Ableton LIVE INTRO Owner Manual

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Ableton LIVE INTRO Owner Manual | Manualzz

Live Intro for Windows and Mac OS

Created by Bernd Roggendorf, Gerhard Behles, Robert Henke, Awi, Reiner Rudolph, Stefan Haller, Stefan Franke,

Frank Hoffmann, Andreas Zapf, Ralf Suckow, Gregor Klinke, Matthias Mayrock, Friedemann Schautz, Ingo Koehne,

Jakob Rang, Pablo Sara, Nicholas Allen, Henrik Lafrenz, Jan Buchholz, Kevin Haywood, Dominik Wilms, Christian

Kleine, Amaury Groc, Daniel Büttner, Alex Koch, Henrik Hahn, Simon Frontzek, Torsten Wendland, Torsten Slama,

Eduard Müller, Jeremy Bernstein, Bernard Chavonnet, Carl Seleborg, Claes Johanson, Bernhard Bockelbrink, Nico

Starke, Jörg Kluÿmann, Stefan Brunner, Tobias Hahn, Stefan von der Mark, Carsten Henÿinger, Stephan Diehl,

David Talbot, Robert Feldbinder, Diez Roggisch, Justine Lera, Dennis DeSantis, Ian Gallagher, Philipp Gries, Marie

Hoffmann, Marian Kalus, Stephan Krohn, Michael Dühr, Dennis Fischer.

Reference Manual by Dennis DeSantis, Ian Gallagher, Kevin Haywood, Rose Knudsen, Gerhard Behles, Jakob Rang,

Robert Henke, Torsten Slama.

Content provided by:

SONiVOX www.sonivoxrocks.com

Chocolate Audio www.chocolateaudio.com

Puremagnetik www.puremagnetik.com

Cycling '74 www.cycling74.com

SonArte www.sonarte.ca

e-instruments www.e-instruments.com

Zero-G www.zero-g.co.uk

Physical Modeling technology provided by:

Applied Acoustics Systems www.applied-acoustics.com

Copyright 2009 Ableton AG. All rights reserved. Made in Germany.

This manual, as well as the software described in it, is furnished under license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license. The content of this manual is furnished for informational use only, is subject to change without notice, and should not be construed as a commitment by Ableton. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Ableton assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may appear in this book.

Except as permitted by such license, no part of this publication may be reproduced, edited, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of

Ableton.

Ableton, the Ableton Logo, the Live logo are trademarks of Ableton AG. Apple, GarageBand, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS and

QuickTime are trademarks of Apple Inc, registered in the U.S. and other countries. Finder is a trademark of Apple Inc. Windows is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and other countries. Intel is a registered trademark of Intel

Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. SONiVOX is the brand name trademark of Sonic Network,

Inc. VST and ASIO are trademarks and software of Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH. ReWire, Recycle and REX2 are trademarks of Propellerhead Software AB. All other product and company names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.

Chapter 1

Welcome to Live

1.1

The Ableton Team Says: Thank You

Live is the result of musicians wanting a better way to create, produce and perform music using a computer. A great deal of effort has been put into making Live easy and fun to use, yet at the same time capable of helping you create music with unlimited depth and sophistication. This effort continues even as you read these lines... in fact, a new, improved

Live version might already be available for download! Please check on our website now 1 , or choose the Check for Updates command from the Help menu.

We hope you enjoy using Live and that it enhances your creative process. Should you have suggestions about how we can improve Live, please let us know 2 .

Your Ableton Team.

1 http://www.ableton.com/downloads

2 [email protected]

1

Chapter 2

First Steps

Note: This manual has been adapted for Live Intro. Speci cally, this means that features which are not available in Live Intro have not been included. To learn more about the differences between Live Intro and the full version of Live, please see the

feature comparison chart

or download the full Ableton Reference Manual from the Ableton website 1 . The full-version reference manual also contains information about all of Ableton's add-on instruments.

When you install Live and run it for the rst time, you will be presented with an authorization dialog. Please see the chapter on

authorizing Live

should you have questions or concerns during the authorization process.

If you do not (yet) own Live, you can still try out all of Live's features, but you will not be able to save or export your work.

2.1

Learn About Live

Live comes with a set of interactive lessons to take you step by step through the key features of the program. The lessons are organized in a table of contents, which can be opened

1 http://www.ableton.com/downloads

2

CHAPTER 2. FIRST STEPS 3 directly in the program via the Help menu. We highly recommend following the lessons.

Many users have told us that the lessons helped them become familiar with the program very quickly.

We also recommend that you read the

Live Concepts chapter , which encapsulates every-

thing that Live is and can do, and is therefore a worthwhile read for both beginners and experienced users. The remaining chapters of this manual serve as in-depth reference for the material introduced in Live Concepts.

2.1.1

Using the Info View and Index

Live's Info View tells you the name and function of whatever you place the mouse over. For certain items, you can create your own text and it will appear in this window.

If you require more information on a speci c user interface element or topic, please consult this reference manual. The index, found at the end of the manual, contains the names of all user interface elements and will lead you to the relevant section.

The Info View and its

Show/Hide Button.

CHAPTER 2. FIRST STEPS

2.2

Setting up Preferences

4

Live's Preferences window is where you can nd various settings that determine how Live looks, behaves and interfaces with the outside world. This window is accessed from the

Preferences command, which in Windows is available in the Options menu and in OS X is available in the Live menu. Preferences can also be accessed with the Ctrl ,

(PC) /

,

(Mac) shortcut.

Live's Preferences are distributed over several tabs:

ˆ In the Look/Feel tab, you can modify various settings, including the language used for text display and the color scheme, or skin, for the Live user interface. This is also where you can adjust the size of objects displayed on the screen: the Zoom Display slider allows you to zoom Live's screen to any percentage between 50% and 200% of the standard interface size.

ˆ The Audio Preferences are used to set up Live's audio connections with the outside world via an audio interface. Please take the time to follow the program's built-in

Setting up Audio I/O lesson, which will walk you through all the steps required to set up and optimize the settings for any given system. To access the lesson, use the

Help View command from the Help menu.

ˆ The MIDI/Sync Preferences are used to help Live recognize MIDI devices for two separate and distinct purposes:

Playing MIDI notes.

To learn how to route an external device into Live for MIDI input, please see the

Routing and I/O chapter .

Controlling parts of the interface remotely.

This subject is covered in detail in the

MIDI and Key Remote Control chapter .

ˆ The File/Folder Preferences pertain to Live's

le management

and the location of

plug-in devices .

ˆ The Record/Warp/Launch Preferences allow customizing the default state for

new Live

Sets

and

their components , as well as selecting options for

new recordings .

ˆ The CPU Preferences include options for managing the

processing load , including

multicore/multiprocessor support.

CHAPTER 2. FIRST STEPS 5

ˆ The User Account/Licenses Preferences are used to manage licensing and installation of

the Live platform , and add-on components like the Operator instrument.

ˆ The Library Preferences allow you to specify the location of Live's

Library

and manage currently installed Live Packs.

2.3

The Main Live Screen

Most of your work in Live happens in the main Live screen. This screen consists of a number of views, and each view manages a speci c aspect of your Live Set , which is the type of document that you create and work on in Live. Since screen space is usually limited, the

Live views can't all be displayed at the same time.

Each one of the selector buttons at the screen borders calls up a speci c view; clicking this one, for instance, opens Live's Device Browser :

To hide one of Live's views and free up screen space, click on the triangle-shaped button next to it. To restore the view, click the button again.

The Device Browser

Selector.

You can run Live in Full Screen Mode by selecting the Full Screen command from the View menu. To leave Full Screen Mode, click the button that appears in the lower right corner of the screen. Full Screen Mode can also be toggled by pressing F11 . ( Note: On Mac OS

X, this key is assigned by default to Exposé, and will not toggle Full Screen Mode unless

Exposé has been deactivated or assigned to a different key in OS X's System Preferences.)

A View Show/Hide

Button.

CHAPTER 2. FIRST STEPS 6

If one of the browser views is open, you can adjust the main window's horizontal split by dragging.

Adjusting the Main

Window Split.

Chapter 3

Authorizing Live

Live is protected against illegal use by a copy protection scheme. This scheme has been designed to meet the highest security standards while avoiding hassles for our customers. If you nd this procedure to be an inconvenience, please understand that the copy protection secures your investment: It allows Ableton to provide you with support and to continue developing Live.

Please be aware that the standard Live license grants you the right to use Live on only one computer at a time . You can, however, authorize Live more than once under the legal and technical conditions described

later .

The rst time you run Live, you will be prompted to complete the authorization process.

The software will walk you through the steps.

If the computer that you wish to authorize is connected to the internet, you can authorize immediately by pressing the appropriate button in the dialog box. If you do not have an internet connection, press the No internet on this computer button and follow the instructions.

7

CHAPTER 3. AUTHORIZING LIVE

3.1

Copy Protection FAQs

8

3.1.1

Can I Use Live or Other Ableton Products Without a Serial

Number?

If you do not (yet) own Live or its add-on products, you can still try them out, but saving and exporting will be disabled.

If trying Live or another product raises your interest in purchasing it, please visit the Ableton webshop 1 . This site contains information about Ableton's distributor and dealer network. It also offers you the opportunity to buy Ableton products online.

3.1.2

What if I Change My Computer's Components?

If you change your computer components for some reason, Live may indeed ask you to authorize the software

another time . Live does not need to be reauthorized when computer

peripherals are replaced (audio or MIDI hardware, printers, modems). But you may need to authorize again if the motherboard, processor or network card is replaced. On some computers, reformatting a hard drive will require a new authorization.

3.1.3

Can I Authorize Live More than Once?

The standard Live license allows you to use Live on only one computer at a time . However, the Ableton server will provide you with two authorizations in good faith that you will use

Live on only one machine at a time.

You can therefore run Live on both a studio desktop computer and a tour laptop, but not at the same time.

Should the Ableton server reject your demand for another authorization, please contact

Ableton's technical support 2 .

1 http://www.ableton.com/shop

2 http://www.ableton.com/support

CHAPTER 3. AUTHORIZING LIVE 9

To use Live on more than one computer at a time, you may require a secondary license or a site license . Ableton offers these licenses at special rates.

3.1.4

Can I Play my Set from a Computer That Is Not Authorized?

Even if Live is not authorized, you can still load and perform a Live Set with no time limitation.

You cannot, however, save or export your work. When you go on tour, consider taking along your Live program CD and a CD with the last state of your Live Set(s). In case of an emergency, you can install and run Live on any computer available and play your backup

Live Set(s).

3.1.5

What Do I Do About Problems or Questions Regarding Copy

Protection?

Please visit Ableton's technical support page 3 .

3 http://www.ableton.com/support

10

Chapter 4

Live Concepts

This chapter introduces the essential concepts of Live. We advise you to read this chapter early in your Live career, as a solid understanding of the program's basic principles will help you fully exploit Live's potential for your music-making.

4.1

Live Sets

The type of document that you create and work on in Live is called a

Live Set . Live Sets

reside in a Live Project a folder that collects related materials and can be opened either through the File menu's Open command or via the built-in File Browsers .

A Live Set in the File

Browser.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 11

Selecting the Library bookmark in Live's File Browser will take you to the Live Library of creative tools. Depending on what content you have installed, there may be a number of demo Sets here, and double-clicking a Live Set's name in the Browser will open that Live

Set.

4.2

Arrangement and Session

The basic musical building blocks of Live are called clips . A clip is a piece of musical material: a melody, a drum pattern, a bassline or a complete song. Live allows you to record and alter clips, and to create larger musical structures from them: songs, scores, remixes, DJ sets or stage shows.

A Live Set consists of two environments that can hold clips: The Arrangement is a layout of clips along a musical timeline; the Session is a real-time-oriented launching base for clips.

Every Session clip has its own play button that allows launching the clip at any time and in any order. Each clip's behavior upon launch can be

precisely speci ed through a number of settings .

Clips in the Session View

(Left) and in the

Arrangement View

(Right).

The Arrangement is accessed via the

Arrangement View

and the Session via the

Session

View ; you can toggle between the two views using the computer's Tab key or their respective

selectors. Because the two views have distinct applications, they each hold individual collections of clips. However, it is important to understand that ipping the views simply changes the appearance of the Live Set and does not switch modes, alter what you hear or change what is stored.

The Arrangement and

Session View Selectors.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 12

The Arrangement View and the Session View interact in useful ways. One can, for instance, improvise with Session clips and

record a log of the improvisation

into the Arrangement for further re nement. This works because Arrangement and Session are connected via tracks .

4.3

Tracks

Tracks host clips and also manage the ow of signals, as well as the creation of new clips through recording, sound synthesis, effects processing and mixing.

The Session and Arrangement share the same set of tracks. In the Session View, the tracks are laid out vertically from left to right, while in the Arrangement View they are horizontal from top to bottom. A simple rule governs the cohabitation of clips in a track:

A track can only play one clip at a time.

Therefore, one usually puts clips that should play alternatively in the same Session View column, and spreads out clips that should play together across tracks in rows, or what we call

scenes .

A Track in the

Arrangement View.

A Scene in the Session

View.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 13

The exclusivity of clips in a track also implies that, at any one time, a track will either play a Session clip or an Arrangement clip, but never both. So, who wins? When a Session clip is launched, the respective track stops whatever it is doing to play that clip. In particular, if the track was playing an Arrangement clip, it will stop it in favor of the Session clip even as the other tracks continue to play what is in the Arrangement. The track will not resume

Arrangement playback until explicitly told to do so.

The Back to

Arrangement Button.

This is what the Back to Arrangement button, found in the Control Bar at the top of the

Live screen, is for. This button lights up to indicate that one or more tracks are currently not playing the Arrangement, but are playing a clip from the Session instead.

We can click this button to make all tracks go back to the Arrangement. Or, if we like what we hear, we can capture the current state into the Arrangement by activating the Record button. Disengaging Record Mode or stopping Live using the Stop button leaves us with an altered Arrangement.

4.4

Audio and MIDI

Clips represent recorded signals. Live deals with two types of signals: audio and MIDI. In the digital world, an audio signal is a series of numbers that approximates a continuous signal as generated by a microphone or delivered to a loudspeaker. A MIDI signal is a sequence of commands, such as now play a C4 at mezzo piano. MIDI is a symbolic representation of musical material, one that is closer to a written score than to an audio recording. MIDI signals are generated by input devices such as MIDI or USB keyboards 1 .

It takes an

instrument

to convert MIDI signals into audio signals that can actually be heard.

Some instruments, such as Live's Simpler , are for chromatic playing of one sound via the keyboard. Other instruments, such as Live's Impulse , have a different percussion sound assigned to each keyboard key.

Audio signals are recorded and played back using audio tracks , and MIDI signals are

1 For an introduction to digital audio and MIDI, please see http://img.uoregon.edu/emi/emi.php and http://www.midi.org/

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 14 recorded and played back using MIDI tracks . The two track types have their own corresponding clip types. Audio clips cannot live on MIDI tracks and vice versa.

Information about inserting, reordering and deleting audio and MIDI tracks is found

here .

4.5

Audio Clips and Samples

An audio clip contains a reference to a sample (also known as a sound le or audio le ) or a compressed sample (such as an MP3 le). The clip tells Live where on the computer's drives to nd the sample, what part of the sample to play and how to play it.

When a sample is dragged in from one of Live's built-in

File Browsers , Live automatically

creates a clip to play that sample. Prior to dragging in a sample, one can audition or preview it directly in the Browser; the switch in the Browser with the headphone icon activates previewing.

Live offers many options for playing samples in exciting new ways, allowing you to create an abundance of new sounds without actually changing the original sample all the changes are computed in real time, while the sample is played. The respective settings are made in the

Clip View , which appears on screen when a clip is double-clicked.

Samples Are Dragged in from Live's File Browsers.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 15

An Audio Clip's

Properties as Displayed in the Clip View.

Many powerful manipulations arise from Live's

warping

capabilities. Warping means changing the speed of sample playback independently from the pitch so as to match the song tempo. The tempo can be adjusted on the y in the Control Bar's Tempo eld.

The most elementary use of this technique, and one that usually requires no manual setup, is synchronizing sample loops to the chosen tempo. Live's Auto-Warp algorithm actually makes it easy to line up any sample with the song tempo, such as a recording of a drunken jazz band's performance. It is also possible to radically change the sonic signature of a sound using extreme warp settings.

The Control Bar's Tempo

Field.

4.6

MIDI Clips and MIDI Files

A MIDI clip contains musical material in the form of MIDI notes and controller envelopes.

When MIDI is imported from a

MIDI le , the data gets incorporated into the Live Set, and

the original le is not referenced thereafter. In the Live File Browsers, a MIDI le appears as a folder that can be opened to reveal its individual component tracks, which can be selectively dragged into the Live Set.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 16

As you'd expect, a MIDI clip's contents can be

accessed and edited

via the Clip View , for instance to change a melody or paint a drum pattern.

MIDI Files Are Dragged in from Live's File

Browsers.

4.7

Devices and the Mixer

A track can have not only clips but also a chain of

devices

for processing signals. Doubleclicking a track's title bar brings up the Track View , which shows the track's device chain.

A MIDI Clip's Properties as Displayed in the Clip

View.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 17

Live's built-in

audio effects ,

MIDI effects

and

instruments

are available from the Device

Browser and can be added to tracks by dragging them from there into the Track View, or into a Session or Arrangement track.

The Track View

Displaying a MIDI Track's

Device Chain.

You can also use

plug-in devices

in Live. VST and Audio Units (Mac OS X only) Plug-ins are

Live's Built-in Devices

Are Available from the

Device Browser.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS available from the Plug-In Device Browser.

18

Consider an audio clip playing in an audio track. The audio signal from the clip reaches the leftmost device in the chain. This device processes (changes) the signal and feeds the result into the next device, and so on. The number of devices per track is theoretically unlimited,

(although there is a limit of eight instruments and twelve audio effects within a single set when using Live Intro). In practice, the computer's processor speed also imposes a limit on the number of devices you can use at the same time, a topic that deserves

separate discussion . Note that the signal connections between audio devices are always stereo, but

the software's inputs and outputs can be con gured to be mono in the Audio Preferences.

When the signal has passed through the device chain, it ends up in Live's

mixer . As the

Session and Arrangement share the same set of tracks, they also share the mixer. The mixer can be shown in both views for convenience. To optimize the screen layout, the individual mixer sections can be shown or hidden using the View menu's entries.

Plug-In Devices Are

Available from the

Plug-In Device Browser.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 19

The mixer has controls for volume, pan position and sends , which adjust the contribution each track makes to the input of any return tracks.

Return tracks only host effects, and not clips. Via their sends, all tracks can feed a part of their signal into a return track and share its effects.

The mixer also includes a

crossfader , which can create smooth transitions between clips

playing on different tracks. Live's crossfader works like a typical DJ mixer crossfader, except that it allows crossfading not only two but any number of tracks including the returns.

The Live Mixer in the

Arrangement View (Left) and Session View (Right).

Devices that receive and deliver audio signals are called audio effects . Audio effects are the only type of device that t in an audio track or a return track. However, two more types of devices are available for use in MIDI tracks: MIDI effects and instruments .

Consider a MIDI track playing a clip. The MIDI signal from the clip is fed into the track's device chain. There, it is rst processed by any number of MIDI effects. A MIDI effect receives and delivers MIDI signals. One example is the Scale effect, which maps the incoming notes onto a user-de ned musical scale. The last MIDI effect in the chain is followed by an instrument. Instruments, for instance Live's Simpler and Impulse , receive MIDI and deliver audio. Following the instrument, the signal can be additionally processed by audio effects as in an audio track.

Live's Crossfader.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 20

If a MIDI track has no instrument (and no audio effects), then the track's output is a plain

MIDI signal, which has to be sent somewhere else to be converted into audio. In this case, the track's mix and Send controls disappear from the mixer.

A MIDI Effect, an

Instrument and an Audio

Effect in a MIDI Track.

4.8

Presets and Racks

Every Live device can store and retrieve particular sets of parameter values as

presets . As

presets are stored independently from Live Sets, new presets become part of a library that any project can draw from.

Live's

Instrument, Drum and Effect Racks

allow saving combinations of devices and their settings as a single preset. This feature allows for the creation of powerful multi-device creations and effectively adds all the capabilities of Live's MIDI and audio effects to the built-in instruments.

The Mixer for a MIDI

Track without an

Instrument.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS

4.9

Routing

21

As we have seen, all tracks deliver signals, either audio or MIDI. Where do these signals go? This is set up in the mixer's In/Out section , which offers, for every track, choosers to select a signal source and destination. The In/Out section, accessible through the View menu's In/Out option, is Live's patchbay. Its

routing options

enable valuable creative and technical methods such as resampling, submixing, layering of synths, complex effects setups and more.

Signals from the tracks can be sent to the outside world via the computer's audio and MIDI interfaces, to other programs that are connected to Live via

ReWire

or to other tracks or devices within Live.

Likewise, a track can be set up to receive an input signal to be played through the track's devices. Again, tracks can receive their input from the outside, from a ReWire program or from another track or device in Live. The Monitor controls regulate the conditions under which the input signal is heard through the track.

Track Routing Is Set up

Using the In/Out Section in the Arrangement (Left) or Session View (Right).

4.10

Recording New Clips

Audio tracks and MIDI tracks can record their input signal and thereby

create new clips .

Recording is enabled on a track by pressing its Arm button.

With multiple tracks selected, pressing any of their Arm buttons will arm all of them. You can also hold down the Ctrl

(PC) / (Mac) modi er when clicking the Arm buttons to arm several tracks at once. If the Exclusive Arm option is enabled in the Record Preferences, inserting an instrument into a new or empty MIDI track will automatically arm the track. When the Control Bar's Record

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 22 button is on, every armed track records its input signal into the Arrangement. Every take yields a new clip per track.

Track Arm Buttons, as

They Appear in the

Session View.

It is also possible to

record into Session View slots on the y . This technique is very

useful for the jamming musician, as Session recording does not require stopping the music.

When a track is armed, its Session slots exhibit Clip Record buttons, and clicking one of these commences recording. Clicking the Clip Record button again de nes the end of the recording and launches the new clip. As these actions are subject to real-time launch quantization , the resulting clips can be automatically cut to the beat.

Session recording in conjunction with the Overdub option and Record Quantization is the method of choice for creating drum patterns, which are built up by successively adding notes to the pattern while it plays in a loop. It only takes a MIDI keyboard (or the computer keyboard) and a MIDI track with Live's Impulse percussion instrument

to do this .

The Control Bar's

Quantization Chooser.

4.11

Automation Envelopes

Often, when working with Live's mixer and effects, you will want the controls' movements to become part of the Arrangement. The movement of a control across the Arrangement timeline is called

automation ; a control whose value changes in the course of this timeline is

automated . Automation is represented in the Arrangement View by breakpoint envelopes , which can be edited and drawn.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 23

Practically all mixer and effect controls in Live can be automated, even the song tempo.

Creating automation is straightforward: All changes of a control that occur while the Control

Bar's Record switch is on become automation.

Changing an automated control's value while not in Record Mode is similar to launching a

Session clip while the Arrangement is playing: It deactivates the control's automation (in favor of the new control setting). The control will stop tracking its automation and rest with the new value until the Back to Arrangement button is pressed, which will resume

Arrangement playback.

The Automated Pan

Control and its

Envelope.

4.12

Clip Envelopes

Envelopes are found not only in tracks but also in clips.

Clip envelopes

are used to modulate device and mixer controls. Audio clips have, in addition, clip envelopes to in uence the clip's pitch, volume and more; these can be used to change the melody and rhythm of recorded audio. MIDI clips have additional clip envelopes to represent MIDI controller data. Clip envelopes can be unlinked from the clip to give them independent loop settings, so that larger movements (like fade-outs) or smaller gestures (like an arpeggio) can be superimposed onto the clip's material.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 24

An Envelope for Clip

Transposition.

4.13

MIDI and Key Remote

To liberate the musician from the mouse, most of Live's controls can be remote-controlled via an external MIDI controller. Remote mappings are established in

MIDI Map Mode , which

is engaged by pressing the MIDI switch in the Control Bar.

In this mode, you can click on any mixer or effect control, and then assign it to a controller simply by sending the desired MIDI message (for example, by turning a knob on your MIDI control box). Your assignments take effect immediately after you leave MIDI Map Mode.

Session clips can be mapped to a MIDI key or even a keyboard range for chromatic playing.

MIDI keys and controllers that have been mapped to Live's controls are not available for recording via MIDI tracks. These messages are ltered out before the incoming MIDI is passed on to the MIDI tracks.

Session clips, switches, buttons and radio buttons can be mapped to computer keyboard keys as well. This happens in

Key Map Mode , which works just like MIDI Map Mode.

Live offers, in addition to this general purpose mapping technique, dedicated support for the

Akai APC40

and

Novation Launchpad , which allows for mouse-free operation of the

program.

The Key/MIDI Map

Controls.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS

4.14

Saving and Exporting

25

Saving a Live Set saves everything it contains, including all clips, their positions and settings, and settings for devices and controls. An audio clip can, however, lose the reference to its corresponding sample if it is moved or deleted from disk. The links between samples and their clips can be preserved with a special command,

Collect and Save , which makes a copy

of each sample and stores it in a project folder along with the Live Set.

A separate Save button in the Clip View

saves a set of default clip settings

along with the sample, so that each time the sample is dragged into the program, it will automatically appear with these settings. This is especially useful if you have made warp settings for a clip and want to use it in multiple Live Sets.

Exporting audio from Live can be done from both the Session and Arrangement Views.

Live will export the audio coming through on the Master output as an audio le of your speci cations via

Export Audio .

Live can also

export individual MIDI clips as MIDI les .

Exporting and saving material for later use in Live can be done very conveniently with the

Live Clip format. Session View clips can be dragged back out of a Live Set to the File

Browsers, and thereby

exported to disk as Live Clips .

Live Clips are a very powerful way of storing ideas, as they save not only the clip's Clip View settings, but also the corresponding track's instruments and effects chain. Live Clips in the

Browser can be previewed and added to any open Live Set just like sample les. In the Live

Set, they restore the original clip's creative options.

Using Live Clips, you can build your own personalized library of:

A Live Clip in the File

Browser.

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 26

ˆ MIDI sequences with matching instruments and effects, e.g., a MIDI drum pattern with the associated Impulse and effects settings;

ˆ Different

regions or loops

referencing the same source le;

ˆ Variations of a sample loop created by applying

Warp Markers ,

clip envelopes

and

effects ;

ˆ Ideas that may not t your current project but could be useful in the future.

4.15

The Library

The

Live Library

acts as a repository of sounds that are available to all projects. In Live's

File Browsers, the Library is accessible through a

bookmark . Bookmarks can be selected by

clicking the Browser's title bar to open the Bookmark menu:

The rst time you run Live, it will automatically install its Library to your standard user folder.

You can, of course,

move it to a new location.

After installation the Library will already contain a few sound ideas, courtesy of Ableton. We encourage you to experiment with this material to get a sense of what the program can do, but we do not recommend removing or changing the contents of the factory Library.

Ableton provides additional Library content in the form of Live Packs which are available from installation CDs, DVDs or the Ableton website 2 . Owners of a boxed version of Live

Choosing the Library

Bookmark.

2 http://www.ableton.com/downloads

CHAPTER 4. LIVE CONCEPTS 27 can enjoy the

Essential Instrument Collection 2 LE , a multi-gigabyte library of meticulously

sampled and selected instruments.

28

Chapter 5

Managing Files and Sets

Various types of les are used in making music with Live, from those containing

MIDI

and

audio , to more program-speci c les such as

Live Clips

and

Live Sets . This chapter will

explain everything you need to know about working with each of these le types in Live.

However, we should rst take a look at Live's File Browsers, through which most les arrive in the program.

5.1

Working with the File Browsers

Live offers three File Browsers which can be accessed via their selector buttons.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 29

Each Browser can point to a different disk location, which Live will remember across sessions.

The Browser display is divided into columns corresponding to Name , Date, Live Pack, etc., which you can show and hide using the (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu options.

The File Browser

Selector Buttons.

Columns can be reordered by drag and drop. To resize the columns, drag their divider lines horizontally.

Showing/Hiding Browser

Columns.

Resizing Browser

Columns.

5.1.1

Browsing the Folder Hierarchy

Each of the three File Browsers has its own root directory, shown at the top of the Browser, the contents of which are available for browsing below.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 30

The Browser root can easily be changed: The topmost Browser item, called Parent Folder, will move the Browser root up one step up in the disk hierarchy when double-clicked.

Library Is this

Browser's Root.

You can also set the Browser root to any folder in the Browser via the (PC) / Ctrl

(Mac) context menu, by double-clicking the folder, or by selecting it and pressing Return .

The File Browser's

Parent Folder Item.

Moving through the les in Live's Browser can be done with either the mouse or the computer keyboard:

ˆ Scroll up and down in the Browser with and dragging while holding the Ctrl Alt

ˆ Close and open folders with and .

and

(PC) /

, the mousewheel, or by clicking

Alt (Mac) modi er.

ˆ Jump to the parent folder of any closed folder using . ( Hint: If executed on a top-level folder, this is an alternative to selecting the Parent Folder item, and will move the Browser root up one level.)

To clean up the Browser, use (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) to access the context menu, and then select the Close All Folders option to show only top-level folders. Double-clicking a

A Folder in the Browser.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS

File Browser's selector button will do the same.

31

5.1.2

Browser Bookmarks

Using bookmarks, you can quickly save and recall frequently used folder locations in the

Browser. Clicking in the Browser's title bar will open the Bookmark menu.

The Bookmark menu lists a number of preset bookmarks such as Desktop and Library .

Selecting the latter will bring you to the

Live Library . To bookmark the current Browser root,

choose the Bookmark menu's topmost item, the Bookmark Current Folder command. Note that if the current Browser root is already bookmarked, the topmost option in the Bookmark menu will remove the bookmark. All File Browsers share the same set of bookmarks; a bookmark stored in one Browser can be accessed from another.

The Bookmark Menu.

5.1.3

Searching for Files

Live's File Browsers are equipped with a search function for nding les. Clicking the

Search button in the upper right corner of the Browser or using the Ctrl F (PC) /

F (Mac) shortcut will open the Browser's Search Mode.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 32

After entering your search terms, begin the search by clicking the Go button or pressing

Return on your computer keyboard.

Activating Browser

Search Mode.

Live will search the entire Browser root for your search terms. The results will include les that match all search terms, as opposed to any . For example, if you search for acoustic bass, the search will yield all acoustic bass sounds not all acoustic sounds and all bass sounds.

The search function matches the entered criteria not only to any part of a le's name and suf x (e.g., .wav ) but also to any part of its le path. This means that a search for bass, for example, will yield not only les with names containing the word bass but also those located in folders with names containing the word bass. Compressed sample metadata tags are also included in the search, making it possible to search for songs from a speci c album or artist, for example. The names of MIDI tracks within multitrack MIDI les are also included in searches.

Live maintains an index of the hard disk so that it can deliver search results instantly. The index is kept up to date as you create, install, delete, rename and move les within Live it has no way of knowing, however, what you are doing outside of Live. If you have subsequently moved les using programs other than Live, the initial results of a search might be incomplete. The Go button's label will change to Rescan. If you can't nd a le in the search results, or need to be sure that the results are comprehensive, click the Rescan button (or Return once more), and Live will rebuild its index for the current Browser root.

The Search Field and Go

Button.

The Rescan Button.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 33

Automatic rescanning for new searches can be activated and deactivated in the File/Folder

Preferences.

While a search/rescan is going on, the adjacent search button is labeled Stop. Rescanning happens in the background, and you can keep making music while Live does its work, but you can also abort the search with this button if the disk traf c is bothering you.

You can go back to the Browser's folder view at any time by closing the search eld.

If you select a le from the search results and then close the search eld, Live makes sure that le remains selected in the folder view, opening folders as required:

Closing the Search

Field...

If a search is in progress, closing the eld immediately stops the search, although navigating to other Browsers does not. In fact, while you're waiting for a search to nish in one Browser, you can initiate separate searches in the others. A Browser that is in an active search will indicate this via a small rotating ring on the Browser button.

... Locates the File Last

Selected Among the

Search Results.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 34

For mouse-free searching, we suggest the following sequence of shortcuts:

1) Ctrl F

(PC) /

F

(Mac) to open the search eld;

2) Type your search terms;

3) Return to Go ;

4)

5) to jump to the search results; and to scroll the search results;

6) Ctrl F (PC) / back to the folder view.

F (Mac) to close the search eld and go

5.1.4

Previewing Files

Live allows you to preview samples and clips in the File Browser before they are imported into the program. To enable previewing, activate the Preview switch next to the Preview Tab at the bottom of the Browser.

The Rotating Ring

Means That a Search is in Progress.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 35

Hint: You can preview les even when the Preview switch is not activated by pressing

Return or .

Click on a sample le (or use and ) to select it. Click in the Tab's scrub area to make playback jump to that point. (Note that it is not possible to scrub clips that have been saved with Warp turned off.)

You can also select

Live Clips

in the Browser to load them into the Preview Tab, but they will not play automatically. You can click on the tab or press to preview them.

With the Raw button enabled, les will preview at their original tempo and will not loop.

With Raw disabled, Live will try to preview les in sync with the current Set, so that you can better judge which samples will work for you. Please note that scrubbing is not possible when Raw is enabled.

The previewing volume can be adjusted using the mixer's Preview Volume knob.

The Preview Switch.

If your audio hardware offers multiple audio outs, you can privately audition, or cue, les via headphones connected to a separate pair of outs while the music continues to play.

The Preview Volume

Knob.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 36

To learn how to set up Live for cueing, please refer to the

relevant section

of the Mixing chapter.

5.1.5

Adding Clips from the Browser

There are several ways to add clips to a Live Set:

ˆ Files can be dragged and dropped from the File Browsers into tracks in the Session or

Arrangement View. Dragging and dropping material from the Browser into the space to the right of Session View tracks or below Arrangement View tracks will create a new track and place the new clip(s) there.

ˆ In the Session View, double-clicking or pressing Return on a le in the Browser will automatically create a new track to the right of the other tracks and load it with the clip.

ˆ Files can be dropped directly into Live from the Explorer (Windows)/Finder (Mac).

Dropping a Clip to

Create a New Track.

5.1.6

File Maintenance in the Browser

You can use Live's File Browsers for all of the le maintenance activities that you are familiar with on your operating system.

ˆ Move les and folders by dragging and dropping, or by copying/cutting and pasting.

Copying, cutting and pasting can be done with either Edit menu commands or

keyboard shortcuts . A le can be moved from one File Browser to another by dragging it

over the target Browser's button.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 37

ˆ Rename les and folders using the Edit menu's Rename command or the Ctrl R

(PC) / R (Mac) shortcut. Cancel renaming with the Esc key.

ˆ Create folders by opening the context menu with selecting the Create Folder command.

(PC) / Ctrl (Mac), and then

ˆ Delete les and folders using the Edit menu's Delete command or your computer's or Delete key. Deleting items within Live moves them to the system trash; if necessary, you can recover items from the system trash via your computer's operating system.

5.1.7

Hot-Swap Mode

In addition to the drag-and-drop method of loading les from the Browser, Live offers a

Hot-Swap Mode to save you mouse travel. Hot-Swap Mode establishes a temporary link between the Browser and, for example, a virtual instrument. While in Hot-Swap Mode, you can step through samples or presets to audition them in place, that is, within the instrument. Hot-swapping for presets is covered in the

Live Device Presets section . Let's go

through an example of hot-swapping samples:

Live's built-in

Impulse

instrument features eight sample-player slots that can be lled by dropping samples into them. Alternatively, we can click the Hot-Swap button that appears as we move the mouse over a slot.

Clicking the Hot-Swap button engages Hot-Swap Mode: Live's Hot-Swap Browser opens, and the Hot-Swap icon appears next to one of the les shown.

The Hot-Swap Button in an Impulse Slot.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 38

While in Hot-Swap Mode, pressing the Return key loads that le into the Impulse slot

(presumably while Impulse is playing incoming MIDI notes); pressing , then Return loads the next sample, and so on. Instead of using the keys, we can also click on the le's Hot-

Swap icon to load it. The link between the Browser and the instrument will be broken if a different view is selected, or if the Hot-Swap button is pressed again. Hot-swapping can also be cancelled with a press of the Esc key or by pressing the close button in the

Hot-Swap bar at the top of the Browser.

When Hot-Swap Mode is re-entered, the Hot-Swap Browser will try to reconstruct what you saw when you loaded the current le into the Impulse slot. If, for instance, the current le was found by searching for gretsch kick, the Hot-Swap Browser will come up with that search string in the search eld. In our example, we were hot-swapping for an empty

Impulse slot, so Live came up with something appropriate: a search for Drum Kick in

Library/Samples/Waveforms.

The Hot-Swap Browser.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS

5.2

Sample Files

39

A sample is a le that contains audio data. Live can play both uncompressed le formats

(WAV, AIF and Sound Designer II for Mac) and compressed le formats (MP3, AAC, Ogg

Vorbis, Ogg FLAC and FLAC).

A note on using Variable Bit Rate (VBR) les: Please install QuickTime for decoding purposes if you do not already have it on your system. It can be downloaded from the Apple website 1 .

As Live plays the samples directly from disk, you can work with a large number of (large) samples without running into RAM memory limitations. Please note, however, that you may run into disk throughput problems if your disk is nearly full, and/or (on Windows systems) highly fragmented. Hard drive rotation speed can also affect disk performance. Refer to the section on

managing the disk load

for more information.

Live can combine uncompressed mono or stereo samples of any length, sample rate or bit depth without prior conversion. To play a compressed sample, Live

decodes

the sample and writes the result to a temporary, uncompressed sample le. This usually happens quickly enough that you will be able to play the sample right away, without waiting for the decoding process to nish.

Note: When adding a long sample to a project, Live might tell you that it cannot play the sample before it has been analyzed. Please see the section on

analysis

for an explanation.

5.2.1

The Decoding and Web Cache

To save computational resources, Live keeps the decoded sample les of compressed samples in the cache . Maintenance of the cache is normally not required, as Live automatically deletes older les to make room for those that are new. You can, however, impose limits on the cache size using the File/Folder Preferences' Decoding & Web Cache section. The cache will not grow larger than the Maximum Cache Size setting, and it will always leave the

Minimum Free Space on the hard disk. Pressing the nearby Cleanup button will delete all les not being used by the current Live Set.

1 http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 40

5.2.2

Analysis Files (.asd)

An analysis le is a little le that Live creates when a sample le is brought into the program for the rst time. The analysis le contains data gathered by Live to help optimize the stretching quality, speed up the waveform display and

automatically detect the tempo of long samples .

When adding a long sample to a project, Live might tell you that it cannot play the sample before it has been analyzed. This will not happen if the sample has already been analyzed

(i.e., Live nds an analysis le for this sample), or if the Record/Warp/Launch Preferences'

Auto-Warp Long Samples preference

has been deactivated. To prevent waiting for analysis of longer samples, you can

pre-analyze them

via the Browser, as we will see in a moment.

An analysis le can also store default clip settings for the sample:

Clicking the Clip View's

Save button

will store the current clip's settings with the sample's analysis le. The next time the sample is dragged into Live, it will appear with all its clip settings intact. This is particularly useful for retaining

Warp Marker settings

with the sample.

Storing default clip settings with the analysis le is different from

saving the clip as a Live

Clip .

While analysis les are a handy way to store default information about a particular sample's settings, keep in mind that you can use different settings for each clip within a Live Set even if those clips refer to the same sample on disk. But if you drag a new version of the sample into a Live Set, Live will use the settings stored in the analysis le for the newly created clip.

Preferences for the

Decoding and Web

Cache.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 41

The analysis le's name is the same as that of the associated sample, with an added .asd

extension. Live puts this analysis le in the same folder as the sample.

Samples that have an .asd le are displayed like this in the Browser.

Samples without an .asd le look like this.

The analysis les themselves do not appear in Live's Browsers.

Note that you can suppress the creation of .asd les by turning off the Create Analysis Files option in the File/Folder Preferences. All data (except for the default clip settings) can be recreated by Live if the .asd le is missing, however this will take some time for longer samples.

5.2.3

File Pre-Analysis

To avoid waiting for longer samples to be analyzed the rst time they are imported into Live, you may want to pre-analyze them.

To pre-analyze all the les contained in any folder in the Browser, use the (PC) / Ctrl

(Mac) context menu's Analyze Audio command. This process can also be cancelled via the context menu.

5.2.4

Exporting Audio

The File menu's Export Audio command allows you to export Live's audio output as new samples. The resulting les can be used to burn an audio CD for listening purposes or a data CD, which could serve as a backup of your work or be used with other digital audio applications.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS

Which Signal Will Be Rendered?

42

The Export dialog's Rendered Track chooser offers several options for which audio signal to render:

ˆ Master the post-fader signal at Live's Master output. If you are monitoring the Master output, you can be sure that the rendered le will contain exactly what you hear.

ˆ All tracks the post-fader signal at the output of each individual track, including return tracks and MIDI tracks with instruments. Live will create a separate sample for each track. All samples will have the same length, making it easy to align them in other multitrack programs.

ˆ Individual tracks the post-fader signal at the output of the selected track.

When Export Audio is invoked while the Arrangement View is up, Live will render the selected time range.

If you would like to render the current Arrangement loop, choose the Select Loop command from the Edit menu prior to choosing Export Audio. If you choose Export Audio while the

Session View is up, Live will ask you to specify the length of the sample to be rendered.

The Export Audio dialog will come up with a bars-beats-sixteenths eld where you can type in the desired length. Live will capture audio starting at the current play start position for whichever duration you have speci ed.

Remember a rendered audio le contains only what you heard prior to rendering. So, for example, if you're playing back some combination of Session View clips and Arrangement material, then that is what will be captured in your rendered le regardless of which view is active when you render.

The Rendered Track

Chooser.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS

Audio Rendering Options

43

The Export dialog offers several audio rendering options:

ˆ Normalize If this is activated, the sample resulting from the render process will be normalized (i.e., the le will be ampli ed so that the highest peak attains the maximum available headroom).

ˆ Render as Loop If this is activated, Live will create a sample that can be used as a loop. For example, suppose your Live Set uses a delay effect. If Render as Loop is on,

Live will go through the rendering process twice: The rst pass will not actually write samples to disk, but add the speci ed delay effect. As the second pass starts writing audio to disk, it will include the delay tail resulting from the rst pass.

ˆ File Type, Bit Depth, Sample Rate These options specify the type of sample to be created.

ˆ Convert to Mono If this is activated, Live will create a mono le instead of a stereo le.

ˆ Dither Options If you are rendering at a bit depth lower than 32-bit, choose one of

Audio Rendering

Options.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 44 the dither modes. Dithering adds a small amount of noise to rendered audio, but minimizes artifacts when reducing the bit depth. By default, Triangular is selected, which is the safest mode to use if there is any possibility of doing additional processing on your le. Rectangular mode introduces an even smaller amount of dither noise, but at the expense of additional quantization error. Note that dithering is a procedure that should only be applied once to any given audio le. If you plan to do further processing on your rendered le, it's best to render to 32-bit to avoid the need for dithering at this stage.

ˆ Create Analysis File If this is activated, Live will create an .asd le that contains analysis information about the rendered sample. If you intend to use the new sample in Live, check this option.

5.3

MIDI Files

A MIDI le contains commands that prompt MIDI compatible synthesizers or instruments, such as Live's

Simpler , to create speci c musical output. MIDI les are exported by hardware

and software MIDI sequencers. Importing MIDI les into Live works differently than with samples: MIDI le data is incorporated into the Live Set, and the resulting MIDI clips lose all reference to the original le. MIDI les appear as folders in the File Browser; opening the folders gives you access to the le's individual tracks (also called voices or instruments ).

Note that while you can rename or delete entire

MIDI les

via the Browser, this is not possible with the individual MIDI tracks contained within them. This is also the case with the

A MIDI File and its

Tracks in the Browser.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS individual components of

Live Sets .

45

5.3.1

Exporting MIDI Files

Live MIDI clips can be exported as Standard MIDI les. To export a MIDI clip, use the File menu's Export Selected MIDI Clip command. This command will open a le-save dialog, allowing you to choose the location for your new MIDI le.

Exporting a MIDI le is different from

saving the clip as a Live Clip .

5.4

Live Clips

Individual clips can be exported to disk in the Live Clip format for easy retrieval and reuse in any project. Because they only contain references to samples on disk (rather than the audio data itself), Live Clips are very small, which makes it easy to develop and maintain your own collection.

To save a clip from the open Live Set to disk, simply drag it to the File Browser and drop it into any folder. Live will manage the copying of the clip's sample into this new location based on the selection in the

Collect Files on Export

chooser. You can then type in a new name for the clip or con rm the one suggested by Live with Return .

Live Clips are a great way of storing your ideas for later use or development, as they save not only the original clip, including all its clip and envelope settings, but also the original track's devices. In order to recreate a Live Clip's device chain, either

import it

into a track

A Live Clip in the

Browser.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 46 containing no clips or devices, or drag it into the space in the Session or Arrangement View containing no tracks. Note that Live Clips that are imported into tracks already containing devices or clips will appear with their clip settings but not their devices. You could, for instance, drop a bassline Live Clip on an existing track that drives a bass instrument, rather than creating a new track.

Clips belonging to any Live Sets already on disk are also Live Clips. Please see the section on

merging Sets

for more on this topic.

Note that

storing default clip settings with a sample's analysis le

is different from saving a

Live Clip. The default clip in the .asd le annotates the sample with sensible default values

(warp, gain and pitch settings) so that it will play in a de ned way when it is added to a Set.

Live Clips, on the other hand, are stored on disk as separate musical ideas. For example, you could create a number of variations from the same audio clip by using different warp, pitch, envelope and effect settings, and store them all as separate Live Clips. In the Browser, you could then independently sort and preview these clips, even though they are all referring to the same source sample.

5.5

Live Sets

The type of document that you create and work on in Live is called a Live Set . Think of this as a single song. Sets must be saved inside projects, so that Live can keep track of and manage all of the various components of the Live Set: Live Clips, device presets, any samples used, etc.

5.5.1

Creating, Opening and Saving Sets

Use the File menu's New Live Set command to create new Live Sets, and the Open or Open

Recent command to open existing ones. In the File Browser, you can double-click or press

Return on a Live Set to open it.

The File menu's Save command saves the current Live Set exactly as it is, including all clips and settings.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 47

You can use the Save As command to save the current Live Set under a different name and/or in a different directory location, or the Save a Copy command to create a copy of the current Live Set with a new name and/or new directory location.

5.5.2

Merging Sets

Live makes it easy to merge Sets, which can come in handy when combining work from different versions or pieces. To add all tracks (except the return tracks) from one Live Set into another, drag the Set from the File Browser into the current Set, and drop it onto any track title bar or into the drop area next to or below the tracks. The tracks from the dropped

Set will be completely reconstructed, including their clips in the Session and Arrangement

View, their devices, and their automation.

Session View Drop Area for Importing Live Sets.

If you prefer to import individual tracks from a Set, you can unfold the Live Set in the File

Browser just as if it were a folder.

Arrangement View Drop

Area for Importing Live

Sets.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 48

You can now drag the individual tracks and drop them as described at the beginning of this section. Any

grooves

that were saved with your Set are also available as a folder within the unfolded Set.

Of the three tracks contained in the Set shown in the following gure, two contain Session

View clips. These can be accessed by unfolding the tracks:

Unfolding a Set to

Reveal its Contents.

You can browse, preview and import Session View clips from the Set as if they had been stored as individual

Live Clips . This, basically, means that any Live Set can serve as a pool

of sounds for any other, suggesting creative reuse and crossover.

Revealing the Session

View Clips Contained in a Set.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 49

5.5.3

Exporting Session Clips as New Sets

You can export a selection of Session View clips as a new Live Set by dragging them to the

File Browser. To export a Set, rst click and drag, or use the or Ctrl (PC) /

(Mac) modi ers, to select more than one Session View clip. Then, simply drag the clips to a folder in the File Browser, where you can either con rm Live's suggested name or type in one of your own.

5.5.4

Template Sets

Use the File/Folder Preferences' Save Current Set as Default button to save the current Live

Set as the default template. Live will use these settings as the initialized, default state for new Live Sets. You can use this to pre-con gure:

ˆ Your multichannel input/output setup.

ˆ Preset devices, like EQs and Compressors, in every track.

ˆ

Computer key mappings .

ˆ

MIDI mappings .

The template Live Set, Template.als, is located in Live's Preferences folder and can be copied or deleted from there. The easiest way to locate this folder is to search your disk for

Template.als.

In addition to the template Set that loads by default, the Live Library contains a folder called Templates.

This is a collection of Sets with pre-con gured tracks and

routing con gurations

for a variety of common recording scenarios.

5.5.5

Viewing and Changing a Live Set's Sample References

To view a list of the samples referenced by the current Live Set, choose the Manage Files command from the File menu, click the Manage Set button, and then click the View Samples button. Live will display one line for each sample used by the Live Set. To list all clips or instruments in the Live Set where the sample is actually used, click the triangle to expand the line. Here is what you can do:

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 50

ˆ Replace a sample Dragging a sample from the File Browser and dropping it on an entry in the list makes the Live Set reference the new sample instead of the old one.

For samples used in audio clips, Live retains the clip properties; the

Warp Markers

are kept if the new sample has the same or a greater length as the old sample and discarded otherwise. Please note that replacing a sample will change all clips in your set that reference this sample.

Every Entry in the

Sample Reference List is a Drop Target for

Samples.

ˆ

Hot-swap samples

Using the Hot-Swap button at the left-hand side of each entry, you can quickly browse through alternatives for the sample that is currently being referenced. This is like dragging samples here, only quicker.

ˆ Edit a referenced sample using an external application (which can be chosen in the

Preferences' File/Folder tab). Clicking the Edit button will open the referenced sample in the external application. The sample will remain of ine as long as the Edit switch is engaged. For samples used in audio clips, the current set of Warp Markers is retained only if the sample length remains the same as before.

The Sample Reference

List's Hot-Swap Button.

ˆ View a sample's location The Location column states if a sample is

missing , or if it

resides in the

Live Library , a

Project

or somewhere else ( external ). When unfolded, the entry shows the speci c places in the Set where the sample is used.

The Sample Reference

List's Edit Switch.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 51

5.6

Live Projects

A Live Project is a folder containing Live-related les that belong together. Consider, for example, work on a piece of music: You start out with an empty Live Set; you record audio and thereby create new sample les; you drag in samples from collections; you save different versions of the Live Set along the way so that you can go back and compare. Perhaps you also save Live Clips or device presets that belong to this particular musical piece. The project folder for this Live Project will maintain all the les related to this piece of music and Live's File Manager will provide the tools you need to

manage them .

5.6.1

Projects and Live Sets

You can manually create a Project by clicking (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) in the Browser and selecting Create Project from the context menu. Usually, Live takes care of this automatically.

When you save a Live Set under a new name or in a new folder location, Live will create a new project folder and store the Live Set there unless you are saving the Live Set into an existing Live Project. Let's look at an example to illustrate this process:

We have recorded some audio into a new Live Set. We now save the Live Set under the name Tango on the Desktop. Here is the result as displayed by the Live Browser:

The Sample Reference

List's Location Column.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 52

The project folder ( Tango Project ) contains the Live Set ( Tango.als ) and a Samples folder, which in turn contains a Recorded folder with two samples in it. Note that the current Project is also indicated in the title bar of Live's application window.

Next, we record another track into our Project. We save the modi ed version of the Live

Set under a new name so that we do not lose the previous version. Accepting the Save As command's default suggestion, we store the new version of the song in the Tango Project folder.

A Live Set and its

Recordings in a Live

Project Folder.

The Tango Project now contains two Live Sets, and its Samples/Recorded folder contains the samples used by both of them.

And now for something completely different: We choose the File menu's New command and record a samba tune. As this has nothing to do with our tango dabblings, we decide

A Second Version of the

Live Set Has Been

Added to the Project.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 53 to save it outside the Tango Project folder, say on the Desktop. Live creates a new project folder named Samba Project next to Tango Project.

So far we have seen how to create Live Projects and save versions of Live Sets into them.

How do we open a Project? Simply by opening any of its contained Live Sets. Doubleclicking Tango with Piano.als opens that Set and the associated Project as displayed in

Live's title bar.

Let's suppose that, in the course of our work on Tango with Piano.als, we get sidetracked:

The piece evolves towards something entirely different, and we feel that it should live in a

Project of its own. So, we Save As... under a new name and in some location outside the current Project, say the Desktop:

A New Project Was

Added Next to Tango

Project.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 54

Note that the new project folder has no Samples folder (yet).

Electro with Piano.als is still referencing the piano sample from the original Tango Project. There is nothing wrong with this except for when the Tango Project is moved away or deleted; then Tango with

Piano.als will be missing samples. You can prevent this by

collecting samples . Even after

the fact, Live's

tools for searching missing samples

can help solve this problem.

There is actually no need to keep a Project's Live Set exactly one level below the Project itself. Within a project folder, you can create any number of sub-folders and move les around to organize them as desired, although you many need to use the

File Manager

to teach the Project about the changes you've made.

In general, Live will do what it can to prevent situations such as orphaned (Project-less) Live

Sets (and Live Clips and presets), which have the potential of confusing both the user and

Live's le management tools. It cannot, however, control situations in which Sets or les are moved out of order and become disorganized via the Explorer (Windows)/Finder (Mac).

A note for users of older Live versions: Live 8 does not allow overwriting Live Sets that were created by older versions to prevent compatibility problems. Instead, you will be requested to Save As... . Doing this will insure that the newly saved Live Sets reside in project folders.

A New Project Was

Added by Saving a Live

Set Outside its Original

Project.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 55

5.6.2

Projects and Presets

By default, new instrument and effect presets are stored in the

Live Library , making them

available to any project. At times however, it may make more sense to save a preset with the current Project. You might, for example, want to keep a number of alternative master

EQ settings for a given piece. These EQ presets are speci c to the piece and of little use to other Projects. For this reason, every device in the Device Browser has a Current Project sub-folder. You can drag a preset to this folder after

saving

it, or simply drag the title bar of the device and drop it there directly.

When saving presets that contain samples to a new location, Live may copy the samples depending on the settings in the

Collect Files on Export

chooser in the File/Folder Preferences. You can then type in a new name for the device or con rm the one suggested by

Live with Return .

