Cakewalk Sonar X2 User guide

Cakewalk Sonar X2 User guide
SONAR X2
Reference Guide
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the part of Cakewalk, Inc. The software described in this document is furnished under a
license agreement or nondisclosure agreement. The software may be used or copied only in accordance of the terms of the agreement. It is against the law to copy this software on any medium
except as specifically allowed in the agreement. No part of this document may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and
recording, for any purpose without the express written permission of Cakewalk, Inc.
Copyright © 2012 Cakewalk, Inc. All rights reserved.
Program Copyright © 2012 Cakewalk, Inc. All rights reserved.
ACID is a trademark of Sony Creative Software, Inc.
Cakewalk is a registered trademark of Cakewalk, Inc. and the Cakewalk logo are trademarks of
Cakewalk, Inc. Other company and product names are trademarks of their respective owners.
Visit Cakewalk on the World Wide Web at www.cakewalk.com.
Getting started
If you want to get up and running quickly, please use the following tutorials, which are tailored to
learning specific tasks in SONAR. If you are new to Cakewalk products, you may want to start at
Tutorial 1. If you have used previous versions of Cakewalk, or you want to do a specific task, choose
from the following tutorials:
“Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects” on page 101
“Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser” on page 115
“Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments” on page 121
“Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments” on page 125
“Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation” on page 133
“Tutorial 6 – Editing your music” on page 143
“Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects” on page 149
“Tutorial 8 – Working with video” on page 159
“Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing” on page 169
“Glossary” on page 1905. A list of defined terms.
“Introduction” on page 53. An overview of SONAR’s features and functionality.
“Troubleshooting” on page 1251. Answers to frequently asked questions.
“New features in SONAR X2” on page 1309. Descriptions of new features in SONAR X2.
Note: This documentation covers SONAR X2 Producer, SONAR X2 Studio and SONAR X2
Essential. The documentation indicates if a feature only applies to a specific edition of SONAR
X2. For a list of key differences between each edition, see “Comparison” on page 1335.
3
Getting started
4
Getting started
Table of contents
Getting started. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Music composition and exploration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remixing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Game sound development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sound production and engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Web authoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Film and video scoring and production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Publishing music on the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Burning audio CDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Computers, sound and music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Digital audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing I/O devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR file types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working on a project. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Screen colors and wallpaper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Color presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52
52
52
52
53
53
53
54
54
54
54
55
55
56
57
58
62
64
67
71
72
73
73
91
91
93
Installing SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Starting to use SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
2 Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Creating a new project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Opening project files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Playing project files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Configuring your sound device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Setting the track outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Playing the project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Looping project files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Saving project files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
3 Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Finding and previewing audio loops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Previewing MIDI groove clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Adding audio loops to your project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
4 Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Troubleshooting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
5 Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Adding an instrument track to your project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Manually entering MIDI notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
6 Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Printing your notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
7 Tutorial 6 – Editing your music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Undo and Redo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Moving clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Splitting clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Cropping clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
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Table of contents
8 Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Volume and pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
Adding effects (FX) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Using Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
9 Tutorial 8 – Working with video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Importing video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What if I don’t see the Video Thumbnail pane or Video view? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the video properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting your video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
158
160
160
162
164
10 Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Burning an audio CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Cakewalk Publisher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Uploading audio to SoundCloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
11 Controlling playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
The Now time and how to use it . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Now time marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Track view Now Time display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying the Now time in large print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Time ruler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling the transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Handling stuck notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Looping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Transport, Markers, Punch and Loop modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track-by-track playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Mix module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Silencing tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soloing tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dim Solo mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exclusive Solo mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Solo Override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inverting the phase of a track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing tracks’ mono/stereo status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
176
178
179
180
182
184
186
187
188
193
194
196
196
198
199
200
200
201
7
Changing track settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Setting up output devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Assigning Inputs & Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Assigning tracks to mono hardware outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Choosing the instrument sound (bank and patch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Adding effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Adjusting volume and pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Configuring panning laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Adjusting volume trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Assigning a MIDI channel (Chn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Adjusting the Key/transposing a track (Key+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Adjusting the note velocity (Vel+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Adjusting the time alignment of a MIDI track (Time+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Other MIDI playback settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
Local control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Playing files in Batch mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
The Play List view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Video playback, import, and export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Importing and playing back videos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Exporting video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Optimizing video performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Using the Video Thumbnails pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Video playback on a FireWire DV device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
Exporting a project to a FireWire DV device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Synchronizing external video playback to audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Locating missing audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
The Find Missing Audio dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Restoring missing audio files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Managing shared and external files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
12 Recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Creating a new project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Using per-project audio folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Creating a new project file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Setting the Meter and Key signatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Setting the Metronome and Tempo settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Setting the audio sampling rate and bit depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Sony Wave-64 support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
Setting the MIDI timing resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
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Table of contents
Preparing to record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing an input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arming tracks for recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auto arming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arming tracks during playback/recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording music from a MIDI instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input quantizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arpeggiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the arpeggiator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Confidence recording and waveform preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Live Input PDC override . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Audio Engine button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Punch recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step recording. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step record keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step pattern recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording specific ports and channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Input filtering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing music and sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing audio files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing audio CD Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing material from another SONAR project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing OMF projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing MIDI files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing audio / MIDI files from the Clips pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving your work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Labeling your projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
File statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
258
258
259
261
262
263
264
265
267
270
273
275
276
280
282
283
286
289
294
296
297
298
299
299
301
301
302
304
304
305
307
309
9
13 Arranging and editing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Arranging tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Changing the order of tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
Inserting tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
Configuring the display of tracks in the Track view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
Copying tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Erasing tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Working with track templates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Track icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Configuring Track view controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Arranging clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Displaying clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Using the Navigator view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Opening views by double-clicking clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Selecting clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Using the Select tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Moving and copying clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Aim Assist line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Reverting clip(s) to original time stamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Locking Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
Auto scroll lock in Clips pane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
Clip groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Nudge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Nudge settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
Working with partial clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
Markers and the snap grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Showing gridlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Defining and using the Snap Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
Snap offsets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
Creating and using markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
TAB to transients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Working with linked clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Splitting and combining clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Take lanes and comping takes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Take lane controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
Using Take lanes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Toggling a clip’s mute status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Audition (selection playback). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Isolating (clip soloing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
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Track folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding effects in the Track view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing tempos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Transport module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Tempo view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Undo, redo, and the undo history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slip-editing (non-destructive editing). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using slip-editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slip-editing multiple clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fades and crossfades. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using fades and crossfades in real-time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enhanced editing with keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigating with a keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting with a keyboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing with a keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
376
379
380
381
384
388
390
390
392
393
393
397
400
401
402
14 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Selecting tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting the data type to edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Smart tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Move tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timing tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Freehand tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Line tool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pattern tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Erase tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mute tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scrub tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zoom tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snap to Grid settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying note durations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mouse cursors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
408
414
420
427
431
435
440
443
446
449
452
454
458
462
463
464
466
467
11
Using tools to perform common tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 471
Working with audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473
Working with MIDI clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478
Working with MIDI notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482
Working with automation envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485
Working with AudioSnap transients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 490
15 Control Bar overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493
Tools module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496
Snap module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 500
Transport module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502
Loop module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505
Mix module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507
ACT module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
Screenset module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510
Performance module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512
Punch module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514
Select module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
Markers module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 516
Event Inspector module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
Sync Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518
16 Inspectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
Track Inspector overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527
Track Inspector controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 530
Properties Inspector overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
Properties Inspector - Clip Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544
Properties Inspector - Track Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551
Properties Inspector - Bus Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
17 Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 557
Docking/undocking and resizing the Browser window. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559
Using the Media Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561
Adding Browser objects to your project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564
Using Content Location presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569
Keyboard navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571
Using the Plug-in Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572
Adding effects and instruments to a project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573
Using FX Chain presets (.fxc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577
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Table of contents
Using the Synth Rack Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579
Managing instruments in a project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584
18 AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 587
Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590
Editing transient markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595
Enabling/disabling AudioSnap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
Using the AudioSnap palette. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608
Editing a clip’s tempo map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611
Changing a project’s tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614
Fixing timing problems in audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615
Adjusting the timing of a solo performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616
Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships
617
Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622
Making multiple clips/tracks groove together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 622
Quantizing audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 623
Extracting MIDI timing information from audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631
General editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633
Snapping edits to audio beats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633
Splitting beats into clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 635
Slip-stretching audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640
Adding automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640
Using the Pool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641
Groove Quantize and Quantize to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643
Algorithms and rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644
19 Working with loops and Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 649
The Loop Construction view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Construction controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using loops with the Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Groove Clip audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How Groove Clips work in SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Groove Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and editing Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing slices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving Groove Clips as Wave files/ACIDized Wave files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
650
650
654
656
657
657
658
659
662
663
13
Using pitch markers in the Track view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 663
Working with REX files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664
MIDI Groove Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666
Exporting and importing MIDI Groove clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668
Importing Project5 patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 670
20 Editing MIDI events and continuous controllers (CC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671
Event Inspector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673
The Piano Roll view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675
Note Map pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676
Drum Grid pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 676
Notes pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
Controller pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
Track List pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
Opening the view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678
Working with multiple tracks in the Piano Roll view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678
Note names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680
Displaying notes and controllers (Piano Roll view only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 681
Adding and editing notes in the Piano Roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682
Selecting notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682
Editing notes with the global tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684
Piano Roll view snap resolution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 689
Show velocity on selected notes (optional) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690
Selection sensitive velocity drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 691
Hiding events in muted clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 692
Adding and editing controllers in the Piano Roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693
Multiple automation controller lanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694
Adding controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697
Selecting controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 699
Select controllers within note duration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 699
Piano Roll Microscope mode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700
The Inline Piano Roll view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703
Displaying the Inline Piano Roll view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703
The MIDI scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 704
Displaying notes and controllers in the Inline Piano Roll view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 705
Selecting and editing events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707
Copying and pasting MIDI data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707
Transposing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 708
Inserting time or measures into a project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 709
Stretching and shrinking events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 712
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Table of contents
Reversing notes in a clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding crescendos and decrescendos. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the timing of a recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fit Improvisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Snap to Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Searching for events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controllers, RPNs, NRPNs, and automation data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Event List view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event List buttons and overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting events in the Event List view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event List display filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing events and event parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Additional event information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI effects (MIDI plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI effects presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Echo/Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Filtering events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Arpeggio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Analyzing chords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing velocities with the Velocity effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transposing MIDI notes with the Transpose MIDI effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
715
715
716
717
724
728
732
732
737
740
741
743
743
744
745
747
748
748
749
750
751
753
754
755
21 Drum maps and the Drum Grid pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757
The basics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and editing a drum map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Drum Map Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working in the Drum Map Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Map Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saving a drum map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using drum maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assigning a MIDI track to a drum map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening a drum map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying tracks in the Drum Grid pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Velocity tails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing note velocities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Previewing a mapped sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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758
758
758
760
761
762
763
763
763
764
765
765
766
15
The Note Map pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767
Changing mapped-note settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767
The Drum Grid pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769
Grid lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769
22 Editing audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771
Digital audio fundamentals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772
Basic acoustics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772
Example—a guitar string . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 772
Waveforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 775
Recording a sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 776
The decibel scale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777
Audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778
Managing audio data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778
Basic audio editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 779
Editing clip properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780
Moving, copying, pasting and deleting audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780
Audio scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780
Splitting audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783
Bouncing to clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785
Scrubbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786
Basic audio processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787
Using the Normalize and Gain commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788
Reversing audio data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789
Advanced audio processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790
Removing silence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 790
Removing DC offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792
Applying fades and crossfades offline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 792
Audio effects (audio plug-ins) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795
Real-time audio effects processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795
Destructive audio effects processing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 796
23 Software instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797
Synth Rack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 798
Synth tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800
Inserting soft synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800
Using instrument tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 804
Opening a soft synth’s property page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807
Synth Rack icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808
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Table of contents
Playing a soft synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Muting and soloing soft synth tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rename synths in the Synth Rack view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multi-port soft synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting your soft synth tracks to audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Assignable Controls feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating controls from the Synth Rack. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Synth Rack automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remote control of the Synth Rack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawing soft synth automation in the Clips pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Soft synth MIDI output support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording a soft synth’s MIDI output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReWire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReWire instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting a ReWire instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Routing MIDI data to ReWire instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing down ReWire instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating ReWire instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReWire troubleshooting guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stand-alone synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing a stand-alone synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recording a stand-alone synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
808
811
811
812
813
815
816
816
817
817
818
818
819
819
820
822
822
823
823
824
824
825
24 Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 827
Preparing to mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the Console and Track views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mixing a MIDI track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Converting MIDI to audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Signa l flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sidechaining signal flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Routing and mixing digital audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stereo buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround buses (SONAR Producer and Studio only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main outs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert Send Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
829
831
834
834
835
837
839
839
840
841
843
844
17
Metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 847
What the meters measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 848
Hiding and showing meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 848
Changing the meters’ display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 849
Segmented and non-segmented meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 851
Changing the meters’ performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852
MIDI activity indicators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 853
Peak markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 854
Waveform preview for buses and synth tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855
Freeze tracks and synths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856
Using real-time effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860
Effects parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861
How to use real-time effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861
Presets and property pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 864
Bypassing effects globally . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 867
Effects on clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 868
Sidechaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 870
Sidechainable Vintage Channel VC-64 plug-in (Producer only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873
External Insert plug-in (Producer and Studio only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874
Effects chains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880
Using FX Chain presets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 882
Using assignable controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887
Customizing the FX Chain UI (Producer and Studio only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891
Organizing plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893
VST configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893
V-Vocal clips (Producer and Studio only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 896
Using V-Vocal (Producer and Studio only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 898
Playing back V-Vocal clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900
Pitch editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 900
Editing time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903
Editing formants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904
Editing dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905
Context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905
V-Vocal pitch-to-MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906
Keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907
Using the per-track EQ (Studio and Essential only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 909
Applying audio effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911
Applying MIDI effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911
Using control groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912
Quick Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915
18
Table of contents
Using remote control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Learn option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bouncing tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Real-time bounce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing to create an Audio CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preparing audio for distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting OMF files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dithering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Burning audio CDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cakewalk Publisher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
917
918
919
921
923
924
933
934
935
936
25 Surround Mixing (Producer and Studio only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937
Surround basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring SONAR for surround mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using surround format templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing a surround format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Routing in surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Downmixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Panning in surround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controlling surround panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Automating surround panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Joystick support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround metering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bass management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The SurroundBridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect property pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
How to patch and configure surround effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing surround mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting surround mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
938
939
939
942
943
943
944
946
947
952
952
953
954
955
955
956
956
956
959
960
19
26 ProChannel (Producer only). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 961
Using ProChannel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 964
ProChannel modules and controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 969
PC76 U-Type Channel Compressor module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 975
PC4K S-Type Bus Compressor module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 977
QuadCurve Equalizer module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 979
Tube Saturation module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 985
Console Emulator module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 986
FX Chain module. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 990
27 Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 999
Quick automation guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001
Automation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1002
Automation write modes (Producer and Studio only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1003
Automation time base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1004
Automation Read and Automation Write buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1005
Recording individual fader or knob movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007
Automation lanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1008
Automation lane controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011
Using Automation lanes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1013
Creating and editing automation envelopes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1017
Automating track and bus mute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1028
Envelope mode and Offset mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1029
Converting MIDI controllers to envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1032
Snapshots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1033
Automating effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1034
Automating individual effects parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1034
Recording automation data from an external controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1036
28 Window management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1039
Docking windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1040
MultiDock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1044
Floating views and using dual video monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1049
Locking views. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1050
Tiling windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051
Screensets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1052
Using Screensets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1053
X-Ray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1057
20
Table of contents
29 Templates and key bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1061
Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Template example: three MIDI instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing key bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting key bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1062
1063
1064
1067
1067
30 Notation and lyrics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1069
The Staff view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening the Staff view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Staff pane layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Staff pane right-click menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Fretboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fretboard pop-up menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic musical editing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting notes on the staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting notes with the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving, copying, and deleting notes on the staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Moving notes from within the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing note properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deglitch dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with triplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beaming of rests. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the way notes are displayed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using enharmonic spellings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Channels and the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chords and marks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding chord symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding expression marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding hairpin symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding pedal marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1071
1071
1072
1073
1074
1076
1077
1078
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1083
1084
1084
1085
1087
1088
1088
1091
1092
1093
21
Tablature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1095
Tablature settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1095
Changing Fretboard texture and orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1096
Quick TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097
Regenerate TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1097
Entering notes from the TAB staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098
Single note editing from the TAB staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098
Editing chords or groups of notes from the TAB Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1098
Editing notes and chords from the Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1099
Working with percussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1100
Setting up a percussion track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101
Setting up a percussion staff or line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1101
Ghost strokes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1103
Printing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1104
Export to MusicXML (Producer only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1105
The Meter/Key view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106
What Is meter? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1106
What Is key? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1107
Opening the Meter/Key view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1107
Adding and editing meter/key changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1108
Music notation for non-concert-key instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1109
Working with lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1110
Adding and editing lyrics in the Staff view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1111
Opening the Lyrics view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112
Adding and editing lyrics in the Lyrics view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112
31 Instrument definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115
Assigning instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1116
Importing instrument definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1119
Creating instrument definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1120
Creating and editing patch name and other lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1123
Copying name lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
Assigning the Bank Select method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1125
Assigning patch names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1127
Assigning note names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1128
Assigning controller, RPN, and NRPN names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1130
SONAR flags in instrument definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131
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Table of contents
Instrument definition tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Why use instrument definitions?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What can they do and not do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Where do instrument definitions come from? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Start of tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1132
1132
1132
1132
1133
32 System exclusive data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1137
What is System Exclusive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sysx events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the System Exclusive view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sending Sysx banks at startup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing, creating, and dumping Sysx banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
More about Dump Request Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Sysx banks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sysx view menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transmitting banks during playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Real-time recording of System Exclusive messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sysx echo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sysx .ini file settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1138
1138
1139
1140
1141
1143
1144
1144
1146
1147
1147
1148
1149
33 Synchronizing your gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1151
Synchronization overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Choosing clock sources: SONAR as master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI synchronization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR as the slave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR as the master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using MIDI Sync with drum machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting MIDI Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMPTE/MIDI time code synchronization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playing digital audio under SMPTE/MTC sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SMPTE/MTC sync and full chase lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Troubleshooting SMPTE/MTC sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Machine Control (MMC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
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1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1159
1160
1163
1164
1165
1166
23
34 Audio file management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1169
The Project Files dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1170
Project files and bundle Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1171
Audio folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1172
Global audio folders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1172
Per-project audio folders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1173
Imported audio files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174
Backing up projects with digital audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1175
Deleting unused audio files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1177
35 Improving audio performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1179
System configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180
The Wave Profiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180
Enabling and disabling audio devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1181
Sampling rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1182
Bit depths and float resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1182
Bit depths for playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1183
Bit depths for recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1184
Bit depths for importing audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1185
Bit depths for exporting audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1185
Bit depths for rendering audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1185
Preparing higher-quality audio for CD burning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1186
SONAR project file compatibility notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1186
Improving performance with digital audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1187
Getting the most out of your computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1187
Mixing latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1190
ASIO drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1190
Minimize driver state changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1191
Queue buffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1191
Multiprocessor load balancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1193
Reduce GUI updates to improve playback performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194
24-bit tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1194
Dropouts and other audio problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1195
Optimized picture cache redrawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1203
Improving recording performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1204
MIDI Prepare Buffer Size and automation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1204
Using audio devices in Windows 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1205
WASAPI support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1205
MMCSS task profile support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1206
WaveRT updates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1207
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Table of contents
36 External devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1209
Roland A-PRO controllers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1210
Setting up control surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1212
ACT MIDI Controller plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216
Using the ACT MIDI Controller property page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1216
ACT presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1217
Assigning controls on your controller/surface to cells in the ACT MIDI property page .
1217
Cakewalk Generic Surface plug-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1219
Loading Cakewalk Generic Surface presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1219
Assigning faders and knobs to control SONAR parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1220
Controlling different tracks or groups of tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1223
The Cakewalk Generic Surface property page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1224
Euphonix EuCon control surface support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1229
The WAI display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1230
ACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1232
Importing ACT data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1233
OPT panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1234
Working with StudioWare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1234
StudioWare panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1235
Using StudioWare panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1236
Grouping controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1238
Recording control movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1241
Control settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1244
StudioWare Panel drawing speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1244
37 Using CAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1245
Running CAL programs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample CAL files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPLIT NOTE TO TRACKS.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPLIT CHANNEL TO TRACKS.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RANDOM TIME.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THIN CONTROLLER DATA.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THIN CHANNEL AFTERTOUCH.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
THIN PITCH WHEEL.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MAJOR CHORD.cal, MINOR CHORD.cal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
1246
1246
1247
1247
1247
1247
1248
1248
1248
25
38 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1249
Installation Error: DeleteFile Failed; code 5 Access Denied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1251
Setting up an internal audio card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1252
Configuring an audio interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1253
Audio dropouts or crashes during playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1254
My MP3 encoder stopped working. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1254
When I play a file I don't hear anything (MIDI project) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1255
I can't record from my MIDI device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1255
I can't record any audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1256
I hear an echo when I record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1257
Dropouts happen at high bit-depths or high sample rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1257
Patching an effect into SONAR causes a dropout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1258
I can’t open my project / File Recovery mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1259
No sound from my software instrument/synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1261
SONAR doesn't recognize new plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1261
My waveforms are gone, but I still hear audio; it says Busy in the corner of the clip . . 1262
I get an error message when I change a project to 24-bit audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1263
Bouncing tracks takes a long time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1263
The Now time is not smooth during playback or scrolls out of view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1264
Plug-in windows flicker or don't display properly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1264
I get a Burn Error or No Drive is Detected error when burning a CD directly from SONAR.
1265
Known issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1266
Session Drummer 3 performance (Producer only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1266
Session Drummer 2 issues (Studio only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1266
HLP files cannot be opened in Windows 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1267
TTS-1 DXi does not support 88.2 kHz sample rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1267
Plug-in delay compensation re-sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1268
SONAR x64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1268
Backwards compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1269
Windows 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1270
39 Hardware setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1271
Connect your MIDI equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1272
Set up to record digital audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1275
26
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40 MIDI files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1279
Timebases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supported MIDI file meta-events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Features not supported by MIDI files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other MIDI file handling notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special handling of GM, GS, and XG MIDI files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If you have problems playing MIDI files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
If you plan to publish your songs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1280
1281
1281
1281
1282
1282
1283
41 Initialization files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1285
Initialization files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initialization file format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cakewalk.ini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TTSSEQ.INI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
AUD.INI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1286
1287
1287
1295
1299
42 New features in SONAR X2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1307
Skylight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Perform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deliver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Misc. enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1309
1315
1318
1319
1322
1328
1329
1330
43 Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1333
44 Included plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1339
Audio effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1343
MIDI effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1376
Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1379
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45 Cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1393
Cyclone toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1394
Pad groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1395
Pad inspector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1396
Loop bin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1397
Loop view and Key Map view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1397
Pad editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1398
Slice inspector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1398
Using Cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1399
Controlling individual pads—volume, pan, mute, solo, sync, looping, and content 1402
Mixing down Cyclone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1403
Loop editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1403
Keyboard shortcuts in Cyclone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1404
Undo and redo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1405
46 Menu reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1407
File > New . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1407
File > Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1407
File > Revert. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1407
File > Close . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1408
File > Save . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1408
File > Save As . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1408
File > Import > Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1409
File > Import > Audio CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1409
File > Import > Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1410
File > Import > MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1410
File > Export > Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1410
File > Export > Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1411
File > Export > MIDI Groove Clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1411
File > Export > OMF. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1411
File > Export > Track Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1411
File > Print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1411
File > Print Preview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412
File > Print Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412
File > Send. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412
File > Recent File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412
File > Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1412
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Edit > Undo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Redo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > All AudioSnap/Stretched Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > By Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > By Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > From = Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > Thru = Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > From = Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > Thru = End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Select > Select Track Envelopes with Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Aim Assist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Cut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Cut Special . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Copy Special. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Paste. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Paste Special . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Delete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Delete Special. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit > Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Groove Clip Looping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clip Mute/Unmute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split Clip(s) at AudioSnap Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clip Lock > Lock Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clip Lock > Lock Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Control Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Track View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Inspector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Console View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Piano Roll View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Step Sequencer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1413
1413
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Views > Matrix View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1422
Views > Staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1422
Views > AudioSnap Palette . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1422
Views > Loop Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1422
Views > Event List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1423
Views > Lyrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1423
Views > Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1423
Views > Big Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1423
Views > Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
Views > Tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
Views > Meter/Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
Views > Sysx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
Views > Navigator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424
Views > Surround Panner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
Views > Icons > Show Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
Views > Icons > Track View > Show Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
Views > Icons > Track View > Large Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
Views > Icons > Track View > Small Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
Views > Icons > Track View > Show in Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
Views > Icons > Track View > Show Custom in Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1425
Views > Icons > Track View > Show in Strip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
Views > Icons > Track Inspector > Show Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
Views > Icons > Track Inspector > Show Large Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
Views > Icons > Track Inspector > Show Small Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
Views > Icons > Console > Show Icons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
Views > Icons > Console > Show Large Icons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
Views > Icons > Console > Show Small Icons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1426
Views > Icons > Synth Rack > Show Large Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
Views > Screensets > Screenset 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
Views > Screensets > Screenset 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
Views > Screensets > Screenset 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
Views > Screensets > Screenset 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1427
Views > Screensets > Screenset 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1428
Views > Screensets > Screenset 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1428
Views > Screensets > Screenset 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1428
Views > Screensets > Screenset 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1428
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Views > Screensets > Screenset 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Screenset 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Revert Current Screenset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Lock/Unlock Current Screenset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Rename Current Screenset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 3 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 4 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 5 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 6 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 7 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 8 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 9 . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Duplicate Current Screenset to > Screenset 10 . . . . . . . . . . .
Views > Screensets > Import Screensets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Audio Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > MIDI Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Soft Synth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Soft Synth > Plug-in Layouts > Manage Layouts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > ReWire Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Multiple Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Track Folder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Track Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Stereo Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Surround Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Bank/Patch Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert > Series of Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Apply Effect > Audio Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Apply Effect > MIDI Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Apply Effect > Remove Silence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Apply Effect > Extract Timing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Apply Effect > Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Apply Effect > Normalize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Apply Effect > Remove DC Offset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Process > Apply Effect > Fade/Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1432
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1434
1434
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1434
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1436
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Process > Apply Effect > Crossfade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1437
Process > Apply Effect > Reverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1438
Process > Quantize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1438
Process > Groove Quantize. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1439
Process > Transpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1439
Process > Slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1440
Process > Nudge > Left 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1440
Process > Nudge > Right 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1440
Process > Nudge > Left 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1440
Process > Nudge > Right 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1440
Process > Nudge > Left 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1441
Process > Nudge > Right 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1441
Process > Nudge > Up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1441
Process > Nudge > Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1441
Process > Nudge > Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1441
Process > Find/Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1442
Process > Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1442
Process > Scale Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1442
Process > Retrograde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1443
Process > Deglitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1443
Process > Fit to Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1443
Process > Fit Improvisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1444
Process > Run CAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1444
Project > Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1444
Project > Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1444
Project > Insert Meter/Key Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1445
Project > Insert Tempo Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1445
Project > Insert Series of Tempos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1445
Project > Insert Time/Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1445
Project > Insert Marker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1445
Project > Set Default Groove Clip Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1446
Project > Set Timecode at Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1446
Project > Set Measure/Beat at Now. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1446
Utilities > Consolidate Project Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1446
Utilities > Clean Audio Folder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1447
Utilities > Change Audio Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1447
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Utilities > Cakewalk Publisher. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities > Share with SoundCloud. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities > Burn Audio CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities > CWAF Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities > External Encoder Configuration Utility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utilities > Cakewalk Plug-in Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Ruler Format > M:B:T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Ruler Format > H:M:S:F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Ruler Format > Samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Ruler Format > Milliseconds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Window > Full Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Window > Cascade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Window > Tile in Rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Window > Tile in Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Window > Arrange Icons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > SONAR Online > Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > SONAR Online > User’s Forum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > SONAR Online > Videos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Audio > Configuring your audio interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Troubleshooting > Problems with registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Troubleshooting > Frequently asked questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Download Latest Help File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > View ReadMe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Quick Start. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Usage Logger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Register Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > Time Trial Activator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Help > About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove From Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Start = Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set End = Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert Audio Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert MIDI Track. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Hide Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1469
Set Snap-to = Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1469
90 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1469
78 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1469
60 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1470
42 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1470
24 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1470
12 dB Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1470
Set As Current Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1470
Delete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1471
Set Loop Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1471
Select Loop Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1471
Set Punch Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1471
Punch On/Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1471
Loop On/Off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1471
Set Punch Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1472
Select Punch Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1472
Jump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1472
Linear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1472
Fast Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1472
Slow Curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1473
Drag and Drop Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1473
Associated Audio Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1473
Mirror Fretboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1473
Rosewood Hi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1473
Rosewood Lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1473
Ebony Hi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1474
Ebony Lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1474
Maple Hi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1474
Maple Lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1474
Animate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1474
Insert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1474
Delete. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1475
Original Size. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1475
Stretch to Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1475
Preserve Aspect Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1475
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Integral Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Full Screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display Format > M:B:T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display Format > SMPTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display Format > Frames. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display Format > None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time Display Format > Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background Color > Black . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Background Color > White . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reset Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete Node . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lock Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enable Floating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zoom tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Previous Zoom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show All Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record Meters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playback Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output Bus Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record Meter Options > Peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record Meter Options > RMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record Meter Options > Peak + RMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record Meter Options > Show Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Record Meter Options > Lock Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playback Meter Options > Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playback Meter Options > RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playback Meter Options > Peak + RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playback Meter Options > Show Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playback Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Playback Meter Options > Lock Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output Bus Meter Options > Peak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output Bus Meter Options > RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Output Bus Meter Options > Peak + RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Output Bus Meter Options > Show Labels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1482
Output Bus Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1482
Output Bus Meter Options > Lock Peaks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1482
Playback Meter Options > Pre Fader. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1482
Output Bus Meter Options > Pre Fader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1482
Playback Meter Options > Post Fader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1482
Output Bus Meter Options > Post Fader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1482
Output Bus Meter Options > Pre Fader Post FX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1483
Percentage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1483
dB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1483
Zoom Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1483
Show and Fit Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1483
Show only Selected Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1483
Hide Selected Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1483
Show All Tracks and Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1484
Undo View Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1484
Redo View Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1484
Create Track Envelopes Using Linear Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1484
Snap to Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1484
Select tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1484
Erase tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1485
Draw tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1485
Open Clip Effects Bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1485
Insert New Track(s) or Bus(es) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1485
Split tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1485
Mute tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1486
Exclusive Solo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1486
Add Clip to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1486
Show Pool Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1486
Add MBT to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1487
Quantize to Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1487
[Track view] View > Navigator Show/Hide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1489
[Track view] View > Video Thumbnail Show/Hide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1489
[Track view] View > Auto Zoom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1489
[Track view] View > Display > Display Ghosted Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1490
[Track view] View > Display > Display Track Separators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1490
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[Track view] View > Display > Display Clip Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1490
[Track view] View > Display > Display Clip Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1490
[Track view] View > Display > Show Audio Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1490
[Track view] View > Display > Maximize Waveform Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1490
[Track view] View > Display > Vertical Grid Lines > None . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1491
[Track view] View > Display > Vertical Grid Lines > Behind Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1491
[Track view] View > Display > Vertical Grid Lines > In Front of Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1491
[Track view] View > Fit Tracks and Buses to Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1491
[Track view] View > Fit Project to Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1491
View > Fit MIDI Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1491
View > MIDI Microscope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1492
[Track view] View > View Undo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1492
[Track view] View > View Redo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1492
[Track view] Options > Auto crossfade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1492
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1492
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Fade-In Curve > Linear . . . . . . . . 1492
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Fade-In Curve > Slow Curve . . . . 1493
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Fade-In Curve > Fast Curve . . . . . 1493
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Fade-Out Curve > Linear . . . . . . . 1493
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Fade-Out Curve > Slow Curve . . . 1493
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Fade-Out Curve > Fast Curve . . . 1493
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves > Linear Out - Linear
In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1494
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves > Fast Out - Fast In 1494
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves > Slow Out - Slow In . . .
1494
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves > Fast Out - Slow In 1494
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves > Slow Out - Fast In 1495
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves > Linear Out - Fast In . .
1495
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves > Linear Out - Slow In . .
1495
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves > Fast Out - Linear In . .
1495
[Track view] Options > Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves > Slow Out - Linear In . .
1495
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Left Click Sets Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1496
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[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Right Click Sets Now . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1496
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Left Click Locks Scroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1496
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > MIDI Clips > -Nothing- . . . . . 1496
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > MIDI Clips > Event List View 1496
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > MIDI Clips > Staff View . . . . 1496
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > MIDI Clips > Piano Roll View 1497
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > MIDI Clips > Inline Piano Roll View . .
1497
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > Audio Clips > -Nothing- . . . . 1497
[Track view] Options > Click Behavior > Double-Click > Audio Clips > Loop Construction
View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1497
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Record Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1497
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Playback Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1497
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1498
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Horizontal Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1498
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Vertical Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1498
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Show Numeric Peak Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1498
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Show Track Peak Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1498
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Show Bus Peak Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1498
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Reset All Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1499
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > Peak . . . . . . . . . . . 1499
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > RMS . . . . . . . . . . . 1499
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > Peak + RMS . . . . . 1499
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > -12 dB . . . . . . . . . . 1499
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > -24 dB . . . . . . . . . . 1499
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > -42 dB . . . . . . . . . . 1500
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > -60 dB . . . . . . . . . . 1500
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > -78 dB . . . . . . . . . . 1500
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > -90 dB . . . . . . . . . . 1500
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > Show Labels . . . . . 1500
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . . . . 1501
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Record Meter Options > Lock Peaks . . . . . . 1501
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1501
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1501
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Peak + RMS. . . . . . . 1501
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Pre Fader . . . . . . . . . 1501
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Post Fader . . . . . . . . 1502
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[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > -12 dB . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > -24 dB . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > -42 dB . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > -60 dB . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > -78 dB . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > -90 dB . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Show Labels . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Track Meter Options > Lock Peaks . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Peak. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > RMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Peak + RMS. . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Pre Fader . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Post Fader . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Pre Fader Post FX . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > -12 dB . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > -24 dB . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > -42 dB . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > -60 dB . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > -78 dB . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > -90 dB . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Show Labels . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Hold Peaks . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Meter Options > Bus Meter Options > Lock Peaks . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Drag and Drop Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Zoom Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Set Now Time With Full Restart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Options > Stop at Project End . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Make Instrument Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split Instrument Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Tracks > Bounce to Track(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Tracks > Clone Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Tracks > Wipe Track(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Track view] Tracks > Copy Track Name(s) to Clip Name(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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[Track view] Tracks > Hide Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1508
Track Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1508
[Track view] Tracks > Sort Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1509
[Track view] Tracks > Selected Track Input Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1509
[Track view] Tracks > Selected Track Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1509
[Track view] Tracks > Selected Track Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1509
[Track view] Clips > Apply Trimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1509
[Track view] Clips > Bounce to Clip(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1510
[Track view] Clips > Convert to Mono . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1510
[Track view] Clips > Fade clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1510
[Track view] Clips > Add to Clip Group > New . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1510
[Track view] Clips > Remove from Clip Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1511
[Track view] Clips > Revert Original Time Stamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1511
[Track view] Clips > Set Snap Offset to Now Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1511
[Track view] Clips > Select All Siblings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1511
[Track view] Clips > Unlink. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1511
[Track view] Clips > Unlink Step Sequencer Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1512
[Track view] Clips > Convert MIDI Clip(s) to Step Sequencer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1512
[Track view] Clips > Convert MIDI Controllers to Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1512
Show Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1512
Show Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1512
Show/Hide Velocity Tails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513
Show Velocity on Selected Notes Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513
Show All Controllers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513
[Track view] MIDI > Select Controllers Along With Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513
Show Controller Handles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513
Show Clip Outlines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1513
Hide Muted Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1514
[Track view] V-Vocal > Create V-Vocal Clip. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1514
[Track view] V-Vocal > Remove V-Vocal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1514
[Track view] V-Vocal > V-Vocal Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1514
[Track view] V-Vocal > Bypass/Unbypass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1514
[Track view] V-Vocal > Bypass all V-Vocal Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1515
Save as groove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1515
Copy as MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1515
Set project tempo from clip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1515
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Clip follows project tempo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit clip tempo map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show/Hide Track Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Show/Hide Controller Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Show/Hide Drum Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Show Vertical Gridlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Quarter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Quarter Triplet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Eight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Eight Triplet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Sixteenth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Sixteenth Triplet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > 32nd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > 32nd Triplet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > 64th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Piano Roll] View > Grid Resolution > Follow snap settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pick Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Next Track(s). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show Previous Track(s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Show All Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hide All Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Invert Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] Print > Export to ASCII Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] Print > Export to MusicXML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] Edit > Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] Edit > Quick TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] Edit > Regenerate TAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] Edit > Play Previous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] Edit > Play Next . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] View > Show/Hide Fret Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] View > Display Resolution > 1/4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] View > Display Resolution > 1/8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] View > Display Resolution > 1/16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] View > Display Resolution > 1/32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] View > Fill Durations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Staff view] Edit > Trim Durations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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[Console view] Strips > Tracks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1521
[Console view] Strips > Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1521
[Console view] Strips > Mains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1521
[Console view] Strips > Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1521
[Console view] Strips > MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
[Console view] Strips > Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
[Console view] Strips > Muted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
[Console view] Strips > Archived . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
[Console view] Strips > Frozen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
[Console view] Strips > Widen All Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
[Console view] Strips > Narrow All Strips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1522
[Event List view] View > Event Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1523
[Event List view] View > Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1523
[Event List view] View > Key Aftertouch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1523
[Event List view] View > Controller. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1523
[Event List view] View > Patch Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1523
[Event List view] View > Channel Aftertouch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1524
[Event List view] View > Pitch Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1524
[Event List view] View > RPN. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1524
[Event List view] View > NRPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1524
[Event List view] View > Sysx Bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1524
[Event List view] View > Sysx Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1524
[Event List view] View > Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1525
[Event List view] View > Lyrics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1525
[Event List view] View > MCI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1525
[Event List view] View > Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1525
[Event List view] View > Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1525
[Event List view] View > Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1525
[Event List view] View > Hairpin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1526
[Event List view] View > Chords. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1526
[Event List view] Tracks > Show cropped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1526
[Lyrics view] Fonts > Font A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1526
[Lyrics view] Fonts > Font B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1526
[Lyrics view] Fonts > Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1526
[Lyrics view] Fonts > Hyphenate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1526
[Lyrics view] Tracks > Pick Track. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1527
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[Sysx view] File > Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] File > Send. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] File > Send All . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] File > Receive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] File > Save . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] File > Clear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] Edit > Edit Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] Edit > Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] Settings > Auto Send on/off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
[Sysx view] Settings > Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Left Click Positions Rectangle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horz Zoom Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horz Zoom Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horz Zoom Level 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horz Zoom Level 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horz Zoom Level 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Horz Zoom to Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Height Short . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Height Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Height Tall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Replace Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Post-FX bin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Modules as Default for Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Modules as Default for Buses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Add button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remove control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Write Enable Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Default Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All Parameters - Set Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
All Parameters - Set End. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Learn Knobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Learn Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
1527
1527
1527
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1527
1528
1528
1528
1528
1528
1529
1529
1529
1529
1530
1530
1530
1530
1531
1531
1531
1531
1532
1532
1532
1532
1533
1533
1533
1533
1534
1534
1534
1534
1535
1535
43
Customize UI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1535
47 Beginner’s guide to Cakewalk software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1537
MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1539
MIDI channels, interfaces, inputs, and outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1540
MIDI drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1542
MIDI files, projects, tracks, and clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1543
Controlling which sounds you hear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1545
Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1547
Audio playback in SONAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1548
Tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1550
Clips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1551
Track-by-track playback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1552
Audio recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1554
Connecting an instrument, home stereo, or microphone to your sound card . . . . 1554
Choosing inputs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1559
Audio hardware (sound cards) and drivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1562
Consumer and professional. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1562
How do I know if I have a hardware conflict? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1563
Installation and drivers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1563
48 Dialog box reference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1567
About SONAR dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1567
Apply Audio Effects dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1567
Apply MIDI Effects dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1568
Assign Series of Inputs dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1568
Audio CD Burner dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1568
Audio Mixdown Options dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1570
Automation Read/Write Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1570
Auto-Send Sysx dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1571
AVI Encoder Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1571
Bank Name dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1573
Bank Output dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1573
Bank/Patch Change dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1573
Bounce to Track(s) dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1574
Change Audio Format dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1577
Chord Fret Number dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1577
Chord Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1577
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Table of contents
Choose Track Type dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clean Audio Folder dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Associated Audio Files dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clone Track(s) dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complete Registration dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller/Surface Settings dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convert MIDI To Shapes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convert MIDI Clip(s) To Step Sequencer dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copy dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Create Fx Envelopes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crossfade dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controller/Surface Settings dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cut dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Define Groove dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Define Instruments and Names dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deglitch dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delay dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Delete dialog (with multiple selection). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drag and Drop Options dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dump Request Macro needs your input—Channel/Unit Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dump Request Macro needs your input--Patch/Voice/Config Number. . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit Node dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit System Exclusive Bytes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Filter dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Filter Select Some/Search/Replace dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Export Audio dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dump Request Macro needs your input—Channel/Unit Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dump Request Macro needs your input--Patch/Voice/Config Number. . . . . . . . . . . .
Duration dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit Node dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Edit System Exclusive Bytes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Event Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Export Color Set dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Export MIDI Groove Clip dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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1578
1579
1579
1580
1581
1582
1582
1583
1584
1584
1585
1585
1586
1587
1588
1588
1589
1589
1590
1591
1591
1591
1592
1592
1592
1594
1595
1599
1599
1600
1600
1600
1601
1601
1602
45
Export OMF dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1602
Expression Text Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1603
Export Track Template. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1604
Fade/Envelope dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1604
Fade Selected Clips dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1605
File Info dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1606
File Statistics dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1607
File Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1607
Find Missing Audio dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1607
Fit to Time dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1608
Freeze Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1609
Gain dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1610
Go dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1611
Groove Quantize dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1613
Group Attributes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1615
Group Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1615
Hairpin Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1617
Import Audio dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1617
Import Audio CD Tracks dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1619
Import Color Set dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1620
Import Instrument Definitions dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1620
Import MIDI dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1621
Import Video File dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1621
Insert Pitch Change dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1623
Insert Series of Controllers dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1623
Insert Series of Tempos dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1624
Insert Soft Synth Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1624
Insert Time/Measures dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1626
Insert Tracks dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1626
Find/Change and Event Filter dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1627
Kind of Event dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1627
Length dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1627
Load Pattern dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1629
Lyric Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1629
Map Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1629
Marker dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1630
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Table of contents
Markers dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measure Beat/Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meter/Key Signature dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Microsoft Media Format Encode Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Envelope dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Event Type dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI Input Presets dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migrate Cakewalk Preferences dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Missing Plug-ins dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MP3 Export Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rename Screenset dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
New Project File dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No MIDI Inputs—SONAR dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No MIDI Outputs—SONAR dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Normalize dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note Names dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Note Properties dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Online Registration dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Open Groove File dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paste dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patch Browser dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pedal Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percent Done dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Percussion Notation Key dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pick Track(s) dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preferences dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio - Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio - Driver Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio - Playback and Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio - Audio Profiles (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio - Configuration File (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Audio - Sync and Caching (Advanced). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI - Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI - Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI - Control Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI - Playback and Recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIDI - Drum Map Manager (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
1631
1631
1631
1632
1633
1633
1633
1634
1634
1635
1636
1637
1637
1638
1638
1638
1639
1639
1639
1640
1640
1642
1643
1643
1643
1645
1645
1648
1650
1654
1657
1659
1661
1664
1666
1668
1671
1673
47
File - Folder Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1674
File - Audio Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1679
File - VST Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1681
File - Initialization File (Advanced). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1684
File - Advanced (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1686
Project - Record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1688
Project - MIDI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1691
Project - Metronome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1694
Project - AudioSnap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1696
Project - Clock (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1698
Project - Surround (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1700
Customization - Display. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1704
Customization - Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1705
Customization - Nudge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1722
Customization - Snap to Grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1724
Customization - Editing (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1726
Customization - Keyboard Shortcuts (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1730
Customization - Audio Meter (Advanced) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1732
Print dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1735
Print Preview dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1735
Print Setup dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1736
Project Files dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1737
Quantize dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1738
Fast Zoom Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1740
Reassign Envelopes dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1740
Receive System Exclusive dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1741
Regenerate Tablature dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1741
Remote Control dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1743
Remove DC Offset dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1744
Remove Silence dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1744
Retain Cakewalk Preferences dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1746
Revert dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1746
Safe Mode dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1746
Save As dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1747
Save Pattern dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1748
Scale Defaults dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1749
Scale Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1749
Scale Velocity dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1750
Search for Missing Audio dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1751
48
Table of contents
Select By Time dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Default Velocities for Steps dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Select Fretboard Track dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Set Timecode at Now Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slide dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SONAR Quick Start dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sort Tracks dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Split Clips dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Staff View Layout dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Staff View Print Configure dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Record dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Step Size dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SurroundBridge Plug-in Linker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sysx Bank Name. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tablature Settings dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tempo dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Inputs dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Manager dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Outputs dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transpose dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Undo History dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unlink Clips dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unpack Bundle dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unpack OMF dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Unreadable Files dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video Export dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Track Control Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Windows Media Format Encode Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
WMV Encoder Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insert Send Assistant dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Missing MIDI Ports dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Silent Buses Detected dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rename Cell dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adjust Velocity Multiplier dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix Options dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table of contents
1751
1751
1752
1752
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1757
1759
1759
1760
1760
1761
1762
1762
1763
1763
1764
1765
1765
1766
1767
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1773
1774
1774
1774
49
Quantize to AudioSnap Pool dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1775
Choose File Type dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1775
Usage Logging dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1775
Loop Properties dialog—Audio Stretching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1776
Loop Properties dialog—Audio Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1778
Control Properties dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1779
Settings dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1779
Fault Reporter dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1780
Rename Effect dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1780
Extra Encoding Options dialog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1780
Input Quantize dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1784
Snap Scale Settings dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1784
49 View reference. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1787
Track view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1788
SONAR empty view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1796
Piano Roll view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1796
Piano Roll view menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1797
Note Map pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1798
Drum Grid pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1799
Notes pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800
Controller pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800
Track List pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1800
Step Sequencer view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1801
Step sequencer interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1802
Step Sequencer view menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1803
Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1804
Rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1806
Notes pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1809
Controllers pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1810
Keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1811
Using the Step Sequencer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1812
Working with rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1813
Working with steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1815
Working with Controller events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1822
Working with patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1825
Using the Step Sequencer with drum maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1827
Working with Step Sequencer clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1828
Event List view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1830
50
Table of contents
Staff view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lyrics view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Console view interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Channel strips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Console view menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customizing the Console view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Console view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Video view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tempo view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meter/Key view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Markers view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SYSX view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Big Time view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Construction view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix view user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Matrix view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Matrix view shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Navigator view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Play List view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surround panner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1831
1833
1834
1835
1837
1849
1855
1857
1860
1866
1867
1869
1869
1869
1870
1870
1874
1874
1876
1885
1898
1898
1899
1900
50 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1903
51
52
Introduction
SONAR is a professional tool for authoring sound and music on your personal computer. It’s
designed for musicians, composers, arrangers, audio and production engineers, multimedia and
game developers, and recording engineers. SONAR supports Wave, MP3, ACIDized waves, WMA,
AIFF and other popular formats, providing all the tools you need to do professional-quality work
rapidly and efficiently.
SONAR is more than an integrated MIDI and digital audio authoring software package—it’s an
expandable platform that can function as the central nervous system of your recording studio. With
drivers for common high-end audio hardware, full support for audio plug-ins, software synthesizers,
StudioWare, MFX MIDI plug-ins, and MIDI Machine Control (MMC) of external MIDI gear, SONAR
can handle your most demanding projects.
In This Chapter
About SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Computers, sound and music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Starting SONAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
SONAR basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Screen colors and wallpaper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Installing SONAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
About SONAR
SONAR is the flagship product of the Cakewalk line of integrated MIDI and digital audio sequencers
for the Windows platform. SONAR has a comprehensive feature set that makes it the single most
productive tool for sound and music authoring. Here are some of the ways you can use SONAR.
Next topic: “Publish” on page 54
Publish
Publishing usually means printing your music; it’s one way to share your finished product with other
performers. After you’ve recorded and arranged a song in SONAR, you can produce printed lead
sheets and small scores with lyrics for sharing. You can also share the music files themselves.
SONAR will save your music in a format that you can put on a web site or email to other people.
Next topic: “Music composition and exploration” on page 54.
Music composition and exploration
SONAR is a powerful music-composition application, providing tools to record your own musical
performances; enhance or improve the quality of those performances; and edit, arrange, and
experiment with the music. With a few simple clicks of the mouse, you can arrange, orchestrate, and
audition your composition. Fully integrated sequencing allows you to combine the convenience and
flexibility of MIDI composition with the high-quality sound and subtlety of digital audio sound
recording and reproduction. Change the feel of a piece by locking it to a musical groove, or add
delicate delays, anticipations, or echoes that add richness to the music.
SONAR displays and lets you edit your music using standard musical notation and guitar tablature,
so you can adjust individual notes, add performance markings, and print individual parts or full
scores. You can graphically draw tempo and volume changes, or add lyrics to display on-screen or
to include with printed scores.
Next topic: “Remixing” on page 54.
Remixing
SONAR’s Groove clips allow you to import, create, export and edit loops, making it possible to
quickly change tempos and keys for an entire project. The Browser view lets you preview loops in
the project’s tempo and key before dragging and dropping them onto a track.
Next topic: “Game sound development” on page 55.
54
Introduction
About SONAR
Game sound development
There’s no better tool than SONAR for composing music for electronic games. Clip-based
sequencing lets you create and reuse musical themes freely, so you can associate musical sections
with game characters, locations, objects, and actions. Your creations can be saved and replayed
using the compact MIDI file format, which adapts its sound automatically to the target hardware for
the best possible sound reproduction.
Next topic: “Sound production and engineering” on page 55.
Sound production and engineering
If you want to produce music CDs or master tapes, SONAR has virtually everything you need from
recording to mixing and mastering. Multichannel recording lets you capture studio or live
performances track by track. Reconfigurable buses provide full control over your mix. Real-time
stereo effects like chorus, flange, reverb, and delay/echo can be applied as track inserts, in effects
loops, or to the master mix. SONAR supports 44.1 KHz sampling for CD-quality sound, 24-bit/96
kHz sound for DVD-quality sound, and lets you choose from lower or higher sample rates as well. All
audio effects are 32-bit floating point for faster processing and high-quality sound reproduction.
Many effects now support 64-bit processing for pristine quality.
Next topic: “Web authoring” on page 55.
Web authoring
SONAR is the ideal tool for developing and producing music and sound for the World Wide Web,
because it lets you save your work in the formats that are most commonly used on web sites: MIDI,
MP3, and Windows Media Advanced Streaming Format. Any SONAR project—musical composition,
audio clip, commercial spot, jingle with voice-over—can be stored in a web-compatible format with a
few simple mouse clicks.
Next topic: “Film and video scoring and production” on page 56.
Introduction
About SONAR
55
Film and video scoring and production
SONAR has many of the tools you need to execute audio post-production projects quickly and
efficiently. SONAR provides chase lock sync to time code for frame-by-frame accuracy when
synchronizing audio or MIDI to film or video. Or, you can turn chase lock off to conserve CPU power.
SONAR provides high-quality time stretching and sample-accurate editing with zero-crossing
detection so you can make the fine adjustments you need very quickly and easily. In addition,
SONAR’s support for video files gives you convenient synchronized access to digitized video,
making film and video scoring easier than ever.
Next topic: “Publishing music on the Internet” on page 56.
Publishing music on the Internet
Cakewalk Publisher allows you to easily present and share your music online. With Cakewalk
Publisher, you can create a customized streaming music player with a playlist of your music, upload
it to your personal or band's Web site, and embed it in any other Web site. You can also update your
playlist with album art, links (URLs), and artist, track, & album information.
SoundCloud is an online music sharing service that allows you to upload and share your music with
others online. The integrated Cakewalk SoundCloud application enables you to upload sounds,
artwork, and metadata to the SoundCloud service directly from SONAR.
Next topic: “Burning audio CDs” on page 56.
Burning audio CDs
SONAR has integrated Audio CD burning, which allows you to write your audio tracks to an audio
CD that can be played in any standard CD player.
Next topic: “Flexibility” on page 56.
Flexibility
SONAR works the way you want to work—you can customize screen layouts and audio and MIDI
system configurations to make your work more efficient. SONAR integrates with other sound editing
tools so you can access them in an instant without leaving SONAR. There are custom software
modules to support specialized audio devices from Roland and Yamaha. SONAR’s unique
StudioWare technology provides software interfaces for common studio hardware.
Next topic: “Computers, sound and music” on page 57.
56
Introduction
About SONAR
Computers, sound and music
This section provides some background on the different ways that computers store and play sound
and music. Computers work with sound and music in two different forms: MIDI and digital audio.Next
topic: “MIDI” on page 57.
MIDI
MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is the way computers communicate with most
sound cards, keyboards, and other electronic instruments. MIDI refers to both the type of cables and
plugs used to connect the computers and instruments, and to the language those computers and
instruments use to talk to each other. The MIDI standard is accepted and used worldwide. Almost
any electronic instrument you buy today will have MIDI connectors and can be used with other MIDI
instruments and with your computer’s MIDI interface. To record MIDI in SONAR, you have to have a
MIDI cable connecting the MIDI OUT port on your MIDI instrument to a MIDI IN port on either your
sound card or your MIDI interface. You must also make sure that you have installed the software
MIDI driver that came with your sound card or MIDI interface.
The MIDI language conveys information and instructions, both from the computer to the instrument
and from the instrument to the computer. For example, if your computer wants your keyboard to play
a note, it sends a MIDI “Note On” message and tells the keyboard which note to play. When your
computer wants the keyboard to stop playing that note, it sends another message that stops the note
from playing.
The MIDI language has many other instructions, such as messages to change the sound that is
used to play the notes (the bank and patch), messages that enable working with the sustain pedal
and the pitch-bend wheel, and others. By sending the right messages at the right times, your
computer can control your electronic instrument and make it play music.
MIDI information can be sent on 16 different channels. You can set up your MIDI equipment to listen
for messages on all channels or on only a few.
MIDI files contain all the MIDI messages and timing information that are needed to play a song. MIDI
files can be read and played by many different programs, including SONAR, and can even be played
by programs on other types of computers. MIDI files have the extension .mid.
There are several important advantages of the MIDI format:
• Large amounts of music can be stored in a very compact form
• Different parts of a piece can easily be assigned to any instrument you can imagine
• The music contains information on notes, tempos, and key signatures that makes it possible to
display and edit the piece using standard musical notation
The primary disadvantage of MIDI is that the quality of the sound a listener hears will vary depending
on the MIDI equipment the listener is using. For example, MIDI usually sounds much better on an
expensive synthesizer than it does on an inexpensive sound card.
Next topic: “Digital audio” on page 58.
Introduction
Computers, sound and music
57
Digital audio
Digital audio (frequently referred to here as just “audio”) is a simple way to record and play sounds of
any type. It works like a tape recorder—you record something, then later play it back. Digital audio
stores the sound as a long series of numbers. To record audio in SONAR, you have to have an audio
cable connecting the audio output of your electronic instrument to the audio input on your sound
card or audio hardware. If you’re recording vocals or an acoustic instrument, you need to connect a
microphone to the audio input on your sound card or audio hardware.
Sound Waves
Sound waves are vibrations in the air. Sound waves are generated by anything that vibrates; a
vibrating object causes the air next to it to vibrate, and the vibration is passed through the air in all
directions. When the vibrating air enters your ear, it makes your eardrum vibrate, and you hear a
sound. Likewise, if the vibrating air hits a microphone, it causes the microphone to vibrate and send
electrical signals to whatever it's connected to.
These vibrations are very fast. The slowest vibration frequency you can hear is about 20 vibrations
per second, and the fastest is around 16,000 to 20,000 vibrations per second.
Recording digital audio
To record digital audio, your computer monitors the electrical signal generated by a microphone, an
electric guitar, or another source. At equal intervals of time (for CD-quality sound, this means 44,100
times a second), the computer measures and saves the strength of the electrical signal from the
microphone, on a scale from 0 to 65,535.
That's it. Digital audio data is just a long series of numbers. The computer sends these numbers, in
the form of electrical signals, to a speaker. The speaker then vibrates and generates the same
sound that was recorded.
The primary advantage of digital audio is the quality of the sound. Unlike MIDI, a digital audio
recording is very rich, capturing all the nuances, overtones, and other characteristics of the sound
exactly as performed. The main drawback of digital audio is that it takes up a lot of disk space. To
record a 1-minute segment of stereo, CD-quality digital audio, you need about 10 megabytes of disk
space.On the computer, digital audio is usually stored in Wave files (extension .wav). There are
many programs available that let you create, play, and edit these files. SONAR reads, writes, and
lets you edit Wave files.
Next topic: “Setup” on page 59
58
Introduction
Computers, sound and music
Setup
You can install SONAR on any computer that runs Windows 7 and has a sound card or built-in
sound module. If you want to hook up other devices, like a MIDI keyboard, an electric guitar, or a
microphone, you need the right cables, and you need to find the right connectors on your computer.
Note: SONAR X2 Producer and Studio provide native Windows x64 support. SONAR X2
Essential runs as a 32-bit program on a Windows x64 system.
Before you install SONAR, take a minute to register the software so we can let you know when
updates become available and provide you with technical support. To register anytime log onto
www.cakewalk.com/register, or call 1.888.CAKEWALK (+1.617.423.9004 outside the U.S.) between
1 PM and 6 PM Eastern Standard Time. If you live outside of North America, please visit our
distributor’s page at www.cakewalk.com/Dealers/International.asp to get the telephone number of
your local distributor. You’ll need to supply your serial number, your name, and a valid email
address.
To connect a MIDI keyboard to your computer you will need a MIDI interface. Some sound cards
include a builti-in MIDI interface. If your model does not, there are many options available at your
local music store. Many of these will connect to your computer via USB.
If you have a dedicated MIDI interface, lots of electronic music gear, or work with many different
music software packages, see “Hardware setup” on page 1273.Before you attach or detach any
cables from your computer, you should shut down your computer and turn off the power to all your
equipment. This greatly reduces the chance of electrical damage to your equipment while plugging
and unplugging cables.
User accounts
Previous versions of SONAR required a user to have Windows Administrator status. This is no
longer the case. Any level of user can now install and run SONAR. Only one copy of SONAR per
machine is necessary for multiple users to run SONAR with each user’s personal settings.
When you first install SONAR, all application data files and .ini files are installed to the systemspecified “all users” application data folders:
Windows 7:
C:\ProgramData\Cakewalk
When you launch SONAR for the first time, all content files (such as track templates and project
templates) will be copied from the global application data folder (All Users) to the user application
data folder (User Account), before the program launches.
Introduction
Setup
59
If you install a SONAR patch on top of the original installation, any updated content files in the patch
will not overwrite existing content files in your personal user application data folder. However, you
can force SONAR to update the default content files in your personal user data folder.
Warning: The following action will overwrite any SONAR data files such as track templates and
project templates that you may have customized. A message box will prompt you if you want to
continue or cancel. Only proceed if you are certain that you will not overwrite any important
customized files.
To force SONAR to update and overwrite any default content files, hold down the CTRL key while
starting SONAR.Data in the Program Files folder will be common to all users.
Next topic: “Audio connections” on page 60
Audio connections
There are several types of audio interfaces (soundcards). CardBus (PCI), USB/USB2 and FireWire
are the most common. Laptops can use an audio PCMCIA card. Many audio interfaces also have
MIDI inputs and some have built in MIDI synthesizers as well. This section covers the various audio
connection options.
Analog and digital Inputs
There are two basic types of audio inputs, analog and digital. Analog inputs allow you to connect a
guitar, mic or other instrument to your computer directly. The audio interface converts the analog
input to digital. Digital inputs allow other digital devices to connect directly to your computer.
Common digital inputs include external analog to digital converters, popular guitar processors like
the Line 6 POD, and other digital recording systems like the ADAT decks. Analog inputs are very
common, and are standard in virtually all consumer sound cards (the ones that come with your
computer). Digital inputs are becoming more popular and are very common on professional and midlevel, “prosumer” interfaces. Analog inputs allow you to record a mono or stereo signal (assuming
you have a stereo input) while digital inputs allow you to record 1 to 8 signals depending on the type
of digital connection.
60
Introduction
Setup
The following table describes the various types of analog and digital connections you may
encounter.
Cable
Type
Description
1/4 inch TRS
Balanced analog connection
XLR
Balanced analog connection
Microphones, professional audio equipment
1/4 inch TS
Unbalanced analog connection Guitar cable,
“Hi-Z”
1/8 inch “Mini” Plug
Balanced analog connection
Headphones, desktop computer speakers
RCA - Phono
Phono analog connection
Turntables, analog cassette recorders
SPDIF
Stereo digital connection
Optical (Lightpipe)
Stereo digital connection
MIDI
MIDI connection
Read your hardware documentation carefully to determine what kind of connections you have on
your audio interface.
Introduction
Setup
61
To connect an electric guitar or keyboard to your computer
• If your sound card has a 1/8 inch input jack (built-in sound cards that come with your computer
usually do), plug your 1/4 inch mono guitar or audio cable into a 1/8 inch stereo adapter, and then
plug the 1/8 inch adapter into the microphone input or line input jack on your computer sound
card. If you are connecting a keyboard, the audio cable must go from the keyboard’s audio out or
line out jack to the sound card input jack. 1/8 inch stereo adapters are available at consumer
electronic supply stores.
Or
• If you use a professional or “prosumer” sound card, there is probably a 1/4 inch input jack on your
sound card or audio hardware interface that you can plug your guitar cable or audio cable into.
Guitar
DI Box
Computer Sound Card
(or external audio interface)
Headphones or Speakers
To connect a microphone to your computer
• If your sound card has a 1/8 inch input jack (built-in sound cards that come with your computer
usually do), and your microphone cable has a 1/4 inch plug on the end, plug the mic cable into a
1/8 inch stereo adapter, and then plug the 1/8 inch adapter into the microphone input jack on your
computer sound card. 1/8 inch stereo adapters are available at consumer electronic supply
stores.
• If you use a professional or “prosumer” sound card, there is probably a 1/4 inch input jack on your
sound card or audio hardware interface that you can plug your mic cable into.
• If your mic has a cable with an XLR plug on the end, and your sound card or audio hardware
interface has a 1/4 inch input jack, plug the mic cable into an XLR-to-quarter inch adapter, and
then plug your mic cable into your audio hardware. If your audio hardware has an XLR input, of
course it’s better to use that.
• You can also plug your mic into a mixer or pre-amp, and connect the mixer or pre-amp to an input
jack on your audio hardware. This is usually the best method.
62
Introduction
Setup
Microphone input
Microphone
Computer Sound Card
(or external audio interface)
Headphones or Speakers
USB connection
USB Microphone
Computer Sound Card
(or external audio interface)
Headphones or Speakers
That's it! Now that your instruments are all set to go, you can restart your computer and turn on your
keyboard, guitar, and microphone.
For a complete description of audio input options, see “Hardware setup” on page 1273.
Next topic: “MIDI connections” on page 64
See:
“Changing I/O devices” on page 66
Introduction
Setup
63
MIDI connections
There are three types of MIDI cables in common use. Here’s how to connect each of the three types:
• USB cable. This is extremely common. Many electronic keyboards and stand-alone MIDI
interfaces use this type of connection. To use this type of connection, simply plug one end of the
USB cable into the USB jack on your MDI keyboard or stand-alone MIDI interface, and plug the
other end into your computer. If you are using a stand-alone USB MIDI interface, you then need to
connect standard MIDI cables between your MIDI keyboard and your stand-alone MIDI interface
(see the following procedure). If you haven’t already installed the software MIDI driver that came
with your keyboard or interface, make sure you do so.
• Standard MIDI cable. This is also very common. MIDI keyboards usually have jacks for these
cables even if they have a USB connection. You need two of these cables. To use this type of
cable, use one cable to connect the MIDI OUT jack on your MIDI instrument to the MIDI IN jack
on your stand-alone MIDI interface or sound card, and one to connect the MIDI IN jack on your
MIDI instrument to the MIDI OUT jack on your stand-alone MIDI interface or sound card. Many
stand-alone MIDI interfaces and audio interfaces use this type of connector.
Note: If you are only using an external MIDI controller to trigger software instruments, you only
need to connect a single MIDI cable from the MIDI controller’s MIDI OUT jack to the MIDI IN jack
on your MIDI interface.
Figure 1.
Standard MIDI cable—use this if your MIDI interface has standard 5-pin input and output ports
• Joystick connector. This is becoming less common. This is the type of connection seen on
older SoundBlaster type sound cards. To use this type of connection, find the end of one of the
MIDI cables that is labeled OUT. Plug this connector into the MIDI IN jack on your electronic
keyboard. The other 5-pin connector on the MIDI cable is labeled IN. Plug this connector into the
MIDI OUT jack on your electronic keyboard. Plug the 15-pin connector on the MIDI cable into the
MIDI/joystick port on your sound card. If you have a joystick, unplug it, plug in the MIDI cable, and
plug the joystick into the pass-through connector on the MIDI cable.
64
Introduction
Setup
Figure 2.
Joystick connector—use this if your MIDI interface is the joystick port on your sound card.
A
C
B
A. Insert this MIDI IN plug into the MIDI OUT port on your MIDI instrument B. Insert this MIIDI OUT plug into the
MIDI IN port on your MIDI instrument C. Insert this plug into the joystick port on your sound card
USB connection
USB MIDI Keyboard
Microphone input
Microphone
Computer Sound Card
(or external audio interface)
Headphones or Speakers
See:
“Changing I/O devices” on page 66
Introduction
Setup
65
Changing I/O devices
You can add or remove USB/FireWire audio and MIDI devices while SONAR is running, and the
audio and MIDI engines will dynamically respond to any changes.
When a device is added or removed, SONAR prompts you to confirm or cancel the change. If you
click Yes, playback stops and the audio and MIDI engines reload.
Preserve selected audio devices on device changes
Enabled inputs and outputs are persisted per device and per driver mode. This prevents audio ports
from shifting around and causing unwanted devices to become selected as active audio inputs and
outputs. You can add a device back at any time and SONAR will remember the last set of enabled
inputs and outputs for that device.
You can freely add or remove devices without impacting the current working set of enabled devices.
Adding a device back will remember its last selected inputs and outputs. You can also switch driver
modes and the existing enabled devices will be remembered for the next time when you switch back
to that mode.
Loading a project after changing audio devices
When loading a project after changing audio devices, SONAR will attempt to automatically remap
any missing device to an equivalent new device. If an equivalent match is not found, the Missing
Audio Outputs dialog box appears, allowing you to manually reassign any unresolved output ports.
The Missing Audio Outputs dialog box will suggest default assignments for any missing devices.
You can click OK to accept the assignments, or click Cancel to preserve the original missing device
assignments. You can also preserve the original missing device by selecting [Unassigned] from the
Available Devices list. If you choose not to reassign a missing device, the Output port selection in
SONAR will show the missing device name prefixed by MISSING.
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Note: The Missing Audio Outputs dialog box is not shown if there is only a single missing
output port and only one available output port. In this case, SONAR will automatically assign the
missing output port to the available output port.
Remapping using friendly driver names
When Use friendly names to represent audio drivers is selected in Edit > Preferences > Audio Devices, SONAR can intelligently remap devices across different hardware configurations or driver
models by using your assigned friendly driver names, even if the hardware names do not match.
This can be very useful if you switch driver modes and load projects you worked on earlier in another
driver mode, or if you collaborate with other people who have different hardware configurations. As
long as you set up friendly names that match, all outputs will be automatically remapped.
Note: Remapping with friendly names takes precedence over the actual hardware device
names.
Changing MIDI Output devices
Changing MIDI output ports in Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices has the following effect:
• Enabling a new output port. All MIDI tracks and control surfaces retain their current output
port assignments.
• Disabling an unassigned output port.
output port assignments.
All MIDI tracks and control surfaces retain their current
• Disabling an assigned output port. The result is different for MIDI tracks and control
surfaces:MIDI tracks. The Missing MIDI Ports dialog box appears and lets you remap the
missing output ports to available output ports.
Note: If you do not remap a missing device, the track’s Output control will display MISSING:
<name of missing device>. If the missing device becomes available in the future, the track will
automatically be assigned to the correct device.
• Control surfaces.
Introduction
Setup
The control surface output port is assigned to None.
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Figure 3.
The Missing MIDI Ports dialog box lets you remap missing output devices
Figure 4.
A track’s Output control shows the name of the missing device
Opening projects after MIDI configuration has changed
If any assigned MIDI output devices are missing when you load a project, which is likely to happen if
you transfer projects between different computers, SONAR will do the following:
• MIDI tracks. The Missing MIDI Ports dialog box appears and lets you remap the missing
devices to available devices.
Note: If you do not remap a missing devices, the track’s Output control will display MISSING:
<name of missing device>. If the missing device becomes available in the future, the track will
automatically be assigned to the correct device.
• Control surfaces.
Control surface output ports are assigned to None.
Automatic MIDI port remapping for control surfaces
SONAR persists the names of MIDI ports that are assigned to control surfaces. This ensures that the
correct MIDI ports are assigned to control surfaces, even if you add or remove other MIDI devices.
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Starting SONAR
There are many different ways to start SONAR. Here are a few:
• Double-click the SONAR icon on your desktop.
• Click the Start button, and choose Programs > Cakewalk > SONAR X2 (Producer, Studio or
Essential) > SONAR X2 (Producer, Studio or Essential).
• Click the Start button, point to Documents, and choose a SONAR project from the menu.
• Double-click the SONAR program or any SONAR document from the Windows Explorer or the
Find menu.
When starting SONAR, you will see the Quick Start dialog box.
Figure 5.
The Quick Start dialog
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69
The Quick Start dialog box has several options.
Option
How to use it
Open a Project
Choose a project from the Open File dialog box to open it
Open a Recent Project
Select a project from the list, and click this button to open it
Create a New Project
Click here to create a new project.
Online Videos and more
Click this link to view our tutorial videos online. An active Internet
connection is needed in order to access this content.
Getting Started
Click here to view the “Getting started” on page 3 topic in the Help file.
This topic has links to a glossary of terms, as well as some basic
procedures.
Table 1.
If you don’t want to see the Quick Start dialog box in the future, uncheck the box at the bottom of
the dialog box, and click Close. You can see the Quick Start dialog box later by choosing Help >
Quick Start.
RIFF/MID will not launch SONAR when double-clicked
Note: Double-clicking RIFF MIDI files and Standard MIDI files will fail to launch SONAR even if
these file types are associated with SONAR.
Migrating preferences
If you have a previous version of Cakewalk installed, SONAR will detect it and give you the option of
migrating certain preferences from a single earlier version.
When you choose to migrate preferences, SONAR migrates the following settings from an earlier
Cakewalk version.
Setting
Description
Global Options
Global settings in the Preferences dialog box. Open by selecting Edit >
Preferences.
Key Bindings
Your customized key bindings for controlling SONAR using your MIDI
keyboard or computer keyboard.
Table 2.
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Setting
Description
Instrument Definitions
Files used to control specific MIDI instruments.
Audio data directory (WaveData
folder) and Picture Cache directory
locations
SONAR uses the Data directory and Picture Cache directories from the
previous Cakewalk version for storing project wave files and their
waveform image files.
Table 2.
Running Wave Profiler
The first time you start SONAR, it automatically runs the Wave Profiler utility. Wave Profiler
determines the proper MIDI and Audio timings for your sound card and writes them to a file that
SONAR refers to when using the card. Wave Profiler does not change the sound card’s DMA, IRQ,
or port address settings.Wave Profiler detects the make and model of your sound card, which
determine the card’s audio characteristics. If Wave Profiler finds a card that has a WDM driver, it
only profiles that card. If you want to use more than one sound card at a time, and they don’t both
have WDM drivers, you must force the one with the WDM driver to use that driver as an older, MME
driver. It is not necessary to run the Wave Profiler for a sound card using an ASIO driver. For more
information about Wave Profiler, WDM, and MME, see “The Wave Profiler” on page 1182.
When Wave Profiler determines the kind of card you have, always accept the default settings.Setting
Note: You can run the Wave Profiler again at a later time (for example, if you install a new sound
card or driver) by choosing the Edit > Preferences > Audio - Driver Settings command and
clicking Wave Profiler.
Note: You can run the Wave Profiler again at a later time (for example, if you install a new sound
card or driver) by choosing the Edit > Preferences > Audio - Devices command and clicking
Launch Audio Profiler.
up the MIDI In and MIDI Out devices
When you start SONAR for the first time, it checks your computer to find all the MIDI input and
output devices you have installed (such as sound cards and MIDI interfaces). However, sometimes
you need to tell SONAR exactly which devices you want it to use. If you’re not getting sound from
your sound card or MIDI keyboard, or if you just want to change the MIDI outputs and devices that
you are using, follow the steps in this section.
Choose Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices to open a dialog box in which you select the MIDI In
and MIDI Out devices that SONAR will use. Each item in the list is a MIDI Input or MIDI Output from
drivers installed using the Windows Control Panel.Select Edit > Preferences to open the
Preferences dialog box, then click MIDI - Devices. This dialog box lets you choose instruments on
MIDI inputs and outputs.
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Figure 6.
The MIDI - Devices section
1. Look at the top window. Notice that it shows devices on MIDI Inputs; make sure that all devices
in this window are checked. If a device isn’t checked, click on it once to select it for MIDI Input.
2. Look at the window on the bottom. Notice that it shows devices on MIDI Outputs. SONAR
numbers its MIDI Outputs by the order of the devices in this window. The device on top is on
Output 1, the one below it is on Output 2, and so on.
3. Check one device at a time in the Outputs window and click Move Checked Devices to Top to
change its order. Then check all the devices that appear in the window to select them for
output.See “MIDI - Devices” on page 1666.
Tip: Be sure to select MIDI output devices in Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices. If you don’t do
this, you won’t hear any of your MIDI instruments when you play songs in SONAR. You do not need
to enable any MIDI output devices if you are strictly using software instruments.
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Using MIDI devices after making driver changes
If you later add or remove drivers using the Drivers icon of the Windows Control Panel, SONAR
reacts in the following way:
• If you remove a Control Panel driver, SONAR will not use the device it belongs to the next time
you run the program. Any other devices you had selected using the Edit > Preferences > MIDI Devices command will remain selected.
• If you add a driver through the Control Panel, SONAR does not automatically use it. You must use
the Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices command to enable the new driver in SONAR’s list.
Note: After you add or remove a driver with the Drivers icon in the Windows Control Panel, you
must restart Windows for the change to take effect.
Defining your MIDI instrument or sound card
Once you have selected your MIDI Input and Output devices, SONAR, by default, plays back MIDI
sequences using a General MIDI instrument definition. If you are using a synthesizer or sound card
that does not adhere to the General MIDI standard, you may want to define that instrument. For
more information, see “Instrument definitions” on page 1117.
SONAR basics
SONAR’s menus and tools give you quick access to all the features of SONAR. Some menu choices
and tools display dialog boxes that let you choose among various options, or type in the values you
want. If you click in most views, in time rulers, or on certain other items with the right mouse button,
you see a pop-up menu that provides quick access to many common operations.
The project is the center of your work in SONAR. If you’re a musician, a project might contain a
song, a jingle, or a movement of a symphony. If you’re a post-production engineer, a project might
contain a 30-second radio commercial or a lengthy soundtrack for a film or videotape production. By
default, every project is stored in a file (known as a project file). The normal file extension for a
SONAR work file is .cwp.
SONAR organizes the sound and music in your project into tracks, clips, and events.
Tracks are used to store the sound or music made by each instrument or voice in a project. For
example, a song that is arranged for four instruments and one vocalist may have 5 tracks—one for
each instrument and one for the vocals. Each project can have an unlimited number of tracks
(SONAR X2 Essential supports unlimited MIDI tracks and up to 64 audio track). Some of these
tracks may be used in your finished project, while others can hold alternate takes, backup tracks,
and variations that you might want to keep for future use. Each track can be made up of one or many
clips.
Clips are the pieces of sound and music that make up your tracks. A clip might contain a horn solo,
a drum break, a bass or guitar riff, a voice-over, a sound effect like the hoot of an owl, or an entire
keyboard performance. A track can contain a single clip or dozens of different clips, and you can
easily move clips from one track to another.
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Groove clips are audio clips which have tempo and pitch information embedded within them,
allowing them to follow changes to the project tempo or project pitch. You can click on either edge of
a Groove clip and drag out repetitions in the track.
Events are MIDI data (in MIDI tracks) or automation data.
See:
“SONAR file types” on page 74
“Opening a file” on page 75
“Views” on page 75
“Working on a project” on page 93
SONAR file types
Projects in SONAR can be saved as a project file with the extension .cwp or as a Bundle file with the
extension .cwb.For a complete description of the differences between project files and bundle files,
see “Project files and bundle Files” on page 1173.
Other types of files
SONAR lets you create and work with several other types of files, in addition to project (.cwp) and
bundle (.cwb) files that store your projects.
File type
Description
MIDI files (extension .mid)
Standard MIDI files.
Template files (extension .tpl)
Templates for new files you create
StudioWare (extension .CakewalkStudioware) To control external MIDI devices from SONAR
OMF (extension .omf)
Table 3.
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Open Media Framework format files.
Opening a file
Use the following procedure to open a file.
To open a file in SONAR
1. If you haven't already done so, start SONAR.
2. Choose File > Open.
3. In the Open dialog box, navigate to the directory where the project you want to open is located
and select it.Click the Open button.
4. If you are opening an OMF file, the Unpack OMF dialog box appears. Set the initial tempo and
specify the directory where you want to save the file and its audio. For more information about
opening OMF files, see “Unpack OMF dialog” on page 1768.
SONAR loads the project.
See:
“Working on a project” on page 93
“I can’t open my project / File Recovery mode” on page 1261
Views
SONAR displays your project in windows on the screen that are known as views. You can have
many views open at once, all showing the same project. When you edit a project in one view, the
other related views are updated automatically.
The Track view
Track view is the main window that you use to create, display, and work with a project. When you
open a project file, SONAR displays the Track view for the project. When you close the Track view
for a project, SONAR closes the file.
The Track view is divided into several sections: menu bar (at the top), the Navigator pane, the
Video Thumbnails pane, the Track pane, the Inspector pane, the Clips pane, the Bus pane, the
Browser pane, and the MultiDock.
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Figure 7.
The Track view.
C
D
E
A
F
B
G
A. Control Bar B. Inspector pane C. Track pane D. Clips pane E. Video Thumbnail pane F. Browser
G. MultiDock
All of the current track’s controls are contained in the Track Inspector, which is an expanded version
of the current track’s controls located on the far left side of the Track view. You can hide or show the
Track Inspector by pressing I on your keyboard (see “Inspectors” on page 523, for more
information).
The Track pane lets you see and change the initial settings for each track. To change the current
track, move the highlight using the mouse or the keyboard as follows.
What it does
Key
Moves the highlight to the next or previous control.
LEFT/RIGHT ARROW
Moves to the same control in the adjacent track, or the next track of the same type
if the control only applies to a specific track type (for example, the Patch control
only applies to MIDI tracks).
UP/DOWN ARROW
Displays the next page of tracks.
PAGE DOWN
Displays the previous page of tracks.
PAGE UP
Table 4.
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What it does
Key
Moves the focus to the first track.
HOME
Moves the focus to the last track.
END
Table 4.
The Clips pane shows the clips in your project on a horizontal timeline called the time ruler that
helps you visualize how your project is organized. Clips contain markings that indicate their
contents. The Clips pane lets you select, move, cut and copy clips from place to place to change the
arrangement of music and sound in your project.
The Bus pane shows the buses in the project, and also shows any editing views that are in tabbed
(docked) format. The Show/Hide Bus pane button
allows you to show or hide the Bus pane at
the bottom of the Track view.
The Navigator pane displays a large part of your project so you can see an overview of your song.
The Navigator pane displays all of your project’s tracks.
The Track view makes it easy to select tracks, clips, and ranges of time in a project.For more
information, see “Track view” on page 1790 and “Configuring the display of tracks in the Track view”
on page 319.
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Inspector pane
When working on a project, you will frequently need to access track and clip parameters and mix
controls. The Track Inspector and Properties Inspector provide easy access to relevant settings for
the selected track(s) or clip(s).
Figure 8.
Use the Track Inspector and Properties Inspector to configure track and clip settings.
A
B
C
D
H
E
F
I
G
A. Dock/undock Inspector B. Show/hide Clip Properties Inspector C. Show/hide Track Properties Inspector
D. Show/hide ProChannel E. Display area for Properties Inspector F. Display area for Track Inspectors
G. Show/hide/configure Track Inspector modules H. Section header bars (click to show controls) I. Show audio
output or MIDI settings (Instrument tracks only)
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The Inspector pane appears to the left of the Track view, but can also be moved to the right side.
There are three separate inspectors:
• Track Inspector. The Track Inspector shows mix settings for the current track, bus, or main,
and is essentially identical to a channel strip in the Console view. Advanced MIDI settings are also
available for MIDI tracks and Instrument tracks. For details, see “Track Inspector overview” on
page 529.
• Properties Inspector. The Properties Inspector shows properties for the selected clip(s) or
track(s). For details, see “Properties Inspector overview” on page 544. The Properties Inspector
has two modes:
• Clip. The Clip Properties Inspector displays settings for the currently selected clip(s). For
details, see “Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 546.
• Track. The Track Properties Inspector lets you type a track name, specify an audio track’s
AudioSnap render modes, specify the default clip colors, and enter a text description. For
details, see “Properties Inspector - Track Properties” on page 553.
• ProChannel (Producer only). ProChannel combines compression, equalization, and tube
saturation modeling in one convenient processor. ProChannel is available on each audio track,
Instrument track and bus. For details, see “ProChannel (Producer only)” on page 963.
For more information about the Inspector pane, see “Inspectors” on page 523.
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Control Bar
Much of your time in SONAR is spent recording and listening to your project as it develops. The
Control Bar contains the most important tools and other pieces of information you will need to
record, edit and play back your project.
The Control Bar consists of several modules that each contain various related controls. You can rearrange and show/hide each individual module, which allows you to only show the functions you
need most often. By default, the Control Bar is docked at the top of SONAR’s screen, but can also
be undocked or docked at the bottom.
Figure 9.
The Control Bar.
For more information about the Control Bar, see “Control Bar overview” on page 495.
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The Console view
The Console view is where you can mix the sounds on all the different tracks to create the final mix
of your project. While the Track view provides most of the same controls, you may want to use the
more familiar interface of the Console view for mixing.You use the Console view to adjust the levels
of sound for the different tracks in your project, to change the stereo panning, and to apply real-time
effects to an individual track, combinations of tracks, or the final mix.
The Console view contains several modules of controls. There is one channel strip for each track
and bus in your project. You can use bus sends to direct certain tracks to special modules that are
known as buses.
Figure 10.
The Console view
B
C
A
D
E
F
A. Console view menu B. ProChannel (Producer only) C. Pane splitter bars D. Track channel strips E. Bus
channel strips F. Main channel strips
As in the Track view, you can change track settings or record new music or sound in the Console
view. You may choose to use one view or the other, or the choice you make may depend on which
project you are working on.
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Other views
SONAR has a number of other views you can use to display and work on your project. To display
these view, choose the desired view from the Views menu, or press the view’s keyboard shortcut.
The Piano Roll view shows the notes from a MIDI track or tracks as they would appear on a playerpiano roll. You can move the notes around, make them longer or shorter, and change their pitches
by just dragging them with the mouse. You can also use the Piano Roll view to display and edit MIDI
velocity, controllers, and other types of information. The Piano Roll view also contains the Drum
Editor, which allows you to play different drum modules from a single track. For more information,
see “Piano Roll view” on page 1798.
Figure 11.
The Piano Roll view
C
A
B
A. Piano Roll view menu B. Key/Pitch pane C. Note pane
The Staff view displays the notes from one or more MIDI tracks using standard music notation,
similar to the way the notation would appear on a printed page. You can add, edit, or delete notes;
create percussion parts; add guitar chords and other notation markings; display guitar tablature;
display the Fretboard pane; and print whole scores or individual parts to share with other musicians.
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Figure 12.
The Staff view
E
D
A
B
F
G
C
H
A. Staff view menu B. Zoom in/out C. Staff pane D. Editing tools E. Time and pitch locator F. Dock/undock and
expand/collapse G. Track list pane H. Fretboard pane
The Loop Construction view allows you to create and edit Groove clips (SONAR loops that “know”
the tempo and key in which they were recorded), and export these clips as ACIDized files. For more
information, see “Loop Construction view” on page 1872.
Figure 13.
The Loop Construction view
The Browser lets you find and import various types of content into your projects, including audio and
MIDI files, track and project templates, track icons, FX Chain presets, effect plug-ins and
instruments. You can drag content and plug-ins directly into tracks.
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Figure 14.
A
The Browser.
B
C
A. Media Browser B. Plug-in Browser C. Synth Rack Browser
The Event List view displays the events in a project individually, so that you can make changes at a
very detailed level. For more information, see “Event List view” on page 1832.
Figure 15.
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The Event List view
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SONAR has several other views that are used for very specific purposes.
View
How you use it
Meter/Key
To change the meter (time signature) or key signature, or to insert changes
in the meter or key signature at specific times in a project. For more
information, see “Meter/Key view” on page 1871.
Big Time
To display the Now time in a large, resizable font that you can read more
easily. For more information, see “Big Time view” on page 1872.
Markers
To add, move, rename, or delete labels for parts of your project that make it
easier to move from one point to another. For more information, see
“Markers view” on page 1871.
Lyrics
To add and display lyrics for a track. For more information, see “Lyrics view”
on page 1835.
Video
To display a loaded video file. For more information, see “Video view” on
page 1868.
Navigator
Manage the Now Time in a project
Surround Panner (Producer and
Studio only)
Pan a surround track
Sysx
To create, display, store, and edit System Exclusive MIDI messages used to
control instruments and other gear that are MIDI capable. For more
information, see “SYSX view” on page 1871.
Tempo
To view and edit the project's tempo changes. For more information, see
“Tempo view” on page 1869.
Step Sequencer
Lets you compose patterns by clicking cells in a grid to turn notes on or off.
For more information, see “Step Sequencer view” on page 1803.
Matrix
Lets you trigger multiple audio and MIDI patterns, either with a mouse or via
MIDI remote control. For more information, see “Matrix view” on page 1876.
Table 5.
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Zoom controls
Many of the views contain Zoom tools that let you change the horizontal and vertical scale of the
view.
Figure 16.
Zoom controls
A
B
C
D
E
F
I
H
G
A. Zoom Clips pane out vertically B. Vertical Zoom fader for Clips pane C. Zoom Clips pane in vertically
D. Zoom Bus pane out vertically E. Vertical Zoom fader for Bus pane F. Zoom Bus pane in vertically G. Zoom in
horizontally H. Horizontal zoom fader I. Zoom out horizontally
The Zoom tools are used as described in the following table.
Tool
How you use it
Zoom out (Clips pane or Bus pane)
Click to zoom out incrementally, or press SHIFT and click to zoom all the
way out
Zoom in (Clips pane or Bus pane)
Click to zoom in incrementally, or press SHIFT and click to zoom all the
way in
Zoom fader
Click and drag to zoom continuously
Table 6.
