixed your audio tracks the way you want them, you can export the inserted video file
together with your audio tracks to create a new video file.
When you export a video, any changes you’ve made to the Start, Trim-In, or Trim-Out times
determine how long your new exported video is compared to the original video that you inserted into
your SONAR project.
Note: If you’re exporting an AVI file, the No Compression option in the Video Codec field of
the AVI Encoder Options dialog is a good choice. This choice does not change or compress
your source video material. If you want your exported AVI file to be compressed, the Cinepak
option will create an AVI file that plays back smoothly with decent quality. The MJPEG option
will create an AVI file that does not play back as smoothly, but is a high quality format to archive
a file in.
To export a video
1. Make sure your audio tracks are completely mixed, and your video Start time, Trim-In time, and
Trim-Out time are set the way you want them.
2. Use the File > Export Video command.
The Export Video dialog appears.
3. In the File Name field, type a name for your new video.
4. In the Files of Type field, choose the kind of video file you want the exported file to be.
5. Click the Encoding Options button to open a dialog of encoding options for the kind of file
you’re creating. Some codecs do not work: click the Help button in the dialog for help choosing
options.
Note: If you’re exporting an AVI file to either a 24-bit audio format or to a multi-channel (surround
sound) format, set the Audio Codec in the AVI Encoding Options dialog to No Compression.
6. Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open a dialog of audio mixdown options. Click the
Help button in the dialog for help choosing options.
7. Click Save to export your video.
Controlling playback
Video playback, import, and export
235
Optimizing video performance
Here are a few tips to optimize video performance:
• Viewing your video in on an external DV device will significantly decrease the processor load on
your computer if the video stream is a DV AVI file. See “Video playback on a FireWire DV device”
on page 239 for more information.
• If you intend to do a lot of seeking around or looping and editing while a video file is loaded, make
sure that your video file has sufficient keyframes. Since each frame has to be computed from the
last keyframe encountered, if you have very few keyframes in the video, performance may be
slow. To change the number of keyframes, you may recompress the file using the File > Export
Video command and specify more frequent keyframes. Choose a suitable video compressor
such as Cinepak and change the KeyFrame Rate parameter to a number between 1-5. A value of
1 makes every frame a keyframe, and higher numbers insert a keyframe after that many frames.
• Changing the video properties of an AVI file, such as Trim and Start time, can make realtime
performance slightly slower. You can make these changes permanent (and thereby reduce the
load on your CPU) by using the File > Export Video command, and then re-importing the file.
• Playing videos at a resolution (video size) of 320x240 is usually a high enough resolution to
monitor the video while you’re composing a soundtrack. You can still choose to stretch the video
to full screen at this resolution. You set the video size on the Render Quality tab of the Video
Properties dialog. Using a higher resolution can bog down your computer if you’re processing
audio tracks at the same time.
See also:
“Using the Video Thumbnails pane” on page 236
Using the Video Thumbnails pane
At the top of the Track view in SONAR is the Video Thumbnails pane, which displays individual
frames of your video at certain time intervals of your project. The time interval between displayed
frames is determined by the zoom level you choose. If you zoom in far enough, you can view each
individual frame of your video.
Note 1: If you’re playing back a highly compressed movie (not many keyframes in the file), it can
take about a minute to redraw video thumbnails when you’re playing the movie or resizing a
window.
Note 2: Some Windows Media videos do not report their frame rate to SONAR. SONAR can
play these files, but cannot create thumbnails from them, so no thumbnails appear in the
Thumbnail pane.
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Figure 58.
The Video Thumbnails pane
A B
C
D
E
A. Show/hide frame numbers button B. Show/hide thumbnails button C. Video track strip D. Splitter bar
E. Frame number
Here are the various commands and functions of the Video Thumbnails pane:
• You can show or hide the pane.
• You can show or hide the video thumbnails.
• You can display absolute frame numbers.
• You can resize the thumbnails while preserving the aspect ratio by dragging the splitter bar.
• The video track strip at the top of the Track pane has display fields for Video File Name, Start
Time, Trim-In Time, Trim-Out Time, Duration, and Current Frame, as well as a toggle buttons
to show/hide the thumbnails (without hiding the Video Thumbnails pane), and to show/hide frame
numbers on individual frames. You can edit the Start Time, Trim-in Time, and Trim-Out Time
fields.
• SONAR saves the size and state of the Video Thumbnails pane on a per/project basis.
• The Video Thumbnails pane zooms horizontally when you use the standard Track view
commands for horizontal zooming. You control the height of the Video Thumbnails pane by
dragging the splitter bar up or down that’s at the bottom of the Video Thumbnails pane.
For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures:
To hide or show the Video Thumbnails pane
Do one of the following:
• Drag the splitter bar that separates the Video Thumbnails pane from the Clips pane.
• Click the Track view View menu and choose Video Thumbnail Show/Hide.
• Press the V key.
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237
To turn Video thumbnails On or Off
Do one of the following:
• Right-click the Video Thumbnails pane or the Video Thumbnails track strip and choose Show/
Hide Thumbnails on the pop-up menu.
• Click the Show/Hide Thumbnails button
in the Video Thumbnail track strip.
To hide or show frame numbers on frames
• In the video track strip, click the Show/Hide Frame Numbers button
.
To open the Video Properties dialog
• Double-click the video track strip.
To open the Video view
• Double-click the Video Thumbnails pane.
To move the Now time to a thumbnail
• Click the thumbnail.
To change the Start time
• In the video track strip, click the Start field, type a new number in Measure/Beat/Tick format, and
press ENTER. The start time is the time in your SONAR project at which your video starts to play.
To change the Trim-In time
• In the video track strip, click the Trim-In field, type a new number in SMPTE format, and press
ENTER (you can press the SPACEBAR instead of typing colons, if you want, and you can type
single zeros instead of double zeros). The Trim-In time is the time in your video file at which you
want to start video playback.
To change the Trim-Out time
• In the video track strip, click the Trim-Out field, type a new number in SMPTE format, and press
ENTER (you can press the SPACEBAR instead of typing colons, if you want, and you can type
single zeros instead of double zeros). The Trim-Out time is the time in your video file at which
you want to stop video playback.
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To use the Video Thumbnails context menu
1. Right-click the Video Thumbnails pane or the Video Thumbnails track strip.
2. Choose any of these options from the pop-up menu that appears:
• Show/Hide Thumbnails
• Display Absolute Frames
• Open Video View
• Insert Video
• Delete Video
• Export Video
• Video Properties
Video playback on a FireWire DV device
You can view your video projects on an external FireWire DV device.
Note: This feature will decrease the processor load to your computer if the video stream is a DV
AVI file. If the stream is not DV AVI, the CPU load will significantly increase, compared to playing
back onscreen with SONAR’s Video view.
To convert a Video project to DV AVI format
1. Use the File > Export Video command.
The Export Video dialog appears.
2. In the File Name field, type a name for your new video.
3. In the Save as Type field, choose Video for Windows.
4. Click the Encoding Options button to open the AVI Encoder options dialog, and choose DV
Video Encoder in the Video Codec field. Click OK.
5. Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open a dialog of audio mixdown options. Choose
the audio options you want, but remember that if you plan to save the project to DV tape, choose
the following audio format:
• Channel Format. Choose Stereo.
• Sample Rate. Choose 48000.
• Bit Depth. Choose 16.
6. Click Save to export your video.
Once you save the video file, it can be re-inserted into a project (see “Importing and playing back
videos” on page 232). If the project will ultimately be exported to tape, that project will need to have
an audio sample rate of 48 KHz playing back at 16 bits.
Controlling playback
Video playback, import, and export
239
To play video on an external DV device
1. Connect your external FireWire device. Make sure Windows recognizes the device, and displays
the device’s icon on the Windows taskbar.
2. Launch SONAR and open your video project.
3. In SONAR’s video view (Views > Video command), right-click the Video view and choose
External DV Output > <name of external DV device> from the pop-up menu.
4. Play your SONAR project.
The video disappears from the Video view and appears on your external monitor or camcorder.
Leave the Video view open so that you can move the Now Time frame-by-frame with the Video
view keyboard shortcuts.
If the Video view is the active window, you can use keyboard shortcuts to advance by a frame or a
frame increment. The +/-, and left/right arrow keys move forward/backwards by a single frame. If you
hold down the CTRL key, then the frame increment value is used (default = 5 frames). You can also
use the [ and ] keys to seek by the frame increment.
If your video does not play back in sync with your audio, see “Synchronizing external video playback
to audio” on page 241.
External DV output (IEEE 1394/FireWire)
SONAR relies on the Microsoft AV/C drivers to communicate with DV devices that are connected to
a IEEE 1394 FireWire bus on your computer, in order to control and preview video to digital video
devices.
If another software application overwrites or disables these drivers, the Preview to FireWire and
Print to Tape feature may not function correctly. If you are going to install a software application that
uses DV devices connected to the IEEE 1394 FireWire bus, please check with the software vendor
about DV device drivers it may install. Also, please check with the manufacturer of your DV device
for AV/C-compliance information. The following devices have been tested and known to work
properly with SONAR:
• ADS Pyro A/V Link DV transcoder
• Canopus ADVC-100 DV transcoder
• Canon ZR-85 miniDV camcorder
Note: When using DV AVI movies, the transcoding unit must be set to the same format (NTSC
or PAL) as the video file, or Preview to FireWire and Print to Tape will fail to work properly. Also,
CPU consumption will be lower when the source material is in DV format, since the format is
native to the FireWire device and doesn't incur a CPU hit for transcoding video.
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Exporting a project to a FireWire DV device
Once your project sounds the way you want it to, you can export the video and audio together to an
external FireWire DV device. This is called “printing to tape,” if your external device uses tape.
To export a project to an external DV device
1. Use the File > Export > Video command to open the Export Video dialog.
2. In the Save as Type field, choose AVC Compliant Device. You might see a different name in
the drop-down menu, depending on what type of external device you are using.
3. Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open the Audio Mixdown Options dialog.
4. In the Audio Mixdown Options dialog, choose the following options, and then click OK:
• Channel Format. Choose Stereo.
• Sample Rate. Choose 48000.
• Bit Depth. Choose 16.
5. In the Export Video dialog, click the Encoding Options button to open the property page of
your external device.
6. In the property page, use the transport controls to position the tape in your external device to a
blank area for recording.
7. Close the property page, and click the Save button in the Export Video dialog to start exporting.
If you’re printing to a device that uses tape, the tape stops rolling when the export process is
finished.
Synchronizing external video playback to audio
Because there is more latency in FireWire video playback than in PC digital audio playback, video
playback on an external device will probably be playing back later than the audio tracks in SONAR.
To sync external video to audio
1. Right-click the Video view and choose Video Properties from the pop-up menu to open the
Video Properties dialog.
2. On the Render Quality tab of the dialog, under External DV Output, enter an offset number in
the Video Sync Offset field. The number you enter here causes the Video to start playing
sooner than the audio. It’s helpful if your video has some pre-roll footage that contains a visual
sync point.
Note: The offset is accurate to 3 decimal places, e.g. 1 ms (a thousandth of a second). One
frame of video is approximately 33 ms long for NTSC and 40 ms for PAL; the offset will typically
be less than 1 second.
3. Click OK to close the dialog. Play your video, and readjust the Video Sync Offset number as
needed.
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Video playback, import, and export
241
Locating missing audio
If you try to open a project and SONAR is unable to locate all the audio files that the project
references, the Find Missing Audio dialog appears. The Find Missing Audio dialog helps you find
any missing audio in your project.
See:
“The Find Missing Audio dialog” on page 242
“Restoring missing audio files” on page 242
“Managing shared and external files” on page 243
The Find Missing Audio dialog
Use the Find Missing Audio dialog to find missing audio in your project. The following is a brief
description of the options you have in this dialog:
• Open. Click this button once you have searched for and found the missing audio file.
• Skip. Click this button to move to the next missing file. When you skip and audio file your project
opens without that piece of missing audio.
• Skip All. Click this button to skip all missing audio files. When you skip all missing audio files,
you project opens without those pieces of missing audio
• Search.
file.
Click this button to begin a search of all available hard drives for your missing audio
• After locating the file Options. You can choose to either move an audio file to the project’s
audio data folder, copy an audio file to the project’s audio data folder, or leave an audio file in its
current folder.
For more information, see “Find Missing Audio dialog” on page 1512.
Restoring missing audio files
When you open a project file that references audio files which SONAR can not find, the Find
Missing Audio dialog appears. Use the following procedure to restore the missing audio files to
your project.
To restore missing audio files
1. In the Find Missing Audio dialog, click the Search button.
The Search for Missing Audio dialog appears and SONAR begins searching all available hard
drives for the missing file or files.
2. When SONAR is finished searching, the files that it has found appear in the dialog.
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3. Select the file or files that SONAR has found and click OK.
The Find Missing Audio dialog appears.
4. Select one of the following options:
• Move file to Project Audio Folder. Use this option if you are sure that no other projects are
referencing this file in its present location.
• Copy file to Project Audio Folder. Use this option if the missing file is shared with another
project and you want to keep all of your project’s audio files together.
• Reference file from present location. Use this option if you want to leave the missing file in
its current location now that SONAR knows where it is.
5. Click Open.
SONAR moves, copies or references the missing file or files as you instructed.
Managing shared and external files
You may want to share files between projects. The files you want to share may be frequently used
sound effects or drum loops. SONAR allows you to choose whether to copy imported audio files to
your project’s audio data directory or to link to them in their current (external) location.
Note: External files are defined as any file not in the project’s audio data folder (or a subfolder
within the project’s audio data folder).
To configure SONAR to always copy files to the project Audio Data folder
If you want to keep all of your project’s audio in one folder (your project’s audio data directory), go to
Edit > Preferences > File - Audio Data and select the Always Copy Imported Audio Files check
box.
To configure SONAR to share external files
SONAR allows you to share external files (files not in the project’s audio data directory). There are
some exceptions, however. Files that have a different sampling rate or bit depth are always copied
to the project’s audio data directory. Also, if the Always Copy Imported Audio Files option is
selected in Edit > Preferences > File - Audio Data, imported audio is always copied to your
project’s audio data directory.
Do the following to ensure that you are sharing files:
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > File - Audio Data and clear the Always Copy Imported Audio
Files check box.
2. In the Open dialog, when importing audio, make sure the Copy Audio to Project Folder option
is unchecked.
Controlling playback
Locating missing audio
243
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Locating missing audio
Recording
You can add sound or music to a SONAR project in many different ways. You can record your own
material using a MIDI-equipped instrument, use a microphone or another audio input to record
digital audio information, or import sound or music data from an existing digital data file. With the
Input monitoring feature, you can hear your audio instruments exactly how they sound in SONAR,
including any plug-in effects (effects are not recorded, however). When you record audio or MIDI
tracks, SONAR displays a wave preview of your recorded data as you record it.
You can also input new material using your computer keyboard or mouse using the Piano Roll view,
the Staff view, or the Event List view. For more information about entering music using these views,
see the online help topics: “The Staff view” on page 1000, “The Piano Roll view” on page 655, and
“The Event List view” on page 718.
See:
“Creating a new project” on page 246
“Preparing to record” on page 255
“Recording music from a MIDI instrument” on page 261
“Input quantizing” on page 262
“Arpeggiator” on page 264
“Recording audio” on page 271
“Input monitoring” on page 275
“Loop recording” on page 281
“Punch recording” on page 283
“Step recording” on page 285
“Recording specific ports and channels” on page 293
“Importing music and sound” on page 296
“Saving your work” on page 302
Creating a new project
You can add music and sound to an existing project or to a new project. Just as in any Windows
program, you open an existing project file using the File > Open command, and create a new project
file using the File > New command.
When you create a new SONAR project, there are some additional parameters you can set to make
it easier to work on your project. These include:
• Meter and key signature
• Metronome and tempo settings
• Audio sampling rate
• MIDI timing resolution
See:
“Creating a new project” on page 246
“Setting the Meter and Key signatures” on page 248
“Setting the Metronome and Tempo settings” on page 249
“Setting the audio sampling rate and bit depth” on page 252
Using per-project audio folders
For ease of backing up your audio files in a project, SONAR allows you to use a separate audio
folder for each project. This feature is off by default.
To enable per-project audio
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > File - Audio Data.
2. Select the Use Per-Project Audio Folders check box and click OK.
Note: If you use the default project that is created when you open SONAR, you are not using
per-project audio. You must use the Copy All Audio with Project option in the Save As dialog
to create a per-project audio folder. For more information, see “To save an existing project using
per-project audio” on page 1100.
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Creating a new project file
When you create a new project you are asked to choose a template to use for your new file. If you
have per-project audio folders enabled (for more information, see the online Help topic “Using perproject audio folders” on page 246), you are also asked to specify a file name, the folder where you
want to store the file, and the folder where you want to store the file’s audio. You can override perproject audio by unchecking the Store Project Audio in its Own Folder option.
SONAR includes a set of templates you can use to create a new project. These templates include
common types of ensembles, such as rock quartets, jazz trios, and classical full orchestras. When
you create a new project using one of these templates, SONAR creates a project that has MIDI
settings predefined so that one track is set up for each of the instruments in the ensemble. SONAR
also includes a template with two MIDI and two audio tracks (called the Normal template). If you are
creating a new project that will contain only audio material, use the Audio Only template. If you are
creating a new project that will contain only MIDI material, use the MIDI Only template.
You can create your own template files and use them as the basis for other new projects. For more
information, see “Templates” on page 991.
To create a new project file
1. Choose File > New to display the New Project File dialog box.
Figure 59.
The New Project File dialog
2. If you have the per-project audio folders option enabled, enter a file name, set the folder where
you want to store the new file, and set the folder where you want to store the new file’s audio.
3. Choose a template from the list.
4. Click OK.
SONAR creates the new project file and displays it with the Track view open.
Recording
Creating a new project
247
Setting the Meter and Key signatures
By default, a new SONAR project is in 4/4 time and the key of C major. You can change these
settings to any desired “Meter” on page 1810 or key. These settings apply to all the tracks in a
project. You cannot set different meter or key signatures for different tracks.
The meter or key signature of a project can change at any measure boundary. To insert changes in
the meter or key signature, use the Views > Meter/Key command to display the Meter/Key view, or
use the Project > Insert Meter/Key Change command. You can also click the Meter display in the
Control Bar’s Transport module.
If you are creating a new project that will contain only audio material (no MIDI material), you do not
need to set the meter and key signature.
Note: Groove clips do not follow your project's key. Groove clips follow the project pitch that is
specified in Project > Set Default Groove Clip Pitch, in addition to any pitch markers in the
Time Ruler. For more information, see “Working with Groove Clip audio” on page 638.
The key signature controls how SONAR displays notes in the Staff view, the Event List view, and
elsewhere. The meter tells SONAR the number of beats per measure and the note value of each
beat. Common meters include:
• 2/4 (two beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
• 4/4 (four beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
• 3/4 (three beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
• 6/8 (six beats per measure, each eighth note gets a beat)
The top number of a meter, the number of beats per measure, can be from 1 through 99. The bottom
number of a meter is the value of each beat. You can pick from a list of values ranging from a whole
note to a thirty-second note.
The meter determines the following:
• Where the metronome accents are placed
• How the Now time is displayed
• How the Staff view is drawn
• How grid lines are displayed in the Piano Roll view
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Creating a new project
To Set the Meter and Key signature
1. Click the Views menu and choose Meter/Key.
2. Click
to open the Meter/Key Signature dialog box.
The Meter/Key Signature dialog appears.
Figure 60.
The Meter/Key Signature dialog
3. Enter the top and bottom meter values in the Beats per Measure and Beat Value fields.
4. Choose the key signature from the Key Signature list.
5. Click OK.
You can also set the meter and key signature in the Control Bar’s Transport module, or choose
Project > Insert Meter/Key Change.
Setting the Metronome and Tempo settings
The metronome counts off each beat in a measure, so you can hear the tempo of your project. You
can choose to have the metronome sound during recording, during playback, both, or turned off.
When you start recording, SONAR can play any number of beats or measures of metronome clicks
before recording begins. This can help you “get in the groove” before you start performing. These
beats or measures are called the count-in.
When you create a new project, you should set the metronome to play during the count-in and while
recording. If you are adding material to an existing project, you might only need the metronome for
the count-in.
You can customize the metronome sound to use audio or any note on a MIDI instrument. By default,
SONAR uses a hi-hat cymbal sound from a General MIDI drum kit for the MIDI metronome, but you
can change this setting to anything you like by changing the MIDI output, MIDI channel, and
duration. You can also choose the note and velocity (volume) to use for the first beat of each
measure and for all other beats. The metronome settings are stored separately with each project, so
you can use different settings for each one.
Recording
Creating a new project
249
To enable or disable the metronome during playback or recording, click the Playback Metronome
on/off button
Figure 61.
or Record Metronome on/off button
in the Control Bar’s Transport module.
The Transport module.
A
B
A. Metronome during record B. Metronome during playback
To configure metronome settings, right-click the Playback Metronome on/off button
Metronome on/off button
or Record
, or go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Metronome.
Note: If you are synchronized to an external clock source, you cannot use the count-in feature.
For more information, see “Synchronizing your gear” on page 1079.
To set the tempo and metronome for a new project
1. In the Control Bar’s Transport module, click the Playback Metronome on/off button
Record Metronome on/off button
.
2. Right-click the Playback Metronome on/off button
to show metronome settings.
3.
and
or Record Metronome on/off button
If you want to hear a count-in before recording begins, set the count-in to 1 or more. Select
either Measures or Beats for the count-in.
4. Select Use Audio Metronome or Use MIDI Metronome.
5. Arm at least one track.
6. Press R or click
advance.
to start recording. The count-in will play, and the Now time will start to
7. If necessary, stop playback and adjust the tempo using the tempo control in the Transport
module, the restart playback. Repeat until the metronome plays the desired tempo.
8. Press the SPACEBAR or click
9. Press W, or click
to stop recording.
to rewind to the beginning of the piece.
Your tempo and metronome settings are now ready. When you save the project file, the metronome
and tempo settings will be saved as well.
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Recording
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To change your Metronome settings
1. Do one of the following to access metronome settings:
• Right-click the Playback Metronome on/off button
or Record Metronome on/off button
in the Control Bar’s Transport module.
• Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Metronome.
2. Change the metronome settings as indicated in the following table:
To do this
Do this
Enable the metronome during playback
Check Playback
Enable the metronome during recording
Check Recording
Enable the count-in
Enter the number of clicks for the count-in in the Count-in
box, and select Measures or Beats
Use the audio
Check Use Audio Metronome
Use a MIDI note as the sound
Check Use MIDI Note and choose the output, channel, and
other settings
Table 33.
3. Click OK.
Your metronome settings will be saved with the project file.
To set the MIDI metronome sounds from your MIDI instrument
1. Select a track in the Track view that is assigned to the MIDI device you want to use for the
metronome sound.
2. Right-click the Playback Metronome on/off button
to show metronome settings.
or Record Metronome on/off button
3. Make sure that the settings in the Port and Channel fields match those for the track in the Track
view.
4. Click on the Key box in the First Beat or the Other Beats section.
5. Play a note on your MIDI instrument. The note number is entered automatically. The velocity is
not updated.
6. Click OK.
Your metronome settings will be saved with the project file.
Recording
Creating a new project
251
Setting the audio sampling rate and bit depth
Each SONAR project has an audio “Sampling rate” on page 1813 and an audio driver “Bit depth” on
page 1804 that indicate the level of accuracy with which audio data are sampled and processed.
The same parameters are used for all the digital audio in a project. When you create a new project,
if you do not want to use the default setting, you must choose a sampling rate before you start
recording audio.
SONAR lets you choose from several different sampling rates: 11025 Hz, 22050 Hz, 44100 Hz,
48000 Hz, 88200 Hz, 96000 Hz, 176400Hz, and 192000 Hz. The default used by SONAR is 44100
Hz, the same rate as audio CDs. However, you may choose a higher rate and later mixdown to
44100. You can also enter any hardware-supported value in the Sampling Rate field. Consult your
hardware documentation for supported sampling rates.
A higher sampling rate produces better quality sound. However, a higher sampling rate also means
that each audio clip takes up more memory and disk space and requires more intensive processing
by your computer. If you have an older computer, or a slow hard drive, you might be better off with a
lower sampling rate. For more information, see “Improving performance with digital audio” on page
1114.
By default, the audio driver bit depth of audio data is 16 bits. If your sound card supports 18, 20, 22,
or 24 bit audio, you can choose to take advantage of these higher resolutions.
If you are creating a new project that will contain only MIDI material (no audio), you do not need to
set the audio sampling rate or bit depth. If you import audio from a Wave file or another digital audio
file, the sampling rate and audio driver bit depth of the wave file are converted to your default setting,
if necessary.
Note: If you are planning to move your project to a Digital Audio Tape (DAT) or to some other
media via a digital transfer, set your sampling rate and bit depth to match the target unit. For
example, use 44,100Hz/16-bit for a project that will be mastered to a CD, so that no sample rate
conversion is required.
To set the sampling rate and audio driver bit depth for new projects
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Audio - Driver Settings.
2. Select a value in the Sampling Rate drop-down menu, and a value from the Audio Driver Bit
Depth drop-down menu.
3. Click OK.
The sampling rate and audio driver bit depth are saved with the project file.
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Sony Wave-64 support
SONAR fully supports reading and writing to the Sony Wave-64 format, which has a limit of
8,388,608 terabytes!
SONAR only creates Wave-64 file when needed. The Wave-64 format allows an application to
dynamically switch from classic RIFF WAVE to Wave-64 format even if the data was originally
created as a RIFF wave file. SONAR detects when a file will exceed 2GB and will dynamically switch
to the new Wave-64 format.
The table below shows the maximum duration for a stereo WAVE file before we hit the 2GB limit, as
well as the max duration for a stereo Wave-64 file before we hit the 8,388,608 terabyte limit.
Sample Rate
Bit Depth
RIFF-Wave
Sony Wave-64
44,100 Hz
16
3.38 hours
14,524,080,431 days
44,100 Hz
32
1.69 hours
7,262,040,215 days
44,100 Hz
64
50.7 minutes
3,631,020,108 days
192,000 Hz
16
46 minutes
3,335,999,724 days
192,000 Hz
32
23.3 minutes
1,667,999,862 days
192,000 Hz
64
11.65 minutes
833,999,931 days
Table 34.
When Wave-64 Files are created
Wave-64 files are created behind the scenes automatically under the following usage scenarios:
• When the number of samples recorded exceeds the file size limit of a 32-bit RIFF WAV file
(approximately 2GB file size).
• When you export, bounce or freeze tracks or clips and the resultant wave size exceeds 2GB.
• When you destructively process audio effects on a SONAR clip whose duration exceeds 2GB.
• When you import audio and choose a wave file that exceeds 2GB in size (this could be a Wave64 file).
• When you save a CWB file and the size of any chunk in the CWB file exceeds 2GB, the entire
CWB is saved in the new Wave-64 format.
Note: 64-bit CWB files are incompatible with previous versions of SONAR.
Recording
Creating a new project
253
64-bit CWB files
CWB files are RIFF files with multiple WAVE chunks. Therefore, CWB files in previous versions of
SONAR were subject to the same file size limitations of normal RIFF Wav files. This could potentially
result in a CWB file that failed to save because a chunk was too large.
SONAR will automatically use the Wave-64 format if a CWB file exceeds 2GB.
Note: 64-bit CWB files are incompatible with previous versions of SONAR.
Wave-64 file extension
Wave-64 files have a .w64 extension associated with them. Whenever a Wave-64 file is written,
SONAR saves it with an extension of w64.
CWP file persistence for 64-bit sample offsets
The SONAR project file format supports writing 64-bit sample offsets for regions and clips. When a
project containing 64-bit sample times is detected, saving that project automatically rewrites it in this
new format.
Note: Projects that contain 64-bit sample times are incompatible with SONAR 6 and earlier.
Setting the MIDI timing resolution
Each SONAR project has a setting for the timing resolution, or timebase, that indicates the
resolution of MIDI data. This resolution is measured in ticks or pulses per quarter note and is often
abbreviated as PPQ. The default resolution is 960PPQ, which is accurate enough for most
applications. In this timebase, each quarter note is represented by 960 ticks, each eighth note by
480 ticks, each eighth-note triplet by 320 ticks, and so on.
In some projects you may need a different timebase. For example, if you wanted to use eighth-note
septuplets (7 eighth notes per quarter note) and represent them accurately, you would need to have
a timebase that is divisible by 7, such as 168PPQ. SONAR uses the timebase you choose for a
project to determine the range of tick values in the Now time.
To set the timebase for a project
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Clock.
2. Choose the timebase you want from the Ticks per Quarter Note list.
3. Click OK.
The timebase will be saved with the project file.
254
Recording
Creating a new project
Preparing to record
To prepare for recording, you need to do the following:
• Set the recording mode.
• Choose your input(s).
• Arm one or more tracks for recording.
• Check your recording levels (audio only).
• Tune your instrument if necessary (audio only).
• Set the Now time to the point where recording should start.
• Start recording.
After you record, you can use the Edit > Undo command to erase the most recently recorded
material. You can use the Edit > Redo command to restore the recording and toggle between Undo
and Redo as many times as you like.
If you are using MIDI Sync or time code sync for the clock source, SONAR waits to receive external
timing data before it begins recording. For more information, see “Synchronizing your gear” on page
1079.
See:
“Recording modes” on page 256
“Choosing an input” on page 256
“Arming tracks for recording” on page 259
“Auto arming” on page 259
Recording
Preparing to record
255
Recording modes
Any material you record is stored in a new clip. If you record into several tracks at once, one clip is
created in each track. If you record into a track that already contains clips, you can choose one of
three recording modes to determine what happens to those clips. When you save your project, you
also save whatever recording mode you choose together with that project:
Recording mode
How it works
Sound on Sound
The new material is merged with any existing material. This means that any
existing clips on the track are left unchanged and all newly recorded material is
stored in new clips. While recording, you will be able to hear material from
existing clips.
Overwrite
The new material replaces (overwrites) any existing material. This means that
portions of existing clips may be “wiped clean” to make room for newly recorded
material. While recording, you will not be able to hear material from existing clips.
Auto Punch
Recording only takes place between the punch-in and punch-out times. You can
use Auto Punch in either Sound on Sound or Overwrite mode.
Table 35.
To choose a recording mode
Do one of the following:
• Right-click the Record button
mode.
to open recording settings, then choose the desired recording
• Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Record, then choose the desired recording mode.
SONAR saves your recording options with each project, so you can save a different recording mode
with each of your projects.
Choosing an input
To record into a track, you must choose an input for the music or sound to be recorded. Usually, you
choose All Inputs - Omni to record material from a MIDI instrument, or the left or right channel of a
digital audio device (such as a sound card) to record audio material, or stereo if you want to record
stereo audio in a single track. The input for each track is displayed in the track’s Input field and at
the top of each module in the Console view.
When you choose All Inputs > Omni as the input for a track, SONAR merges material from all MIDI
inputs and instruments. This means you don’t have to worry about input, channel, or other MIDI
settings. Sometimes, you may want to record different MIDI channels into different tracks. To learn
how to do this, see “Recording specific ports and channels” on page 293.
While each track can have a different input, it is also possible for several tracks to have the same
input.
256
Recording
Preparing to record
To choose a MIDI input in the Track view
1. Click the drop-down arrow of an Input field of a MIDI track.
A drop-down menu of MIDI inputs appears.
2. Choose an input from the following:
• None. This option actually sets the Input field to Omni with this setting the track will record
any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
• All Inputs > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). With this setting the track will record any MIDI
input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). Choosing this option causes
the track to record any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver, unless
you choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record
input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input driver.
• Preset. If you want to record multiple data from multiple ports and/or channels, you need to
select a preset collection of those ports and channels. You can select one here (to create
presets, see next line).
• Manage Presets. If you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see “To create or edit a preset input configuration” on
page 294).
To choose an audio input in the Track view
1. Click the drop-down arrow of the Input field of an audio track.
A drop-down menu of audio drivers appears.
2. Select the audio driver for the sound card you want to record with from these options:
• None.
This choice ensures that you do not record to the track in question.
• Left (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the left
channel of your sound card.
• Right (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the
right channel of your sound card.
• Stereo (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a stereo signal.
If your sound card has more than one pair of inputs, a pair of numbers appears after the name of
each audio driver to indicate which pair of inputs the driver is attached to.
Note: Inputs that are used by the External Insert plug-in (see “External Insert plug-in (Producer
and Studio only)” on page 846) cannot be assigned to track inputs.
Recording
Preparing to record
257
To choose an audio input in the Console view or Track Inspector
1. At the bottom of an audio channel strip, click the Input control.
A pop-up menu of audio drivers appears.
2. Select the audio driver for the sound card you want to record with from these options:
• None. This choice ensures that you do not record to the track in question. It also turns off
input monitoring for this track.
• Left (name of your sound card).
channel of your sound card.
Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the left
• Right (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the
right channel of your sound card.
• Stereo (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a stereo signal.
If your sound card has more than one pair of inputs, a pair of numbers appears after the name of
each audio driver to indicate which pair of inputs the driver is attached to.
To choose a MIDI input in the Console view or Track Inspector
1. At the bottom of a MIDI channel strip, click the Input control.
A pop-up menu of MIDI channels appears.
2. Choose an input from the following:
• None. This option actually sets the Input field to Omni. With this setting the track will record
any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
• All Inputs > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). With this setting the track will record any MIDI
input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). Choosing this option causes
the track to record any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver, unless
you choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record
input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input driver.
• Preset. If you want to record multiple data from multiple ports and/or channels, you need to
select a preset collection of those ports and channels. You can select one here (to create
presets, see next line).
• Manage Presets. If you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see “To create or edit a preset input configuration” on
page 294).
258
Recording
Preparing to record
Arming tracks for recording
SONAR lets you record any number of tracks at one time. You indicate the tracks you want to record
by arming the tracks. You can arm a single track or several tracks at one time. Each track records
material received though its selected input. Whenever a track is armed, not only does the track’s R
button turn red, but the Clips pane that’s to the right of that track’s controls turns a reddish hue.
To arm one or more tracks for recording
Click the track’s Arm for Recording button
.
Note: To see the Arm for Recording button in the Track Inspector and Console view, make sure
the MSR module is visible.
To arm several tracks at the same time, select one or more tracks, then hold down the CTRL key
and click any selected track’s Arm for Recording button
.
A track’s Arm button turns red to indicate that the track is armed for recording.
To disarm all tracks at once
Click the Arm / Disarm All Tracks button
Figure 62.
in the Control Bar’s Mix module, or press CTRL+R.
The Mix module.
Auto arming
You must arm tracks in order to record. To safeguard your data, there is no automatic arming of any
tracks.
If you want to record MIDI tracks without arming a track, go to Edit > Preferences > MIDI Playback and Recording and select the Allow MIDI Recording without an Armed Track check
box.
This feature lets you start recording a new track simply by making it the current track and pressing R
or clicking the Record button in the Transport module. Auto-arming makes it possible to
inadvertently record over existing material in the current track, however.
Recording
Preparing to record
259
Arming tracks during playback/recording
SONAR is now able to arm and disarm tracks during playback and recording. This allows you to
record to different tracks while the transport is rolling, without first having to stop playback in order to
arm a track for recording.
To allow arming during playback
Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Record and select the Allow Arm Changes During
Playback/Record check box.
Note: The Allow Arm Changes During Playback/Record option is disabled by default. When
enabled, SONAR must keep all hardware input ports open so that it can dynamically arm tracks
on the fly. With some drivers in WDM mode, this can add significant overhead if there are many
input devices enabled in Edit > Preferences > Audio - Devices. This may lead to more
frequent drop outs. When using this option in WDM mode, it is recommended that you disable
all unused input drivers in Edit > Preferences > Audio - Devices to minimize this overhead.
Disabling unused inputs is not required when using ASIO mode.
SONAR has an option that can reduce CPU overhead when the Allow Arm Changes During
Playback/Record option is enabled.
When Allow Arm Changes During Playback/Record is enabled, SONAR must keep all hardware
input ports open so that it can dynamically arm tracks on the fly. With some drivers in WDM mode,
this can add significant overhead if there are many input devices enabled in Edit > Preferences >
Audio - Devices).
The new Only For Inputs In Project option instructs SONAR to only open hardware input ports that
are currently active in the project (i.e. assigned to a track).
To only open active hardware input ports
Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Record and select the Only For Inputs In Project check box.
Note: If this option is enabled, you will not be able to change inputs while recording.
260
Recording
Arming tracks during playback/recording
Recording music from a MIDI instrument
Once you have set your tempo and metronome, and armed one or more tracks, you are ready to
start recording.
To record MIDI
1. Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start recording.
2. Click
or press R. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will play the count-in.
3. Play or perform the material you want to record. As you record, SONAR displays a clip
containing the new material in the Clips pane (unless you have disabled the Display Waveform
Preview While Recording option in Edit > Preferences > Customization - Display).
4. Click
or press the SPACEBAR key to stop recording.
To listen to the new material, set the Now time to the start of the clip and press the SPACEBAR or
click
. If you’re not happy with the recording, use Edit > Undo or press CTRL+Z to erase the new
material.
When you stop recording, if you do not see a new clip in the Clips pane, you may have a problem
with MIDI input. See “Troubleshooting” on page 1177 for more information.
See:
“Recording specific ports and channels” on page 293
Recording
Recording music from a MIDI instrument
261
Input quantizing
Input quantizing allows you to automatically quantize MIDI input during recording. You can see the
results immediately, and hear the results as soon as a track is looped.
Note: Input quantizing does not destroy your original recording. If you press CTRL+Z after you
finish recording with input quantizing enabled, the quantized clip is deleted, and the original
unquantized clip appears, just as you recorded it. If you are using loop recording in Sound On
Sound mode, all the quantized clips are deleted.
You control input quantize settings in the Input Quantize section in the Track Inspector. For details,
see “Input Quantize section” on page 519.
Figure 63.
Input Quantize controls are availalbe in the Track Inspector
To turn Input quantizing on or off
Click the track’s Enable/Disable Input button in the Track Inspector.
To set the resolution
Click the track’s Input Quantize resolution control in the Track Inspector, then choose a resolution
from the drop-down menu. You can also click Quantize Settings in the resolution menu to open the
Input Quantize dialog, and type a number of ticks in the Resolution field.
Note: To quantize to a custom resolution value, open the Input Quantize dialog, and type a
custom number of ticks in the Resolution field.
262
Recording
Input quantizing
To set options
Click the track’s Input Quantize resolution menu in the Track Inspector, choose Quantize
Settings to open the Input Quantize dialog, select the desired settings, then and click OK.
Note: To get explanations of the options in the Input Quantize dialog, press F1 when the dialog
is open.
Visual indicators
You will see the following visual indicators when Input Quantizing is enabled:
• When the track is armed for recording, the track’s Arm button
cirle.
displays Q instead of a red
• The red swath that appears in a track in the area where recording is taking place changes color.
You can choose a color for this in Edit > Preferences > Customization - Colors by choosing
Clips Pane in the Color Category menu, and changing the entry for Input Quantize Record
Preview Background.
For more information, see “Quantizing” on page 697.
Recording
Input quantizing
263
Arpeggiator
Note: This feature is not available in SONAR X1 LE.
The arpeggiator lets you play intricate patterns of notes that would otherwise be extremely difficult or
impossible to play manually and at speeds and octave ranges that exist beyond the physical
limitations of the player or keyboard range.
Arpeggiated events are new events that are based on notes that you play on your controller
keyboard. The new events are rhythmically and harmonically specified by the arpeggiator’s preset,
allowing you to “play” an endless variety sophisticated musical passages with simple key pressing.
The most significant capability of the arpeggiator is its ability to apply algorithmic variations on your
input as well as MIDI-based patterns.
In addition to note events, the arpeggiator can send parameter automation such as pan, volume,
and even effects automation for the current track.
Each MIDI and instrument track has its own integrated arpeggiator, visually located in the Track
view. Running multiple arpeggiators across tracks can help realize exciting melodic and rhythmic
textures.
The arpeggiator controls are accessed in the Track Inspector.
Figure 64.
264
Arpeggiator controls are availalbe in the Track Inspector
Recording
Arpeggiator
Arpeggiator controls
The following table describes the controls in the Arpeggiator.
Control
Description
Enable/Disable
Enables/disables the arpeggiator on a given track. This control can be assigned to MIDI
remote control and modified in real-time during project playback.
Preset Control
You can create and edit arpeggiator presets; all user parameters are stored in the preset.
• Arpeggiator settings are included in track templates.
• Arpeggiator presets can be saved to a file and exchanged with other users.
• Arpeggiator files are stored in a shared directory.
For details, see “Using patterns and presets” on page 267.
Rate
Adjusts the relative speed of the arpeggiator sequence by changing all the note durations by
a factor of the current tempo. This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and
modified in real-time during project playback.
Octave Range
Sets the number of octaves through which the arpeggio will play. A value of 1 means that a
held chord will only arpeggiate the notes that are being held within the octave from which the
notes are being transmitted. A value of 2 means a held chord will arpeggiate for two octaves.
The held chord always represents the bass octave, meaning that the other octaves sound in a
higher register.
If you specify a range higher than the standard MIDI specifications, the Arpeggiator will
repeat the pattern in the highest available octave as necessary.
This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in real-time during project
playback.
Latch
Latch keeps the arpeggio playing after you let go of the keys.
This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in real-time during project
playback.
Swing
Sets the amount of swing applied to the selected pattern. You can make a pattern of 8th,
16th, or 32nd notes play back as swing notes instead of straight notes. The amount of swing
ranges from 0 (no swing) to 100% (maximum swing).
Velocity
An offset control that scales the arpeggiated note’s velocity to a percentage of the original
note velocity.
Duration
Controls whether the notes in the pattern are held to their full value, or are held for shorter or
longer durations.
Pitch Offset
A transposition control in half-steps, up or down a maximum of 2 octaves.
Flam Amount
If a pattern contains flams, this menu controls how big a difference there is between the
attack time of the flam and the note it is attached to.
Table 36.
Arpeggiator controls
Recording
Arpeggiator
265
Control
Description
Source Mix
When 0, simultaneously held notes arpeggiate as single notes. At 50%, simultaneously held
notes are heard as a chord in addition to the usual arpeggiated notes, both at equal levels. At
100%, only the held chord is audible.
Control: Knob (0 – 100%); this control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in
real-time during project playback.
Ch
MIDI input and output menu—the Arpeggiator only affects input data that’s on the MIDI
channels listed on this menu. The arpeggiator always obeys the track’s assigned output
channel, plus any additional channels specified in the arpeggiators Ch menu.
Shapes
Choose a shape that specifies the direction in which currently held notes are to be
sequenced. The following shapes are available:
• Rhythm (implicit rhythm mode)
• Forward
• Reverse
• Forward Circle 1
• Reverse Circle 1
• Forward Circle 2
• Reverse Circle 2
• Inward
• Outward
• Inward Circle
• Outward Circle
• As Played
• As Played Circle
• Random
Table 36.
Arpeggiator controls (Continued)
Note: Most Arpeggiator parameters can be controlled via MIDI remote control, but automation
data can not be recorded into tracks. For details, see “To set up remote control for a knob,
button, or fader” on page 882.
See:
“Using the arpeggiator” on page 267
266
Recording
Arpeggiator
Using the arpeggiator
One arpeggiator device appears on every MIDI and instrument track, located in the Track Inspector.
To enable/disable the Arpeggiator
• Click the Enable/Disable Arpeggiator button in the Track Inspector.
Figure 65.
Arpeggiator controls are availalbe in the Track Inspector
Using patterns and presets
Pre-authored patterns are used to apply rhythmic and melodic variations to the arpeggio. SONAR
includes many professionally-authored pattern files for you to experiment with. Pattern files have a
.ptn file extension.
An Arpeggiator preset stores a pattern along with the current Arpeggiator parameter settings. Preset
files have a .arp file extension.
You use the Arpeggiator’s Preset control to load patterns and load/save presets.
When playing back through the Arpeggiator, the first pitch in the pattern is moved to the lowest note
currently played.
Note: If the pattern file is a Free Mode pattern, the steps are quantized to the nearest 128th note
value in order to better preserve timing nuances.
To load an Arpeggiator pattern
1. Click the Preset control in the Arpeggiator and select Open Pattern from the drop-down menu.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains your Arpeggiator pattern files (.ptn) and select the desired
pattern.
A
A. Click to load a pattern
Recording
Arpeggiator
267
To load an Arpeggiator preset
• Click the Preset control in the Arpeggiator, point to Presets and select the desired preset.
A
A. Click to load a preset
To load the next/previous Arpeggiator preset
• Click the Next Preset or Previous Preset button in the Arpeggiator.
A
A. Click to load the next/previous preset
To save an Arpeggiator preset
• Click the Preset control in the Arpeggiator and select Save Pattern As from the drop-down
menu.
The current pattern is saved with the current Arpeggiator parameter settings.
A
A. Click to save a new preset
268
Recording
Arpeggiator
Using automation
You can automate the following arpeggiator parameters:
• Source Mix
• Enable/Disable
• Flam Amount
• Duration
• Latch
• Octave Range
• Pitch Offset
• Rate
• Shape
• Swing
• Velocity
To record arpeggiator automation
1. Right-click the desired arpeggiator parameter in the Track Inspector, and select Automation
Write Enable on the pop-up menu.
2. Click the Play button to start playback.
3. Adjust the arpeggiator control as desired. When you are finished recording automation, click the
Stop button to stop playback.
Automation (envelope) data appears in the Track view.
To create arpeggiator automation
• In the Track pane, click the track’s Edit Filter control, point to Track Automation > Arpeggiator
and select the desired arpeggiator parameter.
Automation (envelope) data appears in the Track view.
Tip: Existing envelopes can be reassigned to arpeggiator envelopes and vice versa. To do so, rightclick an envelope and select Assign Envelope on the context menu.
Recording
Arpeggiator
269
To record automation with a MIDI controller
1. Right-click the desired arpeggiator parameter and select Remote Control on the context menu.
The Remote Control dialog appears.
2. Specify the MIDI message you want to use for MIDI remote control, then click OK to close the
Remote Control dialog.
3. Right-click the desired arpeggiator parameter, and select Automation Write Enable on the
context menu.
4. Click the Play button to start playback.
5. Move the assigned MIDI controller widget (knob/slider, etc.). When you are finished recording
automation, click the Stop button to stop playback.
Automation (envelope) data appears in the Track view.
Recording and editing arpeggiator automation on an instrument track
You can not record or edit automation data on an instrument track. To use automation on an
instrument track, you must first split the instrument track into separate audio and MIDI tracks, create
or edit the automation data on the MIDI track, then recombine the tracks into an instrument track.
For details, see “Splitting an instrument track to separate audio and MIDI tracks” on page 784 and
“Converting an audio and MIDI track to a single instrument track” on page 783.
See:
“Arpeggiator” on page 264
270
Recording
Arpeggiator
Recording audio
Before you record audio, you should check your input levels. If the levels are too low, you may end
up with too much hiss and background noise in your recording. If the levels are too high, your
recording will be inaccurate or distorted. To check your audio levels, use the audio meters in the
either the Track view, Track Inspector or Console view. To adjust the input levels, you must use your
sound card’s software mixer program (or the Windows XP mixer) or an external hardware mixer for
certain sound cards.
The audio meters indicate the volume at which the audio will be recorded, in units called decibels
(dB). The meter values range from -INF (silent) to 0dB (maximum volume). You can change many
options in the way SONAR’s meters display data: see “Metering” on page 820. To maximize the
dynamic range of your recording, you want to set the levels as high as possible without clipping.
When the audio level exceeds 0dB, some of the audio information is lost. This is known as
overload. Many sound cards use clipping to deal with an overloaded signal, but clipping can distort
the audio signal. As a result, you should avoid letting the meter level exceed 0dB.
Note: Because SONAR is a digital recorder, a level of 0dB indicates digital zero. Digital
distortion will occur at 0dB. You will not get analog compression or warmth from pushing the
input levels. If you are transferring data from a DAT or another device, you may want to calibrate
the input levels of your sound card with the output levels of other devices in your studio. This will
ensure that 0dB on one unit will appear as 0dB in SONAR.
To check the Input levels
1. In the Track view, choose the inputs for the tracks you want to record, and arm the tracks for
recording.
2. The default meter range is from 0 dB to -60 dB. To change the range, right-click on the meter and
choose a new range from the menu.
3. Perform at the loudest level at which you plan to record.
Watch the meters respond. Increase the input volume as high as possible without ever letting the
meters move all the way to 0dB, even for an instant, or letting the Clipping indicator turn red. If
either of these things happen, reduce the input volume just enough to avoid them during the
entire performance. Note that some kinds of audio, such as percussive or plucked musical
instruments, can produce very short, high-level “transients” when struck or plucked aggressively,
which can lead to clipping if the input volume is set too high. Consider the possibility of these
transients when examining the meters and setting your record level.
Note: If the Clipping indicator is illuminated, click on it to reset.
Recording
Recording audio
271
Once you have set your sampling rate and input levels, you are ready to start recording. If the
meters do not move, check your sound card software’s mixer program and make sure that you have
the proper input enabled for recording.
When you record audio, SONAR stores each audio clip in a separate file. These files have the same
format as a Wave (.wav) file, but they have special names and are stored in a separate directory on
your hard disk. SONAR automatically manages these audio files for you, making it easier for you to
manage your projects. If you want to work with these files directly, or to learn more about how
SONAR stores audio data, see “System configuration” on page 1105.
To Record Audio
1. Choose the audio inputs for the track(s) you want to record.
2. Arm the tracks for recording. The Clips pane next to each armed track turns a reddish hue when
the track is armed.
3. Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start recording.
4. Click
or press R. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will play the count-in measures
or beats.
5. Play or perform the material you want to record.
As you record, SONAR displays a waveform preview of the new material in the Clips pane (unless
you have disabled the Display Waveform Preview While Recording option in Edit >
Preferences > Customization - Display). If you have turned off the option, SONAR displays a
red swath along the area of the Clips pane where you are recording.
6. Click
or press the SPACEBAR to stop recording.
SONAR displays a clip containing the new material in the Clips pane. To listen to the new material,
set the Now time to the start of the clip and press the SPACEBAR or click
with the recording, use Edit > Undo to erase the new material.
. If you’re not happy
If you do not see a new clip in the Clips pane, you may have a problem with audio input. See
“Troubleshooting” on page 1177 for more information.
Important: Make sure you have enough space on your hard disk when recording digital audio.
Running out of hard disk space when recording can lead to unpredictable results.
See also:
“Tuning an instrument” on page 273
272
Recording
Recording audio
Tuning an instrument
SONAR Chromatic Tuner analyzes any input signal from the sound card and displays the intonation
(in cents) on the meter. The tuner automatically determines which string/pitch you are trying to tune,
so that you can keep both hands on the instrument while tuning. The VU Meter shows how loud your
input signal is–a strong signal is essential for accurate tuning.
The Tuner works just like an effect and each track can have its own instance.
With a microphone, you can also tune acoustic instruments.
To Tune an Instrument
1. In the track you want to record your instrument on, right-click in the effects bin.
2. From the menu that appears, select Audio FX > Cakewalk > Tuner.
3. Click the track’s Input Monitor button. If you don’t click the Input Monitor button on the track
the Tuner is patched into, you will not be able to use the tuner.
4. With your instrument plugged into your sound card and turned up, play a note.
The Tuner displays the intonation reading on the cents meter and the name of the note you
played between the three arrows. One of the three arrows lights up, indicating one of the
following:
• Up arrow indicates the note is in tune.
• Right arrow indicates the note is sharp.
• Left arrow indicates the note is flat.
5. Adjust the pitch if necessary and repeat for the rest of the pitches you need to tune.
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Recording audio
273
Confidence recording and waveform preview
When you’re recording audio or MIDI data, SONAR gives you many visual cues that tracks are
armed and that SONAR is recording data.
When one or more tracks are armed:
• The Arm button in each armed track turns red.
• The Clips pane next to each armed track gets a reddish hue.
• The Arm / Disarm All Tracks button
the Control Bar’s Mix module is lit.
While you’re recording, SONAR displays these cues:
• Audio tracks display a waveform preview in the area in the Clips pane where you’re recording.
This is actually a visual record of the record meter’s progress. When you stop recording, SONAR
displays the actual waveform, which is slightly different from the preview. The preview is a
snapshot taken at certain time intervals, while the actual waveform represents all the data that is
recorded.
• MIDI tracks display the actual data that they record, both in the Clips pane and the Piano Roll
view (not the Staff view).
• Automation envelopes and nodes are drawn in real time as the automation data is being
recorded.
If you want to turn off the real-time display of audio clips, see the following procedure.
To turn off waveform preview for audio recording
Go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Display and clear the Display Waveform Preview
While Recording check box.
Now when you record audio tracks, a red swath appears in the Clips pane in the area you’re
recording.
274
Recording
Confidence recording and waveform preview
Input monitoring
Being able to hear plug-in audio effects applied to a live signal is an exciting feature of SONAR.
However, there are two issues that users commonly stumble upon when using the input
monitoring feature. The first is that the monitored signal seems to have an echo associated with it.
The second is that live input monitoring can lead to nasty feedback problems, particularly if you have
an outboard audio mixer, or you record from a different sound card from the one you are playing
back with.
SONAR has several buttons to control input monitoring:
• Per-track Input Echo button. Each audio track has an Input Echo button
track’s input monitoring on or off.
that turn’s that
• Global Input Echo button. The Input Echo On/Off All Tracks button
in the Control Bar’s
Mix module turns input monitoring on or off on all audio tracks with one click.
• Audio Engine button. To disable all audio activity in SONAR, including input monitoring, click
the Audio Engine on/off button
in the Control Bar’s Mix module so it lights up.
Note: When you use input monitoring, make sure that the track you’re playing through uses the
same audio interface (sound card) for both input and output. Using different audio interfaces for
a track’s input and output can produce distortion during input monitoring.
To understand the echo and feedback problems, let’s look at how audio signals travel through your
sound card, the drivers, and SONAR. The following diagram depicts a simplified version of this
signal flow.
SONAR
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Input monitoring
275
The bottom block of the picture represents the sound card. The shaded area above it represents the
audio drivers. The unshaded area at the top represents the main environment of the operating
system.
As the diagram shows, analog audio flows into the card's line input (on the left), and is immediately
split in two. One branch goes up through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), where the audio is
digitized, buffered and fed to the driver (labeled Wave In in the diagram).
The digital audio data buffers are read by SONAR from the Wave In driver, processed, and then sent
out to the Wave Out driver. The driver passes the digital audio buffers through a digital-to-analog
converter (DAC), where the audio data is converted back to an analog signal.
Finally, this analog output signal is mixed with the original branch of the input analog signal, and the
summed result is presented to the sound card's line output.
With this information in hand, let's follow a simple audio signal through the system to understand
how echoes get introduced into the input monitor path.
say “1”
SONAR
Suppose you are counting "1, 2, 3" into your sound card very quickly. When you say the first "1," this
sound immediately appears in all the places indicated in the illustration above. In other words, the
analog audio signal is pure electrical signal traveling at the speed of light, so it is immediately
present across all analog audio paths inside the sound card.
say “2”
276
SONAR
Recording
Input monitoring
Next, you say "2." In the time it takes you do that, the ADC has converted the "1" to digital form and
the Wave In driver has fed it to SONAR for processing. SONAR processes the buffer right away and
passes the processed data right back to the Wave Out driver.
say “3”
SONAR
Finally, you say "3." By this time the original "1" has been converted back to analog audio by the
DAC, and that analog signal is mixed in with the "3" you have just said. The ultimate result is that
you hear a "1" and "3" mixed together at the line output of card—seemingly sounding like an echo,
but actually just an artifact of the signal flow through the system.
You can eliminate the echo by muting the line-in from playing back (see “To eliminate the echo from
input monitoring” on page 278); you’ll send only the processed signal to the sound card outputs. This
technique introduces a little extra latency to what you hear coming out of your sound card, but if you
use WDM or ASIO drivers with your sound cards, the latency is negligible.
The feedback problem results whenever you have a loop in your mixer path: the output of your mixer
is patched into the input of your sound card. Feedback can happen with or without input monitoring,
but since input monitoring can add several levels of gain to the signal flow, it’s of greater concern
when you have input monitoring enabled. Input monitoring is disabled by default when you install
SONAR, and you enable it with the following procedure.
To enable input monitoring
• Turn your speakers down, and on an audio track that you want to monitor, click the Input Echo
button so that it’s lit up (on)
. To disable monitoring for this track, click the button off.