Project-Speci c Presets

Appear Under Current

Project in the Device

Browser.

5.6.3

Managing Files in a Project

Live's File Manager offers several convenient tools for managing Projects. Once you've opened a Live Set that is part of the Project you wish to manage, choose the Manage Files command from the File menu, and then click the Manage Project button. The File Manager will present you with an overview of the Project's contents and tools for:

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS

ˆ

locating samples that the Project is missing ;

ˆ

collecting external samples into the Project ;

ˆ

listing unused samples in the Project ;

ˆ

packing a Project in Live Pack format ;

ˆ

exporting the Project's contents to the Library .

56

5.7

The Live Library

The Live Library acts as a repository of commonly used les, such as samples, clips and

Live

Device Presets , that are available to all Live Projects. In Live's File Browsers, the Library is

accessible through a bookmark:

Clips can be conveniently saved in

Live Clip format

for later reuse by dragging them from the open Live Set into the desired folder in the Library. Device presets are saved in the

Library by default (but you can also

save them with a Project ).

Ableton delivers Library content that can serve as a starting point for creative exploration.

Content is shipped in the form of Factory Live Packs . Factory Live Packs are available from installation CDs, DVDs or the Ableton website 2 . To install a Factory Live Pack in the Library, double-click the Live Pack le (.alp), drag it into the Live main window, or locate it via the

File menu's Install Live Pack command.

2 http://www.ableton.com/downloads

Choosing the Library

Bookmark.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 57

A list of the currently installed Factory Live Packs is available from the Preferences' Library tab. Here you can select Live Packs from the list and click the Uninstall button to remove them. Multiple Live Packs can be selected and uninstalled at once.

By default, the Live 8 Library contains the following sub-folders:

ˆ Ableton Project Info contains les that Live uses to identify the Library and keep track of what Live Packs have been installed. You should not use or modify this folder or its contents.

ˆ Clips contains Live Clips, example Sets, construction kits (Session View-based song ideas), loops and other related items. The actual contents of this folder will vary, depending on what products and Live Packs you have installed. You can use this material in your own musical productions, or to get hints about ways to use Live. The construction kits, in particular, can be used in a variety of ways. Loading an entire construction kit loads a new Live Set. You can also

unfold the Set in the Browser

and import individual tracks or clips into a Set that's already in progress.

ˆ

Defaults

presets placed into the default device folders will load in place of Live's generic device settings. Additionally, the Defaults folder contains special folders corresponding to user actions such as sample dropping. Presets placed in these folders de ne what Live will do when you perform the action.

ˆ Grooves all of Live's factory

groove les .

ˆ Lessons all of Live's built-in lessons, as well as any additional images and Live Sets that the lessons refer to. You should not change anything in this sub-folder.

ˆ Presets contains all of the factory presets for Live's devices.

ˆ Samples contains all of the samples that are used by Live's presets.

ˆ Templates contains a collection of template Sets with pre-con gured tracks and

routing con gurations

for a variety of common recording scenarios.

After you've been using Live for a while, you'll probably nd that there are additional folders in your Library. This is normal. Installing Live Packs, recording your own samples, or performing other common procedures will change the folder structure over time.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 58

5.7.1

Changing the Library Location, Upgrading an Old Library

The Library can reside in the hard drive location of your choice. In the Preferences' Library tab, you will nd the Change Location button.

Clicking the Change Location button will allow you to create a new Library by pointing to an empty folder or creating a new one. Once you've selected a Library path, one of several possibilities will occur, depending on the new location:

ˆ If the target location is an empty folder on a different hard drive, you will be given the option to copy your current Library to this new location. Live will then offer to open a

Explorer (Windows)/Finder (Mac) window so that you can delete the Library from the old location.

ˆ If the target location is an empty folder on the same hard drive, you will be given the option to move your current Library to this new location.

ˆ If the target location is not empty but does not contain a Library, Live will create a subfolder called Library at this location, and then offer to copy/move the old Library contents.

In all three of these cases, you may also choose to create a new Library, without copying or moving any content from the previous location. Live will then offer to install any default packages to the new location.

ˆ If the target location is a Library that was made with an older version of Live, you will be warned about possible compatibility issues. It is generally not a good idea to try to share a single Library between two different versions of Live.

Note: Live will not allow you to create a Library inside an existing Project.

The Change Location button.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 59

5.7.2

Importing Projects into the Library

You can merge the contents of a Live Project into the Library to make them available to any

Project. To do this, (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) on a Project folder in the File Browser and select the Manage Project command.

5.8

Locating Missing Samples

If you load a Live Set, Live Clip or preset that references samples which are missing from their referenced locations, Live's Status Bar (located at the bottom of the main screen) will display a warning message. Clips and instrument sample slots that reference missing samples will appear marked Of ine, and Live will play silence instead of the missing samples.

Live's File Manager offers tools for repairing these missing links. Click on the Status Bar message to access these. (This is actually a shortcut for choosing the Manage Files command from the File menu, clicking the Manage Set button, and then clicking the Locate button found in the Missing Files section.) The File Manager will present you with a list of the missing les and associated controls.

5.8.1

Manual Repair

To manually x a broken sample reference, locate the missing sample in the File Browser, drag it over to the File Manager and drop it on the respective line in the list of missing les.

Note that Live will not care if the sample you offer is really the sample that was missing.

The File Manager's List of Missing Samples.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 60

5.8.2

Automatic Repair

Live offers a convenient automatic search function for repairing sample references. To send

Live on a search, click the Automatic Search section's Go button. To reveal detailed options for guiding the automatic search function, click the neighboring triangular-shaped button.

ˆ Search Folder includes a user-de ned folder, as well as any sub-folders, in the search.

To select the folder, click the associated Set Folder button.

ˆ Search Project includes this Set's

project folder

in the search.

ˆ Search Library includes the

Live Library

in the search.

For each missing sample, the automatic search function may nd any number of candidates.

Let's consider the following cases:

ˆ No candidate found you can choose another folder and try again, or locate the sample manually.

ˆ One candidate found Live accepts the candidate and considers the problem solved.

Automatic Repair

Options in the File

Manager.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 61

ˆ Several candidates found Live requires your assistance: Click the Hot-Swap button

(i.e., the leftmost item in every line of the list of missing samples) to have the File

Browser present the candidates in

Hot-Swap Mode . You can now double-click the

candidates in the File Browser to load them, as the music plays if you like.

5.9

Collecting External Samples

To prevent a Live Set from containing

broken sample references , Live provides the option

of collecting (i.e., copying) them into the Set's

project folder . This is accomplished via the

File Manager:

ˆ Choose the Manage Files command from the File menu

ˆ Click the Manage Set button

ˆ Unfold the triangular-shaped fold button in the External Samples section.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 62

Separated by location (the Library, installed by factory Live Packs, other Projects and elsewhere sample collections from external drives, for example), the File Manager provides:

ˆ A sample count and the associated disk space used;

ˆ A Show button that will list the samples in the File Browser;

ˆ A Yes/No toggle for engaging or disengaging collection.

Note: Make sure to con rm your choices by clicking the File Manager's Collect and Save button!

Options for Collecting

External Samples.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 63

The File menu's Collect All and Save command is a shortcut that collects and saves all external samples referenced by the current Set, including those from the Library. Note that this can cause a lot of copying, especially if your Live Set uses large multisample collections!

The File Manager's

Collect and Save Button.

5.9.1

Collect Files on Export

When you save Live Clips, device presets or tracks by dragging them into the Browser, Live manages the copying of associated les based on the selection made in the Collect Files on

Export chooser in the File/Folder Preferences. This chooser provides the following options:

ˆ Always , the default setting, will copy les into the same folder as the clip, preset, or track without noti cation.

ˆ When Ask is selected, Live provides a dialog box with options for copying les.

ˆ Never means that les will not be copied when saving.

5.10

Aggregated Locating and Collecting

Instead of having to deal with problems while you are in a creative mode, you might prefer putting aside some dedicated housekeeping time to solve all the problems in one go. Using

Live's File Manager, you can

nd missing samples

and

collect external samples

not only for the current Live Set but also for:

ˆ The Library choose the Manage Files command from the File menu; then click the

Manage Library button.

ˆ The

current Live Project

choose the Manage Files command from the File menu; then click the Manage Project button.

ˆ Any Live Project (PC) / Ctrl choose the Manage Project option.

(Mac) on a Project in the Live Browser, and

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 64

ˆ All Projects found in a speci c folder (and its sub-folders) (PC) / Ctrl on a folder in the File Browser, and choose the Manage Projects command.

(Mac)

ˆ Any selection of Live Sets, Live Clips, Live Presets (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) on the respective items in the File Browser, and choose the Manage Files command.

Remember to click the Collect and Save button at the bottom of the File Manager when you are nished. Otherwise your changes will be discarded.

5.11

Finding Unused Samples

Live's File Manager can nd the unused samples in a Project for you. You can then review them and decide to delete them individually or collectively. When searching for unused samples, Live will inspect each sample in a project folder, checking if it is referenced by any of the Live Sets, Live Clips or device presets in the Project. If not, the sample is regarded as unused even if other Projects or programs still use it.

To nd the unused samples for the currently open Project, choose the Manage Files command from the File menu, click the Manage Project button, and then click on the triangularshaped fold button next to Unused Samples to access a summary and the Show button.

Clicking the Show button makes the File Browser list the unused samples; there, you can

preview the samples

and delete them if you like.

Note you can also nd the unused samples from the Library: choose the Manage Files command from the File menu, then click the Manage Library button, and then see the

Unused Samples section.

Last but not least, you can nd the unused samples for all Projects found in a speci c folder

(and its sub-folders): (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) on a folder in the File Browser and choose the Manage Projects command, then see the Unused Samples section. Live inspects each

Project individually and labels a sample unused even if another Projects in the same folder does use that sample.

To prevent losses, you may want to rst collect the samples into their respective Projects and then purge the Projects of unused samples.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS

5.12

Packing Projects into Live Packs

65

Live's File Manager provides the option of packing a

Live Project

in Live Pack format for convenient archiving and transfer. To do this, choose the Manage Files command from the

File menu, click the Manage Project button, and then click on the triangular-shaped fold button next to Packing. Click the Create Live Pack button to bring up a le-select dialog where you can specify the name and location of a new Live Pack le. Creating a new Live

Pack from a Project does not affect the Project. If you want the Project deleted, you can delete it using the File Browser.

Live employs lossless compression techniques to minimize the le size of Live Packs. Depending on the audio materials in a Project, this saves up to 50 percent in le size.

To unpack a Live Pack (i.e., to restore the original Live Project), double-click the Live Pack le (.alp), drag it into the Live main window, or locate it via the File menu's Install Live Pack command. Live will then request that you choose a location for the new Project. Note:

Factory Live Packs (those provided by Ableton) will automatically be installed in the

Live

Library .

5.13

File Management FAQs

5.13.1

How Do I Create a Project?

A Project is automatically created whenever you save a Live Set, except when you save it into the Library or a preexisting Project. You can also manually create a Project by clicking

(PC) / Ctrl (Mac) in the Browser and selecting Create Project from the context menu.

5.13.2

How Can I Save Presets Into My Current Project?

As long as you're working in a Project (meaning that you've saved your current Live Set), every device in the Device Browser will show a Current Project sub-folder. You can copy presets from other Browser locations to the current project by Ctrl (PC) / Alt (Mac)dragging them. You can also save presets directly to the current project by dragging from

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS 66 the device's title bar and dropping into the Current Project. You can then use the File

Management tools, collect any referenced samples, etc.

5.13.3

Can I Work On Multiple Versions of a Set?

If you'd like to work on different versions of the same Live Set, save them into the same

Project. This will usually be the Project that was created when you saved the rst version of the Live Set. If a Project contains multiple Live Sets it will only collect one copy of any samples used by the various versions, which can save disk space and help with organization.

5.13.4

Where Should I Save My Live Sets?

You can save Live Sets anywhere you want, but saving to the Library or pre-existing Project folders can cause problems, and should be reserved for special cases. You should only save

Live Sets in the Library if you intend to use them as templates for other Live Sets. Likewise, you should only save a Live Set to an existing Project if it is somehow related to the Project for example, an alternate version of a song that's already in the Project.

5.13.5

Where Should I Save My Live Clips?

If you'd like to have your Live Clips available in all of your Projects, create a Library sub-folder and save your clips there. You can also save clips anywhere else on your computer.

5.13.6

Can I Use My Own Folder Structure Within a Project Folder?

You can organize your les any way you want within a Project, but you'll need to use the File

Manager to relink the les that you've moved around:

1) In Live's Browser or via your operating system, reorganize the les and folders within your Project folder.

2) Navigate to the Project folder in the Browser and choose Manage Project via the

(PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu.

CHAPTER 5. MANAGING FILES AND SETS

3) If you've changed the original location of any samples used in the Project, the

Missing Samples section of the File Manager will indicate this. Click the Locate button to search for the samples.

4) Since you know that your samples are all in the Project folder, unfold Automatic

Search. Then enable the Search Project and Fully Rescan Folders options. Finally, click Go to initiate the search.

5) When searching is complete, click Collect and Save at the bottom of the File

Manager to update the Project.

67

5.13.7

How Do I Export A Project to the Library and Maintain My Own

Folder Structure?

If you export a Project to the Library, Live will look in the Library to see if the folder names there match those in your Project, and will create any missing folders as necessary. For example, if your Project folder contains samples in Samples/My Samples, Live will look in the Library for a Samples folder (which it will nd, because it's part of the standard Library) and then for a My Samples sub-folder (which it will not nd, but will then create).

68

Chapter 6

Arrangement View

The Arrangement View displays the Arrangement , which contains music laid out along a song timeline, like a multitrack tape.

The Arrangement View is a powerful editing tool that easily lets you combine and arrange

MIDI, loops, sound effects and complete pieces of music.

A Piece of Music in the

Arrangement View.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW

6.1

Navigation

Live offers several fast methods for zooming and scrolling the Arrangement display:

6 1 2 3 4 5

69

1. To smoothly change the zoom level, click and drag vertically in the beat-time ruler at the top of the Arrangement View (you can also drag horizontally to scroll the display).

2. To zoom in and out around the current selection, use the computer keyboard's + and - keys. To pan the display, click and drag while holding the Ctrl Alt

(PC) / Alt (Mac) modi er. Double-clicking in the beat-time ruler also zooms to the current selection. If nothing is selected, double-clicking the beattime ruler zooms out to show the entire Arrangement.

3. The Arrangement Overview is like a bird's-eye view of your music. It always shows the complete piece, from start to end. The black rectangular outline represents the part of the Arrangement that is currently displayed in the Arrangement display below. To scroll the display, click within the outline and drag left or right; to zoom out and in, drag up and down.

4. To change the displayed part of the Arrangement, drag the outline's left and right edges.

5. To see a speci c part of the Arrangement in more detail, click on it in the Overview

Navigating the

Arrangement View.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW and drag downwards to zoom in around that part. Note that you can also drag horizontally to scroll the display. Using this method, you can zoom and scroll to focus around any part of the Arrangement with just one mouse motion.

6. To have the Arrangement display follow the song position and scroll automatically, turn on the Follow switch, or use the Follow command from the Options menu.

70

6.2

Transport

There are a number of ways to control Live's transport with the computer keyboard and mouse:

1. You can start Arrangement playback by clicking the Control Bar's Play button, and stop playback by clicking the Stop button. Arrangement playback can also be toggled on and off by pressing the keyboard's space bar.

The Play and Stop

Buttons in the Control

Bar.

2. You can set the Arrangement playback position by clicking anywhere along the

Arrangement to place the ashing insert marker. Double-clicking the Stop button will return the Arrangement play position to 1.1.1.

To continue playback from the position where it last stopped, rather than from the insert marker, hold down the modi er while pressing the space bar.

3. When Permanent Scrub Areas is enabled in Live's Look/Feel Preferences, clicking in the scrub area above the tracks will make playback jump to that point. The size of these jumps is quantized according to the Control Bar's Quantization

Arrangement Playback

Begins from the Insert

Marker.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW menu setting. While the mouse is held down over the scrub area, a portion of the Arrangement the size of the chosen quantization setting will be repeatedly played. With small quantization settings, or a setting of None, this allows you to scrub through the music.

When the Permanent Scrub Areas preference is off, you can still scrub by clicking anywhere in the scrub area or in the beat time ruler.

-

71

Scrubbing Arrangement

Playback.

4. The song position can be adjusted numerically using the Control Bar's Arrangement Position elds.

The Arrangement Position elds show the song position in bars-beats-sixteenths.

To change the values:

ˆ Click and drag up or down in any of these elds.

ˆ Click and type a number, then hit Return .

ˆ Click and decrement or increment the value with and .

5. Arrangement playback can be started at a particular point in one of your clips using the scrub area in the

Clip View .

6. Several Arrangement playback positions can be set using launchable

locators .

Note that any computer keyboard key or MIDI message can be mapped to the transport controls, as described in

the respective chapter .

Setting the Play Position in the Arrangement

Position Fields.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW

6.3

Launching the Arrangement with Locators

72

Locators can be set at any point in the Arrangement. This can be done in real time during playback or recording with the Set Locator button, and will be quantized according to the global quantization value set in the Control Bar. Clicking the Set Locator button when the

Arrangement is not playing will create a locator at the insert marker or selection start. You can also create a locator using the context menu in the scrub area above the tracks or via the Create menu. Note that the position of a new locator is quantized according to the

Control Bar's Quantization menu setting.

Using Locators to

Launch Play in the

Arrangement.

You can recall (jump to) locators by clicking on them, or with the Previous and Next Locator buttons on either side of the Set button. Locators can also be recalled using

MIDI/key mapping . Note that locator recall is subject to quantization. Double-clicking a locator will

select it and start Arrangement playback from that point.

After jumping to the rst or last locator in the Arrangement, the Previous and Next Locator buttons will jump to the Arrangement start or end, respectively.

Locators can be moved by clicking and dragging, or with the arrow keys on your computer keyboard.

To name a locator, select it by clicking its triangular marker, and choose the Rename Edit

The Locator Controls.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW 73 menu command (or use the Ctrl R (PC) / R (Mac) shortcut). You can also enter your own

info text

for a locator via the Edit Info Text command in the Edit menu or in the locator's computer's

(PC) / or

Ctrl

Delete

(Mac) context menu. Locators can be removed with your key, the Create menu, or the Delete Locator button.

Note that the locator (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu offers a quick way of

looping playback

between two locators with its Loop To Next Locator command.

The locator (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu's Set Song Start Time Here command can be used to overrule the default play starts at selection rule: when this command is checked, play starts at the locator.

6.4

Time Signature Changes

Live's time signature can be changed at any point in the Arrangement by using time signature markers. These can be added at the insert marker position via the Create menu, or anywhere below the beat-time ruler using the (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu. Time signature markers appear just below the beat time ruler, but this marker area is hidden if a set contains no meter changes, freeing up additional space at the top of the Arrangement.

In many ways, time signature markers look and function like locators; they can be moved with the mouse or with your computer keyboard's arrow keys, and their value can be changed using the Edit menu's Edit Value command (or with the Ctrl R

(PC) / shortcut). They can be also be deleted using the or Delete

R

(Mac) key, or via delete commands in the Edit and Create menus.

The time signature marker (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu offers a number of features, including a Delete All Time Signature Changes command and options to

loop

or select the area up to the next time signature marker.

Time Signature

Changes.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW 74

Any time signature with a one- or two-digit numerator and a denominator of 1, 2, 4, 8 or

16 can be used as a time signature marker value. The numbers must be separated by a delimiter such as a slash, comma, period, or any number of spaces. These marker values can also be set by adjusting the time signature elds in the Control Bar, either by typing in values or dragging the numerator and denominator sliders. This will change the time signature marker value at the current play location, and works either with the transport stopped or during playback. When the Arrangement contains time signature changes, the time signature editor displays an automation LED in the upper left corner.

Time signature markers are not quantized; they may be placed anywhere in the timeline, and their positioning is only constrained by the

editing grid . This means that it is possible

to place meter changes in impossible places - such as before the end of the previous measure. This creates a fragmentary bar , which is represented in the scrub area by a crosshatched region. Live is happy to leave these incomplete measures as they are, but if you'd like your Set to conform to the rules of music theory, you can use the two

Ctrl (Mac) context menu options to correct incomplete bars.

(PC) /

The Time Signature

Editor Can Change Time

Signature Marker Values, and Shows an

Automation LED.

ˆ Delete Fragmentary Bar Time deletes the duration of the fragmentary bar from the

Arrangement, thereby moving any audio or MIDI on either side of the deleted area closer together in the timeline. The next time signature marker will now fall on a legal barline.

ˆ Complete Fragmentary Bar inserts time at the beginning of the fragmentary bar, so that it becomes complete. The next time signature marker will now fall on a legal barline.

Please note that these resolution options affect all tracks - deleting and inserting time

A Fragmentary Bar and its Resolution Options.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW 75 changes the length of the entire Arrangement.

If you import a

MIDI le

into the Arrangement, you'll be given an option to import any time signature information that was saved with the le. If you choose to do this, Live will automatically create time signature markers in the correct places. This makes it very easy to work with complex music created in other sequencer or notation software.

6.5

The Arrangement Loop

The Control Bar's Loop

Switch.

For Live to repeatedly play a section of the Arrangement, activate the Arrangement loop by clicking on the Control Bar's Loop switch.

The Loop Start Fields

(Left) and the Loop

Length Fields (Right).

You can set loop length numerically using the Control Bar elds: The left-hand set of elds determines the loop start position, while the right-hand set determines loop length.

The Edit menu's Loop Selection command accomplishes all of the above at once: It turns the Arrangement loop on and sets the Arrangement loop brace to whatever timespan is selected in the Arrangement.

The loop brace can be selected with the mouse and manipulated with commands from the computer keyboard:

ˆ and nudge the loop brace to the left/right by the current

grid setting .

The Arrangement's Loop

Brace.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW 76

ˆ and shift the loop brace left/right in steps the size of its length.

ˆ The Ctrl (PC) / (Mac) modi er used with the arrow left and right keys shortens or lengthens the loop by the current

grid setting .

ˆ The Ctrl (PC) / halves the loop length.

(Mac) modi er with the arrow up and down keys doubles or

You can also drag the Arrangement's loop brace: Dragging the left and right ends sets the loop start and end points; dragging between the ends moves the loop without changing its length.

The loop's (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu's Set Song Start Time Here command can be used to overrule the default play starts at selection rule: when this command is checked, play starts at the loop start.

6.6

Moving and Resizing Clips

A piece of audio or MIDI is represented in the Arrangement View by a clip sitting at some song position in one of Live's

tracks .

Moving a Clip.

Dragging a clip moves it to another song position or track.

Dragging a clip's left or right edge changes the clip's length.

Clips snap to the

editing grid , as well as various objects in the Arrangement including the

edges of other clips, locators and time signature changes.

Changing a Clip's

Length.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW

6.7

Audio Clip Fades and Crossfades

77

The beginning and end of audio clips in the Arrangement View have adjustable volume fades. Additionally, adjacent clips on the same audio track can be crossfaded.

To access the fades for an audio track's clips:

1. Unfold the track by clicking the button next to the track name.

2. Select Fades in the Fades/Device chooser.

3. Click and drag the fade handle to change the length of the fade.

4. Click and drag the slope handle to change the shape of the fade's curve.

3 1 2

4

You can also set the length of a fade by

selecting a range of time within the clip

that includes the clip's beginning or end and executing the Create Fade command in the clip's (PC) /

Ctrl (Mac) context menu.

Adjacent audio clips can be crossfaded. Creating and editing crossfades is similar to creating and editing start and end fades:

ˆ click and drag a fade handle over the opposite clip's edge to create a crossfade

ˆ click and drag the slope handle to adjust the shape of the crossfade's curve

ˆ select a range of time that includes the boundary between the adjacent clips and execute the Create Crossfade command from the (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context

Fades in the

Arrangement View.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW menu.

78

Selecting a fade handle and pressing the Delete key deletes the fade, unless the Create

Fades on Clip Edges option is enabled in the Record/Warp/Launch Preferences. In this case, pressing Delete returns the fade handle to a default length of 4 ms. With this option enabled, new clips in the Arrangement View will have these short declicking fades by default.

Crossfaded Clips.

Another result of enabling the Create Fades on Clip Edges option is that adjacent audio clips will get automatic 4 ms crossfades. These can then be edited just like manually-created crossfades.

There are some limits to the length of fades and crossfades:

ˆ Fades cannot cross a clip's loop boundaries.

ˆ A clip's start and end fades cannot overlap each other.

When a fade handle is selected, a dotted red line will appear on the relevant clip to indicate the limit for that fade handle. This is especially helpful when editing crossfades, because one clip's loop boundary may be hidden under the other clip.

Note that fades are a property of clips rather than the tracks that contain them, and are independent of

automation envelopes .

Automatically Create

Short Fades At Clip

Edges.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW

6.8

Selecting Clips and Time

79

With the exception of moving and resizing clips, Arrangement editing in Live is selectionbased: You select something using the mouse, then execute a menu command (e.g., Cut,

Copy, Paste, Duplicate) on the selection. This editing method lends itself to an ef cient division of labor between the two hands: One hand operates the mouse or trackpad, while the other hand issues the keyboard shortcuts for the menu commands. The menu eventually is only used as a reference for looking up the keyboard shortcuts.

Here is how selection works:

ˆ Clicking a clip selects the clip.

ˆ Clicking into the Arrangement background selects a point in time, represented by a ashing insert mark. The insert mark can then be moved in time with the and keys, or between tracks via pressing the and and . Holding Ctrl (PC) / Alt (Mac) while keys snaps the insert mark to locators and the edges of clips in the selected track or tracks.

ˆ Clicking and dragging selects a timespan.

ˆ To access the time within a clip for editing, unfold its track by clicking the next to the track name.

button

Clicking and dragging in the waveform display below the clip's horizontal strip allows you to select time within the clip. Notice that you can adjust the height of the unfolded track by dragging the split line below the Unfold Track button. Note that you can actually unfold all of your tracks at once by holding down the Alt (PC) /

Alt (Mac) modi er when clicking the button.

ˆ Clicking on the loop brace is a shortcut for executing the Edit menu's Select Loop command, which selects all material included within the loop.

Adjusting an Unfolded

Track's Height.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW 80

ˆ Holding while clicking extends an existing selection in the same track or across tracks. You can also hold and use the arrow keys to manipulate the selection.

6.9

Using the Editing Grid

To ease editing, the cursor will snap to grid lines that represent the meter subdivisions of the song tempo. The grid can be set to be either zoom-adaptive or xed.

You can set the width of both zoom-adaptive and xed grid lines using the

Ctrl

(PC) /

(Mac) context menu available in either the Arrangement View track area or the

Clip View display.

The following shortcuts to Options menu commands allow quickly working with the grid:

ˆ Use Ctrl 1

(PC) /

1

(Mac) to narrow the grid, doubling the density of the grid lines (e.g., from eighth notes to sixteenth notes).

ˆ Use Ctrl 2 (PC) / 2 (Mac) to widen the grid, halving the density of the grid lines (e.g., from eighth notes to quarter notes).

ˆ Use Ctrl 3 (PC) / 3 (Mac) to toggle triplets mode; this would, for instance, change the grid from eighth notes to eighth note triplets.

ˆ Use Ctrl 4 (PC) / 4 (Mac) to turn grid snapping on or off. When the grid is off, the cursor does not snap to meter subdivisions.

ˆ Use Ctrl 5 (PC) / 5 (Mac) to toggle xed and adaptive grid modes.

Clicking the Loop Brace to Select the Loop for

Editing.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW 81

The current spacing between adjacent grid lines is displayed in the lower right corner of the

Arrangement View or Clip View.

You can hold down the Alt (PC) / (Mac) modi er while performing an action to bypass grid snapping. If the grid is already disabled, this modi er will temporarily enable it.

6.10

Using the ...Time Commands

Whereas the standard commands like Cut, Copy and Paste only affect the current selection, their ... Time counterparts act upon all tracks by inserting and deleting time. Any time signature markers within the selected region will also be affected.

ˆ Cut Time cuts a selection of time from the Arrangement, thereby moving any audio or MIDI on either side of the cut area closer together in the timeline. This command reduces the length of your Arrangement by whatever amount of time you have cut.

Note that the Cut Time command affects all tracks, not only the selected ones.

ˆ Paste Time places copied time into the Arrangement, thereby increasing its overall duration by the length of time you have copied.

ˆ Duplicate Time places a copy of the selected timespan into the Arrangement, thereby increasing its overall duration by the length of the selection.

ˆ Delete Time deletes a selection of time from the Arrangement, thereby moving any audio or MIDI on either side of the deleted area closer together in the timeline. This command reduces the length of your Arrangement by the amount of time you have deleted. Note that the Delete Time command affects all tracks, not only the selected ones.

A Gap Between Clips

Has Been Cut by First

Selecting It, Then

Executing the Cut Time

Command.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW 82

ˆ Insert Silence inserts as much empty time as is currently selected into the Arrangement, before the selection.

6.11

Splitting Clips

The Split command can divide a clip or isolate part of it.

To split a clip in two halves, do the following:

1. Unfold the track;

2. In the waveform or MIDI display, click at the position where you want the clip to be split;

3. Execute the Split command.

To isolate a part of a clip, do the following:

1. Unfold the track;

2. In the waveform or MIDI display, drag a selection over the part of the clip you want to isolate;

3. Execute the Split command to divide the original clip into three pieces.

6.12

Consolidating Clips

The Consolidate command replaces the material in the Arrangement View selection with one new clip per track. This is very useful for creating structure.

The Result of Splitting a

Clip.

CHAPTER 6. ARRANGEMENT VIEW 83

Suppose you have, by editing or improvising, come up with a layout of clips that sound good in

Arrangement Loop mode . Selecting that part of the Arrangement, for instance by

using the Edit menu's Select Loop command, and then executing the Consolidate command creates a new clip that can be treated as a loop. You can now, for instance, drag the clip edges to create more repetitions. You might also want to drag the new loop via the Session

View selector into a Session View slot for real-time arrangement purposes.

When operating on audio clips, Consolidate actually creates a new sample for every track in the selection. The new samples are essentially recordings of the time-warping engine's audio output, prior to processing in the track's effects chain and mixer. Hence, the new sample incorporates the effects of in-clip attenuation, time-warping and pitch shifting, and of the respective

clip envelopes ; however, it does not incorporate the effects. To create a

new sample from the post-effects signal, please use the

Export Audio command .

The new samples can be found in the current Set's

Project folder , under Samples/Processed/

Consolidate. Until the Set is saved, they remain at the location speci ed by the

Temporary

Folder .

Consolidating Several

Clips Into a New Clip.

84

Chapter 7

Session View

In Live's

Arrangement View , as in all traditional sequencing programs, everything happens

along a xed song timeline. For a number of applications, this is a limiting paradigm:

ˆ When playing live, or when DJing, the order of pieces, the length of each piece and the order of parts within each piece is generally not known in advance.

ˆ In the theatre, sound has to react to what happens on stage.

ˆ When working along with a piece of music or a lm score, it can be more ef cient and inspirational to start with an improvisation, which is later re ned into the nal product.

This is exactly what Live's unique Session View is for.

CHAPTER 7. SESSION VIEW

7.1

Session View Clips

85

1. Each clip in the Session View has a triangular button at the left edge. Click the button with the mouse to launch clip playback at any time, or pre-select a clip by clicking on its name, and launch it using the computer's Return key. You can then move on to the neighboring clips using the arrow keys. Please refer the manual section on

clip launch settings

for details on how to customize this behavior.

2. Click on a square Clip Stop button to stop a running clip, either in one of the track's slots, or in the Track Status eld below the Session grid.

Clips can be

controlled remotely

with the computer keyboard or a MIDI controller. They can even be mapped to MIDI note ranges so that they play chromatically.

Clips can be played at any time and in any order. The layout of clips does not predetermine their temporal succession; the Session grid offers random access to the clips it contains.

Notice that, even if you stop playback for a Session View clip, the Play button in the Control

Bar will remain highlighted, and the Arrangement Position elds will continue running.

These elds keep a continuous ow of musical time going, so that you can always know your position in song time during a live performance or while

recording into the Arrangement ,

regardless of what your individual Session clips are doing.

You can always return the Arrangement Position elds to 1.1.1 and stop playback for the entire Live Set by pressing the Control Bar's Stop button twice.

The Controls for a

Session View Clip.

CHAPTER 7. SESSION VIEW

7.2

Tracks and Scenes

Each vertical column, or

track , can play only one clip at a time. It therefore makes sense to

put a set of clips that are supposed to be played alternatively in the same columns: parts of a song, variations of a drum loop, etc.

86

The Arrangement

Position Fields and the

Stop Button.

For convenient access to more clips at once, you can resize Session View tracks by clicking and dragging at the edges of their title bars. Tracks can be narrowed this way so that only

Clip Launch buttons and essential track controls are visibile.

Resized Session View

Tracks.

The horizontal rows are called scenes . The Scene Launch buttons are located in the rightmost column, which represents the

Master track . To launch every clip in a row simultaneously,

click on the associated Scene Launch button. This can be very useful in organizing the live performance of a song with multiple parts.

The scene below a launched scene will automatically be selected as the next to be launched

A Scene in the Session

View.

CHAPTER 7. SESSION VIEW 87 unless the Select Next Scene on Launch option in the Launch Preferences is set to Off.

This allows you to trigger scenes from top to bottom without having to select them rst.

Computer keys or a MIDI controller can be used to

launch scenes and scroll between them .

Scenes can be renamed using the Rename command in the Edit menu or the

Ctrl

(PC) /

(Mac) context menu. One can quickly rename several scenes by executing the

Rename command and using the computer's Tab key to move from one scene to the next.

You can also enter your own

info text

for a scene via the Edit Info Text command in the Edit menu or in the scene's (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu. The context menu also contains a color palette where you can choose a custom scene color.

Scenes can be reordered by drag-and-drop. Multiple adjacent or nonadjacent scenes can be selected at once by -clicking or Ctrl -clicking, respectively. If you drag a selection of nonadjacent scenes, they will be collapsed together when dropped. To move nonadjacent scenes without collapsing, use Ctrl + / instead of the mouse.

Scene names can be both descriptive and functional; if Live detects a viable tempo and/ or time signature as part of a scene name, the project will automatically adjust to these parameters when the scene is launched. To assign a tempo to a scene, select the scene and rename it with a viable tempo (e.g., 96 BPM ). Any tempo can be used, as long as it is within the range allowed by Live's Tempo control (20 999 BPM). To assign a time signature to a scene, rename the scene with a meter in the form of x/y (e.g., 4/4 ). Any time signature can be used, provided it has a numerator between 1 and 99 and a denominator with a beat value of 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16.

Tempo and time signature changes can coexist within a single scene name, and can appear in any position as long as they are separated from each other by at least one character. For example, 2/4+108 BPM , 72 BPM;7/8 and 60 BPM Chorus 3/4 are all scene names that will cause simultaneous meter and tempo changes.

Scenes with tempo and/or time signature changes in their names will have a colored Scene

These Scenes Will

Change the Tempo and

Time Signature.

CHAPTER 7. SESSION VIEW

Launch button.

88

7.3

The Track Status Fields

You can tell a track's status by looking at the Track Status eld just above the active track's mixer controls:

The pie-chart icon in a clip track represents a

looping Session clip . The number to the right

of the circle is the loop length in beats, and the number at the left represents how many times the loop has been played since its launch.

A Track Playing a

Looping Session Clip...

The progress-bar icon represents a one-shot (non-looping) Session clip. The value displays the remaining play time in minutes:seconds.

... A One-shot Session

Clip...

A microphone icon appears in an audio track that is set to

monitor its input . A keyboard

icon appears in a MIDI track under these same circumstances.

... Monitoring the

Input...

If the track is playing clips from the Arrangement, a miniature display representing the

Arrangement clips being played appears.

... Playing the

Arrangement.

CHAPTER 7. SESSION VIEW

7.4

Setting Up the Session View Grid

89

Clips arrive in the Session View by being

imported from the File Browsers

or through

recording .

If you are dragging multiple clips into the Session View, Live defaults to arrange them vertically, in one track. Hold down Ctrl (PC) / (Mac) prior to dropping them so as to lay the clips out in one scene.

Clips can be moved around the Session grid by drag-and-drop. To move several clips at once, select them by using the - or Ctrl (PC) / (Mac)-modi er before dragging. You can also click into an empty slot and rubber-band select from there.

Dropping Multiple Clips

Into the Session View.

7.4.1

Select on Launch

By default, clicking a Session View clip's Launch button also selects the clip, since you will typically want the Clip View to show the newly launched clip. However, some power-users don't want the current focus (e.g., a return track's devices) to disappear just because a clip has been launched, especially when starting a clip in order to try it with the return track device settings. Turn off the Select on Launch option from the Launch Preferences if you prefer the view to remain as is when you launch clips or scenes.

CHAPTER 7. SESSION VIEW

7.4.2

Removing Clip Stop Buttons

90

You can add and remove Clip Stop buttons from the grid using the Edit menu's Add/Remove

Stop Button command. This is useful for pre-con guring the scene launch behavior: If, for instance, you don't want scene 3 to affect track 4, remove the scene 3/track 4 Stop button.

Slots Without Clip Stop

Buttons.

7.4.3

Editing Scenes

In addition to the standard Edit menu commands such as cut, copy, paste and duplicate, there are two useful commands in the Create menu that apply speci cally to scenes:

ˆ Insert Scene inserts an empty scene below the current selection.

ˆ Capture and Insert Scene inserts a new scene below the current selection, places copies of the clips that are currently running in the new scene and launches the new scene immediately with no audible interruption. This command is very helpful when developing materials in the Session View. You can capture an interesting moment as a new scene and move on, changing clip properties and trying clip combinations.

Please note that the number of scenes is limited to eight in Live Intro.

7.5

Recording Sessions into the Arrangement

Your Session View playing can be recorded into the Arrangement, allowing for an improvisational approach to composing songs and scores.

CHAPTER 7. SESSION VIEW 91

When the Record button is on, Live logs all of your actions into the Arrangement:

ˆ the clips launched;

ˆ changes of those

clips' properties ;

ˆ changes of the mixer and the devices' controls, also known as

automation ;

ˆ tempos and time signature changes, if they are included in the names of launched scenes.

To nish recording, press the Record button again, or stop playback.

The Control Bar's Record

Button.

The Arrangement

Selector.

To view the results of your recording, bring up the Arrangement View. As you can see, Live has copied the clips you launched during recording into the Arrangement, in the appropriate tracks and the correct song positions. Notice that your recording has not created new audio data, only clips.

The Session clips and the Arrangement clips in one track are mutually exclusive: Only one can play at a time. When a Session clip is launched, Live stops playing back the Arrangement in favor of the Session clip. Clicking a Clip Stop button causes the Arrangement playback to stop, which produces silence.

The Back to

Arrangement Button.

Arrangement playback does not resume until you explicitly tell Live to resume by clicking the Back to Arrangement button, which lights up to remind you that what you hear differs from the Arrangement.

CHAPTER 7. SESSION VIEW 92

To disable all Arrangement clips simultaneously, click on the Stop All Clips button in the

Master Track Status eld. The clips in the Arrangement and in the Session View exist independently from one another, which makes it easy to improvise into the Arrangement over and over again until it's right.

Furthermore, you can move clips not only within the Session grid, but also from the Session

View to the Arrangement and vice versa by using Copy and Paste, or by dragging clips over the or selectors.

When pasting material from the Arrangement into the Session View, Live attempts to preserve the temporal structure of the clips by laying them out in a matching top-to-bottom order. Moving through the scenes from the top down, you can reconstruct the original arrangement. This is useful for taking a composed piece of music back to the improvisational stage.

The Stop All Clips

Button.

93

Chapter 8

Clip View

The Clip View is where clip properties can be set and adjusted.

The Clip View is opened by clicking on the Clip Overview or double-clicking a clip in the

Session or Arrangement View.

The Clip View.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW 94

Clicking the Clip

Overview Opens the

Clip View.

In the Session View, clicking on a Track Status Field opens the Clip View for editing the clip that is currently running in the track.

The properties of more than one clip can be edited collectively in the Clip View as a multiselection. To create a multi-selection, click and drag from an empty clip slot to highlight the clips, or select one clip and use the Ctrl (PC) / (Mac) or modi ers to add to your selection. The properties available in the Clip View for a multi-selection depend on the contents of the clips; generally only properties which the clips have in common are shown.

Clicking a Session View

Track Status Field Opens the Clip View.

Controls such as sliders and knobs behave slightly differently when they are part of a multiselection. If the clips in a multi-selection have differing values for any particular knob or slider parameter (clip transposition, for example), the range of these values will be displayed and can be adjusted with the control. Dragging the knob or slider to its absolute maximum or minimum value will make the clips' settings thereafter identical, adjustable as a single value.

MIDI clips and audio clips in Live have different sets of properties and, consequently, do not share the same set of Clip View controls. The two types of clips do have the following

Creating a Clip

Multi-Selection.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW 95 in common:

ˆ The Clip box contains basic clip settings.

ˆ The Envelopes box and the Envelope Editor manage the clip's envelopes, which are used to modulate the effects, mixer, and clip or MIDI controls. Clip envelopes and their associated Clip View components are covered in detail in a

separate manual chapter .

ˆ The Launch box controls clip launch behavior and, as such, only appears for Session

View clips. Setting Session View clip launch properties is covered in detail in a

separate manual chapter .

Audio clips have these additional Clip View controls:

ˆ The Sample Display toggles with the Envelope Editor on the right-hand side of the

Clip View, and controls Live's

sample-warping capabilities

and

clip playback settings .

ˆ The Sample box contains settings pertaining to how the clip plays its sample and displays it in the Sample Display.

MIDI clips have these additional Clip View controls:

ˆ The MIDI Editor toggles with the Envelope Editor on the right-hand side of the Clip

View, and allows

editing and creating MIDI notes and velocities .

ˆ The Notes box contains settings pertaining to how Live plays a MIDI clip and what it displays in the MIDI Editor.

The Clip View for an

Audio Clip.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW 96

To make best use of the screen real estate, you can show or hide the Launch, Envelopes, and Sample or MIDI boxes using the Clip View Box selector in the Clips box. You can also toggle between the Sample Display/MIDI Editor and the Envelope Editor by clicking in the title bars of the Sample/Notes box and the Envelopes box, respectively.

The Clip View for a MIDI

Clip.

The Clip View Box

Selector Shows and

Hides Various Clip View

Components.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW

8.1

The Clip Box

97

8.1.1

Clip Activator Switch

Using this switch, you can deactivate a clip so that it does not play when launched in the

Session View or during Arrangement playback. Clips can also be activated/deactivated directly from the Session or Arrangement View with their menus.

(PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context

8.1.2

Clip Name and Color

The Clip Name eld allows naming the clip. By default, a clip's name matches the name of the le it references but, in general, the clip name is independent from the le name.

You can also rename a clip by selecting it in the Session grid or Arrangement View and using the Rename command in the Edit menu or the clip's (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu. This method also allows you to create your own

info text

for the clip via the Edit Info

Text command.

Renaming an audio clip does not rename the referenced sample le. To rename a le, select it in Live's File Browsers, and then choose the Edit menu's Rename command.

The Clip Color chooser allows choosing a clip color.

The Clip Box.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW 98

8.1.3

Clip Signature

Using the Clip Signature elds, you can specify the time signature of a MIDI or audio clip. This setting is relevant only for display; it does not affect playback. Please note that

Clip Signature is completely separate from the project's time signature, and can be set independently for each clip. This makes it easy to create complex polymetric textures by simultaneously triggering clips with different meters and/or loop lengths.

8.1.4

Clip Groove Chooser

The Clip Groove chooser selects the groove used for the clip from the grooves available in the

Groove Pool .

The Open Groove Pool entry in this chooser can be used to open the Groove Pool if it is closed. If you want to quickly try out a variety of grooves, you can enable the

Hot-Swap

button above the chooser and then step through the grooves in the Browser while the clip plays.

The Commit button under the chooser writes the current groove settings to the clip and disables the assigned groove. If the groove uses the Velocity parameter, committing on an audio clip will create a volume

Clip Envelope

in order to convert the groove's velocity information into audio volume changes. Note that this will overwrite any volume Clip

Envelope that was already in the clip.

The Clip Groove

Chooser.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW 99

8.1.5

Clip Offset and Nudging

To jump within a playing clip in increments the size of the global quantization period, you can use the Nudge buttons in the Clip box.

These buttons can also be

mapped to keys or MIDI controllers . In MIDI Map Mode, a scrub

control will appear between the Nudge buttons and can be assigned to a rotary encoder wheel for continuous scrubbing.

Using the Nudge

Buttons to Jump

Through a Clip.

With quantization set to values less than one bar, it is easy to offset clip playback from Live's master clock by launching clips, using the Nudge buttons or

scrubbing within the clip .

The Scrub Control in

MIDI Map Mode.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW

8.2

The Sample Box

8.2.1

Warp Controls

100

When the Warp switch is off, Live plays the sample at its original, normal tempo, irrespective of the current Live Set tempo. This is useful for samples that have no inherent rhythmic structure: percussion hits, atmospheres, sound effects, spoken word and the like. Turn the Warp switch on to play rhythmically structured samples (such as sample loops, music recordings, complete music pieces, etc.) in sync with the current song tempo.

The Sample Box Warp

Controls.

The Control Bar's Tempo

Field.

To verify this, note that a warped sample's speed follows the tempo as you change the

Control Bar's Tempo control.

Live offers a number of controls to adjust the time-warping engine for

optimal stretching quality . For accurate warping, Live needs to know the sample's metrical structure. For

properly prepared loops, tempo and duration are calculated automatically; most of the time this is accurate enough that the sample is immediately ready for use in Live. For other samples, you may have to

provide some hints . We will examine these topics thoroughly in

the

Tempo Control and Warping

chapter.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW

8.2.2

Sample Loop/Region and Display

Zooming and Scrolling

101

Zooming and scrolling in the Sample Display work much like they do in the

Arrangement

View . When Warp is disabled, zooming and scrolling can be done anywhere in the Sample

Display. When Warp is enabled, however, scrolling only happens in the beat-time ruler and the bottom half of the waveform.

Click and drag vertically in these areas to smoothly change the zoom level, and horizontally to scroll the display.

The Clip Zoom/Scroll

Area.

The Clip Overview provides additional zoom/scrolling functionality. It always shows the complete clip, from start to end. The black rectangular outline represents the part of the clip that is currently displayed. You can click within the outline and drag horizontally or vertically to scroll or zoom.

The Clip Overview.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW 102

To have the Sample Display follow the play position and scroll automatically, turn on the

Follow switch, or use the Follow command from the Options menu.

The Follow Switch.

Playing and Scrubbing Clips

The section of the sample that plays when a clip is launched is set with the clip's region and

loop controls . An unlooped clip will play from its start marker to its end marker or until it is

stopped.

These markers can be clicked and dragged to new positions in the Sample Display, or they can be moved with the and keys. To move the entire clip region (i.e., both the start and end markers), select the start marker, hold down , and use the arrow keys.

The Clip Start and End

Markers.

Using Clip Start and End

Controls to Change Clip

Length.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW 103

You can also adjust the clip start and end numerically using the respective value elds to the left of the Sample Display. For warped clips, these elds display values as bars-beatssixteenths; for unwarped clips, the display is in minutes-seconds-milliseconds. Notice that you can use the Set buttons here to place the markers during playback. Setting markers this way is quantized according to global quantization.

When Permanent Scrub Areas is enabled in Live's Look/Feel Preferences, clicking in the lower half of the waveform or in the beat-time ruler will make clip playback jump to that point.

The size of this jump is quantized by the global quantization setting, which can be quickly changed using the Ctrl 6 (PC) / 6 (Mac), 7 , 8 , 9 and 0 shortcuts. While the mouse is held down over the scrub area, a portion of the clip the size of the chosen quantization setting will be repeatedly played. With small quantization settings, or a setting of None, this allows you to scrub through the music.

When the Permanent Scrub Areas preference is off, you can still scrub by anywhere in the scrub area or in the beat time ruler.

-clicking

The Clip Scrub Area.

Looping Clips

To have the clip play as a (potentially in nite) loop, turn on the Loop switch. Note that the Warp switch must be activated before the Loop switch is accessible, as unwarped clips

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW 104 cannot be looped.

You can click and drag to change the position and length of the loop brace in the Sample

Display, or you can type exact values into the Loop Length and Position elds to the left of the display.

The loop brace can be selected with the mouse and its position changed with commands from the computer keyboard:

ˆ

ˆ and nudge the loop brace to the left/right by the current

grid setting .

and shift the loop brace left/right in steps the size of its length.

ˆ

Ctrl (PC) / current

grid setting .

ˆ

Ctrl (PC) /

(Mac) shortens or lengthens the loop brace by the

(Mac) doubles or halves the loop length.

Regardless of the position of the loop brace, clip play will begin at the position marked by the start marker, which means you can set up the clip to run into a loop.

The Clip Loop Controls.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW 105

The Loop Length and Position elds are equipped with Set buttons, which can be used to create loops spontaneously during playback:

ˆ Playing the clip and then clicking the Set Loop Position button moves the beginning of loop to the current playback position (rounded to the global quantization setting) and engages the loop. Then, clicking the Set Loop Length button moves the end of the loop to the current playback position. This lets you capture the music in a loop on the y.

ˆ While the loop is still off, you can click the Set Loop Length button to set the loop to end at the current playback position without changing its preset length. This simultaneously activates looping.

The Set buttons, the Loop switch, the loop brace and the start/end markers can all be

mapped to MIDI controls . You could, for example, use a rotary encoder to move the loop

through a sample in increments the size of the chosen quantization interval.

Setting the Clip to Run

Into a Loop.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW

8.2.3

Clip Pitch and Gain

106

The Clip Pitch and Gain

Controls.

The Transpose control shifts the clip pitch in semitones.

The Detune eld ne-tunes the clip in cents (100 cents = one semitone).

The Clip Gain slider, calibrated in dB, changes the clip gain.

8.2.4

Destructive Sample Editing

The Edit button opens the sample in an external sample editing application, which you can specify in the File/Folder Preferences. To process a sample in an external program, you have to stop Live's playback. When you return to Live, the edited version of the sample will be played back. The current set of Warp Markers is retained only if the sample length remains the same as it did prior to editing. Remember that changes made to one sample may affect other clips that play the same sample.

The Launch Sample

Editor Button.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW

8.2.5

Saving Default Clip Settings with the Sample

107

The Save Default Clip button saves the current clip's settings with the sample. With multiple clips selected, this button will save them all simultaneously. Once saved, Live will restore the current clip settings whenever you drop the sample into a Live Set. This is especially useful with regards to the Warp Markers, which have to be set correctly for Live to play long les in sync. Note that you can use the Save button without affecting any existing clips;

Save just saves default settings for future clips using this sample.

The clip data becomes part of the

analysis le

that accompanies the sample.

Note that storing default clip settings with the sample is different from saving the clip as a

Live Clip , which also saves devices and device settings.

The Save Default Clip

Button.

8.2.6

High Quality Interpolation

If the High Quality switch is on, Live uses an advanced sample-rate conversion algorithm that provides better sound quality at the expense of a higher

CPU load . Samples processed

with the Hi-Q algorithm generate less distortion, particularly at high frequencies, when transposing a sample and/or matching an imported sample's sampling rate to the system's sampling rate. With this mode enabled, samples can be transposed roughly 19 semitones in either direction before aliasing is likely to be audible.

Note: As of Live 7, the Hi-Q mode uses an algorithm that produces even smaller audible artifacts than in previous versions. Although we think this has greatly improved sound quality, any Sets made in older versions that used Hi-Q mode may now sound different. For

The High Quality Switch.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW 108 this reason, we have provided a Legacy Hi-Q Mode option, which is enabled by default in the Options menu whenever you load an old Set that has Hi-Q enabled for any clips. Simply disable this option if you wish to use the new mode.

8.2.7

Clip Start and End Fades

The Clip Fade switch, when enabled, applies a short fade to the clip start and end to avoid clicks at the clip edges. The length of the fade is signal-dependent and ranges from 0-4 milliseconds.

This switch is only available for clips in Session View. In Arrangement View, clip fades are adjusted via

envelopes .

The Clip Fade switch is on by default for all new clips when the Create Fades on Clip Edges option is enabled in the Record/Warp/Launch Preferences.

The Clip Fade Switch.

Automatically Create

Short Fades At Clip

Edges.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW

8.2.8

Clip RAM Mode

109

If the RAM Mode switch is on, Live is loading the audio referenced by the clip into the computer's memory rather than reading it from disk in real time. RAM Mode can help with these problems:

ˆ Your computer's hard disk is too slow to deliver audio for as many tracks as desired in real time. For more information on disk-related problems, please refer to

Managing the Disk Load

.

ˆ You are experiencing audio dropouts when playing clips in

Legato Mode .

Use RAM Mode with care, as RAM is usually a scarce resource. Your computer is using the hard disk for swapping out RAM contents that have not been used in a while. The more clips you are running in RAM Mode, the higher the likelihood for them to be swapped out. Live can handle disk overloads more gracefully than swapped-out audio arriving late:

Disk overloads result in unwanted mutes, whereas RAM overload results in both mutes and rhythmical hiccups.

The RAM Mode Switch.

8.2.9

Reversing Samples

This function creates a new sample by reversing the sample referenced by the current clip.

It then reapplies the old clip's settings (according to some rules that we will explain in a moment), and replaces the original sample with the reversal in the Clip View. The new sample can be found, after saving the Live Set, in the Set's

Project folder , under Samples/

The Reverse Button.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW 110

Processed/Reverse. Until the Set is saved, new samples remain at the location speci ed by the

Temporary Folder .

There are a few rules for the reversing process. First, any

Warp Markers

will remain xed to their positions in the sample . This means that a Warp Marker on the downbeat of the second bar of a clip will end up on the downbeat of the second-to-last bar after reversal.

Clip loop/region settings are similarly ipped. Second,

clip envelopes

remain xed to their position in time . Therefore, a mixer volume envelope that lowers the volume of the rst half of a clip will continue to do exactly that after reversal.