You can also zoom with the keyboard.
Key
What it does
CTRL+UP ARROW
Zoom out vertically
CTRL+DOWN ARROW
Zoom in vertically
CTRL+RIGHT ARROW
Zoom in horizontally
CTRL+LEFT ARROW
Zoom out horizontally
Table 7.
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Key
What it does
Hold down Z
Arm the Zoom tool
ALT+Z
Undo the current zoom
ALT+SHIFT+Z
Redo the previous zoom
F
Fit tracks to window
A
Show all tracks
SHIFT+F
Fit project to window
SHIFT+double-click a clip
Maximize track height
F11
Full Screen mode
Table 7.
To undo/redo zoom with mouse buttons
To undo zoom (same as ALT+Z), press and hold down the right mouse button, then click the left
mouse button.
To redo zoom (same as ALT+SHIFT+Z), press and hold down the left mouse button, then click the
right mouse button.
Auto Zoom the current track
When Auto Zoom is enabled, the current track will automatically zoom and any lanes will be shown
at their minimum height, and all other tracks will be minimized. When a new track is focused, it
swaps heights with the previously focused track.
Auto Zoom allows you to show more tracks or buses simultaneously as a result of having all but one
zoomed out vertically.
Note: When Auto Zoom is enabled, it is not possible to resize individual tracks. All non-focused
tracks always have the same track height. If a non-focused track is resized, all others resize with
it. All Minimize Strip and Restore Strip buttons are also hidden.
To enable/disable Auto Zoom
Do one of the following:
• Click the Track view Views menu and select Auto Zoom.
• Press SHIFT+Z.
To specify the default Auto Zoom track height
Resize the current track.
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Zooming and scrolling in the time ruler
1. Point the mouse pointer at the top half of the Clips pane or Piano Roll view time ruler until the
mouse pointer looks like this:
.
2. Do one of the following:
• Drag up/down to zoom horizontally. Zooming is centered around the Aim Assist line. To zoom
faster, hold down the SHIFT key while dragging.
• Right-click and drag up/down to zoom tracks vertically. The current track is centered.
• Drag left/right to scroll horizontally.
• Double-click to show and fit selection (or fit project if there is no selection).
Note 1: If multiple time rulers are showing, drag in the top half of the topmost ruler.
Note 2: The Clips pane will stop scrolling while zooming in the time ruler, or if you stop zooming
while the Now time is off-screen. To resume scrolling, right-click in the time ruler.
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Docking views in the MultiDock
You can dock any view other than the Console view in the MultiDock by enabling a view’s Dock in
MultiDock option. You can have as many views open in tabbed format as you want. You can toggle
through the different views by clicking the tab of the view you want to see (or use the
CTRL+SHIFT+LEFT/RIGHT ARROW shortcut). You can also maximize the pane to do detailed work
in a view, or drag the splitter bar at the top of the view to enlarge the tabbed view area.The
MultiDock.
A
B
C
A. Each docked window has its own tab B. Click to the right of the tabs and drag the MultiDock away from the
bottom of the screen in order to undock the MultiDock C. Dock/undock and expand/collapse the MultiDock
For more information about docking view, see “MultiDock” on page 1046.
Locking views
By default SONAR allows only one instance of each view, but you can lock the contents of most
views, preserving the current view by forcing a new instance of the view to appear if necessary.
Locking views is the only way you can have multiple instances of the same view open. Only the
Track and Console views cannot be locked.
To lock a view, do one of the following:
• Click the upper left corner of a window, and choose Lock Contents from the pop-up menu.
• If the view is docked in the MultiDock, right-click the view’s tab and choose Lock Contents.
For more information about locking view, see “Locking views” on page 1052.
Floating views
When a view is float enabled, you can move it outside of the confines of SONAR. This is particularly
useful if you take advantage of SONAR’s dual monitor support. Using dual monitor support, you can
keep the Track or Console view on one monitor and “float” other views to the other monitor by
dragging them to the second screen.
For more information about floating view, see “Floating views and using dual video monitors” on
page 1051.
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X-Ray windows
The X-Ray Windows feature eliminates the need to constantly minimize, move, or close windows in
order to work in other windows. It works by decreasing the opacity of the current window enough so
that you can see and work with the window that’s behind the current window. You activate the
feature by pressing a keyboard shortcut (default shortcut is SHIFT+X) when the mouse cursor is
over a window you want to x-ray. You can choose to X-Ray whichever window is underneath the
mouse cursor, or automatically X-Ray all FX/synth property pages in one step (Note: the mouse
cursor does not need to be over any plug-in property pages).
The X-Ray Windows feature works on the following windows:
• AudioSnap palette
• Piano Roll view (when float-enabled)
• Plug-in effects and synths
• Controller/Surface plug-ins
To select key bindings for X-Ray windows
1. Use the Edit > Preferences command to open the Preferences dialog box, then select
Keyboard Shortcuts.
2. If you want to use currently unassigned keys or key combinations, scroll through the options in
the Key window until the Assigned to field that is just under the window reads Unassigned. It’s
a good idea to find two unassigned options that are next to each other or easy to remember.
Note: For best results with X-Ray Windows, avoid using ALT key combinations.
3. Once you’ve decided on two keys or key combinations that you want to use, select Global
Bindings in the Area field, and scroll to the bottom of the list of commands that are in the window
below that field.
4. In the Key window, highlight the key or key combination that you want to use for the X-Ray
command, then highlight X-Ray in the function column of the list of commands, then click the
Bind button to bind them together.
5. Now highlight the key or key combination that you want to use for the X-Ray All FX/Synths
command, then highlight X-Ray All FX/Synths in the function column of the list of commands,
then click the Bind button to bind them together.
6. Click OK to close the dialog box.
To use X-Ray windows
1. Use the Edit > Preferences command to open the Preferences dialog box, click
Customization - Display and make sure the Enable X-Ray check box is selected.
2. Make sure that the view windows you want to X-Ray are in the Floating-enabled state: to check
this, click the view or fx icon that’s in the upper left corner of a window, and select Enable
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Floating from the drop-down menu. If Disable Floating is in the menu, then the Floating option
is already enabled.
Note: All FX/Synth/Control surface property pages are float-enabled by default.
3. To X-Ray or un-X-Ray a single window, move the mouse cursor over the window, and press the
keyboard shortcut (default is SHIFT+X) for the X-Ray command. The window does not need to
have focus (does not need to be the highlighted window).
4. To X-Ray or un-X-Ray all plug-in windows at once, press the key binding for the X-Ray All FX/
Synths command.
Note: If a window has focus, and the window’s Give All Keystrokes To Plug-in button
enabled, X-Ray keyboard commands won’t work.
is
To Adjust X-Ray Windows Options
1. Use the Edit > Preferences command to open the Preferences dialog box, then click
Customization - Display.
2. On the General tab, you can adust these options:
• Enable X-Ray. Enable or disable this check box to turn the X-Ray Windows feature on or
off.
• Opacity. Adjust this value by typing in a value, or by clicking and holding the + or - button to
adjust the final opacity percentage value that an X-Rayed window reaches.
• Fade Out Time. Adjust this value by typing in a value, or by clicking and holding the + or button to adjust the amount of time that an X-Rayed window takes to reach its final opacity
percentage value.
• Fade In Time. Adjust this value by clicking and holding the + or - button to adjust the amount
of time that an X-Rayed window takes to restore its original opacity.
3. Click OK to close the dialog box and accept your changes.
To exclude a plug-in from X-Ray capablity
Some plug-ins (very few) use DirectDraw to create their windows. These windows appear jittery
when x-rayed.
To exclude a plug-in from X-Ray capablity, follow these steps:
1. Open the Cakewalk Plug-in Manager: use the Utilities > Cakewalk Plug- in Manager
command.
2. In the Plug-in Categories window, select the category that the plug-in you want to exclude is in.
3. In the Registered Plug-ins window, select the plug-in that you want to exclude.
4. If the plug-in is a DirectX effect or an MFX, write down (or select and copy) the CLSID value
that’s in the CLSID field at the bottom of the dialog box.
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5. If the plug-in is a VST or VSTi, write down the VST ID value that’s in the VST ID field at the
bottom of the dialog box.
6. Close the Plug-in Manager dialog box.
7. Open the Xrayexclude.ini file that’s in your SONAR program folder (use Notepad).
8. At the end of the file, find the [EffectProps View] section.
You will see entries such as the following:
; Waves SSL EQ Stereo
XRayExclude11=1397510483
XRayExclude12={E451379E-F7E1-4E82-98D9-BEB87AC45E90}
9. Exclude your plug-in by creating a blank line below the last entry in the [EffectProps View]
section, and then typing:
;[name of your plug-in, but withour brackets]
XRayExclude[type the next available number in XRayExclude list, but without brackets]=[VST ID
number, with no brackets, or CLSID number, with curly braces at start and finish]
For example, if the last entry in the [EffectProps View] section was:; Waves SSL EQ
Stereo
XRayExclude11=1397510483
XRayExclude12={E451379E-F7E1-4E82-98D9-BEB87AC45E90}
And you wanted to exclude the Cakewalk FxDelay from the X-Ray Windows feature, after
creating a blank line you would type:
; Cakewalk FxDelay
XRayExclude13={985DAF67-589F-4B8D-8BBC-D7AD651B9022}
If there was also a VST version of the Cakewalk FxDelay, you would add another line:
XRayExclude14=[some VST ID number, with no brackets]
10. Save and close the Xrayexclude.ini file, and restart SONAR to implement your changes.
Screensets
You may spend a lot of time making sure that all the views are laid out on the screen just the way
you want. When you save your work, SONAR automatically saves the screen layout along with it.
You can create up to 10 screensets per project and freely switch between screensets at any time.
For more information, see “Screensets” on page 1054.
Next topic: “Working on a project” on page 93.
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Working on a project
Every project has a current time, known as the Now time (see: “The Now time and how to use it” on
page 178). As you record or play back a project, the Now time shows your current location in the
project. When you create a project, the Now time is set to the beginning of the project. The current
Now time is saved with your project.
As you work with a project, you can use SONAR’s mute and solo features to choose which tracks
are played, or you can create loops to play a particular section over and over again. You can also
create markers, which are named time points you add to your project to make it easy to jump to a
particular location.
Next topic: “SONAR file types” on page 74.
Screen colors and wallpaper
SONAR lets you customize the colors that are used for virtually all parts of the program using the
Edit > Preferences > Customization - Colors command. This command also lets you change the
background bitmap that is displayed in the SONAR window.
For any SONAR screen element, you can assign a color in two ways:
• Choose one of the colors that is part of your Windows color scheme.
• Assign a custom color.
To assign custom colors
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Choose the screen element whose color you want to change from the Screen Element list.
3. Assign a color to the screen element in one of two ways:
• To use a color from the Windows color scheme, choose one of the options in the Follow
System Color list
• To use a custom color, check Use Specific Color, click the Choose Color button, and select
the color you want
4. To save these changes from session to session, check the Save Changes for Next Session
box.
5. Click OK when you are done.
SONAR uses the colors you have chosen.
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Screen colors and wallpaper
93
To restore the default colors
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. In the Screen Elements window, select the elements that you want to restore; you can CTRLclick or SHIFT-click to select multiple elements.
3. Click the Defaults button.
4. Click OK.
SONAR uses the default colors for all selected screen elements.
To change the wallpaper
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Choose the desired wallpaper according to the table.
To do this
Do this
Use the default wallpaper
Check Default in the Wallpaper list
Not use any wallpaper
Check None in the Wallpaper list
Use a custom bitmap
Check Custom, choose a bitmap, and click Open
Table 8.
3. Click OK when you are done.
See also:
“Customization - Colors” on page 1707
“Color presets” on page 95
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Screen colors and wallpaper
Color presets
Once you create a color arrangement that you like, you can save it as a preset, and then load it
whenever you want to use that arrangement. You can also load any of the many factory presets,
some of which duplicate the colors of earlier versions of SONAR. You can also import and export
color arrangements in the form of .clr files so that SONAR users can share color layouts. And you
can back up or export all of your presets with a single command, and import a group of presets that
you or another SONAR user created.
Note: Both single color presets, and collections of presets use the file extension .clr, so when
you export either the current color arrangement, or all of your presets at once, give the exported
file a name that clearly labels it as either a single preset, or as a collection of presets.
Figure 17.
The Colors section
A
B
A. Presets menu B. Import and Export buttons
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Screen colors and wallpaper
95
To load a color preset
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Click the drop-down arrow on the Presets menu to display the list of presets, then click the name
of the preset you want to load.
To save a color preset
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Adjust the color settings you want to save.
3. Type a name for your preset in the Presets menu.
4. Click the floppy disk icon
that’s next to the Presets menu to save your preset.
To export the current color arrangement
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Arrange or load the color arrangement you want to export.
3. Click the Export Colors button
.
The Export Color Set dialog box appears.
4. Navigate to the folder where you want to store your new color set file.
5. Type a name for your color set file in the File Name field.
6. Make sure that the Export Current Color Set check box is enabled.
7. Click the Save button.
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To import one or more color presets
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Click the Import Colors button
.
The Import Color Set dialog box appears.
3. Navigate to the folder where the color set file you want to import is. Both single presets and
groups of presets are stored in color set files, which use the .clr file extension.
4. Click the file that you want to import.
5. Click the Open button.
6. If your Preset menu in SONAR already contains a preset that is included in the preset collection
file you are importing, SONAR asks you if you want to overwrite the file. This happens for each
file that has the same name as a preset in the preset collection you are importing. Click Yes or
No for each file in question, or Yes All or No All to either overwrite or protect all of your current
preset files.
To export all your color presets
1. Choose Edit > Preferences to display the Preferences dialog box, then click Customization Colors.
2. Click the Export Colors button
.
The Export Color Set dialog box appears.
3. Navigate to the folder where you want to store your the exported file. This file will contain all or
your color presets.
4. Type a name for your file in the File Name field. Use a file name that you will recognize as a
collection of presets, rather than as a single color arrangement.
5. Make sure that the Export Color Presets check box is enabled.
6. Click the Save button.
Note: A file of color presets can be large, and might take a minute or so to export.
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97
Installing SONAR
SONAR is easy to install. All you need to do is choose the folder where the program and sample
project files should be stored. Before you start, make sure you have your serial number handy. Your
serial number is located on the back of your DVD case.
To install SONAR
Note: If you choose to not install the Sample files, you will not have the necessary content to
use the tutorials in Chapter 2.
1. Start your computer.Close any open programs you have running.
2. Place the SONAR installation disc in your disc drive.
If you have autorun enabled, the SONAR AutoRun menu opens automatically, showing you a
dialog box with several buttons. If autorun is not enabled, you can open the SONAR AutoRun
menu by selecting Start > Run and entering d:\AutoRun.exe (where d:\ is your disc drive).
3. Click the Install SONAR button.
Note: If you exit Setup without completing the installation, choose Start > Run, type
D:\AutoRun.exe (where D:\ is your DVD drive), and click OK. This will reopen the AutoRun
window, and you can click Install to start installation again.
4. Follow the installation instructions on the screen.
You can also install SONAR by choosing Start > Run and running the application named SETUP.EXE
from the DVD.
Uninstalling SONAR
When you installed SONAR, the setup program placed an Uninstall icon in the Start menu. To
uninstall SONAR, click the Start button and choose Programs > Cakewalk > SONAR X2
(Producer, Studio or Essential) > Uninstall SONAR X2 (Producer, Studio or Essential).
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Starting to use SONAR
This chapter has provided you with an overview of SONAR and basic information on how to install
the software and configure your system.
The following tutorials will give you some hands-on practice in playing, recording, and mixing your
projects. If you have not already done so, you may want to refer to “SONAR basics” on page 73 to
get the most out of these tutorials.
Note: If, during installation, you chose in the Select Components dialog box not to install the
Tutorials folder (part of the Sample files), you will not have access to the sample tutorial files
needed to follow the tutorials in this chapter. If you didn’t install these files, insert your product
disc and copy the files to your hard drive.
“Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects” on page 101
“Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser” on page 115
“Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments” on page 121
“Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments” on page 125
“Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation” on page 133
“Tutorial 6 – Editing your music” on page 143
“Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects” on page 149
“Tutorial 8 – Working with video” on page 159
“Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing” on page 169
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Starting to use SONAR
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Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving
projects
Understanding and managing project files is central to your workflow in SONAR. In this tutorial, we are
going to cover the basics of getting started with project files and some of the operations that can be
performed with them. Whenever you write or record music in SONAR, you are writing it to be saved into
a project. A project can contain a variety of elements, including:
• Audio tracks
• MIDI tracks
• Instrument tracks
• Audio effects
• Project settings such as Tempo, Key and Meter changes
• Lyrics and notation
See:
“Creating a new project” on page 102
“Opening project files” on page 105
“Playing project files” on page 107
“Looping project files” on page 111
“Saving project files” on page 112
Creating a new project
There are several ways to get started with a project in SONAR. When SONAR is opened, you will be
greeted with the Quick Start dialog box. Let’s take a look at the options available in this dialog box.
Open a Project. Opens a standard File Open dialog box, which lets you select the project that you
want to open.
Open a Recent Project. The drop-down list shows the most recent projects that have been
opened in SONAR. Select the desired project from the list and click the button to the left of the list to
open the project.
Create a New Project. Click this button to open the New Project File dialog box, which lets you
create a new project based on any available template.
Online Videos and more. Click this link to view our tutorial videos online. An active Internet
connection is needed in order to access this content.
Getting Started.
102
Click this button to open the SONAR online Help.
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Creating a new project
Show this at Startup. Clear this check box if you don’t want the Quick Start dialog box to launch
the next time you start SONAR.
Close. Use this button to close the Quick Start dialog box.
For this tutorial, we want to create a new project.
• Click the Create a New Project button
.
Tip: You can also perform this same operation by clicking File > New from the main menu across
the top of SONAR’s screen.
The New Project File dialog box appears. Whenever you create a new project, you will be
presented with this dialog box.
Let’s explore some of the things you can do in this window.
Note: The list of available project templates shown may vary depending on your version of
SONAR (Producer, Studio or Essential).
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Creating a new project
103
Name. Type the name of your project in the Name box. For this exercise, let’s name your project
Tutorial 1.
Location. Use the Location box to specify where the project should be saved. Click
to
browse to a specific location. For this tutorial, use the default, as shown in the preceding figure.
Audio Path.
Use the Audio Path box to specify where to save audio recordings for your project.
Click
to browse to a specific location.Store Project Audio in its own Folder. Select this
check box if you want to store the project’s audio files in a separate folder. It is recommended that
you select this option.
Template. This list shows all available pre-made templates included with SONAR. This list will also
include any custom templates that you create. Your Template list may vary from the preceding
figure. For this tutorial, select the template named Normal.
OK.
Click OK to create a new project based on the specified settings.
Cancel. Click Cancel to close the New Project File dialog box.
Help.
Click Help to open the online Help topic for the New Project File dialog box.
Click OK now to move forward with this tutorial.
Congratulations, you have just created a new project in SONAR!
See:
“Opening project files” on page 105
“Playing project files” on page 107
“Looping project files” on page 111
“Saving project files” on page 112
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Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Creating a new project
Opening project files
Next, we are going to cover how to open existing project files. There are two ways this can be done
in SONAR:Click the Open a Project button in the Quick Start dialog box that is first presented when
SONAR starts.
Note: You can open the Quick Start dialog box at any time by going to Help > Quick Start.
• Select File > Open from the menu bar across the top of SONAR’s screen.
Let’s go ahead and try one of the above methods. Either of them will bring you to the Open dialog
box as shown in the following figure. The Open dialog box functions like any other file browsing
dialog box in Microsoft Windows.
• The vertical navigation buttons let you jump to popular locations on your computer’s hard disk.
• The browsing pane lists all the project files and folders that are available in the selected folder.
• The Go to Folder drop-down list allows you to quickly move to commonly used folders for
project files in SONAR. Typically, you can get to your projects by selecting Project Files.
• For more detailed information about all the options and functions in this dialog box, click Help.
For this tutorial we want to open one of the sample project files that are included with SONAR.
Navigate to the Cakewalk Content folder (default location is C:\Cakewalk Content\SONAR
X2 [Producer, Studio or Essential]\Tutorial Projects\Audio Tutorial
Project) and locate the project named SONAR_AudioDemo.cwb.
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Opening project files
105
You can load project files into SONAR in one of two ways:
• Select a file by clicking on it so that it is selected, then click Open.
• Double-click the file from the browsing pane.
Note: If prompted to unpack the bundle, accept the default locations and click OK.
Let’s now use one of these methods to open the project file SONAR_AudioDemo.cwb. When the
project opens, the File Information window appears. This window can be used for storing notes,
comments, credits and other helpful information about a project. For now, close File Information
window by clicking the Close button
in the upper right corner of the window.
See:
“Creating a new project” on page 102
“Playing project files” on page 107
“Looping project files” on page 111
“Saving project files” on page 112
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Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Opening project files
Playing project files
For this next section we are going to configure the project named SONAR_AudioDemo1.cwb for
playback in SONAR. If you have not opened the project yet, do so before continuing by using the
steps in “Opening project files” on page 105.
Configuring your sound device
Before we can get any sound, we need to ensure that SONAR is communicating with your
computer’s sound card or audio interface. To do so, click on the Edit menu across the top of
SONAR’s screen, choose Preferences, then click Audio - Devices.
Before you can hear any sound play in SONAR, you have to ensure that the devices you want to use
are selected. An Edirol audio interface is used in the following example, so all the Input Drivers and
Output Drivers check boxes for the Edirol device are selected. Your device list will most likely be
different from the following image.
After you have selected the desired Input and Output devices that you plan to use with SONAR, click
the Audio - Driver Settings page. In the Playback Timing Master list, select the audio output
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Playing project files
107
device that you want SONAR to treat as the default or main output device. This should be the output
on your sound card that has either speakers or headphones connected to it. In the Record Timing
Master list, select the input on your sound card that you plan to plug devices into, such as a
microphone, keyboard or other instrument.
If you are having trouble with any of the steps in the last section thus far, we have created a helpful
set-up guide on our web site that provides step-by-step instructions for configuring your audio
hardware. You can find it here: www.cakewalk.com/Support/hardwaresetup/
Setting the track outputs
The next important step is telling SONAR which output on your sound device you would like audio
tracks to play on. In some cases, it is desirable to have tracks playing different outputs (such as if
you are using external hardware processing for effects). In this scenario, you’ll want to set all of the
audio tracks to the same output.
Let’s start with the Bass track. Locate the track named Bass in the project. Let’s take a closer look at
a few of the track’s controls. If the track controls are not all visible, you may need to expand the track
to see them all.
To expand a track to make all of its controls visible
1.
Point the cursor to the bottom edge of the track.
2.
Click and drag down to reveal all track controls.
Tip: You can also double-click an empty space in the track strip to maximize/restore the track strip.
Control
Description
This is the Mute button. It is used to silence a track during playback. Any tracks that are
muted will not be heard.
This is the Solo button. It is used to silence every track except the one that is soloed. This
can be handy for isolating a particular performance or recording for monitoring or mixing
purposes. SONAR allows you to solo multiple tracks simultaneously.
This is the Arm or Record Enable button, which must be enabled on any track that you want
to record onto. For more details, see Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments.
This is the Input Echo or Input Monitor button. When clicked, this enables the track’s input
to be heard directly through its output. For more details, see Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals
and musical instruments.
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Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Playing project files
Control
Description
This is the Read Automation button. It is used to enable/disable automation playback.
This is the Write Automation button. When enabled, changes to adjustable track
parameters during playback are recorded. For more details, see Tutorial 7 – Mixing and
adding effects.
This is the Freeze button. It is used to temporarily convert a synth or instrument track into an
audio track to conserve CPU power.
Locate the drop-down list for Output and click the small arrow to show all available outputs. Select
the output that your speakers or headphones are connected to. If you can’t find the Output dropdown list, make sure you have expanded the track fully by dragging it down.
Note: Your options will be different from the preceding image. Select the output that
corresponds to your sound card or audio device.
Next, you will want to repeat the above process for all of the tracks in your project.
Tip: If you need to change multiple outputs simultaneously, select the tracks, then hold down the
CTRL key while you change the Output setting in any selected track. You can also click a track’s
Output control and choose Selected Track Outputs, which opens a dialog box that allows you to
change the Audio and MIDI outputs of all selected tracks.
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109
Playing the project
Now that all of the track’s outputs are set to the appropriate device, the next step is to play the
project to make sure it can be heard and sounds right.
Locate the Control Bar at the top of SONAR’s screen.
The Control Bar contains many useful functions related to projects in SONAR. To learn more about
the Control Bar, see “Control Bar overview” on page 495. For now, simply click the Play button
to hear the project.
Experiment with the Mute
and Solo
buttons on each track. If you solo multiple tracks, you will
hear all the soloed tracks. If you mute any tracks, they will not be heard.
Tip: You can also use your keyboard’s SPACEBAR key to start and stop playback in SONAR.
Once you are done listening, click the Stop button
.
See:
“Creating a new project” on page 102
“Opening project files” on page 105
“Looping project files” on page 111
“Saving project files” on page 112
110
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Playing project files
Looping project files
SONAR features a really handy tool that allows you to repeat specified sections of a project file. You
may want to do this to rehearse a part or phrase or to listen closely to a specific section. Perhaps
you might set up a loop just because it’s your favorite part of the song and you want to hear it over
and over again. For all of the above, you need to loop a section of the song.You may have noticed
this demo file is an example of rock music. Let’s pretend for a second that you are the guitar player
and you want to practice your solo section right before measure 10. This requires you to do two
things:
1. Create a looped section of the GTR_Rhythm, Bass and Drums tracks for you to practice with.
2. Mute the existing GTR_Lead 1 track.
Enabling looping in SONAR is easy. Simply click the Loop button
module. When enabled, the Loop button is lit
in the Control Bar’s Loop
.
Take note of the measure numbers displayed in the preceding image. The first number (10:01:000)
indicates the start of the loop region and second number (19:01:000) indicates the end of the loop
region.When looping is enabled, the time ruler across the top of SONAR's Track view displays
yellow flag markers that indicate where the loop region starts and ends. If you want to change the
loop region, you can drag the loop markers to a new location. Drag the loop start marker to measure
10 and the loop end marker to measure 19. This will create a loop of the first solo section.
Finally, mute both the GTR_Lead 3 and GTR_Lead 2 tracks and click Play
to audition the loop
region. You will now hear only the Bass and GTR_Rhythm tracks so that you, the guitarist in our
scenario, can practice your solo section.
See:
“Creating a new project” on page 102
“Opening project files” on page 105
“Playing project files” on page 107
“Saving project files” on page 112
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Looping project files
111
Saving project files
SONAR offers you many options for saving your work. To investigate these options, click on the File
menu and choose Save As. This opens the Save As dialog box. Before doing anything in this
window, the first thing you should do is select Project Files in the Go to Folder list. Even if it already
says Project Files, click it anyway.
You will notice this window looks very familiar to the Open dialog box we looked at earlier in this
tutorial. The Save As dialog box navigates files much in the same way as Windows does. If you
would like to read the finer points and in-depth information about using this window, click the Help
button. For this exercise, we are going to look at the different types of project files you can save with
SONAR.
Take a look at the drop-down list labeled Save as type. Click the Save as type arrow to see a list of
supported file formats. Let’s look at these different files formats now:
• Normal. This is the first option listed and the most common format used for saving project files.
Choosing this will create a Cakewalk Project file with the .cwp file extension. It is important to
remember that Cakewalk Project files do not actually store any audio data, but rather reference
audio files from where they are saved on your computer’s hard drive. You can choose where the
audio files are stored by using the Audio Path field in the Save As dialog box.
• Template. Template files are used as a starting point for new projects. Templates can store layout
information about your project, such as how many audio and MIDI tracks there are and which
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Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Saving project files
Output ports they are assigned to. For more information about using templates, see “Templates”
on page 1064.
• Cakewalk Bundle. This format is typically used when transferring projects to other people or
other computers. Cakewalk Bundle files use the .cwb file extension and are similar to Cakewalk
Project files. The main difference is that Cakewalk Bundle files actually contain all of a project’s
audio data. Cakewalk Bundle files are much larger in size than regular Cakewalk Project files
because they contain all of the audio data for a project, so try to avoid using this format unless
you need to move a project between computers. When opening a Cakewalk Bundle file, SONAR
will “unpack” the embedded audio data and save it to a new audio folder on your computer.
• MIDI. This option lets you save a standard MIDI file of your project. MIDI files do not contain any
embedded audio or references to external audio files, so any audio data in a project will be
discarded when you save a MIDI file. MIDI files can be either Format 0 or Format 1. Format 0
combines all the MIDI events into a single track. This is compatible with many older sequencers
and keyboards. MIDI Format 1 files can store up to 7256 tracks and are a better choice if you plan
to use your MIDI file with another computer-based sequencing application. Although not as
common, SONAR also allows you to save in the RIFF MIDI format. Unless you are positive that
the playback system requires a RIFF MIDI file, you want to use the MIDI format.
In most cases, the best choice for saving your files is Normal. To save this project, do the following:
1. In the Go to Folder list, select Project Files. Even if Project Files is already selected, select it
again for good practice.
2. In the Save as type list, select Normal.
3. Type a name in the File Name box.
4. Click Save to save the project.
This completes the tutorial.
See:
“Creating a new project” on page 102
“Opening project files” on page 105
“Playing project files” on page 107
“Looping project files” on page 111
Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Saving project files
113
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Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects
Saving project files
Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser
The Browser lets you find and import various types of content into your projects, including audio and
MIDI files, track and project templates, track icons, FX Chain presets, effect plug-ins and
instruments. You can drag content and plug-ins directly into tracks. By default, the Browser is
docked on the right side of the screen.
To show or hide the Browser, click the Views menu and choose Browser, or press B.
Now that we know how to show and hide the Browser, let’s take a closer look at some of its features,
starting with the controls that span across the top of the Browser. Locate the section on your
computer screen that looks like the following image.
First, let’s review the controls at the top of the Browser.
Control
Description
This is the Move up button. It is used to open the folder one level above the
active folder.
Stop is used to stop play back of the selected loop.
Play is used to listen to the currently selected loop.
Allows you to save and recall presets to quickly access your favorite folders.
The Content Location drop-down list shown in the following figure allows you to quickly jump to
popular locations on your hard drive.
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Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser
Figure 18.
Media Browser
A
C
B
DE F
G
J
H
K
L
I
A. Show Media Browser B. Browser menu C. Content Location menu D. Dock/undock E. Docking options
F. Expand/collapse G. Move up one level to the parent directory H. Search filter I. File list J. Play/Stop
K. Delete content preset L. Save content preset
To specify the output device to use for previewing loops and files from the Browser, click the Media
button
, point to Audio Preview Bus, and choose an output device from the submenu.
To work with software instruments, click the Synth button
Rack contains the following controls.
Figure 19.
to open the Synth Rack. The Synth
Synth Rack Browser
A
B
C
D
E
FGH
J
I
A. Insert Synth B. Delete Synth C. Insert Synth Options D. Show Synth Rack Browser E. Synth Settings menu
F. Dock/undock G. Docking options H. Expand/collapse I. Instrument list J. Synth Automation menu
See:
“Finding and previewing audio loops” on page 118
“Previewing MIDI groove clips” on page 119
“Adding audio loops to your project” on page 120
Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser
117
Finding and previewing audio loops
Now that we have a general idea of how the Browser is laid out, let’s find some of the content that is
included with SONAR and give it a listen.
1. Create a new project using the Normal Template as explained in the previous tutorial titled
“Saving project files” on page 112.
2. Make sure the Browser is open and visible. If it is not, click the Views menu and choose
Browser, or press the B key.Click the Media button
to show the Media Browser.
3. In the Browser, click the Content Location drop-down list and select Audio Library.
4. Double-click the Loops folder to open the folder.
5. Double-click the Loopmasters folder.
6. Double-click the ROCK AND FUNK folder.
7. Double-click the RAW POWER and click the loop named RP_Baggy_140.rx2.
The Browser should look something like the following image.
8. Click the Play button
in the Browser.
The selected file is previewed.
If you don’t hear anything, revisit the settings of your Audio Preview Bus, as discussed above, and
ensure that it is set to the audio device that your headphones or speakers are connected to.
If you need to preview a lot of loops quickly, click the Media button
and enable the AutoPreview option. When enabled, an audio loop will start playing as soon as you select it.
See:
“Previewing MIDI groove clips” on page 119
“Adding audio loops to your project” on page 120
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Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser
Finding and previewing audio loops
Previewing MIDI groove clips
In addition to audio loops, the Browser also allows you to preview MIDI groove clips. Let’s try this
now with one of the clips included with SONAR. Unlike audio loops, MIDI groove clips require a soft
synth or instrument track to play through.
1. Click the Browser’s Synth button
2. Click the Insert button
to open the Synth Rack.
, point to Insert Synths and select Cakewalk TTS-1.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog box appears.
3. Clear all of the check boxes except for Single Track Instrument, Recall Assignable Controls,
and Ask This Every Time.
4. Click OK.
Cakewalk TTS-1 is added to your project.
Now that we have a synth in our project that we can preview MIDI groove clips with, let’s find some
and give them a listen.
1. Click the Media button
to show the Media Browser.
2. In the Browser, click the Content Location drop-down list and select MIDI Library.
3. Double click the Smart Loops folder and select the file named Bangin 10.mid.
Before we can preview a MIDI groove clip, we need to tell SONAR what instrument or synth we
would like to preview it with.
4. Click the Media button
the submenu.
, point to Synth Preview Output and select Cakewalk TTS-1 1 on
5. Now that SONAR knows what synth to play MIDI groove clips through, select the groove clip
named Bangin 10.mid just as you did with the audio loop previously.
6. Click the Play button
in the Browser.
Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser
Finding and previewing audio loops
119
Just like with audio loops, you can set MIDI groove clips to auto-preview by clicking the Media
button
and enabling the Auto-Preview option.
In addition to using soft synths to preview MIDI groove clips, soft synths also have many other useful
and powerful features. For more details and instructions on using them, see “Tutorial 4 – Playing and
recording software instruments” on page 125.
See:
“Adding audio loops to your project” on page 120
Adding audio loops to your project
Once you have found an audio loop or MIDI groove clip that you would like to use in your project, the
next important step is to add it to your project. Adding loops is easy with SONAR’s intuitive drag and
drop interface.
To add a loop to your project, do the following:
1. In the Browser, locate the loop you would like to use in your project.
2. Drag the loop to a track. If you are selecting an audio loop, you must drag it to an audio track. If
you would like to use a MIDI groove clip, be sure you drag it to a MIDI track.
You should also notice that, as you drag the file, your mouse pointer changes to an arrow with a
plus sign
.
3. When you drag a loop or groove clip into a project, it will only show one repetition. You can
extend how long a loop is by pointing the mouse pointer to the clip’s right edge, then drag the clip
edge to the desired duration. When you point the mouse pointer to the right clip edge, a blue
vertical line appears and the mouse pointer looks like this
.
This completes the tutorial. You should now be able to drag loops into your projects and loop them.
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Tutorial 2 – Using the Browser
Finding and previewing audio loops
Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical
instruments
One of the most important aspects of creating music in SONAR is digital audio recording. This is the
process of taking the sound from a microphone or an instrument and recording it to an audio track. Once
this step is completed, you can edit and mix the song to prepare it to share with the world.
This tutorial will walk you through the steps involved and provide you with some insight on how to get the
best possible audio recordings.
Adding an audio track
In Tutorial 1, you learned about opening project templates. Let's open a blank project for this tutorial:On
the File menu, click New.
4. Select the Blank (no tracks or buses) template and click OK.A new blank project is created.
With the blank project open, you can insert new tracks as you need them. For the task of recording
digital audio you'll need a new audio track. Follow these steps to insert one:
5. Do one of the following:
• Click Insert and then click Audio Track.
• Right-click on the Tracks pane and select Insert Audio Track on the pop-up menu.
A new audio track is added to your project.
6. In the new audio track, expand the track to expose all of its controls (for details, see “To expand a
track to make all of its controls visible” on page 108).
The track's controls are exposed.Click the Input drop-down menu to select the track’s input.
The available inputs for the track are displayed.
7. Select the physical jack that your instrument is plugged into. If you know, for instance, that your guitar
is plugged into input 1, click the Input control and select the first option. Some audio interfaces refer
to their stereo inputs as pairs, like 1/2, 3/4 or 5/6. Most often left channels are represented by odd
numbers and right channels are represented by even numbers.
Note: Most microphones and guitars are mono, so you'll want to select either the left or right
channel accordingly.
8. Click the Output drop-down menu to select the track’s output.
The available outputs for the track are displayed.
9. Select the output that you want the audio track to play through during playback. You will usually
choose 1 and 2, because these are most commonly the outputs that speakers or audio monitors
are connected to.Click the track's Record Enable button
.
Note: SONAR only allows recording to tracks that have been record enabled. This is necessary
since SONAR allows for multi-track recording. This tells SONAR what track you want your new
material recorded to. Otherwise, every track would be recorded to during every take.
10. Click the Input Echo button
if you want to hear the input during recording. Many sound cards
and audio interfaces have an option to do this automatically at the hardware level. If you can
already hear the input signal, simply move on to the next section.Getting ready to record
At this point, we need to check the input levels to make sure they are sufficient and not distorting.
Perform as you would if you were recording and watch the meter on the track respond to the sounds
you produce.
If the meter never even comes close to the maximum, increase the input level. If the meter even
occasionally reaches the maximum, decrease the input level.Input levels are usually adjusted via a
knob next to the input jack on the sound card, but features like this may vary slightly between
devices. So, if you have never recorded an instrument or microphone with your sound card, you may
want to read about doing so in the device's manual.The record meter shows the input level
Input may be too low
Input is too loud
Recording your performance
Now that everything is set up, let's record something!Go to Edit > Preferences > Project Metronome to access metronome settings. You can also right-click the Playback Metronome on/
off button
or Record Metronome on/off button
access metronome settings.
in the Control Bar’s Transport module to
11. Set the metronome for a 2 measure count-in.
• Click Use Audio Metronome, select the Recording check box and set Record Count-in to 2
Measures. For details about each metronome option, click Help.
12. Make sure the track has been record enabled by clicking the track’s Record Enable button. The
Record Enable button on the track should be lit in red like this:
.Click the Record button in
the Control Bar’s Transport module, or press R on your computer keyboard.You'll hear two
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Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments
measures counted in by the metronome and then recording will begin. Start performing at the
beginning of the third count.
13. When you finish recording, click the Stop button
or press the SPACEBAR.
A new audio clip appears.Press Play to play back the project. If you would like to redo the take,
go to Edit > Undo to undo the previous recording, then repeat steps 3, 4 and 5 above until you
get a perfect take.Now that your first track has been recorded, you can “over-dub” another part.
To do so, disable recording on track 1 and repeat the steps in this tutorial. After repeating the
steps, you will have recorded to track 2. Both recorded tracks will play during playback. Each will
also have its own exclusive volume and pan control, effects bin, and can be muted or soloed.
You'll learn more about this in future tutorials.
See:
“Troubleshooting” on page 123
Troubleshooting
If you weren't able to record successfully by following this tutorial, please check the following:
I only get one side of my guitar or microphone recorded
You may be recording a mono signal through a stereo input. Guitars and microphones produce
mono signals. Click the tracks Input control and select the appropriate side of your stereo pair, either
left or right as opposed to stereo.
Also, make sure you don't have a mono adapter going into the Line-in and that you have the Left
side of your sound card (mono) chosen for input in SONAR.
Previously recorded tracks are mixed into my new recordings
This can happen when your soundcard is set to record everything that comes out of your computer
speakers.
1. Open the Windows Volume Control window:
• Windows 7: Click the Windows Start button and go to Control Panel > Hardware and
Sound > Volume Control.
The Volume Control window appears.
2. On the Options menu, click Properties.The Properties dialog box appears.
3. In the Adjust Volume For section, click Recording.
4. Click OK to close the Properties dialog box.
The Record Mixer appears.
5. Make sure What You Hear or Stereo Mix (exact name various depending on the sound card
manufacturer) is not selected. If this option is enabled, click the Select check box below the
desired input (normally Line In or Mic).
Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments
123
This problem can also occur when you are using an analog mixer in your setup. Carefully follow all
of your signal paths to ensure that your sound cards audio output is not being looped back into itself.
You should also consider the possibility of your microphone picking up the signal from your speakers
or headphones.
Only a flat line or silence is recorded
Open the Windows Volume Control window:
• Windows 7: Click the Windows Start button and go to Control Panel > Hardware and Sound >
Manage audio devices.
The Windows Mixer controls the volume levels of your sound card inputs and can also mute any
input or output device.
The Windows Mixer looks like this:
When you open the Windows Mixer it may be labeled Playback or Recording. We want to see the
recording controls.
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Tutorial 3 – Recording vocals and musical instruments
Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software
instruments
Software instruments, also referred to as soft synths, are a major part of computer music. Our goal in this
tutorial is to add a software instrument to a project. We'll explore a few different ways they can be used
with SONAR and look at some options to make the most of them.
A brief history
Note: Feel free to skip to the next section if you want to start using synths right away.
For our purposes, a synth has two basic functions:
• Receive a digital message
• Make a sound based on the information contained in that message
In the early 1980's, all of the major manufacturers of keyboards and drum machines got together to
decide on a way for their products to work well with each other. Since they all operated under some
version of the two functions listed above, it was a simple goal.They needed to standardize what
messages were used to represent particular expressions. For example: if it was a drum machine,
everyone would need to use the C note for the bass drum, the D note for the snare drum and so on. That
way, messages sent from one drum machine can be fed to another made by a different company. It will
play the same beat, but using the drum sounds from the different module.The standard they established
is known as MIDI (usually pronounced [mid-ee]). As soon as computers entered the scene, it was clear
that there should be a way to connect a synth and send MIDI messages to it from a software sequencer.
That's how Cakewalk was born. Our first application was a DOS program that would allow a user to edit
the MIDI data in detail, and play it out to a connected synth. You could also record the events from a
performance into the computer.
Things have evolved a lot since then. As computers have grown more powerful, the capabilities of
Cakewalk software have expanded. Computers are now so fast that software companies are able to
make synths and drum machines that are completely software-based. They are essentially the guts of a
keyboard in a computer program.
See:
“Adding an instrument track to your project” on page 126
“Recording MIDI” on page 128
“Manually entering MIDI notes” on page 128
Adding an instrument track to your project
Adding instrument tracks to your project is easy and something you’ll find yourself doing often, so
let’s explore some of the basics. For this exercise, we'll start with a blank project.
1. On the File menu, click New.
2. Select the Blank (no tracks or buses) template and click OK.
A new project opens.
3. Click Insert >Soft-Synths.
A menu lists all available software synths that are installed on your computer.Click DropZone.
The Insert Soft Synth Options dialog box appears.
4. Select the following options:
• Simple Instrument Track
• Synth Property Page
• Recall Assignable Controls
• Ask This Every Time
A new track is inserted in your project. This track is a combination of the two types of tracks you
have learned about in the previous tutorials. It holds MIDI data and accepts a MIDI input, but it
outputs the sound of the synth, like an audio track would. The DropZone window may also open.
If not, you can open it manually by double-clicking on the track icon.
A
B
A. Track header icon B. Track icon
Note: You can always launch a given software instrument's window by double-clicking its track
icon.
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Let's take a quick look at DropZone.
One of the first things you'll typically need to do is choose a sound. In DropZone and most other
Cakewalk synths, a sound preset is referred to as a program.
1. In DropZone's Program window, click Empty Program.
The Program Browser appears.
Note: It may take a minute the first time the Program Browser opens. This is because DropZone
is building a list of all available sounds. Once the list has been built, the Program Browser will
open faster the next time.
2. Select a program by double-clicking its name. For this tutorial we'll use Acid Quinda from the
Basses section.DropZone loads the program and displays the program name.
3. Click the keyboard image to hear what the program sounds like.
Note: Each soft synth uses a different method of choosing and auditioning sounds. This is often
outlined in the synth's documentation. You can press the F1 key to open the online Help for a
synth.
Now that we have inserted an instrument and selected one of its sounds we can make use of these
sounds in our project. This is where you can get creative. You have the option of recording a
performance that you play on a MIDI keyboard (also referred to as a controller) or manually entering
notes and events to play out to the software synth. We'll explore each method in the following
sections.
See:
“Recording MIDI” on page 128
“Manually entering MIDI notes” on page 128
Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
127
Recording MIDI
First, we'll try recording. This only works if you have a MIDI controller. If you do not have a MIDI
controller, skip ahead to the next section of this tutorial.
For recording, you don't need the DropZone window open. You can close an instrument by clicking
in the upper right corner. This doesn't cause the synth to stop functioning—it will continue to
work in the background.
Note: If you need to see the DropZone window again, just double-click the track icon.
In the Track view, we can assign the input port. If you only have one MIDI keyboard this should be
set up already. Try playing some notes to see if it works. If not, go to Edit > Preferences > MIDI Devices and make sure your keyboard is enabled in the Input Port list.
The next step is arming the track for recording. Click the track's Record Enable button
enables recording on the track.Now, click the Record button
. This
in the Control Bar’s Transport
module. The Now Time cursor starts to roll. Play some notes and click the Stop button
when
you're done.You have just recorded your first MIDI performance through a software instrument.
Press the Play button
to hear it play back.
See:
“Adding an instrument track to your project” on page 126
“Manually entering MIDI notes” on page 128
Manually entering MIDI notes
Using this method, you can manually draw notes on a grid called the Piano Roll view (often referred
to as the PRV). This is the preferred method if you're not much of a keyboard player or don't have
access to a MIDI controller. It allows you to edit every detail of a performance.
To get to the PRV, you first need to select the track you would like to see in it. Simply click the track
icon once so that it changes color. Next, go to Views > Piano Roll View to open the PRV. The PRV
opens in the MultiDock below the Track view. To expand the MultiDock, double-click the PRV tab in
the MultiDock, or press SHIFT+D.
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Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
The ruler at the top of this view represents musical measures and beats. The keyboard image on the
left represents what notes are being played.
Click on the Smart tool
in the Control Bar. You can also enable this tool by pressing the F5 key
on your computer keyboard. To draw a note with the Smart tool, click on the grid.
To create a note, click on the grid at measure 1.
If you click on various sections of a note, the Smart tool performs a different function:
• Left edge.
Adjusts the start time.
• Right edge. Adjusts the end time or the duration.
• Top.
Adjusts the velocity of the note, which indicates how hard the note is played.
• Bottom. Allows you to move the note to another location on the PRV grid.
Try to create a melody using this technique. You might find that you can only create 16th notes or
longer. If you want 32nd notes or triplets, specify the desired Musical Time resolution in the Control
Bar’s Snap module.The Snap module contains the following settings.
Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
129
Figure 20.
The Snap module.
You can now draw notes at shorter distances from each other.
To specify the duration of new notes, select the desired duration in the Control Bar’s Tools module.
Figure 21.
The Tools module.
What if I already have a project that contains MIDI tracks?
If you already have a MIDI track that you would like to play through a software instrument, the steps
are a bit different.
Let's start by opening a sample project.
1. On the File menu, click Open.
2. Navigate to C:/Cakewalk Content/SONAR X2/Tutorial Projects.
3. Click on the file named Latin.cwp and click OK.
If you press Play, you are not likely to hear anything. That's because this project does not contain a
software synth for the MIDI tracks to play through. Since there are 11 tracks in this project, it would
be best to use one synth track and route them all to the same instrument. Some instruments, such
as the Cakewalk TTS-1 can output more than one type of sound. These instruments are known as
multi-timbral synths. They know what notes are played through each sound based on the MIDI
channel they are sent over. If you examine each track in this project in the Track Inspector or
Console view, you'll notice that each one is set to its own channel. No two tracks share the same
channel.
Let's insert the Cakewalk TTS-1.
1. Go to Insert > Soft Synths > Cakewalk TTS-1.
The Insert Synth Options dialog box appears.
2. In the Create These Tracks area, click First Synth Audio Output.
3. In the Open These Windows area, click Synth Property Page.
Note: If you would like a detailed explanation of each option, click Help.
4. Click OK.
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Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
A new synth track is inserted in your project.
On some computers, the tracks may play back through the TTS-1 at this point. However, on
computers that have hardware MIDI outputs available, you may need to specify the TTS-1 as each
track's output. Here's a fast way to do that:
1. Hold down the CTRL key and click each track to select them.
The tracks are highlighted to indicate they are selected.
2. Hold down the CTRL key and click any selected track’s Input control and select Cakewalk TTS1.
All selected tracks are assigned to the same input.
Press Play to play back the project. If you'd like to add your own track to play through the TTS-1,
click Insert menu and select MIDI Track. On your new MIDI track, set the output to Cakewalk TTS1. Remember, it needs to be on its own discreet MIDI channel. In this project, MIDI channels 1-11
are already used, so let's assign this track to channel 12 in the Track Inspector or Console view. You
can also select the sound via the track's Patch control. Then use one of the methods described
above to create MIDI data. You can also add MIDI data to your new track from the Browser. See
Tutorial 2 for details about the Browser. Another option is using the Staff view as an alternative to the
Piano Roll view. That will be covered in the next tutorial: Tutorial 5 - Working with music notation.
Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
131
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Tutorial 4 – Playing and recording software instruments
Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
A great way to compose in SONAR is by using the Staff view. The Staff pane displays MIDI note events
as musical notation. For some musicians, this may be the most familiar and comfortable view in which to
work. The Staff pane provides many features that make it easy for you to compose, edit, and print music.
You can add notes to your composition with simple point-and-click techniques.
This tutorial will introduce you to the tools and features that SONAR provides for working with notation.
Let’s start by opening the Staff view in a new project:
1. On the File menu, click New.
The New Project File dialog box appears.
2. Select the Normal template, specify a project name and save location, then click OK.
SONAR loads the new project, which contains two audio tracks and two MIDI tracks.
3. Click on track 3 labeled MIDI 1.
4. On the Views menu, click Staff View.
The Staff view opens.
Next we need to configure the Staff view tools for the purpose of this tutorial:
1. Click the Staff view View menu, point to Display Resolution and select the smallest note value
on the submenu.
2. Click the Staff view Edit menu and disable the Fill Durations and Trim Durations options.
3. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
For this tutorial, we will also change the time signature to ¾, the key to G and the staff layout to
display a treble and bass clef.
1. On the Project menu, click Insert Meter/Key Change.
The Meter/Key Signature dialog box appears.
2. Change Beats per Measure to 3 and Key Signature to 1 Sharp (G), then click OK to close the
Meter/Key Signature dialog box.
3. Click the Staff view Edit menu and choose Layout.
The Staff View Layout dialog box appears.
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
4. In the Clef list, select Treble/Bass, then click OK to close the Staff View Layout dialog box.
The Staff view now looks like this:
Now that you know how to set up the Staff view, it's time to play! You can either record a MIDI track
in this project or manually add notes. The rest of this tutorial will provide you with a basic overview of
the notation tools. For more in depth information about all the features and functionality of the Staff
view, including using the Fretboard and the Lyrics view, see “Notation and lyrics” on page
1071.Selecting the note value
In the Control Bar’s Tools module, click the Duration button and select the desired note duration.
Figure 22.
The Tools module.
Adding a note
To add a note:
1. Select the Smart tool
or Freehand tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
• With the Freehand tool
, drag where you want to draw a new note.
, click where you want to insert a new note
A note event is inserted.
Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
135
Selecting notes
To select notes:
1. Select the Smart tool
or Select tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Do one of the following:
• To select a single note, click the note head.
• To select multiple adjacent notes, drag with the right mouse button to draw a rectangle around
the desired notes.
• To select discontiguous notes, hold down the CTRL key and click the desired notes.
Moving notes by time or pitch
To move notes:
1. Select the Smart tool
or Move tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the bottom half center of the note, then drag
the note to the desired location.
• With the Move tool
, drag the note or selection to the desired location.
Tip: When moving a note, hold down the SHIFT key to constrain vertical or horizontal movement,
depending on the direction you first move.
Copying notes
To copy notes:
1. Press and hold the CTRL key down while you click the desired note(s).
2. While still holding the CTRL key and the left mouse button, drag the note(s) to the desired
location, then release the mouse button.
The note(s) is copied.
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Changing the duration of a note
1. Right click the note head to open the Note Properties dialog box.
2. In the Duration field, enter in the number of ticks you want for the note, then click OK to close
the Note Properties dialog box.
3. Select the Smart tool
or the Edit tool
.in the Control Bar.
4. Do one of the following:
• With the Edit tool
, position the pointer over the note’s start or end point, then drag left/
right to adjust the start/end position.
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the note’s start or end point, then drag left/
right to adjust the start/end position. You can also double-click the note to open the Note
Properties dialog box, then enter in the number of ticks you want for the note duration.
The following table shows the relationship between note durations and ticks (with the default
timebase of 960 ticks per quarter note).
Note
Duration in ticks
Whole
4:000
Half
2:000
Quarter
1:000
Eighth
480
Sixteenth
240
Thirty-second
120
Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
137
Deleting a note
1. Select the Smart tool
or the Erase tool
.in the Control Bar.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, right-click a note to erase a single note, or keep the right mouse
button pressed and drag over notes to erase multiple notes.
• With the Erase tool
multiple notes.
, click a note to erase a single note, or drag over notes to erase
Adding lyrics
To add a lyric event below a note:
1. Select the Freehand tool
2. Click the Lyric button
in the Control Bar.
in the Staff view.
3. Position the pointer just below the note and click.
A box appears where lyrics can be typed.
4. Press the space bar to quickly jump to the next note.
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Adding chord symbols
To add a chord symbol above a note:
1. Select the Freehand tool
2. Click the Chord button
in the Control Bar.
in the Staff view.
3. Position the pointer above the note you want to add the chord to and click.
A chord symbol is added above the note.
4. To change the chord properties or show a guitar chord grid, right-click the chord name.
The Chord Properties dialog box appears.
Adding expressions
1. Select the Freehand tool
2. Click the Expression button
in the Control Bar.
in the Staff view.
3. Position the pointer just below a note and click.
A box appears where expressions can be entered.
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139
Adding a crescendo or decrescendo/diminuendo
1. Select the Freehand tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Click the Hairpin button
in the Staff view.
3. Position the pointer just below a note and click.
A hairpin event (crescendo or decrescendo) is inserted.
4. To change the hairpin type and duration, right-click the hairpin event.
The Hairpin Properties dialog box appears.
Note: Hairpin events are ornamental only and do not affect playback.
Adding pedal marks
1. Select the Freehand tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Click the Pedal button
in the Staff view.
3. Position the pointer below the staff and click.
Pedal down
and Pedal up
marks are inserted.
4. Click and drag to move the marks to a new time if needed.
See:
“Printing your notation” on page 141
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Printing your notation
Once you are finished entering and editing notes you can print out the score or individual parts.
1. Select the MIDI track or tracks you want to print the notation for.
2. On the Views menu, click Staff View.
The Staff view opens.
3. On the File menu, click Print Preview.
The Print Preview window opens, allowing you to see how the printed score will look.
4. To change the rastral size of the score, click Configure.
The Staff View Print Configure dialog box appears. For more information about the different
rastral sizes, see “Printing” on page 1106.
5. To print the score, click Print.
Tip: To change the title, composer and copyright information, select Project > Info to open the File
Info window.
See:
“Notation and lyrics” on page 1071
Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
141
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Tutorial 5 – Working with music notation
Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
While working on your music, you are likely to find that editing is a major part of the song creation
process. Before people started making music on computers, all of the editing was done by cutting tape
with a razor blade and piecing it together. You can imagine how difficult it could become. In SONAR, you
can actually select a part of your music with the mouse and delete/copy/paste/move it all very easily. This
tutorial will introduce some of SONAR's tools for making some common edits and offer a few tips to make
it faster and more fun.
See:
“Selection” on page 144
“Moving clips” on page 146
“Splitting clips” on page 146
“Cropping clips” on page 147
“Undo and Redo” on page 143
Undo and Redo
While editing a project, you might make mistakes or experiment with an idea that doesn't produce the
desired results. SONAR has unlimited Undo for such occasions. You can undo one step at a time by
selecting Edit > Undo or by pressing CTRL+Z. You can also look at your edit history and select a time to
go back to. To do so, go to Edit > History, choose the edit you'd like to return to and click OK.
Note: When you close a project, the Undo history is erased.
If you change your mind and want to revert to the previous undo state, select Edit > Redo or press
CTRL+SHIFT+Z.
See:
“Selection” on page 144
“Moving clips” on page 146
“Splitting clips” on page 146
“Cropping clips” on page 147
Selection
Let's start by opening the tutorial project Cakewalk Audio Demo.cwb that we used in earlier
tutorials.
One of the most important things to understand in order to edit your music successfully is selection.
Once you become familiar with selecting, the rest is easy. There are two aspects of selection:
• Time Range
• Tracks
Let's say you'd like to delete the second measure of a certain track. The time range specifies that the
edit will need to occur between measures 2 and 3. The track selection specifies what track's clips will
be deleted, while leaving its surrounding tracks unchanged.
In order to edit clips, you must set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
Figure 23.
Assign the track’s Edit Filter to Clips in order to edit clips with the global tools.
Let's explore some different ways to do this in a sample project. All of the tools described are
available in the Tools module in the Control Bar. For a complete description of each tool in the Tools
module, see “Tools” on page 407.
Figure 24.
The Tools module.
Note: If you would like to try both of the following methods, select Edit > Undo after completing
the first method. Doing so will revert the project to its previous state.
Method 1:
1.
Select the track that you want to delete measure two from. For this tutorial, let’s use the track
named GTR_Lead 1.
Tip: Click in the Tracks pane on the left, not the Clips pane on the right.
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2. Drag in the time ruler from measure 1 through measure 6.
The selected time range is highlighted.
3. Press DELETE or select Edit > Delete.
Measure two is deleted from the selected track.
Method 2:
1. Select the Select tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Click in the center of the clip and drag to select the section you want to delete.
The selected section is highlighted.
3. Press DELETE or select Edit > Delete.
You might have noticed that you're only able to select full measures. What if you need to edit a
smaller amount of time? You'll need to turn off Snap To Grid. To do so, click the Snap to Grid
button
in the Control Bar’s Snap module. With this button disabled, you will be able to make
finer selections. You can also choose different Snap To Grid options in the Snap module.
See:
“Moving clips” on page 146
“Splitting clips” on page 146
“Cropping clips” on page 147
“Undo and Redo” on page 143
Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
145
Moving clips
1. Another common editing task is to move a selected part of a clip, or an entire clip around in a
project. If you understand selection, you're half way there. Let's undo the previous edit (go to
Edit > Undo or press CTRL+Z), and turn on Snap to Grid. If you changed the snap resolution,
make sure you change it back to Whole Note. Select the section you want to move. Let's go back
to the track named GR_Lead 1 and select measures 6 through 10.
2. With the Smart tool selected, click the top part of the selection and drag the clip to the desired
location. For this tutorial, let’s drag the selection to the bottom of the project and create a new
Audio track that contains the selected clip.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog box appears, which lets you specify what to do with any
existing data in the target location. You can either replace the existing data or blend the old and
new data.
See:
“Selection” on page 144
“Splitting clips” on page 146
“Cropping clips” on page 147
“Undo and Redo” on page 143
Splitting clips
In some cases, you might want to split a clip. As described later in this tutorial, it can be beneficial to
have clip borders at different points on a track. You can split a clip with the Smart tool
tool
or Split
.
To split a clip, do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the clip, then hold down ALT
and click (or lasso to split a region).
• With the Split tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the clip, then click (or drag to
split one or more clips at the mousedown and mouseup points).
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Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
Note: The Split tool obeys the Snap to Grid settings. If a split does not occur exactly where you
click, disable Snap to Grid and try again.
Tip: You can also press the S key to split the selected clip(s) at the current Now time.
For this tutorial, select the Split tool
, position the Now time at measure 10 in the track named
GTR_Lead1, then click to split the clip.
See:
“Selection” on page 144
“Moving clips” on page 146
“Cropping clips” on page 147
“Undo and Redo” on page 143
Cropping clips
You can crop a clip by using a gesture called slip editing. Slip editing lets you “roll out” the beginning
or the end of a clip to different places without changing the position of the music. Imagine that the
clips are “windows” that allow you to see and hear pieces of audio or MIDI. You can change the size
of that window so that less of the data is visible. If it's not visible, it won't be heard during playback.
The data still exists, so you can enlarge the “window” by slip editing the clip. The visible data will
then be audible.
Select the Smart tool
or Edit tool
in the Control Bar to use slip editing.
Now, if you point to the left or right clip edge, the cursor changes and you can drag the clip edge to a
new location.
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147
Fading clips
You can fade individual clips by using the Smart tool
or Edit tool
. Drag the upper left corner
of a clip to create a fade-in. Drag the upper right corner of a clip to create a fade-out.
To change the fade characteristics, right-click an existing fade and select the desired fade type from
the pop-up menu.
Tip: When cropping clips, you can choose to also move clip fades proportionally, or retain the original
fade position. To move the fade position, click the top three quarters of the clip edge when cropping.
To retain the clip fade position, click the bottom quarter of the clip edge when cropping. You can also
hold down the ALT key while cropping in order to move a clip fade.
This tutorial has shown you how to use different tools to shape your recordings into well-organized
and great sounding projects. The next step is mixing, which is covered in “Tutorial 7 – Mixing and
adding effects” on page 149.
See:
“Selection” on page 144
“Moving clips” on page 146
“Splitting clips” on page 146
“Undo and Redo” on page 143
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Tutorial 6 – Editing your music
Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
Mixing is an important part of recording that can really help the music you create in SONAR sound its
best. Mixing involves placing different instruments and sounds in layers of the frequency spectrum,
adjusting levels so that tracks blend nicely, spreading them across the stereo field and adding effects
where appropriate.
There are many important decisions to make when mixing, things that are sometimes not considered
while writing a song. The choices you make can have a major effect on how pleasurable the listening
experience is for your audience.
In this tutorial, we'll discuss some general guidelines. But, it's important to remember that there are no
rules. This is another artistic stage of song creation.
We'll start by opening the MixingTutorial project:
1. Go to File > Open and select the file named MixingTutorial.cwb.
Note: Tutorial files are located in the /Cakewalk Content/SONAR X2/Tutorial
Projects folder, by default. If you specified another location during installation, navigate to the
tutorial folder you specified during installation.
2. Go to File > Save As and save it under a new name. This way, you can save your work without
overwriting the original, in case you'd like to start over.
In the same folder is a file named MixingTutorial-Complete.cwb, which is a copy of the same
project, but after the tutorial has been completed. You can use this project as a reference to which you
can compare settings and levels.
See:
“Volume and pan” on page 150
“Adding effects (FX)” on page 151
“Using Automation” on page 156
Volume and pan
Adjusting volume and pan is always a good place to start when mixing. One of the biggest benefits
of SONAR's Console view is that you can easily see the volume and pan controls for many tracks
simultaneously, in addition to large meters. Some people also enjoy working in the Console view
because it doesn't offer a graphical representation of what the music “looks like”. Since the final
outcome will be an audio file, the listener will not be distracted by the visual cues that are shown in
the project's Track view. You may find that you are better able to focus on the actual sound when not
seeing the clips.
To open the Console view
• Do one of the following:
• Click Views > Console View.
• Press ALT+2.
Here, we'll be shaping the song's foundation. If you listen to the project as it is, you'll probably notice
that it sounds “muddy”. This usually happens because all of the instruments are fighting each other
for space in the frequency spectrum and stereo field. They're also all trying to be heard at the same
level in the same location.
Normally, when recording a track, it is common to try to get a relatively loud signal. This is done to
achieve the best level, knowing that you will eventually adjust the final levels during the mixing
stage.
• Some people like to begin “mixing” by turning down every track and then gradually turning up one
track at a time, starting with the rhythm section.Begin by increasing the volume of the bass drum
to the desired level. Continue with the snare, the rest of the drums and finally the bass guitar,
moving on in order of importance. If there was a lead vocal in the song, that would come last, so
that it sits on top of the instrumental foundation you have established.
Other people approach mixing the opposite way, turning things down a bit one at a time. If one
method doesn't seem more appealing than the other, try both to see which one is more comfortable
for you.
Important: Pay close attention to the master bus meter while mixing. You never want the meter
to reach the very top, which will result in undesirable audible noise. This is called clipping.
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Note: You can find the Mains meters on the far right side in the Console view. If you don’t see
the Mains meters, click the Console view Strips menu and make sure Mains is selected.
The next thing we'll try is panning. As with mixing in general, there are no rules when it comes to
panning. Be creative, trying different ideas to see how they sound. One important thing to consider is
that when you pan two tracks that share the same frequency range away from each other they will
become clearer. This especially applies to instruments that have been double-tracked. Try it with the
two tracks labeled Cymbals Left and Cymbals Right. Notice how you can hear more definition and
detail in the two tracks as you pan them away from each other. When panning double-tracked
instruments, try to avoid panning them all the way to the left or right. Doing so may cause the tracks
to sound too “separated”, which can take away from the fullness of the sound.
See:
“Adding effects (FX)” on page 151
“Using Automation” on page 156
Adding effects (FX)
At this point, you should have a basic mix. Everything is generally where you want it to be and it's
time to use some audio effects to tweak it all to perfection. Effects placed directly on an audio track
are called inserts.
Choose an audio track you would like to start with:
1. In the Console view, locate the effects bin for the track you’d like to work with. If you don’t see the
effects bin, click the Console view Modules menu and make sure FX Bin is selected.
2. Right-click the effects bin to open the pop-up menu.
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151
3. Point to Audio FX, then point to Cakewalk or Sonitus:fx and choose any one of the available
effects.
The selected effect is inserted into the track’s effects bin.Experiment with the controls on the
plug-in while the music is playing back. You will hear noticeable changes to the sound.
4. Right-click on the effect in the effects bin and choose Delete to remove the effect.
Each of the effect plug-ins listed is designed to change the sound in some specific way. Here's a
quick list of some of the included plug-ins and what they're typically used for:
Compressor/Gate. This plug-in affects the loudness of the sound. It can limit how loud a sound
can get. It can also limit how soft a sound can get before it's completely turned off.
EQ. EQ can accentuate or turn down a certain frequency range in a sound. For example, if you
have an unwanted high-pitched buzz on one of your tracks, an EQ may be able to turn that high
frequency down without affecting the sound of the instrument.
Reverb. Reverb creates an artificial space. It produces echoes that are similar to the natural
echoes that happen when a sound bounces off the walls in a room.
Delay. Delay plug-ins have the ability to create an echo. However, it's typically more distinct than
that of a reverb. It makes a sound repeat, often in a rhythmic, musical manner.
These are the effects we'll be focusing on in this tutorial. However, other effects are available and
you should experiment with each one to discover how they can be used in your mixes. To get online
Help for a particular plug-in, simply click one of its controls and press the F1 key on your computer
keyboard.
Compression
While adjusting track levels in a song, you might notice that some tracks are too dynamic.
Sometimes they're too loud, other times too soft. In most modern music, the important elements in a
mix are focused in a specific volume range. This is done with a compressor.
The purpose of a compressor is to limit the dynamic range of music or sound. Compression will
make the loud parts of the signal quieter, resulting in a more or less even level. That even level can
then be increased to fit more specifically in the mix.
Many compressors have an option to allow that loud peak to remain untouched for a certain time,
which can add some “punch”.
Let's try it on the bass drum:
1. Add the Compressor plug-in to the track labeled Kick.
2. Adjust the Threshold. The Threshold value represents the dB level at which compression starts
to take place.
3. Adjust Attack. The Attack value represents the time the compressor takes to respond to an
increase in the input audio's level once the threshold level has been reached.
4. Adjust the level to the desired output volume.
This approach can be applied to any track you like. It's especially useful when trying to get vocals to
stand out in a mix.
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Equalization
Each audio track has a dedicated, built-in equalizer (EQ). It is located just above the effects bin in
both the Inspector and in the Console View.
Figure 25.
ProChannel EQ module (Producer only).
A
A. Equalizer graph
Figure 26.
Per-track EQ (Studio and Essential).
A
A. EQ plot
One of the primary uses for EQ is to prevent different instruments from stepping on each other in the
frequency spectrum. One instrument might be intended for a certain frequency range, but extends
into another instrument's frequency range. This can easily happen with drums and bass. If you turn
down the overlapping frequency range for one of the instruments, it will allow the other instrument to
stand out better in the mix.
Let's give it a try:
1. Solo the tracks named Tension Climbing and Chirppy Synth.
2. Add the Sonitus:fx Equalizer plug-in to the Tension Climbing track.
The Sonitus:fx Equalizer interface appears.
3. Grab one of the numbered nodes and drag it around. Boost the selected band until you find the
frequency range that interferes with Chirppy Synth. When you find it, turn down the selected
band by dragging the node downward.
Tip: Try to cut the band around 1kHz.
Experiment with the other controls on the EQ to get the best possible results. As with the
compressor plug-in, this approach can be applied to any track you like.
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153
Reverb and Delay
Next, we'll add some space to the song. This is done by using time-based effects.
The first thing we'll do is add a delay effect. A delay effect can really enhance an instrument. In our
tutorial project, we will add the Delay effect to the track name Chirppy Synth, which sounds very dry
and lifeless. Applying a delay might give it more depth.
1. Add the Delay plug-in to Chirppy Synth.
2. Configure the controls as follows:
• Tempo Sync = Host
• Factor = 1/2 (set for both Left & Right channels)
This is a good starting point. Sometimes the best way to familiarize yourself with a new effect plug-in
is to dig in and start tweaking.Next, we'll apply some reverb to the project. Think of a reverb effect as
an artificial room. We could add a separate reverb to each track, but when multiple reverbs are
running at the same time it can sound “cloudy”. This might be because our ears are used to hearing
sounds bounce of walls naturally. A reverb on each track would sound like you have one instrument
in one room, another instrument in another room, and so on.
Instead, we will add a single reverb effect to a bus, then send each track to that bus, at varying
levels.This is where SONAR's advanced mixing environment offers a lot of flexibility. We will add a
control to each track, which adjusts how loud a copy of the track's sound is sent to the bus. This will
sound more natural since it's similar to the behavior of an actual acoustic space. All of the different
sounds can interact with each other in the “virtual room” we're creating with the reverb.
Note: If you are unfamiliar with the term “bus” see “Stereo buses” on page 842.
Follow these steps to create your reverb send from the Console view:
1. We want to add this send to all tracks, so go to Edit > Select > All to select all tracks.
2. Right-click on one of your tracks in the Sends section of the strip and choose Insert Send
Assistant. If you don’t see the Sends section in your Console view, click the Console view
Modules menu and make sure Sends/Bank/Patch is selected.
The Insert Send Assistant appears.
3. Configure the Send Assistant as follows:
• Click New Bus. This will create a new reverb bus instead of routing the tracks to an existing
bus.
• Select Stereo
• In the Name box, type Reverb.
• Click Choose Effect and select Audio Effects > Sonitus:fx > Reverb.
• Make sure Pre Fader is not selected.
• Select the Show Effects Property Page check box.
• In the Bus Output list, select Master.
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Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
4. Click OK.
The Reverb property page appears.
5. Set the Reverb control to 0.0 dB and the Dry control to -Inf.
Notice that a send control named Reverb has been added to each track. To enable or disable a
send, click the On/Off button located on each track’s Send control.
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155
When a send is enabled, you will hear the reverb effect during playback. To adjust how much reverb
is applied to each track, use the send's LEVEL control.
Enable the send control for each track that you want reverb on. You'll probably want at least a little
reverb on every track except for the kick drum and the bass guitar.
See:
“Volume and pan” on page 150
“Using Automation” on page 156
Using Automation
Another feature that is important to mixing is automation. Automation lets you record changes to
almost any parameter in SONAR, including track parameters, effects, synths and buses. SONAR
makes this very easy.
1. Click a track's Write Automation button
2. Press Play
to enable automation writing for that track.
to start playback.
3. During playback, simply make the changes to the parameters in realtime, using either your
mouse or a control surface.
4. To disable automation writing, stop playback and click the track's Write Automation button
again.
When you play back, the parameters will update automatically.
Automation allows you to make gradual or sudden changes to make your song more dynamic. For
example, in the tutorial project, you might find that Whiney Synth should become lower in volume at
measure 25, when the drums and bass change. Try it:
1. Click the Write Automation button
2. Click Play
on the Whiney Synth track.
or press SPACEBAR to start playback.
3. At measure 25, turn the track volume down to the desired level.
4. At measure 33, turn the track volume back up.
5. Press Stop
156
to stop playback.
Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
6. Disable Write Automation by clicking the
button again.
7. Press Play
and notice how the track volume changes automatically.Repeat this process with
any other automation you feel the project needs. For more information, see “Automation” on
page 1001.
That concludes this tutorial. But don't stop here. Continue to experiment by adding different effects,
adding loops through the Media Browser view, etc.
Be creative and listen closely to the mix details in your favorite songs and albums. It's sure to
provide you with inspiration for your own projects. There are also many books available on the topic,
as well as thousands of add-on plug-ins that can expand your arsenal of FX. For more information,
visit www.cakewalk.com.
Tips: www.cakewalk.com/Support
Videos: www.cakewalk.com/CakeTV
Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
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Tutorial 7 – Mixing and adding effects
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
SONAR allows you to add music and sound to your videos. This tutorial will guide you through the
basics of working with video inside SONAR. If you are new to SONAR, it is highly recommended you
review “Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects” on page 101 before going any further.
See:
“Importing video” on page 160
“Working with markers” on page 164
“Exporting your video” on page 166
Importing video
Before you can start working with video, you first t File dialog box.
1. Select the Normal template, give your project a name and then click OK.
If you are having trouble with this, please refer to “Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving
projects” on page 101.
2. On the File menu, point to Import and select Video.
The Import Video dialog box appears.
Let’s explore some of the options in the Import Video dialog box.
The first thing you will notice is that this dialog box is very similar to the Open dialog box that was
discussed in Tutorial 1. The Import Video dialog box functions in very much the same way with the
exception of two sections.
First, outlined in the preceding image is the drop-down box Files of type. Making a selection here
will determine which video formats are displayed in the dialog box. SONAR supports the following
digital video formats:
• Windows Media (.wmv and .asf)
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Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Importing video
• Video For Windows (.avi)
• MPEG Video (.mpg)
• QuickTime Video (.mov)
The file we are interested in for this tutorial is a Windows Media file, so let’s select Windows Media
(*.wmv, *.asf) in the Files of type list.
Next, outlined in the above image you will see the File info area on the left and three options on the
right. Let’s review what each of these options do.
Option
What it does
Show file info
When selected, this tells SONAR to display video information about the
selected file in the File info area of the dialog box.
Import Audio Stream
Select this option if you want to import the video file’s embedded audio
into a new audio track in SONAR.
Import as mono tracks
Select this option if you want to import the video file's embedded audio
data as one or more mono tracks.
Table 9.
For now, let’s leave the Import Audio Stream and Show file info check boxes selected.
Just as you would with the Open dialog box, navigate to the following location:/Cakewalk
Content/SONAR X2/Demo Projects/Video Tutorial
Locate and import the file named Boarding.wmv. You can open it by either double-clicking on it or
highlighting it and then clicking the Open button.
Tip: You can quickly get to the My Documents folder by clicking on its button along the left side of
the Import Video dialog box.
Notice that SONAR imported any audio that is a part of the video as well. If the video does not have
any audio already associated with it, then SONAR will create a silent audio track like in our
example.You should now see the Boarding video in the Video view as well as the Video Thumbnail
pane in the Track view.
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Importing video
161
What if I don’t see the Video Thumbnail pane or Video view?
To show or hide the Video Thumbnail pane, drag the splitter bar that separates the Video Thumbnail
pane from the Clips pane.
To restore the Video Thumbnail pane, point the mouse pointer over the splitter bar (the mouse
pointer will look like
), then drag the splitter bar down to restore and resize the Video Thumbnail
pane to your liking. You can also press the V key to show or hide the Video Thumbnail pane.
If you closed the Video view, or if it did not open automatically when you imported the video, you can
open it by selecting Views > Video or pressing ALT+SHIFT+2.
Changing the video properties
SONAR allows you to make some useful changes to a video's settings for film scoring purposes. To
access these settings, simply right-click in the Video view and choose Video Properties from the
pop-up menu to open the Video Properties dialog box.
The Video Properties dialog box has three tabs: the Video Settings tab, the Info tab and the
Render Quality tab. For detailed information about all of these options and settings, see “Video
Properties dialog” on page 1770. For this tutorial, we are only going to look at the tools on the Video
Settings tab.
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Importing video
There are three options on this tab that are very important to understand and extremely helpful when
working with video. Let's take a closer look at them.
Option
What it does
Start Time
The time in your SONAR project at which you want the video file to start playing.
Trim-in Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to start, this is useful if
you don’t want to see the opening credits or the first few scenes. This is expressed
in SMPTE time code.
Trim-out Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to stop, this is also
expressed in SMPTE time code.
Table 10.
Let’s change the Start Time value to measure 2. To do this, enter the number 2 in the Start Time
box.
Now, click the RTZ button in the transport and then click Play. Notice how the video doesn’t start
playing until measure 2 in your project.
See:
“Working with markers” on page 164
“Exporting your video” on page 166
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Importing video
163
Working with markers
When syncing up audio events to film cues or video, it is common to use markers. Markers are a
powerful feature in SONAR that helps to simplify the task of identifying major events in a song or
video. They can be used to clarify where a verse or chorus begins in a rock tune or, in the case of
film scoring, they can be used to identify hit points (points in the film where you want a musical event
to synchronize with a visual event). Before we get started on this next exercise, return to the Video
Properties dialog box and click the Video Settings tab. Set Start Time to 1:01:000, Trim-in Time
to 00:00:00:00 and Trim-out Time to 00:00:44:23.
Let’s say we want our music to start at the beginning of the video right when the sun comes out. This
occurs about 4 seconds into the movie. Taking a closer look, this happens at 4 seconds and 10
frames into the clip, which, expressed in SMPTE time code, is 00:00:04:10.
There are several ways to add markers in SONAR:
• Place the Now Time at the location where you would like a marker, then select Project > Insert
Marker or press M.
• Click the Insert Marker
button in the Control Bar’s Markers module.
• Click the Add Marker button in the Markers view.
Let’s open the Markers view by selecting Views > Markers.
The Markers view is very handy when working with events in a film. The first thing we want to do is
add a new marker to the project, indicating the start of the project. To do this, click the Insert
Markers button
164
to open the Marker dialog box.
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Working with markers
From this dialog box, you can do a lot of very important things. First, let’s name this marker by typing
Intro in the Name field.
Next, select the Lock to SMPTE (Real World) Time check box. This option is very important when
working with video. If a marker is not locked to SMPTE time, its position in relation to events on the
video will change with tempo and meter changes in the project.
You might also notice that the Time value changes to the SMPTE format after you selected the
check box. This determines where the location of the marker will be. We know in the video that the
sun comes out at about four seconds and ten frames into the video. Let’s set the Time value to
00:00:04:10.
Click OK to insert the marker and close the Marker dialog box. You can place as many markers as
you need for a project to sync up all of your events.The Markers view will now display the marker
you just created, with the name Intro assigned to it. The Marker view toolbar contains the following
commands that apply to selected markers.
Control
Description
Click the Delete Marker button to delete the currently selected marker.
Click the Change Marker Properties button to open the Marker dialog box for the selected
marker. This is useful if you want to change the location of a marker.
Click the Lock/Unlock Marker button to lock or unlock the marker to SMTPE time.
Table 11.
Close the Markers view now and take a look at the time ruler in SONAR, which spans the top of the
Clips pane in the Track view. You will notice there is now a flag named Intro indicating where your
new marker is in the project.
See:
“Importing video” on page 160
“Exporting your video” on page 166
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Working with markers
165
Exporting your video
Once you have finished with all of your music and have your video synced up as you would like it,
you’ll want to mix it down to a video file that you can share with the world.
1. Select everything in the project that you want to export. If you want to export the entire project,
simply select Edit > Select > All or press CTRL+A. On the File menu, point to Export and click
Video.
The Export Video dialog box opens. You will notice this is very similar to both the Save As and
Export Audio dialogs that were explored in Tutorial 1 and Tutorial 9.
2. Similar to saving project files, you will first want to give your video a name by typing one into the
File name field.
3. Choose the desired video format by selecting it from the Save as type list.
Clicking the Encoding Options button at the bottom will allow you to explore some advanced
settings for your video. From this dialog box, you will be able to change the quality and size of
your video. This is particularly important if you plan to upload your video to the web. Some
codecs work better than others and are more appropriate for different scenarios. Click the Help
button in this dialog box for more specific details about different formats.
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Exporting your video
The Audio Mixdown Options button will bring up settings specific to the audio in your project.
Click the Help button for detailed instructions on how to use these settings.
4. Specify the location you want to save the file to and click Save to export it.
Tutorial 8 – Working with video
Exporting your video
167
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Exporting your video
Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and
sharing
Once your SONAR project is complete, you will want to share it with the world or burn a CD. SONAR
offers many tools to help you do this. In this tutorial, we are going to explore some of the basics of these
tools.
Before we get started, let’s open one of the example audio projects included with SONAR. If you have
your own project that already contains audio, you can load that instead. However, your screen will look
different from the images in this tutorial.
1. On the File menu, click Open.
The Open dialog box appears.
2. In the Go to Folder list, select Template Files and then open the Tutorials folder.
3. Browse to the project named SONAR_AudioDemo.cwb and click Open to load the project.
Note: You may have to rename the file if you saved it with the same name during Tutorial 1.
Now that you have opened the demo project (or your own audio project), click the Play button
or
press SPACEBAR listen to it. If you do not hear any audio, review the steps in Tutorial 1 to ensure
SONAR and your audio device are configured correctly.
Cakewalk Project Files are different from the audio you hear on a CD in that they are often multi-track. In
this example, you will notice that there are four audio tracks. In order to burn this mix to a CD or prepare
it for distribution, we need to export or mix it down to a stereo track.
First, we need to click File > Export > Audio.
This will bring us to the Export Audio dialog box. This has many useful functions. Let’s explore
some of them in detail.
You should notice that the top half of this window is very similar to the Open and Save dialogs that
were discussed in “Tutorial 1 – Creating, playing, and saving projects” on page 101. This is used to
navigate to locations on your computer’s hard drive and tell SONAR where you want to store the
exported audio.
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For this Tutorial, we are only going to explore some of the more common settings. If you would like
to read about all of the options and settings click the Help button.
Control
Function
Channel Format
Specifies if the audio should be exported as stereo or mono.
Sample Rate
Allows you to set the sample rate of your export. 44100 Hz is used for CD
quality audio.
Bit-Depth
Allows you to set the bit-depth of your export. 16-bit is used for CD quality
and 24-bit is often used for DVD quality audio.
Add to Cakewalk Publisher
Select this option to send your file to Cakewalk Publisher, which is used to
put your music on the Internet.
Table 12.
To burn an audio CD of your music
1. Click File > Export > Audio to open the Export Audio dialog box.
2. In the Channel Format list, select Stereo.
3. In the Sample Rate list, select 44100.
4. In the Bit-Depth list, select 16.
5. Enter a name for you mix in the File name box.
6. In the File type list, select Wave.
7. Specify where you want to save the file. Make note of this location, because you will need to use
it later.
8. Click Export.
A progress bar appears across the bottom of SONAR’s screen while a CD quality audio file is
exported. When the progress bar disappears, SONAR has finished exporting your project.
Now we need to burn our mix to a CD. SONAR features a powerful built-in CD burning application
that can do this for us. Let’s open Audio Creator LE and briefly explore its features and how to use it.
See:
“Burning an audio CD” on page 172
“Cakewalk Publisher” on page 172
“Uploading audio to SoundCloud” on page 174
Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing
171
Burning an audio CD
Select Utilities > Burn Audio CD to open the Audio CD Burner dialog box.
Simply browse to the audio files you want to burn and click the Add Track button. You can also drag
audio files into the Burner track list.
Note: Any files that are not in 16 bit, 44.1kHz wav files will automatically be converted to the
proper CD format.
Depending on the type of blank CD you are using, you can fit up to 80 minutes of audio on one CD.
Make note of the Space Available and Space Used fields. These will let you know how many more
tracks you can fit on your CD. For the best compatibility with most consumer CD players, you should
use a CD-R disc. CD-RW discs, while compatible with some newer CD players, may not play back in
all systems.
Once you have finished adding all the songs you would like to burn to a CD, the final step is to burn
your disc. To do so, do the following:
1. Insert the writable CD into the CD-R drive.
The drive containing the writable CD should automatically be detected. If for some reason it isn’t
detected, manually select the drive letter of your CD Burner from the Target Drive drop-down
list.
2. Click Burn CD.
Cakewalk Publisher
SONAR includes Cakewalk Publisher, which is a powerful tool to share your music, artwork and
playlists on the Internet. A detailed description of Publisher is beyond the scope of this tutorial, but
let’s take a quick look at its basic features and how it integrates with SONAR.
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To open Publisher, select Utilities > Publish to Web.
Notice that your recently exported project is already listed in the Track list. This is because you
selected the Add to Cakewalk Publisher check box in the Export Audio dialog box.
The following table describes a few of the buttons in the publisher interface. If you would like to
explore all of the features in Publisher, click the button labeled HELP in the upper right corner of the
Publisher window.
Control
Function
Used to configure the player and generate the HTML code for pasting
into your web site.
Lets you associate an image with the selected track. This is useful if
you want to include album artwork when you upload your music.
Adds new tracks to the current playlist.
Deletes selected tracks from the current playlist.
Once your player has been configured and your playlist is put together,
click Publish to upload your files to the Internet.
Table 13.
Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing
173
If you want to share your music online
SONAR features a powerful upload utility powered by the online service SoundCloud.
See:
“Uploading audio to SoundCloud” on page 174
“Troubleshooting” on page 937
Uploading audio to SoundCloud
SONAR lets you easily mix down and upload the current project directly to SoundCloud, or you can
choose to upload an existing audio file.
Cakewalk SoundCloud lets you upload one audio file at a time. Multiple audio files can be uploaded
directly from the SoundCloud web site.
SONAR checks to see if there is an active Internet connection before attempting to export and
upload files to SoundCloud.
Tip: By default, Cakewalk SoundCloud lets you upload either a .wav file or an .mp3 file. If you want
to upload a different audio format, first use the File > Export > Audio command to export to the
desired format, then go to Utilities > Share with SoundCloud and select the exported file.
To share the current project with SoundCloud
1. Select the audio track(s) you want to share with SoundCloud.
2. Go to File > Export > Audio to open the Export Audio dialog box.
3. In the Files of type list, select one of the following:
• SoundCloud - CD Quality. Creates a 16-bit 44.1kHz .wav file.
• SoundCloud - MP3. Creates a 256kBit/s .mp3 file.
• SoundCloud - FLAC. FLAC is a royalty-free high quality lossless audio compression codec.
Files compressed with FLAC can be 30-50% smaller than the original wav file and, unlike
MP3, there is no loss of audio quality.
4. Under Bounce Settings, select the desired settings, such as channel format, sample rate and
bit depth.
5. Enter a name in the File name box.
6. Click Export.
7. SONAR exports the selected audio to the specified format, then launches Cakewalk SoundCloud
(see “The Cakewalk SoundCloud interface” on page 928). In Cakewalk SoundCloud, the Title,
Artwork and File Location fields are pre-populated.
8. Specify the desired settings in Cakewalk SoundCloud. All tags are remembered so you don’t
have to re-enter the same information the next time you upload another song.
9. Click Share.
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Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing
The Share with SoundCloud dialog box appears and shows a progress bar along with the
name of the file that is being uploaded. To cancel the upload, click the Cancel button.
The Upload Successful dialog box appears when the file has been uploaded successfully. Click
the displayed link to view the uploaded file on SoundCloud.com.
The Upload Failed dialog box appears if the upload is not successful. There are various reasons
why an upload may have failed. For troubleshooting help, click the Help button or see
“Troubleshooting” on page 937.
