Cisco 3500 Series Wireless Controllers Configuration Guide

Cisco 3500 Series Wireless Controllers Configuration Guide | Manualzz
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
First Published: 2018-08-17
Last Modified: 2020-03-30
Americas Headquarters
Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 West Tasman Drive
San Jose, CA 95134-1706
USA
http://www.cisco.com
Tel: 408 526-4000
800 553-NETS (6387)
Fax: 408 527-0883
THE SPECIFICATIONS AND INFORMATION REGARDING THE PRODUCTS IN THIS MANUAL ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. ALL STATEMENTS,
INFORMATION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS IN THIS MANUAL ARE BELIEVED TO BE ACCURATE BUT ARE PRESENTED WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED. USERS MUST TAKE FULL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEIR APPLICATION OF ANY PRODUCTS.
THE SOFTWARE LICENSE AND LIMITED WARRANTY FOR THE ACCOMPANYING PRODUCT ARE SET FORTH IN THE INFORMATION PACKET THAT SHIPPED WITH
THE PRODUCT AND ARE INCORPORATED HEREIN BY THIS REFERENCE. IF YOU ARE UNABLE TO LOCATE THE SOFTWARE LICENSE OR LIMITED WARRANTY,
CONTACT YOUR CISCO REPRESENTATIVE FOR A COPY.
The Cisco implementation of TCP header compression is an adaptation of a program developed by the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) as part of UCB's public domain version of
the UNIX operating system. All rights reserved. Copyright © 1981, Regents of the University of California.
NOTWITHSTANDING ANY OTHER WARRANTY HEREIN, ALL DOCUMENT FILES AND SOFTWARE OF THESE SUPPLIERS ARE PROVIDED “AS IS" WITH ALL FAULTS.
CISCO AND THE ABOVE-NAMED SUPPLIERS DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, THOSE OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT OR ARISING FROM A COURSE OF DEALING, USAGE, OR TRADE PRACTICE.
IN NO EVENT SHALL CISCO OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INDIRECT, SPECIAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, INCLUDING, WITHOUT
LIMITATION, LOST PROFITS OR LOSS OR DAMAGE TO DATA ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THIS MANUAL, EVEN IF CISCO OR ITS SUPPLIERS
HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
Any Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and phone numbers used in this document are not intended to be actual addresses and phone numbers. Any examples, command display output, network
topology diagrams, and other figures included in the document are shown for illustrative purposes only. Any use of actual IP addresses or phone numbers in illustrative content is unintentional
and coincidental.
All printed copies and duplicate soft copies of this document are considered uncontrolled. See the current online version for the latest version.
Cisco has more than 200 offices worldwide. Addresses and phone numbers are listed on the Cisco website at www.cisco.com/go/offices.
Cisco and the Cisco logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Cisco and/or its affiliates in the U.S. and other countries. To view a list of Cisco trademarks, go to this URL:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/about/legal/trademarks.html. Third-party trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a
partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company. (1721R)
© 2018–2020
Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
CONTENTS
Full Cisco Trademarks with Software License
PREFACE
Preface
?
liii
Audience liii
Conventions liii
Related Documentation liv
PART I
Overview
CHAPTER 1
Cisco Wireless Solution Overview
57
1
Core Components 2
Overview of Cisco Mobility Express 3
CHAPTER 2
Initial Setup 5
Cisco WLAN Express Setup 5
Restrictions on Cisco WLAN Express 8
Setting up Cisco Wireless Controller using Cisco WLAN Express (Wired Method) 8
Default Configurations 10
Configuring the Controller Using the Configuration Wizard 12
Configuring the Controller (GUI) 12
Configuring the Controller—Using the CLI Configuration Wizard 22
Using the AutoInstall Feature for Controllers Without a Configuration 25
Managing the Controller System Date and Time 26
Restrictions on Configuring the Controller Date and Time 26
Configuring the Date and Time (GUI) 26
Configuring the Date and Time (CLI) 28
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
iii
Contents
PART II
Management of Controllers 31
CHAPTER 3
Administration of Controller
33
Using the Controller Interface 33
Using the Controller GUI 33
Restrictions on using Controller GUI 34