The reversal process is quite fast (about as fast as copying), but for very long samples it might take a little time. When this is the case, the Status Bar in the lower portion of the Live screen will give you a progress display, and further actions in the program will be temporarily locked

(though running clips will continue to play). You can play the reversed clip and perform other actions in the program as soon as Live begins to draw the new waveform into the Sample

Display. Once a sample is reversed, a link to the reversed sample will be maintained until you quit the program, and reversing the same clip again (or a copy) will be instantaneous.

It is not recommended that you reverse clips in a live performance situation, as a slight glitch can sometimes occur while Live reapplies the warp and loop settings.

8.2.10

Cropping Audio Clips

The Sample Display's (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu includes the Crop Sample command. This function creates, similarly to the

Reverse function , a new sample by copying

the one currently in use - but only the excerpt that is actually used plus a 50 millisecond safety margin on both ends. The new sample can be found, after saving the Live Set, in the

Set's

Project folder , under Samples/Processed/Crop. Until the Set is saved, the new sample

remains at the location speci ed by the

Temporary Folder .

8.2.11

Replacing and Editing the Sample

To replace the sample referenced by the clip with a different one, drop the new sample directly from the File Browser into the Clip View. Clip settings like pitch and volume will

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW 111 be retained. The Warp Markers will be retained only if the new sample has the exact same length as the old sample.

The Sample Display's (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu includes the Manage Sample

File command. This opens the File Manager for the current Set with the sample referenced by the clip selected. From there, you can

replace and destructively edit the sample , in such

a way that all clips and instruments referencing the sample will be affected. You can also use the Show in Browser command in the the le in the Browser.

(PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu to reveal

8.3

The Notes Box

8.3.1

Tempo Controls

The Orig. BPM eld displays Live's interpretation of the tempo at which the clip's MIDI was recorded. When dragging up or down in the Original BPM eld, or clicking the :2 and

*2 buttons, you will see that the notes in the MIDI Editor are correspondingly stretched or compressed. This is useful for aligning notes that you have recorded without a tempo reference, like Live's

metronome .

The Notes Box.

CHAPTER 8. CLIP VIEW 112

8.3.2

Bank and Program Change

Live can send MIDI bank/program change messages to external devices and plug-ins that support MIDI program change messages. According to the settings in these controls, launching a clip also sends its bank/program change message. If you are using Live to send

MIDI to your synth, this means that each MIDI clip in your Live Set can play a different sound on your synth. Live offers messages for 128 banks with 128 sub-banks, each of which has

128 programs. Please see the documentation that came with your synthesizer to determine how many of these messages it can use. If you do not want your clip to send program or bank change messages, simply set the bank/program choosers to None.

8.3.3

MIDI Loop/Region

These controls manage how the contents of a MIDI clip are played and shown in the MIDI

Editor. They work the same way as those for

audio clips .

In the MIDI Editor, the zoom/scroll area is located above the beat-time ruler, the scrub area just below.

8.4

Clip Defaults and Update Rate

You can change the rate at which Live applies your Clip View settings to a running clip. Clip

View changes will be quantized by the rate selected from the Clip Update Rate chooser in the Record/Warp/Launch Preferences. Certain clip settings, such as Launch Mode and Warp

Mode, can be set up as defaults for all new clips. This is also done in the Record/Warp/

Launch Preferences.

113

Chapter 9

Tempo Control and Warping

Unlike music stored on tape or in a traditional digital audio workstation, the music in Live remains elastic at all times. Live is capable of time-warping samples while streaming them from disk so as to synchronize them to the current Live Set's tempo. This happens without affecting the pitch, which can be changed independently. Mixing and matching audio from different origins is therefore extremely easy.

9.1

Tempo

9.1.1

Setting the Tempo

The Control Bar's Tempo eld allows you to change the playback tempo of your Live Set at any time, in real time. You can even

automate the tempo

to create smooth or sudden tempo changes along the song timeline. For maximum tempo control during performance, you can

MIDI map

separate controllers to the Tempo eld on both sides of the decimal point. Setting one knob to control coarse tempo in BPM and another to control ne tempo

The Control Bar's Tempo

Field.

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 114 in hundredths of a BPM allows for enough precision to adjust to live performers or other unsynchronized sources.

You can have an external sequencer (or drum machine) play along with Live or have Live play along with the sequencer. The respective settings are made in the MIDI/Sync Preferences, and the EXT switch next to the tempo control is activated to have Live follow an external

MIDI clock source. Please refer to the section on

synchronization

for details.

9.1.2

Tapping the Tempo

You can use Live's Tap Tempo function to set the tempo at any time. As you click the Control

Bar's Tap Tempo button once every beat, the tempo of the Live Set will follow your tapping.

The Tap Button.

It is better to assign the Tap button to a computer key than using the mouse. Click on the

Control Bar's KEY switch to enter Key Map Mode; then select the Tap button; press the key you would like to use for tapping; click the KEY switch again to leave Key Map Mode. The assignment will take effect immediately. The Tap button can also be assigned to a MIDI note or controller, like a foot switch, in a

similar fashion . Although Live responds to your

tapping immediately, it does apply some degree of inertia to prevent sluggish behavior in the software. The more taps Live receives in a row, the more precisely it will be able to conclude the desired tempo.

You can also use tapping to count in: If you are working in a 4:4 signature, it takes four taps to start song playback at the tapped tempo.

The Key Map Mode

Switch.

9.1.3

Nudging the Tempo

The Nudge Buttons.

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 115

Although Live can be easily

synchronized to external MIDI devices , you may nd yourself in

situations in which you need to adjust to sources that aren't locked to one tempo, such as live musicians or turntables. As long as your Set's tempo is basically the same as that of the unsynchronized material, you can use the Nudge buttons to temporarily speed up or slow down Live's playback to match what you hear. As with the Tap button, these buttons are much easier to use when

mapped to MIDI controllers .

9.2

Time-Warping Samples

Live's ability to play any sample in sync with a chosen tempo is a unique and important feature. In addition, you can warp the rhythmic ow of a piece, changing its feel, or even move notes to other meter positions.

A clip's warping properties are set in the

Sample box , which is a sub-section of the Clip View.

The most signi cant control here is the Warp switch, which toggles a clip's warping on or off. The Warp section of Live's Preferences will determine the default warp settings for new clips, but they can always be overridden here on a per-clip basis.

When the Warp switch is off, Live plays the sample at its original, normal tempo, irrespective of the current Live Set's tempo. This is useful for samples that have no inherent rhythmic structure: percussion hits, atmospheres, sound effects, spoken word and the like.

Turn the Warp switch on to play rhythmically structured samples (such as sample loops, music recordings, complete music pieces, etc.) in sync with the current song tempo.

To direct Live's assumptions about new samples, use the Record/Warp/Launch tab of Live's

The Sample Box's

Warping Controls.

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 116

Preferences. If the Auto-Warp Long Samples preference is on, Live assumes that long samples contain music that should be played in sync with the Live Set's tempo. If you would rather have Live default to playing long samples as they are, disengage this preference.

9.2.1

Tempo Master/Slave

All warped clips in the Arrangement View have one further option: They can be de ned as tempo masters by toggling their Master/Slave switches. Any number of clips can be set as tempo masters, but only one clip at a time can actually be the tempo master. This distinction is always granted to the bottom-most, currently playing clip in the Arrangement View.

The clip that is the current tempo master will play as if warping was off, but with one important difference the rest of the Live Set will be warped so that it plays in sync with the current tempo master.

This is achieved by adding tempo automation to the Master track for the duration of the tempo master clip. You will notice that the Tempo eld in Live's Control Bar becomes disabled in this state; this is because all tempo control is handed over to the tempo master clip.

When toggling a clip's Master/Slave switch, or when deleting a clip that was set as tempo master, the Master track tempo automation is removed again, restoring the proper tempo to the region. If you wish instead to keep the generated tempo automation to continue working with it, then (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) on the Control Bar's Tempo eld, and choose the Unslave Tempo Automation command. All clips will then be set to Slave, but the tempo automation will remain in place.

9.2.2

Warp Markers

Think of a sample as a rubber-band that you want to pin to a (musical time) ruler. In Live, the pins are called Warp Markers . A Warp Marker locks a speci c point in the sample to a speci c place in the measure. You can use any number of Warp Markers to create an arbitrary mapping of the piece's inherent rhythm to a musical meter.

Warp Markers are set in the Clip View's Sample Display by double-clicking within the sample. They can then be dragged or moved with the arrow keys to different points in time.

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 117

Warp Markers can also be deleted by double-clicking them, or by pressing the computer keyboard's or Delete key after selecting them.

Double-Clicking In the

Sample Creates a Warp

Marker.

When working with your sample, you can have Live scroll the Sample Display to follow playback. Use the Control Bar's Follow switch to activate this feature. It also might be helpful to vertically resize the Sample Display by dragging on the split line between the Clip

View and the Session View track area.

The Follow Switch in the

Control Bar.

Transients and Pseudo Warp Markers

When you rst load a sample into Live, Live automatically analyzes the audio and nds its transients . These are the points in the audio where notes or events begin, and are usually good places to put Warp Markers. Transients appear as small markers at the top of the sample display after zooming in.

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 118

As you mouse over transients, temporary pseudo Warp Markers appear. These have the same shape as regular Warp Markers, but they're grey. Double-clicking or dragging a pseudo Warp Marker creates an actual Warp Marker or, if there are no Warp Markers later in the clip, changes the tempo for the clip segment. Holding the Ctrl (PC) /

(Mac) modi er while creating a Warp Marker on a transient also creates Warp Markers at the adjacent transients. Holding the modi er while clicking on a pseudo Warp

Marker allows you to drag the transient to a new position. Once a Warp Marker has been created, holding while dragging the Warp Marker will move the waveform beneath the marker, rather than the marker itself.

You can also select a range of time and create Warp Markers at all of the transients within the range via the Create menu's Insert Warp Markers command. If there are no transients within your time selection, a Warp Marker will be created at the end of the selection.

Although Live usually does a good job of placing transients in the right places, you can delete and create transients as well, via the corresponding commands in the Create menu.

Transient Markers.

Saving Warp Markers

Your Warp Markers will automatically be saved with the Live Set, but you may also want to save them with the sample le itself, so that they are reconstructed anytime you drag the le into Live. To do this, click the Clip View's

Save button .

Note that if a sample has a

saved set of Warp Markers , Auto-Warp will have no effect. When

this is the case, you can use any of the (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu commands described in this section to initiate auto-warping.

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 119

9.2.3

Using Warp Markers

In the following sections, we will look at a couple of applications for time-warping samples.

Warping is, of course, an optional property of clips.

Syncing Straight Loops

When you import a sample that represents a well-cut musical loop of 1,2,4 or 8 bars in length, Live usually makes the correct assumptions to play the loop in sync with the chosen tempo. It creates two Warp Markers, one at the sample's beginning and one at the end.

The Seg. BPM eld displays Live's guess of the loop's tempo; if you happen to know the tempo of the loop, you can type it in here. Sometimes Live's guess of the original tempo is wrong by half or double. If so, correct this by clicking on the buttons labeled *2 and

:2, respectively. The sample plays at double speed when you press :2 because you are changing Live's interpretation of the sample's tempo, which serves as a point of reference for determining the required time-stretch factor.

A Two-Bar Loop as It

Appears in the Clip

View, by Default.

Syncing Uncut Loops

When importing a loop that has not been edited into a well-cut loop, Live will play it out of sync. Suppose there is a portion of silence at the sample beginning, prior to the rst beat. You can easily correct this by placing a Warp Marker at the beginning of the audio and dragging it so that it lines up with the beginning of bar one in the timeline. Likewise,

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 120 you can eliminate silence after the actual loop end by placing a Warp Marker at the sample's right edge.

Syncing Odd-Length Loops

If you import a sample that contains a seven-bar loop, Live initially assumes the loop is eight bars long (or four, depending on its length) and plays it out of sync. For correct playback, the marker at the end of the sample needs to be at the beginning of bar eight, not bar nine.

To x this, simply drag the ending marker to the correct position.

If Live's initial guess had been a four-bar loop, the eighth bar may not initially be visible. In that case, you can drag the Warp Marker at the end toward the right until the eight becomes visible.

Manipulating Grooves

You can now create any number of Warp Markers by double-clicking within the sample or on transient locations. Drag in a straight looped sample, set a few Warp Markers, and move them around to see what happens. Warp Markers really serve two purposes:

1. to provide a correct interpretation of the ow of musical time in the sample;

2. to mess up the ow of time in the sample.

Setting the Warp

Markers for a Poorly Cut

Loop.

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 121

If a single event in a percussion loop comes late, just pin a Warp Marker to it and drag the marker to the correct beat position. You may want to pin the adjacent events as well, to avoid affecting neighboring regions in the sample.

Removing a sample's natural groove by applying Warp Markers is an interesting creative method, particularly in conjunction with Live's

ability to impose an arti cial groove onto clips in real-time .

Using Warp Markers to

Manipulate the Groove.

Syncing Longer Pieces

Live's Auto-Warp algorithm makes longer samples and entire songs readily available for integration into your project. You can use the

Browser

to import long samples or MP3, AAC,

Ogg Vorbis, Ogg FLAC and FLAC les.

When you drag a le into Live that is too long to justify the assumption that it is a loop or a one-shot, Live will auto-warp the clip by default (though this can be changed in the

Record/Warp/Launch Preferences ).

Note that, for the auto-warp mechanism to work, les which are being imported into the program for the rst time will need to undergo a rst-time

analysis process

and will not be immediately available for playing or editing. As explained in the section in this manual on analysis les, analysis can be batch-processed with the (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu's Analyze Audio command. Once analysis is nished, you can view the results of

Auto-Warp's assumptions about the le.

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 122

Auto-Warp's Results in the Clip View.

As long as Auto-Warp made the correct set of informed guesses, the clip will be ready to play in perfect sync with the Live Set's tempo. However, if Auto-Warp does not quite do what you want, you can control its results. The remainder of this section will focus on various ways of guiding Live's auto-warping. Remember that the metronome in the Control Bar will probably come in handy as you warp longer pieces.

It might happen that Auto-Warp guesses the tempo correctly but gets the downbeat wrong.

To remedy this, you can do one of the following:

ˆ Hold the key while dragging the rst Warp Marker. This will allow you to adjust the position of the waveform under the Warp Marker.

ˆ Zoom in and create a Warp Marker on the downbeat. Then drag it to the beginning of bar 1 in the timeline;

ˆ Use the start marker's

Here command.

(PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu to select the Set 1.1.1

The Metronome Switch.

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 123

Directing Auto-Warp is also relatively simple when you have imported a perfectly cut loop.

You can tell Auto-Warp to work accordingly using the Warp As ...-Bar Loop command. Live will propose a loop length that makes the most sense given the current Live Set's tempo.

Decreasing the Live Set's tempo can, for instance, lead Live to assume the loop is 8 bars at

90 BPM instead of 16 bars at 180 BPM.

Sometimes more accurate control of Auto-Warp is necessary. The best way to go about warping a clip that requires more detailed attention is in sections, working gradually from left to right. You can set a Warp Marker by double-clicking in the sample to the right of each correctly warped section, pinning it into place. The shortcuts for working with the

clip loop brace and start/end markers

can speed up this process considerably.

You might also nd it helpful to select multiple Warp Markers for moving by selecting them with the or Ctrl (PC) / (Mac) modi ers held down.

Using the Context Menu to Direct Auto-Warp.

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 124

The four Warp From Here commands provide various ways of resetting Warp Markers to the right of the selected grid marker or Warp Marker, leaving Warp Markers to the left untouched. These commands are also available from the start marker.

ˆ Warp From Here runs the Auto-Warp algorithm on the material to the right of the selected marker.

ˆ Warp From Here (Start At ...) directs Auto-Warp to use the current Live Set's tempo as a starting point for tempo tracking. The strategy here is as follows:

1. Deactivate the Warp switch for the clip so that it plays unwarped;

2. Use the Control Bar's Tap Tempo button to tap along, thereby setting the

Live Set's tempo to match that of the clip;

3. Turn warping on again and use the Warp From Here (Start At ...) command to tell Auto-Warp to use your tapped tempo as a reference.

ˆ Warp From Here (Straight) tells Auto-Warp that this is a clip with no tempo variations

(common in electronically produced works). Auto-Warp will then set a single Warp

Marker derived from its guess of the le's original tempo.

ˆ Warp ... BPM From Here will also set a single Warp Marker, but in this case, Auto-Warp is forced to interpret the clip as exactly matching the Live Set's tempo. This is useful in cases when you happen to know the exact BPM value of an electronically-produced work and can type it into the Control Bar before warping.

Multi-Clip Warping

When clips of equal length are multi-selected, adding or changing Warp Markers for one clip will apply identical Warp Markers to all. This is convenient in any situation where several tracks have the same rhythm, and you wish to alter the timing of each recording in the same way. A common scenario would be when multi-tracking a band's performance, where the musicians all play in time with each other, yet the timing itself is in some way awed.

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 125

9.2.4

Quantizing Audio

In the previous section, you learned how to adjust the timing of events in audio les by manually dragging Warp Markers along the timeline. But it is also possible to automatically snap the entire sample to the grid at once by using the Quantize command. To do this, click in the background of the sample editor and choose the Quantize command from the Edit menu, or use the Ctrl U

(PC) /

U

(Mac) hotkey. This will quantize using default settings, or the settings that you previously applied.

To adjust your quantization parameters, open the Quantization Settings dialog from the Edit menu.

Using the options presented here, you can select either the current grid size or a speci c meter value for quantization. You can also quantize without that quantized feel by adjusting the Amount control, which will move Warp Markers by a percentage of the set quantization value.

Quantizing Audio

Samples.

9.3

Adjusting for Good Stretching Quality

Live offers a number of time-stretching modes to accommodate all sorts of audio material.

Each clip's time-stretching mode and associated parameters are set in the Clip View's Sample

Box.

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 126

The warp modes are different varieties of granular resynthesis techniques. Granular resynthesis achieves time compression and expansion by repeating and skipping over parts of the sample (the grains ). The warp modes differ in the selection of grains, as well as in the details of overlapping and crossfading between grains.

Let's investigate which warp modes work best for different types of signals and how to adjust the warping controls for clean stretching. It's also fun to misuse these controls to achieve interesting artifacts instead of accurate stretching.

9.3.1

Beats Mode

Beats Mode works best for material where rhythm is dominant (e.g., drum loops as well as most pieces of electronic dance music). The granulation process is optimized to preserve transients in the audio material.

Use the Preserve control to preserve divisions in the sample as boundaries when warping.

For the most accurate results, particularly with percussive material, choose Transients. This setting uses the positions of the analyzed (or user-created) transients to determine warping behavior. To preserve speci c beat divisions regardless of the sample's contents, choose one of the xed note values. For some interesting rhythmic artifacts, choose large note values in conjunction with pitch transposition.

The Transient Loop Mode chooser sets the looping properties for the clip's transients:

Loop Off Each segment of audio between transients plays to its end and then stops.

Any remaining time between the end of a segment and the next transient will be silent.

Loop Forward Each segment of audio between transients plays to its end. Playback then jumps back to a zero-crossing near the middle of the segment and continues looping until the time when the next transient occurs.

Loop Back-and-Forth Each segment of audio between transients plays to its end.

Playback then reverses until it reaches a zero-crossing near the middle of the segment, and then proceeds again towards the end of the segment. This pattern continues until the time when the next transient occurs. This mode, in conjunction with the Preserve Transients selection, can often result in very good quality at slower tempos.

CHAPTER 9. TEMPO CONTROL AND WARPING 127

The Transient Envelope slider applies a volume fade to each segment of audio. At 100, there is no fade. At 0, each segment decays very quickly. Long envelope times can help to smooth clicks at the end of segments, while short times can be used to apply rhythmic gating effects.

9.3.2

Tones Mode

Tones Mode serves well for stretching material with a more or less clear pitch structure, such as vocals, monophonic instruments and basslines.

Grain Size provides rough control over the average grain size used. The actual grain size is determined in a signal-dependent manner. For signals with a clear sense of pitch contour, a small grain size works best. Larger grain sizes help avoid artifacts that can occur when the pitch contour is unclear, but the tradeoff can be audible repetitions.

9.3.3

Texture Mode

Texture Mode works well for sound textures with an ambiguous pitch contour (e.g., polyphonic orchestral music, noise, atmospheric pads, etc.). It also offers rich potential for manipulating all kinds of sounds in a creative way.

The Grain Size control determines the grain size used, but unlike in Tones Mode, this is a setting that Live will use unaltered, without considering the signal's characteristics.

Fluctuation introduces randomness into the process. Larger values give more randomness.

9.3.4

Re-Pitch Mode

In Re-Pitch Mode, Live doesn't really time-stretch or compress the music; instead, it adjusts the playback rate to create the desired amount of stretching. In other words, to speed up playback by a factor of 2, it's transposed up an octave. This is like the DJ stretching method of using variable-speed turntables to sync two records, or what happens to samples in samplers when they're transposed.

The Transpose and Detune controls have no effect in Re-Pitch Mode.

128

Chapter 10

Editing MIDI Notes and Velocities

A MIDI clip in Live contains notes and controller data for playing a MIDI instrument. This instrument can be a virtual instrument in a MIDI track's

device chain

or an external synth fed via the track's

output routing . The

MIDI clip

provides the device with a musical score to play, specifying note pitch, length, position and dynamics (referred to as velocity in the

MIDI lexicon). MIDI is composed and edited in Live's MIDI Editor.

10.1

Creating an Empty MIDI Clip

MIDI clips are created

ˆ by means of

recording ;

ˆ or by double-clicking an empty Session slot in a MIDI track;

ˆ or by selecting an empty Session slot in a MIDI track and choosing the Create menu's

Insert MIDI Clip command;

ˆ or, in the Arrangement View, by selecting a timespan in a MIDI track and choosing the

Create menu's Insert MIDI Clip command.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

10.2

The MIDI Editor

129

To bring up the MIDI Editor, double-click a MIDI clip to open the Clip View. You can use the

Clip View Box selector to make sure the

Notes box

is showing, then click in the title bar of the Notes box to bring up the MIDI Editor on the right-hand side of the screen.

The MIDI Editor is divided into two editing windows: the upper Note Editor and the lower

Velocity Editor. You can resize the Velocity Editor by dragging on the split line that runs between it and the Note Editor. You can also show and hide the Velocity Editor using the triangular button on the left-hand side of the split line.

The MIDI Editor.

The Control Bar's Draw

Mode Switch.

Switch to Draw Mode by activating the Control Bar's Draw Mode switch. You can now draw

MIDI notes into the Note Editor with the mouse. Deactivating Draw Mode allows notes to be selected and moved around via clipboard operations or by clicking and dragging, either vertically to change their transposition, or horizontally to change their position in time. MIDI notes can also be added and deleted by double-clicking when Draw Mode is inactive.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES 130

Provided your MIDI track's device chain contains an

instrument , activating the Preview switch

in the MIDI Editor allows you to hear notes as you select and move them. If the MIDI track is armed, activating Preview also allows you to

step record

new notes into the clip.

Note velocity is adjusted in the Velocity Editor, by clicking and dragging on the associated markers. You can also use Draw Mode in the Velocity Editor: It will draw identical velocities for all notes within a grid tile.

After drawing a few notes and moving them around, you will probably want to know how to get around in the Note Editor. So, before we get into detailed editing information, we will rst explain MIDI Editor navigation.

Previewing MIDI Notes.

10.3

MIDI Editor Navigation and Transport

Note Scale Position Is

Shown Vertically and

Beat-Time Horizontally.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES 131

The MIDI Editor has both vertical and horizontal navigation. Along the horizontal axis lies a time ruler, which shows note position along a musical timeline. The vertical axis contains the note ruler, displaying octaves C0 C10, and a representation of a piano keyboard (the piano roll). Note that if the Preview switch at the top of the piano roll is activated, you can listen to the results of your piano roll playing.

2 1 3 5 6

1. To smoothly change the time-zoom level, click and drag vertically in the time ruler. Drag horizontally in the time ruler to scroll from left to right.

2. Click and drag vertically in the note ruler to change which octaves are shown, or drag horizontally to change the vertical zoom size of MIDI notes and the keyboard.

3. Click and drag over one or more notes to select them, or over a portion of the editor's background to select a range of time. Then, double-click on the note ruler or time ruler to automatically zoom in on your selection. If nothing is selected, double-clicking the note ruler will zoom in on the area from the lowest to the highest note in the clip, while double-clicking the time ruler will zoom out to show the time between the rst and last note.

4. To zoom in and out around the current selection, use the computer keyboard's

+ and - keys.

5. The Clip Overview just beneath the MIDI Editor can also be used for navigation.

MIDI Editor Navigation.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

It always shows the complete contents of the selected MIDI clip. The black rectangular outline represents the part of the clip that is currently displayed in the Editor above. To scroll, click within the outline and drag left or right; to zoom in and out, drag up and down.

6. Change the length of what is shown in the Editor by dragging the left or right edges of the outline in the Clip Overview.

7. To quickly change what is shown in the Editor, click on a section that you want to examine in the Clip Overview, then drag downwards to zoom in, or scroll by dragging left and right.

132

The area displayed in the Note Editor can be set to scroll with playback using the Follow switch from the Control Bar.

When Permanent Scrub Areas is enabled in Live's Look/Feel Preferences, clicking in the scrub area below the beat-time ruler starts playback from that point, rounded by the global quantization setting. When the Permanent Scrub Areas preference is off, you can still scrub by -clicking anywhere in the scrub area or in the beat-time ruler. Learning about the

loop/region controls

and associated shortcuts can also be helpful in getting around in the

MIDI Editor and playing selections quickly and easily.

As you work with MIDI, you may nd yourself needing extra screen space. You can click and drag vertically on the window split between the Session or Arrangement View and the Clip

View to enlarge the MIDI Editor.

The Control Bar's Follow

Switch.

Enlarge the MIDI Editor by Dragging the

Window Split Between

Session and Clip Views.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES

10.4

Editing MIDI

133

10.4.1

Non-Destructive Editing

You can always return your MIDI clip to its previous state by using the Edit menu's Undo command. Furthermore, if the MIDI clip being edited originated in a MIDI le on your hard drive, none of your editing will alter the original MIDI le, as Live incorporates its contents into your Live Set when importing.

10.4.2

Folding and Looping

An important feature of the MIDI Editor is the Fold button, located in the upper left corner.

Activating this button will immediately hide all rows, or key tracks , that do not contain MIDI notes in any clips in the track. This is very useful when working with percussion kits, for example, which are oftentimes mapped out along a keyboard in sections corresponding to percussion type (e.g., snares grouped together two octaves down from hi-hat cymbals, etc.). When working with a MIDI le created by such a mapping, sometimes only one or two of each type of percussion sound is used, and it becomes unnecessary to view the entire keyboard range.

When editing MIDI, you might nd that you want to change which part of the clip you are listening to, or loop the clip in order to listen to it repeatedly. You can use the

loop/region markers

for this.

The Fold Button Extracts

Key Tracks Containing

Notes.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES 134

10.4.3

Grid Snapping

Most functions in the MIDI Editor are subject to

grid snapping . You can hold down the

Alt (PC) / (Mac) modi er while performing an action to bypass grid snapping.

Note movements will also snap to an offset, which is based on the original placement of the note relative to the grid. This is useful for preserving a groove or loose playing style that you do not necessarily want to set straight.

10.4.4

Editing Notes

Editing in the MIDI Editor is similar to

editing in the Arrangement . In both cases, your

actions are selection-based: you select something using the mouse, then execute a menu command (e.g., Cut, Copy, Paste, Duplicate) on the selection.

Here is how selection works:

ˆ Clicking a note selects the note. Multiple notes can be selected in unison: rubberband select more than one note with one mouse motion by clicking in empty space, then dragging to enclose the notes in the dotted line that appears.

Esc deselects all selected notes.

ˆ Clicking into the background of the MIDI Editor selects a point in time, represented by a ashing insert mark.

Use the Loop/Region

Markers to Select a

Speci c Region of the

Clip to Play.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES 135

ˆ Clicking and dragging in the background selects a timespan. To select all of the notes that begin during the timespan, press Return .

After placing the insert mark, you can manipulate it using your computer keyboard.

ˆ Press or to move the insert mark to the left or right, according to the grid settings.

Ctrl (PC) / Alt (Mac) or moves the insert mark to the next note boundary.

ˆ Hold down while pressing the arrow keys to extend or retract the selected timespan by moving the insert mark.

Alt (PC) / Alt (Mac)+ while pressing the arrow keys extends or retracts from the opposite side of the selection.

ˆ The insert mark can be moved to the beginning or end of a MIDI clip by pressing the

Home or End key, respectively.

As we have seen, notes in the MIDI Editor can be moved both horizontally (changing their position in time) and vertically (changing their transposition). They can be moved either by clicking and dragging, or with the arrow keys on your computer keyboard; in either case, they are subject to grid and offset snapping. If you are playing the clip while you edit notes, you can listen to them play in their new assignments as you change them.

Several key modi ers also apply to note editing:

ˆ To transpose selected notes by octave, hold down

ˆ or grid settings.

while pressing or .

extends or retracts the duration of selected notes, according to the

ˆ To change the selection to the next note in the same key track, hold the Alt

(Mac) while pressing or .

Alt (PC) / (Mac) or the selection to the next note in time.

(PC) / moves

ˆ You can use the modi er to click and add individual notes or additional rubberband selections to your current selection. You can also remove a single note from your selection by holding down and clicking on it. Holding and clicking on the piano roll adds all notes in a single key track to the current selection, or removes them if they were already selected.

Selecting a note (or notes) makes it subject to commands from the Edit menu, such as Copy and Paste. Notes in the clipboard will be pasted starting at the location of the insert mark.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES 136

You can also use the Ctrl (PC) / Alt (Mac) modi er to click and drag copies of notes to a new location. If you click and drag to move notes but then decide that you would like to copy them instead, you can press the starting the drag.

Ctrl (PC) / Alt (Mac) modi er even after

When editing or drawing, you may sometimes place a new note on top of one that already exists. If the new note overlaps with the beginning of the original note, the original note will vanish. If the new note overlaps with the tail of the original, the original note's length will change so that it lasts just until the new note's beginning.

10.4.5

Changing Note Length

Clicking and dragging on a note's left or right edges changes its length. Note length can only be changed when Draw Mode is inactive, and will be quantized unless the

/ (Mac) modi er is held down while dragging.

Alt (PC)

Tip: To set a group of notes to the same length, select them all, grab the end of the longest one, drag them all down to zero length and then extend them.

Changing Note Length.

10.4.6

The ...Time Commands in the MIDI Editor

The standard clipboard commands like Cut, Copy and Paste only affect the currently selected notes (or the notes within a time selection). But,

as in Arrangement editing , there are ...

Time commands that act upon the entire MIDI clip by inserting and deleting time.

Note that these operations do not change the clip start/end position or the loop brace settings.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES 137

ˆ Cut Time cuts a selection of time from the MIDI clip, thereby moving any notes on either side of the cut area closer together in the timeline.

ˆ Paste Time places copied time into the MIDI clip, along with any notes that were in the copied time.

ˆ Duplicate Time places a copy of the selected timespan into the clip, along with any contained notes.

ˆ Delete Time deletes a selection of time from the MIDI clip, thereby moving any notes on either side of the deleted area closer together in the timeline.

ˆ Insert Silence inserts as much empty time as is currently selected into the clip, before the selection.

A Gap Between MIDI

Notes Has Been Cut by

First Selecting It, Then

Executing the Cut Time

Command.

10.4.7

Quantizing Notes

There are three options for quantizing MIDI notes in Live. First, you can

quantize MIDI notes as you record them . Secondly, as

previously mentioned , you can move notes so that

they snap to the visible grid lines. Finally, you can select a note or notes and choose the

Quantize command from the Edit menu, or use the Ctrl U (PC) / U (Mac) hotkey.

The rst time you do this, you will see a dialog box with several quantization options. This will quantize using default settings, or the settings that you previously applied.

To adjust your quantization parameters, open the Quantization Settings dialog from the Edit menu.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES 138

Using the options presented here, you can select either the current grid size or a speci c meter value for quantization and set either the note start or end (or both) to be quantized.

Quantizing the note end will stretch the note so that it ends at the chosen meter subdivision.

You can also quantize notes without giving them that quantized feel using the Amount control, which will move notes only by a percentage of the set quantization value.

Quantizing MIDI Notes.

10.4.8

Editing Velocities

To change velocity for a MIDI note, click and drag on the associated marker in the Velocity

Editor. (To help you locate the velocity marker belonging to a MIDI note that may be stacked vertically with others, Live highlights the velocity marker for whichever note your mouse is hovering over.) Velocity changes will be shown numerically in a small display in the time ruler.

Changing Note Velocity.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES 139

As in the Note Editor, you can select multiple velocity markers to change by clicking with the modi er held down.

Tip: To set a group of notes so that they all have the same velocity, select their markers in the Velocity Editor, drag them up or down to either maximum or minimum velocity, and then adjust velocity to the desired value.

As we saw earlier, Draw Mode allows drawing identical velocities for all notes within a grid tile. While in Draw Mode, velocity drawing is limited to only those notes that are currently selected. To draw markers individually (as you would want to with a crescendo, for instance) deactivate grid snapping with the Ctrl 4

(PC) /

4

(Mac) shortcut, or simply hold down the Alt (PC) / (Mac) modi er.

Tip: To draw a velocity ramp with notes that are all in the same key track, press and click on the piano roll to select all notes within the desired key track, make sure Draw Mode is activated and draw the ramp into the Velocity Editor while holding the so that you affect only the selected notes.

modi er,

Tip #2: To draw a linear velocity ramp across a selection of notes, rst select the notes that should be affected (using the modi er to select non-adjacent notes if necessary).

Make sure Draw Mode is not activated and draw the line into the Velocity Editor while holding the Ctrl (PC) / (Mac) modi er.

Notes in the Note Editor display their velocity in their coloring light notes play softly, and vice versa. To change the velocity of notes without the Velocity Editor open, click any selected note and drag vertically while pressing the Alt (PC) / (Mac) modi er.

Vertical movements in Draw Mode correspond to velocity changes. This means that, with one horizontal motion and one vertical motion, you can draw multiple notes and their velocities without releasing the mouse button. If you change velocity with this vertical

Drawing Identical

Velocities (Left) and a

Crescendo (Right).

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES 140 movement, Live will remember the change and use your new velocity on any notes that you draw afterward.

Note-Off Velocity

By default, the Velocity Editor allows you to adjust note-on velocities. But you can toggle the editor to show note-off velocities via options in the editor's (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu.

Please note that note-off (or release ) velocity is a somewhat esoteric parameter, and is only supported by certain devices.

The Velocity Editor

Showing Note-Off

Velocities.

10.4.9

MIDI Note Stretch

Three Variations Created with the Stretch Notes

Command.

CHAPTER 10. EDITING MIDI NOTES AND VELOCITIES 141

When multiple notes are selected in the Note Editor, the Stretch Notes command becomes available from the context menu, if you invoke it with (PC) / Ctrl (Mac).

Note Stretch markers will then appear in the Note Editor, allowing notes to be scaled proportionally in time. The markers are a pair of downward-pointing indicators that snap to the beginning of the rst and last notes in the selection.

By clicking and dragging one of the markers horizontally, the selected notes will move and stretch so that they continue to occupy the same proportion of time that they did when they were initially selected. The Note Stretch markers will always snap to the Note Editor's grid lines unless the grid is not shown, or the dragging.

Alt (PC) / (Mac) modi er is held while

If one marker is dragged beyond the boundary of the other, then the order of the stretched notes will be re ected in relation to their initial sequence; this is sometimes referred to as retrograde behavior.

Any changes occurring to the notes included in the Note Stretch before the mouse button is released will cancel the stretch operation. This can occur, for example, if the MIDI clip is simultaneously being overdubbed with new notes.

10.4.10

Cropping MIDI Clips

Unused MIDI data can be deleted by means of the Crop Clip command. Simply

Ctrl

(PC) /

(Mac) on a MIDI clip in the Session or Arrangement View and select this option.

Unlike

cropping audio clips , cropping a MIDI clip does not create a new le on disk.

10.4.11

Deactivating Notes

To deactivate, or mute, a note (or notes) in the MIDI Editor, select it and (PC) / Ctrl

(Mac) to access the context menu. The Deactivate Note(s) command will mute the note, making it appear gray in the display. To reactivate notes, use the context menu's Activate

Note(s) command. You can de- or reactivate all of the notes in a single key track at once by

(PC) / Ctrl (Mac) on a key in the piano roll.

142

Chapter 11

Using Grooves

The timing and feel of each clip in your Set can be modi ed through the use of grooves .

Live's Library includes a large selection of grooves, which appear as .agr les in the Browser.

Please note that Live Intro accommodates up to four grooves per Set.

The easiest way to work with Library grooves is to drag and drop them from the Browser directly onto clips in your Set. This immediately applies the timing characteristics of the

Groove Files in the

Browser.

CHAPTER 11. USING GROOVES 143 groove le to the clip. If you want to quickly try out a variety of grooves, you can enable the

Hot-Swap

button above a clip's

Clip Groove chooser

and then step through the grooves in the Browser while the clip plays.

Grooves can be applied to both audio and MIDI clips. In audio clips, grooves work by adjusting the clip's

warping behavior , and thus only works on clips with Warp enabled.

The Hot-Swap Groove

Button.

11.1

Groove Pool

Once you've applied a groove le, you can modify its behavior by adjusting its parameters in the Groove Pool , which can be opened or closed via its selector button at the bottom of

Browser.

You can also double-click grooves in the Browser to load them directly to the Groove Pool before applying them to a clip. The Groove Pool contains all grooves that have been loaded in this way or that are being used in clips. Inactive grooves (those that are not being used by a clip) appear with their parameters greyed out.

The Groove Pool

Selector Button.

CHAPTER 11. USING GROOVES 144

11.1.1

Adjusting Groove Parameters

Grooves in the Groove Pool appear in a list, and offer a variety of parameters that can be modi ed in real time to adjust the behavior of any clips that are using them. You can also save and hot-swap grooves via the buttons next to the Groove's name.

The Groove Pool's controls work as follows:

ˆ Base The Base chooser determines the timing resolution against which the notes in the groove will be measured. A 1/4 Base, for example, means that the positions of the notes in the groove le are compared to the nearest quarter note, and all notes in any clips that are assigned to that groove will be moved proportionally towards the positions of the groove notes. At a base of 1/8th, the groove's notes are measured from their nearest eighth note. Notes in the groove that fall exactly on the grid aren't moved at all, so the corresponding notes in your clips will also not be moved.

ˆ Quantize adjusts the amount of straight quantization that is applied before the groove is applied. At 100%, the notes in your clips will be snapped to the nearest note values, as selected in the Base chooser. At 0%, the notes in clips will not be moved from their original positions before the groove is applied.

ˆ Timing adjusts how much the groove pattern will affect any clips which are using it.

ˆ Random adjusts how much random timing uctuation will be applied to clips using the selected groove. At low levels, this can be useful for adding subtle humanization to highly quantized, electronic loops. Note that Random applies differing randomization

The Groove Pool.

CHAPTER 11. USING GROOVES 145 to every voice in your clip, so notes that originally occurred together will now be randomly offset both from the grid and from each other.

ˆ Velocity adjusts how much the velocity of the notes in clips will be affected by the velocity information stored in the groove le. Note that this slider goes from -100 to

+100. At negative values, the effect of the groove's velocity will be reversed; loud notes will play quietly and vice versa.

ˆ Amount this is a global parameter, and scales the overall intensity of Timing, Random and Velocity for all of the available groove les. At 100%, the parameters will be applied at their assigned values. Note that the Amount slider goes up to 130%, which allows for even more exaggerated groove effects.

11.1.2

Committing Grooves

Pressing the Commit button below the

Clip Groove chooser

writes your groove parameters to the clip. For MIDI clips, this moves the notes accordingly. For audio clips, this creates

Warp Markers at the appropriate positions in the clip.

After pressing Commit, the clip's Groove chooser selection is automatically set to None.

The Commit Groove

Button.

11.2

Editing Grooves

The effect that groove les have on your clips is a combination of two factors: the parameter settings made in the Groove Pool and the positions of the notes in the groove les themselves. To edit the contents of groove les directly, drag and drop them from the Browser

CHAPTER 11. USING GROOVES 146 or Groove Pool into a MIDI track. This will create a new MIDI clip, which you can then

edit ,

as you would with any other MIDI clip. You can then convert the edited clip back into a groove, via the process below.

11.2.1

Extracting Grooves

The timing and volume information from any audio or MIDI clip can be extracted to create a new groove. You can do this by dragging the clip to the Groove Pool or via the Extract

Groove command in the clip's (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu.

Grooves created by extracting will only consider the material in the playing portion of the clip.

Extract Grooves From

Audio or MIDI Clips.

11.3

Groove Tips

This section presents some tips for getting the most out of grooves.

11.3.1

Non-Destructive Quantization

Grooves can be used to apply real-time, non-destructive quantization to clips. To do this, simply set the groove's Timing, Random and Velocity amounts to 0% and adjust its Quantize and Base parameters to taste. With only Quantize applied, the actual content of the groove is ignored, so this technique works the same regardless of which Groove le you use.

CHAPTER 11. USING GROOVES 147

11.3.2

Creating Texture With Randomization

You can use a groove's Random parameter to create realistic doublings. This can be particularly useful when creating string textures from single voices. To do this, rst duplicate the track containing the clip that you want to thicken. Then apply a groove to one of the clips and turn up its Random parameter. When you play the two clips together, each note will be slightly (and randomly) out of sync with its counterpart on the other track.

148

Chapter 12

Launching Clips

The Live Session View is set apart by the fact that it gives you, the musician, a spontaneous environment that encourages performance and improvisation. An important part of how you take advantage of the Session View lies within how you con gure your various Session

View clips. This chapter explains the group of settings used to de ne how each Session

View clip behaves when triggered, or launched.

12.1

The Launch Box

Remember that clips in the Session View are launched by their

Clip Launch buttons

or

remote control . Clip launch settings are made in the

Launch box . The Launch box only applies to

Session View clips, as Arrangement View clips are not launched but played according to their positions in the Arrangement.

To view the Launch box, open the

Clip View

of a Session View clip by double-clicking the clip, then activating the leftmost Clip View Box selector panel.

CHAPTER 12. LAUNCHING CLIPS 149

Note that you can edit the launch settings of more than one clip at the same time by rst selecting the clips and then opening the Clip View.

Use the Clip View Box

Selector to Bring up the

Launch Box.

12.2

Launch Modes

The Launch Mode chooser offers a number of options for how clips behave with respect to mouse clicks,

computer keyboard actions or MIDI notes :

ˆ Trigger: down starts the clip; up is ignored.

ˆ Gate: down starts the clip; up stops the clip.

ˆ Toggle: down starts the clip; up is ignored. The clip will stop on the next down.

ˆ Repeat: As long as the mouse switch/key is held, the clip is triggered repeatedly at the clip quantization rate.

The Clip Launch Mode

Chooser.

CHAPTER 12. LAUNCHING CLIPS

12.3

Clip-Level Quantization

150

The Clip Quantization chooser lets you adjust an onset timing correction for clip triggering.

To disable clip quantization, choose None.

To use the Control Bar's Global Quantization setting, choose Global. Global quantization can be quickly changed using the Ctrl 6 (PC) / 6 (Mac), 7 , 8 , 9 and 0 shortcuts.

Note that any setting other than None will quantize the clip's launch when it is triggered by

Follow Actions .

The Clip Quantization

Chooser.

12.4

Velocity

The Velocity Amount

Field.

CHAPTER 12. LAUNCHING CLIPS 151

The Velocity Amount control allows you to adjust the effect of MIDI note velocity on the clip's volume: If set to zero, there is no in uence; at 100 percent, the softest notes play the clip silently. For more on playing clips via MIDI, see the

respective section .

12.5

Legato Mode

Suppose you have gathered, in one track, a number of looping clips, and you now want to toggle among them without losing the sync. For this you could use a large quantization setting (one bar or greater), however, this might limit your musical expression.

Another option, which works even with quantization turned off, is to engage Legato Mode for the respective clips. When a clip in Legato Mode is launched, it takes over the play position from whatever clip was played in that track before. Hence, you can toggle clips at any moment and rate without ever losing the sync.

Legato Mode is very useful for creating breaks, as you can momentarily play alternative loops and jump back to what was playing in the track before.

Unless all the clips involved play the same sample (differing by clip settings only), you might hear dropouts when launching clips in Legato Mode. This happens because you are unexpectedly jumping to a point in the sample that Live has had no chance to pre-load from disk in advance. You can remedy this situation by engaging

Clip RAM Mode

for the clips in question.

The Legato Mode

Switch.

12.6

Follow Actions

Follow Actions allow creating chains of clips that can trigger each other in an orderly or random way (or both). A clip's Follow Action de nes what happens to other clips in the

CHAPTER 12. LAUNCHING CLIPS 152 same group after the clip plays. A group is de ned by clips arranged in successive slots of the same track. Tracks can have an unlimited number of groups, separated by empty slots.

1

2

3

1. The Follow Action Time control de nes when the Follow Action takes place in bars-beats-sixteenths from the point in the clip where play starts. The default for this setting is one bar.

2. The Follow Action choosers allow selecting two different Follow Actions, A and

B.

3. The Chance A and Chance B controls set the likelihood of each of the two

Follow Actions occurring. If a clip has Chance A set to 1 and Chance B set to

0, Follow Action A will occur every time the clip is launched. As we can see from this example, a Chance setting of 0 means that an action will never happen.

Changing Chance B to 10 in this scenario makes Follow Action A occur much less often approximately once out of every ten clip launches.

There are eight Follow Actions available:

Stop simply stops the clip after it has played for the chosen Follow Action Time. Note that this overrides clip loop/region settings.

Play Clip Again restarts the clip.

Play Previous Clip triggers the previous clip (the one above the current one).

Play Next Clip triggers the next clip down in the group. If a clip with this setting is last in a group, this Follow Action triggers the rst clip.

The Follow Action

Controls.

CHAPTER 12. LAUNCHING CLIPS 153

Play First Clip launches the rst (top) clip in a group.

Play Last Clip launches the last (bottom) clip in a group.

Play Any Clip plays any clip in the group.

Play Other Clip is similar to Play Any Clip, but as long as the current clip is not alone in the group, no clip will play consecutively.

There is also the possibility to have no Follow Action by selecting No Action, or leaving the chooser blank.

Note that a Follow Action happens exactly after the duration that is speci ed by the Follow

Action Time controls unless clip quantization is set to a value other than None or Global.

Follow Actions circumvent global quantization but not clip quantization.

So why do you need these things? Music is repetition and change. Music based on loops or short melodic fragments has a tendency to sound static. Follow Actions allow you to create structures that will repeat but can also be surprising. Remember that you can always

record

the results of your experiments, so this can provide a good source for new material.

In the following sections we will look at some practical examples and ideas for Follow

Actions.

12.6.1

Looping Parts of a Clip

Let's say that you want to play a longer clip, but then you want only the last eight bars to loop. You can set this up using Follow Actions:

1. Drag the clip into the Arrangement View and make sure that the Clip View's

Loop switch is not activated. Use the Edit menu's

Split command

to split the clip between the non-looping and looping parts.

2. Click and drag the resulting two clips into the Session View by letting the mouse cursor hover over the Session View selector. Drop the two clips into a track. They now form a Follow Action group.

CHAPTER 12. LAUNCHING CLIPS

2

154

3

3. Set up Follow Actions for the rst clip. You will want to make Follow Action Time equal to the clip's length. Set the Follow Action A chooser to Play Next Clip, with a Chance setting of 1, leaving Follow Action B alone. Now this clip is set up to advance to the looping clip after it plays.

4. Activate the Loop switch for the second clip.

The rst clip will now proceed to the second after it has played in its entirety; the second clip will simply play in a loop until it is stopped.

Creating a Group With the Two Clips.

12.6.2

Creating Cycles

One of the most obvious possibilities that Follow Actions open up is using a group of samples to form a musical cycle. If we organize several clips as a group and use the Play

Next Clip Follow Action with each clip, they will play one after the other ad in nitum, or until we tell them to stop.

Cycles can be peppered with occasional rearrangements through the addition of other

Follow Actions, such as Play Any Clip, with smaller relative Chance settings.

12.6.3

Temporarily Looping Clips

There are some interesting applications of Follow Actions when it comes to creating temporary musical loops.

CHAPTER 12. LAUNCHING CLIPS 155

The default setting for Follow Action is actually a 1:0 chance that Nothing happens after the Follow Action Time, which means that there is effectively no Follow Action. But now, imagine a group consisting of one single clip. Follow Action A is set to Play Clip Again, with a Chance of 8. Follow Action B is set to None, with a Chance of 1. The clip uses a long sample, and Follow Time is set to one bar. Clicking on the clip will play the rst bar, after which it will be very likely that it will play the rst bar again. However, after a few repetitions, it will eventually come to Action B Nothing and continue playing the rest of the sample.

Or, a clip can be played from its start to a speci c point, when its Follow Action tells it to

Play Next Clip. The same le can be used in the next clip in the group, but this one can be set to loop. This second clip can have any manner of Follow Action settings, so that it might then play forever, for a speci ed time or until random chance leads to the next clip in the group.

12.6.4

Adding Variations in Sync

Paired with

clip envelopes

and

warping , Follow Actions can be used to create all sorts of

interesting variations within a group of similar clips. You could, for example, use Follow

Actions to randomly trigger clips with different MIDI controller clip envelopes, so that ne variations in pitch bend or modulation of an instrument or synth could occur as the clips in a group interacted. Audio clips could morph between different effect or clip transposition settings.

Using Follow Actions and Legato Mode together provides a powerful way of gradually changing a melody or beat. Imagine that you have several identical clips of a melody that form a group, and they are set up to play in

Legato Mode . Whenever their Follow Actions

tell them to move on to another clip in the group, the melody will not change, as Legato

Mode will sync the new play position with the old one in beat-time. The settings and clip envelopes of each clip (or even the actual notes contained in a MIDI clip) can then be slowly adjusted, so that the melody goes through a gradual metamorphosis.

CHAPTER 12. LAUNCHING CLIPS 156

12.6.5

Mixing up Melodies and Beats

You can let Follow Actions perform unpredictable remixes and solos for you: Use a clip containing a beat or melody, and copy it so that there are several instances of it forming a group. Alternatively, you can use several different beats or melodies that you want to mix together. The

start and end

for each clip can be set differently, as can

clip envelopes

and other clip settings. As long as Follow Action Time in each clip is equal to the length of the clip that you want to play, you can set up two Follow Actions with different Chance values in each clip, launch a clip, and surprise yourself.

12.6.6

Creating Nonrepetitive Structures

Follow Actions are great when it comes to sound installations, as they allow you to create structures that play for weeks or months and never exactly repeat. You can set the Follow

Action Time controls in a series of clips to odd intervals, and the clips will interact with each other so that they never quite play in the same order or musical position. Remember that each clip can have two different Follow Actions with corresponding Chance settings... have fun!

157

Chapter 13

Routing and I/O

In the context of Live, routing is the setup of the tracks' signal sources and destinations

(i.e., their inputs and outputs). Most routing happens in the mixer's track In/Out section , which offers, for every track, choosers to select a signal source and destination. The mixer's

In/Out section is Live's patchbay.

The In/Out section can be independently shown or hidden from the Session and Arrangement Views. Toggle its visibility using the I/O Mixer Section selector, or via the View menu's

In/Out option.

The Mixer's In/Out

Section and Mixer

Section Selectors.

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O 158

For every track that can play clips, the In/Out section has the same layout:

ˆ The upper chooser pair ( Audio/MIDI From ) selects the track's input. Audio tracks have an audio input, and MIDI tracks have a MIDI input. Return tracks receive their input from the respective

sends .

ˆ The Monitor radio button selects the monitor mode: the conditions under which the track's input is heard through the track.

ˆ The lower chooser pair ( Audio/MIDI To ) selects the track's output. All tracks have audio outputs, except for MIDI tracks without instruments. Remember that

instruments convert MIDI to audio .

Within a chooser pair, the upper chooser selects the signal category ( Ext., for instance, for external connections via an audio or MIDI interface), and is called the Input/Output Type chooser. If this signal type offers sub-selections or channels, they are available from the lower chooser, or the Input/Output Channel chooser. In our Ext. example, these would be the individual audio/MIDI inputs and outputs.

13.1

Monitoring

Monitoring, in the context of Live, means passing a track's input signal on to the track's output. Suppose you have set up an audio track to receive its input signal from a guitar.

Monitoring then means that the signal from your live guitar playing actually reaches the track's output, via the track's device chain. If the track's output is set to Master, you can hear the guitar signal, processed by whatever effects are used (and delayed by whatever latency the audio hardware interface incurs), over your speakers.

The In/Out section offers, for every audio track and MIDI track, a Monitor radio button with the following three options:

ˆ The default Auto -monitoring setting does the right thing for most straightforward recording applications: Monitoring is on when the track is

armed (record-enabled) ,

but monitoring is inhibited as long as the track is playing clips.

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O 159

ˆ To permanently monitor the track's input, regardless of whether the track is armed or clips are playing, choose In . This setting effectively turns the track into what is called an Aux on some systems: the track is not used for recording but for bringing in a signal from elsewhere (for instance, a ReWire slave program). With this setting, output from the clips is suppressed. An In monitoring setting can be easily recognized even when the In/Out section is hidden by the orange color of the track's Activator switch.

ˆ Monitoring can be turned off altogether by choosing the Off option. This is useful when recording acoustic instruments which are monitored through the air, when using an external mixing console for monitoring or when using an audio hardware interface with a direct monitoring option that bypasses the computer so as to avoid latency. Generally, it is preferable to work with an audio interface that allows for negligible latencies (a few milliseconds). If you are recording into Live with monitoring set to Off, you may want to make the Audio Preferences' Overall Latency adjustment, which is described in the built-in program tutorial on setting up the Audio Preferences.

If multiple tracks are selected, pressing one of the Monitor buttons applies this selection to all of the selected tracks.

Audio and MIDI Track

Arm Buttons.

13.2

External Audio In/Out

An audio interface's inputs are selected by choosing Ext. In from the Input Type chooser of an audio track. The Input Channel chooser then offers the individual input channels. Entries in this chooser each have meters next to their names to help you identify signal presence and overload (when the meter ashes red). Setting up the audio interface's outputs works the same way via the output chooser pair. If multiple tracks are selected, any changes you make to these choosers will be applied to all selected tracks.