Note: By default, Cakewalk SoundCloud lets you upload either a .wav file or an .mp3 file. If you
want to upload a different audio format, first use the File > Export > Audio command to export
to the desired format, then go to Utilities > Share with SoundCloud and select the exported
file. SoundCloud supports the following file formats; WAV, MP3, MP3, OGG, FLAC, AIFF and
AAC.
To share existing audio files with SoundCloud
1. Go to Utilities > Share with SoundCloud to open Cakewalk SoundCloud.
2. Click the Browse button
and select the audio file you want to upload. SoundCloud supports
MP3, WAVE, FLAC, OGG, AIFF, MP2 and AAC files.
3. Specify the desired settings in Cakewalk SoundCloud.
4. Click Share.
The Share with SoundCloud dialog box appears and shows a progress bar along with the
name of the file that is being uploaded. To cancel the upload, click the Cancel button.
The Upload Successful dialog box appears when the file has been uploaded successfully. Click
the displayed link to view the uploaded file on SoundCloud.
The Upload Failed dialog box appears if the upload is not successful. There are various reasons
why an upload may have failed. For troubleshooting help, click the Help button or see
“Troubleshooting” on page 937.
Tutorial 9 – Exporting, CD burning and sharing
175
To share your music on Facebook and Twitter
When you upload a song to SoundCloud, you can choose to also send automatic “push” notifications
to your linked Facebook and/or Twitter accounts. You must configure your Facebook and/or Twitter
setting using the account management tools at SoundCloud.com first before being able to share on
Facebook and/or Twitter.
To link your Facebook and/or Twitter account(s), click the corresponding Setup link in Cakewalk
SoundCloud.
To include a short message with the push notification, enter text (up to 119 characters, no HTML) in
the Message field. If this field is empty, the text in the Description field will accompany the song
post.
To send push notifications to your Facebook account, select the Share on Facebook check box.
To send push notifications to your Twitter account, select the Share on Twitter check box.
Note: You can not share a track on Facebook or Twitter if the track is private.
Figure 27.
Cakewalk SoundCloud sharing options
A
B
C
A. Message B. Share on Facebook (click Setup to configure) C. Share on Twitter (click Setup to configure)
Note: If you have multiple Facebook and/or Twitter accounts that you would like to send push
notifications to, you can link to multiple Facebook and Twitter accounts via the account
management tools at SoundCloud.com.
See:
“Sharing your songs on SoundCloud” on page 927
“The Cakewalk SoundCloud interface” on page 928
“Troubleshooting” on page 937
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Controlling playback
When you play your SONAR project, you have full control over the tempo or speed of playback,
which tracks are played, which sound cards or other devices are used to produce the sound, and
what the tracks sound like. You can access all of the playback functions from the Control Bar (see
“Control Bar overview” on page 495).
SONAR’s multi-MIDI enhancements give you the ability to play multiple synths or tracks from a
single keyboard or controller, or let multiple performers play the same or different tracks. You have
total control over MIDI echo (MIDI echo refers to where MIDI input signals are sent once SONAR
receives them).
Note: SONAR has a button called the Audio Engine button
in the Control Bar’s Transport
module, which you click to stop any feedback you may experience if there is a loop somewhere
in your mixer setup. Whenever you play a project, SONAR automatically enables the audio
engine.
See also:
“The Now time and how to use it” on page 178
“Using the Transport, Markers, Punch and Loop modules” on page 190
“Controlling the transport” on page 186
“Track-by-track playback” on page 195
“Changing track settings” on page 205
“Video playback, import, and export” on page 236
“Locating missing audio” on page 247
“Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo” on page 229
“Local control” on page 232
The Now time and how to use it
Every project has a current time, known as the “Now time” on page 1916, which keeps track of
where you are in a project. The Now time appears as a vertical line in the Track view and is
displayed in the Transport module in the Control Bar (see “Transport module” on page 504).
Figure 28.
The Transport module in the Control Bar.
A
B
C
A. Current Now time (click to cycle through the available display formats) B. Position C. Meter
The Transport module can show the Now time in several formats. Click the time display to toggle
between the following time formats:
• MBT. Display time as Measure:Beat:Tick.
• HMSF. Display time as Hour:Minute:Second:Frame. This format is also referred to as SMPTE
time.
• Milliseconds. Display time in milliseconds.
• Samples. Display time in samples.
The measure, beat, and tick number (MBT) identifies the Now time in musical time units. Ticks are
subdivisions of quarter notes and indicate the timebase of the project. For more information about
the timebase, see “Setting the MIDI timing resolution” on page 259.Here are some examples of
times expressed in measure, beat, and tick (MBT) format:
Time
What it means
1:01:000
First beat of the first measure
9:04:000
Fourth beat of the ninth measure
4:02:060
The 60th tick of the second beat of the fourth measure
Table 14.
The hours-minutes-seconds-frames format is commonly referred to as the SMPTE time. SMPTE is
the acronym for the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. In this format, time is
measured in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames. It’s not necessary for a project to begin at time
zero in this format—any time can be used to represent the start of a project. If you are synchronizing
178
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
SONAR with an external device whose start time is not 0, you must offset SONAR to match the
external device’s start time. For more information, see “Synchronizing your gear” on page 1153.
Here are some examples of times expressed in this format (assuming that zero is the start time):
Time
What it means
00:00:00:00
The beginning of the project
00:05:10:00
Five minutes and ten seconds from the beginning of the project
01:30:00:00
One hour and thirty minutes into the project
00:00:00:05
Five frames into the project
Table 15.
SONAR provides many ways to set the Now time. Here are just a few:
To change the Now time
• Click the desired time on the Time Ruler in the Track view, Piano Roll view, or Staff view.
• In the Navigator pane, click anywhere in the view while holding down the CTRL key to change the
Now Time to that location.
• Drag the Position slider in the Transport module.
• Click the transport buttons in the Transport module.
• Click on an event in the Event List view.
You can also set the Now time by right-clicking in the Clips pane if you enable the Right Click Sets
Now option in Track view Options > Click Behavior menu.
When entering a time in MBT format, the beat and tick values are optional. You can use a colon,
space, decimal point, or vertical bar to separate the parts of the Now time:
You enter
The Now time is set to
2
2:01:000
420
4:02:000
9
9:01:000
5|1:30
5:01:030
Table 16.
When entering a time in SMPTE format, you can enter a single number (hour), two numbers (hour
and minutes), three numbers (hour, minutes, and seconds), or all four numbers.
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
179
If you click in the Time Ruler while the snap grid is enabled, the Now time will be snapped to the
nearest point in the grid. By setting the grid size to a whole note or quarter note, you can easily set
the Now time to a measure or beat boundary.
Note: The Time Ruler only obeys snap when Musical Time or Absolute Time is selected in
the Control Bar’s Snap module.
When playback or recording is stopped, the Now Time either remains at the point where the project
stopped or snaps back to the Now Time Marker. This behavior is specified with the Track view
Options > On stop, Rewind to Now Marker command (or by pressing CTRL+W). For more
information, see “The Now time marker” on page 180.
MIDI note will continue to play If Now time is moved
Changing the Now time while a MIDI note is sounding will cause SONAR to play the full duration of
the note. This behavior was introduced in SONAR 4.0.3, and is necessary as a result of addressing
various gapping issues when editing MIDI data during playback.
If you prefer a slight hiccup instead of hearing the full note duration, you can change the default
behavior with the Set Now Time with Full Restart option in the Track view Options menu.
Note: Moving a MIDI note event during playback is affected by this same issue.
See:“Displaying the Now time in large print” on page 182
“Note that SONAR ignores font styles and effects such as strikeout and underline. Other ways to set
the Now time” on page 182
The Now time marker
In the Track view, the Now time appears as a solid vertical line that follows playback. When you set
the Now time in the Track view, the Now time marker appears in the Time Ruler. This marker
represents the point at which the Now time will snap back to after you stop playback or recording.
Figure 29.
The Now Time marker
You can drag the Now Time marker during playback. When the mouse button is released, the
transport immediately jumps to the new location.
Note: You can only drag the Now Time marker during playback, not while recording.
180
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
The Now Time marker changes appearance to indicate if playback is paused, running, or recording.
Figure 30.
The Now Time marker indicates the playback state
A
B
C
A. Paused B. Playback C. Recording
You can change the Now time marker behavior so that the marker moves to the current Now time
when playback or recording is stopped (on the Track view Options menu, clear the On Stop,
Rewind to Now Marker option or press CTRL+W).
To change the Now time marker behavior
On the Track view Options menu, clear the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option to have the
Now time marker move to follow the current Now time when you stop playback.
Or
On the Track view Options menu, select the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option to have the
Now time snap back to the Now time marker when you stop playback.
The Track view Now Time display
The Track view displays the Now Time above the track strips in a large and configurable format.
Figure 31.
The Track view Now time display
Click the display to display the following time formats:
• M:B:T (Measure:Beat:Tick). Example: 8:01:000.
• SMPTE (Hours:Minutes:Seconds:Frames).
Example: 00:00:21:00.
• Frames. Example: 629 (only available if project contains video).
• Milliseconds (Hours:Minutes:Seconds:Milliseconds).
Example: 00:00:21:000.
• Samples. Example: 926100.
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
181
You can also right-click the display, and choose time formats from the pop-up menu.
The pop-up menu also lets you choose the following display options:
• To hide the time display, choose None.
• To show the time display, right-click the empty area and choose one of the available time formats
from the pop-up menu.
The time display settings are global and persist between sessions.
Displaying the Now time in large print
SONAR can display the Now time in large print so that it’s easier to see when you are far from your
monitor (for example, when you’re at your keyboard or another instrument) or when several people
need to read the Now time from a distance. Here’s how:
To display the Big Time view
1. Choose Views > Big Time to display the Big Time view.
Figure 32.
The Big Time view
2. Change the settings according to the table:
To do this
Do this
Switch time format
Click on the view to toggle between MBT and SMPTE time
Change font or color
Right-click on the view, choose the font and color you want,
and click OK
Change the size of the view
Drag any corner of the view to change its size
Table 17.
Note that SONAR ignores font styles and effects such as strikeout and underline. Other ways to set
the Now time
There are a variety of commands and keyboard shortcuts you can use to set the Now time:
Shortcut
What it does
G
Lets you enter the Now time in the Position toolbar or in a dialog box
SHIFT+G
Sets the Now time to the From time (the start time of the current time selection)
Table 18.
182
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
Shortcut
What it does
CTRL+HOME
Sets the Now time to the beginning of the project
CTRL+END
Sets the Now time to the end of the project
CTRL+PAGE UP Sets the Now time to the start of the current measure if the Now time is not on a barline, or
to the start of the previous measure if the Now time is on a barline.
CTRL+PAGE
DOWN
Sets the Now time to the start of the next measure
Table 18.
If your project has markers, you can use Markers module in the Control Bar to set the Now time:
To do this
Do this
Skip to the next marker
Click
on the Markers module (or press CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE
DOWN).
Skip to the previous marker
Click
Jump to any marker
on the Markers module (or press CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE UP).
Click the drop-down menu on the Markers module and select the
marker you want to jump to.
Table 19.
Figure 33.
A
The Markers module.
B
C
D
A. Jump to previous marker B. Jump to next marker C. Insert marker D. Current marker
For more information about markers, see “Creating and using markers” on page 357.
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
183
The Time ruler
The Time ruler appears in the Track view, Tempo view, Staff view and Piano Roll view. It has several
functions, including:
• Making a time selection.
The Time ruler follows the Snap to Grid settings, if enabled.
• Changing the Now time
• Adding loop, punch, and pitch markers.
You can right-click in the Time ruler to add markers.
• Zooming and scrolling. Point the mouse pointer at the top half of the Clips pane or Piano Roll
view time ruler until the mouse pointer looks like
, then drag up/down to zoom horizontally, or
left/right to scroll. For details, see “Zooming and scrolling in the time ruler” on page 88.
In the Track view and Piano Roll view, the Time ruler has the following time display options or
formats:
• Measures, Beats and Ticks (M:B:T)
• Hours, Minutes, Seconds and Frames (H:M:S:F—also called SMPTE)
• Samples
• Milliseconds
Figure 34.
The Time ruler
A
B
C
D
E
F
A. M:B:T B. H:M:S:F C. Samples D. Milliseconds E. Remove ruler F. Add ruler
The M:B:T setting follows your settings in the Meter/Key view. If you project is set to 4/4 time, you
have four beats in the Time ruler for each measure. If your project is set to 6/8 time, you have six
beats in the Time ruler for each measure.
Note: When Smart Grid is enabled in the Control Bar’s Snap module, the M:B:T time rulers in
the Clips pane and Piano Roll view are optimized to show relevant snap locations.
If there is only one format displayed in the Time ruler, you can switch the format by right-clicking in
the Time ruler and selecting the format you prefer.To switch the Time ruler format to M:B:T
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format > M:B:T.
184
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
To switch the Time ruler format to H:M:S:F (SMPTE)
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format > H:M:S:F.
To switch the Time ruler format to samples
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format > Samples.
To switch the Time ruler format to milliseconds
1. Right-click in the Track view Time Ruler.
2. In the menu that appears, select Time Ruler Format > Milliseconds.
Additionally, you can add or remove Time ruler formats using the Plus/Minus buttons located just
outside the right edge of the Time ruler.
Note: If only one Time ruler format is being used, only the Plus button is displayed.
To add or remove Time ruler formats using the Plus/Minus buttons
• Click the Plus button and select a Time ruler format from the pop-up menu.
• Click the Plus button and select a Time ruler format you would like to add from the pop-up menu.
• Click the Minus button and select from the pop-up menu to remove an active Time ruler format.
• Right-click in the Time ruler and move the cursor to Time ruler format in the pop-up menu. A list of
all Time ruler formats appears. Active formats are checked, inactive formats are unchecked.
• Click a checked format to move it down one row.
• Click an unchecked format to replace the topmost displayed format.
Note: Selecting the Display All Times as SMPTE check box in Edit > Preferences >
Customization - Display forces all times in the project to be displayed in SMPTE time,
regardless of your setting in the Time ruler.
See:
“Controlling the transport” on page 186
“Zooming and scrolling in the time ruler” on page 88
Controlling playback
The Now time and how to use it
185
Controlling the transport
To control playback, you have your choice of tools, menu commands, and shortcut keys for most
common operations.
When you start playback, the Now time updates continuously to show the current time. When you
stop playback, the Now time rewinds to the Now Time Marker. When you start playback again, it
continues from the same point.
If the Now time is advancing but you don’t hear any sound, see “Troubleshooting” on page 1251. If
you are using MIDI sync or syncing to MIDI time code, SONAR waits to receive external timing data
before it begins playing. If the various views are not updating during playback, make sure the
SCROLL LOCK key on your computer keyboard is not enabled. For more information, see
“Synchronizing your gear” on page 1153.
Note: If your Windows setup uses any system sounds that are associated with any typical
activity, such as minimizing a window, etc., you should disable these sounds. They can sound
extremely loud through your monitors, and also interrupt playback and recording, if you open
any dialog boxes or do anything that has a system sound attached to it while a project plays.
The quickest way to disable all system sounds is to open the Control Panel (Start > Settings >
Control Panel), double-click the Sounds icon to open the Sounds Properties dialog box, and
in the Schemes field select No Sounds. Click Apply, and then click OK.
To start and stop playback
To do this
Start playback
Stop playback
Rewind to the start of the project
Skip to the end of the project
Do this
Press the SPACEBAR key, click
in the Transport module, or doubleclick the bottom half of the Time Ruler
Press the SPACEBAR key or click
in the Transport module
Click
in the Transport module, or press the W key
Click
in the Transport module, or press SHIFT+G
Table 20.
Note: The default behavior for the Now time when you click the Stop button is for it to return to
the Now time marker where playback began. If you want the Now time to remain where it is when
you stop playback, you can use the keyboard shortcut CTRL+SPACEBAR. If you want to
change the default behavior, clear the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option on the Track
view Options menu or press CTRL+W.
186
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
To pause playback
• Click the Pause button
.
Playback stops, but the Now Time cursor and the Now Time marker do not move.
To resume playback again
• Do one of the following:
• Click the Pause button
• Click the Play button
.
.
• Press SPACEBAR.
Playback resumes.
Rewinding and fast forwarding
The Transport module has dedicated Rewind
and Fast Forward
to rewind and fast forward smoothly during playback.
To rewind or fast forward, click the Rewind
pressed until you want to resume playback.
or Fast Forward
buttons, which allow you
button and keep the button
To audition a selection
1. Select the clips that you want to audition.
2. Press SHIFT+SPACEBAR.
Only the selected clips play back.
Allow playback with no data
SONAR is able to start playback even if there is no data in a project. This is useful in various cases,
such as:
• If you need to trigger playback of external devices.
• If you need to continue playback beyond the end of the project, for example, to allow MIDI notes
and sustains to decay naturally and not end abruptly.
To allow playback with no data:
On the Track view Options menu, make sure Stop at Project End is not selected.
Stop at Project End option
The Track view Options > Stop at Project End option determines whether or not playback is
allowed beyond the last event in a project. This option is enabled by default.
When enabled (default setting):
• Playback will not engage if there is no data present in the project at all.
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
187
• Playback will stop when no more data is present going forward.
When disabled:
• Playback will engage if there is no data present in the project at all.
• Playback will continue past the end of a project until the user manually stops playback.
Auto fade when starting/stopping playback
SONAR makes it possible to render a smooth fade in/out whenever audio playback is interrupted.
This can be useful to smooth out abrupt transitions while stopping and starting the transport rapidly
and will reduce ear fatigue during long sessions.
The fade is only applied during playback and is ignored while recording or bouncing audio.
To configure the auto fade times
1. Select Edit > Preferences to open the Preferences dialog box, then click Audio - Playback
and Recording.
2. Adjust the following options:
• Fade On Start (milliseconds). When this option is set to a value greater than zero, starting
playback will cause a gradual fade in of the audio for the specified duration. The valid range is
0–100000 and the default value is 0.
• Fade On Stop (milliseconds). When this option is set to a value greater than zero,
stopping playback will cause a gradual fade out of the audio for the specified duration. The
valid range is 0–100000 and the default value is 0.
Handling stuck notes
Under MIDI, the events that turn notes on are separate from the events that stop notes from playing.
Normally, when you stop playback, SONAR attempts to turn off all notes that are still playing.
Depending on how your equipment is configured, it’s possible for notes to get stuck in the On
position. The Reset MIDI and Audio button
in the Transport module is used to stop all notes
from playing. The Reset MIDI and Audio command also stops feedback from input monitoring.
Note: You can control the MIDI messages that are sent by the Reset MIDI and Audio button
by changing the Panic Strength variable in the Cakewalk.ini file. See “Initialization
files” on page 1287 for more information.
To clear stuck notes
Click the Reset MIDI and Audio button
See:
“Transport module” on page 504
188
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
in the Transport module.
Looping
Sometimes you want to listen to one portion of a project over and over, either so you can play along
and rehearse or because you want to edit that section of the project while it is playing and hear the
results as you make changes. SONAR has a playback looping feature that makes this simple.
Looping is defined in the Loop module in the Control Bar.
Figure 35.
The Loop module.
A
C
B
D
A. Loop On/Off B. Set Loop Time to Select C. Loop Start Time D. Loop End Time
To set up a loop, you do three things:
• Set the start time of the loopSet the end time of the loopEnable looping
From then on, SONAR will automatically jump back to the start of the loop when it reaches the end.
When looping is enabled, the loop times are indicated by special markers in the Time ruler.
A
B
A. Loop From B. Loop Thru
To move a loop in the Time ruler
1. Click the yellow bar that connects the two loop markers
The cursor becomes a horizontal double-headed arrow.
2. Drag the loop to the desired location in the Time ruler.
With the default option settings, SONAR will play the loop over and over again, continuously.
If you start playback before the loop start time, SONAR will play until the loop end time is reached,
then jump back to the loop start time.
Note: If you stop playback while looping is enabled, the Now time jumps to the Now time marker.
If you disable the On Stop, Rewind to Now Marker option in the Track view Options menu, the
Now time stays wherever you stopped playback.
The Rewind command operates slightly differently when looping is in effect. The first time you
rewind, the Now time is set to the start of the loop. If the Now time is already at the start of the loop,
Rewind takes you to the beginning of the project. From then on, Rewind switches back and forth
between the loop start time and the start of measure 1.
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
189
To set up a playback loop
• Set the loop start and end times in one of the following ways:Drag the mouse between two points
in the Time Ruler of the Track view, Staff, or Piano Roll view to select a range of times, then click
in the Control Bar’s Loop module to copy the selection time to the loop time.
• Click between two markers in the Track, Staff, or Piano Roll view to select a range of times,
then click
in the Control Bar’s Loop module to copy the selection time to the loop time.
• Type the loop start and end times directly into the Loop module.
• Select a range of times, then right-click in the Time ruler and choose Loop > Set Loop
Points.
Looping is automatically turned on when you use the Set Loop to Selection command.
To cancel a playback loop
• Click
in the Control Bar’s Loop module, or press the L key, to disable looping.
Using the Transport, Markers, Punch and Loop modules
The Control Bar contains various modules that provide powerful control over playback. To show the
Control Bar, click the Views menu and choose Control Bar, or press the C key.
For controlling playback, the most important Control Bar modules are the Transport, Markers, Punch
and Loop modules. For detailed information about all Control Bar modules, see “Control Bar
overview” on page 495.
Figure 36.
The Transport module.
A
B
C
D
E
F
H
G
Q
R
S
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
A. Rewind B. Stop C. Play D. Pause E. Fast Forward F. Record G. Dropout indicator H. Current Now time
(this space is also used for progress bars and “Waiting for sync” messages) I. Return to zero (RTZ) J. Position
K. Jump to project end L. Audio Engine on/off M. Reset/Panic N. Sample rate and bit depth O. Tempo
P. Meter Q. Metronome during record R. Metronome during playback S. Click to open metronome settings
190
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
Using the Markers module
The Markers module lets you navigate by markers and insert new markers. Inserting markers at
important milestones in your project makes it easy to navigate through your project.
To insert a marker, do one of the following:
• Click the Insert Marker button
in the Markers module.
• Click the Project menu and choose Insert Marker.
• Press the M key when the Now time is in the desired location for your marker.
• Hold down the CTRL key and click the top half of the time ruler.
To jump to a marker, do one of the following:
• Click the Previous Marker button
or Next Marker button
in the Markers module.
• Click the Marker list in the Markers module and select a marker from the drop-down menu.
• Press the G key twice and select a marker from the list.
Figure 37.
A
The Markers module.
B
C
D
A. Jump to previous marker B. Jump to next marker C. Insert marker D. Current marker
To set options for punch and loop recording
1. Right-click the Record button
in the Transport module to open recording settings.
2. Specify how newly recorded data should affect existing data. Choose either Sound in Sound
(Blend) or Overwrite (Replace).
3. Select between storing looped takes in a single track or storing looped takes in separate tracks.
For more information see “Loop recording” on page 285.
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
191
To use the Punch module
Figure 38.
The Punch module.
A
C
B
D
A. Auto-Punch On/Off B. Set Punch Time to Select C. Punch In Time D. Punch Out Time
The Punch module contains the following controls:
• Auto-Punch on/off
. Enable/disable punch recording. Toggles punch recording on/off.
• Set Punch Time to Selection
. Set the Punch In time to the start (From) time of the
selection, and the Punch Out time to the end (Thru) time of the selection.
• Punch In Time. The current Punch In time. Click to modify.
• Punch Out Time. The current Punch Out time. Click to modify.
Tip: If a numeric time field has focus, you can press G to access a list of marker positions.
To punch record:
1. Click the Auto-Punch Toggle button
in the Punch module to activate Auto Punch.
2. To set the auto punch region, do one of the following:
• Drag in the time ruler to make a time selection, then click the Set Punch Time to Selection
button
in the Punch module.
• Click the Punch In TIme field in the Punch module and specify the desired punch in location,
then click the Punch Out Time field and specify the punch out location.
3. Set the Now Time far enough ahead of the Punch In point for you to be ready for it.
4. Click the Record button in the Transport module or press the R key.
SONAR plays the project, and begins recording on the selected track at the Punch In time you
entered, then stops recording at the Punch Out time.
To use the Transport module
The Transport module contains the following controls:
• Rewind
192
.
Gradually rewind the project.
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
• Stop
. Stop playback.
• Play
. Start/stop playback.
• Pause
. Pause/resume playback.
• Fast Forward
.
Gradually fast forward the project.
• Record
. Start recording (requires at least one track to be armed for recording). Right-click
to access global record options. Click and keep the mouse button pressed for a brief moment to
enable step recording.
• Step Record. Open the Step Record window. For details, see “Step recording” on page 291.
• RTZ
. Rewind to the start of the project.
• Progress Bar
• Go to End
.
.
Current position in the project. Drag to skip around in the project.
Skip to the end of the project.
• Time Display. The time display section shows useful information about the current project,
including the Now time, sample rate and bit depth, tempo and meter. The following information is
shown:
• Current Now Time. The Now time shows your current location in the project. For details,
see “The Now time and how to use it” on page 178. Click the time display to toggle between
the following time formats:
• MBT. Display time as Measure:Beat:Tick.
• HMSF. Display time as Hour:Minute:Second:Frame. This format is also referred to as
SMPTE time.
• Milliseconds. Display time in milliseconds.
• Samples. Display time in samples.
• Current Tempo.
tempo.
The current tempo at the Now time. Double-click to change the current
• Current Meter. The number of beats per measure and the note value of each beat at the
current Now time. Click to change the meter. For details, see “Setting the Meter and Key
signatures” on page 252.
• Metronome Record on/off
access Metronome settings.
• Metronome Playback on/off
access Metronome settings.
• Metronome settings
. Enable/disable the metronome during recording. Right-click to
. Enable/disable the metronome during playback. Right-click to
. Click the metronome icon to open the metronome preferences.
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
193
To use the Loop module
Figure 39.
The Loop module.
A
C
B
D
A. Loop On/Off B. Set Loop Time to Select C. Loop Start Time D. Loop End Time
The Loop module contains the following controls:
• Loop on/off
.
Enable/disable playback looping.
• Set Loop Times to Selection
. Set the Loop Start time to the start (From) time of the
selection, and the Loop End time to the end (Thru) time of the selection.
• Loop Start Time. The current Loop Start time. Click to modify.
• Loop End Time.
The current Loop End time. Click to modify.
Tip: If a numeric time field has focus, you can press the G key to access a list of marker positions.
See:
“Track-by-track playback” on page 195
194
Controlling playback
Controlling the transport
Track-by-track playback
SONAR lets you play back any combination of tracks at one time by changing each track’s status.
You can control the status of each track with the individual controls that are on every track, or with
the global controls in the Control Bar’s Mix module. For more information about the Mix module, see
“Mix module” on page 509.
Figure 40.
The Mix module.
A
B
C
D
E
K
F
G H
I
J
A. Mute B. Solo C. Arm D. Input Echo E. Live Input PDC Override F. Bypass All Effects G. Exclusive Solo
H. Dim Solo I. Automation Read (playback) J. Automation Write (recording) K. Offset mode
There are several different status settings for each track:
Status
What it means
Normal
The track plays unless one or more of your other tracks is soloed.
Muted
The track is not played, but you can turn it on while playback is in progress.
Archived
The track is not played, and you must stop playback to re-enable it. Archived
tracks do not tax your CPU during playback so they can be used to store
alternate takes.
Soloed
Only those tracks that are designated as solo tracks are played; all others are
muted.
Armed
The track is armed for recording.
Mono/Stereo (audio tracks
only)
The track plays back in either mono or stereo, depending on what the
individual track setting is in the Track Inspector (see “Track Inspector
overview” on page 529).
Phase normal or inverted
(audio tracks only)
If a track was accidentally recorded out of phase with another track, the Phase
button in the Track Inspector lets you reverse the phase of a track.
Table 21.
While playback is in progress, you can mute and unmute tracks in any combination, which means
you can hear only the tracks that you want. You can change the status of a track in the Track view,
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
195
the Console view, the Track Inspector, or the Mix module in the Control Bar. If a track is both muted
and soloed, it does not play. Mute has precedence.
The track status is saved with the SONAR project file. If you save a SONAR project as a standard
MIDI File, however, all tracks are saved without mute, solo, or archive indicators.
See:
“The Mix module” on page 196
“Silencing tracks” on page 198
“Soloing tracks” on page 198
“Inverting the phase of a track” on page 202
“Changing tracks’ mono/stereo status” on page 203
The Mix module
The Mix module lets you configure various playback settings. You can quickly mute/unmute, solo/
unsolo and arm/disarm all tracks. You can also configure automation settings and specify the solo
behavior.
To show/hide the Mix module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Mix Module.
Figure 41.
The Mix module.
A
B
C
D
E
K
F
G H
I
J
A. Mute B. Solo C. Arm D. Input Echo E. Live Input PDC Override F. Bypass All Effects G. Exclusive Solo
H. Dim Solo I. Automation Read (playback) J. Automation Write (recording) K. Offset mode
The Mix module contains the following controls:
• Mute / Unmute All Tracks
track is muted.
196
. Click to mute/unmute all tracks. The button is lit if at least one
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
• Solo / Unsolo All Tracks
track is soloed.
. Click to solo/unsolo all tracks. The button is lit if at least one
• Dim Solo enable/disable . Enable/disable Dim Solo mode. Dim Solo is a mode in which
non-soloed audio tracks/buses are still audible but at a reduced level. For details, see “Dim
Solo mode” on page 200.
• Exclusive Solo enable/disable . Enable/disable Exclusive Solo mode. With Exclusive
Solo mode, you can only solo one track and one bus at a time. For details, see “Exclusive
Solo mode” on page 201.
• Arm / Disarm All Tracks
is armed.
.
Click to arm/disarm all tracks. The button is lit if at least one track
• Input Monitor On/Off All Tracks
• Bypass all Effects
on page 869.
. Enable/disable Input Monitoring on all tracks.
. Bypass all effects globally. For details, see “Bypassing effects globally”
• Live Input PDC Override
. Enable/disable delay compensation on live tracks, thereby
removing the latency during playback and recording of such tracks. Because it's a toggle, you can
quickly turn it on to complete your tracking at low latency, and turn it off when finished to hear the
track compensated as normal. For details, see “Live Input PDC override” on page 282.
• Allow Automation Writing
. Globally enable/disable the ability to write automation.
• Global Automation Playback
. Globally enable/disable all automation playback.
• Offset mode . Enable/disable Offset mode. In Offset mode, you “offset” the current
automation in a track using a parameter’s controls. For details, see “Envelope mode and Offset
mode” on page 1031.
See:
“Silencing tracks” on page 198
“Soloing tracks” on page 198
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
197
Silencing tracks
When a track is muted, SONAR processes the track while playback is in progress so that you can
unmute the track without stopping playback. If you have lots of muted tracks, this can place a heavy
load on your computer. Archived tracks, on the other hand, don’t place any load on your computer.
Therefore, if there are tracks you want to keep but don’t need to play, you should archive them
instead.When you mute or unmute a track while playback is in progress, there may be a slight delay
before you hear the effect of the change. This is to be expected and does not indicate a hardware or
software problem.
To mute or unmute individual tracks
• To mute or unmute a track, click its Mute button
in the Track, Console view or Track Inspector.
• To mute or unmute several tracks at once, select the tracks and do one of the following:
• Right-click a track strip and choose MSR > Mute on the pop-up menu.
•
To mute all selected tracks of the same track type, hold down the CTRL key and click any
selected track’s Mute button
.
• To mute all tracks, hold down the CTRL key and click any non-selected track’s Mute button
.
To unmute all tracks
Click the Mute / Unmute All Tracks button
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
To mute all tracks
Do one of the following:
• Click the Mute / Unmute All Tracks button
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
• Hold down the CTRL key and click any track’s Mute button
.
To archive or unarchive tracks
1. Select one or more tracks in the Track view.
2. Do one of the following:
• Click the track’s Archive button
.
• Right-click a track strip and choose MSR > Archive on the pop-up menu.
Note: A track can not be archived during playback.
Soloing tracks
198
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
Sometimes you want to hear a single track, or a few tracks at once, without having to mute all the
other tracks. You can do this by soloing the tracks you want to hear.
As soon as any track is marked as a solo track, SONAR ignores all mute settings (unless a soloed
track is also muted—mute takes precedence over solo) and plays only the track or tracks that are
set to solo. Any number of tracks at one time can be marked as solo. All these tracks will play
together. As soon as the solo status of the final solo track is turned off, SONAR once again plays
back tracks based on their mute settings.
To solo or unsolo individual tracks
• To solo or unsolo a track, click its Solo button
in the Track, Console view or Track Inspector.
• To solo or unsolo several tracks at once, select the tracks and do one of the following:
• Right-click a track strip and choose MSR > Solo on the pop-up menu.
•
To solo all selected tracks of the same track type, hold down the CTRL key and click any
selected track’s Solo button
.
• To solo all tracks, hold down the CTRL key and click any non-selected track’s Solo button
.
See also:
“Dim Solo mode” on page 200
To unsolo all tracks
Click the Solo / Unsolo All Tracks button
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
To solo all tracks
Do one of the following:
• Click the Solo / Unsolo All Tracks button
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
• Hold down the CTRL key and click any track’s Solo button
.
See also:
“Dim Solo mode” on page 200
“Exclusive Solo mode” on page 201
“Solo Override” on page 202
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
199
Dim Solo mode
Normally when you solo a track/bus in SONAR, the tracks or buses which are not soloed are
essentially muted. Dim Solo is a mode in which non-soloed audio tracks/buses are still audible but at
a reduced level. The default gain reduction is -6dB, but can also be configured for -12dB and -18dB.
Dim Solo is useful when you want to focus on a specific track but you still want to edit/mix the track
in context with the entire mix. This allows you to hear all tracks while the soloed track stands out
from non-soloed tracks.
Note: Dim Solo mode only applies to audio tracks and buses, not MIDI tracks.
To enable/disable Dim Solo
Click the Dim Solo button
Figure 42.
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
The Mix module.
When Dim Solo is enabled, non-soloed audio tracks will play at a reduced gain rather than 0 gain
(mute).
The Dim Solo enable/disable state is saved with each project.
To configure Dim Solo level
When Dim Solo mode is enabled, the amount of gain reduction applied to non-soloed tracks or
buses is specified in the Preferences dialog box.Go to Edit > Preferences > Audio - Driver
Settings.
3. Set the Dim Solo Gain setting to either -6dB, -12dB or -18dB and click OK.
The Dim Solo dB setting is saved with each project.
See:
“Soloing tracks” on page 198
“Exclusive Solo mode” on page 201
“Solo Override” on page 202
“The Mix module” on page 196
“Audio - Playback and Recording” on page 1656
“Key bindings” on page 1066
200
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
Exclusive Solo mode
By default, SONAR allows you to solo multiple tracks and buses simultaneously. With Exclusive Solo
mode, you can only solo one track and one bus at a time.
When you solo a track or bus in Exclusive Solo mode, all other soloed tracks or buses are
automatically unsoloed. This allows you to quickly listen to individual tracks and buses in isolation
without having to manually unsolo other tracks or buses.
To enable/disable Exclusive Solo mode
Click the Exclusive Solo button
Figure 43.
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
The Mix module.
Note: When you enable Exclusive Solo mode, currently soloed tracks and buses are not
affected until the next time you solo a track or bus.
There are several situations where soloing one track actually solos more than one track, even when
Exclusive solo mode is enabled:
• If you solo a track folder, all tracks within the folder are soloed.
• If you solo a track that is assigned to a soft synth, all other tracks that are assigned to the same
soft synth are also soloed.
• If you solo a track or bus that belongs to a Quick Group, all other tracks or buses are also soloed.
See:
“Soloing tracks” on page 198
“Dim Solo mode” on page 200
“Solo Override” on page 202
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
201
Solo Override
When you enable Solo Override on a track or bus, that track/bus will never be muted as a result of
soloing any other track/bus.
This is a very useful feature when you want to always hear a particular track regardless of which
other tracks are soloed. For example, you may want to always hear the vocal track while you solo
other instrument tracks. This can be accomplished easily by using Exclusive Solo mode (see
“Exclusive Solo mode” on page 201) and enabling Solo Override on the vocal track.
To enable/disable Solo Override
• Hold down the SHIFT key and click a track’s or bus’ Solo button
.
The Solo button is displayed as
to indicate that Solo Override is enabled. Solo Override
prevents the track or bus from being muted when other tracks or buses are soloed.
Note: Mute always takes precedence over Solo. A track or bus can still be muted even if Solo
Override is enabled.
See:
“Soloing tracks” on page 198
“Dim Solo mode” on page 200
“Exclusive Solo mode” on page 201
Inverting the phase of a track
A waveform’s exact opposite is called an inversion. It is a shift of 180 degrees. A waveform and its
inversion cancel each other out completely, so it is usually not desirable to have two track recordings
of the same source if one is phase inverted. It can lead to reduced volume, lowered or distorted
response in certain frequencies, or even silence in the case of two tracks which are exactly identical
(i.e. cloned tracks).
Occasionally, for example when recording a source using two microphones, one of the microphones
may be recording an inversion of the other, the resulting tracks may, to some degree, be cancelling
each other out. SONAR allows you to invert the phase of a track to match another.
202
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
To invert the phase of a track
1. Open the Track Inspector or Console view.
2. In the track you want to invert the phase, click the Phase inversion button
.
Changing tracks’ mono/stereo status
SONAR has a Mono/Stereo button
in each track module in the Track Inspector and Console
view. The buttons in the track modules force each track to play in either stereo or mono, but
preserve the tracks’ pan positions in the stereo mix.The Mono/Stereo button
in each track forces
the track’s audio signal to enter any patched plug-ins as either mono or stereo, whether or not the
tracks are mono or stereo. This allows you to use either mono effects on a stereo track or stereo
effects on a mono track.
To use a track’s Stereo/Mono button
Note: You may lose important stereo data by using mono effects with stereo tracks because
your stereo tracks are summed to mono in order to pass through the effect. If you never want
your stereo data to be summed to mono, select stereo.
1. Open the Track Inspector or Console view.
2. In the track you want to force to either mono or stereo for processing effects, click the Stereo/
Mono button
to the desired position:
• When the button is lit, the track streams in stereo.
• When the button is unlit, the track streams in mono.
Mono audio clips may be increased by 3 dB in certain scenarios
There are some situations where the level of a mono clip will be increased by 3 dB if the track's
output interleave (mono/stereo toggle) is set to mono:
• If the track has mixed stereo and mono clipsThe track has a synth selected as its input source
• Input Echo is enabled or the track is armed for recording
In summary, whenever the track output interleave is mono and the data interleave is stereo, mono
data will be increased in level by 3 dB.
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
203
Using mono VST plug-ins on stereo tracks may cause out of sync audio
When using a mono VST plug-in on a stereo track (interleave set to Stereo), the left and right
channels will be out of sync. The left channel is processed by the mono effect, and delay
compensation is applied, while the right channel is not processed and does not have delay
compensation applied. The signal will look something like this:
• Left channel: Wet signal (delayed)
• Right channel: Dry signal (no delay)
A mono VST plug-in will work correctly if Enable Mono Processing is checked in the VST Plug-in
Properties dialog box and the track interleave is set to mono.
Note: Enable Mono Processing is enabled by default in SONAR. If you are playing back a
legacy project in SONAR and notice the project does not sound the same, try to disable Enable
Mono Processing for any mono plug-ins used in the project.
See:
“Changing track settings” on page 205
204
Controlling playback
Track-by-track playback
Changing track settings
Each track in a project contains MIDI or audio information and has a variety of settings (also called
parameters) that determine how the track sounds. By changing these parameters, you can change
the sound of your project. For audio tracks, you control parameters such as volume, stereo panning,
and the output device that is used to produce the sound. For MIDI tracks, you control many
additional parameters, including the type of instrument sound that is used to play the notes stored in
the track. Both kinds of tracks contain an Automation Read button
button
and an Automation Write
, which enable or disable automation playback and recording, respectively.
Note 1: You can control all sliders and knobs in the Console and Track views by clicking a
control, then hover over it with the mouse and manipulate the mouse wheel. If you move the
mouse cursor away from the slider or knob while using the mouse wheel, you will lose control
of the slider or knob you are adjusting.
Note 2: You can show and hide controls in track and bus strips in the Track view, and even
create presets for your favorite control layouts. For details, see “Configuring Track view controls”
on page 324 for more information.
Audio track parameters
The following figures show the various parameters in audio track strips. The figures are of an audio
track that is located in the Track view, however most of these parameters can also be adjusted in the
Console view and Track Inspector. Some parameters are only available in the Console view or Track
Inspector.
Figure 44.
Audio track
Figure 45.
Audio track header controls
A
B
C
D
E F
A. Track number B. Header icon C. Track name D. Peak value E. Maximize/restore F. Meter
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Changing track settings
205
Note: MSR buttons may appear in the header bar if the Track pane is wide.
Figure 46.
Audio track controls
A
B
C
D E F G H I J K
L
M
N
W
O
P
Q R
S
T
U
V
A. Track number B. Track name C. Edit Filter D. Mute E. Automation Read F. Solo G. Automation Write
H. Arm for recording I. Freeze J. Input echo K. Archive L. Peak level M. Expand/collapse track N. Track icon
O. WAI display P. Expand/collapse Take Lanes Q. Expand/collapse Automation Lanes R. Volume slider
S. Input T. Output U. Pan slider V. Effects bin W. Meter
Figure 47.
Audio track effects bin, meter, and track scale
B
A
C
A. Enable/disable plug-in B. Plug-in name C. Right-click to insert new plug-in
Here is a summary table of the different audio track parameters and how they are used.
Parameter
What it means
Number
A sequential track number used for reference.
Name
A name that you assign the track for easy reference. Note that if you do not
assign a name to a track, the default name is the track number. This track
number will change if you change the order of your tracks.
Table 22.
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Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Parameter
What it means
Mute
When enabled, mutes the track.
Solo
When enabled, solos the track.
Arm
When enabled, arms the track for audio recording.
Input Echo
Turns input monitoring on or off.
Automation Read and Write Enable/disable automation playback and recording, respectively.
buttons
Peak value
Displays the Peak value, which is the amplitude of the latest audio peak in the
track.
Expand/collapse Take Lanes
Hides or shows Take lanes.
Expand/collapse Automation
Lanes
Hides or shows Automation lanes.
Expand/collapse
Expands the track to show more controls, or collapses the track to only show
the header bar.
Edit Filter
Specify which data type the global tools should operate on.
Vol (volume)
The current volume level for the track, ranging from -INF (silent) to +6 dB
(maximum volume).
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output, ranging from 100% left (hard left) to 100%
right (hard right); a value of “C” indicates sound that is centered left-to-right. On
stereo tracks, pan acts as balance.
Trim (volume trim) (Track
Inspector and Console view
only)
Volume Trim is a pre-fader control which allows the fine tuning of a single
track’s volume.
For example, let’s say you have four tracks, three tracks have their volume
fader set to 0 dB while the fourth track’s fader is set to +10 dB. You want to
group the faders and do a slow fade out, but the slightly higher level of the
fourth track causes its volume to be higher in relation to the other tracks
towards the end of the fade out. To balance the fader levels, reduce the fader
level for the fourth track to 0 dB and raise the Volume Trim value for that track to
+10 dB. The resulting volume levels for the project are the same, but now you
can group the faders and perform a fade out with no track standing out
disproportionately at the end of the fade out.
Input
The input source for the track, used in recording
Output
The output bus through which the track is played
Send Enable (Track
Inspector and Console view
only)
Activates a send module, which sends a copy of the track signal to a bus.
Table 22.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
207
Parameter
What it means
Send Level (Track Inspector
and Console view only)
Controls volume of audio data sent by this send module.
Send Pan (Track Inspector
and Console view only)
Adjusts the send pan setting.
Send Pre/Post switch (Track
Inspector and Console view
only)
Pre (pre-fader) means that the Send signal goes to the bus prior to the track’s
volume fader; post means the Send signal goes to the bus after the volume
fader.
Send destination (Track
Inspector and Console view
only)
Displays name of bus that the Send is sending data to.
Mono/Stereo (Track
Inspector and Console view
only)
A switch that determines whether a track’s signal enters an effect or chain of
effects as mono or stereo, regardless of the nature of the track.
Phase In/Out (Track
Inspector and Console view
only)
A switch that inverts the phase of the track.
Effects bin
The patch point for a track’s plug-ins or soft synths.
Meters
The recording and playback levels are displayed in the Playback and Record
meters.
WAI display
Shows a color-coded bar if the track is being controlled by a control surface.
Table 22.
For more information about audio track controls in the Track Inspector, see “Audio track controls” on
page 536.
For more information about audio track controls in the Console view, see “Audio track controls” on
page 1845.
208
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
MIDI track parameters
The following pictures illustrate MIDI track parameters:
Figure 48.
A
MIDI track header controls
B
C
D
E
A. Track number B. Header icon C. Track name D. Maximize/restore E. Meter
Note: MSR buttons may appear in the header bar if the Track pane is wide.
Figure 49.
MIDI track controls
B
A
C
D E F G H
I
J
K
L
Y
M
N
O P
Q
R
S T
U
V
W
X
A. Track number B. Track name C. Edit Filter D. Mute E. Automation Read F. Solo G. Automation Write
H. Arm for recording I. Input echo J. Archive K. Expand/collapse track L. Track icon M. WAI display
N. Expand/collapse Take Lanes O. Expand/collapse Automation Lanes P. Volume slider Q. Input R. Channel
S. Patch T. Velocity+ U. Output V. Bank W. Pan slider X. Effects bin Y. Meter
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
209
Figure 50.
MIDI track effects bin and track scale
A
B
A. Track scale B. MIDI effects bin
Here is a summary table of the different MIDI track parameters and how they are used:
Parameter
What it means
Track number
A sequential track number used for reference
Track name
A name that you assign the track for easy reference. Note that if you do not
assign a name to a track, the default name is the track number. This track
number will change if you change the order of your tracks.
Mute
When enabled, mutes the track
Solo
When enabled, solos the track
Arm
When enabled, arms the track for MIDI recording.
Input Echo
Controls whether the track will echo MIDI data or not.
Automation Read and Write
buttons
Enable/disable automation playback and recording, respectively
Expand/collapse Take Lanes
Hides or shows Take lanes.
Expand/collapse Automation
Lanes
Hides or shows Automation lanes.
Expand/collapse
Expands the track to show more controls, or collapses the track to only show
the header bar.
Edit Filter
Specify which data type the global tools should operate on.
Vol (volume)
The current volume level for the track, ranging from 0 (silent) to 127
(maximum volume).
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output, ranging from 100% left (hard left) to
100% right (hard right); a value of “C” indicates sound that is centered left-toright.
Table 23.
210
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Parameter
What it means
Velocity trim (Track Inspector
and Console view only)
The change in velocity (volume) that will be applied to notes in this track on
playback; ranges from –127 to +127
Input
The input source for the track, used in recording
Output
The output device through which the track is played
Ch (channel) (Track Inspector
and Console view only)
The MIDI channel through which the notes will be played
Bank (Track Inspector and
Console view only)
The set of patch names available for the track
Patch (Track Inspector and
Console view only)
The instrument sound that will be used for playback.
Time+ (Track Inspector only)
An offset applied to the start time of the events in the track
Key+ (Track Inspector only)
The number of steps by which the notes in the track are transposed on
playback (e.g., 12 to transpose up one octave)
Chorus (Track Inspector only)
Adds MIDI chorus effect to the track
Reverb (Track Inspector only)
Adds MIDI reverb effect to the track
Snap to Scale scale type
(Track Inspector only)
Displays current scale for Snap to Scale feature
Snap to Scale root note (Track
Inspector only)
Displays root note of current Snap to Scale scale
Snap to Scale on/off (Track
Inspector only)
Turns Snap to Scale feature on or off
WAI display
Shows a color-coded bar if the track is being controlled by a control surface.
Table 23.
For more information about MIDI track controls in the Track Inspector, see “MIDI track and
Instrument track controls” on page 538.
For more information about MIDI track controls in the Console view, see “MIDI track controls” on
page 1846.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
211
To change a track name
1. Double-click on the current track name.
2. Enter the new track name.
3. Press ENTER.
The default track names (Track 1, Track 2, etc.) are not actually names, but placeholders until you
name a track. If you reorder the tracks these placeholders change.
You can rearrange and resize the panes in the Track view as shown in the following table.
To do this
Do this
Change the width of the Track pane and Bus pane Drag the divider that separates the Track pane from the
Clips panes to the left or right
Change the height of the Mains/Buses pane
Drag the divider that separates the Track and Clip panes
from the Bus pane up or down
Table 24.
You can customize which tracks are displayed or not displayed, and enlarge or maximize individual
tracks while other tracks remain minimized. You can also manually set the exact size of a track’s
display. The following table shows how to customize the appearance of tracks in the Track pane.
To do this
Do this
Hide or show a track
Open the Track Manager dialog box (press H), and check
or uncheck a track’s check box in the dialog box.
Expand/collapse a track
Click the Expand/collapse button in the track
Change the height of a track using splitter bars
Move the cursor over the gap below a track until the
cursor looks like this
the size you want.
Lock or unlock the height of a track
. Click and drag until the track is
Right-click an empty area in the track’s controls and
choose Lock Height from the menu.
Table 25.
You can display subsets of the Track pane’s controls (the titlebar controls are always displayed) by
selecting a Control preset from the Track Control drop-down list above the track strips. To choose
which controls are displayed in track strips, see “Configuring the display of tracks in the Track view”
on page 319.
212
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Changing track settings
Changing track settings in the Track pane
You can change the values in the Track pane in a number of ways:
Control
How to change the setting
Volume and Pan
Click on the control and move your cursor left or right to adjust values,
or press ENTER and type a value.
Input and Output
Click on the black arrow on the right of the control and select a driver
from the menu that appears, or double-click on the control and select a
driver from the menu.
Buttons
Click to enable or disable
Table 26.
You can also edit Track properties in the Track Inspector. To show or hide the Inspector, select
Views > Inspector or press the I key.
Figure 51.
The Track Inspector
You can change the value of a track parameter for several tracks at once by using Quick Groups:
• To adjust the same control in all tracks, hold down the CTRL key and adjust a control in a non-
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
213
selected track.
• To adjust the same control in all selected tracks of the same type, hold down the CTRL key and
adjust a control in any selected channel strip.
For example, to assign a group of tracks to the same output, select the tracks you want to assign,
then hold down the CTRL key and assign the Output control in any selected track. All selected tracks
will be assigned to the same output.
All track parameters are saved with a SONAR project. However, if you export a project to a standard
MIDI File, several of the parameters (Key+, Vel+, Time+, and Chan) are applied to the MIDI data as
the file is being exported. Other parameters, including Input, Output, Mute, Solo, and Archive, are
lost when you export the project to a MIDI file.The following sections contain more information about
many of the parameters in the Track view. For more information about the track inputs and the track
Arm button, see “Preparing to record” on page 260.
Setting up output devices
The output setting for a track determines which piece of hardware or software synthesizer will be
used to produce the sound stored in your project. In a very simple equipment setup, you might have
only a computer equipped with a basic sound card. In this case, you want to play all MIDI and audio
output through the sound card on your computer.
If your equipment setup also includes a MIDI keyboard attached to the MIDI port on your sound card,
you can choose to route MIDI data directly to the sound card or through the sound card MIDI port to
the keyboard. If you choose the former, the music will play from your computer speakers. If you
choose the latter, the sound will play from the speaker attached to your keyboard. You can even
choose to send some MIDI information to each of these devices so that they both play at once.
You can purchase MIDI interfaces that plug into your parallel, serial, or USB port to add MIDI ports to
your computer. For more information about complex system configurations, see the online Help topic
“Hardware setup” on page 1273.
If your computer has several MIDI outs, select Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices and put them
in the desired order. The order in which your MIDI devices appear in the Output menus in the Track
and Console views is based solely on the order in which the selected outs appear in Edit >
Preferences > MIDI - Devices. As a result, the order in which your devices appear in a track’s
output control may not match the port numbers that appear on your external multiport MIDI device.
214
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Figure 52.
The MIDI - Devices section
A
A
A. These devices are not selected
When you first run SONAR it asks you to select MIDI devices. You may want to change these
selections in the future. You can do so by selecting different devices in Edit > Preferences > MIDI Devices.
Your computer is usually equipped with at least one audio device—your computer sound card. Your
setup may have several different audio output devices, or you may have a multichannel sound card
that presents itself to your computer as though it were several different devices, one for each stereo
pair. In SONAR, audio tracks are assigned to main outs or buses. Each main out represents a
hardware device. You use the Output control to assign a track in a project to the main or bus you
want to use.While you need to choose the MIDI output devices you want to use before you assign
them to tracks, all of your audio devices can be assigned to tracks freely. You do not need to
configure them the way you do MIDI devices. If you have a voice modem or speakerphone in your
computer, however, you might want to set up SONAR so that it won’t use those devices. Also, note
that some dedicated audio equipment has specific setup requirements. For more information, see
“Improving audio performance” on page 1181.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
215
To choose MIDI devices
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices.
2. Click on any MIDI device in the Outputs list.
3. To move any device to the top of the list, deselect all other devices and click Move to Top to
move the selected device to the top of the list.
4. When all devices are selected in the order you want, click OK.
See:
“MIDI - Devices” on page 1666
Creating friendly names for MIDI output and input devices
You may find that a name you make up yourself for a MIDI device is easier to remember or more
descriptive than a device’s original name. The friendly name for a MIDI device is the name you will
see places such as MIDI track Input and Output menus, and the Controllers/Surfaces dialog box,
if you enable the Use Friendly Names To Represent MIDI Devices check box at the bottom of the
MIDI Devices dialog box.
To make up a friendly name:
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Devices.
2. Double-click the name of a device in the Friendly Name column, type a new name, and press
ENTER.
3. Select the Use Friendly Names To Represent MIDI Devices check box.
4. Click OK.
Assigning Inputs & Outputs
You assign each track to a MIDI or an audio output using the Output drop-down in the Track view.
From then on, material on that track will be sent to the appropriate output device.
Note: If you rearrange your MIDI output devices after making output assignments, you may find
MIDI information being sent to different instruments than you expect. Also, SONAR allows you
to define instruments that are associated with certain outputs and channels. If you use this
feature, the name of the output will change to reflect the instrument you have chosen.
216
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
To assign a track to an output
1. Click the Output drop-down of the track you want to assign.
2. Select the output you want to use.
To assign a group of tracks to the same output, select the tracks you want to assign, then hold down
the CTRL key and assign the Output control in any selected track. All selected tracks will be
assigned to the same output.
Note: Outputs that are used by the External Insert plug-in (see “External Insert plug-in (Producer
and Studio only)” on page 876) cannot be assigned to track and bus outputs. The only
exceptions are master buses that have other instances of the External Insert plug-in routed to
them.
Notification when track/bus outputs are assigned to silent output
When you load a project, SONAR checks to see if the exact same output ports are assigned as
when the project was saved. SONAR’s port assignments can change if you load the project on a
different hardware configuration or change driver models. If there is any discrepancy between the
port assignments that were saved and the ports that are used in the current configuration, the ports
are set to “None” and the Silent Buses Detected dialog box displays all track and bus outputs from
the current project that have been assigned to a silent output.
The Silent Buses Detected dialog box also appears if any track or bus output is assigned to None
as a result of changing the audio configuration. For more information, see “Silent Buses Detected
dialog” on page 1775.
To assign the same audio input port to multiple tracks
1. In the Track view, select the tracks whose audio input port you want to assign.
2. Click the small drop-down arrow in any selected track’s Input control
.
The Input Port menu appears.
3. Choose Selected Track Inputs from the context menu.
The Track Inputs dialog box opens with the selected tracks initially highlighted. You can modify
the track selection from within the Track Inputs dialog box. For more information, see “Track
Inputs dialog” on page 1764.
4. Select the desired audio input port and click OK.
The audio input port is assigned to all selected audio tracks.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
217
To assign different audio input ports to multiple tracks
1. In the Track view, select the tracks whose audio input port you want to assign.
2. Click the small drop-down arrow in the first selected track’s Input control
.
The Input Port menu appears.
3. Choose Selected Track Input Series from the context menu.
The Assign Series of Inputs dialog box opens, which lets you choose the first input port in the
series.
Figure 53.
The Assign Series of Inputs dialog
4. Select the audio input port that should be assigned to the first selected track and click OK.
SONAR will assign consecutive mono input ports to the selected audio tracks, beginning with the
track that was clicked in step 2. If a left or right input is selected, then mono inputs will be
assigned. If a stereo input is selected, then stereo inputs will be assigned.
To assign the same audio output port to multiple tracks
1. In the Track view, select the tracks whose audio output port you want to assign.
2. Click the small drop-down arrow in any selected track’s Output control
The Output Port menu appears.
3. Choose Selected Track Outputs from the context menu.
The Track Outputs dialog box opens.
4. Select the desired audio output port and click OK.
The audio output port is assigned to all selected audio tracks.
To assign the same audio output port to all stereo buses
1. In the Track view, click the small drop-down arrow in any stereo bus’ Output control
.
The Output Port menu appears.
Note: Surround buses are ignored.
218
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
.
2. Choose Set All Bus Outputs from the context menu.
The Output port submenu appears.
3. Select the desired audio output port.
The audio output port is assigned to all stereo buses
Note: Only hardware main outputs may be assigned, not other buses.
Assigning tracks to mono hardware outputs
SONAR lets you assign audio track and bus outputs to individual (mono) hardware outputs in
addition to stereo pairs.
This is very useful, for example, if you record in SONAR but want to use an external mixing console
to mix.
To show mono hardware outputs
SONAR does not show mono hardware outputs by default. To show mono outputs, do the following:
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Audio - Devices.
2. Select the Show Mono Outputs check box and click OK.
Mono hardware outputs are now available in all locations that display audio output ports, with the
exception of the Media Browser view, Loop Construction view and Import Audio dialog box.
Each available audio port exposes Left, Right and Stereo channels.
Note: The Show Mono Outputs option only affects the display of mono hardware outputs in
SONAR; it does not affect current output port assignments on tracks and buses. Existing mono
output assignments are retained even if you disable the Show Mono Outputs option.
Assigning stereo tracks to mono outputs
When a stereo track is assigned to a mono hardware output, the left and right channels are
downmixed to mono. All track/bus gain and pan settings are applied prior to mono conversion.
Backward compatibility
Loading a SONAR X2 project with mono output assignments in an earlier version SONAR will cause
the mono assignments to be lost.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
219
Choosing the instrument sound (bank and patch)
Electronic keyboards and synthesizers often contain hundreds or thousands of different sounds.
Each sound is known as a patch. The name comes from the early days of synthesizers, for which
you physically rewired (using patch cords) the oscillators and modulators to produce different
sounds. Patches are normally organized into groups of 128, called banks. Most instruments have
between 1 and 8 banks, but MIDI supports up to 16,384 banks of 128 patches each (that’s over 2
million patches).The Bank and Patch controls in the Console view and Track Inspector control the
initial bank and patch of a track during playback. Every time SONAR starts playback at the beginning
of a project, the bank and patch settings for the track are set to these initial values.Many instruments
have descriptive names for their banks and patches. SONAR stores these names in an instrument
definition. If you are using an instrument that supports General MIDI, your patch list will contain the
128 sounds that are defined by the General MIDI specification.
Note: Different MIDI instruments use different types of commands to change banks. SONAR
supports four common methods for changing banks. For information about the bank selection
method you should use with your MIDI gear, see your MIDI equipment’s documentation.
Tip: If your bank name is too long to fit in the Bank field, hold your cursor over the bank name. A
tooltip appears with the complete bank name.
Note that a single MIDI channel can only play one patch at a time on each instrument assigned to
that channel. Therefore, if two or more MIDI tracks are set to the same output and channel but have
different bank and patch settings, the patch of the highest-numbered track will be used for all the
tracks.In some projects you want the sound played by a track to change while playback is in
progress. You can accomplish this using the Insert > Bank/Patch Change command. When you
start playback in the middle of a project, SONAR searches back through the track to find the correct
patch to use—either the initial bank and patch or the most recent bank/patch change. Note that the
Console view and Track Inspector only show the initial bank and patch, even while a different bank
and patch are being played back. The only way to see and edit a bank/patch change is in the Event
List view. For more information, see “The Event List view” on page 742.
To assign an initial bank and patch to a track
1. Open the Track Inspector or Console view and select the MIDI track you want to configure.
2. Select the desired settings in the Bank and Patch controls.
3. To search for a patch containing specific text, click the Patch Browser button in the Track
Inspector. You can also open the Patch Browser by right-clicking a bank or patch control in the
Track Inspector or Console views.
220
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
To insert a bank/patch change
1. Highlight the track whose bank and patch you want to change by clicking on the track number.
2. Set the Now time to the time at which you want the change to occur.
3. Choose Insert > Bank/Patch Change to display the Bank/Patch Change dialog box.
4. Choose a bank and patch from the lists.
5. Click OK.
SONAR inserts a change in bank and patch. When you play back the project, the initial bank and
patch shown in the Track view will be used to the point at which the bank/patch change takes place.
You can remove a bank/patch change in the Event List view.
To choose patches with the Patch browser
1. Do one of the following:
• In the Track Inspector or Console view, right-click the patch name in the track module you
want to change patches in.
• In the Track Inspector, click the Patch Browser button in the track you want to change
patches in.
The Patch browser dialog box appears, displaying a list of all the Instrument patch names that
have been installed.
2. Search for a patch name, if desired, by filling in text in the Search field at the top of the dialog
box.
3. When you find the right patch, click its name and click OK.
SONAR changes the patch of the track you selected.
See:
“Patch Browser dialog” on page 1644
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
221
Adding effects
You can add both MIDI and audio effects directly from the Track view. SONAR adds these effects in
real-time, preserving your track’s original data.
To add an audio effect in the Track pane
Do one of the following:
• In an audio track, right-click in the effects bin and choose a plug-in from the pop-up menu.
• Click the Insert Plug-in button at the top of the effects bin and choose a plug-in from the pop-up
menu.Use the effects bin to add real-time effects
B
A
C
A. Enable/disable plug-in B. Plug-in name C. Right-click to insert new plug-in
You can also drag plug-ins from the Browser to an effects bin. For details, see “Adding effects and
instruments to a project” on page 575.
See:
“Audio effects (audio plug-ins)” on page 797
222
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Adjusting volume and pan
The Volume and Pan settings control the initial volume and pan of a track during playback. Every
time SONAR starts playback, the Volume and Pan settings for the track are set to these initial levels.
SONAR allows you to choose different panning laws if you want (see “Configuring panning laws” on
page 223).
In some projects you want the volume or panning of a track to change while playback is in progress.
You can accomplish this by drawing a volume or pan envelope in the Track view, or by recording
automation. For more information, see “Automation” on page 1001.
Note: For MIDI tracks, SONAR processes the volume and pan settings by transmitting MIDI
volume and pan events (controllers 7 and 10, respectively) when playback starts. If two or more
MIDI tracks are set to the same output and channel but have different volume or pan settings,
the settings for the highest-numbered track will prevail.
Note also that not all keyboards and synthesizers respond to these events. Check your instrument’s
manual for more information.
To set the initial volume setting
1. Move your cursor to the Volume control of the track you want to change.
2. Click and drag to the left to lower the volume or the right to raise the volume.
You can also change the volume settings in a variety of other ways, as described under “Changing
track settings in the Track pane” on page 213.
To set the initial Pan setting
1. Move your cursor to the Pan control of the track you want to change.
2. Click and drag to the left to adjust the pan to the left or to the right to adjust the pan to the
right.Hard left is 100% left. Hard right is 100% right. Pan is centered at C.
You can also change the pan and volume settings in a variety of other ways, as described under
“Changing track settings in the Track pane” on page 213.
See also:
“Configuring panning laws” on page 223
Configuring panning laws
You can choose from six different panning laws. A panning law is the mathematical formula that a
sequencer or mixer uses to control panning.
To change panning laws
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Audio - Driver Settings.
2. In the Stereo Panning Law field, choose one of these options:
• (Default) 0 dB center, sin/cos taper, constant power.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
This choice causes a 3 dB boost in
223
a signal that’s panned hard left or right, and no dip in output level in either channel when the
signal is center panned.
• -3dB center, sin/cos taper, constant power. This choice causes no boost in a signal that’s
panned hard left or right, and 3dB dip in output level in either channel when the signal is
center panned.
• 0dB center, square-root taper, constant power. This choice causes a 3 dB boost in a
signal that’s panned hard left or right, and no dip in output level in either channel when the
signal is center panned.
• -3dB center, square root taper, constant power. This choice causes no boost in a signal
that’s panned hard left or right, and 3dB dip in output level in either channel when the signal is
center panned.
• -6dB center, linear taper. This choice causes no boost in a signal that’s panned hard left or
right, and 6dB dip in output level in either channel when the signal is center panned.
• 0 dB center, balance control. This choice causes no boost in a signal that’s panned hard
left or right, and no dip in output level in either channel when the signal is center panned.
3. Click OK.
Pan Law compatibility mode
When using a non-default pan law with floating point or 24-bit audio, SONAR would previously apply
the pan law twice; once at the clip level and once more at the track level.
In SONAR 8.5.2 and later, pan laws are only applied once at the track level and only for mono
tracks. Any clip pan envelopes will continue to work, but behave strictly as a balance control.
If you have existing projects that use a non-default pan law (i.e. other than 0dB center sin/cos
taper), the mix might sound louder in SONAR X2. To address backwards compatibility with projects
that were mixed in previous versions of SONAR, the following Aud.ini variable is available to set the
pan law compatibility mode:
PanLawCompatMode=<0 or 1> (default=0)
This variable should be set in the [Wave] section. For example:
[Wave]
PanLawCompatMode=1
When the value is 0 (default), non-default pan laws are not applied at the clip level. Clip pan
envelopes always use the 0dB center sin/cos taper law.
When the value is 1, pan laws are applied at the clip level. It is not recommended that you use this
value unless you need to retain backwards compatibility with pre-SONAR X2 projects that use a
non-default pan law.
224
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Adjusting volume trim
Volume Trim acts like the trim control on a mixer, raising or lower the level prior to the volume fader.
Volume trim is useful for calibrating your faders to match a dB reference level or for aligning your
faders for grouping. The Volume Trim control has a range of -18dB to +18dB. Raising or lowering
the Volume Trim raises or lowers the apparent volume of the track by that amount without affecting
the actual fader level.
To set the volume trim level
In the Track Inspector or Console view, adjust the Gain control at the top of the channel strip.
Assigning a MIDI channel (Chn)
MIDI transmits information on 16 channels, numbered 1 through 16. Every MIDI event is assigned to
a particular channel. Some MIDI equipment can accept MIDI information on only a single channel.
This channel may be preassigned, or you may be able to change it. Other MIDI equipment, including
many electronic keyboards and synthesizers, can accept information on several different MIDI
channels at once. Usually, these devices use a different instrument sound for each channel.
On playback, the channel number is used to direct the MIDI information to a particular piece of
equipment.
The Chn control in the Track Inspector and Console view redirects all events in the track to the
specified channel, ignoring the channel number stored with each event. If this parameter is left
blank, all events in the track are sent to their original channels.This parameter does not affect the
channel information that is stored with each MIDI event. When the track is displayed in other views,
like the Piano Roll or Event List view, you will see the original channel that is stored in the file. You
can edit the channel values in those views or use the Process > Find/Change command.
To set the channel for a track
In the Track Inspector or Console view, click the Chn control and select a MIDI channel.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
225
Adjusting the Key/transposing a track (Key+)
Each MIDI note event has a key number, or pitch. On playback, the key offset (Key+) parameter
transposes all notes in the track by the designated number of half-steps. The value can range from
-127 to +127. A value of 12 indicates that notes will be played back one octave higher than they are
written.This parameter does not affect the note number that is stored for each note event. When the
clip is displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll, Staff, or Event List view, you will see the original
notes as they are stored in the file. To permanently change the pitches, you can edit them
individually or use the Process > Transpose command.
If the key offset value transposes the key number (MIDI note) outside the allowable MIDI range (0–
127), the key number will be transposed to the lowest or highest octave within that range.
You can use the Key+ parameter to assist in preparing scores for instruments whose music is written
in something other than “concert” key (such as Bb trumpet). For more information, see “Music
notation for non-concert-key instruments” on page 1111.
When you edit the Key+ parameter, pressing [ or ] changes the value by 12 instead of by 10. This
makes it easy to transpose by octaves.
To set the key offset for a track
1. Select the track and open the Track Inspector.
2. In the Track Inspector, click the Key+ control.
3. Enter a value (1 = a semitone), or press the + or – key to change the key by a single semitone.
Use the [ or ] key to change the key by 12 semitones (one octave).
Figure 54.
226
The Track Inspector contains advanced MIDI controls.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Adjusting the note velocity (Vel+)
Each MIDI note event has a velocity, which represents how fast the key was struck when the track
was recorded. On playback, the velocity offset parameter adjusts the velocity data for all notes in the
track by the designated amount. The value can range from -127 to +127. The effect of changing
velocities depends on the synthesizer. Some synthesizers do not respond to velocity information.
For others, the effect varies depending on the sound or patch you have chosen. Normally, higher
velocities result in louder and/or brighter-sounding notes.This parameter does not affect the velocity
that is stored for each note event. When the clip is displayed in other views, like the Piano Roll view,
Staff view, or Event List view, you will see the original velocities as they are stored in the file. You can
edit the velocity values in those views, or use the Process > Scale Velocity or Process > Find/
Change command. Velocity is different from volume in that it is an attribute of each event, rather
than a controller that affects an entire MIDI channel. Here’s an example of where this distinction
might be important. Suppose you have several tracks containing different drum parts. All of these
parts would probably be assigned to MIDI channel 10 (that’s the default channel for percussion in
General MIDI). If you change the volume setting for any track that uses channel 10, all the different
drum parts—regardless of what track they’re in—would be affected. If you change the note velocity
for one drum track, it will be the only one whose volume is affected.
To set the velocity offset for a track
1. Open the Track Inspector or Console view.
2. Select the track you want to edit.
3. Adjust the Vel+ knob at the top of the channnel stip.
Adjusting the time alignment of a MIDI track (Time+)
Each event takes place at a known point in the project. On playback, the time offset (Time+)
parameter adjusts the times for MIDI events in the track by the designated amount. The value can
be as small as a single clock tick or as large as you want.This parameter can be used to make a part
play behind the beat or in front of it or to compensate for tracks that sound rushed or late. The time
shift can be used to create a chorus or slap-back echo effect by making a copy of a track and then
applying a small offset to the copy. You can use larger time offsets to shift a track earlier or later by
several beats or measures.Note that you cannot shift any event earlier than 1:01:000. For example,
if the first event in the track starts at 2:01:000, you cannot shift its start time earlier by more than one
measure.
This parameter does not affect the time that is stored for each note event. When the clip is displayed
in other views, like the Piano Roll, Staff, or Event List view, you will see the original times as they are
stored in the file.
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
227
To set the time offset for a track
1. Select the track and open the Track Inspector.
2. In the Track Inspector, click the Time+ control.
3. Enter a value, or press the + or – key until you reach the value you want.
Figure 55.
The Track Inspector contains advanced MIDI controls.
Other MIDI playback settings
Two other MIDI settings can affect what happens when you play back your project, as described in
the following table.
Option
How it works
Zero Controllers When Play If this option is enabled, SONAR zeroes (resets) the pitch wheel, the pedal
Stops
Controller, and the modulation wheel Controller on all 16 MIDI channels
whenever playback is stopped. It also sends a “Zero All Continuous Controllers”
MIDI message, which turns off other continuous Controllers on newer
synthesizers. If you experience frequent stuck notes when playback stops, try
checking this option.
Patch/Controller
Searchback Before Play
Starts
If this option is enabled, SONAR searches for and sends the most recent patch
change, wheel, and pedal events on each output and MIDI channel before
starting playback. This ensures that all these settings are correct, even if you
start playback at an arbitrary point in your project.
Table 27.
To set these options, go to Edit > Preferences > Project - MIDI. If you have set up a playback loop,
enabling either of these options can cause an audible delay when the loop is restarted.
See:
“Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo” on page 229
228
Controlling playback
Changing track settings
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo
When you play your MIDI keyboard or controller, the sound that SONAR produces is determined by
what hardware or software synth SONAR sends the incoming MIDI data to after SONAR receives
the data. This is called MIDI echo. By default, SONAR sends the data to the MIDI output or software
synth listed in the Output field of the current track. The current track is the one whose titlebar has
the lighter color—press the up and down arrows on your computer keyboard and watch each track
turn lighter in succession as you change different tracks into the current track (you can also click any
of a track’s controls to make it current).
However, you can echo MIDI data to much more than just the current track, or turn echoing off on
the current track if you want. With a single keyboard or controller, you can echo MIDI data to as
many MIDI tracks as you want, meaning that you can simultaneously play as many hardware and
software synths as you can hook up to your MIDI interface or run on your computer. You can also
have multiple performers on different controllers sending MIDI data to either the same synth or
multiple synths. Each SONAR track allows you to select what MIDI input ports and channels the
track will respond to. The Output field of the track determines what instrument will sound when the
track receives the data. Each track’s Input Echo button determines whether the track echoes MIDI
data.
The Input Echo button
Each MIDI track has an Input Echo button, which controls whether the track will echo MIDI data or
not. The button has three states: On
, Auto
, and Off
. When the button is on, the track
echoes MIDI data. In Auto mode, the track echoes MIDI data because the track is the current track.
When the button is off, the track does not echo any data, even if it is the current track. The Off
position on a current MIDI track is only available if you disable the Always Echo Current MIDI
Track option in Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Playback and Recording. The Auto position becomes
unavailable with this setting.
There are several ways to turn Input Echoing on:
• Click a track’s Input Echo button so that it is on.
• Click a track to make the track the current track (if the Always Echo Current MIDI Track option in
Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Playback and Recording is enabled). In this situation (which is the
default), if the track’s Input Echo button is not on, the button appears as
track echoes data because it is the current track.
to indicate that this
• If the Always Echo Current MIDI Track option in Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Playback and
Recording is disabled, make a track the current track, and click the track’s Input Echo button
Controlling playback
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo
.
229
Storing favorite configurations
If you want a track to respond to more than one port or channel, you must create a preset input
configuration. If you create some favorite configurations of MIDI input options, not only will they be
stored with the project you created them in, but you can save each one as a preset to load in any
MIDI track in any project you want. Clicking the drop-down arrow in a track’s Input field displays the
Inputs drop-down menu, which has the Manage Presets choice that allows you to create and store
your favorite combinations of MIDI input choices.
To play one synth at a time from one or more MIDI keyboards
• Since this is SONAR’s default behavior, simply use the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW keys on
your computer keyboard to choose the current track (the current track is highlighted), and use the
Track Inspector or Console view to choose the synth you want to play by using the track’s
Output, Bank, Patch, and Channel fields. With the default behavior, all MIDI input from all ports
and channels is merged and sent through the current track. Notice that the track’s Input field says
Omni.
• If you’ve disabled the default behavior (see next procedure), you must make sure that the current
track’s Input Echo button is lit up (on) before you can play the synth that the track is patched to.
To disable the default MIDI echo setting
• If you want to turn off the automatic MIDI echoing of the current track, disable the Always Echo
Current MIDI Track in Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Playback and Recording. If you then turn
off the current track’s Input Echo button
sound.
and play your keyboard, SONAR will not produce
To play multiple synths from a MIDI keyboard
1. Choose a synth for each track that you want to play by using each track’s Output, Channel,
Bank, and Patch fields in the Track Inspector or Console view.
2. In the Input field of each track that you want to play, click the drop-down arrow and choose the
MIDI input port and channel that you want the track to respond to from the following options:
• None. This option actually sets the Input field to Omni. With this setting the track will
respond to any MIDI input coming in on any port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > MIDI Omni. Choosing this option causes the track to
respond to any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > MIDI ch 1-16. Choosing this option causes the track to
respond ONLY to whatever MIDI channel you choose coming from the named MIDI interface
input driver.
• Preset. If you’ve created any preset collections of input ports and channels, you can select
one here.
• Manage Presets. If you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see following procedure).
3. Make sure that the Input Echo button
230
on each track that you want to play is turned on.
Controlling playback
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo
To create or edit a preset input configuration
1. In the Input field of a track that you want to select inputs for, click the drop-down arrow and
choose Manage Presets from the drop-down menu.
The MIDI Input Presets dialog box appears.
2. In the Input Port column, find the input port that you want to use for this track (if you only use a
single-port MIDI interface, you’ll only see one choice).
3. To the right of the input port, select the MIDI channels that you want this track to respond to on
this MIDI port.
4. Select channels for any other MIDI port that’s listed, if you want to use channels on that port also.
5. If you want to save this configuration, type a name for it in the window at the top of the dialog
box, and click the Disk icon to save it.
Now, when you choose inputs for other tracks, you can choose the preset you saved by clicking the
Presets option in the track’s Input drop-down menu. If you want to edit a preset, select it in the top
window of the MIDI Input Presets dialog box, edit it, and click the Disk icon. If you want to delete a
preset, select it in the same dialog box and click the X button to delete it.
To use multiple performers on multiple tracks
1. For performer number 1, click the Input drop-down menu(s) of the track(s) you want that
performer to play, and choose the port and MIDI channel that performer 1’s keyboard is sending
data to SONAR on.
2. Repeat step 1 for all other performers.
3. If there is any track that you want more than one performer to play, create a preset of the input
ports and channels that you want that track to respond to (see previous procedure).
4. Make sure the Input Echo button
is on for each track you want to play.
To turn MIDI echo (and input monitoring) on or off for all tracks
Click the Input Echo On/Off All Tracks button
Figure 56.
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
The Mix module.
See:
“Local control” on page 232
Controlling playback
Controlling live MIDI playback—MIDI echo
231
Local control
You should normally disable the Local Control setting on your master keyboard to prevent notes
from being doubled when you play your keyboard. If you disable Local Control, your keyboard sends
notes that you play to SONAR, which echoes them to the synthesizer, which plays them only once.
When SONAR starts, you can have it send a special MIDI message that attempts to disable Local
Control automatically. Most modern synthesizers respond to this message. If yours does not, you will
need to disable Local Control every time you turn it on for use with SONAR.
To automatically disable all local control whenever you launch SONAR
1. In the directory where SONAR is installed, double-click on the TTSseq.ini file to open it.
2. In the [Options] section, add the line:
SendLocalOff=1
3. Save the file and close it.
4. When you launch SONAR, it automatically sends a Local Off message to your keyboard.
Note: Not all keyboards respond to Local Off messages.
See:
“Playing files in Batch mode” on page 233
232
Controlling playback
Local control
Playing files in Batch mode
SONAR allows you to play several files in sequence automatically using the Play List view. You can
use this feature in live performance applications or just for fun.
SONAR’s Play List view lets you create and work with a series of project, MIDI, and bundle files. As
each file plays, SONAR loads it and displays it in the Track view and other views like any other
project file.
See:
“The Play List view” on page 233
The Play List view
The Play List view lets you create, edit, and save a play list (or set) of up to 999 SONAR projects.
Once you have created the list, you can play back the entire sequence automatically. You can even
program the list to pause between songs for a fixed amount of time or to wait for a keystroke before
proceeding.
The Play List view looks like this:
Figure 57.
The Play List view
A
B
C D E
F
H
G
A. Switch to the next song B. Repeat the list C. Add a song D. Drop a song E. Set a delay F. Display full path
G. List of songs H. Enable the play list
Play lists can be saved for future use. Play list files have the extension .set.
Controlling playback
Playing files in Batch mode
233
To create and edit a play list
To create and edit a play list in the Play List view, follow the instructions in the table:
To do this
Do this
Open an existing play list
Choose File > Open, choose Play List from the Files of Type list, choose
the file you want and click Open
Create a new play list
Choose File > New, choose Play List Set from the list, and click OK
Add songs to the play list
Click
or press INSERT, choose a file from the Add Song to Play List
dialog box, and click Open
Set the delay after a song
Click on the song in the play list, click
click OK
Change the order of songs
Drag the file to a new location in the play list
Copy a song to another location
in the play list
CTRL-drag the file to a new location in the play list
Remove a song from the play list
Save the play list
Select the song and click
or press the DELETE key
Choose File > Save; or choose File > Save As, enter a file name, and click
Save
Table 28.
234
, enter the delay you want, and
Controlling playback
Playing files in Batch mode
To play files from the Play List view
To play back files from the Play List view, follow the instructions in the table.
To do this
Activate the play list
Choose the starting song
Start playback
Stop playback
Skip to the next file
Loop continuously over the
play list
Show or hide file name
extensions and folder names
(path)
Do this
Click
in the Play List view toolbar so that the button is pressed. If this
button is not pressed, only a single file will play when you start playback.
Double-click the file you want to start with. The project is opened and
displayed as usual.
Click
in the Control Bar or press the SPACEBAR.
Click
in the Control Bar or press the SPACEBAR.
Click
in the Play List view toolbar.
Click the
button in the Play List view toolbar.
Click the
button to enable or disable the display of folders.
Table 29.
Controlling playback
Playing files in Batch mode
235
Video playback, import, and export
Video files play in the Video view in real time as your project plays. You can also view your video on
an external DV device connected to an IEEE 1394 port (“FireWire”).
The File > Import > Video command lets you include the following video file types in your project:
• AVI (also called Video for Windows).
• MPEG.
• Windows Media Video.
• QuickTime (.mov files only). SONAR supports QuickTime 7, including H.264 support and the
ability to import AAC audio files.The File > Export > Video command lets you export your audio
tracks and your imported video as the following file types:
Note: Some .mov and .avi files contain no video. You can’t import these files with the File >
Import > Video command. You must use the File > Import > Audio command instead, and set
the Files of Type field to All Files.
• AVI (also called Video for Windows)
• Windows Media Video
• QuickTime
SONAR also has a Video Thumbnails pane at the top of the Track view, which shows individual
frames of your video at different places in your project (See “Using the Video Thumbnails pane” on
page 242 for more information).
You open the Video view by using the Views > Video command. The Video view displays the Now
time (as in the Big Time view) and the video itself. The display in the Video view is synchronized with
the Now time, giving you convenient random access to the video stream. This makes it easy to align
music and digitized sound to the video.
Commands in the Video view’s right-click pop-up menu let you set the time display format, the size
and stretch options for the video display, the video start and trim times, and other options.QuickTime
issues
In order to import/export QuickTime files in SONAR, you must install both the filters AND QuickTime.
The following are some other known QuickTime issues:
• It is presently only possible to export QuickTime videos on a 32-bit system. This is a limitation of
QuickTime, not SONAR.
• QuickTime Import/Export requires version 6.5.1 or higher of the QuickTime Player to be installed.
The QuickTime Player is not included with SONAR, but can be downloaded separately from
Apple's web site (www.apple.com/quicktime/download/win.html).
• Audio mixdown to QuickTime must be set to 16 bits stereo or mono, or the resulting export will
create a unusable file or abort with an error.
• Audio mixdown to QuickTime must be set to 48 KHz or less or the resulting export will create a file
236
Controlling playback
Video playback, import, and export
that plays back incorrectly.
• When exporting to QuickTime, the frame rate of the QuickTime video compressor will default to
“best possible”. Since not all movies in a SONAR video project correctly report their frame rate,
the best practice is manually enter the desired frame rate. This is done in the video settings of the
QuickTime video compressor.
• Exports to QuickTime from a SONAR video project created from an AVI using the Indeo video
compressor will create a movie with white frames.
• Exports to QuickTime may have an extra white frame on the last frame of the movie. This extra
frame can be removed with the QuickTime Pro Player or another QuickTime editing application.
See:
“Importing and playing back videos” on page 237
“Optimizing video performance” on page 241
Importing and playing back videos
Here are step-by-step procedures for inserting and playing back videos:
To load a video file into a project
1. Choose File > Import > Video, or choose Insert from the Video view’s pop-up menu.
The Import Video dialog box appears. In the Files of Type field, select the kind of video file
you’re looking for.
Tip: You can also drag a video file from the Browser and drop it on the Video Thumbnails pane.
2. Select a file.
3. Check the Show File Info option to display information about the file in the File Info section of
the dialog box.
4. Check the Import Audio Stream option if you want to load the file’s audio data.
5. Check the Import As Mono Tracks option if you want to import the file’s audio data as one or
more mono tracks.
6. Click Open.
SONAR loads the video file and displays it in the Video view. If you choose to import audio data,
SONAR inserts a new track above the currently selected track, and puts the audio data in a clip or
clips on the new track.
Note 1: When you save a project that contains video, SONAR saves the project’s video file by
reference only; the actual video data remains in the original file. Video data is not saved in
bundle files, so it must be backed up on its own.
Controlling playback
Video playback, import, and export
237
Note 2: After you load a video file into a project, you can play it back either in the Video view, or
on an external DV device through a FireWire port. See “Video playback on a FireWire DV
device” on page 244 for more information.
To play a video file in the Video view
1. Open the Video view by choosing Views > Video.
2. Press the SPACEBAR to play or stop video playback.
3. To change the display size of the video, right-click in the Video view and choose Stretch
Options > [desired size] from the pop-up menu.
Note: When you play a video file that has high temporal compression, such as movies optimized
for web delivery, playback may not be smooth unless you disable video thumbnails, (see “Using
the Video Thumbnails pane” on page 242 for more information).
To delete the video from the project
1. Open the Video view by choosing Views > Video.
2. Right-click in the Video view and choose Delete.
SONAR removes the video from the project. Note that imported audio data is not deleted.
To enable or disable video playback
1. Open the Video view by choosing Views > Video.
2. Right-click in the Video view and choose Animate.
If your computer is not fast enough to play back video efficiently, you can get better performance by
temporarily disabling video animation during playback.
To set the Time display format
• Click the time display to cycle between MBT, SMPTE, Frames and None
Or
• Right-click in the Video view and choose an option from the Time Display Format menu:
To do this
Do this
Select a time format
Choose MBT, SMPTE, Frames or None
Change font or font color
Choose Font and select new font characteristics
Turn off the time display
Choose None
Table 30.
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To adjust the SMPTE time
1. Move the Now time to the place where you want SMPTE time to be either 00:00:00:00, or a
number you can enter.
2. Use the Project > Set Timecode At Now command to open the Set Timecode At Now Time
dialog box.
3. If you want to set SMPTE time to 00:00:00:00 (the dialog’s default value) at the current Now time,
click OK to close the dialog box. If you want to set SMPTE time to some other value at the
current Now time, type that value into the SMPTE/MTC Time field, and click OK to close the
dialog box.
To choose a frame rate
Do one of the following:
• Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Clock and choose the frame rate you want from the six
choices, then click OK.
• In the Control Bar’s Sync module, click the Timecode Format list and select the desired format.
For more information, see “SMPTE/MIDI time code synchronization” on page 1162).
To set the Video display format
Right-click in the Video view and choose an option from the Stretch Options menu:
To do this
Do this
Display the video in its original size
Choose Original Size
Stretch the video to fill the Video view
Choose Stretch to Window
Stretch the video as much as possible while preserving the
original aspect ratio
Choose Preserve Aspect Ratio
Make the video display as large as possible, but only enlarge by
integral multiples
Choose Integral Stretch
Display the video in full screen mode
Choose Full Screen
Table 31.
SONAR adjusts the video display according to the selected option. The stretch option is used to
recalculate the video display size whenever you resize the Video view.
To set the background color
• Right-click in the Video view and choose a color option from the Background Color menu.
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239
To set the Start and Trim times
1. Right-click in the Video view and choose Video Properties.
2. Set options as described in the table:
Option
What it means
Start Time
The time in your SONAR project at which you want the video file to start playing
Trim-in Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to start
Trim-out Time
The time in the video file at which you want video playback to stop
Table 32.
SONAR synchronizes the video to the project according to the specified Start and Trim times.
Note: The project’s video file is saved in the project by reference only, the actual video data
remains in the original file. Video data is not saved in bundle files, so it must be backed up on
its own.