Or
• Turn your speakers down, then click the Input Echo On/Off All Tracks
button in the Control
Bar’s Mix module. This enables input monitoring on all tracks. To disable monitoring for all tracks,
click the button again.
Now you can hear your instrument in real time with any plug-in effects that you want to patch into the
current track. You might also hear an echo, because the dry signal is coming out of your sound card
slightly ahead of the processed signal. To eliminate the dry signal, see the next procedure.
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Input monitoring
277
To eliminate the echo from input monitoring
1. Open the software mixer that controls your sound card. If your sound card uses the Windows
mixer, open the mixer by using the Start > Programs > Accessories > Entertainment >
Volume Control command, or double-clicking the speaker icon on the Windows taskbar.
2. In the Play Control window of the mixer, check the Mute check box in the Line-In column, or in
the column of whatever jack your instrument is plugged into, and close the mixer window.
Now you can hear only the processed sound when you use input monitoring. Using WDM or ASIO
drivers for your sound card keeps latency to a negligible amount.
Note: This procedure does not eliminate feedback from your system, only the echo. If you
experience feedback, you have a feedback loop somewhere in your mixer setup.
To enable input monitoring when arming tracks
Warning: Be extremely careful when enabling input monitoring on an armed track if you are
working in a room that contains both live microphones and studio monitors. In such a scenario,
enabling input monitoring on an armed track can result in an extremely loud feedback loop
between the mirophones and monitors and can damage your ears and speakers.
SONAR makes it possible to automatically enable input monitoring when arming a track for
recording. To do so, hold down the SHIFT key while you click on a track’s Arm button
. Likewise,
holding down the SHIFT key while disabling record during playback will disable input monitoring.
To automatically disable input monitoring during playback
Go to Edit > Preferences > Audio - Playback and Recording and clear the Disable Input
Monitoring during Playback check box.
When this option is enabled, input monitoring will be disabled on all tracks during playback but not
during recording.
See also:
“Live Input PDC override” on page 279
“Arming tracks for recording” on page 259
278
Recording
Input monitoring
Live Input PDC override
While working with virtual instruments and live input monitored tracks, it is important for audio to be
streamed at low latency in order to minimize delay.
Although SONAR supports streaming audio at very low latency, there are cases where internal
buffering can cause additional latency. The most common scenario is when using plug-ins that
require Automatic Plug-in Delay Compensation (PDC). PDC is the process of delay compensating
other normal tracks so they are synchronized with the delayed audio produced by the plug-ins.
Whenever delay compensation takes place on a track that has a live input (an input monitored track
or synth track), it is delayed by the required amount to synchronize it with other tracks. In some
cases, the delay can be noticeable and make live tracking difficult.
The Live Input PDC Override toggle lets you disable delay compensation on live tracks, thereby
removing the latency during playback and recording of such tracks. Since it's a toggle, you can
quickly turn it on to complete your tracking at low latency, and turn it off when finished to hear the
track compensated as normal.
Regardless of whether Live Input PDC Override is enabled or disabled, recorded audio is placed
on the timeline at the correct position as recorded.
Live Input PDC Override is ignored during a bounce/export or freeze operations.
Tip: You can control which tracks are delay overridden by enabling input monitoring only for those
tracks. For more information, see “Input monitoring” on page 275.
To enable/disable live input PDC override
• Do one of the following:
• Click the Live Input PDC Override button
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
• Press SHIFT+E.
Figure 66.
The Mix module.
Delay compensation is enabled/disabled on all live input tracks in the project. All other tracks have
normal delay compensation applied.
Note: If the live track being monitored also contains track data (or MIDI data in the case of a
synth track), the streamed track data will not be delay compensated. As a result the recorded
track data will not be in sync with other tracks. You should either mute any clips on the live tracks,
work with an empty region of the track, or use an entirely new track while recording.
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Input monitoring
279
Some signal routings can cause tracks to be out of sync when Live Input PDC Override is enabled.
To prevent any potential sync problems, follow these suggestions:
• Output the live input tracks directly to the final bus in the signal flow.
• Send live tracks directly to a hardware main.
PDC re-sync
Some plug-ins, such as iZotope Ozone 4 and various UAD plugins, change their internal delay
(PDC) dynamically when certain parameters are modified, presets are changed or internal plug-in
routing is changed. When a plug-in changes its internal delay, SONAR will detect this and re-sync all
tracks in the project to this new delay value. While this is done you may hear a momentary
interruption in playing audio. This is normal and required in order to keep tracks in sync and delay
compensated.
See also:
“Input monitoring” on page 275
“Arming tracks for recording” on page 259
The Audio Engine button
SONAR has a button in the Control Bar’s Transport module called the Audio Engine button
. This button lets
you turn SONAR’s audio engine off if you’re getting distortion or feedback and want to cut the sound off. When
playback or recording are in progress, SONAR enables the button automatically—however, the button appears
greyed-out during playback or recording because you can’t control the button at that time.
If you experience feedback during input monitoring, you can click the Audio Engine button to turn
off the audio engine. However, if playback or recording are in progress, the button is unavailable,
and you should click the Reset button
that’s just to the right of it instead, or else stop recording or
playback first and then click the Audio Engine button.
You may experience slightly better playback and recording performance by turning the Audio
Engine button off before you press the Play or Record buttons. This happens if your computer’s
resources are already stretched to the limit. When you start recording or playback with the audio
engine already functioning, there is still some processing that SONAR has to do that’s left over when
you start the transport. This places an extra load on your system that can cause dropouts if your
system is already stretched thin. A more effective solution than disabling the audio engine before
starting the transport is to reduce the load on your system by hiding some meters, increasing latency
slightly, reducing the number of plug-ins and/or tracks, etc.
See also:
“Input monitoring” on page 275
280
Recording
The Audio Engine button
Loop recording
When recording a vocal or an instrumental section, you might want to record several different takes
so that you can choose the one you like best. You might even want to record several takes to double
a part or merge the best parts of each.
Normally, to record each take you would have to arm a track, start recording, perform the take, and
then stop recording. You can record multiple takes more easily using a feature called loop
recording. Loop recording lets you start recording and record as many takes as you like, all in a
single step.
SONAR loops between the loop start and loop end time, allowing you to record one take on each
pass. SONAR creates a clip for each take. You have three choices for where these clips are stored:
• All clips can be recorded in Sound on Sound mode and stored in a single track, where they are
stacked on top of one another.
• All clips can be recorded in Overwrite mode in a single track, where each take is successively
muted except the last one.
• Each clip can be recorded to a different track. SONAR automatically places each take into a new,
empty track. No existing tracks are changed in any way.
When you finish recording, you can use the Edit > Undo command or CTRL+Z to erase all your
takes in a single step.
To use loop recording
1. Choose the input for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for recording.
2. Set the loop start and end times in the Control Bar’s Loop module.
3. Right-click the Record button
Recording
Loop recording
in the Transport module to access recording settings.
281
Figure 67.
The Record section
4. Choose to stack all takes in a single track or to store them in separate tracks.
5. If you choose to stack all takes in a single track, choose either Sound on Sound or Overwrite
mode.
If you use single track and Sound on Sound with Track Layers enabled, checking the Create New
Layer on Overlap check box will create another track layer if your new clip overlaps an existing
clip.
6. If you stack all takes in a single track, you can audition them later by using the Track Layers
button
in the right of the Track pane (each take will have its own Mute and Solo buttons).
7. Click OK to close the Preferences dialog, and set the Now time to the point in the project where
you want to start recording.
8. Click
282
or press R. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will play the count-in measure.
Recording
Loop recording
9. Play or perform the material you want to record. At the end of the loop, SONAR will return to the
start of the loop and you can record the next take.
10. Click
or press the SPACEBAR when you want to stop recording.
The takes are stored in the manner you requested.
Punch recording
Suppose you are happy with most of a track but want to replace some sound or add new material in
one small section—perhaps as small as a couple of notes. This is where punch recording comes in
handy, because it lets you record new material only within a specified range of times.
For example, suppose you recorded a 32-bar keyboard solo but made some mistakes in the 24th
and 25th bars. With punch recording, you can play the entire solo again, so you make sure you can
get the feel you want. However, only the bars you want to correct are actually recorded. That way,
you don’t have to worry about introducing new mistakes elsewhere in the recording.
To use punch recording, follow these steps:
• Enable punch recording.
• Set the start and end times of the punch.
• Choose Sound on Sound mode or Overwrite mode.
• Start recording by pressing R or clicking the
button on the Control Bar’s Transport module.
The Control Bar’s Punch module shows the punch settings, as shown here:
Figure 68.
The Punch module.
A
B
C
D
A. Auto-Punch On/Off B. Set Punch Time to Select C. Punch In Time D. Punch Out Time
When punch recording is enabled, the punch times are indicated by special markers in the Time
Ruler, which is at the top of the Clips pane:
A
B
A. Punch In B. Punch Out
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Punch recording
283
After you punch record, choosing Edit > Undo both discards any new material you recorded and
restores the original material that had been deleted.
You can also combine loop and punch recording to record several takes of a punch. Say you are
working on that perfect take of a guitar solo and you need to hear a couple of bars of the project as
“pre-roll” before you punch in. By combining looping with punch, you can have each take begin
before you start to play and still have the solo cut in at the appropriate instant.
In the example mentioned previously, you could loop from bar 17 to bar 26 but record only bars 24
and 25. Here’s what this looks like:
A
B
A. The loop starts and ends here B. The punch starts and ends here
To punch record
1. Choose the input(s) for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for recording.
2. Enable the Auto Punch on/off button
in the Control Bar’s Punch module.
3. Set the start and end times in one of the following ways:
• Enter the times directly in the Punch module.
• Select a range of time and click
in the Punch module.
• Select a range of time, then right-click in the Time Ruler and choose Set Punch Points
4. Right-click the Record button
to access recording settings, then choose the desired
recording mode: Sound on Sound or Overwrite.
5. Set the Now time to a point where you want to start playback.
6. Click
or press R to start recording. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will play the
count-in measures or beats.
7. Play or perform the material you want to record.
8. Click
or press the SPACEBAR to stop recording.
The material you play during the punch time is recorded in the chosen track, either replacing any
existing material (Overwrite mode) or blending with it (Sound on Sound mode).
284
Recording
Punch recording
To use punch while looping
1. Choose the input for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for recording.
2. Set the loop start and end times.
3. Set the punch start and end times, as described previously.
4. Right-click the Record button
to access recording settings.
5. Choose to stack all takes in a single track or to store them in separate tracks.
6. Set the Now time to the beginning of the loop.
7. Click
or press R to start recording. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will play the
count-in measures.
8. Play or perform the material you want to record. At the end of the loop, SONAR will return to the
start of the loop and you can record the next take.
9. Click
or press the SPACEBAR when you want to stop recording.
The takes are stored in the manner you requested.
Step recording
Step recording is a method of recording MIDI notes one note or chord at a time. It’s a very easy and
precise way to record, but can sound mechanical if used in the wrong situation. You use step
recording in its typical form by choosing a step size, such as a quarter note, and then playing a note
on your MIDI keyboard. When you play the note, SONAR records the note, and moves the insertion
point forward by the distance of the step size (moving the insertion point every time you press a note
is the default behavior). You can then record more notes of the same duration by playing notes on
your keyboard, or you can change the step size while you’re recording and record different size
notes. You can also choose how long the notes you play will sound, as a percentage of the step size.
For example, even though you record some notes that have a step size of a quarter note, if you set
the Duration field to 50%, the notes will be recorded and displayed as a series of eighth notes, each
followed by an eighth rest. The insertion point for each recorded note in this example moves by a
quarter note (the step size) each time you record a note. If the duration is longer than the step size,
the notes will overlap with the notes recorded at the next step.
SONAR displays your step-recorded notes in the Staff view, Piano Roll view, Event List, and Clips
pane in real time as you step record them. SONAR also lets you:
• Use other commands while step recording
Note: SONAR doesn't respond to sync signals while the Step Record dialog is open and
enabled.
• Change tracks while recording
Recording
Step recording
285
• Add two step sizes together by pressing the + key between each step size selection
• Delete as many step-recorded notes as you want, while moving the insertion point back through
the steps you delete
• Configure step recording key bindings (see “Step record keyboard Shortcuts” on page 291)
• Make any kind of tuplet
• Create a custom step size lasting any number of ticks (ticks are divisions of a beat—SONAR uses
960 by default); SONAR will remember the custom step size until you change it
• Move the insertion point by beats, measures, or step size
• Link the position of the Now Time to the insertion point
• Offset the insertion point by the number of ticks that you specify
• Randomize duration
• Record notes with constant pitch, and/or velocity, and/or channel
• Hold notes across steps
Tip: By using keyboard shortcuts, you can leave your left hand on your MIDI keyboard to enter notes
with, and control most step recording functions with your right hand on the NumPad.
MIDI data is recorded using step record even if the track is not armed. Loop markers are ignored.
And step recording always uses the Sound on Sound (blend) record mode, regardless of the
current record mode.
With Auto Advance disabled, you must click Advance each time you want to advance to the next
step. While this requires more effort, it also provides you with more flexibility. For example, with Auto
Advance disabled, you do not even need to play the notes at a single step at the same time! You
can play any number of notes one at a time, and they will all be recorded at the same step until you
click the Advance button. You can even record notes of different durations at the same step—simply
record the notes of one duration, change the duration, and play more notes, without clicking
Advance.
The Step Record dialog has two modes: Basic (smaller with fewer options), and Advanced (larger,
more options). To use Basic mode, click the Bas./Adv. button so that the Adv. button is displayed.
To use Advanced mode, click the Bas./Adv. button so that the Bas. button is displayed.
Here’s a picture of Basic mode:
286
Recording
Step recording
Figure 69.
The Step Record - Basic window
G
F
E
A
B
C
D
A. Insertion point location B. Position slider C. Basic/Advanced button D. Step Record Toggle button to enable/
disable step recording E. Click to move insertion point by step size F. Total step size display G. Custom tick size
field
Here’s a picture of Advanced mode:
Figure 70.
The Step Record - Advanced window
A
B
D
C
A. Randomize durations field B. Step pattern recording field C. Click to move insertion point by single beat
D. Click to move insertion point by single measure
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Step recording
287
To use basic step recording
1. Click the Record button
and keep the button pressed for a bried moment until the pop-up
menu appears, then choose Step Record. The Record button changes to
2. Click the Step Record button
.
to open the Step Record dialog.
3. Make sure that the Basic mode of the Step Record dialog is displayed (the Adv. button will be
showing if the Basic mode is displayed; if the Bas. button is showing, click it).
4. Set the insertion point by doing one or more of the following:
• Click the Step Advance button
to move the insertion point forward by the current step size,
or click the Step Backwards button
to move the insertion point backward by the current
step size. SONAR displays the insertion point location in the Insertion point location field
(see Basic mode picture above).
• Drag the position slider left or right to move the insertion point one measure at a time.
• Type a location in MBT (Measure-Beat-Tick) format in the Insertion point location field.
5. Choose a step size by doing one of the following:
• For common step sizes, click one of the notehead icons to choose a step size as large as a
whole note
or as small as a 64th note
. You can increase the step size you choose by
50% or 75% by clicking the dot icon
, or double-dot icon
, respectively. You can add
different step sizes together by holding down the CTRL key while you click extra icons, or by
pressing the + key on the NumPad.
• For a tuplet step size, click a notehead icon to choose the “tuplet unit” (for example, for eighthnote triplets, choose an eighth note). Then enable the Tuplet check box and fill in the “n” in
time of “n” fields. For example, if you want quarter-note triplets, click the quarter-note icon
,
enable the Tuplet check box, and fill in 3 in the time of 2, which means 3 quarter notes in the
time of 2 quarter notes. If you want eighth-note triplets, click the eighth-note icon
, enable
the Tuplet check box, and fill in 3 in the time of 2. If you wanted 5 notes in one beat, click the
quarter-note icon, enable the Tuplet check box, and fill in 5 in the time of 1.
• If you want to create a custom step size, click the n button
the Ticks field.
, and fill in the number of ticks in
6. Choose a duration by doing one of the following:
• If you want duration and step size to be the same, enable the Follow Step Size check box.
• If you want duration and step size to be different, disable the Follow Step Size check box and
fill in a percentage value in the % of Note Value field.
7. Choose a destination track for your recording in the Destination Track field.
8. If you want the insertion point to advance automatically when you play your MIDI controller,
enable the Auto Advance check box.
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Recording
Step recording
9. Play a note or chord on your MIDI controller. When you release the note(s), the insertion point
moves by the step size, if the Auto Advance check box is enabled. If Auto Advance is not
enabled, you can release the notes and record more notes, or you can use the Navigation
controls to advance the insertion point. If you are still holding down a note or notes when you
advance the insertion point, the step size of the held notes is extended by the current step size.
10. Continue recording notes of the same step size and duration to the same track, or change any of
those parameters and continue recording. To create a rest, advance the insertion point without
playing any notes. To delete notes on previous steps, you can press CTRL+Z for each recorded
step. If you want to delete previous steps and move the insertion point back at the same time,
check the Delete on Back Step check box, and click the Step Backward button.
11. When you’re finished recording, close the dialog by clicking the X icon in the upper right corner,
or by pressing SHIFT+R.
You can press CTRL+Z during or after recording to undo your recording one step at a time.
Note: Options that you choose in Advanced mode, such as Link to Now Time, are still in force
when you use Basic mode.
To use advanced step recording
The procedure for Advanced step recording is the same as for Basic, but with these extra options,
which become available when you click the Bas./Adv. button in the Step Record dialog so that it
displays Bas.:
To do this
Do this
Randomize the note duration
Disable the Follow Step Size check box, enter a number
into the % of Note Value field (leave it at 100 if you want to
follow step size), and enter the maximum duration that the
step size should be randomized in the Randomize By field.
Choose a constant pitch and/or velocity and/or
MIDI channel for the recorded note(s)
To choose a constant value for pitch, velocity, or channel,
disable the Use Input check box next to the desired field,
and fill in the value you want to use for that particular
parameter.
Add two step sizes together
See “To add two step sizes together” on page 290
Link the insertion point to the Now Time
Enable the Link to Now Time check box.
Enter notes at an offset distance from the
displayed insertion point.
Enter a positive or negative number of ticks in the Offset
field.
Move the insertion point back or forward by one
beat.
Click the Beat Backward button
or the Beat Advance
button.
Table 37.
Recording
Step recording
289
To do this
Do this
Move the insertion point back or forward by one
measure.
Click the Measure Backward button
Use step pattern recording.
See “Step pattern recording” on page 292.
Advance
or the Measure
button.
Table 37.
To add two step sizes together
1. Choose your first step size. If desired, use any combination of tuplet and dotted values.
2. Press the + key on the Num Pad.
A plus sign appears after the value in the Step Size “n” Ticks field.
3. Choose your second step size. If desired, use any combination of tuplet and dotted values.
The total step size appears in the Step Size “n” Ticks field.
4. Press the note on your MIDI keyboard that you want to enter.
The new note appears in your track, and the Now Time moves the distance of the two combined
steps that you entered. To toggle the plus sign on or off in the Step Size “n” Ticks field, press the +
key on the Num Pad. To clear a large value from the Step Size “n” Ticks field, click a smaller value,
or use a keyboard shortcut for a smaller value.
To use other commands while step recording
• Use the mouse to click the command you want to use.
or
• Click the Activate Step Recording button
in the Step Record dialog so that the button is not
red. This disables step recording, allowing you to use both the mouse, and any keyboard
shortcuts that the Step Record dialog uses, for other commands.
By default, opening the Step Record window will automatically enable step recording. SHIFT+R is
the default shortcut to open the Step Record dialog. Once the Step Record window is open, you
can enable/disable step recording at will without closing the Step Record window: just click the
Activate Step Recording button
in the Step Record dialog, or press SHIFT+R.
See also:
“Step record keyboard Shortcuts” on page 291
“Step pattern recording” on page 292
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Step record keyboard Shortcuts
The default keyboard shortcuts for step recording are on the NumPad, so that you can keep one
hand on your MIDI keyboard to play notes with, and use the other hand on the NumPad to use
shortcuts.
You can use key bindings to configure your own shortcuts. Go to Edit > Preferences >
Customization - Key Bindings, choose Step Record in the Bind Context field, select a key and a
function you want to bind, and click the Bind button to bind them together. Bind additional keys and
commands as needed.
Default setting or option
Default shortcut
Whole note
NumPad 1
Half note
NumPad 2
Quarter note
NumPad 4
Eighth note
NumPad 8
16th note
NumPad 6
32nd note
NumPad 3
64th note
NumPad 7
Custom step size
NumPad 9
Tuplet
NumPad /
Dot
NumPad *
Double dot
SHIFT+NumPad *
Add next step size to previous step size
NumPad plus key “+”
Toggle the Delete on Back Step option
NumPad minus key “-”
Follow step size
CTRL+Num Lock (does not change Num Lock state)
Step backward
NumPad 0
Step advance
NumPad Enter
Beat backward
SHIFT+NumPad 0
Beat advance
SHIFT+NumPad Enter
Measure backward
CTRL+NumPad 0
Measure advance
CTRL+NumPad Enter
Table 38.
Recording
Step recording
291
Default setting or option
Default shortcut
Auto Advance
NumPad Period “.”
Toggle step recording
SHIFT+ R
Table 38.
See:
“Step pattern recording” on page 292
Step pattern recording
The Pattern option lets you define a repeating rhythmic pattern of notes and rests so that you can
use step recording more efficiently. For example, suppose your project is in 4/4 time, and one track
has a pattern that is two measures long: quarter notes in the first measure and on the first two beats
of the second measure, followed by a half-note rest on the last two beats. This pattern has six
quarter notes followed by two quarter-note rests.
When you use step recording with Auto Advance, you can play the six quarter notes and SONAR
will automatically advance to the next step. However, to skip over the rests, you need to click the
Advance button two times.
With pattern recording, you define a pattern that indicates where the rests appear in the pattern.
SONAR will then skip over the rests automatically, so you don’t need to click the Advance button at
all.
SONAR displays patterns as a combination of digits (which represent beats that contain notes) and
dots (which represent beats that contain rests). The pattern described previously looks like this:
123456..
Here is another example:
12.4
This pattern automatically skips over every third beat; SONAR interprets this pattern as “one, two,
rest, four.”
Here is one final example based on 4/4 time, with a step size of eighth-note triplets (twelve steps per
measure):
1234.67.90.2
No matter how you enter a pattern, SONAR displays the digits in sequence, with periods replacing
digits at each step where a rest would occur. You can create patterns with up to 64 steps.
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To use pattern-based step recording
1. Click the Record button
and keep the button pressed for a bried moment until the pop-up
menu appears, then choose Step Record. The Record button changes to
2. Click the Step Record button
.
to open the Step Record dialog.
3. Set the insertion point where you want to start recording.
4. Click in the Pattern field.
5. Press any number key to indicate a beat at which notes will be played.
6. Press the SPACEBAR, period, or the letter R to indicate a beat on which there is a rest.
7. When the pattern is complete, click elsewhere in the dialog box.
8. Step record as before.
From now on, after you record each step, SONAR automatically advances past all rests to the next
step on which notes will be played. If you change step sizes while recording, the size of each rest
changes also. To stop pattern-based step recording, simply delete the pattern from the Pattern box.
SONAR stores up to 10 patterns in the Pattern field.
Recording specific ports and channels
Most MIDI instruments are capable of sending information on several different channels at once. By
default, SONAR merges all incoming MIDI data and records it on whatever MIDI tracks are armed.
However, SONAR also allows you to control which MIDI input ports and channels each track will
record. Here are some examples of when this feature might be useful:
• There are several performers, each playing a different MIDI instrument. By setting each
instrument to transmit MIDI on a different channel and/or port, you can record each player’s
performance into a separate track, even though they are all playing at the same time.
• You are using a MIDI guitar controller and want to record the notes played on each string on a
separate track.
• Your electronic keyboard has a built-in auto accompaniment feature that plays a drum part and an
accompaniment while you play lead. You want to record each of these three parts into a different
track in a SONAR project.
• You have a MIDI sequence stored on your synthesizer’s built-in sequencer, and you want to
record each channel onto a different track.
You can use external MIDI synchronization to automate the process of loading multichannel
sequences from other MIDI devices. For more information, see “Synchronizing your gear” on
page 1079.
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You select MIDI inputs for a track by using the Input control in the Track view, Track Inspector or
Console view.
SONAR allows you to filter MIDI input so that you can record only certain kinds of MIDI data (see
“Input filtering” on page 295), and also allows you to automatically turn off the Local On setting of
your master keyboard.
To assign input ports and channels to MIDI tracks
1. Click a track’s Input control to display the Input drop-down menu. Choose track inputs from
these choices:
• None. This option actually sets the Input field to Omni. With this setting the track will record
any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
• All Inputs > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). With this setting the track will record any MIDI
input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). Choosing this option causes
the track to record any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver, unless
you choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record
input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input driver.
• Preset. If you’ve created any preset collections of input ports and channels, you can select
one here.
• Manage Presets. If you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see following procedure).
2. Click OK.
SONAR shows new track inputs in the Input fields in the Track pane.
To create or edit a preset input configuration
1. In the Input field of a track that you want to select inputs for, click the drop-down arrow and
choose Manage Presets from the drop-down menu (this menu is also available from the MIDI
Inputs button in the Track Inputs dialog).
The MIDI Input Presets dialog appears.
2. In the Input Port column, find the input port that you want to use for this track (if you only use a
single-port MIDI interface, you’ll only see one choice).
3. To the right of the input port, select the MIDI channels that you want this track to respond to on
this MIDI port. Clicking the OMNI button in this row of MIDI channels clears or fills all the check
boxes in this row.
4. Select channels for any other MIDI port that’s listed, if you want to use channels on that port also.
5. If you want to save this configuration, type a name for it in the window at the top of the dialog,
and click the disk icon to save it.
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Now, when you choose inputs for other tracks, you can choose the preset you saved by clicking the
Presets option in the track’s Input drop-down menu. If you want to edit a preset, select it in the top
window of the MIDI Input Presets dialog, edit it, and click the disk icon. If you want to delete a
preset, select it in the same dialog and click the X button to delete it.
Input filtering
SONAR lets you filter out specific types of MIDI messages or filter the MIDI input stream channel by
channel. Any MIDI information that is filtered out is neither recorded nor echoed to any other MIDI
devices.
You can use the message type filter to screen out resource-intensive MIDI messages like key and
channel aftertouch. By default, SONAR records all types of events except these two.
You can use message-type filtering to record short System Exclusive (Sysx) messages in real-time.
These will end up in the track as Sysx data events, which can hold System Exclusive messages up
to 255 bytes. Leave the Buffers setting at 128 unless you experience data not being recorded. For
more information about Sysx, see “System exclusive data” on page 1065.
To filter event types
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Playback and Recording.
2. Check the message types you want recorded.
3. Click OK.
From now on, SONAR records only the types of events you have chosen.
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Importing music and sound
While recording is perhaps the most common way of adding material to a SONAR project, there are
several other methods you can also use. SONAR lets you import music into a project from several
different types of digital data files, including MIDI files; audio files in Wave, MP3, AIFF, and other
formats; audio CD tracks and other SONAR project files.
See:
“Importing audio CD Tracks” on page 298
“Importing material from another SONAR project” on page 299
“Importing MIDI files” on page 301
Importing audio files
SONAR lets you insert digital audio information into any track of a project. If the audio file you are
importing is in stereo, then it can be imported into a single stereo track, a pair of mono tracks or a
single mono track.
The File > Import > Audio command supports the following digital audio file types:
• Wave (extension .wav)
• MPEG (extensions .mpeg, .mpg, .mp2, and .mp3)
• Apple AIFF (extensions .aif and .aiff)
• Active Streaming (extension .asf)
• Next/Sun (extensions .au and .snd)
• REX (extensions .rex, .rx2, and.rcy)
• Sony Wave64 (extension .w64)
• FLAC (extension .flac)
• Sound Designer II (extension .sd2)
• Core Audio Format (extension .caf)
The sampling rate and bit depth for a project is set based on your default settings in Edit >
Preferences > Audio - Driver Settings. If the sampling rate from the Wave file does not match the
sampling rate in your project, then it will be converted to the current project’s sampling rate and bit
depth.
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To import an audio file
1. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the audio should be placed.
2. Choose File > Import > Audio to display the Open dialog box.
3. Choose the audio file you want to import. SONAR displays information about the file at the
bottom of the dialog box.
4. Click Play to listen to the audio file before importing.
5. If the new file is stereo, check the Stereo Split option if you want to insert the file into two
separate tracks.
6. Click Open.
SONAR loads the audio data from the audio file and places it in the selected track at the Now time.
Preview bus
Files in the Import Audio dialog box may be selected and previewed in any existing bus in SONAR.
To preview a file
1. Select the desired output bus in the Preview Bus combo box
2. Click on the file in the file explorer pane
3. Click the Play button.
4. During playback, the Play button becomes a Stop button. Click Stop to stop playback.
Broadcast Wave files
Broadcast Wave files are wave files with some additional information stored in them. Broadcast
Wave files have the following information:
• Description. A brief description of the contents of the Broadcast wave. Limited to 256
characters.
• Originator. The author of the Broadcast wave. This information is taken from the Author field in
the “File Info dialog” on page 1510.
• Originator Reference. A unique reference identifier created by SONAR.
• Origination Date.
The date the file was created.
• Origination Time.
The time the file was created.
• Time Reference. The SMPTE time stamp for the beginning of broadcast wave.
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To import a Broadcast Wave file:
1. If you want SONAR to import Broadcast Wave files always at their timestamped location, go to
Edit > Preferences > File - Audio Data and select the Always Import Broadcast Waves At
Their Timestamp check box. Otherwise, set the Now Time and current track to indicate where
the audio should be placed.
2. Choose File > Import > Audio to display the Open dialog box.
3. Choose the audio file you want to import. SONAR displays information about the file at the
bottom of the dialog box.
4. Click Play to listen to the audio file before importing.
5. If the new file is stereo, check the Stereo Split option if you want to insert the file into two
separate tracks.
6. Click Open.
If the Always Import Broadcast Waves At Their Timestamp option is selected in Edit >
Preferences > File - Audio Data, the imported Broadcast Wave file appears at its timestamp on the
selected track. Otherwise, the file appears at the Now Time on the selected track.
Importing audio CD Tracks
The File > Import > Audio CD command lets you import tracks from audio CD’s into any track of a
project.
Audio tracks on a CD always have a bit depth of 16, but you can choose to import the tracks at a
higher bit depth if desired.
To import a track from an audio CD
1. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the audio should be placed.
2. Insert an audio CD into the computer’s CD drive.
3. Choose File > Import > Audio CD to display the “Import Audio CD Tracks dialog” on page 1523
box.
4. Make sure the correct CD drive is selected in the Target Drive drop-down list.
5. Choose the audio track you want to import. SONAR displays the length and size of all audio
tracks.
6. Click Play to listen to the audio track before importing.
7. If you wish to import the audio with a different bit depth than the original audio track, choose the
desired bit depth from the Import Bit Depth drop-down list.
8. Click OK.
SONAR loads the audio data from the audio CD and places it in the selected track at the Now time.
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Importing material from another SONAR project
You use the Edit > Copy and Edit > Paste commands to import material from one project to
another using the Windows clipboard. The project that contains the material you want to import is
the source project. The project into which the material is imported is the target project.
Normally, if you copy material from several different tracks to the Windows clipboard, the information
will be pasted back into separate tracks. You can choose to paste all the material from the clipboard
into a single destination track in the target project.
You can also copy material from one project to another by displaying the Track view for both projects
side by side, then using drag-and-drop editing.
To import material from another project
1. Open the source project, or click in the Track view for that project.
2. In the Track view, select the material you want to import.
3. Choose Edit > Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
4. Make sure that Events in Tracks is checked. If you don’t want to import tempo changes, meter/
key changes, or markers, uncheck those options. Click OK.
5. Open the target project, or click in the Track view for that project.
6. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the material should be placed.
7. Choose Edit > Paste Special to display the Paste dialog box.
8. Check Paste to One Track if you want all material imported into the current track (not
recommended if you’re importing both MIDI and audio data).
9. Click OK.
SONAR imports the material and displays it in the Track view.
Importing OMF projects
With OMFI (Open Media Framework Interchange) support & Broadcast WAVE support SONAR lets
you collaborate and exchange project files with users of other programs and platforms. Support for
OMFI and Broadcast Wave files provides cross-platform compatibility with OMFI host applications
such as Pro Tools, Avid and Logic systems. SONAR also exports projects as OMF files that you can
open in Pro Tools and other audio software.
SONAR allows you to select sample rate and bit depth during OMF import.
A few general guidelines for preparing OMF files for import into SONAR:
• OMF version 2 is preferred.
• AIFC can take slightly longer to open, as the data must be converted to WAVE on read, so WAVE
is the best choice.
• If exporting from Avid Xpress DV, select "embed" (not "link") when exporting the OMF file, and
don't include any video.
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OMF explained
The OMF format, or OMFI (Open Media Framework Interchange, means the same as OMF), is a file
format that can be read by many professional-level audio programs. OMF files contain two basic
types of information:
• Audio and/or video files, referred to as media
• Information needed to put the media data in sequence—known as the Composition
The OMF file supplies the following data and information:
• Tracks
• Clip positions—an OMF file's EDL edit resolution can be either frame accurate or sample
accurate. SONAR can read either, but always writes sample accurate. The clip position is
specified in absolute samples.
• Slip edits
• Fades and crossfades (as destructive edits)—SONAR renders any fades when it writes OMFs,
creating separate clips for any fade-ins or fade-outs. SONAR slip-edits the original clip to make
room for the fade-in and fade-out clips. If you export to an audio program that supports slip
editing, the user can delete the fade clips and roll out the original clip to return to the original raw
audio (without fades) if desired.
• Sample rate and audio bit depth, but only if the media are embedded in the OMF
The OMF file does NOT supply the following data and information:
• Volume and pan envelopes—OMF does actually support limited automation. However, as with
Nuendo and most other OMF host programs, gains and pans are ignored (on both read and write)
in SONAR as they are only supported on MONO tracks (OMF limitation).
• Plug-in effects.
• MIDI data
• Tempo
Whoever supplies the OMF file that you want to open in SONAR should also send along a text file
containing all pertinent information about the project, especially tempo.
To open OMF files in SONAR
1. Use the File > Open command, which opens the Open dialog.
2. In the Files Of Type field, select OMF File.
3. Navigate to the folder that contains your OMF files, select the OMF file you want to open, and
then click the Open button, which opens the Unpack OMF dialog.
4. If you know the exact tempo of the file, enter it into the Initial Tempo field. It is always preferable
to know and enter the project tempo at this point. If you don't know the project tempo you can
open the file at the default tempo and then change the file's tempo later, but this will cause the
clips to move.
5. The Sample Rate field displays the sample rate of the imported audio (if the audio is embedded
in the OMF). Use this field to change the sample rate, if you need to.
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6. The Bit Depth field displays the bit depth of the imported audio if the audio is embedded. If the
audio is external, the Bit Depth field defaults to the Original menu option, which will import the
audio at the bit depth the audio is currently using. If you want to import the audio at a different bit
depth, you can choose the bit depth in this field.
7. If you have previously enabled SONAR's Use Per-Project Audio Folders option in Edit >
Preferences > File - Audio Data, then the Store Project Audio In Its Own Folder check box is
already enabled, and the fields under it are available. If you want to use this option, fill out the
fields below the check box; otherwise, disable the check box.
8. Click OK.
SONAR opens the OMF file.
You can also export SONAR projects as OMF files (File > Export > OMF command).
See “Exporting OMF files” on page 897.
Importing MIDI files
You can create a new SONAR project from a MIDI file simply by opening the file. SONAR takes
material from the file and places it into one or more tracks in the Track view.
To import data from a MIDI file into a project
1. Open the MIDI file as a new, separate project.
2. Choose Edit > Select > All.
3. Choose Edit > Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
4. Make sure that Events in Tracks is checked. If you don’t want to import tempo changes, meter/
key changes, or markers, uncheck those options. Click OK.
5. Open the target project, or click in the Track view for that project.
6. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the material should be placed.
7. Choose Edit > Paste Special to display the Paste dialog box.
8. Check Paste to One Track if you want all material imported into the current track.
9. Click OK.
SONAR imports the material and displays it in the Track view.
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Importing audio / MIDI files from the Clips pane
It is possible to import audio and MIDI files via the Clips pane context menu. Imported files are
inserted at the Now time.
To import audio/MIDI files
1. In the Clips pane, right-click the track to which you want to import an audio or MIDI file.
The Clips pane context menu appears.
2. Do one of the following:
• Select Import Audio to import an audio file.
• Select Import MIDI to import a MIDI file.
See:
“Importing music and sound” on page 296
Saving your work
Like most Windows programs, SONAR has a File > Save command and a File > Save As
command to save your work. Normally, you save your projects in the standard project file format,
with a file extension of .cwp. This file contains all your MIDI data and all your project settings. Any
digital audio that is part of your project is stored in a separate file, as described in “System
configuration” on page 1105.
SONAR also lets you save files in several other formats, as described in the table:
File type
Format
Explanation
Standard MIDI
.mid
Used to transfer MIDI-only projects to other software products that support
Standard MIDI files.
Bundle
.cwb
A single file that includes all the material in your project: MIDI data, project
settings, and audio data. This format is used for projects that contain digital
audio, when you want to back up your work or transfer a project to a different
computer. See “Backing up projects with digital audio” on page 1102 for
more information.
Note: Bundle files do not save video data.
Template
.cwt
A file that is used as a pattern to create another. Templates make it easy to
create and configure new projects. See “Templates and key bindings” on
page 991 for more information.
Table 39.
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Saving your work
If you have made changes to a project and then attempt to close the project, either by closing the
Track view or by choosing File > Close, SONAR asks if you want to save the changes you have
made. This prevents you from accidentally losing your work. You can tell whether changes have
been made to a project by looking for an asterisk (*) after the project name in the SONAR title bar.
SONAR has an Auto Save feature that periodically saves your work into a special backup file. You
can request automatic backups at fixed time intervals or every time a certain number of changes
have been made to the file. When the limit is reached, the file is saved automatically. If your original
project is called MyProject.cwp, the Auto Save version is called Auto Save Version of
MyProject.cwp.
If there is a power failure or if you make a significant mistake, you can recover the last-saved version
of your project by opening this file. You should then save your project under a different name by
using the File > Save As command.
To Save a project
1. Choose File > Save As to display the Save As dialog box.
2. Choose the type of file you want to save from the Save as Type list.
3. Enter a file name and click Save.
SONAR saves the file. You can also use File Versioning instead of using Save As. For more
information, see “To use File Versioning” on page 304.
To change the Auto Save settings
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > File - Advanced to access Auto Save settings.
2. To enable Auto Save, set the number of minutes and/or the number of changes between saves.
3. To disable Auto Save, set both values to zero.
4. Click OK.
From now on, your projects are saved automatically according to the settings you entered.
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Using File Versioning
SONAR can be enabled to keep previously saved versions of your project in a temporary file. You
can revert to any of these saved versions or use the default of the most recently saved version.
When file versioning is enabled, SONAR retains a list of previously saved project files in your project
folder. The most recent version retains the original name of the project. Previously saved versions
are saved with a time stamp following the original project name in order of most recently saved.
To use File Versioning
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > File - Advanced to access File Versioning settings.
2. Check the Enable Versioning Of Project (.CWP) Files check box.
3. Use the spinner to select the number of versions of your project you would like SONAR to keep.
Note: If you exceed the maximum number of saved file versions selected in Step 3, the oldest
version is discarded.
To revert to a previously saved file
1. Choose File > Revert.
A dialog box appears containing a list of dates and file sizes for all previously saved versions of
the current project.
2. Select the file version you want to work on.
3. Click OK.
Note: If the current project is unsaved at the time you choose File > Revert, you will be
prompted with a warning that reverting the project will cause all unsaved changes to be lost.
When the reverted project is loaded, the timestamp is stripped off, and the reverted project
assumes the project’s original name.
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Labeling your projects
SONAR lets you attach subtitles, composer credits, copyright, and other information to your projects,
as shown in the following table:
Label
Description
Title
The title for your project; prints automatically at the top of a Staff view printout.
Subtitle
For a subtitle or dedication; prints directly below the title in a Staff view printout.
Instructions
Use for performance instructions; prints flush left in a Staff view printout.
Author
Put your name here if you are the composer. Prints flush right in a Staff view printout.
Copyright
Copyright information prints flush right, under the author name, in a Staff view
printout.
Keywords
Put keywords describing the project here for future reference.
Comments
Free text comments. Type as much as you like. You can enter approximately the
same amount of text as you can in Windows Notepad.
Table 40.
This information is shown in the “File Info dialog” on page 1510 box, which is displayed using the
Project > Info command. If the File Info window is open when you save a file, then this window is
displayed automatically the next time the file is opened. This is useful if you:
• Share files with others and want them to see special instructions when they open the file
• Want your copyright information to be displayed automatically
If the File Info window is closed when you save the file, it will not be automatically displayed the next
time the file is opened.
Although you cannot use Edit menu commands while working in the File Info window, standard
Windows hot keys like CTRL+X, CTRL+C, and CTRL+V can be used to cut, copy, and paste text.
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To display and edit project information
1. Choose Project > Info to display the File Info window.
2. Edit the information as desired.
Figure 71.
The File Info window
3. If you want the File Info window to display automatically, save the file.
4. Click Stats to see statistics about the contents of the file.
5. Choose File > Print Preview if you want to print the project information
6. Close the File Info window.
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File statistics
To open the File Statistics dialog, select Project > Info and click the Stats button in the File Info
dialog. The File Statistics dialog box displays the following information about the contents of the
project file:
Statistic
What it means
Created
The date the project was first saved.
Editing time
The total time you’ve had the project open, from the time it was created to the last
time it was saved. This does not include time spent editing the project since you
last saved it. If you want to update this value, save the project.
Revision
Each time you save a file that has been changed, this number is incremented. If
you open a project, make no changes, then save it, the revision number is not
changed.
Events
The total number of events in the project.
Sample rate
The sample rate for digital audio.
Bit depth
The audio driver bit depth of digital audio.
File version
The SONAR version number.
Table 41.
Recording
Saving your work
307
308
Recording
Saving your work
Arranging and editing
The Track view makes it easy to arrange and mix your projects from a single view. From one
location, you can select, copy, move, mix, and rearrange the parts of your project, using menu
commands or drag-and-drop tools.
You can add real-time audio and MIDI effects from the effects bin and buses.
Markers provide easy-to-use reference points and labels for the different parts of your project, and
the snap grid makes it easy to align your clips to the desired time points.
Slip-editing allows you to non-destructively change the start and/or end time of a clip, just by
dragging its borders.
With Groove clips, you can easily create repetitions of your clips using your mouse.
Both the Track view and Console view have a full set of record and playback meters, which you can
configure in several ways. SONAR also has a variety of tools and commands for changing the
tempo of your project.
Composite tracks allow you to keep all your takes in one track if you want, and selectively mute and
solo the various clips in the track. Track folders let you edit multiple tracks at once and conserve
screen space.
See:
“Arranging tracks” on page 310
“Working with track templates” on page 317
“Track icons” on page 318
“Arranging clips” on page 320
“Working with partial clips” on page 344
“Clip selection groups” on page 337
“Markers and the snap grid” on page 345
“Working with linked clips” on page 353
“Splitting and combining clips” on page 355
“Take management and comping takes” on page 357
“Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)” on page 361
“Track folders” on page 363
“Adding effects in the Track view” on page 366
“Changing tempos” on page 367
“Undo, redo, and the undo history” on page 374
“Slip-editing (non-destructive editing)” on page 376
“Enhanced editing with keyboard” on page 382
Arranging tracks
SONAR provides a variety of commands that let you work with the tracks in your project. Here are
some of the things you can do:
You can
Here’s why
Rearrange the tracks in the Track
view so that they appear in a
different order
This makes it easier to see and work with a subset of tracks, like the
rhythm section, or the vocals and vocal backing tracks, or all muted tracks.
Hide individual tracks
This makes it easier to work in a large project. You can display only the
tracks you want to see at a given time.
Move tracks into a track folder
Lets you group tracks by function, edit several tracks at once, hide groups
of tracks easily, and mute, solo, archive, arm, or input monitor a group or
tracks with one click. See “Track folders” on page 363 for more
information.
Make copies of a track
Copying a track and then adding a time offset or changing the patch is an
easy way to double a part. You can also copy and then transpose a track to
add harmony.
Erase or delete a track
Tracks and clips that you are no longer using in your project are distracting
and take up space in your project file.
Table 42.
All the commands you use to arrange tracks work on selected tracks. The current track (the one with
the lighter titlebar) is always selected. You can select additional tracks as shown in the following
table.
310
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Arranging tracks
To do this
Do this
Select a track
Click the track number in the Track view. The track is selected, and all
other tracks—except the current track—are deselected.
When a track is selected, both the track number and all the data in the
track appear highlighted.
Select several adjacent tracks
Click the track number for the first track in the group, drag the mouse to
the last track number in the group, and release the mouse button.
Select/deselect all tracks
Double-click a track number.
Add or remove a single track from
the selection
Hold the SHIFT key and click the track number to add it to the selection;
hold the CTRL key and click the track number to toggle its selection
status.
Table 43.
See:
“Changing the order of tracks” on page 312
“Configuring the display of tracks in the Track view” on page 315
“Inserting tracks” on page 314
“Copying tracks” on page 316
“Erasing tracks” on page 316
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
311
Changing the order of tracks
There are several ways you can change the order of tracks in the Track view:
• Drag a track to a new position in the Track view.
• Use the Track view Tracks > Sort Tracks command to rearrange the tracks in order based on
the track name, status, or other setting.
To drag a track to a new position
1. Position the mouse just to the right of the track number, over the track icon of the track you want
to move.
The cursor changes to an up/down arrow.
2. Drag the track to its new location, and release the mouse button.
SONAR rearranges and renumbers the tracks.
You can sort the tracks in a project based on several parameters, in either ascending or descending
order:
Sort by
What happens
Name
Ascending puts track in alphabetic order, descending puts them in
reverse order
Size, output, or channel
Ascending puts them in increasing numeric order, descending puts them
in decreasing numeric order
Muted, archived, selected
Ascending puts qualifying tracks at the end, descending puts them at
the beginning
Table 44.
No matter how you sort, blank tracks always go to the end of the list.
Note that track numbers are used for reference only. When you re-arrange the order of tracks, they
are automatically assigned sequential numbers based on the order in which they are displayed in
the Track view.
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To sort the tracks
1. Click the Track view Tracks menu and choose Sort Tracks to open the Sort Tracks dialog box.
2. Choose the attribute by which to sort from the Sort By list:
Attribute
How it works
Name
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts the tracks into alphabetical order, either ascending
or descending, depending on what you choose in the Order list.
Muted
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the muted tracks at either the top or bottom of
the Tracks window, depending on whether you choose descending (top) or ascending
(bottom) in the Order list.
Archived
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the archived tracks at either the top or bottom
of the Tracks window, depending on whether you choose descending (top) or ascending
(bottom) in the Order list.
Selected
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the selected tracks at either the top or bottom of
the Tracks window, depending on whether you choose descending (top) or ascending
(bottom) in the Order list.
Size
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts the tracks in order by size, either in descending or
ascending order.
Output
If you choose this attribute, SONAR sorts the tracks by output number, either in descending
or ascending order. SONAR considers non-numbered outputs to have lower numbers than
numbered outputs.
Channel
If you choose this attribute, SONAR sorts the tracks by channel number, either in
descending or ascending order:
• If you choose ascending order, SONAR puts all MIDI tracks at the bottom of the Tracks
window, with the lower channel numbers first.
• If you choose descending order, SONAR puts all MIDI tracks at the top of the Tracks
window, with the higher channel numbers first.
Table 45.
3. Choose the order in which to sort from the Order list.
4. Click OK.
SONAR sorts the tracks according to the settings you chose.
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
313
Inserting tracks
You can insert new tracks by a variety of methods. When you insert multiple tracks, you can set track
output properties at the same time. If you want new audio tracks to always use the same output bus,
you can set that bus as the default bus.
For step-by-step instructions, follow these procedures:
To insert a single track
Do one of the following:
• Click the Insert menu and choose Audio Track or MIDI Track.
• Right-click in the Track pane at the place where you want to insert a track, and select Insert
Audio Track to add an audio track or Insert MIDI Track to add a MIDI track.
• Press INSERT to add a track of the same type (audio or MIDI) as the current track.
SONAR shifts the current track and all tracks below it down by one, and inserts a blank, new track at
the location of the highlight.
To insert multiple tracks
1. Use the Insert > Multiple Tracks command to open the Insert Tracks dialog.
2. If you want to insert audio tracks, do the following:
• Fill in the number of audio tracks you want to insert in the Audio section’s Track Count field.
• Pick a main audio output for the tracks in the Main Destination field.
• If you want the main output that you chose to be the default output for new audio tracks, enable
the Set as Default Bus check box. You can also choose the default bus by right-clicking a bus,
and choosing Set as Default Bus from the pop-up menu.
• If you want your new audio tracks to contain a Send module that outputs to a specific bus,
choose the bus in the Send field. If you choose None, the new audio tracks will not contain a
Send module.
3. If you want to insert MIDI tracks, do the following:
• Fill in the number of MIDI tracks you want to insert in the MIDI section’s Track Count field.
• Pick a MIDI output for the tracks in the Port field.
• Pick a MIDI output channel for the tracks in the Channel field.
4. Click OK to insert your tracks, or click Cancel to cancel the operation.
Your new tracks appear below any pre-existing tracks, with new audio tracks appearing above new
MIDI tracks.
Note: You can also choose the default output bus for new audio tracks by right-clicking a bus,
and choosing Set as Default Bus from the pop-up menu.
314
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Arranging tracks
Configuring the display of tracks in the Track view
There are several commands in the Track view View menu and Track pane context menu that allow
you to configure the appearance of your tracks in the Track view. You can use these commands to
zoom in or out, show or hide any combination of tracks, and revert back to previous display settings.
The following table lists each of these commands and provides an explanation of each:
Command
Description
Shortcut
Show and Fit Selection
ALT+F
This command hides all tracks which are not selected. The
remaining tracks are adjusted in size vertically and horizontally to fit
in the Track view, without scrolling if possible. All track selections
are lost after this command is executed.
Fit Tracks to Window
All currently displayed tracks are adjusted in size vertically to fit in
the Track view, without scrolling if possible.
F
Fit Project to Window
This command resizes all tracks both vertically and horizontally to
fit in the Tracks view.
SHIFT+F
Lock Height
This command maintains the track’s height when you use a zoom
or fit command. See “To lock or unlock the height of a track” on
page 315.
n/a
Show Only Selected
Tracks
This command hides all tracks which are not selected. The
remaining tracks are adjusted in size vertically.
CTRL+F
Hide Selected Tracks
Hides all selected tracks.
CTRL+H
Track Manager
Opens the Track Manager dialog. For more information about the
Track Manager dialog, see “Track Manager dialog” on page 1665.
H
Undo View Change
This command restores the view to its previous state. There are up
to 16 levels of undo.
ALT+Z
Redo View Change
This command restores the view to the state prior to the Undo View
Change command.
ALT+SHIFT+Z
Table 46.
To lock or unlock the height of a track
1. Right-click an empty area in one of the desired track’s controls to display the Track pane context
menu.
2. Choose Lock Height from the menu.
When you lock the height of a track, its height does not change when you use a Zoom or Fit
command. When a track’s height is locked, you can still drag the track strip’s lower border to adjust
the track’s height. After you drag the border, the altered track height becomes the track’s locked
height.
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
315
Copying tracks
When you copy one or more tracks using the Track view Tracks > Clone Track(s) command, you
can choose any of the following options:
• What to copy: events, properties, effects, sends
• Repetitions: how many copies of each selected track
• Starting track: where you want the first new track to appear
To copy tracks
1. Select the tracks that you want to copy.
2. Click the Track view Tracks menu and choose Clone Track(s) to open the Clone Track(s)
dialog box.
3. Check the Clone Events, Clone Properties, Clone Effects, and/or Clone Sends boxes to
indicate which items you want to copy.
4. If you want copied events to become linked clips, check the Link to Original Clips check box.
5. Select the number of repetitions of each selected track that you want to create.
6. Select the track number where you want the first new track to appear. The other new tracks
appear right after it.
7. Click OK.
SONAR copies the tracks and pastes the selected tracks, with the first new track appearing at the
track number you selected. All tracks appear consecutively.
Note: When cloning an Instrument track, a new MIDI track is created and assigned to the same
soft synth as the cloned instrument track.
Erasing tracks
You can easily delete an entire track, including all of the track properties and all of its clips and
events. Sometimes, you only want to erase, or wipe, the contents of a track, leaving the track
properties as they are. If you delete or wipe a track by mistake, you can use Edit > Undo to restore
the deleted material.
When you delete or wipe a track, the track information is not placed on the SONAR clipboard. To
remove material from a track and place it on the clipboard, use the Edit > Cut command instead.
To delete tracks
1. Select the tracks you want to delete.
2. Click the Track view Tracks menu and choose Delete Track(s).
SONAR deletes the selected tracks. You can also right-click individual tracks and choose Delete
Track from the pop-up menu.
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To wipe tracks
1. Select the tracks you want to wipe.
2. Click the Track view Tracks menu and choose Wipe Track(s).
SONAR deletes all clips and events from the selected tracks, but leaves the track properties intact.
Working with track templates
You can create an unlimited number of track templates for quickly recalling your most often used
track settings including the following:
• Track type (MIDI or Audio)
• Mute, Solo and Record state
• Hardware input
• Output destination
• Bus send settings
• Track parameters
• Track icons
• Effects and their settings
• Instrument and Bank/Patch
• Track name
To create a track template
1. Select the track or tracks you want to save as a preset.
2. Select File > Export > Track Template from the main menu.
The Save As dialog appears.
3. Enter a name for the template and click Save.
Track templates use the file extension .cwx.
To insert a track or tracks from a template
• Select Insert > Track Template to open the Import Track Template dialog, then select the
desired track template.
Or
• Right-click in the Tracks pane and select Insert From Track Template > [track template name]
or select More Track Templates.
This inserts tracks that are exactly like the template.
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
317
Track icons
Track icons allow you to quickly identify a track’s contents by instrument. You can assign a new
track icon, create your own track icons, and save an icon as part of a track template.
To show or hide track icons
• To show or hide Track Icons in all views, use the Views > Icons > Show Icons command.
• To show or hide Track Icons in a specific view, use the Views > Icons > [name of desired
view] > Show Icons command.
Or
• To hide a track icon, right-click a track icon in the desired view, and choose Show Icons from the
pop-up menu. This option is not available in Track view headers.
To configure Track view icons
• To show standard track icons in the header of each track in the Track view, use the Views >
Icons > Track View > Show in Header command.
• To show custom track icons in the header of each track in the Track view, use the Views >
Icons > Track View > Show Custom In Header command.
• To show track icons on the left side of the track controls of each track in the Track view, use the
Views > Icons > Track View > Show In Strip command.
To change the size of track icons
• Right-click a track icon in the desired view, and choose Small Icons or Large Icons from the
pop-up menu.
Or
• Select Views > Icons > [name of desired view] > Small Icons or Large Icons from the main
menu.
To change a track icon
1. Right-click on the icon you want to change.
2. Select Load Track Icon from the menu that appears.
The Open dialog appears.
3. Select an icon and click Open.
Note: The right-click option is not available when you right-click a track icon in a track header in
the Track view. However, you can load a new track icon into a track header by ALT-clicking the
track icon to display the Open dialog, and then choosing a new icon. You can ALT-click a track
icon in any view to display the Open dialog.
To reset a track icon to its original icon
1. Right-click on the icon you want to reset.
2. Select Reset Track Icon from the menu that appears.
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To create a track icon
1. Create or edit a graphics file in .bmp format, preferably 128 by 128 pixels.
You can use any image as a track icon. You can use any size image, but for best results scale the
image to 128 pixels square. Images must be in the .bmp format.
2. Save the image as a .bmp file in the Track Icons directory in your SONAR program folder.
Track icon size(s) and transparency
You can configure the size of small and large icons in Cakewalk.ini. By default, small icons are
32x32 pixels and large icons are 48x48 pixels. Use the following INI variables to change the default
size:
[WinCake]
SmallIconHeight=32
LargeIconHeight=48
If you wish to create custom track icons, we recommend that you author them as 96x96 pixel 24-bit
bitmaps (.BMP).