The list of available inputs and outputs depends on the Audio Preferences, which can be

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O 160 reached via the Input and Output Channel choosers' Con gure...

option. Note that the Audio Preferences also provide access to the Channel Con guration dialogs, which determine which inputs and outputs are used, and whether they are available to Live as mono or stereo pairs. Essentially, the Channel Con guration dialog tells Live what it needs to know about how the computer is connected to the other audio components in your studio.

Please note that there is a limit of four inputs and outputs available in Live Intro.

13.2.1

Mono/Stereo Conversions

When a mono signal is chosen as an audio track's input, the track will record mono samples; otherwise it will record stereo samples. Signals in the track's device chain are always stereo, even when the track's input is mono or when the track plays mono samples.

Mono is turned into stereo simply by using the identical signal for left and right channels.

When a track is routed into a mono output, the left and right signals are added together and attenuated by 6 dB to avoid clipping.

13.3

External MIDI In/Out

MIDI from the outside world is routed into Live just like audio. From the Input Type chooser of a MIDI track, you can either select a speci c MIDI input port or All Ins, which is the merged input of all external MIDI ports. The Input Channel chooser offers the individual input channels of the selected MIDI port and the merged signal of all channels, All. As is the case with audio inputs, the Input Channel chooser also has meters next to every entry to represent activity on the respective input channel. If multiple MIDI tracks are selected, any changes you make to these choosers will be applied to all selected tracks.

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O

13.3.1

The MIDI Ports List in the Preferences

161

You can con gure which MIDI ports are made available to Live using the MIDI Ports section of the MIDI/Sync Preferences. All available input and output ports are listed here. For Live's tracks to receive/send MIDI from/to a speci c MIDI port, the corresponding switch in the

Track column must be set to On . You can use any number of MIDI ports for track input and output; the mixer's In/Out choosers allow them to be addressed individually.

The MIDI Ports List in the Preferences.

13.3.2

Playing MIDI With the Computer Keyboard

The computer keyboard can be used for generating MIDI notes from computer keyboard strokes. To turn the computer MIDI keyboard on, use the Control Bar's Computer MIDI Keyboard button, or the menu entry.

Ctrl K (PC) / K (Mac) shortcut to the Options

Activating the Computer

MIDI Keyboard.

The center row of letter keys on the keyboard will play notes corresponding to the white keys on a piano, beginning on the left with the note C3. The black keys on a piano correspond to the upper row of computer keys. The ve leftmost letters on the lower row of the keyboard

(Z,X,C,V, and B on a U.S.-English keyboard) are used to transpose the note range and to set velocity, as follows:

ˆ The leftmost keys (Z and X) adjust the keyboard's octave range.

ˆ The next two keys (C and V) adjust incoming note velocity by intervals of twenty (20,

40, 60, and so on).

ˆ The fth key from the bottom left (B) places an accent on incoming MIDI notes. This key boosts note velocity by 20 as long as it is held down. Once it is released, however, velocity will drop back to its original value. If your keyboard is already set to input notes at 120, holding this key will raise note velocity to 127.

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O 162

As it happens, when the computer keyboard is set to send notes between C3 and C4, the keys are mapped to MIDI notes such that the center row of the keyboard (ASDF...) addresses the

Impulse percussion sampler's sample slots . This means that you can play and record

drum patterns right off the computer keyboard.

Note that when the computer MIDI keyboard is activated, it will steal keys that may have otherwise been assigned to

remote-control

elements of the Live interface. To prevent this, you can turn the computer MIDI keyboard off when it is not needed.

13.3.3

Connecting External Synthesizers

Routing MIDI to an external synthesizer is straightforward: The Output Type chooser is set to whatever MIDI port the synthesizer is connected to; the Output Channel chooser is used to select which MIDI channel to send on.

Important : If you are using a keyboard synthesizer both as a master keyboard to play into

Live and as a sound generator, then please make sure to check the synthesizer's Local

Off function. Every synthesizer has this function, which effectively separates the keyboard from the sound generator, allowing you to treat both components as if they were separate devices. This allows you to use Live as the hub of your MIDI studio, which receives MIDI from the keyboard and dispatches the incoming MIDI, as well as the MIDI from the clips, as appropriate.

13.3.4

MIDI In/Out Indicators

Live's Control Bar contains three pairs of indicator LEDs that tell you about incoming and outgoing MIDI. These indicators tell you not only about the presence of signals, but also about their use . In every pair, the upper indicator ashes when a MIDI message is received, and the lower indicator ashes when a MIDI message is sent.

The Control Bar's MIDI

Indicators.

The three indicator pairs represent, from left to right:

1. MIDI Clock and Timecode signals that are used for

synchronizing Live with other sequencers . Note that this set of indicators is only visible when an external sync

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O 163 source has been enabled in the MIDI Ports List in the Preferences;

2. MIDI messages that are used for

remote-controlling Live's user-interface elements ;

3. MIDI messages coming from and going to Live's MIDI tracks.

MIDI messages that are mapped to remote-control Live's user-interface elements are eaten up by the remote control assignment and will not be passed on to the MIDI tracks. This is a common cause of confusion that can be easily resolved by looking at the indicators.

13.4

ReWire Slave Routing

Live can operate as a ReWire master or slave in cooperation with another ReWire application.

As a ReWire master, Live can send MIDI to, and receive audio from, any ReWire slave application installed on the same computer.

The following example shows how to send MIDI from one of Live's MIDI tracks into an instrument within Propellerhead's Reason , and then route the audio result back into an audio track:

1.

First , start Live.

2.

Then , start Reason and set up the Reason rack as desired.

An Audio Track

Receiving Audio From and a MIDI Track

Sending MIDI to Reason .

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O 164

3. Select Reason from the MIDI track's Output Type chooser.

4. The Output Channel chooser presents you with a list of the instruments that you currently have in your Reason rack; select the instrument you want to address.

5. Select Reason from the audio track's Input Type chooser.

6. From the audio track's Input Channel chooser, select the audio channel that corresponds to the instrument to which you are sending MIDI.

7. Set the audio track's Monitor radio button to In.

8. Select All Ins from the MIDI track's Input Type chooser.

9. Arm the MIDI track.

Now, any MIDI that you are playing into Live will arrive in Reason, which will generate the corresponding audio back into the audio track, ready for further processing in Live's mixer and effects. If you want to continue work on the project without reopening Reason, simply record Reason's audio by arming the audio track and engaging Record Mode.

13.5

Resampling

Live's Master output can be routed into an individual audio track and recorded, or resampled .

Resampling can be a fun and useful tool, as it lets you create samples from what is currently happening in a Live Set that can then be immediately integrated. It can be used to record tracks that include processor-intensive devices, so as to delete the devices, or for quickly previewing before

rendering to disk .

The Resampling option in any audio track's Input Type chooser will route the Master output to that track. You can then decide on what exactly you will be resampling and mute, solo or otherwise adjust the tracks that are feeding the Master output. You will probably want to use the Master Volume meter to make sure that your level is as high as possible without clipping (indicated by red in the meter). Then you can arm the track and

record into any of its empty clip slots . Note that the recording track's own output will be suppressed

while resampling is taking place, and will not be included in the recording.

Samples created by resampling will be stored in with the current Set's

Project folder , under

Samples/Recorded. Until the Set is saved, they remain at the location speci ed by the

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O

Temporary Folder .

165

13.6

Internal Routings

Live's mixer allows for inter-track routings. These routings, albeit potentially confusing, enable many valuable creative and technical options. Via the mixer, inter-track routing can work two ways:

1. Track A is set up to send its output signal to Track B. This is possible because every track that can receive an output signal of the appropriate type from Track

A shows up in its Output Type chooser.

2. Track B is set up to receive its input signal from Track A. This works because every track that delivers a signal of the appropriate type appears in Track B's Input Type chooser.

Both approaches result in Track A's output being fed into Track B. Approach 1 leaves Track

B's in/out settings alone, and we can, at any time, add more tracks that feed their output into Track B. This is the method of choice for many-to-one routings such as submixes or several MIDI tracks playing the same instrument. In this scenario, soloing Track B will still allow you to hear the output of the tracks that are feeding it. Also, you can still solo Track A and hear its output signal. In this case, all other tracks are muted, including those that might also feed into Track B. Technically, what you hear is the output of Track B, with everything except Track A's signal removed.

Two Ways to Route Track

A into Track B.

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O 166

Approach 2, on the other hand, leaves Track A unaffected except for Track B tapping its output. We can easily add more tracks like Track B that all tap Track A's output. Instrument layering is a good example of such a one-to-many routing setup.

13.6.1

Internal Routing Points

Signals travel from Live's tracks into their respective device chains and then into the track mixer, where they might become panned or have their levels altered by the tracks' faders.

Whenever a track's Audio From input chooser is set to another track (as described in the previous section's Approach 2), the signal received can be tapped from one of three different points chosen from the Input Channel chooser: Pre FX, Post FX or Post Mixer.

ˆ Pre FX taps the signal that is coming directly from a track, before it has been passed on to the track's device chains (FX) or mixer. Therefore, changes that are made to the tapped track's devices or mixer have no effect on the tapped signal. Soloing a track that taps another track Pre FX will allow you to hear the tapped track.

ˆ Post FX taps the signal at the output of a track's device chains (FX), but before it has been passed back to the track mixer. Changes to the tapped track's devices will therefore alter the tapped signal, but changes to its mixer settings will not. Soloing a track that taps another track Post FX will allow you to hear the tapped track.

ˆ Post Mixer taps the nal output of a track, after it has passed through its device chains and mixer. Soloing a track that taps another track Post Mixer will not allow you to hear the tapped track.

Tap Points for Track

Routing.

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O

Routing Points in Racks

167

If a track has one or more

Instrument or Effect Racks

in its device chain, internal routing points (Pre FX, Post FX and Post Mixer) will also be available for every chain within the Rack.

If a track contains one or more

Drum Racks , internal routing points will be available for any

of the Rack's return chains. Each Rack will also be listed in the Input Channel chooser:

ˆ (Rack Name) | (Chain Name) | Pre FX The signal will be tapped from the point that it enters the Rack, before it reaches the chain's devices.

ˆ (Rack Name) | (Chain Name) | Post FX The signal will be tapped from the end of the chain, but before it passes to the chain's mixer.

ˆ (Rack Name) | (Chain Name) | Post Mixer The signal will be tapped from the output of the chain's mixer, just before the point where all of the chains in the Rack are summed together to create the Rack's output.

Soloing a track that taps a Chain at any of these points will still allow you to hear the output at that point.

Tap Points for Every

Chain in a Track.

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O

13.6.2

Making Use of Internal Routing

This section presents several internal routing examples in more detail.

168

Post-Effects Recording

Let's say that you are feeding a guitar into Live, building up a song track by track, overlaying take onto take. It is certainly powerful to have a separate effects chain per track for applying different effects to different takes after the fact. You might, however, want to run the guitar signal through effects (a noise gate or an amp model, for instance) before the recording stage, and record the post-effects signal.

This is easily accomplished by devoting a special audio track for processing and monitoring the incoming guitar signal. We call this track Guitar and drag the desired effects into its device chain. We do not record directly into the Guitar track; instead we create a couple more tracks to use for recording. Those tracks are all set up to receive their input Post FX from the Guitar track. Note that we could also tap the Guitar track Post Mixer if we wished to record any level or panning from it.

As for monitoring, we set the Guitar track's Monitor radio button to In, because we always want to listen to our guitar through this track, no matter what else is going on in Live. The other tracks' Monitor radio buttons are set to Off.

An Example Setup for

Post-Effects Recording.

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O 169

Recording MIDI as Audio

When working with MIDI and complex software instruments, it is sometimes more useful to record the resulting audio than the incoming MIDI. A single MIDI note can prompt, for example, Native Instruments' Absynth to produce something that sounds more like a piece of music than a single tone. This output lends itself more to representation as an audio waveform than a single note in a MIDI clip, particularly when comparing the editing options.

A setup similar to the one described

above

accomplishes the task. We have one MIDI track hosting the virtual instrument, and we use additional audio tracks to record the audio result of playing the instrument.

Recording the Output of a Complex Instrument in

Audio Tracks.

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O

Creating Submixes

170

Suppose we have the individual drums of a drum kit coming in on separate tracks for multitrack recording. In the mix, we can easily change the volumes of the individual drums, but adjusting the volume of the entire drum kit against the rest of the music is less convenient.

Therefore, we add a new audio track to submix the individual drums. The drum tracks are all set to output to the submix track, which outputs to the Master. The submix track gives us a handy volume control for the entire drum kit.

Submixing the Individual

Drums of a Drum Kit.

Several MIDI Tracks Playing the Same Instrument

Consider a MIDI track containing a virtual instrument a

Simpler

playing a pad sound, for example. We have already recorded MIDI clips into this track when we realize that we would like to add an independent, parallel take for the same instrument. So we add another MIDI track. We could now drag another Simpler into the new track, but we would really like to reuse the Simpler from the pad track, so that changing the pad's sound affects the notes from both tracks.

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O 171

This is accomplished by setting the new MIDI track's Output Type chooser to Pad. Note that the Output Channel chooser now offers a selection of destinations: We can either feed the new track's output into the input of the pad track, or we can directly address the Simpler.

The Track In option in the Output Channel represents the pad track's input signal (the signal to be recorded), which is not what we want. We instead select Simpler Ch. 1 to send the new track's MIDI directly to the Simpler, bypassing the recording and monitoring stage. With this setup, we can choose to record new takes on either track and they will all play the same pad sound.

Feeding an Additional

MIDI Track Into an

Existing MIDI Track to

Reuse its Instrument.

We might be bothered by the fact that muting the pad track (by turning off its Activator switch) also mutes the other MIDI track. To be precise, the other track keeps playing, but its

The Instrument Has

Been Isolated in a

Dedicated Track.

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O 172

MIDI is played by an instrument that is out of the mix. This can be easily remedied by cutting the clips from the pad track and pasting them into a third track that can be independently muted (and that can hold its own MIDI effects). The original pad track now acts as a mere instrument container. As we are not recording new clips into this track, we can set its Input

Type chooser to No Input, which makes its Arm button disappear and helps to avoid confusion when the mixer's In/Out section is hidden.

Tapping Individual Outs From an Instrument

Some software instruments, like Live's

Impulse percussion sampler , offer multiple audio

outputs for the signals they produce. By default, Impulse mixes the output of its eight sample slots internally and delivers the mix at the instrument's audio out. Any audio effects following Impulse in the same track process the composite signal. Sometimes it is desirable to take an individual drum sound out of the mix for individual effects processing and mixing.

This is possible because Impulse offers its sample slots as audio sources to other tracks.

We simply create an audio track and select from its Input Type chooser the track with the

Impulse. The Input Channel chooser now offers, in addition to Pre FX, Post FX and Post

Mixer, Impulse's eight individual outputs, labeled according to the sample used in each slot.

Notice that routing an individual output from Impulse into another track automatically takes this signal out of Impulse's own internal mix. This convenience is not standard behavior of

Using Impulse's

Individual Outs to

Separately Process

Sample Slots.

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O 173 most plug-in instruments, however. Soloing a track that taps one of Impulse's sample slots will still allow you to hear the output of that slot.

Using Multi-Timbral Plug-In Instruments

Many plug-in instruments support multi-timbral operation. A multi-timbral instrument is like several instruments in one, with each component part (or whatever term the manufacturer uses) receiving MIDI on a separate MIDI channel. Usually, the multi-timbral instrument offers individual outputs so that the parts can be separately routed into the mixer. Or, the instrument might offer a submixer of its own.

Sending MIDI from the mixer to a multi-timbral instrument is a variation of a case described

above . One MIDI track hosts the multi-timbral instrument, and additional MIDI tracks are

used to feed its individual parts. Each additional MIDI track has its Output Type chooser pointed to the track that contains the instrument, and its Output Channel chooser referencing the target MIDI channel. Additional audio tracks can then be used to tap the instrument's individual outputs, as described

earlier .

Tracks Feeding MIDI to and Tapping Audio

From the Parts of a

Multi-Timbral

Instrument.

Feeding Sidechain Inputs

Some effects have so-called sidechain inputs. A vocoder, for instance, imposes spectral characteristics taken from one signal (say, spoken word) onto another signal, for instance a

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O 174 string pad. The vocoder is inserted as an audio effect into the string track. It has a sidechain input for the speech signal, which has to be delivered from another track. So, we create an additional audio track named Speech and set its Output Type chooser to the Strings track. From the Output Channel chooser, we select the vocoder's sidechain input.

Some vocoder plug-ins include a built-in synthesizer to generate the carrier signal. In this case, the only difference from the above procedure is that the vocoder instrument is dragged into a MIDI track. Feeding the side-chain audio input works as described above.

Please note that Ableton's

Auto Filter ,

Compressor , and

Gate

devices have their own sidechain controls with integrated routing choosers that match those found in tracks. Thus when using these devices, it is not necessary to follow the above procedure - you can simply select the sidechain source from within the device itself.

Routing a Speech Signal

Into a Vocoder's

Sidechain Input.

Layering Instruments

Suppose that we have a MIDI track containing an instrument playing a string sound, which we would like to augment by adding a brass sound playing the same notes. This can be easily done by adding a MIDI track that contains an instrument playing the brass sound and setting its Input Type chooser to tap the string track's Post FX signal.

CHAPTER 13. ROUTING AND I/O 175

Perhaps you wonder why this works, given that the string track's output is audio and not

MIDI. When routing MIDI in from another track, we are tapping the MIDI at the latest possible stage, which is after any MIDI Effects, and just before the instrument.

Using an Auxiliary MIDI

Track to Layer

Instruments.

176

Chapter 14

Mixing

14.1

The Live Mixer

Live includes a mixer section that is accessible from two views:

In the Arrangement View, the mixer appears as a horizontal strip to the right of the track area. To display all mixer controls for a track, unfold the track using the button next to its name, and adjust its height accordingly.

The Arrangement View

Mixer.

CHAPTER 14. MIXING 177

The Session View is a standard vertical mixer layout. You'll likely nd the Session View mixer more intuitive than the Arrangement mixer, which comes in handy when you work with

automation . Note that the Tab key toggles between the Arrangement and Session Views.

The Session View Mixer.

The View menu options listed below show or hide mixer components. You can use different mixer view setups in the Session View and in the Arrangement View:

ˆ In/Out

ˆ Sends

ˆ Returns

ˆ Mixer

ˆ Track Delays

ˆ Crossfader

The Mixer Section selectors on the right-hand side of the screen duplicate the View Menu commands, making it possible to quickly show or hide different mixer components.

The Mixer Section

Selectors.

CHAPTER 14. MIXING

Let's look at the mixer controls:

5 6

3

4

5

6

2

1

4

1

2 3

1. The Meter shows the track's RMS (average) and peak output level. While monitoring, however, it shows the input level.

2. The Volume control adjusts the track's output level. With multiple tracks selected, adjusting the volume of one of them will adjust the others as well.

3. The Pan control positions the track's output in the stereo eld. To reset the Pan control to center, click on its associated triangle. With multiple tracks selected, adjusting the pan knob for one of them will adjust the others as well.

4. To mute the track's output, turn off the Track Activator switch. With multiple tracks selected, toggling one of their Track Activators will toggle the others as well.

5. The Solo switch solos the track by muting all other tracks, but can also be used for

cueing . With multiple tracks selected, pressing any of their Solo switches

will solo all of them. Otherwise, tracks can only be soloed one at a time unless the the Ctrl (PC) / (Mac) modi er is held down or the Exclusive Solo option in the Record/Warp/Launch Preferences is deactivated.

6. If the Arm Recording button is on, the track is

record-enabled . With multiple

tracks selected, pressing any of their Arm switches will arm all of them. Otherwise, tracks can only be armed one at a time unless the the Ctrl (PC) /

(Mac) modi er is held down or the Exclusive Arm option in the Record/Warp/

Launch Preferences is deactivated. With Exclusive Arm enabled, inserting an instrument into a new or empty MIDI track will automatically arm the track.

178

The Mixer Controls.

CHAPTER 14. MIXING

14.1.1

Session Mixer Features

179

The Mixer section of the Session Mixer has several additional features that are not visible by default. The mixer is resizable, and dragging upwards on the top of the mixer will extend the height of the track meters, adding tick marks, a numeric volume eld and resettable peak level indicators. Increasing a track's width in this state will add a decibel scale alongside the meter's tick marks.

These enhancements are tailored for use in traditional mixing settings, but are available anytime the Mixer section is displayed.

Because of the enormous headroom of Live's 32-bit oating point audio engine, Live's meters can be driven far into the red without causing the signals to clip. The only time that signals over 0 dB will be problematic is when routing to or from physical inputs and outputs, like those of your sound card, or when saving audio to a le.

Nevertheless, Live provides this optional visual feedback for signals that travel beyond 0 dB in any track.

The Session Mixer's

Possibilities.

CHAPTER 14. MIXING

14.2

Audio and MIDI Tracks

180

Audio and MIDI tracks in Live are for hosting and playing clips, as explained

earlier .

You can add up to 64 audio and unlimited MIDI tracks to your Live Set's mixer using the appropriate Create menu commands.

Tracks can also be created by double-clicking or pressing Return on les in the Browser to load them, or by dragging objects from the Browser into the space to the right of Session

View tracks or below Arrangement View tracks. Devices or les loaded into Live in this manner will create tracks of the appropriate type (e.g., a MIDI track will be created if a MIDI le or effect is dragged in).

A track is represented by its track title bar . You can click on a track title bar to select the track and then execute an Edit menu command on the track. One such command is

Rename. One can quickly rename a series of tracks by executing this command (or the

Rename shortcut Ctrl R (PC) / R (Mac)) and then using the Tab key to move from title bar to title bar. When a # symbol precedes a name, the track will get a number that updates automatically when the track is moved. Adding additional # symbols will prepend the track number with additional zeros. You can also enter your own

info text

for a track via the Edit Info Text command in the Edit menu or in the tracks's (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu.

You can drag tracks by their title bars to rearrange them, or click and drag on their edges to change their width (in the Session View) or height (in the Arrangement View).

Multiple adjacent or nonadjacent tracks can be selected at once by

Ctrl

-clicking or

Ctrl -clicking, respectively. If you drag a selection of nonadjacent tracks, they will be collapsed together when dropped. To move nonadjacent tracks without collapsing, use

+ arrow keys instead of the mouse.

When multiple tracks are selected, adjusting one of their mixer controls will adjust the same control for the other tracks. If the tracks in the multi-selection have differing values for any

Tracks are Represented by Track Title Bars.

CHAPTER 14. MIXING 181 particular knob or slider parameter (volume, for example), this difference will be maintained as you adjust the parameter.

If you drag a track's title bar to the Browser it will be saved as a new Set. If a track contains audio clips, Live will manage the copying of the referenced sampled into this new location based on the selection in the

Collect Files on Export

chooser. You can then type in a name for the newly created Set or con rm the one suggested by Live with Return .

Tracks are deleted using the Edit menu's Delete command.

14.3

Return Tracks and the Master Track

In addition to tracks that play clips, a Live Set has a Master track and up to two return tracks ; these cannot play clips, but allow for more exible signal processing and routing.

The return tracks and the Master track occupy the right-hand side of the Session mixer view and the bottom end of the Arrangement View.

Note that you can hide and show the return tracks using the Returns command in the View menu.

Like the normal clip tracks, the returns and the Master can

host effects devices . However,

whereas a clip track's effect processes only the audio within that track, return tracks can process audio sent to them from numerous tracks.

For example, suppose you want to create rhythmic echoes with a delay effect. If you drag the effect into a clip track, only clips playing in this track will be echoed. Placing this effect in a return track lets it receive audio from any number of tracks and add echoes to them.

The Send Controls and

Pre/Post Toggle.

CHAPTER 14. MIXING 182

A clip track's Send control regulates how much of the track's output feeds the associated return track's input. What's more, even the return track's own output can be routed to its input, allowing you to create feedback . Because runaway feedback can boost the level dramatically and unexpectedly, the Send controls in Return tracks are disabled by default.

To enable them, (PC) /

Send or Enable All Sends.

Ctrl (Mac) on a Return track's Send knob and select Enable

Every return track has a Pre/Post toggle that determines if the signal a clip track sends to it is tapped before or after the mixer stage (i.e., the pan, volume and track-active controls).

The Pre setting allows you to create an auxiliary mix that is processed in the return track, independently of the main mix. As the return track can be

routed to a separate output , this

can be used to set up a separate monitor mix for an individual musician in a band.

The Master track is the default destination for the signals from all other tracks. Drag effects here to process the mixed signal before it goes to the master output. Effects in the Master track usually provide mastering -related functions, such as compression and/or EQ.

You can create multiple return tracks using the Create menu's Insert Return Track command, but by de nition, there is only one Master track.

14.4

Using Live's Crossfader

Live includes a crossfader that can create smooth transitions between clips playing on different tracks. Live's crossfader works like a typical DJ-mixer crossfader, except that it allows crossfading not only two, but any number of tracks including the returns.

The crossfader is accessed via the Session View's mixer selectors. It features seven different crossfade curves so that you can choose the one that ts your style the best. To change the

The Crossfader and

Selector.

CHAPTER 14. MIXING curve, menu.

(PC) / Ctrl

183

(Mac) on the crossfader, then select an entry from the context

Choose from Seven

Crossfader Curves.

The chart below details the power level and response of each crossfader curve.

A+B Power Level Crossfader Response

Transition

Dipped

Intermediate

Constant

Power

Slow Fade

Slow Cut

Fast Cut

The crossfader can be

mapped to any continuous MIDI controller (absolute or incremental) .

In addition to the crossfader's central slider, its absolute left and right positions are separately available for MIDI or keyboard mapping. There are two special scenarios for remote control with respect to the crossfader:

Crossfader Curve

Properties.

CHAPTER 14. MIXING 184

ˆ A key mapped to any one of the three assignable crossfader positions (left, center or right) will toggle the crossfader's absolute left and right positions.

ˆ Mapping to two of the three elds allows for a snapping back behavior when one of the assigned keys is held down and the other is pressed and released.

Each track has two Crossfade Assign buttons, A and B. The track can have three states with respect to the crossfader:

ˆ If neither Assign button is on, the crossfader does not affect the track at all.

ˆ If A is on, the track will be played unattenuated as long as the crossfader is in the left half of its value range. As the crossfader moves toward the right across the center position, the track fades out. At the crossfader's rightmost position, the track is muted.

ˆ Likewise, if B is on, the track's volume will be affected only as the crossfader moves left across its center position.

It is important to understand that the Crossfade Assign buttons do not affect the signal routing: The crossfader merely in uences the signal volume at each track's gain stage. The track can be routed to an individual output bus regardless of its crossfade assignment. In studio parlance, you can think of the crossfader as an on-the- y VCA group.

As with almost everything in Live, your crossfading maneuvers can be

recorded into the

Arrangement

for later in-depth editing. To edit each track's crossfade assignment, please choose Mixer from the Envelope Device chooser and X-Fade Assign from the Control chooser. The crossfader's automation curve is accessible when Mixer is chosen from the

Master track's Device chooser and Crossfade is selected from its Control chooser.

Crossfade Assign

Buttons.

CHAPTER 14. MIXING

14.5

Soloing and Cueing

185

By default, soloing a track simply mutes all other tracks (except in some cases where tracks are

feeding other tracks ). The signal from the soloed tracks is heard through their respective

outputs, with the pan setting of each track preserved. Soloing a clip track leaves any return tracks audible, provided that the Solo in Place option is enabled in the Solo button's context menu ( (PC) / Ctrl (Mac)). Solo in Place can also be set as the default behavior by selecting the entry in the Options menu.

Soloing a return track mutes the main output of all other tracks, but still allows you to hear any signals that arrive at the return via track sends.

Live allows you to replace the standard soloing operation with a cueing operation that lets you preview tracks as though you were cueing a record on a DJ mixer. This allows choosing clips and adjusting effects without the audience hearing, before bringing tracks into the mix.

In order to set Live up for cueing, you must be using an audio interface with at least four dedicated outputs (or two dedicated stereo outputs). The respective settings are accessible in the Session View mixer. Make sure you have the Mixer and In/Out options checked in the

View menu.

4 5 3 2 1

1. The Master Out chooser selects the output on your interface to be used as the main output.

2. The Cue Out chooser selects the output on your hardware interface to be used

The Cueing-Related

Session Mixer Controls.

CHAPTER 14. MIXING 186 for cueing. This has to be set to an output other than that selected for the Master.

If the desired outputs don't show up in these choosers, please check the Audio

Preferences.

3. Activate cueing by setting the Solo/Cue Mode switch to Cue.

4. The tracks' Solo switches are now replaced by Cue switches with headphone icons. When a track's Cue switch is pressed, that track's output signal will be heard through the output selected in the Cue Out chooser. Note that the Track

Activator switch on the same track still controls whether or not the track is heard at the Master output.

5. The Cue Volume control adjusts the volume of the cueing output.

Note that when cueing is set up and activated, the output of audio les that you are previewing in the Browser is also heard through the Cue Out.

14.6

Track Delays

A Track Delay control is available for every track in Live. The control allows delaying or predelaying the output of tracks in milliseconds in order to compensate for human, acoustic, hardware and other real-world delays.

This section of the interface can be shown or hidden using its respective Mixer Section selector.

We do not recommend changing track delays on stage, as it could result in undesirable clicks or pops in the audio signal. Micro-offsets in Session View clips can be achieved using the

nudge buttons in the Clip View , however track delays can be used in the Arrangement

View for such offsets.

Note that

delay compensation for plug-ins and Live devices

is a separate feature, and is

The Track Delay Control and Selector.

CHAPTER 14. MIXING 187 automatic by default. Unusually high Track Delay settings or reported latencies from plugins may cause noticeable sluggishness in the software. If you are having latency-related dif culties while recording and playing back instruments, you may want to try turning off device delay compensation, however this is not normally recommended. You may also nd that adjusting the individual track delays is useful in these cases. Note that the Track Delay controls are unavailable when device delay compensation is deactivated.

188

Chapter 15

Recording New Clips

This chapter is about recording new clips from audio and MIDI input signals. Note that this is a different kind of recording than the

capturing of Session clips into the Arrangement .

For successful audio recording, please make sure the audio preferences are set up properly.

For more on this, please see the built-in program lesson on setting up Audio Preferences.

Also, keep in mind that devices such as microphones, guitars and turntables do not operate at line level, meaning that they will need to have their levels boosted before they can be recorded. For these devices, you must therefore use either an audio interface with a preamp, or an external preamp.

15.1

Choosing an Input

A track will record whatever input source is shown in its In/Out section, which appears when the View menu's In/Out option is checked. (In the Arrangement View, unfold and resize the track in order to completely see the In/Out section.)

CHAPTER 15. RECORDING NEW CLIPS 189

Audio tracks default to recording a stereo signal from the external input pair 1/2.

MIDI tracks default to recording all MIDI that is coming in through the

active external input devices . The computer keyboard is, by default, activated as a pseudo-MIDI input device ,

allowing you to record MIDI even if no MIDI controller hardware is currently available.

For every track, you can choose an input source other than the default: any mono or stereo external input, a speci c MIDI channel from a speci c MIDI-in device, audio from ReWire slave programs or a signal coming from another track. The

Routing chapter

describes these options in detail.

The Track In/Out Section in the Arrangement

(Left) and Session View

(Right).

15.2

Arming (Record-Enabling) Tracks

To select a track for recording, click on its Arm button. It doesn't matter if you click a track's

Arm button in the Session View or in the Arrangement View, since the two

share the same set of tracks .

By default, armed tracks are monitored, meaning that their input is passed through their device chain and to the output, so that you can listen to what is being recorded. This behavior is called auto-monitoring and you can

change it to t your needs .

Track Arm Buttons in the

Arrangement (Left) and

Session (Right) Mixers.

CHAPTER 15. RECORDING NEW CLIPS 190

If you are using a natively supported control surface, arming a MIDI track will automatically

lock this control surface

to the instrument in the track.

Clicking one track's Arm button unarms all other tracks unless the Ctrl (PC) / (Mac) modi er is held. If multiple tracks are selected, clicking one of their Arm buttons will arm the other tracks as well. Arming a track selects the track so you can readily access its

devices in the Track View .

15.3

Recording

Recording can be done in both the Session and the Arrangement Views. If you want to record onto more than one track simultaneously and/or prefer viewing the recording linearly and in-progress, the Arrangement View may be the better choice. If you want to break your recording seamlessly into multiple clips or record while you are also launching clips in Live, use the Session View.

15.3.1

Recording Into the Arrangement

1 3

4

6

5

2

Recording Into the

Arrangement.

CHAPTER 15. RECORDING NEW CLIPS 191

1. Recording commences when the Control Bar's Record button is activated and the Play button is pressed.

2. Recording creates new clips in all tracks that have their Arm button on.

3. When the Overdub switch is on, the new clips contain a mix of the signal already in the track and the new input signal. The Overdub option only applies to MIDI tracks.

4. To prevent recording prior to a punch-in point, activate the Punch-In switch. This is useful for protecting the parts of a track that you do not want to record over and allows you to set up a pre-roll or warm-up time. The punch-in point is identical to the Arrangement Loop's start position.

5. Likewise, to prevent recording after the punch-out point, activate the Punch-Out switch. The punch-out point is identical to the Arrangement Loop's end position.

6. When you are recording into the

Arrangement Loop , Live retains the audio

recorded during each pass.

You can later unroll a loop recording, either by repeatedly using the Edit menu's Undo command or graphically in the Clip View: After loop recording, double-click on the new clip.

In the Clip View's Sample Display, you can see a long sample containing all audio recorded during the loop-recording process. The Clip View's

loop brace

de nes the audio taken in the last pass; moving the markers left lets you audition the audio from previous passes.

15.3.2

Recording Into Session Slots

You can record new clips, on the y, into any Session slots.

CHAPTER 15. RECORDING NEW CLIPS

4 3 2 1

192

1. Set the Global Quantization chooser to any value other than None to obtain correctly cut clips.

2. Activate the Arm button for the tracks onto which you want to record. Clip

Record buttons will appear in the empty slots of the armed tracks.

3. Click on any of the Clip Record buttons to commence recording. A new clip will appear in the slot with a red Clip Launch button that shows it is currently recording. To go from recording immediately into loop playback, press the clip's

Launch button.

4. Alternatively, you can click a Clip Stop button or the Stop button in the Control

Bar to stop recording, leaving the new clip silent.

Note that, by default, launching a

Session View scene

will not activate recording in empty record-enabled slots belonging to that scene. However, you can use the Start Recording on Scene Launch option from the Record/Warp/Launch Preferences to tell Live that you do want empty scene slots to record under these circumstances.

Recording a New Clip

Into the Session View.

CHAPTER 15. RECORDING NEW CLIPS 193

15.3.3

Overdub Recording MIDI Patterns

Live makes pattern-oriented recording of drums and the like quite easy. Using Live's

Impulse

instrument and the following technique, you can successively build up drum patterns while listening to the result. Or, using an instrument such as

Simpler , which allows for chromatic

playing, you can build up melodies or harmonies, note by note.

1. Set the Global Quantization chooser to one bar.

2. To automatically quantize the notes you are about to record, choose an appropriate value for

Record Quantization .

3. Double-click any of the Session View slots in the desired MIDI track (the one containing the Impulse or other instrument). A new, empty clip will appear in the slot. The new clip will default to a loop length of one bar, but you can change that by double-clicking the clip and changing its

loop properties .

4. Arm the track.

5. Launch the clip.

6. The notes you play are added into the looping clip, and you can observe your recording in the Clip View.

7. By default, the Control Bar's Overdub switch is activated, so that you can build your pattern layer by layer. However, if you would like to pause recording for a moment to rehearse, you can deactivate the Overdub switch. The contents of the clip will continue to play, but you can play along without being recorded.

When you are ready to record again, simply turn on the Overdub switch.

8. Stop recording by pressing a Clip Stop button or the Stop button in the Control

Bar.

Note that holding Alt (PC) / Alt (Mac) while double-clicking the empty slot to create a new clip will implicitly arm the track and launch the clip.

At any time while overdub recording is going on, you can use the Undo command to remove the last take, or even draw, move or delete notes in the Clip View's Note Editor.

Note that you can also add notes to existing Session clips while the Overdub switch is on.

CHAPTER 15. RECORDING NEW CLIPS 194

15.3.4

MIDI Step Recording

The MIDI Editor allows you to record notes with the transport stopped by holding down keys on your controller or

computer MIDI keyboard

and advancing the insert mark according to the grid settings. This process, known as step recording, allows you to enter notes at your own pace, without needing to listen to a metronome or guide track.

2 1 3

1. Arm the MIDI track that contains the clip into which you want to record.

2. Enable the Preview switch in the clip's MIDI Editor.

3. Click in the MIDI Editor to place the insert mark at the position where you want to begin recording.

Pressing on your computer keyboard will move the insert mark to the right, according to the grid settings. Any notes that are held down as you press will be added to the clip. If you continue holding notes as you press again, you will extend their duration. To delete notes that you've just recorded, keep them depressed and press .

The step recording navigators can also be

MIDI mapped .

Step Recording in the

MIDI Editor.

CHAPTER 15. RECORDING NEW CLIPS

15.4

Recording in Sync

195

Live keeps the audio and MIDI you have recorded in sync, even when you later decide on a different song tempo. In fact, Live allows you to change the tempo at any time before, after and even during recording. You could, for instance, cheat a bit by turning down the tempo to record a technically dif cult part, and pull it up again afterwards.

It is important to record in sync to make sure everything will later play in sync .

The easiest way to record in sync is to play along with or to use the built-in metronome, which is activated via its Control Bar switch and will begin ticking when the Play button is pressed or a clip is launched.

The Metronome Switch.

To adjust the metronome volume, use the mixer's Preview Volume knob.

Notice that Live's metrical interpretation of the audio being played can be edited, at any time, using the

Warp Markers . Warp Markers can be used to x timing errors and to change

the groove or feel of your recordings. Using Warp Markers, you can x things in your recordings that would otherwise require complicated editing or could not be done at all.

Likewise, the metrical interpretation of recorded MIDI can be changed after recording, using the MIDI clip's

Original BPM controls .

The Preview Volume

Knob.

CHAPTER 15. RECORDING NEW CLIPS

15.5

Recording Quantized MIDI Notes

196

If you will be recording MIDI, you have the option of automatically quantizing MIDI notes while recording. The Record Quantization chooser in the Edit menu allows selecting the meter subdivisions with which your recorded notes will align. When recording

into Session slots

or

into the Arrangement , record quantization is an independent step in Live's Undo

history. This means that if, for example, you recorded with Record Quantization set to

Eighth Note Triplet Quantization and then changed your mind, using the Edit menu's

Undo command would undo only the quantization and leave your recording otherwise intact.

For Session and Arrangement recording, the Record Quantization setting cannot be changed mid-recording.

When

overdub recording

with the Clip View Loop activated, changes to the Record Quantization take effect immediately, and they cannot be separately undone with the Edit menu command.

Recorded MIDI notes can also be quantized post-recording with the Edit menu's Quantize command, as described in the chapter on

editing MIDI .

15.6

Recording with Count-in

A count-in for recording can be set in Live's Record/Warp/Launch Preferences. When the

Count-In preference is set to any value other than None, Live will not begin recording until the count-in is complete. The Arrangement Position elds in the Control Bar display the count-in in orange as bars-beats-sixteenths.

The Count-In is

Displayed in the Control

Bar.

The count-in runs from negative bars-beats-sixteenths (beginning at -2.1.1., for example, with a Count-In setting of 2 bars) up to 1.1.1., at which point recording commences.

Note that count-in recording does not apply when Live is

synced to external MIDI devices or being used as a ReWire slave .

CHAPTER 15. RECORDING NEW CLIPS

15.7

Setting up File Types

197

The following Preferences from the Record/Warp/Launch tab are relevant to the sample les that are created by recording:

ˆ The sample le type you would like Live to create can be chosen from the File Type chooser in the Record/Warp/Launch Preferences.

ˆ The bit depth of the sample le you will create by recording can be chosen from the

Bit Depth chooser in the Record/Warp/Launch Preferences.

You can save time by setting up reasonable defaults for the clips you are recording in the

Record/Warp/Launch Preferences tab. In particular, it is smart to indicate the rough category of sound to be recorded by choosing the appropriate default Warp Mode . If you decide later on a different song tempo, the program will automatically maintain

good sound quality ,

usually without further adjustment.

15.8

Where are the Recorded Samples?

Recorded samples are stored with the current Set's

Project folder , under Samples/Recorded.

Until the Set is saved, it remains at the location speci ed by the Temporary Folder preference which is found in the Preferences' File/Folder tab. To make sure Live will not run out of disk space while recording into a new Set, please make sure the Temporary Folder is on a drive/ partition with suf cient free space.

15.9

Using Remote Control for Recording

Using

Key Map Mode and MIDI Map Mode , you can operate Live's recording functions

without using the mouse.

You can map the Control Bar's Record and transport controls as well as the track Arm buttons.

For recording into the Session slots, you can map the individual slots as well as the relative navigation controls to initiate recording remotely; for instance:

CHAPTER 15. RECORDING NEW CLIPS 198

The Scene Up/Down

Buttons.

One key is used to jump to the next scene...

A Track Launch Button.

... and another key to start and end recording in the respective track.

You can also map the

step recording

navigators.

This allows you to, for example, use MIDI foot pedals to move the clip's insert mark, thereby keeping both hands free for playing a keyboard.

The Step Recording

Arrows.

199

Chapter 16

Working with Instruments and

Effects

Every track in Live can host a number of devices. These devices can be of three different sorts:

ˆ MIDI effects act upon MIDI signals and can only be placed in MIDI tracks.

ˆ Audio effects act upon audio signals and can be placed in audio tracks. They can also be placed in MIDI tracks as long as they are downstream from an instrument.

ˆ Instruments are devices that reside in MIDI tracks, receive MIDI and output audio.

The Track View is where you insert, view and adjust the devices for the selected track. To select a track and open the Track View to access its devices, double-click the track's name.

The Track View appears in the bottom area of the Live screen.

Please note that the number of Ableton or third-party instruments and effects that can be used in a single Set is limited in Live Intro.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 200

To save space in the Track View, a device can be collapsed by double-clicking on its title bar or by choosing Fold from its (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu.

Devices in the Track

View.

To learn about a particular device and how to operate it, consult the

Live Audio Effect

Reference ,

Live MIDI Effect Reference

or the

Live Instrument Reference .

To learn about creating and using custom groupings of instruments and effects, check out the

Instrument, Drum and Effect Racks

chapter.

Get hands-on with devices by assigning their parameters to

MIDI or key remote control .

Devices Can Be Folded.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS

16.1

Using the Live Devices

201

Click on the Device Browser selector to access the palette of Live's built-in devices. You will notice that MIDI effects, audio effects and instruments each have their own folders in the

Browser.

The easiest way to place a device in a track is to double-click on it in the Browser, which creates a new track to hold the device. Alternatively, select a destination track by clicking within it, then select a device or preset in the Browser and press Return to add it to the selected track.

You can also drag devices into tracks or drop areas in the Session and Arrangement Views, or into the Track View. Dragging a sample to the Track View of a MIDI track creates a

Simpler

instrument with this sample loaded.

Note: If you are using an external input signal to feed your Live track using the default settings, the track's Arm button in the mixer must be activated in order to hear the input through the devices in your track's device chain. On MIDI tracks, this is normally activated automatically when inserting an instrument.

The Live Device Browser.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 202

This is how you would play live instruments through effects on a track, for example, or use a MIDI keyboard's input to play a track's instrument. Note that you can easily move from this setup into

recording new clips

for further use in Live. If you have alternative monitoring preferences, please see the

Monitoring section

to learn how to make these settings.

To add another device to the track, simply drag it there or double-click its name to append it to the device chain. Signals in a device chain always travel from left to right.

You can drop audio effects in at any point in an audio track's device chain, keeping in mind that the order of effects determines the resulting sound. The same is true for a MIDI track's device chain.

If you drop an instrument into a MIDI track's device chain, be aware that signals following

(to the right of) the instrument are audio signals, available only to audio effects. Signals preceding (to the left of) the instrument are MIDI signals, available only to MIDI effects. This means that it's possible for a MIDI track's device chain to hold all three types of devices: rst

MIDI effects, then an instrument, and nally audio effects.

MIDI and Audio Track

Arm Buttons

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 203

To remove a device from the chain, click on its title bar and press your computer's or Delete key, or select Delete from the Edit menu. To change the order of devices, drag a device by its title bar and drop it next to any of the other devices in the Track View. Devices can be moved to other tracks entirely by dragging them from the Track View into the Session or Arrangement Views.

Edit menu commands such as cut, copy, paste and duplicate can be used on devices.

Pasted devices are inserted in front of the selected device. You can paste at the end of a device chain by clicking in the space after the last device, or by using the key to move the selection there. Generally, devices can be placed, reordered and deleted without interrupting the audio stream.

A MIDI Track's Device

Chain Can Contain All

Three Device Types.

Devices are turned on and off using their Activator switches. Turning a device off is like temporarily deleting it: The signal remains unprocessed, and the device does not consume

CPU cycles. Live devices generally do not load down the CPU unless they are active.

For more information, please refer to the

CPU load section . The Freeze Track command

discussed there is especially helpful when working with CPU-intensive devices.

Device Activator

Switches.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 204

Devices in Live's tracks have input and output level meters. These meters are helpful in nding problematic devices in the device chain: Low or absent signals will be revealed by the level meters, and relevant device settings can then be adjusted, or the device can be turned off or removed.

Note that no clipping can occur between devices because there is practically unlimited headroom. Clipping can occur when an overly strong signal is sent to a physical output or written to a sample le.

Further information about track types in Live can be found in the

Routing and I/O chapter , in-

cluding information on using return tracks to distribute the effect of a single device amongst several tracks. After reading about using devices in Live, it might also be interesting to look into

clip envelopes , which can modulate individual device parameters on a per-clip basis.

The Level Meters

Between Devices in a

Chain.

16.1.1

Live Device Presets

Every Live device can store and retrieve their parameter settings as presets . Presets for Live instruments and effects are managed through the Device Browser. Each device appears there as a folder that can be opened to reveal its presets.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 205

Presets in the Device

Browser.

You can browse and load presets quickly with the computer keyboard:

ˆ Scroll up and down using the and keys.

ˆ Close and open device folders using the

ˆ Press Return to load a device or preset.

and keys.

Clicking a device's Hot-Swap Presets button will temporarily link the Browser to a device, calling up its presets in the Device Browser. With the device and Browser linked in this manner, you can quickly browse, load and audition different presets. You can even replace the current device with a new one by simply selecting another device's preset. To load a device's default factory settings, select the parent folder of its presets (i.e., the one with the device's name) from the Device Browser.

The link between the Device Browser and the device will be broken if a different view is selected, or if the Hot-Swap button is pressed again. Preset hot-swapping can also be cancelled with a press of the Esc key or by pressing the close button in the Hot-Swap bar at the top of the Browser.

Note that although importing via the Browser is the recommended method, presets can also be dropped directly into Live from the Explorer (Windows)/Finder (Mac).

The Hot-Swap Presets

Button.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS

Saving Presets

You can create and save any number of your own presets in the Device Browser.

206

Click the Save Preset button to save a device's current settings (including any custom

info text ) as a new preset. You will be redirected to the Browser, where you can press

Return to use Live's suggested name, or you can type one of your own. You can also save presets to speci c folders in the Browser (such as your Current Project folder) by dragging from the title bar of the device and dropping into the Browser location of your choice.

For detailed information on what can be done with the Browser, please see the

Managing Files and Sets chapter . For more on how to store project-speci c presets, see the

appropriate section .

The Save Preset Button.

Default Presets

Presets saved to the Defaults folders in Live's Library will load in place of Live's generic device settings. There are also Defaults folders that allow you to customize how Live responds to various user actions such as sample dropping and slicing. (Please note that slicing is not available in Live Intro.)

The Default Presets folders in Live's Library.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 207

To save the current settings of a device as a default preset, open the (PC) / Ctrl

(Mac) context menu on the device's header and select Save as Default Preset. This works for all of Live's instruments, MIDI effects and audio effects (including the various types of

Racks ). If you have already saved a default preset for a particular device, Live will ask you

before overwriting it.

To specify how Live behaves when dragging a sample to a Drum Rack or the Track View of a MIDI track:

ˆ Create an empty Simpler

ˆ Adjust the parameters as you like

ˆ Drag the edited device to the On Drum Rack or On Track View folder, which can be found at Library/Defaults/Dropping Samples

16.2

Using Plug-Ins

The collection of devices that you can use in Live can be extended with plug-ins . Live supports Steinberg Media's VST Plug-ins format, as well as Apple Computer's Audio Units

(AU) Plug-ins format (Mac OS X only). You can use up to four VST/AU instruments and six

VST/AU effects per Set.

Working with VST and Audio Units Plug-ins is very much like working with Live devices. VST and AU instruments can only be placed in Live MIDI tracks and, like Live instruments, they will receive MIDI and output audio signals. Plug-in audio effects can only be placed in audio tracks or following instruments. Please see the previous section,

Using the Live Devices , for

details.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 208

Audio Units and VST Plug-ins are browsed and imported using the Plug-In Device Browser, which is accessed via its selector. Plug-in instruments can be differentiated from plug-in effects in the Browser, as they appear with a keyboard icon.

The Browser's search functionality is only available for Audio Units Plug-ins, as is loading presets directly from Track View devices via the Hot-Swap button. In some instances, factory presets for Audio Units will only appear in the Browser once the device has been placed in a track and its Hot-Swap button activated.

Note: The rst time you start Live, no plug-ins will appear in the Plug-In Device Browser, as you must rst activate your plug-in sources. Activating your plug-in sources tells Live which plug-ins you want to use and where they are located on your computer. Information on activating (and deactivating) plug-in sources can be found later in this chapter, in the sections on the

VST Plug-in folder

and

Audio Units Plug-ins .

Note for Intel ® Mac users: Intel ® Mac computers cannot natively run VST or AU plugins that have been written for the PowerPC platform. Only plug-ins of type (Universal) or

(Intel ® ) can be used in Live.

If you install/de-install a plug-in while the program is running, Live will not detect your changes or implement them in the Plug-In Device Browser until the next time you start the program. Use the Rescan button in the File/Folder Preferences to rescan your plug-ins while

Live is running, so that newly installed devices become immediately available in the Plug-In

Device Browser.

The Plug-In Device

Browser.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 209

You can also rescan if you believe that your plug-in database has somehow become corrupted. Holding down the Alt (PC) / Alt (Mac) modi er while pressing Rescan will delete your plug-in database altogether and run a clean scan of your plug-ins.

16.2.1

Plug-Ins in the Track View

Once a plug-in is dragged from the Browser into a track, it will show up in the Track View.

For plug-ins with fewer than 32 modi able parameters, a Live panel will represent all of the parameters as horizontal sliders. Plug-ins that contain more than 32 parameters will open with an empty panel, which you can then con gure to show the parameters you want to access. The plug-in's original interface can be opened in a

separate window .

A VST Plug-In in the

Track View.

You can view or hide the plug-in's parameters by toggling the title bar.

button in the plug-in's

The X-Y control eld can be used to control two plug-in parameters at once and is therefore especially well-suited for live control. To assign any two plug-in parameters to the Live panel

X-Y eld, use the drop-down menus directly beneath it.

The Plug-In Unfold

Button.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS

Showing Plug-In Panels in Separate Windows

210

The Plug-In Edit button opens a oating window that shows the original VST or Audio Units

Plug-in panel. Changing parameters on the oating window has the same effect as changing them in the Live panel, and vice versa.

There are a few important Plug-In Preference settings for working with plug-in edit windows:

ˆ If activated, the Auto-Open Plug-In Windows Preference assures that plug-in edit windows open automatically when plug-ins are loaded into tracks from the Browser.

ˆ If the Multiple Plug-In Windows option in the Plug-In Preferences is activated, you can open any number of plug-in windows at once. Even with this option off, you can hold down the Ctrl (PC) / (Mac) modi er when opening a new plug-in window to keep the previous window(s) from closing.

ˆ Using the Auto-Hide Plug-In Windows preference, you can choose to have Live display only those plug-in windows belonging to the track that is currently selected.

You can use the View menu's Show/Hide Plug-In Windows command or the Ctrl Alt

(PC) / Alt P

P

(Mac) shortcut to hide and show your open plug-in windows. Notice that the name of the track to which the plug-in belongs is displayed in the title bar of the plug-in editor window.

The Plug-In Edit Button.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS

Plug-In Con gure Mode

211

Con gure Mode allows you to customize Live's panel to show only the plug-in parameters that you need to access. To do this:

ˆ Enter Con gure Mode by pressing the Con gure button in the device's header.

ˆ Click on a parameter in the plug-in edit window to add it to Live's panel. (For some plug-ins, it may be necessary to actually change the parameter's value. Additionally, certain plug-ins do not publish all of their parameters to Live. These parameters cannot be added to Live's panel.)

While in Con gure Mode, parameters in Live's panel can be reordered or moved by dragging and dropping them to new locations. Parameters can be deleted by pressing the Delete key. If you try to delete a parameter that has existing

automation data ,

clip envelopes , or

MIDI, key

or Macro mappings, Live will warn you before proceeding.

The parameters that you assign are unique for each instance of a given plug-in in your Set, and are saved with the Set.

Certain plug-ins do not have their own windows, and instead only show their parameters in

Live's panel. For these plug-ins, it is not possible to delete parameters when in Con gure

Mode (although they can still be moved and reordered).

There are several ways to add plug-in parameters to Live's panel without entering Con gure

Mode:

ˆ Adjusting a parameter in the plug-in's oating window creates temporary entries for that parameter in the clip envelope and automation choosers, as well as the choosers

The Con gure Button.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 212 in the panel's X-Y eld. These entries are removed when you adjust another parameter. To make the entry permanent (thus adding it to Live's panel), either edit the parameter's automation or clip envelope, select another parameter in the automation or clip envelope choosers or select the temporary parameter in one of the X-Y eld's choosers.

ˆ When a parameter is changed on a plug-in's edit window during recording, automation data is recorded automatically. When recording is stopped, the automated parameters are automatically added to Live's panels for any plug-ins that were adjusted.