See also:
“Exporting video” on page 240
“Optimizing video performance” on page 241
Exporting video
After you’ve mixed your audio tracks the way you want them, you can export the inserted video file
together with your audio tracks to create a new video file.
When you export a video, any changes you’ve made to the Start, Trim-In, or Trim-Out times
determine how long your new exported video is compared to the original video that you inserted into
your SONAR project.
Note: If you’re exporting an AVI file, the No Compression option in the Video Codec field of
the AVI Encoder Options dialog box is a good choice. This choice does not change or
compress your source video material. If you want your exported AVI file to be compressed, the
Cinepak option will create an AVI file that plays back smoothly with decent quality. The MJPEG
option will create an AVI file that does not play back as smoothly, but is a high quality format to
archive a file in.
To export a video
1. Make sure your audio tracks are completely mixed, and your video Start time, Trim-In time, and
Trim-Out time are set the way you want them.
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2. Use the File > Export Video command.
The Export Video dialog box appears.
3. In the File Name field, type a name for your new video.
4. In the Files of Type field, choose the kind of video file you want the exported file to be.
5. Click the Encoding Options button to open a dialog box of encoding options for the kind of file
you’re creating. Some codecs do not work: click the Help button in the dialog box for help
choosing options.
Note: If you’re exporting an AVI file to either a 24-bit audio format or to a multi-channel (surround
sound) format, set the Audio Codec in the AVI Encoding Options dialog box to No
Compression.
6. Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open a dialog box of audio mixdown options. Click
the Help button in the dialog box for help choosing options.
7. Click Save to export your video.
Optimizing video performance
Here are a few tips to optimize video performance:
• Viewing your video in on an external DV device will significantly decrease the processor load on
your computer if the video stream is a DV AVI file. See “Video playback on a FireWire DV device”
on page 244 for more information.
• If you intend to do a lot of seeking around or looping and editing while a video file is loaded, make
sure that your video file has sufficient keyframes. Since each frame has to be computed from the
last keyframe encountered, if you have very few keyframes in the video, performance may be
slow. To change the number of keyframes, you may recompress the file using the File > Export
Video command and specify more frequent keyframes. Choose a suitable video compressor
such as Cinepak and change the KeyFrame Rate parameter to a number between 1-5. A value of
1 makes every frame a keyframe, and higher numbers insert a keyframe after that many frames.
• Changing the video properties of an AVI file, such as Trim and Start time, can make realtime
performance slightly slower. You can make these changes permanent (and thereby reduce the
load on your CPU) by using the File > Export Video command, and then re-importing the file.
• Playing videos at a resolution (video size) of 320x240 is usually a high enough resolution to
monitor the video while you’re composing a soundtrack. You can still choose to stretch the video
to full screen at this resolution. You set the video size on the Render Quality tab of the Video
Properties dialog box. Using a higher resolution can bog down your computer if you’re
processing audio tracks at the same time.
See also:
“Using the Video Thumbnails pane” on page 242
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241
Using the Video Thumbnails pane
At the top of the Track view in SONAR is the Video Thumbnails pane, which displays individual
frames of your video at certain time intervals of your project. The time interval between displayed
frames is determined by the zoom level you choose. If you zoom in far enough, you can view each
individual frame of your video.
Note 1: If you’re playing back a highly compressed movie (not many keyframes in the file), it can
take about a minute to redraw video thumbnails when you’re playing the movie or resizing a
window.
Note 2: Some Windows Media videos do not report their frame rate to SONAR. SONAR can
play these files, but cannot create thumbnails from them, so no thumbnails appear in the
Thumbnail pane.
Figure 58.
The Video Thumbnails pane
A B
C
D
E
A. Show/hide frame numbers button B. Show/hide thumbnails button C. Video track strip D. Splitter bar
E. Frame number
Here are the various commands and functions of the Video Thumbnails pane:
• You can show or hide the pane.
• You can show or hide the video thumbnails.
• You can display absolute frame numbers.
• You can resize the thumbnails while preserving the aspect ratio by dragging the splitter bar.
• The video track strip at the top of the Track pane has display fields for Video File Name, Start
Time, Trim-In Time, Trim-Out Time, Duration, and Current Frame, as well as a toggle buttons
to show/hide the thumbnails (without hiding the Video Thumbnails pane), and to show/hide frame
numbers on individual frames. You can edit the Start Time, Trim-in Time, and Trim-Out Time
fields.
• SONAR saves the size and state of the Video Thumbnails pane on a per/project basis.
• The Video Thumbnails pane zooms horizontally when you use the standard Track view
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commands for horizontal zooming. You control the height of the Video Thumbnails pane by
dragging the splitter bar up or down that’s at the bottom of the Video Thumbnails pane.
For step-by-step instructions, see the following procedures:
To hide or show the Video Thumbnails pane
Do one of the following:
• Drag the splitter bar that separates the Video Thumbnails pane from the Clips pane.
• Click the Track view View menu and choose Video Thumbnail Show/Hide.
• Press the V key.
To turn Video thumbnails On or Off
Do one of the following:
• Right-click the Video Thumbnails pane or the Video Thumbnails track strip and choose Show/
Hide Thumbnails on the pop-up menu.
• Click the Show/Hide Thumbnails button
in the Video Thumbnail track strip.
To hide or show frame numbers on frames
• In the video track strip, click the Show/Hide Frame Numbers button
.
To open the Video Properties dialog
• Double-click the video track strip.
To open the Video view
• Double-click the Video Thumbnails pane.
To move the Now time to a thumbnail
• Click the thumbnail.
To change the Start time
• In the video track strip, click the Start field, type a new number in Measure/Beat/Tick format, and
press ENTER. The start time is the time in your SONAR project at which your video starts to play.
To change the Trim-In time
• In the video track strip, click the Trim-In field, type a new number in SMPTE format, and press
ENTER (you can press the SPACEBAR instead of typing colons, if you want, and you can type
single zeros instead of double zeros). The Trim-In time is the time in your video file at which you
want to start video playback.
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243
To change the Trim-Out time
• In the video track strip, click the Trim-Out field, type a new number in SMPTE format, and press
ENTER (you can press the SPACEBAR instead of typing colons, if you want, and you can type
single zeros instead of double zeros). The Trim-Out time is the time in your video file at which you
want to stop video playback.
To use the Video Thumbnails context menu
1. Right-click the Video Thumbnails pane or the Video Thumbnails track strip.
2. Choose any of these options from the pop-up menu that appears:
• Show/Hide Thumbnails
• Display Absolute Frames
• Open Video View
• Insert Video
• Delete Video
• Export Video
• Video Properties
Video playback on a FireWire DV device
You can view your video projects on an external FireWire DV device.
Note: This feature will decrease the processor load to your computer if the video stream is a DV
AVI file. If the stream is not DV AVI, the CPU load will significantly increase, compared to playing
back onscreen with SONAR’s Video view.
To convert a Video project to DV AVI format
1. Use the File > Export Video command.
The Export Video dialog box appears.
2. In the File Name field, type a name for your new video.
3. In the Save as Type field, choose Video for Windows.
4. Click the Encoding Options button to open the AVI Encoder options dialog box, and choose
DV Video Encoder in the Video Codec field. Click OK.
5. Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open a dialog box of audio mixdown options.
Choose the audio options you want, but remember that if you plan to save the project to DV tape,
choose the following audio format:
• Channel Format.
Choose Stereo.
• Sample Rate. Choose 48000.
• Bit Depth.
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Choose 16.
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6. Click Save to export your video.
Once you save the video file, it can be re-inserted into a project (see “Importing and playing back
videos” on page 237). If the project will ultimately be exported to tape, that project will need to have
an audio sample rate of 48 KHz playing back at 16 bits.
To play video on an external DV device
1. Connect your external FireWire device. Make sure Windows recognizes the device, and displays
the device’s icon on the Windows taskbar.
2. Launch SONAR and open your video project.
3. In SONAR’s video view (Views > Video command), right-click the Video view and choose
External DV Output > <name of external DV device> from the pop-up menu.
4. Play your SONAR project.
The video disappears from the Video view and appears on your external monitor or camcorder.
Leave the Video view open so that you can move the Now Time frame-by-frame with the Video
view keyboard shortcuts.
If the Video view is the active window, you can use keyboard shortcuts to advance by a frame or a
frame increment. The +/-, and left/right arrow keys move forward/backwards by a single frame. If you
hold down the CTRL key, then the frame increment value is used (default = 5 frames). You can also
use the [ and ] keys to seek by the frame increment.
If your video does not play back in sync with your audio, see “Synchronizing external video playback
to audio” on page 246.
External DV output (IEEE 1394/FireWire)
SONAR relies on the Microsoft AV/C drivers to communicate with DV devices that are connected to
a IEEE 1394 FireWire bus on your computer, in order to control and preview video to digital video
devices.
If another software application overwrites or disables these drivers, the Preview to FireWire and
Print to Tape feature may not function correctly. If you are going to install a software application that
uses DV devices connected to the IEEE 1394 FireWire bus, please check with the software vendor
about DV device drivers it may install. Also, please check with the manufacturer of your DV device
for AV/C-compliance information. The following devices have been tested and known to work
properly with SONAR:
• ADS Pyro A/V Link DV transcoder
• Canopus ADVC-100 DV transcoder
• Canon ZR-85 miniDV camcorder
Note: When using DV AVI movies, the transcoding unit must be set to the same format (NTSC
or PAL) as the video file, or Preview to FireWire and Print to Tape will fail to work properly. Also,
CPU consumption will be lower when the source material is in DV format, since the format is
native to the FireWire device and doesn't incur a CPU hit for transcoding video.
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245
Exporting a project to a FireWire DV device
Once your project sounds the way you want it to, you can export the video and audio together to an
external FireWire DV device. This is called “printing to tape,” if your external device uses tape.
To export a project to an external DV device
1. Use the File > Export > Video command to open the Export Video dialog box.
2. In the Save as Type field, choose AVC Compliant Device. You might see a different name in
the drop-down menu, depending on what type of external device you are using.
3. Click the Audio Mixdown Options button to open the Audio Mixdown Options dialog box.
4. In the Audio Mixdown Options dialog box, choose the following options, and then click OK:
• Channel Format.
Choose Stereo.
• Sample Rate. Choose 48000.
• Bit Depth.
Choose 16.
5. In the Export Video dialog box, click the Encoding Options button to open the property page of
your external device.
6. In the property page, use the transport controls to position the tape in your external device to a
blank area for recording.
7. Close the property page, and click the Save button in the Export Video dialog box to start
exporting. If you’re printing to a device that uses tape, the tape stops rolling when the export
process is finished.
Synchronizing external video playback to audio
Because there is more latency in FireWire video playback than in computer digital audio playback,
video playback on an external device will probably be playing back later than the audio tracks in
SONAR.
To sync external video to audio
1. Right-click the Video view and choose Video Properties from the pop-up menu to open the
Video Properties dialog box.
2. On the Render Quality tab of the dialog box, under External DV Output, enter an offset number
in the Video Sync Offset field. The number you enter here causes the Video to start playing
sooner than the audio. It’s helpful if your video has some pre-roll footage that contains a visual
sync point.
Note: The offset is accurate to 3 decimal places, e.g. 1 ms (a thousandth of a second). One
frame of video is approximately 33 ms long for NTSC and 40 ms for PAL; the offset will typically
be less than 1 second.
3. Click OK to close the dialog box. Play your video, and readjust the Video Sync Offset number
as needed.
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Locating missing audio
If you try to open a project and SONAR is unable to locate all the audio files that the project
references, the Find Missing Audio dialog box appears. The Find Missing Audio dialog box helps
you find any missing audio in your project.
See:
“The Find Missing Audio dialog” on page 247
“Restoring missing audio files” on page 247
“Managing shared and external files” on page 248
The Find Missing Audio dialog
Use the Find Missing Audio dialog box to find missing audio in your project. The following is a brief
description of the options you have in this dialog:
• Open. Click this button once you have searched for and found the missing audio file.
• Skip. Click this button to move to the next missing file. When you skip and audio file your project
opens without that piece of missing audio.
• Skip All. Click this button to skip all missing audio files. When you skip all missing audio files,
you project opens without those pieces of missing audio
• Search.
file.
Click this button to begin a search of all available hard drives for your missing audio
• After locating the file Options. You can choose to either move an audio file to the project’s
audio data folder, copy an audio file to the project’s audio data folder, or leave an audio file in its
current folder.
For more information, see “Find Missing Audio dialog” on page 1609.
Restoring missing audio files
When you open a project file that references audio files which SONAR can not find, the Find
Missing Audio dialog box appears. Use the following procedure to restore the missing audio files to
your project.
To restore missing audio files
1. In the Find Missing Audio dialog box, click the Search button.
The Search for Missing Audio dialog box appears and SONAR begins searching all available
hard drives for the missing file or files.
2. When SONAR is finished searching, the files that it has found appear in the dialog box.
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247
3. Select the file or files that SONAR has found and click OK.
The Find Missing Audio dialog box appears.
4. Select one of the following options:
• Move file to Project Audio Folder. Use this option if you are sure that no other projects are
referencing this file in its present location.
• Copy file to Project Audio Folder. Use this option if the missing file is shared with another
project and you want to keep all of your project’s audio files together.
• Reference file from present location. Use this option if you want to leave the missing file
in its current location now that SONAR knows where it is.
5. Click Open.
SONAR moves, copies or references the missing file or files as you instructed.
Managing shared and external files
You may want to share files between projects. The files you want to share may be frequently used
sound effects or drum loops. SONAR allows you to choose whether to copy imported audio files to
your project’s audio data directory or to link to them in their current (external) location.
Note: External files are defined as any file not in the project’s audio data folder (or a subfolder
within the project’s audio data folder).
To configure SONAR to always copy files to the project Audio Data folder
If you want to keep all of your project’s audio in one folder (your project’s audio data directory), go to
Edit > Preferences > File - Audio Data and select the Always Copy Imported Audio Files check
box.
To configure SONAR to share external files
SONAR allows you to share external files (files not in the project’s audio data directory). There are
some exceptions, however. Files that have a different sampling rate or bit depth are always copied to
the project’s audio data directory. Also, if the Always Copy Imported Audio Files option is selected
in Edit > Preferences > File - Audio Data, imported audio is always copied to your project’s audio
data directory.
Do the following to ensure that you are sharing files:
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > File - Audio Data and clear the Always Copy Imported Audio
Files check box.
2. In the Open dialog box, when importing audio, make sure the Copy Audio to Project Folder
option is unchecked.
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Recording
You can add sound or music to a SONAR project in many different ways. You can record your own
material using a MIDI-equipped instrument, use a microphone or another audio input to record digital
audio information, or import sound or music data from an existing digital data file. With the Input
monitoring feature, you can hear your audio instruments exactly how they sound in SONAR,
including any plug-in effects (effects are not recorded, however). When you record audio or MIDI
tracks, SONAR displays a wave preview of your recorded data as you record it.
You can also input new material using your computer keyboard or mouse using the Piano Roll view,
the Staff view, or the Event List view. For more information about entering music using these views,
see “The Staff view” on page 1072, “The Piano Roll view” on page 677, and “The Event List view” on
page 742.
See:
“Creating a new project” on page 250
“Preparing to record” on page 260
“Recording music from a MIDI instrument” on page 266
“Input quantizing” on page 267
“Arpeggiator” on page 269
“Recording audio” on page 275
“Confidence recording and waveform preview” on page 277
“Input monitoring” on page 278
“Loop recording” on page 285
“Punch recording” on page 288
“Step recording” on page 291
“Recording specific ports and channels” on page 299
“Importing music and sound” on page 301
“Saving your work” on page 307
Creating a new project
You can add music and sound to an existing project or to a new project. Just as in any Windows
program, you open an existing project file using the File > Open command, and create a new project
file using the File > New command.
When you create a new SONAR project, there are some additional parameters you can set to make
it easier to work on your project. These include:
• Meter and key signatureMetronome and tempo settings
• Audio sampling rate
• MIDI timing resolutionSee:
“Creating a new project” on page 250
“Setting the Meter and Key signatures” on page 252
“Setting the Metronome and Tempo settings” on page 253
“Setting the audio sampling rate and bit depth” on page 256
Using per-project audio folders
For ease of backing up your audio files in a project, SONAR allows you to use a separate audio
folder for each project. This feature is off by default.
To enable per-project audio
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > File - Audio Data.
2. Select the Use Per-Project Audio Folders check box and click OK.
Note: If you use the default project that is created when you open SONAR, you are not using
per-project audio. You must use the Copy All Audio with Project option in the Save As dialog
box to create a per-project audio folder. For more information, see “To save an existing project
using per-project audio” on page 1176.
Creating a new project file
When you create a new project you are asked to choose a template to use for your new file. If you
have per-project audio folders enabled (for more information, see “Using per-project audio folders”
on page 250), you are also asked to specify a file name, the folder where you want to store the file,
and the folder where you want to store the file’s audio. You can override per-project audio by
unchecking the Store Project Audio in its Own Folder option.
SONAR includes a set of templates you can use to create a new project. These templates include
common types of ensembles, such as rock quartets, jazz trios, and classical full orchestras. When
you create a new project using one of these templates, SONAR creates a project that has MIDI
settings predefined so that one track is set up for each of the instruments in the ensemble. SONAR
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Recording
Creating a new project
also includes a template with two MIDI and two audio tracks (called the Normal template). If you are
creating a new project that will contain only audio material, use the Audio Only template. If you are
creating a new project that will contain only MIDI material, use the MIDI Only template.
You can create your own template files and use them as the basis for other new projects. For more
information, see “Templates” on page 1064.
To create a new project file
1. Choose File > New to display the New Project File dialog box.
Figure 59.
The New Project File dialog
2. If you have the per-project audio folders option enabled, enter a file name, set the folder where
you want to store the new file, and set the folder where you want to store the new file’s audio.
3. Choose a template from the list.
4. Click OK.
SONAR creates the new project file and displays it with the Track view open.
Recording
Creating a new project
251
Setting the Meter and Key signatures
By default, a new SONAR project is in 4/4 time and the key of C major. You can change these
settings to any desired “Meter” on page 1915 or key. These settings apply to all the tracks in a
project. You cannot set different meter or key signatures for different tracks.
The meter or key signature of a project can change at any measure boundary. To insert changes in
the meter or key signature, use the Views > Meter/Key command to display the Meter/Key view, or
use the Project > Insert Meter/Key Change command. You can also click the Meter display in the
Control Bar’s Transport module.
If you are creating a new project that will contain only audio material (no MIDI material), you do not
need to set the meter and key signature.
Note: Groove clips do not follow your project's key. Groove clips follow the project pitch that is
specified in Project > Set Default Groove Clip Pitch, in addition to any pitch markers in the
Time Ruler. For more information, see “Working with Groove Clip audio” on page 659.
The key signature controls how SONAR displays notes in the Staff view, the Event List view, and
elsewhere. The meter tells SONAR the number of beats per measure and the note value of each
beat. Common meters include:
• 2/4 (two beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
• 4/4 (four beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
• 3/4 (three beats per measure, each quarter note gets a beat)
• 6/8 (six beats per measure, each eighth note gets a beat)
The top number of a meter, the number of beats per measure, can be from 1 through 99. The bottom
number of a meter is the value of each beat. You can pick from a list of values ranging from a whole
note to a thirty-second note.
The meter determines the following:
• Where the metronome accents are placed
• How the Now time is displayed
• How the Staff view is drawn
• How grid lines are displayed in the Piano Roll viewTo Set the Meter and Key signature
1. Click the Views menu and choose Meter/Key.
2. Click
to open the Meter/Key Signature dialog box.
The Meter/Key Signature dialog box appears.
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Recording
Creating a new project
Figure 60.
The Meter/Key Signature dialog box
3. Enter the top and bottom meter values in the Beats per Measure and Beat Value fields.
4. Choose the key signature from the Key Signature list.
5. Click OK.
You can also set the meter and key signature in the Control Bar’s Transport module, or choose
Project > Insert Meter/Key Change.
Setting the Metronome and Tempo settings
The metronome counts off each beat in a measure, so you can hear the tempo of your project. You
can choose to have the metronome sound during recording, during playback, both, or turned off.
When you start recording, SONAR can play any number of beats or measures of metronome clicks
before recording begins. This can help you “get in the groove” before you start performing. These
beats or measures are called the count-in.When you create a new project, you should set the
metronome to play during the count-in and while recording. If you are adding material to an existing
project, you might only need the metronome for the count-in.You can customize the metronome
sound to use audio or any note on a MIDI instrument. By default, SONAR uses a hi-hat cymbal
sound from a General MIDI drum kit for the MIDI metronome, but you can change this setting to
anything you like by changing the MIDI output, MIDI channel, and duration. You can also choose the
note and velocity (volume) to use for the first beat of each measure and for all other beats. The
metronome settings are stored separately with each project, so you can use different settings for
each one.
To enable or disable the metronome during playback or recording, click the Playback Metronome
on/off button
Figure 61.
or Record Metronome on/off button
in the Control Bar’s Transport module.
The Transport module.
A
B
C
A. Metronome during record B. Metronome during playback C. Click to open metronome settings
Recording
Creating a new project
253
To configure metronome settings, click the metronome icon in the Control Bar, right-click the
Playback Metronome on/off button
Preferences > Project - Metronome.
or Record Metronome on/off button
, or go to Edit >
Note: If you are synchronized to an external clock source, you cannot use the count-in feature.
For more information, see “Synchronizing your gear” on page 1153.
To set the tempo and metronome for a new project
1. In the Control Bar’s Transport module, click the Playback Metronome on/off button
Record Metronome on/off button
.
2. Right-click the Playback Metronome on/off button
to show metronome settings.
3.
and
or Record Metronome on/off button
If you want to hear a count-in before recording begins, set the count-in to 1 or more. Select
either Measures or Beats for the count-in.
4. Select Use Audio Metronome or Use MIDI Metronome.
5. Arm at least one track.
6. Press R or click
advance.
to start recording. The count-in will play, and the Now time will start to
7. If necessary, stop playback and adjust the tempo using the tempo control in the Transport
module, the restart playback. Repeat until the metronome plays the desired tempo.
8. Press the SPACEBAR or click
9. Press W, or click
to stop recording.
to rewind to the beginning of the piece.
Your tempo and metronome settings are now ready. When you save the project file, the metronome
and tempo settings will be saved as well.
254
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Creating a new project
To change your Metronome settings
1. Do one of the following to access metronome settings:
• Click the metronome icon
in the Control Bar’s Transport module.
• Press SHIFT+F3.
• Right-click the Playback Metronome on/off button
or Record Metronome on/off button
in the Control Bar’s Transport module.
• Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Metronome.
2. Change the metronome settings as indicated in the following table.
To do this
Do this
Enable the metronome during playback
Select the Playback check box.
Enable the metronome during recording
Select the Recording check box.
Enable the count-in
Enter the number of clicks for the count-in in the Count-in
box, and select Measures or Beats.
Note: The Record count-in always applies if there is a
specified value, even if Playback and Record are not
selected.
Use the audio metronome
Select Use Audio Metronome.
Use a MIDI note as the sound
Select Use MIDI Note and choose the output, channel, and
other settings.
Enable beat subdivisions
Select the desired subdivision value in the Beat
Subdivision list. The selected value is the subdivision for
non-accented audible clicks.
Table 33.
3. Click OK.
Your metronome settings will be saved with the project file.
Recording
Creating a new project
255
To set the MIDI metronome sounds from your MIDI instrument
1. Select a track in the Track view that is assigned to the MIDI device you want to use for the
metronome sound.
2. Right-click the Playback Metronome on/off button
to show metronome settings.
or Record Metronome on/off button
3. Make sure that the settings in the Port and Channel fields match those for the track in the Track
view.
4. Click on the Key box in the First Beat or the Other Beats section.
5. Play a note on your MIDI instrument. The note number is entered automatically. The velocity is
not updated.
6. Click OK.
Your metronome settings will be saved with the project file.
For more information about the metronome, see “Project - Metronome” on page 1696.
Setting the audio sampling rate and bit depth
Each SONAR project has an audio “Sampling rate” on page 1918 and an audio driver “Bit depth” on
page 1910 that indicate the level of accuracy with which audio data are sampled and processed. The
same parameters are used for all the digital audio in a project. When you create a new project, if you
do not want to use the default setting, you must choose a sampling rate before you start recording
audio.
SONAR lets you choose from several different sampling rates: 11025 Hz, 22050 Hz, 44100 Hz,
48000 Hz, 88200 Hz, 96000 Hz, 176400Hz, and 192000 Hz. The default used by SONAR is 44100
Hz, the same rate as audio CDs. However, you may choose a higher rate and later mixdown to
44100. You can also enter any hardware-supported value in the Sampling Rate field. Consult your
hardware documentation for supported sampling rates.
A higher sampling rate produces better quality sound. However, a higher sampling rate also means
that each audio clip takes up more memory and disk space and requires more intensive processing
by your computer. If you have an older computer, or a slow hard drive, you might be better off with a
lower sampling rate. For more information, see “Improving performance with digital audio” on page
1189.
By default, the audio driver bit depth of audio data is 16 bits. If your sound card supports 18, 20, 22,
or 24 bit audio, you can choose to take advantage of these higher resolutions.
If you are creating a new project that will contain only MIDI material (no audio), you do not need to
set the audio sampling rate or bit depth. If you import audio from a Wave file or another digital audio
file, the sampling rate and audio driver bit depth of the wave file are converted to your default setting,
if necessary.
256
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Creating a new project
To set the sampling rate and audio driver bit depth for new projects
Note: If you are planning to move your project to a Digital Audio Tape (DAT) or to some other
media via a digital transfer, set your sampling rate and bit depth to match the target unit. For
example, use 44,100Hz/16-bit for a project that will be mastered to a CD, so that no sample rate
conversion is required.
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Audio - Driver Settings.
2. Select a value in the Sampling Rate drop-down menu, and a value from the Audio Driver Bit
Depth drop-down menu.
3. Click OK.
The sampling rate and audio driver bit depth are saved with the project file.
Sony Wave-64 support
SONAR fully supports reading and writing to the Sony Wave-64 format, which has a limit of
8,388,608 terabytes!
SONAR only creates Wave-64 file when needed. The Wave-64 format allows an application to
dynamically switch from classic RIFF WAVE to Wave-64 format even if the data was originally
created as a RIFF wave file. SONAR detects when a file will exceed 2GB and will dynamically switch
to the new Wave-64 format.
The following table shows the maximum duration for a stereo WAVE file before we hit the 2GB limit,
as well as the max duration for a stereo Wave-64 file before we hit the 8,388,608 terabyte limit.
Sample Rate
Bit Depth
RIFF-Wave
Sony Wave-64
44,100 Hz
16
3.38 hours
14,524,080,431 days
44,100 Hz
32
1.69 hours
7,262,040,215 days
44,100 Hz
64
50.7 minutes
3,631,020,108 days
192,000 Hz
16
46 minutes
3,335,999,724 days
192,000 Hz
32
23.3 minutes
1,667,999,862 days
192,000 Hz
64
11.65 minutes
833,999,931 days
Table 34.
Recording
Creating a new project
257
When Wave-64 Files are created
Wave-64 files are created behind the scenes automatically under the following usage scenarios:
• When the number of samples recorded exceeds the file size limit of a 32-bit RIFF WAV file
(approximately 2GB file size).
• When you export, bounce or freeze tracks or clips and the resultant wave size exceeds 2GB.
• When you destructively process audio effects on a SONAR clip whose duration exceeds 2GB.
• When you import audio and choose a wave file that exceeds 2GB in size (this could be a Wave64 file).
• When you save a CWB file and the size of any chunk in the CWB file exceeds 2GB, the entire
CWB is saved in the new Wave-64 format.
Note: 64-bit CWB files are incompatible with previous versions of SONAR.
64-bit CWB files
CWB files are RIFF files with multiple WAVE chunks. Therefore, CWB files in previous versions of
SONAR were subject to the same file size limitations of normal RIFF Wav files. This could potentially
result in a CWB file that failed to save because a chunk was too large.
SONAR will automatically use the Wave-64 format if a CWB file exceeds 2GB.
Note: 64-bit CWB files are incompatible with previous versions of SONAR.
Wave-64 file extension
Wave-64 files have a .w64 extension associated with them. Whenever a Wave-64 file is written,
SONAR saves it with an extension of w64.
CWP file persistence for 64-bit sample offsets
The SONAR project file format supports writing 64-bit sample offsets for regions and clips. When a
project containing 64-bit sample times is detected, saving that project automatically rewrites it in this
new format.
Note: Projects that contain 64-bit sample times are incompatible with SONAR 6 and earlier.
258
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Creating a new project
Setting the MIDI timing resolution
Each SONAR project has a setting for the timing resolution, or timebase, that indicates the
resolution of MIDI data. This resolution is measured in ticks or pulses per quarter note and is often
abbreviated as PPQ. The default resolution is 960PPQ, which is accurate enough for most
applications. In this timebase, each quarter note is represented by 960 ticks, each eighth note by
480 ticks, each eighth-note triplet by 320 ticks, and so on.
In some projects you may need a different timebase. For example, if you wanted to use eighth-note
septuplets (7 eighth notes per quarter note) and represent them accurately, you would need to have
a timebase that is divisible by 7, such as 168PPQ. SONAR uses the timebase you choose for a
project to determine the range of tick values in the Now time.
To set the timebase for a project
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Clock.
2. Choose the timebase you want from the Ticks per Quarter Note list.
3. Click OK.
The timebase will be saved with the project file.
Recording
Creating a new project
259
Preparing to record
To prepare for recording, you need to do the following:
• Set the recording mode.
• Choose your input(s).
• Arm one or more tracks for recording.
• Check your recording levels (audio only).
• Tune your instrument if necessary (audio only).
• Set the Now time to the point where recording should start.
• Start recording.
After you record, you can use the Edit > Undo command to erase the most recently recorded
material. You can use the Edit > Redo command to restore the recording and toggle between Undo
and Redo as many times as you like. If you are using MIDI Sync or time code sync for the clock
source, SONAR waits to receive external timing data before it begins recording. For more
information, see “Synchronizing your gear” on page 1153.
See:
“Recording modes” on page 260
“Choosing an input” on page 261
“Arming tracks for recording” on page 263
“Auto arming” on page 264
Recording modes
Any material you record is stored in a new clip. If you record into several tracks at once, one clip is
created in each track. If you record into a track that already contains clips, you can choose one of
three recording modes to determine what happens to those clips. When you save your project, you
also save whatever recording mode you choose together with that project:
Recording mode
How it works
Sound on Sound
The new material is merged with any existing material. This means that any
existing clips on the track are left unchanged and all newly recorded material is
stored in new clips. While recording, you will be able to hear material from
existing clips.
Table 35.
260
Recording
Preparing to record
Recording mode
How it works
Overwrite
The new material replaces (overwrites) any existing material. This means that
portions of existing clips may be “wiped clean” to make room for newly recorded
material. While recording, you will not be able to hear material from existing clips.
Auto Punch
Recording only takes place between the punch-in and punch-out times. You can
use Auto Punch in either Sound on Sound or Overwrite mode.
Table 35.
To choose a recording mode
Do one of the following:
• Right-click the Record button
mode.
to open recording settings, then choose the desired recording
• Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Record, then choose the desired recording mode.
SONAR saves your recording options with each project, so you can save a different recording mode
with each of your projects.
Choosing an input
To record into a track, you must choose an input for the music or sound to be recorded. Usually, you
choose All Inputs - Omni to record material from a MIDI instrument, or the left or right channel of a
digital audio device (such as a sound card) to record audio material, or stereo if you want to record
stereo audio in a single track. The input for each track is displayed in the track’s Input field and at
the top of each module in the Console view.
When you choose All Inputs > Omni as the input for a track, SONAR merges material from all MIDI
inputs and instruments. This means you don’t have to worry about input, channel, or other MIDI
settings. Sometimes, you may want to record different MIDI channels into different tracks. To learn
how to do this, see “Recording specific ports and channels” on page 299.
While each track can have a different input, it is also possible for several tracks to have the same
input.
To choose a MIDI input in the Track view
1. Click the drop-down arrow of an Input field of a MIDI track.
A drop-down menu of MIDI inputs appears.
2. Choose an input from the following:
• None. This option actually sets the Input field to Omni with this setting the track will record
any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
• All Inputs > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). With this setting the track will record any MIDI
input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
Recording
Preparing to record
261
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). Choosing this option causes
the track to record any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver,
unless you choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only
record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input driver.
• Preset. If you want to record multiple data from multiple ports and/or channels, you need to
select a preset collection of those ports and channels. You can select one here (to create
presets, see next line).
• Manage Presets. If you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see “To create or edit a preset input configuration” on
page 300).
To choose an audio input in the Track view
1. Click the drop-down arrow of the Input field of an audio track.
A drop-down menu of audio drivers appears.
2. Select the audio driver for the sound card you want to record with from these options:
• None.
This choice ensures that you do not record to the track in question.
• Left (name of your sound card).
channel of your sound card.
Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the left
• Right (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the
right channel of your sound card.
• Stereo (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a stereo signal.
If your sound card has more than one pair of inputs, a pair of numbers appears after the name of
each audio driver to indicate which pair of inputs the driver is attached to.
Note: Inputs that are used by the External Insert plug-in (see “External Insert plug-in (Producer
and Studio only)” on page 876) cannot be assigned to track inputs.
To choose an audio input in the Console view or Track Inspector
1. At the bottom of an audio channel strip, click the Input control.A pop-up menu of audio drivers
appears.
2. Select the audio driver for the sound card you want to record with from these options:
• None. This choice ensures that you do not record to the track in question. It also turns off
input monitoring for this track.
• Left (name of your sound card).
channel of your sound card.
Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the left
• Right (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a mono signal on the
right channel of your sound card.
• Stereo (name of your sound card). Choose this if you want to record a stereo signal.
262
Recording
Preparing to record
If your sound card has more than one pair of inputs, a pair of numbers appears after the name of
each audio driver to indicate which pair of inputs the driver is attached to.
To choose a MIDI input in the Console view or Track Inspector
1. At the bottom of a MIDI channel strip, click the Input control.A pop-up menu of MIDI channels
appears.
2. Choose an input from the following:
• None. This option actually sets the Input field to Omni. With this setting the track will record
any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
• All Inputs > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). With this setting the track will record any MIDI
input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). Choosing this option causes
the track to record any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver,
unless you choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only
record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input driver.
• Preset. If you want to record multiple data from multiple ports and/or channels, you need to
select a preset collection of those ports and channels. You can select one here (to create
presets, see next line).
• Manage Presets. If you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see “To create or edit a preset input configuration” on
page 300).
Arming tracks for recording
SONAR lets you record any number of tracks at one time. You indicate the tracks you want to record
by arming the tracks. You can arm a single track or several tracks at one time. Each track records
material received though its selected input. Whenever a track is armed, not only does the track’s R
button turn red, but the Clips pane that’s to the right of that track’s controls turns a reddish hue.
To arm one or more tracks for recording
Click the track’s Arm for Recording button
.
Note: To see the Arm for Recording button in the Track Inspector and Console view, make sure
the MSR module is visible.
To arm several tracks at the same time, select one or more tracks, then hold down the CTRL key
and click any selected track’s Arm for Recording button
.
A track’s Arm button turns red to indicate that the track is armed for recording.
Recording
Preparing to record
263
To disarm all tracks at once
Click the Arm / Disarm All Tracks button
Figure 62.
in the Control Bar’s Mix module, or press CTRL+R.
The Mix module.
Auto arming
You must arm tracks in order to record. To safeguard your data, there is no automatic arming of any
tracks.
If you want to record MIDI tracks without arming a track, go to Edit > Preferences > MIDI Playback and Recording and select the Allow MIDI Recording without an Armed Track check
box.
This feature lets you start recording a new track simply by making it the current track and pressing R
or clicking the Record button in the Transport module. Auto-arming makes it possible to
inadvertently record over existing material in the current track, however.
264
Recording
Preparing to record
Arming tracks during playback/recording
SONAR is able to arm and disarm tracks during playback and recording. This allows you to record to
different tracks while the transport is rolling, without first having to stop playback in order to arm a
track for recording.
To allow arming during playback
Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Record and select the Allow Arm Changes During
Playback/Record check box.
Note: The Allow Arm Changes During Playback/Record option is disabled by default. When
enabled, SONAR must keep all hardware input ports open so that it can dynamically arm tracks
on the fly. With some drivers in WDM mode, this can add significant overhead if there are many
input devices enabled in Edit > Preferences > Audio - Devices. This may lead to more
frequent drop outs. When using this option in WDM mode, it is recommended that you disable
all unused input drivers in Edit > Preferences > Audio - Devices to minimize this overhead.
Disabling unused inputs is not required when using ASIO mode.
SONAR has an option that can reduce CPU overhead when the Allow Arm Changes During
Playback/Record option is enabled.
When Allow Arm Changes During Playback/Record is enabled, SONAR must keep all hardware
input ports open so that it can dynamically arm tracks on the fly. With some drivers in WDM mode,
this can add significant overhead if there are many input devices enabled in Edit > Preferences >
Audio - Devices).
The new Only For Inputs In Project option instructs SONAR to only open hardware input ports that
are currently active in the project (i.e. assigned to a track).
To only open active hardware input ports
Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Record and select the Only For Inputs In Project check box.
Note: If this option is enabled, you will not be able to change inputs while recording.
Recording
Arming tracks during playback/recording
265
Recording music from a MIDI instrument
Once you have set your tempo and metronome, and armed one or more tracks, you are ready to
start recording.
To record MIDI
1. Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start recording.
2. Click
or press R. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will play the count-in.
3. Play or perform the material you want to record. As you record, SONAR displays a clip
containing the new material in the Clips pane (unless you have disabled the Display Waveform
Preview While Recording option in Edit > Preferences > Customization - Display).
4. Click
or press the SPACEBAR key to stop recording.
To listen to the new material, set the Now time to the start of the clip and press the SPACEBAR or
click
. If you’re not happy with the recording, use Edit > Undo or press CTRL+Z to erase the new
material.
When you stop recording, if you do not see a new clip in the Clips pane, you may have a problem
with MIDI input. See “Troubleshooting” on page 1251 for more information.
See:
“Recording specific ports and channels” on page 299
266
Recording
Recording music from a MIDI instrument
Input quantizing
Input quantizing allows you to automatically quantize MIDI input during recording. You can see the
results immediately, and hear the results as soon as a track is looped.
Note: Input quantizing does not destroy your original recording. If you press CTRL+Z after you
finish recording with input quantizing enabled, the quantized clip is deleted, and the original
unquantized clip appears, just as you recorded it. If you are using loop recording in Sound On
Sound mode, all the quantized clips are deleted.
You control input quantize settings in the Input Quantize section in the Track Inspector. For details,
see “Input Quantize section” on page 540.
Figure 63.
Input Quantize controls are availalbe in the Track Inspector
To turn Input quantizing on or off
Click the track’s Enable/Disable Input button in the Track Inspector.
To set the resolution
Click the track’s Input Quantize resolution control in the Track Inspector, then choose a resolution
from the drop-down menu. You can also click Quantize Settings in the resolution menu to open the
Input Quantize dialog box, and type a number of ticks in the Resolution field.
Note: To quantize to a custom resolution value, open the Input Quantize dialog box, and type
a custom number of ticks in the Resolution field.
Recording
Input quantizing
267
To set options
Click the track’s Input Quantize resolution menu in the Track Inspector, choose Quantize Settings
to open the Input Quantize dialog box, select the desired settings, then and click OK.
Note: To get explanations of the options in the Input Quantize dialog box, press F1 when the
dialog box is open.
Visual indicators
You will see the following visual indicators when Input Quantizing is enabled:
• When the track is armed for recording, the track’s Arm button
cirle.
displays Q instead of a red
• The red swath that appears in a track in the area where recording is taking place changes color.
You can choose a color for this in Edit > Preferences > Customization - Colors by choosing
Clips Pane in the Color Category menu, and changing the entry for Input Quantize Record
Preview Background.
For more information, see “Quantizing” on page 719.
268
Recording
Input quantizing
Arpeggiator
Note: This feature is not available in SONAR X2 LE.
The arpeggiator lets you play intricate patterns of notes that would otherwise be extremely difficult or
impossible to play manually and at speeds and octave ranges that exist beyond the physical
limitations of the player or keyboard range.
Arpeggiated events are new events that are based on notes that you play on your controller
keyboard. The new events are rhythmically and harmonically specified by the arpeggiator’s preset,
allowing you to “play” an endless variety sophisticated musical passages with simple key pressing.
The most significant capability of the arpeggiator is its ability to apply algorithmic variations on your
input as well as MIDI-based patterns.
In addition to note events, the arpeggiator can send parameter automation such as pan, volume,
and even effects automation for the current track.
Each MIDI and instrument track has its own integrated arpeggiator, visually located in the Track
view. Running multiple arpeggiators across tracks can help realize exciting melodic and rhythmic
textures.
The arpeggiator controls are accessed in the Track Inspector.
Figure 64.
Arpeggiator controls are availalbe in the Track Inspector
Recording
Arpeggiator
269
Arpeggiator controls
The following table describes the controls in the Arpeggiator.
Control
Description
Enable/Disable
Enables/disables the arpeggiator on a given track. This control can be assigned to MIDI
remote control and modified in real-time during project playback.
Preset Control
You can create and edit arpeggiator presets; all user parameters are stored in the preset.
• Arpeggiator settings are included in track templates.
• Arpeggiator presets can be saved to a file and exchanged with other users.
• Arpeggiator files are stored in a shared directory.
For details, see “Using patterns and presets” on page 272.
Rate
Adjusts the relative speed of the arpeggiator sequence by changing all the note durations by
a factor of the current tempo. This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and
modified in real-time during project playback.
Octave Range
Sets the number of octaves through which the arpeggio will play. A value of 1 means that a
held chord will only arpeggiate the notes that are being held within the octave from which the
notes are being transmitted. A value of 2 means a held chord will arpeggiate for two octaves.
The held chord always represents the bass octave, meaning that the other octaves sound in a
higher register.
If you specify a range higher than the standard MIDI specifications, the Arpeggiator will
repeat the pattern in the highest available octave as necessary.
This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in real-time during project
playback.
Latch
Latch keeps the arpeggio playing after you let go of the keys.
This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in real-time during project
playback.
Swing
Sets the amount of swing applied to the selected pattern. You can make a pattern of 8th,
16th, or 32nd notes play back as swing notes instead of straight notes. The amount of swing
ranges from 0 (no swing) to 100% (maximum swing).
Velocity
An offset control that scales the arpeggiated note’s velocity to a percentage of the original
note velocity.
Duration
Controls whether the notes in the pattern are held to their full value, or are held for shorter or
longer durations.
Pitch Offset
A transposition control in half-steps, up or down a maximum of 2 octaves.
Flam Amount
If a pattern contains flams, this menu controls how big a difference there is between the
attack time of the flam and the note it is attached to.
Table 36.
270
Arpeggiator controls
Recording
Arpeggiator
Control
Description
Source Mix
When 0, simultaneously held notes arpeggiate as single notes. At 50%, simultaneously held
notes are heard as a chord in addition to the usual arpeggiated notes, both at equal levels. At
100%, only the held chord is audible.
Control: Knob (0 – 100%); this control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in
real-time during project playback.
Ch
MIDI input and output menu—the Arpeggiator only affects input data that’s on the MIDI
channels listed on this menu. The arpeggiator always obeys the track’s assigned output
channel, plus any additional channels specified in the arpeggiators Ch menu.
Shapes
Choose a shape that specifies the direction in which currently held notes are to be
sequenced. The following shapes are available:
• Rhythm (implicit rhythm mode)
• Forward
• Reverse
• Forward Circle 1
• Reverse Circle 1
• Forward Circle 2
• Reverse Circle 2
• Inward
• Outward
• Inward Circle
• Outward Circle
• As Played
• As Played Circle
• Random
Table 36.
Arpeggiator controls (Continued)
Note: Most Arpeggiator parameters can be controlled via MIDI remote control, but automation
data can not be recorded into tracks. For details, see “To set up remote control for a knob,
button, or fader” on page 920.
See:
“Using the arpeggiator” on page 272
Recording
Arpeggiator
271
Using the arpeggiator
One arpeggiator device appears on every MIDI and instrument track, located in the Track Inspector.
To enable/disable the Arpeggiator
• Click the Enable/Disable Arpeggiator button in the Track Inspector.
Figure 65.
Arpeggiator controls are availalbe in the Track Inspector
Using patterns and presets
Pre-authored patterns are used to apply rhythmic and melodic variations to the arpeggio. SONAR
includes many professionally-authored pattern files for you to experiment with. Pattern files have a
.ptn file extension.
An Arpeggiator preset stores a pattern along with the current Arpeggiator parameter settings. Preset
files have a .arp file extension.
You use the Arpeggiator’s Preset control to load patterns and load/save presets.
When playing back through the Arpeggiator, the first pitch in the pattern is moved to the lowest note
currently played.
Note: If the pattern file is a Free Mode pattern, the steps are quantized to the nearest 128th note
value in order to better preserve timing nuances.
To load an Arpeggiator pattern
1. Click the Preset control in the Arpeggiator and select Open Pattern from the drop-down menu.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains your Arpeggiator pattern files (.ptn) and select the desired
pattern.
A
A. Click to load a pattern
To load an Arpeggiator preset
• Click the Preset control in the Arpeggiator, point to Presets and select the desired preset.
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Arpeggiator
A
A. Click to load a preset
To load the next/previous Arpeggiator preset
• Click the Next Preset or Previous Preset button in the Arpeggiator.
A
A. Click to load the next/previous preset
To save an Arpeggiator preset
• Click the Preset control in the Arpeggiator and select Save Pattern As from the drop-down
menu.
The current pattern is saved with the current Arpeggiator parameter settings.
A
A. Click to save a new preset
Using automation
You can automate the following arpeggiator parameters:
• Source Mix
• Enable/Disable
• Flam Amount
• Duration
• LatchOctave Range
• Pitch Offset
• Rate
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• Shape
• Swing
• Velocity
To record arpeggiator automation
1. Right-click the desired arpeggiator parameter in the Track Inspector, and select Automation
Write Enable on the pop-up menu.
2. Click the Play button to start playback.
3. Adjust the arpeggiator control as desired. When you are finished recording automation, click the
Stop button to stop playback.
Automation (envelope) data appears in the Track view.
To create arpeggiator automation
• In the Track pane, click the track’s Edit Filter control, point to Track Automation > Arpeggiator
and select the desired arpeggiator parameter.
Automation (envelope) data appears in the Track view.
Tip: Existing envelopes can be reassigned to arpeggiator envelopes and vice versa. To do so, rightclick an envelope and select Assign Envelope on the context menu.
To record automation with a MIDI controller
1. Right-click the desired arpeggiator parameter and select Remote Control on the context menu.
The Remote Control dialog box appears.
2. Specify the MIDI message you want to use for MIDI remote control, then click OK to close the
Remote Control dialog box.
3. Right-click the desired arpeggiator parameter, and select Automation Write Enable on the
context menu.
4. Click the Play button to start playback.
5. Move the assigned MIDI controller widget (knob/slider, etc.). When you are finished recording
automation, click the Stop button to stop playback.
Automation (envelope) data appears in the Track view.
Recording and editing arpeggiator automation on an instrument track
You can not record or edit automation data on an instrument track. To use automation on an
instrument track, you must first split the instrument track into separate audio and MIDI tracks, create
or edit the automation data on the MIDI track, then recombine the tracks into an instrument track.
For details, see “Splitting an instrument track to separate audio and MIDI tracks” on page 809 and
“Converting an audio and MIDI track to a single instrument track” on page 808.
See:
“Arpeggiator” on page 269
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Recording
Arpeggiator
Recording audio
Before you record audio, you should check your input levels. If the levels are too low, you may end
up with too much hiss and background noise in your recording. If the levels are too high, your
recording will be inaccurate or distorted. To check your audio levels, use the audio meters in the
either the Track view, Track Inspector or Console view. To adjust the input levels, you must use your
sound card’s software mixer program (or the Windows 7 mixer) or an external hardware mixer for
certain sound cards.
The audio meters indicate the volume at which the audio will be recorded, in units called decibels
(dB). The meter values range from -INF (silent) to 0dB (maximum volume). You can change many
options in the way SONAR’s meters display data: see “Metering” on page 849. To maximize the
dynamic range of your recording, you want to set the levels as high as possible without clipping.
When the audio level exceeds 0dB, some of the audio information is lost. This is known as
overload. Many sound cards use clipping to deal with an overloaded signal, but clipping can distort
the audio signal. As a result, you should avoid letting the meter level exceed 0dB.
Note: Because SONAR is a digital recorder, a level of 0dB indicates digital zero. Digital
distortion will occur at 0dB. You will not get analog compression or warmth from pushing the
input levels. If you are transferring data from a DAT or another device, you may want to calibrate
the input levels of your sound card with the output levels of other devices in your studio. This will
ensure that 0dB on one unit will appear as 0dB in SONAR.
To check the Input levels
1. In the Track view, choose the inputs for the tracks you want to record, and arm the tracks for
recording.The default meter range is from 0 dB to -60 dB. To change the range, right-click on the
meter and choose a new range from the menu.Perform at the loudest level at which you plan to
record.Watch the meters respond. Increase the input volume as high as possible without ever
letting the meters move all the way to 0dB, even for an instant, or letting the Clipping indicator
turn red. If either of these things happen, reduce the input volume just enough to avoid them
during the entire performance. Note that some kinds of audio, such as percussive or plucked
musical instruments, can produce very short, high-level “transients” when struck or plucked
aggressively, which can lead to clipping if the input volume is set too high. Consider the
possibility of these transients when examining the meters and setting your record level.
Note: If the Clipping indicator is illuminated, click on it to reset.
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275
Once you have set your sampling rate and input levels, you are ready to start recording. If the
meters do not move, check your sound card software’s mixer program and make sure that you have
the proper input enabled for recording.When you record audio, SONAR stores each audio clip in a
separate file. These files have the same format as a Wave (.wav) file, but they have special names
and are stored in a separate directory on your hard disk. SONAR automatically manages these
audio files for you, making it easier for you to manage your projects. If you want to work with these
files directly, or to learn more about how SONAR stores audio data, see “System configuration” on
page 1182.
To Record Audio
1. Choose the audio inputs for the track(s) you want to record.
2. Arm the tracks for recording. The Clips pane next to each armed track turns a reddish hue when
the track is armed.
3. Set the Now time to the point in the project where you want to start recording.
4. Click
or press R. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will play the count-in measures
or beats.
5. Play or perform the material you want to record.As you record, SONAR displays a waveform
preview of the new material in the Clips pane (unless you have disabled the Display Waveform
Preview While Recording option in Edit > Preferences > Customization - Display). If you
have turned off the option, SONAR displays a red swath along the area of the Clips pane where
you are recording.
6. Click
or press the SPACEBAR to stop recording.
SONAR displays a clip containing the new material in the Clips pane. To listen to the new material,
set the Now time to the start of the clip and press the SPACEBAR or click
with the recording, use Edit > Undo to erase the new material.
. If you’re not happy
If you do not see a new clip in the Clips pane, you may have a problem with audio input. See
“Troubleshooting” on page 1251 for more information.
Important: Make sure you have enough space on your hard disk when recording digital audio.
Running out of hard disk space when recording can lead to unpredictable results.
To hear previously recorded material on track while recording
By default, SONAR does not play back any previously recorded material on a track while recording.
If you want to always hear previously recorded audio while recording, go to Edit > Preferences >
Project - Record and select the Hear previously recorded material on track check box.
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Recording audio
Confidence recording and waveform preview
When you’re recording audio or MIDI data, SONAR gives you many visual cues that tracks are
armed and that SONAR is recording data.
When one or more tracks are armed:
• The Arm button in each armed track turns red.
• The Clips pane next to each armed track gets a reddish hue.
• The Arm / Disarm All Tracks button
the Control Bar’s Mix module is lit.
While you’re recording, SONAR displays these cues:
• Audio tracks display a waveform preview in the area in the Clips pane where you’re recording.
This is actually a visual record of the record meter’s progress. When you stop recording, SONAR
displays the actual waveform, which is slightly different from the preview. The preview is a
snapshot taken at certain time intervals, while the actual waveform represents all the data that is
recorded.
• MIDI tracks display the actual data that they record, both in the Clips pane and the Piano Roll
view (not the Staff view).
• Automation envelopes and nodes are drawn in real time as the automation data is being
recorded.
If you want to turn off the real-time display of audio clips, see the following procedure.
To turn off waveform preview for audio recording
Go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Display and clear the Display Waveform Preview
While Recording check box.
Now when you record audio tracks, a red swath appears in the Clips pane in the area you’re
recording.
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Confidence recording and waveform preview
277
Input monitoring
Being able to hear plug-in audio effects applied to a live signal is an exciting feature of SONAR.
However, there are two issues that users commonly stumble upon when using the input monitoring
feature. The first is that the monitored signal seems to have an echo associated with it. The second
is that live input monitoring can lead to nasty feedback problems, particularly if you have an
outboard audio mixer, or you record from a different sound card from the one you are playing back
with.
SONAR has several buttons to control input monitoring:
• Per-track Input Echo button. Each audio track has an Input Echo button
track’s input monitoring on or off.
that turn’s that
• Global Input Echo button. The Input Echo On/Off All Tracks button
in the Control Bar’s
Mix module turns input monitoring on or off on all audio tracks with one click.
• Audio Engine button. To disable all audio activity in SONAR, including input monitoring, click
the Audio Engine on/off button
in the Control Bar’s Mix module so it lights up.
Note: When you use input monitoring, make sure that the track you’re playing through uses the
same audio interface (sound card) for both input and output. Using different audio interfaces for
a track’s input and output can produce distortion during input monitoring.
To understand the echo and feedback problems, let’s look at how audio signals travel through your
sound card, the drivers, and SONAR. The following diagram depicts a simplified version of this
signal flow.
SONAR
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Input monitoring
The bottom block of the picture represents the sound card. The shaded area above it represents the
audio drivers. The unshaded area at the top represents the main environment of the operating
system.
As the diagram shows, analog audio flows into the card's line input (on the left), and is immediately
split in two. One branch goes up through the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), where the audio is
digitized, buffered and fed to the driver (labeled Wave In in the diagram).
The digital audio data buffers are read by SONAR from the Wave In driver, processed, and then sent
out to the Wave Out driver. The driver passes the digital audio buffers through a digital-to-analog
converter (DAC), where the audio data is converted back to an analog signal.
Finally, this analog output signal is mixed with the original branch of the input analog signal, and the
summed result is presented to the sound card's line output.
With this information in hand, let's follow a simple audio signal through the system to understand
how echoes get introduced into the input monitor path.
Suppose you are counting "1, 2, 3" into your sound card very quickly. When you say the first "1," this
sound immediately appears in all the places indicated in the illustration above. In other words, the
analog audio signal is pure electrical signal traveling at the speed of light, so it is immediately
present across all analog audio paths inside the sound card.
say “1”
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Input monitoring
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279
Next, you say "2." In the time it takes you do that, the ADC has converted the "1" to digital form and
the Wave In driver has fed it to SONAR for processing. SONAR processes the buffer right away and
passes the processed data right back to the Wave Out driver.
say “2”
SONAR
Finally, you say "3." By this time the original "1" has been converted back to analog audio by the
DAC, and that analog signal is mixed in with the "3" you have just said. The ultimate result is that
you hear a "1" and "3" mixed together at the line output of card—seemingly sounding like an echo,
but actually just an artifact of the signal flow through the system.
say “3”
SONAR
You can eliminate the echo by muting the line-in from playing back (see “To eliminate the echo from
input monitoring” on page 281); you’ll send only the processed signal to the sound card outputs. This
technique introduces a little extra latency to what you hear coming out of your sound card, but if you
use WDM or ASIO drivers with your sound cards, the latency is negligible.
The feedback problem results whenever you have a loop in your mixer path: the output of your mixer
is patched into the input of your sound card. Feedback can happen with or without input monitoring,
but since input monitoring can add several levels of gain to the signal flow, it’s of greater concern
when you have input monitoring enabled. Input monitoring is disabled by default when you install
SONAR, and you enable it with the following procedure.
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Input monitoring
To enable input monitoring
• Turn your speakers down, and on an audio track that you want to monitor, click the Input Echo
button so that it’s lit up (on)
. To disable monitoring for this track, click the button off.
Or
• Turn your speakers down, then click the Input Echo On/Off All Tracks
button in the Control
Bar’s Mix module. This enables input monitoring on all tracks. To disable monitoring for all tracks,
click the button again.
Now you can hear your instrument in real time with any plug-in effects that you want to patch into the
current track. You might also hear an echo, because the dry signal is coming out of your sound card
slightly ahead of the processed signal. To eliminate the dry signal, see the next procedure.
To eliminate the echo from input monitoring
1. Open the Windows Volume Control window:
• Windows 7: Click the Windows Start button and go to Control Panel > Hardware and
Sound > Volume Control.
The Volume Control window appears.
2. In the Play Control window of the mixer, check the Mute check box in the Line-In column, or in
the column of whatever jack your instrument is plugged into, and close the mixer window.
Now you can hear only the processed sound when you use input monitoring. Using WDM or ASIO
drivers for your sound card keeps latency to a negligible amount.
Note: This procedure does not eliminate feedback from your system, only the echo. If you
experience feedback, you have a feedback loop somewhere in your mixer setup.
To enable input monitoring when arming tracks
Warning: Be extremely careful when enabling input monitoring on an armed track if you are
working in a room that contains both live microphones and studio monitors. In such a scenario,
enabling input monitoring on an armed track can result in an extremely loud feedback loop
between the mirophones and monitors and can damage your ears and speakers.
SONAR makes it possible to automatically enable input monitoring when arming a track for
recording. To do so, hold down the SHIFT key while you click on a track’s Arm button
. Likewise,
holding down the SHIFT key while disabling record during playback will disable input monitoring.
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To automatically disable input monitoring during playback
Go to Edit > Preferences > Audio - Playback and Recording and clear the Disable Input
Monitoring during Playback check box.
When this option is enabled, input monitoring will be disabled on all tracks during playback but not
during recording.
See also:
“Live Input PDC override” on page 282
“Arming tracks for recording” on page 263
Live Input PDC override
While working with virtual instruments and live input monitored tracks, it is important for audio to be
streamed at low latency in order to minimize delay.
Although SONAR supports streaming audio at very low latency, there are cases where internal
buffering can cause additional latency. The most common scenario is when using plug-ins that
require Automatic Plug-in Delay Compensation (PDC). PDC is the process of delay compensating
other normal tracks so they are synchronized with the delayed audio produced by the plug-ins.
Whenever delay compensation takes place on a track that has a live input (an input monitored track
or synth track), it is delayed by the required amount to synchronize it with other tracks. In some
cases, the delay can be noticeable and make live tracking difficult.
The Live Input PDC Override toggle lets you disable delay compensation on live tracks, thereby
removing the latency during playback and recording of such tracks. Since it's a toggle, you can
quickly turn it on to complete your tracking at low latency, and turn it off when finished to hear the
track compensated as normal.
Regardless of whether Live Input PDC Override is enabled or disabled, recorded audio is placed
on the timeline at the correct position as recorded.
Live Input PDC Override is ignored during a bounce/export or freeze operations.
Tip: You can control which tracks are delay overridden by enabling input monitoring only for those
tracks. For more information, see “Input monitoring” on page 278.
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Input monitoring
To enable/disable live input PDC override
• Do one of the following:
• Click the Live Input PDC Override button
in the Control Bar’s Mix module.
• Press SHIFT+E.
Figure 66.
The Mix module.
Delay compensation is enabled/disabled on all live input tracks in the project. All other tracks have
normal delay compensation applied.
Note: If the live track being monitored also contains track data (or MIDI data in the case of a
synth track), the streamed track data will not be delay compensated. As a result the recorded
track data will not be in sync with other tracks. You should either mute any clips on the live tracks,
work with an empty region of the track, or use an entirely new track while recording.
Some signal routings can cause tracks to be out of sync when Live Input PDC Override is enabled.
To prevent any potential sync problems, follow these suggestions:
• Output the live input tracks directly to the final bus in the signal flow.Send live tracks directly to a
hardware main.
PDC re-sync
Some plug-ins, such as iZotope Ozone 4 and various UAD plugins, change their internal delay
(PDC) dynamically when certain parameters are modified, presets are changed or internal plug-in
routing is changed. When a plug-in changes its internal delay, SONAR will detect this and re-sync all
tracks in the project to this new delay value. While this is done you may hear a momentary
interruption in playing audio. This is normal and required in order to keep tracks in sync and delay
compensated.
See also:
“Input monitoring” on page 278
“Arming tracks for recording” on page 263
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The Audio Engine button
SONAR has a button in the Control Bar’s Transport module called the Audio Engine button
. This button lets
you turn SONAR’s audio engine off if you’re getting distortion or feedback and want to cut the sound off. When
playback or recording are in progress, SONAR enables the button automatically—however, the button appears
greyed-out during playback or recording because you can’t control the button at that time.
If you experience feedback during input monitoring, you can click the Audio Engine button to turn
off the audio engine. However, if playback or recording are in progress, the button is unavailable,
and you should click the Reset button
that’s just to the right of it instead, or else stop recording or
playback first and then click the Audio Engine button.
You may experience slightly better playback and recording performance by turning the Audio
Engine button off before you press the Play or Record buttons. This happens if your computer’s
resources are already stretched to the limit. When you start recording or playback with the audio
engine already functioning, there is still some processing that SONAR has to do that’s left over when
you start the transport. This places an extra load on your system that can cause dropouts if your
system is already stretched thin. A more effective solution than disabling the audio engine before
starting the transport is to reduce the load on your system by hiding some meters, increasing latency
slightly, reducing the number of plug-ins and/or tracks, etc.
See also:
“Input monitoring” on page 278
284
Recording
The Audio Engine button
Loop recording
When recording a vocal or an instrumental section, you might want to record several different takes
so that you can choose the one you like best. You might even want to record several takes to double
a part or merge the best parts of each.Normally, to record each take you would have to arm a track,
start recording, perform the take, and then stop recording. You can record multiple takes more easily
using a feature called loop recording. Loop recording lets you start recording and record as many
takes as you like, all in a single step.
SONAR loops between the loop start and loop end time, allowing you to record one take on each
pass. SONAR creates a clip for each take. You have three choices for where these clips are stored:
• All clips can be recorded in Sound on Sound mode and stored in a single track, where they are
stacked on top of one another. You can use Take lanes to display overlapping clips in separate
lanes.
• All clips can be recorded in Overwrite mode in a single track, where each take is successively
muted except the last one.
• Each clip can be recorded to a different track. SONAR automatically places each take into a new,
empty track. No existing tracks are changed in any way.
When you finish recording, you can use the Edit > Undo command or CTRL+Z to erase all your
takes in a single step.
To use loop recording
1. Choose the input for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for recording.
2. Set the loop start and end times in the Control Bar’s Loop module.
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Loop recording
285
3. Right-click the Record button
Figure 67.
286
The Record section
Recording
Loop recording
in the Transport module to access recording settings.
4. Choose to stack all takes in a single track or to store them in separate tracks.
5. If you choose to stack all takes in a single track, choose either Sound on Sound or Overwrite
mode.
If you use single track and Sound on Sound with Track Lanes enabled, selecting the Create New
Lane on Overlap check box will create another Take lane if your new clip overlaps an existing
clip.
6. If you stack all takes in a single track, you can audition them later by using the Expand/collapse
Take Lanes button
in the bottom left corner of the Track pane (each take will have its own
Mute and Solo buttons).
7. Click OK to close the Preferences dialog box, and set the Now time to the point in the project
where you want to start recording.
8. Click
or press R. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will play the count-in measure.
9. Play or perform the material you want to record. At the end of the loop, SONAR will return to the
start of the loop and you can record the next take.
10. Click
or press the SPACEBAR when you want to stop recording.
The takes are stored in the manner you requested.
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Loop recording
287
Punch recording
Suppose you are happy with most of a track but want to replace some sound or add new material in
one small section—perhaps as small as a couple of notes. This is where punch recording comes in
handy, because it lets you record new material only within a specified range of times.
For example, suppose you recorded a 32-bar keyboard solo but made some mistakes in the 24th
and 25th bars. With punch recording, you can play the entire solo again, so you make sure you can
get the feel you want. However, only the bars you want to correct are actually recorded. That way,
you don’t have to worry about introducing new mistakes elsewhere in the recording.
To use punch recording, follow these steps:
• Enable punch recording.
• Set the start and end times of the punch.
• Choose Sound on Sound mode or Overwrite mode.
• Start recording by pressing R or clicking the
button on the Control Bar’s Transport module.
The Control Bar’s Punch module shows the punch settings, as shown here:
Figure 68.
The Punch module.
A
C
B
D
A. Auto-Punch On/Off B. Set Punch Time to Select C. Punch In Time D. Punch Out Time
When punch recording is enabled, the punch times are indicated by special markers in the Time
Ruler, which is at the top of the Clips pane:
A
B
A. Punch In B. Punch Out
After you punch record, choosing Edit > Undo both discards any new material you recorded and
restores the original material that had been deleted.
You can also combine loop and punch recording to record several takes of a punch. Say you are
working on that perfect take of a guitar solo and you need to hear a couple of bars of the project as
“pre-roll” before you punch in. By combining looping with punch, you can have each take begin
before you start to play and still have the solo cut in at the appropriate instant.
In the example mentioned previously, you could loop from bar 17 to bar 27 but record only bars 24
and 25. Here’s what this looks like:
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Recording
Punch recording
B
A
A
B
A. The loop starts and ends here B. The punch starts and ends here
To punch record
1. Choose the input(s) for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for recording.
2. Enable the Auto Punch on/off button
in the Control Bar’s Punch module.
3. Set the start and end times in one of the following ways:
• Enter the times directly in the Punch module.
• Select a range of time and click
in the Punch module.
• Select a range of time, then right-click in the Time Ruler and choose Set Punch Points
4. Right-click the Record button
to access recording settings, then choose the desired
recording mode: Sound on Sound or Overwrite.
5. Set the Now time to a point where you want to start playback.
6. Click
or press R to start recording. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will play the
count-in measures or beats.
7. Play or perform the material you want to record.
8. Click
or press the SPACEBAR to stop recording.
The material you play during the punch time is recorded in the chosen track, either replacing any
existing material (Overwrite mode) or blending with it (Sound on Sound mode).
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289
To use punch while looping
1. Choose the input for the track(s) you want to record, and arm the track(s) for recording.
2. Set the loop start and end times.
3. Set the punch start and end times, as described previously.
4. Right-click the Record button
to access recording settings.
5. Choose to stack all takes in a single track or to store them in separate tracks.
6. Set the Now time to the beginning of the loop.
7. Click
or press R to start recording. If your metronome count-in is turned on, it will play the
count-in measures.
8. Play or perform the material you want to record. At the end of the loop, SONAR will return to the
start of the loop and you can record the next take.
9. Click
or press the SPACEBAR when you want to stop recording.
The takes are stored in the manner you requested.
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Recording
Punch recording
Step recording
Step recording is a method of recording MIDI notes one note or chord at a time. It’s a very easy and
precise way to record, but can sound mechanical if used in the wrong situation. You use step
recording in its typical form by choosing a step size, such as a quarter note, and then playing a note
on your MIDI keyboard. When you play the note, SONAR records the note, and moves the insertion
point forward by the distance of the step size (moving the insertion point every time you press a note
is the default behavior). You can then record more notes of the same duration by playing notes on
your keyboard, or you can change the step size while you’re recording and record different size
notes. You can also choose how long the notes you play will sound, as a percentage of the step size.
For example, even though you record some notes that have a step size of a quarter note, if you set
the Duration field to 50%, the notes will be recorded and displayed as a series of eighth notes, each
followed by an eighth rest. The insertion point for each recorded note in this example moves by a
quarter note (the step size) each time you record a note. If the duration is longer than the step size,
the notes will overlap with the notes recorded at the next step.
SONAR displays your step-recorded notes in the Staff view, Piano Roll view, Event List, and Clips
pane in real time as you step record them. SONAR also lets you:
• Use other commands while step recording
Note: SONAR doesn't respond to sync signals while the Step Record dialog box is open and
enabled.
• Change tracks while recording
• Add two step sizes together by pressing the + key between each step size selectionDelete as
many step-recorded notes as you want, while moving the insertion point back through the steps
you delete
• Configure step recording key bindings (see “Step record keyboard Shortcuts” on page 296)
• Make any kind of tuplet
• Create a custom step size lasting any number of ticks (ticks are divisions of a beat—SONAR uses
960 by default); SONAR will remember the custom step size until you change it
• Move the insertion point by beats, measures, or step size
• Link the position of the Now Time to the insertion point
• Offset the insertion point by the number of ticks that you specify
• Randomize duration
• Record notes with constant pitch, and/or velocity, and/or channel
• Hold notes across steps
Tip: By using keyboard shortcuts, you can leave your left hand on your MIDI keyboard to enter notes
with, and control most step recording functions with your right hand on the NumPad.
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291
MIDI data is recorded using step record even if the track is not armed. Loop markers are ignored.
And step recording always uses the Sound on Sound (blend) record mode, regardless of the
current record mode.
With Auto Advance disabled, you must click Advance each time you want to advance to the next
step. While this requires more effort, it also provides you with more flexibility. For example, with Auto
Advance disabled, you do not even need to play the notes at a single step at the same time! You
can play any number of notes one at a time, and they will all be recorded at the same step until you
click the Advance button. You can even record notes of different durations at the same step—simply
record the notes of one duration, change the duration, and play more notes, without clicking
Advance.
The Step Record dialog box has two modes: Basic (smaller with fewer options), and Advanced
(larger, more options). To use Basic mode, click the Bas./Adv. button so that the Adv. button is
displayed. To use Advanced mode, click the Bas./Adv. button so that the Bas. button is displayed.
Here’s a picture of Basic mode:
Figure 69.
The Step Record - Basic window
G
F
E
A
B
C
D
A. Insertion point location B. Position slider C. Basic/Advanced button D. Step Record Toggle button to enable/
disable step recording E. Click to move insertion point by step size F. Total step size display G. Custom tick size
field
Here’s a picture of Advanced mode:
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Step recording
Figure 70.
The Step Record - Advanced window
A
B
D
C
A. Randomize durations field B. Step pattern recording field C. Click to move insertion point by single beat
D. Click to move insertion point by single measure
To use basic step recording
1. Click the Record button
and keep the button pressed for a bried moment until the pop-up
menu appears, then choose Step Record. The Record button changes to
2. Click the Step Record button
.
to open the Step Record dialog box.
3. Make sure that the Basic mode of the Step Record dialog box is displayed (the Adv. button will
be showing if the Basic mode is displayed; if the Bas. button is showing, click it).
4. Set the insertion point by doing one or more of the following:
• Click the Step Advance button
to move the insertion point forward by the current step
size, or click the Step Backwards button
to move the insertion point backward by the
current step size. SONAR displays the insertion point location in the Insertion point location
field (see Basic mode picture above).
• Drag the position slider left or right to move the insertion point one measure at a time.
• Type a location in MBT (Measure-Beat-Tick) format in the Insertion point location field.
5. Choose a step size by doing one of the following:
• For common step sizes, click one of the notehead icons to choose a step size as large as a
whole note
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Step recording
or as small as a 64th note
. You can increase the step size you choose by
293
50% or 75% by clicking the dot icon
, or double-dot icon
, respectively. You can add
different step sizes together by holding down the CTRL key while you click extra icons, or by
pressing the + key on the NumPad.
• For a tuplet step size, click a notehead icon to choose the “tuplet unit” (for example, for eighthnote triplets, choose an eighth note). Then enable the Tuplet check box and fill in the “n” in
time of “n” fields. For example, if you want quarter-note triplets, click the quarter-note icon
, enable the Tuplet check box, and fill in 3 in the time of 2, which means 3 quarter notes in
the time of 2 quarter notes. If you want eighth-note triplets, click the eighth-note icon
,
enable the Tuplet check box, and fill in 3 in the time of 2. If you wanted 5 notes in one beat,
click the quarter-note icon, enable the Tuplet check box, and fill in 5 in the time of 1.
• If you want to create a custom step size, click the n button
the Ticks field.
, and fill in the number of ticks in
6. Choose a duration by doing one of the following:
• If you want duration and step size to be the same, enable the Follow Step Size check box.
• If you want duration and step size to be different, disable the Follow Step Size check box and
fill in a percentage value in the % of Note Value field.
7. Choose a destination track for your recording in the Destination Track field.
8. If you want the insertion point to advance automatically when you play your MIDI controller,
enable the Auto Advance check box.
9. Play a note or chord on your MIDI controller. When you release the note(s), the insertion point
moves by the step size, if the Auto Advance check box is enabled. If Auto Advance is not
enabled, you can release the notes and record more notes, or you can use the Navigation
controls to advance the insertion point. If you are still holding down a note or notes when you
advance the insertion point, the step size of the held notes is extended by the current step size.
10. Continue recording notes of the same step size and duration to the same track, or change any of
those parameters and continue recording. To create a rest, advance the insertion point without
playing any notes. To delete notes on previous steps, you can press CTRL+Z for each recorded
step. If you want to delete previous steps and move the insertion point back at the same time,
check the Delete on Back Step check box, and click the Step Backward button.
11. When you’re finished recording, close the dialog by clicking the X icon in the upper right corner,
or by pressing SHIFT+R.
You can press CTRL+Z during or after recording to undo your recording one step at a time.
Note: Options that you choose in Advanced mode, such as Link to Now Time, are still in force
when you use Basic mode.
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To use advanced step recording
The procedure for Advanced step recording is the same as for Basic, but with these extra options,
which become available when you click the Bas./Adv. button in the Step Record dialog box so that
it displays Bas.:
To do this
Do this
Randomize the note duration
Disable the Follow Step Size check box, enter a number
into the % of Note Value field (leave it at 100 if you want to
follow step size), and enter the maximum duration that the
step size should be randomized in the Randomize By field.
Choose a constant pitch and/or velocity and/or
MIDI channel for the recorded note(s)
To choose a constant value for pitch, velocity, or channel,
disable the Use Input check box next to the desired field,
and fill in the value you want to use for that particular
parameter.
Add two step sizes together
See “To add two step sizes together” on page 295
Link the insertion point to the Now Time
Enable the Link to Now Time check box.
Enter notes at an offset distance from the
displayed insertion point.
Enter a positive or negative number of ticks in the Offset
field.
Move the insertion point back or forward by one
beat.
Click the Beat Backward button
Move the insertion point back or forward by one
measure.
Click the Measure Backward button
Use step pattern recording.
See “Step pattern recording” on page 298.
or the Beat Advance
button.
Advance
or the Measure
button.
Table 37.
To add two step sizes together
1. Choose your first step size. If desired, use any combination of tuplet and dotted values.
2. Press the + key on the Num Pad.
A plus sign appears after the value in the Step Size “n” Ticks field.
3. Choose your second step size. If desired, use any combination of tuplet and dotted values.
The total step size appears in the Step Size “n” Ticks field.
4. Press the note on your MIDI keyboard that you want to enter.
The new note appears in your track, and the Now Time moves the distance of the two combined
steps that you entered. To toggle the plus sign on or off in the Step Size “n” Ticks field, press the +
key on the Num Pad. To clear a large value from the Step Size “n” Ticks field, click a smaller value,
or use a keyboard shortcut for a smaller value.
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295
To use other commands while step recording
• Use the mouse to click the command you want to use.
or
• Click the Activate Step Recording button
in the Step Record dialog box so that the button
is not red. This disables step recording, allowing you to use both the mouse, and any keyboard
shortcuts that the Step Record dialog box uses, for other commands.
By default, opening the Step Record window will automatically enable step recording. SHIFT+R is
the default shortcut to open the Step Record dialog box. Once the Step Record window is open,
you can enable/disable step recording at will without closing the Step Record window: just click the
Activate Step Recording button
in the Step Record dialog box, or press SHIFT+R.
See also:
“Step record keyboard Shortcuts” on page 296
“Step pattern recording” on page 298
Step record keyboard Shortcuts
The default keyboard shortcuts for step recording are on the NumPad, so that you can keep one
hand on your MIDI keyboard to play notes with, and use the other hand on the NumPad to use
shortcuts.
You can use key bindings to configure your own shortcuts. Go to Edit > Preferences > Keyboard
Shortcuts, choose Step Record in the Area field, select a key and a function you want to bind, and
click the Bind button to bind them together. Bind additional keys and commands as needed.
Default setting or option
Default shortcut
Whole note
NumPad 1
Half note
NumPad 2
Quarter note
NumPad 4
Eighth note
NumPad 8
16th note
NumPad 6
32nd note
NumPad 3
64th note
NumPad 7
Custom step size
NumPad 9
Tuplet
NumPad /
Table 38.
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Default setting or option
Default shortcut
Dot
NumPad *
Double dot
SHIFT+NumPad *
Add next step size to previous step size
NumPad PLUS key “+”
Toggle the Delete on Back Step option
NumPad MINUS key “-”
Follow step size
CTRL+Num Lock (does not change Num Lock state)
Step backward
NumPad 0
Step advance
NumPad ENTER
Beat backward
SHIFT+NumPad 0
Beat advance
SHIFT+NumPad ENTER
Measure backward
CTRL+NumPad 0
Measure advance
CTRL+NumPad ENTER
Auto Advance
NumPad PERIOD “.”
Toggle step recording
SHIFT+ R
Table 38.
See:
“Step pattern recording” on page 298
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Step pattern recording
The Pattern option lets you define a repeating rhythmic pattern of notes and rests so that you can
use step recording more efficiently. For example, suppose your project is in 4/4 time, and one track
has a pattern that is two measures long: quarter notes in the first measure and on the first two beats
of the second measure, followed by a half-note rest on the last two beats. This pattern has six
quarter notes followed by two quarter-note rests.
When you use step recording with Auto Advance, you can play the six quarter notes and SONAR
will automatically advance to the next step. However, to skip over the rests, you need to click the
Advance button two times.
With pattern recording, you define a pattern that indicates where the rests appear in the pattern.
SONAR will then skip over the rests automatically, so you don’t need to click the Advance button at
all.
SONAR displays patterns as a combination of digits (which represent beats that contain notes) and
dots (which represent beats that contain rests). The pattern described previously looks like this:
1 2 3 4 5 6 . .Here is another example:
1 2 . 4This pattern automatically skips over every third beat; SONAR interprets this pattern as “one,
two, rest, four.”
Here is one final example based on 4/4 time, with a step size of eighth-note triplets (twelve steps per
measure):
1234.67.90.2
No matter how you enter a pattern, SONAR displays the digits in sequence, with periods replacing
digits at each step where a rest would occur. You can create patterns with up to 64 steps.
To use pattern-based step recording
1. Click the Record button
and keep the button pressed for a bried moment until the pop-up
menu appears, then choose Step Record. The Record button changes to
2. Click the Step Record button
.
to open the Step Record dialog box.
3. Set the insertion point where you want to start recording.
4. Click in the Pattern field.
5. Press any number key to indicate a beat at which notes will be played.
6. Press the SPACEBAR, period, or the letter R to indicate a beat on which there is a rest.
7. When the pattern is complete, click elsewhere in the dialog box.
8. Step record as before.
From now on, after you record each step, SONAR automatically advances past all rests to the next
step on which notes will be played. If you change step sizes while recording, the size of each rest
changes also. To stop pattern-based step recording, simply delete the pattern from the Pattern box.
SONAR stores up to 10 patterns in the Pattern field.
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Recording specific ports and channels
Most MIDI instruments are capable of sending information on several different channels at once. By
default, SONAR merges all incoming MIDI data and records it on whatever MIDI tracks are armed.
However, SONAR also allows you to control which MIDI input ports and channels each track will
record. Here are some examples of when this feature might be useful:
• There are several performers, each playing a different MIDI instrument. By setting each
instrument to transmit MIDI on a different channel and/or port, you can record each player’s
performance into a separate track, even though they are all playing at the same time.
• You are using a MIDI guitar controller and want to record the notes played on each string on a
separate track.
• Your electronic keyboard has a built-in auto accompaniment feature that plays a drum part and an
accompaniment while you play lead. You want to record each of these three parts into a different
track in a SONAR project.You have a MIDI sequence stored on your synthesizer’s built-in
sequencer, and you want to record each channel onto a different track.
You can use external MIDI synchronization to automate the process of loading multichannel
sequences from other MIDI devices. For more information, see “Synchronizing your gear”
on page 1153.
You select MIDI inputs for a track by using the Input control in the Track view, Track Inspector or
Console view.
SONAR allows you to filter MIDI input so that you can record only certain kinds of MIDI data (see
“Input filtering” on page 300), and also allows you to automatically turn off the Local On setting of
your master keyboard.
To assign input ports and channels to MIDI tracks
1. Click a track’s Input control to display the Input drop-down menu. Choose track inputs from
these choices:
• None. This option actually sets the Input field to Omni. With this setting the track will record
any MIDI input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel.
• All Inputs > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). With this setting the track will record any MIDI
input coming in on any enabled port (MIDI interface input driver) on any channel, unless you
choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only record input
that’s on the MIDI channel you chose.
• (name of MIDI input driver) > (MIDI Omni or MIDI ch 1-16). Choosing this option causes
the track to record any MIDI channel coming from the named MIDI interface input driver,
unless you choose a particular MIDI channel instead of MIDI Omni. Then the track will only
record input that’s on the MIDI channel you chose, from the named input driver.
• Preset. If you’ve created any preset collections of input ports and channels, you can select
one here.
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299
• Manage Presets. If you want to create or edit any preset collections of input ports and
channels, you can select this option (see following procedure).
2. Click OK.
SONAR shows new track inputs in the Input fields in the Track pane.
To create or edit a preset input configuration
1. In the Input field of a track that you want to select inputs for, click the drop-down arrow and
choose Manage Presets from the drop-down menu (this menu is also available from the MIDI
Inputs button in the Track Inputs dialog).
The MIDI Input Presets dialog box appears.
2. In the Input Port column, find the input port that you want to use for this track (if you only use a
single-port MIDI interface, you’ll only see one choice).
3. To the right of the input port, select the MIDI channels that you want this track to respond to on
this MIDI port. Clicking the OMNI button in this row of MIDI channels clears or fills all the check
boxes in this row.
4. Select channels for any other MIDI port that’s listed, if you want to use channels on that port also.
5. If you want to save this configuration, type a name for it in the window at the top of the dialog
box, and click the disk icon to save it.
Now, when you choose inputs for other tracks, you can choose the preset you saved by clicking the
Presets option in the track’s Input drop-down menu. If you want to edit a preset, select it in the top
window of the MIDI Input Presets dialog box, edit it, and click the disk icon. If you want to delete a
preset, select it in the same dialog box and click the X button to delete it.
Input filtering
SONAR lets you filter out specific types of MIDI messages or filter the MIDI input stream channel by
channel. Any MIDI information that is filtered out is neither recorded nor echoed to any other MIDI
devices.
You can use the message type filter to screen out resource-intensive MIDI messages like key and
channel aftertouch. By default, SONAR records all types of events except these two.
You can use message-type filtering to record short System Exclusive (Sysx) messages in real-time.
These will end up in the track as Sysx data events, which can hold System Exclusive messages up
to 255 bytes. Leave the Buffers setting at 128 unless you experience data not being recorded. For
more information about Sysx, see “System exclusive data” on page 1139.
To filter event types
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > MIDI - Playback and Recording.
2. Check the message types you want recorded.
3. Click OK.
From now on, SONAR records only the types of events you have chosen.
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Importing music and sound
While recording is perhaps the most common way of adding material to a SONAR project, there are
several other methods you can also use. SONAR lets you import music into a project from several
different types of digital data files, including MIDI files; audio files in Wave, MP3, AIFF, and other
formats; audio CD tracks and other SONAR project files.
See:
“Importing audio CD Tracks” on page 303
“Importing material from another SONAR project” on page 303
“Importing MIDI files” on page 306
Importing audio files
SONAR lets you insert digital audio information into any track of a project. If the audio file you are
importing is in stereo, then it can be imported into a single stereo track, a pair of mono tracks or a
single mono track.
The File > Import > Audio command supports the following digital audio file types:
• Wave (extension .wav)
• MPEG (extensions .mpeg, .mpg, .mp2, and .mp3)
• Apple AIFF (extensions .aif and .aiff)
• Active Streaming (extension .asf)
• Next/Sun (extensions .au and .snd)
• REX (extensions .rex, .rx2, and.rcy)
• Sony Wave64 (extension .w64)
• FLAC (extension .flac)
• Sound Designer II (extension .sd2)
• Core Audio Format (extension .caf)
The sampling rate and bit depth for a project is set based on your default settings in Edit >
Preferences > Audio - Driver Settings. If the sampling rate from the Wave file does not match the
sampling rate in your project, then it will be converted to the current project’s sampling rate and bit
depth.
To import an audio file
1. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the audio should be placed.
2. Choose File > Import > Audio to display the Open dialog box.
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301
3. Choose the audio file you want to import. SONAR displays information about the file at the
bottom of the dialog box.
4. Click Play to listen to the audio file before importing.
5. If the new file is stereo, check the Stereo Split option if you want to insert the file into two
separate tracks.
6. Click Open.
SONAR loads the audio data from the audio file and places it in the selected track at the Now time.
Preview bus
Files in the Import Audio dialog box may be selected and previewed in any existing bus in SONAR.
To preview a file
1. Select the desired output bus in the Preview Bus combo box
2. Click on the file in the file explorer pane
3. Click the Play button.
4. During playback, the Play button becomes a Stop button. Click Stop to stop playback.
Broadcast Wave files
Broadcast Wave files are wave files with some additional information stored in them. Broadcast
Wave files have the following information:
• Description. A brief description of the contents of the Broadcast wave. Limited to 256
characters.
• Originator. The author of the Broadcast wave. This information is taken from the Author field in
the “File Info dialog” on page 1608.
• Originator Reference. A unique reference identifier created by SONAR.
• Origination Date.
The date the file was created.
• Origination Time.
The time the file was created.
• Time Reference. The SMPTE time stamp for the beginning of broadcast wave.
To import a Broadcast Wave file:
1. If you want SONAR to import Broadcast Wave files always at their timestamped location, go to
Edit > Preferences > File - Audio Data and select the Always Import Broadcast Waves At
Their Timestamp check box. Otherwise, set the Now Time and current track to indicate where
the audio should be placed.
2. Choose File > Import > Audio to display the Open dialog box.
3. Choose the audio file you want to import. SONAR displays information about the file at the
bottom of the dialog box.
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4. Click Play to listen to the audio file before importing.
5. If the new file is stereo, check the Stereo Split option if you want to insert the file into two
separate tracks.
6. Click Open.
If the Always Import Broadcast Waves At Their Timestamp option is selected in Edit >
Preferences > File - Audio Data, the imported Broadcast Wave file appears at its timestamp on the
selected track. Otherwise, the file appears at the Now Time on the selected track.
Note: When importing Broadcast Wave files, you can hold down the SHIFT key to temporarily
toggle the behavior of the Always Import Broadcast Waves At Their Timestamp global
option.
Importing audio CD Tracks
The File > Import > Audio CD command lets you import tracks from audio CD’s into any track of a
project.
Audio tracks on a CD always have a bit depth of 16, but you can choose to import the tracks at a
higher bit depth if desired.
To import a track from an audio CD
1. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the audio should be placed.
2. Insert an audio CD into the computer’s CD drive.
3. Choose File > Import > Audio CD to display the “Import Audio CD Tracks dialog” on page 1621
box.
4. Make sure the correct CD drive is selected in the Target Drive drop-down list.
5. Choose the audio track you want to import. SONAR displays the length and size of all audio
tracks.
6. Click Play to listen to the audio track before importing.
7. If you want to import the audio with a different bit depth than the original audio track, choose the
desired bit depth from the Import Bit Depth drop-down list.
8. Click OK.
SONAR loads the audio data from the audio CD and places it in the selected track at the Now time.
Importing material from another SONAR project
You use the Edit > Copy and Edit > Paste commands to import material from one project to another
using the Clipboard. The project that contains the material you want to import is the source project.