The top left pixel in the BMP determines the transparent color. If you prefer to not have transparent
icons, add the following variable to Cakewalk.ini:
[WinCake]
IconTopLeftPixelTransparent=0
Configuring Track view controls
To configure track and bus control layouts
1. Click the Track Control button at the top of the Track pane and choose Track Control Manager
to open the Track Control Manager.
2. In the Preset field, choose the control preset that you want to configure, or choose <new>, and
type a name to create a new tab.
3. In each of the four Strip columns (Audio Strip, MIDI Strip, etc.), check all the controls you want to
see for the current preset.
4. To select all available controls, click Select All Controls; to select the default controls, select
Restore Defaults (this will delete any new presets you’ have created).
5. To configure a different preset, select it in the Preset field.
6. Click OK to implement your changes, or Cancel to delete them.
For more information about the Track Control Manager dialog, see “Track Control Manager” on page
1672.
To change the VU meter to horizontal or vertical display
• Click the Track view Options menu, point to Meter Options and choose Horizontal Meters or
Vertical Meters on the submenu.
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
319
Arranging clips
The Track view provides many ways for you to rearrange, copy, and paste clips to arrange your
music the way you want. The easiest is to select the clips or portions of clips you want to arrange
and then drag and drop them wherever you want. You can drag and drop clips in the Track view
even while playback is in progress. You can also arrange clips via the clipboard using the Edit >
Cut, Edit > Copy, and Edit > Paste commands, which work like those in almost all Windows
programs.
The snap grid enables you to move clips to or by an exact amount of time, such as a quarter note or
whole measure. See “To change the snap options” on page 346.
See:
“Displaying clips” on page 320
“Opening views by double-clicking clips” on page 326
“Selecting clips” on page 327
“Moving and copying clips” on page 328
Displaying clips
Clips are displayed as rectangles in the Clips pane. Their position and length show you at a glance
their starting times and lengths. You can control four aspects of their appearance:
• Color. By default, each track’s clips are drawn in a different color. The clip colors restart at the
tenth track. You can customize the default colors of clips in Edit > Preferences > Customization
- Color, or change the color of any individual clip in the Clip Inspector.
Note: In audio clips, the waveform changes color, unless no clip contents are displayed. In MIDI
clips, the clip background changes color.
• Name. You can also assign each clip a descriptive name, which is displayed in the upper-left
corner of the clip.
• Contents. At your option, clips can be displayed with a graphical representation of the events in
the clip. The effect is slightly different for MIDI and audio information.
320
Arranging and editing
Arranging clips
A
B
C
A. A MIDI clip shows each event; by looking at the clips, you can “see” the notes that are being played B. An
audio clip shows the actual waveform C. Controller or automation data are also displayed
To inspect the clip contents more closely, use the zoom tools to increase the size in which clips are
displayed. Note that displaying the contents of each clip makes your computer work a little harder.
As a result, if your computer has an older, slower CPU you may want to turn off the display of clip
contents.:
Figure 72.
Zoom controls
A
B
C
D
E
F
I
H
G
A. Zoom Clips pane out vertically B. Vertical Zoom fader for Clips pane C. Zoom Clips pane in vertically
D. Zoom Bus pane out vertically E. Vertical Zoom fader for Bus pane F. Zoom Bus pane in vertically G. Zoom in
horizontally H. Horizontal zoom fader I. Zoom out horizontally
Arranging and editing
Arranging clips
321
To zoom horizontally
• Click the horizontal zoom buttons to zoom in or out by a fixed percentage each time you click.
Or
• Drag the horizontal zoom fader to zoom in or out by the amount you drag.
Or
• Hold down the CTRL key and press the right arrow key (to zoom in) or the LEFT ARROW key (to
zoom out).
To zoom vertically
• Click the vertical zoom buttons to zoom in or out by a fixed percentage each time you click.
Or
• Drag the vertical zoom fader to zoom in or out by the amount you drag.
Or
• Hold down the CTRL key and press the UP ARROW key (to zoom out) or the DOWN ARROW
key (to zoom in).
To zoom into a selected area
• Use the Zoom tool to drag-select an area of a clip or clips that you want to zoom to. To activate
the Zoom tool, hold down the Z key. When you release the mouse, the area you selected expands
to fill the Clips pane window.
Zoom command keyboard shortcuts:
To do this
Use this shortcut
Zoom in vertically
CTRL+DOWN ARROW
Zoom in horizontally
CTRL+right arrow
Zoom out vertically
CTRL+UP ARROW
Zoom out horizontally
CTRL+LEFT ARROW
Undo Zoom
ALT+Z
Redo Zoom
ALT+SHIFT+Z
Turn On Zoom tool (use the Zoom tool to select the area to
zoom to)
Hold down Z
Display Now Time in Center of Clips Pane
N
Fit project to window
SHIFT+F
Fit tracks and buses to window
F
Table 47.
322
Arranging and editing
Arranging clips
To zoom using the mouse wheel (Fast Zoom)
• Hold down the ALT key and roll the mouse wheel forward to zoom in, backward to zoom out.
• Hold down ALT+SHIFT to intensify mouse wheel zoom effect.
• Hold down ALT+CTRL to adjust track scale (Track View Clips Pane only)
To select Fast Zoom options
1. Click the Track view Options menu and choose Zoom Options.
2. Select the intensity of the Zoom effect in Zoom Factor by using the spinners or manually
entering a value.
3. Select the vertical and horizontal Zoom focus.
4. Check or uncheck Simultaneous Vertical and Horizontal Zoom.
The default is for Simultaneous Vertical and Horizontal Zoom to be checked. If you uncheck it,
Fast Zoom exhibits the following behaviors.
• ALT+Mouse Wheel zooms vertically
• ALT+SHIFT+Mouse Wheel zooms faster vertically
• CTRL+ALT+Mouse Wheel zooms horizontally
• CTRL+ALT+SHIFT+Mouse Wheel zooms faster vertically
5. Click OK.
To display clip names and contents
1. Click the Track view Options menu, point to Display and choose Display Clip Names to show
clip names, or leave it unchecked to hide clip names.
2. Click the Track view Options menu, point to Display and choose Display Clip Contents to
show clip contents, or leave it unchecked to hide clip content.
SONAR modifies the clips pane to show the information you want.
To change clip names
1. Select the clips you want to rename.
2. Open the Clip Inspector and show the Properties section.
Figure 73.
The Clip Inspector.
3. Click the Clip Name field, type a name for the selected clips, then press ENTER
SONAR renames the selected clips.
Arranging and editing
Arranging clips
323
To change clip colors
1. Select the clips whose color you want to change.
2. Open the Clip Inspector and show the Properties section.
Figure 74.
The Clip Inspector.
3. Choose a color as follows:
To do this
Do this
Use the default color
Select the Use Track Colors check box.
Use a custom color
Click the Foreground or Background field and pick a color.
Table 48.
SONAR changes the color of the selected clips.
324
Arranging and editing
Arranging clips
Using the Navigator view
The Navigator view displays a large part of your project so you can see an overview of your song.
The Navigator view is a floating version of the Navigator pane found at the top of the Track view.
To open the Navigator view, click the Views menu and choose Navigator, or press ALT+SHIFT+8.
Figure 75.
The Navigator view.
A
A. Track rectangle
Track rectangle
The Track Rectangle appears as a green rectangle within the Navigator view. The Track Rectangle
indicates the section of your project which appears in the Clips pane of the Track view. You can
move the Track Rectangle or change its size.
To move the track rectangle
1. Position your cursor inside the Track Rectangle until the icon changes to look like this:
.
2. Click and drag the rectangle where you want and release.
To move the track rectangle when clicking
Right-click in the Navigator view and select the Left Click Positions Rectangle option.
To change the size of the track rectangle
1. Click one of the nodes on the rectangle border.
2. Drag to change the rectangle size.
To draw the track rectangle
Hold down the ALT key and drag.
To change the Now time in the Navigator view
1. Hold down the CTRL key.
2. Click where you want the Now Time to be.
Arranging and editing
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325
To change the track height in the Navigator view
Right-click in the Navigator view and select one of the following options:
• Track Height Short
• Track Height Medium
• Track Height Tall
To zoom the Navigator view
Right-click in the Navigator view and select one of the following options:
• Horz Zoom Level 1
• Horz Zoom Level 2
• Horz Zoom Level 3
• Horz Zoom Level 4
• Horz Zoom Level 5
• Horz Zoom to Project
Opening views by double-clicking clips
By default, double-clicking a MIDI clip in the Clips pane opens a Piano Roll view for that track, and
double-clicking an Audio clip opens the Loop Construction view for that track.
To specify which view should open when you double-click a clip, click the Track view Options menu,
point to Click Behavior > Double-Click and choose the desired view.
To open a view from a clip
1. Right-click in the Clips pane, and choose View from the pop-up menu.
2. Choose the type of view you want to work with from the submenu.
326
Arranging and editing
Arranging clips
Selecting clips
Before you move, copy, edit, or delete clips you need to select them. There are several ways to
select whole clips, as shown in the table:
To do this
Do this
Select a single clip
Click on the clip in the Clips pane.
Select several clips at once
Drag in a rectangular pattern that touches each clip.
Select all the clips in a track
Click on the track number in the Track view.
Select a portion of one or more clips
Press and hold the ALT key and drag across the clips. Use the Smart
tool or Select tool and drag across the top half of the clip(s). The Snap
to Grid setting determines the size portion you can select.
Add clips to the selection
Hold the SHIFT key and either click on the clips or drag a rectangle
around the clips.
Add or remove clips from the selection
Hold the CTRL key and either click on the clips or drag a rectangle
around the clips.
Add or remove all clips in a track from
the selection
Hold the CTRL key and click on the track number.
Table 49.
Using the Select tool
The Select tool
allows you to perform both time based selection and clip selection.
To enable the Select tool
• Do one of the following:
• Click the Select tool
in the Control Bar.
• Press F6.
Arranging and editing
Arranging clips
327
To select by time or by clip
You can use either the Smart tool or Select tool to select by time or by clip.
When using the Smart tool or Select tool, a clip is divided into two vertical zones. The mouse pointer
changes depending on which clip zone the pointer is over:
• Smart tool:
• Top.
Click to select the clip or drag to select by time.
• Select tool:
• Top. Drag to select by time. A vertical I-beam cursor blinks to indicate the beginning of the
time selection.
• Bottom. Click to select the clip.
The Smart tool and Select tool obey Snap to Grid.
Moving and copying clips
You can copy or move clips using drag-and-drop editing or the Cut, Copy, and Paste commands. If
you copy or move clips into tracks that contain existing material, you need to let SONAR know how
to combine the two.
You have these options:
Option
How it works
Blend Old and New
Events in the copied or moved clip are placed into a new clip that overlaps with
the existing clip. This is the same effect as sound-on-sound recording.
Replace Old with New
Events in the copied or moved clip are placed into a new clip, and any
overlapping events in the existing clip are erased. This is the same effect as
overwrite recording.
Slide Over to Make Room
The existing clips are shifted in time to make room for the new clips, so they will
not overlap. If you check the Align to Measures option, shifted clips are
always aligned to measure boundaries; otherwise, the clips are placed end to
end.
Table 50.
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When you use the Edit > Paste Special command to add information to a track that contains
existing material, there is one final option you can choose.
Option
What it means
Paste as New Clips
New clips are created containing the events on the clipboard,
exactly as described in the preceding table.
Paste into Existing Clips (MIDI clips only)
The events on the clipboard are merged into any existing clips
that occupy the same region of time. This means you will never
end up with clips that overlap.
Table 51.
Note that if you copy or move clips to new, empty tracks, you don’t have to worry about these
settings. In this case, the track properties that go with the clips are automatically applied to the new
track.
When you use drag-and-drop editing:
• You can set the above options every time you perform an edit, or you can set them once and have
the same settings carry over automatically. Check or uncheck the Ask This Every Time box in
the Drag and Drop Options dialog to indicate your preference. To open the Drag and Drop
Options dialog, click the Track view Options menu and choose Drag and Drop Options.
• If you drag to the edge of the Clips pane, it will scroll automatically in the direction you drag.
• If you change your mind while dragging clips, press the ESC key to cancel the operation.
SONAR also lets you move and copy clips between projects.
To move clips using drag and drop
1. Select the clips you want to move.
2. If you want to move the clips by an exact amount of time, enable the snap grid (see “To change
the snap options” on page 346).
3. Select the Smart tool
or Move tool
in the Control Bar.
4. Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
5. Press and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed around the selected clips.
6. Drag the clips to their new location, and release the mouse button.
7. If necessary, choose the options you want from the Drag and Drop Options dialog box (go to
Edit > Preferences > Customization - Editing, or right-click in the Clips pane and select Drag
& Drop Options from the pop-up menu), and click OK.
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329
Figure 76.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog
SONAR moves the clips to their new location.
Note: Moving an audio clip (other than a Groove clip) to a part of your project that has a different
tempo changes the size of the clip.
To move clips using cut and paste
1. Select the clips you want to move.
2. Choose Edit > Cut to display the Cut dialog box.
Figure 77.
The Cut dialog
3. Choose the options you want and click OK. SONAR cuts the clips from the project and places
them on the Windows clipboard.
4. Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips should be pasted.
5. Set the Now time to be the time at which the clips should be pasted.
6. Choose Edit > Paste Special to display the Paste dialog box.
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Figure 78.
The Paste dialog
7. Choose the options you want and click OK.
SONAR places the clips in their new location.
To choose a specific start time and/or length for a clip
1. Select the clip you want to edit.
2. Open the Clip Inspector and select the Properties section.
3. In the Time Format field, choose the units you want to use for the new start time and/or length
by clicking one of the radio buttons:
• M:B:T.
Click this if you want the clip to begin and end on a specific measure, beat, or tick.
• Samples. Click this is you want the clip to begin and end on a specific sample.
• H:M:S:F. Click this is you want the clip to begin and end on a specific hour, minute, second,
or frame. This is also known as SMPTE time, and lets you start the clip at an absolute-timebased (as opposed to musical-time-based) point in your project.
• Seconds.
Click this is you want the clip to begin and end on a specific second.
4. In the Start and Length fields, enter a new start time and/or length, or use the spinners or
keyboard to change values.
5. Choose a value in the Time Base field—choose one of the two options in this section to control
what happens to the clip’s start time when you change the tempo:
• Musical (M:B:T). If the clip is set to the Musical time base, the clip’s M:B:T position stays
constant, and its Absolute (SMPTE) position shifts.
• Absolute (SMPTE). If the clip is set to the Absolute (SMPTE) time base, its Absolute position
stays constant, and its M:B:T position shifts.
Note: The length of a clip may also change when you change the tempo—audio clips maintain
their absolute (SMPTE) length, while a MIDI clip will follow the value in the Time Base field. If a
MIDI clip is set to use musical time, the clip maintains its M:B:T length. If a MIDI clip is set to use
absolute time, the clip maintains its absolute length.
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331
SONAR adjusts the clip to the values you chose.
Note: The Snap Offset field is for audio clips only. The value of this field is the snap offset of
the selected clip, in samples. When you set a snap offset value for a clip, and then drag the clip,
the left edge of the clip does not snap to the current snap resolution--the clip snaps to a point on
the clip that is the distance from the left edge of the clip to the snap offset value. For example,
if you set the snap resolution to move to a measure, and the snap offset of a clip to 1500
samples, when you drag the clip, instead of the left edge of the clip moving to a measure line,
the spot on the clip that's 1500 samples right of the beginning of the clip moves to the measure
line.
To copy clips using drag and drop
1. Select the clips you want to copy.
2. Enable the snap grid, if desired.
3. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar/
4. Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
5. Press and hold the CTRL key and click and hold the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed
around the selected clips.
6. Drag the clips to the new location, and release the mouse button.
7. If necessary, choose the options you want from the Drag and Drop Options dialog box, and
click OK.
SONAR copies the clips to their new location.
To copy clips using copy and paste
1. Select the clips you want to copy.
2. Choose Edit > Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
3. Choose the options you want and click OK. SONAR copies the clips to the Windows clipboard.
4. Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips should be pasted.
5. Set the Now time to be the time the clips should be pasted.
6. Choose Edit > Paste Special to display the Paste dialog box.
7. Choose the options you want and click OK.
SONAR copies the clips to their new location.
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To delete clips
1. Select the clips you want to delete.
2. Do one of the following:
• Choose Edit > Delete, which brings up a dialog box—choose options and click OK.
• Press the DELETE key.
SONAR deletes the selected clips.
See:
“Splitting and combining clips” on page 355
“Working with partial clips” on page 344
“Working with linked clips” on page 353
“Aim Assist line” on page 333
Aim Assist line
Aim Assist is a vertical white line that shows the mouse pointer’s horizontal position in the Clips
pane. The mouse pointer’s time position is also shown in the time ruler.
Aim Assist is a helpful guide when editing in the Clips pane, making it easy to align the mouse
pointer with events on different tracks or markers in the time ruler.
Figure 79.
The Aim Assist line is a helpful guide when editing in the Clips pane
B
A
A. Vertical Aim Assist line B. Time position
When Snap to Grid is enabled, the Aim Assist line follows the current Snap to Grid settings rather
than the mouse pointer position.
The following rules apply when selecting and moving a clip with the Smart tool, Edit tool, Select tool
or Move tool:
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333
Click the front/left portion of a clip. The Aim Assist line snaps to the start of the clip boundary
and travels with the clip as it is dragged.
Click the rear/right portion of a clip. The Aim Assist line snaps to the end of the clip boundary
and snap operates on the clip’s end. The AimAssist line travels with the clip as it is dragged.
To enable/disable Aim Assist
• Do one of the following:
• Click the Track view View menu, point to Display and choose Aim Assist.
• Press X.
The vertical Aim Assist line is shown or hidden.
Tip: You can also toggle Aim Assist on/off with a key binding. For information about assigning key
bindings, see “Key bindings” on page 994.
To customize the Aim Assist color
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Colors.
2. In the Color Category list, select Track View.
3. In the Screen Element list, select Aim Assist line.
4. Specify the desired color and click OK to close the Preferences dialog.
See:
“Splitting and combining clips” on page 355
“Working with partial clips” on page 344
“Working with linked clips” on page 353
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Reverting clip(s) to original time stamp
All audio and MIDI clips in SONAR have a Original Time property, which stores the original SMPTE
time stamp associated with a clip. The Original Time clip property is based on absolute time, not
tempo. This allows you to freely re-arrange clips and later revert them back to their original time.
SONAR automatically assigns the Original Time property during import or immediately after record.
When an audio clip containing a SMPTE time stamp is imported into SONAR (such as a Broadcast
Wave file), the Original Time field is populated with this time stamp. When opening previous
SONAR projects, existing clips will be populated with their current time.
Note: The Original Time property can not be edited. If a clip is bounced to a new clip, the
Original Time stamp will not propagate to the new clip.
Figure 80.
The Clip Inspector.
A. Original Time property; click to revert clip to the original time stamp
To revert clip(s) to original time stamp
To revert selected clips to their original SMPTE time stamp, do one of the following:
• Right-click a clip and choose Revert Clip(s) to Original Time Stamp from the context menu.
• In the Clip Inspector, select the Properties section, click the Original Time field and choose
Revert to original time stamp on the pop-up menu.
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Locking Clips
You can lock a clip so that it can’t be accidentally modified or deleted. You can lock the clip’s position
and/or its data.
To lock or unlock a clip’s position and/or data
• In the Clip Inspector, select the Properties section, click the Lock field and choose what clip
attributes you want to lock:
• Position and Data. This choice locks position and data, and causes a lock icon to appear on
the clip
.
• Position Only. This choice locks position only, and causes a yellow lock icon with the clasp
unlocked to appear on the clip
.
• Data Only. This choice locks data only, and causes a blue lock icon with the clasp unlocked
to appear on the clip
.
Figure 81.
The Clip Inspector.
Or
1. Right-click a clip.
2. From the pop-up menu, choose one of the following commands:
• Clip Lock > Lock Position. In lock mode, this choice locks position only, and causes a
yellow lock icon with the clasp unlocked to appear on the clip. If data is already locked, then
both position and data become locked, and a “locked” lock icon appears on the clip. In unlock
mode, if both position and data are locked, and you unlock position, then the blue “unlocked”
lock icon appears on the clip, meaning that only data is locked.
• Clip Lock > Lock Data. In lock mode, this choice locks data only, and causes a blue lock
icon with the clasp unlocked to appear on the clip. If position is already locked, then both
position and data become locked, and a “locked” lock icon appears on the clip. In unlock mode,
if both position and data are locked, and you unlock data, then the yellow “unlocked” lock icon
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appears on the clip, meaning that only position is locked.
Note: If a clip’s position is locked, and you change tempo, what happens to the clip’s position
depends on what option the Clip Properties Time Base field is set to: Musical (M:B:T), or
Absolute (SMPTE). If the clip is set to the Musical time base, the clip’s M:B:T position stays
constant, and its Absolute position shifts. If the clip is set to the Absolute time base, its Absolute
position does not move, but its M:B:T position shifts.
Auto scroll lock in Clips pane
While editing, you can prevent the Clips pane from scrolling horizontally during playback. This allows
you to focus on the edit location without worrying that the screen will eventually scroll away from the
edit location.
When the Left Click Locks Scroll option is enabled (default behavior), the Clips pane will not scroll
if you click any object in the Clips pane. When you are done with the edit and want the Clips pane to
scroll again during playback, click in the background of the Clips pane to clear auto scroll lock.
To enable/disable auto scroll lock
Click the Track view Options menu, point to Click Behavior and choose Left Click Locks Scroll
on the submenu.
Clip selection groups
SONAR lets you treat multiple clips as a single unit. By grouping clips, you can select and edit an
entire group of clips by simply selecting or editing any group member. A group can contain both
audio and MIDI clips from a single track or from multiple tracks.
Clip groups are very useful, for example, when editing multitrack drums and you want to synchronize
edits on all clips from the same recording take.
You can instruct SONAR to automatically group clips after recording multiple tracks simultaneously,
or you can add and remove clips from a group after the clips have been recorded.
Grouped clips are indicated by a group number before the clip name.
Figure 82.
Grouped clips
A
A. The group number is displayed next to the clip name
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337
To group clips during multitrack recording
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Record, or right-click the Record button to access
recording settings.
2. Under Clip Groups, select the Group Clips Across Tracks check box.
After recording is complete, all new clips are grouped together. When loop recording, each pass of
the loop gets placed in its own group.
Two discrete steps are placed in the Undo history. The first step is the actual recording and the
second step is for Create Clip Group. This allows you to undo the clip group, if desired, without
losing the recording.
The following example shows two takes of a five track loop recording. The first clip group is selected.
Note: The Group Clips Across Tracks setting is stored with each project.
To create a clip selection group
1. Select all the clips you want to group together.
2. Right-click any selected clip and choose Create selection group from selected clips from the
pop-up menu.
A new selection group is created and the group number is displayed next to each clip name.
Note: A clip may only belong to one selection group at a time. If any of the selected clips already
belong to another clip group, they will be removed from the other group and placed in the new
group.
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To add clips to an existing selection group
1. Click on any clip in the existing group.
All clips in the group are selected.
2. Hold down the CTRL key and click the clips that you want to add to the group.
3. Right-click any selected clip and choose Create selection group from selected clips from the
pop-up menu.
All selected clips are placed in a new selection group.
Note: A clip may only belong to one selection group at a time. If any of the selected clips already
belong to another clip group, they will be removed from the other group and placed in the new
group.
To remove clips from a selection group
1. Select the clips you want to remove from the group.
Tip: To select only a single clip in a group, hold down the SHIFT key and click the clip that you wish
to remove from the group.
2. Right-click any selected clip and choose Remove selected clips from selection groups from
the pop-up menu.
The selected clips are no longer grouped.
To remove all clip groups
1. Do one of the following:
• On the Edit menu, point to Select and choose All.
• Press CTRL+A.
All clips are selected.
2. Right-click any selected clip and choose Remove selected clips from selection groups from
the pop-up menu.
The selected clips are no longer grouped.
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339
Using editing tools on grouped clips
The Select, Mute and Split tools behave as follows when editing grouped clips:
• Select tool
:
• Clicking a clip in a group will also select all other clips in the same group.
• Lasso-selecting will select clips that are touched by the lasso as well as other clips in the same
group that intersect the lasso time range.
• Split tool
:
• Clicking an unselected clip will split that clip and all other clips in the same group that intersect
the split time.
• If a previous selection exists, clicking will split only the clips in the selection.
• Selecting a range will split all clips in the group that intersect that range.
• Mute tool
. The Mute tool has several modes of operation. The corresponding mode is
indicated in square brackets.
• [Mute Entire Clips mode] Clicking an unselected clip will mute that clip and all other clips in the
same group.
• [Mute Entire Clips mode] If a previous selection exists, clicking will mute only the clips in the
selection.
• [Mute Entire Clips mode] Lasso-selecting will mute clips that are touched by the lasso as well
as other clips in the same group that intersect the lasso time range.
• [Mute Time Ranges mode] Selecting a range will mute all clips in the group that intersect that
time range.
Note: Muting a time range is limited to one track or layer at a time.
• [Isolate mode] Clicking an unselected clip will isolate that clip and all other clips in the same
group.
• [Isolate mode] Isolating a range will isolate all clips in the group that intersect that time range.
Caution: Editing operations that are performed on any group member also affect any hidden
clips that belong to the same group. Be careful that you don’t unintentionally modify or delete
hidden clips.
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Splitting grouped clips
SONAR can automatically create a new clip group when splitting clips in an existing clip group. To
specify the split behavior, follow these steps:
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Editing.
2. Under Clips, select the When splitting clips in groups, create new groups check box.
For more information about splitting clips, see “Splitting and combining clips” on page 355.
Copying and pasting grouped clips
When you copy and paste clips that belong to a clip group, you can specify if the pasted clips should
be placed in a new clip group or continue to be grouped with the original clip group. By default, a
new clip group is created. You can change the behavior by adding the following line to the [WinCake]
section of the Cakewalk.ini file:
[WinCake]
CreateNewGroupsOnPaste=1
The values are as follows:
0 = The pasted clips will belong to the same clip group as the clips that were copied.
1 = A new clip group is created for the pasted clips. This is the default behavior.
To view and edit the Cakewalk.ini file, go to Edit > Preferences > File - Initialization File.
For more information about the Cakewalk.ini file, see “Initialization files” on page 1213.
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341
Nudge
Nudging is moving a clip or a MIDI note by a small amount to the left or right or up and down. There
are three customizable settings for the Nudge feature. You can also nudge clips (in the Track view)
or notes (in the Piano Roll view) up or down, and you can use keyboard shortcuts (see “To Nudge a
Clip Using Keyboard Shortcuts” on page 343).
See: “Nudge settings” on page 342
Nudge settings
To configure the three nudge settings, go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Snap and
Nudge or Process > Nudge > Settings.
To Nudge a Clip Left or Right
Use the following procedure to nudge a clip.
1. Select the clip you want to nudge.
2. Select Process > Nudge Left(1-3) from the menu to move the clip left or Process > Nudge
Right(1-3) to move the clip right.
The amount the clip or note moves is determined by the settings in Edit > Preferences >
Customization - Snap and Nudge.
To Nudge a Clip Up and Down
Use the following procedure to nudge a clip (in the Track view) or MIDI note (in the Piano Roll view)
up or down.
1. Select the clip or note you want to nudge.
2. Select Process > Nudge > Up to move the clip or note up or Process > Nudge > Down to
move a clip or note down.
Clips move up or down one track at a time. Notes move up or down one pitch at a time.
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Nudge
To Change Nudge Settings
1. Select Process > Nudge > Settings to access nudge settings.
2. In one of the three Nudge groups, select one of the following:
• Musical Time. Select a note length setting.
• Absolute Time.
field:
Select one of the following absolute time options and a number in the first
Absolute time setting
Description
Seconds
Whole seconds.
Milliseconds
Thousands of a second.
Frames
Number of frames. The default frame count is 30 frames per second. The
number of frames varies depending on the setting in Edit > Preferences >
Project - Clock.
Samples
A very small amount of time. For CD-quality audio there are 44,100 samples per
second, so a value of 1 here would not move a clip by a perceptible amount.
Ticks
The number of ticks per quarter note varies depending on the setting in Edit >
Preferences > Project - Clock. The default setting is 960.
Table 52.
• Follow Snap Settings. Moves the clip or note by the current snap setting.
To Nudge a Clip Using Keyboard Shortcuts
1. Select the clip you want to nudge.
2. If necessary, turn on Num Lock (press the Num Lock key on your keyboard).
3. Press the appropriate Num Key.
Nudge
Shortcut
Left 1
NumPad 1
Right 1
NumPad 3
Left 2
NumPad 4
Right 2
NumPad 6
Left 3
NumPad 7
Right 3
NumPad 9
Up
NumPad 8
Down
NumPad 2
Table 53.
Arranging and editing
Nudge
343
Working with partial clips
SONAR lets you select, copy, move, and delete portions of a project even if they do not match clip
boundaries. There are two ways to do this:
• Directly select portions of one or more clips.
• Select a range of times and one or more tracks. SONAR automatically selects the portions of clips
that are in both the selected time range and the selected tracks.
You can then copy, move, or delete the material the same way you do with whole clips.
When you select portions of a clip, SONAR may round off the start and end times of your selection
based on the snap grid. For more information, see “Defining and using the Snap Grid” on page 346.
To select a portion of a clip
Select the Smart tool or Select tool in the Control Bar and drag across the top half of a clip.
SONAR highlights the selected portion of the clip. You can edit this portion of the clip using all the
normal editing commands.
To select a portion of several clips
Select the Smart tool or Select tool in the Control Bar, then click in the top half of a clip and drag
across several clips in adjacent tracks.
SONAR highlights the selected portions of all the clips. You can edit these portions of clips using all
the normal editing commands.
To select partial clips using time ranges and tracks
1. Select a range of time in one of the following ways:
• Drag the mouse in the Time Ruler.
• Click between two markers to select the time between the markers.
• Select a clip (SONAR selects the range of time covered by the clip).
• Choose Edit > Select > By Time, enter the start and end time, and click OK.
2. Select one or more tracks by clicking, SHIFT-clicking, or CTRL-clicking on the track numbers in
the Track view.
3. To adjust the start and end time of the selection, hold the SHIFT key while clicking on the Time
Ruler.
The relevant portions of clips in the selected tracks are highlighted. You can edit these portions of
clips using all the normal editing commands.
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To clear the partial clip selection
You can clear the time-restricted selection in any of the following ways:
• Click in an empty area of the Clips pane to completely clear the selection.
• Choose Edit > Select > None or press CTRL+SHIFT+A to completely clear the selection.
• Click on a single clip in the Clips pane to clear the time selection and select the clip.
Markers and the snap grid
SONAR has a collection of features you can use to simplify and speed the work you do arranging
your projects. Here are a few of the most important things you can do:
• Show gridlines on measure boundaries in the Track view.
• Define and use the snap grid to make drag-and-drop editing more accurate.
• Create markers to identify and work with key time points in your project.
See:
“Showing gridlines” on page 345
“Defining and using the Snap Grid” on page 346
“Snap offsets” on page 347
“Creating and using markers” on page 348
Showing gridlines
Displaying gridlines, or vertical rules, in the Clips pane of the Track view makes it easy to see at a
glance how clips align with each other, how they align with measure boundaries, and when they start
and end.
To show/hide vertical grid lines
1. Click the Track view View menu, point to Display > Vertical Grid Lines and select one of the
following options:
• None.
No vertical grid lines are displayed
• Behind Clips. Vertical grid lines are displayed, but clips will draw on top of them, so clip
contents will not be obstructed.
• In Front of Clips. Vertical grid lines are displayed and drawn on top of clips, always visible.
SONAR displays the Track view as you requested.
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345
Defining and using the Snap Grid
SONAR lets you define a snap grid that makes it easier to arrange clips, select time ranges, and
control envelope shape drawing. To use the snap grid, enable the Snap to Grid button
in the
Control Bar’s Snap module (or press F12) and set the grid resolution to an interval of musical time,
such as a whole note, half note, or quarter note; a unit of absolute time: a number of frames,
seconds or samples; an event; the start or end of a clip; a marker; or audio transients. The grid can
use multiple resolutions at the same time, such as a whole note, and audio transients. When the
Snap to Grid button is enabled, if you move or paste clips or markers, items will be snapped to the
nearest point on the snap grid.
You can also use the snap grid to move clips by a certain interval, rather than snap them to the
interval. Moving by an interval can be useful during drag-and-drop operations, if your data are not
exactly aligned with measure or note boundaries. To set advanced Snap to Grid settings, go to
Edit > Preferences > Customization - Snap and Nudge.
Magnetic snap. Cakewalk’s snap grid has an option (on by default) called magnetic snap. This
means that when you’re dragging the boundary of an object, you can move the boundary freely until
the boundary gets within a certain number of ticks from the snap target. The closer the object gets to
the snap target, the more strongly the object is pulled to the target. You can set the strength of
magnetic snap to low, medium, high, or off. Note that if you are zoomed out a certain amount, the
time boundary around the snap target will appear to be quite small, and you might think that the
snap grid is not functioning. If this is the case, zoom in closer to enhance your editing experience. If
you’re dragging a whole clip, magnetic snap is not in effect.
To enable or disable the Snap Grid
Do one of the following:
• Click the Snap to Grid button
in the Control Bar’s Snap module.
• Press F12.
To change the snap options
1. In the Control Bar’s Snap module, select one or more of the following resolution options:
• Musical Time. Note intervals (whole, half, etc.)
• Absolute Time. A number of samples, frames, or seconds set by you (choose the units in
the drop-down menu on the right)
• Events. Any data in a clip
• Clips. The start or end of any clip
• Markers.
Any marker in a project
• Audio transients. These are represented by vertical grid lines, which you can display by
using the AudioSnap Palette.
2. Go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Snap and Nudge.
3. Select Move To to align data to the grid, or Move By to move data by the grid resolution.
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4. If you want to change the magnetic snap strength, or turn off magnetic snap, select one of the
buttons in the Magnetic Strength section.
5. If you want to automatically snap edited audio clips to the nearest zero crossing of the waveform
(the point at which there is no volume, to minimize the glitches that can happen when waveforms
are spliced together) select the Snap to Audio Zero Crossings check box.
6. Click OK to close the dialog.
All time selections and drag-and-drop editing operations use the new snap grid resolution(s).
See also:
“Snap to Grid shortcuts” on page 1366
Snap offsets
Snap offsets allow you to set a point other than the beginning of a clip as the “snap” point used by
the Snap to Grid. A snap offset is the number of samples from the beginning of the clip. Snap offsets
affect all edits that obey the Snap to Grid setting. Once the snap offset is added, you can set the
Timer Ruler to SMPTE or MBT time.
Note: You cannot set a snap offset for a Groove clip.
Creating a snap offset
Use the following to add a snap offset to a clip:
1. Locate the place in the clip where you want to put the snap offset, and set the Now Time to that
location. Use the Scrub tool if necessary.
2. Right-click on the clip and select Set Snap Offset to Now Time from the menu that appears.
Edits to that clip, when the Snap to Grid button is depressed, now snap to the snap offset rather
than the beginning of the clip.
Deleting a snap offset
1. Select the clip.
2. Open the Clip Inspector and select the Properties section.
3. Click the Snap Offset field and type 0.
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347
Creating and using markers
Markers are a way of associating a name with a time point in your project. You use markers to name
sections of a project, to mark hit points in a film score, or simply to provide a shortcut for working with
any time point in a project. Markers make it easy to:
• Jump to a specific time point in a project.
• Select a portion of a project.
• Enter a time in any dialog box, by pressing G and choosing the marker you want.
You can see and work with markers in four ways:
• They are displayed in the Time Ruler at the top of the Track, Staff, and Piano Roll view.
• The Markers module in the Control Bar lets you add markers and jump to specific marker
locations.
• The Markers view displays all markers and lets you add, edit, and delete markers.
• You can press M while playback is in progress to add a marker on the fly.
The time associated with a marker can be expressed in musical time or as a locked SMPTE time. If
a marker has a musical time (measures, beats, and ticks), the marker stays at that musical time
regardless of changes in tempo. If a marker has a locked SMPTE time (hours, minutes, seconds,
and frames), the marker stays at the same time even when the tempo is changed. Locked markers
are useful for projects that require you to sync the music or sound with film scores or multimedia
presentations. See “To add a marker” on page 349.
SONAR takes the current snap grid settings into account when you move or copy markers. For
example, if the snap grid is set to even measure boundaries, any time you move or copy a marker,
the marker will be snapped to the beginning of the nearest measure. You are allowed to have any
number of markers at a single time point.
To display the Markers view, choose Views > Markers. From the Markers view, you can use the
File > Print and File > Print Preview commands to print a listing of markers.
Figure 83.
348
The Markers view
Arranging and editing
Markers and the snap grid
You can add markers while playback is stopped or while playback is in progress (on the fly). When
you add a marker while playback is stopped, you can enter a name for the marker and either use the
Now time or enter a different time. When you add a marker on the fly, the marker is named
automatically and assigned the Now time. Using the Markers view, you can edit the names and
times whenever you want.
To add a marker
1. Open the Markers dialog in one of the following ways:
• Click
in the Control Bar’s Markers module.
• Press M.
• Choose Project > Insert Marker.
• Click
in the Markers view.
• Hold down the CTRL key and click the marker section of the Time Ruler.
• Right-click in the Time Ruler and select Insert Marker.
SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
Figure 84.
The Marker dialog
2. Enter a name for the marker in the Name box.
3. The time is set to the Now time. If you want, use the spinners to change the time or type in a new
marker time.
4. Check the Locked to SMPTE box if you want to lock the marker to the SMPTE time.
5. Click OK.
SONAR adds the marker and displays it in the Time Ruler, the Markers view, and the Control Bar’s
Markers module.
To add a marker on the fly
• Click
in the Control Bar’s Markers module, or press M.
SONAR adds a marker at the Now time and displays it in the Time Ruler, the Markers view, and the
Markers module.
Arranging and editing
Markers and the snap grid
349
To edit a marker
1. Either right-click on the marker in the Time Ruler, or choose a marker in the Markers view and
click
. SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
2. Change the marker name, time, or other settings as desired.
3. Click OK.
SONAR updates the marker in the Time Ruler and the Markers view.
To copy a marker
1. Press and hold the CTRL key.
2. Drag a marker in the Time Ruler of the Track view, Staff view, Tempo view, or Piano Roll view.
SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
3. Enter the desired marker settings and click OK.
SONAR copies the marker and displays it in the Time Ruler and the Markers view. You can also cut
and paste markers directly from the Markers view.
To lock or unlock several markers
1. In the Markers view, select one or more markers. Use the CTRL and SHIFT keys if necessary to
modify the selection.
2. Select or deselect
.
SONAR updates the markers.
To move a marker
• Drag the marker in the Time Ruler.
SONAR updates the marker time and shows it at the new location.
To delete a marker
1. Press and hold the left mouse button while pointing to a marker in the Time Ruler.
2. Press DELETE, and release the mouse button.
SONAR deletes the marker. You can use Edit > Undo if you make a mistake.
To delete markers from the Markers view
1. In the Markers view, select one or more markers. Use the CTRL and SHIFT keys if necessary to
modify the selection.
2. Click
or press DELETE.
SONAR deletes the selected markers. You can use Undo if you make a mistake.
350
Arranging and editing
Markers and the snap grid
To jump to a marker
There are many different ways to jump to a specific marker:
• Choose a marker from the drop-down list in the Control Bar’s Markers module.
• Press G twice to display a list of markers, choose the marker you want, and click OK.
• Click on a marker in the Markers view to set the Now time to that marker.
• Click the Next Marker button
or Previous Marker button
in the Markers module.
• Press CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE DOWN to jump to the next marker, or press CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE UP
to jump to the previous marker.
To select a time range using markers
You can select a range of times by clicking in the marker section of the Time Ruler:
• Click to the left of the first marker to select the time between the start of the project and the first
marker.
• Click to the right of the last marker to select the time between the marker and the end of the
project.
• Click between two markers to select the time between the markers.
• If looping is enabled, click to the right of the Loop Start marker to select the loop region
• If punch recording is enabled, click to the right of the Punch In marker to select the punch region
Tip: If you press TAB or right-click while holding down the left mouse button over the markers, you
can toggle through which of the overlaid markers you'd like to move.
For example, if the Now Time marker, a regular Marker, a Loop point, and a Punch point are all at
measure 5, pressing Tab (while holding down the left mouse button) toggles through T (Now Time),
M (regular), L (Loop), and P (Punch). If you want to change the regular marker, simply drag the
mouse when M is displayed; if you want to adjust the position of the Loop point, tab through to L, and
so on.
Arranging and editing
Markers and the snap grid
351
TAB to transients
You can use the TAB and SHIFT+TAB keys to jump to audio transients, and MIDI Note events.
Tabbing is only possible when the transport is not rolling.
TAB to transients is selection-based, which means tabbing will go to the next/previous transient
amongst all selected clips. If there is no selection, tabbing operates on the current track.
To move the Now time to the next transient
• Press TAB.
To move the Now time to the previous transient
• Press SHIFT+TAB.
TAB to transients landmarks
The following table shows how TAB to transients applies to different SONAR clip types.
Clip type
TAB target
Audio Groove clips.
Each slice.
"Stretch to tempo" clips (clips that are
not groove clip looped but use groove
clip for rendering).
Each slice.
Regular audio clips.
Each transient as detected by AudioSnap.
Slip stretched audio clips.
Each transient as detected by AudioSnap, scaled to the stretch
amount so tabbing continues to line up perfectly.
MIDI clips.
Each Note event (MIDI Controller data is ignored).
Note: If there are multiple Note events at the exact same tick
position, only one of the notes will be tabbed to.
MIDI Groove clips.
Each Note event.
Step Sequencer clips.
Each step that contains a note.
Table 54.
TAB to transients landmarks
TAB to transients in the Piano Roll view
In addition to the Track view inline Piano Roll, TAB to transients also works in the Piano Roll view. If
multiple tracks are displayed in the Piano Roll view, tabbing only operates on the current track.
352
Arranging and editing
TAB to transients
Working with linked clips
SONAR makes it easy to repeat a pattern over and over using a feature called linked clips. Linked
clips always have the same contents, name, and display color. Any change you make to the internal
contents of one of the clips, such as adding or editing notes or effects, automatically applies to all of
them. Any number of clips may be linked with each other.
To create linked clips, copy the clips and when pasting, check the Linked Clips option in the Paste
dialog box or the Drag and Drop Options dialog box. Linked clips are displayed with a dotted
border, so they are easy to spot. You can also identify linked clips from the Clip Inspector or by using
the Select All Siblings command in the Clips pane context menu. You can easily unlink linked clips,
and then edit them individually. You have two options when unlinking linked clips:
Option
How it works
New linked group
The clips you selected will still be linked to each other, but won’t be linked to any
clips that are not selected
Independent
Every selected clip will be completely independent
Table 55.
Once you have unlinked linked clips, you cannot re-link them except by using Edit > Undo.
If you attempt to copy only a portion of a linked clip, the copy will not be linked to the original. Copies
of a clip can be linked to the original only when you select and copy the entire clip.
To make linked copies of a clip using drag and drop
1. Click the Track view Options menu and choose Drag & Drop Options to display the Drag and
Drop Options dialog box.
2. Check the option labeled Copy Entire Clips as Linked Clips.
3. Click OK.
4. Select the clips you want to copy.
5. Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
6. Press and hold down the CTRL key.
7. Press and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed around the selected clips.
8. Drag the clips to their new location, and release the mouse button.
9. If necessary, confirm the options in the Drag and Drop Options dialog box, and click OK.
SONAR creates copies of the selected clips that are linked to the originals. Any change you make to
one of the clips is applied to all linked clips, including the original clip.
Arranging and editing
Working with linked clips
353
To make linked copies of a clip using copy and paste
1. Select the clips you want to copy.
2. Choose Edit > Copy to display the Copy dialog box.
3. Choose options as desired and click OK. SONAR copies the clips to the Windows clipboard.
4. Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips should be pasted.
5. Set the Now time to be the time at which the clips should be pasted.
6. Choose Edit > Paste Special to display the Paste dialog box.
7. In the Paste dialog, choose one of two options:
• Linked Repetitions. If you choose this option, only the new copies of the original clip are
linked together. Edits you make to the new copies do not affect the original, and vice versa.
• Link to Original Clip(s). If you choose this option, the new copies and the original clip are
linked together. Edits you make to any of the linked clips, including the original, affect all other
linked clips in the group.
8. Choose the other options you want and click OK.
SONAR creates copies of the selected clips that are linked in the way you chose.
To unlink linked clips
1. In the Clips pane, select the clips you want to unlink.
2. Right-click on any selected clip and choose Unlink from the pop-up menu. SONAR displays the
Unlink Clips dialog box.
3. Choose the unlink option you want, and click OK.
SONAR unlinks the clips and updates the Clips pane accordingly. From now on, any changes you
make to one of the clips are applied only to remaining linked clips, if any.
To select the clips that are linked to another clip
1. Select one or more clips in the Track view.
2. Right-click on any selected clip and choose Select All Siblings from the pop-up menu.
SONAR selects any clip that is linked to one of the currently selected clips.
354
Arranging and editing
Working with linked clips
Splitting and combining clips
SONAR provides several commands that are used to split and combine clips. Specifically, you can:
• Split a clip into several smaller clips
• Create a new clip from a selected portion of an existing clip
• Combine adjacent or overlapping clips into a single, longer clip
The following table summarizes the commands you can use:
To do this
Use this command
Notes
Split clips into parts
•
Works on all selected clips. You can also press the s
key to split all selected clips at the Now Time.
•
Combine several clips
into one
Right-click the clip and
choose Split on the
context menu
Press S
Click the Track view Clips If the selected clips are in separate tracks, one clip is
menu and choose Bounce created for each track. All clip automation is applied
destructively to the new clip.
to Clip(s)
Table 56.
Note: Combining a stereo and mono clip always produces a stereo clip.
The Split command lets you split clips four different ways:
Option
How it works
Split at Time
Splits selected clips at a specific point in time. By default, the split occurs at the
Now time, but you can choose any time you want.
Split Repeatedly
Splits selected clips at regular intervals, beginning at a specified time, with a
specified duration. For example, you could split a long clip into 4-bar clips starting
at measure 5.
Split at Markers
Splits selected clips at any marker location. This option is available only if your
project has markers.
Split when Silent
Removes “silent” stretches of one measure or more from selected clips. The
presence in a measure of any event—including those that make no sound, such as
a patch change or lyric event—will cause that measure to be retained.
Table 57.
Arranging and editing
Splitting and combining clips
355
While the Split command works for both MIDI and audio clips, for audio clips, the Split command
provides sample accurate editing and snap-to-zero capability.
Note that the Edit > Undo and Edit > Redo commands work with all three of these editing
commands.
SONAR allows you to specify what is selected after a clip is split into two parts:
• Left portion (default). Only the left portion is selected.
• Right portion.
Only the right portion is selected.
• Both portions. Both the left and right portions are selected.
• None.
Neither portion is selected.
To specify the default split behavior
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Editing.
2. Under Clips, select the desired option in the Selection after single split list.
To split clips into smaller clips
1. Select the clips you want to split.
2. Right-click on any selected clip, and choose Split from the pop-up menu. SONAR shows the
Split dialog box or press the S key to split the clip(s) at the Now Time.
3. Choose the Split option you want to use, and enter the settings you want to use.
4. Click OK.
Or
1. Select the clips you want to split.
2. Set the Now Time to the time you want to split the clips.
3. Press the S key.
SONAR splits the selected clips according to your instructions.
To combine clips
1. Select the clips you want to combine (the clips must be on the same track).
2. Right-click on of the clips and select Bounce to Clip(s) from the pop-up menu.
SONAR combines the selected clips into a single, new clip.
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Arranging and editing
Splitting and combining clips
Take management and comping takes
By default, SONAR stacks any overlapping clips on top of each other, but you can choose to display
them in separate layers (lanes) in the same track. When you store clips in separate layers, it’s easy
to mute and solo them individually and eventually come up with a composite take, with only the best
clips playing back. You can also mute and solo whole layers.
When you use loop recording, you can store all your takes in the same track, and then use the Mute
tool or “Audition (selection playback)” on page 362 to hear only the ones you want.
If you enable a track’s Show Layers option, SONAR stores the track’s clips in separate layers
whenever any of the following happens:
• You use loop recording in Sound on Sound mode, and choose to store takes in a single track.
• You record over some pre-existing data while in Sound on Sound mode.
• You enable the Track view Layers > Show Layers menu option for a track that contains at least
one overlapping clip.
Note 1: You can create as many layers as you want.
Note 2: A multi-layer layer track has only one set of track automation envelopes.
For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures:
To enable or disable the multi-layer option
• For single tracks, you can right-click the Track Scale, and choose Show Layers from the pop-up
menu, or use the Layers > Show Layers command on the Track pane right-click menu, or click
the Track Layers On/Off button.
A
B
A. Track Layers On/Off button B. Track Scale before showing layers
• For multiple tracks, select the tracks you want to configure by CTRL-clicking the track number of
each track, and select the Track view Layers > Show Layers menu option.
Arranging and editing
Take management and comping takes
357
When the option is first enabled, SONAR moves all overlapping clips in the affected tracks to
separate layers, and displays Mute and Solo buttons on the Track Scale for each layer.
A
A. Track Layers Mute and Solo on/off buttons
After the option is enabled, you can move clips on top of each other without creating new layers. To
move overlapping clips back into separate layers, use the Rebuild command (see below).
Note 1: If you want to move a clip to the exact same time placement in an adjacent layer, hold
the SHIFT key down while you drag.
Note 2: If the Track view Options > Auto Crossfade option is enabled, SONAR adds a
crossfade between any newly overlapped clips that are on the same layer.
To mute or unmute one or more layers
• On the Track Scale, click the M button that’s at the same vertical level as the layer you want to
mute or unmute. You can drag across multiple mute buttons to mute or unmute multiple layers.
Note: If you mute a layer and then disable the Show Layers feature, the Track Scale displays a
small blue indicator to show that a hidden layer is muted:
A
A. Hidden layer mute indicator
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Arranging and editing
Take management and comping takes
To solo or unsolo a layer
• On the Track Scale, click the S button that’s at the same vertical level as the layer you want to
solo. You can solo one layer at a time.
Note: If you solo a layer and then disable the Show Layers feature, the Track Scale displays a
small yellow indicator to show that a hidden layer is soloed:
A
A. Hidden layer solo indicator
To rebuild layers
• To rebuild layers (move overlapping clips to separate layers) in a single-track, right-click the Track
Scale and choose Rebuild Layers from the pop-up menu.
• For multiple tracks, select the tracks you want to rebuild, and select the Track view Layers >
Rebuild Layers command.
To remove empty layers
• To remove empty layers in a single-track, right-click the Track Scale and choose Remove Empty
Layers from the pop-up menu.
• For multiple tracks, select the tracks you want to compact, and use the Track view Layers >
Remove Empty Layers command.
To add an empty layer to a track
• Right-click the Track Scale at the position where you want the new layer, and choose Insert
Layer from the pop-up menu.
To delete a layer from a track
• Right-click the Track Scale at the position where you want to delete a layer, and choose Delete
Layer from the pop-up menu.
To select a layer
• Right-click the Track Scale at the same vertical position where the desired layer is, and choose
Select Layer from the pop-up menu. You can de-select the layer by clicking an empty area of the
Clips pane.
Arranging and editing
Take management and comping takes
359
To loop record multiple takes into separate track layers
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Record, or right-click the Record button to access
recording settings.
2. Under the Recording Mode options, choose Sound on Sound (Blend).
3. Under Loop Recording, choose Store Takes in a Single Track, and click OK.
4. Make sure that the armed track has its Show Layers option enabled.
5. Set your loop boundaries and start recording multiple passes through the looped area.
6. Stop recording.
When you finish recording, SONAR displays all your takes in separate layers in the recording track.
To crop overlapping clips to eliminate overlap
1. In a multi-layer track, move either the Smart tool
or the Trim tool
overlapping clips until the cursor turns into the overlap cropping tool.
between two
A
A. Overlap cropping tool
2. In the space between the clips, click the spot where you want the first clip to end and the second
one to begin. SONAR crops both clips so that they no longer overlap.
See:
“Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)” on page 361
360
Arranging and editing
Take management and comping takes
Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)
Together with multi-layer tracks, clip muting and isolating (clip soloing) make it easy to build a
composite take from multiple takes.
The Mute tool
lets you mute/unmute entire clips, or only regions within clips. Click a clip to mute/
unmute the clip. Drag in the bottom half of the clip to mute a region, and drag in the top half to
unmute a region. A clip that is completely muted displays the Mute icon
in its upper left corner.
In addition, you can also play back only selected data if you want by pressing the SHIFT key and the
SPACEBAR at the same time.
To mute a time range
1. Select the Mute tool
in the Control Bar.
2. If you want to mute a precise amount of time, enable the Snap to Grid button
menu to an appropriate value.
and set its
3. Drag across the bottom half of the clip.
SONAR mutes the area you dragged through and displays the muted waveform or MIDI data as a
dotted line.
A
A. Muted area of clip
To unmute a time range
1. Select the Mute tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Drag across the top half of the clip.
Arranging and editing
Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)
361
To mute or unmute an entire clip
1. Select the Mute tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Click the clip.
When a clip is currently muted, SONAR displays the Mute icon in the upper left corner of the clip.
A
A. Mute icon
Toggling a clip’s mute status
You can mute or unmute a clip without using the Mute tool if you want. Pressing K on your keyboard
toggles the mute status of all selected clips. Any muted time ranges remain muted.
See:
“Audition (selection playback)” on page 362
“Isolating (clip soloing)” on page 363
Audition (selection playback)
To audition the current selection, press SHIFT+SPACEBAR. Only the selected data plays back.
362
Arranging and editing
Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)
Isolating (clip soloing)
Isolating works by muting all the clips in a track in the same time region except the ones that you
want to hear.
To make it simpler to work with overlapping clips in the same track, enable the track’s Show Layers
option.
To isolate a region
1. Select the Mute tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
3. Hold down the CTRL key and drag across the region you want to isolate.
To isolate a clip
1. Select the Mute tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
3. Hold down the CTRL key and click the clip to isolate the entire clip/layer.
Track folders
A track folder contains tracks in the Track pane of the Track view. Track folders make larger projects
much easier to manage—you can group different types of tracks in their own folder: vocals, soft
synths, ReWire instruments, drums, etc.
The main characteristics of a track folder are:
• You can edit all the tracks in the folder as if you were editing a single track—especially valuable
for drum tracks. The track folder displays a composite clip in the Clips pane of all the clips in the
folder. Selecting a time range in the composite clip selects data in all the enclosed tracks in the
same time range; now you can edit all the tracks in the folder by editing the selected area of the
composite clip.
• You can hide tracks in a folder, freeing up space on your screen.
• A folder can contain any type of track—you can put MIDI, audio, and synth tracks in the same
folder.
• You can archive, mute, solo, arm, or input monitor all the tracks in a folder with one click—just
click the Archive, Mute, Solo, Arm, or Input Echo button on the track folder.
Arranging and editing
Track folders
363
E
F
G
D
C
H
B
A
A. The tracks in a track folder are connected by a line B. Description box C. Track folder info D. Open/Close
folder E. Track folder—click here to select all data in track folder F. Archive, Mute, Solo, Arm, and Input Echo
buttons G. Selected area of composite clip H. Composite clip
To create a track folder
• Right-click in the Track pane of the Track view, and choose Insert Track Folder from the pop-up
menu.
Or
• Use the Insert > Track Folder menu command.
Or
• Right-click a track that’s not in a track folder and select Move to Folder > New Track Folder from
the pop-up menu.
A new track folder appears in the Track pane.
To add a track to a track folder
• In the Track view, move the mouse cursor just to the right of the track number of a pre-existing
track until the cursor turns into a black, double-ended arrow, and then click and drag the track’s
titlebar onto the track folder. Release the mouse.
Or
• Insert a track when a track within a track folder has focus.
Or
• Right-click a track that’s not in a track folder and select Move to Folder > Track Folder “n” from
the pop-up menu.
Or
• Select the tracks you want to add to the folder, right-click on the folder and select Add Track(s) to
Folder from the menu that appears.
The added track appears in the track folder, and is indented a little to show that it’s inside the track
folder.