Logging On to the GUI 34
Logging out of the GUI 35
Using the Controller CLI 35
Logging on to the Controller CLI 35
Using a Local Serial Connection 35
Using a Remote Telnet or SSH Connection 36
Logging Out of the CLI 37
Navigating the CLI 37
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes 38
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes (GUI) 38
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes (CLI) 39
Telnet and Secure Shell Sessions 41
Configuring Telnet and SSH Sessions (GUI) 41
Configuring Telnet and SSH Sessions (CLI) 42
Configuring Telnet Privileges for Selected Management Users (GUI) 44
Configuring Telnet Privileges for Selected Management Users (CLI) 44
Management over Wireless 45
Enabling Management over Wireless (GUI) 45
Enabling Management over Wireless (CLI) 45
Configuring Management using Dynamic Interfaces (CLI) 46
CHAPTER 4
Monitoring Dashboard
47
Monitoring Dashboard 47
Numerical Statistics 48
Graphical Widgets 48
Network Summary 50
Network Summary—Access Points 50
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
iv
Contents
Network Summary—Clients 50
Rogues 50
Rogue Access Points 51
Rogue Clients 51
Interferers 51
Wireless Dashboard 51
AP Performance 51
Client Performance 51
Best Practices 51
CHAPTER 5
Managing Licenses
53
Cisco Wireless Controller Licensing 53
Installing a License 54
Installing a License (GUI) 54
Installing a License (CLI) 54
Viewing Licenses 55
Viewing Licenses (GUI) 55
Viewing Licenses (CLI) 56
Configuring the Maximum Number of Access Points Supported 59
Configuring Maximum Number of Access Points to be Supported (GUI) 59
Configuring Maximum Number of Access Points to be Supported (CLI) 59
Troubleshooting Licensing Issues 60
Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License 60
Information About Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License 60
Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License (GUI) 60
Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License (CLI) 61
Cisco Smart Software Licensing 63
Restrictions for Using Cisco Smart Software Licensing 63
Configuring Cisco Smart Software Licensing (GUI) 64
Configuring the Cisco Smart Software Licensing on WLC (CLI) 65
Updating DNS IP Address for Cisco Smart Software Licensing (CLI) 66
Right to Use Licensing 66
Configuring Right to Use Licensing (GUI) 67
Configuring Right to Use Licensing (CLI) 67
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
v
Contents
Rehosting Licenses 68
Information About Rehosting Licenses 68
Rehosting a License 69
Rehosting a License (GUI) 69
Rehosting a License (CLI) 70
License Agent 71
Configuring the License Agent (GUI) 72
Configuring the License Agent (CLI) 73
Call-Home 74
Configuring Call-Home (GUI) 74
Configuring Call-Home Parameters (CLI) 76
Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points 77
Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points (GUI) 77
Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points (CLI) 77
CHAPTER 6
Managing Software
79
Upgrading the Controller Software 79
Considerations for Upgrading Controller Software 79
Upgrading Controller Software (GUI) 80
Upgrading Controller Software (CLI) 82
Predownloading an Image to an Access Point 84
Access Point Predownload Process 85
Guidelines and Restrictions for Predownloading an Image to an Access Point 87
Predownloading an Image to Access Points—Global Configuration (GUI) 87
Predownloading an Image to Access Points (CLI) 88
Bootloader and Recovery Image 90
Configuring Boot Order (GUI) 90
Recovering an Access Point Using TFTP 91
CHAPTER 7
Managing Configuration 93
Resetting the Controller to Default Settings 93
Resetting the Controller to Default Settings (GUI) 93
Resetting the Controller to Default Settings (CLI) 94
Saving Configurations 94
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
vi
Contents
Editing Configuration Files 94
Clearing the Controller Configuration 96
Restoring Passwords 96
Rebooting the Controller 97
Transferring Files to and from a Controller 97
Backing Up and Restoring Controller Configuration 97
Uploading Configuration Files 98
Downloading Configuration Files 100
Downloading a Login Banner File 102
Downloading a Login Banner File (GUI) 103
Downloading a Login Banner File (CLI) 104
Clearing the Login Banner (GUI) 105
Uploading Diagnostic Support Bundle 105
Uploading Diagnostic Support Bundle (GUI) 105
Uploading Diagnostic Support Bundle (CLI) 106
CHAPTER 8
Network Time Protocol Setup