The project into which the material is imported is the target project.
Normally, if you copy material from several different tracks to the Clipboard, the information will be
pasted back into separate tracks. You can choose to paste all the material from the Clipboard into a
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single destination track in the target project.You can also copy material from one project to another
by displaying the Track view for both projects side by side, then using drag-and-drop editing.
To import material from another project
1. Open the source project, or click in the Track view for that project.
2. In the Track view, select the material you want to import.
3. Choose Edit > Copy Special to display the Copy dialog box.
4. Make sure that Events in Tracks is checked. If you don’t want to import tempo changes, meter/
key changes, or markers, uncheck those options. Click OK.
5. Open the target project, or click in the Track view for that project.
6. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the material should be placed.
7. Choose Edit > Paste Special to display the Paste dialog box.
8. Check Paste to One Track if you want all material imported into the current track (not
recommended if you’re importing both MIDI and audio data).
9. Click OK.
SONAR imports the material and displays it in the Track view.
Importing OMF projects
With OMFI (Open Media Framework Interchange) support & Broadcast WAVE support SONAR lets
you collaborate and exchange project files with users of other programs and platforms. Support for
OMFI and Broadcast Wave files provides cross-platform compatibility with OMFI host applications
such as Pro Tools, Avid and Logic systems. SONAR also exports projects as OMF files that you can
open in Pro Tools and other audio software.
SONAR allows you to select sample rate and bit depth during OMF import.
A few general guidelines for preparing OMF files for import into SONAR:
• OMF version 2 is preferred.
• AIFC can take slightly longer to open, as the data must be converted to WAVE on read, so WAVE
is the best choice.
• If exporting from Avid Xpress DV, select "embed" (not "link") when exporting the OMF file, and
don't include any video.
OMF explained
The OMF format, or OMFI (Open Media Framework Interchange, means the same as OMF), is a file
format that can be read by many professional-level audio programs. OMF files contain two basic
types of information:
• Audio and/or video files, referred to as media
• Information needed to put the media data in sequence—known as the Composition
The OMF file supplies the following data and information:
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• Tracks
• Clip positions—an OMF file's EDL edit resolution can be either frame accurate or sample
accurate. SONAR can read either, but always writes sample accurate. The clip position is
specified in absolute samples.
• Slip edits
• Fades and crossfades (as destructive edits)—SONAR renders any fades when it writes OMFs,
creating separate clips for any fade-ins or fade-outs. SONAR slip-edits the original clip to make
room for the fade-in and fade-out clips. If you export to an audio program that supports slip
editing, the user can delete the fade clips and roll out the original clip to return to the original raw
audio (without fades) if desired.
• Sample rate and audio bit depth, but only if the media are embedded in the OMF
The OMF file does NOT supply the following data and information:
• Volume and pan envelopes—OMF does actually support limited automation. However, as with
Nuendo and most other OMF host programs, gains and pans are ignored (on both read and write)
in SONAR as they are only supported on MONO tracks (OMF limitation).
• Plug-in effects.
• MIDI data
• Tempo
Whoever supplies the OMF file that you want to open in SONAR should also send along a text file
containing all pertinent information about the project, especially tempo.
To open OMF files in SONAR
1. Use the File > Open command, which opens the Open dialog box.
2. In the Files Of Type field, select OMF File.
3. Navigate to the folder that contains your OMF files, select the OMF file you want to open, and
then click the Open button, which opens the Unpack OMF dialog box.
4. If you know the exact tempo of the file, enter it into the Initial Tempo field. It is always preferable
to know and enter the project tempo at this point. If you don't know the project tempo you can
open the file at the default tempo and then change the file's tempo later, but this will cause the
clips to move.
5. The Sample Rate field displays the sample rate of the imported audio (if the audio is embedded
in the OMF). Use this field to change the sample rate, if you need to.
6. The Bit Depth field displays the bit depth of the imported audio if the audio is embedded. If the
audio is external, the Bit Depth field defaults to the Original menu option, which will import the
audio at the bit depth the audio is currently using. If you want to import the audio at a different bit
depth, you can choose the bit depth in this field.
7. If you have previously enabled SONAR's Use Per-Project Audio Folders option in Edit >
Preferences > File - Audio Data, then the Store Project Audio In Its Own Folder check box is
already enabled, and the fields under it are available. If you want to use this option, fill out the
fields below the check box; otherwise, disable the check box.
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8. Click OK.
SONAR opens the OMF file.
You can also export SONAR projects as OMF files (File > Export > OMF command).
See “Exporting OMF files” on page 935.
Importing MIDI files
You can create a new SONAR project from a MIDI file simply by opening the file. SONAR takes
material from the file and places it into one or more tracks in the Track view.
To import data from a MIDI file into a project
1. Open the MIDI file as a new, separate project.
2. Choose Edit > Select > All.
3. Choose Edit > Copy Special to display the Copy dialog box.
4. Make sure that Events in Tracks is checked. If you don’t want to import tempo changes, meter/
key changes, or markers, uncheck those options. Click OK.
5. Open the target project, or click in the Track view for that project.
6. Set the Now time and current track to indicate where the material should be placed.
7. Choose Edit > Paste Special to display the Paste dialog box.
8. Check Paste to One Track if you want all material imported into the current track.
9. Click OK.
SONAR imports the material and displays it in the Track view.
Importing audio / MIDI files from the Clips pane
It is possible to import audio and MIDI files via the Clips pane context menu. Imported files are
inserted at the Now time.
To import audio/MIDI files
1. In the Clips pane, right-click the track to which you want to import an audio or MIDI file.
The Clips pane context menu appears.
2. Do one of the following:
• Select Import Audio to import an audio file.
• Select Import MIDI to import a MIDI file.
See:
“Importing music and sound” on page 301
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Saving your work
Like most Windows programs, SONAR has a File > Save command and a File > Save As
command to save your work. Normally, you save your projects in the standard project file format,
with a file extension of .cwp. This file contains all your MIDI data and all your project settings. Any
digital audio that is part of your project is stored in a separate file, as described in “System
configuration” on page 1182.
SONAR also lets you save files in several other formats, as described in the table:
File type
Format
Explanation
Standard MIDI
.mid
Used to transfer MIDI-only projects to other software products that support
Standard MIDI files.
Bundle
.cwb
A single file that includes all the material in your project: MIDI data, project
settings, and audio data. This format is used for projects that contain digital
audio, when you want to back up your work or transfer a project to a different
computer. See “Backing up projects with digital audio” on page 1177 for
more information.
Note: Bundle files do not save video data.
Template
.cwt
A file that is used as a pattern to create another. Templates make it easy to
create and configure new projects. See “Templates and key bindings” on
page 1063 for more information.
Table 39.
If you have made changes to a project and then attempt to close the project, either by closing the
Track view or by choosing File > Close, SONAR asks if you want to save the changes you have
made. This prevents you from accidentally losing your work. You can tell whether changes have
been made to a project by looking for an asterisk (*) after the project name in the SONAR title bar.
SONAR has an Auto Save feature that periodically saves your work into a special backup file. You
can request automatic backups at fixed time intervals or every time a certain number of changes
have been made to the file. When the limit is reached, the file is saved automatically. If your original
project is called MyProject.cwp, the Auto Save version is called Auto Save Version of
MyProject.cwp.
If there is a power failure or if you make a significant mistake, you can recover the last-saved version
of your project by opening this file. You should then save your project under a different name by
using the File > Save As command.
Recording
Saving your work
307
To Save a project
1. Choose File > Save As to display the Save As dialog box.
2. Choose the type of file you want to save from the Save as Type list.
3. Enter a file name and click Save.
SONAR saves the file. You can also use File Versioning instead of using Save As. For more
information, see “To use File Versioning” on page 308.
To change the Auto Save settings
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > File - Advanced to access Auto Save settings.
2. To enable Auto Save, set the number of minutes and/or the number of changes between saves.
3. To disable Auto Save, set both values to zero.
4. Click OK.
From now on, your projects are saved automatically according to the settings you entered.Using
File Versioning
SONAR can be enabled to keep previously saved versions of your project in a temporary file. You
can revert to any of these saved versions or use the default of the most recently saved version.
When file versioning is enabled, SONAR retains a list of previously saved project files in your project
folder. The most recent version retains the original name of the project. Previously saved versions
are saved with a time stamp following the original project name in order of most recently saved.
To use File Versioning
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > File - Advanced to access File Versioning settings.
2. Check the Enable Versioning Of Project (.CWP) Files check box.
3. Use the spinner to select the number of versions of your project you would like SONAR to keep.
Note: If you exceed the maximum number of saved file versions selected in Step 3, the oldest
version is discarded.
To revert to a previously saved file
1. Choose File > Revert.
A dialog box appears containing a list of dates and file sizes for all previously saved versions of
the current project.
2. Select the file version you want to work on.
3. Click OK.
Note: If the current project is unsaved at the time you choose File > Revert, you will be
prompted with a warning that reverting the project will cause all unsaved changes to be lost.
When the reverted project is loaded, the timestamp is stripped off, and the reverted project
assumes the project’s original name.
308
Recording
Saving your work
Labeling your projects
SONAR lets you attach subtitles, composer credits, copyright, and other information to your projects,
as shown in the following table.
Label
Description
Title
The title for your project; prints automatically at the top of a Staff view printout.
Subtitle
For a subtitle or dedication; prints directly below the title in a Staff view printout.
Instructions
Use for performance instructions; prints flush left in a Staff view printout.
Author
Put your name here if you are the composer. Prints flush right in a Staff view printout.
Copyright
Copyright information prints flush right, under the author name, in a Staff view
printout.
Keywords
Put keywords describing the project here for future reference.
Comments
Free text comments. Type as much as you like. You can enter approximately the
same amount of text as you can in Windows Notepad.
Table 40.
This information is shown in the “File Info dialog” on page 1608 box, which is displayed using the
Project > Info command. If the File Info window is open when you save a file, then this window is
displayed automatically the next time the file is opened. This is useful if you:
• Share files with others and want them to see special instructions when they open the file
• Want your copyright information to be displayed automatically
If the File Info window is closed when you save the file, it will not be automatically displayed the next
time the file is opened.Although you cannot use Edit menu commands while working in the File Info
window, standard Windows hot keys like CTRL+X, CTRL+C, and CTRL+V can be used to cut, copy,
and paste text.
Recording
Saving your work
309
To display and edit project information
1. Choose Project > Info to display the File Info window.
2. Edit the information as desired.
Figure 71.
The File Info window
3. If you want the File Info window to display automatically, save the file.
4. Click Stats to see statistics about the contents of the file.
5. Choose File > Print Preview if you want to print the project information
6. Close the File Info window.
310
Recording
Saving your work
File statistics
To open the File Statistics dialog box, select Project > Info and click the Stats button in the File
Info dialog box. The File Statistics dialog box displays the following information about the contents
of the project file:
Statistic
What it means
Created
The date the project was first saved.
Editing time
The total time you’ve had the project open, from the time it was created to the last
time it was saved. This does not include time spent editing the project since you
last saved it. If you want to update this value, save the project.
Revision
Each time you save a file that has been changed, this number is incremented. If
you open a project, make no changes, then save it, the revision number is not
changed.
Events
The total number of events in the project.
Sample rate
The sample rate for digital audio.
Bit depth
The audio driver bit depth of digital audio.
File version
The SONAR version number.
Table 41.
Recording
Saving your work
311
312
Recording
Saving your work
Arranging and editing
The Track view makes it easy to arrange and mix your projects from a single view. From one
location, you can select, copy, move, mix, and rearrange the parts of your project, using menu
commands or drag-and-drop tools.
You can add real-time audio and MIDI effects from the effects bin and buses.
Markers provide easy-to-use reference points and labels for the different parts of your project, and
the snap grid makes it easy to align your clips to the desired time points.
Slip-editing allows you to non-destructively change the start and/or end time of a clip, just by
dragging its borders.
With Groove clips, you can easily create repetitions of your clips using your mouse.
Both the Track view and Console view have a full set of record and playback meters, which you can
configure in several ways. SONAR also has a variety of tools and commands for changing the
tempo of your project.
Composite tracks allow you to keep all your takes in one track if you want, and selectively mute and
solo the various clips in the track. Track folders let you edit multiple tracks at once and conserve
screen space.
See:
“Arranging tracks” on page 314
“Working with track templates” on page 321
“Track icons” on page 322
“Arranging clips” on page 325
“Working with partial clips” on page 352
“Clip groups” on page 345
“Nudge” on page 350
“Markers and the snap grid” on page 354
“Working with linked clips” on page 363
“Splitting and combining clips” on page 365
“Take lanes and comping takes” on page 367
“Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)” on page 375
“Track folders” on page 378
“Adding effects in the Track view” on page 381
“Changing tempos” on page 382
“Undo, redo, and the undo history” on page 390
“Slip-editing (non-destructive editing)” on page 392
“Enhanced editing with keyboard” on page 399
Arranging tracks
SONAR provides a variety of commands that let you work with the tracks in your project. Here are
some of the things you can do.
You can
Here’s why
Rearrange the tracks in the Track
view so that they appear in a
different order
This makes it easier to see and work with a subset of tracks, like the
rhythm section, or the vocals and vocal backing tracks, or all muted tracks.
Hide individual tracks
This makes it easier to work in a large project. You can display only the
tracks you want to see at a given time.
Move tracks into a track folder
Lets you group tracks by function, edit several tracks at once, hide groups
of tracks easily, and mute, solo, archive, arm, or input monitor a group or
tracks with one click. See “Track folders” on page 378 for more
information.
Make copies of a track
Copying a track and then adding a time offset or changing the patch is an
easy way to double a part. You can also copy and then transpose a track to
add harmony.
Erase or delete a track
Tracks and clips that you are no longer using in your project are distracting
and take up space in your project file.
Table 42.
314
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
All the commands you use to arrange tracks work on selected tracks. The current track (the one with
the lighter titlebar) is always selected. You can select additional tracks as shown in the following
table.
To do this
Do this
Select a track
Click the track number in the Track view. The track is selected, and all
other tracks—except the current track—are deselected.
When a track is selected, both the track number and all the data in the
track appear highlighted.
Select several adjacent tracks
Click the track number for the first track in the group, drag the mouse to
the last track number in the group, and release the mouse button.
Select/deselect all tracks
Double-click a track number.
Add or remove a single track from
the selection
Hold the SHIFT key and click the track number to add it to the selection;
hold the CTRL key and click the track number to toggle its selection
status.
Select all buses that a track is routed Hold down the ALT key and click the track number.
to (via output or sends).
Table 43.
Note: Track selection gestures also apply to buses. For details, see “Bus selection” on page
844.
See:
“Changing the order of tracks” on page 316
“Configuring the display of tracks in the Track view” on page 319
“Inserting tracks” on page 318
“Copying tracks” on page 320
“Erasing tracks” on page 321
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
315
Changing the order of tracks
There are several ways you can change the order of tracks in the Track view:
• Drag a track to a new position in the Track view.
• Use the Track view Tracks > Sort Tracks command to rearrange the tracks in order based on the
track name, status, or other setting.
To drag a track to a new position
1. Position the mouse just to the right of the track number, over the track icon of the track you want
to move.
The cursor changes to an up/down arrow.
2. Drag the track to its new location, and release the mouse button.
SONAR rearranges and renumbers the tracks.
You can sort the tracks in a project based on several parameters, in either ascending or descending
order:
Sort by
What happens
Name
Ascending puts track in alphabetic order, descending puts them in
reverse order
Size, output, or channel
Ascending puts them in increasing numeric order, descending puts them
in decreasing numeric order
Muted, archived, selected
Ascending puts qualifying tracks at the end, descending puts them at
the beginning
Table 44.
No matter how you sort, blank tracks always go to the end of the list.
Note that track numbers are used for reference only. When you re-arrange the order of tracks, they
are automatically assigned sequential numbers based on the order in which they are displayed in
the Track view.
316
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
To sort the tracks
1. Click the Track view Tracks menu and choose Sort Tracks to open the Sort Tracks dialog box.
2. Choose the attribute by which to sort from the Sort By list:
Attribute
How it works
Name
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts the tracks into alphabetical order, either ascending
or descending, depending on what you choose in the Order list.
Muted
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the muted tracks at either the top or bottom of
the Tracks window, depending on whether you choose descending (top) or ascending
(bottom) in the Order list.
Archived
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the archived tracks at either the top or bottom
of the Tracks window, depending on whether you choose descending (top) or ascending
(bottom) in the Order list.
Selected
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts all the selected tracks at either the top or bottom of
the Tracks window, depending on whether you choose descending (top) or ascending
(bottom) in the Order list.
Size
If you choose this attribute, SONAR puts the tracks in order by size, either in descending or
ascending order.
Output
If you choose this attribute, SONAR sorts the tracks by output number, either in descending
or ascending order. SONAR considers non-numbered outputs to have lower numbers than
numbered outputs.
Channel
If you choose this attribute, SONAR sorts the tracks by channel number, either in
descending or ascending order:
• If you choose ascending order, SONAR puts all MIDI tracks at the bottom of the Tracks
window, with the lower channel numbers first.
• If you choose descending order, SONAR puts all MIDI tracks at the top of the Tracks
window, with the higher channel numbers first.
Table 45.
3. Choose the order in which to sort from the Order list.
4. Click OK.
SONAR sorts the tracks according to the settings you chose.
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
317
Inserting tracks
You can insert new tracks by a variety of methods. When you insert multiple tracks, you can set track
output properties at the same time. If you want new audio tracks to always use the same output bus,
you can set that bus as the default bus.
For step-by-step instructions, follow these procedures:
To insert a single track
Do one of the following:
• Click the Insert menu and choose Audio Track or MIDI Track.
• Right-click in the Track pane at the place where you want to insert a track, and select Insert
Audio Track to add an audio track or Insert MIDI Track to add a MIDI track.
• Press INSERT to add a track of the same type (audio or MIDI) as the current track.
SONAR shifts the current track and all tracks below it down by one, and inserts a blank, new track at
the location of the highlight.
To insert multiple tracks
1. Use the Insert > Multiple Tracks command to open the Insert Tracks dialog box.
2. If you want to insert audio tracks, do the following:
• Fill in the number of audio tracks you want to insert in the Audio section’s Track Count field.
• Pick a main audio output for the tracks in the Main Destination field.
• If you want the main output that you chose to be the default output for new audio tracks,
enable the Set as Default Bus check box. You can also choose the default bus by rightclicking a bus, and choosing Set as Default Bus from the pop-up menu.
• If you want your new audio tracks to contain a Send module that outputs to a specific bus,
choose the bus in the Send field. If you choose None, the new audio tracks will not contain a
Send module.If you want to insert MIDI tracks, do the following:
• Fill in the number of MIDI tracks you want to insert in the MIDI section’s Track Count field.
• Pick a MIDI output for the tracks in the Port field.
• Pick a MIDI output channel for the tracks in the Channel field.
3. Click OK to insert your tracks, or click Cancel to cancel the operation.
Your new tracks appear below any pre-existing tracks, with new audio tracks appearing above new
MIDI tracks.
Note: You can also choose the default output bus for new audio tracks by right-clicking a bus,
and choosing Set as Default Bus from the pop-up menu.
318
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
Configuring the display of tracks in the Track view
There are several commands in the Track view View menu and Track pane context menu that allow
you to configure the appearance of your tracks in the Track view. You can use these commands to
zoom in or out, show or hide any combination of tracks, and revert back to previous display settings.
The following table lists each of these commands and provides an explanation of each.
Command
Description
Shortcut
Show and Fit Selection
CTRL+ALT+H
This command hides all tracks which are not selected. The
remaining tracks are adjusted in size vertically and horizontally to
fit in the Track view, without scrolling if possible. All track
selections are lost after this command is executed.
Fit Tracks to Window
All currently displayed tracks are adjusted in size vertically to fit
in the Track view, without scrolling if possible.
F
Fit Project to Window
This command resizes all tracks both vertically and horizontally
to fit in the Tracks view.
SHIFT+F
Lock Height
This command maintains the track’s height when you use a
zoom or fit command. See “To lock or unlock the height of a
track” on page 320.
n/a
Show Only Selected
Tracks
This command hides all tracks which are not selected. The
remaining tracks are adjusted in size vertically.
CTRL+SHIFT+H
Hide Selected Tracks
Hides all selected tracks.
CTRL+H
Show All Tracks
Shows all tracks in your project, including these hidden using the
Track Manager.
SHIFT+H
Track Manager
Opens the Track Manager dialog box. For more information
about the Track Manager dialog box, see “Track Manager
dialog” on page 1764.
H
Undo View Change
This command restores the view to its previous state. There are
up to 16 levels of undo.
ALT+Z
Redo View Change
This command restores the view to the state prior to the Undo
View Change command.
ALT+SHIFT+Z
Table 46.
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
319
To lock or unlock the height of a track
1. Right-click an empty area in one of the desired track’s controls to display the Track pane context
menu.
2. Choose Lock Height from the menu.
When you lock the height of a track, its height does not change when you use a Zoom or Fit
command. When a track’s height is locked, you can still drag the track strip’s lower border to adjust
the track’s height. After you drag the border, the altered track height becomes the track’s locked
height.
Copying tracks
When you copy one or more tracks using the Track view Tracks > Clone Track(s) command, you
can choose any of the following options:
• What to copy: events, properties, effects, sends
• Repetitions: how many copies of each selected track
• Starting track: where you want the first new track to appear
To copy tracks
1. Select the tracks that you want to copy.Click the Track view Tracks menu and choose Clone
Track(s) to open the Clone Track(s) dialog box.
2. Check the Clone Events, Clone Properties, Clone Effects, and/or Clone Sends boxes to
indicate which items you want to copy.
3. If you want copied events to become linked clips, check the Link to Original Clips check box.
4. Select the number of repetitions of each selected track that you want to create.
5. Select the track number where you want the first new track to appear. The other new tracks
appear right after it.
6. Click OK.
SONAR copies the tracks and pastes the selected tracks, with the first new track appearing at the
track number you selected. All tracks appear consecutively.
Note: When cloning an Instrument track, a new MIDI track is created and assigned to the same
soft synth as the cloned instrument track.
320
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
Erasing tracks
You can easily delete an entire track, including all of the track properties and all of its clips and
events. Sometimes, you only want to erase, or wipe, the contents of a track, leaving the track
properties as they are. If you delete or wipe a track by mistake, you can use Edit > Undo to restore
the deleted material.
When you delete or wipe a track, the track information is not placed on the Clipboard. To remove
material from a track and place it on the Clipboard, use the Edit > Cut command instead.
To delete tracks
1. Select the tracks you want to delete.
2. Click the Track view Tracks menu and choose Delete Track(s).
SONAR deletes the selected tracks. You can also right-click individual tracks and choose Delete
Track from the pop-up menu.
To wipe tracks
1. Select the tracks you want to wipe.
2. Click the Track view Tracks menu and choose Wipe Track(s).
SONAR deletes all clips and events from the selected tracks, but leaves the track properties intact.
Working with track templates
You can create an unlimited number of track templates for quickly recalling your most often used
track settings including the following:
• Track type (MIDI or Audio)
• Mute, Solo and Record state
• Hardware input
• Output destination
• Bus send settings
• Track parameters
• Track icons
• Effects and their settings
• Instrument and Bank/Patch
• Track name
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
321
To create a track template
1. Select the track or tracks you want to save as a preset.
2. Select File > Export > Track Template from the main menu.
The Save As dialog box appears.
3. Enter a name for the template and click Save.
Track templates use the file extension .cwx.
To insert a track or tracks from a template
• Select Insert > Track Template to open the Import Track Template dialog box, then select the
desired track template.
Or
• Right-click in the Tracks pane and select Insert From Track Template > [track template name]
or select More Track Templates.
This inserts tracks that are exactly like the template.
Track icons
Track icons allow you to quickly identify a track’s contents by instrument. You can assign a new track
icon, create your own track icons, and save an icon as part of a track template.
To show or hide track icons
• To show or hide Track Icons in all views, use the Views > Icons > Show Icons command.
• To show or hide Track Icons in a specific view, use the Views > Icons > [name of desired
view] > Show Icons command.
Or
• To hide a track icon, right-click a track icon in the desired view, and choose Show Icons from the
pop-up menu. This option is not available in Track view headers.
To configure Track view icons
• To show standard track icons in the header of each track in the Track view, use the Views >
Icons > Track View > Show in Header command.
• To show custom track icons in the header of each track in the Track view, use the Views >
Icons > Track View > Show Custom In Header command.
• To show track icons on the left side of the track controls of each track in the Track view, use the
Views > Icons > Track View > Show In Strip command.
To change the size of track icons
• Right-click a track icon in the desired view, and choose Small Icons or Large Icons from the
pop-up menu.
Or
322
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
• Select Views > Icons > [name of desired view] > Small Icons or Large Icons from the main
menu.
To change a track icon
1. Right-click on the icon you want to change.
2. Select Load Track Icon from the menu that appears.
The Open dialog box appears.
3. Select an icon and click Open.
Note: The right-click option is not available when you right-click a track icon in a track header in
the Track view. However, you can load a new track icon into a track header by ALT-clicking the
track icon to display the Open dialog box, and then choosing a new icon. You can ALT-click a
track icon in any view to display the Open dialog box.
To reset a track icon to its original icon
1. Right-click on the icon you want to reset.
2. Select Reset Track Icon from the menu that appears.
To create a track icon
1. Create or edit a graphics file in .bmp format, preferably 128 by 128 pixels.
You can use any image as a track icon. You can use any size image, but for best results scale
the image to 128 pixels square. Images must be in the .bmp format.
2. Save the image as a .bmp file in the Track Icons directory in your SONAR program folder.Track
icon size(s) and transparency
You can configure the size of small and large icons in Cakewalk.ini. By default, small icons are
32x32 pixels and large icons are 48x48 pixels. Use the following INI variables to change the default
size:
[WinCake]
SmallIconHeight=32
LargeIconHeight=48
If you want to create custom track icons, we recommend that you author them as 96x96 pixel 24-bit
bitmaps (.BMP).
The top left pixel in the BMP determines the transparent color. If you prefer to not have transparent
icons, add the following variable to Cakewalk.ini:
[WinCake]
IconTopLeftPixelTransparent=0
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
323
Configuring Track view controls
To configure track and bus control layouts
1. Click the Track Control button at the top of the Track pane and choose Track Control Manager
to open the Track Control Manager.
2. In the Preset field, choose the control preset that you want to configure, or choose <new>, and
type a name to create a new tab.
3. In each of the four Strip columns (Audio Strip, MIDI Strip, etc.), check all the controls you want to
see for the current preset.
4. To select all available controls, click Select All Controls; to select the default controls, select
Restore Defaults (this will delete any new presets you’ have created).
5. To configure a different preset, select it in the Preset field.
6. Click OK to implement your changes, or Cancel to delete them.
For more information about the Track Control Manager dialog box, see “Track Control Manager” on
page 1771.
To change the VU meter to horizontal or vertical display
• Click the Track view Options menu, point to Meter Options and choose Horizontal Meters or
Vertical Meters on the submenu.
324
Arranging and editing
Arranging tracks
Arranging clips
The Track view provides many ways for you to rearrange, copy, and paste clips to arrange your
music the way you want. The easiest is to select the clips or portions of clips you want to arrange
and then drag and drop them wherever you want. You can drag and drop clips in the Track view
even while playback is in progress. You can also arrange clips via the Clipboard using the Edit >
Cut, Edit > Copy, and Edit > Paste commands, which work like those in almost all Windows
programs.The snap grid enables you to move clips to or by an exact amount of time, such as a
quarter note or whole measure. See “To change the snap options” on page 355.
See:
“Displaying clips” on page 325
“Opening views by double-clicking clips” on page 333
“Selecting clips” on page 334
“Moving and copying clips” on page 335
Displaying clips
Clips are displayed as rectangles in the Clips pane. Their position and length show you at a glance
their starting times and lengths. You can control four aspects of their appearance:Color. By
default, each track’s clips are drawn in a different color. The clip colors restart at the tenth track. You
can customize the default colors of clips in Edit > Preferences > Customization - Color, or change
the color of any individual clip in the Clip Inspector.
Note: In audio clips, the waveform changes color, unless no clip contents are displayed. In MIDI
clips, the clip background changes color.
Arranging and editing
Arranging clips
325
• Name. You can also assign each clip a descriptive name, which is displayed in the upper-left
corner of the clip.
• Contents. At your option, clips can be displayed with a graphical representation of the events in
the clip. The effect is slightly different for MIDI and audio information.
A
B
C
A. A MIDI clip shows each event; by looking at the clips, you can “see” the notes that are being played B. An
audio clip shows the actual waveform C. Controller or automation data are also displayed
To inspect the clip contents more closely, use the zoom tools to increase the size in which clips are
displayed. Note that displaying the contents of each clip makes your computer work a little harder.
As a result, if your computer has an older, slower CPU you may want to turn off the display of clip
contents.:
Figure 72.
Zoom controls
A
B
C
D
E
F
I
H
G
A. Zoom Clips pane out vertically B. Vertical Zoom fader for Clips pane C. Zoom Clips pane in vertically
D. Zoom Bus pane out vertically E. Vertical Zoom fader for Bus pane F. Zoom Bus pane in vertically G. Zoom in
horizontally H. Horizontal zoom fader I. Zoom out horizontally
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Arranging and editing
Arranging clips
Clip header indicators
Audio and MIDI clips show various information at the top of each clip. A standard clip shows only the
clip name, while clips that have been modified in various ways show additional information.
Figure 73.
A
Clip header indicators
B
C
D
A. Clip group number B. Clip name C. Indicators (FX, AudioSnap, Follow Project Tempo, Stretch, V-Vocal, MIDI
editor) D. Clip data (audio waveform or MIDI data)
Note: Clip headers automatically disappear if the track height is less than 36 pixels.
The following table describes the various clip header indicators.
Audio clip
MIDI clip
Description
The clip is a standard audio or MIDI clip.
The clip is assigned to a clip group. The number
identifies the group. For details, see “Clip groups” on
page 345.
The clip contains at least one clip effect. For details,
see “To insert an effect on a clip” on page 870.
n/a
Table 47.
The clip has AudioSnap enabled, which gives you
flexible rhythmic and tempo control over audio
transients. For details, see “AudioSnap (Producer
and Studio only)” on page 589.
Clip header indicators
Arranging and editing
Arranging clips
327
Audio clip
MIDI clip
Description
n/a
The clip is a V-Vocal clip, which lets you perform
pitch correction on notes and phrases, edit formants,
and add vibrato to monophonic sounds. For details,
see “V-Vocal clips (Producer and Studio only)” on
page 898.
n/a
The clip has been stretched from its original duration
by the displayed percentage value. For details, see
“Slip-stretching audio” on page 642.
n/a
The clip follows the global project tempo. For details,
see “To sync an audio clip to the project tempo” on
page 611 and “AudioSnap section” on page 550.
n/a
Double-click the clip to open the Piano Roll view. For
details, see “The Piano Roll view” on page 677.
n/a
Double-click the clip to open the Step Sequencer
view. For details, see “Step Sequencer view” on
page 1803.
n/a
Double-click the clip to open the Staff view. For
details, see “The Staff view” on page 1072.
n/a
Double-click the clip to open the Event List view. For
details, see “The Event List view” on page 742.
Table 47.
Clip header indicators (Continued)
To hide clip headers and maximize clip waveform display
To globally hide the clip headers, click the Track view View menu, point to Display, and select
Maximize Waveform Height. When this options is enabled, the waveform display spans the full
height of clips.
To zoom horizontally
Do one of the following:
• Click the horizontal zoom buttons to zoom in or out by a fixed percentage each time you click.
• Drag the horizontal zoom fader to zoom in or out by the amount you drag.
• Hold down the CTRL key and press the right arrow key (to zoom in) or the LEFT ARROW key (to
zoom out).
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• Point the mouse pointer at the top half of the Clips pane or Piano Roll view time ruler (the mouse
pointer should look like this:
), then drag up/down.
To zoom vertically
Do one of the following:
• Click the vertical zoom buttons to zoom in or out by a fixed percentage each time you click.
• Drag the vertical zoom fader to zoom in or out by the amount you drag.
• Hold down the CTRL key and press the UP ARROW key (to zoom out) or the DOWN ARROW
key (to zoom in).
• Point the mouse pointer at the top half of the Clips pane or Piano Roll view time ruler (the mouse
pointer should look like this:
), then click with the right mouse button and drag up/down.
To zoom into a selected area
• Use the Zoom tool to drag-select an area of a clip or clips that you want to zoom to. To activate
the Zoom tool, hold down the Z key. When you release the mouse, the area you selected expands
to fill the Clips pane window.
Zoom command keyboard shortcuts:
To do this
Use this shortcut
Zoom in vertically
CTRL+DOWN ARROW
Zoom in horizontally
CTRL+RIGHT ARROW
Zoom out vertically
CTRL+UP ARROW
Zoom out horizontally
CTRL+LEFT ARROW
Undo Zoom
ALT+Z
Redo Zoom
ALT+SHIFT+Z
Turn On Zoom tool (use the Zoom tool to select the area to
zoom to)
Hold down Z
Fit project to window
SHIFT+F
Fit tracks and buses to window
F
Full Screen mode
F11
Table 48.
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329
To zoom using the mouse wheel (Fast Zoom)
• Hold down the ALT key and roll the mouse wheel forward to zoom in, backward to zoom out.
• Hold down ALT+SHIFT to intensify mouse wheel zoom effect.Hold down ALT+CTRL to adjust
track scale (Track View Clips Pane only)
To select Fast Zoom options
1. Click the Track view Options menu and choose Zoom Options.
2. Select the intensity of the Zoom effect in Zoom Factor by using the spinners or manually
entering a value.
3. Select the vertical and horizontal Zoom focus.
4. Check or uncheck Simultaneous Vertical and Horizontal Zoom.
The default is for Simultaneous Vertical and Horizontal Zoom to be checked. If you uncheck it,
Fast Zoom exhibits the following behaviors.
• ALT+Mouse Wheel zooms vertically
• ALT+SHIFT+Mouse Wheel zooms faster vertically
• CTRL+ALT+Mouse Wheel zooms horizontally
• CTRL+ALT+SHIFT+Mouse Wheel zooms faster vertically
5. Click OK.
To display clip names and contents
1. Click the Track view Options menu, point to Display and choose Display Clip Names to show
clip names, or leave it unchecked to hide clip names.
2. Click the Track view Options menu, point to Display and choose Display Clip Contents to
show clip contents, or leave it unchecked to hide clip content.
SONAR modifies the clips pane to show the information you want.
To change clip names
1. Select the clips you want to rename.
2. Open the Clip Inspector and show the Properties section.
Figure 74.
The Clip Inspector.
3. Click the Clip Name field, type a name for the selected clips, then press ENTER
SONAR renames the selected clips.
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To change clip colors
1. Select the clips whose color you want to change.
2. Open the Clip Inspector and show the Properties section.
Figure 75.
The Clip Inspector.
3. Choose a color as follows:
To do this
Do this
Use the default color
Select the Use Track Colors check box.
Use a custom color
Click the Foreground or Background field and pick a color.
Table 49.
SONAR changes the color of the selected clips.
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331
Using the Navigator view
The Navigator view displays a large part of your project so you can see an overview of your song.
The Navigator view is a floating version of the Navigator pane found at the top of the Track view.
To open the Navigator view, click the Views menu and choose Navigator, or press ALT+SHIFT+8.
Figure 76.
The Navigator view.
A
A. Track rectangle
Track rectangle
The Track Rectangle appears as a green rectangle within the Navigator view. The Track Rectangle
indicates the section of your project which appears in the Clips pane of the Track view. You can
move the Track Rectangle or change its size.
To move the track rectangle
1. Position your cursor inside the Track Rectangle until the icon changes to look like this:
2. Click and drag the rectangle where you want and release.
To move the track rectangle when clicking
Right-click in the Navigator view and select the Left Click Positions Rectangle option.
To change the size of the track rectangle
1. Click one of the nodes on the rectangle border.
2. Drag to change the rectangle size.
To draw the track rectangle
Hold down the ALT key and drag.
To change the Now time in the Navigator view
1. Hold down the CTRL key.
2. Click where you want the Now Time to be.
To change the track height in the Navigator view
Right-click in the Navigator view and select one of the following options:
• Track Height Short
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.
• Track Height Medium
• Track Height Tall
To zoom the Navigator view
Right-click in the Navigator view and select one of the following options:
• Horz Zoom Level 1
• Horz Zoom Level 2
• Horz Zoom Level 3
• Horz Zoom Level 4
• Horz Zoom Level 5
• Horz Zoom to Project
Opening views by double-clicking clips
By default, double-clicking a MIDI clip in the Clips pane opens a Piano Roll view for that track, and
double-clicking an Audio clip opens the Loop Construction view for that track.
To specify which view should open when you double-click a clip, click the Track view Options menu,
point to Click Behavior > Double-Click and choose the desired view.
To open a view from a clip
1. Right-click in the Clips pane, and choose View from the pop-up menu.
2. Choose the type of view you want to work with from the submenu.
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Selecting clips
Before you move, copy, edit, or delete clips you need to select them. There are several ways to
select whole clips, as shown in the table:
To do this
Do this
Select a single clip
Click on the clip in the Clips pane.
Select several clips at once
With the right mouse button, drag in a rectangular pattern that
touches each clip.
Select all the clips in a track
Click on the track number in the Track view.
Select a portion of one or more clips
Use the Smart tool or Select tool and drag across the bottom part of
the clip(s). The Snap to Grid setting determines the size portion you
can select.
Add clips to the selection
Hold the SHIFT key and either click on the clips or drag a rectangle
around the clips.
Add or remove clips from the selection
Hold the CTRL key and either click on the clips or drag a rectangle
around the clips.
Add or remove all clips in a track from
the selection
Hold the CTRL key and click on the track number.
Table 50.
Using the Select tool
The Select tool
allows you to perform both time based selection and clip selection.
To enable the Select tool
• Do one of the following:
• Click the Select tool
in the Control Bar.
• Press F6.
To select by time or by clip
You can use either the Smart tool or Select tool to select by time or by clip.
When using the Smart tool or Select tool, a clip is divided into two vertical zones. The mouse pointer
changes depending on which clip zone the pointer is over:
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• Smart tool:
• Header.
Click to select the clip.
• Top/Bottom.
Drag to select by time.
• Top/Bottom.
Click to select the clip.
• Top/Bottom.
Drag with the right mouse button to lasso select.
• Select tool:
• Top/Bottom.
Click to select the clip.
• Top/Bottom. Drag with the left mouse button to select by time. Drag with the right mouse
button to lasso select.
The Smart tool and Select tool obey Snap to Grid.
To lasso select
Using the Smart tool
or Select tool
, drag with the right mouse button.
Lasso selection works across tracks, and selects the data type that is specified in each track’s Edit
Filter.
Moving and copying clips
You can copy or move clips using drag-and-drop editing or the Cut, Copy, and Paste commands. If
you copy or move clips into tracks that contain existing material, you need to let SONAR know how
to combine the two.
You have these options:
Option
How it works
Blend Old and New
Events in the copied or moved clip are placed into a new clip that overlaps with
the existing clip. This is the same effect as sound-on-sound recording.
Replace Old with New
Events in the copied or moved clip are placed into a new clip, and any
overlapping events in the existing clip are erased. This is the same effect as
overwrite recording.
Slide Over to Make Room
The existing clips are shifted in time to make room for the new clips, so they will
not overlap. If you check the Align to Measures option, shifted clips are
always aligned to measure boundaries; otherwise, the clips are placed end to
end.
Table 51.
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335
When you use the Edit > Paste Special command to add information to a track that contains
existing material, there is one final option you can choose.
Option
What it means
Paste as New Clips
New clips are created containing the events on the Clipboard,
exactly as described in the preceding table.
Paste into Existing Clips (MIDI clips only)
The events on the Clipboard are merged into any existing clips
that occupy the same region of time. This means you will never
end up with clips that overlap.
Table 52.
Note that if you copy or move clips to new, empty tracks, you don’t have to worry about these
settings. In this case, the track properties that go with the clips are automatically applied to the new
track.When you use drag-and-drop editing:
• You can set the above options every time you perform an edit, or you can set them once and have
the same settings carry over automatically. Check or uncheck the Ask This Every Time box in
the Drag and Drop Options dialog box to indicate your preference. To open the Drag and Drop
Options dialog box, click the Track view Options menu and choose Drag and Drop Options.
• If you drag to the edge of the Clips pane, it will scroll automatically in the direction you drag.
• If you change your mind while dragging clips, press the ESC key to cancel the operation.
SONAR also lets you move and copy clips between projects.
To move clips using drag and drop
1. Select the clips you want to move.
2. If you want to move the clips by an exact amount of time, enable the snap grid (see “To change
the snap options” on page 355 and “Aim Assist line” on page 340).
3. Select the Smart tool
or Move tool
in the Control Bar.
4. Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
5. Press and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed around the selected clips.
6. Drag the clips to their new location, and release the mouse button.
7. If necessary, choose the options you want from the Drag and Drop Options dialog box (go to
Edit > Preferences > Customization - Editing, or right-click in the Clips pane and select Drag
& Drop Options from the pop-up menu), and click OK.
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Figure 77.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog box
SONAR moves the clips to their new location.
Note: Moving an audio clip (other than a Groove clip) to a part of your project that has a different
tempo changes the size of the clip.
To move clips using cut and paste
1. Select the clips you want to move.
2. Choose Edit > Cut Special to display the Cut dialog box.
Figure 78.
The Cut dialog box
3. Choose the options you want and click OK. SONAR cuts the clips from the project and places
them on the Clipboard.
4. Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips should be pasted.
5. Set the Now time to be the time at which the clips should be pasted.
6. Choose Edit > Paste Special to display the Paste dialog box.
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337
Figure 79.
The Paste dialog box
7. Choose the options you want and click OK.
SONAR places the clips in their new location.
To choose a specific start time and/or length for a clip
1. Select the clip you want to edit.
2. Open the Clip Inspector and select the Properties section.
3. In the Time Format field, choose the units you want to use for the new start time and/or length
by clicking one of the radio buttons:
• M:B:T.
Click this if you want the clip to begin and end on a specific measure, beat, or tick.
• Samples. Click this is you want the clip to begin and end on a specific sample.
• H:M:S:F. Click this is you want the clip to begin and end on a specific hour, minute, second,
or frame. This is also known as SMPTE time, and lets you start the clip at an absolute-timebased (as opposed to musical-time-based) point in your project.Seconds. Click this is you
want the clip to begin and end on a specific second.
4. In the Start and Length fields, enter a new start time and/or length, or use the spinners or
keyboard to change values.
5. Choose a value in the Time Base field—choose one of the two options in this section to control
what happens to the clip’s start time when you change the tempo:
• Musical (M:B:T). If the clip is set to the Musical time base, the clip’s M:B:T position stays
constant, and its Absolute (SMPTE) position shifts.Absolute (SMPTE). If the clip is set to
the Absolute (SMPTE) time base, its Absolute position stays constant, and its M:B:T position
shifts.
Note: The length of a clip may also change when you change the tempo—audio clips maintain
their absolute (SMPTE) length, while a MIDI clip will follow the value in the Time Base field. If a
MIDI clip is set to use musical time, the clip maintains its M:B:T length. If a MIDI clip is set to use
absolute time, the clip maintains its absolute length.
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SONAR adjusts the clip to the values you chose.
Note: The Snap Offset field is for audio clips only. The value of this field is the snap offset of
the selected clip, in samples. When you set a snap offset value for a clip, and then drag the clip,
the left edge of the clip does not snap to the current snap resolution--the clip snaps to a point on
the clip that is the distance from the left edge of the clip to the snap offset value. For example,
if you set the snap resolution to move to a measure, and the snap offset of a clip to 1500
samples, when you drag the clip, instead of the left edge of the clip moving to a measure line,
the spot on the clip that's 1500 samples right of the beginning of the clip moves to the measure
line.
To copy clips using drag and drop
1. Select the clips you want to copy.
2. Enable the snap grid, if desired.
3. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar/
4. Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
5. Press and hold the CTRL key and click and hold the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed
around the selected clips.
6. Drag the clips to the new location, and release the mouse button.
7. If necessary, choose the options you want from the Drag and Drop Options dialog box, and
click OK.
SONAR copies the clips to their new location.
To copy clips using copy and paste
1. Select the clips you want to copy.
2. Choose Edit > Copy Special to display the Copy dialog box.
3. Choose the options you want and click OK. SONAR copies the clips to the Clipboard.
4. Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips should be pasted.
5. Set the Now time to be the time the clips should be pasted.
6. Choose Edit > Paste Special to display the Paste dialog box.
7. Choose the options you want and click OK.
SONAR copies the clips to their new location.
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339
To delete clips
1. Select the clips you want to delete.
2. Do one of the following:
• Choose Edit > Delete, which brings up a dialog box—choose options and click OK.
• Press the DELETE key.
SONAR deletes the selected clips.
See:
“Splitting and combining clips” on page 365
“Working with partial clips” on page 352
“Working with linked clips” on page 363
“Aim Assist line” on page 340
Aim Assist line
Aim Assist is a vertical white line that shows the mouse pointer’s horizontal position in the Clips pane
and Piano Roll. The mouse pointer’s time position is also shown in the time ruler.
Aim Assist is a helpful guide when editing in the Clips pane and Piano Roll, making it easy to align
the mouse pointer with events on different tracks or markers in the time ruler.
Figure 80.
The Aim Assist line is a helpful guide when editing in the Clips pane
B
A
A. Vertical Aim Assist line B. Time position
When Snap to Grid is enabled, the Aim Assist line follows the current Snap to Grid settings rather
than the mouse pointer position.
The following rules apply when selecting and moving a clip with the Smart tool, Edit tool, Select tool
or Move tool:
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Click the front/left portion of a clip. The Aim Assist line snaps to the start of the clip boundary
and travels with the clip as it is dragged.
Click the rear/right portion of a clip. The Aim Assist line snaps to the end of the clip boundary
and snap operates on the clip’s end. The AimAssist line travels with the clip as it is dragged.
To enable/disable Aim Assist
• Do one of the following:
• Click the Edit menu and choose Aim Assist.
• Press X.
The vertical Aim Assist line is shown or hidden.
Tip: You can also toggle Aim Assist on/off with a key binding. For information about assigning key
bindings, see “Key bindings” on page 1066.
To customize the Aim Assist color
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Colors.
2. In the Color Category list, select Track View.
3. In the Screen Element list, select Aim Assist line.
4. Specify the desired color and click OK to close the Preferences dialog box.
See:
“Splitting and combining clips” on page 365
“Working with partial clips” on page 352
“Working with linked clips” on page 363
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341
Reverting clip(s) to original time stamp
All audio and MIDI clips in SONAR have a Original Time property, which stores the original SMPTE
time stamp associated with a clip. The Original Time clip property is based on absolute time, not
tempo. This allows you to freely re-arrange clips and later revert them back to their original time.
SONAR automatically assigns the Original Time property during import or immediately after record.
When an audio clip containing a SMPTE time stamp is imported into SONAR (such as a Broadcast
Wave file), the Original Time field is populated with this time stamp. When opening previous
SONAR projects, existing clips will be populated with their current time.
Note: The Original Time property can not be edited. If a clip is bounced to a new clip, the
Original Time stamp will not propagate to the new clip.
Figure 81.
The Clip Inspector.
A. Original Time property; click to revert clip to the original time stamp
To revert clip(s) to original time stamp
To revert selected clips to their original SMPTE time stamp, do one of the following:
• Right-click a clip and choose Revert Clip(s) to Original Time Stamp from the context menu.
• In the Clip Inspector, select the Properties section, click the Original Time field and choose
Revert to original time stamp on the pop-up menu.
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Locking Clips
You can lock a clip so that it can’t be accidentally modified or deleted. You can lock the clip’s position
and/or its data.
To lock or unlock a clip’s position and/or data
• In the Clip Inspector, select the Properties section, click the Lock field and choose what clip
attributes you want to lock:
• Position and Data. This choice locks position and data, and causes a lock icon to appear
on the clip
.
• Position Only. This choice locks position only, and causes a yellow lock icon with the clasp
unlocked to appear on the clip
.
• Data Only. This choice locks data only, and causes a blue lock icon with the clasp unlocked
to appear on the clip
.
Figure 82.
The Clip Inspector.
Or
1. Right-click a clip.
2. From the pop-up menu, choose one of the following commands:
• Clip Lock > Lock Position. In lock mode, this choice locks position only, and causes a
yellow lock icon with the clasp unlocked to appear on the clip. If data is already locked, then
both position and data become locked, and a “locked” lock icon appears on the clip. In unlock
mode, if both position and data are locked, and you unlock position, then the blue “unlocked”
lock icon appears on the clip, meaning that only data is locked.
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343
• Clip Lock > Lock Data. In lock mode, this choice locks data only, and causes a blue lock
icon with the clasp unlocked to appear on the clip. If position is already locked, then both
position and data become locked, and a “locked” lock icon appears on the clip. In unlock
mode, if both position and data are locked, and you unlock data, then the yellow “unlocked”
lock icon appears on the clip, meaning that only position is locked.
Note: If a clip’s position is locked, and you change tempo, what happens to the clip’s position
depends on what option the Clip Properties Time Base field is set to: Musical (M:B:T), or
Absolute (SMPTE). If the clip is set to the Musical time base, the clip’s M:B:T position stays
constant, and its Absolute position shifts. If the clip is set to the Absolute time base, its Absolute
position does not move, but its M:B:T position shifts.
Auto scroll lock in Clips pane
While editing, you can prevent the Clips pane from scrolling horizontally during playback. This allows
you to focus on the edit location without worrying that the screen will eventually scroll away from the
edit location.
When the Left Click Locks Scroll option is enabled (default behavior), the Clips pane will not scroll
if you click any object in the Clips pane. When you are done with the edit and want the Clips pane to
scroll again during playback, click in the background of the Clips pane to clear auto scroll lock.
To enable/disable auto scroll lock
Click the Track view Options menu, point to Click Behavior and choose Left Click Locks Scroll
on the submenu.
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Clip groups
SONAR lets you treat multiple clips as a single unit. By grouping clips, you can select and edit an
entire group of clips by simply selecting or editing any group member. A group can contain both
audio and MIDI clips from a single track or from multiple tracks.
Clip groups are very useful, for example, when editing multitrack drums and you want to synchronize
edits on all clips from the same recording take.
You can instruct SONAR to automatically group clips after recording multiple tracks simultaneously,
or you can add and remove clips from a group after the clips have been recorded.
Grouped clips are indicated by a group number before the clip name.
Figure 83.
Grouped clips
A
A. The group number is displayed next to the clip name
To group clips during multitrack recording
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Record, or right-click the Record button to access
recording settings.
2. Under Clip Groups, select the Group Clips Across Tracks check box.
After recording is complete, all new clips are grouped together. When loop recording, each pass of
the loop gets placed in its own group.
Two discrete steps are placed in the Undo history. The first step is the actual recording and the
second step is for Create Clip Group. This allows you to undo the clip group, if desired, without
losing the recording.
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345
The following example shows two takes of a five track loop recording. The first clip group is selected.
Note: The Group Clips Across Tracks setting is stored with each project.
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To create a clip group
1. Select all the clips you want to group together.
2. Do one of the following:
• Press [ (square bracket).
• Right-click any selected clip, point to Add to Clip Group and choose New from the pop-up
menu.
A new clip group is created and the group number is displayed next to each clip name.
Note: A clip may only belong to one clip group at a time. If any of the selected clips already
belong to another clip group, they will be removed from the other group and placed in the new
group.
To add clips to an existing clip group
1. Click on any clip in the existing group.
All clips in the group are selected.
2. Hold down the CTRL key and click the clips that you want to add to the group.
3. Right-click any selected clip, point to Add to Clip Group and choose the desired group from the
pop-up menu.
All selected clips are placed in a new clip group.
Note: A clip may only belong to one clip group at a time. If any of the selected clips already
belong to another clip group, they will be removed from the other group and placed in the new
group.
To remove clips from a clip group
1. Select the clips you want to remove from the group.
Tip: To select only a single clip in a group, hold down the SHIFT key and click the clip that you want
to remove from the group.
2. Right-click any selected clip and choose Remove from Clip Group from the pop-up menu.
The selected clips are no longer grouped.
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347
To remove all clip groups
1. Do one of the following:
• On the Edit menu, point to Select and choose All.
• Press CTRL+A.
All clips are selected.
2. Do one of the following:
• Press SHIFT+[ (square bracket).
• Right-click any selected clip and choose Remove from Clip Group from the pop-up menu.
The selected clips are no longer grouped.
Using editing tools on grouped clips
The Select, Mute and Split tools behave as follows when editing grouped clips:
• Select tool
:
• Clicking a clip in a group will also select all other clips in the same group.
• Lasso-selecting will select clips that are touched by the lasso as well as other clips in the
same group that intersect the lasso time range.
• Split tool
:
• Clicking an unselected clip will split that clip and all other clips in the same group that intersect
the split time.
• If a previous selection exists, clicking will split only the clips in the selection.
• Selecting a range will split all clips in the group that intersect that range.
• Mute tool
. The Mute tool has several modes of operation. The corresponding mode is
indicated in square brackets.
• [Mute Entire Clips mode] Clicking an unselected clip will mute that clip and all other clips in the
same group.
• [Mute Entire Clips mode] If a previous selection exists, clicking will mute only the clips in the
selection.
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• [Mute Entire Clips mode] Lasso-selecting will mute clips that are touched by the lasso as well
as other clips in the same group that intersect the lasso time range.
• [Mute Time Ranges mode] Selecting a range will mute all clips in the group that intersect that
time range.
Note: Muting a time range is limited to one track or take lane at a time.
• [Isolate mode] Isolate mode does not follow clip groups for clips that live in the same track.
SONAR can automatically create a new clip group when splitting clips in an existing clip group. To
specify the split behavior, follow these steps:
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Editing.
2. Under Clips, select the When splitting clips in groups, create new groups check box.
For more information about splitting clips, see “Splitting and combining clips” on page 365.
Copying and pasting grouped clips
When you copy and paste clips that belong to a clip group, you can specify if the pasted clips should
be placed in a new clip group or continue to be grouped with the original clip group. By default, a
new clip group is created. You can change the behavior by adding the following line to the [WinCake]
section of the Cakewalk.ini file:
[WinCake]
CreateNewGroupsOnPaste=1
The values are as follows:
0 = The pasted clips will belong to the same clip group as the clips that were copied.
1 = A new clip group is created for the pasted clips. This is the default behavior.
To view and edit the Cakewalk.ini file, go to Edit > Preferences > File - Initialization File.
For more information about the Cakewalk.ini file, see “Initialization files” on page 1287.
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349
Nudge
Nudging is moving a clip or a MIDI note by a small amount to the left or right or up and down. There
are three customizable settings for the Nudge feature. You can also nudge clips (in the Track view)
or notes (in the Piano Roll view) up or down, and you can use keyboard shortcuts (see “To Nudge a
Clip Using Keyboard Shortcuts” on page 351).
See:
“Nudge settings” on page 350
Nudge settings
To configure the three nudge settings, go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Nudge or
Process > Nudge > Settings.
To Nudge a Clip Left or Right
Use the following procedure to nudge a clip.
1. Select the clip you want to nudge.
2. Select Process > Nudge Left(1-3) from the menu to move the clip left or Process > Nudge
Right(1-3) to move the clip right.
The amount the clip or note moves is determined by the settings in Edit > Preferences >
Customization - Nudge.
To Nudge a Clip Up and Down
Use the following procedure to nudge a clip (in the Track view) or MIDI note (in the Piano Roll view)
up or down.Select the clip or note you want to nudge.
3. Select Process > Nudge > Up to move the clip or note up or Process > Nudge > Down to
move a clip or note down.
Clips move up or down one track at a time. Notes move up or down one pitch at a time.
To Change Nudge Settings
1. Select Process > Nudge > Settings to access nudge settings.
2. In one of the three Nudge groups, select one of the following:
• Musical Time. Select a note length setting.
• Absolute Time.
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Select one of the following absolute time options and a number in the first
Arranging and editing
Nudge
field:
Absolute time setting
Description
Seconds
Whole seconds.
Milliseconds
Thousands of a second.
Frames
Number of frames. The default frame count is 30 frames per second. The
number of frames varies depending on the setting in Edit > Preferences >
Project - Clock.
Samples
A very small amount of time. For CD-quality audio there are 44,100 samples
per second, so a value of 1 here would not move a clip by a perceptible
amount.
Ticks
The number of ticks per quarter note varies depending on the setting in
Edit > Preferences > Project - Clock. The default setting is 960.
Table 53.
• Follow Snap Settings. Moves the clip or note by the current snap setting.
To Nudge a Clip Using Keyboard Shortcuts
1. Select the clip you want to nudge.
2. If necessary, turn on Num Lock (press the Num Lock key on your keyboard).
3. Press the appropriate Num Key.
Nudge
Shortcut
Left 1
NumPad 1
Right 1
NumPad 3
Left 2
NumPad 4
Right 2
NumPad 6
Left 3
NumPad 7
Right 3
NumPad 9
Up
NumPad 8
Down
NumPad 2
Table 54.
Arranging and editing
Nudge
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Working with partial clips
SONAR lets you select, copy, move, and delete portions of a project even if they do not match clip
boundaries. There are two ways to do this:
• Directly select portions of one or more clips.
• Select a range of times and one or more tracks. SONAR automatically selects the portions of clips
that are in both the selected time range and the selected tracks.You can then copy, move, or
delete the material the same way you do with whole clips.When you select portions of a clip,
SONAR may round off the start and end times of your selection based on the snap grid. For more
information, see “Defining and using the Snap Grid” on page 354.
To select a portion of a clip
Select the Smart tool
clip.
or Select tool
in the Control Bar and drag across the bottom half of a
SONAR highlights the selected portion of the clip. You can edit this portion of the clip using all the
normal editing commands.
To select a portion of several clips
Select the Smart tool
or Select tool
in the Control Bar, then click in the bottom half of a clip
and drag across several clips in adjacent tracks.
SONAR highlights the selected portions of all the clips. You can edit these portions of clips using all
the normal editing commands.
To select partial clips using time ranges and tracks
1. Select a range of time in one of the following ways:
• Drag the mouse in the Time Ruler.
• Click between two markers to select the time between the markers.
• Select a clip (SONAR selects the range of time covered by the clip).
• Choose Edit > Select > By Time, enter the start and end time, and click OK.
2. Select one or more tracks by clicking, SHIFT-clicking, or CTRL-clicking on the track numbers in
the Track view.
3. To adjust the start and end time of the selection, hold the SHIFT key while clicking on the Time
Ruler.
The relevant portions of clips in the selected tracks are highlighted. You can edit these portions of
clips using all the normal editing commands.
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Working with partial clips
To clear the partial clip selection
You can clear the time-restricted selection in any of the following ways:
• Click in an empty area of the Clips pane to completely clear the selection.
• Choose Edit > Select > None or press CTRL+SHIFT+A to completely clear the selection.
• Click on a single clip in the Clips pane to clear the time selection and select the clip.
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Working with partial clips
353
Markers and the snap grid
SONAR has a collection of features you can use to simplify and speed the work you do arranging
your projects. Here are a few of the most important things you can do:
• Show gridlines on measure boundaries in the Track view.
• Define and use the snap grid to make drag-and-drop editing more accurate.
• Create markers to identify and work with key time points in your project.
See:
“Showing gridlines” on page 354
“Defining and using the Snap Grid” on page 354
“Snap offsets” on page 357
“Creating and using markers” on page 357
Showing gridlines
Displaying gridlines, or vertical rules, in the Clips pane of the Track view makes it easy to see at a
glance how clips align with each other, how they align with measure boundaries, and when they start
and end.
To show/hide vertical grid lines
1. Click the Track view View menu, point to Display > Vertical Grid Lines and select one of the
following options:
• None.
No vertical grid lines are displayed
• Behind Clips. Vertical grid lines are displayed, but clips will draw on top of them, so clip
contents will not be obstructed.
• In Front of Clips. Vertical grid lines are displayed and drawn on top of clips, always visible.
SONAR displays the Track view as you requested.
Defining and using the Snap Grid
SONAR lets you define a snap grid that makes it easier to arrange clips, select time ranges, and
control envelope shape drawing. To use the snap grid, enable the Snap to Grid button
in the
Control Bar’s Snap module (or press N) and set the grid resolution to an interval of musical time,
such as a whole note, half note, or quarter note; a unit of absolute time: a number of frames,
seconds or samples; an event; the start or end of a clip; a marker; or audio transients. The grid can
use multiple resolutions at the same time, such as a whole note, and audio transients. When the
Snap to Grid button is enabled, if you move or paste clips or markers, items will be snapped to the
nearest point on the snap grid.
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You can also use the snap grid to move clips by a certain interval, rather than snap them to the
interval. Moving by an interval can be useful during drag-and-drop operations, if your data are not
exactly aligned with measure or note boundaries. To set advanced Snap to Grid settings, go to
Edit > Preferences > Customization - Snap to Grid.
Magnetic snap. Cakewalk’s snap grid has an option called magnetic snap. This means that when
you’re dragging the boundary of an object, you can move the boundary freely until the boundary gets
within a certain number of ticks from the snap target. The closer the object gets to the snap target,
the more strongly the object is pulled to the target. You can set the strength of magnetic snap to low,
medium, high, or off. Note that if you are zoomed out a certain amount, the time boundary around
the snap target will appear to be quite small, and you might think that the snap grid is not functioning.
If this is the case, zoom in closer to enhance your editing experience. If you’re dragging a whole clip,
magnetic snap is not in effect.
To enable or disable the Snap Grid
Do one of the following:
• Click the Snap to Grid button
in the Control Bar’s Snap module.
• Press N.
To change the snap options
1. In the Control Bar’s Snap module, select one or more of the following resolution options:
• Time resolution. Snap to the selected musical or absolute time resolution. Click and hold
the mouse button pressed to select a different duration from the pop-up menu. For absolute
time resolutions (samples, frames, seconds), type the desired number of units. When Smart
Grid is selected, the snap resolution is dynamically determined by the horizontal zoom level,
and the M:B:T time rulers in the Clips pane and Piano Roll view are optimized to show
relevant snap locations.
Note: To exit Smart Grid mode, clear the Smart Grid check mark. If you manually select a new
resolution while Smart Grid is enabled, the new settings only apply until the focused view's
zoom level changes.
• Triplet . Reduces the duration of the selected Musical time resolution by 2/3 of its original
duration. When Triplet is enabled, three note events fit in the space of two.
• Dotted . Increase the duration of the selected Musical time resolution by half of its original
value (150%).
• Snap To. Align data to the snap grid.
• Snap By. Move data by the grid resolution.
• Landmark Events
. Snap to the selected landmarks, including markers, Now Time,
clips, audio transients, MIDI notes, and automation envelope nodes. To select the desired
landmarks, right-click the Snap to Grid button
Arranging and editing
Markers and the snap grid
to open the Preferences dialog, then
355
select the desired check boxes in the Landmarks section. SONAR will snap to landmarks on
tracks/lanes that are currently visible in the Clips pane.
2. Go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Snap to Grid.
3. If you want to change the magnetic snap strength, or turn off magnetic snap, adjust the Snap
Intensity slider.
4. If you want to automatically snap edited audio clips to the nearest zero crossing of the waveform
(the point at which there is no volume, to minimize the glitches that can happen when waveforms
are spliced together) select the Snap to Nearest Audio Zero Crossings check box.
5. Click OK to close the dialog box.
All time selections and drag-and-drop editing operations use the new snap grid resolution(s).
To use a secondary Snap to Grid resolution
By default, SONAR uses the global Snap to Grid settings when snap is enabled. However, you can
also specify a secondary Snap to Grid resolution that is in effect when holding down the N key.
To assign the secondary Snap to Grid settings, hold down the N key while selecting the desired snap
settings in the Control Bar’s Snap module.
To momentarily apply the secondary Snap to Grid resolution, hold down the N key while dragging or
editing data that is snapping to the grid. When the N key is released, the main global snap settings
are restored.
To swap the primary and secondary Snap to Grid settings, press CTRL+SHIFT+N.
Note: To enable/disable Snap to Grid, press the N key quickly. To assign or use the secondary
Snap to Grid resolution, keep the N key pressed.
Tip: You can configure the secondary Snap to Grid resolution to effectively bypass snapping when
holding down the N key. To do so, hold down the N key while disabling the snap resolution and snap
landmarks in the Control Bar’s Snap module. Snapping will now be temporarily disabled while you
hold down the N key.
See also:
“Snap to Grid shortcuts” on page 1461
“Snap module” on page 502
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Arranging and editing
Markers and the snap grid
Snap offsets
Snap offsets allow you to set a point other than the beginning of a clip as the “snap” point used by
the Snap to Grid. A snap offset is the number of samples from the beginning of the clip. Snap offsets
affect all edits that obey the Snap to Grid setting. Once the snap offset is added, you can set the
Timer Ruler to SMPTE or MBT time.
Note: You cannot set a snap offset for a Groove clip.
Creating a snap offset
Use the following to add a snap offset to a clip:
1. Locate the place in the clip where you want to put the snap offset, and set the Now Time to that
location. Use the Scrub tool if necessary.
2. Right-click on the clip and select Set Snap Offset to Now Time from the menu that appears.
Edits to that clip, when the Snap to Grid button is depressed, now snap to the snap offset rather
than the beginning of the clip.
Deleting a snap offset
1. Select the clip.
2. Open the Clip Inspector and select the Properties section.
3. Click the Snap Offset field and type 0.
Creating and using markers
Markers are a way of associating a name with a time point in your project. You use markers to name
sections of a project, to mark hit points in a film score, or simply to provide a shortcut for working with
any time point in a project. Markers make it easy to:
• Jump to a specific time point in a project.
• Select a portion of a project.
• Enter a time in any dialog box, by pressing G and choosing the marker you want.
You can see and work with markers in four ways:
• They are displayed in the Time Ruler at the top of the Track, Staff, and Piano Roll view.
• The Markers module in the Control Bar lets you add markers and jump to specific marker
locations.
• The Markers view displays all markers and lets you add, edit, and delete markers.
• You can press M while playback is in progress to add a marker on the fly.
Arranging and editing
Markers and the snap grid
357
The time associated with a marker can be expressed in musical time or as a locked SMPTE time. If
a marker has a musical time (measures, beats, and ticks), the marker stays at that musical time
regardless of changes in tempo. If a marker has a locked SMPTE time (hours, minutes, seconds,
and frames), the marker stays at the same time even when the tempo is changed. Locked markers
are useful for projects that require you to sync the music or sound with film scores or multimedia
presentations. See “To add a marker” on page 359.
SONAR takes the current snap grid settings into account when you move or copy markers. For
example, if the snap grid is set to even measure boundaries, any time you move or copy a marker,
the marker will be snapped to the beginning of the nearest measure. You are allowed to have any
number of markers at a single time point. To display the Markers view, choose Views > Markers.
From the Markers view, you can use the File > Print and File > Print Preview commands to print a
listing of markers.
Figure 84.
The Markers view
You can add markers while playback is stopped or while playback is in progress (on the fly). When
you add a marker while playback is stopped, you can enter a name for the marker and either use the
Now time or enter a different time. When you add a marker on the fly, the marker is named
automatically and assigned the Now time. Using the Markers view, you can edit the names and
times whenever you want.
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Markers and the snap grid
To add a marker
1. Open the Markers dialog box in one of the following ways:
• Click
in the Control Bar’s Markers module.
• Press M.
• Choose Project > Insert Marker.
• Click
in the Markers view.
• Hold down the CTRL key and click the marker section of the Time Ruler.
• Right-click in the Time Ruler and select Insert Marker.
SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
Figure 85.
The Marker dialog
2. Enter a name for the marker in the Name box.
3. The time is set to the Now time. If you want, use the spinners to change the time or type in a new
marker time.
4. Check the Locked to SMPTE box if you want to lock the marker to the SMPTE time.
5. Click OK.
SONAR adds the marker and displays it in the Time Ruler, the Markers view, and the Control Bar’s
Markers module.
To add a marker on the fly
• Click
in the Control Bar’s Markers module, or press M.
SONAR adds a marker at the Now time and displays it in the Time Ruler, the Markers view, and the
Markers module.
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Markers and the snap grid
359
To edit a marker
1. Either right-click on the marker in the Time Ruler, or choose a marker in the Markers view and
click
. SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
2. Change the marker name, time, or other settings as desired.
3. Click OK.
SONAR updates the marker in the Time Ruler and the Markers view.
To copy a marker
1. Press and hold the CTRL key.
2. Drag a marker in the Time Ruler of the Track view, Staff view, Tempo view, or Piano Roll view.
SONAR displays the Marker dialog box.
3. Enter the desired marker settings and click OK.
SONAR copies the marker and displays it in the Time Ruler and the Markers view. You can also cut
and paste markers directly from the Markers view.
To lock or unlock several markers
1. In the Markers view, select one or more markers. Use the CTRL and SHIFT keys if necessary to
modify the selection.
2. Select or deselect
.
SONAR updates the markers.
To move a marker
• Drag the marker in the Time Ruler.
SONAR updates the marker time and shows it at the new location.
To delete a marker
1. Press and hold the left mouse button while pointing to a marker in the Time Ruler.
2. Press DELETE, and release the mouse button.
SONAR deletes the marker. You can use Edit > Undo if you make a mistake.
To delete markers from the Markers view
1. In the Markers view, select one or more markers. Use the CTRL and SHIFT keys if necessary to
modify the selection.
2. Click
or press DELETE.
SONAR deletes the selected markers. You can use Undo if you make a mistake.
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Arranging and editing
Markers and the snap grid
To jump to a marker
There are many different ways to jump to a specific marker:
• Choose a marker from the drop-down list in the Control Bar’s Markers module.
• Press G twice to display a list of markers, choose the marker you want, and click OK.
• Click on a marker in the Markers view to set the Now time to that marker.
• Click the Next Marker button
or Previous Marker button
in the Markers module.
• Press CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE DOWN to jump to the next marker, or press CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE UP
to jump to the previous marker.
To select a time range using markers
You can select a range of times by clicking in the marker section of the Time Ruler:
• Click to the left of the first marker to select the time between the start of the project and the first
marker.
• Click to the right of the last marker to select the time between the marker and the end of the
project.
• Click between two markers to select the time between the markers.
• If looping is enabled, click to the right of the Loop Start marker to select the loop region
• If punch recording is enabled, click to the right of the Punch In marker to select the punch region
Tip: If you press TAB or right-click while holding down the left mouse button over the markers, you
can toggle through which of the overlaid markers you'd like to move.
For example, if the Now Time marker, a regular Marker, a Loop point, and a Punch point are all at
measure 5, pressing Tab (while holding down the left mouse button) toggles through T (Now Time),
M (regular), L (Loop), and P (Punch). If you want to change the regular marker, simply drag the
mouse when M is displayed; if you want to adjust the position of the Loop point, tab through to L, and
so on.
Arranging and editing
Markers and the snap grid
361
TAB to transients
You can use the TAB and SHIFT+TAB keys to jump to audio transients, and MIDI Note events.
Tabbing is only possible when the transport is not rolling.
TAB to transients is selection-based, which means tabbing will go to the next/previous transient
amongst all selected clips. If there is no selection, tabbing operates on the current track.
To move the Now time to the next transient
• Press TAB.
To move the Now time to the previous transient
• Press SHIFT+TAB.
TAB to transients landmarks
The following table shows how TAB to transients applies to different SONAR clip types.
Clip type
TAB target
Audio Groove clips.
Each slice.
"Stretch to tempo" clips (clips that are
not groove clip looped but use groove
clip for rendering).
Each slice.
Regular audio clips.
Each transient as detected by AudioSnap.
Slip stretched audio clips.
Each transient as detected by AudioSnap, scaled to the stretch
amount so tabbing continues to line up perfectly.
MIDI clips.
Each Note event (MIDI Controller data is ignored).
Note: If there are multiple Note events at the exact same tick
position, only one of the notes will be tabbed to.
MIDI Groove clips.
Each Note event.
Step Sequencer clips.
Each step that contains a note.
Table 55.
TAB to transients landmarks
TAB to transients in the Piano Roll view
In addition to the Track view inline Piano Roll, TAB to transients also works in the Piano Roll view. If
multiple tracks are displayed in the Piano Roll view, tabbing only operates on the current track.
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Arranging and editing
TAB to transients
Working with linked clips
SONAR makes it easy to repeat a pattern over and over using a feature called linked clips. Linked
clips always have the same contents, name, and display color. Any change you make to the internal
contents of one of the clips, such as adding or editing notes or effects, automatically applies to all of
them. Any number of clips may be linked with each other. To create linked clips, copy the clips and
when pasting, check the Linked Clips option in the Paste dialog box or the Drag and Drop Options
dialog box. Linked clips are displayed with a dotted border, so they are easy to spot. You can also
identify linked clips from the Clip Inspector or by using the Select All Siblings command in the Clips
pane context menu. You can easily unlink linked clips, and then edit them individually. You have two
options when unlinking linked clips:
Option
How it works
New linked group
The clips you selected will still be linked to each other, but won’t be linked to any
clips that are not selected
Independent
Every selected clip will be completely independent
Table 56.
Once you have unlinked linked clips, you cannot re-link them except by using Edit > Undo.
If you attempt to copy only a portion of a linked clip, the copy will not be linked to the original. Copies
of a clip can be linked to the original only when you select and copy the entire clip.
To make linked copies of a clip using drag and drop
1. Click the Track view Options menu and choose Drag & Drop Options to display the Drag and
Drop Options dialog box.
2. Check the option labeled Copy Entire Clips as Linked Clips.
3. Click OK.
4. Select the clips you want to copy.
5. Position the mouse over one of the selected clips.
6. Press and hold down the CTRL key.
7. Press and hold down the left mouse button. A rectangle is displayed around the selected clips.
8. Drag the clips to their new location, and release the mouse button.
9. If necessary, confirm the options in the Drag and Drop Options dialog box, and click OK.
SONAR creates copies of the selected clips that are linked to the originals. Any change you make to
one of the clips is applied to all linked clips, including the original clip.
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Working with linked clips
363
To make linked copies of a clip using copy and paste
1. Select the clips you want to copy.
2. Choose Edit > Copy Special to display the Copy dialog box.
3. Choose options as desired and click OK. SONAR copies the clips to the Clipboard.
4. Click in the Track pane to set the current track to be the one where clips should be pasted.
5. Set the Now time to be the time at which the clips should be pasted.
6. Choose Edit > Paste Special to display the Paste dialog box.
7. In the Paste dialog box, choose one of two options:
• Linked Repetitions. If you choose this option, only the new copies of the original clip are
linked together. Edits you make to the new copies do not affect the original, and vice versa.
• Link to Original Clip(s). If you choose this option, the new copies and the original clip are
linked together. Edits you make to any of the linked clips, including the original, affect all other
linked clips in the group.
8. Choose the other options you want and click OK.
SONAR creates copies of the selected clips that are linked in the way you chose.
To unlink linked clips
1. In the Clips pane, select the clips you want to unlink.
2. Right-click on any selected clip and choose Unlink from the pop-up menu. SONAR displays the
Unlink Clips dialog box.
3. Choose the unlink option you want, and click OK.
SONAR unlinks the clips and updates the Clips pane accordingly. From now on, any changes you
make to one of the clips are applied only to remaining linked clips, if any.
To select the clips that are linked to another clip
1. Select one or more clips in the Track view.
2. Right-click on any selected clip and choose Select All Siblings from the pop-up menu.
SONAR selects any clip that is linked to one of the currently selected clips.
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Arranging and editing
Working with linked clips
Splitting and combining clips
SONAR provides several commands that are used to split and combine clips. Specifically, you
can:Split a clip into several smaller clips
• Create a new clip from a selected portion of an existing clip
• Combine adjacent or overlapping clips into a single, longer clip
The following table summarizes the commands you can use.
To do this
Use this command
Notes
Split clips into parts
•
Works on all selected clips. You can also press the s
key to split all selected clips at the Now Time.
•
Combine several clips
into one
Right-click the clip and
choose Split on the
context menu
Press S
Click the Track view Clips If the selected clips are in separate tracks, one clip is
menu and choose Bounce created for each track. All clip automation is applied
destructively to the new clip.
to Clip(s)
Table 57.
Note: Combining a stereo and mono clip always produces a stereo clip.
The Split command lets you split clips four different ways.
Option
How it works
Split at Time
Splits selected clips at a specific point in time. By default, the split occurs at the
Now time, but you can choose any time you want.
Split Repeatedly
Splits selected clips at regular intervals, beginning at a specified time, with a
specified duration. For example, you could split a long clip into 4-bar clips starting
at measure 5.
Split at Markers
Splits selected clips at any marker location. This option is available only if your
project has markers.
Split when Silent
Removes “silent” stretches of one measure or more from selected clips. The
presence in a measure of any event—including those that make no sound, such as
a patch change or lyric event—will cause that measure to be retained.
Table 58.
Arranging and editing
Splitting and combining clips
365
While the Split command works for both MIDI and audio clips, for audio clips, the Split command
provides sample accurate editing and snap-to-zero capability.Note that the Edit > Undo and Edit >
Redo commands work with all three of these editing commands.
SONAR allows you to specify what is selected after a clip is split into two parts:
• Left portion (default). Only the left portion is selected.
• Right portion.
Only the right portion is selected.
• Both portions. Both the left and right portions are selected.
• None.
Neither portion is selected.
To specify the default split behavior
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Editing.
2. Under Clips, select the desired option in the Selection after single split list.
To split clips into smaller clips
1. Select the clips you want to split.
2. Right-click on any selected clip, and choose Split from the pop-up menu. SONAR shows the
Split dialog box or press the S key to split the clip(s) at the Now Time.
3. Choose the Split option you want to use, and enter the settings you want to use.
4. Click OK.
Or
1. Select the clips you want to split.
2. Set the Now Time to the time you want to split the clips.
3. Press the S key.
SONAR splits the selected clips according to your instructions.
To combine clips
1. Select the clips you want to combine (the clips must be on the same track).
2. Right-click on of the clips and select Bounce to Clip(s) from the pop-up menu.
SONAR combines the selected clips into a single, new clip.
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Splitting and combining clips
Take lanes and comping takes
Take lanes provide an alternative method of viewing and editing overlapping clips on tracks.
Overlapping clips can occur when you record multiple takes on the same track. Take lanes can be
expanded or collapsed on each track. When expanded, Take lanes are indented below the parent
track. Take lanes can be created, hidden, and removed, and each track can have an unlimited
number of lanes.
Take lanes provide many benefits, including:
• Better visibility of clip data.
• Less screen clutter on track strips.
• Ability to quickly mute and solo individual takes.
• Better workflow for creating a final composite take out of many separate takes.
To show a track’s Take lanes, click the track’s Expand/collapse Take lanes button
Figure 86.
Take lanes collapsed.
Figure 87.
Take lanes expanded.
.
A
B
A. Parent track B. Take lanes
When you view clips in separate take lanes, it’s easy to mute and solo them individually and
eventually come up with a composite take, with only the best clips playing back.
When you use loop recording, you can store all your takes in the same track, and then use the Mute
tool or “Audition (selection playback)” on page 376 to hear only the ones you want.
If you enable a track’s Expand/collapse Take Lanes button
separate lanes whenever any of the following happens:
Arranging and editing
Take lanes and comping takes
, SONAR moves the track’s clips to
367
• You use loop recording in Sound on Sound mode, and choose to store takes in a single track.
• You record over some pre-existing data while in Sound on Sound mode.
• The track contains at least one overlapping clip.
See:
“Take lane controls” on page 368
“Using Take lanes” on page 370
“Take lanes and comping takes” on page 367
Take lane controls
Most of the controls in Take lanes are identical to the controls found in tracks.
Figure 88.
Take lane controls.
A
B
C
D
F
E
G H
I
J
A. Expand/collapse Take lanes B. Select lane C. Remove lane D. Insert new lane E. Lane name F. Edit Filter
G. Mute H. Solo I. Arm for recording J. Comments
The following controls are shown in each Take lane:
• Remove lane
.
Remove lane and all data in the lane.
• Insert new lane . Add a new empty lane below the clicked lane. Each track can have an
unlimited number of lanes. New Take lanes are automatically named T1, T2, T3, etc.
• Select. Click to select the lane and its parent track. Lanes support the same selection gestures
as tracks.
• Edit Filter.
Use a track’s Edit Filter control to specify the type of data you want to edit.
• Clips. The selected tool operates on clips.
• Audio Transients. The selected tool operates on audio transients (only available for audio
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Arranging and editing
Take lanes and comping takes
tracks).
• Notes. The selected tool operates on MIDI Note events (only available for MIDI and
Instrument tracks).
• Clip Automation. The selected tool operates on clip automation envelopes. Select the
desired automation parameter from the submenu. Created envelopes are displayed in bold
text at the top of the menu.
• Name. Take lanes are automatically named with a sequential take number. You can rename
Take lanes, just like regular tracks.
• Solo.
track.
Solo the Take lane and temporarily mute all other Take lanes within the same parent
• Mute.
Mute the Take lane.
• Record Arm. Arms the Take lane for recording. New data will overwrite existing data,
regardless of the global record mode.
• Comments. Type a comment or description of the selected take.
Note: When using Quick Groups on Take lanes, the Quick Group affects Take lanes with the
same identical name in other selected tracks.
See:
“Using Take lanes” on page 370
“Take lanes and comping takes” on page 367
Arranging and editing
Take lanes and comping takes
369
Using Take lanes
To expand/collapse a track’s Take lanes
Click a track’s Expand/collapse Take Lanes button
.
Any existing clips are moved from the parent track to separate Take lanes.
Tip: To show/hide Take lanes in the current track, press SHIFT+T.
Figure 89.
You can expand and collapse Take lanes on each track.
A
B
A. Take lanes expanded B. Take lanes collapsed
After Take lanes are expanded, you can move clips on top of each other without SONAR
automatically creating new Take lanes.
Note 1: If you want to move a clip to the exact same time placement in an adjacent lane, hold
the SHIFT key down while you drag.
Note 2: If the Track view Options > Auto Crossfade option is enabled, SONAR adds a
crossfade between any newly overlapped clips that are on the same Take lane.
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Arranging and editing
Take lanes and comping takes
Take lanes and Automation lanes can be displayed simultaneously. Take lanes are always displayed
immediately below the parent track, and Automation lanes are displayed below the Take lanes.
The Expand/collapse Take Lanes button has three states:
• Collapsed, with no existing lanes. The button is not highlighted
.
• Collapsed, with at least one existing lane. The button has a soft blue glow
• Expanded. The button is solid blue
.
.
To insert a new Take lane
1. Click a track’s Expand/collapse Take Lanes
2. Click the Insert new lane button
button.
in an existing Take lane.
A new lane is created below the clicked lane. New Take lanes are automatically named T1, T2,
T3, etc.
To remove a lane
Click the lane’s Remove lane button
. The lane is removed, and any existing clips are deleted.
To reorder lanes
Click any empty space in a lane and drag the lane up or down to the desired location.
To resize lanes
Move the mouse pointer over the gap below a lane until the cursor looks like this
down to resize the lane to your liking.
, then drag up or
When you resize a lane, all other Take lanes and Automation lanes in the same track automatically
inherit the same height.
Figure 90.
Drag the splitter bar up/down to resize lanes.
Arranging and editing
Take lanes and comping takes
371
To mute or unmute a Take lane
Click the Take lane’s Mute button
.
To solo or unsolo a Take lane
Click the Take lane’s Solo button
.
You can only solo one Take lane at a time.
To arm a Take lane for recording
Click the Take lane’s Arm for Recording button
.
You can only arm one Take lane at a time.
Note: If a track’s Take lanes are expanded while recording into the parent track, the recorded
data will be moved to a new Take lane after recording is stopped.
To loop record multiple takes into separate Take lanes
1. Go to Edit > Preferences > Project - Record, or right-click the Record button to access
recording settings.
2. Under the Recording Mode options, choose Sound on Sound (Blend).
3. Under Loop Recording, choose Store Takes in a Single Track, and click OK.
4. Click the target track’s Expand/collapse Take Lanes button
so Take lanes are visible.
5. Click the parent track’s Arm for Recording button. Note: It is important that you arm the parent
track, not an existing Take lane.
6. Set your loop boundaries and start recording multiple passes through the looped area.
7. Stop recording.
To select a lane
Click the top left corner of the Take lane.
To select all Take lanes in a track, do one of the following:
• Double-click the top left corner in any Take lane.
• Click the parent track’s track number.
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Take lanes and comping takes
To edit clip automation in a Take lane
1. Click a track’s Expand/collapse Take lanes button
.
2. Click the Take lane’s Edit Filter, point to Clip Automation, and select the desired clip automation
parameter. Created envelopes are displayed in bold text at the top of the menu.
3. Use the global tools to edit automation envelopes. For details see “Tools” on page 407.
To crop overlapping clips to eliminate overlap
1. In a multi-lane track, move either the Smart tool
or the Edit tool
overlapping clips until the cursor turns into the overlap cropping tool.
between two
A
A. Overlap cropping tool
2. In the space between the clips, click the spot where you want the first clip to end and the second
one to begin. SONAR crops both clips so that they no longer overlap.
See:
“Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)” on page 375
Arranging and editing
Take lanes and comping takes
373
To edit a specific Take lane control across multiple tracks
Quick Groups allow you to effortlessly adjust identical controls across the same Take lane in different
tracks. For example, you can quickly mute all Take lanes named T2. You can Quick Group the Mute,
Solo, Arm for Recording and Edit Filter controls. Quick Groups can either affect all tracks, or only
selected tracks of the same type. You hold down the CTRL key to momentarily create a Quick
Group.
Quick Groups operate on lanes with the same original name across different tracks, not in lanes on
the same track. All Take lanes remember their original name, even if you rename the lanes. For
example, all Take lanes originally named T2 are grouped, even if some of them have been renamed.
Do one of the following:
• To adjust the same control in all tracks. Hold down the CTRL key and adjust a control in a
track that is not selected. SONAR automatically adjusts the same control in all other tracks.
• To adjust the same control in selected tracks. Select the tracks you want to adjust, then hold
down the CTRL key and adjust a control in any selected track. SONAR automatically adjusts the
same control in all other selected tracks of the same type.
For example, to change the Edit Filter on all Take lanes originally named T2, select the tracks you
want to include in the Quick Group, then hold down the CTRL key while you adjust the Edit Filter
control on any selected lane named T2.
When you adjust controls in a Quick Group, each affected control displays a temporary group color.
For more information about Quick Groups, see “Quick Groups” on page 917.
See:
“Take lanes and comping takes” on page 367
“Take lane controls” on page 368
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Arranging and editing
Take lanes and comping takes
Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)
Together with Take lanes, clip muting and isolating (clip soloing) make it easy to build a composite
take from multiple takes.
The Mute tool
lets you mute/unmute entire clips, or only regions within clips. Click a clip to mute/
unmute the clip. Drag in the bottom half of the clip to mute a region, and drag in the top half to
unmute a region. A clip that is completely muted displays the Mute icon
in its upper left corner.In
addition, you can also play back only selected data if you want by pressing the SHIFT key and the
SPACEBAR at the same time.
To mute a time range
1. Select the Mute tool
in the Control Bar.
2. If you want to mute a precise amount of time, enable the Snap to Grid button
menu to an appropriate value.
and set its
3. Drag across the bottom half of the clip.
SONAR mutes the area you dragged through and displays the muted waveform or MIDI data as a
dotted line.
A
A. Muted area of clip
To unmute a time range
1. Select the Mute tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Drag across the top half of the clip.
Arranging and editing
Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)
375
To mute or unmute an entire clip
1. Select the Mute tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Click the clip.
When a clip is currently muted, SONAR displays the Mute icon in the upper left corner of the clip.
A
A. Mute icon
Toggling a clip’s mute status
You can mute or unmute a clip without using the Mute tool if you want. Pressing K on your keyboard
toggles the mute status of all selected clips. Any muted time ranges remain muted.
See:
“Audition (selection playback)” on page 376
“Isolating (clip soloing)” on page 376
Audition (selection playback)
To audition the current selection, press SHIFT+SPACEBAR. Only the selected data plays back.