364
Arranging and editing
Track folders
To remove a track from a track folder
• In the Track view, move the cursor just to the right of the track number of a track until the cursor
turns into a black, double-ended arrow, and then click and drag the track’s titlebar out of the Track
Folder. Release the mouse.
Or
• Right-click the track and select Remove From Folder from the pop-up menu.
To add multiple tracks to a track folder
1. Select the tracks you want to add.
2. Right-click a selected track and choose Move to Folder > Track Folder “n” from the pop-up
menu.
To remove multiple tracks from a track folder
1. Select the tracks you want to remove.
2. Right-click a selected track and choose Remove From Folder from the pop-up menu.
To delete a track folder
1. In the Track view, right-click and select Delete Track Folder from the menu that appears.
2. SONAR asks you if you want to delete all the tracks in the folder along with the track folder—
click Yes or No.
SONAR deletes the track folder. If you didn’t choose to delete the tracks in the track folders, SONAR
moves these tracks to the top level.
To open or close a track folder
• Click the folder icon that’s just left of the track folder’s name.
To select or deselect all the tracks in a track folder
• Click just to the left of the folder icon.
To rename a track folder
• Double-click the track folder’s name, type a new name, and press ENTER.
To add a description to a track folder
• Double-click the Description box, type a description, and press ENTER.
To select all clips in a time range
• With the Smart tool
or Select tool
, drag across the top half of the composite clip.
Now you can edit, move, cut and paste all the selected clips by editing the selected part of the
composite clip.
Arranging and editing
Track folders
365
Adding effects in the Track view
You can add both MIDI and audio effects directly from the Track view. SONAR adds these effects in
real-time, preserving your track’s original data.
To add effects in the Track view
1. Right-click in the effects bin of the track you want to add effects to.
A
A. Right-click here to add an effect
An effects pop-up menu appears. SONAR displays MIDI effects if you are editing a MIDI track,
and audio effects for an audio track.
2. Select an effect from the menu.
The name of the effect appears in the effects bin and the effect’s property page appears. To
delete the effect, right-click the effect name and choose Delete from the pop-up menu.
3. Set the effects parameters or choose a preset.
Play your track and listen to the effect(s).
Note: If you use the same effects for more than one track, it’s more efficient to add the effects
to an bus. See “To patch a track through a bus” on page 815.
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Arranging and editing
Adding effects in the Track view
Changing tempos
Your project can incorporate all kinds of tempo changes, including step changes from one tempo to
another, gradual increases (accelerandos) or decreases (ritardandos), and almost any other type of
change you can imagine. The tempo changes you add to your project become part of the project and
are saved with the project file.
You can add tempo changes to your project in the following ways:
• Clicking the tempo display in the Control Bar’s Transport module.
• Using the Project > Insert Tempo Change and Project > Insert Series of Tempos commands.
• By drawing tempo changes graphically in the Tempo view.
• Inserting tempo changes in the Tempo view’s Tempo List pane.
The Process > Fit to Time and Process > Fit Improvisation commands can also be used to
introduce tempo changes into your work file. For more information, see “Stretching and shrinking
events” on page 692 and “Fit Improvisation” on page 705.
When you change the tempo of a project that contains audio, SONAR allows you to stretch or shrink
audio clips when you have converted them to Groove clips and have enabled the Follow Project
Pitch option in the Loop Construction view. Otherwise, the MIDI tracks will speed up or slow down
while the audio tracks will play at the same speed. For more information about Groove clips, see
“Working with Groove Clip audio” on page 638. Audio clips that are not Groove clips change in size
when moved to a part of your project that has a different tempo.
Sometimes you don’t want to adjust the speed of your audio. Here are some examples:
• If your project contains background music and a voice-over, you might want to change the tempo
of the background music without altering the voice-over.
• If you’re trying to modify the speed of some MIDI tracks to match a sampled drum groove, you
want to leave the audio unchanged.
When you change the tempo of your project, clips having stretching enabled change tempo along
with the project, while those that do not have stretching enabled do not. For more information about
stretch-enabling clips, see “Enable Stretching” on page 631.
Tempos set when the clock source is set to MIDI Sync do not have any effect, because SONAR
follows the external tempo. For more information, see “Synchronizing your gear” on page 1079.
See:
“Using the Transport module” on page 368
“Using the Tempo commands” on page 369
“Using the Tempo view” on page 371
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367
Using the Transport module
The Transport module displays the current tempo and lets you change the tempo as shown below:
Figure 85.
The Transport module.
A
A. Click to enter a new tempo
When you enter a new tempo directly in the Transport module, you change the most recent tempo
setting in the project.
To change the current tempo in the Tempo toolbar
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Click the current tempo in the Transport module.
3. Type a new value and press ENTER, or use the spinners to change the tempo value.
SONAR changes the current tempo to the desired value.
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Using the Tempo commands
The Project > Insert Tempo Change and Project > Insert Series of Tempos commands can be
used to change the existing tempo of a project or to introduce one or more tempo changes at various
points in a project. You can enter tempo values directly, introduce smooth increase or decreases in
tempo, or even use your mouse to tap out the tempo you want for some portion of a project.
To insert a tempo change
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Choose Project > Insert Tempo Change to display the Tempo dialog box.
Figure 86.
The Tempo dialog
3. Check the Insert a New Tempo box.
4. Enter a new tempo in one of the following ways:
• Type a value in the Tempo field.
• Click the arrows to change the value.
• Tap a new tempo in the space indicated in the dialog box.
5. Enter a starting time for the new tempo.
6. Click OK.
SONAR inserts a tempo change at the designated time.
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369
To insert a series of tempos
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove clip Looping enabled.
2. Choose Project > Insert Series of Tempos to display the Insert Series of Tempos dialog box.
Figure 87.
The Insert Series of Tempos dialog
3. Enter a starting tempo, ending tempo, and step size.
4. Enter a starting and ending time for the series of tempo changes.
5. Click OK.
SONAR erases any existing tempo changes between the starting and ending time, and inserts a
series of tempo changes that change smoothly between the starting and ending time. This
command never inserts more than one tempo change on the same clock tick. Audio clips which you
want to follow tempo changes can also be converted to Groove clips in the Loop Construction view.
To modify the most recent tempo change
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Choose Project > Insert Tempo Change to display the Tempo dialog box.
3. Check the Change the Most Recent Tempo box.
4. Enter a new tempo in one of the following ways:
• Type a value in the Tempo field.
• Click the arrows to change the value.
• Tap a new tempo in the space indicated in the dialog box.
5. Click OK.
SONAR changes the most recent tempo to the new value.
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Using the Tempo view
The Tempo view provides both a graphic display of the tempo and a list of all tempo changes in your
project. In the graphical display you can use your mouse to draw tempo changes directly onto the
graph. In the tempo list, you can insert, edit, and delete individual tempo changes. To open the
Tempo view, choose Views > Tempo or press ALT+SHIFT+5. Click the Tempo List button
to
display or hide the tempo list.
Figure 88.
The Tempo view
If an entire project has a single tempo, the graph shows a straight horizontal line, and a single tempo
in the list.
The Control Bar contains several tools you can use to add or modify tempo changes:
Tool
Name
What it’s for
Select
Drag the Select tool in either the Tempo list or graphic display to select tempos
to edit
Freehand
Draw a custom curve indicating changes in tempo
Line
Draw a straight line indicating a steady increase or decrease in tempo
Erase
Eliminate tempo changes already in place for some portion of a project
Snap grid
Controls how often you can insert tempo changes—for example, every
measure, every eighth note, every 3 samples, etc.
Table 58.
If you make a mistake using any of these tools, you can use Edit > Undo to correct the error. When
you use the Freehand tool, the speed with which you drag the mouse determines the density of
tempo events. To insert a larger number of relatively small tempo changes, move the mouse slowly.
To insert a smaller number of relatively large tempo changes, drag the mouse quickly.
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371
The Tempo List Pane has its own tools for editing tempo changes:
Tool
Name
What it’s for
Tempo List
Displaying a list of all tempo changes in the project.
Insert Tempo
Insert a new tempo change
Delete Tempo
Delete a tempo change
Tempo Properties
Edit a tempo change
Table 59.
To insert a tempo change in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Select the Freehand tool
or the Line tool
in the Control Bar.
3. Click in the Tempo view at any desired time point and tempo level.
SONAR introduces a tempo change at the indicated point.
To steadily increase or decrease the tempo in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Select the Line tool
in the Control Bar.
3. Drag a line in the graph from the starting time and tempo to the ending time and tempo.
SONAR introduces a linear series of tempo changes.
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To draw a series of tempo changes in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Select the Freehand tool
in the Control Bar.
3. Drag the cursor across the graph, adjusting the tempo level as you move left to right.
SONAR introduces a series of tempo changes.
To erase tempo changes in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Select the Erase tool
in the Control Bar.
3. Drag the mouse over the graph to highlight the region you want to erase.
4. Release the mouse button.
SONAR deletes all tempo changes in the area you marked. The last tempo setting prior to the
erased region is now in effect in that region.
To insert a tempo change in the Tempo list in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Click the Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
3. Select any tempo change in the list.
4. Click Insert Tempo
to open the Tempo dialog box.
5. Set the tempo, time, and other properties.
6. Click OK.
SONAR inserts the new tempo into the list.
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Changing tempos
373
To edit a tempo change in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Click the Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
3. In the tempo list, select the tempo change to be edited.
4. Click Tempo Properties
or double-click the tempo change to open the Tempo dialog box.
5. Edit the tempo properties as desired.
6. Click OK.
To delete a tempo change from the Tempo list in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Click the Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
3. In the Tempo list, select the tempo change to be deleted.
4. Click Delete Tempo
, or press DELETE.
SONAR deletes the selected tempo change. You cannot delete the first tempo in the list.
Undo, redo, and the undo history
SONAR provides very powerful Undo and Redo commands that let you move forward or backward
through any portion of an editing session. Every project has its own independent undo history. This
means you can return to any open project and use the Undo and Redo commands, even if you’ve
spent the last hour working on a different project. The undo history of a project is lost when you close
the project.
Remembering everything that is necessary to undo the changes you have made can use a lot of
memory. If a change you are about to make requires too much memory and cannot be undone, you
will be advised that the operation is too big to undo later and asked if you want to go ahead anyway.
If you do choose to perform the operation, you will not be able to undo it. Therefore, you may want to
save your project first.
The Edit > History command displays a complete history of the commands and actions you can
undo for the current project. The Undo History dialog box looks like this:
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Undo, redo, and the undo history
Figure 89.
The Undo History dialog
A
B
C
A. Most recent change B. Click to clear the undo history C. Adjust the number of steps you can undo
The History command is grayed out until you make a change to the current project that can be
undone.
The History list is updated every time you make a change to a project. For example, if you insert a
new note into a project using the Piano Roll view, that action is added to the History list. This entry
remains on the list—even if you undo the change—so that you can redo the change later on. If you
delete the note, this change is added to the History list.
You can click the Clear button in the Undo History dialog box to erase the undo history for the
current project and free up some memory. If SONAR is low on memory, it may offer to erase the
History list.
To revert to an earlier version of a project, highlight the entry in the History list that represents the
point to which you’d like to return, and click OK. SONAR performs the necessary undo or redo
actions to take you to that point. Once you edit the project (for example, by inserting a note), the
History list is truncated at that point. Then, as you do further work, the History list grows again. Any
events occurring before the event you highlighted remain on the list.
By default, SONAR keeps a history of up to 128 editing actions for each open project. Once that limit
is reached, each new action pushes out the oldest item from the History list. You can raise or lower
that number in the Undo History dialog box.
Arranging and editing
Undo, redo, and the undo history
375
Slip-editing (non-destructive editing)
Slip-editing allows you to non-destructively hide or reveal the beginning of a clip, the end of a clip, or
both. The hidden material in a clip is not heard during playback. All hidden material remains intact
and can be restored. All slip-editing movements correspond to the current snap to resolution. For
more information about the snap to grid, see “Defining and using the Snap Grid” on page 346.
A
B
A. Clip handle B. Slip-edit cursor
Important: Like any clips, slip-edited clips can be combined with other clips using the Track
view Clips > Bounce to Clip(s) command and slip-edited clips in a track can be mixed down to
another track. When a slip-edited clip is combined with another clip or an effect is applied to a
clip using the Process > Apply Effect > Audio Effects command, any slip-edited data (audio
clips or MIDI events that are cropped from view) is overwritten.
See also:
“Using slip-editing” on page 376
Using slip-editing
SONAR makes it easy to edit audio and MIDI clips by way of prominent clip handles that appear as
your cursor comes close to the edges of clips. The clip handles are easy to see and are equipped
with broad functionality for fade-ins, fade-outs, and crossfades, as well as non-destructive editing of
the beginning and end of clips.
To slip-edit a clip
1. Set an appropriate snap resolution in the Control Bar’s Snap module.
2. Select the Smart tool
or Trim tool
in the Control Bar.
3. If you are slip editing an audio clip, open the Clip Inspector, select the Groove Clip section and
make sure the Looping check box is unchecked.
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4. Move the cursor over the beginning of the clip until the clip handle appears.
.
A
A. Clip handle
5. Click and drag the clip handle until the unwanted information has been removed.
The hidden information in the slip-edited clips remains intact but is not heard during playback.
To move data without moving its clip
1. Do one of the following:
• Using the Smart tool
to edit.
• Using the Trim tool
to edit.
, hold ALT+SHIFT move the pointer over the middle of the clip you wish
, hold ALT+SHIFT move the pointer over the top third of the clip you wish
The cursor changes to look like this
.
2. Click and drag the clip to the left or right as desired.
As in the case of slip-editing, the hidden information in the clip remains intact but is not heard
during playback.
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377
To move data and the clip edge
1. Select the Smart tool
or Trim tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Hold down ALT+SHIFT and move the cursor to the edge of the clip you wish to edit.
A clip handle appears at the edge of the clip you are editing.
3. Click and drag the edge of the clip to the desired location.
The hidden information in the clip remains intact but is not heard during playback.
To permanently delete slip-edited data
1. Select the clips that contain the slip-edited data you want to delete.
2. Select the Track view Clips > Apply Trimming command.
SONAR permanently deletes the slip-edited data from the clips you selected.
Slip-editing multiple clips
You can slip-edit multiple clips at the same time.
To slip-edit multiple clips at once
1. Make sure all clips are not loop-enabled.
2. Select the clips you want to slip-edit.
3. Move your cursor over the beginning or end range of the selected clips until the blue clip handle
appears.
4. Drag the boundary to the desired location and release.
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Fades and crossfades
Fades are a gradual increase or decrease in volume at the beginning (fade-in) or end (fade-out) of a
clip. A crossfade is when one clip fades out while another fades in. There are two ways to create
fades and crossfades in SONAR: offline (destructive) and real-time (non-destructive). To create
fades and crossfades offline, see “Applying fades and crossfades offline” on page 770.
See:
“Using fades and crossfades in real-time” on page 379
Using fades and crossfades in real-time
You can create real-time fades and crossfades in the Track view’s Clips pane. Real-time fades and
crossfades do not change the data in the clip. SONAR reads the fade-in, fade-out, or crossfade in
the clip and adjusts the gain accordingly. You can edit the crossfade’s start time and end times. You
can set the type of fade-in or fade-out you want to use as a default:
• Linear.
A straight line, raising or lowering the volume at a steady rate.
• Slow Curve. A curved fade which starts to change the volume slowly at first and then rapidly
increasing (fade-in) or decreasing (fade-out) the volume.
• Fast Curve. A curved fade which starts to change the volume quickly at first and then rapidly
decreasing (fade-out) or increasing (fade-in) the volume.
To choose the fade type
Click the Track view Options menu, point to Crossfade Type and select the desired default FadeIn, Fade-Out and Crossfade curve types.
To create a real-time fade-in in a Clip
1. Select the Smart tool
or Trim tool
in the Control Bar.
2. In the Track view’s Clips pane, move your mouse over the top part of the beginning of a clip until
the cursor looks like this:
, and a red line appears at the edge of the clip.
A filled red triangle appears at the top of the red line indicating the fade marker is ready to be
dragged.
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379
A
A. Filled red triangle
3. When your cursor changes and the filled red triangle appears, click and drag to the right until you
reach your desired fade-in length.
As you drag your mouse, a fade-in appears on your clip, and the red line moves with the mouse to
mark the end of the fade-in.
To edit a fade-in in a Clip
• To move the entire fade-in to a later point in the clip, drag above the blue horizontal line located a
quarter of the way up the blue vertical line
.
A
B
A. Cursor above horizontal blue line B. Horizontal blue line
• To move only the starting point of the fade-in, drag below the horizontal blue line.
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Arranging and editing
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• To delete a fade-in from an audio clip, simply drag the triangular fade handle
edge of the clip.
to the front
The filled blue triangle at the top of the clip handle indicates that dragging the top edge of the clip
handle will move the fade along with the crop. The filled blue rectangle at the bottom of the clip
handle indicates that dragging the bottom of the clip handle will slip edit the edge, but leave the
end of the fade-in where it is.
To create an automatic crossfade (real-time)
1. Click the Track view Options menu and choose Auto Crossfade.
2. Click the Track view Options menu, point to Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves and
select the desired default crossfade curve types.
3. Select and drag an audio clip so that it overlaps another audio clip. You should overlap the clips
by the length you want the crossfade.
4. When you have the clip positioned where you want it, release the mouse button to drop the clip.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog appears.
5. In the Drag and Drop Options dialog, check the Blend Old With New check box and click OK.
6. The two clips now overlap with a crossfade, looking something like this:
A
B
C
D
E
A. First clip B. Fade-out C. Fade-in D. Second clip E. Crossfade
You can edit fade-ins and fade-outs. You can change the start, end and position of a fade. The
following procedures all demonstrate edits to a fade-in, but fade-outs work exactly the same.
To change an existing fade
1. Move your cursor over the beginning of a fade-out or the end of a fade-in, until your cursor looks
like this:
.
2. Right-click to and select the desired fade type from the menu that appears.
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381
To change an existing crossfade
1. Move your cursor over the region where the crossfade is.
2. Right-click and select the desired crossfade from the menu that appears.
To edit or create fades from the Process menu
1. Select the clip or clips in which you want to create or edit fade-ins and/or fade-outs.
2. Select Process > Fade Selected Clips.
3. Click the Track view Clips menu and choose Fade Clips to open the Fade Selected Clips
dialog.
4. Adjust parameters according to the following table:
Parameter
Description
Fade In (mS)
Select the number of milliseconds you want the fade-in to last.
Fade Out (mS)
Select the number of milliseconds you want the fade-out to last.
Fade In Curve
Choose a fade-in type. Options are linear, slow or fast curve.
Fade Out Curve
Choose a fade-out type. Options are linear, slow or fast curve.
Alter Existing Times
Select this option if you wish to change the existing fade lengths. You don’t need to
check this option if you’re creating new fades.
Alter Existing Curves
Select this option if you wish to change the existing fade types. You don’t need to
check this option if you’re creating new fades.
Only Show if Pressing
Shift
Select if you want to apply previous dialog settings without opening the dialog. Hold
shift when selecting command to override this option.
Table 60.
5. Click OK to close the dialog.
SONAR creates or edits the fade(s) according to the options you chose in the dialog.
Enhanced editing with keyboard
SONAR supports advanced editing via the numeric keypad on standard QWERTY keyboards. You
can perform the following operations:
• Navigate (see “Navigating with a keyboard” on page 384):
• Scroll
• Zoom
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• Select (see “Selecting with a keyboard” on page 386):
• Clip select
• Time select
• Edit (see “Editing with a keyboard” on page 387):
• Trim/crop
• Fade
To enable/disable editing with a QWERTY keyboard
1. On your QWERTY keyboard, press the NumLock key to enable NumLock mode.
2. On the numeric keypad, press 0.
3. Select the desired mode:
• Zoom/Scroll mode. Press 1.
• Select mode. Press 3.
• Edit mode. Press 9.
The keys on the numeric keypad are mapped as follows:
Figure 90.
Numeric keypad (NumLock mode)
CROP OR
FADE
LEFT
UP
EDIT
MODE
CROP OR
FADE
RIGHT
LEFT
CENTER
EDIT
CURSOR
RIGHT
DOWN
SELECT
MODE
ZOOM/
SCROLL
MODE
ENABLE
EDITING
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Enhanced editing with keyboard
383
Key
Function
0
Enable/disable keyboard editing (when NumLock is enabled)
1
Enable Zoom/Scroll mode
2
Down
3
Enable Select mode
4
Left
5
Center edit cursor
6
Right
7
--
8
Up
9
Enable Edit mode
Volume knob (if
keyboard has a rotary
encoder)
Zoom/scroll/trim/crop depending on current mode
PLUS (+)
Crop or fade right in Edit mode
MINUS (-)
Crop or fade left in Edit mode
Table 61.
See:
“Navigating with a keyboard” on page 384
“Selecting with a keyboard” on page 386
“Editing with a keyboard” on page 387
Navigating with a keyboard
Scroll and Zoom are part of the same mode, which makes it fast to navigate around a project.
You can zoom both horizontally and vertically, in small or large steps.
You can scroll fast or slow in any direction, in small or large steps.
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To zoom and scroll with a keyboard
1. On your QWERTY keyboard, press the NumLock key to enable NumLock mode.
2. On the numeric keypad, press 0 to enable keyboard editing.
3. On the numeric keypad, press 1 to enable Zoom/Scroll mode.
The numeric keypad is mapped as follows:
Key
Function
CTRL+
ALT+
SHIFT+
0
Enable/disable keyboard
editing (when NumLock is
enabled)
--
--
--
1
Enable Zoom/Scroll mode
--
--
--
2
Scroll down in large steps
Zoom out
vertically in large
steps (based on
selection)
--
--
3
Enable Select mode
--
--
--
4
Scroll left in large steps
-Zoom in
horizontally in
large steps (based
on selection)
--
5
Center edit cursor
--
--
--
6
Scroll right in large steps
-Zoom out
horizontally in
large steps (based
on selection)
--
8
Scroll up in large steps
Zoom in vertically
in large steps
(based on
selection)
--
--
9
Enable Edit mode
--
--
--
Scroll vertically
Scroll in small
steps
Zoom (based on
selection)
Scroll horizontally
Volume knob (if
keyboard has a rotary
encoder)
Table 62.
The zooming behavior depends on the current Edit or Select mode:
• Zoom around the selection.
Will center and zoom on the mid-point of the selection.
• Zoom around the edit cursor. Will center and zoom around the cursor.
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Enhanced editing with keyboard
385
The most appropriate zoom method is used automatically based on the following logic:
• The default zoom method is Zoom around the selection.
• If there is no selection, the next zoom method is Zoom around the edit cursor.
Selecting with a keyboard
In Select mode, you can select either clips or time.
To enable selecting with a keyboard
1. On your QWERTY keyboard, press the NumLock key to enable NumLock mode.
2. On the numeric keypad, press 0 to enable keyboard editing.
3. On the numeric keypad, press 3 to enable Select mode.
The numeric keypad is mapped as follows:
Key
Function
CTRL+
ALT+
2
Move edit cursor down
Move to closest clip on next
track
Select down
4
Move edit cursor left
Move to previous clip
Select left
5
Center edit cursor
--
--
6
Move edit cursor right
Move to next clip
Select right
8
Move edit cursor up
Move to closest clip on
previous track
Select up
Table 63.
To move the edit cursor
• In Select mode, do one of the following:
• To move to the left.
• To move to the right.
Press 4.
Press 6.
• To move to the previous layer or track. Press 8.
• To move to the next layer or track.
Press 2.
• To center the edit cursor. Press 5.
• To move to the previous clip.
• To move to the next clip.
Press CTRL+4.
Press CTRL+6.
• To move to the closest clip on the previous track.
Press CTRL+8.
• To move to the closest clip on the next track. Press CTRL+2.
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To select time with a keyboard
1. Move the Now Time to where you want to start the selection.
2. In Select mode, hold down ALT and move the edit cursor left/right/up/down to make a time
selection.
To select clips with a keyboard
• In Select mode, do one of the following:
• To select and edit clip under the edit cursor. Press 9 to select clip and enable Edit mode.
• To extend the current selection.
Hold down SHIFT+ALT and press 2, 4, 6 or 8.
Editing with a keyboard
Edit mode lets you fade and crop all selected clips. If no clips are selected when you enter Edit
mode, SONAR will automatically select the clip that is under the edit cursor.
To enable clip editing with a keyboard
1. On your QWERTY keyboard, press the NumLock key to enable NumLock mode.
2. On the numeric keypad, press 0 to enable keyboard editing.
3. On the numeric keypad, press 9 to enable Edit mode.
The numeric keypad is mapped as follows:
Function
Key
Select fade out for editing
2
Select left clip edge for cropping
4
Select right clip edge for cropping
6
Select fade in for editing
8
Fade or crop selected clips
Volume knob (if keyboard has a rotary encoder)
Crop or fade right in Edit mode
PLUS (+)
Crop or fade left in Edit mode
MINUS (-)
Table 64.
Arranging and editing
Enhanced editing with keyboard
387
To fade clips with a keyboard
1. In Select mode, select the clips that you want to fade.
2. Press 9 to enable Edit mode.
3. Specify the clip property that you want to edit:
• Fade in.
• Fade out.
Press 8.
Press 2.
4. Do one of the following to adjust the selected fade:
• Turn the rotary encoder.
• Press PLUS (+) or MINUS (-).
Note: Fades do not obey Snap to Grid.
To crop clips with a keyboard
1. In Select mode, select the clips that you want to crop.
2. Press 9 to enable Edit mode.
3. Specify the clip edge that you want to crop:
• Left clip edge. Press 4.
• Right clip edge. Press 6.
4. Do one of the following to adjust the selected clip edge:
• Turn the rotary encoder.
• Press PLUS (+) or MINUS (-).
Note: Crop obeys Snap to Grid.
388
Arranging and editing
Enhanced editing with keyboard
Tools
SONAR has several different global tools that allow you to edit content in your projects. The global
tools live in the Tools module in the Control Bar, and allow you to edit content in the following views:
• Track view
• Piano Roll view
• Staff view
• Tempo view
The selected tool applies to whichever editing view has focus. There are several ways to select
tools:
• From the Tools module in the Control Bar. For details, see “Using the Control Bar to select tools”
on page 393.
• From the Tools HUD (Heads Up Display). For details, see “Using the Tools HUD to select tools”
on page 395.
• By pressing the tool’s keyboard shortcut. For details, see “Using keyboard shortcuts to select
tools” on page 396.
Figure 91.
Global tools are accessed from the Tools module in the Control Bar.
Each tool serves a specific purpose, and the most suitable tool depends on the editing task you want
to accomplish. The default Smart tool can be used for most tasks, but there may be times when a
specific tool is either required or makes the editing task easier. For instructions about common
editing tasks, see “Using tools to perform common tasks” on page 451.
To use a tool in the Track view, first select the desired tool, then select the data type you want to edit
(clips, track automation, clip automation, audio transients, or notes). You can specify the desired
data type independently for each track. For details, see “Selecting the data type to edit” on page
398.
SONAR provides the following global tools.
Tool
Button Shortcut
Description
How to use
“Smart tool”
on page 404
F5
The Smart tool is the default tool in
SONAR. The Smart tool is a multifunction tool that combines functions
from several other tools. The function
is determined by where you click.
Using the Smart tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• Automation
• AudioSnap transients
“Select tool”
on page 409
F6
The Select tool lets you select data.
You can select a time range, or select
entire clips, MIDI notes, envelope
nodes and transients.
Using the Select tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• Automation
• AudioSnap transients
“Move tool”
on page 413
F7
The Move tool lets you move selected
data. You can move entire clips,
partial clips, MIDI notes, envelope
nodes, transient markers and clip
tempo map markers.
Using the Move tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• Automation
• AudioSnap transients
“Trim tool” on
page 416
F8 (cycle
through
Edit tools)
The Trim tool lets you adjust data.
You can slip-edit clips, adjust note
start/end times, adjust fades, and
raise/lower note velocity and
automation envelopes.
Using the Trim tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• Automation
“Timing tool”
on page 420
F8 (cycle
through all
Edit tools)
The Timing tool lets you slip-stretch
audio clips, drag-quantize MIDI
notes, and stretch audio using
transient markers.
Using the Timing tool on:
• Audio clips
• PRV notes
• AudioSnap transients
“Split tool” on
page 423
F8 (cycle
through all
Edit tools)
The Split tool lets you split clips, cut
clips, split MIDI notes, split clips at
transients, and add envelope nodes.
Using the Split tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• Automation
• AudioSnap transients
“Freehand
tool” on page
427
The Freehand tool lets you draw MIDI
F9 (cycle
through all notes and freehand automation
Draw tools) envelopes. You can also create and
promote transient markers.
Table 65.
390
Tools
Tools
Using the Freehand tool on:
• PRV notes
• Automation
• AudioSnap transients
Tool
Button Shortcut
Description
How to use
“Line tool” on
page 430
The Line tool lets you draw straight
F9 (cycle
through all automation envelopes and “paint”
Draw tools) MIDI notes.
Using the Line tool on:
• PRV notes
• Automation
“Sine tool” on
page 432
The Sine Pattern tool lets you edit
F9 (cycle
through all automation envelopes by drawing
Draw tools) sine shapes.
“Using the Pattern tools on
automation” on page 433
“Triangle
tool” on page
432
The Triangle Pattern tool lets you edit
F9 (cycle
through all automation envelopes by drawing
Draw tools) triangle shapes.
“Using the Pattern tools on
automation” on page 433
“Square tool”
on page 432
The Square Pattern tool lets you edit
F9 (cycle
through all automation envelopes by drawing
Draw tools) square shapes.
“Using the Pattern tools on
automation” on page 433
“Saw tool” on
page 432
The Saw Pattern tool lets you edit
F9 (cycle
through all automation envelopes by drawing
Draw tools) sawtooth shapes.
“Using the Pattern tools on
automation” on page 433
“Random
tool” on page
432
The Random Pattern tool lets you edit “Using the Pattern tools on
F9 (cycle
automation” on page 433
through all automation envelopes by drawing
Draw tools) random shapes.
“Erase tool”
on page 434
F10 (cycle
through all
Erase
tools)
The Erase tool lets you delete clips,
partial clips, MIDI notes, automation
envelope nodes, and transient
markers.
Using the Erase tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• Automation
• AudioSnap transients
“Mute tool” on
page 438
F10 (cycle
through all
Erase
tools)
The Mute tool lets you mute clips,
mute partial clips, mute MIDI notes,
and disable transient markers.
Using the Mute tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• AudioSnap transients
To scrub:
• A single track
• All displayed tracks
“Scrub tool”
on page 442
None
J
The Scrub tool lets you play all
displayed tracks as you drag the
mouse pointer forward or backward
at the desired speed.
“Zoom tool”
on page 443
None
Z
“Using the Zoom tool” on page
The Zoom tool lets you change the
vertical and horizontal scale of a view. 443
You can lasso select a specific area
to zoom into.
Table 65.
Tools
Tools (Continued)
391
See:
“Selecting tools” on page 392
“Selecting the data type to edit” on page 398
“Snap to Grid settings” on page 444
“Specifying note durations” on page 446
“Mouse cursors” on page 447
“Tools” on page 389
Selecting tools
To select and use a tool
1. Do one of the following:
• Click the desired tool in the Control Bar’s Tools module. For details, see “Using the Control Bar
to select tools” on page 393.
• Press T on your computer keyboard to display the Tools HUD, then select the desired tool. For
details, see “Using the Tools HUD to select tools” on page 395.
• Press the tool’s keyboard shortcut. A tool’s keyboard shortcut is displayed in its tooltip. For
details, see “Using keyboard shortcuts to select tools” on page 396.
The selected tool is highlighted, and the mouse pointer changes to reflect the active tool. For
details, see “Mouse cursors” on page 447.
2. Click the desired track’s Edit Filter control and select the data type you want to edit:
• Clips
• Audio Transients (audio tracks only)
• Notes (MIDI tracks only)
• Track Automation (including ProChannel, Arpeggiator, plug-in parameters, and MIDI
continuous controllers)
• Clip Automation
Tip: To set all similar tracks to the same Edit Filter setting, hold down the CTRL key when you change
any track’s Edit Filter setting. To set all selected tracks to the same Edit Filter setting, hold down
CTRL+SHIFT when you change any track’s Edit Filter setting.
392
Tools
Figure 92.
Use the Edit Filter control to specify what type of data the global tools should operate on.
A
A. Edit Filter
For details, see “Selecting the data type to edit” on page 398.
For instructions about performing common tasks, see “Using tools to perform common tasks” on
page 451.
Note: Some tools can only be used on certain types of data. The mouse pointer indicates if the
selected tool can be used at the current position. For details, see “Mouse cursors” on page 447.
Using the Control Bar to select tools
Figure 93.
A
Global tools are accessed from the Tools module in the Control Bar.
B
C
D
E
F
G
A. Smart tool B. Select tool C. Move tool D. Edit tools (Trim/Timing/Split) E. Draw tools (Freehand/Line/Sine/
Triangle/Square/Saw/Random) F. Erase tools (Erase/Mute) G. Draw resolution
To show/hide the Tools module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Tools Module.
For more information about the Tools module, see “Tools module” on page 476.
Tools
393
Accessing grouped tools
Related tools are grouped together in the Tools module. Several buttons in the Tools module display
a small triangle in the bottom right corner. The triangle indicates that you can click and keep the
mouse button pressed for a brief moment to access additional tools or options from a pop-up menu.
You can also right-click the button and choose an option on the pop-up menu.
The following groups are available:
• Edit tools:
• Trim tool
• Timing tool
• Split tool
• Draw tools:
• Freehand tool
• Line tool
• Sine tool
• Triangle tool
• Square tool
• Saw tool
• Random tool
• Erase tools:
• Erase tool
• Mute tool
If the tool you are looking for isn’t visible in the Tools module, chances are that another tool in the
same group is selected. To access the hidden tool, click the group the tool belongs to, then select
the tool from the pop-up menu. Figure 95 shows an expanded view of all tool groups.
Figure 94. If a button displays a small triangle in the bottom right corner, click and keep the mouse button
pressed to access additional tools or options.
394
Tools
Figure 95.
A
Tools module expanded view.
B
C
D
H
P
E
I
Q
F
J
R
G
K
L
M
N
O
A. Smart tool B. Select tool C. Move tool D. Edit tools E. Trim tool F. Timing tool G. Split tool H. Draw tools
I. Freehand tool J. Line Tool K. Sine Pattern tool L. Triangle Pattern tool M. Square Pattern tool N. Saw
Pattern tool O. Random Pattern tool P. Erase tools Q. Erase tool R. Mute tool
Using the Tools HUD to select tools
Press the T to open the Tools HUD (Heads Up Display) at the current pointer position, then select
the desired tool.
Tip: You can press the middle mouse button to open the Tools HUD. While the Tools HUD is open,
use the mouse wheel to open the Edit Filter menu.
Figure 96.
Press T to show the Tools HUD.
In the Track view, the Tools HUD also shows the Edit Filter control for whichever track is behind the
mouse pointer when the Tools HUD is opened.
Tools
395
Using keyboard shortcuts to select tools
Use the following keyboard shortcuts to select tools. Tools that belong to the same group share the
same shortcut. Press a shortcut repeatedly to cycle through all tools in a group.
Tool
Button Shortcut
Show Tools HUD
---
T
“Smart tool” on page
404
F5
“Select tool” on
page 409
F6
“Move tool” on page
413
F7
Cycle through Edit
tools (Trim/Timing/
Split)
---
F8
“Trim tool” on page
416
F8
“Timing tool” on
page 420
F8
“Split tool” on page
423
F8
Cycle through Draw
tools (Freehand/
Line/Sine/Triangle/
Square/Saw/
Random)
---
F9
“Freehand tool” on
page 427
F9
“Line tool” on page
430
F9
“Sine tool” on page
432
F9
“Triangle tool” on
page 432
F9
Table 66.
396
Tool keyboard shortcuts
Tools
Tool
Button Shortcut
“Square tool” on
page 432
F9
“Saw tool” on page
432
F9
“Random tool” on
page 432
F9
Cycle through Erase --tools (Erase/Mute)
F10
“Erase tool” on page
434
F10
“Mute tool” on page
438
F10
Snap on/off
---
F12
“Scrub tool” on page --442
J (hold to
use)
“Zoom tool” on page
443
Z (hold to
use)
Table 66.
---
Tool keyboard shortcuts (Continued)
To temporarily invoke a tool
While using a specific tool, you can temporarily invoke another tool by holding down the new tool’s
keyboard shortcut. Release the shortcut to switch back to the previously selected tool.
For example, if you are using the Move tool and need to select some notes, press and hold down the
F6 key (shortcut for the Select tool), make a selection, then release the F6 key to return to the Move
tool.
For a list of tool shortcuts, see “Using keyboard shortcuts to select tools” on page 396.
Hotspots and modifier keys
Clips, note events, envelopes and AudioSnap transients have different “hotspots”. That is, a tool
may do something different depending on where you click. As you move the mouse pointer, the
current hotspot is shown as a shaded rectangle.
A modifier key, such as CTRL, ALT or SHIFT, may also be used in some cases to extend a tool’s
function.
See:
“Selecting the data type to edit” on page 398
Tools
397
Selecting the data type to edit
Use a track’s Edit Filter control to specify the type of data you want to edit.
Figure 97.
Use the Edit Filter control to specify what type of data the global tools should operate on.
A
A. Edit Filter
The following data types can be selected:
• Clips. The selected tool operates on clips.
• Audio Transients. The selected tool operates on audio transients (only available for audio
tracks).
• Notes. The selected tool operates on MIDI Note events (only available for MIDI and Instrument
tracks).
• Track Automation. The selected tool operates on track automation envelopes, including
ProChannel, Arpeggiator, plug-in parameters and MIDI continuous controllers (CCs). Select the
desired automation parameter from the submenu. Color-coded squares are used to indicate
existing envelopes.
• Clip Automation. The selected tool operates on clip automation envelopes. Select the desired
automation parameter from the submenu. Color-coded squares are used to indicate existing
envelopes.
To change the current Edit Filter setting
Do one of the following:
• Click the Edit Filter control and select the desired data type. The Edit Filter control is available in
each track strip in the Track view, in the track context menu, and in the Tools HUD (see “Using
the Tools HUD to select tools” on page 395).
• Hold down the SHIFT key and click the clip or envelope you want to edit.
• Hold down the SHIFT key and click an automatable control (Volume, Pan, etc.) in a track strip.
• Hold down the SHIFT key and right-click to toggle between the two most recently selected data
types.
398
Tools
• Hold down the SHIFT key and scroll the mouse wheel to cycle through all existing envelopes.
• Click the middle mouse button to show the Tools HUD, then scroll the mouse wheel to cycle
through the available data types.
Tip: To set all tracks to the same Edit Filter setting, hold down the CTRL key when you change any
non-selected track’s Edit Filter setting. To set all selected tracks to the same Edit Filter setting, hold
down the CTRL when you change any selected track’s Edit Filter setting.
Data type ghosting
Although you can only edit one data type at a time, you can choose to always show clips and
automation envelopes simultaneously. All but the selected data type will be shaded, or “ghosted”.
This allows you to see all data types in context while editing a specific data type.
You can also hold down the SHIFT key and click any ghosted object to switch a track’s current Edit
Filter setting. This is a quick way to toggle between editing clips and automation envelopes.
Figure 98.
Use the Edit Filter control to specify what type of data the global tools should operate on.
Clips
Audio Transients
Track Automation and Clip Automation
Notes
To enable/disable data type ghosting
Click the Track view Options menu, point to Display and choose Display Ghosted Data on the
submenu.
Tools
399
To switch between editing clips and automation envelopes
Hold down the SHIFT key and click the clip or envelope you want to edit.
Editing audio clips
• “Working with audio clips” on page 453
• “Using the Smart tool on audio clips” on page 404
• “Using the Select tool on audio clips” on page 409
• “Using the Move tool on audio clips” on page 413
• “Using the Trim tool on audio clips” on page 417
• “Using the Timing tool on audio clips” on page 420
• “Using the Erase tool on audio clips” on page 434
• “Using the Split tool on audio clips” on page 423
• “Using the Mute tool on audio clips” on page 438
• “To split a clip” on page 456
• “To scrub an audio clip” on page 455
• “To fade in/out an audio clip” on page 453
• “To crop a clip’s start/end” on page 453
• “To select audio clips” on page 454
• “To mute/unmute a clip” on page 455
• “To move a clip” on page 455
• “To stretch an audio clip” on page 456
• “To erase a clip” on page 456
Editing MIDI clips
• “Working with MIDI clips” on page 457
• “Using the Smart tool on MIDI clips” on page 405
• “Using the Select tool on MIDI clips” on page 410
• “Using the Move tool on MIDI clips” on page 414
• “Using the Trim tool on MIDI clips” on page 418
• “Using the Erase tool on MIDI clips” on page 435
• “Using the Split tool on MIDI clips” on page 424
• “Using the Mute tool on MIDI clips” on page 439
• “To split a clip” on page 460
• “To scrub a MIDI clip” on page 459
400
Tools
• “To crop a clip’s start/end” on page 457
• “To select MIDI clips” on page 458
• “To mute/unmute a clip” on page 459
• “To move a clip” on page 459
• “To erase a clip” on page 460
Editing notes in the Piano Roll
• “Working with MIDI notes” on page 461
• “Using the Smart tool on PRV notes” on page 406
• “Using the Select tool on PRV notes” on page 410
• “Using the Move tool on PRV notes” on page 414
• “Using the Trim tool on PRV notes” on page 418
• “Using the Timing tool on PRV notes” on page 421
• “Using the Freehand tool on PRV notes” on page 428
• “Using the Line tool on PRV notes” on page 430
• “Using the Erase tool on PRV notes” on page 435
• “Using the Split tool on PRV notes” on page 424
• “Using the Mute tool on PRV notes” on page 440
• “To split a MIDI note” on page 464
• “To scrub MIDI notes” on page 462
• “To adjust a MIDI note’s velocity” on page 461
• “To adjust a MIDI note’s start/end” on page 461
• “To select MIDI notes” on page 461
• “To mute/unmute a MIDI note” on page 462
• “To move a MIDI note” on page 462
• “To draw a MIDI note” on page 462
• “To drag-quantize MIDI notes” on page 463
• “To glue MIDI notes together” on page 463
• “To paint MIDI notes” on page 463
• “To erase a MIDI note” on page 463
Editing automation envelopes
• “Working with automation envelopes” on page 465
• “Using the Smart tool on automation” on page 407
Tools
401
• “Using the Select tool on automation” on page 411
• “Using the Move tool on automation” on page 415
• “Using the Trim tool on automation” on page 419
• “Using the Freehand tool on automation” on page 428
• “Using the Line tool on automation” on page 431
• “Using the Pattern tools on automation” on page 433
• “Using the Erase tool on automation” on page 436
• “Using the Split tool on automation” on page 425
• “To select automation” on page 465
• “To move automation” on page 465
• “To draw automation freehand” on page 466
• “To draw a straight line” on page 467
• “To draw automation shapes” on page 467
• “To erase automation” on page 468
• “To add envelope nodes” on page 468
• “To draw MIDI continuous controller envelopes” on page 469
Editing AudioSnap transients
• “Working with AudioSnap transients” on page 469
• “Using the Smart tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 408
• “Using the Select tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 412
• “Using the Move tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 415
• “Using the Timing tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 422
• “Using the Freehand tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 429
• “Using the Erase tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 436
• “Using the Mute tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 440
• “Using the Mute tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 440
• “To split an audio clip at transient markers” on page 471
• “To select transient markers” on page 469
• “To move transient markers (without stretching audio)” on page 470
• “To stretch transients” on page 470
• “To promote transient markers” on page 470
• “To erase transient markers” on page 470
• “To add transient” on page 471
402
Tools
See:
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Select tool” on page 409
“Move tool” on page 413
“Trim tool” on page 416
“Timing tool” on page 420
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Line tool” on page 430
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Erase tool” on page 434
“Split tool” on page 423
“Mute tool” on page 438
“Scrub tool” on page 442
“Zoom tool” on page 443
Tools
403
Smart tool
The Smart tool is the default tool in SONAR. The Smart tool is a multi-function tool that combines
functions from several other tools. The function is determined by where you click.
To select the Smart tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Smart tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Smart tool.
• Press F5.
Using the Smart tool on audio clips
Figure 99.
A
Smart tool hotspots on audio clips.
B
C
D
E
F
Hotspot
Default action
A
Adjust fade in
B
Adjust fade out
C
D
E
Table 67.
404
G
+ALT
+CTRL
+ALT+SHIFT
Crop clip start
Crop clip start and
move fade in
Stretch clip
Crop clip start and also
move clip data
Crop clip end
Crop clip end and move Stretch clip
fade out
Crop clip end and also
move clip data
Lasso select entire clips
Select by time
Using the Smart tool on audio clips
Tools
Smart tool
Hotspot
Default action
+ALT
F
Click to select clip; drag
to move clip or selection
Split clip
Move data within clip
G
Click to set the Now time
and clear the selection;
drag to select by time
Split clip
Move data within clip
Table 67.
+CTRL
+ALT+SHIFT
Using the Smart tool on audio clips (Continued)
Using the Smart tool on MIDI clips
Figure 100. Smart tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
A
B
C
D
Hotspot
Default action
A
E
+CTRL
+ALT+SHIFT
Crop clip start
Stretch clip
Crop clip start and also
move clip data
B
Crop clip end
Stretch clip
Crop clip end and also
move clip data
C
Lasso select entire clips
Select by time
D
Click to select clip; drag to
move clip or selection
Split clip
Move data within clip
E
Click to set the Now time
and clear the selection;
drag to select by time
Split clip
Move data within clip
Table 68.
+ALT
Using the Smart tool on MIDI clips
Tools
Smart tool
405
Using the Smart tool on PRV notes
Figure 101. Smart tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
B
D
E
C
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag up/down to
adjust note
velocity
B
Adjust note start
C
Click to select
note; drag to
move note
D
Adjust note end
E
Lasso select
notes
Table 69.
406
Double-click
Right-click
+ALT
Open Note
Properties
dialog
Erase note
Split note
Draw a new
note
Drag to lasso
erase notes
Draw a
new note
Using the Smart tool on PRV notes
Tools
Smart tool
+SHIFT
ALT+Right SHIFT+Right
-click
-click
Mute note
Change
the Data
Picker to
Clips
Drag to
perform the
alternate
mode of the
selected
Erase tool
(either lasso
Erase or
Mute)
Using the Smart tool on automation
Figure 102. Smart tool hotspots on automation.
A
B
D
E
C
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
A
Move node
Reset node
B
Drag up/down to adjust selected
nodes
C
Drag left/right to select nodes
D
Move segment(s)
E
Table 70.
Add new node
+ALT
Add new node
Lasso select nodes across tracks
Using the Smart tool on automation
Tools
Smart tool
407
Using the Smart tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 103. Smart tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
B
C
A
D
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
A
Drag transient marker
line to stretch selected
transients (nonproportional stretch)
Select all adjacent transient
markers in other tracks
B
Drag transient marker
handle (diamond) to
move transient marker
(non-stretch)
C
Lasso select transients
D
Lasso select transients
across clips and tracks
Table 71.
Using the Smart tool on AudioSnap transients clips
See also:
“Tools” on page 389
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Select tool” on page 409
“Move tool” on page 413
“Trim tool” on page 416
“Timing tool” on page 420
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Line tool” on page 430
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Erase tool” on page 434
408
Tools
Smart tool
+ALT
+CTRL
Drag transient marker
line to stretch selected
transients proportionally
Insert new transient
marker
“Split tool” on page 423
“Mute tool” on page 438
“Scrub tool” on page 442
“Zoom tool” on page 443
Select tool
The Select tool lets you select data. You can select a time range, or select entire clips, MIDI notes,
envelope nodes and transients.
To select the Select tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Select tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Select tool.
• Press F6.
Using the Select tool on audio clips
Figure 104. Select tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
C
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Select by time
B
Click to select clip
B
Drag to select multiple clips
C
Table 72.
Lasso select entire clips
+ALT
Select by time
Using the Select tool on audio clips
Tools
Select tool
409
Using the Select tool on MIDI clips
Figure 105. Select tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
A
C
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Select by time
B
Click to select clip
B
Drag to select multiple clips
C
Lasso select entire clips
Table 73.
+ALT
Select by time
Using the Select tool on MIDI clips
Using the Select tool on PRV notes
Figure 106. Select tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
B
410
Tools
Select tool
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to select note
A
Drag to lasso select
B
Lasso select
Table 74.
Using the Select tool on PRV notes
Using the Select tool on automation
Figure 107. Select tool hotspots on automation.
A
B
C
D
Hotspot
Default action
A
Select node
Extend/toggle selection Extend selection
B
Select nodes
Extend/toggle selection Extend selection
C
Select segment
D
Lasso select nodes
across tracks
Table 75.
Double-click
+CTRL
+SHIFT
Add new node
Using the Select tool on automation
Tools
Select tool
411
Using the Select tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 108. Select tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
+CTRL
+SHIFT
A
Select transient marker
Select adjacent transient
markers in other tracks
Extend/toggle
selection
Extend selection
B
Drag left/right to select
transient markers
Table 76.
Using the Select tool on AudioSnap transients
See also:
“Tools” on page 389
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Move tool” on page 413
“Trim tool” on page 416
“Timing tool” on page 420
“Split tool” on page 423
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Line tool” on page 430
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Erase tool” on page 434
“Mute tool” on page 438
“Scrub tool” on page 442
“Zoom tool” on page 443
412
Tools
Select tool
Move tool
The Move tool lets you move selected data. You can move entire clips, partial clips, MIDI notes,
envelope nodes, transient markers and clip tempo map markers.
To select the Move tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Move tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Move tool.
• Press F7.
Using the Move tool on audio clips
Figure 109. Move tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag clip to move clip
A
Drag selection to move selection
B
Table 77.
Tools
Move tool
Lasso select entire clips
+ALT
Select by time
Using the Move tool on audio clips
413
Using the Move tool on MIDI clips
Figure 110. Move tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag clip to move clip
A
Drag selection to move selection
B
Lasso select entire clips
Table 78.
+ALT
Select by time
Using the Move tool on MIDI clips
Using the Move tool on PRV notes
Figure 111. Move tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
Hotspot
Default action
+SHIFT
A
Move note freely
Constrain movement vertically or horizontally
Table 79.
414
Using the Move tool on PRV notes
Tools
Move tool
Using the Move tool on automation
Figure 112. Move tool hotspots on automation.
A
B
C
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
+CTRL
+SHIFT
A
Move node
Reset node
Extend/toggle
selection
Extend selection
B
Move selected
segments/nodes
C
Move segment
Add new node
Extend/toggle
selection
Extend selection
Table 80.
Using the Move tool on automation
Using the Move tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 113. Move tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
A
If no selection exists, move clicked transient
marker; if selection exists, move selected
transient markers
Reset transient marker
B
Move selected transient markers
Table 81.
Tools
Move tool
Using the Move tool on AudioSnap transients
415
See also:
“Tools” on page 389
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Select tool” on page 409
“Trim tool” on page 416
“Timing tool” on page 420
“Split tool” on page 423
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Line tool” on page 430
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Erase tool” on page 434
“Mute tool” on page 438
“Scrub tool” on page 442
“Zoom tool” on page 443
Trim tool
The Trim tool lets you adjust data. You can slip-edit (trim/crop) clips, adjust note start/end times,
adjust fades, and raise/lower note velocity and automation envelopes.
Note: The Trim tool does not work on AudioSnap transients.
To select the Trim tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Trim tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Trim tool.
• Press F8.
Note: The F8 shortcut key cycles through all Edit tools (Trim/Timing/Split). If another Edit tool is
selected, press F8 again until the Trim tool is selected.
416
Tools
Trim tool
Using the Trim tool on audio clips
Figure 114. Trim tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
B
E
C
Hotspot
Default action
A
Adjust fade in
B
Adjust fade out
C
D
+ALT
+CTRL
+ALT+SHIFT
Crop clip start
Crop clip start and
move fade in
Stretch clip
Crop clip start and also
move clip data
D
Crop clip end
Crop clip end and move Stretch clip
fade out
Crop clip end and also
move clip data
E
Crop clip
Table 82.
Tools
Trim tool
Stretch clip
Move data within clip
Using the Trim tool on audio clips
417
Using the Trim tool on MIDI clips
Figure 115. Trim tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
C
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
+CTRL
+ALT+SHIFT
A
Crop clip start
Stretch clip
Crop clip start and also move clip data
B
Crop clip end
Stretch clip
Crop clip end and also move clip data
C
Crop clip
Stretch clip
Move data within clip
Table 83.
Using the Trim tool on MIDI clips
Using the Trim tool on PRV notes
Figure 116. Trim tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
B
418
Tools
Trim tool
C
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag up/down to adjust note velocity
B
Adjust note start
C
Adjust note end
Table 84.
Using the Trim tool on PRV notes
Using the Trim tool on automation
Figure 117. Trim tool hotspots on automation.
A
B
C
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
+CTRL
+SHIFT
A
Move node
Reset node
Extend selection
Extend selection
B
Drag up/down to
adjust selected
nodes
C
Add new node
Table 85.
Using the Trim tool on automation
See also:
“Tools” on page 389
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Select tool” on page 409
“Move tool” on page 413
“Timing tool” on page 420
Tools
Trim tool
419
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Line tool” on page 430
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Erase tool” on page 434
“Split tool” on page 423
“Mute tool” on page 438
“Scrub tool” on page 442
“Zoom tool” on page 443
Timing tool
The Timing tool lets you slip-stretch audio clips, drag-quantize MIDI notes, and stretch audio using
transient markers
Note: The Timing tool does not work on MIDI clips or automation.
To select the Timing tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Timing tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Timing tool.
• Press F8.
Note: The F8 shortcut key cycles through all Edit tools (Trim/Timing/Split). If another Edit tool is
selected, press F8 again until the Timing tool is selected.
Using the Timing tool on audio clips
Figure 118. Timing tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
420
Tools
Timing tool
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Stretch clip start
B
Stretch clip end
Table 86.
Using the Timing tool on audio clips
Using the Timing tool on PRV notes
Figure 119. Timing tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
Hotspot
A
Table 87.
Default action
Drag up/down to drag quantize selected notes
Using the Timing tool on PRV notes
Tools
Timing tool
421
Using the Timing tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 120. Timing tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
+CTRL
A
Drag left/right to stretch audio at
selected transients
Reset transient
Drag to stretch proportionally
B
Drag left/right to stretch audio at
selected transients
Table 88.
Using the Timing tool on AudioSnap transients
See also:
“Tools” on page 389
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Select tool” on page 409
“Move tool” on page 413
“Trim tool” on page 416
“Split tool” on page 423
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Line tool” on page 430
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Erase tool” on page 434
“Mute tool” on page 438
“Scrub tool” on page 442
“Zoom tool” on page 443
422
Tools
Timing tool
Split tool
The Split tool lets you split clips, cut clips, split MIDI notes, split clips at transients, and add envelope
nodes. By splitting clips, you can copy, move, and delete individual sections.
To select the Split tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Split tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Split tool.
• Press F8
Note: The F8 shortcut key cycles through all Edit tools (Trim/Timing/Split). If another Edit tool is
selected, press F8 again until the Split tool is selected.
Using the Split tool on audio clips
Figure 121. Split tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to split clip
A
Drag to split selection
B
Lasso to split at lasso edges
Table 89.
Tools
Split tool
Using the Split tool on audio clips
423
Using the Split tool on MIDI clips
Figure 122. Split tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to split clip
A
Drag to split selection
B
Lasso to split at lasso edges
Table 90.
Using the Split tool on MIDI clips
Using the Split tool on PRV notes
Figure 123. Split tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
Hotspot
Default action
A
Split note
Table 91.
424
Using the Split tool on PRV notes
Tools
Split tool
Using the Split tool on automation
Figure 124. Split tool hotspots on automation.
A
B
C
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to add node
A
Drag to add nodes at mousedown and mouseup points
B
Add node
C
Lasso to add nodes at lasso edges
Table 92.
Using the Split tool on automation
Using the Split tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 125. Split tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
B
C
Hotspot
Default action
A
Split audio at transient marker
Table 93.
Tools
Split tool
Using the Split tool on AudioSnap transients
425
Hotspot
Default action
B
Drag over transient markers to split audio at transients
C
Lasso split at transient markers across clips and tracks
Table 93.