107
Authentication for the Controller and NTP/SNTP Server 107
Guidelines and Restrictions on NTP 107
Configuring the NTP/SNTP Server to Obtain the Date and Time (GUI) 108
Configuring the NTP/SNTP Server to Obtain the Date and Time (CLI) 108
Configuring NTPv4 Keys for Authentication (GUI) 109
CHAPTER 9
High Availability
111
Information About High Availability 111
Restrictions for High Availability 115
Configuring High Availability (GUI) 118
Enabling High Availability (CLI) 120
Configuring High Availability Parameters (CLI) 121
Troubleshooting Tips for IPsec Encryption for High Availability 122
vWLC and N+1 High Availability 123
Adding a Hash Key to a Cisco vWLC (GUI) 124
Adding a Hash Key to Cisco vWLC (CLI) 124
Monitoring High Availability Standby WLC 125
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
vii
Contents
Replacing the Primary Controller in an HA Setup 126
CHAPTER 10
Managing Certificates
129
Information about Loading an Externally Generated SSL Certificate 129
Loading an SSL Certificate (GUI) 130
Loading an SSL Certificate (CLI) 130
Downloading Device Certificates 131
Downloading Device Certificates (GUI) 132
Downloading Device Certificates (CLI) 133
Uploading Device Certificates 134
Uploading Device Certificates (GUI) 134
Uploading Device Certificates (CLI) 135
Downloading CA Certificates 136
Download CA Certificates (GUI) 136
Downloading CA Certificates (CLI) 137
Uploading CA Certificates 138
Uploading CA Certificates (GUI)
138
Uploading CA Certificates (CLI) 139
Generating a Certificate Signing Request 139
Generating a Certificate Signing Request using OpenSSL 140
Generating a Certificate Signing Request using Cisco Wireless Controller (GUI) 142
Downloading Third-Party Certificate 143
Downloading Third-Party Certificate (GUI) 143
Downloading Third-Party Certificate (CLI) 144
CHAPTER 11
AAA Administration
145
Setting up RADIUS 145
Restrictions on Configuring RADIUS 147
Configuring RADIUS Authentication (GUI) 147
Configuring RADIUS Accounting Servers (GUI) 150
Configuring RADIUS (CLI) 152
RADIUS Authentication Attributes Sent by the Controller 157
Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace) 159
RADIUS Accounting Attributes 167
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
viii
Contents
Setting up TACACS+ 168
TACACS+ VSA 171
Configuring TACACS+ (GUI) 171
Configuring TACACS+ (CLI) 174
Maximum Local Database Entries 176
Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries (GUI) 176
Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries (CLI) 177
CHAPTER 12
Managing Users
179
Administrator Usernames and Passwords 179
Restrictions on Managing User Accounts 179
Configuring Usernames and Passwords (GUI) 179
Configuring Usernames and Passwords (CLI) 180
Lobby Ambassador Account 180
Creating a Lobby Ambassador Account (GUI) 181
Creating a Lobby Ambassador Account (CLI) 182
Creating Guest User Accounts as a Lobby Ambassador (GUI) 182
Guest Accounts 183
Viewing the Guest Accounts (GUI) 183
Viewing the Guest Accounts (CLI) 184
Client Whitelisting 184
Restrictions for Client Whitelisting 184
Configuring Lobby Administrator by Global Administrator (GUI) 185
Configuring Lobby Administrator by Global Administrator (CLI) 185
Configuring Client Whitelist by Global Administrator (CLI) 186
Configuring Lobby Administrator Access on WLAN by Global Administrator (GUI) 186
Creating Client Whitelist by Lobby Administrator (GUI) 187
Deleting MAC Address from Whitelist (GUI) 188
Password Policies 189
Configuring Password Policies (GUI) 189
Configuring Password Policies (CLI) 190
CHAPTER 13
Ports and Interfaces
193
Ports 193
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
ix
Contents
Distribution System Ports 193
Restrictions for Configuring Distribution System Ports 193
Service Port 194
Configuring Ports (GUI) 194
Configuring Ports (CLI) 196
Link Aggregation 197
Restrictions on Link Aggregation 197
Configuring Link Aggregation (GUI) 199
Configuring Link Aggregation (CLI) 199
Verifying Link Aggregation Settings (CLI) 200
Configuring Neighbor Devices to Support Link Aggregation 200
Choosing Between Link Aggregation and Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces 200
Interfaces 201
Restrictions on Configuring Interfaces 201
Dynamic AP Management 202
WLANs 202
Management Interface 204
Configuring the Management Interface (GUI) 204
Configuring the Management Interface (CLI) 205
Virtual Interface 207
Configuring Virtual Interfaces (GUI) 208