Isolating (clip soloing)
Isolating works by muting all the clips in a track in the same time region except the ones that you
want to hear. To make it simpler to work with overlapping clips in the same track, click the track’s
Expand/collapse Take Lanes button
376
to show overlapping clips in separate lanes.
Arranging and editing
Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)
To isolate a region
1. Select the Mute tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
3. Hold down the CTRL key and drag across the region you want to isolate.
To isolate a clip
1. Select the Mute tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
3. Hold down the CTRL key and click the clip to isolate the entire clip/lane.
Arranging and editing
Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)
377
Track folders
A track folder contains tracks in the Track pane of the Track view. Track folders make larger projects
much easier to manage—you can group different types of tracks in their own folder: vocals, soft
synths, ReWire instruments, drums, etc.The main characteristics of a track folder are:
• You can edit all the tracks in the folder as if you were editing a single track—especially valuable
for drum tracks. The track folder displays a composite clip in the Clips pane of all the clips in the
folder. Selecting a time range in the composite clip selects data in all the enclosed tracks in the
same time range; now you can edit all the tracks in the folder by editing the selected area of the
composite clip.
• You can hide tracks in a folder, freeing up space on your screen.
• A folder can contain any type of track—you can put MIDI, audio, and synth tracks in the same
folder.
• You can archive, mute, solo, arm, or input monitor all the tracks in a folder with one click—just
click the Archive, Mute, Solo, Arm, or Input Echo button on the track folder.
E
F
G
D
C
H
B
A
A. The tracks in a track folder are indented B. Description box C. Track folder info D. Open/Close folder
E. Track folder—click here to select all data in track folder F. Archive, Mute, Solo, Arm, and Input Echo buttons
G. Selected area of composite clip H. Composite clip
To create a track folder
• Right-click in the Track pane of the Track view, and choose Insert Track Folder from the pop-up
menu.
Or
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Arranging and editing
Track folders
• Use the Insert > Track Folder menu command.
Or
• Right-click a track that’s not in a track folder and select Move to Folder > New Track Folder from
the pop-up menu.
A new track folder appears in the Track pane.
To add a track to a track folder
• In the Track view, move the mouse cursor just to the right of the track number of a pre-existing
track until the cursor turns into a black, double-ended arrow, and then click and drag the track’s
titlebar onto the track folder. Release the mouse.
Or
• Insert a track when a track within a track folder has focus.
Or
• Right-click a track that’s not in a track folder and select Move to Folder > Track Folder “n” from
the pop-up menu.
Or
• Select the tracks you want to add to the folder, right-click on the folder and select Add Track(s) to
Folder from the menu that appears.
The added track appears in the track folder, and is indented a little to show that it’s inside the track
folder.
To remove a track from a track folder
• In the Track view, move the cursor just to the right of the track number of a track until the cursor
turns into a black, double-ended arrow, and then click and drag the track’s titlebar out of the Track
Folder. Release the mouse.
Or
• Right-click the track and select Remove From Folder from the pop-up menu.
To add multiple tracks to a track folder
1. Select the tracks you want to add.
2. Right-click a selected track and choose Move to Folder > Track Folder “n” from the pop-up
menu.
To remove multiple tracks from a track folder
1. Select the tracks you want to remove.
2. Right-click a selected track and choose Remove From Folder from the pop-up menu.
Arranging and editing
Track folders
379
To delete a track folder
1. In the Track view, right-click and select Delete Track Folder from the menu that appears.
2. SONAR asks you if you want to delete all the tracks in the folder along with the track folder—
click Yes or No.
SONAR deletes the track folder. If you didn’t choose to delete the tracks in the track folders, SONAR
moves these tracks to the top level.
To open or close a track folder
• Click the folder icon that’s just left of the track folder’s name.
To select or deselect all the tracks in a track folder
• Click just to the left of the folder icon.
To rename a track folder
• Double-click the track folder’s name, type a new name, and press ENTER.
To add a description to a track folder
• Double-click the Description box, type a description, and press ENTER.
To select all clips in a time range
• With the Smart tool
or Select tool
, drag across the bottom half of the composite clip.
Now you can edit, move, cut and paste all the selected clips by editing the selected part of the
composite clip.
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Arranging and editing
Track folders
Adding effects in the Track view
You can add both MIDI and audio effects directly from the Track view. SONAR adds these effects in
real-time, preserving your track’s original data.
To add effects in the Track view
1. Right-click in the effects bin of the track you want to add effects to.
A
A. Right-click here to add an effect
An effects pop-up menu appears. SONAR displays MIDI effects if you are editing a MIDI track,
and audio effects for an audio track.
2. Select an effect from the menu.
The name of the effect appears in the effects bin and the effect’s property page appears. To
delete the effect, right-click the effect name and choose Delete from the pop-up menu.
3. Set the effects parameters or choose a preset.
Play your track and listen to the effect(s).
Note: If you use the same effects for more than one track, it’s more efficient to add the effects
to an bus. See “To patch a track through a bus” on page 843.
Arranging and editing
Adding effects in the Track view
381
Changing tempos
Your project can incorporate all kinds of tempo changes, including step changes from one tempo to
another, gradual increases (accelerandos) or decreases (ritardandos), and almost any other type of
change you can imagine. The tempo changes you add to your project become part of the project and
are saved with the project file.You can add tempo changes to your project in the following ways:
• Clicking the tempo display in the Control Bar’s Transport module.
• Using the Project > Insert Tempo Change and Project > Insert Series of Tempos commands.
• By drawing tempo changes graphically in the Tempo view.
• Inserting tempo changes in the Tempo view’s Tempo List pane.
The Process > Fit to Time and Process > Fit Improvisation commands can also be used to
introduce tempo changes into your work file. For more information, see “Stretching and shrinking
events” on page 714 and “Fit Improvisation” on page 726.
When you change the tempo of a project that contains audio, SONAR allows you to stretch or shrink
audio clips when you have converted them to Groove clips and have enabled the Follow Project
Pitch option in the Loop Construction view. Otherwise, the MIDI tracks will speed up or slow down
while the audio tracks will play at the same speed. For more information about Groove clips, see
“Working with Groove Clip audio” on page 659. Audio clips that are not Groove clips change in size
when moved to a part of your project that has a different tempo.
Sometimes you don’t want to adjust the speed of your audio. Here are some examples:
• If your project contains background music and a voice-over, you might want to change the tempo
of the background music without altering the voice-over.
• If you’re trying to modify the speed of some MIDI tracks to match a sampled drum groove, you
want to leave the audio unchanged.
When you change the tempo of your project, clips having stretching enabled change tempo along
with the project, while those that do not have stretching enabled do not. For more information about
stretch-enabling clips, see “To set the tempo of a Groove Clip” on page 662.
Tempos set when the clock source is set to MIDI Sync do not have any effect, because SONAR
follows the external tempo. For more information, see “Synchronizing your gear” on page 1153.
See:
“Using the Transport module” on page 383
“SONAR changes the current tempo to the desired value.Using the Tempo commands” on page 383
“Using the Tempo view” on page 386
“Automation time base” on page 1006
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Arranging and editing
Changing tempos
Using the Transport module
The Transport module displays the current tempo and lets you change the tempo as shown in the
following figure.
Figure 91.
The Transport module.
A
A. Click to enter a new tempo
When you enter a new tempo directly in the Transport module, you change the most recent tempo
setting in the project.
To change the current tempo in the Tempo toolbar
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Click the current tempo in the Transport module.
3. Type a new value and press ENTER, or use the spinners to change the tempo value.
SONAR changes the current tempo to the desired value.Using the Tempo commands
The Project > Insert Tempo Change and Project > Insert Series of Tempos commands can be
used to change the existing tempo of a project or to introduce one or more tempo changes at various
points in a project. You can enter tempo values directly, introduce smooth increase or decreases in
tempo, or even use your mouse to tap out the tempo you want for some portion of a project.
Arranging and editing
Changing tempos
383
To insert a tempo change
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Choose Project > Insert Tempo Change to display the Tempo dialog box.
Figure 92.
The Tempo dialog
3. Check the Insert a New Tempo box.
4. Enter a new tempo in one of the following ways:
• Type a value in the Tempo field.
• Click the arrows to change the value.
• Tap a new tempo in the space indicated in the dialog box.
5. Enter a starting time for the new tempo.
6. Click OK.
SONAR inserts a tempo change at the designated time.
To insert a series of tempos
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove clip Looping enabled.
2. Choose Project > Insert Series of Tempos to display the Insert Series of Tempos dialog box.
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Arranging and editing
Changing tempos
Figure 93.
The Insert Series of Tempos dialog
3. Enter a starting tempo, ending tempo, and step size.
4. Enter a starting and ending time for the series of tempo changes.
5. Click OK.
SONAR erases any existing tempo changes between the starting and ending time, and inserts a
series of tempo changes that change smoothly between the starting and ending time. This
command never inserts more than one tempo change on the same clock tick. Audio clips which you
want to follow tempo changes can also be converted to Groove clips in the Loop Construction view.
To modify the most recent tempo change
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Choose Project > Insert Tempo Change to display the Tempo dialog box.
3. Check the Change the Most Recent Tempo box.
4. Enter a new tempo in one of the following ways:
• Type a value in the Tempo field.
• Click the arrows to change the value.
• Tap a new tempo in the space indicated in the dialog box.
5. Click OK.
SONAR changes the most recent tempo to the new value.
Arranging and editing
Changing tempos
385
Using the Tempo view
The Tempo view provides both a graphic display of the tempo and a list of all tempo changes in your
project. In the graphical display you can use your mouse to draw tempo changes directly onto the
graph. In the tempo list, you can insert, edit, and delete individual tempo changes. To open the
Tempo view, choose Views > Tempo or press ALT+SHIFT+5. Click the Tempo List button
to
display or hide the tempo list.
Figure 94.
The Tempo view
If an entire project has a single tempo, the graph shows a straight horizontal line, and a single tempo
in the list.
The Control Bar contains several tools you can use to add or modify tempo changes:
Tool
Name
What it’s for
Select
Drag the Select tool in either the Tempo list or graphic display to select tempos
to edit
Freehand
Draw a custom curve indicating changes in tempo
Line
Draw a straight line indicating a steady increase or decrease in tempo
Erase
Eliminate tempo changes already in place for some portion of a project
Snap grid
Controls how often you can insert tempo changes—for example, every
measure, every eighth note, every 3 samples, etc.
Table 59.
If you make a mistake using any of these tools, you can use Edit > Undo to correct the error. When
you use the Freehand tool, the speed with which you drag the mouse determines the density of
tempo events. To insert a larger number of relatively small tempo changes, move the mouse slowly.
To insert a smaller number of relatively large tempo changes, drag the mouse quickly.
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Arranging and editing
Changing tempos
The Tempo List Pane has its own tools for editing tempo changes:
Tool
Name
What it’s for
Tempo List
Displaying a list of all tempo changes in the project.
Insert Tempo
Insert a new tempo change
Delete Tempo
Delete a tempo change
Tempo Properties
Edit a tempo change
Table 60.
To insert a tempo change in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Select the Freehand tool
or the Line tool
in the Control Bar.
3. Click in the Tempo view at any desired time point and tempo level.
SONAR introduces a tempo change at the indicated point.
To steadily increase or decrease the tempo in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Select the Line tool
in the Control Bar.
3. Drag a line in the graph from the starting time and tempo to the ending time and tempo.
SONAR introduces a linear series of tempo changes.
To draw a series of tempo changes in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
Arranging and editing
Changing tempos
387
2. Select the Freehand tool
in the Control Bar.
3. Drag the cursor across the graph, adjusting the tempo level as you move left to right.
SONAR introduces a series of tempo changes.
To erase tempo changes in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Select the Erase tool
in the Control Bar.
3. Drag the mouse over the graph to highlight the region you want to erase.
4. Release the mouse button.
SONAR deletes all tempo changes in the area you marked. The last tempo setting prior to the
erased region is now in effect in that region.
To insert a tempo change in the Tempo list in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Click the Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
3. Select any tempo change in the list.
4. Click Insert Tempo
to open the Tempo dialog box.
5. Set the tempo, time, and other properties.
6. Click OK.
SONAR inserts the new tempo into the list.
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Arranging and editing
Changing tempos
To edit a tempo change in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Click the Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
3. In the tempo list, select the tempo change to be edited.
4. Click Tempo Properties
or double-click the tempo change to open the Tempo dialog box.
5. Edit the tempo properties as desired.
6. Click OK.
To delete a tempo change from the Tempo list in the Tempo view
1. Enable Groove Clip Looping on any audio clips that you want to follow the tempo changes. Do
this by selecting one or more clips, right-clicking a selected clip, and choosing Groove > Clip
Looping from the pop-up menu. Each clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled has beveled
edges instead of sharp corners. The same command disables Groove Clip Looping on any
selected clip that has Groove Clip Looping enabled.
2. Click the Tempo List button
to display or hide the tempo list.
3. In the Tempo list, select the tempo change to be deleted.
4. Click Delete Tempo
, or press DELETE.
SONAR deletes the selected tempo change. You cannot delete the first tempo in the list.
Arranging and editing
Changing tempos
389
Undo, redo, and the undo history
SONAR provides very powerful Undo and Redo commands that let you move forward or backward
through any portion of an editing session. Every project has its own independent undo history. This
means you can return to any open project and use the Undo and Redo commands, even if you’ve
spent the last hour working on a different project. The undo history of a project is lost when you close
the project.
Remembering everything that is necessary to undo the changes you have made can use a lot of
memory. If a change you are about to make requires too much memory and cannot be undone, you
will be advised that the operation is too big to undo later and asked if you want to go ahead anyway.
If you do choose to perform the operation, you will not be able to undo it. Therefore, you may want to
save your project first.The Edit > History command displays a complete history of the commands
and actions you can undo for the current project. The Undo History dialog box looks like this:
Figure 95.
The Undo History dialog
A
B
C
A. Most recent change B. Click to clear the undo history C. Adjust the number of steps you can undo
The History command is grayed out until you make a change to the current project that can be
undone.
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Arranging and editing
Undo, redo, and the undo history
The History list is updated every time you make a change to a project. For example, if you insert a
new note into a project using the Piano Roll view, that action is added to the History list. This entry
remains on the list—even if you undo the change—so that you can redo the change later on. If you
delete the note, this change is added to the History list.
You can click the Clear button in the Undo History dialog box to erase the undo history for the
current project and free up some memory. If SONAR is low on memory, it may offer to erase the
History list. To revert to an earlier version of a project, highlight the entry in the History list that
represents the point to which you’d like to return, and click OK. SONAR performs the necessary
undo or redo actions to take you to that point. Once you edit the project (for example, by inserting a
note), the History list is truncated at that point. Then, as you do further work, the History list grows
again. Any events occurring before the event you highlighted remain on the list.
By default, SONAR keeps a history of up to 128 editing actions for each open project. Once that limit
is reached, each new action pushes out the oldest item from the History list. You can raise or lower
that number in the Undo History dialog box.
Arranging and editing
Undo, redo, and the undo history
391
Slip-editing (non-destructive editing)
Slip-editing allows you to non-destructively hide or reveal the beginning of a clip, the end of a clip, or
both. The hidden material in a clip is not heard during playback. All hidden material remains intact
and can be restored. All slip-editing movements correspond to the current snap to resolution. For
more information about the snap to grid, see “Defining and using the Snap Grid” on page 354.
A
B
A. Clip handle B. Slip-edit cursor
Important: Like any clips, slip-edited clips can be combined with other clips using the Track view
Clips > Bounce to Clip(s) command and slip-edited clips in a track can be mixed down to
another track. When a slip-edited clip is combined with another clip or an effect is applied to a
clip using the Process > Apply Effect > Audio Effects command, any slip-edited data (audio
clips or MIDI events that are cropped from view) is overwritten.
See also:
“Using slip-editing” on page 392
Using slip-editing
SONAR makes it easy to edit audio and MIDI clips by way of prominent clip handles that appear as
your cursor comes close to the edges of clips. The clip handles are easy to see and are equipped
with broad functionality for fade-ins, fade-outs, and crossfades, as well as non-destructive editing of
the beginning and end of clips.
To slip-edit a clip
1. Set an appropriate snap resolution in the Control Bar’s Snap module.
2. Select the Smart tool
or Edit tool
in the Control Bar.
3. If you are slip editing an audio clip, open the Clip Inspector, select the Groove Clip section and
make sure the Looping check box is unchecked.
4. Move the cursor over the beginning of the clip until the clip handle appears.
392
Arranging and editing
Slip-editing (non-destructive editing)
.
A
A. Clip handle
5. Click and drag the clip handle until the unwanted information has been removed.
The hidden information in the slip-edited clips remains intact but is not heard during playback.
To move data without moving its clip
1. Do one of the following:
• Using the Smart tool
to edit.
• Using the Edit tool
to edit.
, hold ALT+SHIFT move the pointer over the middle of the clip you want
, hold ALT+SHIFT move the pointer over the top third of the clip you want
The cursor changes to look like this
.
2. Click and drag the clip to the left or right as desired.
As in the case of slip-editing, the hidden information in the clip remains intact but is not heard
during playback.
Arranging and editing
Slip-editing (non-destructive editing)
393
To move data and the clip edge
1. Select the Smart tool
or Edit tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Hold down ALT+SHIFT and move the cursor to the edge of the clip you want to edit.
A clip handle appears at the edge of the clip you are editing.
3. Click and drag the edge of the clip to the desired location.
The hidden information in the clip remains intact but is not heard during playback.
To permanently delete slip-edited data
1. Select the clips that contain the slip-edited data you want to delete.
2. Select the Track view Clips > Apply Trimming command.
SONAR permanently deletes the slip-edited data from the clips you selected.
Slip-editing multiple clips
You can slip-edit multiple clips at the same time.
To slip-edit multiple clips at once
1. Make sure all clips are not loop-enabled.
2. Select the clips you want to slip-edit.
3. Move your cursor over the beginning or end range of the selected clips until the blue clip handle
appears.
4. Drag the boundary to the desired location and release.
394
Arranging and editing
Slip-editing (non-destructive editing)
Fades and crossfades
Fades are a gradual increase or decrease in volume at the beginning (fade-in) or end (fade-out) of a
clip. A crossfade is when one clip fades out while another fades in. There are two ways to create
fades and crossfades in SONAR: offline (destructive) and real-time (non-destructive). To create
fades and crossfades offline, see “Applying fades and crossfades offline” on page 794.
See:
“Using fades and crossfades in real-time” on page 395
Using fades and crossfades in real-time
You can create real-time fades and crossfades in the Track view’s Clips pane. Real-time fades and
crossfades do not change the data in the clip. SONAR reads the fade-in, fade-out, or crossfade in
the clip and adjusts the gain accordingly. You can edit the crossfade’s start time and end times. You
can set the type of fade-in or fade-out you want to use as a default:
• Linear.
A straight line, raising or lowering the volume at a steady rate.
• Slow Curve. A curved fade which starts to change the volume slowly at first and then rapidly
increasing (fade-in) or decreasing (fade-out) the volume.
• Fast Curve. A curved fade which starts to change the volume quickly at first and then rapidly
decreasing (fade-out) or increasing (fade-in) the volume.
To choose the fade type
Click the Track view Options menu, point to Crossfade Type and select the desired default FadeIn, Fade-Out and Crossfade curve types.
To create a real-time fade-in in a Clip
1. Select the Smart tool
or Edit tool
in the Control Bar.
2. In the Track view’s Clips pane, move your mouse over the top part of the beginning of a clip until
the cursor looks like this:
, and a red line appears at the edge of the clip.
A filled red triangle appears at the top of the red line indicating the fade marker is ready to be
dragged.
A
A. Filled red triangle
Arranging and editing
Fades and crossfades
395
3. When your cursor changes and the filled red triangle appears, click and drag to the right until you
reach your desired fade-in length.
As you drag your mouse, a fade-in appears on your clip, and the red line moves with the mouse
to mark the end of the fade-in.
To edit a fade-in in a Clip
• To move the entire fade-in to a later point in the clip, drag above the blue horizontal line located a
quarter of the way up the blue vertical line
.
A
B
A. Cursor above horizontal blue line B. Horizontal blue line
• To move only the starting point of the fade-in, drag below the horizontal blue line.
• To delete a fade-in from an audio clip, simply drag the triangular fade handle
of the clip.
to the front edge
The filled blue triangle at the top of the clip handle indicates that dragging the top edge of the clip
handle will move the fade along with the crop. The filled blue rectangle at the bottom of the clip
handle indicates that dragging the bottom of the clip handle will slip edit the edge, but leave the
end of the fade-in where it is.
396
Arranging and editing
Fades and crossfades
To create an automatic crossfade (real-time)
1. Click the Track view Options menu and choose Auto Crossfade.
2. Click the Track view Options menu, point to Crossfade Type > Default Crossfade Curves and
select the desired default crossfade curve types.
3. Select and drag an audio clip so that it overlaps another audio clip. You should overlap the clips
by the length you want the crossfade.
4. When you have the clip positioned where you want it, release the mouse button to drop the clip.
The Drag and Drop Options dialog box appears.
5. In the Drag and Drop Options dialog box, check the Blend Old With New check box and click
OK.
6. The two clips now overlap with a crossfade, looking something like this:
A
B
C
D
E
A. First clip B. Fade-out C. Fade-in D. Second clip E. Crossfade
You can edit fade-ins and fade-outs. You can change the start, end and position of a fade. The
following procedures all demonstrate edits to a fade-in, but fade-outs work exactly the same.
To change an existing fade
1. Move your cursor over the beginning of a fade-out or the end of a fade-in, until your cursor looks
like this:
.
2. Right-click to and select the desired fade type from the menu that appears.
Arranging and editing
Fades and crossfades
397
To change an existing crossfade
1. Move your cursor over the region where the crossfade is.
2. Right-click and select the desired crossfade from the menu that appears.
To edit or create fades from the Process menu
1. Select the clip or clips in which you want to create or edit fade-ins and/or fade-outs.
2. Select Process > Fade Selected Clips.
3. Click the Track view Clips menu and choose Fade Clips to open the Fade Selected Clips
dialog box.
4. Adjust parameters according to the following table.
Parameter
Description
Fade In (mS)
Select the number of milliseconds you want the fade-in to last.
Fade Out (mS)
Select the number of milliseconds you want the fade-out to last.
Fade In Curve
Choose a fade-in type. Options are linear, slow or fast curve.
Fade Out Curve
Choose a fade-out type. Options are linear, slow or fast curve.
Alter Existing Times
Select this option if you want to change the existing fade lengths. You don’t need
to check this option if you’re creating new fades.
Alter Existing Curves
Select this option if you want to change the existing fade types. You don’t need to
check this option if you’re creating new fades.
Only Show if Pressing
Shift
Select if you want to apply previous dialog box settings without opening the dialog
box. Hold shift when selecting command to override this option.
Table 61.
5. Click OK to close the dialog box.
SONAR creates or edits the fade(s) according to the options you chose in the dialog box.
398
Arranging and editing
Fades and crossfades
Enhanced editing with keyboard
SONAR supports advanced editing via the numeric keypad on standard QWERTY keyboards. You
can perform the following operations:
• Navigate (see “Navigating with a keyboard” on page 402):
• Scroll
• Zoom
• Select (see “Selecting with a keyboard” on page 403):
• Clip select
• Time select
• Edit (see “Editing with a keyboard” on page 404):
• Trim/crop
• Fade
Arranging and editing
Enhanced editing with keyboard
399
To enable/disable editing with a QWERTY keyboard
1. On your QWERTY keyboard, press the NumLock key to enable NumLock mode.
2. On the numeric keypad, press 0.
3. Select the desired mode:
• Zoom/Scroll mode. Press 1.
• Select mode. Press 3.
• Edit mode. Press 9.
The keys on the numeric keypad are mapped as follows:
Figure 96.
Numeric keypad (NumLock mode)
CROP OR
FADE
LEFT
UP
EDIT
MODE
CROP OR
FADE
RIGHT
LEFT
CENTER
EDIT
CURSOR
RIGHT
DOWN
SELECT
MODE
ZOOM/
SCROLL
MODE
ENABLE
EDITING
400
Arranging and editing
Enhanced editing with keyboard
Key
Function
0
Enable/disable keyboard editing (when NumLock is enabled)
1
Enable Zoom/Scroll mode
2
Down
3
Enable Select mode
4
Left
5
Center edit cursor
6
Right
7
--
8
Up
9
Enable Edit mode
Volume knob (if
keyboard has a rotary
encoder)
Zoom/scroll/trim/crop depending on current mode
PLUS (+)
Crop or fade right in Edit mode
MINUS (-)
Crop or fade left in Edit mode
Table 62.
See:
“Navigating with a keyboard” on page 402
“Selecting with a keyboard” on page 403
“Editing with a keyboard” on page 404
Arranging and editing
Enhanced editing with keyboard
401
Navigating with a keyboard
Scroll and Zoom are part of the same mode, which makes it fast to navigate around a project.
You can zoom both horizontally and vertically, in small or large steps.
You can scroll fast or slow in any direction, in small or large steps.
To zoom and scroll with a keyboard
1. On your QWERTY keyboard, press the NumLock key to enable NumLock mode.
2. On the numeric keypad, press 0 to enable keyboard editing.
3. On the numeric keypad, press 1 to enable Zoom/Scroll mode.
The numeric keypad is mapped as follows:
Key
Function
CTRL+
ALT+
SHIFT+
0
Enable/disable keyboard
editing (when NumLock is
enabled)
--
--
--
1
Enable Zoom/Scroll mode
--
--
--
2
Scroll down in large steps
Zoom out
vertically in large
steps (based on
selection)
--
--
3
Enable Select mode
--
--
--
4
Scroll left in large steps
-Zoom in
horizontally in
large steps (based
on selection)
--
5
Center edit cursor
--
--
--
6
Scroll right in large steps
-Zoom out
horizontally in
large steps (based
on selection)
--
8
Scroll up in large steps
Zoom in vertically
in large steps
(based on
selection)
--
--
Table 63.
402
Arranging and editing
Enhanced editing with keyboard
Key
Function
CTRL+
ALT+
SHIFT+
9
Enable Edit mode
--
--
--
Scroll vertically
Scroll in small
steps
Zoom (based on
selection)
Scroll horizontally
Volume knob (if
keyboard has a rotary
encoder)
Table 63.
The zooming behavior depends on the current Edit or Select mode:
• Zoom around the selection.
Will center and zoom on the mid-point of the selection.
• Zoom around the edit cursor. Will center and zoom around the cursor.
The most appropriate zoom method is used automatically based on the following logic:
• The default zoom method is Zoom around the selection.
• If there is no selection, the next zoom method is Zoom around the edit cursor.
Selecting with a keyboard
In Select mode, you can select either clips or time.
To enable selecting with a keyboard
1. On your QWERTY keyboard, press the NumLock key to enable NumLock mode.
2. On the numeric keypad, press 0 to enable keyboard editing.
3. On the numeric keypad, press 3 to enable Select mode.
The numeric keypad is mapped as follows:
Key
Function
CTRL+
ALT+
2
Move edit cursor down
Move to closest clip on next
track
Select down
4
Move edit cursor left
Move to previous clip
Select left
5
Center edit cursor
--
--
6
Move edit cursor right
Move to next clip
Select right
8
Move edit cursor up
Move to closest clip on
previous track
Select up
Table 64.
Arranging and editing
Enhanced editing with keyboard
403
To move the edit cursor
• In Select mode, do one of the following:
• To move to the left.
• To move to the right.
Press 4.
Press 6.
• To move to the previous lane or track. Press 8.
• To move to the next lane or track.
Press 2.
• To center the edit cursor. Press 5.
• To move to the previous clip.
• To move to the next clip.
Press CTRL+4.
Press CTRL+6.
• To move to the closest clip on the previous track.
Press CTRL+8.
• To move to the closest clip on the next track. Press CTRL+2.
To select time with a keyboard
1. Move the Now Time to where you want to start the selection.
2. In Select mode, hold down ALT and move the edit cursor left/right/up/down to make a time
selection.
To select clips with a keyboard
• In Select mode, do one of the following:
• To select and edit clip under the edit cursor.
• To extend the current selection.
Press 9 to select clip and enable Edit mode.
Hold down SHIFT+ALT and press 2, 4, 6 or 8.
Editing with a keyboard
Edit mode lets you fade and crop all selected clips. If no clips are selected when you enter Edit
mode, SONAR will automatically select the clip that is under the edit cursor.
404
Arranging and editing
Enhanced editing with keyboard
To enable clip editing with a keyboard
1. On your QWERTY keyboard, press the NumLock key to enable NumLock mode.
2. On the numeric keypad, press 0 to enable keyboard editing.
3. On the numeric keypad, press 9 to enable Edit mode.
The numeric keypad is mapped as follows:
Function
Key
Select fade out for editing
2
Select left clip edge for cropping
4
Select right clip edge for cropping
6
Select fade in for editing
8
Fade or crop selected clips
Volume knob (if keyboard has a rotary encoder)
Crop or fade right in Edit mode
PLUS (+)
Crop or fade left in Edit mode
MINUS (-)
Table 65.
To fade clips with a keyboard
1. In Select mode, select the clips that you want to fade.
2. Press 9 to enable Edit mode.
3. Specify the clip property that you want to edit:
• Fade in.
• Fade out.
Press 8.
Press 2.
4. Do one of the following to adjust the selected fade:
• Turn the rotary encoder.
• Press PLUS (+) or MINUS (-).
Note: Fades do not obey Snap to Grid.
Arranging and editing
Enhanced editing with keyboard
405
To crop clips with a keyboard
1. In Select mode, select the clips that you want to crop.
2. Press 9 to enable Edit mode.
3. Specify the clip edge that you want to crop:
• Left clip edge. Press 4.
• Right clip edge. Press 6.
4. Do one of the following to adjust the selected clip edge:
• Turn the rotary encoder.
• Press PLUS (+) or MINUS (-).
Note: Crop obeys Snap to Grid.
406
Arranging and editing
Enhanced editing with keyboard
Tools
SONAR has several different global tools that allow you to edit content in your projects. The global
tools live in the Tools module in the Control Bar, and allow you to edit content in the following views:
• Track view
• Piano Roll view
• Staff view
• Tempo view
The selected tool applies to whichever editing view has focus. There are several ways to select
tools:
• From the Tools module in the Control Bar. For details, see “Using the Control Bar to select tools”
on page 411.
• From the Tools HUD (Heads Up Display). For details, see “Using the Tools HUD to select tools”
on page 413.
• By pressing the tool’s keyboard shortcut. For details, see “Using keyboard shortcuts to select
tools” on page 414.
Figure 97.
Global tools are accessed from the Tools module in the Control Bar.
Each tool serves a specific purpose, and the most suitable tool depends on the editing task you want
to accomplish. The default Smart tool can be used for most tasks, but there may be times when a
specific tool is either required or makes the editing task easier. For instructions about common
editing tasks, see “Using tools to perform common tasks” on page 473.
To use a tool in the Track view, first select the desired tool, then select the data type you want to edit
(clips, track automation, clip automation, audio transients, or notes). You can specify the desired
data type independently for each track. For details, see “Selecting the data type to edit” on page 416.
SONAR provides the following global tools.
Tool
Button Shortcut
Description
How to use
“Smart tool”
on page 422
F5
The Smart tool is the default tool in
SONAR. The Smart tool is a multifunction tool that combines functions
from several other tools. The function
is determined by where you click.
Using the Smart tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• Automation
• AudioSnap transients
“Select tool”
on page 429
F6
The Select tool lets you select data.
You can select a time range, or select
entire clips, MIDI notes, envelope
nodes and transients.
Using the Select tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• Automation
• AudioSnap transients
“Move tool”
on page 433
F7
The Move tool lets you move selected
data. You can move entire clips,
partial clips, MIDI notes, envelope
nodes, transient markers and clip
tempo map markers.
Using the Move tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• Automation
• AudioSnap transients
“Edit tool” on
page 437
F8 (cycle
through
Edit tools)
The Edit tool lets you adjust data. You
can slip-edit clips, adjust note start/
end times, adjust fades, and raise/
lower note velocity and automation
envelopes.
Using the Edit tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• Automation
“Timing tool”
on page 442
F8 (cycle
through all
Edit tools)
The Timing tool lets you slip-stretch
audio clips, drag-quantize MIDI
notes, and stretch audio using
transient markers.
Using the Timing tool on:
• Audio clips
• PRV notes
• AudioSnap transients
“Split tool” on
page 445
F8 (cycle
through all
Edit tools)
The Split tool lets you split clips, cut
clips, split MIDI notes, and split clips
at transients.
Using the Split tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• AudioSnap transients
“Freehand
tool” on page
448
The Freehand tool lets you draw MIDI
F9 (cycle
through all notes and freehand automation
Draw tools) envelopes. You can also create and
promote transient markers.
Table 66.
408
Tools
Tools
Using the Freehand tool on:
• PRV notes
• Automation
• AudioSnap transients
Tool
Button Shortcut
Description
How to use
“Line tool” on
page 451
The Line tool lets you draw straight
F9 (cycle
through all automation envelopes and “paint”
Draw tools) MIDI notes.
Using the Line tool on:
• PRV notes
• Automation
“Sine tool” on
page 454
The Sine Pattern tool lets you edit
F9 (cycle
through all automation envelopes by drawing
Draw tools) sine shapes.
“Using the Pattern tools on automation”
on page 455
“Triangle tool”
on page 454
The Triangle Pattern tool lets you edit
F9 (cycle
through all automation envelopes by drawing
Draw tools) triangle shapes.
“Using the Pattern tools on automation”
on page 455
“Square tool”
on page 454
The Square Pattern tool lets you edit
F9 (cycle
through all automation envelopes by drawing
Draw tools) square shapes.
“Using the Pattern tools on automation”
on page 455
“Saw tool” on
page 454
The Saw Pattern tool lets you edit
F9 (cycle
through all automation envelopes by drawing
Draw tools) sawtooth shapes.
“Using the Pattern tools on automation”
on page 455
“Random
tool” on page
454
The Random Pattern tool lets you edit “Using the Pattern tools on automation”
F9 (cycle
on page 455
through all automation envelopes by drawing
Draw tools) random shapes.
“Erase tool”
on page 456
F10 (cycle
through all
Erase
tools)
The Erase tool lets you delete clips,
partial clips, MIDI notes, automation
envelope nodes, and transient
markers.
Using the Erase tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• Automation
• AudioSnap transients
“Mute tool” on
page 460
F10 (cycle
through all
Erase
tools)
The Mute tool lets you mute clips,
mute partial clips, mute MIDI notes,
and disable transient markers.
Using the Mute tool on:
• Audio clips
• MIDI clips
• PRV notes
• AudioSnap transients
To scrub:
• A single track
• All displayed tracks
“Scrub tool”
on page 464
None
J
The Scrub tool lets you play all
displayed tracks as you drag the
mouse pointer forward or backward
at the desired speed.
“Zoom tool”
on page 465
None
Z
“Using the Zoom tool” on page 465
The Zoom tool lets you change the
vertical and horizontal scale of a view.
You can lasso select a specific area
to zoom into.
Table 66.
Tools
Tools (Continued)
409
See:
“Selecting tools” on page 410
“Selecting the data type to edit” on page 416
“Snap to Grid settings” on page 466
“Specifying note durations” on page 468
“Mouse cursors” on page 469
“Tools” on page 407
Selecting tools
To select and use a tool
1. Do one of the following:
• Click the desired tool in the Control Bar’s Tools module. For details, see “Using the Control
Bar to select tools” on page 411.
• Press T on your computer keyboard to display the Tools HUD, then select the desired tool. For
details, see “Using the Tools HUD to select tools” on page 413.
• Press the tool’s keyboard shortcut. A tool’s keyboard shortcut is displayed in its tooltip. For
details, see “Using keyboard shortcuts to select tools” on page 414.
The selected tool is highlighted, and the mouse pointer changes to reflect the active tool. For
details, see “Mouse cursors” on page 469.
2. Click the desired track’s Edit Filter control and select the data type you want to edit:
• Clips
• Audio Transients (audio tracks only)
• Notes (MIDI tracks only)
• Track Automation (including ProChannel, Arpeggiator, plug-in parameters, and MIDI
continuous controllers)
• Clip Automation
Tip: To set all similar tracks to the same Edit Filter setting, hold down the CTRL key when you change
any track’s Edit Filter setting. To set all selected tracks to the same Edit Filter setting, first select the
tracks, then hold down CTRL when you change any track’s Edit Filter setting.
410
Tools
Figure 98.
Use the Edit Filter control to specify what type of data the global tools should operate on.
A
A. Edit Filter
For details, see “Selecting the data type to edit” on page 416.
For instructions about performing common tasks, see “Using tools to perform common tasks” on
page 473.
Note: Some tools can only be used on certain types of data. The mouse pointer indicates if the
selected tool can be used at the current position. For details, see “Mouse cursors” on page 469.
Using the Control Bar to select tools
Figure 99.
A
Global tools are accessed from the Tools module in the Control Bar.
B
C
D
E
F
G
A. Smart tool B. Select tool C. Move tool D. Edit tools (Edit/Timing/Split) E. Draw tools (Freehand/Line/Sine/
Triangle/Square/Saw/Random) F. Erase tools (Erase/Mute) G. Draw resolution
To show/hide the Tools module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Tools Module.
For more information about the Tools module, see “Tools module” on page 498.
Tools
411
Accessing grouped tools
Related tools are grouped together in the Tools module. Several buttons in the Tools module display
a small triangle in the bottom right corner. The triangle indicates that you can click and keep the
mouse button pressed for a brief moment to access additional tools or options from a pop-up menu.
You can also right-click the button and choose an option on the pop-up menu.
The following groups are available:
• Edit tools:
• Edit tool
• Timing tool
• Split tool
• Draw tools:
• Freehand tool
• Line tool
• Sine tool
• Triangle tool
• Square tool
• Saw tool
• Random tool
• Erase tools:
• Erase tool
• Mute tool
If the tool you are looking for isn’t visible in the Tools module, chances are that another tool in the
same group is selected. To access the hidden tool, click the group the tool belongs to, then select
the tool from the pop-up menu. Figure Figure 101 on page 413 shows an expanded view of all tool
groups.
Figure 100. If a button displays a small triangle in the bottom right corner, click and keep the mouse button
pressed to access additional tools or options.
412
Tools
Figure 101. Tools module expanded view.
A
B
C
D
H
P
E
I
Q
F
J
R
G
K
L
M
N
O
A. Smart tool B. Select tool C. Move tool D. Edit tools E. Edit tool F. Timing tool G. Split tool H. Draw tools
I. Freehand tool J. Line Tool K. Sine Pattern tool L. Triangle Pattern tool M. Square Pattern tool N. Saw
Pattern tool O. Random Pattern tool P. Erase tools Q. Erase tool R. Mute tool
Using the Tools HUD to select tools
Press the T to open the Tools HUD (Heads Up Display) at the current pointer position, then select
the desired tool.
Tip: You can press the middle mouse button to open the Tools HUD. While the Tools HUD is open,
use the mouse wheel to open the Edit Filter menu.
Figure 102. Press T to show the Tools HUD.
In the Track view, the Tools HUD also shows the Edit Filter control for whichever track is behind the
mouse pointer when the Tools HUD is opened.
Tools
413
Using keyboard shortcuts to select tools
Use the following keyboard shortcuts to select tools. Tools that belong to the same group share the
same shortcut. Press a shortcut repeatedly to cycle through all tools in a group.
Tool
Button Shortcut
Show Tools HUD
---
T
“Smart tool” on page 422
F5
“Select tool” on page 429
F6
“Move tool” on page 433
F7
Cycle through Edit tools (Edit/
Timing/Split)
---
F8
“Edit tool” on page 437
F8
“Timing tool” on page 442
F8
“Split tool” on page 445
F8
Cycle through Draw tools
(Freehand/Line/Sine/Triangle/
Square/Saw/Random)
---
F9
“Freehand tool” on page 448
F9
“Line tool” on page 451
F9
“Sine tool” on page 454
F9
“Triangle tool” on page 454
F9
“Square tool” on page 454
F9
Table 67.
414
Tool keyboard shortcuts
Tools
Tool
Button Shortcut
“Saw tool” on page 454
F9
“Random tool” on page 454
F9
Cycle through Erase tools
(Erase/Mute)
---
F10
“Erase tool” on page 456
F10
“Mute tool” on page 460
F10
Snap on/off
---
N
“Scrub tool” on page 464
---
J (hold to
use)
“Zoom tool” on page 465
---
Z (hold to
use)
Table 67.
Tool keyboard shortcuts (Continued)
To temporarily invoke a tool
While using a specific tool, you can temporarily invoke another tool by holding down the new tool’s
keyboard shortcut. Release the shortcut to switch back to the previously selected tool.
For example, if you are using the Move tool and need to select some notes, press and hold down the
F6 key (shortcut for the Select tool), make a selection, then release the F6 key to return to the Move
tool.
For a list of tool shortcuts, see “Using keyboard shortcuts to select tools” on page 414.
Hotspots and modifier keys
Clips, note events, envelopes and AudioSnap transients have different “hotspots”. That is, a tool
may do something different depending on where you click. As you move the mouse pointer, the
current hotspot is shown as a shaded rectangle.
A modifier key, such as CTRL, ALT or SHIFT, may also be used in some cases to extend a tool’s
function.
See:
“Selecting the data type to edit” on page 416
Tools
415
Selecting the data type to edit
Use a track’s Edit Filter control to specify the type of data you want to edit.
Figure 103. Use the Edit Filter control to specify what type of data the global tools should operate on.
A
A. Edit Filter
The following data types can be selected:
• Clips. The selected tool operates on clips.
• Audio Transients. The selected tool operates on audio transients (only available for audio
tracks).
• Notes. The selected tool operates on MIDI Note events (only available for MIDI and Instrument
tracks).
• Track Automation. The selected tool operates on track automation envelopes, including
ProChannel, Arpeggiator, plug-in parameters and MIDI continuous controllers (CCs). Select the
desired automation parameter from the submenu. Color-coded squares and bold text are used to
indicate existing envelopes.
• Clip Automation. The selected tool operates on clip automation envelopes. Select the desired
automation parameter from the submenu. Color-coded squares and bold text are used to indicate
existing envelopes.
To change the current Edit Filter setting
Do one of the following:
• Click the Edit Filter control and select the desired data type. The Edit Filter control is available in
each track strip in the Track view and in the Tools HUD (see “Using the Tools HUD to select tools”
on page 413).
• Hold down the SHIFT key and click the clip or envelope you want to edit.
• Hold down the SHIFT key and click an automatable control (Volume, Pan, etc.) in a track strip.
• Hold down the SHIFT key and right-click to toggle between the two most recently selected data
types.
• Click the middle mouse button to show the Tools HUD, then scroll the mouse wheel to cycle
416
Tools
through the available data types.
Tip: To set all tracks to the same Edit Filter setting, hold down the CTRL key when you change any
non-selected track’s Edit Filter setting. To set all selected tracks to the same Edit Filter setting, hold
down the CTRL when you change any selected track’s Edit Filter setting.
Tip: You can quickly toggle between Track Volume and the last/previously shown data type on the
current track. To do so, press the PLUS (+/=) key. This only works on the current parent track, not in
Automation lanes.
To toggle between the two most recent Edit Filter settings, hold down the SHIFT key and right-click
in the Clips pane.
Data type ghosting
Although you can only edit one data type at a time, you can choose to always show clips and
automation envelopes simultaneously. All but the selected data type will be shaded, or “ghosted”.
This allows you to see all data types in context while editing a specific data type.
You can also hold down the SHIFT key and click any ghosted object to switch a track’s current Edit
Filter setting. This is a quick way to toggle between editing clips and automation envelopes.Use the
Edit Filter control to specify what type of data the global tools should operate on.
Clips
Audio Transients
Track Automation and Clip Automation
Notes
Tools
417
To enable/disable data type ghosting
Click the Track view Options menu, point to Display and choose Display Ghosted Data on the
submenu.
To switch between editing clips and automation envelopes
Hold down the SHIFT key and click the clip or envelope you want to edit.
Editing audio clips
• “Working with audio clips” on page 475
• “Using the Smart tool on audio clips” on page 422
• “Using the Select tool on audio clips” on page 429
• “Using the Move tool on audio clips” on page 433
• “Using the Edit tool on audio clips” on page 437
• “Using the Timing tool on audio clips” on page 442
• “Using the Erase tool on audio clips” on page 456
• “Using the Split tool on audio clips” on page 445
• “Using the Mute tool on audio clips” on page 460
• “To split a clip” on page 479
• “To scrub an audio clip” on page 477
• “To fade in/out an audio clip” on page 475
• “To crop a clip’s start/end” on page 475
• “To select audio clips” on page 476
• “To mute/unmute a clip” on page 477
• “To move a clip” on page 478
• “To stretch an audio clip” on page 478
• “To erase a clip” on page 478
Editing MIDI clips
• “Working with MIDI clips” on page 480
• “Using the Smart tool on MIDI clips” on page 424
• “Using the Select tool on MIDI clips” on page 430
• “Using the Move tool on MIDI clips” on page 434
• “Using the Edit tool on MIDI clips” on page 438
• “Using the Erase tool on MIDI clips” on page 457
• “Using the Split tool on MIDI clips” on page 446
418
Tools
• “Using the Mute tool on MIDI clips” on page 461
• “To split a clip” on page 483
• “To scrub a MIDI clip” on page 481
• “To crop a clip’s start/end” on page 480
• “To select MIDI clips” on page 481
• “To mute/unmute a clip” on page 482
• “To move a clip” on page 482
• “To erase a clip” on page 482
Editing notes in the Piano Roll
• “Working with MIDI notes” on page 484
• “Using the Smart tool on PRV notes” on page 425
• “Using the Select tool on PRV notes” on page 430
• “Using the Move tool on PRV notes” on page 434
• “Using the Edit tool on PRV notes” on page 439
• “Using the Timing tool on PRV notes” on page 443
• “Using the Freehand tool on PRV notes” on page 449
• “Using the Line tool on PRV notes” on page 452
• “Using the Erase tool on PRV notes” on page 457
• “Using the Split tool on PRV notes” on page 446
• “Using the Mute tool on PRV notes” on page 462
• “To split a MIDI note” on page 487
• “To scrub MIDI notes” on page 484
• “To adjust a MIDI note’s velocity” on page 484
• “To adjust a MIDI note’s start/end” on page 484
• “To select MIDI notes” on page 484
• “To mute/unmute a MIDI note” on page 484
• “To move a MIDI note” on page 485
• “To draw a MIDI note” on page 485
• “To drag-quantize MIDI notes” on page 486
• “To glue MIDI notes together” on page 486
• “To paint MIDI notes” on page 486
• “To erase a MIDI note” on page 486
Tools
419
Editing automation envelopes
• “Working with automation envelopes” on page 487
• “Using the Smart tool on automation” on page 426
• “Using the Select tool on automation” on page 431
• “Using the Move tool on automation” on page 435
• “Using the Edit tool on automation” on page 440
• “Using the Freehand tool on automation” on page 450
• “Using the Line tool on automation” on page 453
• “Using the Pattern tools on automation” on page 455
• “Using the Erase tool on automation” on page 458
• “To select automation” on page 487
• “To move automation” on page 488
• “To draw automation freehand” on page 489
• “To draw a straight line” on page 489
• “To draw automation shapes” on page 489
• “To erase automation” on page 490
• “To add envelope nodes” on page 490
• “To draw MIDI continuous controller envelopes” on page 491
Editing AudioSnap transients
• “Working with AudioSnap transients” on page 492
• “Using the Smart tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 427
• “Using the Select tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 432
• “Using the Move tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 436
• “Using the Timing tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 443
• “Using the Freehand tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 450
• “Using the Erase tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 459
• “Using the Mute tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 462
• “Using the Mute tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 462
• “To split an audio clip at transient markers” on page 493
• “To select transient markers” on page 492
• “To move transient markers (without stretching audio)” on page 492
• “To stretch transients” on page 492
• “To promote transient markers” on page 493
420
Tools
• “To erase transient markers” on page 493
• “To add transient” on page 494
See:
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Select tool” on page 429
“Move tool” on page 433
“Edit tool” on page 437
“Timing tool” on page 442
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Line tool” on page 451
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Erase tool” on page 456
“Split tool” on page 445
“Mute tool” on page 460
“Scrub tool” on page 464
“Zoom tool” on page 465
Tools
421
Smart tool
The Smart tool is the default tool in SONAR. The Smart tool is a multi-function tool that combines
functions from several other tools. The function is determined by where you click.
To select the Smart tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Smart tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Smart tool.
• Press F5.
Clip headers and the Smart tool
Clips are drawn with a header, which can be clicked with the Smart tool to select and move the clip.
Clip headers automatically disappear if the track height is less than 36 pixels.
Figure 104. Clip headers are visible when clips are higher than 36 pixels.
See also “To hide clip headers and maximize clip waveform display” on page 328.
Using the Smart tool on audio clips
Figure 105. Smart tool hotspots on audio clips.
A
C
B
D
E
F
422
Tools
Smart tool
G
Hotspot
Default action
A
Adjust fade in
B
Adjust fade out
C
+CTRL
+ALT+SHIFT
Crop clip start
Note: If the clip contains
a fade in, drag the top
half to crop clip start and
move the fade in, or or
drag the bottom half to
only crop the clip without
moving the fade in.
Stretch clip
Crop clip start
and also move
clip data
Note: If the clip
contains a fade
in, drag the top
half to crop clip
start and move
the fade in, or or
drag the bottom
half to only crop
the clip without
moving the fade
in.
D
Crop clip end
Note: If the clip contains
a fade out, drag the top
half to crop clip end and
move the fade out, or or
drag the bottom half to
only crop the clip without
moving the fade out.
Stretch clip
Crop clip end
and also move
clip data
Note: If the clip
contains a fade
out, drag the top
half to crop clip
end and move
the fade out, or
or drag the
bottom half to
only crop the clip
without moving
the fade out.
E
Select by time
Table 68.
+ALT
Right-click
Drag to lasso
select
Using the Smart tool on audio clips
Tools
Smart tool
423
Hotspot
Default action
+ALT
F
Click to select clip; drag
to move clip or selection
Split clip
G
Click to set the Now time
and clear the selection;
drag to select by time
Note: Click the clip
header to select the clip,
or drag the header to
move the clip.
Split clip
Table 68.
+CTRL
+ALT+SHIFT
Right-click
Move data within
clip
Adjust clip gain Move data within Drag to lasso
clip
select
Using the Smart tool on audio clips (Continued)
Using the Smart tool on MIDI clips
Figure 106. Smart tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
A
B
C
D
E
Hotspot
Default action
A
Crop clip start
Crop clip start
and also move
clip data
B
Crop clip end
Crop clip end and
also move clip
data
C
Select by time
Table 69.
424
+ALT
Using the Smart tool on MIDI clips
Tools
Smart tool
+CTRL
+ALT+SHIFT
Right-click
Drag to lasso
select
Hotspot
Default action
+ALT
D
Click to select clip; drag to
move clip or selection
Split clip
E
Split clip
Click to set the Now time
and clear the selection;
drag to select by time
Note: Click the clip header
to select the clip, or drag
the header to move the clip.
Table 69.
+CTRL
Adjust clip
velocity
+ALT+SHIFT
Right-click
Move data within
clip
Drag to lasso
select
Move data within
clip
Drag to lasso
select
Using the Smart tool on MIDI clips (Continued)
Using the Smart tool on PRV notes
Figure 107. Smart tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
B
D
E
C
DoubleRight-click
click
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag up/down to
adjust note
velocity
B
Adjust note start
C
Click to select
note; drag to
move note
Table 70.
Using the Smart tool on PRV notes
Tools
Smart tool
Open
Note
Propertie
s dialog
Erase note
+ALT
+SHIFT
Split
note
Add note
to
selection
ALT+R CTRL+ALT+
CTRL+Rig
ightSHIFT+Right
ht-click
click
-click
Toggle
selection
Mute
note
425
DoubleRight-click
click
Hotspot
Default action
D
Adjust note end
E
Insert a new note
(before releasing
mouse button,
drag left/right to
change duration,
and up/down to
change pitch)
Table 70.
Using the Smart tool on PRV notes (Continued)
Insert a
new note
Click to
unselect
Drag to lasso
select
+ALT
+SHIFT
Insert a
new note
with the
selected
duration
Change
the Event
Filter to
Clips
ALT+R CTRL+ALT+
CTRL+Rig
ightSHIFT+Right
ht-click
click
-click
Drag to Draw notes line
perform
the
alternat
e mode
of the
selected
Erase
tool
(either
lasso
Erase or
Mute)
Using the Smart tool on automation
Figure 108. Smart tool hotspots on automation.
A
B
D
E
C
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
A
Move node
Reset node
B
Drag up/down to adjust
selected nodes
Table 71.
426
Using the Smart tool on automation
Tools
Smart tool
+CTRL
Insert nodes
at the
selection
points
+ALT
Right-click
Hotspot
Default action
C
Drag left/right to select nodes
D
Insert a node
E
Time select nodes
Table 71.
Double-click
+CTRL
+ALT
Right-click
Drag to lasso
select
Add new node
Click or drag
to insert new
events
(Piano Roll
Controller
Pane only)
Drag to lasso
select
Using the Smart tool on automation (Continued)
Using the Smart tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 109. Smart tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
B
C
A
D
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
A
Drag transient marker
line to stretch selected
transients (nonproportional stretch)
Select all adjacent transient
markers in other tracks
B
Drag transient marker
handle (diamond) to
move transient marker
(non-stretch)
C
Lasso select transients
D
Lasso select transients
across clips and tracks
Table 72.
+ALT
+CTRL
Drag transient marker
line to stretch selected
transients proportionally
Insert new transient
marker
Using the Smart tool on AudioSnap transients clips
Tools
Smart tool
427
See also:
“Tools” on page 407
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Select tool” on page 429
“Move tool” on page 433
“Edit tool” on page 437
“Timing tool” on page 442
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Line tool” on page 451
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Erase tool” on page 456
“Split tool” on page 445
“Mute tool” on page 460
“Scrub tool” on page 464
“Zoom tool” on page 465
428
Tools
Smart tool
Select tool
The Select tool lets you select data. You can select a time range, or select entire clips, MIDI notes,
envelope nodes and transients.
To select the Select tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Select tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Select tool.
• Press F6.
Using the Select tool on audio clips
Figure 110. Select tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
C
B
Hotspot
Default action
Right-click
A
Select by time
Drag to lasso select
B
Click to select clip
B
Drag to select multiple clips
C
Select by time
Table 73.
Drag to lasso select
Using the Select tool on audio clips
Tools
Select tool
429
Using the Select tool on MIDI clips
Figure 111. Select tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
A
C
B
Hotspot
Default action
Right-click
A
Select by time
Drag to lasso select
B
Click to select clip
B
Drag to select multiple clips
C
Select by time
Table 74.
Drag to lasso select
Using the Select tool on MIDI clips
Using the Select tool on PRV notes
Figure 112. Select tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
B
430
Tools
Select tool
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to select note
A
Drag to lasso select
B
Lasso select
Table 75.
Using the Select tool on PRV notes
Using the Select tool on automation
Figure 113. Select tool hotspots on automation.
A
B
C
D
Hotspot
Default action
A
+CTRL
+SHIFT
Right-click
Select node
Extend/toggle
selection
Extend
selection
Drag to lasso select
B
Time select nodes
Extend/toggle
selection
Extend
selection
Drag to lasso select
nodes across tracks
C
Select segment
D
Time select nodes
Table 76.
Double-click
Drag to lasso select
nodes across tracks
Using the Select tool on automation
Tools
Select tool
431
Using the Select tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 114. Select tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
+CTRL
+SHIFT
A
Select transient marker
Select adjacent transient
markers in other tracks
Extend/toggle
selection
Extend selection
B
Drag left/right to select
transient markers
Table 77.
Using the Select tool on AudioSnap transients
See also:
“Tools” on page 407
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Move tool” on page 433
“Edit tool” on page 437
“Timing tool” on page 442
“Split tool” on page 445
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Line tool” on page 451
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Erase tool” on page 456
“Mute tool” on page 460
“Scrub tool” on page 464
“Zoom tool” on page 465
432
Tools
Select tool
Move tool
The Move tool lets you move selected data. You can move entire clips, partial clips, MIDI notes,
envelope nodes, transient markers and clip tempo map markers.
To select the Move tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Move tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Move tool.
• Press F7.
Using the Move tool on audio clips
Figure 115. Move tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag clip to move clip
A
Drag selection to move selection
Table 78.
Tools
Move tool
+ALT
Using the Move tool on audio clips
433
Using the Move tool on MIDI clips
Figure 116. Move tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
A
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag clip to move clip
A
Drag selection to move selection
Table 79.
+ALT
Using the Move tool on MIDI clips
Using the Move tool on PRV notes
Figure 117. Move tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
Hotspot
Default action
+SHIFT
A
Move note freely
Constrain movement vertically or horizontally
Table 80.
434
Using the Move tool on PRV notes
Tools
Move tool
Using the Move tool on automation
Figure 118. Move tool hotspots on automation.
A
B
C
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
+CTRL
+SHIFT
A
Move node
Reset node
Extend/toggle
selection
Extend selection
B
Move selected
segments/nodes
C
Move segment
Add new node
Extend/toggle
selection
Extend selection
Table 81.
Tools
Move tool
Using the Move tool on automation
435
Using the Move tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 119. Move tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
A
If no selection exists, move clicked transient
marker; if selection exists, move selected
transient markers
Reset transient marker
B
Move selected transient markers
Table 82.
Using the Move tool on AudioSnap transients
See also:
“Tools” on page 407
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Select tool” on page 429
“Edit tool” on page 437
“Timing tool” on page 442
“Split tool” on page 445
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Line tool” on page 451
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Erase tool” on page 456
“Mute tool” on page 460
“Scrub tool” on page 464
“Zoom tool” on page 465
436
Tools
Move tool
Edit tool
The Edit tool lets you adjust data. You can slip-edit (trim/crop) clips, adjust note start/end times,
adjust fades, and raise/lower note velocity and automation envelopes.
Note: The Edit tool does not work on AudioSnap transients.
To select the Edit tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Edit tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Edit tool.
• Press F8.
Note: The F8 shortcut key cycles through all Edit tools (Edit/Timing/Split). If another Edit tool is
selected, press F8 again until the Edit tool is selected.
Using the Edit tool on audio clips
Figure 120. Edit tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
B
E
C
Hotspot
Default action
A
Adjust fade in
B
Adjust fade out
Table 83.
Tools
Edit tool
D
+CTRL
+ALT+SHIFT
Using the Edit tool on audio clips
437
Hotspot
Default action
C
Stretch clip
Crop clip start
Note: If the clip contains a
fade in, drag the top 75% to
crop clip start and move the
fade in, or or drag the bottom
25% to only crop the clip
without moving the fade in.
Crop clip start and also
move clip data
D
Stretch clip
Crop clip end
Note: If the clip contains a
fade out, drag the top 75% to
crop clip end and move the
fade out, or or drag the
bottom 25% to only crop the
clip without moving the fade
out.
Crop clip end and also
move clip data
E
Stretch clip
Table 83.
+CTRL
+ALT+SHIFT
Move data within clip
Using the Edit tool on audio clips (Continued)
Using the Edit tool on MIDI clips
Figure 121. Edit tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
C
A
438
Tools
Edit tool
B
Hotspot
Default action
+ALT+SHIFT
A
Crop clip start and also move clip data
Crop clip start
Note: If the clip contains a fade in,
drag the top 75% to crop clip start and
move the fade in, or or drag the
bottom 25% to only crop the clip
without moving the fade in.
B
Crop clip end
Note: If the clip contains a fade out,
drag the top 75% to crop clip end and
move the fade out, or or drag the
bottom 25% to only crop the clip
without moving the fade out.
C
Table 84.
Crop clip end and also move clip data
Move data within clip
Using the Edit tool on MIDI clips
Using the Edit tool on PRV notes
Figure 122. Edit tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
B
C
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag up/down to adjust note velocity
B
Adjust note start
C
Adjust note end
Table 85.
Tools
Edit tool
Using the Edit tool on PRV notes
439
Using the Edit tool on automation
Figure 123. Edit tool hotspots on automation.
A
B
C
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
+CTRL
+SHIFT
A
Drag to move node
Click to select node
Reset node
Extend selection
Extend selection
B
Drag up/down to
adjust selected
nodes
C
Drag to move line
segment
Double-click to add
new node
Table 86.
Using the Edit tool on automation
See also:
“Tools” on page 407
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Select tool” on page 429
“Move tool” on page 433
“Timing tool” on page 442
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Line tool” on page 451
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Erase tool” on page 456
440
Tools
Edit tool
Drag up/down to cycle
through the line’s
available curve types
(Fast, Current, Slow,
Jump).
“Split tool” on page 445
“Mute tool” on page 460
“Scrub tool” on page 464
“Zoom tool” on page 465
Tools
Edit tool
441
Timing tool
The Timing tool lets you slip-stretch audio clips, drag-quantize MIDI notes, and stretch audio using
transient markers
Note: The Timing tool does not work on MIDI clips or automation.
To select the Timing tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Timing tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Timing tool.
• Press F8.
Note: The F8 shortcut key cycles through all Edit tools (Edit/Timing/Split). If another Edit tool is
selected, press F8 again until the Timing tool is selected.
Using the Timing tool on audio clips
Figure 124. Timing tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
Hotspot
Default action
A
Stretch clip start
B
Stretch clip end
Table 87.
442
B
Using the Timing tool on audio clips
Tools
Timing tool
Using the Timing tool on PRV notes
Figure 125. Timing tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag up/down to drag quantize selected notes
Table 88.
Using the Timing tool on PRV notes
Using the Timing tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 126. Timing tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
+CTRL
A
Drag left/right to stretch audio at
selected transients
Reset transient
Drag to stretch proportionally
B
Drag left/right to stretch audio at
selected transients
Table 89.
Using the Timing tool on AudioSnap transients
Tools
Timing tool
443
See also:
“Tools” on page 407
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Select tool” on page 429
“Move tool” on page 433
“Edit tool” on page 437
“Split tool” on page 445
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Line tool” on page 451
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Erase tool” on page 456
“Mute tool” on page 460
“Scrub tool” on page 464
“Zoom tool” on page 465
444
Tools
Timing tool
Split tool
The Split tool lets you split clips, cut clips, split MIDI notes, and split clips at transients. By splitting
clips, you can copy, move, and delete individual sections.
To select the Split tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Split tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Split tool.
• Press F8
Note: The F8 shortcut key cycles through all Edit tools (Edit/Timing/Split). If another Edit tool is
selected, press F8 again until the Split tool is selected.
Using the Split tool on audio clips
Figure 127. Split tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to split clip
A
Drag to split selection
B
Lasso to split at lasso edges
Table 90.
Tools
Split tool
Using the Split tool on audio clips
445
Using the Split tool on MIDI clips
Figure 128. Split tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to split clip
A
Drag to split selection
B
Lasso to split at lasso edges
Table 91.
Using the Split tool on MIDI clips
Using the Split tool on PRV notes
Figure 129. Split tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
Hotspot
Default action
A
Split note
Table 92.
446
Using the Split tool on PRV notes
Tools
Split tool
Using the Split tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 130. Split tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
B
C
Hotspot
Default action
A
Split audio at transient marker
B
Drag over transient markers to split audio at transients
C
Lasso split at transient markers across clips and tracks
Table 93.
Using the Split tool on AudioSnap transients
See also:
“Tools” on page 407
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Select tool” on page 429
“Move tool” on page 433
“Edit tool” on page 437
“Timing tool” on page 442
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Line tool” on page 451
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Erase tool” on page 456
“Mute tool” on page 460
“Scrub tool” on page 464
“Zoom tool” on page 465
Tools
Split tool
447
Freehand tool
The Freehand tool lets you draw MIDI notes and freehand automation envelopes. You can also
create and promote transient markers.
Note: The Freehand tool does not work on audio clips or MIDI clips.
When using the Draw tools to draw note events, use the Value control to specify the duration (whole,
half, etc.) of new note events. For details, see “Specifying note durations” on page 468.
Figure 131. Use the Value control to specify the duration of new note events.
A
A. Draw resolution (note value)
To select the Freehand tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Freehand tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Freehand tool.
• Press F9.
Note: The F9 shortcut key cycles through all Draw tools (Freehand/Line/Sine/Triangle/Square/
Saw/Random). If another Draw tool is selected, press F9 again until the Freehand tool is
selected.
448
Tools
Freehand tool
Using the Freehand tool on PRV notes
Figure 132. Freehand tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
+CTRL
A
Glue notes together
Modify velocity (only
when velocity is not
shown in the Controller
pane)
B
Draw a new note
Table 94.
+ALT
+CTRL+SHIFT
Draw velocity linearly
(only when velocity is
not shown in the
Controller pane)
Insert a new note
Using the Freehand tool on PRV notes
Note 1: To glue notes together, click one note, drag to another note of the same pitch, then
release the mouse button.
Note 2: Use the Value control in the Tools module to specify the duration for new note events.
You can also click an existing Note event to inherit its duration and apply it to new Note events.
For details, see “Use note duration value from last touched note” on page 468.
Tools
Freehand tool
449
Using the Freehand tool on automation
Figure 133. Freehand tool hotspots on automation.
A
Hotspot
Default action
+SHIFT
A
Draw nodes/segments
Insert nodes at the Snap to Grid value without
changing the value of the envelope segments
(limited to the track the gesture is started on)
Table 95.
Using the Freehand tool on automation
Using the Freehand tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 134. Freehand tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
Hotspot
Default action
A
Promote transient marker
B
Insert transient marker
Table 96.
450
B
Using the Freehand tool on AudioSnap transients
Tools
Freehand tool
See also:
“Tools” on page 407
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Select tool” on page 429
“Move tool” on page 433
“Edit tool” on page 437
“Timing tool” on page 442
“Split tool” on page 445
“Line tool” on page 451
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Erase tool” on page 456
“Mute tool” on page 460
“Scrub tool” on page 464
“Zoom tool” on page 465
Line tool
The Line tool lets you draw straight automation envelopes and “paint” MIDI notes at defined
resolutions and intervals.
Note: The Line tool does not work on audio clips, MIDI clips or AudioSnap transients.
For additional draw settings, see “Specifying note durations” on page 468.
To select the Line tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Line tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Line tool.
• Press F9.
Note: The F9 shortcut key cycles through all Draw tools (Freehand/Line/Sine/Triangle/Square/
Saw/Random). If another Draw tool is selected, press F9 again until the Line tool is selected.
Tools
Line tool
451
Using the Line tool on PRV notes
Figure 135. Line tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
Hotspot
Default action
+CTRL
+CTRL+SHIFT
A
Drag to paint multiple notes.
Modify velocity
(only when velocity
is not shown in the
Controller pane)
Draw velocity
linearly (only
when velocity is
not shown in the
Controller pane)
Table 97.
Using the Line tool on PRV notes
Note: Use the Value control to specify the duration of each note, and use the Snap resolution
to specify the interval between each note.
452
Tools
Line tool
Using the Line tool on automation
Figure 136. Line tool hotspots on automation.
A
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag to add nodes at mousedown and mouseup points Insert nodes at the Snap to Grid value
without changing the value of the
envelope segments (limited to the track
the gesture is started on)
Table 98.
+SHIFT
Using the Line tool on automation
Note: To draw a line, click anywhere to set the line start point, move the mouse, then release
the mouse button to set the line end point.
See also:
“Tools” on page 407
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Select tool” on page 429
“Move tool” on page 433
“Edit tool” on page 437
“Timing tool” on page 442
“Split tool” on page 445
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Erase tool” on page 456
“Mute tool” on page 460
“Scrub tool” on page 464
“Zoom tool” on page 465
Tools
Line tool
453
Pattern tools
The various pattern tools let you draw automation envelopes that have a specific shape.
For additional draw settings, see “Specifying note durations” on page 468.
To select a pattern tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the desired pattern tool button in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the desired pattern tool.
• Press F9.
Note: The F9 shortcut key cycles through all Draw tools (Freehand/Line/Sine/Triangle/Square/
Saw/Random). If another Draw tool is selected, press F9 again until the desired pattern tool is
selected.
Sine tool
The Sine Pattern tool
lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing sine shapes.
Triangle tool
The Triangle Pattern tool
lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing triangle shapes.
Square tool
The Square Pattern tool
lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing square shapes.
Saw tool
The Saw Pattern tool
lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing sawtooth shapes.
Random tool
The Random Pattern tool
lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing random shapes.
Note: The pattern tools do not work on audio clips, MIDI clips, PRV notes or AudioSnap
transients.
For information about drawing shapes, see “To draw automation shapes” on page 489.
454
Tools
Pattern tools
Using the Pattern tools on automation
Figure 137. Pattern tool hotspots on automation.
A
Hotspot
Default action
+SHIFT
A
Draw automation shapes
Insert nodes at the Snap to Grid value without changing the value of
the envelope segments (limited to the track the gesture is started on)
Table 99.
Using Pattern tools on automation
Note: To draw automation shapes, set the Snap to Grid resolution to the desired length of each
pattern cycle, then perform the following steps in one gesture:
1. Click to set the center position of the shape.
2. Drag up/down to set the vertical range of the shape.
3. Drag left/right to set the duration of the shape.
See also:
“Tools” on page 407
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Select tool” on page 429
“Move tool” on page 433
“Edit tool” on page 437
“Timing tool” on page 442
“Split tool” on page 445
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Line tool” on page 451
“Erase tool” on page 456
“Mute tool” on page 460
“Scrub tool” on page 464
“Zoom tool” on page 465
Tools
Pattern tools
455
Erase tool
The Erase tool lets you delete clips, partial clips, MIDI notes, automation envelope nodes, and
transient markers.
To select the Erase tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Erase tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Erase tool.
• Press F10.
Note: The F10 shortcut key cycles through all Erase tools (Erase/Mute). If another Erase tool is
selected, press F10 again until the Erase tool is selected.
Using the Erase tool on audio clips
Figure 138. Erase tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
C
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag to delete a time selection
B
Click clip to delete clip
B
Click a selection to delete the selection
C
Lasso to delete clips
Table 100.
456
Using the Erase tool on audio clips
Tools
Erase tool
+ALT
Delete by time
Using the Erase tool on MIDI clips
Figure 139. Erase tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
A
C
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Drag to delete a time selection
B
Click clip to delete clip
B
Click a selection to delete the selection
C
Table 101.
+ALT
Lasso to delete clips
Delete by time
Using the Erase tool on MIDI clips
Using the Erase tool on PRV notes
Figure 140. Erase tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
B
Tools
Erase tool
457
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to delete note
A
Drag to delete multiple notes
B
Lasso delete notes
Table 102.
Using the Erase tool on PRV notes
Using the Erase tool on automation
Figure 141. Erase tool hotspots on automation.
B
A
C
D
Hotspot
Default action
A
Delete node
B
Drag to lasso delete nodes across tracks
C
Delete envelope segment
D
Lasso delete nodes across tracks
Table 103.
458
Using the Erase tool on automation
Tools
Erase tool
Using the Erase tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 142. Erase tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
B
C
Hotspot
Default action
A
Delete clicked transient marker
B
Drag to delete multiple transient markers
C
Lasso delete transient markers across clips and tracks
Table 104.
Using the Erase tool on AudioSnap transients
Note: You can only erase user created transient markers.
See also:
“Tools” on page 407
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Select tool” on page 429
“Move tool” on page 433
“Edit tool” on page 437
“Timing tool” on page 442
“Split tool” on page 445
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Line tool” on page 451
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Mute tool” on page 460
“Scrub tool” on page 464
“Zoom tool” on page 465
Tools
Erase tool
459
Mute tool
The Mute tool lets you mute clips, mute partial clips, mute MIDI notes, and disable transient markers.
Mute events to prevent them from playing back.
Note: The Mute tool does not work on automation.
To select the Mute tool
Do one of the following:
• Click the Mute tool button
in the Control Bar.
• Press T to display the Tools HUD, then select the Mute tool.
• Press F10.
Note: The F10 shortcut key cycles through all Erase tools (Erase/Mute). If another Erase tool is
selected, press F10 again until the Erase tool is selected.
Using the Mute tool on audio clips
Figure 143. Mute tool hotspots on audio clip.
A
C
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to unmute clip
Click to isolate Take lane
A
Drag to unmute by time
Drag to isolate by time
B
Click to mute clip
Click to isolate Take lane
Table 105.
460
Using the Mute tool on audio clips
Tools
Mute tool
+ALT
+CTRL
Hotspot
Default action
B
Drag to mute by time
C
Lasso to mute clips
Table 105.
+ALT
+CTRL
Drag to isolate by time
Lasso to unmute clips
Using the Mute tool on audio clips (Continued)
Using the Mute tool on MIDI clips
Figure 144. Mute tool hotspots on MIDI clip.
A
C
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to unmute clip
Click to isolate Take lane
A
Drag to unmute by time
Drag to isolate by time
B
Click to mute clip
Click to isolate Take lane
B
Drag to mute by time
Drag to isolate by time
C
Lasso to mute clips
Table 106.
Tools
Mute tool
+ALT
+CTRL
Lasso to unmute clips
Using the Mute tool on MIDI clips
461
Using the Mute tool on PRV notes
On PRV notes, the Mute tool functions as a toggle. Click once to mute and click again to unmute.
Figure 145. Mute tool hotspots on PRV notes.
A
B
Hotspot
Default action
A
Click to mute/unmute
A
Drag to mute/unmute multiple notes
B
Lasso mute/unmute notes
Table 107.
Using the Mute tool on PRV notes
Using the Mute tool on AudioSnap transients
Figure 146. Mute tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
A
B
C
Hotspot
A
Disable transient marker
Table 108.
462
Default action
Using the Mute tool on AudioSnap transients
Tools
Mute tool
Hotspot
Default action
B
Disable transient markers
C
Lasso disable transient markers across clips and tracks
Table 108.
Using the Mute tool on AudioSnap transients (Continued)
See also:
“Tools” on page 407
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Select tool” on page 429
“Move tool” on page 433
“Edit tool” on page 437
“Timing tool” on page 442
“Split tool” on page 445
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Line tool” on page 451
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Erase tool” on page 456
“Scrub tool” on page 464
“Zoom tool” on page 465
Tools
Mute tool
463
Scrub tool
The Scrub tool lets you audition all displayed tracks as you drag the mouse cursor forward or
backward at the desired speed. You can scrub a single track by dragging over the track, or all
displayed tracks by dragging in the Time Ruler.
Note: The Scrub tool does not work on automation.
To scrub a single track
Hold down the J key to temporarily enable Scrub mode and drag over the track.
To scrub all displayed tracks
Hold down the J key to temporarily enable Scrub mode and drag in the Time Ruler.
Note: The Scrub tool is invoked by pressing the J key. There is no Scrub tool button in the
Control Bar or Tools HUD.
See also:
“Scrubbing” on page 788
“Tools” on page 407
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Select tool” on page 429
“Move tool” on page 433
“Edit tool” on page 437
“Timing tool” on page 442
“Split tool” on page 445
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Line tool” on page 451
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Erase tool” on page 456
“Mute tool” on page 460
“Zoom tool” on page 465
464
Tools
Scrub tool
Zoom tool
The Zoom tool lets you change the vertical and horizontal scale of a view. You can use lasso to
select a specific area to zoom into.
Using the Zoom tool
Hold down the Z key to temporarily enable Zoom mode, then lasso to select the region you want to
zoom into.
To revert to the previous zoom level, press ALT+Z.
Note: The Zoom tool is invoked by pressing the Z key. There is no Zoom tool button in the
Control Bar or Tools HUD.
See also:
“Zoom controls” on page 86
“To undo/redo zoom with mouse buttons” on page 87
“Configuring the display of tracks in the Track view” on page 319
“Tools” on page 407
“Smart tool” on page 422
“Select tool” on page 429
“Move tool” on page 433
“Edit tool” on page 437
“Timing tool” on page 442
“Split tool” on page 445
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Line tool” on page 451
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Erase tool” on page 456
“Mute tool” on page 460
“Scrub tool” on page 464
Tools
Zoom tool
465
Snap to Grid settings
SONAR lets you define a snap grid that makes it easier to arrange clips, select time ranges, and
control envelope shape drawing. To use the snap grid, enable the Snap to Grid button
in the
Snap module and set the grid resolution to an interval of musical time, such as a whole note, half
note, or quarter note; a unit of absolute time: a number of frames, seconds or samples; an event; the
start or end of a clip; a marker; or audio transients. The grid can use multiple resolutions at the same
time, such as a whole note, and audio transients. When the Snap to Grid button is enabled, if you
move or paste clips or markers, items will be snapped to the nearest point on the snap grid.
Figure 147. Snap to Grid settings are available in the Snap module in the Control Bar.
A
B
D
C
E F
A. Snap on/off B. Snap To / Snap By C. Snap to landmarks D. Snap resolution (musical time or absolute time)
E. Triplet F. Dotted
The Snap module contains the following settings:
• Snap enable/disable
. Enable/disable snapping. When enabled, vertical grid lines that
correspond to the snap resolution are displayed in the Track view.
• Snap To. Align data to the snap grid.
• Snap By. Move data by the grid resolution.
• Time resolution. Snap to the selected musical or absolute time resolution. Click and hold the
mouse button pressed to select a different duration from the pop-up menu. For absolute time
resolutions (samples, frames, seconds), type the desired number of units. When Smart Grid is
selected, the snap resolution is dynamically determined by the horizontal zoom level. When
Smart Grid is enabled, the M:B:T time rulers in the Clips pane and Piano Roll view are optimized
to show relevant snap locations.
• Triplet . Reduces the duration of the selected Musical time resolution by 2/3 of its original
duration. When Triplet is enabled, three note events fit in the space of two.
• Dotted . Increase the duration of the selected Musical time resolution by half of its original
value (150%).
• Landmark Events
466
. Snap to the selected landmarks, including markers, Now Time, clips,
Tools
Snap to Grid settings
audio transients, MIDI notes, and automation envelope nodes. To select the desired landmarks,
right-click the Snap to Grid button
to open the Preferences dialog, then select the desired
check boxes in the Landmarks section. SONAR will snap to landmarks on tracks/lanes that are
currently visible in the Clips pane.
Additional Snap to Grid settings
To access additional snap settings, go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Snap to Grid (or
right-click the Snap to Grid button
).
The Snap section contains the following settings:
• Snap Intensity. Specify the magnetic strength when snapping, which determines how quickly
moved events are pulled towards the snap grid.
• Magnetic Test. Drag the event to test the current Snap Intensity setting.
• Snap to Nearest Audio Zero Crossings. Automatically snap edited audio clips to the nearest
zero crossing of the waveform (the point at which there is no volume) to minimize glitches that
can happen when waveforms are spliced together.
• Landmarks. Snap to the selected landmarks when the Events button is enabled in the Control
Bar’s Snap module:
• Markers.
Snap to any marker.
• Now Time. Snap to the current Now Time.
• Clips. Snap to the start or end of any clip.
• Audio Transients. Snap to transient markers in audio clips.
• MIDI Notes. Snap to note events in MIDI clips.
• Automation Nodes.
Snap to automation envelope nodes.
See also:
“Defining and using the Snap Grid” on page 354
“Tools” on page 407
Tools
Snap to Grid settings
467
Specifying note durations
When using the Smart tool or Freehand tool to draw new note events, use the Value control in the
Tools module to specify the note duration of new note events (whole, half, etc.).
Figure 148. Use the Value control to specify the duration of new note events.
A
A. Draw resolution (note value)
You can also use the following shortcuts to set the desired note duration.
Duration
Shortcut
Set whole note duration
CTRL+SHIFT+1
Set half note duration
CTRL+SHIFT+2
Set quarter note duration
CTRL+SHIFT+4
Set eight note duration
CTRL+SHIFT+8
Set sixteenth note duration
CTRL+SHIFT+6
Set thirty-second note duration
CTRL+SHIFT+3
Table 109.
Global note duration shortcuts
Use note duration value from last touched note
When inserting new Note events, you can choose to always apply the note duration from the last
touched Note event. To do so, select Last Touched in the Value control drop-down menu. Before
inserting a new Note event, select an existing Note event that already uses the duration you want to
apply to the new note, then insert the new note.
See also:
“Freehand tool” on page 448
“Line tool” on page 451
“Pattern tools” on page 454
“Tools” on page 407
468
Tools
Specifying note durations
Mouse cursors
When using global tools, the mouse cursor indicates which operation will be performed when you
click or drag. Valid operations depend on the selected tool, the Edit Filter setting, and where the
pointer is positioned.
The following table describes each cursor.
Cursor
Description
Select clip.
Lasso select.
Select by time.
Move.
Fade in.
Fade out.
Crop clip start.
Crop clip start, but don’t move fade in position.
Crop clip start and move fade in position.
Crop clip end.
Table 110.
Tool cursors
Tools
Mouse cursors
469
Cursor
Description
Crop clip end, but don’t move fade out position.
Crop clip end and move fade out position.
Mute event.
Mute by time.
Unmute by time.
Isolate Take lane (mute all other overlapping Take lanes in same track).
Erase clip.
Lasso erase.
Erase by time.
Split.
Scrub.
Move a single envelope node.
Move multiple selected envelope nodes.
Table 110.
470
Tool cursors (Continued)
Tools
Mouse cursors
Cursor
Description
Move an envelope line segment.
Adjust selected envelope region up/down.
Draw.
Draw line/pattern.
Draw automation line.
Draw automation sine pattern.
Draw automation triangle pattern.
Draw automation square pattern.
Draw automation sawtooth pattern.
Draw automation random pattern.
Move selected automation.
Lasso select automation.
Split automation (add node).
Table 110.
Tool cursors (Continued)
Tools
Mouse cursors
471
Cursor
Description
Erase automation.
Insert transient marker.
Lasso select transient markers.
Stretch transient marker.
Move transient marker.
Erase transient marker.
Disable transient marker.
Split audio at transient marker.
Glue MIDI note events together.
Move MIDI note events.
Adjust MIDI note velocity.
Trim MIDI note event.
Drag quantize selected MIDI note events.
Table 110.
472
Tool cursors (Continued)
Tools
Mouse cursors
Cursor
Description
Move data within clip (ALT+SHIFT).
Crop overlapping clips when showing Take lanes.
Table 110.
Tool cursors (Continued)
See:
“Tools” on page 407
Using tools to perform common tasks
This section explains how to perform many common editing tasks.
See:
Working with audio clips
• “To fade in/out an audio clip” on page 475
• “To crop a clip’s start/end” on page 475
• “To select audio clips” on page 476
• “To scrub an audio clip” on page 477
• “To mute/unmute a clip” on page 477
• “To move a clip” on page 478
• “To stretch an audio clip” on page 478
• “To erase a clip” on page 478
• “To split a clip” on page 479
• “To raise/lower a MIDI Clip Velocity envelope” on page 483
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
473
Working with MIDI clips
• “To crop a clip’s start/end” on page 480
• “To select MIDI clips” on page 481
• “To scrub a MIDI clip” on page 481
• “To mute/unmute a clip” on page 482
• “To move a clip” on page 482
• “To erase a clip” on page 482
• “To split a clip” on page 483
• “To raise/lower a MIDI Clip Velocity envelope” on page 483
Working with MIDI notes
• “To adjust a MIDI note’s velocity” on page 484
• “To adjust a MIDI note’s start/end” on page 484
• “To select MIDI notes” on page 484
• “To scrub MIDI notes” on page 484
• “To mute/unmute a MIDI note” on page 484
• “To move a MIDI note” on page 485
• “To draw a MIDI note” on page 485
• “To drag-quantize MIDI notes” on page 486
• “To glue MIDI notes together” on page 486
• “To paint MIDI notes” on page 486
• “To erase a MIDI note” on page 486
• “To split a MIDI note” on page 487
Working with automation envelopes
• “To select automation” on page 487
• “To move automation” on page 488
• “To draw automation freehand” on page 489
• “To draw a straight line” on page 489
• “To draw automation shapes” on page 489
• “To erase automation” on page 490
• “To add envelope nodes” on page 490
• “To draw MIDI continuous controller envelopes” on page 491
474
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
Working with AudioSnap transients
• “To select transient markers” on page 492
• “To move transient markers (without stretching audio)” on page 492
• “To stretch transients” on page 492
• “To promote transient markers” on page 493
• “To erase transient markers” on page 493
• “To split an audio clip at transient markers” on page 493
• “To add transient” on page 494
Working with audio clips
To fade in/out an audio clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer in the top left (fade in) or top right (fade out)
corner of the clip, then drag to adjust the fade duration.
• With the Edit tool
, position the pointer in the top left (fade in) or top right (fade out) corner
of the clip, then drag to adjust the fade duration.
To crop a clip’s start/end
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then drag to
adjust the start/end position.
• With the Edit tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then drag to adjust
the start/end position.
Tip: When cropping clips, you can choose to also move clip fades proportionally, or retain the original
fade position. To move the fade position, click the top three quarters of the clip edge when cropping.
To retain the clip fade position, click the bottom quarter of the clip edge when cropping. You can also
hold down the ALT key while cropping in order to move a clip fade.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
475
To move data and the clip edge
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then hold
ALT+SHIFT and drag to adjust the start/end position.
• With the Edit tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then hold
ALT+SHIFT and drag to adjust the start/end position.
To move data without moving its clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer within the clip, then hold ALT+SHIFT and drag
left/right to move the data within the clip boundaries.
• With the Edit tool
, position the pointer within the clip, then hold ALT+SHIFT and drag left/
right to move the data within the clip boundaries.
To select audio clips
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the clip, then click to select the clip.
• With the Smart tool
selection.
, position the pointer below the clip header, then drag to make a time
• With the Smart tool
selection.
, position the pointer outside any clips, then drag to make a time
• With the Smart tool
, drag with the right mouse button to lasso the clips you want to select.
It is sufficient to simply touch the clips you want to select; there is no need to fully enclose the
clips.
476
• With the Select tool
want to select.
, position the pointer outside any clips, then drag over the clips you
• With the Select tool
, position the pointer over the clip, then click to select the clip.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
• With the Select tool
, position the pointer over the clip, then drag to make a time selection.
• With the Select tool
, drag with the right mouse button to lasso the clips you want to select.
It is sufficient to simply touch the clips you want to select; there is no need to fully enclose the
clips.
Tip: To modify a selection, hold down the CTRL key and click clips to toggle their selection state.
To scrub an audio clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• To scrub a single track, hold down the J key and drag across the track.
• To scrub all visible tracks, hold down the J key and drag in the time ruler.
To mute/unmute a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Mute tool
, drag across the bottom half of the clip to mute a time region, and drag
across the top half to unmute a time region.
• With the Mute tool
, click the bottom half of the clip to mute the entire clip, and click the top
half of the clip to unmute the clip.
• With the Mute tool
to mute/unmute.
, position the pointer outside any clips and drag over the clips you want
To isolate a Take lane
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
477
• With the Mute tool
isolate.
, hold down the CTRL key and drag across the region you want to
• With the Mute tool
lane.
, hold down the CTRL key and click the clip to isolate the entire clip/
All other Take lanes in the same track are muted.
To move a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the clip header, then drag the clip or
selection to the desired location.
• With the Move tool
, drag the clip or selection to the desired location.
To stretch an audio clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, hold down the CTRL key and position the pointer over the clip’s first
half and drag to stretch the beginning, or position the pointer over the clip’s second half and
drag to stretch the end.
• With the Timing tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s first half and drag to stretch the
beginning, or position the pointer over the clip’s second half and drag to stretch the end.
• With the Edit tool
, hold down the CTRL key and position the pointer over the clip’s first
half and drag to stretch the beginning, or position the pointer over the clip’s second half and
drag to stretch the end.
A clip icon in the top right corner of the clip indicates the clip is stretched and shows the stretch
percentage.
To erase a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Erase tool
time selection.
478
, position the pointer over the top half of the clip, then drag to erase a
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
• With the Erase tool
the entire clip.