ˆ When in MIDI, key or Macro mapping mode, adjusting any parameter in the plug-in's window will create it in Live's panel. The new panel entry will be automatically selected, allowing you to map it immediately.

Once a plug-in is placed in a track and you have (optionally) con gured its parameters in

Live's panel, you can use it just like a Live device:

ˆ You can map MIDI controller messages to all of the parameters in Live's panel.

ˆ You can drag or copy the device to different locations in the device chain or to other tracks, according to the rules of audio effects and instruments.

ˆ You can modulate its continuous parameters with clip envelopes.

ˆ You can use the multiple I/O features of some plug-ins by assigning them as sources or targets in the routing setup of tracks. See the

Routing and I/O chapter

for details.

ˆ You can create custom

info text

for the plug-in.

Macintosh only: The oating editor windows of some VST Plug-ins do not receive computer key strokes. This is generally an implementation error in the plug-in itself. If it is necessary to type into a plug-in window, for instance for entering a serial number or unlock code, hold down while clicking the Plug-In Edit button. The editor window will then appear as a normal application window, rather than as a oating window, and receive your typing.

Note that this functionality is intended only as a workaround for the limitations of such plugins. We recommend closing the window after you have nished typing, then reopening it normally before working with the plug-in parameters.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 213

16.2.2

Plug-In Performance Options

The CPU Preferences contain a Plug-In Buffer Size setting for balancing plug-in latency and performance. Here you can set the number of samples processed at any one time by the plug-in. Higher settings may result in a noticeable performance increase but will also result in higher latencies.

With the As Audio Buffer setting selected, the plug-in will calculate the exact number of samples per millisecond as the computer's sound card. This setting usually means that very few dropouts or performance problems will occur, especially with DSP cards.

The size of the computer's sound card buffer (i.e., the number of samples it calculates per millisecond) can be set using the Buffer Size setting in the Audio Preferences.

16.3

VST Plug-Ins

16.3.1

The VST Plug-In Folder

When you start Live for the rst time, you will need to activate your VST Plug-in sources before working with VST Plug-ins. Depending on your computer platform, you may also have to tell Live about the location of the VST Plug-in folder containing the devices you want to use. In order to set up your VST sources, press the Activate button in the Plug-In

Device Browser, or open the File/Folder Preferences by pressing Ctrl ,

(PC) /

,

(Mac). There you will nd the Plug-In Sources section.

For Windows, proceed as follows:

1. Use the VST Plug-In Custom Folder entry to tell Live about the location of your

VST Plug-ins: Click the Browse button to open a folder-search dialog for locating and selecting the appropriate folder.

Setting up VST Plug-In

Sources for Windows.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS

2. Once you have selected a VST Custom Folder and Live has scanned it, the path will be displayed. Note that, on Windows, Live may have found a path in the registry without the need for browsing.

3. Make sure that the Use VST Plug-In Custom Folder option is set to On, so that your selected folder is an active source for VST Plug-ins in Live. Note that you can choose not to use your VST Plug-ins in Live by turning off the Use VST

Plug-In Custom Folder option.

214

Set up your VST Plug-ins under Mac OS X by doing the following:

1. Your VST Plug-ins will normally be installed in the following folder in your home and local directories: /Library/Audio/Plug-Ins/VST. You can turn Live's use of these plug-ins on or off with the Use VST Plug-ins in System Folders option.

2. You may have an alternative folder in which you store your VST Plug-ins (perhaps those that you use only with Live). You can use VST Plug-ins in this folder in addition to, or instead of, those in the System folders. To tell Live about the location of this folder, click the Browse button next to the VST Plug-In Custom Folder entry to open a folder-search dialog for locating and selecting the appropriate folder.

3. Note that you can turn off your VST Plug-ins in this folder using the Use VST

Plug-In Custom folder option.

Once you have con gured your Plug-In Preferences, the Plug-In Device Browser will display all plug-ins it nds in the selected VST Plug-in folder(s) as well as any sub-folders.

It is also possible to use VST Plug-ins stored in different folders on your computer. To do this, create a Mac OS or Windows alias of the folder where additional VST Plug-ins are stored, and then place the alias in the VST Plug-In Custom folder (or in the VST Plug-In

Setting up VST Plug-In

Sources for Mac OS X.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 215

System folder on Mac OS X) selected in Live's File/Folder Preferences. The alias can point to a different partition or hard drive on your computer. Live will scan the set VST Plug-in folder as well as any alias folders contained therein.

Some VST Plug-ins contain errors or are incompatible with Live. During the scanning process, these may cause the program to crash. When you re-launching Live, a dialog will appear to inform you about which plug-in caused the problem. Depending on what Live detects about the plug-in, you may be given the choice between performing another scan or making the problematic plug-in unavailable. If you choose to rescan and they crash the program a second time, Live will automatically make them unavailable, meaning that they will not appear in the Plug-In Device Browser and will not be rescanned again until they are reinstalled.

16.3.2

VST Programs and Banks

Every VST Plug-in instance owns a bank of programs . A program is meant to contain one complete set of values for the plug-in's controls.

To select a program from the plug-in's bank, use the chooser below the title bar. The number of programs per bank is xed. You are always working in the currently selected program, that is, all changes to the plug-in's controls become part of the selected program.

Note that VST programs are different from

Live device presets : Whereas the presets for a

Live device are shared among all instances and Live Sets, the VST programs belong to this speci c instance of the VST Plug-in.

The VST Plug-In

Program Chooser.

To rename the current program, select the VST program chooser and execute the Edit menu's Rename Plug-In Preset command. Then type in a new program name and con rm by pressing Return .

Renaming a VST Plug-In

Program.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 216

VST programs and banks can be imported from les. Clicking the VST Program Load button brings up a standard le-open dialog for locating the desired le.

Windows only : Please select from the File Type menu whether you want to locate VST

Device Program les or VST Device Bank les.

To save the currently selected program as a le, click the VST Program/Bank Save button to bring up a standard le-save dialog; select VST Device Program from the Format menu

(Macintosh)/from the File Type menu (Windows); select a folder and name. For saving the entire bank as a le, proceed likewise but choose VST Device Bank as a le type/format.

The VST Program/Bank

Load Button (Left) and

Save Button (Right).

16.4

Audio Units Plug-Ins

Audio Units Plug-ins are only available in Mac OS X. In most respects, they operate just like

VST Plug-ins .

The rst time you open Live, Audio Units Plug-ins will not appear in the Plug-In Device

Browser. In order to activate your Audio Units as a plug-in source, please press the Activate button in the Plug-In Device Browser, or go to the File/Folder Preferences by pressing

Ctrl , (PC) / , (Mac). There you will nd the Plug-In Sources section. Turning

An Audio Units Plug-In.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 217 on the Use Audio Units option activates Audio Units Plug-ins so that they appear in Live's

Plug-In Device Browser.

Note that you can always turn this option off later if you decide not to use Audio Units.

Audio Units Plug-ins sometimes have a feature that allows choosing between different modes for the device. You might be able to choose, for example, between different levels of quality in the rendering of a reverb. Choosers for these device modes can only be accessed through the original plug-in panel, which is opened using the Plug-In Edit button.

Activating Audio Units

Plug-Ins.

Audio Units have presets that function just like those for the

Live effects . However, some

AU presets cannot be dragged to different locations in the Browser, as they are read-only.

Audio Units presets have an .aupreset

extension and are stored in the following directory according to their manufacturer's name:

[Home]/Library/Audio/Presets/[Manufacturer Name]/[Plug-in Name]

Opening an Audio Units

Plug-In Window.

16.5

Device Delay Compensation

Live automatically compensates for delays caused by Live and plug-in instruments and effects, including those on the return tracks. These delays can arise from the time taken by devices to process an input signal and output a result. The compensation algorithm keeps all of Live's tracks in sync, regardless of what their devices are doing, while minimizing delay between the player's actions and the audible result.

CHAPTER 16. WORKING WITH INSTRUMENTS AND EFFECTS 218

Device delay compensation is on by default and does not normally have to be adjusted in any way. However, Live Sets that were created with Live 4 or earlier will open without device delay compensation. To manually turn latency compensation on (or off), use the

Delay Compensation option in the Options menu.

Unusually high

individual track delays

or reported latencies from plug-ins may cause noticeable sluggishness in the software. If you are having latency-related dif culties while recording and playing back instruments, you may want to try turning off device delay compensation, however this is not normally recommended. You may also nd that adjusting the individual track delays is useful in these cases.

Note that device delay compensation can, depending on the number of tracks and devices in use, increase the CPU load.

219

Chapter 17

Instrument, Drum and Effect Racks

A Rack is a exible tool for working with effects, plug-ins and instruments in a track's device chain. Racks can be used to build complex signal processors, dynamic performance instruments, stacked synthesizers and more. Yet they also streamline your device chain by bringing together your most essential controls. While Racks excel at handling multiple devices, they can extend the abilities of even a single device by de ning new control relationships between its parameters.

Racks greatly expand upon the concept of device groups introduced in Live 5. The device groups of any Live Sets imported from Live 5 are automatically converted to Racks by Live

Intro.

Note that these Live Sets, once saved, can no longer be opened in older versions of

Live.

Please note that Racks cannot be edited in Live Intro. You can use Racks that have been created in the full version of Live but you will only be able to access some of their controls.

To learn more about how Racks work internally, please download the full Ableton Reference

Manual from the Ableton website 1 .

1 http://www.ableton.com/downloads

CHAPTER 17. INSTRUMENT, DRUM AND EFFECT RACKS

17.1

An Overview of Racks

17.1.1

Signal Flow and Parallel Device Chains

220

In any of Live's tracks, devices are connected serially in a device chain, passing their signals from one device to the next, left to right. By default, the Track View displays only a single chain, but there is actually no limit to the number of chains contained within a track.

Racks allow (among other things) additional device chains to be added to any track. When a track has multiple chains, they operate in parallel: In Instrument and Effect Racks, each chain receives the same input signal at the same time, but then processes its signal serially through its own devices. The output of each of the parallel chains is mixed together, producing the

Rack's output.

Drum Racks also allow multiple parallel chains to be used simultaneously, but their chains process input somewhat differently: Rather than receiving the same input signals, each

Drum Rack chain receives input from only a single assigned MIDI note.

The entire contents of any Rack can be thought of as a single device.

This means that adding a new Rack at any point in a device chain is no different than adding any other device, and

Racks can contain any number of other Racks. If more devices are placed after a Rack in a track's device chain, the Rack's output is passed on to them, as usual.

Inside An Audio Effect

Rack (As It Appears in the Full Version of Live).

CHAPTER 17. INSTRUMENT, DRUM AND EFFECT RACKS

17.1.2

Macro Controls

221

One unique property of Racks are their Macro Controls.

The Macro Controls are a bank of eight knobs, each capable of addressing any number of parameters from any devices in a Rack. How you use them is up to you whether it be for convenience, by making an important device parameter more accessible; for de ning exotic, multi-parameter morphs of rhythm and timbre; or for constructing a mega-synth, and hiding it away behind a single customized interface.

For the greatest degree of expression, try

MIDI-mapping

the Macro Controls to an external control surface.

The Macro Controls.

17.2

Drum Racks

We've already talked a bit about Drum Racks, and most of their features are the same as those found in Instrument and Effect Racks. But Drum Racks have a slightly different layout, some unique controls and special behavior that is optimized for creating drum kits.

CHAPTER 17. INSTRUMENT, DRUM AND EFFECT RACKS

17.2.1

Pad View

222

The Pad View is unique to Drum Racks and offers an easy way to map and manipulate samples and devices. Each pad represents one of the 128 available MIDI notes. The pad overview to the right shifts the set of visible pads up or down in octave increments, either by dragging the view selector to a new area or by using your computer keyboard's and keys. Use the Alt (PC) / (Mac) modi er to shift the view by single rows instead.

A Rack's inner structure can sometimes be quite complicated. Pad View can make it much easier to work by letting you focus on only the top level: the notes and sounds. It's important to remember that a pad represents a note, rather than a chain. More speci cally, it represents all chains, no matter how deep in the Rack, that are able to receive that pad's note. What you can control with each pad is related to how many chains it represents:

ˆ An empty pad shows only the note it will trigger. When you mouse over it, the Status

Bar will display this note, as well as the suggested GM instrument.

ˆ A pad that triggers only one chain shows the name of the chain. In this case, the pad serves as a handy front-end for many controls that are normally accessed deeper in the Rack, such as mute, solo, preview and Hot-Swap. You can also rename and delete the chain via the pad.

ˆ A pad that triggers multiple chains shows Multi as its name, and its mute, solo and preview buttons will affect all of its chains. Hot-Swap and renaming are disabled for a

Multi pad, but you can delete all of its chains at once.

Pad View (As It Appears in the Full Version of

Live).

CHAPTER 17. INSTRUMENT, DRUM AND EFFECT RACKS 223

Pad View excels as a performance interface, particularly when triggered by a hardware control surface with pads. If your pad controller is one of Ableton's

natively supported control surfaces , simply select it as a control surface in the MIDI/Sync tab of Live's Preferences. From

then on, as long as you have a Drum Rack on a track that's receiving MIDI, your pad controller will trigger the pads that are visible on your screen. If you scroll the pad overview to show a different set of pads, your controller will update automatically.

224

Chapter 18

Automation and Editing Envelopes

Often, when working with Live's mixer and devices, you will want the controls' movements to become part of the music. The movement of a control across the song timeline is called automation ; a control whose value changes in the course of this timeline is automated .

Practically all mixer and device controls in Live can be automated, including the song tempo.

18.1

Recording Automation

Creating automation is straightforward: All changes of a control that occur while the Control

Bar's Record switch is on become automation. Try recording automation for a control, for instance a mixer volume slider. After recording, play back what you have just recorded to see and hear the effect of the control movement. You will notice that a little LED has appeared in the slider thumb to indicate that the control is now automated. Try recording automation for track panning and the Track Activator switch as well; their automation LEDs appear in their upper left corners.

CHAPTER 18. AUTOMATION AND EDITING ENVELOPES 225

Volume, Pan and the

Track Activator Switch

Have Been Automated.

18.2

Deleting Automation

To delete automation data, (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) on an automated control to open its context menu and select Delete Automation. The automation LED disappears, and the control's value stays constant across the entire song. You can also delete automation by editing

breakpoint envelopes .

18.3

Overriding Automation

In practice, you will often want to try out new control moves without overwriting existing automation data. Well, nothing is forever in the world of in nite

Undo , but it's easy to

disable a control's automation temporarily to avoid overwriting existing data: If you change an automated control's value while not in Record mode, the automation LED goes off to indicate the control's automation is inactive. Any automation is therefore overridden by the current manual setting.

The Back to

Arrangement Button.

When one or more of the automated controls in your Live Set are not active, the Control

Bar's Back to Arrangement button lights up. This button serves two purposes:

1. It reminds you that the current state of the controls differs from the state captured in the Arrangement.

CHAPTER 18. AUTOMATION AND EDITING ENVELOPES

2. You can click on it to reactivate all automation and thereby return to the automation state as it is written on tape.

226

18.4

Drawing and Editing Automation

In the Arrangement View, automation curves can be viewed and edited as breakpoint envelopes.

3 5 1 4 2

8 6 7

1. To show a track's envelopes, unfold the track by clicking the to the track name.

button next

2. Clicking on one of the track's mixer or device controls will display this control's envelope on the clip track.

3. Envelopes appear on top of the audio waveform or MIDI display. An envelope's vertical axis represents the control value and the horizontal axis represents time. For switches and radio buttons, the value axis is discontinuous.

4. The Fades/Device chooser either selects

audio clip fades , the track mixer, one

of the track's devices or None to hide the envelope. It also provides you with

Automation Envelopes in the Arrangement

View.

CHAPTER 18. AUTOMATION AND EDITING ENVELOPES 227 an overview of which devices actually have automation by showing an LED next to their labels. You can make things clearer still by selecting Show Automated

Parameters Only from the bottom of the chooser.

5. The Automation Control chooser selects a control from the device chosen in the

Fades/Device chooser. The labels of automated controls have an LED.

Once an envelope has been selected on the track, several new buttons appear:

6. The button moves the envelope into its own automation lane below the clip.

You can then select another automation parameter from the choosers to view it simultaneously. If the Fades/Device chooser is set to None , this button will be hidden.

7. The button hides its respective automation lane. Note that hiding a lane from view does not deactivate its envelope.

8. If any automation lanes have been created for a given track, you can hide or show them all by clicking the additional button that appears at the bottom of the track's title bar.

Clicking (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) on a track name or automation lane header opens a context menu with additional options for viewing envelopes. This context menu also contains commands to quickly clear all automation envelopes for the track or any of its devices.

18.4.1

Drawing Envelopes

With Draw Mode enabled, you can click and drag to draw an envelope curve.

To toggle Draw Mode, select the Draw Mode option from the Options menu, click on the

Control Bar's Draw Mode switch, or press Ctrl B

(PC) /

B

(Mac).

The Draw Mode Switch.

CHAPTER 18. AUTOMATION AND EDITING ENVELOPES 228

Drawing creates steps as wide as the visible grid, which you can modify using

a number of handy shortcuts . For freehand drawing, you can hide the grid using the Snap to Grid

Options menu entry or the Ctrl 4 (PC) / 4 (Mac) shortcut. To temporarily enable freehand drawing while the grid is shown, hold down drawing.

Alt (PC) / Alt (Mac) while

Drawing an Envelope.

18.4.2

Editing Breakpoints

With Draw Mode off, the envelope display looks and works differently. The line segments and the breakpoints connecting them become draggable objects. Clicking and dragging in the envelope's background de nes a selection. Here is what you can do:

ˆ Double-click at a position on a line segment to create a new breakpoint there.

ˆ Double-click on a breakpoint to delete it.

ˆ Click and drag a breakpoint to move it to the desired location. If the breakpoint you are dragging is in the current selection, all other breakpoints in the selection will follow the movement.

Your movement is constrained by the neighboring breakpoints unless you hold down the modi er while dragging, which will eliminate breakpoints as you wipe over

To Move all Breakpoints

Within the Selection,

Drag Any One of Them.

CHAPTER 18. AUTOMATION AND EDITING ENVELOPES 229 them. Holding down the Ctrl (PC) / to a ner resolution.

(Mac) modi er while dragging switches

ˆ Click and drag a line segment between two breakpoints to move it vertically, without affecting the breakpoint's horizontal position. If the line segment is in the current selection, the envelope is moved vertically across the selected timespan. Live inserts breakpoints at the selection's edges to make sure the move only affects the selected part of the envelope.

18.4.3

Locking Envelopes

When moving clips, Live normally moves all automation with the clip. Sometimes, you might want to lock the envelopes to the song position rather than to the clips, and the

Arrangement View's Lock Envelopes switch does just that.

You can also choose to lock envelopes from the Options menu.

Dragging an Envelope

Line Segment Moves the

Segment Vertically.

18.4.4

Edit Menu Commands

When working with automation data, the Edit menu commands behave differently depending on whether or not your selection is within the clip track or its automation lanes.

The Lock Envelopes

Switch.

CHAPTER 18. AUTOMATION AND EDITING ENVELOPES 230

To copy, cut, delete or duplicate automation from a track, independent of the associated clip, make sure the parameter you want to work with is in its own lane. Any edit commands applied to an envelope selection within a single lane will only apply to this envelope. The clip itself will be unaffected. You can also work with envelopes in multiple lanes simultaneously.

If you want your edits to apply to both the clip and all of its associated envelopes, apply edit commands to a selection in the clip track.

Note that Live allows you to copy and paste envelope movements not only from one point in time to another, but also from one parameter to another. Since the parameters may be completely unrelated, this can have unexpected (but possibly interesting) results.

18.4.5

Editing the Tempo Automation

The ability to dynamically stretch and compress audio to track any tempo or tempo variation is one of Live's specialties. In Live, the song tempo is just another automated control.

To edit the song tempo envelope, unfold the Master track, choose Mixer from the top envelope chooser and Song Tempo from the bottom one.

When adjusting the tempo envelope, you might want to scale the value axis display, which is the function of the two value boxes below the envelope choosers: The left box sets the minimum, and the right box sets the maximum tempo displayed, in BPM.

Note that these two controls also determine the value range of a

MIDI controller

assigned to the tempo.

The Tempo Envelope.

231

Chapter 19

Clip Envelopes

Every clip in Live can have its own clip envelopes . The aspects of a clip that are in uenced by clip envelopes change depending upon clip type and setup; clip envelopes can do anything from representing MIDI controller data to modulating device parameters. In this chapter, we will rst look at how all clip envelopes are drawn and edited, and then get into the details of their various applications.

19.1

The Clip Envelope Editor

Use the Clip View Box

Selector to Bring up the

Envelopes Box.

CHAPTER 19. CLIP ENVELOPES 232

To work with clip envelopes, bring up the Clip View's Envelopes box by activating the rightmost Clip View Box selector panel. The Envelopes box contains two choosers for selecting an envelope to view and edit.

The top menu is the Device chooser, which selects a general category of controls with which to work. Device chooser entries are different for different kinds of clips:

ˆ Audio clips have entries for Clip (the clip's sample controls), every effect in the track's device chain and the mixer.

ˆ MIDI clips have entries for MIDI Ctrl (MIDI controller data) and every device in the track's device chain.

The bottom menu, the Control chooser, selects among the controls of the item chosen in the top menu. In both choosers, parameters with altered clip envelopes appear with LEDs next to their names. You can simplify the appearance of these choosers by selecting Show

Modulated Parameters Only from either of them.

The quick-chooser buttons below the menus select commonly edited controls.

Clicking the menus or the quick-chooser buttons brings up the Envelope Editor showing the selected envelope, instead of the Sample Display or MIDI Editor. You can toggle the display by clicking on the title bars of the Sample/Notes and Envelopes boxes.

The techniques for drawing and editing clip envelopes are the same as those for automation envelopes in the

Arrangement View .

If you create a nice section of envelope that you want to have repeat several times, try the following:

The Clip View's

Envelopes Box.

CHAPTER 19. CLIP ENVELOPES 233

1. Enclose the desired selection in the loop brace, and click the brace so that it is selected. This will execute the Edit menu's Select Loop command, which selects all material in the loop.

2. Copy the envelope with Ctrl C (PC) / C (Mac).

3. Shift the loop brace to the right by one loop length with .

4. Paste the envelope with Ctrl V (PC) / V (Mac).

Note that you can use the arrow keys to quickly

manipulate the loop brace and start/end markers

in other useful ways to expedite clip envelope editing tasks.

To delete a clip envelope (i.e., to set it back to its default value), rst go to Edit/Select All, then to Edit/Delete.

Let us now look at some uses of clip envelopes.

19.2

Audio Clip Envelopes

Clip envelopes extend Live's elastic approach to audio and, in conjunction with Live's audio effects, turn Live into a mighty sound-design tool. Using clip envelopes with audio clips, you can create an abundance of interesting variations from the same clip in real time anything from subtle corrections to entirely new and unrelated sounds.

19.2.1

Clip Envelopes are Non-Destructive

Using clip envelopes, you can create new sounds from a sample without actually affecting the sample on disk. Because Live calculates the envelope modulations in real time, you can have hundreds of clips in a Live Set that all sound different, but use the same sample.

You can, of course, export a newly created sound by

rendering , or by

resampling . In the

Arrangement View, you can use the

Consolidate command

to create new samples.

CHAPTER 19. CLIP ENVELOPES 234

19.2.2

Changing Pitch and Tuning per Note

Drop a sample loop from the Browser into Live and play it. Click on the Transpose quickchooser button. You can now alter the pitch transposition of individual notes in the sample as you listen to it.

The fast way to do this is by enabling

Draw Mode

and drawing steps along the grid.

Deactivate Draw Mode to edit breakpoints and line segments. This is useful for smoothing the coarse steps by horizontally displacing breakpoints.

Note that the warp settings determine how accurately Live's time-warping engine tracks the envelope shape. To obtain a more immediate response, reduce the Grain Size value in

Tones and Texture Mode or choose a smaller value for the Transients control in Beats Mode.

To correct the tuning of individual notes in the sample, hold down the Ctrl (PC) /

(Mac) modi er while drawing or moving breakpoints to obtain a ner resolution.

The Transposition

Envelope with Steps

(Top) and Ramps

(Bottom).

CHAPTER 19. CLIP ENVELOPES 235

To scroll the display, hold down the Ctrl Alt dragging.

(PC) / Alt (Mac) modi er while

Pitch is modulated in an additive way. The output of the transposition envelope is simply added to the Transpose control's value. The result of the modulation is clipped to stay in the available range (-48..48 semitones in this case).

19.2.3

Muting or Attenuating Notes in a Sample

Click on the Volume quick-chooser to access an audio clip's volume envelope. By drawing steps in Draw Mode or creating shapes with breakpoints, you can impose an arbitrary volume shape onto the sample.

The volume envelope's output is interpreted as a relative percentage of the clip volume slider's current value. The result of the clip envelope's modulation can therefore never exceed the absolute volume setting, but the clip envelope can drag the audible volume down to silence.

Imposing a Volume

Envelope on a Sample.

19.2.4

Scrambling Beats

One very creative use of clip envelopes is to modulate the sample offset. Sample offset modulation makes the most sense for rhythmical samples, and is only available for clips that are set up to run in the Beats Warp Mode.

Try sample offset modulation with a one-bar drum loop: Make sure Beats Mode is chosen; in the Envelopes box, choose Clip from the Device chooser and Sample Offset from

CHAPTER 19. CLIP ENVELOPES 236 the Control chooser. The Envelope Editor appears with a vertical grid overlay. In

envelope

Draw Mode , set steps to non-zero values to hear the loop scrambled. What is going on?

Imagine the audio is read out by a tape head, the position of which is modulated by the envelope. The higher a value the envelope delivers, the farther away the tape head is from its center position. Positive envelope values move the head towards the future, negative values move it towards the past. Fortunately, Live performs the modulation in beats rather than centimeters: A vertical grid line is worth a sixteenth note of offset and the modulation can reach from plus eight sixteenths to minus eight sixteenths.

Sample offset modulation is the tool of choice for quickly creating interesting variations of beat loops. We discourage using this technique for analytical cut-and-splice tasks; they are much easier to perform using Live's Arrangement View, and the results can easily be

consolidated into new clips .

Some sample offset envelope gestures have a characteristic effect: a downward escalator shape, for instance, effectively repeats the step at the envelope's beginning. Similarly, a smooth ramp with a downwards slope is slowing time and can create nice slurring effects when the slope is not quite exactly 45 degrees; try this with a 1/32 Transients setting.

Repeating Steps and

Slowing Time with the

Sample Offset Envelope.

19.2.5

Using Clips as Templates

As you are making creative use of clip envelopes, the clips containing them develop a life of their own, independent of the original sample. You might wonder at a point: What does this clip sound like with a different sample? This is easy to nd out by selecting the clip so that it is displayed in the Clip View and dragging the desired sample from one of the

CHAPTER 19. CLIP ENVELOPES 237

File Browsers, or the Session or Arrangement View, onto the Clip View. All clip settings, including the envelopes, will remain unaltered; only the sample will be replaced.

19.3

Mixer and Device Clip Envelopes

Clip envelopes can be used to modulate mixer and device controls. Since mixer and device controls can also be controlled by the Arrangement's

automation envelopes , this is

a potential source of confusion. However, clip envelopes differ from automation envelopes in one important way: Whereas automation envelopes de ne the value of a control at any given point in time, clip envelopes can only in uence this de ned value. This difference allows the two types of envelopes to work together in harmony when controlling the same parameter.

Imagine that you have recorded volume automation for an audio clip so that it gradually fades out over four bars. What happens to your fade-out when you create a clip envelope that gradually increases the mixer volume over four bars? At rst, your fade-out will become a crescendo, as the clip envelope gradually increases the volume within the range allowed by the automation envelope. But, once the decreasing automated value meets with the increasing clip envelope value, the fade-out will begin, as automation forces the absolute control value (and the operable range of the clip envelope) down.

19.3.1

Modulating Mixer Volumes and Sends

Notice that there are actually two volume modulations: Clip Volume and Mixer Volume.

The latter is a modulation for the mixer's gain stage and therefore affects the post-effect signal. To prevent confusion, a small dot below the mixer's volume slider thumb indicates the actual, modulated volume setting.

Modulating the Mixer

Volume. The Little Dot

Below the Volume Slider

Thumb Represents the

Modulated Volume

Setting.

CHAPTER 19. CLIP ENVELOPES 238

As you raise and lower the Volume slider, you can observe the dot following your movement in a relative fashion.

Modulating the track's Send controls is just as easy. Again, the modulation is a relative percentage: The clip envelope cannot open the send further than the Send knob, but it can reduce the actual send value to minus in nite dB.

Modulating a Send. The

Send Knob's Position

Ring Indicates the

Modulated Value.

19.3.2

Modulating Pan

The Pan envelope affects the mixer pan stage in a relative way: The pan knob's position determines the intensity of the modulation. With the pan knob set to the center position, modulation by the clip envelope can reach from hard left to hard right; the modulation amount is automatically reduced as you move the pan knob towards the left or right. When the pan knob is turned all the way to the left, for instance, the pan clip envelope has no effect at all.

19.3.3

Modulating Device Controls

All devices in a clip's track are listed in the upper clip envelope Device chooser. Modulating the devices' controls works just as you would expect. When modulating device controls, it is important to keep the interaction of clip envelopes and device settings in mind: Unlike a

device preset , the clip envelope cannot de ne the values for the devices' controls, it can

only change them relative to their current setting.

19.4

MIDI Controller Clip Envelopes

Whether you are working with a new MIDI clip that was

recorded

directly into Live, or one from your les, Live allows you to edit and create MIDI controller data for the clip in the form of clip envelopes.

CHAPTER 19. CLIP ENVELOPES 239

Choose MIDI Ctrl from a MIDI clip's Device chooser and use the Control chooser below it to select a speci c MIDI controller. You can create new clip envelopes for any of the listed controllers by drawing steps or using breakpoints. You can also edit clip envelope representations of controller data that is imported as part of your MIDI les or is created while recording new clips: Names of controllers that already have clip envelopes appear with an adjacent LED in the Control chooser.

Live supports most MIDI controller numbers up to 119, accessible via the scroll bar on the right side of the menu. Note that devices to which you send your MIDI controller messages may not follow the conventions of MIDI control channel assignments, so that Pitch Bend or Pan, for example, will not always achieve the results that their names imply.

Many of the techniques described in the following section on

unlinking a clip envelope

from its associated clip can be adapted for use with MIDI controller clip envelopes.

A MIDI Controller Clip

Envelope.

19.5

Unlinking Clip Envelopes From Clips

A clip envelope can have its own local loop/region settings. The ability to unlink the envelope from its clip creates an abundance of exciting creative options, some of which we will present in the rest of this chapter.

CHAPTER 19. CLIP ENVELOPES 240

19.5.1

Programming a Fade-Out for a Live Set

Let us start with a straightforward example. Suppose you are setting up a Live Set and wish to program a fade-out over eight bars to occur when a speci c clip is launched but all you have is a one-bar loop.

2 4

1 3

1. Choose the Clip Volume envelope, and unlink it from the sample.

The clip envelope's loop braces now appear colored to indicate this envelope now has its own local loop/region settings. The loop/region controls in the

Envelopes box come to life.

2. Make sure the clip envelope's Loop switch is off. Notice the Sample box's Loop switch is not affected. The sample will keep looping although the envelope is now playing as a one-shot.

3. Type 8 into the leftmost envelope loop-length value box.

4. Zoom the envelope display out all the way by clicking on the Envelope's time ruler and dragging upwards.

5. Insert a breakpoint at the region end and drag it to the bottom (zero percent).

Now, as you play the clip, you can hear the one-bar loop fading out over eight bars.

Please note: toggling Linked Mode changes the envelope data. Toggling back and forth

Using a Clip Envelope to

Create a Fade-Out Over

Several Repetitions of a

Loop.

CHAPTER 19. CLIP ENVELOPES 241 effectively deletes the envelope data. To return to the previous state, please use the Edit menu's Undo command.

19.5.2

Creating Long Loops from Short Loops

Let us take this a step further. For a different part of your set, you would like to use the same one-bar loop because it sounds great but its repetition bores you. You would like to somehow turn it into a longer loop.

We depart from the clip we just set up to fade out over eight bars. Activate the clip volume envelope's Loop switch. Now, as you play the clip, you can hear the eight-bar fade-out repeating. You can draw or edit any envelope to superimpose onto the sample loop. This, of course, not only works for volume but for any other control as well; how about a lter sweep every four bars?

Note that you can create as much time as needed in the Envelope Editor, either by dragging the loop braces beyond the view limit, or by entering values into the numeric region/loop controls.

You can choose an arbitrary loop length for each envelope, including odd lengths like 3.2.1.

It is not hard to imagine great complexity (and confusion!) arising from several odd-length envelopes in one clip.

To keep this complexity under control, it is important to have a common point of reference.

The start marker identi es the point where sample or envelope playback depart from when the clip starts.

The Sample (Left) and

Envelope (Right) Start

Marker.

CHAPTER 19. CLIP ENVELOPES 242

Note that the start/end markers and loop brace are subject to

quantization by the zoomadaptive grid , as is

envelope drawing .

19.5.3

Imposing Rhythm Patterns onto Samples

So far, we have been talking about imposing long envelopes onto small loops. You can also think of interesting applications that work the other way around. Consider a sample of a song that is several minutes long. This sample could be played by a clip with a onebar volume envelope loop. The volume envelope loop now works as a pattern that is repeatedly punching holes into the music so as to, perhaps, remove every third beat. You can certainly think of other parameters that such a pattern could modulate in interesting ways.

19.5.4

Clip Envelopes as LFOs

If you are into sound synthesis, you may want to think of a clip envelope with a local loop as an LFO. This LFO is running in sync with the project tempo, but it is also possible to set up a loop period odd enough to render the envelope unsynchronized. By

hiding the grid , you

can adjust the clip envelope loop start and end points completely independent of meter grid.

243

Chapter 20

Live Audio Effect Reference

Live comes with a selection of custom-designed, built-in audio effects. The

Working with

Instruments and Effects chapter

explains the basics of using effects in Live.

20.1

Auto Filter

The Auto Filter effect provides classic analog lter emulation. It can be modulated by an envelope follower and/or an LFO to create moving lter effects. The envelope follower can track either the ltered signal or an external sidechain source.

The Auto Filter Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 244

There are four different lter types: lowpass, highpass, bandpass and notch. For each type, the X-Y controller adjusts frequency (to adjust, click and drag on the X-axis) and Q (also called resonance; to adjust, click and drag on the Y-axis). You can also click on the Freq and

Q numeric displays and type in exact values.

Low Q values create a broad lter curve, while higher values introduce a narrow, resonant peak to the sound. With bandpass ltering, Q sets the bandwidth of the passed signal.

The Quantize Beat control applies quantized modulation to the lter frequency. With Quantize Beat off, frequency modulation follows the control source. Turning this feature on updates the lter modulation rhythmically with stepped changes that track the master tempo. The numbered buttons represent 16th notes, so, for example, selecting 4 as a beat value produces a modulation change once per beat.

The Envelope section controls how the envelope modulation affects the lter frequency.

The Amount control de nes the extent to which the envelope affects the lter frequency, while the Attack control sets how the envelope responds to rising input signals. Low Attack values cause a fast response to input levels; high values integrate any changes gradually, creating a looser, slower response. Think of it as adding inertia to the response.

Lower Release values cause the envelope to respond more quickly to falling input signals.

Higher values extend the envelope's decay.

Normally, the signal being ltered and the input source that triggers the envelope follower are the same signal. But by using sidechaining , it is possible to lter a signal based on the envelope of another signal. To access the Sidechain parameters, unfold the Auto Filter window by toggling the button in its title bar.

Enabling this section with the Sidechain button allows you to select another track from the choosers below. This causes the selected track's signal to trigger the lter's envelope follower, instead of the signal that is actually being ltered.

The Gain knob adjusts the level of the external sidechain's input, while the Dry/Wet knob allows you to use a combination of sidechain and original signal as the envelope follower's trigger. With Dry/Wet at 100%, the envelope follower tracks the sidechain source exclusively.

At 0%, the sidechain is effectively bypassed. Note that increasing the gain does not increase the volume of the source signal in the mix. The sidechain audio is only a trigger for the envelope follower and is never actually heard.

The Auto Filter also contains a Low Frequency Oscillator to modulate lter frequency in a

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 245 periodic fashion. The respective Amount control sets how much the LFO affects the lter.

This can be used in conjunction with or instead of the envelope follower.

The Rate control speci es the LFO speed. It can be set in terms of hertz, or synced to the song tempo, allowing for controlled rhythmic ltering.

Available LFO waveform shapes are sine (creates smooth modulations with rounded peaks and valleys), square, triangle, sawtooth up, sawtooth down, and sample and hold (generates random positive and negative modulation values) in mono and stereo.

There are two LFOs, one for each stereo channel. The Phase and Offset controls de ne the relationship between these two LFOs.

Phase keeps both LFOs at the same frequency, but can set the two LFO waveforms out of phase with each other, creating stereo movement. Set to 180 , the LFO outputs are 180 degrees apart, so that when one LFO reaches its peak, the other is at its minimum.

Spin detunes the two LFO speeds relative to each other. Each stereo channel is modulated at a different frequency, as determined by the Spin amount.

For sample and hold, the Phase and Spin controls are not relevant and do not affect the sound. Instead, the Auto Filter offers two kinds of sample and hold: The upper sample and hold type available in the chooser provides independent random modulation generators for the left and right channels (stereo), while the lower one modulates both channels with the same signal (mono).

20.2

Auto Pan

The Auto Pan Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 246

Auto Pan offers LFO-driven manipulation of amplitude and panning for creating automatic panning, tremolo and amplitude modulation, and beat-synchronized chopping effects.

Auto Pan's LFOs modulate the amplitude of the left and right stereo channels with sine, triangle, sawtooth down or random waveforms.

The Shape control pushes the waveform to its upper and lower limits, hardening its shape.

The waveform can be set to Normal or Invert (use Invert to, for example, create the saw up waveform from the saw down waveform).

LFO speed is controlled with the Rate control, which can be set in terms of hertz. Rate can also be synced to the song tempo.

Though both LFOs run at the same frequency, the Phase control lends the sound stereo movement by offsetting their waveforms relative to each other. Set this to 180 , and the

LFOs will be perfectly out of phase (180 degrees apart), so that when one reaches its peak, the other is at its minimum. Phase is particularly effective for creating vibrato effects.

The Offset control shifts the start point of each LFO along its waveform.

The device's in uence on incoming signals is set with the Amount control.

20.3

Beat Repeat

Beat Repeat allows for the creation of controlled or randomized repetitions of an incoming signal.

The Beat Repeat Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 247

The Interval control de nes how often Beat Repeat captures new material and begins repeating it. Interval is synced to and set in terms of the song tempo, with values ranging from 1/32 to 4 Bars. The Offset control shifts the point de ned by Interval forward in time. If Interval is set to 1 Bar, for example, and Offset to 8/16 , material will be captured for repetition once per bar on the third beat (i.e., halfway, or eight-sixteenths of the way, through the bar).

You can add randomness to the process using the Chance control, which de nes the likelihood of repetitions actually taking place when Interval and Offset ask for them. If Chance is set to 100 percent, repetitions will always take place at the given Interval/Offset time; if set to zero, there will be no repetitions.

Gate de nes the total length of all repetitions in sixteenth notes. If Gate is set to 4/16 , the repetitions will occur over the period of one beat, starting at the position de ned by

Interval and Offset.

Activating the Repeat button bypasses all of the above controls, immediately capturing material and repeating it until deactivated.

The Grid control de nes the grid size the size of each repeated slice. If set to 1/16 , a slice the size of one sixteenth note will be captured and repeated for the given Gate length

(or until Repeat is deactivated). Large grid values create rhythmic loops, while small values create sonic artifacts. The No Triplets button sets grid division as binary.

Grid size can be changed randomly using the Variation control. If Variation is set to 0 , grid size is xed. But when Variation is set to higher values, the grid uctuates considerably around the set Grid value. Variation has several different modes, available in the chooser below: Trigger creates variations of the grid when repetitions are triggered; 1/4, 1/8 and

1/16 trigger variations in regular intervals; and Auto forces Beat Repeat to apply a new random variation after each repetition the most complex form of grid variation in Beat

Repeat (especially if triplets are also allowed).

Beat Repeat's repetitions can be pitched down for special sonic effects. Pitch is adjusted through resampling in Beat Repeat, lengthening segments to pitch them down without again compressing them to adjust for the length change. This means that the rhythmical structure can become quite ambiguous with higher Pitch values. The Pitch Decay control tapers the pitch curve, making each repeated slice play lower than the previous one.

Warning: This is the most obscure parameter of Beat Repeat.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 248

Beat Repeat includes a combined lowpass and highpass lter for de ning the passed frequency range of the device. You can turn the lter on and off, and set the center frequency and width of the passed frequency band, using the respective controls.

The original signal (which was received at Beat Repeat's input) is mixed with Beat Repeat's repetitions according to one of three mix modes: Mix allows the original signal to pass through the device and have repetitions added to it; Insert mutes the original signal when repetitions are playing but passes it otherwise; and Gate passes only the repetitions, never passing the original signal. Gate mode is especially useful when the effect is housed in a return track.

You can set the output level of the device using the Volume control, and apply Decay to create gradually fading repetitions.

20.4

Chorus

The Chorus effect uses two parallel time-modulated delays to create chorus (thickening) and anging effects.

Each delay has its own delay time control, calibrated in milliseconds. Delay 1 has a highpass lter that can remove low frequencies from the delayed signal. Greater highpass values let only very high frequencies pass through to Delay 1.

Delay 2 can switch among three different modes. When off, only Delay 1 is audible. In Fix

Mode, only Delay 1's delay time will be modulated. When Mod is activated, Delay 2 will receive the same modulation as Delay 1.

The Chorus Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 249

To set both delay lines to Delay 1's delay time, turn on the link button ( = ). This is especially useful if you want to change both delays with a single gesture.

The Modulation X-Y controller can impart motion to the sounds. To change the modulation rate for the delay times, click and drag along the horizontal axis. To change the amount of modulation, click and drag along the vertical axis.

You can also make changes by entering parameter values in the Amount and Rate elds below the X-Y controller. The Amount value is in milliseconds, while the modulation frequency rate is in Hertz.

Clicking the *20 switch multiplies the modulation frequency by 20 to achieve more extreme sounds.

The Feedback control determines how much of the output signal feeds back into the input, while the Polarity switch sets (surprise!) the polarity. Polarity changes have the most effect with high amounts of feedback and short delay times.

The Dry/Wet control adjusts the balance between the processed and dry signals. Set it to

100 percent when using Chorus in a return track.

Enabling the Crisp option via the (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu can improve the sound quality, particularly at higher frequencies. This is enabled by default, except when loading Sets that use Chorus and were made in earlier versions of Live.

20.5

Compressor

The Compressor Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 250

A compressor reduces gain for signals above a user-settable threshold. Compression reduces the levels of peaks, opening up more headroom and allowing the overall signal level to be turned up. This gives the signal a higher average level, resulting in a sound that is subjectively louder and punchier than an uncompressed signal.

The latest incarnation of the Compressor effect merges the functionality of the former

Compressor I and Compressor II devices into a single unit, and adds additional functionality such as external sidechaining, adjustable knee, more EQ options, an improved peak mode, and a new feedback model, which is lovingly based on some classic hardware compressors.

The new Compressor is fully backward-compatible with Compressor I and Compressor II presets.

A compressor's two most important parameters are the Threshold and the compression

Ratio:

The Threshold slider sets where compression begins. Signals above the threshold are attenuated by an amount speci ed by the Ratio parameter, which sets the ratio between the input and output signal. For example, with a compression ratio of 3, if a signal above the threshold increases by 3 dB, the compressor output will increase by only 1 dB. If a signal above the threshold increases by 6 dB, then the output will increase by only 2 dB. A ratio of

1 means no compression, regardless of the threshold.

The Knee control adjusts how gradually or abruptly compression occurs as the threshold is approached. With a setting of 0 dB, no compression is applied to signals below the threshold, and full compression is applied to any signal at or above the threshold. With very high ratios, this so-called hard knee behavior can sound harsh. With higher (or soft ) knee values, the compressor begins compressing gradually as the threshold is approached.

For example, with a 10 dB knee and a -20 dB threshold, subtle compression will begin at

-30 dB and increase so that signals at -10 dB will be fully compressed.

The easiest way to visualize Compressor's behavior is by observing how the graph changes when you adjust the threshold, ratio, and knee values. Input level is measured on the horizontal axis, while output level is represented vertically. Next to the graph is the Gain

Reduction meter, which shows how much the gain is being reduced at any given moment.

The more reduction, the more audible the effect; a gain reduction above 6 dB or so might produce the desired loudness, but signi cantly alters the sound and is easily capable of destroying its dynamic structure. This is something that cannot be undone in later production steps. Keep this in mind especially when using a compressor, limiter or sound loudness-

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 251 maximizing tool in the master channel. Less is often more here.

Because compression reduces the volume of loud signals and opens up headroom, you can use the Output slider so that the peaks once again hit the maximum available headroom.

The Output meter shows the output signal's level. Enabling the Makeup button below the

Output slider automatically compensates the output level if the threshold and ratio settings change.

The Attack and Release controls are essential parameters for controlling the response time of Compressor by de ning how fast it reacts to input-level changes.

Attack de nes how long it takes to reach maximum compression once a signal exceeds the threshold, while Release sets how long it takes for the compressor to return to normal operation after the signal falls below the threshold.

A slight amount of attack time (10 50 ms) allows peaks to come through unprocessed, which helps preserve dynamics by accentuating the initial portion of the signal. If these peaks cause overloads, you can try shortening the attack time, but extremely short times take the life out of the signal, and may lead to a slight buzziness caused by distortion.

Short release times can cause pumping as the compressor tries to gure out whether to compress or not; while generally considered an undesirable effect, some engineers use it on full drum kits to give unusual sucking effects. Careful adjustment of attack and release times is essential when it comes to compression of rhythmical sources. If you are not used to working with compressors, play a drum loop and spend some time adjusting Attack,

Release, Threshold and Gain. It can be very exciting!

A compressor can only react to an input signal once it occurs. Since it also needs to apply an attack/release envelope, the compression is always a bit too late. A digital compressor can solve this problem by simply delaying the input signal a little bit. Compressor offers three different Lookahead times: zero ms, one ms and ten ms. The results may sound pretty different depending on this setting.

Compressor can be used in three different EF (envelope follower) modes. With Peak selected, Compressor reacts to short peaks within a signal. RMS mode causes Compressor to be less sensitive to very short peaks and compress only when the incoming level has exceeded the threshold for a slightly longer time. Opto mode results in a non-linear release curve. Speci cally, the release behavior is faster initially, and slows down as the gain reduction approaches zero. So which type should you use? There's no right answer, of course, but there are some common uses for each mode. Peak mode is more aggressive and pre-

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 252 cise, and so works well for limiting tasks where you need to ensure that there are absolutely no signals over the set threshold. RMS is closer to how people actually perceive loudness and is usually considered more musical.

Opto mode, because of its non-linear release time is often considered smooth and natural sounding. Opto compressors are commonly used on vocals, bass and electric guitar. But as always, when it comes to compression, trust your ears and not the meters!

In addition to the EF modes, Compressor offers three Model types that offer further options for how the device measures and responds to signal levels. FF1 and FF2 are both feedforward models, which analyze the loudness of the incoming signal. These are the models used in the former Compressor I and Compressor II devices, respectively. FB is a feedback model, which analyzes the output of the device and then self-adjusts its compression behavior. Because feedback compressors analyze signals that have already been compressed, their Attack and Release parameters are a bit less precise, and act more like suggestions to the compressor. But feedback compression generally results in a much smoother sound, with less overall gain reduction but also less potential for distortion artifacts. The classic analog compressor models that are so highly sought after in hardware-based studios are generally all feedback models. Note that, for reasons of quantum physics, Lookahead and external sidechaining are disabled when using the FB model; Ableton's engineers are hard at work developing code that will allow our software to predict the future, but we don't anticipate having this available until at least the next major release.

20.5.1

Sidechain Parameters

Normally, the signal being compressed and the input source that triggers the compressor

The Compressor Device

With Sidechain Section.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 253 are the same signal. But by using sidechaining , it is possible to compress a signal based on the level of another signal or a speci c frequency component. To access the Sidechain parameters, unfold the Compressor window by toggling the button in its title bar.

The sidechain parameters are divided into two sections. On the left are the external controls.

Enabling this section with the Sidechain button allows you to select any of Live's

internal routing points

from the choosers below. This causes the selected source to act as the compressor's trigger, instead of the signal that is actually being compressed.

The Gain knob adjusts the level of the external sidechain's input, while the Dry/Wet knob allows you to use a combination of sidechain and original signal as the compressor's trigger.

With Dry/Wet at 100%, the compressor is triggered entirely by the sidechain source. At

0%, the sidechain is effectively bypassed. Note that increasing the gain does not increase the volume of the source signal in the mix. The sidechain audio is only a trigger for the compressor and is never actually heard.

Note that FB mode and automatic Makeup are not available when using external sidechain.

On the right of the external section are the controls for the sidechain EQ. Enabling this section causes the compressor to be triggered by a speci c band of frequencies, instead of a complete signal. These can either be frequencies in the compressed signal or, by using the EQ in conjunction with an external sidechain, frequencies in another track's audio.

The headphones button between the external and EQ sections allows you to listen to only the sidechain input, bypassing the compressor's output. Since the sidechain audio isn't fed to the output, and is only a trigger for the compressor, this temporary listening option can make it much easier to set sidechain parameters and hear what's actually making the compressor work.

20.5.2

Compression Tips

This section presents some tips for using Compressor effectively, particularly with the sidechain options.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 254

Mixing a Voiceover

Sidechaining is commonly used for so-called ducking effects. For example, imagine that you have one track containing a voiceover and another track containing background music.

Since you want the voiceover to always be the loudest source in the mix, the background music must get out of the way every time the narrator is speaking. To do this automatically, insert a Compressor on the music track, but select the narration track's output as the external sidechain source.

Sidechaining in Dance Music

Sidechaining/ducking is a dance music producer's secret weapon because it can help to ensure that basslines (or even whole mixes) always make room for the kick drum. By inserting a compressor on the bass (or master) track and using the kick drum's track as the sidechain input, you can help to control problematic low frequencies that might interfere with the kick drum's attack.

Using the sidechain EQ in conjunction with this technique can create ducking effects even if you only have a mixed drum track to work with (as opposed to an isolated kick drum). In this case, insert the Compressor on the track you want to duck. Then choose the drum track as the external sidechain source. Then enable the sidechain EQ and select the lowpass lter.

By carefully adjusting the Frequency and Q settings, you should be able to isolate the kick drum from the rest of the drum mix. Using the sidechain listen mode can help you tune the

EQ until you nd settings you're happy with.

Note that mastery of these techniques may result in a noticeable increase in drink tickets, remix offers and dates.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE

20.6

Dynamic Tube

255

The Dynamic Tube effect infuses sounds with the peculiarities of tube saturation. An integrated envelope follower generates dynamic tonal variations related to the level of the input signal.

Three tube models, A, B and C, provide a range of distortion characteristics known from real ampli er tubes. Tube A does not produce distortions if Bias is set low, but will kick in whenever the input signal exceeds a certain threshold, creating bright harmonics. Tube C is a very poor tube amp that produces distortions all the time. The qualities of Tube B lie somewhere between these two extremes.

The Tone control sets the spectral distribution of the distortions, directing them into the higher registers, or through the midrange and deeper.

The Drive control determines how much signal reaches the tube; greater Drive yields a dirtier output. The intensity of the tube is controlled by the Bias dial, which pushes the signal into the celebrated realms of nonlinear distortion. With very high amounts of Bias, the signal will really start to break apart.

The Bias parameter can be positively or negatively modulated by an envelope follower, which is controlled with the Envelope knob. The more deeply the envelope is applied, the more the Bias point will be in uenced by the level of the input signal. Negative Envelope values create expansion effects by reducing distortion on loud signals, while positive values will make loud sounds dirtier.

Attack and Release are envelope characteristics that de ne how quickly the envelope reacts

The Dynamic Tube

Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 256 to volume changes in the input signal. Together, they shape the dynamic nature of the distortions. Note that if Envelope is set to zero, they will have no effect.

Cut or boost the device's nal signal level with the Output dial.

Aliasing can be reduced by enabling Hi-Quality mode, which can be accessed via the

(PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu. This improves the sound quality, particularly with high frequency signals, but there is a slight increase in CPU usage.

20.7

EQ Eight

The EQ Eight effect is an equalizer featuring up to eight parametric lters per input channel, useful for changing a sound's timbre. It extends the functionality of the former EQ Four device, and is fully backward-compatible with EQ Four presets.

The input signal can be processed using one of three modes: Stereo, L/R and M/S. Stereo mode uses a single curve to lter both channels of a stereo input equally. L/R mode provides an independently adjustable lter curve for the left and right channels of a stereo input; M/S mode (Mid/Side) provides the same functionality for signals that have been recorded using

M/S encoding.

When using the L/R and M/S modes, both curves are displayed simultaneously for reference, although only the active channel is editable. The Edit switch indicates the active channel, and is used to toggle between the two curves.

The lters can switch between six responses. From left to right in the display, these are:

The EQ Eight Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 257

ˆ Low cut (cuts frequencies below the speci ed frequency);

ˆ Low shelf (boosts or cuts frequencies lower than the speci ed frequency);

ˆ Bell curve (boosts or cuts over a range of frequencies);

ˆ Notch (sharply cuts frequencies within a narrow range);

ˆ High shelf (boosts or cuts frequencies higher than the speci ed frequency);

ˆ High cut (cuts frequencies above the speci ed frequency).

Each lter band can be turned on or off independently. Turn off bands that are not in use to save CPU power.

To edit the lter curve, click and drag on the lter dots in the display. Horizontal movement changes the lter frequency, while vertical movement adjusts the lter band's gain. To adjust the lter Q (also called resonance or bandwidth), hold down the Alt (PC) / Alt (Mac) modi er while dragging the mouse. Note that the gain cannot be adjusted for the low cut, notch and high cut lters. In these modes, vertical dragging adjusts the lter Q.

You can also use the numbered lter selector buttons to select a band for editing, and then edit parameter values with the Freq, Gain and Q dials (and/or type values into the number elds below each dial).