Using the Split tool on AudioSnap transients (Continued)
See also:
“Tools” on page 389
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Select tool” on page 409
“Move tool” on page 413
“Trim tool” on page 416
“Timing tool” on page 420
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Line tool” on page 430
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Erase tool” on page 434
“Mute tool” on page 438
“Scrub tool” on page 442
“Zoom tool” on page 443
426
Tools
Split tool
Freehand tool
The Freehand tool lets you draw MIDI notes and freehand automation envelopes. You can also
create and promote transient markers.
Note: The Freehand tool does not work on audio clips or MIDI clips.
When using the Draw tools to draw note events, use the Value control to specify the duration (whole,
half, etc.) of new note events. For details, see “Specifying note durations” on page 446.
Figure 126. Use the Value control to specify the duration of new note events.
A
A. Draw resolution (note value)
To select the Freehand tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Freehand tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Freehand tool.
• Press F9.
Note: The F9 shortcut key cycles through all Draw tools (Freehand/Line/Sine/Triangle/Square/
Saw/Random). If another Draw tool is selected, press F9 again until the Freehand tool is
selected.
Tools
Freehand tool
427
Using the Freehand tool on PRV notes
Figure 127. Freehand tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Glue notes together
B
+ALT
Draw a new note
Table 94.
Lasso select notes
Using the Freehand tool on PRV notes
Note: To glue notes together, click one note, drag to another note of the same pitch, then release
the mouse button.
Using the Freehand tool on automation
Figure 128. Freehand tool hotspots on automation.
A
Hotspot
A
Table 95.
428
Default action
Draw nodes/segments
Using the Freehand tool on automation
Tools
Freehand tool
Using the Freehand tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 129. Freehand tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
Hotspot
Default action
A
Promote transient marker
B
Table 96.
B
Insert transient marker
Using the Freehand tool on AudioSnap transients
See also:
“Tools” on page 389
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Select tool” on page 409
“Move tool” on page 413
“Trim tool” on page 416
“Timing tool” on page 420
“Split tool” on page 423
“Line tool” on page 430
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Erase tool” on page 434
“Mute tool” on page 438
“Scrub tool” on page 442
“Zoom tool” on page 443
Tools
Freehand tool
429
Line tool
The Line tool lets you draw straight automation envelopes and “paint” MIDI notes at defined
resolutions and intervals.
Note: The Line tool does not work on audio clips, MIDI clips or AudioSnap transients.
For additional draw settings, see “Specifying note durations” on page 446.
To select the Line tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Line tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Line tool.
• Press F9.
Note: The F9 shortcut key cycles through all Draw tools (Freehand/Line/Sine/Triangle/Square/
Saw/Random). If another Draw tool is selected, press F9 again until the Line tool is selected.
Using the Line tool on PRV notes
Figure 130. Line tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag to paint multiple notes.
Table 97.
Using the Line tool on PRV notes
Note: Use the Value control to specify the duration of each note, and use the Snap resolution
to specify the interval between each note.
430
Tools
Line tool
Using the Line tool on automation
Figure 131. Line tool hotspots on automation.
A
Hotspot
A
Default action
Draw a line
Table 98.
Using the Line tool on automation
Note: To draw a line, click anywhere to set the line start point, move the mouse, then release
the mouse button to set the line end point.
See also:
“Tools” on page 389
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Select tool” on page 409
“Move tool” on page 413
“Trim tool” on page 416
“Timing tool” on page 420
“Split tool” on page 423
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Erase tool” on page 434
“Mute tool” on page 438
“Scrub tool” on page 442
“Zoom tool” on page 443
Tools
Line tool
431
Pattern tools
The various pattern tools let you draw automation envelopes that have a specific shape.
For additional draw settings, see “Specifying note durations” on page 446.
To select a pattern tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the desired pattern tool button in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the desired pattern tool.
• Press F9.
Note: The F9 shortcut key cycles through all Draw tools (Freehand/Line/Sine/Triangle/Square/
Saw/Random). If another Draw tool is selected, press F9 again until the desired pattern tool is
selected.
Sine tool
The Sine Pattern tool
lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing sine shapes.
Triangle tool
The Triangle Pattern tool
lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing triangle shapes.
Square tool
The Square Pattern tool
lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing square shapes.
Saw tool
The Saw Pattern tool
lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing sawtooth shapes.
Random tool
The Random Pattern tool
lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing random shapes.
Note: The pattern tools do not work on audio clips, MIDI clips, PRV notes or AudioSnap
transients.
For information about drawing shapes, see “To draw automation shapes” on page 467.
432
Tools
Pattern tools
Using the Pattern tools on automation
Figure 132. Pattern tool hotspots on automation.
A
Hotspot
Default action
A
Draw automation shapes
Table 99.
Using Pattern tools on automation
Note: To draw automation shapes, set the Snap to Grid resolution to the desired length of each
pattern cycle, then perform the following steps in one gesture:
1. Click to set the center position of the shape.
2. Drag up/down to set the vertical range of the shape.
3. Drag left/right to set the duration of the shape.
See also:
“Tools” on page 389
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Select tool” on page 409
“Move tool” on page 413
“Trim tool” on page 416
“Timing tool” on page 420
“Split tool” on page 423
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Line tool” on page 430
“Erase tool” on page 434
“Mute tool” on page 438
“Scrub tool” on page 442
“Zoom tool” on page 443
Tools
Pattern tools
433
Erase tool
The Erase tool lets you delete clips, partial clips, MIDI notes, automation envelope nodes, and
transient markers.
To select the Erase tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Erase tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Erase tool.
• Press F10.
Note: The F10 shortcut key cycles through all Erase tools (Erase/Mute). If another Erase tool is
selected, press F10 again until the Erase tool is selected.
Using the Erase tool on audio clips
Figure 133. Erase tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
C
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag to delete a time selection
B
Click clip to delete clip
B
Click a selection to delete the selection
C
Lasso to delete clips
Table 100.
434
Using the Erase tool on audio clips
Tools
Erase tool
+ALT
Delete by time
Using the Erase tool on MIDI clips
Figure 134. Erase tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
A
C
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag to delete a time selection
B
Click clip to delete clip
B
Click a selection to delete the selection
C
Table 101.
+ALT
Lasso to delete clips
Delete by time
Using the Erase tool on MIDI clips
Using the Erase tool on PRV notes
Figure 135. Erase tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to delete note
A
Drag to delete multiple notes
B
Lasso delete notes
Table 102.
Using the Erase tool on PRV notes
Tools
Erase tool
435
Using the Erase tool on automation
Figure 136. Erase tool hotspots on automation.
B
A
C
D
Hotspot
Default action
A
Delete node
B
Drag to delete nodes
C
Delete node to immediate right of segment
D
Lasso delete nodes across tracks
Table 103.
Using the Erase tool on automation
Using the Erase tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 137. Erase tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
B
C
436
Tools
Erase tool
Hotspot
Default action
A
Delete clicked transient marker
B
Drag to delete multiple transient markers
C
Lasso delete transient markers across clips and tracks
Table 104.
Using the Erase tool on AudioSnap transients
Note: You can only erase user created transient markers.
See also:
“Tools” on page 389
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Select tool” on page 409
“Move tool” on page 413
“Trim tool” on page 416
“Timing tool” on page 420
“Split tool” on page 423
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Line tool” on page 430
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Mute tool” on page 438
“Scrub tool” on page 442
“Zoom tool” on page 443
Tools
Erase tool
437
Mute tool
The Mute tool lets you mute clips, mute partial clips, mute MIDI notes, and disable transient markers.
Mute events to prevent them from playing back.
Note: The Mute tool does not work on automation.
To select the Mute tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Mute tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Mute tool.
• Press F10.
Note: The F10 shortcut key cycles through all Erase tools (Erase/Mute). If another Erase tool is
selected, press F10 again until the Erase tool is selected.
Using the Mute tool on audio clips
Figure 138. Mute tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
C
B
438
Tools
Mute tool
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to unmute clip
Click to isolate layer
A
Drag to unmute by time
Drag to isolate by time
B
Click to mute clip
Click to isolate layer
B
Drag to mute by time
Drag to isolate by time
C
Lasso to mute clips
Table 105.
+ALT
+CTRL
Lasso to unmute clips
Using the Mute tool on audio clips
Using the Mute tool on MIDI clips
Figure 139. Mute tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
A
C
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to unmute clip
Click to isolate layer
A
Drag to unmute by time
Drag to isolate by time
B
Click to mute clip
Click to isolate layer
B
Drag to mute by time
Drag to isolate by time
C
Lasso to mute clips
Table 106.
Tools
Mute tool
+ALT
+CTRL
Lasso to unmute clips
Using the Mute tool on MIDI clips
439
Using the Mute tool on PRV notes
On PRV notes, the Mute tool functions as a toggle. Click once to mute and click again to unmute.
Figure 140. Mute tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to mute/unmute
A
Drag to mute/unmute multiple notes
B
Lasso mute/unmute notes
Table 107.
Using the Mute tool on PRV notes
Using the Mute tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 141. Mute tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
B
C
440
Tools
Mute tool
Hotspot
Default action
A
Disable transient marker
B
Disable transient markers
C
Lasso disable transient markers across clips and tracks
Table 108.
Using the Mute tool on AudioSnap transients
See also:
“Tools” on page 389
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Select tool” on page 409
“Move tool” on page 413
“Trim tool” on page 416
“Timing tool” on page 420
“Split tool” on page 423
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Line tool” on page 430
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Erase tool” on page 434
“Scrub tool” on page 442
“Zoom tool” on page 443
Tools
Mute tool
441
Scrub tool
The Scrub tool lets you audition all displayed tracks as you drag the mouse cursor forward or
backward at the desired speed. You can scrub a single track by dragging over the track, or all
displayed tracks by dragging in the Time Ruler.
Note: The Scrub tool does not work on automation.
To scrub a single track
Hold down the J key to temporarily enable Scrub mode and drag over the track.
To scrub all displayed tracks
Hold down the J key to temporarily enable Scrub mode and drag in the Time Ruler.
Note: The Scrub tool is invoked by pressing the J key. There is no Scrub tool button in the
Control Bar or Tools HUD.
See also:
“Scrubbing” on page 764
“Tools” on page 389
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Select tool” on page 409
“Move tool” on page 413
“Trim tool” on page 416
“Timing tool” on page 420
“Split tool” on page 423
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Line tool” on page 430
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Erase tool” on page 434
“Mute tool” on page 438
“Zoom tool” on page 443
442
Tools
Scrub tool
Zoom tool
The Zoom tool lets you change the vertical and horizontal scale of a view. You can use lasso to
select a specific area to zoom into.
Using the Zoom tool
Hold down the Z key to temporarily enable Zoom mode, then lasso to select the region you want to
zoom into.
To revert to the previous zoom level, press ALT+Z.
Note: The Zoom tool is invoked by pressing the Z key. There is no Zoom tool button in the
Control Bar or Tools HUD.
See also:
“Zoom controls” on page 82
“Configuring the display of tracks in the Track view” on page 315
“Tools” on page 389
“Smart tool” on page 404
“Select tool” on page 409
“Move tool” on page 413
“Trim tool” on page 416
“Timing tool” on page 420
“Split tool” on page 423
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Line tool” on page 430
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Erase tool” on page 434
“Mute tool” on page 438
“Scrub tool” on page 442
Tools
Zoom tool
443
Snap to Grid settings
SONAR lets you define a snap grid that makes it easier to arrange clips, select time ranges, and
control envelope shape drawing. To use the snap grid, enable the Snap to Grid button
in the
Snap module and set the grid resolution to an interval of musical time, such as a whole note, half
note, or quarter note; a unit of absolute time: a number of frames, seconds or samples; an event; the
start or end of a clip; a marker; or audio transients. The grid can use multiple resolutions at the same
time, such as a whole note, and audio transients. When the Snap to Grid button is enabled, if you
move or paste clips or markers, items will be snapped to the nearest point on the snap grid.
Figure 142. Snap to Grid settings are available in the Snap module in the Control Bar.
A
B
C
D E F G
A. Snap on/off B. Snap resolution (musical time) C. Snap resolution (absolute time) D. Snap to MIDI events
E. Snap to audio events F. Snap to audio transients G. Snap to markers
The Snap module contains the following settings:
• Snap enable/disable
. Enable/disable snapping. When enabled, vertical grid lines that
correspond to the snap resolution are displayed in the Track view.
• Musical time resolution. Snap to the selected musical time resolution. Click and hold the
mouse button pressed to select a different note duration (whole, half, etc.) from the pop-up menu.
• Absolute time resolution. Snap to the selected absolute time resolution. Click and hold the
mouse button pressed to select a different time format (Samples, Frames or Seconds), then type
the desired number of units.
• MIDI events
. Snap to any data in a MIDI clip.
• Audio clips
. Snap to the start or end of any audio clip.
• Audio transients
• Markers
444
.
Snap to transient markers in audio clips.
. Snap to any marker.
Tools
Snap to Grid settings
Additional Snap to Grid settings
To access additional snap settings, go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Snap and Nudge.
The Snap section contains the following settings:
• Mode. Snapping can operate in two different modes:
• Move To.
Align data to the grid.
• Move By. Move data by the grid resolution.
• Magnetic Strength. Specify the magnetic strength when snapping, which determines how
quickly moved events are pulled towards the snap grid. The choices are Off (no magnetic snap),
Low, Medium and High.
• Audio Zero Crossings. Automatically snap edited audio clips to the nearest zero crossing of
the waveform (the point at which there is no volume) to minimize glitches that can happen when
waveforms are spliced together.
See also:
“Defining and using the Snap Grid” on page 346
“Tools” on page 389
Tools
Snap to Grid settings
445
Specifying note durations
When using the Smart tool or Freehand tool to draw new note events, use the Value control in the
Tools module to specify the note duration of new note events (whole, half, etc.).
Figure 143. Use the Value control to specify the duration of new note events.
A
A. Draw resolution (note value)
You can also use the following shortcuts to set the desired note duration.
Duration
Shortcut
Set whole note duration
CTRL+SHIFT+1
Set half note duration
CTRL+SHIFT+2
Set quarter note duration
CTRL+SHIFT+4
Set eight note duration
CTRL+SHIFT+8
Set sixteenth note duration
CTRL+SHIFT+6
Set thirty-second note duration
CTRL+SHIFT+3
Table 109.
Global note duration shortcuts
See also:
“Freehand tool” on page 427
“Line tool” on page 430
“Pattern tools” on page 432
“Tools” on page 389
446
Tools
Specifying note durations
Mouse cursors
When using global tools, the mouse cursor indicates which operation will be performed when you
click or drag. Valid operations depend on the selected tool, the Edit Filter setting, and where the
pointer is positioned.
The following table describes each cursor.
Cursor
Description
Select clip.
Lasso select.
Select by time.
Move.
Fade in.
Fade out.
Crop clip start.
Crop clip start, but don’t move fade in position.
Crop clip start and move fade in position.
Crop clip end.
Table 110.
Tool cursors
Tools
Mouse cursors
447
Cursor
Description
Crop clip end, but don’t move fade out position.
Crop clip end and move fade out position.
Mute event.
Mute by time.
Unmute by time.
Isolate layer (mute all other overlapping layers in same track).
Erase clip.
Lasso erase.
Erase by time.
Split.
Scrub.
Draw.
Draw line/pattern.
Table 110.
448
Tool cursors (Continued)
Tools
Mouse cursors
Cursor
Description
Draw automation line.
Draw automation sine pattern.
Draw automation triangle pattern.
Draw automation square pattern.
Draw automation sawtooth pattern.
Draw automation random pattern.
Move selected automation.
Lasso select automation.
Split automation (add node).
Erase automation.
Insert transient marker.
Lasso select transient markers.
Stretch transient marker.
Table 110.
Tool cursors (Continued)
Tools
Mouse cursors
449
Cursor
Description
Move transient marker.
Erase transient marker.
Disable transient marker.
Split audio at transient marker.
Glue MIDI note events together.
Move MIDI note events.
Adjust MIDI note velocity.
Trim MIDI note event.
Drag quantize selected MIDI note events.
Move data within clip (ALT+SHIFT).
Crop overlapping clips when showing layers.
Table 110.
Tool cursors (Continued)
See:
“Tools” on page 389
450
Tools
Mouse cursors
Using tools to perform common tasks
This section explains how to perform many common editing tasks.
See:
Working with audio clips
• “To fade in/out an audio clip” on page 453
• “To crop a clip’s start/end” on page 453
• “To select audio clips” on page 454
• “To scrub an audio clip” on page 455
• “To mute/unmute a clip” on page 455
• “To move a clip” on page 455
• “To stretch an audio clip” on page 456
• “To erase a clip” on page 456
• “To split a clip” on page 456
Working with MIDI clips
• “To crop a clip’s start/end” on page 457
• “To select MIDI clips” on page 458
• “To scrub a MIDI clip” on page 459
• “To mute/unmute a clip” on page 459
• “To move a clip” on page 459
• “To erase a clip” on page 460
• “To split a clip” on page 460
Working with MIDI notes
• “To adjust a MIDI note’s velocity” on page 461
• “To adjust a MIDI note’s start/end” on page 461
• “To select MIDI notes” on page 461
• “To scrub MIDI notes” on page 462
• “To mute/unmute a MIDI note” on page 462
• “To move a MIDI note” on page 462
• “To draw a MIDI note” on page 462
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
451
• “To drag-quantize MIDI notes” on page 463
• “To glue MIDI notes together” on page 463
• “To paint MIDI notes” on page 463
• “To erase a MIDI note” on page 463
• “To split a MIDI note” on page 464
Working with automation envelopes
• “To select automation” on page 465
• “To move automation” on page 465
• “To draw automation freehand” on page 466
• “To draw a straight line” on page 467
• “To draw automation shapes” on page 467
• “To erase automation” on page 468
• “To add envelope nodes” on page 468
• “To draw MIDI continuous controller envelopes” on page 469
Working with AudioSnap transients
• “To select transient markers” on page 469
• “To move transient markers (without stretching audio)” on page 470
• “To stretch transients” on page 470
• “To promote transient markers” on page 470
• “To erase transient markers” on page 470
• “To split an audio clip at transient markers” on page 471
• “To add transient” on page 471
452
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
Working with audio clips
To fade in/out an audio clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer in the top left (fade in) or top right (fade out) corner
of the clip, then drag to adjust the fade duration.
• With the Trim tool
, position the pointer in the top left (fade in) or top right (fade out) corner
of the clip, then drag to adjust the fade duration.
To crop a clip’s start/end
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then drag to
adjust the start/end position.
• With the Trim tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then drag to adjust
the start/end position.
Tip: When cropping clips, you can choose to also move clip fades proportionally, or retain the original
fade position. To move the fade position, click the top three quarters of the clip edge when cropping.
To retain the clip fade position, click the bottom quarter of the clip edge when cropping. You can also
hold down the ALT key while cropping in order to move a clip fade.
To move data and the clip edge
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then hold
ALT+SHIFT and drag to adjust the start/end position.
• With the Trim tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then hold
ALT+SHIFT and drag to adjust the start/end position.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
453
To move data without moving its clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer within the clip, then hold ALT+SHIFT and drag left/
right to move the data within the clip boundaries.
• With the Trim tool
, position the pointer within the clip, then hold ALT+SHIFT and drag left/
right to move the data within the clip boundaries.
To select audio clips
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer outside any clips, then lasso the clips you want to
select. It is sufficient to simply touch the clips you want to select; there is no need to fully
enclose the clips. Hold down the ALT key and drag to select by time.
• With the Smart tool
the clip.
, position the pointer over the bottom half of the clip, then click to select
• With the Smart tool
time selection.
, position the pointer over the top half of the clip, then drag to make a
• With the Select tool
want to select.
, position the pointer outside any clips, then drag over the clips you
• With the Select tool
the clip.
, position the pointer over the bottom half of the clip, then click to select
• With the Select tool
time selection.
, position the pointer over the top half of the clip, then drag to make a
• With the Move tool
, position the pointer outside any clips, then drag over the clips you
want to select. Hold down the ALT key and drag to select by time.
Tip: To modify a selection, hold down the CTRL key and click clips to toggle their selection state.
454
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
To scrub an audio clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• To scrub a single track, hold down the J key and drag across the track.
• To scrub all visible tracks, hold down the J key and drag in the time ruler.
To mute/unmute a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Mute tool
, drag across the bottom half of the clip to mute a time region, and drag
across the top half to unmute a time region.
• With the Mute tool
, click the bottom half of the clip to mute the entire clip, and click the top
half of the clip to unmute the clip.
• With the Mute tool
to mute/unmute.
, position the pointer outside any clips and drag over the clips you want
To isolate a clip layer
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Mute tool
isolate.
, hold down the CTRL key and drag across the region you want to
• With the Mute tool
layer.
, hold down the CTRL key and click the clip to isolate the entire clip/
All other layers in the same track are muted.
To move a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the bottom half of the clip, then drag the clip
or selection to the desired location.
• With the Move tool
, drag the clip or selection to the desired location.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
455
To stretch an audio clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, hold down the CTRL key and position the pointer over the clip’s first
half and drag to stretch the beginning, or position the pointer over the clip’s second half and
drag to stretch the end.
• With the Timing tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s first half and drag to stretch the
beginning, or position the pointer over the clip’s second half and drag to stretch the end.
• With the Trim tool
, hold down the CTRL key and position the pointer over the clip’s first half
and drag to stretch the beginning, or position the pointer over the clip’s second half and drag to
stretch the end.
A colored bar across the bottom of the clip indicates the clip is stretched and shows the stretch
percentage.
To erase a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Erase tool
time selection.
, position the pointer over the top half of the clip, then drag to erase a
• With the Erase tool
the entire clip.
, position the pointer over the bottom half of the clip, then click to erase
• With the Erase tool
, position the pointer outside any clips, then drag over the clips you
want to erase. Hold down the ALT key and drag to erase by time.
To split a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the clip, then hold down
ALT and click (or lasso to split a region).
• With the Split tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the clip, then click (or drag
to split one or more clips at the mousedown and mouseup points).
456
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
See:
“Working with MIDI clips” on page 457
“Working with MIDI notes” on page 461
“Working with automation envelopes” on page 465
“Working with AudioSnap transients” on page 469
“Tools” on page 389
Working with MIDI clips
To crop a clip’s start/end
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then drag to
adjust the start/end position.
• With the Trim tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then drag to adjust
the start/end position.
To move data and the clip edge
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then hold
ALT+SHIFT and drag to adjust the start/end position.
• With the Trim tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then hold
ALT+SHIFT and drag to adjust the start/end position.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
457
To move data without moving its clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer within the clip, then hold ALT+SHIFT and drag left/
right to move the data within the clip boundaries.
• With the Trim tool
, position the pointer within the clip, then hold ALT+SHIFT and drag left/
right to move the data within the clip boundaries.
To select MIDI clips
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer outside any clips, then lasso the clips you want to
select. It is sufficient to simply touch the clips you want to select; there is no need to fully
enclose the clips. Hold down the ALT key and drag to select by time.
• With the Smart tool
the clip.
, position the pointer over the bottom half of the clip, then click to select
• With the Smart tool
time selection.
, position the pointer over the top half of the clip, then drag to make a
• With the Select tool
want to select.
, position the pointer outside any clips, then drag over the clips you
• With the Select tool
the clip.
, position the pointer over the bottom half of the clip, then click to select
• With the Select tool
time selection.
, position the pointer over the top half of the clip, then drag to make a
• With the Move tool
, position the pointer outside any clips, then drag over the clips you
want to select. Hold down the ALT key and drag to select by time.
458
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
To scrub a MIDI clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• To scrub a single track, hold down the J key and drag across the track.
• To scrub all visible tracks, hold down the J key and drag in the time ruler.
To mute/unmute a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Mute tool
, drag across the bottom half of the clip to mute a time region, and drag
across the top half to unmute a time region.
• With the Mute tool
, click the bottom half of the clip to mute the entire clip, and click the top
half of the clip to unmute the clip.
• With the Mute tool
to mute/unmute.
, position the pointer outside any clips and drag over the clips you want
To isolate a clip layer
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Mute tool
isolate.
, hold down the CTRL key and drag across the region you want to
• With the Mute tool
layer.
, hold down the CTRL key and click the clip to isolate the entire clip/
All other layers in the same track are muted.
To move a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the bottom half of the clip, then drag the clip
or selection to the desired location.
• With the Move tool
, drag the clip or selection to the desired location.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
459
To erase a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Erase tool
time selection.
, position the pointer over the top half of the clip, then drag to erase a
• With the Erase tool
the entire clip.
, position the pointer over the bottom half of the clip, then click to erase
• With the Erase tool
, position the pointer outside any clips, then drag over the clips you
want to erase. Hold down the ALT key and drag to erase by time.
To split a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the clip, then hold down
ALT and click (or lasso to split a region).
• With the Split tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the clip, then click (or drag
to split one or more clips at the mousedown and mouseup points).
See:
“Working with audio clips” on page 453
“Working with MIDI notes” on page 461
“Working with automation envelopes” on page 465
“Working with AudioSnap transients” on page 469
“Tools” on page 389
460
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
Working with MIDI notes
To adjust a MIDI note’s velocity
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
down.
• With the Trim tool
, position the pointer near the top center of the note, then drag up/
, position the pointer near the top center of the note, then drag up/down.
To adjust a MIDI note’s start/end
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the note’s start or end point, then drag left/
right to adjust the start/end position.
• With the Trim tool
, position the pointer over the note’s start or end point, then drag left/right
to adjust the start/end position.
To select MIDI notes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
want to select.
, position the pointer outside any notes, then drag over the notes you
• With the Smart tool
to select the note.
, position the pointer over the bottom half center of the note, then click
• With the Select tool
, click the note.
• With the Select tool
want to select.
, position the pointer outside any notes, then drag over the notes you
• With the Freehand tool
, position the pointer outside any notes, hold down the ALT key and
drag over the notes you want to select.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
461
To scrub MIDI notes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Hold down the J key and drag across the notes.
To mute/unmute a MIDI note
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, hold down the ALT key and right-click the note.
• With the Mute tool
, click the note to mute/unmute a single note, or drag over notes to
mute/unmute multiple notes.
To move a MIDI note
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the bottom half center of the note, then drag
the note to the desired location.
• With the Move tool
, drag the note or selection to the desired location.
Tip: When moving a note, hold down the SHIFT key to constrain vertical or horizontal movement,
depending on the direction you first move.
To draw a MIDI note
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
• With the Freehand tool
, hold down the ALT key and click where you want to insert a new note.
, click where you want to insert a new note.
Note: Use the Value control in the Tools module to specify the duration for new note events.
462
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
To drag-quantize MIDI notes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Select the notes you want to quantize.
3. With the Timing tool
all selected notes.
, position the pointer over a selected note and drag up/down to quantize
To glue MIDI notes together
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, hold down ALT+CTRL and drag across two or more notes of the same
pitch (click on the first note, drag to the second note and release the mouse button).
• With the Freehand tool
, drag across two or more notes of the same pitch (click on the first
note, drag to the second note and release the mouse button).
All touched note events of the same pitch are merged into a single note event.
To paint MIDI notes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, hold down ALT+CTRL and drag to insert multiple notes. Use the
Value control to specify the duration of each note, and use the Snap resolution to specify the
interval between each note.
• With the Line tool
, drag to insert multiple notes. Use the Value control to specify the
duration of each note, and use the Snap resolution to specify the interval between each note.
To erase a MIDI note
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, right-click a note to erase a single note, or keep the right mouse
button pressed and drag over notes to erase multiple notes.
• With the Erase tool
notes.
, click a note to erase a single note, or drag over notes to erase multiple
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
463
To split a MIDI note
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the note, then hold down
ALT and click (or lasso to split a region).
• With the Split tool
to split a region).
, position the pointer where you want to split the note, then click (or lasso
To open the Note Properties dialog
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. With the Smart tool
, double-click the note.
See:
“Working with audio clips” on page 453
“Working with MIDI clips” on page 457
“Working with automation envelopes” on page 465
“Working with AudioSnap transients” on page 469
“Tools” on page 389
464
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
Working with automation envelopes
To select automation
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the bottom half of the track/clip, then drag
left/right to select a range of envelope nodes.
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer outside any existing envelopes, then drag over the
envelopes nodes you want to select.
• With the Select tool
, click the node. Hold CTRL or SHIFT to extend the selection.
• With the Select tool
, position the pointer outside any existing envelopes, then drag over
the envelopes nodes you want to select.
To move automation
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the envelope segment you want to move,
then drag the segment to the desired location.
• With the Move tool
, position the pointer over the envelope segment you want to move,
then drag the segment to the desired location.
• With the Trim tool
, position the pointer over the envelope segment you want to move, then
drag the segment to the desired location.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
465
To move envelope nodes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, drag the node to the desired location.
• With the Move tool
, drag the node to the desired location.
• With the Trim tool
, drag the node to the desired location.
To reset envelope nodes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, double-click the node.
• With the Move tool
, double-click the node.
• With the Trim tool
, double-click the node.
To raise/lower selected envelope nodes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
down.
• With the Trim tool
down.
, position the pointer near the top center of the track/clip, then drag up/
, position the pointer near the top center of the track/clip, then drag up/
To draw automation freehand
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. With the Freehand tool
466
, drag to insert envelope nodes and segments.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
To draw a straight line
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. With the Line tool
, click to set the line start point, move the mouse, then release the mouse
button to set the line end point.
To draw automation shapes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Select the desired pattern tool: Sine Pattern tool
tool
, Saw Pattern tool
, Triangle Pattern tool
, or Random Pattern tool
, Square Pattern
.
3. Set the Snap to Grid to the desired length of each cycle of the shape you want to draw. For
example, if you want to draw sine curves, and you want each complete sine curve to last one
beat, set the Snap to Grid to a value of Quarter. If the Snap to Grid is disabled, the default cycle
is one measure.
4. Click and hold the mouse button in the Clips pane at the place where you want to draw the
envelope shape. The place where you click also sets the vertical midpoint of the shape.
5. Drag up or down to set the vertical range of the envelope, then drag to the right or left to set the
length of your edit. As you drag, the cursor’s vertical distance from the midpoint (the point where
you originally clicked) determines the amplitude of the shape. To create a series of identical
shapes, hold the SHIFT key down while you drag. To gradually increase or decrease the
amplitude, gradually move the pointer farther from or closer to the midpoint.
6. Release the mouse button when done. The shape you selected appears, repeating according to
the Snap to Grid setting.
Tip:
• To halve the cycle frequency (for example, if snap resolution = quarter note, make each
cycle a half note), hold down the ALT key while you draw.
• To double the cycle frequency (for example, if snap resolution = quarter note, make each
cycle an eighth note), hold down the CTRL key while you draw.
• To invert the phase of the pattern, drag the cursor below the zero-line/center (where you
initially clicked to start the pattern).
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
467
To erase automation
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Erase tool
multiple nodes.
, click a node to erase a single node, or drag over nodes to erase
• With the Erase tool
the segment.
, click an envelope segment to erase the nodes to the left and right of
• With the Erase tool
, position the pointer outside the clip, then drag to lasso erase nodes
across clips or tracks.
To add envelope nodes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the envelope where you want to insert a new
node, then double-click.
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the envelope where you want to insert a new
node, then hold down the ALT key and click.
• With the Select tool
, position the pointer over the envelope where you want to insert a new
node, then double-click.
• With the Move tool
, position the pointer over the envelope where you want to insert a new
node, then double-click.
• With the Trim tool
node, then click.
, position the pointer over the envelope where you want to insert a new
• With the Split tool
, position the pointer over the envelope where you want to insert a new
node, then click. Drag to add nodes at mousedown and mouseup positions.
468
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
To draw MIDI continuous controller envelopes
1. Click the track’s Edit Filter control, point to Track Automation and choose MIDI to open the MIDI
Envelope dialog.
2. Specify the desired MIDI envelope parameter settings (Type, Value, and Channel).
3. With the Freehand tool
, drag to insert envelope nodes and segments.
See:
“Working with audio clips” on page 453
“Working with MIDI clips” on page 457
“Working with MIDI notes” on page 461
“Working with AudioSnap transients” on page 469
“Tools” on page 389
Working with AudioSnap transients
To select transient markers
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, click the transient marker or drag left/right to make a time selection.
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer outside the clip, then drag to lasso select
transients across clips or tracks.
• With the Smart tool
in other tracks.
, double-click a transient marker to select all adjacent transient markers
• With the Select tool
selection.
, click the transient marker. Hold CTRL or SHIFT to extend the
• With the Select tool
, drag left/right to select multiple transient markers.
• With the Select tool
, double-click a transient marker to select all adjacent transient
markers in other tracks.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
469
To move transient markers (without stretching audio)
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, drag the transient marker handle (diamond) to the desired location.
• With the Move tool
, drag the transient marker handle (diamond) to the desired location.
To stretch transients
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, then drag the transient marker line to the desired location.
• With the Timing tool
, drag the transient marker line to the desired location. To stretch all
selected transients proportionally, hold down the CTRL key while you drag any selected
transient marker.
To promote transient markers
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. With the Freehand tool
, click the transient marker handle (diamond).
To disable transient markers
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. With the Mute tool
, click a transient marker handle (diamond) to disable a single transient
marker, or drag across transient markers to disable multiple transient markers.
To erase transient markers
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. With the Erase tool
, click the transient marker to erase a single transient marker, or drag
over transient markers to erase multiple transient markers.
Note: You can only erase user created transient markers.
470
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
To reset transients
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. With the Move tool
, double-click the transient marker.
To split an audio clip at transient markers
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. With the Split tool
, click the transient marker where you want to split the clip. Drag to split at
multiple transient markers.
To add transient
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. With the Freehand tool
, click on a clip where you want to add a new transient marker.
See:
“Working with audio clips” on page 453
“Working with MIDI clips” on page 457
“Working with MIDI notes” on page 461
“Working with automation envelopes” on page 465
“Working with AudioSnap transients” on page 469
“Tools” on page 389
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
471
472
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
Control Bar overview
Much of your time in SONAR is spent recording and listening to your project as it develops. The
Control Bar contains the most important tools and other pieces of information you will need to
record, edit and play back your project.
The Control Bar consists of several modules that each contain various related controls. You can rearrange and show/hide each individual module, which allows you to only show the functions you
need most often. By default, the Control Bar is docked at the top of SONAR’s screen, but can also
be undocked or docked at the bottom.
Figure 144. The Control Bar.
To show/hide the Control Bar
Do one of the following:
• On the Views menu, click Control Bar.
• Press C on your computer keyboard.
Control Bar modules
Figure 145. Control Bar modules.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
A. Screenset module B. Tools module C. Snap module D. Transport module E. Punch module F. Loop
module G. Select module H. Mix module I. ACT module J. Performance module K. Markers module L. Event
Inspector module M. Sync module
The Control Bar contains the following modules:
• Tools module. The Tools module lets you select a global tool and draw resolution. For details,
see “Tools module” on page 476.
• Snap module. The Snap module lets you configure Snap to Grid settings. For details, see
“Snap module” on page 480.
• Transport module. The Transport section contains standard controls for Record, Return to
Zero, Rewind, Stop, Play, and Fast Forward. For details, see “Transport module” on page 482.
• Loop module. The Loop module lets you configure loop settings. For details, see “Loop
module” on page 485.
• Mix module. The Mix module lets you configure Mute, Solo, Arm for recording, effects bypass
and automation playback/recording settings. For details, see “Mix module” on page 486.
• ACT module. The ACT module lets you configure how control surfaces interact with effect and
soft synth plug-ins. For details, see “ACT module” on page 488.
• Screenset module. The Screenset module lets you save and recall screenset presets (window
layouts). For details, see “Screenset module” on page 490.
• Performance module. The Performance module lets you monitor CPU, disk and memory
activity. For details, see “Performance module” on page 492.
• Punch module. The Punch module lets you configure punch record settings. For details, see
“Punch module” on page 494.
• Select module. The Select module lets you configure selection settings. For details, see
“Select module” on page 495.
• Markers module. The Markers module lets you navigate by markers. For details, see “Markers
module” on page 496.
• Event Inspector module. The Event Inspector module lets you modify selected clips and
events. For details, see “Event Inspector module” on page 498.
• Sync module. The Sync module lets you configure synchronization settings. For details, see
“Sync Module” on page 499.
474
Control Bar overview
M
To show/hide modules
Do one of the following:
• To show/hide a specific module. Right-click the Control Bar and select <name> module.
• To hide a module. Right-click the module and select Hide Module.
• To show all modules. Right-click the Control Bar and select Show All.
Note: Depending on the video resolution, your computer monitor may not be wide enough to
display all Control Bar modules simultaneously. When you show a new module, other visible
modules get pushed to the right. If the right most module can not fit on screen, it will
automatically be hidden. Hidden modules have a “Offscreen” suffix in the Control Bar context
menu.
To re-arrange modules
Drag a module’s gripper to the desired location within the Control Bar.
Figure 146. Drag a module’s gripper to move the module.
A
A. Gripper
To dock/undock the Control Bar
Right-click the Control Bar and select one of the following commands:
• Dock Control Bar at Top. Select this option to dock the Control Bar above the Track view.
• Dock Control Bar at Bottom. Select this option to dock the Control Bar below the Track view.
• Undock Control Bar.
Select this option to undock the Control Bar.
Tip: You can click any blank area in the Control Bar and drag the Control Bar to the desired position.
See:
“Tools module” on page 476
“Snap module” on page 480
“Transport module” on page 482
Control Bar overview
475
“Loop module” on page 485
“Mix module” on page 486
“ACT module” on page 488
“Screenset module” on page 490
“Performance module” on page 492
“Punch module” on page 494
“Select module” on page 495
“Markers module” on page 496
“Event Inspector module” on page 498
“Sync Module” on page 499
Tools module
The Tools module contains various tools that allow you to edit content in your projects. The current
tool applies to whichever editing view has focus.
Using menu buttons
Several buttons in the Tools module display a small triangle in the bottom right corner. The triangle
indicates that you can click and keep the mouse button pressed for a brief moment to access
additional tools or options. You can also right-click the button and choose an option on the pop-up
menu.
Figure 147. If a button displays a small triangle in the bottom right corner, click and keep the mouse button
pressed to access additional tools or options.
476
Control Bar overview
To show/hide the Tools module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Tools Module.
Figure 148. Global tools are accessed from the Tools module in the Control Bar.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
A. Smart tool B. Select tool C. Move tool D. Edit tools (Trim/Timing/Split) E. Draw tools (Freehand/Line/Sine/
Triangle/Square/Saw/Random) F. Erase tools (Erase/Mute) G. Draw resolution
The Tools module contains the following controls:
• Smart tool
. The Smart tool is the default tool in SONAR. The Smart tool is a multi-function
tool that combines functions from several other tools. For audio clips, automation and transients,
the Smart Tool is a combination of the Edit, Select and Move tools. For MIDI notes, the Smart Tool
is a combination of the Edit, Select, Move, Draw and Erase Tools. The function is determined by
where you click. For details, see “Smart tool” on page 404.
• Select tool
. The Select tool lets you select data. You can select a time range, or select
entire clips, MIDI notes, envelope nodes and transients. For details, see “Select tool” on page
409.
• Move tool
. The Move tool lets you move selected data. You can move entire clips, partial
clips, MIDI notes, envelope nodes, transient markers and clip tempo map markers. For details,
see “Move tool” on page 413.
• Trim tool
. The Trim tool lets you adjust data. You can slip-edit clips, adjust note start/end
times, adjust fades, raise/lower clip volume envelope, and raise/lower note velocity and
automation envelopes. For details, see “Trim tool” on page 416.
• Timing tool
. Select the Timing tool. The Timing tool lets you slip-stretch audio clips, dragquantize MIDI notes, and stretch audio using transient markers. For details, see “Timing tool” on
page 420.
• Split tool
. The Split tool lets you split clips, cut clips, split MIDI notes, split clips at
transients, and add envelope nodes. For details, see “Split tool” on page 423.
• Freehand tool
. The Freehand tool lets you draw MIDI notes and freehand automation
envelopes. You can also create and promote transient markers. For details, see “Freehand tool”
on page 427.
Control Bar overview
477
• Line Draw
. The Line tool lets you draw straight automation envelopes and “paint” MIDI
notes. For details, see “Line tool” on page 430.
• Sine tool
. The Sine Pattern tool lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing sine
shapes. For details, see “Sine tool” on page 432.
• Triangle tool
. The Triangle Pattern tool lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing
triangle shapes. For details, see “Triangle tool” on page 432.
• Square tool
. The Square Pattern tool lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing
square shapes. For details, see “Square tool” on page 432.
• Saw tool
. The Saw Pattern tool lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing triangle
shapes. For details, see “Saw tool” on page 432.
• Random tool
. The Random Pattern tool lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing
random shapes. For details, see “Random tool” on page 432.
• Erase tool
. The Erase tool lets you delete clips, partial clips, MIDI notes, automation
envelope nodes, and transient markers. For details, see “Erase tool” on page 434.
• Mute tool
. The Mute tool lets you mute clips, mute partial clips, mute MIDI notes, and
disable transient markers. For details, see “Mute tool” on page 438.
• Note value. The note duration that is used when drawing new Note events with the Smart tool
or Freehand tool. Click the button and keep the mouse button pressed for a brief moment to
access the note value menu. For details, see “Specifying note durations” on page 446.
Tip: You can quickly access the various tools from the Tools HUD by pressing T on your computer
keyboard.
See:
“Tools” on page 389
“Nudge” on page 342
“Zoom controls” on page 82
“Editing audio” on page 749
“Editing MIDI events and continuous controllers (CC)” on page 653
“Automation” on page 945
“AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)” on page 565
“Selecting clips” on page 327
478
Control Bar overview
“Moving and copying clips” on page 328
“Splitting and combining clips” on page 355
“Slip-editing (non-destructive editing)” on page 376
“Fades and crossfades” on page 379
“Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)” on page 361
“Scrubbing” on page 764
See also:
“Snap module” on page 480
“Transport module” on page 482
“Loop module” on page 485
“Mix module” on page 486
“ACT module” on page 488
“Screenset module” on page 490
“Performance module” on page 492
“Punch module” on page 494
“Select module” on page 495
“Markers module” on page 496
“Event Inspector module” on page 498
“Sync Module” on page 499
Control Bar overview
479
Snap module
SONAR lets you define a snap grid that makes it easier to arrange clips and note events, select time
ranges, and control envelope shape drawing. To use the snap grid, enable the Snap to Grid button
in the Snap module and set the grid resolution to an interval of musical time, such as a whole
note, half note, or quarter note; a unit of absolute time: a number of frames, seconds or samples; an
event; the start or end of a clip; a marker; or audio transients. The grid can use multiple resolutions
at the same time, such as a whole note, and audio transients. When the Snap to Grid button is
enabled, if you move or paste clips or markers, items will be snapped to the nearest point on the
snap grid.
Figure 149. Snap to Grid settings are available in the Snap module in the Control Bar.
A
B
C
D E F G
A. Snap on/off B. Snap resolution (musical time) C. Snap resolution (absolute time) D. Snap to MIDI events
E. Snap to audio events F. Snap to audio transients G. Snap to markers
The Snap module contains the following settings:
• Snap enable/disable
. Enable/disable snapping. When enabled, vertical grid lines that
correspond to the snap resolution are displayed in the Track view. Right-click the button, or click
and keep the mouse button pressed for a brief moment to open the Snap to Grid menu, which
contains the following options:
• Move-To
. Align data to the snap grid (default behavior).
• Move-By
. Move data by the grid resolution.
• Musical time resolution. Snap to the selected musical time resolution. Click and hold the
mouse button pressed to select a different note duration (whole, half, etc.) from the pop-up menu.
• Absolute time resolution. Snap to the selected absolute time resolution. Click and hold the
mouse button pressed to select a different time format (Samples, Frames or Seconds), then type
the desired number of units.
• MIDI events
. Snap to any data in a MIDI clip.
• Audio clips
. Snap to the start or end of any audio clip.
480
Control Bar overview
• Audio transients
• Markers
.
Snap to transient markers in audio clips.
. Snap to any marker.
Additional Snap to Grid settings
To access additional snap settings, go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Snap and Nudge.
The Snap section contains the following settings:
• Mode. Snapping can operate in two different modes:
• Move To.
Align data to the grid.
• Move By. Move data by the grid resolution.
• Magnetic Strength. Specify the magnetic strength when snapping, which determines how
quickly moved events are pulled towards the snap grid. The choices are Off (no magnetic snap),
Low, Medium and High.
• Audio Zero Crossings. Automatically snap edited audio clips to the nearest zero crossing of
the waveform (the point at which there is no volume) to minimize glitches that can happen when
waveforms are spliced together.
See:
“Defining and using the Snap Grid” on page 346
“Tools” on page 389
“Nudge” on page 342
See also:
“Tools module” on page 476
“Transport module” on page 482
“Loop module” on page 485
“Mix module” on page 486
“ACT module” on page 488
“Screenset module” on page 490
“Performance module” on page 492
“Punch module” on page 494
“Select module” on page 495
“Markers module” on page 496
“Event Inspector module” on page 498
“Sync Module” on page 499
Control Bar overview
481
Transport module
The Transport module lets you control the transport and transport-related functions, such as Record
, Return to Zero
, Rewind
, Stop
, Play
, and Fast Forward
.
To show/hide the Transport module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Transport Module.
Figure 150. The Transport module.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Q
R
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
A. Rewind B. Stop C. Play D. Pause E. Fast Forward F. Record G. Dropout indicator H. Current Now time
(this space is also used for progress bars and “Waiting for sync” messages) I. Return to zero (RTZ) J. Position
K. Jump to project end L. Audio Engine on/off M. Reset/Panic N. Sample rate and bit depth O. Tempo
P. Meter Q. Metronome during record R. Metronome during playback
The Transport module contains the following controls:
• Rewind
.
Gradually rewind the project.
• Stop
. Stop playback.
• Play
. Start/stop playback.
• Pause
. Pause/resume playback.
• Fast Forward
.
Gradually fast forward the project.
• Record
. Start recording (requires at least one track to be armed for recording). Right-click
to access global record options. Click and keep the mouse button pressed for a brief moment to
enable step recording.
• Step Record. Open the Step Record window. For details, see “Step recording” on page 285.
• RTZ
. Rewind to the start of the project.
• Progress Bar
482
.
Current position in the project. Drag to skip around in the project.
Control Bar overview
• Go to End
.
Skip to the end of the project.
• Time Display. The time display section shows useful information about the current project,
including the Now time, sample rate and bit depth, tempo and meter. The following information is
shown:
• Current Now Time. The Now time shows your current location in the project. For details, see
“The Now time and how to use it” on page 172. Click the time display to toggle between the
following time formats:
• MBT. Display time as Measure:Beat:Tick.
• HMSF. Display time as Hour:Minute:Second:Frame. This format is also referred to as
SMPTE time.
• Milliseconds. Display time in milliseconds.
• Samples. Display time in samples.
• Dropout Indicator
. Appears whenever your project requires more resources than your
CPU, main memory, and disk can supply. For details, see “Dropouts and other audio
problems” on page 1123.
• Audio Engine on/off
. Enable/disable the audio engine. The Audio Engine button lights
up if the audio engine stops running. To restart the audio engine, click the Audio Engine
button.
• Reset / Panic (Reset MIDI and Audio)
flashes if a MIDI note is stuck.
.
Reset any stuck MIDI notes. The Reset button
• Sample Rate / Bit Depth. The project’s sample rate and recording bit depth.
• Current Tempo.
tempo.
The current tempo at the Now time. Double-click to change the current
• Current Meter. The number of beats per measure and the note value of each beat at the
current Now time. Click to change the meter. For details, see “Setting the Meter and Key
signatures” on page 248.
The Time Display section also shows the following information:
• Horizontal progress bar when SONAR is performing certain operations.
• “Waiting for Sync” message when synchronizing SONAR to an external clock source. When
synchronized to an external clock source, the Time Display shows both the current Now time
and the SMPTE source time.
Control Bar overview
483
Figure 151. The display shows the current Now time, a progress bar or “Waiting for sync” message.
A
B
C
A. Now time B. Progress bar C. “Waiting for sync” message
• Metronome Playback on/off
access Metronome settings.
• Metronome Record on/off
access Metronome settings.
. Enable/disable the metronome during playback. Right-click to
. Enable/disable the metronome during recording. Right-click to
See:
“The Now time and how to use it” on page 172
“Controlling playback” on page 171
“Audition (selection playback)” on page 362
“Changing tempos” on page 367
“Setting the Meter and Key signatures” on page 248
“The Audio Engine button” on page 280
“Handling stuck notes” on page 184
“Dropouts and other audio problems” on page 1123
“Setting the audio sampling rate and bit depth” on page 252
“Step recording” on page 285
“Setting the Metronome and Tempo settings” on page 249
See also:
“Tools module” on page 476
“Snap module” on page 480
“Loop module” on page 485
“Mix module” on page 486
“ACT module” on page 488
484
Control Bar overview
“Screenset module” on page 490
“Performance module” on page 492
“Punch module” on page 494
“Select module” on page 495
“Markers module” on page 496
“Event Inspector module” on page 498
“Sync Module” on page 499
Loop module
The Loop module lets you control loop settings.
To show/hide the Loop module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Loop Module.
Figure 152. The Loop module.
A
C
B
D
A. Loop On/Off B. Set Loop Time to Select C. Loop Start Time D. Loop End Time
The Loop module contains the following controls:
• Loop on/off
.
Enable/disable playback looping.
• Set Loop Times to Selection
. Set the Loop Start time to the start (From) time of the
selection, and the Loop End time to the end (Thru) time of the selection.
• Loop Start Time. The current Loop Start time. Click to modify.
• Loop End Time.
The current Loop End time. Click to modify.
Tip: If a numeric time field has focus, you can press the G key to access a list of marker positions.
See:
“Loop recording” on page 281
“Looping” on page 185
Control Bar overview
485
See also:
“Tools module” on page 476
“Snap module” on page 480
“Transport module” on page 482
“Mix module” on page 486
“ACT module” on page 488
“Screenset module” on page 490
“Performance module” on page 492
“Punch module” on page 494
“Select module” on page 495
“Markers module” on page 496
“Event Inspector module” on page 498
“Sync Module” on page 499
Mix module
The Mix module lets you configure various playback settings. You can quickly mute/unmute, solo/
unsolo and arm/disarm all tracks. You can also configure automation settings and specify the solo
behavior.
To show/hide the Mix module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Mix Module.
Figure 153. The Mix module.
A
B
C
D
G H
I
J
E
F
A. Mute B. Solo C. Arm D. Input Echo E. Live Input PDC Override F. Bypass All Effects G. Exclusive Solo
H. Dim Solo I. Automation Read (playback) J. Automation Write (recording)
486
Control Bar overview
The Mix module contains the following controls:
• Mute / Unmute All Tracks
track is muted.
. Click to mute/unmute all tracks. The button is lit if at least one
• Solo / Unsolo All Tracks
track is soloed.
. Click to solo/unsolo all tracks. The button is lit if at least one
• Dim Solo enable/disable . Enable/disable Dim Solo mode. Dim Solo is a mode in which
non-soloed audio tracks/buses are still audible but at a reduced level. For details, see “Dim
Solo mode” on page 196.
• Exclusive Solo enable/disable . Enable/disable Exclusive Solo mode. With Exclusive
Solo mode, you can only solo one track and one bus at a time. For details, see “Exclusive Solo
mode” on page 197.
• Arm / Disarm All Tracks
is armed.
.
Click to arm/disarm all tracks. The button is lit if at least one track
• Input Echo On/Off All Tracks
• Bypass all Effects
on page 839.
. Enable/disable Input Monitoring on all tracks.
. Bypass all effects globally. For details, see “Bypassing effects globally”
• Live Input PDC Override
. Enable/disable delay compensation on live tracks, thereby
removing the latency during playback and recording of such tracks. Because it's a toggle, you can
quickly turn it on to complete your tracking at low latency, and turn it off when finished to hear the
track compensated as normal. For details, see “Live Input PDC override” on page 279.
• Allow Automation Recording
.
Globally enable/disable the ability to record automation.
• Global Automation Playback
. Globally enable/disable all automation playback.
See:
“Silencing tracks” on page 194
“To mute or solo a bus” on page 816
“Muting and soloing soft synth tracks” on page 788
“Soloing tracks” on page 195
“Dim Solo mode” on page 196
“Exclusive Solo mode” on page 197
“Arming tracks for recording” on page 259
“Input monitoring” on page 275
“To globally bypass all effects in a project” on page 840
“To globally bypass all track, bus or clip effects” on page 840
“Live Input PDC override” on page 279
Control Bar overview
487
“Automation Read and Automation Write buttons” on page 948
“Recording individual fader or knob movements” on page 949
“Creating an editing automation envelopes” on page 950
“Automating individual effects parameters” on page 965
“Recording automation data from an external controller” on page 967
See also:
“Tools module” on page 476
“Snap module” on page 480
“Transport module” on page 482
“Loop module” on page 485
“ACT module” on page 488
“Screenset module” on page 490
“Performance module” on page 492
“Punch module” on page 494
“Select module” on page 495
“Markers module” on page 496
“Event Inspector module” on page 498
“Sync Module” on page 499
ACT module
Active Controller Technology (ACT) allows you to use a control surface or MIDI controller to control
the plug-in effect or soft synth that has focus. SONAR communicates with control surfaces via
special control surface plug-ins (see “External devices” on page 1137). The ACT module lets you
configure ACT settings for a specific control surface plug-in.
To show/hide the ACT module
Right-click the Control Bar and select ACT Module.
Figure 154. The ACT module.
A
B
C
D
E
A. Controller/surface name B. Status display C. Open property page D. ACT Learn E. ACT Lock
488
Control Bar overview
The ACT module contains the following controls:
• Controller / Surface Name.
Select the control surface plug-in to control.
• Controller / Surface Status Display.
• Open Control Surface Plug-in
plug-in.
Status display for the selected control surface plug-in.
. Open the property page for the selected control surface
• ACT Learn
. Enable/disable ACT Learn. ACT Learn allows you to assign a specific effect/
synth parameter to a specific hardware control on your control surface. For more information, see
“To edit the default ACT mappings” on page 1161.
• ACT Lock
. Lock/unlock the current ACT context (the effect/synth that has focus). For more
information, see “ACT” on page 1160.
See:
“ACT” on page 1160
See also:
“Tools module” on page 476
“Snap module” on page 480
“Transport module” on page 482
“Loop module” on page 485
“Mix module” on page 486
“Screenset module” on page 490
“Performance module” on page 492
“Punch module” on page 494
“Select module” on page 495
“Markers module” on page 496
“Event Inspector module” on page 498
“Sync Module” on page 499
Control Bar overview
489
Screenset module
A screenset is a snapshot of the current layout of various views and windows in a project, including
which windows are open, their size, position, zoom level and whether they are docked or floating.
You can create up to 10 screensets per project and freely switch between screensets at any time.
Screensets can be selected and edited from the Screenset module in the Control Bar, or with
number keys 1-0 on your computer keyboard.
To show/hide the Screenset module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Screenset Module.
Figure 155. The Screenset module.
A
B
A. Screenset list B. Screenset buttons 1-6
The Screenset module in the Control Bar contains the following controls:
• Screenset menu. The Screenset menu lets you select, revert, lock, rename, duplicate and
import screensets. The name of the current screenset is shown in the menu. The menu contains
the following commands:
• 1 [screenset 1 name] - 0 [screenset 10 name]. Select screenset 1 through 10.
• Revert Current Screenset. Revert the current screenset to its last saved state before the
project was saved. See “To revert the current screenset to its last saved state” on page 986.
• Lock/Unlock Current Screenset. Lock the current screenset to prevent any modifications.
See “To prevent the current screenset from being modified” on page 985.
• Rename Current Screenset. Rename the current screenset. See “To name or rename the
current screenset” on page 985.
• Duplicate Current Screenset to. Copy the current screenset to another screenset location
(1 to 0). Select the target screenset location from the submenu. The selected target screenset
becomes the current screenset. See “To duplicate the current screenset” on page 986.
• 1 [screenset 1 name] - 0 [screenset 10 name]. Duplicate the current screenset to
screenset 1 through 10.
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Control Bar overview
• Import Screensets from <source file name>.cwp. Import screensets from another open
project. Any locked screensets in the current project are not overwritten. See “To import
screensets from another project” on page 985.
• 1-6 buttons
. Select screensets 1 through 6. You can also press the 1-6 keys on the
computer keyboard to select screensets 1 through 6.