, position the pointer over the bottom half of the clip, then click to erase
• With the Erase tool
, position the pointer outside any clips, then drag over the clips you
want to erase. Hold down the ALT key and drag to erase by time.
To split a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the clip, then hold down
ALT and click (or lasso to split a region).
• With the Split tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the clip, then click (or drag
to split one or more clips at the mousedown and mouseup points).
To raise/lower an audio Clip Gain envelope
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Select the Smart tool
.
3. Position the mouse pointer over the top half of the clip until the pointer looks like this
down the CTRL key and drag up/down.
, hold
Tip: For greater control over clip gain envelopes, set the Event Filter to Clip Automation > Gain.
Note: Clip envelopes can be adjusted in the parent track or in a Take lane.
See:
“Working with MIDI clips” on page 480
“Working with MIDI notes” on page 484
“Working with automation envelopes” on page 487
“Working with AudioSnap transients” on page 492
“Tools” on page 407
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
479
Working with MIDI clips
To crop a clip’s start/end
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then drag to
adjust the start/end position.
• With the Edit tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then drag to adjust
the start/end position.
To move data and the clip edge
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then hold
ALT+SHIFT and drag to adjust the start/end position.
• With the Edit tool
, position the pointer over the clip’s start or end point, then hold
ALT+SHIFT and drag to adjust the start/end position.
To move data without moving its clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer within the clip, then hold ALT+SHIFT and drag
left/right to move the data within the clip boundaries.
• With the Edit tool
, position the pointer within the clip, then hold ALT+SHIFT and drag left/
right to move the data within the clip boundaries.
480
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
To select MIDI clips
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the clip, then click to select the clip.
• With the Smart tool
selection.
, position the pointer below the clip header, then drag to make a time
• With the Smart tool
selection.
, position the pointer outside any clips, then drag to make a time
• With the Smart tool
, drag with the right mouse button to lasso the clips you want to select.
It is sufficient to simply touch the clips you want to select; there is no need to fully enclose the
clips.
• With the Select tool
select the clip.
, position the pointer over the bottom half of the clip, then click to
• With the Select tool
time selection.
, position the pointer over the top half of the clip, then drag to make a
• With the Select tool
selection.
, position the pointer outside any clips, then drag to make a time
• With the Select tool
, drag with the right mouse button to lasso the clips you want to select.
It is sufficient to simply touch the clips you want to select; there is no need to fully enclose the
clips.
To scrub a MIDI clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• To scrub a single track, hold down the J key and drag across the track.
• To scrub all visible tracks, hold down the J key and drag in the time ruler.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
481
To mute/unmute a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Mute tool
, drag across the bottom half of the clip to mute a time region, and drag
across the top half to unmute a time region.
• With the Mute tool
, click the bottom half of the clip to mute the entire clip, and click the top
half of the clip to unmute the clip.
• With the Mute tool
to mute/unmute.
, position the pointer outside any clips and drag over the clips you want
To isolate a Take lane
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Mute tool
isolate.
, hold down the CTRL key and drag across the region you want to
• With the Mute tool
lane.
, hold down the CTRL key and click the clip to isolate the entire clip/
All other Take lanes in the same track are muted.
To move a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the clip header, then drag the clip or
selection to the desired location.
• With the Move tool
, drag the clip or selection to the desired location.
To erase a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Erase tool
time selection.
482
, position the pointer over the top half of the clip, then drag to erase a
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
• With the Erase tool
the entire clip.
, position the pointer over the bottom half of the clip, then click to erase
• With the Erase tool
, position the pointer outside any clips, then drag over the clips you
want to erase. Hold down the ALT key and drag to erase by time.
To split a clip
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the clip, then hold down
ALT and click (or lasso to split a region).
• With the Split tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the clip, then click (or drag
to split one or more clips at the mousedown and mouseup points).
To raise/lower a MIDI Clip Velocity envelope
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Clips.
2. Select the Smart tool
.
3. Position the mouse pointer over the top half of the clip until the pointer looks like this
down the CTRL key and drag up/down.
, hold
Tip: For greater control over clip velocity envelopes, set the Event Filter to Clip Automation >
Velocity.
Note: Clip envelopes can be adjusted in the parent track or in a Take lane.
See:
“Working with audio clips” on page 475
“Working with MIDI notes” on page 484
“Working with automation envelopes” on page 487
“Working with AudioSnap transients” on page 492
“Tools” on page 407
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
483
Working with MIDI notes
To adjust a MIDI note’s velocity
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
down.
• With the Edit tool
, position the pointer near the top center of the note, then drag up/
, position the pointer near the top center of the note, then drag up/down.
To adjust a MIDI note’s start/end
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the note’s start or end point, then drag left/
right to adjust the start/end position.
• With the Edit tool
, position the pointer over the note’s start or end point, then drag left/
right to adjust the start/end position.
To select MIDI notes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, drag with the right mouse button over the notes you want to select.
• With the Smart tool
to select the note.
, position the pointer over the bottom half center of the note, then click
• With the Select tool
, click the note.
• With the Select tool
, drag over the notes you want to select.
To scrub MIDI notes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Hold down the J key and drag across the notes.
To mute/unmute a MIDI note
484
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, hold down the ALT key and right-click the note.
• With the Mute tool
, click the note to mute/unmute a single note, or drag over notes to
mute/unmute multiple notes.
To move a MIDI note
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer over the bottom half center of the note, then drag
the note to the desired location.
• With the Move tool
, drag the note or selection to the desired location.
Tip: When moving a note, hold down the SHIFT key to constrain vertical or horizontal movement,
depending on the direction you first move.
To draw a MIDI note
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, click where you want to insert a new note. Before releasing mouse
button, drag left/right to change duration, and up/down to change pitch.
• With the Freehand tool
, click where you want to insert a new note.
Note: Use the Value control in the Tools module to specify the duration for new note events.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
485
To drag-quantize MIDI notes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Select the notes you want to quantize.
3. With the Timing tool
all selected notes.
, position the pointer over a selected note and drag up/down to quantize
To glue MIDI notes together
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, hold down ALT+CTRL and drag across two or more notes of the
same pitch (click on the first note, drag to the second note and release the mouse button).
• With the Freehand tool
, drag across two or more notes of the same pitch (click on the first
note, drag to the second note and release the mouse button).
All touched note events of the same pitch are merged into a single note event.
To paint MIDI notes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, hold down ALT+CTRL and drag to insert multiple notes. Use the
Value control to specify the duration of each note, and use the Snap resolution to specify the
interval between each note.
• With the Line tool
, drag to insert multiple notes. Use the Value control to specify the
duration of each note, and use the Snap resolution to specify the interval between each note.
To erase a MIDI note
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, right-click a note to erase a single note, or keep the right mouse
button pressed and drag over notes to erase multiple notes.
• With the Erase tool
multiple notes.
486
, click a note to erase a single note, or drag over notes to erase
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
To split a MIDI note
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the note, then hold down
ALT and click (or lasso to split a region).
• With the Split tool
, position the pointer where you want to split the note, then click (or
lasso to split a region).
To open the Note Properties dialog
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Notes.
2. With the Smart tool
, double-click the note.
See:
“Working with audio clips” on page 475
“Working with MIDI clips” on page 480
“Working with automation envelopes” on page 487
“Working with AudioSnap transients” on page 492
“Tools” on page 407
Working with automation envelopes
To select automation
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
or Select tool
, drag left/right to make a time selection.
• With the Smart tool
or Select tool
, drag with the right mouse button to lasso select.
• With the Select tool
, click the node. Hold CTRL or SHIFT to extend the selection.
• With the Edit tool
, click the node.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
487
To move automation
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Move tool
, position the pointer over the envelope segment you want to move,
then drag the segment to the desired location.
• With the Edit tool
, position the pointer over the envelope segment you want to move, then
drag the segment to the desired location.
To move envelope nodes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, drag the node to the desired location.
• With the Move tool
, drag the node to the desired location.
• With the Edit tool
, drag the node to the desired location.
When dragging an envelope node, the tooltip shows the current value and the delta value for the
change.
To reset envelope nodes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, double-click the node.
• With the Move tool
, double-click the node.
• With the Edit tool
, double-click the node.
To raise/lower selected envelope nodes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
488
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
• With the Smart tool
down.
• With the Edit tool
down.
, position the pointer near the top center of the track/clip, then drag up/
, position the pointer near the top center of the track/clip, then drag up/
To draw automation freehand
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. With the Freehand tool
, drag to insert envelope nodes and segments.
To draw a straight line
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. With the Line tool
, click to set the line start point, move the mouse, then release the mouse
button to set the line end point.
To draw automation shapes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Select the desired pattern tool: Sine Pattern tool
tool
, Saw Pattern tool
, Triangle Pattern tool
, or Random Pattern tool
, Square Pattern
.
3. Set the Snap to Grid to the desired length of each cycle of the shape you want to draw. For
example, if you want to draw sine curves, and you want each complete sine curve to last one
beat, set the Snap to Grid to a value of Quarter. If the Snap to Grid is disabled, the default cycle
is one measure.
4. Click and hold the mouse button in the Clips pane at the place where you want to draw the
envelope shape. The place where you click also sets the vertical midpoint of the shape.
5. Drag up or down to set the vertical range of the envelope, then drag to the right or left to set the
length of your edit. As you drag, the cursor’s vertical distance from the midpoint (the point where
you originally clicked) determines the amplitude of the shape. To create a series of identical
shapes, hold the SHIFT key down while you drag. To gradually increase or decrease the
amplitude, gradually move the pointer farther from or closer to the midpoint.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
489
6. Release the mouse button when done. The shape you selected appears, repeating according to
the Snap to Grid setting.
Tip:
• To halve the cycle frequency (for example, if snap resolution = quarter note, make each
cycle a half note), hold down the ALT key while you draw.
• To double the cycle frequency (for example, if snap resolution = quarter note, make each
cycle an eighth note), hold down the CTRL key while you draw.
• To invert the phase of the pattern, drag the cursor below the zero-line/center (where you
initially clicked to start the pattern).
To erase automation
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Erase tool
multiple nodes.
, click a node to erase a single node, or drag over nodes to erase
• With the Erase tool
the segment.
, click an envelope segment to erase the nodes to the left and right of
• With the Erase tool
, position the pointer outside the clip, then drag to lasso erase nodes
across clips or tracks.
To add envelope nodes
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to the desired automation parameter (Track Automation or
Clip Automation).
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
new node, then click.
, position the pointer over the envelope where you want to insert a
• With the Smart tool
selection boundaries.
, hold down the CTRL key and drag to insert two nodes at the
• With the Select tool
, position the pointer over the envelope where you want to insert a
new node, then double-click.
• With the Move tool
490
, position the pointer over the envelope where you want to insert a new
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
node, then double-click.
• With the Edit tool
node, then click.
, position the pointer over the envelope where you want to insert a new
• With the Line tool
, drag to add nodes at the mousedown and mouseup points. Hold down
the SHIFT key and drag to add nodes at the Snap to Grid value.
• With the Freehand tool
Grid value.
, hold down the SHIFT key and drag to add nodes at the Snap to
• With any pattern draw tools (Sine tool
or Random tool
value.
, Triangle tool
, Square tool
, Saw tool
,
), hold down the SHIFT key and drag to add nodes at the Snap to Grid
To draw MIDI continuous controller envelopes
1. Click the track’s Edit Filter control, point to Track Automation and choose MIDI to open the MIDI
Envelope dialog box.
2. Specify the desired MIDI envelope parameter settings (Type, Value, and Channel).
3. With the Freehand tool
, drag to insert envelope nodes and segments.
See:
“Working with audio clips” on page 475
“Working with MIDI clips” on page 480
“Working with MIDI notes” on page 484
“Working with AudioSnap transients” on page 492
“Tools” on page 407
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
491
Working with AudioSnap transients
To select transient markers
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, click the transient marker or drag left/right to make a time selection.
• With the Smart tool
, position the pointer outside the clip, then drag to lasso select
transients across clips or tracks.
• With the Smart tool
, double-click a transient marker to select all adjacent transient
markers in other tracks.
• With the Select tool
selection.
, click the transient marker. Hold CTRL or SHIFT to extend the
• With the Select tool
, drag left/right to select multiple transient markers.
• With the Select tool
, double-click a transient marker to select all adjacent transient
markers in other tracks.
To move transient markers (without stretching audio)
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, drag the transient marker handle (diamond) to the desired location.
• With the Move tool
, drag the transient marker handle (diamond) to the desired location.
To stretch transients
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. Do one of the following:
• With the Smart tool
, then drag the transient marker line to the desired location.
• With the Timing tool
, drag the transient marker line to the desired location. To stretch all
selected transients proportionally, hold down the CTRL key while you drag any selected
transient marker.
492
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
To promote transient markers
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. With the Freehand tool
, click the transient marker handle (diamond).
To disable transient markers
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. With the Mute tool
, click a transient marker handle (diamond) to disable a single transient
marker, or drag across transient markers to disable multiple transient markers.
To erase transient markers
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. With the Erase tool
, click the transient marker to erase a single transient marker, or drag
over transient markers to erase multiple transient markers.
Note: You can only erase user created transient markers.
To reset transients
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. With the Move tool
, double-click the transient marker.
To split an audio clip at transient markers
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. With the Split tool
, click the transient marker where you want to split the clip. Drag to split at
multiple transient markers.
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
493
To add transient
1. Set the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
2. With the Freehand tool
, click on a clip where you want to add a new transient marker.
See:
“Working with audio clips” on page 475
“Working with MIDI clips” on page 480
“Working with MIDI notes” on page 484
“Working with automation envelopes” on page 487
“Working with AudioSnap transients” on page 492
“Tools” on page 407
494
Tools
Using tools to perform common tasks
Control Bar overview
Much of your time in SONAR is spent recording and listening to your project as it develops. The
Control Bar contains the most important tools and other pieces of information you will need to
record, edit and play back your project.
The Control Bar consists of several modules that each contain various related controls. You can rearrange and show/hide each individual module, which allows you to only show the functions you
need most often. By default, the Control Bar is docked at the top of SONAR’s screen, but can also
be undocked or docked at the bottom.
Figure 149. The Control Bar.
To show/hide the Control Bar
Do one of the following:
• On the Views menu, click Control Bar.
• Press C on your computer keyboard.
Control Bar modules
Figure 150. Control Bar modules.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
A. Screenset module B. Tools module C. Snap module D. Transport module E. Punch module F. Loop module
G. Select module H. Mix module I. ACT module J. Performance module K. Markers module L. Event
Inspector module M. Sync module
The Control Bar contains the following modules:
• Tools module. The Tools module lets you select a global tool and draw resolution. For details,
see “Tools module” on page 498.
• Snap module. The Snap module lets you configure Snap to Grid settings. For details, see
“Snap module” on page 502.
• Transport module. The Transport section contains standard controls for Record, Return to
Zero, Rewind, Stop, Play, and Fast Forward. For details, see “Transport module” on page 504.
• Loop module. The Loop module lets you configure loop settings. For details, see “Loop
module” on page 507.
• Mix module. The Mix module lets you configure Mute, Solo, Arm for recording, effects bypass
and automation playback/recording settings. For details, see “Mix module” on page 509.
• ACT module. The ACT module lets you configure how control surfaces interact with effect and
soft synth plug-ins. For details, see “ACT module” on page 511.
• Screenset module. The Screenset module lets you save and recall screenset presets (window
layouts). For details, see “Screenset module” on page 512.
• Performance module. The Performance module lets you monitor CPU, disk and memory
activity. For details, see “Performance module” on page 514.
• Punch module. The Punch module lets you configure punch record settings. For details, see
“Punch module” on page 516.
• Select module. The Select module lets you configure selection settings. For details, see
“Select module” on page 517.
• Markers module. The Markers module lets you navigate by markers. For details, see “Markers
module” on page 518.
• Event Inspector module. The Event Inspector module lets you modify selected clips and
496
Control Bar overview
M
events. For details, see “Event Inspector module” on page 519.
• Sync module. The Sync module lets you configure synchronization settings. For details, see
“Sync Module” on page 520.
To show/hide modules
Do one of the following:
• To show/hide a specific module. Right-click the Control Bar and select <name> module.
• To hide a module. Right-click the module and select Hide Module.
• To show all modules. Right-click the Control Bar and select Show All.
Note: Depending on the video resolution, your computer monitor may not be wide enough to
display all Control Bar modules simultaneously. When you show a new module, other visible
modules get pushed to the right. If the right most module can not fit on screen, it will
automatically be hidden. Hidden modules have a “Offscreen” suffix in the Control Bar context
menu.
To re-arrange modules
Drag a module’s gripper to the desired location within the Control Bar.
Figure 151. Drag a module’s gripper to move the module.
A
A. Gripper
Control Bar overview
497
To dock/undock the Control Bar
Right-click the Control Bar and select one of the following commands:
• Dock Control Bar at Top. Select this option to dock the Control Bar above the Track view.
• Dock Control Bar at Bottom. Select this option to dock the Control Bar below the Track view.
• Undock Control Bar.
Select this option to undock the Control Bar.
Tip: You can click any blank area in the Control Bar and drag the Control Bar to the desired position.
See:
“Tools module” on page 498
“Snap module” on page 502
“Transport module” on page 504
“Loop module” on page 507
“Mix module” on page 509
“ACT module” on page 511
“Screenset module” on page 512
“Performance module” on page 514
“Punch module” on page 516
“Select module” on page 517
“Markers module” on page 518
“Event Inspector module” on page 519
“Sync Module” on page 520
Tools module
The Tools module contains various tools that allow you to edit content in your projects. The current
tool applies to whichever editing view has focus.
Using menu buttons
Several buttons in the Tools module display a small triangle in the bottom right corner. The triangle
indicates that you can click and keep the mouse button pressed for a brief moment to access
additional tools or options. You can also right-click the button and choose an option on the pop-up
menu.
498
Control Bar overview
Figure 152. If a button displays a small triangle in the bottom right corner, click and keep the mouse button
pressed to access additional tools or options.
To show/hide the Tools module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Tools Module.
Figure 153. Global tools are accessed from the Tools module in the Control Bar.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
A. Smart tool B. Select tool C. Move tool D. Edit tools (Edit/Timing/Split) E. Draw tools (Freehand/Line/Sine/
Triangle/Square/Saw/Random) F. Erase tools (Erase/Mute) G. Draw resolution
The Tools module contains the following controls:
• Smart tool
. The Smart tool is the default tool in SONAR. The Smart tool is a multi-function
tool that combines functions from several other tools. For audio clips, automation and transients,
the Smart Tool is a combination of the Edit, Select and Move tools. For MIDI notes, the Smart Tool
is a combination of the Edit, Select, Move, Draw and Erase Tools. The function is determined by
where you click. For details, see “Smart tool” on page 422.
• Select tool
. The Select tool lets you select data. You can select a time range, or select
entire clips, MIDI notes, envelope nodes and transients. For details, see “Select tool” on page
429.
• Move tool
. The Move tool lets you move selected data. You can move entire clips, partial
clips, MIDI notes, envelope nodes, transient markers and clip tempo map markers. For details,
see “Move tool” on page 433.
• Edit tool
. The Edit tool lets you adjust data. You can slip-edit clips, adjust note start/end
times, adjust fades, raise/lower clip volume envelope, and raise/lower note velocity and
automation envelopes. For details, see “Edit tool” on page 437.
• Timing tool
. Select the Timing tool. The Timing tool lets you slip-stretch audio clips, dragquantize MIDI notes, and stretch audio using transient markers. For details, see “Timing tool” on
page 442.
Control Bar overview
499
• Split tool
. The Split tool lets you split clips, cut clips, split MIDI notes, split clips at
transients, and add envelope nodes. For details, see “Split tool” on page 445.
• Freehand tool
. The Freehand tool lets you draw MIDI notes and freehand automation
envelopes. You can also create and promote transient markers. For details, see “Freehand tool”
on page 448.
• Line Draw
. The Line tool lets you draw straight automation envelopes and “paint” MIDI
notes. For details, see “Line tool” on page 451.
• Sine tool
. The Sine Pattern tool lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing sine
shapes. For details, see “Sine tool” on page 454.
• Triangle tool
. The Triangle Pattern tool lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing
triangle shapes. For details, see “Triangle tool” on page 454.
• Square tool
. The Square Pattern tool lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing
square shapes. For details, see “Square tool” on page 454.
• Saw tool
. The Saw Pattern tool lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing triangle
shapes. For details, see “Saw tool” on page 454.
• Random tool
. The Random Pattern tool lets you edit automation envelopes by drawing
random shapes. For details, see “Random tool” on page 454.
• Erase tool
. The Erase tool lets you delete clips, partial clips, MIDI notes, automation
envelope nodes, and transient markers. For details, see “Erase tool” on page 456.
• Mute tool
. The Mute tool lets you mute clips, mute partial clips, mute MIDI notes, and
disable transient markers. For details, see “Mute tool” on page 460.
• Note value. The note duration that is used when drawing new Note events with the Smart tool
or Freehand tool. Click the button and keep the mouse button pressed for a brief moment to
access the note value menu. For details, see “Specifying note durations” on page 468.
Tip: You can quickly access the various tools from the Tools HUD by pressing T on your computer
keyboard.
See:
“Tools” on page 407
“Nudge” on page 350
500
Control Bar overview
“Zoom controls” on page 86
“Editing audio” on page 773
“Editing MIDI events and continuous controllers (CC)” on page 673
“Automation” on page 1001
“AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)” on page 589
“Selecting clips” on page 334
“Moving and copying clips” on page 335
“Splitting and combining clips” on page 365
“Slip-editing (non-destructive editing)” on page 392
“Fades and crossfades” on page 395
“Clip muting and isolating (clip soloing)” on page 375
“Scrubbing” on page 788
See also:
“Snap module” on page 502
“Transport module” on page 504
“Loop module” on page 507
“Mix module” on page 509
“ACT module” on page 511
“Screenset module” on page 512
“Performance module” on page 514
“Punch module” on page 516
“Select module” on page 517
“Markers module” on page 518
“Event Inspector module” on page 519
“Sync Module” on page 520
Control Bar overview
501
Snap module
SONAR lets you define a snap grid that makes it easier to arrange clips and note events, select time
ranges, and control envelope shape drawing. To use the snap grid, enable the Snap to Grid button
in the Snap module and set the grid resolution to an interval of musical time, such as a whole
note, half note, or quarter note; a unit of absolute time: a number of frames, seconds or samples; an
event; the start or end of a clip; a marker; or audio transients. The grid can use multiple resolutions
at the same time, such as a whole note, and audio transients. When the Snap to Grid button is
enabled, if you move or paste clips or markers, items will be snapped to the nearest point on the
snap grid.
Figure 154. Snap to Grid settings are available in the Snap module in the Control Bar.
A
B
D
C
E F
A. Snap on/off B. Snap To / Snap By C. Snap to landmarks D. Snap resolution (musical time or absolute time)
E. Triplet F. Dotted
The Snap module contains the following settings:
• Snap enable/disable
. Enable/disable snapping. When enabled, vertical grid lines that
correspond to the snap resolution are displayed in the Track view.
• Time resolution. Snap to the selected musical or absolute time resolution. Click and hold the
mouse button pressed to select a different duration from the pop-up menu. For absolute time
resolutions (samples, frames, seconds), type the desired number of units. When Smart Grid is
selected (the Snap to Grid button changes to
), the snap resolution is dynamically
determined by the horizontal zoom level, and the M:B:T time rulers in the Clips pane and Piano
Roll view are optimized to show relevant snap locations.
Note 1: To exit Smart Grid mode, clear the Smart Grid check mark. If you manually select a
new resolution while Smart Grid is enabled, the new settings only apply until the focused view's
zoom level changes.
Note 2: The Piano Roll view can use its own independent snap resolution. For details, see
“Piano Roll view snap resolution” on page 691.
• Triplet
502
. Reduces the duration of the selected Musical time resolution by 2/3 of its original
Control Bar overview
duration. When Triplet is enabled, three note events fit in the space of two.
• Dotted . Increase the duration of the selected Musical time resolution by half of its original
value (150%).
• Snap To. Align data to the snap grid.
• Snap By. Move data by the grid resolution.
• Landmark Events
. Snap to the selected landmarks, including markers, Now Time, clips,
audio transients, MIDI notes, and automation envelope nodes. To select the desired landmarks,
right-click the Snap to Grid button
to open the Preferences dialog, then select the desired
check boxes in the Landmarks section. SONAR will snap to landmarks on tracks/lanes that are
currently visible in the Clips pane.
Additional Snap to Grid settings
To access additional snap settings, go to Edit > Preferences > Customization - Snap to Grid (or
right-click the Snap to Grid button
).
The Snap section contains the following settings:
• Snap Intensity. Specify the magnetic strength when snapping, which determines how quickly
moved events are pulled towards the snap grid.
• Magnetic Test. Drag the event to test the current Snap Intensity setting.
• Snap to Nearest Audio Zero Crossings. Automatically snap edited audio clips to the nearest
zero crossing of the waveform (the point at which there is no volume) to minimize glitches that
can happen when waveforms are spliced together.
• Landmarks. Snap to the selected landmarks when the Events button is enabled in the Control
Bar’s Snap module:
• Markers.
Snap to any marker.
• Now Time. Snap to the current Now Time.
• Clips. Snap to the start or end of any clip.
• Audio Transients. Snap to transient markers in audio clips.
• MIDI Notes. Snap to note events in MIDI clips.
• Automation Nodes.
Snap to automation envelope nodes.
See:
“Defining and using the Snap Grid” on page 354
“Tools” on page 407
“Nudge” on page 350
See also:
Control Bar overview
503
“Tools module” on page 498
“Transport module” on page 504
“Loop module” on page 507
“Mix module” on page 509
“ACT module” on page 511
“Screenset module” on page 512
“Performance module” on page 514
“Punch module” on page 516
“Select module” on page 517
“Markers module” on page 518
“Event Inspector module” on page 519
“Sync Module” on page 520
Transport module
The Transport module lets you control the transport and transport-related functions, such as Record
, Return to Zero
, Rewind
, Stop
, Play
, and Fast Forward
.
To show/hide the Transport module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Transport Module.
Figure 155. The Transport module.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Q
R
S
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
A. Rewind B. Stop C. Play D. Pause E. Fast Forward F. Record G. Dropout indicator H. Current Now time
(this space is also used for progress bars and “Waiting for sync” messages) I. Return to zero (RTZ) J. Position
K. Jump to project end L. Audio Engine on/off M. Reset/Panic N. Sample rate and bit depth O. Tempo
P. Meter Q. Metronome during record R. Metronome during playback S. Click to open metronome settings
The Transport module contains the following controls:
• Rewind
• Stop
504
.
Gradually rewind the project.
. Stop playback.
Control Bar overview
• Play
. Start/stop playback.
• Pause
. Pause/resume playback.
• Fast Forward
.
Gradually fast forward the project.
• Record
. Start recording (requires at least one track to be armed for recording). Right-click
to access global record options. Click and keep the mouse button pressed for a brief moment to
enable step recording.
• Step Record. Open the Step Record window. For details, see “Step recording” on page 291.
• RTZ
. Rewind to the start of the project.
• Progress Bar
• Go to End
.
.
Current position in the project. Drag to skip around in the project.
Skip to the end of the project.
• Time Display. The time display section shows useful information about the current project,
including the Now time, sample rate and bit depth, tempo and meter. The following information is
shown:
• Current Now Time. The Now time shows your current location in the project. For details,
see “The Now time and how to use it” on page 178. Click the time display to toggle between
the following time formats:
• MBT. Display time as Measure:Beat:Tick.
• HMSF. Display time as Hour:Minute:Second:Frame. This format is also referred to as
SMPTE time.
• Milliseconds. Display time in milliseconds.
• Samples. Display time in samples.
• Dropout Indicator
. Appears whenever your project requires more resources than your
CPU, main memory, and disk can supply. For details, see “Dropouts and other audio
problems” on page 1197.
• Audio Engine on/off
. Enable/disable the audio engine. The Audio Engine button lights
up if the audio engine stops running. To restart the audio engine, click the Audio Engine
button.
• Reset / Panic (Reset MIDI and Audio)
flashes if a MIDI note is stuck.
.
Reset any stuck MIDI notes. The Reset button
• Sample Rate / Bit Depth. The project’s sample rate and recording bit depth.
• Current Tempo.
tempo.
The current tempo at the Now time. Double-click to change the current
• Current Meter. The number of beats per measure and the note value of each beat at the
current Now time. Click to change the meter. For details, see “Setting the Meter and Key
Control Bar overview
505
signatures” on page 252.
The Time Display section also shows the following information:
• Horizontal progress bar when SONAR is performing certain operations.
• “Waiting for Sync” message when synchronizing SONAR to an external clock source. When
synchronized to an external clock source, the Time Display shows both the current Now time
and the SMPTE source time.
Figure 156. The display shows the current Now time, a progress bar or “Waiting for sync” message.
A
B
C
A. Now time B. Progress bar C. “Waiting for sync” message
• Metronome Record on/off
access Metronome settings.
. Enable/disable the metronome during recording. Right-click to
• Metronome Playback on/off
access Metronome settings.
• Metronome settings
. Enable/disable the metronome during playback. Right-click to
. Click the metronome icon to open the metronome preferences.
See:
“The Now time and how to use it” on page 178
“Controlling playback” on page 177
“Audition (selection playback)” on page 376
“Changing tempos” on page 382
“Setting the Meter and Key signatures” on page 252
“The Audio Engine button” on page 284
“Handling stuck notes” on page 188
“Dropouts and other audio problems” on page 1197
“Setting the audio sampling rate and bit depth” on page 256
“Step recording” on page 291
506
Control Bar overview
“Setting the Metronome and Tempo settings” on page 253
See also:
“Tools module” on page 498
“Snap module” on page 502
“Loop module” on page 507
“Mix module” on page 509
“ACT module” on page 511
“Screenset module” on page 512
“Performance module” on page 514
“Punch module” on page 516
“Select module” on page 517
“Markers module” on page 518
“Event Inspector module” on page 519
“Sync Module” on page 520
Loop module
The Loop module lets you control loop settings.
To show/hide the Loop module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Loop Module.
Figure 157. The Loop module.
A
C
B
D
A. Loop On/Off B. Set Loop Time to Select C. Loop Start Time D. Loop End Time
The Loop module contains the following controls:
• Loop on/off
.
Enable/disable playback looping.
• Set Loop Times to Selection
. Set the Loop Start time to the start (From) time of the
selection, and the Loop End time to the end (Thru) time of the selection.
• Loop Start Time. The current Loop Start time. Click to modify.
Control Bar overview
507
• Loop End Time.
The current Loop End time. Click to modify.
Tip: If a numeric time field has focus, you can press the G key to access a list of marker positions.
See:
“Loop recording” on page 285
“Looping” on page 189
See also:
“Tools module” on page 498
“Snap module” on page 502
“Transport module” on page 504
“Mix module” on page 509
“ACT module” on page 511
“Screenset module” on page 512
“Performance module” on page 514
“Punch module” on page 516
“Select module” on page 517
“Markers module” on page 518
“Event Inspector module” on page 519
“Sync Module” on page 520
508
Control Bar overview
Mix module
The Mix module lets you configure various playback settings. You can quickly mute/unmute, solo/
unsolo and arm/disarm all tracks. You can also configure automation settings and specify the solo
behavior.
To show/hide the Mix module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Mix Module.
Figure 158. The Mix module.
A
B
C
D
E
K
F
G H
I
J
A. Mute B. Solo C. Arm D. Input Echo E. Live Input PDC Override F. Bypass All Effects G. Exclusive Solo
H. Dim Solo I. Automation Read (playback) J. Automation Write (recording) K. Offset mode
The Mix module contains the following controls:
• Mute / Unmute All Tracks
track is muted.
. Click to mute/unmute all tracks. The button is lit if at least one
• Solo / Unsolo All Tracks
track is soloed.
. Click to solo/unsolo all tracks. The button is lit if at least one
• Dim Solo enable/disable . Enable/disable Dim Solo mode. Dim Solo is a mode in which
non-soloed audio tracks/buses are still audible but at a reduced level. For details, see “Dim
Solo mode” on page 200.
• Exclusive Solo enable/disable . Enable/disable Exclusive Solo mode. With Exclusive
Solo mode, you can only solo one track and one bus at a time. For details, see “Exclusive
Solo mode” on page 201.
• Arm / Disarm All Tracks
is armed.
.
• Input Echo On/Off All Tracks
• Bypass all Effects
on page 869.
Click to arm/disarm all tracks. The button is lit if at least one track
. Enable/disable Input Monitoring on all tracks.
. Bypass all effects globally. For details, see “Bypassing effects globally”
• Live Input PDC Override
. Enable/disable delay compensation on live tracks, thereby
removing the latency during playback and recording of such tracks. Because it's a toggle, you can
quickly turn it on to complete your tracking at low latency, and turn it off when finished to hear the
Control Bar overview
509
track compensated as normal. For details, see “Live Input PDC override” on page 282.
• Allow Automation Writing
. Globally enable/disable the ability to write automation.
• Global Automation Playback
. Globally enable/disable all automation playback.
• Offset mode . Enable/disable Offset mode. In Offset mode, you “offset” the current
automation in a track using a parameter’s controls. For details, see “Envelope mode and Offset
mode” on page 1031.
See:
“Silencing tracks” on page 198
“To mute or solo a bus” on page 844
“Muting and soloing soft synth tracks” on page 813
“Soloing tracks” on page 198
“Dim Solo mode” on page 200
“Exclusive Solo mode” on page 201
“Arming tracks for recording” on page 263
“Input monitoring” on page 278
“To globally bypass all effects in a project” on page 869
“To globally bypass all track, bus or clip effects” on page 870
“Live Input PDC override” on page 282
“Automation Read and Automation Write buttons” on page 1007
“Recording individual fader or knob movements” on page 1009
“Creating and editing automation envelopes” on page 1019
“Automating individual effects parameters” on page 1036
“Recording automation data from an external controller” on page 1038
See also:
“Tools module” on page 498
“Snap module” on page 502
“Transport module” on page 504
“Loop module” on page 507
“ACT module” on page 511
“Screenset module” on page 512
“Performance module” on page 514
“Punch module” on page 516
510
Control Bar overview
“Select module” on page 517
“Markers module” on page 518
“Event Inspector module” on page 519
“Sync Module” on page 520
ACT module
Active Controller Technology (ACT) allows you to use a control surface or MIDI controller to control
the plug-in effect or soft synth that has focus. SONAR communicates with control surfaces via
special control surface plug-ins (see “External devices” on page 1211). The ACT module lets you
configure ACT settings for a specific control surface plug-in.
To show/hide the ACT module
Right-click the Control Bar and select ACT Module.
Figure 159. The ACT module.
A
B
C
D
E
A. Controller/surface name B. Status display C. Open property page D. ACT Learn E. ACT Lock
The ACT module contains the following controls:
• Controller / Surface Name.
Select the control surface plug-in to control.
• Controller / Surface Status Display.
• Open Control Surface Plug-in
plug-in.
Status display for the selected control surface plug-in.
. Open the property page for the selected control surface
• ACT Learn
. Enable/disable ACT Learn. ACT Learn allows you to assign a specific effect/
synth parameter to a specific hardware control on your control surface. For more information, see
“To edit the default ACT mappings” on page 1235.
• ACT Lock
. Lock/unlock the current ACT context (the effect/synth that has focus). For more
information, see “ACT” on page 1234.
See:
“ACT” on page 1234
See also:
Control Bar overview
511
“Tools module” on page 498
“Snap module” on page 502
“Transport module” on page 504
“Loop module” on page 507
“Mix module” on page 509
“Screenset module” on page 512
“Performance module” on page 514
“Punch module” on page 516
“Select module” on page 517
“Markers module” on page 518
“Event Inspector module” on page 519
“Sync Module” on page 520
Screenset module
A screenset is a snapshot of the current layout of various views and windows in a project, including
which windows are open, their size, position, zoom level and whether they are docked or floating.
You can create up to 10 screensets per project and freely switch between screensets at any time.
Screensets can be selected and edited from the Screenset module in the Control Bar, or with
number keys 1-0 on your computer keyboard.
To show/hide the Screenset module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Screenset Module.
Figure 160. The Screenset module.
A
B
A. Screenset list B. Screenset buttons 1-10
The Screenset module in the Control Bar contains the following controls:
• Screenset menu. The Screenset menu lets you select, revert, lock, rename, duplicate and
import screensets. The name of the current screenset is shown in the menu. The menu contains
the following commands:
• 1 [screenset 1 name] - 0 [screenset 10 name]. Select screenset 1 through 10.
• Revert Current Screenset. Revert the current screenset to its last saved state before the
project was saved. See “To revert the current screenset to its last saved state” on page 1058.
512
Control Bar overview
• Lock/Unlock Current Screenset. Lock the current screenset to prevent any modifications.
See “To prevent the current screenset from being modified” on page 1057.
• Rename Current Screenset. Rename the current screenset. See “To name or rename the
current screenset” on page 1057.
• Duplicate Current Screenset to. Copy the current screenset to another screenset location
(1 to 0). Select the target screenset location from the submenu. The selected target screenset
becomes the current screenset. See “To duplicate the current screenset” on page 1057.
• 1 [screenset 1 name] - 0 [screenset 10 name]. Duplicate the current screenset to
screenset 1 through 10.
• Import Screensets from <source file name>.cwp. Import screensets from another open
project. Any locked screensets in the current project are not overwritten. See “To import
screensets from another project” on page 1057.
• 1-10 buttons
- . Select screensets 1 through 10. You can also press the 1-0 keys on the
computer keyboard to select screensets 1 through 10. The active screenset button is highlighted.
See:
“Screensets” on page 1054
See also:
“Tools module” on page 498
“Snap module” on page 502
“Transport module” on page 504
“Loop module” on page 507
“Mix module” on page 509
“ACT module” on page 511
“Performance module” on page 514
“Punch module” on page 516
“Select module” on page 517
“Markers module” on page 518
“Event Inspector module” on page 519
“Sync Module” on page 520
Control Bar overview
513
Performance module
The Performance module lets you monitor your computer’s performance, including CPU, disk and
memory activity.
To show/hide the Performance module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Performance Module.
Figure 161. The Performance module.
B
A
C
D
A. CPU meters (one per core) B. Disk Activity indicator C. Disk Space meter D. Memory Usage meter
The Performance module contains the following controls:
• CPU meters. Displays the time it takes to process a buffer full of audio data as a percentage of
the maximum time available to process that data and maintain uninterrupted playback. There is
one CPU meter for each core in your computer, up to 32 cores. There is some tolerance built into
the meter, so it is possible that it will exceed 100% at times (more so during recording than
playback).
Note: The width of the Performance module depends on the number of CPU cores available.
32 cores
4 cores
• Disk Activity indicator . Measures how much of the available time SONAR is using to
perform input/output functions on your hard disk. The size of your setup’s I/O buffer size (listed
under File System in Edit > Preferences > Audio - Sync and Caching) determines how much
time is allowed to perform disk operations and maintain uninterrupted playback. When SONAR
performs disk operations, the Disk Activity indicator changes color from yellow to red to indicate
the time SONAR is taking to complete each cycle of disk input/output. A red icon indicates very
high data activity.
• Disk Space meter. Shows the amount of available space on the drive where your wave data
directory is located. The tooltip shows the actual remaining disk space on your audio disk.
• Memory Usage (RAM) meter. Shows the total memory (RAM) usage by your computer, not just
514
Control Bar overview
by SONAR.
Note: If you experience a dropout or your CPU or Disk meters are reading high, there are steps
you can take to improve your audio performance. For more information, see “Audio dropouts or
crashes during playback” on page 1256.
See:
“CPU meter/Disk meter/Dropout indicator” on page 1194
“Improving audio performance” on page 1181
“Getting the most out of your computer” on page 1189
“Reduce GUI updates to improve playback performance” on page 1196
“Improving recording performance” on page 1206
See also:
“Tools module” on page 498
“Snap module” on page 502
“Transport module” on page 504
“Loop module” on page 507
“Mix module” on page 509
“ACT module” on page 511
“Screenset module” on page 512
“Punch module” on page 516
“Select module” on page 517
“Markers module” on page 518
“Event Inspector module” on page 519
“Sync Module” on page 520
Control Bar overview
515
Punch module
The Punch module lets you control auto-punch settings.
To show/hide the Punch module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Punch module.
Figure 162. The Punch module.
A
C
B
D
A. Auto-Punch On/Off B. Set Punch Time to Select C. Punch In Time D. Punch Out Time
The Punch module contains the following controls:
• Auto-Punch on/off
. Enable/disable punch recording. Toggles punch recording on/off.
• Set Punch Time to Selection
. Set the Punch In time to the start (From) time of the
selection, and the Punch Out time to the end (Thru) time of the selection.
• Punch In Time. The current Punch In time. Click to modify.
• Punch Out Time. The current Punch Out time. Click to modify.
Tip: If a numeric time field has focus, you can press G to access a list of marker positions.
See:
“Punch recording” on page 288
See also:
“Tools module” on page 498
“Snap module” on page 502
“Transport module” on page 504
“Loop module” on page 507
“Mix module” on page 509
“ACT module” on page 511
“Screenset module” on page 512
516
Control Bar overview
“Performance module” on page 514
“Select module” on page 517
“Markers module” on page 518
“Event Inspector module” on page 519
“Sync Module” on page 520
Select module
The Select module lets you control the selection From and Thru times.
To show/hide the Select module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Select module.
Figure 163. The Select module.
A
C
B
D
A. Set Select From = Now B. Set Select Thru = Now C. Select From Time D. Select Thru Time
The Select module contains the following controls:
• Set Selection From = Now
extends.
. Specify the Now time as the time from which a selection
• Set Selection Thru = Now
extends.
. Specify the Now time as the time through which a selection
• Select From Time. The current From time. Click to modify.
• Select Thru Time.
The current Thru time. Click to modify.
Tip: If a numeric time field has focus, you can press G to access a list of marker positions.
See:
“Selecting clips” on page 334
“Selecting and editing events” on page 709
See also:
Control Bar overview
517
“Tools module” on page 498
“Snap module” on page 502
“Transport module” on page 504
“Loop module” on page 507
“Mix module” on page 509
“ACT module” on page 511
“Screenset module” on page 512
“Performance module” on page 514
“Punch module” on page 516
“Markers module” on page 518
“Event Inspector module” on page 519
“Sync Module” on page 520
Markers module
The Markers module lets you navigate by markers and insert new markers.
To show/hide the Markers module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Markers Module.
Figure 164. The Markers module.
A
B
C
D
A. Jump to previous marker B. Jump to next marker C. Insert marker D. Current marker
The Markers module contains the following controls:
• Previous Marker
• Next Marker
• Insert Marker
.
Jump to the previous marker.
. Jump to the next marker.
.
Insert a new marker.
• Current Marker Display. This list shows the current marker and lets you instantly jump to any
marker in the project.
518
Control Bar overview
See:
“Creating and using markers” on page 357
See also:
“Tools module” on page 498
“Snap module” on page 502
“Transport module” on page 504
“Loop module” on page 507
“Mix module” on page 509
“ACT module” on page 511
“Screenset module” on page 512
“Performance module” on page 514
“Punch module” on page 516
“Select module” on page 517
“Event Inspector module” on page 519
“Sync Module” on page 520
Event Inspector module
The Event Inspector module lets you view and modify settings for selected clips and MIDI Note
events. If you select multiple notes, the Event Inspector module displays the note value if all
selected note values are the same. If the note values are different, the Event Inspector does not
display anything.
To show/hide the Event Inspector module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Event Inspector Module.
Figure 165. The Event Inspector module.
A
C
B
D
E
A. Time B. Duration C. Pitch D. Velocity E. Channel
The Event Inspector module contains the following controls:
Control Bar overview
519
• Time. Start time of the selected event(s), specified as a valid M:B:T time value. Separate values
with a colon or a space. For example, measure 2, Beat 3, Tick 720 would be written as 2:3:720.
• Duration. Duration of the selected event(s), specified as a PPQ value. You can also specify a
percentage of the current duration value. For example, to double the duration, type 200% and
press ENTER.
• Pitch. Pitch of the selected event(s), specified as note names (C0 through G10) or note
numbers (0 through 127). You can also use a modifier to raise or lower the value by a number of
half-steps. To raise the pitch by 2 half-steps, type +2 and press ENTER. To lower the pitch by 2
half-steps, type -2 and press ENTER.
• Vel. Velocity value of the selected event(s), specified as a value between 0 and 127. You can
also use a modifier to raise or lower the current velocity value (+/- 0 through 127). You can also
specify a percentage of the current velocity value. For example, to double the velocity, type 200%
and press ENTER.
• Channel. MIDI channel assigned to the selected events, specified as a value between 1
through 16.
See also:
“Tools module” on page 498
“Snap module” on page 502
“Transport module” on page 504
“Loop module” on page 507
“Mix module” on page 509
“ACT module” on page 511
“Screenset module” on page 512
“Performance module” on page 514
“Punch module” on page 516
“Select module” on page 517
“Markers module” on page 518
“Sync Module” on page 520
Sync Module
The Sync module lets you configure synchronization settings.
To show/hide the Sync module
Right-click the Control Bar and select Sync Module.
520
Control Bar overview
Figure 166. The Sync module.
A
B
C
D
E
A. SMPTE/MTC format B. Incoming timecode C. Sync type D. Transmit MIDI Sync E. Transmit MTC Sync
The Sync module contains the following controls:
• SMPTE/MTC format. Select the time code format. The following frame rates are supported:
• 23.976 frames per second (FPS).
Typically used with H.264/MPEG-4 AVC video.
• 24 frames per second (FPS). Used for theatrical film worldwide. Any film in North America
or Japan uses this setting.
• 25 FPS. Used for PAL/SECAM video and some film in countries that use 50 Hz wall
electricity. This is the setting to use when synchronizing to any European video format.
• 29.97 FPS Drop. NTSC broadcast and long format video in North America and Japan. This
setting synchronizes the video perfectly with SONAR, but the sequencer position displayed in
the Now Time and Big Time displays will gradually drift and become incorrect over long
periods of time. The audio and MIDI synchronization to the external device will not be affected
by this discrepancy.
• 29.97 FPS Non Drop. NTSC non-broadcast and short length video in North America and
Japan. Used for some music projects. This setting synchronizes the video perfectly with
SONAR, but the sequencer position displayed in the Now Time and Big Time displays will
gradually drift and become incorrect over long periods of time. The audio and MIDI
synchronization to the external device will not be affected by this discrepancy.
• 30 FPS Drop. Not a standard type of timecode, used rarely for speed correction and transfer
problems in tape based systems.
• 30 FPS Non Drop. Most music projects and some film in North America. This is the best
choice for any music project and should be used unless the situation dictates otherwise.
• Incoming timecode. Shows the current time of incoming time code when synchronizing to an
external device.
• Sync type.
Select the sync type. The following sync types are supported:
• Internal Sync
• MIDI Sync
.
Timing is determined by the clock on the computer motherboard.
. Timing is determined by the clock on an external MIDI device.
• SMPTE/MTC Sync
. Timing is determined by a time code signal (in SMPTE or some
other format) recorded on some external medium or generated and sent by SONAR.
• Audio Sync
. Timing is determined by the clock on the computer’s audio interface.
Control Bar overview
521
• Transmit MIDI Sync
. Transmit MIDI Sync to external MIDI devices, such as drum
machines, stand-alone MIDI hardware sequencers, and sequencers built into MIDI keyboards
(only available when using the Internal or Audio clock). SONAR sends messages to all other
devices to start and stop playback and to keep all the devices in sync. SONAR can send MIDI
Sync on multiple MIDI output ports. For details, see “MIDI synchronization” on page 1158.
• Transmit MTC Sync
. Transmit MIDI Time Code (MTC) to external devices that can receive
MTC. SMPTE/MTC is a position and timing reference that indicates the current location in the
project and how quickly the project should be playing. SMPTE/MTC time code labels the position
in a project in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames. The speed of playback is indicated by a
frame rate. SONAR can send MTC on multiple output ports simultaneously. For details, see
“SMPTE/MIDI time code synchronization” on page 1162.
See:
“Synchronizing your gear” on page 1153
“MIDI synchronization” on page 1158
“SMPTE/MIDI time code synchronization” on page 1162
“Audio - Sync and Caching (Advanced)” on page 1663
See also:
“Tools module” on page 498
“Snap module” on page 502
“Transport module” on page 504
“Loop module” on page 507
“Mix module” on page 509
“ACT module” on page 511
“Screenset module” on page 512
“Performance module” on page 514
“Punch module” on page 516
“Select module” on page 517
“Markers module” on page 518
“Event Inspector module” on page 519
522
Control Bar overview
Inspectors
When working on a project, you will frequently need to access track and clip parameters and mix
controls. The Track Inspector and Properties Inspector provide easy access to relevant settings for
the selected track(s) or clip(s).
Figure 167. Use the Track Inspector and Properties Inspector to configure track and clip settings.
A
B
A. Properties Inspector B. Track Inspector
The Inspector pane appears to the left of the Track view, but can also be moved to the right side.
There are three separate inspectors:
• Track Inspector. The Track Inspector shows mix settings for the current track, bus, or main,
and is essentially identical to a channel strip in the Console view. Advanced MIDI settings are also
available for MIDI tracks and Instrument tracks. For details, see “Track Inspector overview” on
page 529.
• Properties Inspector. The Properties Inspector shows properties for the selected clip(s),
track(s), or bus(es). For details, see “Properties Inspector overview” on page 544. The Properties
Inspector has several modes:
• Clip. The Clip Properties Inspector displays settings for the currently selected clip(s). For
details, see “Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 546.
• Track. The Track Properties Inspector lets you type a track name, specify the automation
write mode and time base, specify an audio track’s AudioSnap render modes, specify the
default clip colors, and enter a text description. For details, see “Properties Inspector - Track
Properties” on page 553.
• Bus. The Bus Properties Inspector lets you type a bus name, specify the automation write
mode and time base, and enter a text description. For details, see “Properties Inspector - Bus
Properties” on page 556.
Note: Settings in the inspectors are non-destructive, and therefore do not destructively process
data in any way. Feel free to experiment with different settings without worrying that changes
are permanent.
• ProChannel (Producer only). ProChannel combines compression, equalization, and tube
saturation modeling in one convenient processor. ProChannel is available on each audio track,
Instrument track and bus. For details, see “ProChannel (Producer only)” on page 963.
Note: Due to technical limitations of the VST plug-in format, it is not possible to show more than
one instance of a ProChannel module. As a result, the same ProChannel instance can not be
displayed in the Inspector and Console view at the same time. If you open ProChannel in the
Inspector, the same ProChannel will close in the Console view, and vice versa.
524
Inspectors
Figure 168. The Track Inspector extends the full height of the Inspector pane, while the Properties Inspector is
shown in the top half when visible.
A
B
C
D
H
E
F
G
I
A. Dock/undock Inspector B. Show/hide Clip Properties Inspector C. Show/hide Track Properties Inspector
D. Show/hide ProChannel E. Display area for Properties Inspector F. Display area for Track Inspectors
G. Show/hide/configure Track Inspector modules H. Section header bars (click to show controls) I. Show audio
output or MIDI settings (Instrument tracks only)
Inspectors
525
To show/hide the Inspector pane
Do one of the following:
• On the Views menu, click Inspector.
• Press I on your computer keyboard.
• Click the Docking Options button in the top right corner of the Inspector pane and select
Collapse.
To expand/collapse the Inspector pane
When the Inspector is docked, do one of the following:
• Click the Expand/Collapse button at the top of the Inspector pane.
• Press I on your computer keyboard.
Figure 169. Use the Expand/collapse button to expand/collapse the Inspector.
A
Expanded
A. Expand/Collapse
526
Inspectors
Collapsed
To dock/undock the Inspector
Do one of the following:
• To dock the Inspector on the right side.
Right.
Click the Docking Options button and select Dock
• To dock the Inspector on the left side. Click the Docking Options button and select Dock
Left.
• To undock the Inspector. Click the Docking Options button and select Undock, or click to the
left of the Dock/Undock button and drag the Inspector to the desired location.
Tip: You can click any blank space at the top of the Inspector pane and drag the Inspector to the
desired position.
Figure 170. Use the Dock/Undock and Docking Options controls to change the position of the Inspector.
A
B
A. Dock/Undock B. Docking Options
To enter values in inspectors
Do one of the following:
• Type a value in the text box and press ENTER.
• Drag the slider or use the mouse wheel.
• Select/clear the check box.
• Click the arrow buttons in the inspector to increase or decrease the value.
• Click the text box and then use the UP ARROW and DOWN ARROW keys to increase or
decrease the value.
• Select a value from the drop-down menu associated with the text box.
Inspectors
527
To edit multiple tracks/clips simultaneously
You can use the Track Properties and Clip Properties inspectors to modify multiple selected tracks
or clips simultaneously. The following rules apply when modifying multiple tracks/clips:
• If the selected tracks or clips share the same value for a parameter, that parameter will display
normally.
• If the selected tracks or clips have different values for a parameter, that parameter will display as
(Multi).
• If the selected Tracks or Clips are of a different type and it would not be appropriate or possible to
modify a parameter, that parameter will be unavailable.
See:
“Track Inspector overview” on page 529
“Properties Inspector overview” on page 544:
“Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 546
“Properties Inspector - Track Properties” on page 553
“Properties Inspector - Bus Properties” on page 556
528
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
The Track Inspector provides mixing controls for the currently selected audio track, MIDI track,
Instrument track, bus or main. The Track Inspector is essentially identical to a channel strip in the
Console view. Any changes you make in the Track Inspector are reflected in the corresponding
Console view channel strip, and vice versa. The Track Inspector modules can be shown/hidden
independently from the corresponding Console view modules.
The Track Inspector is divided in two. The left strip shows mix controls for the current track/bus/
main. The right strip varies depending on the current track type, as shown in the following table.
Current track type
Left strip
Right strip
Audio
Selected audio track
Output of selected track or send
MIDI
Selected MIDI track
Arpeggiator, Input Quantize, Snap to Scale settings,
MIDI chorus, MIDI reverb, Bank Select Method,
Key+ and Time+ for selected MIDI track
Instrument
Selected Instrument track
Audio tab: Output of selected track or send
MIDI tab: Arpeggiator, Input Quantize and Snap to
Scale settings for selected Instrument track
Bus
Selected bus
Output of selected bus or send
Selected main
Blank
Main
Table 111.
Track inspector controls
Showing both the current track and its output destination side-by-side makes it fast and easy to
configure the desired audio routing.
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
529
Figure 171. The content displayed in the Track Inspector depends on the current track type.
Audio track
A
B
MIDI track and Instrument
track (MIDI tab)
C
D
Instrument track
(Audio tab)
E
F
Bus
G
Main
H
I
A. Current audio track B. Output of current audio track C. Current MIDI track or Instrument track D. Advanced
MIDI settings for current MIDI track or Instrument track (MIDI tab) E. Current Instrument track F. Output of
current Instrument track (Audio tab) G. Selected bus H. Output of selected bus I. Selected main J. The right
strip is blank when showing mains
Note: When the current track is an Instrument track, you can show either audio output controls
or advanced MIDI settings in the right strip by selecting the Audio tab or MIDI tab at the bottom
of the Track Inspector.
530
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
J
To show a track/bus/main in the Track Inspector
Do one of the following:
• Click the desired track, bus or main in the Track view or Console view.
• Click the Track Name control in the Track Inspector to select any available track, bus or main.
To lock the Track Inspector to a specific track or bus
Be default, the Track Inspector dynamically updates to show the current track. However, you can
choose to always show a specific track or bus regardless of which track is current.
1. Click the track or bus you want to show in the Track Inspector.
2. Click the Track Name control in the Track Inspector and select Lock the current track or bus
from the drop-down menu.
To unlock the track or bus, select Lock the current track or bus from the menu again.
See:
“Track Inspector controls” on page 532:
“Audio track controls” on page 536
“Bus controls” on page 537
“MIDI track and Instrument track controls” on page 538
“Main controls” on page 543
“Properties Inspector overview” on page 544
“Inspectors” on page 523
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
531
Track Inspector controls
The controls in the Track Inspector vary depending on the current track type.
Control
Description
Audio MIDI
track track
Instrument
Bus
track
Main
Clip
Show/hide the Clip Properties Inspector.
--
--
--
--
--
Track
Show/hide the Track Properties Inspector.
--
--
--
--
--
Dock/Undock
Dock/undock the Inspector pane.
--
--
--
--
--
Docking
Options
The Docking Options menu lets you dock/ -undock/float/collapse the Inspector pane.
--
--
--
--
Gain
Pre-fader input gain for fine tuning a track’s
volume or input level to a bus.
x
Velocity offset The change in velocity (volume) that will be
applied to notes in the track on playback;
ranges from –127 to +127.
x
x
Input pan
Sets the pan of the audio data sent to the
bus.
ProChannel
(Producer
only)
ProChannel is an extended channel strip
that provides high-quality Compressor,
Equalizer, and Tube saturation processing
for each channel. See “ProChannel
(Producer only)” on page 963.
Effects bin
The patch point for a track’s plug-ins or soft x
synths.
Send Enable
Activates a send module, which sends a
copy of the track signal to a bus.
Send Level
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Controls volume of audio data sent by the
send module.
x
x
x
Send Pan
Adjusts the send pan setting.
x
x
x
Send Pre/
Post switch
Pre (pre-fader) means that the Send signal
goes to the bus prior to the track’s volume
fader; post means the Send signal goes to
the bus after the volume fader.
x
x
x
Send
destination
Displays name of bus that the Send is
sending data to.
x
x
x
Channel
The MIDI channel through which the notes
will be played.
x
x
Bank
The set of patch names available for the
track.
x
x
Table 112.
532
Track Inspector controls
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
x
x
Audio MIDI
track track
Instrument
Bus
track
Control
Description
Patch
The instrument sound that will be used for
playback.
Phase Invert
A switch that inverts the phase of the track. x
Mono/Stereo
A switch that determines whether a track’s x
signal enters an effect or chain of effects as
mono or stereo, regardless of the nature of
the track.
Read
Automation
Enable/disable automation playback.
x
x
x
x
Write
Automation
Enable/disable automation writing.
x
x
x
x
Mute
When enabled, mutes the track.
x
x
x
x
x
x
Main
x
x
x
Solo
When enabled, solos the track.
x
x
x
Arm for
recording
When enabled, arms the track for audio
recording.
x
x
x
Input echo
Turns input monitoring on or off.
x
x
x
Waveform
Preview
Display the waveform of the audio that’s
flowing through the bus.
Pan
The stereo distribution of the output,
ranging from 100% left (hard left) to 100%
right (hard right); a value of “C” indicates
sound that is centered left-to-right. On
stereo tracks, pan acts as balance.
x
x
x
x
Volume
The current volume level for the track,
ranging from -INF (silent) to +6 dB
(maximum volume). The recording and
playback levels are displayed in the
Playback and Record meters.
x
x
x
x
x
Meter
The recording and playback levels are
displayed in the Playback and Record
meters. For MIDI tracks, the meter shows
MIDI activity and velocity.
x
x
x
x
x
Track icon
Track icons allow you to quickly identify a
track’s contents by instrument. You can
assign a new track icon, create your own
track icons, and save an icon as part of a
track template.
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Track number A sequential track number used for
reference.
Table 112.
x
Track Inspector controls (Continued)
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
533
Audio MIDI
track track
Instrument
Bus
track
Main
A name that you assign the track for easy
reference. Note that if you do not assign a
name to a track, the default name is the
track number. This track number will
change if you change the order of your
tracks. You can click the Track Name
control to select any available track, bus or
main to display in the Track Inspector.
x
x
x
x
x
Input
The input source for the track, used in
recording.
x
x
Output
The output bus through which the track is
played.
x
x
x
x
Link
Main out faders can be linked using the
Control
Description
Track name
x
Link button
. This allows you to adjust
both the left and right channel at the same
time.
Chorus
Adds MIDI chorus effect to the track.
Reverb
Adds MIDI reverb effect to the track.
x
x
Bank Select
Method
The Bank Select Method used by your
sound module to switch back and forth
between banks of sounds.
See “Assigning the Bank Select method”
on page 1127.
x
x
Patch
Browser
Opens the “Patch Browser dialog” on page
1644 dialog box, which lets you search for
patches by name.
x
x
Key+
The number of half steps by which the
notes in the track are transposed on
playback (e.g., 12 to transpose up one
octave)
Time+
An offset applied to the start time of the
events in the track.
x
x
Arpeggiator
The Arpeggiator lets you play intricate
patterns of notes that would otherwise be
extremely difficult or impossible to play
manually and at speeds and octave ranges
that exist beyond the physical limitations of
the player or keyboard range. See
“Arpeggiator section” on page 541.
x
x
Table 112.
534
Track Inspector controls (Continued)
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
x
x
Audio MIDI
track track
Instrument
Bus
track
Control
Description
Input
quantize
Input quantizing allows you to automatically
quantize MIDI input during recording. See
“Input Quantize section” on page 540.
x
x
Snap to scale When Snap to Scale is enabled, any notes
that you draw or move in the Piano Roll
view stay within the selected scale. See
“Snap to Scale section” on page 540.
x
x
Main
Display
The Display menu lets you show/hide
modules in the Track Inspector.
x
x
x
x
x
Module
Options
The Module Options menu lets you
configure settings for various modules.
x
x
x
x
x
Audio tab
Show audio output controls in the right side
strip.
x
MIDI tab
Show advanced MIDI controls in the right
side strip.
x
Table 112.
Track Inspector controls (Continued)
See also:
“Audio track controls” on page 536
“Bus controls” on page 537
“MIDI track and Instrument track controls” on page 538
“Main controls” on page 543
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
535
Audio track controls
Figure 172. Track Inspector controls for audio tracks.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
A. Input gain B. ProChannel (Producer only) C. Effects bin D. Sends E. Mute, Solo, Arm, Input Echo, Phase
Invert, Stereo Interleave, Read Automation, Write Automation F. Pan G. Volume H. Meter I. Track icon J. Input
and output K. Track name and number L. Display menu
See also:
“Track Inspector controls” on page 532
536
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
Bus controls
Figure 173. Track Inspector controls for buses.
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
A. Input gain and pan B. ProChannel (Producer only) C. Effects bin D. Sends E. Mute, Solo, Waveform
preview, Read Automation, Write Automation F. Pan G. Volume H. Meter I. Bus Icon J. Output K. Bus name
L. Display menu
See also:
“Track Inspector controls” on page 532
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
537
MIDI track and Instrument track controls
When the current track is a MIDI track, the left strip shows mix controls and the right strip shows
Snap to Scale, Input Quantize, Arpeggiator and other advanced MIDI settings. Instrument tracks can
show either audio or MIDI controls in the right strip, depending on whether the Audio or MIDI tab is
selected.
Figure 174. Track Inspector controls for MIDI tracks and Instrument tracks.
A
L
B
M
C
N
D
E
F
O
G
H
P
I
J
Q
R
K
S
A. Velocity trim B. Effects bin C. Channel/Bank/Patch Quantize D. Mute, Solo, Arm, Input Echo, Read
Automation, Write Automation E. Pan F. Volume G. Meter H. Track icon and number I. Input and output
J. Track name K. Display menu L. Chorus and Reverb M. Snap to Scale N. Input Quantize O. Arpeggiator
P. MIDI offset controls (Key+ and Time+) Q. Open Patch Browser R. Bank Select Method S. Audio and MIDI
tabs (Instrument tracks only)
See also:
“Track Inspector controls” on page 532
538
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
Figure 175. Instrument tracks can show audio output or MIDI controls by selecting the Audio tab or MIDI tab.
A
B
Audio tab
MIDI tab
A. Audio output B. MIDI controls
Advanced MIDI Controls section
• Chorus.
Adds MIDI chorus effect to the track.
• Reverb. Adds MIDI reverb effect to the track.
• Key+. The number of half steps by which the notes in the track are transposed on playback
(e.g., 12 to transpose up one octave)
• Time+. The number of “Ticks” on page 1920 that the track’s playback timing is offset from the
other tracks.
• Patch Browser. Opens the “Patch Browser dialog” on page 1644 dialog box, which lets you
search for patches by name.
• Bank Select Method. Your synthesizer uses one of four bank select methods to switch back
and forth between banks of sounds. To find the method used for your instrument, check the
Inspectors
Track Inspector overview
539
instrument’s User’s Guide or the manufacturer’s web site. The four methods are as follows:
• Normal. Use for instruments that respond to Controller 0 or Controller 32 bank select
messages.
• Controller 0 only.
messages.
• Controller 32 only.
messages.
Use for instruments that only respond to Controller 0 bank select
Use for instruments that only respond to Controller 32 bank select
• Patch 100...127. Use for instruments that let you change banks by sending patch changes
between 100 and 127.
For more information about Bank Select Methods, see “Assigning the Bank Select method” on
page 1127.
Snap to Scale section
• Snap to Scale On/Off. Enables/disables Snap to Scale on the selected track.
• Scale. Displays current scale for Snap to Scale feature. The drop-down menu contains the
following options:
• <scale categories>. The pre-installed scales are organized into categories such as
Diatonic, Pentatonic, Exotic, etc. Point to the desired category and select a scale from the
submenu.
• Custom User Scales. This submenu lists all custom scales you have created.
• Scale Manager. Select Scale Manager to create new scales or edit existing scales. See “To
create a scale” on page 731 and “To edit or delete a scale” on page 732.
• Root Note. Use this field to specify the root note of the selected scale.
• Settings. Use this field to specify how you want SONAR to handle non-scale notes in the Piano
Roll view when Snap to Scale is enabled.
• Next, Higher Note. SONAR moves any non-scale note that you move to the next higher
note in the selected scale.
• Previous, Lower Note. SONAR moves any non-scale note that you move to the previous,
lower note in the selected scale.
• Nearest Note. SONAR moves any non-scale note that you move to the note that is closest
in pitch in the selected scale.
For more information about Snap to Scale, see “Snap to Scale” on page 730.
Input Quantize section
• Input Quantize On/Off. Enables/disables Input Quantize on the selected track.
• Preset. Save or select settings that you use often in the drop-down menu. To save a new group
of settings, click the Preset list and choose Quantize Settings to open the Input Quantize dialog
box, then type a name in the Preset field and click the Save button. To delete a group, select it
and click the Delete button. The Input Quantize dialog box contains the following settings:
• Resolution. Set the note resolution in either standard note duration or tick value. The
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Track Inspector overview
resolution determines the size note or time value that you want your MIDI data to conform to.
• MIDI Event Start Times. Select this option to quantize MIDI event start times.
• Note Durations. Select this option to quantize Note Event durations to the size of the
Resolution value.
• Only Quantize Notes. If selected, SONAR will not modify other events, such as controllers.
• Strength. This value determines how closely SONAR moves the selected notes to the
resolution value, or “grid”. See “Strength” on page 720.
• Swing. Use this value to make groups of even eight notes (or whatever note you want to
enter in the Resolution field) “swing”, instead of playing with exact eighth note rhythm. A
value of 50 percent, or “50-50”, produces equal durations for both notes—no swing. A larger
value makes the first note longer, and vice versa. See “Swing” on page 720.
• Window. This value determines whether SONAR quantizes notes that are far from the
quantization points, or leaves them alone. A value of 100 percent quantizes every note. See
“Window” on page 721.
• Randomize. This value randomizes the three previous fields to introduce a more human
feel to the rhythm. The value you enter is the maximum amount of difference from the entered
values that the randomize feature can add.
For more information about Input Quantize, see “Input quantizing” on page 267.
Arpeggiator section
• Arpeggiator On/Off. Enables/disables the Arpeggiator on the selected track. This control can
be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in real-time during project playback.
• Preset. You can create and edit Arpeggiator presets; all user parameters are stored in the
preset. Arpeggiator settings are included in track templates.
• Rate. Adjusts the relative speed of the Arpeggiator sequence by changing all the note durations
by a factor of the current tempo. This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and
modified in real-time during project playback.
• Octave Range. Sets the number of octaves through which the arpeggio will play. A value of 1
means that a held chord will only arpeggiate the notes that are being held within the octave from
which the notes are being transmitted. A value of 2 means a held chord will arpeggiate for two
octaves. The held chord always represents the bass octave, meaning that the other octaves
sound in a higher register.
If you specify a range higher than the standard MIDI specifications, the Arpeggiator will repeat
the pattern in the highest available octave as necessary.
This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in real-time during project
playback.
• Latch.
Latch keeps the arpeggio playing after you let go of the keys.
This control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in real-time during project
playback.
• Swing. Sets the amount of swing applied to the selected pattern. You can make a pattern of 8th,
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541
16th, or 32nd notes play back as swing notes instead of straight notes. The amount of swing
ranges from 0 (no swing) to 100% (maximum swing).
• Velocity. An offset control that scales the arpeggiated note’s velocity to a percentage of the
original note velocity.
• Duration. Controls whether the notes in the pattern are held to their full value, or are held for
shorter or longer durations.
• Pitch.
A transposition control in half-steps, up or down a maximum of 2 octaves.
Flam. If a pattern contains flams, this menu controls how big a difference there is between the
attack time of the flam and the note it is attached to.
• Mix. When 0, simultaneously held notes arpeggiate as single notes. At 50%, simultaneously
held notes are heard as a chord in addition to the usual arpeggiated notes, both at equal levels. At
100%, only the held chord is audible.
Control: Knob (0 – 100%); this control can be assigned to MIDI remote control and modified in
real-time during project playback.Channel. MIDI input and output menu—the Arpeggiator only
affects input data that’s on the MIDI channels listed on this menu. The Arpeggiator always obeys
the track’s assigned output channel, plus any additional channels specified in the Arpeggiator’s
Ch menu.
• Shape. Choose a shape that specifies the direction in which currently held notes are to be
sequenced. The following shapes are available:
• Rhythm (implicit rhythm mode)
• ForwardReverseForward Circle 1
• Reverse Circle 1
• Forward Circle 2
• Reverse Circle 2
• Inward
• Outward
• Inward CircleOutward Circle
• As Played
• As Played Circle
• Random
For more information about the Arpeggiator, see “Arpeggiator” on page 269.
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Main controls
Figure 176. Track Inspector controls for mains
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
A. Mute B. Link channels C. Volume D. Meter E. Icon F. Mains name G. Display menu
See also:
“Track Inspector controls” on page 532
To show/hide modules
Click the Display control at the bottom of the Track Inspector and select the modules you want to
show/hide.
The following modules are available:
• Input Gain. Show/hide Input Trim/Gain/Pan controls.
• ProChannel (Producer only). Show/hide ProChannel controls, which includes Equalizer,
Compressor and Tube Saturation.
• FX Bin.
Show/hide effect bins.
• Sends/Bank/Patch. Show/hide Send controls for audio tracks and buses, or Bank/Patch/
Channel controls for MIDI tracks and Instrument tracks.
• MSR. Show/hide Mute, Solo, Arm for Recording, Input Echo, Phase Invert, Mono/Stereo, Read
Automation, Write Automation and Wavefrom Preview controls.
• Pan Control. Show/hide Pan controls.
• Volume. Show/hide Volume controls and meters (and Link controls for mains).
• Icon. Show/hide track icons.
• In/Out. Show/hide Input and Output controls
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Figure 177. Use the Display menu to configure modules in the Track Inspector.
See:
“Track Inspector overview” on page 529
“Properties Inspector overview” on page 544
“Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 546
“Properties Inspector - Track Properties” on page 553
“ProChannel (Producer only)” on page 963
“Inspectors” on page 523
“Arpeggiator” on page 269
“Input quantizing” on page 267
“Track-by-track playback” on page 195
“Changing track settings” on page 205
“Routing and mixing digital audio” on page 841
Properties Inspector overview
The Properties Inspector shows properties for the selected clip(s) or track(s), depending on whether
the Clip or Track button is pressed:
• Clip. The Clip Properties Inspector displays settings for the currently selected clip(s). For
details, see “Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 546.
• Track. The Track Properties Inspector lets you type a track name, specify the automation write
mode and time base, specify an audio track’s AudioSnap render modes, specify the default clip
colors, and enter a text description for the selected track(s). For details, see “Properties Inspector
- Track Properties” on page 553.
• Bus. The Bus Properties Inspector lets you type a bus name, specify the automation write mode
and time base, and enter a text description. For details, see “Properties Inspector - Bus
Properties” on page 556.
The Properties Inspector contains multiple sections that you can show/hide by clicking the section’s
header bar. By default, the Clip Properties Inspector and Track Properties Inspector are collapsed.
Only one section can be visible at a time.
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Properties Inspector overview
Figure 178. The Track Inspector extends the full height of the Inspector pane, while the Properties Inspector is
shown in the top half when visible.
A
B
C
D
A. Dock/undock and expand/collapse Inspector B. Show/hide Clip Properties Inspector C. Show/hide Track/Bus
Properties Inspector D. Show/hide ProChannel
See:
“Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 546
“Properties Inspector - Track Properties” on page 553
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Properties Inspector - Clip Properties
The Clip Properties Inspector displays settings for the currently selected clip(s). The Clip Properties
Inspector contains the following sections:
• “Properties section” on page 547
• “Groove Clip section” on page 549
• “AudioSnap section” on page 550
• “Clip Effects section” on page 552
Figure 179. The Clip Properties Inspector displays settings for the currently selected clip(s).
A
B
C
D
A. Clip Properties section B. Groove Clip Looping section C. AudioSnap section D. Clip Effects section
Note: The preceding image shows all sections in the Clip Properties Inspector expanded for
illustration purposes only. You can only show one section at a time.
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Properties Inspector overview
To show/hide the Clip Properties Inspector
Click the Clip button at the top of the Inspector pane, or press SHIFT+I.
Figure 180. Click the Clip button to show/hide the Clip Properties Inspector.
To show/hide a section in the Clip Properties Inspector
Click the section’s header bar in the inspector.
The section expands and the previously-displayed section collapses.
Figure 181. Click a section’s header bar to expand the section and show its controls.
Properties section
• Properties header bar.
Click to show/hide the Properties section.
• Clip Name. Use this field to assign a name to the selected clip. The name of a clip is used in the
Track view and Event List view. You can assign any name to help you remember the contents of
the clip.
• Time Format. Use the list to specify in which format to display the selected clip’s Start time and
Length. The options are as follows:
• MBT. Display the clip’s Start and Length properties in M:B:T (Measure: Beat:Tick) format.
• Samples. Display the clip’s Start and Length properties in number of samples format.
• HMSF. Display the clip’s Start and Length properties in H:M:S:F (Hour:
Minute:Second:Frame) format.
• Seconds.
Display the clip’s Start and Length properties in number of seconds format.
• Start. Use this field to move the selected clip forward or backward in the track by setting a new
start time.
• Length.
This field displays the length of the selected clip.
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547
• Snap Offset (audio clips only). The Snap Offset field is for audio clips only. Snap offsets allow
you to set a point other than the beginning of a clip as the “snap” point used by the Snap to Grid.
A snap offset is the number of samples from the beginning of the clip. Snap offsets affect all edits
that obey the Snap to Grid setting. Clips without a snap offset always align at the very beginning
of a clip. For more information, see “Snap offsets” on page 357.
Note: You cannot set a snap offset for a Groove clip.
• Original Time. The Original Time property stores and shows the original SMPTE time stamp
associated with the clip. This is the SMPTE time stamp at which the clip was recorded or imported
into the project. The Original Time property can not be edited. See “To revert clip(s) to original
time stamp” on page 342.
• Time Base. Choose one of the two options in this section to control what happens to a locked
clip when you change the tempo:
• Musical (M:B:T). If the clip is set to the Musical time base, the clip’s M:B:T position stays
constant, and its absolute position shifts.
• Absolute. If the clip is set to the Absolute time base, its absolute position stays constant,
and its M:B:T position shifts.
• Mute.
Mutes the clip.
• Lock. Locks the clip’s data and/or position. The Lock drop-down menu contains the following
options:
• Position and Data. Locks position and data, and adds a lock icon on the clip
.
• Position Only. Locks position only, and adds a yellow lock icon (with the clasp unlocked) on
the clip .
• Data Only. Locks data only, and adds a blue lock icon (with the clasp unlocked) on the clip
.
• Automation Read. Allows the clip to respond to clip automation envelopes.
Note: Clip envelopes are only visible/editable when the parent track’s Edit Filter control is set to
Clip Automation. For details, see “Selecting the data type to edit” on page 416.
• Clips Linked.
• Foreground.
Shows how many clips are linked to the selected clip.
Specifies the waveform or note color of the selected clip.
• Background. Specifies the clip background color of the selected clip.
• Use Track Colors. Returns the selected clip’s color to the default, as defined in Edit >
Preferences > Customization - Color.
For more information about clip properties, see “Editing clip properties” on page 782 and
“Arranging clips” on page 325.
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Groove Clip section
• Groove Clip header bar.
Click to show/hide the Groove Clip section.
• Looping. Convert the selected clip to a Groove Clip. You can drag the right edge of a Groove
Clip to create loop repetitions. Groove Clips can also obey pitch markers. For more information
about Groove Clips, see “Working with Groove Clip audio” on page 659 and “MIDI Groove Clips”
on page 668.
Note: If this control is not available, the selected clip is most likely an AudioSnap clip. A clip can
not have Groove Clip looping and AudioSnap enabled at the same time.
• Stretch to Tempo (audio clips only). Stretch or shrink the selected clip to fit the project’s
tempo. SONAR uses the Beats in Clip and Original Tempo parameters are used to make the
change.
• Beats in Clips.
The number of beats (quarter notes) in the clip.
• Original Tempo (audio clips only). The tempo at which the clip was recorded.
• Follow Pitch. Transposes the loop, if necessary, to the key of the project. A loop recorded in the
key of A, used in a project in the key of C, will be transposed up three semitones if the Follow
Pitch option is selected. You can also insert markers in the Time Ruler which change the project
pitch. These markers, called pitch markers affect only Groove clips with Follow Pitch enabled.
• Reference Note. Represents the key in which the loop was originally recorded. The Follow
Pitch feature uses this information, when checked, to transpose the loop to match the project’s
default project pitch and pitch markers.
• Pitch (semitones). Allows you to set the transposition of a clip independently from the project
pitch. A positive number transposes the clip up by that number of semitones. A negative number
transposes the clip down by that number of semitones. Remember, if Follow Pitch is enabled,
the clip follows the project’s pitch, so any transposition changes you make using this option are
changes to the project pitch, not the clip pitch.
• Fine Pitch (cents). Allows you to make tuning adjustments or to transpose the pitch of a clip up
to 50 cents. There are 100 cents in one semitone. A Fine Pitch setting of 1 adjusts the pitch up
one hundredth of a semitone. The Fine Pitch option can “fine tune” a slightly out of tune clip so
that it is in pitch with the remaining clips in a project.
For more information about Groove Clips, see “Working with loops and Groove Clips” on page
651.
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549
AudioSnap section
• AudioSnap header bar. Click to show/hide the AudioSnap section.
• Enable. Enables or disables AudioSnap on selected audio clips.
Note: AudioSnap is automatically enabled on a clip if you stretch a transient marker on the clip.
• Average Tempo. Shows the average tempo candidates: original, 0.5x and 2x. SONAR will do
its best to detect the correct average tempo, but a clip can often have multiple potential tempos
(60 BPM, 120 BPM, 240 BPM, etc.). If SONAR is unable to detect a tempo, Average Tempo will
be set to Original, which is the project’s tempo at the location the clip was recorded or imported.
If you change the Average Tempo setting, all clip tempo changes are adjusted to scale.
• Follow Project Tempo. Forces the clip to follow the project’s global tempo map.
• Follow Options. Specifies at which resolution the clip should follow tempo changes when
Follow Project Tempo is selected. The options are as follows:
• Beats
• Measures
• Clip (default)
• Auto-Stretch
Note: The Follow Project Tempo option only works on clips that are configured to use musical
time (the Time Base property is set to Musical (M:B:T) in the Clip Properties Inspector.
• Filter Threshold. Disables AudioSnap transient markers based on their volume. This clears out
unwanted markers to make editing easier. Higher values create a bigger volume threshold, which
disables markers that are fall below that threshold.
• Filter Resolution. The selected Filter Resolution value lets you disable markers based on
their time location. This clears out unwanted markers to make editing easier. Larger values create
a bigger time window, based on musical time values, which preserves markers that are closest to
the displayed musical time value, and disables others.
• Online Render. This choice determines what stretch algorithm is used during real-time
playback. For more information about render modes, see “Algorithms and rendering” on page
646. The options are as follows:
• From Track. This uses the algorithm listed in the Online field in Edit > Preferences >
Project - AudioSnap.
• Groove clip. This mode works faster than Percussion render mode, using less processing
power.
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Properties Inspector overview
• Percussion. This mode works better than the Groove Clip render mode on percussive
material, especially if the stretching is by more than a few beats per minute.
Note: The Online render mode is for preview purposes only during playback. The final audio
quality will be greatly improved after the Offline render mode is applied during mixdown/export.
• Offline Render. This drop-down menu lets you choose the algorithm that is used when you
export or freeze stretched audio. The choices in the drop-down menu are as follows:
• From Track. This uses the algorithm listed in the Offline Rendering field in Edit >
Preferences > Project - AudioSnap.
• Radius Mix. Better for clips containing polyphonic, stereo data.
• Radius Mix Advanced. Similar to Radius Mix, but exposes a Smoothing slider that adjust
how much detail to preserve.
• Radius Solo. Better for clips containing monophonic, solo instruments.
• Radius Solo (Bass). Better for clips containing solo bass instruments.
• Radius Solo (Vocal).
Better for clips containing solo vocals.
• Same as Online. Uses the same choice as the Online field.
• Enable Stretch. Allows a clip to follow a project’s tempo as it changes. It instructs SONAR to
stretch or shrink the clip to fit the project’s tempo. SONAR uses the Original BPM parameters to
make the change.
• Stretch Amount (%).
• New Duration.
Specify by what percentage to stretch the clip.
Specify what duration to stretch the clip to.
• New Thru-Time. Specify the Thru Time to stretch the clip to.
For more information about AudioSnap, see “AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)” on page
589.
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Clip Effects section
• Clip Effects header bar. Click to show/hide the Clip Effects section. This sections lets you add
real-time effects to the selected clip.
• Effects bin.
Right-click to insert a plug-in, or drag a plug-in from the Browser.
For more information about clip effects, see “Effects on clips” on page 870 and “Adding effects in
the Track view” on page 381.
See:
“Properties Inspector overview” on page 544
“Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 546
“Properties Inspector - Track Properties” on page 553
“Inspectors” on page 523
See also:
“Editing clip properties” on page 782
“Arranging clips” on page 325
“Effects on clips” on page 870
“Adding effects in the Track view” on page 381
“Working with loops and Groove Clips” on page 651
“AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)” on page 589
“MIDI effects (MIDI plug-ins)” on page 749
“Snap to Scale” on page 730
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Properties Inspector overview
Properties Inspector - Track Properties
The Track Properties Inspector lets you type a name, enter a text description, specify the AudioSnap
track render mode for audio tracks, and specify the default clip colors for the selected track(s).
Note: If the active channel strip is a bus, the Track Properties tab label shows Bus instead of
Track.
Figure 182. The Track Properties Inspector lets you specify settings for the selected track(s).
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
A. Dock/undock Inspector B. Show/hide Track Properties Inspector C. Track name D. AudioSnap track render
modes E. Automation Time Base F. Automation Write Mode (Producer and Studio only) G. Default clip colors
H. Text description
To show/hide the Track Properties Inspector
Click the Track button at the top of the Inspector pane, or press CTRL+SHIFT+I.
Figure 183. Click the Track button to show/hide the Track Properties Inspector.
The Track Properties Inspector contains the following sections:
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Properties Inspector overview
553
Properties section
• Track Name. Assign a name to the selected track.
AudioSnap section (audio tracks only)
• Online Render. Specify the algorithm to use during real-time playback. For more information
about render modes, see “Algorithms and rendering” on page 646. The options are as follows:
• From Global. This uses the algorithm listed in the Online field in Edit > Preferences >
Project - AudioSnap.
• Groove clip. Works faster than Percussion render mode, using less processing power.
• Percussion. Works better than the Groove Clip render mode on percussive material,
especially if the stretching is by more than a few beats per minute.
Note: The Online render mode is for preview purposes only during playback. The final audio
quality will be greatly improved after the Offline render mode is applied during mixdown/export.
• Offline Render. This drop-down menu lets you choose the algorithm that is used when you
export or freeze stretched audio. The choices in the drop-down menu are as follows:
• From Global. This uses the algorithm listed in the Offline Rendering field in Edit >
Preferences > Project - AudioSnap.
• Radius Mix. Better for clips containing polyphonic, stereo data.
• Radius Mix Advanced. Similar to Radius Mix, but exposes a Smoothing slider that adjust
how much detail to preserve.
• Radius Solo.
Better for clips containing monophonic, solo instruments.
• Radius Solo (Bass). Better for clips containing solo bass instruments.
• Radius Solo (Vocal).
Better for clips containing solo vocals.
• Same as Online. Uses the same choice as the Online field.
Automation section
• Time Base. Choose one of the two options in this section to control what happens to
automation when you change the tempo:
• Musical (M:B:T). If the track is set to the Musical time base, the automation’s M:B:T position
stays constant, and its absolute position shifts.
• Absolute. If the track is set to the Absolute time base, its absolute position stays constant,
and its M:B:T position shifts.
• Write Mode (Producer and Studio only).
automation write mode:
This drop-down menu lets you choose the
• Touch. Touch mode overwrites any existing automation data for the currently armed
parameter only when the parameter is moved with the mouse or a MIDI controller. Automation
writing stops when the parameter is released, and the parameter returns to any previously
automated position.
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• Overwrite. Overwrite mode overwrites any existing automation data for the currently armed
parameter while the transport is rolling, even if you don’t touch the parameter.
• Latch. Latch Mode is similar to Touch mode; new automation data overwrites existing
automation data when you move a control. However, when you release the parameter, it will
remain “latched” into its current position and continue to overwrite any existing automation
data until playback stops.
Color section
• Foreground.
Specify the default waveform or note color of the selected track.
• Background. Specify the default clip background color of the selected track.
• Use Track Color. Use the default track color, as defined in Edit > Preferences >
Customization - Color.
• Tracks. When Use Track Color is selected, use the Tracks drop-down menu to specify which
set of track colors to use (as defined in Edit > Preferences > Customization - Color). You can
choose from ten different default color combinations.
Description section
• Description. Type a comment or description of the selected track.
See:
“Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 546
“Properties Inspector - Bus Properties” on page 556
“Inspectors” on page 523
See also:
“To change a track name” on page 212
“AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)” on page 589
“Screen colors and wallpaper” on page 93
“Customization - Colors” on page 1707
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Properties Inspector - Bus Properties
The Bus Properties Inspector lets you type a name, specify the automation time base and write
mode, and enter a text description for the bus(es).
Figure 184. The Bus Properties Inspector lets you specify settings for the selected bus(es).
A
B
C
D
E
A. Dock/undock Inspector B. Show/hide Bus Properties Inspector C. Bus name D. Automation Time Base and
write mode E. Text description
To show/hide the Bus Properties Inspector
Click a bus in the Track view, then click the Bus button at the top of the Inspector pane, or press
CTRL+SHIFT+I.
Figure 185. Click the Bus button to show/hide the Bus Properties Inspector.
Note: If the active channel strip is a track, the Track Properties tab label shows Track instead
of Bus.
The Bus Properties Inspector contains the following sections:
Properties section
• Track Name. Assign a name to the selected bus.
Automation section
• Time Base. Choose one of the two options in this section to control what happens to
automation when you change the tempo:
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Properties Inspector overview
• Musical (M:B:T). If the bus is set to the Musical time base, the automation’s M:B:T position
stays constant, and its absolute position shifts.
• Absolute. If the bus is set to the Absolute time base, its absolute position stays constant,
and its M:B:T position shifts.
• Write Mode (Producer and Studio only).
automation write mode:
This drop-down menu lets you choose the
• Touch. Touch mode overwrites any existing automation data for the currently armed
parameter only when the parameter is moved with the mouse or a MIDI controller. Automation
writing stops when the parameter is released, and the parameter returns to any previously
automated position.