To achieve really drastic ltering effects, assign the same parameters to two or more lters.

As boosting will increase levels and cutting will decrease levels, use the global Gain eld to optimize the output level for maximum level consistent with minimum distortion.

The Scale eld will attenuate the gain of all lters that support gain (all except low cut, notch and high cut).

Enabling Hi-Quality mode via the (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu can improve the sound quality, particularly with low frequency signals or when working at high sample rates.

There is a slight increase in CPU usage in Hi-Quality mode.

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20.8

EQ Three

258

If you have ever used a good DJ mixer you will know what this is: An EQ that allows you to adjust the level of low, mid and high frequencies independently.

Each band can be adjusted from -in nite dB to +6 dB using the gain controls. This means that you can completely remove, for example, the bass drum or bassline of a track, while leaving the other frequencies untouched.

You can also turn on or off each band using the On/Off buttons located under the gain controls. These buttons are especially handy if assigned to computer keys.

EQ Three gives you visual con rmation of the presence of a signal in each frequency band using three green LEDs. Even if a band is turned off, you can tell if there is something going on in it. The internal threshold for the LEDs is set to -24 dB.

The frequency range of each band is de ned via two crossover controls: FreqLo and FreqHi.

If FreqLo is set to 500 Hz and FreqHi to 2000 Hz, then the low band goes from 0 Hz to 500

Hz, the mid band from 500 Hz to 2000 Hz and the high band from 2000 Hz up to whatever your soundcard or sample rate supports.

A very important control is the 24 dB/48 dB switch. It de nes how sharp the lters are cutting the signal at the crossover frequency. The higher setting results in more drastic ltering, but needs more CPU.

Note: The lters in this device are optimized to sound more like a good, powerful analog lter cascade than a clean digital lter. The 48 dB Mode especially does not provide a perfect linear transfer quality, resulting in a slight coloration of the input signal even if all

The EQ Three Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 259 controls are set to 0.00 dB. This is typical behavior for this kind of lter, and is part of EQ

Three's unique sound. If you need a more linear behavior choose 24 dB Mode or use the

EQ Eight.

20.9

Erosion

The Erosion effect degrades the input signal by modulating a short delay with ltered noise or a sine wave. This adds noisy artifacts or aliasing/downsampling-like distortions that sound very digital.

To change the sine wave frequency or noise band center frequency, click and drag along the X-axis in the X-Y eld. The Y-axis controls the modulation amount. If you hold down the

Alt (PC) / Alt (Mac) modi er key while clicking in the X-Y eld, the Y-axis controls the bandwidth. Note that bandwidth is not adjustable when Sine is selected.

The Frequency control determines the color, or quality, of the distortion. If the Mode control is set to Noise, this works in conjunction with the Width control, which de nes the noise bandwidth. Lower values lead to more selective distortion frequencies, while higher values affect the entire input signal. Width has no effect in Sine Mode.

Noise and Sine use a single modulation generator. However, Wide Noise has independent noise generators for the left and right channels, which creates a subtle stereo enhancement.

The Erosion Effect.

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20.10

Filter Delay

260

The Filter Delay provides three independent delay lines, each preceded by linked lowpass and highpass lters. This allows applying delay to only certain input signal frequencies, as determined by the lter settings. The feedback from each of the three delays is also routed back through the lters.

Each of the three delays can be switched on and off independently. The Filter Delay device assigns delay 1 to the input signal's left channel, delay 2 to the left and right channels and delay 3 to the right channel. The Pan controls at the right can override the delay channels' outputs; otherwise each delay outputs on the channel from which it derives its input.

Each delay channel's lter has an associated On switch, located to the left of each X-Y controller. The X-Y controllers adjust the lowpass and highpass lters simultaneously for each delay. To edit lter bandwidth, click and drag on the vertical axis; click and drag on the horizontal axis to set the lter band's frequency.

To refer delay time to the song tempo, activate the Sync switch, which allows using the Delay

Time beat division chooser. The numbered switches represent time delay in 16th notes. For example, selecting 4 delays the signal by four 16th notes, which equals one beat (a quarter note) of delay. With Sync Mode active, changing the Delay Time eld percentage value shortens and extends delay times by fractional amounts, thus producing the swing type of timing effect found in drum machines.

If the Sync switch is off, the delay time reverts to milliseconds. In this case, to edit the delay time, click and drag up or down in the Delay Time eld, or click in the eld and type in a value.

The Filter Delay Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 261

The Feedback parameter sets how much of the output signal returns to the delay line input.

Very high values can lead to runaway feedback and produce a loud oscillation watch your ears and speakers if you decide to check out extreme feedback settings!

Each delay channel has its own volume control, which can be turned up to +12 dB to compensate for drastic ltering at the input.

The Dry control adjusts the unprocessed signal level. Set it to minimum if using Delay in a return track.

20.11

Flanger

Flanger uses two parallel time-modulated delays to create anging effects.

Flanger's delays can be adjusted with the Delay Time control. The Feedback control sends part of the output signal back through the device input, while the Polarity switch ( + or

- ) sets the polarity. Delay Time and Feedback can be changed simultaneously using the effect's X-Y controller.

Periodic control of delay time is possible using the envelope section. You can increase or decrease the envelope amount (or invert its shape with negative values), and then use the

Attack and Release controls to de ne envelope shape.

Flanger contains two LFOs to modulate delay time for the left and right stereo channels.

The LFOs have six possible waveform shapes: sine, square, triangle, sawtooth up, sawtooth down and random. The extent of LFO in uence on the delays is set with the Amount control.

The Flanger Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 262

LFO speed is controlled with the Rate control, which can be set in terms of hertz. Rate can also be synced to the song tempo and set in meter subdivisions (e.g., sixteenth notes).

The Phase control lends the sound stereo movement by setting the LFOs to run at the same frequency, but offsetting their waveforms relative to each other. Set this to 180 , and the

LFOs will be perfectly out of phase (180 degrees apart), so that when one reaches its peak, the other is at its minimum.

Spin detunes the two LFO speeds relative to each other. Each delay is modulated at a different frequency, as determined by the Spin amount.

Adjusting the HiPass control will cut low frequencies from the delayed signal.

The Dry/Wet control adjusts the balance between the processed and dry signals. Set it to

100 percent if using Flanger in a return track.

Hi-Quality mode can be toggled on or off via a (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu entry. Enabling Hi-Quality results in a brighter sound, but there is a very slight increase in

CPU usage.

20.12

Gate

The Gate effect passes only signals whose level exceeds a user-speci ed threshold. A gate can eliminate low-level noise that occurs between sounds (e.g., hiss or hum), or shape a sound by turning up the threshold to where it cuts off reverb or delay tails or truncates an instrument's natural decay.

The Gate Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 263

The Threshold slider sets the gate's sensitivity. If the gate is open and passing signal (i.e., the signal exceeds the gate threshold), the green LED lights.

The Attenuation slider, located beneath the Threshold fader, can attenuate signals below the threshold rather than just cutting them off. If set to -inf dB, a closed gate will mute the input signal. A setting of 0.00 dB means that even if the gate is closed, there is no effect on the signal. Settings in between these two extremes attenuate the input to a greater or lesser degree when the gate is closed.

With the Flip button enabled, the gate works in reverse; the signal will only pass if its level is below the threshold.

The Attack time determines how long it takes for the gate to switch from closed to open when a signal goes from below to above the threshold. Very short attack times can produce sharp clicking sounds, while long times soften the sound's attack.

When the signal goes from above to below the threshold, the Hold time kicks in. (Note to tech heads: the gate has hysteresis, so the release occurs about 3 dB lower than the threshold.) After the hold time expires, the gate closes over a period of time set by the

Release parameter.

Normally, the signal being gated and the input source that triggers the gate are the same signal. But by using sidechaining , it is possible to gate a signal based on the level of another signal. To access the Sidechain parameters, unfold the Gate window by toggling the button in its title bar.

Enabling this section with the Sidechain button allows you to select another track from the choosers below. This causes the selected track's signal to act as the gate's trigger, instead of the signal that is actually being gated.

The Gain knob adjusts the level of the external sidechain's input, while the Dry/Wet knob allows you to use a combination of sidechain and original signal as the gate's trigger. With

Dry/Wet at 100%, the gate is triggered entirely by the sidechain source. At 0%, the sidechain is effectively bypassed. Note that increasing the gain does not increase the volume of the source signal in the mix. The sidechain audio is only a trigger for the gate and is never actually heard.

Sidechain gating can be used to superimpose rhythmic patterns from one source onto another. For example, a held pad sound can be triggered with the rhythm of a drum loop

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 264 by inserting a Gate on the pad's track and choosing the drum loop's track as the sidechain input.

20.13

Grain Delay

The Grain Delay effect slices the input signal into tiny particles (called grains ) that are then individually delayed and can also have different pitches compared to the original signal source. Randomizing pitch and delay time can create complex masses of sound and rhythm that seem to bear little relationship to the source. This can be very useful in creating new sounds and textures, as well as getting rid of unwelcome house guests, or terrifying small pets (just kidding!).

To refer delay time to the song tempo, activate the Sync switch, which allows using the Delay

Time beat division chooser. The numbered switches represent time delay in 16th notes. For example, selecting 4 delays the signal by four 16th notes, which equals one beat (a quarter note) of delay. With Sync Mode active, changing the Delay Time eld percentage value shortens and extends delay times by fractional amounts, thus producing the swing type of timing effect found in drum machines.

If the Sync switch is off, the delay time reverts to milliseconds. In this case, to edit the delay time, click and drag up or down in the Delay Time eld, or click in the eld and type in a value.

You can route each parameter to the X-Y controller's horizontal or vertical axis. To assign a parameter to the X-axis, choose it from the parameter row below the controller. To assign a

The Grain Delay Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 265 parameter to the Y-axis, use the parameter row on the left side.

The Feedback parameter sets how much of the output signal returns to the delay line input.

Very high values can lead to runaway feedback and produce a loud oscillation watch your ears and speakers if you decide to check out extreme feedback settings!

You can transpose the grain pitch with the Pitch parameter, which acts much like a crude pitch shifter.

The Spray control adds random delay time changes. Low values smear the signal across time, which adds noisiness to the sound. High Spray values completely break down the structure of the source signal, introducing varying degrees of rhythmic chaos. This is the recommended setting for anarchists.

The Random Pitch control adds random variations to each grain's pitch. Low values create a sort of mutant chorusing effect, while high values can make the original source pitch completely unintelligible. This parameter can interact with the main Pitch control, thus allowing degrees of stability and instability in a sound's pitch structure.

The size and duration of each grain is a function of the Frequency parameter. The sound of

Pitch and Spray depends very much on this parameter.

Grain Delay now also has a dry/wet control; it can be routed to the vertical axis of the X-Y controller.

20.14

Phaser

The Phaser Effect.

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Phaser uses a series of all-pass lters to create a phase shift in the frequency spectrum of a sound.

The Poles control creates notches in the frequency spectrum. The Feedback control can then be used to invert the waveform and convert these notches into peaks (or poles). Filter cutoff frequency is changed with the Frequency control, which can be adjusted in tandem with Feedback using the effect's X-Y controller.

The device has two modes, Space and Earth, for changing the spacing of notches along the spectrum, and hence the color of the sound. This effect can be further adjusted with the

Color control.

Periodic control of the lter frequency is possible using the envelope section. You can increase or decrease the envelope amount (or invert its shape with negative values), and then use the Attack and Release controls to de ne envelope shape.

Phaser contains two LFOs to modulate lter frequency for the left and right stereo channels.

The LFOs have six possible waveform shapes: sine, square, triangle, sawtooth up, sawtooth down and random. The extent of LFO in uence on the lter frequency is set with the

Amount control.

LFO speed is controlled with the Rate control, which can be set in terms of hertz. Rate can also be synced to the song tempo and set in meter subdivisions (e.g., sixteenth notes).

The Phase control lends the sound stereo movement by setting the LFOs to run at the same frequency, but offsetting their waveforms relative to each other. Set this to 180 , and the

LFOs will be perfectly out of phase (180 degrees apart), so that when one reaches its peak, the other is at its minimum.

Spin detunes the two LFO speeds relative to each other. Each lter frequency is then modulated using a different LFO frequency, as determined by the Spin amount.

The Dry/Wet control adjusts the balance between the processed and dry signals. Set it to

100 percent if using Phaser in a return track.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE

20.15

Ping Pong Delay

267

The Ping Pong Delay effect uses a single tapped delay line to create a delay that jumps from the left to the right output.

The delay is preceded by a lowpass and highpass lter that can be controlled with an X-Y controller. To de ne the lter bandwidth, click and drag on the vertical axis. To set the position of the frequency band, click and drag on the horizontal axis.

To refer delay time to the song tempo, activate the Sync switch, which allows using the

Delay Time beat division chooser. The numbered switches represent time delay in 16th notes. For example, selecting 4 delays the signal by four 16th notes, which equals one beat (a quarter note) of delay. This delay time represents the time it takes for the input signal to appear at the left channel. The delay time between the input and the right channel is twice as long.

If the Sync switch is off, the delay time reverts to milliseconds. In this case, to edit the delay time, click and drag up or down in the Delay Time eld, or click in the eld and type in a value.

The Feedback parameter controls how much of the right channel output signal returns to the delay line input. The feedback loop also includes a lter that can color the feedback sound, thus producing different timbres with successive echoes.

The Freeze button, labeled F , will cause the delay to endlessly cycle the audio which is in its buffer at the moment that the button is pressed, ignoring any new input until Freeze is disabled.

The Ping Pong Delay

Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 268

The Dry/Wet control adjusts the balance between the processed and dry signals. Set it to

100 percent if using Ping Pong Delay in a return track.

Changing the delay time while Ping Pong Delay is processing audio can cause abrupt changes in the sound of the delayed signal. You can choose between three delay transition modes via the (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu of the device's title bar:

ˆ Repitch causes a pitch variation when changing the delay time, similar to the behavior of old hardware delay units.

ˆ Fade creates a crossfade between the old and new delay times. This sounds similar to time stretching if the delay time is gradually changed. Fade mode is the default option.

ˆ Jump immediately jumps to the new delay time. Note that this will cause an audible click if the delay time is changed while delays are sounding. Jump mode corresponds to the default behavior prior to Live 8. When loading Sets that were made in earlier versions, Jump will be selected automatically.

20.16

Redux

Nostalgic for the famed low-resolution sound quality of the Ensoniq Mirage, Fairlight CMI or Commodore-64 computer? Redux returns us to the Dark Ages of digital by reducing a signal's sample rate and bit resolution.

The Downsample section has two parameters: Downsample and a downsample Mode switch.

The Redux Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 269

If the downsample dial is set to 1 , every input sample passes to the output and the signal does not change. If set to 2 , only every second sample will be processed, so the result sounds a bit more digital.

The higher the number, the lower the resulting sample rate, and the more deconstructed the sound. Downsampling is like applying a mosaic effect to an image: There's a loss of information and sharp edges occur between the blocks.

The Downsample Mode switch de nes if the downsampling either interpolates over a smaller range ( soft, down to 20.0 samples) or does not interpolate over a larger range ( hard, down to 200 samples).

Bit Reduction is similar, but while downsampling superimposes a grid in time, bit reduction does the same for amplitude.

If the Bit Reduction amplitude dial is set to 8, amplitude levels are quantized to 256 steps

(8 bit resolution). If set to 1, the result is pretty brutal: Each sample contains either a full positive or full negative signal, with nothing in between.

Bit Reduction de nes an input signal of 0dB as 16 bit. Signals above 0dB are clipped, and the red overload LED will light up.

Turning off Bit Reduction results in modest CPU savings.

20.17

Resonators

This device consists of ve parallel resonators that superimpose a tonal character on the input source. It can produce sounds resembling anything from plucked strings to vocoderlike effects. The resonators are tuned in semitones, providing a musical way of adjusting

The Resonators Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 270 them. The rst resonator de nes the root pitch and the four others are tuned relative to this pitch in musical intervals.

The input signal passes rst through a lter, and then into the resonators. There are four input lter types to select from: lowpass, bandpass, highpass and notch. The input lter frequency can be adjusted with the Frequency parameter.

The rst resonator is fed with both the left and right input channels, while the second and fourth resonators are dedicated to the left channel, and the third and fth to the right channel.

The Note parameter de nes the root pitch of all the resonators ranging from C1 to C5.

It can also be detuned in cents using the Fine parameter. The Decay parameter lets you adjust the amount of time it takes for the resonators to be silent after getting an input signal.

The longer the decay time, the more tonal the result will be, similar to the behavior of an undamped piano string. As with a real string, the decay time depends on the pitch, so low notes will last longer than higher ones. The Const switch holds the decay time constant regardless of the actual pitch.

Resonators provides two different resonation modes. Mode A provides a more realistic sounding resonation, while Mode B offers an effect that is especially interesting when

Resonator I's Note parameter is set to lower pitches.

The brightness of the resulting sound can be adjusted using the Color control.

All of the resonators have an On/Off switch and a Gain control. A resonator that is turned off does not need CPU. Turning off the rst resonator does not affect the other ones.

Resonators II through V follow the Note parameter de ned in Resonator I, but they can each be individually transposed +/- 24 semitones using the Pitch controls and detuned in cents using the Detune controls.

The output section features the obligatory Dry/Wet control and a Width parameter that affects only the wet signal and blends the left and right outputs of Resonators II-V into a mono signal if set to zero.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE

20.18

Reverb

271

20.18.1

Input Processing

The input signal passes rst through high and low cut lters, whose X-Y controller allows changing the band's center frequency (X-axis) and bandwidth (Y-axis). Either lter may be switched off when not needed to save CPU power.

Predelay controls the delay time, in milliseconds, before the onset of the rst early re ection.

This delays the reverberation relative to the input signal. One's impression of the size of a real room depends partly on this delay. Typical values for natural sounds range from 1ms to 25ms.

20.18.2

Early Re ections

These are the earliest echoes that you hear after they bounce off a room's walls, before the onset of the diffused reverberation tail.

Their amplitude and distribution give an impression of the room's character.

The Shape control sculpts the prominence of the early re ections, as well as their overlap with the diffused sound. With small values, the re ections decay more gradually and the diffused sound occurs sooner, leading to a larger overlap between these components. With large values, the re ections decay more rapidly and the diffused onset occurs later. A

The Reverb Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 272 higher value can sometimes improve the source's intelligibility, while a lower value may give a smoother decay.

Spin applies modulation to the early re ections. The X-Y control accesses the depth and frequency of these modulations. A larger depth tends to provide a less-colored (more spectrally neutral) late diffusion response. If the modulation frequency is too high, doppler frequency shifting of the source sound will occur, along with surreal panning effects. Spin may be turned off, using the associated switch, for modest CPU savings.

20.18.3

Global Settings

The Quality chooser controls the tradeoff between reverb quality and performance. Eco uses minimal CPU resources, while High delivers the richest reverberation.

The Size parameter controls the room's volume. At one extreme, a very large size will lend a shifting, diffused delay effect to the reverb. The other extreme a very small value will give it a highly colored, metallic feel.

The Stereo Image control determines the width of the output's stereo image. At the highest setting of 120 degrees, each ear receives a reverberant channel that is independent of the other (this is also a property of the diffusion in real rooms). The lowest setting mixes the output signal to mono.

20.18.4

Diffusion Network

The Diffusion network creates the reverberant tail that follows the early re ections. The decay time control adjusts the time required for this tail to drop to 1/1000th (-60 dB) of its initial amplitude.

High and low shelving lters provide frequency-dependent reverberation decay. The highfrequency decay models the absorption of sound energy due to air, walls and other materials in the room (people, carpeting and so forth). The low shelf provides a thinner decay. Each lter may be turned off to save CPU consumption.

The Freeze control freezes the diffuse response of the input sound. When on, the reverberation will sustain almost endlessly. Cut modi es Freeze by preventing the input signal from

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 273 adding to the frozen reverberation; when off, the input signal will contribute to the diffused amplitude. Flat bypasses the high and low shelf lters when freeze is on. If Flat is off, the frozen reverberation will lose energy in the attenuated frequency bands, depending on the state of the high and low shelving lters.

The Echo Density and Scale parameters provide additional control over the diffusion's density and coarseness, and, when the room size is extremely small, have a large impact on the coloration contributed by the diffusion.

The Chorus section adds a little modulation and motion to the diffusion. Like the Spin section, you can control the modulation frequency and amplitude, or turn it off.

20.18.5

Output

At the reverb output, you can adjust the effect's overall Dry/Wet mix, and vary the amplitude of re ections and diffusion with the Re ect Level and Diffuse Level controls.

20.19

Saturator

Saturator is a waveshaping effect that can add that missing dirt, punch or warmth to your sound. It can coat input signals with a soft saturation or drive them into many different avors of distortion.

The Saturator Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 274

An X-Y grid helps to visualize Saturator's shaping curve. The shaper's input and output values are mapped to the X and Y axes, respectively. The curve de nes the transfer function, which is the extent to which output values uctuate in relation to input values. Because this is usually a nonlinear process, the incoming signal is reshaped to a greater or lesser degree depending upon its level at each moment in time.

Incoming signals are rst clipped to the dB level set by the Drive control. The meter on the right side of the display shows how much Saturator is in uencing the signal.

Signal shaping has six xed modes: Analog Clip, Soft Sine, Medium Curve, Hard Curve,

Sinoid Fold and Digital Clip. There is also the exible Waveshaper mode, featuring six adjustable waveshaping parameters.

In the Analog Clip and Digital Clip modes, the signal is clipped completely and immediately.

Soft Sine, Medium Curve and Hard Curve modes soften signal clipping to varying degrees.

Sinoid Fold mode can be good for special effects.

The most dramatic effects can be created by selecting the Waveshaper curve, which has its own dedicated set of controls. To access these six parameter elds, unfold the Saturator window by toggling the button in its title bar.

The Waveshaper mode's six additional parameters are: Drive, Lin, Curve, Damp, Depth and

Period.

ˆ Drive determines how much the input signal will be in uenced by the Waveshaper parameters. Setting Drive to zero will negate the effect entirely.

ˆ Lin works together with the Curve and Depth parameters to alter the linear portion of the shaping curve.

ˆ Curve adds mostly third-order harmonics to the input signal.

ˆ Damp attens any signal near the grid's origin. It behaves like an ultra-fast noise gate.

ˆ Depth controls the amplitude of a sine wave that is superimposed onto the distortion curve.

ˆ Period determines the density of ripples in the superimposed sine wave.

The DC button activates a DC lter at Saturator's input stage. This is mainly useful for removing DC offsets from audio material that contains them.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 275

Activating the Color button enables two lters. The rst of these, controlled with the Base control, dictates how much the effect will be reduced or increased for very low frequencies.

The second lter, essentially an equalizer, is used for controlling higher frequencies. It is shaped with the Freq (cutoff frequency), Width and Depth controls.

The Output control attenuates the level at the device output. When the Soft Clip switch is activated, Saturator will also apply an instance of its Analog Clip curve to the output.

The Dry/Wet control adjusts the balance between the processed and dry signals. Set it to

100 percent when using Saturator in a return track.

Aliasing can be reduced by enabling Hi-Quality mode, which can be accessed via the

(PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu. This improves the sound quality, particularly with high frequency signals, but there is a slight increase in CPU usage.

20.20

Simple Delay

The Simple Delay provides two independent delay lines, one for each channel (left and right).

To refer delay time to the song tempo, activate the Sync switch, which allows using the

Delay Time beat division chooser. The numbered switches represent time delay in 16th notes. For example, selecting 4 delays the signal by four 16th notes, which equals one beat (a quarter note) of delay.

If the Sync switch is off, the delay time reverts to milliseconds. In this case, to edit the delay

The Simple Delay Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 276 time, click and drag up or down in the Delay Time eld, or click in the eld and type in a value.

The Feedback parameter de nes how much of each channel's output signal feeds back into the delay lines' inputs. Internally, they are two independent feedback loops, so a signal on the left channel does not feed back into the right channel and vice versa.

The Dry/Wet control adjusts the balance between the processed and dry signals. Set it to

100 percent when using Simple Delay in a return track.

Changing the delay time while Simple Delay is processing audio can cause abrupt changes in the sound of the delayed signal. You can choose between three delay transition modes via the (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu of the device's title bar:

ˆ Repitch causes a pitch variation when changing the delay time, similar to the behavior of old hardware delay units.

ˆ Fade creates a crossfade between the old and new delay times. This sounds similar to time stretching if the delay time is gradually changed. Fade mode is the default option.

ˆ Jump immediately jumps to the new delay time. Note that this will cause an audible click if the delay time is changed while delays are sounding. Jump mode corresponds to the default behavior prior to Live 8. When loading Sets that were made in earlier versions, Jump will be selected automatically.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE

20.21

Spectrum

277

Spectrum performs realtime frequency analysis of incoming audio signals. The results are represented in a graph, with dB along the vertical axis and frequency/pitch along the horizontal. The peak levels are retained on the graph until the song is restarted. Note that Spectrum is not an audio effect, but rather a measurement tool - it does not alter the incoming signal in any way.

The Block chooser selects the number of samples that will be analyzed in each measurement.

Higher values result in better accuracy, but at the expense of increased CPU load.

Channel determines which channel is analyzed - left, right or both.

The Refresh slider determines how often Spectrum should perform an analysis. As with the

Block parameter, this allows for a tradeoff between accuracy and CPU load. A fast response time is more accurate, but also more CPU intensive.

The Avg slider allows you to specify how many blocks of samples will be averaged for each update of the display. With a setting of one, each block is shown. This results in much more activity in the display, which can be useful for nding the spectrum of short peaks. As you increase the Avg value, the display updates more smoothly, providing an average of the spectrum over time. This is more consistent with the way we actually hear.

The Graph button switches between displaying the spectrum as a single interpolated line and discrete frequency bins.

The Scale X buttons allow you to toggle the scaling of the frequency display between linear, logarithmic, and semitone. Note that logarithmic and semitone are actually the same

The Spectrum Device.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 278 scaling, but switch the legending at the top of the display between Hertz and note names.

Linear scaling is particularly useful for detailed analysis of high frequencies.

As you move your mouse over Spectrum's display, a box appears that shows the amplitude, frequency and note name at the pointer's position. The Range/Auto button at the bottom left of Spectrum's interface toggles between manually and automatically adjusting the display's dynamic range. With Range selected, you can zoom and scroll the amplitude by moving your mouse over the amplitude legending on the display's left side. Drag vertically to scroll and horizontally to zoom. You can also use the Range sliders to set the minimum and maximum amplitude values shown. With Auto selected, the display automatically scales itself based on the incoming audio level. Note that in Auto mode, the Range sliders and zooming are disabled.

To get an even better view, you can toggle the location of the display between the device chain and Live's main window by clicking the button in Spectrum's title bar.

20.22

Utility

Utility can perform some very useful tasks, especially in combination with other devices.

The Mute button simply silences the incoming signal when enabled.

Note: The active/mute controls of a track are always placed at the very end of the signal chain. However, since you can place Utility anywhere in a signal chain, you can use its mute function to cut the input of a delay line or reverb without turning off the output of these devices.

The Gain control adjusts the level of the input signal +/- 35 dB.

The Utility Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 279

The Channel Mode chooser allows selective processing of the left and right channels of a sample. If, for example, Left is selected, the right channel is ignored and the left channel appears on both outputs. This is especially useful if you have a stereo le that contains different information on both channels and you want to use only one.

The Panorama chooser pans the signal anywhere in the stereo eld.

The Width control acts as a continuous mono to stereo controller when set from 0 to 100 percent. However, beyond 100 percent the output starts to fold in on itself. At 200 percent the output contains only the difference between the left and right channels. If either Left or Right have been chosen in the Channel Mode chooser, the Width control has no function and is therefore disabled.

At the bottom of the device you will nd two Phase controls, one for each channel. As their names imply, they invert the phase of each channel.

20.23

Vinyl Distortion

The Vinyl Distortion effect emulates some of the typical distortions that occur on vinyl records during playback. These distortions are caused by the geometric relationships between the needle and the recorded groove. The effect also features a crackle generator for adding noisy artifacts.

The Tracing Model section adds even harmonic distortion to the input signal. Adjust the amount of distortion with the Drive knob, or click and drag vertically in the Tracing Model

X-Y display. To adjust the distortion's frequency or color, drag horizontally in the X-Y

The Vinyl Distortion

Effect.

CHAPTER 20. LIVE AUDIO EFFECT REFERENCE 280 display or double-click on the Freq eld and type in a value. Holding the Alt

Alt

(PC) /

(Mac) modi er while dragging vertically in the X-Y display changes the frequency band's Q (bandwidth).

The Pinch Effect section adds odd harmonics to the input signal. These distortions typically occur 180 degrees out of phase, creating a richer stereo image. The Pinch Effect has the same controls as the Tracing Model, but generates a rather different sound.

The Drive control increases or decreases the overall distortion amount created by both the

Tracing Model and Pinch.

There are two distortion modes: Soft and Hard. The Soft Mode simulates the sound of a dub plate, while Hard Mode is more like that of a standard vinyl record.

The stereo/mono switch determines whether the Pinch distortion occurs in stereo or mono.

Set it to stereo for realistic simulation of vinyl distortions.

The Crackle section adds noise to the signal, with noise density set by the Density control.

The Volume control adjusts the amount of gain applied to the noise.

281

Chapter 21

Live MIDI Effect Reference

Live comes with a selection of custom-designed, built-in MIDI effects. The

Working with

Instruments and Effects chapter

explains the basics of using effects in Live.

21.1

Arpeggiator

Live's Arpeggiator effect takes the individual MIDI notes from a held chord (or single note), and plays them as a rhythmical pattern. The sequence and speed of the pattern can be

The Arpeggiator Effect.

CHAPTER 21. LIVE MIDI EFFECT REFERENCE 282 controlled by the device, which also provides a full complement of both classic and original arpeggiator features.

Arpeggiators are a classic element in Eighties synth music. The name originates with the musical concept of the arpeggio, in which the notes comprising a chord are played as a series rather than in unison.

Arpeggio is derived from the Italian word arpeggiare, which refers to playing notes on a harp.

21.1.1

Style and Rate Sections

Arpeggiator's Style chooser determines the sequence of notes in the rhythmical pattern.

Up and Down .

UpDown and

DownUp .

Down & Up and Up

& Down .

Converge and

Diverge .

Con & Diverge .

CHAPTER 21. LIVE MIDI EFFECT REFERENCE 283

Pinky Up and Pinky

UpDown .

Play Order places notes in the pattern according to the order in which they are played. This is therefore only recognizable when more than one chord or note has been played.

In addition to the Arpeggiator styles above, there is a Chord Trigger mode which repeats the incoming notes as a block chord, as well as three settings for creating random arpeggios:

ˆ Choosing Random will produce a continuously randomized sequence of the incoming

MIDI notes.

ˆ Random Other creates random patterns from incoming MIDI notes, but will not repeat a given note until all other incoming notes have been used.

ˆ Random Once creates one random pattern from incoming MIDI notes and repeats that pattern until the incoming MIDI changes, at which point a new pattern is created.

Arpeggiator will play the pattern of notes at the speed set by the Rate control, which can be calibrated in either milliseconds or beat-time using the neighboring Sync/Free button.

With Sync chosen, Arpeggiator will be synced to the song tempo.

A Gate control to the right of Rate determines the length of notes played by Arpeggiator as a percentage of the current Rate setting. Any setting larger than 100% will therefore play notes that overlap (i.e., are legato).

The rhythmic pattern generated by Arpeggiator does not necessarily have to be straight; a selection of groove patterns can be applied with the respective control just beneath the

Mode chooser. Grooves in Arpeggiator behave similarly to

grooves in clips , and the intensity

of the groove is determined by the Amount slider in the

Groove Pool .

With the Hold parameter active, Arpeggiator will continue to play the pattern even after the keyboard keys have been released. The pattern will be repeated until any other key is pressed. When Hold is active and any of the original keys also remain physically held, notes

Thumb Up and

Thumb UpDown .

CHAPTER 21. LIVE MIDI EFFECT REFERENCE 284 can be added to the pattern simply by playing them. Notes can also be removed from the pattern in this scenario by playing them a second time, allowing the gradual buildup and rearrangement of the pattern over time.

Tip: If you want the pattern to stop playing, momentarily deactivate Hold.

The Offset parameter shifts the sequence of notes in the pattern by the number of places selected with the control. This is best illustrated with an example: A setting of 1 makes the second note in the pattern play rst, and the rst note last. If you imagine the pattern as a circle of notes that is played in a clockwise direction from a set start point, the Offset parameter effectively rotates this circle counter-clockwise one note at a time, changing where in the pattern play begins.

With the Repeats parameter, the pattern can be set to repeat a speci ed number of times until it is retriggered. A setting of inf will repeat the pattern inde nitely.

Hint: This feature provides an excellent way of emulating the strum of a guitar or playing a chord as an arpeggio once or twice. Another interesting effect can be achieved by combining this feature with the Retrigger parameter, which we will explain in a moment. This can be used to create rhythmically generated arpeggios separated by pauses.

The Retrigger parameter resets the pattern so that it starts again from the beginning.

Retriggering can be deactivated (Off), set to occur when new notes are pressed (Note) or set to occur at a speci ed song position or beat-time (Beat). Beat retriggering can be speci ed in terms of notes or bars and is aligned with song position. An LED in the upper right corner of the section indicates when the pattern has been retriggered.

21.1.2

Transposition and Velocity Sections

The pattern generated by Arpeggiator can be transposed; the device's transposition controls allow forcing this transposition into a speci c major or minor key or (using the Transpose chooser's Shift option) doing it in semitones. The distance between transposition steps is set in scale intervals (for Major and Minor transposition) or semitones (for Shift transposition) with the Distance control. Using the Steps parameter, you can choose the number of times the sequence is transposed. When Distance is set to a positive value, a setting of 8 Steps will transpose the sequence a total of eight times, playing it in higher notes each time. (When

Distance is set to a negative value, the sequence will transpose lower each time.)

CHAPTER 21. LIVE MIDI EFFECT REFERENCE 285

The dynamics of Arpeggiator are controlled using the velocity section. With Velocity set to On and Target set to 0, for example, the sequence will gradually fade out, eventually reaching 0 velocity. The Decay control sets the amount of time Arpeggiator takes to reach the Target velocity. With Retrigger activated, retriggering of the sequence will also retrigger the velocity slope.

Tip: The velocity section's Retrigger option can be used in conjunction with Beat retriggering to add rhythm to the dynamic slope.

21.2

Chord

This effect assembles a chord, as the name implies, from each incoming note and up to six others of user-de ned pitch. The Shift 1-6 knobs allow selecting the pitch of the notes that contribute to the chord from a range of +/- 36 semitones relative to the original. Setting

Shift 1 to +4 semitones and Shift 2 to +7 semitones, for example, yields a major chord in which the incoming note is the root.

The Velocity control beneath each Shift knob makes further harmonic sculpting possible, given that the instrument allows for changes in volume or timbre as function of velocity. It is a relative control, with a range of 1 to 200 percent (100 percent de ned as playing at a velocity equal to that of the incoming MIDI note). Use the Velocity controls to do anything from adding slight overtones to washing out most of the other chord elements.

The order in which pitches are added to the chord is inconsequential: The effect of a

+12 semitone shift added with the Shift 1 control, for example, is equal in effect to a +12 semitone shift added with the Shift 6 control.

The Chord Effect.

CHAPTER 21. LIVE MIDI EFFECT REFERENCE 286

Note that no two notes of the same pitch can contribute to the chord, and that selecting the same shift value twice (e.g., +8 semitones on both Shift 2 and Shift 3) will result in the latter control appearing disabled, indicating that it is a duplicate and therefore not in use.

Actually, there is no such thing as two notes with the same pitch playing at the same time within the entire Live universe.

21.3

Note Length

Note Length alters the length of incoming MIDI notes. It can also be used to trigger notes from MIDI Note Off messages, instead of the usual Note On messages.

When the device is set to trigger from a Note On message, only the timing controls are available. The length of held notes can be adjusted in milliseconds or synced in relation to the song tempo. Gate de nes the percentage of the Length value that notes should be held for. At 200 percent, the Gate parameter will double a note's length.

When the device is set to trigger from a Note Off event (the moment at which a played note is released), the timing of an incoming note will be delayed by its length (because it will be starting at the point at which it would have been stopping ). Note Length's other settings will then determine the duration of the newly triggered note.

Three other parameters are available when the device is triggering from Note Off messages:

On/Off Balance This determines the velocity of the output note. It is a balance between the incoming note's Note On and Note Off velocities. If your MIDI keyboard does not support MIDI Note Off velocity, you can just set this to zero.

The Note Length Effect.

CHAPTER 21. LIVE MIDI EFFECT REFERENCE 287

Decay Time This is the time needed for an incoming note's velocity to decay to zero. The decay begins immediately from the moment the device receives a MIDI Note On message.

The value at the time of Note Off will become the velocity of the output MIDI note.

Key Scale The pitch of incoming notes can be used to alter the length of the output notes.

With positive values, notes below C3 will be made progressively longer, and notes above

C3 will be made shorter. Negative values will invert this relationship.

21.4

Pitch

Pitch is a transposition tool that changes incoming note pitch by +/- 128 semitones.

The Range and Lowest controls act together to de ne a pitch range through which notes are allowed to pass. Notes outside of the de ned pitch range will be blocked, and the effect's

LED light will ash when this happens.

Notes outside of the pitch range are limited based on their untransposed pitch, prior to the transposition stage of the effect.

The Pitch Effect.

CHAPTER 21. LIVE MIDI EFFECT REFERENCE

21.5

Random

288

Random adds an element of the unknown to the otherwise commonplace pitch parameter.

The Chance control de nes the likelihood that an incoming note's pitch will be changed by a random value. You can think of it as being something like a dry/wet control for randomness.

The random value that determines the pitch change is created by two variables: The Choices control de nes the number of different random notes possible, from a range of 1 to 24; the

Scale control value is multiplied by the Choices control value, and the result dictates the pitches that random notes are allowed to have relative to that of the incoming note.

For example, if you play the note C3 with Chance set to 50 percent, Choices set to 1 and

Scale set to 12, half of the resulting notes will play at C3 and half will play at C4. But with

Chance set to 50 percent, Choices set to 12 and Scale set to 1, half of the resulting notes will play at C3 and half will play at one of any semitone that is between C#3 and C4.

These examples assume that the Sign buttons are set to Add and the Mode button is set to Rnd. The Sign controls decide whether the random alteration adds to the original note's pitch, subtracts from it, or does a little of both. The LEDs below the Sign controls give you a visual idea of how output pitch compares with that of the original.

The Mode button determines whether the alteration will be random or, when set to Alt, will cycle between the allowed output notes in a xed order (sometimes known as cycle round-robin ). The Chance control behaves a bit differently in Alt mode - at 100 percent, the next output note will always be the next note in the series. At 0 percent, the next output note will always be the incoming note.

For example, with Chance set to 100 percent, Choices set to 12 and Scale set to 1, playing

The Random Effect.

CHAPTER 21. LIVE MIDI EFFECT REFERENCE 289

C3 once will trigger C3, and each successive C3 will trigger the next semitone higher until the device reaches C4, at which point it will start over at C3. But with Chance set to 100 percent, Choices set to 2 and Scale set to 2, incoming C3s will alternate between C3 and

D3. This setting is perfect for simulating upbow and downbow alternation with stringed instruments, or alternating right- and left-hand drum samples.

Hint: Try using the Scale effect after Random to constrain the output values to a speci c harmonic range. Using Random's Alt mode with the Scale device allows you to create a simple step-sequencer.

21.6

Scale

Scale alters incoming note pitch based on a scale mapping. Each incoming note is given an outgoing equivalent on the X-Y scale map of the effect: All incoming Cs, for example, might be converted to outgoing Ds.

The X-Y scale map is 12 squares in length and width, corresponding to the 12 notes in a full octave. Darker squares represent the black keys on a keyboard. The base of the diagonal scale (the lower left square) shown on the map can be changed using the Base control. The

X-axis of the map shows incoming note values, and the Y-axis their outgoing equivalents.

Use mouse-clicks to move or delete the yellow squares, which de ne where an incoming note will be sent on the scale. (Deleting a note on the scale map means that it will no longer play.)

The Range and Lowest controls work together to de ne the note range within which scale

The Scale Effect.

CHAPTER 21. LIVE MIDI EFFECT REFERENCE 290 mapping will take effect. Outside of the range de ned by these controls, the Scale effect will be inapplicable, and the LED light will ash to indicate that some notes are not being processed by the effect, but are playing at their unaltered pitch.

21.7

Velocity

Velocity re-maps the 127 MIDI note velocity values. It can function on MIDI Note On or

Note Off messages, or both, depending on the setting of the Operation chooser.

The Out Low and Out Hi knobs control the outgoing velocity (from 1 to 127), which is represented by the Y-axis of the X-Y display. Incoming velocities that are shown in the display are within the range chosen by the Range and Lowest controls, and are represented on the X-axis. The resulting curve shows how velocity is being altered by the effect.

If Lowest and Out Low are both set to zero, and Range and Out Hi are set to 127, the display will show a straight diagonal line that indicates the equivalent of an effect bypass: Softly played notes are being output quietly, and vice versa. If instead, Out Hi is set to zero and

Out Low to 127, the slope of the line will be reversed, and softly played notes will actually produce the loudest output.

What happens to incoming notes that are outside of the range set with the Range and

Lowest controls? This depends on which Mode is selected.

ˆ Clip Mode does just what it says: It clips incoming note velocities so that they stay within the range.

The Velocity Effect.

CHAPTER 21. LIVE MIDI EFFECT REFERENCE 291

ˆ Gate Mode removes incoming notes altogether if their velocities are outside of the range. You will see the little LED below the X-Y display ash when a note is blocked by gating.

ˆ In Fixed Mode, the Out Hi velocity de nes all outgoing note velocities, regardless of incoming note velocity.

The Random function adds or subtracts a random value to the all velocities, and is represented by a gray area on the display curve.

The Drive and Compand controls can be combined to create more complex curves. Compand is a simultaneous expanding and compressing tool. When set to values greater than zero, it forces incoming notes to the outer boundaries of the curve, making them play either loudly or softly. Compand values of less than zero, on the other hand, force outgoing velocity toward the mid-range. Drive pushes all values in the curve to the outer extremes.

Use these two controls together to sculpt or even rede ne the dynamic structure of a piece.

292

Chapter 22

Live Instrument Reference

Live Intro comes with a selection of custom-designed, built-in instruments. The

Working with Instruments and Effects chapter

explains the basics of using instruments in Live.

The boxed version of Live Intro ships with the Essential Instrument Collection 2 LE Edition, a multi-gigabyte library of meticulously sampled and selected instruments ready for use in

Simpler. Learn how to access the EIC sounds at the

end of this chapter .

CHAPTER 22. LIVE INSTRUMENT REFERENCE

22.1

Impulse

293

Impulse is a drum sampler with complex modulation capabilities. The eight drum samples loaded into Impulse's sample slots can be time-stretched, ltered and processed by envelope, saturation, pan and volume components, nearly all of which are subject to random and velocity-based modulation.

The Impulse Instrument.

22.1.1

Sample Slots

Drag and drop samples into any of Impulse's sample slots from the Browser or the Session and Arrangement Views. Alternatively, each sample slot features a Hot-Swap button for

hot-swapping samples . Loaded samples can be deleted with your computer keyboard's

or Delete key.

Imported samples are automatically mapped onto your MIDI keyboard, providing that it is plugged in and acknowledged by Live. C3 on the keyboard will trigger the leftmost sample, and the other samples will follow suit in the octave from C3 to C4. Impulse's eight slots will appear labeled in the

MIDI Editor's key tracks

when the Fold button is active, even if the given key track is void of MIDI notes. Mapping can be transposed from the default by applying a

Pitch device , or it can be rearranged by applying a

Scale device .

Each of the eight samples has a proprietary set of parameters, located in the area below the sample slots and visible when the sample is clicked. Adjustments to sample settings are only captured once you hit a new note they do not affect currently playing notes. Note that this behavior also de nes how Impulse reacts to parameter changes from clip envelopes or

CHAPTER 22. LIVE INSTRUMENT REFERENCE 294 automation, which are applied once a new note starts. If you want to achieve continuous changes as a note plays, you may want to use the

Simpler .

Slot 8's parameters also include a Link button, located in the lower left corner, which links slot 8 with slot 7. Linking the two slots allows slot 7's activation to stop slot 8's playback, and vice versa. This was designed with a speci c situation in mind (but can, of course, be used for other purposes): Replicating the way that closed hi-hats will silence open hi-hats.

Each slot can be played, soloed, muted or hot-swapped using controls that appear when the mouse hovers over it.

22.1.2

Start, Tune and Stretch

The Start control de nes where Impulse begins playing a sample, and can be set up to

100 ms later than the actual sample beginning. The Transposition control adjusts the transposition of the sample by +/- 48 semitones, and can be modulated by incoming note velocity or a random value, as set in the appropriate elds.

The Stretch control has values from -100 to 100 percent. Negative values will shorten the sample, and positive values will stretch it. Two different stretching algorithms are available:

Mode A is ideal for low sounds, such as toms or bass, while Mode B is better for high sounds, such as cymbals. The Stretch value can also be modulated by MIDI note velocity.

22.1.3

Filter

The Filter section offers a broad range of lter types, each of which can impart different sonic characteristics onto the sample by removing certain frequencies. The Frequency control de nes where in the harmonic spectrum the lter is applied; the Resonance control boosts frequencies near that point. Filter Frequency can be modulated by either a random value or by MIDI note velocity.

CHAPTER 22. LIVE INSTRUMENT REFERENCE 295

22.1.4

Saturator and Envelope

The Saturator gives the sample a fatter, rounder, more analog sound, and can be switched on and off as desired. The Drive control boosts the signal and adds distortion. Coincidentally, this makes most signals much louder, and should usually be compensated for by lowering the sample's volume control. Extreme Drive settings on low-pitched sounds will produce the typical, overdriven analog synth drum sounds.

The envelope can be adjusted using the Decay control, which can be set to a maximum of

60 seconds. Impulse has two decay modes: Trigger Mode allows the sample to decay with the note; Gate Mode forces the envelope to wait for a note off message before beginning the decay. This mode is useful in situations where you need variable decay lengths, as is the case with hi-hat cymbal sounds.

22.1.5

Pan and Volume

Each sample has Volume and Pan controls that adjust amplitude and stereo positioning, respectively. Both controls can be modulated: Pan by velocity and a random value, and

Volume by velocity only.

22.1.6

Global Controls

The parameters located to the right of the sample slots are global controls that apply to all samples within Impulse's domain. Volume adjusts the overall level of the instrument, and

Pitch adjusts the transposition of all samples. The Time control governs the time-stretching and decay of all samples, allowing you to morph between short and stretched drum sounds.

22.1.7

Individual Outputs

When a new instance of Impulse is dragged into a track, its signal will be mixed with those of the other instruments and effects feeding the audio chain of the track. It can oftentimes make more sense to isolate the instrument or one of its individual drum samples, and send

CHAPTER 22. LIVE INSTRUMENT REFERENCE 296 this signal to a separate track. Please see

the Routing chapter

to learn how to accomplish this for Impulse's overall signal or for Impulse's individual sample slots.

22.2

Simpler

Simpler is an instrument that integrates the basic elements of a sampler with a set of classic synthesizer parameters. A Simpler voice plays a user-de ned sample section, which is in turn processed by envelope, lter, LFO, volume and pitch components.

The Simpler Instrument.

22.2.1

Sample View

The Sample View displays the sample waveform. Samples can be dragged into Simpler either directly from the Browser, or from the Session or Arrangement View in the form of clips. In the latter case, Simpler will utilize only the section of the sample demarcated by the clip's start/end or loop markers. Samples can be replaced by dragging in a new sample, or by activating the integrated

Hot-Swap button .

Note: When playing instruments from Ableton's

Essential Instrument Collection 2 , Simpler

runs in Multisample Mode . The Sample View has no function in this mode.

CHAPTER 22. LIVE INSTRUMENT REFERENCE 297

22.2.2

Sample Controls

Simpler plays a speci c region or loop of the sample, as determined by a group of sample controls.

The Start and Length controls work together to specify where Simpler begins and ends its sweep of the sample. As the name implies, Start de nes where sample playback starts.

The sample will play for the length de ned by the Length parameter. Both parameters are de ned as a percentage of the whole region, so setting start to 25 percent and length to

50 percent, for example, will start playback 1/4 of the way through the sample and stop playback at the 3/4 mark (using 50 percent of the sample).

Samples are played by Simpler as one-shots or as loops, depending on whether or not the

Loop switch is active. When looping is active, the Loop control dictates the length of the loop, starting from the end of the playing sample. Simpler will play the rst instance of a looped sample beginning with the Start point, then continue playing only the loop region.

When the sample's start or end points are moved, Simpler will try to preserve the loop length for as long as possible by automatically adjusting the Start, Loop and Length settings.

It is possible for glitches or pops to occur between a looped sample's start and end points due to the discontinuity in waveform amplitude (i.e., the sample's loudness). The Snap switch will help mitigate these by forcing Simpler's loop markers to snap to zero-crossing points in the sample (points where the amplitude is zero). Note: Snapping is based on the left channel of stereo samples. It is therefore still possible, even with Snap activated, to encounter glitches with stereo samples.

The transition from loop end to loop start can be smoothed with the Fade control, which crossfades the two points. This method is especially useful when working with long, textural samples. By default, Simpler uses constant-power fades. But by turning off Use Constant

Power Fade for Loops in the (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu, you can enable linear crossfades.

22.2.3

Zoom

Quite often, one starts with a longer region of a sample and ends up using only a small part of it. Simpler's Sample view can be zoomed and panned just as in other parts of Live drag

CHAPTER 22. LIVE INSTRUMENT REFERENCE vertically to zoom, and drag horizontally to pan different areas of the sample into view.

298

22.2.4

Envelope

Simpler contains three classic ADSR envelopes, as seen in most synthesizers, for shaping the dynamic response of the sample. Volume-, lter frequency-, and pitch modulation are all modi able by toggling their respective buttons in the envelope section.

Attack controls the time in milliseconds that it takes for the envelope to reach its peak value after a note is played.

Decay controls the amount of time it takes for the envelope to drop down to the

Sustain level, which is held until the note is released.

Release time is the amount of time after the end of the note that it takes for the envelope to drop from the Sustain level back down to zero.

The in uence of envelopes on pitch and lter cutoff can be decided using the envelope amount (Env) controls in each of these sections.

22.2.5

Filter

The Filter section offers classic 12 dB or 24 dB lowpass, bandpass and highpass lters, as well as a notch lter, each of which can impart different sonic characteristics onto the sample by removing certain frequencies from the waveform. The most important parameters are the typical synth controls Frequency and Resonance.

Frequency determines where in the harmonic spectrum the lter is applied; Resonance boosts frequencies near that point.

The best way to understand the effects of these controls is simply to play with them!

The Frequency parameter can be modulated by an LFO, note velocity and an envelope each of which have an amount control in the Filter section. The Key (tracking) control allows for shifting the lter's frequency according to note pitch.

22.2.6

LFO

The LFO (low-frequency oscillator) section offers sine, square, triangle, sawtooth down, sawtooth up and random waveforms. The LFO run freely at frequencies between 0.01 and

CHAPTER 22. LIVE INSTRUMENT REFERENCE 299

30 Hz, or sync to divisions of the Set's tempo. LFOs are applied individually to each voice , or played note, in Simpler.

The Key parameter scales each LFO's Rate in proportion to the pitch of incoming notes. A high Key setting assigns higher notes a higher LFO rate. If Key is set to zero, all voices'

LFOs have the same rate and may just differ in their phase.

The LFO will modulate the lter, pitch, panorama and volume according to the setting of the LFO amount controls in each of these sections.

The time required for the LFO to reach full intensity is determined by the Attack control.

22.2.7

Glide and Spread

Simpler includes a glide function. When this function is activated, new notes will start from the pitch of the last note played and then slide gradually to their own pitch. Two glide modes are available: Glide, which works monophonically, and Portamento, which works polyphonically. Glide is also adjusted with the Glide Time control.

Simpler also offers a special Spread parameter that creates a rich stereo chorus by using two voices per note and panning one to the left and one to the right. The two voices are detuned, and the amount of detuning can be adjusted with the Spread control.

Tip: Whether or not spread is applied to a particular note depends upon the setting of the Spread parameter during the note-on event. To achieve special effects, you could, for instance, create a sequence where Spread is zero most of the time and turned on only for some notes. These notes will then play in stereo, while the others will play mono.

22.2.8

Pitch, Pan, Volume and Voices

Simpler plays back a sample at its original pitch if the incoming MIDI note is C3, however the

Transpose control allows transposing this by +/- 48 semitones. Pitch can also be modulated by an LFO or pitch envelope using the amount controls in this section. The pitch envelope is especially helpful in creating percussive sounds. Simpler reacts to MIDI Pitch Bend messages with a sensitivity of +/- 5 semitones. You can also modulate the Transpose parameter with clip envelopes and external controllers.

CHAPTER 22. LIVE INSTRUMENT REFERENCE 300

The Voices parameter sets the maximum number of voices that Simpler can play simultaneously. If more voices are needed than have been allocated by the Voices chooser, voice stealing will take place, in which the oldest voice(s) will be dropped in favor of those that are new. For example, if your Voices parameter is set to 8, and ten voices are all vying to be played, the two oldest voices will be dropped. (Simpler does try to make voice stealing as subtle as possible.) A small LED near the Voices control ashes when a voice has been stolen.

Panorama is de ned by the Pan control, but can be further swayed by randomness or modulated by the LFO.

Finally, the output volume of Simpler is controlled by the Volume control, which can also be dependent upon note velocity, as adjusted by the Velocity control. Tremolo effects can be achieved by allowing the LFO to modulate the Volume parameter.

22.2.9

Strategies for Saving CPU Power

Real-time synthesis needs lots of computing power. However, there are strategies for reducing CPU load. Save the CPU spent on Simpler by doing some of the following:

ˆ Turn off the Filter if it is not needed.

ˆ Use lter types that are less expensive when possible. A lter's cost correlates with the steepness of its slope LP24 is more expensive than LP12.

ˆ Turn off the LFO for a slightly positive in uence on CPU.

ˆ Stereo samples need signi cantly more CPU than mono samples, as they require twice the processing.