See:
“Screensets” on page 982
See also:
“Tools module” on page 476
“Snap module” on page 480
“Transport module” on page 482
“Loop module” on page 485
“Mix module” on page 486
“ACT module” on page 488
“Performance module” on page 492
“Punch module” on page 494
“Select module” on page 495
“Markers module” on page 496
“Event Inspector module” on page 498
“Sync Module” on page 499
Control Bar overview
491
Performance module
The Performance module lets you monitor your computer’s performance, including CPU, disk and
memory activity.
To show/hide the Performance module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Performance Module.
Figure 156. The Performance module.
B
A
C
D
A. CPU meters (one per core) B. Disk Activity indicator C. Disk Space meter D. Memory Usage meter
The Performance module contains the following controls:
• CPU meters. Displays the time it takes to process a buffer full of audio data as a percentage of
the maximum time available to process that data and maintain uninterrupted playback. There is
one CPU meter for each core in your computer, up to 32 cores. There is some tolerance built into
the meter, so it is possible that it will exceed 100% at times (more so during recording than
playback).
Note: The width of the Performance module depends on the number of CPU cores available.
32 cores
4 cores
• Disk Activity indicator . Measures how much of the available time SONAR is using to
perform input/output functions on your hard disk. The size of your setup’s I/O buffer size (listed
under File System in Edit > Preferences > Audio - Sync and Caching) determines how much
time is allowed to perform disk operations and maintain uninterrupted playback. When SONAR
performs disk operations, the Disk Activity indicator changes color from yellow to red to indicate
the time SONAR is taking to complete each cycle of disk input/output. A red icon indicates very
high data activity.
492
Control Bar overview
• Disk Space meter. Shows the amount of available space on the drive where your wave data
directory is located. The tooltip shows the actual remaining disk space on your audio disk.
• Memory Usage (RAM) meter. Shows the total memory (RAM) usage by your computer, not just
by SONAR.
Note: If you experience a dropout or your CPU or Disk meters are reading high, there are steps
you can take to improve your audio performance. For more information, see “Audio dropouts or
crashes during playback” on page 1182.
See:
“Queue buffers” on page 1119
“Improving audio performance” on page 1105
“Getting the most out of your PC” on page 1114
“Reduce GUI updates to improve playback performance” on page 1121
“Improving recording performance” on page 1132
See also:
“Tools module” on page 476
“Snap module” on page 480
“Transport module” on page 482
“Loop module” on page 485
“Mix module” on page 486
“ACT module” on page 488
“Screenset module” on page 490
“Punch module” on page 494
“Select module” on page 495
“Markers module” on page 496
“Event Inspector module” on page 498
“Sync Module” on page 499
Control Bar overview
493
Punch module
The Punch module lets you control auto-punch settings.
To show/hide the Punch module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Punch module.
Figure 157. The Punch module.
A
C
B
D
A. Auto-Punch On/Off B. Set Punch Time to Select C. Punch In Time D. Punch Out Time
The Punch module contains the following controls:
• Auto-Punch on/off
. Enable/disable punch recording. Toggles punch recording on/off.
• Set Punch Time to Selection
. Set the Punch In time to the start (From) time of the
selection, and the Punch Out time to the end (Thru) time of the selection.
• Punch In Time. The current Punch In time. Click to modify.
• Punch Out Time. The current Punch Out time. Click to modify.
Tip: If a numeric time field has focus, you can press G to access a list of marker positions.
See:
“Punch recording” on page 283
See also:
“Tools module” on page 476
“Snap module” on page 480
“Transport module” on page 482
“Loop module” on page 485
“Mix module” on page 486
“ACT module” on page 488
“Screenset module” on page 490
494
Control Bar overview
“Performance module” on page 492
“Select module” on page 495
“Markers module” on page 496
“Event Inspector module” on page 498
“Sync Module” on page 499
Select module
The Select module lets you control the selection From and Thru times.
To show/hide the Select module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Select module.
Figure 158. The Select module.
A
C
B
D
A. Set Select From = Now B. Set Select Thru = Now C. Select From Time D. Select Thru Time
The Select module contains the following controls:
• Set Selection From = Now
extends.
. Specify the Now time as the time from which a selection
• Set Selection Thru = Now
extends.
. Specify the Now time as the time through which a selection
• Select From Time. The current From time. Click to modify.
• Select Thru Time.
The current Thru time. Click to modify.
Tip: If a numeric time field has focus, you can press G to access a list of marker positions.
See:
“Selecting clips” on page 327
“Selecting and editing events” on page 687
Control Bar overview
495
See also:
“Tools module” on page 476
“Snap module” on page 480
“Transport module” on page 482
“Loop module” on page 485
“Mix module” on page 486
“ACT module” on page 488
“Screenset module” on page 490
“Performance module” on page 492
“Punch module” on page 494
“Markers module” on page 496
“Event Inspector module” on page 498
“Sync Module” on page 499
Markers module
The Markers module lets you navigate by markers and insert new markers.
To show/hide the Markers module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Markers Module.
Figure 159. The Markers module.
A
B
C
D
A. Jump to previous marker B. Jump to next marker C. Insert marker D. Current marker
The Markers module contains the following controls:
• Previous Marker
• Next Marker
• Insert Marker
.
Jump to the previous marker.
. Jump to the next marker.
.
Insert a new marker.
• Current Marker Display. This list shows the current marker and lets you instantly jump to any
marker in the project.
496
Control Bar overview
See:
“Creating and using markers” on page 348
See also:
“Tools module” on page 476
“Snap module” on page 480
“Transport module” on page 482
“Loop module” on page 485
“Mix module” on page 486
“ACT module” on page 488
“Screenset module” on page 490
“Performance module” on page 492
“Punch module” on page 494
“Select module” on page 495
“Event Inspector module” on page 498
“Sync Module” on page 499
Control Bar overview
497
Event Inspector module
The Event Inspector module lets you view and modify settings for selected clips and MIDI Note
events. If you select multiple notes, the Event Inspector module displays the note value if all
selected note values are the same. If the note values are different, the Event Inspector does not
display anything.
To show/hide the Event Inspector module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Event Inspector Module.
Figure 160. The Event Inspector module.
A
C
B
D
E
A. Time B. Duration C. Pitch D. Velocity E. Channel
The Event Inspector module contains the following controls:
• Time. Start time of the selected event(s), specified as a valid M:B:T time value. Separate values
with a colon or a space. For example, measure 2, Beat 3, Tick 720 would be written as 2:3:720.
• Duration. Duration of the selected event(s), specified as a PPQ value. You can also specify a
percentage of the current duration value. For example, to double the duration, type 200% and
press ENTER.
• Pitch. Pitch of the selected event(s), specified as note names (C0 through G10) or note
numbers (0 through 127). You can also use a modifier to raise or lower the value by a number of
half-steps. To raise the pitch by 2 half-steps, type +2 and press ENTER. To lower the pitch by 2
half-steps, type -2 and press ENTER.
• Vel. Velocity value of the selected event(s), specified as a value between 0 and 127. You can
also use a modifier to raise or lower the current velocity value (+/- 0 through 127). You can also
specify a percentage of the current velocity value. For example, to double the velocity, type 200%
and press ENTER.
• Channel. MIDI channel assigned to the selected events, specified as a value between 1
through 16.
498
Control Bar overview
See also:
“Tools module” on page 476
“Snap module” on page 480
“Transport module” on page 482
“Loop module” on page 485
“Mix module” on page 486
“ACT module” on page 488
“Screenset module” on page 490
“Performance module” on page 492
“Punch module” on page 494
“Select module” on page 495
“Markers module” on page 496
“Sync Module” on page 499
Sync Module
The Sync module lets you configure synchronization settings.
To show/hide the Sync module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Sync Module.
Figure 161. The Sync module.
A
B
C
D
E
A. SMPTE/MTC format B. Incoming timecode C. Sync type D. Transmit MIDI Sync E. Transmit MTC Sync
The Sync module contains the following controls:
• SMPTE/MTC format. Select the time code format. The following frame rates are supported:
• 24 frames per second (FPS). Used for theatrical film worldwide. Any film in North America
or Japan uses this setting.
• 25 FPS. Used for PAL/SECAM video and some film in countries that use 50 Hz wall
electricity. This is the setting to use when synchronizing to any European video format.
Control Bar overview
499
• 29.97 FPS Drop. NTSC broadcast and long format video in North America and Japan. This
setting synchronizes the video perfectly with SONAR, but the sequencer position displayed in
the Now Time and Big Time displays will gradually drift and become incorrect over long periods
of time. The audio and MIDI synchronization to the external device will not be affected by this
discrepancy.
• 29.97 FPS Non Drop. NTSC non-broadcast and short length video in North America and
Japan. Used for some music projects. This setting synchronizes the video perfectly with
SONAR, but the sequencer position displayed in the Now Time and Big Time displays will
gradually drift and become incorrect over long periods of time. The audio and MIDI
synchronization to the external device will not be affected by this discrepancy.
• 30 FPS Drop. Not a standard type of timecode, used rarely for speed correction and transfer
problems in tape based systems.
• 30 FPS Non Drop. Most music projects and some film in North America. This is the best
choice for any music project and should be used unless the situation dictates otherwise.
• Incoming timecode. Shows the current time of incoming time code when synchronizing to an
external device.
• Sync type.
Select the sync type. The following sync types are supported:
• Internal Sync
• MIDI Sync
.
Timing is determined by the clock on the computer motherboard.
. Timing is determined by the clock on an external MIDI device.
• SMPTE/MTC Sync
. Timing is determined by a time code signal (in SMPTE or some
other format) recorded on some external medium or generated and sent by SONAR.
• Audio Sync
. Timing is determined by the clock on the computer’s audio interface.
• Transmit MIDI Sync
. Transmit MIDI Sync to external MIDI devices, such as drum
machines, stand-alone MIDI hardware sequencers, and sequencers built into MIDI keyboards
(only available when using the Internal or Audio clock). SONAR sends messages to all other
devices to start and stop playback and to keep all the devices in sync. SONAR can send MIDI
Sync on multiple MIDI output ports. For details, see “MIDI synchronization” on page 1083.
• Transmit MTC Sync
. Transmit MIDI Time Code (MTC) to external devices that can receive
MTC. SMPTE/MTC is a position and timing reference that indicates the current location in the
project and how quickly the project should be playing. SMPTE/MTC time code labels the position
in a project in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames. The speed of playback is indicated by a
frame rate. SONAR can send MTC on multiple output ports simultaneously. For details, see
“SMPTE/MIDI time code synchronization” on page 1086.
500
Control Bar overview
See:
“Synchronizing your gear” on page 1079
“MIDI synchronization” on page 1083
“SMPTE/MIDI time code synchronization” on page 1086
“Audio - Sync and Caching (Advanced)” on page 1566
See also:
“Tools module” on page 476
“Snap module” on page 480
“Transport module” on page 482
“Loop module” on page 485
“Mix module” on page 486
“ACT module” on page 488
“Screenset module” on page 490
“Performance module” on page 492
“Punch module” on page 494
“Select module” on page 495
“Markers module” on page 496
“Event Inspector module” on page 498
Control Bar overview
501
502
Control Bar overview
Inspectors
When working on a project, you will frequently need to access track and clip parameters and mix
controls. The Track Inspector and Properties Inspector provide easy access to relevant settings for
the selected track(s) or clip(s).
Figure 162. Use the Track Inspector and Properties Inspector to configure track and clip settings.
A
B
A. Properties Inspector B. Track Inspector
The Inspector pane appears to the left of the Track view, but can also be moved to the right side.
There are three separate inspectors:
• Track Inspector. The Track Inspector shows mix settings for the current track, bus, or main,
and is essentially identical to a channel strip in the Console view. Advanced MIDI settings are also
available for MIDI tracks and Instrument tracks. For details, see “Track Inspector overview” on
page 508.
• Properties Inspector. The Properties Inspector shows properties for the selected clip(s) or
track(s). For details, see “Properties Inspector overview” on page 524. The Properties Inspector
has two modes:
• Clip. The Clip Properties Inspector displays settings for the currently selected clip(s). For
details, see “Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 526.
• Track. The Track Properties Inspector lets you type a track name, specify an audio track’s
AudioSnap render modes, specify the default clip colors, and enter a text description. For
details, see “Properties Inspector - Track Properties” on page 533.
Note: Settings in the inspectors are non-destructive, and therefore do not destructively process
data in any way. Feel free to experiment with different settings without worrying that changes
are permanent.
• ProChannel (Producer only). ProChannel combines compression, equalization, and tube
saturation modeling in one convenient processor. ProChannel is available on each audio track,
Instrument track and bus. For details, see “ProChannel (Producer only)” on page 925.
504
Inspectors
Figure 163. The Track Inspector extends the full height of the Inspector pane, while the Properties Inspector is
shown in the top half when visible.
A
B
C
D
H
E
F
G
I
A. Dock/undock Inspector B. Show/hide Clip Properties Inspector C. Show/hide Track Properties Inspector
D. Show/hide ProChannel E. Display area for Properties Inspector F. Display area for Track Inspectors
G. Show/hide/configure Track Inspector modules H. Section header bars (click to show controls) I. Show audio
output or MIDI settings (Instrument tracks only)
Inspectors
505
To show/hide the Inspector pane
Do one of the following:
• On the Views menu, click Inspector.
• Press I on your computer keyboard.
• Click the Docking Options button in the top right corner of the Inspector pane and select
Collapse.
To expand/collapse the Inspector pane
When the Inspector is docked, do one of the following:
• Click the Expand/Collapse button at the top of the Inspector pane.
• Press I on your computer keyboard.
Figure 164. Use the Expand/collapse button to expand/collapse the Inspector.
A
Expanded
Collapsed
A. Expand/Collapse
To dock/undock the Inspector
Do one of the following:
• To dock the Inspector on the right side.
Right.
Click the Docking Options button and select Dock
• To dock the Inspector on the left side. Click the Docking Options button and select Dock
Left.
506
Inspectors
• To undock the Inspector. Click the Docking Options button and select Undock, or click to
the left of the Dock/Undock button and drag the Inspector to the desired location.
Tip: You can click any blank space at the top of the Inspector pane and drag the Inspector to the
desired position.
Figure 165. Use the Dock/Undock and Docking Options controls to change the position of the Inspector.
A
B
A. Dock/Undock B. Docking Options
To enter values in inspectors
Do one of the following:
• Type a value in the text box and press ENTER.
• Drag the slider or use the mouse wheel.
• Select/clear the check box.
• Click the arrow buttons in the inspector to increase or decrease the value.
• Click the text box and then use the UP ARROW and DOWN ARROW keys to increase or
decrease the value.
• Select a value from the drop-down menu associated with the text box.
To edit multiple tracks/clips simultaneously
You can use the Track Properties and Clip Properties inspectors to modify multiple selected tracks
or clips simultaneously. The following rules apply when modifying multiple tracks/clips:
• If the selected tracks or clips share the same value for a parameter, that parameter will display
normally.
• If the selected tracks or clips have different values for a parameter, that parameter will display as
(Multi).
• If the selected Tracks or Clips are of a different type and it would not be appropriate or possible to
modify a parameter, that parameter will be unavailable.
See:
“Track Inspector overview” on page 508
“Properties Inspector overview” on page 524:
“Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 526
“Properties Inspector - Track Properties” on page 533
Inspectors
507
Track Inspector overview
The Track Inspector provides mixing controls for the currently selected audio track, MIDI track,
Instrument track, bus or main. The Track Inspector is essentially identical to a channel strip in the
Console view. Any changes you make in the Track Inspector are reflected in the corresponding
Console view channel strip, and vice versa. The Track Inspector modules can be shown/hidden
independently from the corresponding Console view modules.
The Track Inspector is divided in two. The left strip shows mix controls for the current track/bus/
main. The right strip varies depending on the current track type, as shown in the following table.
Current track type
Left strip
Right strip
Audio
Selected audio track
Output of selected track or send
MIDI
Selected MIDI track
Arpeggiator, Input Quantize, Snap to Scale settings,
MIDI chorus, MIDI reverb, Bank Select Method,
Key+ and Time+ for selected MIDI track
Instrument
Selected Instrument track
Audio tab: Output of selected track or send
MIDI tab: Arpeggiator, Input Quantize and Snap to
Scale settings for selected Instrument track
Bus
Selected bus
Output of selected bus or send
Selected main
Blank
Main
Table 111.
Track inspector controls
Showing both the current track and its output destination side-by-side makes it fast and easy to
configure the desired audio routing.
508
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
Figure 166. The content displayed in the Track Inspector depends on the current track type.
Audio track
A
B
MIDI track and Instrument
track (MIDI tab)
C
D
Instrument track
(Audio tab)
E
F
Bus
G
Main
H
I
J
A. Current audio track B. Output of current audio track C. Current MIDI track or Instrument track D. Advanced
MIDI settings for current MIDI track or Instrument track (MIDI tab) E. Current Instrument track F. Output of
current Instrument track (Audio tab) G. Selected bus H. Output of selected bus I. Selected main J. The right
strip is blank when showing mains
Note: When the current track is an Instrument track, you can show either audio output controls
or advanced MIDI settings in the right strip by selecting the Audio tab or MIDI tab at the bottom
of the Track Inspector.
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
509
To show a track/bus/main in the Track Inspector
Do one of the following:
• Click the desired track, bus or main in the Track view or Console view.
• Click the Track Name control in the Track Inspector to select any available track, bus or main.
To lock the Track Inspector to a specific track or bus
Be default, the Track Inspector dynamically updates to show the current track. However, you can
choose to always show a specific track or bus regardless of which track is current.
1. Click the track or bus you want to show in the Track Inspector.
2. Click the Track Name control in the Track Inspector and select Lock the current track or bus
from the drop-down menu.
To unlock the track or bus, select Lock the current track or bus from the menu again.
See:
“Track Inspector controls” on page 510:
“Audio track controls” on page 515
“Bus controls” on page 516
“MIDI track and Instrument track controls” on page 517
“Main controls” on page 522
“Properties Inspector overview” on page 524
“Inspectors” on page 503
Track Inspector controls
The controls in the Track Inspector vary depending on the current track type.
Control
Description
Audio MIDI
track track
Instrument
Bus
track
Main
Clip
Show/hide the Clip Properties Inspector.
--
--
--
--
--
Track
Show/hide the Track Properties Inspector.
--
--
--
--
--
Dock/Undock
Dock/undock the Inspector pane.
--
--
--
--
--
Docking
Options
The Docking Options menu lets you dock/ -undock/float/collapse the Inspector pane.
--
--
--
--
Gain
Pre-fader input gain for fine tuning a track’s
volume or input level to a bus.
Table 112.
510
Track Inspector controls
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
x
x
Control
Description
Audio MIDI
track track
Velocity offset The change in velocity (volume) that will be
applied to notes in the track on playback;
ranges from –127 to +127.
x
Input pan
Sets the pan of the audio data sent to the
bus.
ProChannel
(Producer
only)
ProChannel is an extended channel strip
that provides high-quality Compressor,
Equalizer, and Tube saturation processing
for each channel. See “ProChannel
(Producer only)” on page 925.
Effects bin
The patch point for a track’s plug-ins or soft x
synths.
Send Enable
Activates a send module, which sends a
copy of the track signal to a bus.
Send Level
Controls volume of audio data sent by the
send module.
Instrument
Bus
track
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Send Pan
Adjusts the send pan setting.
x
x
x
Send Pre/
Post switch
Pre (pre-fader) means that the Send signal
goes to the bus prior to the track’s volume
fader; post means the Send signal goes to
the bus after the volume fader.
x
x
x
Send
destination
Displays name of bus that the Send is
sending data to.
x
x
x
Channel
The MIDI channel through which the notes
will be played.
x
x
Bank
The set of patch names available for the
track.
x
x
Patch
The instrument sound that will be used for
playback.
x
x
Phase Invert
A switch that inverts the phase of the track. x
Mono/Stereo
A switch that determines whether a track’s x
signal enters an effect or chain of effects as
mono or stereo, regardless of the nature of
the track.
Read
Automation
Enable/disable automation playback.
x
x
x
x
Write
Automation
Enable/disable automation recording.
x
x
x
x
Mute
When enabled, mutes the track.
x
x
x
x
Table 112.
Main
x
x
Track Inspector controls (Continued)
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
511
Control
Description
Audio MIDI
track track
Instrument
Bus
track
Solo
When enabled, solos the track.
x
x
x
Arm for
recording
When enabled, arms the track for audio
recording.
x
x
x
Input echo
Turns input monitoring on or off.
x
x
x
Waveform
Preview
Display the waveform of the audio that’s
flowing through the bus.
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output,
ranging from 100% left (hard left) to 100%
right (hard right); a value of “C” indicates
sound that is centered left-to-right. On
stereo tracks, pan acts as balance.
x
x
x
x
Volume
The current volume level for the track,
ranging from -INF (silent) to +6 dB
(maximum volume). The recording and
playback levels are displayed in the
Playback and Record meters.
x
x
x
x
x
Meter
The recording and playback levels are
displayed in the Playback and Record
meters. For MIDI tracks, the meter shows
MIDI activity and velocity.
x
x
x
x
x
Track icon
Track icons allow you to quickly identify a
track’s contents by instrument. You can
assign a new track icon, create your own
track icons, and save an icon as part of a
track template.
x
x
x
x
x
Track number A sequential track number used for
reference.
x
x
x
x
Track name
A name that you assign the track for easy
reference. Note that if you do not assign a
name to a track, the default name is the
track number. This track number will
change if you change the order of your
tracks. You can click the Track Name
control to select any available track, bus or
main to display in the Track Inspector.
x
x
x
x
Input
The input source for the track, used in
recording.
x
x
Output
The output bus through which the track is
played.
x
x
x
x
Table 112.
512
Track Inspector controls (Continued)
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
Main
x
x
x
Control
Description
Link
Main out faders can be linked using the
Audio MIDI
track track
Instrument
Bus
track
Main
x
Link button
. This allows you to adjust
both the left and right channel at the same
time.
Chorus
Adds MIDI chorus effect to the track.
x
x
Reverb
Adds MIDI reverb effect to the track.
x
x
Bank Select
Method
The Bank Select Method used by your
sound module to switch back and forth
between banks of sounds.
See “Assigning the Bank Select method”
on page 1054.
x
x
Patch
Browser
Opens the “Patch Browser dialog” on page
1547 dialog box, which lets you search for
patches by name.
x
x
Key+
The number of half steps by which the
notes in the track are transposed on
playback (e.g., 12 to transpose up one
octave)
Time+
An offset applied to the start time of the
events in the track.
x
x
Arpeggiator
The Arpeggiator lets you play intricate
patterns of notes that would otherwise be
extremely difficult or impossible to play
manually and at speeds and octave ranges
that exist beyond the physical limitations of
the player or keyboard range. See
“Arpeggiator section” on page 520.
x
x
Input
quantize
Input quantizing allows you to automatically
quantize MIDI input during recording. See
“Input Quantize section” on page 519.
x
x
Snap to scale When Snap to Scale is enabled, any notes
that you draw or move in the Piano Roll
view stay within the selected scale. See
“Snap to Scale section” on page 519.
x
x
Display
The Display menu lets you show/hide
modules in the Track Inspector.
x
x
x
x
x
Module
Options
The Module Options menu lets you
configure settings for various modules.
x
x
x
x
x
Table 112.
Track Inspector controls (Continued)
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
513
Audio MIDI
track track
Instrument
Bus
track
Control
Description
Audio tab
Show audio output controls in the right side
strip.
x
MIDI tab
Show advanced MIDI controls in the right
side strip.
x
Table 112.
Track Inspector controls (Continued)
See also:
“Audio track controls” on page 515
“Bus controls” on page 516
“MIDI track and Instrument track controls” on page 517
“Main controls” on page 522
514
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
Main
Audio track controls
Figure 167. Track Inspector controls for audio tracks.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
A. Input gain B. ProChannel (Producer only) C. Effects bin D. Sends E. Mute, Solo, Arm, Input Echo, Phase
Invert, Stereo Interleave, Read Automation, Write Automation F. Pan G. Volume H. Meter I. Track icon
J. Input and output K. Track name and number L. Display menu
See also:
“Track Inspector controls” on page 510
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Track Inspector overview
515
Bus controls
Figure 168. Track Inspector controls for buses.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
A. Input gain and pan B. ProChannel (Producer only) C. Effects bin D. Sends E. Mute, Solo, Waveform
preview, Read Automation, Write Automation F. Pan G. Volume H. Meter I. Bus Icon J. Output K. Bus name
L. Display menu
See also:
“Track Inspector controls” on page 510
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Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
MIDI track and Instrument track controls
When the current track is a MIDI track, the left strip shows mix controls and the right strip shows
Snap to Scale, Input Quantize, Arpeggiator and other advanced MIDI settings. Instrument tracks can
show either audio or MIDI controls in the right strip, depending on whether the Audio or MIDI tab is
selected.
Figure 169. Track Inspector controls for MIDI tracks and Instrument tracks.
A
B
C
L
M
N
D
E
F
O
G
H
I
P
J
Q
R
K
S
A. Velocity trim B. Effects bin C. Channel/Bank/Patch Quantize D. Mute, Solo, Arm, Input Echo, Read
Automation, Write Automation E. Pan F. Volume G. Meter H. Track icon and number I. Track name J. Input
and output K. Display menu L. Chorus and Reverb M. Snap to Scale N. Input Quantize O. Arpeggiator
P. MIDI offset controls (Key+ and Time+) Q. Open Patch Browser R. Bank Select Method R. Audio and MIDI
tabs (Instrument tracks only)
See also:
“Track Inspector controls” on page 510
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Track Inspector overview
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Figure 170. Instrument tracks can show audio output or MIDI controls by selecting the Audio tab or MIDI tab.
A
B
Audio tab
MIDI tab
A. Audio output B. MIDI controls
Advanced MIDI Controls section
• Chorus.
Adds MIDI chorus effect to the track.
• Reverb. Adds MIDI reverb effect to the track.
• Key+. The number of half steps by which the notes in the track are transposed on playback
(e.g., 12 to transpose up one octave)
• Time+. The number of “Ticks” on page 1815 that the track’s playback timing is offset from the
other tracks.
• Patch Browser. Opens the “Patch Browser dialog” on page 1547 dialog box, which lets you
search for patches by name.
• Bank Select Method. Your synthesizer uses one of four bank select methods to switch back
and forth between banks of sounds. To find the method used for your instrument, check the
instrument’s User’s Guide or the manufacturer’s web site. The four methods are as follows:
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Track Inspector overview
• Normal. Use for instruments that respond to Controller 0 or Controller 32 bank select
messages.
• Controller 0 only.
messages.
• Controller 32 only.
messages.
Use for instruments that only respond to Controller 0 bank select
Use for instruments that only respond to Controller 32 bank select
• Patch 100...127. Use for instruments that let you change banks by sending patch changes
between 100 and 127.
For more information about Bank Select Methods, see “Assigning the Bank Select method” on
page 1054.
Snap to Scale section
• Snap to Scale On/Off. Enables/disables Snap to Scale on the selected track.
• Scale. Displays current scale for Snap to Scale feature. The drop-down menu contains the
following options:
• <scale categories>. The pre-installed scales are organized into categories such as Diatonic,
Pentatonic, Exotic, etc. Point to the desired category and select a scale from the submenu.
• Custom User Scales. This submenu lists all custom scales you have created.
• Scale Manager. Select Scale Manager to create new scales or edit existing scales. See “To
create a scale” on page 709 and “To edit or delete a scale” on page 710.
• Root Note. Use this field to specify the root note of the selected scale.
• Settings. Use this field to specify how you want SONAR to handle non-scale notes in the Piano
Roll view when Snap to Scale is enabled.
• Next, Higher Note. SONAR moves any non-scale note that you move to the next higher note
in the selected scale.
• Previous, Lower Note. SONAR moves any non-scale note that you move to the previous,
lower note in the selected scale.
• Nearest Note. SONAR moves any non-scale note that you move to the note that is closest in
pitch in the selected scale.
For more information about Snap to Scale, see “Snap to Scale” on page 708.
Input Quantize section
• Input Quantize On/Off. Enables/disables Input Quantize on the selected track.
• Preset. Save or select settings that you use often in the drop-down menu. To save a new group
of settings, click the Preset list and choose Quantize Settings to open the Input Quantize
dialog, then type a name in the Preset field and click the Save button. To delete a group, select it
and click the Delete button. The Input Quantize dialog contains the following settings:
• Resolution. Set the note resolution in either standard note duration or tick value. The
resolution determines the size note or time value that you want your MIDI data to conform to.
• Start Times.
Select this option to quantize MIDI event start times.
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Track Inspector overview
519
• Durations. Select this option to quantize Note Event durations to the size of the Resolution
value.
• Notes only.
If selected, SONAR will not modify other events, such as controllers.
• Strength. This value determines how closely SONAR moves the selected notes to the
resolution value, or “grid”. See “Strength” on page 698.
• Swing. Use this value to make groups of even eight notes (or whatever note you want to
enter in the Resolution field) “swing”, instead of playing with exact eighth note rhythm. A value
of 50 percent, or “50-50”, produces equal durations for both notes—no swing. A larger value
makes the first note longer, and vice versa. See “Swing” on page 698.
• Window. This value determines whether SONAR quantizes notes that are far from the
quantization points, or leaves them alone. A value of 100 percent quantizes every note. See
“Window” on page 699.
• Randomize. This value randomizes the three previous fields to introduce a more human feel
to the rhythm. The value you enter is the maximum amount of difference from the entered
values that the randomize feature can add.
For more information about Input Quantize, see “Input quantizing” on page 262.
Arpeggiator section
• Arpeggiator On/Off. Enables/disables the Arpeggiator on the selected track. This control can
be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in real-time during project playback.
• Preset. You can create and edit Arpeggiator presets; all user parameters are stored in the
preset. Arpeggiator settings are included in track templates.
• Rate. Adjusts the relative speed of the Arpeggiator sequence by changing all the note durations
by a factor of the current tempo. This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and
modified in real-time during project playback.
• Octave Range. Sets the number of octaves through which the arpeggio will play. A value of 1
means that a held chord will only arpeggiate the notes that are being held within the octave from
which the notes are being transmitted. A value of 2 means a held chord will arpeggiate for two
octaves. The held chord always represents the bass octave, meaning that the other octaves
sound in a higher register.
If you specify a range higher than the standard MIDI specifications, the Arpeggiator will repeat the
pattern in the highest available octave as necessary.
This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in real-time during project
playback.
• Latch.
Latch keeps the arpeggio playing after you let go of the keys.
This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in real-time during project
playback.
• Swing. Sets the amount of swing applied to the selected pattern. You can make a pattern of 8th,
16th, or 32nd notes play back as swing notes instead of straight notes. The amount of swing
ranges from 0 (no swing) to 100% (maximum swing).
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Track Inspector overview
• Velocity. An offset control that scales the arpeggiated note’s velocity to a percentage of the
original note velocity.
• Duration. Controls whether the notes in the pattern are held to their full value, or are held for
shorter or longer durations.
• Pitch.
A transposition control in half-steps, up or down a maximum of 2 octaves.
Flam. If a pattern contains flams, this menu controls how big a difference there is between the
attack time of the flam and the note it is attached to.
• Mix. When 0, simultaneously held notes arpeggiate as single notes. At 50%, simultaneously
held notes are heard as a chord in addition to the usual arpeggiated notes, both at equal levels. At
100%, only the held chord is audible.
Control: Knob (0 – 100%); this control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in
real-time during project playback.
• Channel. MIDI input and output menu—the Arpeggiator only affects input data that’s on the
MIDI channels listed on this menu. The Arpeggiator always obeys the track’s assigned output
channel, plus any additional channels specified in the Arpeggiator’s Ch menu.
• Shape. Choose a shape that specifies the direction in which currently held notes are to be
sequenced. The following shapes are available:
• Rhythm (implicit rhythm mode)
• Forward
• Reverse
• Forward Circle 1
• Reverse Circle 1
• Forward Circle 2
• Reverse Circle 2
• Inward
• Outward
• Inward Circle
• Outward Circle
• As Played
• As Played Circle
• Random
For more information about the Arpeggiator, see “Arpeggiator” on page 264.
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Track Inspector overview
521
Main controls
Figure 171. Track Inspector controls for mains
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
A. Mute B. Link channels C. Volume D. Meter E. Icon F. Mains name G. Display menu
See also:
“Track Inspector controls” on page 510
To show/hide modules
Click the Display control at the bottom of the Track Inspector and select the modules you want to
show/hide.
The following modules are available:
• Gain. Show/hide Input Trim/Gain/Pan controls.
• ProChannel (Producer only). Show/hide ProChannel controls, which includes Equalizer,
Compressor and Tube Saturation.
• FX.
Show/hide effect bins.
• Sends. Show/hide Send controls for audio tracks and buses, or Bank/Patch/Channel controls
for MIDI tracks and Instrument tracks.
• MSR. Show/hide Mute, Solo, Arm for Recording, Input Echo, Phase Invert, Mono/Stereo, Read
Automation, Write Automation and Wavefrom Preview controls.
• Pan. Show/hide Pan controls.
• Volume. Show/hide Volume controls and meters (and Link controls for mains).
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Track Inspector overview
• Icons.
Show/hide track icons.
• Input/Output.
Show/hide Input and Output controls
Figure 172. Use the Display menu to configure modules in the Track Inspector.
See:
“Track Inspector overview” on page 508
“Properties Inspector overview” on page 524
“Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 526
“Properties Inspector - Track Properties” on page 533
“ProChannel (Producer only)” on page 925
“Inspectors” on page 503
“Arpeggiator” on page 264
“Input quantizing” on page 262
“Track-by-track playback” on page 191
“Changing track settings” on page 200
“Routing and mixing digital audio” on page 813
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Track Inspector overview
523
Properties Inspector overview
The Properties Inspector shows properties for the selected clip(s) or track(s), depending on whether
the Clip or Track button is pressed:
• Clip. The Clip Properties Inspector displays settings for the currently selected clip(s). For
details, see “Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 526.
• Track. The Track Properties Inspector lets you type a text description and specify the default
clip colors for the selected track(s). For details, see “Properties Inspector - Track Properties” on
page 533.
The Properties Inspector contains multiple sections that you can show/hide by clicking the section’s
header bar. By default, the Clip Properties Inspector and Track Properties Inspector are collapsed.
Only one section can be visible at a time.
524
Inspectors
Properties Inspector overview
Figure 173. The Track Inspector extends the full height of the Inspector pane, while the Properties Inspector is
shown in the top half when visible.
A
B
C
D
A. Dock/undock and expand/collapse Inspector B. Show/hide Clip Properties Inspector C. Show/hide Track
Properties Inspector D. Show/hide ProChannel
See:
“Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 526
“Properties Inspector - Track Properties” on page 533
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Properties Inspector overview
525
Properties Inspector - Clip Properties
The Clip Properties Inspector displays settings for the currently selected clip(s). The Clip Properties
Inspector contains the following sections:
• “Properties section” on page 528
• “Groove Clip section” on page 529
• “AudioSnap section” on page 530
• “Clip Effects section” on page 532
Figure 174. The Clip Properties Inspector displays settings for the currently selected clip(s).
A
B
C
D
A. Clip Properties section B. Groove Clip Looping section C. AudioSnap section D. Clip Effects section
Note: The preceding image shows all sections in the Clip Properties Inspector expanded for
illustration purposes only. You can only show one section at a time.
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Properties Inspector overview
To show/hide the Clip Properties Inspector
Click the Clip button at the top of the Inspector pane.
Figure 175. Click the Clip button to show/hide the Clip Properties Inspector.
To show/hide a section in the Clip Properties Inspector
Click the section’s header bar in the inspector.
The section expands and the previously-displayed section collapses.
Figure 176. Click a section’s header bar to expand the section and show its controls.
Inspectors
Properties Inspector overview
527
Properties section
• Properties header bar.
Click to show/hide the Properties section.
• Clip Name. Use this field to assign a name to the selected clip. The name of a clip is used in the
Track view and Event List view. You can assign any name to help you remember the contents of
the clip.
• Time Format. Use the list to specify in which format to display the selected clip’s Start time and
Length. The options are as follows:
• MBT. Display the clip’s Start and Length properties in M:B:T (Measure: Beat:Tick) format.
• Samples. Display the clip’s Start and Length properties in number of samples format.
• HMSF. Display the clip’s Start and Length properties in H:M:S:F (Hour:
Minute:Second:Frame) format.
• Seconds.
Display the clip’s Start and Length properties in number of seconds format.
• Start. Use this field to move the selected clip forward or backward in the track by setting a new
start time.
• Length.
This field displays the length of the selected clip.
• Snap Offset (audio clips only). The Snap Offset field is for audio clips only. Snap offsets allow
you to set a point other than the beginning of a clip as the “snap” point used by the Snap to Grid.
A snap offset is the number of samples from the beginning of the clip. Snap offsets affect all edits
that obey the Snap to Grid setting. Clips without a snap offset always align at the very beginning
of a clip. For more information, see “Snap offsets” on page 347.
Note: You cannot set a snap offset for a Groove clip.
• Original Time. The Original Time property stores and shows the original SMPTE time stamp
associated with the clip. This is the SMPTE time stamp at which the clip was recorded or imported
into the project. The Original Time property can not be edited. See “To revert clip(s) to original
time stamp” on page 335.
• Time Base. Choose one of the two options in this section to control what happens to a locked
clip when you change the tempo:
• Musical (M:B:T). If the clip is set to the Musical time base, the clip’s M:B:T position stays
constant, and its Absolute position shifts.
• Absolute. If the clip is set to the Absolute time base, its Absolute position stays constant, and
its M:B:T position shifts.
• Mute.
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Mutes the clip.
Inspectors
Properties Inspector overview
• Lock. Locks the clip’s data and/or position. The Lock drop-down menu contains the following
options:
• Position and Data. Locks position and data, and adds a lock icon on the clip
.
• Position Only. Locks position only, and adds a yellow lock icon (with the clasp unlocked) on
the clip .
• Data Only. Locks data only, and adds a blue lock icon (with the clasp unlocked) on the clip
.
• Automation Read. Allows the clip to respond to clip automation envelopes.
Note: Clip envelopes are only visible/editable when the parent track’s Edit Filter control is set to
Clip Automation. For details, see “Selecting the data type to edit” on page 398.
• Clips Linked.
• Foreground.
Shows how many clips are linked to the selected clip.
Specifies the waveform or note color of the selected clip.
• Background. Specifies the clip background color of the selected clip.
• Use Track Colors. Returns the selected clip’s color to the default, as defined in Edit >
Preferences > Customization - Color.
For more information about clip properties, see “Editing clip properties” on page 758 and
“Arranging clips” on page 320.
Groove Clip section
• Groove Clip header bar.
Click to show/hide the Groove Clip section.
• Looping. Convert the selected clip to a Groove Clip. You can drag the right edge of a Groove
Clip to create loop repetitions. Groove Clips can also obey pitch markers. For more information
about Groove Clips, see “Working with Groove Clip audio” on page 638 and “MIDI Groove Clips”
on page 647.
Note: If this control is not available, the selected clip is most likely an AudioSnap clip. A clip can
not have Groove Clip looping and AudioSnap enabled at the same time.
• Stretch to Tempo (audio clips only). Stretch or shrink the selected clip to fit the project’s
tempo. SONAR uses the Beats in Clip and Original Tempo parameters are used to make the
change.
• Beats in Clips.
The number of beats (quarter notes) in the clip.
• Original Tempo (audio clips only). The tempo at which the clip was recorded.
• Follow Pitch. Transposes the loop, if necessary, to the key of the project. A loop recorded in the
key of A, used in a project in the key of C, will be transposed up three semitones if the Follow
Pitch option is selected. You can also insert markers in the Time Ruler which change the project
pitch. These markers, called pitch markers affect only Groove clips with Follow Pitch enabled.
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Properties Inspector overview
529
• Reference Note. Represents the key in which the loop was originally recorded. The Follow
Pitch feature uses this information, when checked, to transpose the loop to match the project’s
default project pitch and pitch markers.
• Pitch (semitones). Allows you to set the transposition of a clip independently from the project
pitch. A positive number transposes the clip up by that number of semitones. A negative number
transposes the clip down by that number of semitones. Remember, if Follow Pitch is enabled,
the clip follows the project’s pitch, so any transposition changes you make using this option are
changes to the project pitch, not the clip pitch.
• Fine Pitch (cents). Allows you to make tuning adjustments or to transpose the pitch of a clip up
to 50 cents. There are 100 cents in one semitone. A Fine Pitch setting of 1 adjusts the pitch up
one hundredth of a semitone. The Fine Pitch option can “fine tune” a slightly out of tune clip so
that it is in pitch with the remaining clips in a project.
For more information about Groove Clips, see “Working with loops and Groove Clips” on page
629.
AudioSnap section
• AudioSnap header bar. Click to show/hide the AudioSnap section.
• Enable. Enables or disables AudioSnap on selected audio clips.
Note: AudioSnap is automatically enabled on a clip if you stretch a transient marker on the clip.
• Average Tempo. Shows the average tempo candidates: original, 0.5x and 2x. SONAR will do
its best to detect the correct average tempo, but a clip can often have multiple potential tempos
(60 BPM, 120 BPM, 240 BPM, etc.). If SONAR is unable to detect a tempo, Average Tempo will
be set to Original, which is the project’s tempo at the location the clip was recorded or imported.
If you change the Average Tempo setting, all clip tempo changes are adjusted to scale.
• Follow Project Tempo. Forces the clip to follow the project’s global tempo map.
• Follow Options. Specifies at which resolution the clip should follow tempo changes when
Follow Project Tempo is selected. The options are as follows:
• Beats
• Measures
• Clip (default)
• Auto-Stretch
Note: The Follow Project Tempo option only works on clips that are configured to use musical
time (the Time Base property is set to Musical (M:B:T) in the Clip Properties Inspector.
• Filter Threshold. Disables AudioSnap transient markers based on their volume. This clears out
unwanted markers to make editing easier. Higher values create a bigger volume threshold, which
disables markers that are fall below that threshold.
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Inspectors
Properties Inspector overview
• Filter Resolution. The selected Filter Resolution value lets you disable markers based on
their time location. This clears out unwanted markers to make editing easier. Larger values create
a bigger time window, based on musical time values, which preserves markers that are closest to
the displayed musical time value, and disables others.
• Online Render. This choice determines what stretch algorithm is used during real-time
playback. For more information about render modes, see “Algorithms and rendering” on page
624. The options are as follows:
• From Track. This uses the algorithm listed in the Online field in Edit > Preferences >
Project - AudioSnap.
• Groove clip.
power.
This mode works faster than Percussion render mode, using less processing
• Percussion. This mode works better than the Groove Clip render mode on percussive
material, especially if the stretching is by more than a few beats per minute.
Note: The Online render mode is for preview purposes only during playback. The final audio
quality will be greatly improved after the Offline render mode is applied during mixdown/export.
• Offline Render. This drop-down menu lets you choose the algorithm that is used when you
export or freeze stretched audio. The choices in the drop-down menu are as follows:
• From Track. This uses the algorithm listed in the Offline Rendering field in Edit >
Preferences > Project - AudioSnap.
• Radius Mix. Better for clips containing polyphonic, stereo data.
• Radius Mix Advanced. Similar to Radius Mix, but exposes a Smoothing slider that adjust
how much detail to preserve.
• Radius Solo.
Better for clips containing monophonic, solo instruments.
• Radius Solo (Bass). Better for clips containing solo bass instruments.
• Radius Solo (Vocal).
Better for clips containing solo vocals.
• Same as Online. Uses the same choice as the Online field.
• Enable Stretch. Allows a clip to follow a project’s tempo as it changes. It instructs SONAR to
stretch or shrink the clip to fit the project’s tempo. SONAR uses the Original BPM parameters to
make the change.
• Stretch Amount (%).
• New Duration.
Specify by what percentage to stretch the clip.
Specify what duration to stretch the clip to.
• New Thru-Time. Specify the Thru Time to stretch the clip to.
For more information about AudioSnap, see “AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)” on page
565.
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Properties Inspector overview
531
Clip Effects section
• Clip Effects header bar. Click to show/hide the Clip Effects section. This sections lets you add
real-time effects to the selected clip.
• Effects bin.
Right-click to insert a plug-in, or drag a plug-in from the Browser.
For more information about clip effects, see “Effects on clips” on page 840 and “Adding effects in
the Track view” on page 366.
See:
“Properties Inspector overview” on page 524
“Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 526
“Properties Inspector - Track Properties” on page 533
“Inspectors” on page 503
See also:
“Editing clip properties” on page 758
“Arranging clips” on page 320
“Effects on clips” on page 840
“Adding effects in the Track view” on page 366
“Working with loops and Groove Clips” on page 629
“AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)” on page 565
“MIDI effects (MIDI plug-ins)” on page 726
“Snap to Scale” on page 708
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Properties Inspector overview
Properties Inspector - Track Properties
The Track Properties Inspector lets you type a name, enter a text description, specify the AudioSnap
track render mode for audio tracks, and specify the default clip colors for the selected track(s).
Figure 177. The Track Properties Inspector lets you specify settings for the selected track(s).
A
B
C
D
E
F
A. Dock/undock Inspector B. Show/hide Track Properties Inspector C. Track name D. AudioSnap track render
modes E. Default clip colors F. Text description
To show/hide the Track Properties Inspector
Click the Track button at the top of the Inspector pane.
Figure 178. Click the Track button to show/hide the Track Properties Inspector.
The Track Properties Inspector contains the following sections:
Properties section
• Track Name. Assign a name to the selected track.
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Properties Inspector overview
533
AudioSnap section (audio tracks only)
• Online Render. Specify the algorithm to use during real-time playback. For more information
about render modes, see “Algorithms and rendering” on page 624. The options are as follows:
• From Global. This uses the algorithm listed in the Online field in Edit > Preferences >
Project - AudioSnap.
• Groove clip. Works faster than Percussion render mode, using less processing power.
• Percussion. Works better than the Groove Clip render mode on percussive material,
especially if the stretching is by more than a few beats per minute.
Note: The Online render mode is for preview purposes only during playback. The final audio
quality will be greatly improved after the Offline render mode is applied during mixdown/export.
• Offline Render. This drop-down menu lets you choose the algorithm that is used when you
export or freeze stretched audio. The choices in the drop-down menu are as follows:
• From Global. This uses the algorithm listed in the Offline Rendering field in Edit >
Preferences > Project - AudioSnap.
• Radius Mix. Better for clips containing polyphonic, stereo data.
• Radius Mix Advanced. Similar to Radius Mix, but exposes a Smoothing slider that adjust
how much detail to preserve.
• Radius Solo.
Better for clips containing monophonic, solo instruments.
• Radius Solo (Bass). Better for clips containing solo bass instruments.
• Radius Solo (Vocal).
Better for clips containing solo vocals.
• Same as Online. Uses the same choice as the Online field.
Color section
• Foreground.
Specify the default waveform or note color of the selected track.
• Background. Specify the default clip background color of the selected track.
• Use Track Color. Use the default track color, as defined in Edit > Preferences >
Customization - Color.
• Tracks. When Use Track Color is selected, use the Tracks drop-down menu to specify which
set of track colors to use (as defined in Edit > Preferences > Customization - Color). You can
choose from ten different default color combinations.
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Inspectors
Properties Inspector overview
Description section
• Description. Type a comment or description of the selected track.
See:
“Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 526
“Inspectors” on page 503
See also:
“To change a track name” on page 207
“AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)” on page 565
“Screen colors and wallpaper” on page 88
“Customization - Colors” on page 1612
Inspectors
Properties Inspector overview
535
536
Inspectors
Properties Inspector overview
Browser
The Browser lets you find and import various types of content into your projects, including audio and
MIDI files, track and project templates, track icons, Effects Chain presets, effect plug-ins and
instruments. You can drag content and plug-ins directly into tracks. The Browser consists of three
sections:
• Media Browser. Find audio, MIDI, video, projects, project templates, track templates, Effects
Chain presets and track icons that you want to import into a project. For more information, see
“Using the Media Browser” on page 541.
• Plug-in Browser. Organize plug-ins and drag effects to tracks and clips. You can access audio
effects (DirectX and VST), MIDI effects (MFX), instruments (DXi and VSTi) and ReWire devices.
For more information, see “Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 552.
• Synth Rack Browser. Manage all active instruments in a project. For more information, see
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 558.
Objects in the Browser can be added to your project in two ways:
• Drag the object to an appropriate location.
• Double-click the object in the Browser.
By default, the Browser is docked on the right side of the screen. More detailed information is shown
in the Media Browser and Synth Rack Browser when the SONAR Browser is floating or docked at
the bottom of the screen. For more information, see “Docking/undocking and resizing the Browser
window” on page 539.
Figure 179. The Browser lets you import content into a project and manage effects and instruments.
A
B
C
D
A. Media Browser B. Plug-in Browser C. Synth Rack Browser D. Header bar
To show audio/MIDI content
Click the Browse Media button
.
To show plug-ins
Click the Browse Plug-ins button
.
To show the Synth Rack
Click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
See:
“Adding Browser objects to your project” on page 544
“Docking/undocking and resizing the Browser window” on page 539
“Using the Media Browser” on page 541
“Adding Browser objects to your project” on page 544
“To import an audio or MIDI file” on page 544
“To export audio or MIDI clips” on page 545
“To import a track template” on page 546
“To import a project template” on page 547
“To open or import a project file” on page 547
“To import a video file” on page 547
“To assign a track/bus icon” on page 547
538
Browser
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 552
“Adding effects and instruments to a project” on page 553
“To insert an effect in a track or bus” on page 554
“To insert an effect into a clip’s effects bin” on page 555
“To insert an instrument” on page 556
“To insert a ReWire device” on page 557
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 558
“Managing instruments in a project” on page 563
“Keyboard navigation” on page 551
Docking/undocking and resizing the Browser window
By default, the Browser is docked on the right side of the screen. You can undock the Browser, or
dock it on the left side or at the bottom. You can also resize the width of the Browser.
More detailed information is shown in the Media Browser and Synth Rack Browser when the
SONAR Browser is floating or docked at the bottom of the screen.
Figure 180. Browser
A
A
Docked
Undocked
Collapsed
A. Header bar
Figure 181. Use the docking controls to change the position of the Browser.
A
B C D
A. Click here to drag the Browser B. Dock/Undock C. Docking Options D. Expand/Collapse
Browser
539
To dock the Browser
When the Browser is undocked, do one of the following:
• Double-click the Browser header bar.
• Click the Dock/Undock button in the Browser.
• Click the Docking Options button, and select one of the following menu commands:
• Dock at Left. Dock the Browser to the left of the Track view.
• Dock at Right. Dock the Browser to the right of the Track view.
• Dock in MultiDock.
by default.
Dock the Browser in the MultiDock, which appears below the Track view
To undock the Browser
When the Browser is docked, do one of the following:
• Double-click the Browser header bar.
• Click the Browser header and drag the Browser to the middle of the screen.
• Click the Dock/Undock button in the Browser.
More detailed information is shown in the Media Browser and Synth Rack Browser when the
SONAR Browser is floating or docked at the bottom of the screen.
To float the Browser or move it to a different monitor
Click the Docking Options button, and select Float.
To move the Browser to the left side
Do one of the following:
• Click the Docking Options button, and select Dock at Left.
• Click the Browser header and drag the Browser to the left side of the screen.
To dock the Browser in the MultiDock
Do one of the following:
• Click the Browser header and drag the Browser to the MultiDock.
• Click the Docking Options button, and select Dock in MultiDock.
To expand/collapse the Browser
Click the Expand/Collapse button in the Browser.
To resize the width of the Browser
Drag the Browser’s sidebar left/right.
To show the Browser
Select Views > Browser.
540
Browser
See:
“Using the Media Browser” on page 541
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 552
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 558
“To import an audio or MIDI file” on page 544
“To import a video file” on page 547
“To import a track template” on page 546
“To insert an instrument” on page 556
“Keyboard navigation” on page 551
“Browser” on page 537
Using the Media Browser
The Media Browser allows you to browse and import various file types that can be used in SONAR,
including:
• Audio files (.wav, .mp3, .wma, .aif, etc.)
• MIDI files (.mid)
• Project5 patterns (.ptn)
• Step sequencer patterns (.ssp)
• REX loops (.rex)
• Video files (.avi, .mpg, .wmv, .asf, .mov)
• Track icons (.bmp)
• Track templates (.cwx)
• Project templates (.cwt, .tpl)
• Projects (.cwp, .cwb, .bun, .wrk)
• Effects Chain presets (.fxc)
You can preview audio and MIDI files before you import them into your project. If you preview a
Groove clip, it plays back at the tempo and in the key of your current project. Audio files can be
auditioned through any bus and MIDI files can be auditioned through any soft synth. You can
preview audio from a video file, but not the video itself.
You can save presets for your favorite content folders, which allows you to instantly jump to specific
folders on your hard disk.
Browser
Using the Media Browser
541
Media Browser interface
Figure 182. Media Browser
A
B
C
DE F
G
J
H
K
L
I
A. Show Media Browser B. Browser menu C. Content Location menu D. Dock/undock E. Docking options
F. Expand/collapse G. Move up one level to the parent directory H. Search filter I. File list J. Play/Stop
K. Delete content preset L. Save content preset
Figure 183. Media Browser (undocked)
A
A. Folder pane
542
Browser
Using the Media Browser
• Show Media Browser
. Show the Media Browser.
• Browser menu. The Browser menu lets you choose how content files are displayed and
specify options for previewing audio and MIDI files. The menu contains the following commands:
• Views. The Views submenu lets you specify how files are displayed in the file list view. The
options are as follows:
• Icons. Icons view displays your files and folders as icons. The file name is displayed
under the icon.
• List. List view displays the contents of a folder as a list of file or folder names preceded by
small icons.
• Details. When the Browser is undocked or docked at the bottom, Details view displays the
file size, type and when the file was last modified.
• Folders. When the Browser is undocked or docked at the bottom, this option lets you
show/hide the Folders pane.
• Auto-Preview. When Auto Preview is selected, you can automatically previews loops and
files when you click on them in the Media Browser view. If the selected file is a Groove clip, it
plays back in the project tempo and key.
• Preview at Host Tempo. When Preview at Host Tempo is selected, audio and MIDI groove
clips follow the project’s tempo at the current Now time.
• Loop Preview.
Select Loop Preview to continuously loop the selected file(s) during preview.
• Audio Preview Bus. The Audio Preview Bus submenu lets you select the output device for
previewing audio files.
• Synth Preview Output. The Synth Preview Output submenu lets you select the soft synth
for previewing MIDI files.
• Search filter. The search filter allows you to only show content that includes a specific text
string in the file name.
• Content Location menu. The Content Location menu allows you to quickly jump to favorite
content locations on your hard disk. You can save and recall your own Content Location presets.
• Save Content Location Preset
. Save the current folder as a Content Location preset. By
default, the folder name is used as the preset name, but you can type any desired name before
you click the Save Content Location Preset button.
• Delete Content Location Preset
• Move Up One Level
• Play
. Delete the selected Content Location preset.
. Open the folder one level above the active folder.
. Play the currently selected media file.
• Content List pane. The Content List pane shows all supported files in the active folder. Icons to
the left of file names indicate the file type, including if it is a Groove Clip. When pointing to a file,
the tooltip shows the full file name.
Browser
Using the Media Browser
543
See:
“Adding Browser objects to your project” on page 544
“To import an audio or MIDI file” on page 544
“To export audio or MIDI clips” on page 545
“To import a track template” on page 546
“To import a project template” on page 547
“To open or import a project file” on page 547
“To import a video file” on page 547
“To assign a track/bus icon” on page 547
“Keyboard navigation” on page 551
“Browser” on page 537
Adding Browser objects to your project
To show audio/MIDI content
Click the Browse Media button
.
To import an audio or MIDI file
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains the file you want to import.
3. Do one of the following:
• To insert into an existing track as a new clip. Double-click the file to add it to the selected
track at the current Now time, or drag the file to the desired location.
Note: A new track is created if the file type is not compatible with the selected track.
• To insert into a new track.
track.
Drag the file to en empty space in the Track view, below the last
• To replace the selected clip.
Drag the file to the Clip Inspector.
• To insert into a cell in the Matrix view. Make sure the Matrix view is visible, then drag the
file to the desired Matrix cell.