• Overwrite. Overwrite mode overwrites any existing automation data for the currently armed
parameter while the transport is rolling, even if you don’t touch the parameter.
• Latch. Latch Mode is similar to Touch mode; new automation data overwrites existing
automation data when you move a control. However, when you release the parameter, it will
remain “latched” into its current position and continue to overwrite any existing automation
data until playback stops.
Description section
• Description. Type a comment or description of the selected bus.
See:
“Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 546
“Properties Inspector - Track Properties” on page 553
“Inspectors” on page 523
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Properties Inspector overview
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Inspectors
Properties Inspector overview
Browser
The Browser lets you find and import various types of content into your projects, including audio and
MIDI files, track and project templates, track icons, Effects Chain presets, effect plug-ins and
instruments. You can drag content and plug-ins directly into tracks. The Browser consists of three
sections:
• Media Browser. Find audio, MIDI, video, projects, project templates, track templates, Effects
Chain presets and track icons that you want to import into a project. For more information, see
“Using the Media Browser” on page 563.
• Plug-in Browser. Organize plug-ins and drag effects to tracks and clips. You can access audio
effects (DirectX and VST), MIDI effects (MFX), instruments (DXi and VSTi) and ReWire devices.
For more information, see “Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 574.
• Synth Rack Browser. Manage all active instruments in a project. For more information, see
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 581.
Objects in the Browser can be added to your project in two ways:
• Drag the object to an appropriate location.
• Double-click the object in the Browser.
By default, the Browser is docked on the right side of the screen. More detailed information is shown
in the Media Browser and Synth Rack Browser when the SONAR Browser is floating or docked at
the bottom of the screen. For more information, see “Docking/undocking and resizing the Browser
window” on page 561.
Figure 186. The Browser lets you import content into a project and manage effects and instruments.
A
B
C
D
A. Media Browser B. Plug-in Browser C. Synth Rack Browser D. Header bar
To show audio/MIDI content
Click the Browse Media button
.
To show plug-ins
Click the Browse Plug-ins button
.
To show the Synth Rack
Click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
See:
“Adding Browser objects to your project” on page 566
“Docking/undocking and resizing the Browser window” on page 561
“Using the Media Browser” on page 563
“Adding Browser objects to your project” on page 566
“To import an audio or MIDI file” on page 566
“To export audio or MIDI clips” on page 567
“To import a track template” on page 567
“To import a project template” on page 568
“To open or import a project file” on page 568
“To import a video file” on page 569
“To assign a track/bus icon” on page 569
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 574
“Adding effects and instruments to a project” on page 575
“To insert an effect in a track or bus” on page 576
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Browser
“To insert an effect into a clip’s effects bin” on page 577
“To insert an instrument” on page 577
“To insert a ReWire device” on page 578
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 581
“Managing instruments in a project” on page 586
“Keyboard navigation” on page 573
Docking/undocking and resizing the Browser window
By default, the Browser is docked on the right side of the screen. You can undock the Browser, or
dock it on the left side or at the bottom. You can also resize the width of the Browser.
More detailed information is shown in the Media Browser and Synth Rack Browser when the
SONAR Browser is floating or docked at the bottom of the screen.
Figure 187. Browser
A
A
Docked
Undocked
Collapsed
A. Header bar
Figure 188. Use the docking controls to change the position of the Browser.
A
B C D
A. Click here to drag the Browser B. Dock/Undock C. Docking Options D. Expand/Collapse
Browser
561
To dock the Browser
When the Browser is undocked, do one of the following:
• Double-click the Browser header bar.
• Click the Dock/Undock button in the Browser.
• Click the Docking Options button, and select one of the following menu commands:
• Dock at Left. Dock the Browser to the left of the Track view.
• Dock at Right. Dock the Browser to the right of the Track view.
• Dock in MultiDock.
view by default.
Dock the Browser in the MultiDock, which appears below the Track
To undock the Browser
When the Browser is docked, do one of the following:
• Double-click the Browser header bar.
• Click the Browser header and drag the Browser to the middle of the screen.
• Click the Dock/Undock button in the Browser.
More detailed information is shown in the Media Browser and Synth Rack Browser when the
SONAR Browser is floating or docked at the bottom of the screen.
To float the Browser or move it to a different monitor
Click the Docking Options button, and select Float.
To move the Browser to the left side
Do one of the following:
• Click the Docking Options button, and select Dock at Left.
• Click the Browser header and drag the Browser to the left side of the screen.
To dock the Browser in the MultiDock
Do one of the following:
• Click the Browser header and drag the Browser to the MultiDock.
• Click the Docking Options button, and select Dock in MultiDock.
To expand/collapse the Browser
Click the Expand/Collapse button in the Browser.
To resize the width of the Browser
Drag the Browser’s sidebar left/right.
To show the Browser
Select Views > Browser.
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Browser
See:
“Using the Media Browser” on page 563
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 574
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 581
“To import an audio or MIDI file” on page 566
“To import a video file” on page 569
“To import a track template” on page 567
“To insert an instrument” on page 577
“Keyboard navigation” on page 573
“Browser” on page 559
Using the Media Browser
The Media Browser allows you to browse and import various file types that can be used in SONAR,
including:
• Audio files (.wav, .mp3, .wma, .aif, etc.)
• MIDI files (.mid)
• Project5 patterns (.ptn)
• Step sequencer patterns (.ssp)
• REX loops (.rex)
• Video files (.avi, .mpg, .wmv, .asf, .mov)
• Track icons (.bmp)
• Track templates (.cwx)
• Project templates (.cwt, .tpl)
• Projects (.cwp, .cwb, .bun, .wrk)
• Effects Chain presets (.fxc)
You can preview audio and MIDI files before you import them into your project. If you preview a
Groove clip, it plays back at the tempo and in the key of your current project. Audio files can be
auditioned through any bus and MIDI files can be auditioned through any soft synth. You can
preview audio from a video file, but not the video itself.
You can save presets for your favorite content folders, which allows you to instantly jump to specific
folders on your hard disk.
Browser
Using the Media Browser
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Media Browser interface
Figure 189. Media Browser
A
B
C
DE F
G
J
H
K
L
I
A. Show Media Browser B. Browser menu C. Content Location menu D. Dock/undock E. Docking options
F. Expand/collapse G. Move up one level to the parent directory H. Search filter I. File list J. Play/Stop
K. Delete content preset L. Save content preset
Figure 190. Media Browser (undocked)
A
A. Folder pane
• Show Media Browser
. Show the Media Browser.
• Browser menu. The Browser menu lets you choose how content files are displayed and
specify options for previewing audio and MIDI files. The menu contains the following commands:
• Views. The Views submenu lets you specify how files are displayed in the file list view. The
options are as follows:
• Icons. Icons view displays your files and folders as icons. The file name is displayed
under the icon.
• List.
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List view displays the contents of a folder as a list of file or folder names preceded by
Browser
Using the Media Browser
small icons.
• Details. When the Browser is undocked or docked at the bottom, Details view displays the
file size, type and when the file was last modified.
• Folders. When the Browser is undocked or docked at the bottom, this option lets you
show/hide the Folders pane.
• Auto-Preview. When Auto Preview is selected, you can automatically previews loops and
files when you click on them in the Media Browser view. If the selected file is a Groove clip, it
plays back in the project tempo and key.
• Preview at Host Tempo. When Preview at Host Tempo is selected, audio and MIDI
groove clips follow the project’s tempo at the current Now time.
• Loop Preview.
preview.
Select Loop Preview to continuously loop the selected file(s) during
• Audio Preview Bus. The Audio Preview Bus submenu lets you select the output device
for previewing audio files.
• Synth Preview Output. The Synth Preview Output submenu lets you select the soft synth
for previewing MIDI files.
• Search filter. The search filter allows you to only show content that includes a specific text
string in the file name.
• Content Location menu. The Content Location menu allows you to quickly jump to favorite
content locations on your hard disk. You can save and recall your own Content Location presets.
• Save Content Location Preset
. Save the current folder as a Content Location preset. By
default, the folder name is used as the preset name, but you can type any desired name before
you click the Save Content Location Preset button.
• Delete Content Location Preset
• Move Up One Level
• Play
. Delete the selected Content Location preset.
. Open the folder one level above the active folder.
. Play the currently selected media file.
• Content List pane. The Content List pane shows all supported files in the active folder. Icons to
the left of file names indicate the file type, including if it is a Groove Clip. When pointing to a file,
the tooltip shows the full file name.
See:
“Adding Browser objects to your project” on page 566
“To import an audio or MIDI file” on page 566
“To export audio or MIDI clips” on page 567
“To import a track template” on page 567
“To import a project template” on page 568
“To open or import a project file” on page 568
Browser
Using the Media Browser
565
“To import a video file” on page 569
“To assign a track/bus icon” on page 569
“Keyboard navigation” on page 573
“Browser” on page 559
Adding Browser objects to your project
To show audio/MIDI content
Click the Browse Media button
.
To import an audio or MIDI file
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains the file you want to import.
3. Do one of the following:
• To insert into an existing track as a new clip. Double-click the file to add it to the selected
track at the current Now time, or drag the file to the desired location.
Note: A new track is created if the file type is not compatible with the selected track.
• To insert into a new track. Drag the file to en empty space in the Track view, below the last
track.
• To replace the selected clip.
Drag the file to the Clip Inspector.
• To insert into a cell in the Matrix view. Make sure the Matrix view is visible, then drag the
file to the desired Matrix cell.
Valid destinations for audio files
You can drag audio files to the following locations:
• Audio track
• Audio clip
• MIDI track
• MIDI clip
• Audio clip inspector
• Empty Track view
• Empty Console view
• Instrument track
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Using the Media Browser
Valid destinations for MIDI files
You can drag MIDI files to the following locations:
• Audio track
• Audio clip
• MIDI track
• MIDI clip
• MIDI clip inspector
• Empty Track view
• Empty Console view
• Instrument track
To export audio or MIDI clips
Drag the clip(s) to the desired location in the Media Browser.
Note: The Media Browser will appear automatically if you drag a clip over the Plug-in Browser
or Synth Rack Browser.
By default, audio clips are exported with the following settings:
• Format: Wave
• Bit depth: same as original clip.
• Sample rate: same as current project.
• Dithering: off
If you want to specify various options when exporting audio, you can use the File > Export > Audio
command instead.
To import a track template
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains the track template you want to import.
3. Do one of the following:
• To add tracks to the end. Drag the track template to an empty space below the last track,
or double-click the track template.
• To replace an existing track. Drag the track template onto the track you want to replace.
Note: If the target track and dropped track template are different track types, the target track will
be changed to match the track template.
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Using the Media Browser
567
Valid destinations for track templates
You can drag track templates to the following locations:
• Audio track
• Audio clip
• MIDI track
• MIDI clip
• Audio track inspector
• MIDI track inspector
• Audio track effects bin
• MIDI Track effects bin
• Audio Console strip
• Audio Console effects bin
• MIDI Console strip
• MIDI Console effects bin
• Empty Track view
• Empty Console view
• Instrument track
• Instrument track inspector
• Instrument Console strip
To import a project template
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains the project template you want to import.
3. Do one of the following:
• To add tracks at the end of the current project. Drag the project template to the Track
view.
• To open the template as a new project.
Double-click the project template.
To open or import a project file
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains the project you want to import tracks from.
568
Browser
Using the Media Browser
3. Do one of the following:
• To open a project.
Double-click the desired cwp/cwb/wrk/bun file.
• To import the project into existing tracks. Drag the desired cwp/cwb/wrk/bun file into an
existing track.
• To import the project as new tracks. Drag the desired cwp/cwb/wrk/bun file to an empty
space in the Track view, below the last track.
To import a video file
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains the video file you want to import.
3. Do one of the following:
• Drag the video file to the Video Thumbnail pane or anywhere in the Track view.
• Double-click the video file.
To assign a track/bus icon
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that contains the icon you want to import.
3. Drag the icon to the desired track/bus in the Track view.
To preview audio content
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. On the Browser menu, select Auto-Preview.
3. On the Browser menu, point to Audio Preview Bus, then select the bus you want to preview
audio through.
4. Navigate to the folder that contains the audio content you want to preview, then click the file you
want to preview.
Note: Auto-Preview is enabled by default. If you disable Auto-Preview, you must click the Play
button each time you want to preview the selected audio file.
Tip: To preview an audio file as a Groove Clip, hold down the ALT key and click the file. To preview
all selected files as Groove Clips, hold down the ALT and click the Play button
.
The Play button changes to a Stop button during preview.
Browser
Using the Media Browser
569
To preview MIDI content
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. On the Browser menu, select Auto-Preview.
3. On the Browser menu, point to Synth Preview Output, then select the soft synth you want to
preview MIDI through.Navigate to the folder that contains the MIDI content you want to preview,
Note: If there are no synths in the project, go to Insert > Soft Synths and insert the desired soft
synth.
then click the file you want to preview.
Note 1: Auto-Preview is enabled by default. If you disable Auto-Preview, you must click the
Play button each time you want to preview the selected audio file.
Note 2: MIDI Groove Clips loop indefinitely, but standard MIDI files play only once and do not
repeat.
The Play button changes to a Stop button during preview.
To rename media files in the Media Browser
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Do one of the following:
• Click the click the file you want to rename and press F2.
• Right-click the file you want to rename, and choose Rename on the pop-up menu.
To delete media files in the Media Browser
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Do one of the following:
• Right-click the file you want to delete, and choose Delete on the pop-up menu.
• Select the file you want to delete, and press the DELETE key.
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Using the Media Browser
To enable/disable Auto-Preview
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. On the Browser menu, click Auto-Preview.
See:
“Using the Media Browser” on page 563
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 574
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 581
“Using Content Location presets” on page 571
“Keyboard navigation” on page 573
“Browser” on page 559
See also:
“To load an FX Chain preset” on page 580
Using Content Location presets
The Media Browser allows you to save and recall presets to quickly access your favorite folders.
Any folder that you can navigate to in the Media Browser can be saved as a Content Location
preset, which allows you to instantly return to a specific folder by simply selecting a preset from the
Content Location list.
As you navigate in the Media Browser, the Content Location box automatically displays the current
folder name or the first preset that matches the selected folder location.
To save a Content Location preset
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. Navigate to the folder that you would like to save as a preset.
The selected folder name is displayed in the Content Location box.
3. If you want to specify a new friendly preset name, type the desired name in the Content
Location box.
4. Click the Save Content Location Preset button
.
The selected folder name is displayed in the Content Location box.
Browser
Using the Media Browser
571
To select a Content Location preset
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. In the Content Location box, select the desired preset.
The Media Browser automatically navigates to the appropriate folder location.
To delete a Content Location preset
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Media button
.
2. In the Content Location box, select the preset you want to delete.
3. Click the Delete Content Location Preset button
See:
“Using the Media Browser” on page 563
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 574
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 581
“Browser” on page 559
“Keyboard navigation” on page 573
572
Browser
Using the Media Browser
.
Keyboard navigation
Standard key commands for navigating Windows Explorer also work in the SONAR Browser. The
following table lists keys for navigating the SONAR Browser.
Action
Shortcut key
Navigate between files
UP/DOWN ARROW
Navigate between directories
LEFT/RIGHT ARROW
Move to parent directory
BACKSPACE
Move to the selected directory or open the selected file
ENTER
Move to the first file in a directory
HOME
Move to the last file in a directory
END
Open a shortcut menu for the selected item
SHIFT+F10
Expand everything under the current selection (folder pane only)
Numeric Keypad *
Expand the current selection (folder pane only)
Numeric Keypad +
Collapse the current selection (folder pane only)
Numeric Keypad -
Table 113.
Shortcut keys for navigating the SONAR Browser
See:
“Using the Media Browser” on page 563
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 574
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 581
“To import an audio or MIDI file” on page 566
“To import a video file” on page 569
“To import a track template” on page 567
“To insert an instrument” on page 577
“Browser” on page 559
Browser
Using the Media Browser
573
Using the Plug-in Browser
The Plug-in Browser lets you insert effects, instruments and ReWire devices into your projects. The
following plug-in types are supported:
• DirectX and VST audio effects.
• MFX MIDI effects
• DXi and VSTi instruments
• ReWire devices
Plug-ins are displayed according to their organization in the selected Plug-in Layout. Custom plug-in
layouts let you organize plug-ins any way you want: alphabetically, by vendor name, by effect type,
etc.
Effects can be added to tracks, buses and clips. Instruments can be added to audio tracks,
Instrument tracks and the Synth Rack.
Plug-in Browser interface
Figure 191. Plug-in Browser
A
B
CD E
F
G
H
A. Show Plug-in Browser B. Plug-in Layout menu button C. Dock/undock D. Docking options E. Expand/
collapse F. Plug-in Type buttons G. Search filter H. Plug-in list
• Show Plug-in Browser
• Audio.
• MIDI.
. Show the Plug-in Browser.
Show available DX and VST audio effect plug-ins.
Show available MFX MIDI effect plug-ins.
• Synth. Show available DXi and VSTi soft synths.
• ReWire.
Show available ReWire devices.
• Plug-in Layout menu.
574
The Plug-in Layout menu lets you specify how plug-ins are organized.
Browser
Using the Plug-in Browser
The menu contains the following commands:
• Manage Layouts. Opens Cakewalk Plug-in Manager, which lets you create, delete, and edit
plug-in layouts. For more information about Cakewalk Plug-in Manager, see the Cakewalk
Plug-in Manager online Help.
• Default All Plug-ins. The default layout, which lists all plug-ins alphabetically.
• Organized by Type. Select this layout to organize plug-ins by type (EQ, reverb, etc.).
• <list of layouts>. The Plug-in Layout menu lists all layouts stored by Cakewalk Plug-in
Manager. Select a layout to change the plug-in list.
• Search filter.
text string.
The search filter allows you to only show plug-in names that includes a specific
• Plug-in list. The Plug-Ins list is populated from the currently-selected layout from the Plug-in
Layout menu and the plug-in type selected from the Plug-in Type menu.
See:
“Adding effects and instruments to a project” on page 575
“To insert an effect in a track or bus” on page 576
“To insert an effect into a clip’s effects bin” on page 577
“To insert an instrument” on page 577
“To insert a ReWire device” on page 578
“Using the Media Browser” on page 563
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 581
“Keyboard navigation” on page 573
“Browser” on page 559
Adding effects and instruments to a project
To show a specific plug-in type
1. In the Browser, click the PlugIn button
to show the Plug-in Browser.
2. Click the button that corresponds to the plug-in type you want to show:
• Audio FX
• MIDI FX
• Instruments
• ReWire
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Using the Plug-in Browser
575
To select a plug-in layout
Click the PlugIn menu button
and select the desired layout. Click Manage Layouts if you want
to modify an existing layout or create a new layout.
To insert an effect in a track or bus
1. In the Browser, click the PlugIn button
to show the Plug-in Browser.
2. Click the button that corresponds to the plug-in type you want to show:
• Audio FX
• MIDI FX
3. Do one of the following:
• To insert the effect in a specific location in the effects bin.
position in a track/bus effects bin.
Drag the effect to the desired
• To insert the effect at the end of the effects bin. Drag the effect to an empty track space
in the Clips pane, or double-click the effect (only if the selected track type matches the effect
type).
Valid destinations for audio effects
You can drag audio effects to the following locations:
• Audio track
• Audio clip
• Audio track inspector
• Audio clip inspector
• Audio track effects bin
• Audio Clip effects bin
• Audio Console strip
• Audio Console effects bin
• Instrument track
• Instrument track inspector
• Instrument track effects bin
• Instrument Console strip
• Instrument Console effects bin
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Valid destinations for MIDI effects
You can drag MIDI effects to the following locations:
• MIDI track
• MIDI clip
• MIDI track inspector
• MIDI clip inspector
• MIDI Track effects bin
• MIDI Clip effects bin
• MIDI Console strip
• MIDI Console effects bin
• Instrument track
• Instrument track inspector
• Instrument track effects bin
• Instrument Console strip
• Instrument Console effects bin
To insert an effect into a clip’s effects bin
1. In the Browser, click the PlugIn button
to show the Plug-in Browser.
2. Click the button that corresponds to the plug-in type you want to show:
• Audio FX
• MIDI FX
3. Drag the desired effect to a clip in the Clips pane.
To insert an instrument
1. In the Browser, click the PlugIn button
2. Click the Instruments button
to show the Plug-in Browser.
.
3. Do one of the following:
• To insert an instrument as a new Instrument track. Drag the desired instrument to an
empty space in the Track view or Clips pane, or double-click the instrument.
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Using the Plug-in Browser
577
• To insert an instrument as a track effect. Drag the instrument to the desired track’s effects
bin, or drag the instrument to the desired track in the Clips pane.
Note: When you drag an instrument to an audio track or MIDI track, the following happens
automatically:
• If dropped on an audio track or inspector: add to Synth Rack, set audio track input and Synth
automation accordingly.
• If dropped on a MIDI track or inspector: add to Synth Rack, set MIDI track output and Synth
automation accordingly.
Valid destinations for instruments
You can drag instruments to the following locations:
• Audio track
• MIDI track
• Audio track inspector
• MIDI track inspector
• Audio Console strip
• MIDI Console strip
• Empty Track view
• Empty Console view
• Instrument track
• Instrument track inspector
• Instrument Console strip
To insert a ReWire device
1. In the Browser, click the PlugIn button
2. Click the ReWire button
to show the Plug-in Browser.
.
3. Drag the ReWire device to the Track view or Clips pane.
The ReWire device is added to the Synth Rack and a new Instrument track is created.
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Using the Plug-in Browser
To rename a plug-in
1. In the Browser, click the PlugIn button
to show the Plug-in Browser.
2. Select the plug-in, then click the plug-in name again and type a name.
The plug-in is renamed and the plug-in layout is auto-saved.
Note: You can only rename plug-ins in a custom menu layout, not in the default menu layout.
See:
“Using the Media Browser” on page 563
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 574
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 581
“Using FX Chain presets (.fxc)” on page 579
“Keyboard navigation” on page 573
“Browser” on page 559
Using FX Chain presets (.fxc)
You can save effect chains in SONAR, which can be used in any project. An FX Chain preset stores
all the settings of a specific effects bin. This allows you to effortlessly duplicate favorite effect
combinations and settings without having to manually insert one effect at a time. FX Chain presets
are saved as .fxc files that can be imported from the Plug-in Browser.
To save an FX Chain preset
1. Do one of the following:
• To save an effects bin as an FX Chain preset, right-click any blank space in the effects bin and
choose Save as FX Chain Preset on the pop-up menu. Specify a preset name and location in
the Save FX Chain Preset dialog box. All plug-ins in the effects bin are consolidated into a
single new FX Chain.
• To save an FX Chain container as a new FX Chain preset, right-click the FX Chain container
in an effects bin and choose Save as FX Chain Preset on the pop-up menu. Specify a preset
name and location in the Save FX Chain Preset dialog box.
Browser
Using the Plug-in Browser
579
• Click the Browse Plug-ins button
in the Browser, then drag the FX Chain container from
the Track view to the Audio FX section in the Browser. The FX Chain is added to the FX Chain
folder.
Note: FX Chain presets are stored as FX Chain Preset files (*.fxc). For track and bus effects
bins, the default name for the FX Chain preset is the track/bus name. For clip effects bins, the
default name is the clip name.
To load an FX Chain preset
Do one of the following:
• Right-click an effects bin and choose Load FX Chain Preset on the pop-up menu. Select the
desired FX Chain Preset file (*.fxc) in the Load FX Chain Preset dialog box and click Open.
• From the Plug-in tab of the Browser, under Audio, expand the FX Chain branch and drag the
preset to an effects bin.
Note: You can automatically extract plug-ins when loading an FX Chain preset. To do so, hold
down the SHIFT key while loading the preset. For more information about extracting plug-ins
from an FX Chain container, see “To extract plug-ins from an FX Chain container” on page 888.
Caution: If you load a SONAR X2 project in an older version of SONAR, SONAR will report the
FX Chain as a missing plug-in and the contents of the FX Chain will be unavailable. Resaving
the project will permanently remove the FX Chain.
To rename an FX Chain preset
1. In the Browser, click the PlugIn button
to show the Plug-in Browser.
2. Under Audio, expand the FX Chain branch.
3. Select the FX Chain, then click the FX Chain name again and type a name.
See:
“Effects chains” on page 882
“FX Chain module” on page 992
“Using the Media Browser” on page 563
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 574
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 581
“Keyboard navigation” on page 573
“Browser” on page 559
580
Browser
Using the Plug-in Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
The Synth Rack view lets you view, insert, delete, and configure your soft synths. You can also mute,
solo, and freeze any active instruments in your projects. Each time you insert a soft synth into your
project, a new row appears in the Synth Rack view with the name of the soft synth and its current
preset. You can select different presets directly from the Synth Rack.
When a synth is highlighted in the Synth Rack, the corresponding tracks in the Track View and
Console View are also highlighted.
You can insert as many copies of the same soft synth as you like; each new copy appears in a new
row and has the same name, but has a higher number after the name (ReWire soft synths can only
have one copy open). The new higher-numbered name also appears on the menus of Instrument
track inputs and MIDI track outputs.
When the Synth Rack is undocked, or docked at the bottom, additional controls become available.
These include synth icons and control knobs to control and/or automate parameters.
Synth Rack interface
Figure 192. Synth Rack Browser
A
B
C
D
E
FGH
J
I
A. Insert Synth B. Delete Synth C. Insert Synth Options D. Show Synth Rack Browser E. Synth Settings menu
F. Dock/undock G. Docking options H. Expand/collapse I. Instrument list J. Synth Automation menu
Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
581
Figure 193. Synth control bar
B
A
C
D E F
Docked
A
H
B
C
D E F
I
J K
Undocked
G
L
M
A. Connect/disconnect (only when floating or docked at top or bottom) B. Synth name C. Preset picker D. Mute
E. Solo F. Freeze/unfreeze G. Automated knobs H. Synth icon I. Automation track J. Automation Read
K. Automation Write L. Assign Controls M. Show/Hide Assigned Controls
• Show Synth Rack Browser
.
Show the Synth Rack Browser.
• Synth Settings menu. The Synth Settings menu lets you insert, delete and freeze the
selected soft synth, and specify other related options. The menu contains the following
commands:
• Insert Synths > Plug-in Layouts > Manage Layouts.
which lets you create, delete, and edit plug-in layouts.
Opens Cakewalk Plug-in Manager,
• Insert Synths > Plug-in Layouts > <list of layouts>. The Plug-in Layout menu lists all
layouts stored by Cakewalk Plug-in Manager. Select a layout to change the plug-in list.
• Insert Synths. This submenu lists all available soft synths. Click the desired soft synth to
insert it in the current project and add an Instrument track. You can also preview MIDI files
through any active soft synth in the Media Browser.
• Insert ReWire Devices. This submenu lists all available ReWire devices. Click the desired
ReWire device to insert it in the current project and add an Instrument track. You can also
preview MIDI files through any active ReWire device in the Media Browser.
• Insert Synth Options. Opens the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog box (see “Insert Soft
Synth Options dialog” on page 1626), which lets you specify what happens when you insert a
new soft synth.
• Synth Properties. Opens the user interface for the selected soft synth. You can also
double-click an empty space in the synth’s Synth Rack row to open the synths user interface.
• Replace Synth.
synth.
582
This submenu lets you replace the selected synth with any other available
Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
• Delete Synth. Deletes the selected soft synth or ReWire device from the current project.
Note 1: Always close any ReWire applications in their own interfaces before deleting them from
SONAR.
Note 2: Deleting a soft synth from the Synth Rack view does not delete the tracks associated
with the soft synth, but does change the associated MIDI track’s output to the next lowernumbered output.
• Enable MIDI Output. If the selected soft synth can create MIDI data from built-in
arpeggiators or other components, select Enable MIDI Output if you want to record or
redirect this new MIDI data.
• Freeze Synth . Freeze whichever soft synth currently has focus in the Synth Rack. Each
synth also has its own Freeze and Thaw buttons at the end of its individual control strip in the
Synth Rack. See “Freeze tracks and synths” on page 858 for more information. Right-click the
Freeze Synth button to access various freeze options on a pop-up menu.
• Unfreeze Synth.
Unfreeze whichever soft synth currently has focus in the Synth Rack.
• Quick Unfreeze Synth.
Synth Rack.
Quick unfreeze whichever soft synth currently has focus in the
• Freeze Options. Open the Freeze Options dialog box, which lets you specify what
happens when you freeze a synth.
• Unload Synth on Disconnect. When this option is selected, you can freeze a soft synth or
disconnect the synth in the Synth Rack view and free up the memory that the synth was using.
With some synths this can be a lot of memory, especially with synths that use samples. Of
course, if you remove the synth from your computer’s memory, reconnecting or unfreezing the
synth will take the same amount of time that it did when you originally loaded the synth.
• Force MIDI Echo Through Current Track. Select this option to force incoming MIDI data to
always echo through the current track, even if the current track’s Input Echo button is in the
Off position, and regardless of which synth has focus in the Synth Rack.
• Insert Synth
• Delete Synth
.
Insert a new soft synth.
. Delete the selected soft synth.
• Properties
. Open the selected soft synth’s property page (only visible when the Browser is
floating or docked in the MultiDock).
• Insert Synth Options
. Open the Insert Soft Synth Options dialog box, which lets you
specify options for new soft synths.
Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
583
• Synth Automation menu. The Synth Automation menu lets you specify on which track to
display and record automation data for the selected soft synth.<name of track synth was
created with>. By default, automation data is displayed and recorded on the track the soft synth
was created with.
• Audio Tracks. This submenu lets you choose any available track in the project to record
and display the selected synth’s automation data on.
• Instrument list. Each inserted instrument in a project appears in the Instrument list, and shows
the following controls:
Note: Certain controls in the Instrument list are only available when the Synth Rack is undocked
or docked at the bottom of the screen.
• Connect/disconnect. Disconnect a synth, mute all tracks associated with it, and free up
memory and CPU cycles.
• Synth icon. The synth icon provides a graphic representation of the soft synth. You can
right-click the icon to manage the assigned icon. This control is only available when the Synth
Rack is undocked or docked at the bottom.
• Synth name. The default name of the soft synth. To rename the synth, double-click the
name, type the desired name and press ENTER.
• Preset picker. The preset picker lets you select any available preset for the soft synth.
When the Synth Rack is undocked or docked on the bottom, you can also click the left/right
arrows to step through the available presets.
• Automation. The Automation list lets you specify on which track to display and record
automation data for the soft synth. This list is identical to the Synth Automation menu at the
top of the Synth Rack. This control is only available when the Synth Rack is undocked or
docked at the bottom.
• Mute.
Mute/unmute the synth, and all tracks associated with this instance of the synth.
• Solo.
Solo/unsolo the synth, and all tracks associated with this instance of the synth.
• Freeze/unfreeze. Freeze/unfreeze the soft synth.
• Thaw synth (Quick unfreeze / refreeze). Quick unfreeze/refreeze the soft synth. This
control is only available when the Synth Rack is undocked or docked at the bottom. You can
also hold down the SHIFT key and click the Freeze Synth button to perform Quick unfreeze /
refreeze.
• Read. Enable/disable automation read for the soft synth. This control is only available when
the Synth Rack is undocked or docked at the bottom.
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Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
• Write. Enable/disable automation write for the soft synth. This control is only available when
the Synth Rack is undocked or docked at the bottom.
• Assign Controls. Lets you choose which parameters in the synth’s interface to create
control knobs for. This control is only available when the Synth Rack is undocked or docked at
the bottom.
• Show/Hide Assign Controls. Show/hide any automated knobs you have created with the
Assign Controls command. This control is only available when the Synth Rack is undocked
or docked at the bottom.
• Automated knobs. These are knobs you create by using the Assigned Controls button.
The knobs are displayed below the synth’s control bar in the Synth Rack. Automated knobs
are only available when the Synth Rack is undocked or docked at the bottom.
See:
“Managing instruments in a project” on page 586
“Using the Media Browser” on page 563
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 574
“Keyboard navigation” on page 573
“Browser” on page 559
“Software instruments” on page 799
“Using instrument tracks” on page 806
“ReWire” on page 821
Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
585
Managing instruments in a project
To insert an instrument
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
2. Click the Synth Settings button menu, point to Insert Synths and select the desired soft synth.
To remove an instrument
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
2. In the Synth Rack, click the soft synth you want to remove.
3. Do one of the following:
• Click the Delete Synth button
.
• Click the Synth Settings button menu, then click Delete Synth.
A dialog box appears, asking you to confirm deletion of the instrument. You can also specify if
SONAR should delete any associated tracks.
To open an instrument’s property sheet
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
2. Click on the desired synth in the Synth Rack to give it focus.
3. Click the Synth Settings button menu, then click Synth Properties.
Tip: You can also double-click an empty space in the synth’s control bar to open its user interface.
To mute/solo/freeze an instrument
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
2. Click the desired synths Mute, Solo, or Freeze button.
To select an instrument preset
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
2. Click the desired synth’s preset picker.
586
Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
.
To access assignable control knobs
1. Make sure the Browser is undocked or docked at the bottom of the screen.
2. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
3. Click the desired synth’s Show/Hide Assigned Controls button.
To replace an instrument
1. In the Browser, click the Browse Synth Rack button
.
2. Do one of the following:
• Select the synth you want to replace, click the Browse Synth Rack button
menu and choose Replace Synth.
drop-down
• Click the PlugIns tab
followed by the Synths button
, then drag a synth onto an
existing track (audio, MIDI or Instrument) that is connected to the synth.
• In the Track view, right-click a track (audio, MIDI or Instrument) that is connected to the synth,
and choose Replace Synth on the pop-up menu.
SONAR automatically re-routes any Output and Input controls that were assigned to the old
synth.
See:
“Using the Media Browser” on page 563
“Using the Plug-in Browser” on page 574
“Using the Synth Rack Browser” on page 581
“To import an audio or MIDI file” on page 566
“To import a video file” on page 569
“To import a track template” on page 567
“To insert an instrument” on page 577
“Keyboard navigation” on page 573
“Browser” on page 559
Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
587
588
Browser
Using the Synth Rack Browser
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
SONAR’s AudioSnap engine and tempo analysis features give you unprecedented rhythmic and
tempo control over your audio. Employing sophisticated transient detection technology, the
AudioSnap engine automatically analyzes all recorded and imported audio files for rhythmic content
to determine where the beats are in the music.
AudioSnap is completely non-destructive, similar to Groove clips and V-Vocal clips. AudioSnap,
V-Vocal, and Groove clips are mutually exclusive. Groove clip markers are typically placed at a zerocrossing point before a transient; AudioSnap transient markers are placed where musical changes
occur, but may not be exactly at a zero crossing.
What is AudioSnap?
AudioSnap is not a single feature, but rather a collection of different tools that can be used for
different tasks. The AudioSnap palette ties it all together in a task-oriented layout.
AudioSnap does several things, in a variety of ways:
• Stretches audio clips to fit project tempo or for quantizing.
• Changes project tempo to fit audio or MIDI clips.
• Copies audio rhythms for groove quantizing or doubling sounds.
Figure 194. The AudioSnap palette
How does it work?
AudioSnap works by finding the transients in audio clips. Transients are the areas in an audio clip
where the level increases suddenly. These make good locations to shrink, stretch, or split a clip,
without changing its sound quality too drastically. SONAR contains a variety of high-quality
stretching algorithms for different kinds of material. You can choose a lower-quality algorithm for
real-time playback of your edits, and then choose a better algorithm for mixdown or bouncing to
track (see “Algorithms and rendering” on page 646).
SONAR lets you define the default online and offline algorithms via the AudioSnap palette, and you
can override the default algorithm(s) on a clip-by-clip basis.
Note: The online algorithm is for preview purposes only during playback. The final audio quality
will be greatly improved after the offline algorithm is applied during mixdown/export.
The transients also make it possible for SONAR to calculate a clip’s tempo map (see “Editing a clip’s
tempo map” on page 613).
Figure 195. Audio clip.
Figure 196. Audio clip showing transient markers.
AudioSnap finds transients automatically, but the transient markers don’t always appear exactly
where you might want them for the kind of editing you want to do. You can edit the markers by
moving them to new locations, adding markers, filtering out markers, deleting markers, and
promoting markers (protecting them from being filtered). For information about editing transient
markers, see “Editing transient markers” on page 597.
Why would I use it?
Here are some common uses for AudioSnap:
• Aligning measure lines and tempo to audio or MIDI tracks that were recorded without a
metronome (see “Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 610).
• Fixing timing errors (see “Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 617).
• Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks (see “Making multiple clips/tracks groove
together” on page 624).
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AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
• Doubling existing sounds with other sounds (see “Extracting MIDI timing information from audio”
on page 633).
• Changing the tempo of existing projects (see “Changing a project’s tempo” on page 616).
• Snapping both audio and MIDI edits to audio beats (see “Snapping edits to audio beats” on page
635).
• Fixing timing errors in multi-track recordings while maintaining phase relationships (see “Adjusting
the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships” on page 619).
If you want to edit audio right away with AudioSnap, see “Synchronizing audio and the project
tempo” on page 610 and “Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 617. If you want to learn
more about all the AudioSnap tools and options, see the following links.
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 592
“Editing transient markers” on page 597
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 606
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 610
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 617
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 633
“General editing” on page 635
“Using the Pool” on page 643
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 646
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
591
Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers
At the heart of AudioSnap are transient markers. SONAR automatically detects transients for all
audio clips in your project.Although you can also edit transient markers with the Select tool, Move
tool, Timing tool, Split tool, Freehand tool, Erase tool and Mute tool, this chapter focuses on the
Smart tool since it is the easiest way to edit transient markers.
In order to edit audio transient markers, you must assign a track’s Edit Filter to Audio Transients
(see “Selecting the data type to edit” on page 416).
For more information about using different tools on AudioSnap transient markers, see:
“Using the Smart tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 427
“Using the Select tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 432
“Using the Move tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 436
“Using the Timing tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 443
“Using the Split tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 447
“Using the Freehand tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 450
“Using the Erase tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 459
“Using the Mute tool on AudioSnap transients” on page 462
To enable the Smart tool
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the desired track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
All audio clips show transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
Note: Displaying transient markers does not mean that AudioSnap is enabled. AudioSnap is
only active on a clip when at least one transient marker has been stretched.
If you select another data type in the Edit Filter, transient markers will no longer be visible and
the AudioSnap palette closes.
The following table describes how the Smart tool behaves when interacting with transient markers
and clips.
Action
On transient marker
On clip
Click
Selects the transient marker.
Selects the clip and opens the
AudioSnap palette.
Right-click
Opens the transient marker context menu.
Opens the AudioSnap context menu.
Table 114.
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Smart tool actions
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers
Action
On transient marker
On clip
Double-click
-Selects transients from other tracks (from
selected clips) that fall within a certain window of
time of the transient the user is clicking on. If no
clips are selected, only non-hidden tracks are
affected.
Drag
Non-proportional stretch with selected
transients.
Note: You can drag a marker from either the
head or the line of the marker. Drag the line to
stretch a marker and drag the head to move a
marker.
Lasso selects transient markers.
Hold down the
Proportionally stretches selected transients.
CTRL key and drag
Lasso selects transients to add to the
current selection.
Hold down the
Adds transient marker to current selection.
CTRL key and click
--
Hold down the
CTRL key and
double-click
Like double-click, but adds transients to the
current selection.
--
Hold down the
CTRL and SHIFT
keys and doubleclick
Like double-click, but extends the range of
selected transients.
--
Hold down the ALT
key and click
--
Inserts a new transient marker.
Table 114.
Smart tool actions
Figure 197. Smart tool hotspots on AudioSnap transients.
B
C
A
D
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers
593
Hotspot
Default action
Double-click
A
Drag transient marker
line to stretch selected
transients (nonproportional stretch)
Select all adjacent transient
markers in other tracks
B
Drag transient marker
handle (diamond) to
move transient marker
(non-stretch)
C
Lasso select transients
D
Lasso select transients
across clips and tracks
Table 115.
+ALT
+CTRL
Drag transient marker
line to stretch selected
transients proportionally
Insert new transient
marker
Using the Smart tool on AudioSnap transients clips
For more information about editing transient markers, see “Editing transient markers” on page 597.
Transient marker context menu
The transient marker context menu gives you quick access to commands related to time stretching
and tempo mapping. The following menu commands are available when you right-click a transient
marker:
• Select markers. Use this submenu to select transient markers that meet specific criteria.
• Set project tempo from clip. This command copies the clip’s tempo map to the project’s global
tempo map. This allows the project’s measure boundaries to align with the audio clip. Whenever
the project’s tempo map is generated from a clip, the clip’s Lock Position property is enabled
automatically.
• Set clip tempo from project. This command copies the project’s tempo map to the clip’s tempo
map. This allows the project’s measure boundaries to align with the audio clip.
• Clips follow project tempo.
map.
This command forces the clip to follow the project’s global tempo
Note: The Clips follow project tempo command only works on clips that are configured to use
musical time (the Time Base property is set to Musical in the Clip Inspector).
• Edit clip tempo map. Each audio clip has an internal tempo map. This command exposes
controls that allow you to edit a clip’s tempo map. For details, see “Editing a clip’s tempo map” on
page 613.
• Merge and Lock Markers. This command combines all transient markers on all selected
tracks, so that all selected tracks share identical transient markers. The clip positions are also
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AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers
locked. This will ensure that phase relationships are maintained when quantizing or moving clips
across multiple tracks. When using the Smart tool to drag transient markers, all transient markers
at exactly the same point in time on selected clips move together as a group.
• Save as Groove. This command opens the Define Groove dialog box, which lets you save the
groove to a file. The groove can then be applied to other audio or MIDI clips.
• Copy as MIDI. This command saves the selected audio as a MIDI clip, which you can paste
from the Clipboard into a MIDI track. You select the MIDI note that the transients in the audio clip
will be converted to in the AudioSnap Options dialog box, which opens when you click the
Options button.
• Quantize. This command opens the Quantize dialog box, which has options to quantize
AudioSnap Beats and Audio Clip Start Times, and also to set automatic crossfade options.
• Groove Quantize. This command opens the Groove Quantize dialog box, which has an option
to quantize AudioSnap Beats, and controls to set automatic crossfade options.
• Pool > Add MBT to pool. The Track view Time Ruler can be added to the Pool (see “Using the
Pool” on page 643). This command adds the current Musical Time snap resolution to the pool,
and also displays dotted pool lines in the Clips pane. This can be useful as either a basic visual
guide, or for adding the Musical Time to an extracted groove, or to fill in any transients that may
be “missing” in a syncopated or sparse section. In the Control Bar’s Snap module, set the
Musical Time value to the resolution you would like to add to the Pool.
• Pool > Add clip to pool. This command adds or deletes the clip’s transient markers from the
Pool. The markers do not have to be visible to be added to the Pool. See “Using the Pool” on
page 643 for more information.
• Pool > Show pool lines. This command hides or shows the Pool lines.
• Pool > Apply transient pool markers. This command insert new transient markers that
correspond to the Pool markers.
• Pool > Quantize to pool. This command quantizes the selected clips to the Pool.
• Enable AudioSnap.
This command enables or disables AudioSnap on selected audio clips.
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers
595
AudioSnap section in the Clip Inspector
In addition to the AudioSnap palette, you can also edit a clip’s AudioSnap settings in the Clip
Inspector. For details, see “Properties Inspector - Clip Properties” on page 546.
Figure 198. The AudioSnap section in the Clip Inspector
See:
“Editing transient markers” on page 597
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 606
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 617
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 610
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 633
“General editing” on page 635
“Using the Pool” on page 643
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 646
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Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers
Editing transient markers
Transient markers show where the transients of a clip are (areas where the level increases
suddenly), and are used to edit the timing of audio clips.
AudioSnap finds transients automatically, but the transient markers don’t always appear exactly
where you might want them for the kind of editing you want to do.
Most AudioSnap commands edit transient markers automatically as a result of an editing operation,
but sometimes you achieve the best results by editing the markers manually.
You can edit the markers by moving them to new locations, adding markers, filtering out markers,
deleting markers, and promoting markers (protecting them from being filtered).
Figure 199. Transient markers
See:
“To select a transient marker” on page 598
“To select multiple adjacent transient markers” on page 598
“To select multiple discontiguous transient markers” on page 598
“To select the same transient in multiple clips” on page 598
“To extend a multi-track marker selection” on page 599
“To select all similar transient markers in a clip” on page 599
“To move a transient marker (without stretching audio)” on page 600
“To drag a transient marker and stretch audio” on page 600
“To stretch multiple transient markers in a clip” on page 600
“To stretch multiple transient markers in a clip proportionally” on page 600
“To reset transient markers” on page 601
“To disable a transient marker” on page 601
“To delete a transient marker” on page 601
“To insert a new transient marker” on page 601
“To copy transient markers from one track to another track” on page 602
“To enable/disable transient markers” on page 602
“To navigate to the next/previous transient (TAB to transients)” on page 603
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
597
“Transient marker appearance” on page 603
“Transient marker context menu” on page 604
To select a transient marker
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Click the desired transient marker.
The marker is highlighted.
To select/deselect all transient markers in a clip
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Right-click a clip and choose Select Markers > All or Select Markers > None on the pop-up
menu.
To select multiple adjacent transient markers
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Do one of the following:
• Draw a lasso around the desired transient markers.
• Click the first marker in the range, hold down the SHIFT key, and click the last marker in the
range.
The markers are highlighted.
To select multiple discontiguous transient markers
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Hold down the CTRL key and click the desired transient markers.
The markers are highlighted.
To select the same transient in multiple clips
1. Select the clips that you want to edit.
2. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
3. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
4. Double-click a transient marker in any selected clip.
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AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
All transient markers near the same position (within a defined time window) in all selected clips
are selected.
Note 1: If no clips are selected, transient markers from all clips are eligible to become selected.
Note 2: To specify the size of the time window, click the AudioSnap Options button
in the
AudioSnap palette to open the AudioSnap Options dialog box, then specify the desired Pool
Transient Window value.
To extend a multi-track marker selection
When editing multi-track instruments, you may want to simultaneously adjust a range of transients
across multiple tracks. In order to do so, you need to select the tracks and time region you want to
edit.
1. Select the clips that you want to edit.
2. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
3. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
4. Double-click a transient marker in any selected clip.
All transient markers near the same position (within a defined time window) in all selected clips
are selected.
5. Hold down the CTRL key and double-click another transient marker in any selected clip.
A range or transient markers are selected across all selected clips.
To select all similar transient markers in a clip
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Right-click the desired clip and choose from the following options from the pop-up menu:
• Select Markers > Moved
• Select Markers > Stretched
• Select Markers > Disabled
• Select Markers > Enabled
• Select Markers > Promoted
• Select Markers > User
Selecting all markers of a certain type makes it easy to perform operations such as resetting only the
stretched markers, or promoting only the disabled markers.
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
599
To move a transient marker (without stretching audio)
• Drag the marker handle (diamond).
Figure 200. To move a transient marker, drag the marker head (diamond)
To drag a transient marker and stretch audio
• Drag the marker line.
Figure 201. To stretch a transient, drag the marker line
When you drag and drop the line of a marker, the marker moves to the place where you drop it, and
the audio that is located between the dragged marker and the following marker stretches.
Note: If you stretch a transient marker, AudioSnap is enabled on the clip.
You can find additional marker editing commands on the transient marker context menu.
To stretch multiple transient markers in a clip
1. Select the desired transient markers.
2. Drag any of the selected transient markers.
To stretch multiple transient markers in a clip proportionally
1. Select the desired transient markers.
2. Hold down the CTRL key and drag any of the selected transient markers.
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AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
To reset transient markers
1. Select all transient markers you want to reset.
2. Right-click any selected transient marker and select Reset from the pop-up menu.
To disable a transient marker
• Right-click the marker you want to disable and select Disable from the pop-up menu.
To delete a transient marker
• Right-click the marker you want to reset and select Delete Marker from the pop-up menu.
Note: You can only delete user-created transient markers.
To insert a new transient marker
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Hold down the ALT key and click where you would like to insert a new transient marker.
A new transient marker is inserted.
or
1. Disable the Snap to Grid button
on a convenient snap location.
(or press the N key) if the place you need the marker is not
2. Select the clip or clips that need the marker.
3. Move the Now Time to the place where you want the marker.
4. Press CTRL+ALT+I.
The marker appears in the selected clip(s) and displays a hollow square to show that it is a manually
created marker:
Note: You can also add markers at Pool lines with a single command. See “To add markers at
Pool lines” on page 638.
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
601
To copy transient markers from one track to another track
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
The AudioSnap palette appears and all audio clips show transient markers.
3. Select the target clip (the clip that you want to copy markers to) and drag the Threshold slider in
the AudioSnap palette until all transient markers are disabled.
4. Select both the source clip (the clip you want to copy markers from) and the target clip.
5. Right-click either of the selected clips and select Merge and Lock Markers from the pop-up
menu.
The transient markers on the source clip are copied to the target clip.
To enable/disable transient markers
It’s sometimes necessary to disable some of the markers so you can extract a clearer groove, or
snap or quantize data to only the more important markers. Disabling markers is a way to thin the
data so that it creates a clearer time grid to work with. It also avoids stretching any transients that
you don’t want to stretch as a result of quantizing audio. Disabled markers are not deleted, but are
ignored by all AudioSnap functions. Only the head of a disabled marker remains visible.
There are several ways to disable/enable the transient markers in a selected clip:
• The Resolution drop-down list in the AudioSnap palette. The selected Resolution value
lets you disable markers based on their time location. This clears out unwanted markers to make
editing easier. Larger values create a bigger time window, based on musical time values, which
preserves markers that are closest to the displayed musical time value, and disables others.
Note: The Resolution setting will only work reliably if the audio clip’s internal tempo map is
accurate. For details, see “Editing a clip’s tempo map” on page 613.
• The Threshold slider in the AudioSnap palette. This slider works by disabling markers based
on their volume. Dragging the slider to the right creates a larger volume threshold, so that
transients that fall below the current volume threshold that the slider defines are disabled.
• The transient marker context menu.
the pop-up menu.
You can right-click a marker, and choose Disable from
• Press CTRL+ALT+D to disable or re-enable all selected markers.
Tip: If you want to protect a marker from being disabled by the Sensitivity slider or the Threshold
slider, you can right-click the marker and enable the Promote option from the transient marker popup menu. You can also promote a disabled marker to ensure that it never becomes enabled by the
Sensitivity slider.
602
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
To navigate to the next/previous transient (TAB to transients)
• Do one of the following:
• To move the Now Time to the next transient, press TAB.
• To move the Now Time to the previous transient, press SHIFT+TAB.
Note: TAB to transients is selection-based, which means tabbing will go to the next/previous
transient amongst all selected clips. If there is no selection, tabbing operates on the current
track.
For more information, see “TAB to transients” on page 362.
Transient marker appearance
Each transient marker changes its appearance when it is selected, moved, new, disabled, or has
certain other characteristics.
The following table lists the variations in appearance that a marker can display.
Marker appearance
Description
Soft yellow hollow diamond shape
Standard active marker or promoted marker.
A promoted marker is never disabled by the Resolution or
Threshold controls in the AudioSnap palette.
Solid diamond shape
User inserted marker.
Bright yellow
Selected marker.
Grey; only the head of the marker is
visible
Disabled marker.
Arrow
Stretched marker. Any given transient can only be stretched or
shrunk to 25-400% of original length.
A small arrow indicates in which direction the audio has been
stretched.
Note: An important difference between quantizing MIDI and
audio is that two or more audio transients can never collapse on
top of each other like MIDI notes can.
Table 116.
Transient marker shapes and colors
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
603
Transient marker context menu
The transient marker context menu appears when you right-click a transient marker. The command
you choose from this menu acts on the marker that you right-click, and most commands also act on
any markers that are selected. The following table describes each command.
Command
Description
Reset
Moves a marker back to its original position. Shortcut for selected markers is
CTRL+ALT+R.
Disable
The marker is ignored. Shortcut for selected markers is CTRL+ALT+D.
Promote
By “promoting” a marker, you can set emphasis on certain beats and prevent the
marker from becoming disabled when you adjust the Resolution or Threshold
controls. Shortcut for selected markers is CTRL+ALT+P.
Delete marker
Only available for manually added markers; the command is greyed-out if you rightclick an automatically generated marker. Shortcut for selected markers is
CTRL+ALT+BACKSPACE.
Snap (stretch) to
nearest transient
Moves marker to nearest Pool marker.
Note: You can also snap transient markers to the time ruler and other transient
markers. For details, see “To add the Time ruler to the Pool” on page 644 and
“Snapping edits to audio beats” on page 635.
Snap (stretch)
backward
Moves marker backward to nearest Pool marker.
Snap (stretch) forward
Moves marker forward to nearest Pool marker.
Stretch to
Moves the marker to the project time that you enter in the To Time field, and stretches
the audio that is between the previous and next markers.
Move to
Moves the marker to the project time that you enter in the To Time field.
Audition Beat
Auditions the clip up to the next marker. Default shortcut is
CTRL+SHIFT+SPACEBAR.
Split Beat
Splits the beat at the marker.
AudioSnap Palette
Opens the AudioSnap palette. Shortcut is A to show (but not hide) the palette.
Table 117.
Transient marker context menu commands
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 592
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 606
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 617
604
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 610
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 633
“General editing” on page 635
“Using the Pool” on page 643
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 646
Enabling/disabling AudioSnap
You can enable/disable AudioSnap processing on a clip-by-clip basis. Transient markers are always
available to be edited, but AudioSnap is not active on a clip unless at least one transient marker has
been stretched.
By disabling AudioSnap on a clip that has stretched transient markers, you can compare how the
clip sounds with and without AudioSnap processing. Disabling AudioSnap can also temporarily free
up CPU processing power.
To enable or disable AudioSnap
1. Select the audio clips you want to enable/disable AudioSnap on.
2. Do one of the following:
• Click the Bypass button
in the AudioSnap palette.
• Click the Enable check box in the Clip Inspector’s AudioSnap section.
AudioSnap is enabled/disabled on the selected audio clips, and transient markers are shown/
hidden.
Note: AudioSnap is automatically enabled on a clip if you stretch a transient marker on the clip.
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 592
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 606
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 617
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 610
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 633
“General editing” on page 635
“Using the Pool” on page 643
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 646
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Editing transient markers
605
Using the AudioSnap palette
The AudioSnap palette provides easy access to time stretching and tempo-related tools.
Except for the AudioSnap enable/disable command, the AudioSnap palette’s controls apply to the
currently selected audio clip or clips.
To show the AudioSnap palette
• Do one of the following:
• On the Views menu, click AudioSnap Palette.
• Press A.
or
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
3. Click an audio clip that you want to edit.
The AudioSnap palette contains the following controls.
Figure 202. AudioSnap palette controls
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
O
H
I
P
Q
J K
L
M N
A. Bypass B. Copy as MIDI C. Split into clips by transient markers D. Toggle sample/musical based clip start
time E. Average Tempo F. AudioSnap properties G. Set project tempo from clip H. Clip follows project tempo
I. Edit clip tempo map J. Quantize K. Extract Groove L. Apply Groove M. Resolution N. Threshold O. Applies
to P. Online render mode Q. Offline render mode
Toolbar section
• Bypass
.
This button enables or disables AudioSnap on selected audio clips.
• Copy as MIDI
. This button saves the selected audio as a MIDI clip, which you can paste
from the Clipboard into a MIDI track. You select the MIDI note that the transients in the audio clip
will be converted to in the AudioSnap Options dialog box, which opens when you click the
Options button.
606
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using the AudioSnap palette
• Split Beats into Clips
. This button splits a clip at each transient marker into multiple
clips.Clip Timebase (Absolute or Musical)
clip in SONAR:
• Musical (default)
Time (MIDI Tick).
• Absolute
(SMPTE).
.
.
/
. There are two timebase settings for a
Musical Timebase means the clip start position will follow Musical
Absolute Timebase means that the clip start time will follow Absolute Time
• Average Tempo. This list shows the average tempo candidates: original, 0.5x and 2x. SONAR
will do its best to detect the correct average tempo, but a clip can often have multiple potential
tempos (60 BPM, 120 BPM, 240 BPM, etc.). If SONAR is unable to detect a tempo, Average
Tempo will be set to Original, which is the project’s tempo at the location the clip was recorded or
imported. If you change the Average Tempo setting, all clip tempo changes are adjusted to scale.
This list also contains the Set Clip Tempo From Project command, which copies the project’s
tempo map to the clip’s tempo map. This allows the project’s measure boundaries to align with
the audio clip.
• AudioSnap Options
. This button opens the AudioSnap Options dialog box. This dialog
box has its own Help topic, which appears when you click its Help button.
Tempo section
• Set Project Tempo From Clip
. This button copies the clip’s tempo map to the project’s
global tempo map and automatically triggers the Clip Follows Project Tempo command. This
allows the project’s measure boundaries to align with the audio clip. The drop-down list lets you
specify at which resolution the clip’s tempo map should be copied to the project tempo. The
options are as follows:
• Beats
• Measures (default)
• Clip
• Clip Follows Project Tempo
. This button forces the clip to follow the project’s global
tempo map. The drop-down list lets you specify at which resolution the clip should follow tempo
changes. The options are as follows:
• Beats
• Measures
• Clip (default)
Note: The Clips follow project tempo command only works on clips that are configured to use
musical time (the Time Base property is set to Musical in the Clip Inspector).
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using the AudioSnap palette
607
• Edit Clip Tempo Map
. Each audio clip has an internal tempo map. This button exposes
controls that allow you to edit a clip’s tempo map. For details, see “Editing a clip’s tempo map” on
page 613.
Timing section
• Quantize
. This button opens the Quantize dialog box, which has options to quantize
AudioSnap Beats and Audio Clip Start Times, and also to set automatic crossfade options.
• Extract Groove
. This button adds the selected clip’s transients to the Pool (see “Using the
Pool” on page 643) and shows vertical Pool lines. To apply the pool (groove) to another clip,
select the desired clip and click the Apply Groove button. To clear the Pool, click the Extract
Groove button again.
Note: If an existing Pool exists when you click the Extract Groove button, the existing Pool will
first be cleared.
• Apply Groove
. This button applies the currently extracted groove (Pool) to the selected
clips, clears the Pool and releases the Extract Groove button. See also “To quantize an audio
clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 627.
Filter section
• Threshold. This slider is available when a clip’s transient markers are showing. The slider
disables markers based on their volume. This clears out unwanted markers to make editing
easier. Dragging the slider to the right creates a bigger volume threshold, which disables markers
that are fall below that threshold. Works on selected clips.
• Resolution. This drop-down list is available when a clip’s transient markers are showing. The
selected Resolution value lets you disable markers based on their time location. This clears out
unwanted markers to make editing easier. Larger values create a bigger time window, based on
musical time values, which preserves markers that are closest to the displayed musical time
value, and disables others. Works on selected clips.
Render mode section
• Applies To. This drop-down menu lets you choose whether any changes to the Online and
Offline settings apply to clips, tracks, or the default settings. The choices in the drop-down menu
are as follows:
• Clips. When selected, the Online and Offline render mode settings apply to any selected
clips. The Online and Offline lists display the current render modes for the selected clip. If
you select multiple clips that have different render modes, the Online and Offline lists display
(Multi). If the selected clip has inherited render mode settings from the track or from the
Default Settings settings, the Online and Offline lists display the inherited render mode in
parenthesis.
• Tracks. When selected, the Online and Offline render mode settings apply to all current
and future clips in the selected tracks.
608
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using the AudioSnap palette
• Default Settings. When selected, the Online and Offline render mode settings apply to the
Default (track/global) render mode.
• Online. This choice determines what stretch algorithm is used during real-time playback. The
Percussion options works better than the Groove Clip option on percussive material, especially
if the stretching is by more than a few beats per minute. For more information about render
modes, see “Algorithms and rendering” on page 646.
Note: The Online render mode is for preview purposes only during playback. The final audio
quality will be greatly improved after the Offline render mode is applied during mixdown/export.
• Offline. This drop-down menu lets you choose the algorithm that is used when you export or
freeze stretched audio. The choices in the drop-down menu are as follows:
• Groove clip.
This choice works faster, using less processing power.
• iZotope Radius Mix. This is better for clips containing polyphonic, stereo data.
• iZotope Radius Mix Advanced. This choice is similar to iZotope Radius Mix, but exposes
a Smoothing slider that adjust how much detail to preserve.
• iZotope Radius Solo. This is better for clips containing monophonic, solo instruments.
• Percussion.
This is the best choice for percussion sounds.
AudioSnap palette auto load
AutoLoadAudioSnapPalette=<0 or 1>, default = 1
By default, the AudioSnap palette appears automatically whenever you enable AudioSnap on a clip.
If you prefer to never auto-show the AudioSnap palette, you can change this behavior by adding a
variable to the Cakewalk.ini file.
This variable should be set in the [WinCake] section. For example:
[WinCake]
AutoLoadAudioSnapPalette=0
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 592
“Editing transient markers” on page 597
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 617
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 610
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 633
“General editing” on page 635
“Using the Pool” on page 643
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 646
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Using the AudioSnap palette
609
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
There are many reasons why you may want to synchronize audio clips with the project tempo. The
following list presents a few common examples.
AudioSnap provides two ways to quickly synchronize audio and the project tempo map:
• Applying an audio clip’s internal tempo map to the project’s global tempo map. Use this
method if you want the project tempo to match an audio clip’s tempo and have audio beats
aligned with the project’s time ruler.
This is useful in the following scenarios:
• If you recorded an audio track without using the metronome, and you want the project’s
measure and beat boundaries to align with the audio. For example, you may have recorded
an audio track that you would like to use as the tempo reference when recording additional
tracks.
• If you want both audio and MIDI edits to snap to audio beats.
• If you want to use the Quantize and Groove Quantize commands on audio clips, and have
audio beats quantized correctly.
• If you want to remix an existing song that has been imported into SONAR (from an audio CD
or MP3 file, etc.). In order to add new drum loops and MIDI instruments that play in time with
the original song, you need to create a tempo map from the original song.
For details, see “To sync the project tempo to an audio clip” on page 611.
• Applying the project’s tempo to a clip’s tempo map.
follow the project tempo.
Use this method if you want a clip to
This is useful in the following scenarios:
• If you want to synchronize new audio with existing audio.
• If you want to tighten up a new audio track so it fits well with the timing and tempo of an
existing track.
• If you want to globally change the project’s tempo after audio has been recorded.
For details, see “To sync an audio clip to the project tempo” on page 611 and “To copy the project
tempo to an audio clip’s tempo map” on page 612.
610
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
How does it work?
Each audio clip has an internal tempo map, which makes it possible to synchronize the audio clip
with the project’s global tempo map (see “Editing a clip’s tempo map” on page 613).
SONAR automatically creates a tempo map for each audio clip. In some cases, SONAR can detect
the wrong tempo. For example, SONAR might detect a tempo of 120 BPM when the actual tempo is
240 BPM, or a beat may be mapped to the wrong transient. You can easily remap the tempo map, if
necessary.
You should make sure a clip’s internal tempo map is correct before using any of the tempo-related
commands in the AudioSnap palette. For details, see “Editing a clip’s tempo map” on page 613.
To sync the project tempo to an audio clip
1. Select the audio clip(s) that has the desired tempo map.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Set Project Tempo From Clip button
on the AudioSnap palette.
The clip tempo map is copied to the project tempo map so the tempo maps are identical.
Note 1: The Set Project Tempo From Clip drop-down list lets you specify at which resolution
the clip’s tempo map should be copied to the project tempo. The options are as follows:
• Beats
• Measures (default)
• Clip
Note 2: If multiple audio clips have their Clip Timebase property set to Musical, changing the
project tempo will affect the relative positions of the audio clips. When using the Set Project
Tempo from Clip command, SONAR will offer to convert the timebase to Absolute.
If you need to align the project tempo with freely played MIDI notes, see “To sync the project
tempo to freely played MIDI” on page 728.
To sync an audio clip to the project tempo
1. Select the audio clip(s) that you want to follow the project tempo.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Clip Follows Project Tempo button
on the AudioSnap palette.
The clip is synchronized to the project’s tempo map.
Note: If the audio clip does not play back at the expected tempo, the clip might not have an
accurate internal tempo map. For details about editing a clip’s tempo map, see “Editing a clip’s
tempo map” on page 613.
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
611
To copy the project tempo to an audio clip’s tempo map
1. Configure the project’s tempo as desired (either specify the tempo manually, or extract the tempo
from another audio clip by using the Set Project Tempo from Clip button
on the
AudioSnap palette).
2. Select the audio clip(s) that you want to follow the project tempo.
3. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
4. Click the Average Tempo box on the AudioSnap palette and select Set Clip Tempo From
Project on the drop-down menu.
The global project tempo map is copied to the clip tempo map so the tempo maps are identical.
Note: AudioSnap will always attempt to find the tempo of any clip recorded or imported into
SONAR. While several possible tempos are normally generated, in some cases AudioSnap
may be unable to detect the correct tempo or may not detect a tempo at all. This can occur if
the source material is highly compressed or does not contain transient markers on all actual
beats.
If AudioSnap is unable to detect a tempo from the clip, new transient markers are inserted on
each beat corresponding to the project’s global tempo map.
If AudioSnap detects possible tempos for the clip, existing transient markers (that appear within a
defined window of the project’s beats) are reassigned to nearby beat markers on the clip’s tempo
map.
See:
“Editing a clip’s tempo map” on page 613
“Changing a project’s tempo” on page 616
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 592
“Editing transient markers” on page 597
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 606
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 617
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 633
“General editing” on page 635
“Using the Pool” on page 643
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 646
612
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Editing a clip’s tempo map
Each audio clip has an internal tempo map, which makes it possible to synchronize the audio clip
with the project’s global tempo map (see “Editing a clip’s tempo map” on page 613).
SONAR automatically creates a tempo map for each audio clip. In some cases, SONAR can detect
the wrong tempo. For example, SONAR might detect a tempo of 120 BPM when the actual tempo is
240 BPM, or a beat may be mapped to the wrong transient. You can easily remap the tempo map, if
necessary.
SONAR provides a convenient graphical interface for editing a clip’s tempo map.
You should make sure a clip’s internal tempo map is correct before using any of the tempo-related
commands in the AudioSnap palette.
The following figure shows what a SONAR-generate clip tempo map might look like.
Figure 203. You can edit the internal tempo map of each audio clip
The following controls are available when editing a clip’s tempo map:
• Beat markers. Each detected beat has a corresponding beat marker. You can remap a beat
marker by dragging the marker to any active transient marker. When a beat marker has been
moved, it turns red and becomes “anchored” to the assigned transient marker. An “anchored”
beat marker is a marker that has been edited as opposed to a beat that SONAR detected. To “unanchor” a beat marker, double-click the marker.
• Average Tempo. This list shows the average tempo candidates: original, 0.5x and 2x. SONAR
will do its best to detect the correct average tempo, but a clip can often have multiple potential
tempos (60 BPM, 120 BPM, 240 BPM, etc.). If SONAR is unable to detect a tempo, Average
Tempo will be set to Original, which is the project’s tempo at the location the clip was recorded or
imported. If you change the Average Tempo setting, all clip tempo changes are adjusted to scale.
This list also contains the Set Clip Tempo From Project command, which copies the project’s
tempo map to the clip’s tempo map. This allows the project’s measure boundaries to align with
the audio clip.
• Beats per measure. This list lets you specify the number of beats per measure. The value
range is 2 to 14, and the default value is 4.
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
613
To edit a clip’s tempo map
1. Select the clip or clips you want to edit.
2. Click the Edit clip tempo map button
on the AudioSnap palette.
A simple tempo map guide appears above the clip, indicating where SONAR has mapped the
bars/beats of the clip.
3. If the Average Tempo list does not show the correct tempo, select the correct tempo.
4. If the Beats per measure box does not show the correct number of beats, specify the correct
number of beats per measure.
5. Starting from the beginning of the clip, inspect the beat markers above the clip. If any beat
marker is mapped to the wrong transient, drag the beat marker to the correct transient.
Figure 204. Drag beat markers to edit the clip tempo map
Note 1: Beat markers can only be dragged to active transient markers. If you need to drag a
beat marker to a position that doesn’t have a corresponding transient marker, first insert a new
transient marker at the desired position. For details, see “To insert a new transient marker” on
page 601.
You can also use the Merge and Lock Markers command to merge transient markers from other
tracks. This is useful, for example, if one track contains beats 1 and 3 and another track contains
beats 2 and 4. For details, see “To copy transient markers from one track to another track” on page
602.
Note 2: If you hold down the CTRL key when you drag a beat marker to the left, the original beat
marker and all subsequent beat markers will be renumbered accordingly.
If you hold down the CTRL key when you drag a beat marker to the right, all subsequent beat markers
will be moved by the same number of transient markers.
The clip’s tempo map is recalculated and the dragged beat marker turns red to indicate it has
been “anchored” to a new transient. An “anchored” beat marker is a marker that has been edited
as opposed to a beat that SONAR detected. To “un-anchor” a beat marker, double-click the
marker.
614
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
If a beat marker is dragged to a transient marker that is already assigned to a later beat marker,
SONAR will automatically re-number all subsequent beat markers accordingly.
A beat marker cannot be dragged to an earlier transient marker if that transient is already
assigned to a beat marker.
6. To hide the tempo map guide, click the Edit clip tempo map button
palette again.
on the AudioSnap
Tip: You can also enable/disable Edit clip tempo map from the transient marker context menu.
To audition an audio clip when editing the clip tempo map
When you are editing a clip’s tempo map, you may frequently need to audition the audio to make
sure you are positioning the beat markers at the correct transients.
1. Right-click the clip tempo map (above the clip) where you want to audition the clip, and keep the
right mouse button pressed.
SONAR creates a one-measure selection, starting from one measure before the position clicked.
The selected time will gradually increase the longer you keep the mouse button pressed.
2. Release the right mouse button.
SONAR auditions the selection.
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 592
“Editing transient markers” on page 597
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 606
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 610
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 617
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 633
“General editing” on page 635
“Using the Pool” on page 643
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 646
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
615
Changing a project’s tempo
Changing a whole project’s tempo is simple with AudioSnap, if the tempo change is not drastic.
Before you change the global tempo of a project that contains audio, you must first make sure the
audio clips are configured to follow tempo changes.
After you change the tempo, you may want to bounce some or all of the tracks to new tracks with the
Radius algorithms to correct any unwanted change to each track’s sound.
To change a project’s tempo
1. Use the File > Open command to open the desired project.
2. Use the Edit > Select > All command.
3. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
4. Zoom in (or press F) to get a better look at your clips.
5. With all clips still selected, enable the Clip Follows Project Tempo button
AudioSnap palette.
in the
Note: The Clips follow project tempo command only works on clips that are configured to use
musical time (the Time Base property is set to Musical in the Clip Inspector).
All the clips display the Auto Stretch icon
changes.
, and will now conform to any new or future tempo
6. In the Control Bar’s Transport module, click the Tempo value
value, and press ENTER.
, type the desired tempo
All the tracks stretch to conform to the new tempo. Listen to the project as a whole, and also solo
each track to hear how different the sound is after stretching.
See:
“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 592
“Editing transient markers” on page 597
“Using the AudioSnap palette” on page 606
“Synchronizing audio and the project tempo” on page 610
“Fixing timing problems in audio clips” on page 617
“Extracting MIDI timing information from audio” on page 633
“General editing” on page 635
“Using the Pool” on page 643
“Algorithms and rendering” on page 646
616
AudioSnap (Producer and Studio only)
Synchronizing audio and the project tempo
Fixing timing problems in audio clips
AudioSnap provides several ways to fix timing errors in audio clips:
• You can drag individual beats or groups of beats to new positions. This gives you complete
control over where each transient ends up.
• You can quantize to a particular note resolution. This can be a very quick way to fix a clip, if your
markers are fairly close to where you want them to end up.
• You can quantize to another clip’s beats, making the clips share the same groove.
• You can slip-stretch the clip, to make it fit a larger or smaller block of time. This is a very quick way
to adjust a clip that has good timing, but whose tempo may be a little different from the project you
want to use it in.
• You can combine techniques: slip-stretch a clip to fit a new tempo, then quantize or drag any
markers that are out of sync.
The following is a list of common timing problems and solutions:
• If the audio contains various timing problems, but you want to fix them manually instead of letting
AudioSnap fix them automatically, see “Adjusting the timing of a solo performance” on page 618.
This gives you complete control over every aspect of your audio, and allows you to manually drag
audio beats around to perfect the timing.
• If you need to fix a multi-track performance, such as a multi-mic drum kit or a full band, and you
need to maintain phase relationships between tracks, see “Adjusting the timing of a multi-track
performance while maintaining phase relationships” on page 619.
• If you want to synchronize the timing of clips on different tracks, you can fix this with AudioSnap if
the sync errors aren’t huge. For details, see “Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks” on
page 624.
• If you want to quantize audio to the project’s time ruler, see “To quantize audio to the project’s
time ruler” on page 625.
• If you want to quickly tighten up a performance in a project that already has a fixed tempo or
varying tempo map, see “Quantizing audio” on page 625. This is useful if you like the
performance, but the timing is off in a few places.
• If you want to extract the groove from one clip and apply it to another clip, see “To Groove
Quantize an audio clip” on page 626. You can extract a groove from both audio and MIDI clips.
• If you need to synchronize audio with the projects tempo map, see “Synchronizing audio and the
project tempo” on page 610.
See:
“Adjusting the timing of a solo performance” on page 618
“Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships” on page
619
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617
“Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks” on page 624
“Making multiple clips/tracks groove together” on page 624
“Quantizing audio” on page 625
“To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler” on page 625
“To Groove Quantize an audio clip” on page 626
“To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 627
Adjusting the timing of a solo performance
When adjusting the timing of a solo performance (for example, a single instrument recorded with a
single microphone, or a pre-recorded drum loop, etc.), you can freely drag beats around without
worrying about potential phase problems.
By manually adjusting beats, you have complete control over the timing of your audio.
To manually adjust the timing of a solo performance
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
Audio clips display transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
3. Drag the desired transient markers around to perfect the timing.
For more information about editing transient markers, see “Editing transient markers” on page 597.
See:
“Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships” on page
619
“Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks” on page 624
“Making multiple clips/tracks groove together” on page 624
“Quantizing audio” on page 625
“To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler” on page 625
“To Groove Quantize an audio clip” on page 626
“To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 627
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Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while
maintaining phase relationships
Editing a multi-track instrument, such as a multi-microphone drum kit or a full band, requires a little
more care than editing a solo performance.
When stretching or quantizing multi-track audio, it is critical to maintain the phase relationships of
the original recording. This can only be achieved if the tracks are stretched at the same exact points
in time across all tracks.
AudioSnap provides tools that make it easy to preserve the phase relationship across tracks when
editing beats on individual tracks.
In the following example, you will learn how to use AudioSnap to edit a multi-track drum kit alongside
a piano track. The drum kit was recorded with three microphones (kick, snare, and overhead), each
routed to its own track.
To adjust the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships
The following figure shows the last three hits of a song. The top track is piano and the rest are
drums: kick, snare and overhead.
Figure 205. The drum hits are rushed and are not in sync with the Piano track
A
B
A. Piano track B. Drum tracks
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As you can see, the drummer has rushed and is not in time with the piano. At the beginning of the
measure, the drummer is in time with the piano. Over the course of the measure, the drummer is
performing a fill and on the next three beats is way ahead of the piano player. You can see how the
transient markers on the drum tracks are progressively earlier as the measure goes on (the
drummer is rushing).
Our job is to align the drum hits with the piano hits so that the drum and piano tracks in time all the
way through the measure.
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
Audio clips display transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
3. Select the three drum tracks and make splits right before and right after the area you want to
edit. For details, see “To split clips into smaller clips” on page 366.
4. Select only the kick and snare clips.
5. On the AudioSnap palette, set Resolution to 1/16.
6. Select only the drum overhead track.
7. On the AudioSnap palette, set Threshold to 100% to ensure that there are no transients
detected. This step is necessary because the overhead track contains audio from both the kick
and the snare, and you want to make sure the kick, snare and overhead tracks are always
synchronized when stretching beats.
8. Select all three drum tracks.
9. Right-click any selected clip and select Merge and Lock Markers on the pop-up menu.
All three drum tracks now share the exact same transient markers, and each clip’s position is
locked.
Note: When you fix timing errors in multi-tracked drum parts, you typically need to adjust all the
drum parts in exactly the same way, because drum parts often contain “bleed”—the sound of
other drums in the track of the drum that you are trying to record. For example, if your snare mic
also picks up some of the hi-hat sound, you can’t move hi-hat clips around without also moving
the snare clips in exactly the same way, otherwise the sound of the hi-hat in the hi-hat track will
conflict with the sound of the hi-hat in the snare track.
Any time you have a track that contains “bleed” from other audio tracks, such as drum overhead
tracks or room ambiance tracks, you want to make sure the track has the same identical transient
markers as the individual close-mic tracks. The first step is to disable all transient markers in the
overhead/room track, then use the Merge and Lock Markers command to copy the transient
markers from all individual close-mic tracks.
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Figure 206. The Merge and Lock Markers command has copied the same transient markers to all three drum
tracks.
The drum tracks are now ready to be edited.
We want to keep the feel of the piano track, so our goal is align the drum tracks with the piano track,
while preserving the phase relationship between the three drum tracks.
When editing multiple transients to adjust the timing of a performance, often times you need to
speed up or slow down a section rather than just move an entire section later or earlier. In this
example, the drummer was speeding up through the drum fill and then hits next downbeat too early.
To fix this, you need to proportionally drag the drum transients so they are better aligned with the
piano track.
10. Using the Smart tool, lasso select all transient markers from the first hit through the third hit,
across all drum tracks.
11. Hold down the CTRL key and drag any selected drum transient marker until the third drum hit is
aligned with the third piano hits.
The selected transients are stretched proportionally. The first and last drum and piano hits are
now aligned. The effect of this edit is that the drummer no longer rushes through the fill and he
lands on the downbeat much closer with the piano.
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Figure 207. The drum and piano hits are aligned
The second drum and piano hits are close but not perfect, so we need to fix this single beat.
12. Hold down the CTRL key and double-click any drum transient marker on the second hit.
All drum transient markers for the second hit are selected
13. Drag any selected transient markers until it aligns with the second piano hit.
All three drum and piano hits are now aligned properly, and the phase relationships between all
drum tracks have been preserved.
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Figure 208. All three drum and piano hits are perfectly aligned
For information about maintaining phase relationships without stretching audio, see “To quantize
multi-tracked drums without stretching audio” on page 628.
See:
“Adjusting the timing of a solo performance” on page 618
“Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks” on page 624
“Making multiple clips/tracks groove together” on page 624
“Quantizing audio” on page 625
“To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler” on page 625
“To Groove Quantize an audio clip” on page 626
“To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 627
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623
Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks
A common problem arises when two or more clips aren’t quite in sync with each other. You can fix
this with AudioSnap if the sync errors aren’t huge. The AudioSnap command that is most helpful in
this situation is the Quantize to Pool command. The way it works is you decide which clip has the
correct rhythm, you add that clip’s transient markers to the Pool, and then you quantize the other
clip’s transient markers to the Pool. For details, see “To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip
(Quantize to Pool)” on page 627.
Tip: You can also copy one clip’s tempo to the project tempo, then configure other clips to follow the
project tempo. For details, see “To sync the project tempo to an audio clip” on page 611 and “To
sync an audio clip to the project tempo” on page 611.
See:
“Adjusting the timing of a solo performance” on page 618
“Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships” on page
619
“Making multiple clips/tracks groove together” on page 624
“Quantizing audio” on page 625
“To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler” on page 625
“To Groove Quantize an audio clip” on page 626
“To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 627
Making multiple clips/tracks groove together
You can extract the groove from one audio clip and apply it to another audio clip. You can also apply
a pre-existing groove file to all selected audio clips.
For details, see “To Groove Quantize an audio clip” on page 626.
See:
“Adjusting the timing of a solo performance” on page 618
“Adjusting the timing of a multi-track performance while maintaining phase relationships” on page
619
“Synchronizing the rhythms of out-of-sync tracks” on page 624
“Quantizing audio” on page 625
“To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler” on page 625
“To Groove Quantize an audio clip” on page 626
“To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 627
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“Using global tools on AudioSnap transient markers” on page 592
“Editing transient markers” on page 597
Quantizing audio
Quantizing audio is a quick way to tighten up the feel of an audio track. AudioSnap provides several
ways to quantize audio:
• You can quantize audio to the project’s time ruler. This is useful for tightening up a performance in
a project that already has a fixed tempo or varying tempo map. For details, see “To quantize audio
to the project’s time ruler” on page 625.
• You can copy the feel of one track and apply it to another track. There are four ways to
accomplish this with AudioSnap:
• Method 1: Extract MIDI timing from the source track, then use Groove Quantize on the target
track. For details, see “To extract MIDI timing from an audio clip” on page 633 and “To Groove
Quantize an audio clip” on page 626.
• Method 2: Add the source track to the Pool, then quantize the target track to the pool. For
details, see “To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)” on page 627
and “Using the Pool” on page 643.
• Method 3: Use the Extract Timing button on the AudioSnap palette to extract the timing from
selected clips, then use the Apply Groove button to apply the extracted groove to the
selected clips. For details, see “To extract the groove from one clip and apply it to another clip”
on page 626.
• Method 4: You can manually match transient markers across multiple tracks by using the
Smart tool. For details, see “To manually match transients across different tracks” on page
626.
To quantize audio to the project’s time ruler
1. Select the audio clip you want to quantize.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Quantize button
in the AudioSnap palette.
The Quantize dialog box appears.
4. Make sure the AudioSnap Beats check box is selected.
5. Configure the Quantize options as desired, then click OK.
SONAR quantizes the selected clips.
Note: You can only quantize to one rhythmic value at a time. If you don’t want to quantize all beats
in an audio clip (to ensure the Quantize command doesn’t move them to a rhythmic placement
where they don’t belong), temporarily disable any transient markers you don’t want to quantize.
For details, see “To disable a transient marker” on page 601.
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To Groove Quantize an audio clip
The Groove Quantize command aligns transients with a groove that’s on the Clipboard or a preexisting groove file. If you want to copy the timing from another audio clip to the Clipboard, see “To
extract MIDI timing from an audio clip” on page 633.
1. Select the audio clip you want to groove quantize.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. On the Process menu, click Groove Quantize.
The Groove Quantize dialog box appears.
4. In the Groove File field, select either Clipboard or the file that the groove pattern you want to
use is saved in.
5. In the Groove Pattern field, select the groove pattern that you want to use.
6. Select the Resolution value that you want to quantize to.
7. Make sure the AudioSnap Beats check box is selected.
8. Click OK.
To extract the groove from one clip and apply it to another clip
1. Select the audio clip you want to extract the groove from.
2. Press A to open the AudioSnap palette.
3. Click the Extract Timing button.
The clip’s groove is extracted and vertical Pool lines are displayed to indicate the extracted
transients.
4. Select the clip you want to apply the groove to.
5. Click the Apply Groove button.
The groove is applied to the selected clip and the Pool is cleared.
To manually match transients across different tracks
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
Audio clips show transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
3. In the Control Bar’s Snap module, select the Landmark Events button
.
Note 1: If events do not appear to snap to audio transients, go to Edit > Preferences >
Customization - Snap to Grid (or right-click the Snap to Grid button
Audio Transients check box is selected under Landmarks.
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) and make sure the
Note 2: When snapping audio transients, the following rules apply:
• If a Pool exists, audio transients snap to the Pool.
• If a Pool does not exists, audio transients snap to transients in the selected tracks.
• If there are no selected tracks, audio transients snap to transients in the selected clip.
4. Select the audio tracks that you want to use as the rhythm guide.
5. Identify the transient markers you want move, then drag the transient markers until they snap to
the nearest transient markers in the selected tracks.
To quantize an audio clip to another audio clip (Quantize to Pool)
A common problem arises when two or more clips aren’t quite in sync with each other. You can fix
this with AudioSnap if the sync errors aren’t huge. The AudioSnap command that is most helpful in
this situation is the Quantize to Pool command. The way it works is you decide which clip has the
correct rhythm, you add that clip’s transient markers to the Pool, and then you quantize the other
clip’s transient markers to the Pool.
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
Audio clips show transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
3. Select the audio clip that you want to use as the rhythm guide.
4. Disable any transient markers that you want to exclude from the Pool (see “To disable a transient
marker” on page 601).
5. Right-click the selected clip and select Pool > Add clip to pool on the pop-up menu.
The selected clip is added to the Pool, and its transient markers turn purple.
6. Select the audio clip that you want to quantize.
7. Right-click the selected clip and select Pool > Quantize to pool on the pop-up menu.
The Quantize to AudioSnap Pool dialog box appears.
8. Configure the following settings as desired:
• Max Distance From Pool. The value in this menu determines which notes are affected by
the Quantize to Pool command. For example, if you choose Quarter in the menu, notes that
are farther than a quarter note from a Pool line are not quantized.Quantize Window. This
slider fine tunes the value in the Max Distance From Pool menu. A window of 100 percent
includes all markers that lie within the Max Distance From Pool value.Quantize
Strength. This slider controls quantize strength, which determines how closely the selected
notes move to the Pool markers.Click OK.
The transients in the selected clips are quantized to the Pool.
See also:
“To extract the groove from one clip and apply it to another clip” on page 626
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627
To quantize multi-tracked drums without stretching audio
When you fix timing errors in multi-tracked drum parts, you will frequently need to adjust all the drum
parts in exactly the same way, because drum parts often contain “bleed”—the sound of other drums
in the track of the drum that you are trying to record. For example, if your snare mic also picks up
some of the hi-hat sound, you can’t move hi-hat clips around without also moving the snare clips in
exactly the same way, because if you don’t, the sound of the hi-hat in the hi-hat track will conflict with
the sound of the hi-hat in the snare track.
AudioSnap’s Add Transients to Pool command and Split Beats into Clips command allow you to
slice your drum tracks at identical locations, so you can then drag or quantize whole clips without
stretching any audio. This method of aligning clips does not change the phase relationships between
the clips, as long as you move all the clips identically.
Let’s take a look at some multi-tracked drum parts, and see how to quantize them all in exactly the
same way. The following project uses 10 mics, including room mics and overhead mics:
1. Select the Smart tool
in the Control Bar.
2. Assign the track’s Edit Filter control to Audio Transients.
Audio clips display transient markers and the AudioSnap palette appears.
3. If necessary, edit each drum track’s transient markers so that there are no extraneous transients
(use the Threshold slider, disable some transients, move others, etc.).
4. Disable all the transient markers in the overhead mic and room mic tracks.
Note: The room mics and overhead mics are much farther from the drums than the close mics,
so the transients in their tracks occur a little later than the close mic tracks. Because you will
eventually split each beat into a separate clip, you only want to use the transient markers from
the close mic tracks to avoid cutting off any transients.
5. Select all the drum tracks.
6. Right-click any selected drum track and select Merge and Lock Markers on the pop-up menu.
7. All transient markers on all selected tracks are copied to each drum track, so all drum tracks
share identical transient markers. The clip positions are also locked.
8. On the Edit menu, point to Clip Lock and click Lock Position.
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The clip positions are no longer locked.
9. Select a drum track that has steady beats throughout the song.
Tip: If there is not a single drum track that has steady beats throughout the song, you can create a
temporary guide track by bouncing all the drum tracks to a single track (select all the tracks, use the
Edit > Bounce to Tracks command, select Main Outputs in the Source Category field in the
Bounce to Tracks dialog box, and click OK).
10. Click the Set Project Tempo From Clip button
establish a tempo map.
to align measure lines with drum track and
The project’s measure boundaries line up with the transients in the drum tracks.
Note: If the measure boundaries do not line up properly with the drum tracks, you may need to
edit the guide track’s tempo map. For details, see “To edit a clip’s tempo map” on page 614.
11. Select all the drum tracks.
12. Click the Split Beats into Clips button
on the AudioSnap palette.
Each beat is split into a separate clip.
AudioSn