ˆ Decrease the number of simultaneously allowed voices with the Voice control.

22.3

The Essential Instrument Collection

The boxed version of Live Intro ships with the Essential Instrument Collection 2 LE Edition, a multi-gigabyte library of meticulously sampled instruments created in cooperation with

SONiVOX, Chocolate Audio and Puremagnetik.

CHAPTER 22. LIVE INSTRUMENT REFERENCE 301

Note The Essential Instrument Collection 2 is not included with downloadable purchases.

Download customers can choose, however, to purchase it later 1 .

22.3.1

Essential Instrument Collection Installation

The Essential Instrument Collection 2 LE Edition (EIC) is installed separately from the main

Live Intro installation. The various instruments are grouped into separate Live Packs that can be installed as needed. To install Live Packs, drag them into the Live application window, either from your operating system or from Live's Browser.

After you have installed the EIC Live Packs, you will need to authorize them. Further details can be found at the Ableton website 2 .

22.3.2

Accessing The EIC Instruments

After installation, the EIC instruments are accessed through Live's Device Browser, in exactly the same way as Live's other built-in instruments. You will nd them as categorized presets within the Instrument Rack folder. EIC instruments are therefore loaded just like any other device, by dragging a preset from the Browser into an empty MIDI track.

The EIC presets are available in Full and Lite versions, allowing you to choose the right balance of delity and polyphony for your needs. The Lite version reduces CPU, RAM and disk requirements by reducing the number of zones and sample layers used. Both the normal and Lite presets use 24-bit multisamples.

There is also an EIC LE Pack available which contains very ef cient versions of the EIC instruments suitable for sketching out ideas. The LE instruments are all composed of 16-bit sample les.

All of the EIC presets are conveniently mapped to

Macro Controls

for greater expression.

1 http://www.ableton.com/shop

2 http://www.ableton.com/authorize

CHAPTER 22. LIVE INSTRUMENT REFERENCE 302

22.3.3

The Included Instruments

The following multisampled instruments are included:

ˆ Acoustic Keyboards Grand Piano, Harpsichord, Celesta

ˆ Electric Keyboards E-Piano MK 1, B3 Jazz Organ, B3 Rock Organ

ˆ Orchestral Strings Solo Strings (legato): Double Bass, Cello, Viola, Violin; Ensemble

Strings (legato, pizzicato)

ˆ Orchestral Brass Solo Brass (legato): French Horn, Bass Trombone, Tuba (Eb),

Trumpet; Ensemble Brass (legato, staccato)

ˆ Orchestral Woodwinds Solo Woodwinds (legato, legato vibrato): English Horn, Bassoon, Clarinet, French Oboe, Concert Flute, Alto Sax; Ensemble Woodwinds (legato)

ˆ Plucked Instruments Harp ( ngers), Jazz Upright Bass, P-Bass ( ngers, picks), Six-

String Nylon Guitar (tones, chords), Strat Clean (tones, chords)

ˆ Mallets Glockenspiel (hard mallets), Xylophone (hard mallets)

ˆ Voice Mixed Choir (ahh, ohh)

ˆ Drum Machine one drum machine, selected from the Drum Machines add-on product

ˆ Acoustic Drum Kit one stereo multisampled drum kit, selected from the Session

Drums add-on product

Special Features of the Guitar and Bass Banks

In the EIC LE edition, the guitar instruments have additional banks for single-key chords with strumming. Lower octaves play down strums, while upper octaves play up strums.

303

Chapter 23

Max For Live

Max for Live, an add-on product co-developed with Cycling '74 1 , allows users to extend and customize Live by creating instruments, controllers, audio effects, and MIDI processors.

After installing Max for Live, you will need to point to it in Live's File/Folder Preferences:

A Generic Max Audio

Effect.

1 http://www.cycling74.com

CHAPTER 23. MAX FOR LIVE 304

Like all other Live devices, Max devices can have their own presets, which can be viewed and loaded by unfolding the device in the Browser.

What a Max device actually does is dependent on its patch, which can be accessed by pressing the Edit button in the Max device's title bar.

The Max Editor Chooser.

The Edit Button for a

Max Device.

This launches the Max for Live application, with the current device loaded and ready for editing.

After editing, you can save your Max patch and it will automatically update any devices that use the patch in your current Live Set. Like samples, Max patches can be saved in your Library or within Project folders. They can also be organized using Live's

File Manager ,

which can help ensure that your les and dependencies stay self-contained.

To learn more about building and editing Max devices, see the documentation that came with Max for Live.

305

Chapter 24

MIDI and Key Remote Control

To liberate the musician from the mouse, most of Live's controls can be remote-controlled with an external MIDI controller and the computer keyboard. This chapter describes the details of mapping to the following speci c types of controls in Live's user interface:

1.

Session View slots Note that MIDI and computer key assignments are bound to the slots, not to the clips they contain.

2.

Switches and buttons among them the Track and Device Activator switches, the Control Bar's tap tempo, metronome and transport controls.

3.

Radio buttons A radio button selects from among a number of options. One instance of a radio button is the

crossfader assignment section

in each track, which offers three options: The track is assigned to the crossfader's A position, the track is unaffected by the crossfader, or the track is affected by the crossfader's

B position.

4.

Continuous controls like the mixer's volume, pan and sends.

5.

The crossfader , the behavior of which is described in detail in the

respective section

of the Mixing chapter.

CHAPTER 24. MIDI AND KEY REMOTE CONTROL

24.1

MIDI Remote Control

306

Live can be controlled remotely by external MIDI control surfaces, such as MIDI keyboards or controller boxes. Live also offers dedicated control via the

Akai APC40

and

Novation

Launchpad .

Before we explain how remote control assignments are made and implemented, let's rst make the distinction between MIDI remote control and a separate use of MIDI in Live: as the input for our MIDI tracks. Let's suppose that you are using a MIDI keyboard to

play an instrument

in one of Live's MIDI tracks. If you assign C-1 on your MIDI keyboard to a Session

View Clip Launch button, that key will cease play C-1 of your MIDI track's instrument, as it now belongs solely to the Clip Launch button.

MIDI keys that become part of remote control assignments can no longer be used as input for MIDI tracks.

This is a common cause of confusion that can be easily resolved by observing the Control Bar's

MIDI indicators .

Before making any MIDI assignments, you will need to set up Live to recognize your control surfaces. This is done in the MIDI/Sync tab of Live's Preferences, which can be opened with the keyboard shortcut Ctrl ,

(PC) /

,

(Mac).

24.1.1

Natively Supported Control Surfaces

Control Surfaces are de ned in the table at the top of the MIDI/Sync tab. Up to six supported control surfaces can be used simultaneously in Live.

Open the rst chooser in the Control Surface column to see whether your control surface is supported natively by Live; if it is listed here, you can select it by name, and then de ne its MIDI input and output ports using the two columns to the right.

If your controller is not

Setting Up Control

Surfaces.

CHAPTER 24. MIDI AND KEY REMOTE CONTROL 307 listed here, don't fret it can still be enabled manually in the next section,

Manual Control

Surface Support .

Depending on the controller, Live may need to perform a preset dump to complete the setup. If this is the case, the Dump button to the right of your control surface's choosers in the Live Preferences will become enabled. Before pressing it, verify that your control surface is ready to receive preset dumps. The method for enabling this varies for each manufacturer and product, so consult your hardware's documentation if you are unsure. Finally, press the

Dump button; Live will then set up your hardware automatically.

Instant Mappings

In most cases, Live uses a standard method for mapping its functions and parameters to physical controls. This varies, of course, depending upon the con guration of knobs, sliders and buttons on the control surface. These feature-dependent con gurations are known as instant mappings.

Within Live's built-in lessons, you will nd a Control Surface Reference that lists all currently supported hardware, complete with the details of their instant mappings. The Lessons View can be accessed at any time by selecting the Lessons option from the View menu.

Note: You can always manually override any instant mappings with your own assignments.

In this case, you will also want to enable the Remote switches for the MIDI ports that your control surface is using. This is done in the MIDI Ports section of the MIDI/Sync Preferences tab, and is described in the

next section .

Instant mappings are advantageous because the control surface's controllers will automatically reassign themselves in order to control the currently selected device in Live.

CHAPTER 24. MIDI AND KEY REMOTE CONTROL 308

In addition to following device selection, natively supported control surfaces can be locked to speci c devices, guaranteeing hands-on access no matter where the current focus is in your Live Set. To enable or disable locking, (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) on a device's title bar, and then select your preferred controller from the Lock to...

context menu. You'll recognize the same list of control surfaces that you de ned in the MIDI/Sync Preferences.

By default, the instrument in a MIDI track will automatically be locked to the control surface when the track is armed for recording.

Control Surfaces Can

Follow Device Selection.

A hand icon in the title bar of locked devices serves as a handy reminder of their status.

Getting Hands-On:

Control Surfaces Can Be

Locked to Devices.

CHAPTER 24. MIDI AND KEY REMOTE CONTROL 309

Note: Some control surfaces do not support locking to devices.

This capability is indicated for individual controllers in the Control Surface Reference lesson. Select the Lessons option from the View menu to access Live's built-in lessons.

24.1.2

Manual Control Surface Setup

If your MIDI control surface is not listed in the MIDI/Sync Preferences' Control Surface chooser, it can still be enabled for manual mapping in the MIDI Ports section of this tab.

The MIDI Ports table lists all available MIDI input and output ports. To use an input port for remote control of Live, make sure the corresponding switch in its Remote column is set to On. You can use any number of MIDI ports for remote mapping; Live will merge their incoming MIDI signals.

When working with a control surface that provides physical or visual feedback, you will also need to enable the Remote switch for its output port. Live needs to be able to communicate with such control surfaces when a value has changed so that they can update the positions of their motorized faders or the status of their LEDs to match.

To test your setup, try sending some MIDI data to Live from your control surface. The Control

Bar's

MIDI indicators

will ash whenever Live recognizes an incoming MIDI message.

Once your controller is recognized by Live, you have completed the setup phase (but we recommend that you take the time to select a

Takeover Mode

before you leave the

Preferences behind). Your next step will be

creating MIDI mappings

between your control surface and Live. Luckily, this is a simple task, and you only need to do it for one parameter at a time.

De ning Control

Surfaces Manually.

CHAPTER 24. MIDI AND KEY REMOTE CONTROL

24.1.3

Takeover Mode

310

When MIDI controls that send absolute values (such as faders) are used in a bank-switching setup, where they address a different destination parameter with each controller bank, you will need to decide how Live should handle the sudden jumps in values that will occur when moving a control for the rst time after switching the bank. Three takeover modes are available:

None As soon as the physical control is moved, its new value is sent immediately to its destination parameter, usually resulting in abrupt value changes.

Pick-Up Moving the physical control has no effect until it reaches the value of its destination parameter. As soon as they are equal, the destination value tracks the control's value 1:1.

This option can provide smooth value changes, but it can be dif cult to estimate exactly where the pick-up will take place.

Value Scaling This option ensures smooth value transitions. It compares the physical control's value to the destination parameter's value and calculates a smooth convergence of the two as the control is moved. As soon as they are equal, the destination value tracks the control's value 1:1.

MIDI Controller

Takeover Mode.

CHAPTER 24. MIDI AND KEY REMOTE CONTROL

24.2

The Mapping Browser

311

All manual MIDI,

computer keyboard

and

Macro Control

mappings are managed by the

Mapping Browser.

The Mapping Browser is hidden until one of the three mapping modes is enabled. It will then display all mappings for the current mode. For each mapping, it lists the control element, the path to the mapped parameter, the parameter's name, and the mapping's Min and Max value ranges. The assigned Min and Max ranges can be edited at any time, and can be quickly inverted with a (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu command. Delete mappings using your computer's or Delete key.

Note that

Instant Mappings

are context based and are not displayed in the Mapping Browser.

Their mapping structure can be displayed while working in Live by choosing the Lessons option from the View menu and then opening the Control Surface Reference lesson.

The Mapping Browser and Selector.

24.2.1

Assigning MIDI Remote Control

The MIDI Map Mode

Switch.

CHAPTER 24. MIDI AND KEY REMOTE CONTROL 312

Once your remote control setup has been de ned in the MIDI/Sync Preferences, giving MIDI controllers and notes remote control assignments is simple:

1. Enter MIDI Map Mode by pressing the MIDI switch in Live's upper right-hand corner. Notice that assignable elements of the interface become highlighted in blue, and that the Mapping Browser becomes available.

If your Browser is closed, Ctrl Alt B (PC) / Alt B (Mac) will open it for you.

2. Click on the Live parameter that you'd like to control via MIDI.

3. Send a MIDI message by pressing a keyboard key, turning a knob, etc., on your

MIDI controller. You will see that this new MIDI mapping is now listed in the

Mapping Browser.

4. Exit MIDI Map Mode by pressing the MIDI switch once again. The Mapping

Browser will disappear, but you can always review your mappings by entering

MIDI Map Mode again.

24.2.2

Mapping to MIDI Notes

MIDI notes send simple Note On and Note Off messages to Live's interface elements. These messages can produce the following effects on controls in Live:

ˆ Session View Slots Note On and Note Off messages affect clips in the slot according to their

Launch Mode settings .

ˆ Switches A Note On message toggles the switch's state.

ˆ Radio Buttons Note On messages toggle through the available options.

ˆ Variable Parameters When assigned to a single note, Note On messages toggle the parameter between its Min and Max values. When assigned to a range of notes, each note is assigned a discrete value, equally spaced over the parameter's range of values.

Hint: Session View slots can be assigned to a MIDI note range for chromatic playing: First play the root key (this is the key that will play the clip at its default transposition), and then, while holding down the root key , hold one key below the root and one above it to de ne the limits of the range.

CHAPTER 24. MIDI AND KEY REMOTE CONTROL 313

24.2.3

Mapping to Absolute MIDI Controllers

Absolute MIDI controllers send messages to Live in the form of absolute values ranging from 0 to 127. These values lead to different results depending on the type of Live control to which they are assigned. A value message of 127, for example, might turn the Volume control on a Live track all the way up or play a Session View clip. Speci cally, MIDI controller messages from 0 to 127 can produce the following effects on controls in Live:

ˆ Session View Slots Controller values 64 and above are treated like Note On messages.

Controller values 63 and below are treated like Note Off messages.

ˆ Switches For track activators and on/off buttons in devices, controller values that are within the mapping's Min and Max range turn the switch on. Controller values that are above or below this range turn it off. You can reverse this behavior by setting a Min value that is higher than its corresponding Max value. In this case, controller values that are outside of the range turn the switch on, while values inside the range turn it off. For all other switches (such as transport controls), controller values 64 and above turn the switch on, while controller values below 64 turn it off.

ˆ Radio Buttons The controller's 0...127 value range is mapped onto the range of available options.

ˆ Continuous Controls The controller's 0...127 value range is mapped onto the parameter's range of values.

Live also supports pitch bend messages and high-precision ( 14-bit Absolute ) controller messages with a 0...16383 value range. The above speci cations apply to these as well, except that the value range's center is at 8191/8192.

24.2.4

Mapping to Relative MIDI Controllers

Some MIDI controllers can send value increment and value decrement messages instead of absolute values. These controls prevent parameter jumps when the state of a control in

Live and the corresponding control on the hardware MIDI controller differ. For example, imagine that you have assigned the pan knob on your control surface to the pan parameter of a track in Live. If the hardware control is panned hard right, and the Live control is panned hard left, a slight movement in a hardware pan knob that sends absolute values would tell

CHAPTER 24. MIDI AND KEY REMOTE CONTROL 314

Live to pan right, causing an abrupt jump in the track's panning. A pan knob sending relative messages would prevent this, since its incremental message to Live would simply say, Pan slightly to the left of your current position.

There are four types of relative controllers: Signed Bit, Signed Bit 2, Bin Offset and Twos

Complement.

Convention (Mode)

Relative (Signed Bit)

Relative (Signed Bit 2)

Relative (Bin Offset)

Relative (2's Comp.)

Increment

001 064

065 127

065 127

001 064

Decrement

065 127

001 064

063 001

127 065

Each of these are also available in a linear mode; Some MIDI encoders use acceleration internally, generating larger changes in value when they are turned quickly. For control surfaces that are not natively supported, Live tries to detect the controller type and whether acceleration is being used or not.

You can improve the detection process by moving the relative controller slowly to the left when you make an assignment. Live will offer its suggestion in the Status Bar's mode chooser, but if you happen to know the relative controller type, you can manually select it.

Live will do the following with relative MIDI controller messages:

ˆ Session View Slots Value increment messages are treated like Note On messages.

Value decrement messages are treated like Note Off messages.

ˆ Switches Increment messages turn the switch on. Decrement messages turn it off.

ˆ Radio Buttons Increment messages make the radio button jump forward to the next available option. Decrement messages make it jump backward.

ˆ Continuous Controls Each type of relative MIDI controller uses a different interpretation of the 0...127 MIDI controller value range to identify value increments and decrements:

Please consult the documentation that came with your MIDI controller if you need further information on relative MIDI controllers.

CHAPTER 24. MIDI AND KEY REMOTE CONTROL 315

Relative Session View Navigation

Notice that you can make not only absolute mappings to individual slots and scenes, but also relative mappings to move the highlighted scene and operate on the highlighted clips.

In both MIDI Map Mode and

Key Map Mode , a strip of assignable controls appears below

the Session grid:

4 3 1 2

1. Assign these buttons to keys, notes or controllers to move the highlighted scene up and down.

2. Assign this scene number value box to a MIDI controller preferably an endless encoder to scroll through the scenes. For details, see the previous section on

Relative Map Modes .

3. Assign this button to launch the highlighted scene. If the Record/Warp/Launch

Preferences' Select Next Scene on Launch option is checked, you can move successively (and hopefully successfully!) through the scenes.

4. Assign these buttons to launch the clip at the highlighted scene, in the respective track.

Relative Session mapping is useful for navigating a large Live Set, as Live always keeps the highlighted scene at the Session View's center. (Note that the number of scenes is limited to 8 in Live Intro.)

The Relative Session

Mapping Strip.

Mapping to Clip View Controls

The

Clip View

displays the settings for whichever clip happens to be currently selected, but it will also display the settings of multi-selected clips. To avoid unpleasant musical surprises,

CHAPTER 24. MIDI AND KEY REMOTE CONTROL 316 it is important to remember that creating remote control mappings for any control in the

Clip View interface could potentially affect any clip in the Live Set. For this reason, we recommend mapping Clip View controls to

relative MIDI controllers

to prevent undesirable jumps in parameter values.

24.2.5

Computer Keyboard Remote Control

Creating control surface assignments for your computer keyboard is straightforward:

1. Enter Key Map Mode by pressing the KEY switch in the upper right-hand corner of the Live screen. Notice that the assignable elements of the interface become highlighted in red when you enter Key Map Mode. The Mapping Browser will also become available. If the Browser is hidden, you will want to show it at this point using the appropriate View menu command.

2. Click on the Live parameter that you wish to assign to a key. Remember that only the controls that are shown with a red overlay are available for mapping.

3. Press the computer key to which you wish to assign the control. The details of your new mapping will be displayed in the Mapping Browser.

4. Leave Key Map Mode by pressing Live's KEY switch once again. The Mapping

Browser will disappear, but your mappings can be reviewed at any time simply by entering Key Map Mode again.

Keyboard assignments can produce the following effects in Live:

ˆ Clips in Session View slots will be affected by mapped keys according to their

Launch

Mode settings .

ˆ Keys assigned to switches will toggle switch states.

ˆ Keys assigned to radio buttons will toggle through the available options.

The Key Map Mode

Switch.

CHAPTER 24. MIDI AND KEY REMOTE CONTROL 317

Please be sure not to confuse this remote control functionality with Live's ability to use the computer keyboard as a

pseudo-MIDI keyboard

that can generate MIDI notes from computer keystrokes for use with instruments.

318

Chapter 25

Using the APC40

The APC40 (Ableton Performance Controller) is a dedicated controller for Ableton Live, codesigned by Ableton and Akai Professional 1 . This chapter will help you set up your APC40, and introduce its capabilities.

25.1

Setup

Once the APC40 has been powered on and connected to your computer's USB port, you will need to select the APC40 in Live's Preferences. The APC40 is one of Live's

natively supported control surfaces , so setup is quite easy:

1. Open Live's Preferences from the Live menu in OS X, or the Options menu in

Windows;

2. Go to the MIDI/Sync Tab;

3. Select the APC40 preset from the Control Surface chooser. Then select the port that the APC40 is connected to in the Input and Output choosers:

1 http://www.akaipro.com

CHAPTER 25. USING THE APC40 319

25.2

Clip Launch Matrix

The APC40's matrix of buttons gives you physical access to the clips in your

Session View .

The matrix has 40 three-color buttons arranged in a ve-scene-deep-by-eight-track-wide grid. The color-coding system lets you know exactly what is happening in each clip, and directional controls let you move around inside your Session View.

Setting Up The APC40.

CHAPTER 25. USING THE APC40 320

Pressing a Clip Launch button triggers the clip in the corresponding clip slot in Live. If the track is armed to record, pressing the button records a new clip.

The buttons in the matrix light up in different colors so you know what's going on:

ˆ Amber: this slot contains a clip.

ˆ Green: this clip is playing.

ˆ Red: this clip is recording.

Many aspects of the Live interface are replicated in the APC40. You can stop all music in a track with its Clip Stop button and re horizontal lines of clips with the Scene Launch buttons. Stop All Clips does just that.

The controller tells you what's going on in the software, but, importantly, the software also re ects what's happening on the controller. The clip slots currently being controlled by the

Session View Clip and

Navigation Controls.

CHAPTER 25. USING THE APC40 321

APC's button matrix are shown in Live with a red border.

The directional arrows and Shift button increase the scope of the eight-by- ve grid:

ˆ Pressing Up or Down moves you up or down one scene at a time. Hold the Shift button while hitting Up or Down to move ve scenes up or down.

ˆ The Left and Right arrow keys move you left or right one track at a time. Hold the Shift button while hitting Left or Right to move eight tracks at a time.

25.3

Session Overview

The APC40's Session Overview lets you navigate through large Live Sets quickly without looking at your computer screen. Hold down the Shift button and the matrix zooms out to reveal an overview of your Session View. In the Session Overview, each clip launch button represents a ve-scene-by-eight-track block of clips, giving you a matrix of 125 scenes by

64 tracks. Hit a button to focus on that section of the Session View. For example, hitting the Shift button and then pressing the button in row three, column one will put the focus on scenes 11-15 and tracks 1-8. Furthermore, while Shift is held, each scene launch button represents a block of 25 scenes (if they are available in your Set.)

In the Session Overview, the color coding is a little different:

ˆ Amber: indicates the currently selected block of clips, which will be surrounded by the red border in the software.

ˆ Green: there are clips playing in that block of clips (though that may not be the block of clips selected).

ˆ Red: there are no clips playing in that range.

ˆ No color: there are no tracks or scenes in that range.

CHAPTER 25. USING THE APC40

25.4

Mixer Section

322

The APC40 features eight tracks, each with its own fader, solo/pre-cue, mute and record arm buttons. A Master fader controls the master volume and a Cue Level knob controls

cue volume , so you can pre-listen to a clip or the metronome without your audience hearing it.

You can shift these eight tracks around the Session View using the directional controls. Press the right or left arrows to move incrementally, one track at a time. Hold the Shift button and press the right or left arrows to jump in blocks of eight tracks at a time.

Mixer Controls.

CHAPTER 25. USING THE APC40

25.5

Device Control

323

The APC40 features eight endless dials and four control buttons that

map to your devices automatically

for exibility and speed on stage or in the studio.

The Track Selection buttons route the eight endless encoders to the rst device or Rack on that track, with LED rings to automatically show you the levels on the selected parameter.

Four buttons below the dials give you additional control options. Clip/Track lets you switch between viewing the devices on a track or the properties of a track's clip in the currently selected scene. Device On/Off turns the currently selected device on or off. Device Left and

Device Right (indicated by two arrows) shift you one step sideways along a track's device chain.

Some effects or virtual instruments have more than eight parameters. When holding down

Device Controls.

CHAPTER 25. USING THE APC40 324 the Shift button, these eight buttons let you select eight banks of eight device parameter controls. For more information, see the Control Surface Reference Lesson.

25.6

Transport and Global Buttons

Live's Play, Stop and Global Record buttons are all easily accessible, and four global buttons access Live's functions, cleaning up your screen view onstage and freeing you from the mouse in the studio:

ˆ Detail View opens and closes the

Clip/Track View , so you can see more of your clips.

ˆ Record Quantization lets you toggle

input quantization

between 'none' and the last selected quantization setting.

Transport and Global

Controls.

CHAPTER 25. USING THE APC40

ˆ MIDI Overdub lets you

overdub

on a MIDI clip.

ˆ Metronome turns the

metronome

on and off.

325

25.7

Track Control

The Track Control section covers pan settings or send levels for whichever eight tracks are currently selected. It consists of eight endless dials with LED rings and four buttons: Pan,

Send A, Send B and Send C.

The buttons let you select what the encoders are controlling, while the encoders control the amount or depth of the pan or send levels.

Track Controls.

CHAPTER 25. USING THE APC40

25.8

Tempo Control

326

Tap Tempo and Nudge Left/Right buttons are essential for live performance, helping you to stay in sync with turntables, other musicians or a live band, and correct timing issues quickly.

As you hit the

Tap Tempo

button once every beat, the tempo of the Live Set will follow your tapping.

You can also use tapping to count in: If you are working in a 4:4 signature, it takes four taps to start song playback at the tapped tempo.

On stage and in the studio, you may nd yourself in situations in which you need to adjust to sources that aren't locked to one tempo, such as live musicians or turntables. You can use the

Nudge

buttons to temporarily speed up or slow down Live's playback to match what you hear.

Tempo Control.

CHAPTER 25. USING THE APC40

25.9

Crossfader

327

The APC40's replaceable crossfader is an essential DJ control, and is also handy for controlling effect, volume and modulation curves.

In Live, you can set any track as an A or B destination, and then

crossfade

between the A and B selections.

Normal wear and tear can render a crossfader obsolete. The APC40's crossfader is fully replaceable from the bottom of the device, so you can extend the lifetime of this already durable unit.

Crossfader.

CHAPTER 25. USING THE APC40

25.10

Customizing the APC40 Controls

328

You can change the assignment of all of the knobs, faders and buttons on the APC40 by enabling the Remote switches in the MIDI/Sync Preferences, as described in the section on

manual control surface setup .

Now, by entering Live's

MIDI Map Mode , you can override the pre-assigned functions of all

of the APC40's knobs, faders and buttons. The eight Track Control knobs can be assigned in four banks, which can be switched with the buttons below them. Likewise, the Device

Control knobs can be assigned in eight banks by holding down Shift while pressing one of the eight buttons below these knobs.

Tip: If you have overridden the APC40's default mappings with manual mappings, you can easily switch back to the defaults by deactivating the Remote switch of the APC40's input port. Activating the switch again will re-establish your manual mappings.

Setting Up The APC40

For Custom

Assignments.

329

Chapter 26

Using the Launchpad

The Launchpad is a dedicated controller for Ableton Live, co-designed by Ableton and

Novation 1 . Launchpad has 64 square-shaped pads and 16 round buttons, all of which are pre-con gured to integrate perfectly with Live. This chapter will help you set up your

Launchpad, and introduce its capabilities.

26.1

Setup

Once the Launchpad has been connected to one of your computer's USB ports, you will need to select the Launchpad in Live's Preferences. The Launchpad is one of Live's

natively supported control surfaces , so setup is quite easy:

1. Open Live's Preferences from the Live menu in OS X, or the Options menu in

Windows;

2. Go to the MIDI/Sync Tab;

3. Select the Launchpad preset from the Control Surface chooser. Then select the port that the Launchpad is connected to in the Input and Output choosers:

1 http://www.novationmusic.com/

CHAPTER 26. USING THE LAUNCHPAD 330

Setting Up The

Launchpad.

26.2

Launchpad's Four Modes

The row of buttons on the top of Launchpad includes four directional arrow buttons to navigate through the Session View, and four mode buttons which switch between Session mode, User mode 1, User mode 2 and Mixer mode. These modes are explained in more detail below.

Launchpad's Mode

Buttons.

26.3

Session Mode

In Session Mode, the Launchpad's matrix of pads gives you physical access to the clips in your

Session View . The matrix has 64 three-color pads arranged in a eight-by-eight grid. The

color-coding system lets you know exactly what is happening in each clip, and directional controls let you move around inside your Session View.

CHAPTER 26. USING THE LAUNCHPAD

26.3.1

Launching Clips

331

Launchpad Session

Mode Button.

When Launchpad is chosen as an active control surface, a ring appears on the Session View in Live to indicate which clips are currently controlled by the pad matrix. This ring is red if

Launchpad is enabled in the rst of Live's six control surface choosers. Each chooser has a different colored ring, allowing you to assign multiple Launchpads at the same time.

The directional arrows and the Session button increase the scope of the eight-by-eight grid:

ˆ Pressing Up or Down moves you up or down one scene at a time. Hold the Session button while hitting Up or Down to move eight scenes up or down (bank shifting).

Session Mode.

CHAPTER 26. USING THE LAUNCHPAD 332

ˆ The Left and Right arrow keys move you left or right one track at a time. Hold the

Session button while hitting Left or Right to move eight tracks at a time (bank shifting).

Pressing a Clip Launch pad triggers the clip in the corresponding clip slot in Live. Hitting an empty clip slot in a track that is not armed will stop the clip playing in this track. If the track is armed to record, pressing the button records a new clip.

The buttons in the matrix light up in different colours so you know what's going on:

ˆ Amber: this slot contains a clip.

ˆ Green: this clip is playing.

ˆ Red: this clip is recording.

You can also re horizontal lines of clips (Scenes) with the buttons on the right hand side of

Launchpad.

26.3.2

Session Overview

Session Overview.

CHAPTER 26. USING THE LAUNCHPAD 333

The Launchpad's Session Overview lets you navigate through large Live Sets quickly without looking at your computer screen. Hold down the Session button and the matrix zooms out to reveal an overview of your Session View. In the Session Overview, each pad represents an eight-by-eight block of clips, giving you a matrix of 64 scenes by 64 tracks.

Hit a pad to focus on that section of the Session View. For example, hitting the Session button and then pressing the pad in the third row in the rst column will put the focus on scenes 17-25 and tracks 1-8. Furthermore, while session is held, each scene launch button represents a block of 64 scenes (if they are available in your Set.)

In the Session Overview, the color coding is a little different:

ˆ Amber: indicates the currently selected block of clips, which will be surrounded by the ring in the software.

ˆ Green: there are clips playing in that block of clips (though that may not be the block of clips selected).

ˆ Red: there are no clips playing in that range.

ˆ No color: there are no tracks or scenes in that range.

26.4

User Modes

The User modes allow the grid of 64 buttons plus the 8 vertical system buttons to be freely assigned to any parameter in Live. Alternatively, if no assignments have been made then note data will be sent from the 64 button grid in a layout designed to work well with the

Drum Rack device (starting from note C1).

When User 1 is selected, Launchpad can be used to play note data into Live's MIDI tracks (if no custom MIDI assignments have been made.)

When User 2 is selected, Launchpad does not send note data by default. This mode is ideal for doing extensive MIDI customization.

CHAPTER 26. USING THE LAUNCHPAD 334

26.4.1

Customizing the Launchpad Controls

You can change the assignment of all of the Launchpad's controls by enabling the Remote switches in the MIDI/Sync Preferences, as described in the section on

manual control surface setup .

Now, by entering Live's

MIDI Map Mode , you can override the pre-assigned functions of all

of the Launchpad's controls.

Tip: If you have overridden the Launchpad's default mappings with manual mappings, you can easily switch back to the defaults by deactivating the Remote switch of the Launchpad's input port. Activating the switch again will re-establish your manual mappings.

Setting Up The

Launchpad For Custom

Assignments.

CHAPTER 26. USING THE LAUNCHPAD

26.5

Mixer Mode

335

Launchpad's Mixer mode gives you access to essential mixing controls in Live: volume, pan, sends, clip stop, track activation, solo and record/arm. The directional arrows to change the focus of the ring are still accessible in Mixer mode.

Launchpad Mixer

Buttons.

CHAPTER 26. USING THE LAUNCHPAD

26.5.1

Mixer Overview

336

This is the view displayed when pressing the Mixer button. It provides an overview of the main mixing controls in Live.

The top four rows of pads indicate the status of track volume and track pan, as well as sends

A and B, for each track:

ˆ if the parameter is at its default value, the pad is dimmed

ˆ if the parameter is NOT at its default value, the pad is fully lit. Hitting the pad will instantly set the parameter to its default value (0 dB for volume, center for pan, 0 for sends).

The bottom four rows of pads and the bottom four buttons on the right provide direct access to key controls for each track:

ˆ pads in the stop row will stop the clip currently playing in this track

ˆ pads in the trk on row will mute this track (the pads turn off)

ˆ pads in the solo row will solo this track

Launchpad Mixer

Overview.

CHAPTER 26. USING THE LAUNCHPAD

ˆ pads in the arm row will arm this track

The bottom four buttons on the right provide additional control for each track:

ˆ the stop button will stop all clips currently playing

ˆ the trk on button will mute all tracks (all pads turn off)

ˆ the solo button will un-solo all soloed tracks

ˆ the arm button will un-arm all armed tracks

26.5.2

The Volume Page

337

Press the Vol button to enter the Volume page.

In the Volume page, all eight pads of a column turn into a track volume fader . The pads have the following values in dB, from bottom to top: -inf, -48, -24, -18, -12, -6, 0, +6.

All pads below (and including) the selected value light up in full brightness to indicate the fader position.

Launchpad Volume

Page.

CHAPTER 26. USING THE LAUNCHPAD

26.5.3

The Pan Page

338

Press the Pan button to enter the Pan page.

In the Pan page, all eight pads of a column turn into a track panorama knob for the selected track, with left at the bottom and right at the top. The pads have the following values, from bottom to top: 50L, 30L, 15L, center, center, 15R, 30R, 50R. The pan control is centered when the two pads in the middle are fully lit.

Launchpad Pan Page.

CHAPTER 26. USING THE LAUNCHPAD

26.5.4

The Send Pages

339

In the two Send pages (for Send A and Send B), all eight pads of a column turn into a send knob for the selected track, with left at the bottom and right at the top. The pads have the following values in dB, from bottom to top: -inf, -48, -24, -18, -12, -6, 0, +6. All pads below (and including) the selected value light up in full brightness to indicate the knob position. The behavior of this page is similar to the Volume page.

Launchpad Send Page.

340

Chapter 27

Synchronization and ReWire

27.1

Synchronizing via MIDI

The MIDI protocol de nes two ways to synchronize sequencers, both of which are supported by Live. Both protocols work with the notion of a sync master , which delivers a sync signal that is tracked by the sync slave(s) .

ˆ MIDI Clock. MIDI Clock works like a metronome ticking at a fast rate. The rate of the incoming ticks is tempo-dependent: Changing the tempo at the sync master (e.g., a drum machine) will cause the slave to follow the change. The MIDI Clock protocol also provides messages that indicate the song position. With respect to MIDI Clock, Live can act as both a MIDI sync master and slave.

ˆ MIDI Timecode. MIDI Timecode is the MIDI version of the SMPTE protocol, the standard means of synchronizing tape machines and computers in the audio and lm industry. A MIDI Timecode message speci es a time in seconds and frames

(subdivisions of a second). Live will interpret a Timecode message as a position in the

Arrangement. Timecode messages carry no meter-related information; when slaving

Live to another sequencer using MIDI Timecode, you will have to adjust the tempo manually. Tempo changes cannot be tracked. Detailed MIDI Timecode preferences

CHAPTER 27. SYNCHRONIZATION AND REWIRE 341 are explained

later in this chapter . With respect to MIDI Timecode, Live can only act

as a MIDI sync slave, not a master.

27.1.1

Synchronizing External MIDI Devices to Live

Live can send MIDI Clock messages to an external MIDI sequencer (or drum machine). After connecting the sequencer to Live and setting it up to receive MIDI sync, turn the device on as a sync destination in Live's MIDI/Sync Preferences.

The lower indicator LED next to the Control Bar's EXT button will ash when Live is sending sync messages to external sequencers.

Choosing a MIDI Slave for Live.

27.1.2

Synchronizing Live to External MIDI Devices

Live can be synchronized via MIDI to an external sequencer. After connecting the sequencer to Live and setting it up to send sync, use Live's MIDI/Sync Preferences to tell Live about the connection.

When an external sync source has been enabled, the EXT button appears in the Control

Bar. You can then activate external sync either by switching on this button or by using the

External Sync command in the Options menu. The upper indicator LED next to the EXT button will ash if Live receives useable sync messages.

Setting up Live as a MIDI

Slave.

CHAPTER 27. SYNCHRONIZATION AND REWIRE 342

When Live is synced to an external MIDI device, it can accept song position pointers from this device, syncing it not only in terms of tempo but in terms of its position in the song. If the master jumps to a new position within the song, Live will do the same. However, if the

Control Bar's Loop switch is activated, playback will be looped, and song position pointers will simply be wrapped into the length of the loop.

The External Sync

Switch.

27.1.3

MIDI Timecode Options

Timecode options can be set up per MIDI device. Select a MIDI device from the MIDI/Sync

Preferences' MIDI Ports list to access the settings.

The MIDI Timecode Frame Rate setting is relevant only if MIDI Timecode is chosen from the MIDI Sync Type menu. The MIDI Timecode Rate chooser selects the type of Timecode to which Live will synchronize. All of the usual SMPTE frame rates are available. When the

Rate is set to SMPTE All, Live will auto-detect the Timecode format of incoming sync messages and interpret the messages accordingly. Note that you can adjust the Timecode format that is used for display in the Arrangement View: Go to the Options menu, and then access the Time Ruler Format sub-menu.

The MIDI Timecode Offset setting is also only relevant if MIDI Timecode is chosen from the Sync Type menu. You can specify a SMPTE time offset using this control. Live will interpret this value as the Arrangement's start time.

27.1.4

Sync Delay

The Sync Delay controls, which are separately available for each MIDI device, allow you to delay Live's internal time base against the sync signal. This can be useful in compensating for delays incurred by the signal transmission. The Sync Delay for a speci c MIDI device appears as you select the MIDI device from the MIDI/Sync Preferences' MIDI Ports list. To adjust the delay, have both Live and the other sequencer play a rhythmical pattern with

CHAPTER 27. SYNCHRONIZATION AND REWIRE 343 pronounced percussive sounds. While listening to the output from both, adjust the Sync

Delay control until both sounds are in perfect sync.

27.2

Connecting via ReWire

Live supports the ReWire interface for connecting with another ReWire-compatible audio program running on the same computer.

The ReWire technology, developed by Propellerhead Software , provides ReWire-compatible programs with:

ˆ common access to the audio hardware;

ˆ shared transport functionality;

ˆ synchronization to audio word clock and song positioning;

ˆ exchange of audio streams.

The programs in a ReWire connection play distinct roles: The ReWire master accesses the audio hardware and provides mixing facilities; the ReWire slave(s) have no direct link to the audio hardware, but instead send their audio output into the Master's mixer.

Common ReWire master applications are Pro Tools, Cubase, Nuendo, Logic, Digital Performer, Sonar and Max/MSP. Common ReWire slave applications are Reason, Rebirth, Storm,

Project 5 and Max/MSP. Live can act as both a ReWire master and slave.

Note that the ReWire protocol itself does not consume much CPU power. However, as expected, running two audio-intensive programs on the same computer requires more resources than running a single program.

Adjusting Sync Delay.

CHAPTER 27. SYNCHRONIZATION AND REWIRE 344

27.2.1

Running Live in ReWire Master Mode

The step-by-step procedure for sending MIDI to and receiving audio from a ReWire slave program is presented in the

routing chapter .

27.2.2

Running Live in ReWire Slave Mode

In ReWire slave mode, Live can both receive MIDI from, but also send audio to the master application. All of Live's MIDI tracks are accessible to the master application as destinations for MIDI signals, and all of its audio tracks and MIDI tracks containing instruments are accessible as audio sources.

If you have not used Live yet, please launch Live so that it can install its ReWire engine in your system.

Live will run in ReWire slave mode if it detects a running ReWire master application upon startup. Therefore, always start the ReWire master application rst, and then start Live.

Likewise, you will rst have to quit Live, then the ReWire master application.

Live's operation in ReWire slave mode differs from the usual operation in some regards:

ˆ Live will not have direct access to the audio interfaces; audio input/output is handled by the ReWire master application. No audio input will be available to Live.

ˆ The sample rate is determined by the host application rather than by Live.

ˆ External synchronization will be disabled (synchronize to the ReWire master application instead). Live will not send sync or controller messages to the MIDI output. Controlling

Live via MIDI is still possible.

ˆ Live will not act as a ReWire master application. For instance, you cannot run Rebirth as a ReWire slave of Live while Live is running as a ReWire slave of Cubase. You can, however, run both Live and Rebirth as ReWire slaves of Cubase at the same time.

ˆ Time signature and tempo will be determined by the settings in the ReWire master application. If your Live Set contains any tempo or time signature changes, they will be ignored.

CHAPTER 27. SYNCHRONIZATION AND REWIRE 345

27.2.3

More on ReWire

You can nd tutorials on connecting Live to speci c ReWire master programs at the Ableton tutorial website 1 .

The Ableton FAQ website 2 is the rst place to go if you encounter ReWire-related problems.

If you cannot seem to nd an answer there, please contact the Ableton support team 3 .

1 http://www.ableton.com/tutorials

2 http://www.ableton.com/faq

3 http://www.ableton.com/support

346

Chapter 28

Computer Audio Resources and

Strategies

Real-time audio processing is a demanding task for general-purpose computers, which are usually designed to run spreadsheets and surf the Internet. An application like Live requires a powerful CPU and a fast hard disk. This section will provide some insight on these issues, and should help you avoid and solve problems with running audio on a computer.

28.1

Managing the CPU Load

To output a continuous stream of sound through the audio hardware, Live has to perform a huge number of calculations every second. If the processor can't keep up with what needs to be calculated, the audio will have gaps or clicks. Factors that affect computational speed include processor clock rates (e.g., speed in MHz or GHz), architecture, memory cache performance (how ef ciently a processor can grab data from memory) and system bus bandwidth the computer's pipeline through which all data must pass. For this reason, many people involved with pro audio use computers that are optimized for musical applications.

CHAPTER 28. COMPUTER AUDIO RESOURCES AND STRATEGIES 347

Fortunately, Live supports multicore and multiprocessor systems, allowing the processing load from things like instruments, effects and I/O to be distributed among the available resources. Depending on the machine and the Live Set, the available processing power can be several times that of older systems.

If you are working on a multicore or multiprocessor system, you will want to enable support for it in the CPU tab of Live's Preferences.

The Control Bar's CPU meter displays how much of the computer's computational potential is currently being used. For example, if the displayed percentage is 10 percent, the computer is just coasting along. If the percentage is 100 percent, the processing is being maxed out it's likely that you will hear gaps, clicks or other audio problems. Note that the CPU meter takes into account only the load from processing audio, not other tasks the computer performs (e.g., managing Live's user interface).

Audio calculations have the highest priority in Live. Therefore, even if the CPU shows a high percentage of processor usage, the audio stream should remain uninterrupted. However, non-critical functions (such as screen redraws) might slow down because these tasks are handled only when the audio processing lightens up a bit.

The CPU Load Meter.

28.1.1

CPU Load from Multichannel Audio

One source of constant CPU drain is the process of moving data to and from the audio hardware. This drain can be minimized by disabling any inputs and outputs that are not required in a project. There are two buttons in the Audio Preferences to access the Input and Output Con guration dialogs, which allow activating or deactivating individual ins and outs.

Live does not automatically disable unused channels, because the audio hardware drivers usually produce an audible hiccup when there is a request for an audio con guration change.

CHAPTER 28. COMPUTER AUDIO RESOURCES AND STRATEGIES 348

28.1.2

CPU Load from Tracks and Devices

Generally, every track and device being used in Live incurs some amount of CPU load.

However, Live is smart and avoids wasting CPU cycles on tracks and devices that do not contribute anything useful.

For example, dragging devices into a Live Set that is not running does not signi cantly increase the CPU load. The load increases only as you start playing clips or feed audio into the effects. When there is no incoming audio, the effects are deactivated until they are needed again. (If the effect produces a tail, like reverbs and delays, deactivation occurs only after all calculations are complete.)

While this scheme is very effective at reducing the average CPU load of a Live Set, it cannot reduce the peak load. To make sure your Live Set plays back continuously, even under the most intense conditions, play back a clip in every track simultaneously, with all devices enabled.

28.1.3

Track Freeze

Live's Freeze Track command can greatly help in managing the CPU load incurred by devices and clip settings. When you select a track and execute the Freeze Track command, Live will create a sample le for each Session clip in the track, plus one for the Arrangement.

Thereafter, clips in the track will simply play back their freeze les rather than repeatedly calculating processor-intensive device and clip settings in real time. The Freeze Track command is available from Live's Edit menu and from the (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) context menu of tracks and clips.

Once any processing demands have been addressed (or you have upgraded your machine!), you can always select a frozen track and choose Unfreeze Track from the Edit menu to change device or clip settings. On slower machines, you can unfreeze processor-intensive tracks one at a time to make edits, freezing them again when you are done.

Many editing functions remain available to tracks that are frozen. Launching clips can still be done freely, and mixer controls such as volume, pan and the sends are still available. Other possibilities include:

ˆ Edit, cut, copy, paste, duplicate and trim clips;

CHAPTER 28. COMPUTER AUDIO RESOURCES AND STRATEGIES 349

ˆ Draw and edit mixer automation and mixer clip envelopes;

ˆ Consolidate;

ˆ Record Session View clip launches into the Arrangement View;

ˆ Create, move and duplicate Session View scenes;

ˆ Drag frozen MIDI clips into audio tracks.

When performing edits on frozen tracks that contain time-based effects such as reverb, you should note that the audible result may be different once the track is again unfrozen, depending on the situation. This is because, if a track is frozen, the applied effects are not being calculated at all, and therefore cannot change their response to re ect edited input material. When the track is again unfrozen, all effects will be recalculated in real time.

Frozen Arrangement View tracks will play back any relevant material extending beyond the lengths of their clips (e.g., the tails of Reverb effects). These frozen tails will appear in the Arrangement as crosshatched regions located adjacent to their corresponding clips.

They are treated by Live as separate, temporary clips that disappear when unfrozen, since the effect is then calculated in real time. Therefore, when moving a frozen clip in the

Arrangement, you will usually want to select the second, frozen tail clip as well, so that the two remain together.

For frozen Session clips, only two loop cycles are included in the frozen clip, which means that clips with

unlinked clip envelopes

may play back differently after two loop cycles when frozen.

The samples generated by the Freeze Track command are stored in your temporary recording folder until you save your Live Set, at which point they are moved to the following

project folder

sub-directory: Samples/Processed/Freeze.

A Frozen Arrangement

Track with a Reverb Tail.

CHAPTER 28. COMPUTER AUDIO RESOURCES AND STRATEGIES 350

You can also decide to atten frozen tracks, which completely replaces the original clips and devices with their audible result. The Flatten command is available from the Edit menu.

Besides providing an opportunity to conserve CPU resources on tracks containing a large number of devices, the Track Freeze command simpli es sharing projects between computers. Computers that are a bit low on processing power can be used to run large Live Sets as long as any CPU-intensive tracks are frozen. This also means that computers lacking certain devices used in one Live Set can still play the Set when the relevant device tracks are frozen.

28.2

Managing the Disk Load

A hard drive's access speed (which is related to, but not the same thing as rotational speed) can limit Live's performance. Most audio-optimized computers use 7200 RPM or faster drives. Laptops, to save power, often use 5400 RPM or slower drives, which is why projects on laptops usually have lower track counts. The amount of disk traf c Live generates is roughly proportional to the number of audio channels being written or read simultaneously.

A track playing a stereo sample causes more disk traf c than a track playing a mono sample.

The Disk Overload indicator ashes when the disk was unable to read or write audio quickly enough. When recording audio, this condition causes a gap in the recorded sample; when playing back, you will hear dropouts.

Do the following to avoid disk overload:

ˆ Reduce the amount of audio channels being written by choosing mono inputs instead of stereo inputs in the Audio Preferences' Channel Con guration dialog.

ˆ Use

RAM Mode

for selected clips.

ˆ Reduce the number of audio channels playing by using mono samples instead of stereo samples when possible. You can convert stereo samples to mono using any standard digital audio editing program, which can be called up from

within Live .

The Disk Overload

Indicator.

351

Chapter 29

Audio Fact Sheet

Prior to the release of Live 7, much of Ableton's development effort was focused on carefully and objectively testing Live's fundamental audio performance. As a result of this testing, we have implemented a number of low-level improvements to the audio engine. We have also written this fact sheet to help users understand exactly how their audio is (or is not) being modi ed when using certain features in Live that are often misunderstood, as well as tips for achieving the highest quality results.

As mentioned above, the focus of our research has been on objective (that is, quanti able and measurable) behavior. We make no claims about what you can hear because we can't possibly predict the variables that make up your listening environment, audio hardware, hearing sensitivity, etc. Furthermore, this paper makes no claims about how Live compares to other audio software. Rather, it is a summary of measurable facts about what Live actually does under various conditions.

29.1

Testing and Methodology

As of this writing, every version of Live is subjected to a suite of 473 automated tests that cover every aspect of Live's functionality. We add additional tests as we add features, and

CHAPTER 29. AUDIO FACT SHEET we will never release an update unless it passes every test.

352

29.2

Neutral Operations

Procedures in Live that will cause absolutely no change in audio quality are referred to as neutral operations . You can be sure that using these functions will never cause any signal degradation. Applying neutral operations to audio that was recorded into Live ensures that the audio will be unchanged from the point of analog-to-digital conversion. Applying neutral operations to les imported into Live ensures that the imported audio will be identical to the les saved on disk. Applying neutral operations to les being exported from Live ensures that the quality of your output le will be at least as high as what you heard during playback.

The list of neutral operations found below is provided primarily as an abstract reference; while all of these operations are, in fact, neutral, it is important to remember that each of them may (and almost certainly will) occur within a context that also contains non-neutral operations. For example, running an audio signal through an effects device is a non-neutral operation. So any neutral operations that occur after it will, of course, still result in audio that is altered in some way. Even a gain change is, technically, non-neutral.

Neutral operations include:

29.2.1

Undithered Rendering

The

Export Audio

command renders Live's audio output to a le on disk. Rendering is a neutral operation under certain conditions:

ˆ the sample rate of the rendered le is the same as that set for the audio hardware in

Live's Preferences.

ˆ no non-neutral operations have been applied.

Live's rendering performance is tested by loading three types of unprocessed audio les

(white noise, xed-frequency sine waves and sine sweeps) in 16-, 24- and 32-bit word lengths and rendering these to output les, also with varying bit resolutions. Phase cancellation testing of the original and output les shows the following:

CHAPTER 29. AUDIO FACT SHEET 353

ˆ rendering to a le with the same bit depth as the original results in complete phase cancellation.

ˆ rendering to a le with a higher bit depth than the original results in complete phase cancellation.

ˆ rendering to a le with a lower bit depth than the original results in the smallest amount of distortion possible within a 32-bit system.

29.2.2

Matching sample rate/no transposition

Playback of an unstretched audio le in Live is a neutral operation, provided that the le's sample rate is the same as that set in Live's Preferences and that the le is played back without transposition. This is veri ed by cancellation tests of rendered output. Please note that playback in this context refers only to the audio within Live, prior to the point at which it reaches your audio hardware.

29.2.3

Unstretched Beats/Tones/Texture/Re-Pitch Warping

If the tempo of a Clip is the same as the tempo of the Set, that clip will play back unstretched.

In this case, if the

Warp mode

of the Clip is set to Beats, Tones, Texture or Re-Pitch, playback will be neutral. Any Warping caused by changing the Set's tempo is non-permanent, and audio that plays back unwarped at a given tempo will always play back unwarped at that tempo, even if the tempo is changed and then changed back. For example, if you've recorded some tracks at 120 BPM, but then decide you'd like to slow the tempo down to record a particularly dif cult solo passage, the original tracks will play back neutrally again after returning the tempo to 120 BPM. Only the recording made at the slower tempo will be stretched. Please note that

grooves

work by modifying the positions of Warp markers.

This means that playback of audio clips with groove applied will be non-neutral even at the original tempo.

The neutrality of unstretched clip playback is veri ed by performing cancellation tests on rendered output.

CHAPTER 29. AUDIO FACT SHEET 354

29.2.4

Summing at Single Mix Points

Since version 7, Live uses double precision (64-bit) summing at all points where signals are mixed, including Clip and return track inputs, the Master track and Racks. Mixing in Live is thus a neutral operation for signals mixed at any single summing point. This is tested by loading pairs of 24-bit les (white noise and xed-frequency sine waves and their phaseinverted complements), adding the pairs together eight times and rendering the output as

32-bit les. All tests result in perfect phase cancellation.

Please note that, while 64-bit summing is applied to each single mix point, Live's internal processing is still done at 32-bit. Thus, signals that are mixed across multiple summing points may still result in an extremely small amount of signal degradation. This combination of 64-bit summing within a 32-bit architecture strikes an ideal balance between audio quality and CPU/memory consumption.

29.2.5

Recording external signals (bit depth >/= A/D converter)

Recording audio signals into Live is a neutral operation, provided that the bit depth set in

Live's Preferences window is the same or higher than that of the A/D converters used for the recording. In this context, neutral means identical to the audio as it was delivered to

Live by the A/D converters.

29.2.6

Recording internal sources at 32 bit

Audio that is recorded via internal routing will be identical to the source audio, provided that the recording was made at 32 bits. To ensure neutral recordings of plug-in instruments and any audio signals that are being processed by effects plug-ins, internal recording at 32 bits is recommended. Please note, however, that if the source audio is already at a lower bit depth, internal recording at that bit depth will also be neutral (assuming that no effects are used); internally recording an unprocessed 16 bit audio le at 32 bits will not increase the sound quality.

The neutrality of internal recording is veri ed using cancellation tests.