544
Browser
Using the Media Browser
Valid destinations for audio files
You can drag audio files to the following locations:
• Audio track
• Audio clip
• MIDI track
• MIDI clip
• Audio clip inspector
• Empty Track view
• Empty Console view
• Instrument track
Valid destinations for MIDI files
You can drag MIDI files to the following locations:
• Audio track
• Audio clip
• MIDI track
• MIDI clip
• MIDI clip inspector
• Empty Track view
• Empty Console view
• Instrument track
To export audio or MIDI clips
Drag the clip(s) to the desired location in the Media Browser.
Note: The Media Browser will appear automatically if you drag a clip over the Plug-in Browser
or Synth Rack Browser.
If you want to specify various options when exporting audio, you can use the File > Export > Audio
command instead.
Browser
Using the Media Browser
545
To import a track template
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains the track template you want to import.
3. Do one of the following:
• To add tracks to the end. Drag the track template to an empty space below the last track, or
double-click the track template.
• To replace an existing track. Drag the track template onto the track you want to replace.
Note: If the target track and dropped track template are different track types, the target track will
be changed to match the track template.
Valid destinations for track templates
You can drag track templates to the following locations:
• Audio track
• Audio clip
• MIDI track
• MIDI clip
• Audio track inspector
• MIDI track inspector
• Audio track effects bin
• MIDI Track effects bin
• Audio Console strip
• Audio Console effects bin
• MIDI Console strip
• MIDI Console effects bin
• Empty Track view
• Empty Console view
• Instrument track
• Instrument track inspector
• Instrument Console strip
546
Browser
Using the Media Browser
To import a project template
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains the project template you want to import.
3. Do one of the following:
• To add tracks at the end of the current project. Drag the project template to the Track
view.
• To open the template as a new project.
Double-click the project template.
To open or import a project file
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains the project you want to import tracks from.
3. Do one of the following:
• To open a project.
Double-click the desired cwp/cwb/wrk/bun file.
• To import the project into existing tracks. Drag the desired cwp/cwb/wrk/bun file into an
existing track.
• To import the project as new tracks. Drag the desired cwp/cwb/wrk/bun file to an empty
space in the Track view, below the last track.
To import a video file
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains the video file you want to import.
3. Do one of the following:
• Drag the video file to the Video Thumbnail pane or anywhere in the Track view.
• Double-click the video file.
To assign a track/bus icon
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains the icon you want to import.
3. Drag the icon to the desired track/bus in the Track view.
Browser
Using the Media Browser
547
To preview audio content
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. On the Browser menu, select Auto-Preview.
3. On the Browser menu, point to Audio Preview Bus, then select the bus you want to preview
audio through.
4. Navigate to the folder that contains the audio content you want to preview, then click the file you
want to preview.
Note: Auto-Preview is enabled by default. If you disable Auto-Preview, you must click the Play
button each time you want to preview the selected audio file.
Tip: To preview an audio file as a Groove Clip, hold down the ALT key and click the file. To preview
all selected files as Groove Clips, hold down the ALT and click the Play button
.
The Play button changes to a Stop button during preview.
To preview MIDI content
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. On the Browser menu, select Auto-Preview.
3. On the Browser menu, point to Synth Preview Output, then select the soft synth you want to
preview MIDI through.
Note: If there are no synths in the project, go to Insert > Soft Synths and insert the desired soft
synth.
4. Navigate to the folder that contains the MIDI content you want to preview, then click the file you
want to preview.
Note 1: Auto-Preview is enabled by default. If you disable Auto-Preview, you must click the
Play button each time you want to preview the selected audio file.
Note 2: MIDI Groove Clips loop indefinitely, but standard MIDI files play only once and do not
repeat.
The Play button changes to a Stop button during preview.
548
Browser
Using the Media Browser
To sort media files in the Media Browser
By default, media is displayed alphabetically without columns or column headers. To sort by a
specific parameter, click the parameter field in the Meta Data bar, which is located at the bottom of
the Browser. To sort in reverse, click the desired parameter field in the Meta Data bar again.
To enable/disable Auto-Preview
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. On the Browser menu, click Auto-Preview.
See:
“Using the Media Browser” on page 541
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 552
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 558
“Using Content Location presets” on page 549
“Keyboard navigation” on page 551
“Browser” on page 537
See also:
“To load an FX Chain preset” on page 558
Using Content Location presets
The Media Browser allows you to save and recall presets to quickly access your favorite folders.
Any folder that you can navigate to in the Media Browser can be saved as a Content Location
preset, which allows you to instantly return to a specific folder by simply selecting a preset from the
Content Location list.
As you navigate in the Media Browser, the Content Location box automatically displays the current
folder name or the first preset that matches the selected folder location.
To save a Content Location preset
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that you would like to save as a preset.
The selected folder name is displayed in the Content Location box.
3. If you want to specify a new friendly preset name, type the desired name in the Content
Location box.
4. Click the Save Content Location Preset button
.
The selected folder name is displayed in the Content Location box.
Browser
Using the Media Browser
549
To select a Content Location preset
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. In the Content Location box, select the desired preset.
The Media Browser automatically navigates to the appropriate folder location.
To delete a Content Location preset
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. In the Content Location box, select the preset you want to delete.
3. Click the Delete Content Location Preset button
See:
“Using the Media Browser” on page 541
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 552
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 558
“Browser” on page 537
“Keyboard navigation” on page 551
550
Browser
Using the Media Browser
.
Keyboard navigation
Standard key commands for navigating Windows Explorer also work in the SONAR Browser. The
following table lists keys for navigating the SONAR Browser.
Action
Shortcut key
Navigate between files
UP/DOWN ARROW
Navigate between directories
LEFT/RIGHT ARROW
Move to parent directory
BACKSPACE
Move to the selected directory or open the selected file
ENTER
Move to the first file in a directory
HOME
Move to the last file in a directory
END
Open a shortcut menu for the selected item
SHIFT+F10
Expand everything under the current selection (folder pane only)
Numeric Keypad *
Expand the current selection (folder pane only)
Numeric Keypad +
Collapse the current selection (folder pane only)
Numeric Keypad -
Table 113.
Shortcut keys for navigating the SONAR Browser
See:
“Using the Media Browser” on page 541
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 552
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 558
“To import an audio or MIDI file” on page 544
“To import a video file” on page 547
“To import a track template” on page 546
“To insert an instrument” on page 556
“Browser” on page 537
Browser
Using the Media Browser
551
Using the Plug-in Browser
The Plug-in Browser lets you insert effects, instruments and ReWire devices into your projects. The
following plug-in types are supported:
• DirectX and VST audio effects.
• MFX MIDI effects
• DXi and VSTi instruments
• ReWire devices
Plug-ins are displayed according to their organization in the selected Plug-in Layout. Custom plug-in
layouts let you organize plug-ins any way you wish: alphabetically, by vendor name, by effect type,
etc.
Effects can be added to tracks, buses and clips. Instruments can be added to audio tracks,
Instrument tracks and the Synth Rack.
Plug-in Browser interface
Figure 184. Plug-in Browser
A
B
CD E
F
G
H
A. Show Plug-in Browser B. Plug-in Layout menu button C. Dock/undock D. Docking options E. Expand/
collapse F. Plug-in Type buttons G. Search filter H. Plug-in list
• Show Plug-in Browser
• Audio.
• MIDI.
. Show the Plug-in Browser.
Show available DX and VST audio effect plug-ins.
Show available MFX MIDI effect plug-ins.
• Synth. Show available DXi and VSTi soft synths.
• ReWire.
Show available ReWire devices.
• Plug-in Layout menu.
552
The Plug-in Layout menu lets you specify how plug-ins are organized.
Browser
Using the Plug-in Browser
The menu contains the following commands:
• Manage Layouts. Opens Cakewalk Plug-in Manager, which lets you create, delete, and edit
plug-in layouts. For more information about Cakewalk Plug-in Manager, see the Cakewalk
Plug-in Manager online Help.
• Default All Plug-ins. The default layout, which lists all plug-ins alphabetically.
• Organized by Type. Select this layout to organize plug-ins by type (EQ, reverb, etc.).
• <list of layouts>. The Plug-in Layout menu lists all layouts stored by Cakewalk Plug-in
Manager. Select a layout to change the plug-in list.
• Search filter.
text string.
The search filter allows you to only show plug-in names that includes a specific
• Plug-in list. The Plug-Ins list is populated from the currently-selected layout from the Plug-in
Layout menu and the plug-in type selected from the Plug-in Type menu.
• Meta Data bar. The Meta Data bar at the bottom of the Plug-in Browser shows information
about the selected plug-in.
See:
“Adding effects and instruments to a project” on page 553
“To insert an effect in a track or bus” on page 554
“To insert an effect into a clip’s effects bin” on page 555
“To insert an instrument” on page 556
“To insert a ReWire device” on page 557
“Using the Media Browser” on page 541
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 558
“Keyboard navigation” on page 551
“Browser” on page 537
Adding effects and instruments to a project
To show a specific plug-in type
1. In the Browser, click the PlugIn button
to show the Plug-in Browser.
2. Click the button that corresponds to the plug-in type you want to show:
• Audio FX
• MIDI FX
• Instruments
• ReWire
Browser
Using the Plug-in Browser
553
To select a plug-in layout
Click the PlugIn menu button
and select the desired layout. Click Manage Layouts if you want
to modify an existing layout or create a new layout.
To insert an effect in a track or bus
1. In the Browser, click the PlugIn button
to show the Plug-in Browser.
2. Click the button that corresponds to the plug-in type you want to show:
• Audio FX
• MIDI FX
3. Do one of the following:
• To insert the effect in a specific location in the effects bin. Drag the effect to the desired
position in a track/bus effects bin.
• To insert the effect at the end of the effects bin. Drag the effect to an empty track space in
the Clips pane, or double-click the effect (only if the selected track type matches the effect
type).
Valid destinations for audio effects
You can drag audio effects to the following locations:
• Audio track
• Audio clip
• Audio track inspector
• Audio clip inspector
• Audio track effects bin
• Audio Clip effects bin
• Audio Console strip
• Audio Console effects bin
• Instrument track
• Instrument track inspector
• Instrument track effects bin
• Instrument Console strip
• Instrument Console effects bin
554
Browser
Using the Plug-in Browser
Valid destinations for MIDI effects
You can drag MIDI effects to the following locations:
• MIDI track
• MIDI clip
• MIDI track inspector
• MIDI clip inspector
• MIDI Track effects bin
• MIDI Clip effects bin
• MIDI Console strip
• MIDI Console effects bin
• Instrument track
• Instrument track inspector
• Instrument track effects bin
• Instrument Console strip
• Instrument Console effects bin
To insert an effect into a clip’s effects bin
1. In the Browser, click the PlugIn button
to show the Plug-in Browser.
2. Click the button that corresponds to the plug-in type you want to show:
• Audio FX
• MIDI FX
3. Drag the desired effect to a clip in the Clips pane.
Browser
Using the Plug-in Browser
555
To insert an instrument
1. In the Browser, click the PlugIn button
2. Click the Instruments button
to show the Plug-in Browser.
.
3. Do one of the following:
• To insert an instrument as a new Instrument track. Drag the desired instrument to an
empty space in the Track view or Clips pane, or double-click the instrument.
• To insert an instrument as a track effect. Drag the instrument to the desired track’s effects
bin, or drag the instrument to the desired track in the Clips pane.
Note: When you drag an instrument to an audio track or MIDI track, the following happens
automatically:
• If dropped on an audio track or inspector: add to Synth Rack, set audio track input and Synth
automation accordingly.
• If dropped on a MIDI track or inspector: add to Synth Rack, set MIDI track output and Synth
automation accordingly.
Valid destinations for instruments
You can drag instruments to the following locations:
• Audio track
• MIDI track
• Audio track inspector
• MIDI track inspector
• Audio Console strip
• MIDI Console strip
• Empty Track view
• Empty Console view
• Instrument track
• Instrument track inspector
• Instrument Console strip
556
Browser
Using the Plug-in Browser
To insert a ReWire device
1. In the Browser, click the PlugIn button
2. Click the ReWire button
to show the Plug-in Browser.
.
3. Drag the ReWire device to the Track view or Clips pane.
The ReWire device is added to the Synth Rack and a new Instrument track is created.
See:
“Using the Media Browser” on page 541
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 552
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 558
“Using FX Chain Chain presets (.fxc)” on page 557
“Keyboard navigation” on page 551
“Browser” on page 537
Using FX Chain Chain presets (.fxc)
You can save effect chains in SONAR, which can be used in any project. An FX Chain preset stores
all the settings of a specific effects bin. This allows you to effortlessly duplicate favorite effect
combinations and settings without having to manually insert one effect at a time. FX Chain presets
are saved as .fxc files that can be imported from the Plug-in Browser.
To save an FX Chain preset
1. Do one of the following:
• To save an effects bin as an FX Chain preset, right-click any blank space in the effects bin and
choose Save as FX Chain Preset on the pop-up menu. Specify a preset name and location in
the Save FX Chain Preset dialog. All plug-ins in the effects bin are consolidated into a single
new FX Chain.
• To save an FX Chain container as a new FX Chain preset, right-click the FX Chain container in
an effects bin and choose Save as FX Chain Preset on the pop-up menu. Specify a preset
name and location in the Save FX Chain Preset dialog.
Note: FX Chain presets are stored as FX Chain Preset files (*.fxc). For track and bus effects
bins, the default name for the FX Chain preset is the track/bus name. For clip effects bins, the
default name is the clip name.
Browser
Using the Plug-in Browser
557
To load an FX Chain preset
1. Do one of the following:
• Right-click an effects bin and choose Load FX Chain Preset on the pop-up menu. Select the
desired FX Chain Preset file (*.fxc) in the Load FX Chain Preset dialog and click Open.
• Right-click an effects bin, point to FX Chain and select an FX Chain preset from the submenu.
• From the Plug-in tab of the Browser, under Audio, expand the FX Chain branch and drag the
preset to an effects bin.
Note: You can automatically extract plug-ins when loading an FX Chain preset. To do so, hold
down the SHIFT key while loading the preset. For more information about extracting plug-ins
from an FX Chain container, see “To extract plug-ins from an FX Chain container” on page 855.
Caution: If you load a SONAR 9 project in an older version of SONAR, SONAR will report the
FX Chain as a missing plug-in and the contents of the FX Chain will be unavailable. Resaving
the project will permanently remove the FX Chain.
See:
“Effects chains” on page 852
“Using the Media Browser” on page 541
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 552
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 558
“Keyboard navigation” on page 551
“Browser” on page 537
Using the Synth Rack Browser
The Synth Rack view lets you view, insert, delete, and configure your soft synths. You can also mute,
solo, and freeze any active instruments in your projects. Each time you insert a soft synth into your
project, a new row appears in the Synth Rack view with the name of the soft synth and its current
preset. You can select different presets directly from the Synth Rack.
When a synth is highlighted in the Synth Rack, the corresponding tracks in the Track View and
Console View are also highlighted.
You can insert as many copies of the same soft synth as you like; each new copy appears in a new
row and has the same name, but has a higher number after the name (ReWire soft synths can only
have one copy open). The new higher-numbered name also appears on the menus of Instrument
track inputs and MIDI track outputs.
When the Synth Rack is undocked, or docked at the bottom, additional controls become available.
These include synth icons and control knobs to control and/or automate parameters.
558
Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
Synth Rack interface
Figure 185. Synth Rack Browser
A
B
C
D
E
FGH
J
I
A. Insert Synth B. Delete Synth C. Insert Synth Options D. Show Synth Rack Browser E. Synth Settings menu
F. Dock/undock G. Docking options H. Expand/collapse I. Instrument list J. Synth Automation menu
Figure 186. Synth control bar
B
A
C D E F
Docked
A
H
B
C
D E F G
J
K L
Undocked
I
M
N
A. Connect/disconnect B. Synth name C. Preset picker D. Mute E. Solo F. Freeze/unfreeze G. Freeze
Options menu H. Synth icon I. Automated knobs J. Automation track K. Automation Read L. Automation
Write M. Assign Controls N. Show/Hide Assigned Controls
• Show Synth Rack Browser
.
Show the Synth Rack Browser.
• Synth Settings menu. The Synth Settings menu lets you insert, delete and freeze the
selected soft synth, and specify other related options. The menu contains the following
commands:
• Insert Synths > Plug-in Layouts > Manage Layouts.
which lets you create, delete, and edit plug-in layouts.
Opens Cakewalk Plug-in Manager,
• Insert Synths > Plug-in Layouts > <list of layouts>. The Plug-in Layout menu lists all
layouts stored by Cakewalk Plug-in Manager. Select a layout to change the plug-in list.
Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
559
• Insert Synths. This submenu lists all available soft synths. Click the desired soft synth to
insert it in the current project and add an Instrument track. You can also preview MIDI files
through any active soft synth in the Media Browser.
• Insert ReWire Devices. This submenu lists all available ReWire devices. Click the desired
ReWire device to insert it in the current project and add an Instrument track. You can also
preview MIDI files through any active ReWire device in the Media Browser.
• Insert Synth Options. Opens the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog (see “Insert Soft Synth
Options dialog” on page 1528), which lets you specify what happens when you insert a new
soft synth.
• Synth Properties. Opens the user interface for the selected soft synth. You can also doubleclick an empty space in the synth’s Synth Rack row to open the synths user interface.
• Delete Synth. Deletes the selected soft synth or ReWire device from the current project.
Note 1: Always close any ReWire applications in their own interfaces before deleting them from
SONAR.
Note 2: Deleting a soft synth from the Synth Rack view does not delete the tracks associated
with the soft synth, but does change the associated MIDI track’s output to the next lowernumbered output.
• Enable MIDI Output. If the selected soft synth can create MIDI data from built-in
arpeggiators or other components, select Enable MIDI Output if you want to record or redirect
this new MIDI data.
• Freeze Synth
. Freeze whichever soft synth currently has focus in the Synth Rack. Each
synth also has its own Freeze and Thaw buttons at the end of its individual control strip in the
Synth Rack. See “Freeze tracks and synths” on page 829 for more information.
• Unfreeze Synth.
Unfreeze whichever soft synth currently has focus in the Synth Rack.
• Quick Unfreeze Synth.
Rack.
Quick unfreeze whichever soft synth currently has focus in the Synth
• Freeze Options. Open the Freeze Options dialog, which lets you specify what happens
when you freeze a synth.
• Unload Synth on Disconnect. When this option is selected, you can freeze a soft synth or
disconnect the synth in the Synth Rack view and free up the memory that the synth was using.
With some synths this can be a lot of memory, especially with synths that use samples. Of
course, if you remove the synth from your computer’s memory, reconnecting or unfreezing the
synth will take the same amount of time that it did when you originally loaded the synth.
• Force MIDI Echo Through Current Track. Select this option to force incoming MIDI data to
always echo through the current track, even if the current track’s Input Echo button is in the
Off position, and regardless of which synth has focus in the Synth Rack.
560
Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
• Insert Synth
.
Insert a new soft synth.
• Delete Synth
. Delete the selected soft synth.
• Properties
. Open the selected soft synth’s property page (only visible when the Browser is
floating or docked in the MultiDock).
• Insert Synth Options
. Open the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog, which lets you specify
options for new soft synths.
• Synth Automation menu. The Synth Automation menu lets you specify on which track to
display and record automation data for the selected soft synth.
• <name of track synth was created with>. By default, automation data is displayed and
recorded on the track the soft synth was created with.
• All Tracks. This submenu lets you choose any available track in the project to record and
display the selected synth’s automation data on.
• Instrument list. Each inserted instrument in a project appears in the Instrument list, and shows
the following controls:
Note: Certain controls in the Instrument list are only available when the Synth Rack is undocked
or docked at the bottom of the screen.
• Connect/disconnect. Disconnect a synth, mute all tracks associated with it, and free up
memory and CPU cycles.
• Synth icon. The synth icon provides a graphic representation of the soft synth. You can
right-click the icon to manage the assigned icon. This control is only available when the Synth
Rack is undocked or docked at the bottom.
• Synth name. The default name of the soft synth. To rename the synth, double-click the
name, type the desired name and press ENTER.
• Preset picker. The preset picker lets you select any available preset for the soft synth. When
the Synth Rack is undocked or docked on the bottom, you can also click the left/right arrows to
step through the available presets.
• Automation. The Automation list lets you specify on which track to display and record
automation data for the soft synth. This list is identical to the Synth Automation menu at the
top of the Synth Rack. This control is only available when the Synth Rack is undocked or
docked at the bottom.
• Mute.
Mute/unmute the synth, and all tracks associated with this instance of the synth.
• Solo.
Solo/unsolo the synth, and all tracks associated with this instance of the synth.
• Freeze/unfreeze. Freeze/unfreeze the soft synth.
• Thaw synth (Quick unfreeze / refreeze). Quick unfreeze/refreeze the soft synth. This
control is only available when the Synth Rack is undocked or docked at the bottom.
Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
561
• Read. Enable/disable automation read for the soft synth. This control is only available when
the Synth Rack is undocked or docked at the bottom.
• Write. Enable/disable automation write for the soft synth. This control is only available when
the Synth Rack is undocked or docked at the bottom.
• Assign Controls. Lets you choose which parameters in the synth’s interface to create
control knobs for. This control is only available when the Synth Rack is undocked or docked at
the bottom.
• Show/Hide Assign Controls. Show/hide any automated knobs you have created with the
Assign Controls command. This control is only available when the Synth Rack is undocked or
docked at the bottom.
• Automated knobs. These are knobs you create by using the Assigned Controls button.
The knobs are displayed below the synth’s control bar in the Synth Rack. Automated knobs are
only available when the Synth Rack is undocked or docked at the bottom.
See:
“Managing instruments in a project” on page 563
“Using the Media Browser” on page 541
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 552
“Keyboard navigation” on page 551
“Browser” on page 537
“Software instruments” on page 775
“Using instrument tracks” on page 781
“ReWire” on page 795
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Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
Managing instruments in a project
To insert an instrument
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
2. Click the Synth Settings button menu, point to Insert Synths and select the desired soft synth.
To remove an instrument
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
2. In the Synth Rack, click the soft synth you want to remove.
3. Click the Synth Settings button menu, then click Delete Synth.
To open an instrument’s property sheet
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
2. Click on the desired synth in the Synth Rack to give it focus.
3. Click the Synth Settings button menu, then click Synth Properties.
Tip: You can also double-click an empty space in the synth’s control bar to open its user interface.
To mute/solo/freeze an instrument
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
2. Click the desired synths Mute, Solo, or Freeze button.
To select an instrument preset
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
2. Click the desired synth’s preset picker.
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Using the Synth Rack Browser
563
To access assignable control knobs
1. Make sure the Browser is undocked or docked at the bottom of the screen.
2. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
3. Click the desired synth’s Show/Hide Assigned Controls button.
To rearrange an instrument
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
2. Drag the synth up/down to the desired position in the Synth Rack.
See:
“Using the Media Browser” on page 541
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 552
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 558
“To import an audio or MIDI file” on page 544
“To import a video file” on page 547
“To import a track template” on page 546
“To insert an instrument” on page 556
“Keyboard navigation” on page 551
“Browser” on page 537
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Using the Synth Rack Browser
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
SONAR’s AudioSnap engine and tempo analysis features give you unprecedented rhythmic and
tempo control over your audio. Employing sophisticated transient detection technology, the
AudioSnap engine automatically analyzes all recorded and imported audio files for rhythmic content
to determine where the beats are in the music.
AudioSnap is completely non-destructive, similar to Groove clips and V-Vocal clips. AudioSnap,
V-Vocal, and Groove clips are mutually exclusive. Groove clip markers are typically placed at a zerocrossing point before a transient; AudioSnap transient markers are placed where musical changes
occur, but may not be exactly at a zero crossing.
What is AudioSnap?
AudioSnap is not a single feature, but rather a collection of different tools that can be used for
different tasks. The AudioSnap palette ties it all together in a task-oriented layout.
AudioSnap does several things, in a variety of ways:
• Stretches audio clips to fit project tempo or for quantizing.
• Changes project tempo to fit audio or MIDI clips.
• Copies audio rhythms for groove quantizing or doubling sounds.
Figure 187. The AudioSnap palette
How does it work?
AudioSnap works by finding the transients in audio clips. Transients are the areas in an audio clip
where the level increases suddenly. These make good locations to shrink, stretch, or split a clip,
without changing its sound quality too drastically. SONAR contains a variety of high-quality
stretching algorithms for different kinds of material. You can choose a lower-quality algorithm for
real-time playback of your edits, and then choose a better algorithm for mixdown or bouncing to
track (see “Algorithms and rendering” on page 624).
SONAR lets you define the default online and offline algorithms via the AudioSnap palette, and you
can override the default algorithm(s) on a clip-by-clip basis.
Note: The online algorithm is for preview purposes only during playback. The final audio quality
will be greatly improved after the offline algorithm is applied during mixdown/export.
The transients also make it possible for SONAR to calculate a clip’s tempo map (see “Editing a clip’s
tempo map” on page 589).
Figure 188. Audio clip
Figure 189. Audio clip showing transient markers
AudioSnap finds transients automatically, but the transient markers don’t always appear exactly
where you might want them for the kind of editing you want to do. You can edit the markers by
moving them to new locations, adding markers, filtering out markers, deleting markers, and
promoting markers (protecting them from being filtered). For information about editing transient
markers, see “Editing transient markers” on page 573.
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AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Why would I use it?
Here are some common uses for AudioSnap:
• Aligning measure lines and tempo to audio or MIDI tracks that were recorded without a
metronome (see “Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586).
• Fixing timing errors (see “Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593).
• Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks (see “Making multiple clips/tracks groove
together” on page 600).
• Doubling existing sounds with other sounds (see “Extracting MIDI timing information from audio”
on page 610).
• Changing the tempo of existing projects (see “Changing a project’s tempo” on page 592).
• Snapping both audio and MIDI edits to audio beats (see “Snapping edits to audio beats” on page
612).
• Fixing timing errors in multi-track recordings while maintaining phase relationships (see
“Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships” on page
595).
If you want to edit audio right away with AudioSnap, see “Synchronizing audio and the project
tempo” on page 586 and “Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593. If you want to learn
more about all the AudioSnap tools and options, see the following links.
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“General editing” on page 612
“Using the Pool” on page 621
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
567
Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers
At the heart of AudioSnap are transient markers. SONAR automatically detects transients for all
audio clips in your project.
Although you can also edit transient markers with the Select tool, Move tool, Timing tool, Split tool,
Freehand tool, Erase tool and Mute tool, this chapter focuses on the Smart tool since it is the easiest
way to edit transient markers.
In order to edit audio transient markers, you must assign a track’s Edit Filter to Audio Transients
(see “Selecting the data type to edit” on page 398).
For more information about using different tools on AudioSnap transient markers, see:
“Using the Smart tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 408
“Using the Select tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 412
“Using the Move tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 415
“Using the Timing tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 422
“Using the Split tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 425
“Using the Freehand tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 429
“Using the Erase tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 436
“Using the Mute tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 440
To enable the Smart tool
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the desired track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
All audio clips show transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
Note: Displaying transient markers does not mean that AudioSnap is enabled. AudioSnap is
only active on a clip when at least one transient marker has been stretched.
If you select another data type in the Edit Filter, transient markers will no longer be visible and the
AudioSnap palette closes.
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Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers
The following table describes how the Smart tool behaves when interacting with transient markers
and clips.
Action
On transient marker
On clip
Click
Selects the transient marker.
Selects the clip and opens the
AudioSnap palette.
Right-click
Opens the transient marker context menu.
Opens the AudioSnap context menu.
Double-click
-Selects transients from other tracks (from
selected clips) that fall within a certain window of
time of the transient the user is clicking on. If no
clips are selected, only non-hidden tracks are
affected.
Drag
Non-proportional stretch with selected
transients.
Note: You can drag a marker from either the
head or the line of the marker. Drag the line to
stretch a marker and drag the head to move a
marker.
Lasso selects transient markers.
Hold down the
Proportionally stretches selected transients.
CTRL key and drag
Lasso selects transients to add to the
current selection.
Hold down the
Adds transient marker to current selection.
CTRL key and click
--
Hold down the
CTRL key and
double-click
Like double-click, but adds transients to the
current selection.
--
Hold down the
CTRL and SHIFT
keys and doubleclick
Like double-click, but extends the range of
selected transients.
--
Hold down the ALT
key and click
--
Inserts a new transient marker.
Table 114.
Smart tool actions
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers
569
Figure 190. Smart tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
B
C
A
D
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
A
Drag transient marker
line to stretch selected
transients (nonproportional stretch)
Select all adjacent transient
markers in other tracks
B
Drag transient marker
handle (diamond) to
move transient marker
(non-stretch)
C
Lasso select transients
D
Lasso select transients
across clips and tracks
Table 115.
+ALT
+CTRL
Drag transient marker
line to stretch selected
transients proportionally
Insert new transient
marker
Using the Smart tool on AudioSnap transients clips
For more information about editing transient markers, see “Editing transient markers” on page 573.
Transient marker context menu
The transient marker context menu gives you quick access to commands related to time stretching
and tempo mapping. The following menu commands are available when you right-click a transient
marker:
• Select markers. Use this submenu to select transient markers that meet specific criteria.
• Set project tempo from clip. This command copies the clip’s tempo map to the project’s global
tempo map. This allows the project’s measure boundaries to align with the audio clip. Whenever
the project’s tempo map is generated from a clip, the clip’s Lock Position property is enabled
automatically.
• Set clip tempo from project. This command copies the project’s tempo map to the clip’s tempo
map. This allows the project’s measure boundaries to align with the audio clip.
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Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers
• Clips follow project tempo.
map.
This command forces the clip to follow the project’s global tempo
Note: The Clips follow project tempo command only works on clips that are configured to use
musical time (the Time Base property is set to Musical in the Clip Inspector).
• Edit clip tempo map. Each audio clip has an internal tempo map. This command exposes
controls that allow you to edit a clip’s tempo map. For details, see “Editing a clip’s tempo map” on
page 589.
• Merge and Lock Markers. This command combines all transient markers on all selected
tracks, so that all selected tracks share identical transient markers. The clip positions are also
locked. This will ensure that phase relationships are maintained when quantizing or moving clips
across multiple tracks. When using the Smart tool to drag transient markers, all transient markers
at exactly the same point in time on selected clips move together as a group.
• Save as Groove. This command opens the Define Groove dialog, which lets you save the
groove to a file. The groove can then be applied to other audio or MIDI clips.
• Copy as MIDI. This command saves the selected audio as a MIDI clip, which you can paste
from the Clipboard into a MIDI track. You select the MIDI note that the transients in the audio clip
will be converted to in the AudioSnap Options dialog, which opens when you click the Options
button.
• Quantize. This command opens the Quantize dialog, which has options to quantize
AudioSnap Beats and Audio Clip Start Times, and also to set automatic crossfade options.
• Groove Quantize. This command opens the Groove Quantize dialog, which has an option to
quantize AudioSnap Beats, and controls to set automatic crossfade options.
• Pool > Add MBT to pool. The Track view Time Ruler can be added to the Pool (see “Using the
Pool” on page 621). This command adds the current Musical Time snap resolution to the pool,
and also displays dotted pool lines in the Clips pane. This can be useful as either a basic visual
guide, or for adding the Musical Time to an extracted groove, or to fill in any transients that may
be “missing” in a syncopated or sparse section. In the Control Bar’s Snap module, set the
Musical Time value to the resolution you would like to add to the Pool.
• Pool > Add clip to pool. This command adds or deletes the clip’s transient markers from the
Pool. The markers do not have to be visible to be added to the Pool. See “Using the Pool” on
page 621 for more information.
• Pool > Show pool lines. This command hides or shows the Pool lines.
• Pool > Apply transient pool markers. This command insert new transient markers that
correspond to the Pool markers.
• Pool > Quantize to pool. This command quantizes the selected clips to the Pool.
• Enable AudioSnap.
This command enables or disables AudioSnap on selected audio clips.
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers
571
AudioSnap section in the Clip Inspector
In addition to the AudioSnap palette, you can also edit a clip’s AudioSnap settings in the Clip
Inspector. For details, see “Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 526.
Figure 191. The AudioSnap section in the Clip Inspector
See:
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“General editing” on page 612
“Using the Pool” on page 621
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
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Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers
Editing transient markers
Transient markers show where the transients of a clip are (areas where the level increases
suddenly), and are used to edit the timing of audio clips.
AudioSnap finds transients automatically, but the transient markers don’t always appear exactly
where you might want them for the kind of editing you want to do.
Most AudioSnap commands edit transient markers automatically as a result of an editing operation,
but sometimes you achieve the best results by editing the markers manually.
You can edit the markers by moving them to new locations, adding markers, filtering out markers,
deleting markers, and promoting markers (protecting them from being filtered).
Figure 192. Transient markers
See:
“To select a transient marker” on page 574
“To select multiple adjacent transient markers” on page 574
“To select multiple discontiguous transient markers” on page 574
“To select the same transient in multiple clips” on page 574
“To extend a multi-track marker selection” on page 575
“To select all similar transient markers in a clip” on page 575
“To move a transient marker (without stretching audio)” on page 576
“To drag a transient marker and stretch audio” on page 576
“To stretch multiple transient markers in a clip” on page 576
“To stretch multiple transient markers in a clip proportionally” on page 576
“To reset a transient marker” on page 576
“To disable a transient marker” on page 577
“To delete a transient marker” on page 577
“To insert a new transient marker” on page 577
“To copy transient markers from one track to another track” on page 578
“To enable/disable transient markers” on page 578
“To navigate to the next/previous transient (TAB to transients)” on page 579
“Transient marker appearance” on page 579
“Transient marker context menu” on page 580
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
573
To select a transient marker
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Click the desired transient marker.
The marker is highlighted.
To select/deselect all transient markers in a clip
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Right-click a clip and choose Select Markers > All or Select Markers > None on the pop-up
menu.
To select multiple adjacent transient markers
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Do one of the following:
• Draw a lasso around the desired transient markers.
• Click the first marker in the range, hold down the SHIFT key, and click the last marker in the
range.
The markers are highlighted.
To select multiple discontiguous transient markers
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Hold down the CTRL key and click the desired transient markers.
The markers are highlighted.
To select the same transient in multiple clips
1. Select the clips that you wish to edit.
2. Select the Smart tool
574
in the Control Bar.
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
3. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
4. Double-click a transient marker in any selected clip.
All transient markers near the same position (within a defined time window) in all selected clips
are selected.
Note 1: If no clips are selected, transient markers from all clips are eligible to become selected.
Note 2: To specify the size of the time window, click the AudioSnap Options button
in the
AudioSnap palette to open the AudioSnap Options dialog, then specify the desired Pool
Transient Window value.
To extend a multi-track marker selection
When editing multi-track instruments, you may want to simultaneously adjust a range of transients
across multiple tracks. In order to do so, you need to select the tracks and time region you wish to
edit.
1. Select the clips that you wish to edit.
2. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
3. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
4. Double-click a transient marker in any selected clip.
All transient markers near the same position (within a defined time window) in all selected clips
are selected.
5. Hold down the CTRL key and double-click another transient marker in any selected clip.
A range or transient markers are selected across all selected clips.
To select all similar transient markers in a clip
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Right-click the desired clip and choose from the following options from the pop-up menu:
• Select Markers > Moved
• Select Markers > Stretched
• Select Markers > Disabled
• Select Markers > Enabled
• Select Markers > Promoted
• Select Markers > User
Selecting all markers of a certain type makes it easy to perform operations such as resetting only the
stretched markers, or promoting only the disabled markers.
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
575
To move a transient marker (without stretching audio)
• Drag the marker handle (diamond).
Figure 193. To move a transient marker, drag the marker head (diamond)
To drag a transient marker and stretch audio
• Drag the marker line.
Figure 194. To stretch a transient, drag the marker line
When you drag and drop the line of a marker, the marker moves to the place where you drop it, and
the audio that is located between the dragged marker and the following marker stretches.
Note: If you stretch a transient marker, AudioSnap is enabled on the clip.
You can find additional marker editing commands on the transient marker context menu.
To stretch multiple transient markers in a clip
1. Select the desired transient markers.
2. Drag any of the selected transient markers.
To stretch multiple transient markers in a clip proportionally
1. Select the desired transient markers.
2. Hold down the CTRL key and drag any of the selected transient markers.
To reset a transient marker
• Right-click the marker you want to reset and select Reset from the pop-up menu.
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Editing transient markers
To reset all selected transient markers
SONAR has a quick way to reset transient markers.
1. Select all clips you wish to reset.
2. Press CTRL+ALT and click the Reset button on the AudioSnap Palette. This brings up a dialog
asking if you want to Clear All AudioSnap Markers. Clicking Yes will delete all the existing edits
and restore clips to the analyzed transients.
Note: This gesture is not undoable, so make sure you really want to reset the transient markers.
An alternate solution is to turn off AudioSnap on the clips and then use Edit > Bounce to Clip(s).
However, this will also render any clips fades.
To disable a transient marker
• Right-click the marker you want to disable and select Disable from the pop-up menu.
To delete a transient marker
• Right-click the marker you want to reset and select Delete Marker from the pop-up menu.
Note: You can only delete user-created transient markers.
To insert a new transient marker
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Hold down the ALT key and click where you would like to insert a new transient marker.
A new transient marker is inserted.
or
1. Disable the Snap to Grid button
not on a convenient snap location.
(or press the F12 key) if the place you need the marker is
2. Select the clip or clips that need the marker.
3. Move the Now Time to the place where you want the marker.
4. Press CTRL+ALT+I.
The marker appears in the selected clip(s) and displays a hollow square to show that it is a manually
created marker:
Note: You can also add markers at Pool lines with a single command. See “To add markers at
Pool lines” on page 614.
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
577
To copy transient markers from one track to another track
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
The AudioSnap palette appears and all audio clips show transient markers.
3. Select the target clip (the clip that you want to copy markers to) and drag the Threshold slider in
the AudioSnap palette until all transient markers are disabled.
4. Select both the source clip (the clip you want to copy markers from) and the target clip.
5. Right-click either of the selected clips and select Merge and Lock Markers from the pop-up
menu.
The transient markers on the source clip are copied to the target clip.
To enable/disable transient markers
It’s sometimes necessary to disable some of the markers so you can extract a clearer groove, or
snap or quantize data to only the more important markers. Disabling markers is a way to thin the
data so that it creates a clearer time grid to work with. It also avoids stretching any transients that
you don’t want to stretch as a result of quantizing audio. Disabled markers are not deleted, but are
ignored by all AudioSnap functions. Only the head of a disabled marker remains visible.
There are several ways to disable/enable the transient markers in a selected clip:
• The Resolution drop-down list in the AudioSnap palette. The selected Resolution value
lets you disable markers based on their time location. This clears out unwanted markers to make
editing easier. Larger values create a bigger time window, based on musical time values, which
preserves markers that are closest to the displayed musical time value, and disables others.
Note: The Resolution setting will only work reliably if the audio clip’s internal tempo map is
accurate. For details, see “Editing a clip’s tempo map” on page 589.
• The Threshold slider in the AudioSnap palette. This slider works by disabling markers based
on their volume. Dragging the slider to the right creates a larger volume threshold, so that
transients that fall below the current volume threshold that the slider defines are disabled.
• The transient marker context menu.
the pop-up menu.
You can right-click a marker, and choose Disable from
• Press CTRL+ALT+D to disable or re-enable all selected markers.
Tip: If you want to protect a marker from being disabled by the Sensitivity slider or the Threshold
slider, you can right-click the marker and enable the Promote option from the transient marker popup menu. You can also promote a disabled marker to ensure that it never becomes enabled by the
Sensitivity slider.
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To navigate to the next/previous transient (TAB to transients)
• Do one of the following:
• To move the Now Time to the next transient, press TAB.
• To move the Now Time to the previous transient, press SHIFT+TAB.
Note: TAB to transients is selection-based, which means tabbing will go to the next/previous
transient amongst all selected clips. If there is no selection, tabbing operates on the current
track.
For more information, see “TAB to transients” on page 352.
Transient marker appearance
Each transient marker changes its appearance when it is selected, moved, new, disabled, or has
certain other characteristics.
The following table lists the variations in appearance that a marker can display.
Marker appearance
Description
Soft yellow hollow diamond shape
Standard active marker or promoted marker.
A promoted marker is never disabled by the Resolution or
Threshold controls in the AudioSnap palette.
Solid diamond shape
User inserted marker.
Bright yellow
Selected marker.
Grey; only the head of the marker is
visible
Disabled marker.
Arrow
Stretched marker. Any given transient can only be stretched or
shrunk to 25-400% of original length.
A small arrow indicates in which direction the audio has been
stretched.
Note: An important difference between quantizing MIDI and
audio is that two or more audio transients can never collapse on
top of each other like MIDI notes can.
Table 116.
Transient marker shapes and colors
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
579
Transient marker context menu
The transient marker context menu appears when you right-click a transient marker. The command
you choose from this menu acts on the marker that you right-click, and most commands also act on
any markers that are selected. The following table describes each command.
Command
Description
Reset
Moves a marker back to its original position. Shortcut for selected markers is
CTRL+ALT+R.
Disable
The marker is ignored. Shortcut for selected markers is CTRL+ALT+D.
Promote
By “promoting” a marker, you can set emphasis on certain beats and prevent the
marker from becoming disabled when you adjust the Resolution or Threshold
controls. Shortcut for selected markers is CTRL+ALT+P.
Delete marker
Only available for manually added markers; the command is greyed-out if you rightclick an automatically generated marker. Shortcut for selected markers is
CTRL+ALT+BACKSPACE.
Snap (stretch) to
nearest transient
Moves marker to nearest Pool marker.
Note: You can also snap transient markers to the time ruler and other transient
markers. For details, see “To add the Time ruler to the Pool” on page 622 and
“Snapping edits to audio beats” on page 612.
Snap (stretch)
backward
Moves marker backward to nearest Pool marker.
Snap (stretch) forward
Moves marker forward to nearest Pool marker.
Stretch to
Moves the marker to the project time that you enter in the To Time field, and stretches
the audio that is between the previous and next markers.
Move to
Moves the marker to the project time that you enter in the To Time field.
Audition Beat
Auditions the clip up to the next marker. Default shortcut is
CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR.
Split Beat
Splits the beat at the marker.
AudioSnap Palette
Opens the AudioSnap palette. Shortcut is A to show (but not hide) the palette.
Table 117.
Transient marker context menu commands
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
580
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“General editing” on page 612
“Using the Pool” on page 621
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
Enabling/disabling AudioSnap
You can enable/disable AudioSnap processing on a clip-by-clip basis. Transient markers are always
available to be edited, but AudioSnap is not active on a clip unless at least one transient marker has
been stretched.
By disabling AudioSnap on a clip that has stretched transient markers, you can compare how the
clip sounds with and without AudioSnap processing. Disabling AudioSnap can also temporarily free
up CPU processing power.
To enable or disable AudioSnap
1. Select the audio clips you want to enable/disable AudioSnap on.
2. Do one of the following:
• Click the Bypass button
in the AudioSnap palette.
• Click the Enable check box in the Clip Inspector’s AudioSnap section.
AudioSnap is enabled/disabled on the selected audio clips, and transient markers are shown/
hidden.
Note: AudioSnap is automatically enabled on a clip if you stretch a transient marker on the clip.
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“General editing” on page 612
“Using the Pool” on page 621
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
581
Using the AudioSnap palette
The AudioSnap palette provides easy access to time stretching and tempo-related tools.
Except for the AudioSnap enable/disable command, the AudioSnap palette’s controls apply to the
currently selected audio clip or clips.
To show the AudioSnap palette
• Do one of the following:
• On the Views menu, click AudioSnap Palette.
• Press A.
or
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Click an audio clip that you want to edit.
The AudioSnap palette contains the following controls.
Figure 195. AudioSnap palette controls
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
O
H
I
P
Q
J K
L
M N
A. Bypass B. Copy as MIDI C. Split into clips by transient markers D. Toggle sample/musical based clip start
time E. Average Tempo F. AudioSnap properties G. Set project tempo from clip H. Clip follows project tempo
I. Edit clip tempo map J. Quantize K. Extract Groove L. Apply Groove M. Resolution N. Threshold O. Applies
to P. Online render mode Q. Offline render mode
582
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using the AudioSnap palette
Toolbar section
• Bypass
.
This button enables or disables AudioSnap on selected audio clips.
• Copy as MIDI
. This button saves the selected audio as a MIDI clip, which you can paste
from the Clipboard into a MIDI track. You select the MIDI note that the transients in the audio clip
will be converted to in the AudioSnap Options dialog, which opens when you click the Options
button.
• Split Beats into Clips
. This button splits a clip at each transient marker into multiple clips.
• Clip Timebase (Absolute or Musical)
SONAR:
• Musical (default)
Time (MIDI Tick).
• Absolute
(SMPTE).
.
.
/
.
There are two timebase settings for a clip in
Musical Timebase means the clip start position will follow Musical
Absolute Timebase means that the clip start time will follow Absolute Time
• Average Tempo. This list shows the average tempo candidates: original, 0.5x and 2x. SONAR
will do its best to detect the correct average tempo, but a clip can often have multiple potential
tempos (60 BPM, 120 BPM, 240 BPM, etc.). If SONAR is unable to detect a tempo, Average
Tempo will be set to Original, which is the project’s tempo at the location the clip was recorded or
imported. If you change the Average Tempo setting, all clip tempo changes are adjusted to scale.
This list also contains the Set Clip Tempo From Project command, which copies the project’s
tempo map to the clip’s tempo map. This allows the project’s measure boundaries to align with
the audio clip.
• AudioSnap Options
. This button opens the AudioSnap Options dialog. This dialog has
its own Help topic, which appears when you click its Help button.
Tempo section
• Set Project Tempo From Clip
. This button copies the clip’s tempo map to the project’s
global tempo map and automatically triggers the Clip Follows Project Tempo command. This
allows the project’s measure boundaries to align with the audio clip. The drop-down list lets you
specify at which resolution the clip’s tempo map should be copied to the project tempo. The
options are as follows:
• Beats
• Measures (default)
• Clip
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using the AudioSnap palette
583
• Clip Follows Project Tempo
. This button forces the clip to follow the project’s global
tempo map. The drop-down list lets you specify at which resolution the clip should follow tempo
changes. The options are as follows:
• Beats
• Measures
• Clip (default)
Note: The Clips follow project tempo command only works on clips that are configured to use
musical time (the Time Base property is set to Musical in the Clip Inspector).
• Edit Clip Tempo Map
. Each audio clip has an internal tempo map. This button exposes
controls that allow you to edit a clip’s tempo map. For details, see “Editing a clip’s tempo map” on
page 589.
Timing section
• Quantize
. This button opens the Quantize dialog, which has options to quantize
AudioSnap Beats and Audio Clip Start Times, and also to set automatic crossfade options.
• Extract Groove
. This button adds the selected clip’s transients to the Pool (see “Using the
Pool” on page 621) and shows vertical Pool lines. To apply the pool (groove) to another clip,
select the desired clip and click the Apply Groove button. To clear the Pool, click the Extract
Groove button again.
Note: If an existing Pool exists when you click the Extract Groove button, the existing Pool will
first be cleared.
• Apply Groove
. This button applies the currently extracted groove (Pool) to the selected
clips, clears the Pool and releases the Extract Groove button. See also “To quantize an audio
clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 603.
Filter section
• Threshold. This slider is available when a clip’s transient markers are showing. The slider
disables markers based on their volume. This clears out unwanted markers to make editing
easier. Dragging the slider to the right creates a bigger volume threshold, which disables markers
that are fall below that threshold. Works on selected clips.
• Resolution. This drop-down list is available when a clip’s transient markers are showing. The
selected Resolution value lets you disable markers based on their time location. This clears out
unwanted markers to make editing easier. Larger values create a bigger time window, based on
musical time values, which preserves markers that are closest to the displayed musical time
value, and disables others. Works on selected clips.
584
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using the AudioSnap palette
Render mode section
• Applies To. This drop-down menu lets you choose whether any changes to the Online and
Offline settings apply to clips, tracks, or the default settings. The choices in the drop-down menu
are as follows:
• Clips. When selected, the Online and Offline render mode settings apply to any selected
clips. The Online and Offline lists display the current render modes for the selected clip. If you
select multiple clips that have different render modes, the Online and Offline lists display
(Multi). If the selected clip has inherited render mode settings from the track or from the
Default Settings settings, the Online and Offline lists display the inherited render mode in
parenthesis.
• Tracks. When selected, the Online and Offline render mode settings apply to all current and
future clips in the selected tracks.
• Default Settings. When selected, the Online and Offline render mode settings apply to the
Default (track/global) render mode.
• Online. This choice determines what stretch algorithm is used during real-time playback. The
Percussion options works better than the Groove Clip option on percussive material, especially
if the stretching is by more than a few beats per minute. For more information about render
modes, see “Algorithms and rendering” on page 624.
Note: The Online render mode is for preview purposes only during playback. The final audio
quality will be greatly improved after the Offline render mode is applied during mixdown/export.
• Offline. This drop-down menu lets you choose the algorithm that is used when you export or
freeze stretched audio. The choices in the drop-down menu are as follows:
• Groove clip.
This choice works faster, using less processing power.
• iZotope Radius Mix. This is better for clips containing polyphonic, stereo data.
• iZotope Radius Mix Advanced. This choice is similar to iZotope Radius Mix, but exposes
a Smoothing slider that adjust how much detail to preserve.
• iZotope Radius Solo. This is better for clips containing monophonic, solo instruments.
• Percussion.
This is the best choice for percussion sounds.
AudioSnap palette auto load
AutoLoadAudioSnapPalette=<0 or 1>, default = 1
By default, the AudioSnap palette appears automatically whenever you enable AudioSnap on a clip.
If you prefer to never auto-show the AudioSnap palette, you can change this behavior by adding a
variable to the Cakewalk.ini file.
This variable should be set in the [WinCake] section. For example:
[WinCake]
AutoLoadAudioSnapPalette=0
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using the AudioSnap palette
585
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“General editing” on page 612
“Using the Pool” on page 621
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
There are many reasons why you may want to synchronize audio clips with the project tempo. The
following list presents a few common examples.
AudioSnap provides two ways to quickly synchronize audio and the project tempo map:
• Applying an audio clip’s internal tempo map to the project’s global tempo map. Use this
method if you want the project tempo to match an audio clip’s tempo and have audio beats
aligned with the project’s time ruler.
This is useful in the following scenarios:
• If you recorded an audio track without using the metronome, and you want the project’s
measure and beat boundaries to align with the audio. For example, you may have recorded an
audio track that you would like to use as the tempo reference when recording additional tracks.
• If you want both audio and MIDI edits to snap to audio beats.
• If you want to use the Quantize and Groove Quantize commands on audio clips, and have
audio beats quantized correctly.
• If you want to remix an existing song that has been imported into SONAR (from an audio CD or
MP3 file, etc.). In order to add new drum loops and MIDI instruments that play in time with the
original song, you need to create a tempo map from the original song.
For details, see “To sync the project tempo to an audio clip” on page 587.
• Applying the project’s tempo to a clip’s tempo map.
follow the project tempo.
Use this method if you want a clip to
This is useful in the following scenarios:
• If you want to synchronize new audio with existing audio.
• If you want to tighten up a new audio track so it fits well with the timing and tempo of an
existing track.
• If you want to globally change the project’s tempo after audio has been recorded.
For details, see “To sync an audio clip to the project tempo” on page 587 and “To copy the project
tempo to an audio clip’s tempo map” on page 588.
586
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
How does it work?
Each audio clip has an internal tempo map, which makes it possible to synchronize the audio clip
with the project’s global tempo map (see “Editing a clip’s tempo map” on page 589).
SONAR automatically creates a tempo map for each audio clip. In some cases, SONAR can detect
the wrong tempo. For example, SONAR might detect a tempo of 120 BPM when the actual tempo is
240 BPM, or a beat may be mapped to the wrong transient. You can easily remap the tempo map, if
necessary.
You should make sure a clip’s internal tempo map is correct before using any of the tempo-related
commands in the AudioSnap palette. For details, see “Editing a clip’s tempo map” on page 589.
To sync the project tempo to an audio clip
1. Select the audio clip(s) that has the desired tempo map.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Set Project Tempo From Clip button
on the AudioSnap palette.
The clip tempo map is copied to the project tempo map so the tempo maps are identical.
Note 1: The Set Project Tempo From Clip drop-down list lets you specify at which resolution
the clip’s tempo map should be copied to the project tempo. The options are as follows:
• Beats
• Measures (default)
• Clip
Note 2: If multiple audio clips have their Clip Timebase property set to Musical, changing the
project tempo will affect the relative positions of the audio clips. When using the Set Project
Tempo from Clip command, SONAR will offer to convert the timebase to Absolute.
If you need to align the project tempo with freely played MIDI notes, see “To sync the project
tempo to freely played MIDI” on page 706.
To sync an audio clip to the project tempo
1. Select the audio clip(s) that you want to follow the project tempo.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Clip Follows Project Tempo button
on the AudioSnap palette.
The clip is synchronized to the project’s tempo map.
Note: If the audio clip does not play back at the expected tempo, the clip might not have an
accurate internal tempo map. For details about editing a clip’s tempo map, see “Editing a clip’s
tempo map” on page 589.
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
587
To copy the project tempo to an audio clip’s tempo map
1. Configure the project’s tempo as desired (either specify the tempo manually, or extract the tempo
from another audio clip by using the Set Project Tempo from Clip button
on the
AudioSnap palette).
1. Select the audio clip(s) that you want to follow the project tempo.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Average Tempo box on the AudioSnap palette and select Set Clip Tempo From
Project on the drop-down menu.
The global project tempo map is copied to the clip tempo map so the tempo maps are identical.
Note: AudioSnap will always attempt to find the tempo of any clip recorded or imported into
SONAR. While several possible tempos are normally generated, in some cases AudioSnap
may be unable to detect the correct tempo or may not detect a tempo at all. This can occur if
the source material is highly compressed or does not contain transient markers on all actual
beats.
If AudioSnap is unable to detect a tempo from the clip, new transient markers are inserted on
each beat corresponding to the project’s global tempo map.
If AudioSnap detects possible tempos for the clip, existing transient markers (that appear within a
defined window of the project’s beats) are reassigned to nearby beat markers on the clip’s tempo
map.
See:
“Editing a clip’s tempo map” on page 589
“Changing a project’s tempo” on page 592
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“General editing” on page 612
“Using the Pool” on page 621
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
588
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Editing a clip’s tempo map
Each audio clip has an internal tempo map, which makes it possible to synchronize the audio clip
with the project’s global tempo map (see “Editing a clip’s tempo map” on page 589).
SONAR automatically creates a tempo map for each audio clip. In some cases, SONAR can detect
the wrong tempo. For example, SONAR might detect a tempo of 120 BPM when the actual tempo is
240 BPM, or a beat may be mapped to the wrong transient. You can easily remap the tempo map, if
necessary.
SONAR provides a convenient graphical interface for editing a clip’s tempo map.
You should make sure a clip’s internal tempo map is correct before using any of the tempo-related
commands in the AudioSnap palette.
The following figure shows what a SONAR-generate clip tempo map might look like.
Figure 196. You can edit the internal tempo map of each audio clip
The following controls are available when editing a clip’s tempo map:
• Beat markers. Each detected beat has a corresponding beat marker. You can remap a beat
marker by dragging the marker to any active transient marker. When a beat marker has been
moved, it turns red and becomes “anchored” to the assigned transient marker. An “anchored”
beat marker is a marker that has been edited as opposed to a beat that SONAR detected. To “unanchor” a beat marker, double-click the marker.
• Average Tempo. This list shows the average tempo candidates: original, 0.5x and 2x. SONAR
will do its best to detect the correct average tempo, but a clip can often have multiple potential
tempos (60 BPM, 120 BPM, 240 BPM, etc.). If SONAR is unable to detect a tempo, Average
Tempo will be set to Original, which is the project’s tempo at the location the clip was recorded or
imported. If you change the Average Tempo setting, all clip tempo changes are adjusted to scale.
This list also contains the Set Clip Tempo From Project command, which copies the project’s
tempo map to the clip’s tempo map. This allows the project’s measure boundaries to align with
the audio clip.
• Beats per measure. This list lets you specify the number of beats per measure. The value
range is 2 to 14, and the default value is 4.
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
589
To edit a clip’s tempo map
1. Select the clip or clips you want to edit.
2. Click the Edit clip tempo map button
on the AudioSnap palette.
A simple tempo map guide appears above the clip, indicating where SONAR has mapped the
bars/beats of the clip.
3. If the Average Tempo list does not show the correct tempo, select the correct tempo.
4. If the Beats per measure box does not show the correct number of beats, specify the correct
number of beats per measure.
5. Starting from the beginning of the clip, inspect the beat markers above the clip. If any beat
marker is mapped to the wrong transient, drag the beat marker to the correct transient.
Figure 197. Drag beat markers to edit the clip tempo map
Note 1: Beat markers can only be dragged to active transient markers. If you need to drag a
beat marker to a position that doesn’t have a corresponding transient marker, first insert a new
transient marker at the desired position. For details, see “To insert a new transient marker” on
page 577.
You can also use the Merge and Lock Markers command to merge transient markers from other
tracks. This is useful, for example, if one track contains beats 1 and 3 and another track contains
beats 2 and 4. For details, see “To copy transient markers from one track to another track” on
page 578.
Note 2: If you hold down the CTRL key when you drag a beat marker to the left, the original beat
marker and all subsequent beat markers will be renumbered accordingly.
If you hold down the CTRL key when you drag a beat marker to the right, all subsequent beat markers
will be moved by the same number of transient markers.
The clip’s tempo map is recalculated and the dragged beat marker turns red to indicate it has
been “anchored” to a new transient. An “anchored” beat marker is a marker that has been edited
as opposed to a beat that SONAR detected. To “un-anchor” a beat marker, double-click the
marker.
590
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
If a beat marker is dragged to a transient marker that is already assigned to a later beat marker,
SONAR will automatically re-number all subsequent beat markers accordingly.
A beat marker cannot be dragged to an earlier transient marker if that transient is already
assigned to a beat marker.
6. To hide the tempo map guide, click the Edit clip tempo map button
palette again.
on the AudioSnap
Tip: You can also enable/disable Edit clip tempo map from the transient marker context menu.
To audition an audio clip when editing the clip tempo map
When you are editing a clip’s tempo map, you may frequently need to audition the audio to make
sure you are positioning the beat markers at the correct transients.
1. Right-click the clip tempo map (above the clip) where you want to audition the clip, and keep the
right mouse button pressed.
SONAR creates a one-measure selection, starting from one measure before the position clicked.
The selected time will gradually increase the longer you keep the mouse button pressed.
2. Release the right mouse button.
SONAR auditions the selection.
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“General editing” on page 612
“Using the Pool” on page 621
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
591
Changing a project’s tempo
Changing a whole project’s tempo is simple with AudioSnap, if the tempo change is not drastic.
Before you change the global tempo of a project that contains audio, you must first make sure the
audio clips are configured to follow tempo changes.
After you change the tempo, you may want to bounce some or all of the tracks to new tracks with the
Radius algorithms to correct any unwanted change to each track’s sound.
To change a project’s tempo
1. Use the File > Open command to open the desired project.
2. Use the Edit > Select > All command.
3. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
4. Zoom in (or press F) to get a better look at your clips.
5. With all clips still selected, enable the Clip Follows Project Tempo button
AudioSnap palette.
in the
Note: The Clips follow project tempo command only works on clips that are configured to use
musical time (the Time Base property is set to Musical in the Clip Inspector).
All the clips display the Auto Stretch icon
changes.
, and will now conform to any new or future tempo
6. In the Control Bar’s Transport module, click the Tempo value
value, and press ENTER.
, type the desired tempo
All the tracks stretch to conform to the new tempo. Listen to the project as a whole, and also solo
each track to hear how different the sound is after stretching.
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“General editing” on page 612
“Using the Pool” on page 621
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
592
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
AudioSnap provides several ways to fix timing errors in audio clips:
• You can drag individual beats or groups of beats to new positions. This gives you complete
control over where each transient ends up.
• You can quantize to a particular note resolution. This can be a very quick way to fix a clip, if your
markers are fairly close to where you want them to end up.
• You can quantize to another clip’s beats, making the clips share the same groove.
• You can slip-stretch the clip, to make it fit a larger or smaller block of time. This is a very quick way
to adjust a clip that has good timing, but whose tempo may be a little different from the project you
want to use it in.
• You can combine techniques: slip-stretch a clip to fit a new tempo, then quantize or drag any
markers that are out of sync.
The following is a list of common timing problems and solutions:
• If the audio contains various timing problems, but you want to fix them manually instead of letting
AudioSnap fix them automatically, see “Adjusting the timing of a solo performance” on page 594.
This gives you complete control over every aspect of your audio, and allows you to manually drag
audio beats around to perfect the timing.
• If you need to fix a multi-track performance, such as a multi-mic drum kit or a full band, and you
need to maintain phase relationships between tracks, see “Adjusting the timing of a multi-track
performance while maintaining phase relationships” on page 595.
• If you want to synchronize the timing of clips on different tracks, you can fix this with AudioSnap if
the sync errors aren’t huge. For details, see “Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks” on
page 600.
• If you want to quantize audio to the project’s time ruler, see “To quantize audio to the project’s
time ruler” on page 601.
• If you want to quickly tighten up a performance in a project that already has a fixed tempo or
varying tempo map, see “Quantizing audio” on page 601. This is useful if you like the
performance, but the timing is off in a few places.
• If you want to extract the groove from one clip and apply it to another clip, see “To Groove
Quantize an audio clip” on page 602. You can extract a groove from both audio and MIDI clips.
• If you need to synchronize audio with the projects tempo map, see “Synchronizing audio and the
project tempo” on page 586.
See:
“Adjusting the timing of a solo performance” on page 594
“Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships” on page
595
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
593
“Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks” on page 600
“Making multiple clips/tracks groove together” on page 600
“Quantizing audio” on page 601
“To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler” on page 601
“To Groove Quantize an audio clip” on page 602
“To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 603
Adjusting the timing of a solo performance
When adjusting the timing of a solo performance (for example, a single instrument recorded with a
single microphone, or a pre-recorded drum loop, etc.), you can freely drag beats around without
worrying about potential phase problems.
By manually adjusting beats, you have complete control over the timing of your audio.
To manually adjust the timing of a solo performance
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
Audio clips display transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
3. Drag the desired transient markers around to perfect the timing.
For more information about editing transient markers, see “Editing transient markers” on page 573.
See:
“Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships” on page
595
“Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks” on page 600
“Making multiple clips/tracks groove together” on page 600
“Quantizing audio” on page 601
“To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler” on page 601
“To Groove Quantize an audio clip” on page 602
“To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 603
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Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while
maintaining phase relationships
Editing a multi-track instrument, such as a multi-microphone drum kit or a full band, requires a little
more care than editing a solo performance.
When stretching or quantizing multi-track audio, it is critical to maintain the phase relationships of
the original recording. This can only be achieved if the tracks are stretched at the same exact points
in time across all tracks.
AudioSnap provides tools that make it easy to preserve the phase relationship across tracks when
editing beats on individual tracks.
In the following example, you will learn how to use AudioSnap to edit a multi-track drum kit alongside
a piano track. The drum kit was recorded with three microphones (kick, snare, and overhead), each
routed to its own track.
To adjust the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships
The following figure shows the last three hits of a song. The top track is piano and the rest are
drums: kick, snare and overhead.
Figure 198. The drum hits are rushed and are not in sync with the Piano track
A
B
A. Piano track B. Drum tracks
As you can see, the drummer has rushed and is not in time with the piano. At the beginning of the
measure, the drummer is in time with the piano. Over the course of the measure, the drummer is
performing a fill and on the next three beats is way ahead of the piano player. You can see how the
transient markers on the drum tracks are progressively earlier as the measure goes on (the
drummer is rushing).
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Our job is to align the drum hits with the piano hits so that the drum and piano tracks in time all the
way through the measure.
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
Audio clips display transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
3. Select the three drum tracks and make splits right before and right after the area you want to
edit. For details, see “To split clips into smaller clips” on page 356.
4. Select only the kick and snare clips.
5. On the AudioSnap palette, set Resolution to 1/16.
6. Select only the drum overhead track.
7. On the AudioSnap palette, set Threshold to 100% to ensure that there are no transients
detected. This step is necessary because the overhead track contains audio from both the kick
and the snare, and you want to make sure the kick, snare and overhead tracks are always
synchronized when stretching beats.
8. Select all three drum tracks.
9. Right-click any selected clip and select Merge and Lock Markers on the pop-up menu.
All three drum tracks now share the exact same transient markers, and each clip’s position is
locked.
Note: When you fix timing errors in multi-tracked drum parts, you typically need to adjust all the
drum parts in exactly the same way, because drum parts often contain “bleed”—the sound of
other drums in the track of the drum that you are trying to record. For example, if your snare mic
also picks up some of the hi-hat sound, you can’t move hi-hat clips around without also moving
the snare clips in exactly the same way, otherwise the sound of the hi-hat in the hi-hat track will
conflict with the sound of the hi-hat in the snare track.
Any time you have a track that contains “bleed” from other audio tracks, such as drum overhead
tracks or room ambiance tracks, you want to make sure the track has the same identical transient
markers as the individual close-mic tracks. The first step is to disable all transient markers in the
overhead/room track, then use the Merge and Lock Markers command to copy the transient
markers from all individual close-mic tracks.
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Figure 199. The Merge and Lock Markers command has copied the same transient markers to all three drum
tracks.
The drum tracks are now ready to be edited.
We want to keep the feel of the piano track, so our goal is align the drum tracks with the piano track,
while preserving the phase relationship between the three drum tracks.
When editing multiple transients to adjust the timing of a performance, often times you need to
speed up or slow down a section rather than just move an entire section later or earlier. In this
example, the drummer was speeding up through the drum fill and then hits next downbeat too early.
To fix this, you need to proportionally drag the drum transients so they are better aligned with the
piano track.
10. Using the Smart tool, lasso select all transient markers from the first hit through the third hit,
across all drum tracks.
11. Hold down the CTRL key and drag any selected drum transient marker until the third drum hit is
aligned with the third piano hits.
The selected transients are stretched proportionally. The first and last drum and piano hits are
now aligned. The effect of this edit is that the drummer no longer rushes through the fill and he
lands on the downbeat much closer with the piano.
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Figure 200. The drum and piano hits are aligned
The second drum and piano hits are close but not perfect, so we need to fix this single beat.
12. Hold down the CTRL key and double-click any drum transient marker on the second hit.
All drum transient markers for the second hit are selected
13. Drag any selected transient markers until it aligns with the second piano hit.
All three drum and piano hits are now aligned properly, and the phase relationships between all
drum tracks have been preserved.
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Figure 201. All three drum and piano hits are perfectly aligned
For information about maintaining phase relationships without stretching audio, see “To quantize
multi-tracked drums without stretching audio” on page 604.
See:
“Adjusting the timing of a solo performance” on page 594
“Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks” on page 600
“Making multiple clips/tracks groove together” on page 600
“Quantizing audio” on page 601
“To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler” on page 601
“To Groove Quantize an audio clip” on page 602
“To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 603
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Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks
A common problem arises when two or more clips aren’t quite in sync with each other. You can fix
this with AudioSnap if the sync errors aren’t huge. The AudioSnap command that is most helpful in
this situation is the Quantize to Pool command. The way it works is you decide which clip has the
correct rhythm, you add that clip’s transient markers to the Pool, and then you quantize the other
clip’s transient markers to the Pool. For details, see “To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip
(Quantize to Pool)” on page 603.
Tip: You can also copy one clip’s tempo to the project tempo, then configure other clips to follow the
project tempo. For details, see “To sync the project tempo to an audio clip” on page 587 and “To
sync an audio clip to the project tempo” on page 587.
See:
“Adjusting the timing of a solo performance” on page 594
“Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships” on page
595
“Making multiple clips/tracks groove together” on page 600
“Quantizing audio” on page 601
“To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler” on page 601
“To Groove Quantize an audio clip” on page 602
“To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 603
Making multiple clips/tracks groove together
You can extract the groove from one audio clip and apply it to another audio clip. You can also apply
a pre-existing groove file to all selected audio clips.
For details, see “To Groove Quantize an audio clip” on page 602.
See:
“Adjusting the timing of a solo performance” on page 594
“Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships” on page
595
“Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks” on page 600
“Quantizing audio” on page 601
“To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler” on page 601
“To Groove Quantize an audio clip” on page 602
“To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 603
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
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Quantizing audio
Quantizing audio is a quick way to tighten up the feel of an audio track. AudioSnap provides several
ways to quantize audio:
• You can quantize audio to the project’s time ruler. This is useful for tightening up a performance in
a project that already has a fixed tempo or varying tempo map. For details, see “To quantize
audio to the project’s time ruler” on page 601.
• You can copy the feel of one track and apply it to another track. There are four ways to
accomplish this with AudioSnap:
• Method 1: Extract MIDI timing from the source track, then use Groove Quantize on the target
track. For details, see “To extract MIDI timing from an audio clip” on page 610 and “To Groove
Quantize an audio clip” on page 602.
• Method 2: Add the source track to the Pool, then quantize the target track to the pool. For
details, see “To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 603
and “Using the Pool” on page 621.
• Method 3: Use the Extract Timing button on the AudioSnap palette to extract the timing from
selected clips, then use the Apply Groove button to apply the extracted groove to the selected
clips. For details, see “To extract the groove from one clip and apply it to another clip” on page
602.
• Method 4: You can manually match transient markers across multiple tracks by using the
Smart tool. For details, see “To manually match transients across different tracks” on page
602.
To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler
1. Select the audio clip you want to quantize.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Quantize button
in the AudioSnap palette.
The Quantize dialog appear
4. Make sure the AudioSnap Beats check box is selected.
5. Configure the Quantize options as desired, then click OK.
SONAR quantizes the selected clips.
Note: You can only quantize to one rhythmic value at a time. If you don’t want to quantize all beats
in an audio clip (to ensure the Quantize command doesn’t move them to a rhythmic placement
where they don’t belong), temporarily disable any transient markers you don’t want to quantize.
For details, see “To disable a transient marker” on page 577.
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To Groove Quantize an audio clip
The Groove Quantize command aligns transients with a groove that’s on the Clipboard or a preexisting groove file. If you want to copy the timing from another audio clip to the Clipboard, see “To
extract MIDI timing from an audio clip” on page 610.
1. Select the audio clip you want to groove quantize.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. On the Process menu, click Groove Quantize.
The Groove Quantize dialog appear
4. In the Groove File field, select either Clipboard or the file that the groove pattern you want to
use is saved in.
5. In the Groove Pattern field, select the groove pattern that you want to use.
6. Select the Resolution value that you want to quantize to.
7. Make sure the AudioSnap Beats check box is selected.
8. Click OK.
To extract the groove from one clip and apply it to another clip
1. Select the audio clip you want to extract the groove from.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Extract Timing button.
The clip’s groove is extracted and vertical Pool lines are displayed to indicate the extracted
transients.
4. Select the clip you want to apply the groove to.
5. Click the Apply Groove button.
The groove is applied to the selected clip and the Pool is cleared.
To manually match transients across different tracks
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
Audio clips show transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
3. In the Control Bar’s Snap module, click the Snap to Audio Transients button
CTRL+SHIFT+F12).
(or press
Note: When snapping audio transients, the following rules apply:
• If a Pool exists, audio transients snap to the Pool.
• If a Pool does not exists, audio transients snap to transients in the selected tracks.
• If there are no selected tracks, audio transients snap to transients in the selected clip.
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4. Select the audio tracks that you want to use as the rhythm guide.
5. Identify the transient markers you want move, then drag the transient markers until they snap to
the nearest transient markers in the selected tracks.
To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)
A common problem arises when two or more clips aren’t quite in sync with each other. You can fix
this with AudioSnap if the sync errors aren’t huge. The AudioSnap command that is most helpful in
this situation is the Quantize to Pool command. The way it works is you decide which clip has the
correct rhythm, you add that clip’s transient markers to the Pool, and then you quantize the other
clip’s transient markers to the Pool.
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
Audio clips show transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
3. Select the audio clip that you want to use as the rhythm guide.
4. Disable any transient markers that you want to exclude from the Pool (see “To disable a
transient marker” on page 577).
5. Right-click the selected clip and select Pool > Add clip to pool on the pop-up menu.
The selected clip is added to the Pool, and its transient markers turn purple.
6. Select the audio clip that you want to quantize.
7. Right-click the selected clip and select Pool > Quantize to pool on the pop-up menu.
The Quantize to AudioSnap Pool dialog appears.
8. Configure the following settings as desired:
• Max Distance From Pool. The value in this menu determines which notes are affected by
the Quantize to Pool command. For example, if you choose Quarter in the menu, notes that
are farther than a quarter note from a Pool line are not quantized.
• Quantize Window. This slider fine tunes the value in the Max Distance From Pool menu. A
window of 100 percent includes all markers that lie within the Max Distance From Pool value.
• Quantize Strength. This slider controls quantize strength, which determines how closely the
selected notes move to the Pool markers.
9. Click OK.
The transients in the selected clips are quantized to the Pool.
See also:
“To extract the groove from one clip and apply it to another clip” on page 602
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603
To quantize multi-tracked drums without stretching audio
When you fix timing errors in multi-tracked drum parts, you will frequently need to adjust all the drum
parts in exactly the same way, because drum parts often contain “bleed”—the sound of other drums
in the track of the drum that you are trying to record. For example, if your snare mic also picks up
some of the hi-hat sound, you can’t move hi-hat clips around without also moving the snare clips in
exactly the same way, because if you don’t, the sound of the hi-hat in the hi-hat track will conflict with
the sound of the hi-hat in the snare track.
AudioSnap’s Add Transients to Pool command and Split Beats into Clips command allow you to
slice your drum tracks at identical locations, so you can then drag or quantize whole clips without
stretching any audio. This method of aligning clips does not change the phase relationships between
the clips, as long as you move all the clips identically.
Let’s take a look at some multi-tracked drum parts, and see how to quantize them all in exactly the
same way. The following project uses 10 mics, including room mics and overhead mics:
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
Audio clips display transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
3. If necessary, edit each drum track’s transient markers so that there are no extraneous transients
(use the Threshold slider, disable some transients, move others, etc.).
4. Disable all the transient markers in the overhead mic and room mic tracks.
Note: The room mics and overhead mics are much farther from the drums than the close mics,
so the transients in their tracks occur a little later than the close mic tracks. Because you will
eventually split each beat into a separate clip, you only want to use the transient markers from
the close mic tracks to avoid cutting off any transients.
5. Select all the drum tracks.
6. Right-click any selected drum track and select Merge and Lock Markers on the pop-up menu.
7. All transient markers on all selected tracks are copied to each drum track, so all drum tracks
share identical transient markers. The clip positions are also locked.
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8. On the Edit menu, point to Clip Lock and click Lock Position.
The clip positions are no longer locked.
9. Select a drum track that has steady beats throughout the song.
Tip: If there is not a single drum track that has steady beats throughout the song, you can create a
temporary guide track by bouncing all the drum tracks to a single track (select all the tracks, use the
Edit > Bounce to Tracks command, select Main Outputs in the Source Category field in the
Bounce to Tracks dialog, and click OK).
10. Click the Set Project Tempo From Clip button
establish a tempo map.
to align measure lines with drum track and
The project’s measure boundaries line up with the transients in the drum tracks.
Note: If the measure boundaries do not line up properly with the drum tracks, you may need to
edit the guide track’s tempo map. For details, see “To edit a clip’s tempo map” on page 590.
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11. Select all the drum tracks.
12. Click the Split Beats into Clips button
on the AudioSnap palette.
Each beat is split into a separate clip.
Now we can quantize all the clips at the same time. Let’s quantize this example to eighth notes:
13. Select all the clips that you want to quantize.
14. Use the Process > Quantize command to open the Quantize dialog.
15. In the Duration field, choose Eighth (for this example).
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16. Configure the other settings as follows:
• Make sure the AudioSnap Beats check box is cleared.
• Make sure the Audio Clip Start Times is selected.
• Make sure the Auto XFade Audio Clips check box is selected, and the XFade and Max Gap
values are set at their default values.
17. Click OK to close the Quantize dialog.
After some processing time, the clip start times move to the eighth note boundaries:
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Some clips now overlap, and some clips have small gaps between them. Because the Auto XFade
Audio Clips check box was enabled, and the XFade and Max Gap values were set at their default
values, crossfades have been automatically added between clips, and any gaps that were smaller
than the Max Gap value have been filled in. Let’s zoom in to take a closer look:
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A
A. Crossfades
Now the clips line up with eighth note boundaries, no audio has been stretched, and phase
relationships have been maintained.
For information about maintaining phase relationships when stretching audio, see “Adjusting the
timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships” on page 595.
See:
“Quantizing” on page 697
“To split a clip, quantize it, and fill in the gaps” on page 615
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“General editing” on page 612
“Using the Pool” on page 621
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
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Extracting MIDI timing information from audio
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio allows you to:
• Double an audio rhythm with a MIDI instrument.
• Replace sounds in an audio clip (commonly used for drum replacement).
• Notate the rhythm of an audio clip.
• Align lyrics with an audio rhythm.
After you extract the timing information from an audio clip, the timing information is copied to the
clipboard as MIDI note events. You can paste the MIDI notes to a new MIDI track or use the
clipboard as a source for the Groove Quantize command.
To extract MIDI timing from an audio clip
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
4. Select the audio clip whose rhythm you want to extract.
5. Do any necessary quantizing, and disable any transient markers that you don’t want to extract
(see “Quantizing audio” on page 601 and “To disable a transient marker” on page 577).
6. With the clip still selected, click the AudioSnap Options button
open the AudioSnap Options dialog.
in the AudioSnap palette to
7. In the Convert to MIDI Note box, choose C3. This is the note most drum synths use for the bass
drum. If your favorite synth uses a different note, choose it now.
8. Choose a Note Velocities option: either accept the extrapolated velocities in the audio clip (the
Vary With Pulse Level option), or set a constant velocity for the notes in the Set All To Same
Value field.
9. Click OK to close the AudioSnap Options dialog.
10. Click the Copy As MIDI button
.
This adds the extracted groove to the Windows clipboard.
SONAR copies the audio rhythm to the Clipboard as a MIDI clip, with the same pitch assigned to
each note.
You can now paste the MIDI notes to a new MIDI track, use the clipboard as a source for the Groove
Quantize command, or save the extracted groove as a Groove Quantize file.
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To paste the extracted MIDI timing to a MIDI track
1. Click the track number of a MIDI track to select it.
2. Move the Now Time to the measure where you want the data (we’ll use measure 1).
Tip: If you want the MIDI notes to align perfectly with the audio data, press SHIFT+G to move the
Now time to the beginning of the selected audio clip.
3. Press CTRL+V to paste the data.
A new MIDI clip is inserted in the track
Note: All the new MIDI notes have the same pitch, and the tails of the preceding notes reach all
the way to the following notes, so you can’t see the actual rhythm. You can easily shorten the
duration of each note event in order to clearly see each note event. To do so, click Process >
Length to open the Length dialog. In the Length dialog, disable the Start Times check box,
enable the Duration check box, and type 50 in the Percent field. Click OK to close the dialog.
Assign the MIDI track’s Edit Filter to Notes and you will be able to see the rhythm if you zoom in.
To save the extracted MIDI timing as a Groove Quantize file
1. Select Process >Groove Quantize to open the Groove Quantize dialog.
2. Click the Define button to open the Define Groove dialog.
3. In the File field, choose a file to save the pattern in, or type a name to create a new file.
4. In the Pattern field, type a name for the pattern, and click OK.
The extracted MIDI groove is saved as a Groove Quantize file, and can be used at any time with
the Groove Quantize command.
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“General editing” on page 612
“Using the Pool” on page 621
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
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General editing
If you want to snap edits in the Clips pane to transient markers, see “Snapping edits to audio beats”
on page 612.
If you want to split each beat into a separate clip, see “Splitting beats into clips” on page 614.
If you want to stretch the duration of an audio clip, see “Slip-stretching audio” on page 618.
If you want to automatically create envelope nodes that are aligned with transient markers, see
“Adding automation” on page 620.
Snapping edits to audio beats
The Snap module in the Control Bar has a Snap to Audio Transients button
that allows you to
snap edits in the Clips pane to transient markers in selected audio clips. You can also press
CTRL+SHIFT+F12 to toggle Snap to Audio Transients on/off.
When snapping audio transients, the following rules apply:
• If a Pool exists, audio transients snap to the Pool.
• If a Pool does not exists, audio transients snap to transients in the selected tracks.
• If there are no selected tracks, audio transients snap to transients in the selected clip.
In the following example, you will learn how to snap MIDI notes to audio beats.
To snap to audio transients
1. Select the audio clips whose rhythm you want to snap to.
2. In the Control Bar’s Snap module, click the Snap to Audio Transients button
CTRL+SHIFT+F12). Disable Musical Time and all other Snap to Grid options.
(or press
Figure 202. The Snap module.
3. In this example, we’re using the Inline Piano Roll view: to enable it, assign a MIDI track’s Edit
Filter to Notes. Zoom in enough to see where the edits need to be. Make sure the Snap to
Audio Transients button
612
is enabled in the Control Bar’s Snap module.
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A
A. These notes don’t line up with the audio beats
4. Drag the misaligned MIDI notes so they line up with the audio beats. As you’re dragging notes,
they will automatically snap to the nearest audio beat.
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Splitting beats into clips
Clicking the Split Beats Into Clips button
on the AudioSnap palette splits a selected
AudioSnap-enabled clip into new clips starting at every enabled transient marker. The main reason
you might want to do this is to align a clip with a new tempo or quantize it, without stretching the
audio. Once you split a clip at its transients, you can move the new clips by dragging or quantizing
so that they are aligned the way you want them to be. The advantage is that moving clips instead of
transient markers does not stretch any audio, so that the original sound quality is unchanged. The
possible disadvantage is that you can create gaps between the new clips when you move them.
However, the Quantize, Groove Quantize, and Fade Selected Clips dialogs all have an option to
automatically fill in the gaps. This is the Fill Gaps, XFade between Audio Clips option in the Fade
Selected Clips dialog, and is the Auto XFade Audio Clips option in the Quantize and Groove
Quantize dialogs. Filling the gaps is accomplished automatically by “rolling out” the first clip’s right
edge and the second clip’s left edge to create a crossfade. This option will often be used when
quantizing drum parts, which results in smooth-sounding audio without introducing phase problems.
Note: When you align clips on multiple tracks, it is necessary to split and/or quantize all clips at
the exact same position in order to avoid phase problems. In order to do so, it is necessary to
establish a common, or master, transient pool that all tracks can reference. The Merge and
Lock Markers command will use the transient pool as a reference, and insert identical transient
markers on all selected clips.You can then use the Split Beats Into Clips button
clips at audio beats.
to split
To add markers at Pool lines
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Make sure that the Pool contains markers from at least one clip, or from the Time Ruler.
4. Select the clips that you want to add markers to.
5. Right-click a selected clip, and choose Pool > Apply transient pool markers on the pop-up
menu.
Markers appear on the selected clips at Pool lines.
To split a clip at beats
1. Select the clip(s) that you want to split.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Split Beats into Clips button
.
The clip’s beats are split into separate clips.
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To split a clip, quantize it, and fill in the gaps
1. The following picture shows a clip whose transient markers don’t line up with the measure lines:
2. If we quantize it, the audio will stretch and we may or may not like the resulting sound. Let’s try
splitting it, and quantizing the clips instead of the transients: click the Split Beats Into Clips
button
on the AudioSnap palette.
The clip splits at the transients, and only the first new clip is still selected:
3. Let’s quantize the clips: drag through the clips to select them.
4. Click the Quantize button
in the AudioSnap palette.
The Quantize dialog appears:
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5. Make sure that Audio Clip Start Times is selected, and that (for this example) Sixteenth is
selected in the Duration field. Leave the Auto XFade Audio Clips option unchecked for now,
and click OK. Let’s zoom in and look at the quantized clips:
6. The start of each clip now lines up where we want it to, but there are gaps between some of the
clips. Let’s undo what we just did (press CTRL+Z), and quantize again. This time, however we
will enable the Auto XFade Audio Clips option in the Quantize dialog, and click OK:
616
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
General editing
A
A. Crossfades
7. Where the gaps were between clips, we now see crossfades. The default length of the crossfade
is 20 milliseconds, but you can change that by entering a number in the XFade <number goes
here> ms field in the dialog.
8. If you don’t want wide gaps to be filled in, you can enter a number of up to 200 milliseconds in
the Max Gap field. Any gap that is wider than the number in this field will not be filled in.
If we wanted to drag the clips to new locations instead of quantizing them, we could fix any resulting
gaps by selecting the clips that have gaps, and use the Track view Clips > Fade Clips command.
The Fade Selected Clips dialog has the Fill Gaps, XFade between Audio Clips radio button, the
XFade <number goes here> ms field, and the Max Gap field.
Figure 203. The Fade Selected Clips dialog
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
General editing
617
To fill in gaps with the Fade Selected Clips command
1. Select the clips that have gaps you want to fill.
2. Click the Track view Clips menu and choose Fade Clips to open the Fade Selected Clips
dialog box.
3. Enable the XFade between Audio Clips radio button, and set any options you want in the
XFade <number goes here> ms field, and Max Gap field.
4. Click OK.
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“Using the Pool” on page 621
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
Slip-stretching audio
You can slip-stretch an audio clip in order to expand or compress its duration. Slip-stretching only
works on regular audio clips, not Groove clips or REX loops.
To slip-stretch an audio clip
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Hold down the CTRL key, move the mouse pointer over the end of the clip until the cursor
changes into the slip-stretch icon
, then drag the end of the clip to the desired position.
The clip is stretched and displays a yellow bar at the bottom of the clip along with the stretch
amount (percentage of original duration).
618
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
General editing
A
A. Stretch amount
Alpha-blended bars on slip-stretched clips
AlphaStretchIndicator=<0 or 1> (default=1)
When an audio clip is slip-stretched, a yellow alpha-blended bar is displayed on the clip. This may
affect performance on some systems if there are many slip-stretched clips. There is a new
Cakewalk.ini variable to disable the alpha-blended bars, and instead only show the percent
value in the lower right corner of the clip.
This variable should be set in the [Wincake] section. For example:
[Wincake]
AlphaStretchIndicator=0
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“Using the Pool” on page 621
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
General editing
619
Adding automation
If you have an automation envelope on a track, AudioSnap can automatically add nodes to the
envelope that align with a selected clip’s transient markers. This makes it easy to add special
processing at transient locations.
To add nodes at transients
1. Select the audio clip(s) that contain the transient markers you want to use as a guide.
2. Right-click an automation envelope on the clip, and choose Add Nodes at Transient Markers
from the pop-up menu.
Now you can easily edit your envelope at transient locations.
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“Using the Pool” on page 621
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
620
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
General editing
Using the Pool
The Pool is a collection of transient markers that can be extracted as a groove, and also function as
snap locations. A transient marker that belongs to the pool is displayed in the Clips pane as a solid
line within the parent track, and as a dotted line outside the parent track. Hovering the mouse over a
dotted line will display a tooltip containing the parent track and position. To show/hide pool
lines
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the desired track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Right-click a clip and choose Pool > Show pool lines on the pop-up menu.
Figure 204. Pool lines
B
C
A
A. Tooltip B. Solid line C. Dotted line
The Track view Time Ruler can be added to the Pool (see “To add the Time ruler to the Pool” on
page 622).
To add a clip’s transients to the Pool
1. Select the an AudioSnap-enabled clip.
2. Right-click the clip and choose Pool > Add Clip to Pool on the pop-up menu.
To hide or show the Pool
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Right-click a clip and choose Pool > Show pool lines on the pop-up menu.
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using the Pool
621
To add the Time ruler to the Pool
1. In the Control Bar’s Snap module, set the Musical Time value to the resolution you would like to
add to the Pool.
2. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
3. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
4. Right-click in the Clips pane and select Pool > Add MBT to pool on the pop-up menu.
The current Musical Time snap resolution to the pool, and also displays dotted pool lines in the
Clips pane. This can be useful as either a basic visual guide, or for adding the Musical Time to an
extracted groove, or to fill in any transients that may be “missing” in a syncopated or sparse
section.
To add transient markers at Pool lines
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Make sure that the Pool contains markers from at least one clip, or from the Time Ruler.
4. Select the clips that you want to add markers to.
5. Right-click a selected clip and choose Pool > Apply transient pool markers on the pop-up
menu.
Markers appear on the selected clips at Pool lines. When aligning clips on multiple tracks, it is
necessary to split and/or quantize all clips at the exact same position in order to avoid phase
problems when quantizing audio. In order to do so, it is necessary to establish a common, or
“master”, transient reference pool which can be applied to all tracks. The Apply transient pool
markers command will use the transient pool as a reference, and insert identical transient markers
on all selected clips.
Note: Adding markers at Pool lines can add a lot of markers to a clip. If you later decide that you
want to work with the clip’s original markers, you can remove only the markers that you added
by right-clicking the transient marker, and choosing Reset from the pop-up menu.
622
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using the Pool
Groove Quantize and Quantize to Pool
You can use two kinds of groove quantizing on audio clips: the Groove Quantize command aligns
transients with a groove that’s on the Clipboard, and the Quantize to pool command aligns
transients with the Pool.
When you use the Groove Quantize command, you can align a clip with a pre-existing groove, or
you can extract a groove from another clip.
For information about extracting a groove, see “To extract MIDI timing from an audio clip” on page
610.
For information about groove quantizing an audio clip, see “To Groove Quantize an audio clip” on
page 602.
For information about quantizing to the Pool, see “To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip
(Quantize to Pool)” on page 603.
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“General editing” on page 612
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 624
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using the Pool
623
Algorithms and rendering
When you stretch an audio clip, AudioSnap uses a particular formula, or algorithm, to stretch the
audio. The best algorithms take the most computing time and power to complete, so if AudioSnap
always used the best available algorithms (the iZotope Radius algorithms), you would not be able to
play back your clip in a reasonable amount of time to listen to the timing. That’s why you can choose
a quick algorithm for “online” rendering (real-time playback), and a different algorithm for “offline”
or non-real-time rendering. Offline rendering in an AudioSnap context usually means bouncing to
track, but it also refers to other offline processes such as freezing tracks and applying effects. When
you do any of these mixdown operations such as bouncing, exporting, or freezing, audio clips use
the offline rendering algorithm you have chosen for them.
Note: The Online render mode is for preview purposes only during playback. The final audio
quality will be greatly improved after the Offline render mode is applied during mixdown/export.
Typical algorithm choices for an AudioSnap session work like this:
• Do your AudioSnap time stretching, error correction, etc., with a quick algorithm: choose either
Percussion or GrooveClip.
• After your AudioSnap editing is finished, bounce to track with a better algorithm: choose one of
the Radius choices, or for drum tracks, Percussion is usually the best choice.
Note: You should avoid rendering AudioSnap clips more than once. Applying stretch algorithms
multiple times in succession can degrade the audio quality (similar to transcoding an MP3 file).
Until your project is mixed and finalized, it is recommended that you use the Freeze function instead
of Bounce to Track(s) or Bounce to Clip(s) if you need to temporarily off-load CPU processing
power. For details, see “To freeze an AudioSnap-enabled clip” on page 626.
624
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Algorithms and rendering
The following table describes the available algorithms:
Algorithm
Description
GrooveClip
Good all-around algorithm to use while stretching audio
Percussion
Gives a better sound on percussion clips while stretching audio
iZotope Radius Mix
Best all-around choice when bouncing to track with audio clips that
contain a mix of different sounds
iZotope Radius Mix Advanced
This choice is similar to iZotope Radius Mix, but exposes two
parameters:
• Pitch coherence. Pitch coherence preserves naturalness of timbre
for pitched solo voices, such as human speech, saxophone or
vocals. The default value for this control is 50%. Higher values of
pitch coherence will increase phase accuracy but may sound more
modulated.
• Phase coherence. When processing stereo or surround audio,
Phase coherence helps to preserve the phase relationships between
channels. The default value for this control is 50%. Higher values of
phase coherence will preserve the phase between multiple audio
channels at the expense of slight distortion.
The Pitch coherence and Phase coherence parameters can be
adjusted in Edit > Preferences > Project - AudioSnap.
iZotope Radius Solo
Best choice when bouncing to track with audio clips of a solo
instrument. Although a guitar is a “solo” instrument, if you play chords
instead of single notes you may want to select “Radius Mix” instead.
Tip: if a clip/track contains a mixture of polyphonic and monophonic
parts, you may wish to split the parts into separate clips and experiment
with different algorithms for each clip.
iZotope Radius Solo (Bass)
Best choice when bouncing to track with audio clips of a bass
instrument
iZotope Radius Solo (Vocal)
Best choice when bouncing to track with audio clips of a solo voice
Table 118.
To choose default algorithms
1. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
2. In the Applies To list, select Default Settings.
3. Under Render Mode, select the desired Online and Offline render modes.
Every AudioSnap-enabled clip that you stretch or bounce uses the settings you choose for default
stretch algorithms, except clips that you choose individual settings for.
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Algorithms and rendering
625
To choose render algorithms for an individual clip
1. Select the clip or clips you want to edit.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
The AudioSnap palette displays the current render mode of the selected clip. If you select multiple
clips that have different render modes, the Online and Offline lists display (Multi).
3. In the Applies To list, select Clips.
4. Under Render Mode, select the desired Online and Offline render modes.
To choose render algorithms for all current and future clips on a track
1. Select the track or tracks you want to edit.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. In the Applies To list, select Tracks.
4. Under Render Mode, select the desired Online and Offline render modes.
All current and future clips in the selected tracks will inherit the selected render modes.
To freeze an AudioSnap-enabled clip
1. Do one of the following to open the Freeze Options dialog:
• In the Track view, right-click any track’s Freeze button
.
• Right-click an audio track, and select Freeze > Freeze Options from the pop-up menu.
2. Make sure the Track FX check box is cleared.
3. Click OK to close the Freeze Options dialog.
4. Do one of the following:
• In the Track view, click the desired track’s Freeze button
.
• Right-click the track and select Freeze > Freeze Track from the pop-up menu.
SONAR bounces the audio in the track to a new audio clip or clips.
To bounce an AudioSnap-enabled clip
1. Select the clip you want to bounce.
2. Click the Track view Tracks menu and choose Bounce to Track(s) to open the Bounce to
Track(s) dialog box.
3. In the Destination field, choose the track where you want your new audio clip to go.
4. In the Source Category field, choose Tracks.
5. Choose the Channel Format and Dithering options you want.
6. Enable all the options in the Mix Enables section.
7. Click OK.
626
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Algorithms and rendering
See:
“Freeze tracks and synths” on page 829
“To bounce multiple audio clips to a new track” on page 764
“To bounce to clips” on page 763
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 568
“Editing transient markers” on page 573
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 582
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 586
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 593
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 610
“General editing” on page 612
“Using the Pool” on page 621
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Algorithms and rendering
627
628
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Algorithms and rendering
Working with loops and Groove Clips
Loops are short digital audio clips which are often designed to be repeated over and over or
“looped,” although some loops, called one-shots, are intended to play just once. Groove clips, often
used as loops, are digital audio clips that “know” their tempo and pitch information. Groove clips
automatically respond to changes in a project’s tempo and can have their root note pitch adjusted
using pitch markers. In SONAR, you can import ACID™ loops, or digital audio clips and convert
them to Groove clips. You can also record your own audio and create Groove clips. To download
more Groove clips and loops, visit www.cakewalk.com.
Note: Groove clips and ACIDized loops are loaded into RAM, and can take up a lot of memory.
Copying them does not increase the amount of memory they take up, but loading the initial copy
does.
See:
“Using loops with the Browser” on page 635
“Working with loops” on page 637
“Working with Groove Clip audio” on page 638
“MIDI Groove Clips” on page 647
“Importing Project5 patterns” on page 651
The Loop Construction view
The Loop Construction view is where you create and edit Groove clips.
Figure 205. The Loop Construction view
The Loop Construction view toolbar has tools for editing slicing markers and controls for
previewing loops.
See:
“Loop Construction controls” on page 630
See also:
“Working with loops” on page 637
“Working with Groove Clip audio” on page 638
“Loop Construction view” on page 1767
Loop Construction controls
The following is a list of the tools and controls in the Loop Construction view, followed by a
description:
Save Loop as WAV
This button opens the Save As dialog. The clip in the Loop Construction view is saved as a Groove
Clip/Wave file that has tempo and pitch information stored in it, and can be opened in SONAR or
ACID™. For more information, see “Saving Groove Clips as Wave files/ACIDized Wave files” on
page 644.
630
Working with loops and Groove Clips
The Loop Construction view
Enable Looping
The Enable Looping button allows a clip to be looped by dragging in the Track view. Loop-enabled
clips follow changes in the project tempo. Click the Enable Looping button to loop clips in the Track
view by dragging the left or right side of a clip with your mouse. When you loop-enable a clip it
automatically snaps to the nearest beat boundary (at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 etc. beats). SONAR calculates
the appropriate beat number. Change the number in the Beats in Clip field if you want to change
the total number of beats in the clip.
Enable Stretching
The Enable Stretching button allows a clip to follow a project’s tempo as it changes. It instructs
SONAR to stretch or shrink the clip to fit the project’s tempo. SONAR uses the Original BPM
parameters to make the change.
Beats in Clip
The number of beats in the clip.
Original BPM
The tempo at which the clip was recorded.
Follow Project Pitch
The Follow Project Pitch option transposes the loop, if necessary, to the project pitch which you
can set in Project > Set Default Groove Clip Pitch. A loop recorded in the key of C, used in a
project with a default project pitch of A, would be transposed down three semitones if the Follow
Project Pitch check box was checked. You can also insert markers in the Time Ruler which change
the project pitch. These markers, called pitch markers affect only Groove clips with Follow Project
Pitch enabled.
Root Note
The Root Note represents the key in which the loop was originally recorded. The Follow Project
Pitch feature uses this information, when checked, to transpose the loop to match the project’s
default project pitch and pitch markers.
Pitch (coarse)
You can set the transposition of a clip, independent from the project pitch, using the Pitch (Coarse)
field. A positive number transposes the clip up by that number of semitones. A negative number
transposes the clip down by that number of semitones. Remember that, if the Follow Project Pitch
option is checked, the clip follows the project’s pitch. Any transposition changes to the pitch with this
option checked are changes to the project pitch, not the clip pitch.
An example: The project key is C. The clip key is D. If the Follow Project Pitch is enabled, the clip
is transposed down by two semitones. A value entered into the Pitch (coarse) field adjusts the pitch
from C. If you enter -1, the pitch would be transposed down by one additional semi tone to B.
Another example: The clip pitch is E. The desired clip pitch is D. If the Follow Project Pitch option
is not enabled, and a value of -2 is entered in the Pitch (coarse) field, the clip is transposed down
two semitones to D from the original pitch of E.
Working with loops and Groove Clips
The Loop Construction view
631
Pitch (fine)
The Pitch (fine) field allows you to make tuning adjustments or to transpose the pitch of a clip up to
50 cents. There are 100 cents in one semi tone. A Pitch (fine) setting of 1 adjusts the pitch up one
hundredth of a semi tone. The Pitch (fine) option can “fine tune” a slightly out of tune clip so that it is
in pitch with the remaining clips in a project.
Slices Menu
The Slices menu sets the resolution for the creation of markers, or the “slicing” of the looped clip.
This menu uses note lengths, so the settings are:
• Whole notes
• Half notes
• Quarter notes
• Eighth notes
• Sixteenth notes
• Thirty-second notes
The automatic markers appear at the note resolutions according to the slider setting. At the eighth
note setting, there are eight markers per measure.
This control works well for slicing audio that has more subtle changes in volume with few dramatic
transients.
The markers in a loop clip preserve the timing of the audio at that moment. Too few or too many
markers can cause unwanted “artifacts” when a loop clip is stretched.
Trans Detect (%)
The Trans Detect control senses transients in your audio clip and assigns a marker at the beginning
and end of each one it finds. As the you increase the sensitivity (by using larger numbers) smaller
transients are detected and the number of markers increases.
Stop Preview
Stops loop preview playback.
Preview Loops
Plays the current loop repeatedly. Use the Stop Preview control to stop playback.
Enable Slice Auto-Preview
Plays a slice when you click on it.
Click Auto-Preview Loop
Repeatedly plays a selected slice.
Preview Bus
Select the output through which you want to listen to the clip.
632
Working with loops and Groove Clips
The Loop Construction view
Properties
The Properties button opens the Associated Audio Files dialog.
Select
Use the Select tool to move markers in the Markers bar.
Erase
Use the Erase tool to delete markers in the Markers bar.
Default All Markers
The Default All Markers button restores all automatically generated markers to the original position
and enables all those that were disabled. Manually created markers remain as is.
Previous Slice
Moves slice selection to the previous slice. Click on a slice to select it.
Next Slice
Moves slice selection to the next slice. Click on a slice to select it.
Show/Hide Gain Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s gain envelope. Each slice of the clip has its own
segment of the envelope, which you can adjust by dragging the segment up or down.
Show/Hide Pan Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s pan envelope. Each slice of the clip has its own
segment of the envelope, which you can adjust by dragging the segment up or down.
Show/Hide Pitch Envelope
Clicking this button shows or hides the clip’s pitch envelope. Each slice of the clip has its own
segment of the envelope, which you can adjust by dragging the segment up or down.
Slice Gain
Changes the selected slice’s gain.
Slice Pan
Adjusts the selected slice’s pan. Negative is left and positive is right.
Slice Pitch
Adjusts the selected slice’s pitch. The first field is in half steps, the second field is in cents.
Working with loops and Groove Clips
The Loop Construction view
633
Slicing markers
There are two types of slicing markers in the Loop Construction view: automatic and manual.
Automatic markers appear in red and are automatically generated by SONAR when you loop enable
a clip. The one exception to this is if you import an ACIDized wave file into SONAR. ACIDized files
always appear with manual slicing markers. Manual markers appear in purple. If you add a marker
or move an automatic marker, it turns purple to show you that it has been edited. For information on
editing slicing markers, see “To edit the slicing markers in a Groove Clip” on page 642.
Audio scaling
Audio scaling is the increase or decrease in the size (scale) of the waveform in clip. Audio scaling
allows you to make detailed edits by zooming in on the parts of the waveform closest to the zero
crossing (silence) while preserving the track size. By showing just the quietest parts of a clip, you
can make very precise edits.
The Audio Scale Ruler is located on the far left of the Loop Construction view.
Figure 206. Audio scale ruler
A
B
A. Audio Scale Ruler B. Clip
There are three right-click display options in the Audio Scale Ruler:
• Percentage. Shows audio scaling by percentage. For example, if the highest percentage in the
Audio Scale Ruler reads 2.0%, then only the parts of the waveform which are within 2% of the
zero crossing appear in the clip.
• dB. Shows audio scaling by dB. For example, if the highest dB in the Audio Scaling Ruler reads
-36, then only the parts of the waveform which are 36 dB below 0 dB appear in the clip.
• Zoom Factor. Shows audio scaling by a factor. For example, if the Zoom Factor reads 10, then
the waveform is zoomed in by a factor of 10.
See:
“Using loops with the Browser” on page 635
“Working with loops” on page 637
“Working with Groove Clip audio” on page 638
“MIDI Groove Clips” on page 647
“Importing Project5 patterns” on page 651
634
Working with loops and Groove Clips
The Loop Construction view
Using loops with the Browser
The Browser lets you find and import various types of content into your projects, including audio and
MIDI loops. The Browser’s Media tab makes it easy to find and import loops.
You can preview audio and MIDI files before you import them into your project. If you preview a
Groove clip, it plays back at the tempo and in the key of your current project. Audio files can be
auditioned through any bus and MIDI files can be auditioned through any soft synth.
Figure 207. Media Browser
A
B
C
DE F
G
J
H
K
L
I
A. Show Media Browser B. Browser menu C. Content Location menu D. Dock/undock E. Docking options
F. Expand/collapse G. Move up one level to the parent directory H. Search filter I. File list J. Play/Stop
To import an audio or MIDI file
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains the file you want to import.
3. Do one of the following:
• To insert into an existing track as a new clip. Double-click the file to add it to the selected
track at the current Now time, or drag the file to the desired location.
Note: A new track is created if the file type is not compatible with the selected track.
• To insert into a new track. Drag the file to en empty space in the Track view, below the last
track.
• To replace the selected clip.
Drag the file to the Clip Inspector.
• To insert into a cell in the Matrix view. Make sure the Matrix view is visible, then drag the
file to the desired Matrix cell.
Working with loops and Groove Clips
Using loops with the Browser
635
To preview audio content
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. On the Browser menu, select Auto-Preview.
3. On the Browser menu, point to Audio Preview Bus, then select the bus you want to preview
audio through.
4. Navigate to the folder that contains the audio content you want to preview, then click the file you
want to preview.
Note: Auto-Preview is enabled by default. If you disable Auto-Preview, you must click the Play
button each time you want to preview the selected audio file.
Tip: To preview an audio file as a Groove Clip, hold down the ALT key and click the file. To preview
all selected files as Groove Clips, hold down the ALT and click the Play button
.
The Play button changes to a Stop button during preview.
To preview MIDI content
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. On the Browser menu, select Auto-Preview.
3. On the Browser menu, point to Synth Preview Output, then select the soft synth you want to
preview MIDI through.
Note: If there are no synths in the project, go to Insert > Soft Synths and insert the desired soft
synth.
4. Navigate to the folder that contains the MIDI content you want to preview, then click the file you
want to preview.
Note 1: Auto-Preview is enabled by default. If you disable Auto-Preview, you must click the
Play button each time you want to preview the selected audio file.
Note 2: MIDI Groove Clips loop indefinitely, but standard MIDI files play only once and do not
repeat.
The Play button changes to a Stop button during preview.
For more information about the Browser, see “Browser” on page 537.
See:
“Working with loops” on page 637
“Working with Groove Clip audio” on page 638
“MIDI Groove Clips” on page 647
“Importing Project5 patterns” on page 651
636
Working with loops and Groove Clips
Using loops with the Browser
Working with loops
You can make any audio clip into a loop by selecting the Looping check box in the Clip Inspector’s
Groove Clip section. Once looping is enabled, you can drag out loops to create multiple repetitions.
There are several other ways to enable looping:
To enable or disable a clip for looping
1. Double-click on the clip you want to loop.
The Loop Construction view appears.
2. In the Loop Construction view, click the Enable Looping button
.
Or
In the Track view, select a clip and press CTRL+L or right-click the clip and choose Groove Clip
Looping on the pop-up menu.
To create repetitions of a loop
1. Set the Snap value if you want the loop to repeat at precise time boundaries.
2. Move the cursor over the end of the loop-enabled clip until the cursor looks like this
.
3. When the cursor changes, click the end or beginning of the clip and drag it to the right (if you are
dragging out from the end) or left (if you are dragging from the beginning).
The clip repeats itself until you stop dragging.
To create partial repetitions of a loop
1. Move the cursor over the end of the loop-enabled clip until the cursor looks like this
.
2. When the cursor changes, click the end or beginning of the clip and drag it to the right (if you are
dragging out from the end) or left (if you are dragging from the beginning).
If the Snap to Grid button
is on, you can create a partial loop as small as the Snap to Grid
setting allows. For example, if your Snap to Grid setting is set to quarter notes, you can create
partial repetitions as small as a quarter of a measure.
See:
“Using loops with the Browser” on page 635
“Working with Groove Clip audio” on page 638
“MIDI Groove Clips” on page 647
“Importing Project5 patterns” on page 651
Working with loops and Groove Clips
Working with loops
637
Working with Groove Clip audio
Groove clips are .wav files that behave similarly to Sony Media Software’s ACIDized loops (SONAR
also has MIDI Groove clips—see “MIDI Groove Clips” on page 647). Groove clips contain
information about the audio content, including the original tempo, original reference pitch, number of
beats in the loop, and audio transient information.
See:
“How Groove Clips work in SONAR” on page 638
“Using Groove Clips” on page 639
“Creating and editing Groove Clips” on page 640
“Using pitch markers in the Track view” on page 644
“Working with REX files” on page 646
How Groove Clips work in SONAR
Groove clips have information saved within them which allow them to adjust to changes in tempo
and pitch. Groove clips can read a project’s tempo and tempo changes, and can adjust their root
note pitch when they read pitch markers. You can add pitch markers in the Track view’s Time Ruler
to transpose the Groove clip. As your project passes over a pitch marker, SONAR transposes your
Groove clips based on the clip’s root note reference pitch. If you insert no pitch markers in your
project, there are no pitch changes in your Groove clips. The default project pitch is C.
Note 1: When working with Groove clips, it is important to know the difference between key and
pitch. Your project’s key signature has no effect on Groove clips. The pitch of your Follow
Project Pitch-enabled Groove clips is dictated by pitch markers in the Time Ruler. If there are no
pitch markers in your project, these Groove clips play at the pitch set in Project > Set Default
Groove Clip Pitch (the default is C).
Note 2: Groove clips must be at least one beat in length. If you try to loop-enable a clip of a
shorter duration you may experience distortion or artifacts.
See also:
“Working with Groove Clip audio” on page 638
“Using Groove Clips” on page 639
“Creating and editing Groove Clips” on page 640
638
Working with loops and Groove Clips
Working with Groove Clip audio
Using Groove Clips
Groove clips are easy to use because they automatically adjust to your project’s pitch markers and
tempo. You can import existing loops or create your own, using the Loop Construction view.
To import a Groove Clip into your project
1. Select a Track in the Track view.
2. Set the Now Time to the place you want the clip to begin.
3. Select File > Import > Audio from the menu.
The Open dialog appears.
4. Navigate to a directory that contains Groove clips and select one.
5. Click Open.
Or
1. Open the Browser and click the Media button
.
2. Navigate to a directory that contains Groove clips.
3. Drag and drop a clip into the Track view, or double-click it to insert it at the Now Time.
4. The clip appears on the track and at the time in your project where you drop it, so if you want the
clip on a new track, drop it after the last track in your project.
By default, Groove clips are loop-enabled and transposed to match the project’s pitch.
Setting the default project pitch
Go to Project > Set Default Groove Clip Pitch and specify the default pitch.
Your project now uses the root note of your clips to transpose to the project pitch. Use Pitch markers
at different points in your project to change the pitch. For more information about Pitch markers, see
“Using pitch markers in the Track view” on page 644.
Working with loops and Groove Clips
Working with Groove Clip audio
639
Creating and editing Groove Clips
Any audio clip can be converted to a Groove clip. Groove clips contain tempo, beat, and pitch
information which SONAR uses to stretch and transpose the clips to match the project. Most Groove
clips are loop-enabled, meaning that you can use the mouse to drag clip repetitions in the Track
view. Groove clips can be either loop-enabled or not, although they usually are. When a Groove clip
is loop-enabled, its edges appear beveled. It is sometimes desirable to create clips that follow the
project’s tempo and key, but are not intended to loop. The following is a list of the attributes
contained in a Groove clip:
• Beats in clip. The number of quarter notes in a clip. A four measure clip in 4/4 time should have
16 beats. When you enable looping for a clip, SONAR calculates the number of beats in the clip
using an algorithm. This calculation is very often accurate, but in some cases, for instance when
the clip has a very slow or very fast tempo or if the clip has an unusual number of beats, then the
number of beats in a clip may have to be edited manually in the Beats in clip field.
• Original tempo. The original tempo of the recording. SONAR uses the original tempo to adjust
to your project’s tempo. The original tempo must be specified for stretching clips.
Note: When you loop-enable a clip, SONAR calculates the original tempo of the clip, and unless
the clip’s length is in exact beat or measure increments, the original tempo that SONAR
calculates may vary from the recorded tempo. These fluctuations are usually quite small and do
not affect the quality of the Groove clip you create.
• Reference note. The original key of the recorded clip. SONAR uses the Reference note when it
transposes Groove clips to match your project’s pitch.
These attributes can be edited in the Loop Construction view. For more information about the Loop
Construction view, see “Loop Construction view” on page 1767.
To set the number of beats in a Groove Clip
When you open a clip in the Loop Construction view, SONAR determines the number of beats in the
clip. In some cases the beat value may not be correct. The beats in clip value can only be changed if
the clip is loop enabled.
Do the following to change value in the Beats in clip field.
• Click the Plus or Minus button to the right of the Beats in clip field until the correct value is
displayed.
To change the Loop Construction view Time ruler display
You can display the Loop Construction view Time Ruler in measures or in samples. To toggle
between the two modes, double click the Time Ruler.
640
Working with loops and Groove Clips
Working with Groove Clip audio
To set the tempo of a Groove Clip
When creating a new Groove clip, SONAR sets the clip’s tempo to the current project tempo. To
ensure proper stretching behavior you mu