CHAPTER 29. AUDIO FACT SHEET 355

29.2.7

Freeze, Flatten

When tracks are

frozen , the audio les that are created are 32 bit, which ensures that they

will not be lower quality than the audio heard prior to freezing. But there are some special cases involving Freeze that result in non-neutral behavior and should be noted:

ˆ Frozen Arrangement View tracks can include audio material that extends beyond the end of the clip itself, such as reverb tails and delay repetitions. Frozen Session View tracks, however, are always exactly two loop cycles long, so any audio that extends beyond two loop cycles during un-frozen playback will be cut off after freezing.

ˆ Time-based effects like reverbs and delays are processed in realtime for unfrozen clips, so stopping playback during a reverb or delay tail will allow the tail to continue. In contrast, frozen tails are rendered as audio, and so will stop abruptly during playback.

ˆ Any parameter automations are rendered as part of the audio le for frozen Arrangement View clips. Frozen Session View clips, however, take a snapshot of all parameter values at the Arranger's 1.1.1 position and retain them for the duration of the frozen clip. This is analogous to the behavior with unfrozen clips; when playing normal clips in Session View, any Arrangement automations are punched out until the Back to

Arrangement button is pressed.

ˆ Frozen clips are always played back with Warp on and in Beats mode, which means they are subject to the same non-neutral behavior as any other Warped audio les.

ˆ Any devices with random parameters (e.g., the Chance control in the Beat Repeat device) will no longer exhibit random behavior after freezing. This is because, as with time-based effects, the random values that were in place at the moment of freezing will be rendered as part of the new le, and will thus no longer be calculated in real-time.

Please note that the Flatten command replaces any original clips and devices with the audio les created by freezing. When using this command, it is important to keep in mind the special cases above what you hear after freezing is exactly what you will get when attening, so if the results are not to your liking, be sure to unfreeze and make any necessary changes to device parameters before invoking the Flatten command.

This procedure is tested by rendering the output of an audio track and comparing it to the frozen audio from the same track via phase cancellation to ensure that the les are identical.

CHAPTER 29. AUDIO FACT SHEET 356

29.2.8

Bypassed Effects

Bypassed effects in Live are removed from the signal ow. This is true for both Live's built-in effects devices and third-party VST and AU plug-ins. Consequently, audio at the output of a bypassed effect is identical to the audio at the input. Please note, however, that effects devices with parameters that inherently require delay (e.g., the Look Ahead settings in Compressor) will still introduce this delay when bypassed, in order to maintain automatic delay compensation with the rest of the project. In most cases, the effects of this behavior will be completely inaudible.

The neutrality of bypassed effects is tested by loading one instance of each of Live's effects devices into an audio track, deactivating them, and then rendering the output of the track.

The rendered le is then compared to the rendered output of the same track with no loaded devices. Phase cancellation testing of the two les con rms that they are identical.

29.2.9

Routing

The

routing

of signals within Live is a neutral operation. The signal at the routing destination will be identical to the signal at the routing source. It is important to note that Live's exible routing architecture allows for a variety of scenarios, including routing from before or after any track's effects or mixer and tapping the output of individual sample slots within the

Impulse instrument. In these cases, it is likely that the signal heard at the output point will be different from the signal heard prior to routing, because it has been tapped before reaching the end of its original signal chain.

29.2.10

Splitting Clips

Clips which are already neutral will remain neutral after

splitting . Splitting only affects

playback position within the sample, and has no effect on the sample data itself. Playback across a split boundary is seamless and sample-accurate.

The neutrality of clip splitting is tested under a variety of conditions:

ˆ splitting unwarped clips with loop on and off;

ˆ splitting warped but unstretched clips with loop on and off;

CHAPTER 29. AUDIO FACT SHEET 357

In all cases, output is rendered and compared with the output of an unsplit version of the same source. Phase cancellation testing of the two les con rms that they are identical.

29.3

Non-Neutral Operations

Procedures in Live that will cause a change in audio quality are referred to as non-neutral operations . Users can be guaranteed that using these operations will cause at least some change to the signal. Applying non-neutral operations to les imported into Live ensures that the imported audio will differ from the les saved on disk. Applying non-neutral operations to les being exported from Live ensures that what you hear during realtime playback will be different from what will end up in your new le.

Non-neutral operations include:

29.3.1

Sample rate conversion/transposition

Sample rate conversion (during both real-time playback and rendering) is a non-neutral operation. Playback of audio les at a sample rate that is different from the rate set in

Live's Preferences window will cause signal degradation. Transposition is also a form of sample-rate conversion, and thus also results in non-neutral behavior.

To minimize potential negative results, it is recommended to do sample rate conversion as an of ine process in another application. Once the samples have been converted to the sample rate that you plan to use in Live, the les can be imported without any loss of quality.

Rendering audio from Live with a sampling rate other than the one that was used while working on the project is also a non-neutral operation, and may result in a loss of sound quality. It is recommended to always render using the original sampling rate, and then convert the rendered le using a dedicated mastering application that is optimized for these kinds of CPU-intensive, of ine tasks.

While we recommend that you use a high-quality of ine tool for sample rate conversion, we recognize that one of Live's core features is its ability to pitch-shift and warp audio in real time. For this situation, it is necessary to make a trade-off between CPU performance and precision. We recommend the use of the

Hi-Q

button for any clips which undergo

CHAPTER 29. AUDIO FACT SHEET 358 transposition in a given Set. The algorithm behind the Hi-Q switch was rewritten for Live 7, and now results in considerably lower distortion than in previous versions.

29.3.2

Volume Automation

Automation of volume level results in a change in gain, which is necessarily a non-neutral operation. But certain implementations of automation envelopes can result in audible artifacts, particularly if the envelopes are not calculated at a fast enough rate. Since Live 7, volume automation curves are updated for each audio sample, resulting in extremely low levels of distortion.

29.3.3

Dithering

Whenever rendering audio to a lower bit depth, it is a good idea to apply dithering in order to minimize artifacts. Dithering (a kind of very low-level noise) is inherently a non-neutral procedure, but it is a necessary evil when lowering the bit resolution.

Please note that Live's internal signal processing is all 32-bit, so applying even a single gain change makes the resulting audio 32-bit as well even if the original audio is 16- or 24-bit.

Dither should never be applied more than once to any given audio le, so unless you are mastering and nalizing in Live, it is best to always render at 32-bit and avoid dithering altogether.

29.3.4

Recording external signals (bit depth < A/D converter)

Recording audio signals into Live is a non-neutral operation if the bit depth set in Live's

Preferences window is lower than that of the A/D converters used for the recording. This is not recommended.

29.3.5

Recording internal sources below 32 bit

Audio that is recorded via internal routing will lose quality if the recording is made at a bit depth below 32 bits. To ensure neutral recordings of plug-in instruments and any

CHAPTER 29. AUDIO FACT SHEET 359 audio signals that are being processed by effects plug-ins, internal recording at 32 bits is recommended. Please note, however, that if the source audio is already at a lower bit depth, internal recording at that bit depth will also be neutral (assuming that no effects are used); internally recording an unprocessed 16 bit audio le at 32 bits will not increase the sound quality.

29.3.6

Consolidate

Consolidating clips

in the Arrangement View creates new audio les, which are non-neutral in comparison to the original audio data. Speci cally, the new les will be normalized, with their clip volumes adjusted to play back at the same volume as heard prior to consolidation.

Normalization is a gain change, which is a non-neutral operation. Also, the new les will be created at the sample rate and bit depth set in Live's Preferences window, which may differ from those in the original audio les.

29.3.7

Clip fades

When Create Fades on Clip Edges is enabled in the Record/Warp/Launch Preferences, a short (up to 4 ms) fade is applied to the clip start and end to avoid clicks at the clip edges.

These declicking fades can also be applied to Session View clips via the

Clip Fade

button.

Additionally, Arrangement View clips have

editable fades and crossfades . Applying any of

these fade options is a non-neutral operation.

29.3.8

Panning

Live uses constant power panning with sinusoidal gain curves. Output is 0 dB at the center position and signals panned fully left or right will be increased by +3 dB. In order to minimize this volume change, it may be helpful to narrow the overall stereo width before doing extreme panning. This can be done via the Width control in the Utility device.

CHAPTER 29. AUDIO FACT SHEET 360

29.3.9

Grooves

Under most conditions, playback of a warped clip that is at the same tempo as the Set is a neutral operation. However, if a

groove

is applied, playback will be non-neutral at any tempo.

29.4

Tips for Achieving Optimal Sound Quality in Live

For users looking to achieve optimal audio quality in Live, we have provided a list of recommended practices and program settings.

ˆ Decide which sample rate to use for a project prior to beginning work, rather than changing the sample rate while working on the project.

ˆ Record audio into Live using high-quality hardware components (audio interface, cables, etc.) and at the highest sample rate and bit depth your interface and computer will support.

ˆ Avoid using samples that are at different sample rates within the same project. If you want to work with such les, we recommend that you rst convert them to the sample rate set for your audio interface in an of ine application that is optimized for this task.

ˆ For all audio clips, disable both the Warp and Fade options in the Clip View.

ˆ Do not adjust the Transpose and Detune controls for any clips.

ˆ Always render at 32-bit and at the sample rate set for your audio interface. If you need audio les at a different sample rate and/or bit depth, we recommend that you convert your rendered les in an of ine application that is optimized for these tasks, rather than in Live.

Please note that these practices, while ensuring optimal audio quality, disable some of Live's functionality in particular, stretching and synchronization.

CHAPTER 29. AUDIO FACT SHEET

29.5

Summary and Conclusions

361

Ableton wrote this paper in order to help users understand exactly how audio is affected when performing various procedures in Live. Our focus has been on functions that have proven over the years to cause confusion or uncertainty, and the list of both neutral and non-neutral operations presented here is necessarily incomplete.

We encourage you to refer to this paper if you have any questions about the functions discussed, but we also encourage you to contact us 1 if you have additional questions that we haven't answered. Live is a product, but it is also an ongoing process, and one that bene ts greatly from user input.

1 [email protected]

362

Chapter 30

MIDI Fact Sheet

In conjunction with our work on the audio engine, Ableton has spent additional effort analyzing Live's MIDI timing and making improvements where necessary. We wrote this fact sheet to help users understand the problems involved in creating a reliable and accurate computer-based MIDI environment, and to explain Live's approach to solving these problems.

Note: the MIDI timing issues discussed in this paper are generally not applicable to users with high-quality audio and MIDI hardware. If you have already invested time and money into optimizing these factors in your studio, and are not experiencing problems with MIDI timing, you probably do not need this information.

30.1

Ideal MIDI Behavior

To understand how MIDI works within a digital audio workstation (DAW), it is helpful to introduce some common terms and concepts. A DAW must be able to accommodate three distinct MIDI-related scenarios:

1) Recording refers to sending MIDI note and controller information from a hardware device (such as a MIDI keyboard) into a DAW for storage. An ideal recording

CHAPTER 30. MIDI FACT SHEET environment would capture this incoming information with perfect timing accuracy in relation to the timeline of the song as accurately as an audio recording.

2) Playback refers to two related scenarios when dealing with DAWs. The rst involves sending MIDI note and controller information from the DAW to a hardware device such as a synthesizer. The second involves converting stored MIDI information into audio data within the computer, as played back by a plug-in device such as the Operator synthesizer. In both cases, an ideal playback environment would output a perfect reproduction of the stored information.

3) Playthrough involves sending MIDI note and controller information from a hardware device (such as a MIDI keyboard) into the DAW and then, in real-time, back out to a hardware synthesizer or to a plug-in device within the DAW. An ideal playthrough environment would feel as accurate and responsive as a physical instrument such as a piano.

363

30.2

MIDI Timing Problems

The realities of computer-based MIDI are complex, and involve so many variables that the ideal systems described above are impossible to achieve. There are two fundamental issues:

1) Latency refers to inherent and consistent delay in a system. This is a particular problem in a DAW because digital audio cannot be transferred into or out of an audio interface in real time, and must instead be buffered. But even acoustic instruments exhibit a certain degree of latency; in a piano, for example, there is some amount of delay between the time a key is depressed and the time the hammer mechanism actually activates the string. From a performance perspective, small latency times are generally not a problem because players are usually able to adapt the timing of their playing to compensate for delays as long as the delays remain consistent.

2) Jitter refers to inconsistent or random delay in a system. Within a DAW, this can be a particular problem because different functions within the system (e.g.,

MIDI, audio and the user interface) are processed separately. Information often needs to be moved from one such process to another when converting MIDI

CHAPTER 30. MIDI FACT SHEET data into a plug-in's playback, for example. Jitter-free MIDI timing involves accurate conversion between different clocks within the system's components the MIDI interface, audio interface, and the DAW itself. The accuracy of this conversion depends on a variety of factors, including the operating system and driver architecture used. Jitter, much more so than latency, creates the feeling that MIDI timing is sloppy or loose.

364

30.3

Live's MIDI Solutions

Ableton's approach to MIDI timing is based on two key assumptions:

1. In all cases, latency is preferable to jitter. Because latency is consistent and predictable, it can be dealt with much more easily by both computers and people.

2. If you are using playthrough while recording, you will want to record what you hear even if, because of latency, this occurs slightly later than what you play .

Live addresses the problems inherent in recording, playback and playthrough so that MIDI timing will be responsive, accurate and consistently reliable. In order to record incoming events to the correct positions in the timeline of a Live Set, Live needs to know exactly when those events were received from the MIDI keyboard. But Live cannot receive them directly they must rst be processed by the MIDI interface's drivers and the operating system. To solve this problem, the interface drivers give each MIDI event a timestamp as they receive it, and those are passed to Live along with the event so that Live knows exactly when the events should be added to the clip.

During playthrough, a DAW must constantly deal with events that should be heard as soon as possible, but which inevitably occurred in the past due to inherent latency and system delays. So a choice must be made: should events be played at the moment they are received (which can result in jitter if that moment happens to occur when the system is busy) or should they be delayed (which adds latency)? Ableton's choice is to add latency, as we believe that it is easier for users to adjust to consistent latency than to random jitter.

When monitoring is enabled during recording, Live adds an additional delay to the timestamp of the event based on the buffer size of your audio hardware. This added latency makes it possible to record events to the clip at the time you hear them not the time you play them.

CHAPTER 30. MIDI FACT SHEET 365

For playback of hardware devices, Live also generates timestamps that it attempts to communicate to the MIDI interface drivers for scheduling of outgoing MIDI events. Windows

MME drivers cannot process timestamps, however, and for devices that use these drivers,

Live schedules outgoing events internally.

Even during high system loads that cause audio dropouts, Live will continue to receive incoming MIDI events. In the event of audio dropouts, there may be timing errors and audio distortion during playthrough, but Live should still correctly record MIDI events into clips. Later, when the system has recovered from the dropouts, playback of these recorded events should be accurate.

30.4

Variables Outside of Live's Control

In general, timestamps are an extremely reliable mechanism for dealing with MIDI event timing. But timestamps are only applicable to data within the computer itself. MIDI data outside of the computer can make no use of this information, and so timing information coming from or going to external hardware is processed by the hardware as soon as it arrives, rather than according to a schedule. Additionally, MIDI cables are serial , meaning they can only send one piece of information at a time. In practice, this means that multiple notes played simultaneously cannot be transmitted simultaneously through MIDI cables, but instead must be sent one after the other. Depending on the density of the events, this can cause MIDI timing problems.

Another issue that can arise, particularly when working with hardware synthesizers from the early days of MIDI, is that the scan time of the device may occur at a relatively slow rate.

Scan time refers to how often the synthesizer checks its own keyboard for input. If this rate is too slow, jitter may be introduced.

Of course, any such timing problems present at the hardware level may be multiplied as additional pieces of gear are added to the chain.

Even within the computer, the accuracy of timestamps can vary widely, depending on the quality of the MIDI hardware, errors in driver programming, etc. Live must assume that any timestamps attached to incoming MIDI events are accurate, and that outgoing events will be dealt with appropriately by any external hardware. But both situations are impossible for

Live to verify.

CHAPTER 30. MIDI FACT SHEET

30.5

Tests and Results

366

Our procedure for testing the timing of incoming MIDI events is represented in the following diagram:

Live

MIDI Clip

MIDI Source

MIDI

Splitter

MIDI-to-Audio

Converter

Audio Clip

MIDI Input Test

Con guration.

The output of a MIDI Source (a keyboard or other DAW playing long sequences of random

MIDI events) is fed to a zero-latency hardware MIDI Splitter . One portion of the splitter's output is recorded into a new MIDI clip in Live. The other portion is fed to a MIDI-to-Audio

Converter . This device converts the electrical signal from the MIDI source into simple audio noise. Because the device does not interpret the MIDI data, it performs this conversion with zero-latency. The converter's output is then recorded into a new audio clip in Live. In an ideal system, each event in the MIDI clip would occur simultaneously with the corresponding event in the audio clip. Thus the difference in timing between the MIDI and audio events in the two clips can be measured to determine Live's accuracy.

In order to assess MIDI performance under a variety of conditions, we ran the tests with three different audio/MIDI combo interfaces at different price points, all from well-known manufacturers. We will refer to these interfaces as A, B and C. All tests were performed with a CPU load of approximately 50% on both OS X and Windows machines, at both 44.1 and

96 kHz and at three different audio buffer sizes, for a total of 36 discrete test con gurations.

Windows:

ˆ Interface A: The maximum jitter was +/- 4 ms, with the majority of the jitter occurring at +/- 1 ms.

ˆ Interface B: For most of the tests, the maximum jitter was +/- 3 or 4 ms. At 96 kHz and 1024 sample buffer, there were a small number of events with +/- 5 ms of jitter.

CHAPTER 30. MIDI FACT SHEET 367

At 44.1 kHz and 512 sample buffer, occasional events with +/- 6 ms occurred. In all cases, the majority of the jitter occurred at +/- 1 ms.

ˆ Interface C: For most of the tests, the maximum jitter was +/- 5 ms. At 96 kHz and 512 sample buffer, there were a small number of events with between +/- 6 and 8 ms of jitter. At 44.1 kHz and 1024 sample buffer, there were a small number of events with jitter as high as +/- 10 ms. In all cases, the majority of the jitter occurred at +/- 1 ms.

OS X:

ˆ Interface A: At 44.1 kHz and 1152 sample buffer, jitter was fairly evenly distributed between +/- 4 and 11 ms. For all other tests, the maximum jitter was +/- 5 ms. In all tests, the majority of the jitter occured at +/- 1 ms.

ˆ Interface B: For most of the tests, the maximum jitter was +/- 4 or 5 ms. At 44.1 kHz and 1152 sample buffer, there was a fairly even distribution of jitter between +/- 2 and

11 ms. In all cases, the majority of the jitter occurred at +/- 1 ms.

ˆ Interface C: In all tests, the maximum jitter was +/- 1 ms, with most events occurring with no jitter.

We also performed a similar procedure for testing the timing of outgoing MIDI events, as represented in the following diagram:

Live

MIDI Clip

MIDI-to-Audio

Converter

Audio Recording

(another instance of Live)

Audio Clip

MIDI Output Test

Con guration.

In all cases, the output tests showed comparable results to the input tests.

CHAPTER 30. MIDI FACT SHEET

30.6

Tips for Achieving Optimal MIDI Performance

368

In order to help users achieve optimal MIDI performance with Live, we have provided a list of recommended practices and program settings.

ˆ Use the lowest possible buffer sizes available on your audio hardware, thereby keeping latency to a minimum. Audio buffer controls are found in the Audio tab of Live's

Preferences, and vary depending on the type of hardware you're using. For more information, see the Lesson Setting Up Audio I/O.

ˆ Use a high quality MIDI interface with the most current drivers in order to ensure that

MIDI timestamps are generated and processed as accurately as possible.

ˆ Do not enable track monitoring if you are recording MIDI while listening directly to a hardware device such as an external synthesizer. Likewise, disable track monitoring when recording MIDI data that is generated by another MIDI device (such as a drum machine). When monitoring is enabled, Live adds latency to compensate for playthrough jitter. Therefore, it is important to only enable monitoring when actually playing through.

ˆ The DirectMusic architecture on Windows allows outgoing MIDI events to be scheduled by the operating system rather than scheduled by Live alone, so performance may differ depending on whether or not you're using MME or DirectMusic mode. If you experience timing issues, we recommend switching to the other mode. This is set in the

MIDI Ports list

in the MIDI/Sync Preferences.

Selecting the MIDI Port

Type (Windows).

CHAPTER 30. MIDI FACT SHEET

30.7

Summary and Conclusions

369

Ableton wrote this paper in order to help users understand a variety of related topics:

ˆ the inherent problems in computer-based MIDI systems;

ˆ our approach to solving these problems in Live;

ˆ additional variables that we cannot account for.

As mentioned before, the best way to solve MIDI timing issues in your studio is to use the highest-quality hardware components available. For users of such components, all software

MIDI systems should perform with no noticeable issues. For users with less-than-optimal hardware, however, Live still offers an additional degree of accuracy by minimizing jitter, but at the expense of a small amount of additional latency.

We encourage you to refer to this paper if you have any questions about Live's approach to

MIDI timing, but we also encourage you to contact us 1 if you have additional questions or concerns that we haven't addressed.

1 [email protected]

Chapter 31

Live Keyboard Shortcuts

31.1

Showing and Hiding Views

Toggle Full Screen Mode

Toggle Session/Arrangement View

Toggle Track/Clip View

Hide/Show Detail View

Hide/Show Info View

Hide/Show Browser

Hide/Show Overview

Hide/Show In/Out

Hide/Show Sends

Hide/Show Mixer

Open the Preferences

Windows

F11

Macintosh

Ctrl F11

F12

Ctrl Alt

F12

?

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl ,

Alt

Alt

Alt

Alt

Alt

L

B

I

O

S

M or or

Ctrl

Ctrl

?

or

F12

Alt L

F12 or

,

Alt

Alt

Alt

Alt

Alt

B

I

O

S

M

370

CHAPTER 31. LIVE KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS 371

Close Window/Dialog

Windows

Esc

Macintosh

Esc

31.2

Accessing Menus

Under Windows, you can access each menu by pressing Alt menu ( Alt F and the rst letter of the for File, for instance). While a menu is open, you can use:

ˆ

ˆ to navigate the menu items; to open the neighboring menu;

ˆ

Return to choose a menu item.

31.3

Adjusting Values

Decrement/Increment

Finer Resolution for Dragging

Return to Default

Type in Value

Go to Next Field (Bar.beat.16th)

Abort Value Entry

Con rm Value Entry

Windows

Ctrl

Delete

0

..

9

.

,

Esc

Return

Macintosh

0

..

9

.

,

Esc

Return

CHAPTER 31. LIVE KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

31.4

Browsing

372

In addition to the shortcuts shown here,

editing shortcuts

can also be used in the Browser.

Windows Macintosh

Scroll Down/Up

Close/Open Folders

Set Selected Folder as Browser Root

Load Selected Item from Browser

Preview Selected File

Activate Browser Search Mode

Jump to Search Results

Return

Return

Click

Ctrl or Double-

Return

F

Return

Return

Click or Double-

Return

F

31.5

Transport

Play from Start Marker/Stop

Continue Play from Stop Point

Play Arrangement View Selection

Record

Back to Arrangement

Activate/Deactivate Track 1..8

Windows

Space

Space

Space Ctrl

F9

F10

F1 ..

F8

Macintosh

Space

Space

Space Alt

F9

F10

F1 ..

F8

CHAPTER 31. LIVE KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

31.6

Editing

373

Cut

Copy

Paste

Duplicate

Delete

Undo

Redo

Rename

Select All

Windows

Ctrl X

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

C

V

D

Delete

Ctrl Z

Y

Ctrl

R

A

Macintosh

X

C

V

D

Z

R

A

Z

By holding down an additional modi er key, some of the above commands can also be applied to:

Windows Macintosh

Clips and Slots Across all Tracks

Time Across all Tracks

The Selected Part of the Envelope Alt Alt can be used to move from one track or scene to another while renaming.

CHAPTER 31. LIVE KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

31.7

Loop Brace and Start/End Markers

374

The loop brace and start/end markers must rst be selected before any of the following commands will apply to them.

Move Start Marker to Position

Nudge Loop Left/Right

Move Loop By Loop Length

Halve/Double Loop Length

Shorten/Lengthen Loop

Select Material in Loop

Windows

Click

Ctrl

Ctrl

Click Loop Brace or

Ctrl L

Macintosh

Click

Click Loop Brace or

L

31.8

Session View Commands

See also the

editing commands .

Launch Selected Clip/Slot

Select Neighbouring Clip/Slot

Select all Clips/Slots

Copy Clips

Add/Remove Stop Button

Insert MIDI clip

Insert Scene

Insert Captured Scene

Move Nonadjacent Scenes Without

Collapsing

Drop Browser Clips as a Scene

Windows

Return

Arrow Keys

Ctrl A

Ctrl

Ctrl

Drag

E

Ctrl M

Double-Click Slot

Ctrl I

Ctrl

Ctrl

I or

Macintosh

Return

Arrow Keys

A

Alt Drag

E

M

Double-Click Slot

I

I or

Ctrl

CHAPTER 31. LIVE KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

31.9

Arrangement View Commands

375

The shortcuts for

zooming ,

snapping/drawing

and

loop/region settings

also work in the

Arrangement View. See also the

editing commands .

Split Clip at Selection

Consolidate Selection into Clip

Create Fade/Crossfade

Loop Selection

Insert Silence

Pan Left/Right of Selection

Unfold all Tracks

Scroll Display to Follow Playback

Windows

Ctrl E

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

J

Alt

L

Ctrl

Ctrl

Alt

Ctrl

F

Macintosh

I

Alt

F

Unfold button Alt

E

J

Alt

L

I

Alt

F

Unfold button

F

31.10

Commands for Tracks

See also the

editing commands .

Insert Audio Track

Insert MIDI Track

Insert Return Track

Rename Selected Track

While Renaming, Go to next Track

Move Nonadjacent Tracks Without

Collapsing

Arm/Solo Multiple Tracks

Add Device from Browser

Windows

Ctrl T

Ctrl

Ctrl

Alt

Ctrl R

T

T

Ctrl + arrow keys

Ctrl Click

Double-Click

Macintosh

T

Alt

R

T

T

+ arrow keys

Click

Double-Click

CHAPTER 31. LIVE KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

31.11

Commands for Breakpoint Envelopes

376

The shortcuts for

zooming ,

snapping/drawing

and

loop/region settings

also work in the

Envelope Editor and Arrangement View. See also the

editing commands .

Finer Resolution for Dragging

Enable Dragging Over Breakpoints

Windows

Ctrl

Macintosh

31.12

Key/MIDI Map Mode and the Computer MIDI

Keyboard

Toggle MIDI Map Mode

Toggle Key Map Mode

Computer MIDI Keyboard

Windows

Ctrl M

Ctrl K

Ctrl K

Macintosh

M

K

K

CHAPTER 31. LIVE KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

31.13

Zooming, Display and Selections

Zoom In

Zoom Out

Drag/Click to Append to a Selection

Click to Add Adjacent

Clips/Tracks/Scenes to Multi-Selection

Click to Add Nonadjacent

Clips/Tracks/Scenes to a

Multi-Selection

Follow (Auto-Scroll)

Pan Left/Right of Selection

Windows

+

-

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

F

Alt

Macintosh

+

-

F

Alt

31.14

Clip View Sample Display

The shortcuts for

zooming

and

loop/region settings

also work in the Sample Display.

Quantize

Quantize Settings...

Move Selected Warp Marker

Select Warp Marker

Scroll Display to Follow Playback

Move Clip Region with Start Marker

Windows

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

U

Ctrl

F

U

Macintosh

U

F

U

377

CHAPTER 31. LIVE KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

31.15

Clip View MIDI Editor

378

The shortcuts for

zooming ,

snapping/drawing

and

loop/region settings

also work in the

MIDI Editor.

Quantize

Quantize Settings...

Scroll Editor Vertically

Scroll Editor Horizontally

Copy Note

Change Velocity From Note Editor

Add/Delete Note in Edit Mode

Move Insert Mark to Beginning

Move Insert Mark to End

Scroll Display to Follow Playback

Move Clip Region with Start Marker

Windows

Ctrl

Ctrl

U

Ctrl

Ctrl

Alt

Double-Click

Home

End

Drag

Drag

Ctrl F

U

Macintosh

U

Alt

Double-Click home end

Drag

Drag

F

U

31.16

Grid Snapping and Drawing

Toggle Draw Mode

Narrow Grid

Widen Grid

Triplet Grid

Snap to Grid

Fixed/Zoom-Adaptive Grid

Bypass Snapping While Dragging

Windows

Ctrl B

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

Alt

1

2

3

4

5

Macintosh

B

1

2

3

4

5

CHAPTER 31. LIVE KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

31.17

Global Quantization

Sixteenth-Note Quantization

Eighth-Note Quantization

Quarter-Note Quantization

1-Bar Quantization

Quantization Off

Windows

Ctrl 6

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

7

8

9

Ctrl 0

Macintosh

6

7

8

9

0

31.18

Working with Sets and the Program

New Live Set

Open Live Set

Close Live Set

Save Live Set

Save Live Set As...

Quit Live

Hide Live

Export Audio

Export MIDI le

Windows

Ctrl N

Ctrl

Ctrl

O

W

Ctrl S

Ctrl

Ctrl Q

S

Ctrl

Ctrl

R

E

Macintosh

N

O

W

S

S

Q

H

R

E

379

CHAPTER 31. LIVE KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS

31.19

Working with Plug-Ins and Devices

380

Show/Hide Plug-In Windows

Open Second/Multiple Windows with

Plug-In Edit Button

Open Mac Keystroke Plug-In Window with Plug-In Edit Button

Group/Ungroup Devices

Activate/Deactivate All Devices in

Group

Click to Append Devices to a Selected

Device

Load Selected Device From Browser

Windows

Ctrl

Ctrl

Ctrl

Alt tor

Return

Click

Alt

G

P

Device Activa-

Macintosh

Alt tor or DoubleReturn

Click

Alt

G

P

Device Activaor Double-

31.20

Using the Context Menu

A context menu is available in Live for quick access to many commonly used menu items.

To access the context menu, (PC) / Ctrl (Mac) on the part of the interface where you would like to execute a particular command. It is worth noting that Live's context menu may sometimes contain applicable settings from the Preferences. You should change these options with care, as they will affect not only the currently selected item but the general settings of the program.

Some commands only appear in the context menu. Among these are: the Create Folder,

Analyze Audio, Search In Folder, Close All Folders and Refresh commands from the

Browser ;

the special grid marker commands for directing

Auto-Warp ; and detailed options for zoom-

adaptive and xed

grid line width .

381

Chapter 32

Live Intro vs. Live 8 Comparison

Chart

Maximum number of audio tracks per project

Maximum number of MIDI tracks per project

Group Tracks

Maximum audio bit depth and resolution

Maximum number of audio inputs

Maximum number of audio outputs

Includes Simpler instrument for sample-based synthesis

Includes Impulse instrument for percussion sound design

Maximum number of Ableton instruments/racks per project

In Line Rack Mixer

Yes

8

No

Live Intro

64

Unlimited

No

32-bit/192kHz

2 stereo

2 stereo

Yes

Live 8

Unlimited

Unlimited

Yes

32-bit/192kHz

Unlimited

Unlimited

Yes

Yes

Unlimited

Yes

CHAPTER 32. LIVE INTRO VS. LIVE 8 COMPARISON CHART

Live Intro

Number of included Ableton audio effects

Looper

Overdrive

Limiter

Vocoder

Multiband Dynamics

Frequency Shifter

Maximum number of Ableton audio effects per project

23

No

No

No

No

No

No

12

Number of included Ableton MIDI effects 7

Maximum number of Ableton MIDI effects per project Unlimited

External VST/AU instrument instances per project

External VST/AU effect instances per project

4

6

Effect sidechaining

Instrument-, Drum-, Effect Rack editing

Time signature changes

Yes

No

Yes

Session View

Maximum number of scenes per project

Number of Grooves per project

Arranger Crossfades

Screen magni er

Number of included real-time time-stretching algorithms

Complex and Complex Pro Warp Modes

Multiple automation lanes

Native audio slicing support

Maximum number of send and return tracks per project

Track Freeze

Yes

8

4

Yes

Yes

4

No

Yes

No

2

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

12

Yes

Live 8

30

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Unlimited

7

Unlimited

Unlimited

Unlimited

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Unlimited

Unlimited

Yes

Yes

6

382

CHAPTER 32. LIVE INTRO VS. LIVE 8 COMPARISON CHART

Clip envelopes and Follow Actions

External Instrument/Audio Effect devices

Automatic plug-in delay compensation

Tempo Nudge

MIDI remote control instant mapping

MIDI output to hardware synths

MIDI Clock/sync

ReWire Master

ReWire Slave

REX le support

Multicore/multiprocessor support

SmartPriming memory management

POW-R dithering

Video import and export

WAV, AIFF, MP3, Ogg Vorbis, FLAC le support

Live Intro

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

No

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Live 8

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

383

384

Index

A

Ableton e-mail addresses

sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

technical support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

web addresses

FAQs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

345

tutorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

345

webshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Adaptive Grid options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

Add/Remove Stop Button command . . . .

90

agr les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see groove feature analysis les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

40

storing clip settings in . . . . . . . . . . . . .

107

analysis of les batch processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

Analyze Audio command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

APC40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

318

Arm Recording button . . . . . . . . . . . .

178 ,

189

Arpeggiator effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

281

and grooves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

283

Arrangement . . . . . . .

see Arrangement View

Arrangement Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

Arrangement Position elds . . . . . . . . . . . . .

71

Arrangement View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68

and copying to Session . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

and Session View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

grid snapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

insert marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

looping in the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

recording new clips in the . . . . . . . . .

190

scrub area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

Arrangement View selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

asd les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see analysis les audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see clips audio effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see devices

Audio Fact Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

351

neutral operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

352

non-neutral operations . . . . . . . . . . . .

357

testing and methodology . . . . . . . . . .

351

tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

360

audio les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see samples audio interface setup . . . . . . . . . . . .

see Audio

Preferences, see routing

Audio Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

audio tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see tracks

Audio Units Plug-ins, using . . . . .

see devices authorization . . . . . . . . . .

see copy protection

INDEX 385 authorizing Live more than once . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Auto Filter effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

243

Auto Pan effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

245

Auto-Hide Plug-In Windows preference

210

Auto-Open Plug-In Windows preference

210

Auto-Warp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

121

Auto-Warp Long Samples preference . .

115

Automatic Rescan on Each Search . . . . . . .

32

automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22 ,

224

and grid lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

228

drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

227

editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

228

overriding/reactivating . . . . . . . . . . . .

225

recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

224

Automation Control chooser . . . . . . . . . . .

227

C

B

Back to Arrangement button . . .

beat-time ruler

13 ,

91 ,

Beat Repeat effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and editing envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . .

225

246

and Arrangement editing . . . . . . . . . . .

69

240

and editing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

130

in the MIDI Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

131

Beats Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

126

Bit Depth preference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

197

bookmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

breakpoint envelopes .

see automation, see clip envelopes

Browser . . . . . . . . . .

see File Browser, see Live

Device Browser, see Plug-In Device

Browser browsing les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

Capture and Insert Scene command . . . . .

90

Check for Updates command . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

Chord effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

285

Chorus effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

248

Clip Activator switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

Clip box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

Clip Color chooser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

Clip Envelope Control chooser . . . . . . . . .

232

Clip Envelope Device chooser . . . . . . . . .

232

clip envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23 ,

231

and changing note pitch . . . . . . . . . . .

234

and changing note volume . . . . . . . .

235

as LFOs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

242

changing clips for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

236

creating long loops with . . . . . . . . . . .

241

for MIDI controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

238

general editing of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

231

imposing rhythm with . . . . . . . . . . . . .

242

loop/region settings for . . . . . . . . . . .

239

mixer control modulation with . . . . .

237

scrambling beats with . . . . . . . . . . . . .

235

unlinking from clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

240

using for fade-outs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

239

Clip Fade switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

108

Clip Gain slider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

106

Clip Groove chooser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

Clip Launch button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

Clip Name eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

Clip Nudge buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

Clip Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

for zooming/scrolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

101

Clip Quantization chooser . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

150

Clip Record button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22 ,

192

Clip Signature elds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98

INDEX 386

Clip Stop button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

adding/removing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

Clip Update Rate preference . . . . . . . . . . .

112

Clip View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

and playing the Arrangement . . . . . . .

71

and remote control mapping . . . . . .

315

scrub area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

103

Clip View boxes selector .

96 ,

129 ,

148 ,

231

clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

adding fades to . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77 ,

108

arranging/editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

as templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

236

audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

clip multi-selections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

94

crossfading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77

deactivating/muting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

editing MIDI notes/velocities . . . . . .

128

importing from les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

in Arrangement View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

in audio/MIDI tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

in Session View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

85

Live Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

MIDI clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

renaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

reversing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

109

saving les on export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

saving settings for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

107

setting properties of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

93

Close All Folders command . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

Collect Files on Export . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

color scheme . . . . . . . . . .

see Skin preference

Complete Fragmentary Bar command . . .

74

compressed audio les . . . . . . . .

see samples

Compressor effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

249

and sidechain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

252

tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

253

Computer MIDI Keyboard button . . . . . .

161

Computer MIDI Keyboard option . . . . . .

161

Consolidate command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

context menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

380

Control chooser . . .

see Automation Control chooser, see Clip Envelope Control chooser control surfaces

and takeover mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

310

instant mappings for . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

307

locking to devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

308

manual setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

309

natively supported . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

306

copy protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

count-in for recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

196

Count-In preference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

196

CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

346

CPU Load meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

347

CPU Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Create Analysis Files preference . . . . . . . . .

41

Create Folder command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

Cropping audio clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

110

MIDI clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

141

crossfader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 ,

182

and remote control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

183

automating the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

184

crossfades for clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

359

in Simpler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

297

in the Arrangement View . . . . . . . . . . .

77

Cue Out chooser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

185

cue points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see locators cueing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

185

Cut Time command in the Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

INDEX 387

D in the MIDI Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

137

Decoding and Web Cache preferences . .

39

Delay Compensation option . . . . . . . . . . .

217

Delete All Time Signature Changes command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

Delete Automation command . . . . . . . . . .

225

Delete command and devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

203

and envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

233

and tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

181

in the Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

Delete Fragmentary Bar Time command

74

Delete Locator button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

Delete Locator command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

Delete Time command in the Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

in the MIDI Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

137

Delete Time Signature Change command

73

Demo Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

Detune eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

106

Device Activator switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

203

Device chooser . .

see Clip Envelope Device chooser, see Fades/Device chooser devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

16

compensating for delays . . . . . . . . . .

217

presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

204

the Live audio effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

243

the Live instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

292

the Live MIDI effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

281

the Max Audio Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

303

the Max Instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

303

the Max MIDI Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

303

using Audio Units Plug-ins . . . . . . . . .

216

using Live devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

201

using plug-in devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

207

using VST Plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

213

dither . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

Double/Halve Original BPM buttons . . .

111 ,

119

Draw Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

227

and drawing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129

with clip envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

234

Draw Mode command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

227

Drum Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

221

Pad View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

222

Duplicate Time command in the Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

in the MIDI Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

137

Dynamic Tube effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

255

E

Edit menu commands and automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

225 ,

229

and exporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

and MIDI notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

134

and return tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

182

and scenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87

and tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

180

in the Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

with Clip Stop buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

with clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

with devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

203

with scenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

Edit switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

106

effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see devices

EIC . . . . .

see Essential Instrument Collection

Envelope Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95 ,

231

envelopes . . . . . . . . .

see automation, see clip envelopes

INDEX 388

Envelopes box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95 ,

231

EQ Eight effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

256

EQ Three effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

258

Erosion effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

259

Essential Instrument Collection . . . . . . . . .

300

Exclusive Arm/Solo preference . . . . . . . . .

178

Export Audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

Export MIDI Clip command . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

exporting audio . . . . . . . . . .

see Export Audio exporting video . . . . . . . . . .

see Export Audio

External Instrument and ReWire devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

164

external sync . . . . .

see MIDI synchronization

F

Freeze Track command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

348

Full Screen Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

G

Gate effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Gate Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Global Quantization chooser . . . . . . . . . . . .

Grain Delay effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Grain Flux eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Grain Size eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Grain Size knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

grid and Session recording . . . . . . . . . . . . .

262

149

22

191

264

127

127

127

and Arrangement editing . . . . . . . . . . .

80

and envelope drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . .

228

and MIDI editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

134

and time signature markers . . . . . . . . .

74

in editing clip envelopes . . . . . . . . . .

241

working with the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

groove feature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98 ,

142

Groove Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

143

Fades/Device chooser . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77 ,

226

FAQs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see Ableton

File Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

opening Sets with the . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

le management . . . . . . . . .

see Manage Files command

File Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

File Type preference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

197

File/Folder Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

and VST Plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

213

Filter Delay effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

260

Fixed Grid command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

Fixed Grid options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

FLAC les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see samples

Flanger effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

261

Fold button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

133

Follow Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

151

Follow command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70 ,

101

Follow switch . . . . . . . . . . . .

70 ,

101 ,

117 ,

132

fragmentary bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

74

I

H hard disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see

Hard Disk Overload indicator . . . . . . . . . .

High Quality switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and device presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and grooves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and Impulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and Simpler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see

CPU hot-swapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

350

107

37

205

142

293

296

routing

INDEX 389

importing les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

importing projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

Impulse instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

293

and individual outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . .

295

and MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

293

lter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

294

global controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

295

Link button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

294

pan and volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

295

sample slots and controls . . . . . . . . . .

293

saturator and envelope . . . . . . . . . . . .

295

Start, Tune and Stretch . . . . . . . . . . . .

294

Info View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

insert effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

201

instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

201

plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

207

track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

180

Insert Audio Track command . . . . . . . . . . .

180

insert marker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

Insert MIDI Clip command . . . . . . . . . . . . .

128

Insert MIDI Track command . . . . . . . . . . . .

180

Insert Return Track command . . . . . . . . . .

182

Insert Scene command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

Insert Silence command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

in the MIDI Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

137

Insert Time Signature Change command

73

instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see devices

L

K

Key Map Mode switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Key/MIDI In Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Key/MIDI Out Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

keyboard shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

316

163

163

370

Language preference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Launch box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95 ,

148

Launch Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

149

Launchpad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

329

Legato Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

151

lessons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26 ,

56

migrating from older versions . . . . . . .

58

Library Location preference . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58

Library Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

Link/Unlink Envelope switch . . . . . . . . . . . .

240

Live Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

Live Device Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5 ,

201

Live Packs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

Live Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

and device presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

and Live Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

packing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

65

Live Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10 ,

46

changing sample references . . . . . . . .

49

exporting and importing . . . . . . . . . . . .

47

saving the default template . . . . . . . . .

49

locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

Lock Envelopes command . . . . . . . . . . . . .

229

Lock Envelopes switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

229

Look/Feel Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

loop brace in the Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

with clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

104

Loop Selection command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

Loop Start/Punch-In Position elds . . . . . .

75

Loop switch

Clip View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

103 ,

240 ,

241

Control Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75

INDEX 390 with MIDI clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

133

Loop To Next Locator command . . . . . . . .

73

Loop/Punch Region Length elds . . . . . . .

75

Loop/Region controls . . . . . . . . . . . . .

102 ,

104

and clip envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

240

with MIDI clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

133

Loop/Warp Short Samples preference . .

115

M

Macro Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

221

Manage Files command and changing sample references . . . .

49

and collecting external samples .

61 ,

63

and nding unused samples . . . . . . . .

64

and importing projects . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

and locating missing samples . . . . . . .

59

and packing Live Projects . . . . . . . . . . .

65

and project management . . . . . . . . . . .

55

managing les . . . . . . . . . . .

see File Manager

Mapping Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

311

mapping to MIDI/keys . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24 ,

305

and recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

197

Master Out chooser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

185

Master track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

181

Max for Live . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

303

Maximum Cache Size preference . . . . . . . .

39

Metronome switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

195

MIDI exporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

quantizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

137 ,

196

sending bank/program changes . . .

112

MIDI clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see clips

MIDI controllers . . . . . . . .

see control surfaces

MIDI Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95 ,

128

and drawing MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129

and drawing velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . .

139

and grid lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

134 ,

136

and recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

193

and step recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

194

creating and editing notes . . . . . . . . .

134

editing velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

138

loop/region settings for . . . . . . . . . . .

133

MIDI note stretch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

140

navigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

130

note-off velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

140

rearranging notes in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

134

MIDI effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see devices

MIDI Fact Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

362

MIDI les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

and time signature changes . . . . . . . . .

75

MIDI interface setup . . . . . . . . . . . .

see routing

MIDI Map Mode switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

311

MIDI Ports list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

161

MIDI Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

MIDI synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

340

MIDI Timecode Frame Rate preference

342

MIDI Timecode Start Offset preference

342

MIDI Track In Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

163

MIDI Track Out Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

163

MIDI tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see tracks

Minimum Free Space preference . . . . . . . .

39

mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 ,

176

Mixer Section selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

177

modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see clip envelopes monitor mix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

182

monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

158

monitoring through Live . . . . . . . . .

see Audio

Preferences

MP3 les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see samples

Multicore/Multiprocessor Support . . . . . .

346

Multiple Plug-In Windows preference . .

210

INDEX 391 muting . . . . . . . . . . .

N

O

P see

Nudge buttons . . . .

Track Activator switch clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Narrow Grid command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

New command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Next Locator button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

normalizing rendered audio . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Note Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Note Length effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129

286

Notes box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see Clip Nudge buttons of ine clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ogg les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see

Original BPM eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Overdub Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

80

46

72

43

95

samples

Open/Open Recent command . . . . . . . . . .

111

191 ,

,

Overdubbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

46

119

193

193

packs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see Live Packs

Pan control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

178

Pan quick-chooser button see quick-chooser buttons

Parent Folder item . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

Paste Time command in the Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81

in the MIDI Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

137

pencil tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see Draw Mode

Phaser effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

265

Ping Pong Delay effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

267

Pitch Bend quick-chooser button . . . . . . .

see quick-chooser buttons

Pitch effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

287

Play button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

plug-ins, using . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see devices

Plug-In Buffer Size preference . . . . . . . . . .

213

Plug-In Con gure Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

211

Plug-In Device Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

208

Plug-In Device Browserselector . . . . . . . .

207

Plug-In Edit button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

210

Plug-In Unfold button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

209

pre-listening samples . . . . . . .

see previewing

Pre/Post switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

182

Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

and recording clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

197

Preserve chooser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

126

presets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

204

converting Simpler to Sampler . . . . .

296

Defaults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

206

for speci c Live Projects . . . . . . . . . . . .

55

saving with les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

Preview switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34 ,

130

Preview Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

Preview Volume knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

195

previewing

Q in the Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

in the MIDI Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Previous Locator button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

projects/project management . . . . .

Projects quantization see see

Punch-In/Out switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

34

130

72

CPU

Live

191

INDEX 392

R command for audio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

command for selected MIDI notes .

for clip launching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

for MIDI notes during recording . . .

Quantize menu command . . . . . . . . .

125 ,

quick-chooser buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125

137

150

196

137

232

Racks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

220

Macro Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

221

routing tap points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

167

RAM Mode switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

109

Random effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

288

Re-Pitch Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

127

Record button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

Record Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

196

Record/Warp/Launch Preferences . . . . . . . . .

4

recording and remote control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

197

audio and MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

188

automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

224

overdubbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

190 ,

193

punch-in/punch-out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

190

resampling the Master output . . . . .

164

step recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

194

with count-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

196

recording an Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

recording automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

224

Redux effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

268

registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see Ableton remote control . .

see mapping to MIDI/keys

Rename command in the Browser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

37

with clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

with locators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

with plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

215

with tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

180

Repeat Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

149

resampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

164 ,

see recording

Rescan Plug-Ins preference . . . . . . . . . . . .

208

Resonators effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

269

return tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 ,

181

Reverb effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

271

Diffusion Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

272

Early Re ections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

271

S

Global Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Input Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Reverse button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ReWire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Live as master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Live as slave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see tutorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see routing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21

and external MIDI in/out . . . . . . . . . .

,

and computer keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and external audio in/out . . . . . . . . . .

272

271

273

109

343

163

344

recording

Ableton

157

161

159

160

and instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

170

and layering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

174

and post-effects recording . . . . . . . . .

168

and recording MIDI as audio . . . . . .

169

and ReWire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

163

and sidechain inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

173

between tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

165

for creating submixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

170

with external synthesizers . . . . . . . . . .

162

sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see Ableton

INDEX 393

Sample box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95

sample collections .

see Essential Instrument

Collection

Sample Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95 ,

101

Sample Editor preference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

samples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

collecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

destructive editing . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50 ,

106

nding unused . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

high-quality interpolation . . . . . . . . . .

107

of ine/missing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59

played from RAM Mode . . . . . . . . . . .

109

replacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

50

reversing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

109

saving with clip settings . . . . . . . . . . .

107

time-warping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115

working with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

39

Saturator effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

273

Save a Copy command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

Save As command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

Save command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

46

Save Current Set as Default button . . . . . .

49

Save Default Clip button . . . . . . . . . . .

40 ,

107

Scale effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

289

Scene Launch button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

Scene Select eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

315

Scene Up/Down buttons . . . . . . . . . .

197 ,

315

scenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12 ,

86

and MIDI/key mapping . . . . . . . . . . . .

315

editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

90

recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

192

scrubbing playback in the Arrangement View . . . . . . . . . . .

70

in the Clip View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

103

Search button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

Search In Folder command . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

searching in the File Browser . . . . . . . . . . . .

31

rescan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

32

Select Loop command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79

and clip envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

232

and exporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

Select Next Scene on Launch option . . . .

86

Select Next Scene on Launch preference

315

Select on Launch preference . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

Send controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 ,

181

Session View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84

and Arrangement View . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

clip grid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

89

copying to Arrangement . . . . . . . . . . . .

92

recording an Arrangement . . . . . . . . . .

90

recording audio in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

191

Session View selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

Set 1.1.1 Here command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

122

Set Locator button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

Set Locator command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

72

Set Song Start Time Here command . . . . .

73

sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see Live Sets shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . .

see keyboard shortcuts

Show/Hide Plug-In Windows command

210

shuf e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see groove feature

Simple Delay effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

275

Simpler instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

296

and CPU resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

300

envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

298

lter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

298

Glide and Spread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

299

LFO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

298

Multisample Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

296

Pan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

300

sample controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

297

Sample View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

296

Transpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

299

INDEX 394

Voices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

299

Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

300

Zoom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

297

site or secondary licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

Skin preference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Snap to Grid command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

Solo in Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

185

Solo switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

178

Solo/Cue Mode switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

186

sound les . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see samples

Spectrum device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

277

Split button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

129

Split command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

82

Start Recording on Scene Launch . . . . . .

192

start/end markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

102

step recording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

194

Stop All Clips button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

91

Stop button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

submixing creating submixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

170

swing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see groove feature

Sync Delay preference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

342

Sync In Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

162

Sync Out Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

162

synthesizer MIDI setup . . . . . . . . .

see routing

T

Takeover Mode preference . . . . . . . . . . . . .

310

Tap Tempo button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114

with warping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

124

technical support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

tempo and scene names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87 ,

90

automating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

230

MIDI mapping ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . .

230

nudging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114

setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

113

tapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114

Tempo eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100 ,

113

Tempo Nudge buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

114

Temporary Folder preference . . . . . . . . . .

197

Texture Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

127

Time Ruler Format option . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

342

time signature and scene names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

87 ,

90

time signature changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

Toggle Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

149

Tones Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

127

Track Activator switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

178

Track Delay control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

186

Track Delays selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

186

track meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

178

Track Status eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

Track title bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

180

Track View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

199

tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

activating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

178

audio and MIDI in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

13

automation in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

226

compensating for device delays . . .

186

devices in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

199

exporting les with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

63

in Arrangement View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

in Session View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

inserting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

180

mixer controls in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

176

muting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

178

numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

180

renaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

180

resizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

180

return tracks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

181

INDEX 395

returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19

the Master track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

181

unfolding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77 ,

79 ,

226

Transient Envelopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

126

Transient Loop Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

126

transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

70

Transpose quick-chooser button . . . . . . . .

see quick-chooser buttons

Transposition knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

106

Trigger Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

149

Triplet Grid command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

tutorials . . . . . . . . . . .

see Ableton, see lessons

U

Crossfader option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

177

In/Out option . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 ,

157 ,

177

Mixer option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 ,

177

Returns option . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 ,

177 ,

181

Sends option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18 ,

177

Track Delays option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

177

view selector buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

views, working with . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see View menu commands, see view selector buttons

Vinyl Distortion effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

279

Volume control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

178

Volume quick-chooser button . . . . . . . . . .

see quick-chooser buttons

VST Plug-ins, using . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see devices

VST Plug-In Custom Folder button . . . . .

213

Undo command and Arrangement editing . . . . . . . . . .

133

and automation editing . . . . . . . . . . .

225

and recorded clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

191

and recording MIDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

196

Unfold Track button . . . . . . . . . . . .

77 ,

79 ,

226

Unfreeze Track command . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

348

unlocking the program see copy protection updates . .

see Check for Updates command

Use Audio Units preference . . . . . . . . . . . .

216

Use Plug-In Custom Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . .

213

Use VST Plug-In System Folders . . . . . . . .

213

User Account/Licenses Preferences . . . . .

5 ,

7

Utility effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

278

V

Variable Bit Rate les . . . . . . . . . .

View menu commands see samples

Velocity Amount eld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Velocity Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Velocity effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

150

129

290

W

Warp ... BPM From Here command . . . .

Warp As ...-Bar Loop command . . . . . . . .

Warp From Here (Start At ...) command

Warp From Here (Straight) command . . .

Warp From Here command . . . . . . . . . . . .

124

123

124

124

124

Warp Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

116

and transients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

117

pseudo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

117

saving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

118

saving settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

107

Warp Mode chooser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125

Warp Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125

Warp switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100

warping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

115

longer pieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

121

manipulating grooves . . . . . . . . . . . . .

120

multiple clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

124

INDEX odd-length loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

120

straight loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

119

tempo master/slave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

116

uncut loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

119

webshop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

see Ableton

Widen Grid command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

80

Z

Zoom Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

Zooming in Arrangement View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

in Clip View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

101

396

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