Configuring Virtual Interfaces (CLI) 208
Service-Port Interfaces 208
Configuring Service-Port Interfaces Using IPv4 (GUI) 210
Configuring Service-Port Interfaces Using IPv4 (CLI) 210
Configuring Service-Port Interface Using IPv6 (GUI) 211
Configuring Service-Port Interfaces Using IPv6 (CLI) 211
Dynamic Interface 212
Prerequisites for Configuring Dynamic Interfaces 212
Restrictions on Configuring Dynamic Interfaces 213
Configuring Dynamic Interfaces (GUI) 213
Configuring Dynamic Interfaces (CLI) 214
AP-Manager Interface 216
Restrictions for Configuring AP Manager Interface 216
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
x
Contents
Configuring the AP-Manager Interface (GUI) 217
Configuring the AP Manager Interface (CLI) 217
Interface Groups 218
Restrictions on Configuring Interface Groups 218
Creating Interface Groups (GUI) 219
Creating Interface Groups (CLI) 219
Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (GUI) 219
Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (CLI) 220
Viewing VLANs in Interface Groups (CLI) 220
Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (GUI) 220
Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (CLI) 221
CHAPTER 14
IPv6 Clients
223
IPv6 Client Mobility 223
Prerequisites for Configuring IPv6 Mobility 223
Restrictions on Configuring IPv6 Mobility 224
Global IPv6 224
Restrictions on Global IPv6 224
Configuring IPv6 Globally (GUI) 224
Configuring IPv6 Globally (CLI) 225
RA Guard 225
Configuring RA Guard (GUI) 225
Configuring RA Guard (CLI) 226
RA Throttling 226
Configuring RA Throttling (GUI) 226
Configuring the RA Throttle Policy (CLI) 227
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery 227
Configuring Neighbor Binding (GUI) 227
Configuring Neighbor Binding (CLI) 228
CHAPTER 15
Access Control Lists
229
Information about Access Control Lists 229
Guidelines and Restrictions on Access Control Lists 230
Configuring Access Control Lists (GUI) 231
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xi
Contents
Applying an Access Control List to an Interface (GUI) 233
Applying an Access Control List to the Controller CPU (GUI) 233
Applying an Access Control List to a WLAN (GUI) 234
Applying a Preauthentication Access Control List to a WLAN (GUI) 235
Configuring Access Control Lists (CLI) 235
Applying Access Control Lists (CLI) 236
Layer 2 Access Control Lists 237
Restrictions on Layer 2 Access Control Lists 238
Configuring Layer 2 Access Control Lists (CLI) 238
Configuring Layer 2 Access Control Lists (GUI) 239
Applying a Layer2 Access Control List to a WLAN (GUI) 240
Applying a Layer2 Access Control List to an AP on a WLAN (GUI) 241
DNS-based Access Control Lists 241
Restrictions on DNS-based Access Control Lists 242
Configuring DNS-based Access Control Lists (CLI) 242
Configuring DNS-based Access Control Lists (GUI) 243
URL Filtering 244
Restrictions for URL Filtering 244
Configuring URL Filtering (GUI) 245
Configuring URL Filtering (CLI) 249
CNAME IPv6 Filtering 251
Restrictions for CNAME IPv6 Filtering 251
Configuring CNAME URL ACL (GUI) 251
Configuring Web Authentication for CNAME IPv6 Filtering on a WLAN (GUI) 252
Configuring Web Authentication for CNAME IPv6 Filtering Using External RADIUS Server (GUI)
252
Configuring IPv6 CNAME Filtering (CLI) 253
Domain Based Filtering 253
Restrictions on Domain Based Filtering 254
Configuring Domain Based Filtering (GUI) 254
Configuring Access Control Lists (GUI) 254
Creating a URL ACL List (GUI) 255
Applying a URL Filtering Access Control List Globally (GUI) 255
Applying a URL Filtering Access Control List to an Interface (GUI) 256
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xii
Contents
Applying a URL Filtering Access Control List for a WLAN (GUI) 256
Mapping the Policy to a WLAN (GUI) 256
Mapping the Policy to an AP Group (GUI) 257
Configuring DNS Filtering (CLI) 258
Configuring URL Filtering (CLI) 258
Configuring Access Control List Rules (CLI) 258
Applying Local Policy (CLI) 259
Viewing URL Filtering (CLI) 259
Troubleshooting URL Filtering (CLI) 260
CHAPTER 16
Multicast/Broadcast Setup 261
Multicast/Broadcast Mode 261
Restrictions on Configuring Multicast Mode 263
Enabling Multicast Mode (GUI) 265
Enabling Multicast Mode (CLI) 266
Viewing Multicast Groups (GUI) 267
Viewing Multicast Groups (CLI) 267
Viewing an Access Point’s Multicast Client Table (CLI) 268
Media Stream 268
Prerequisites for Media Stream 269
Restrictions for Configuring Media Stream 269
Configuring Media Stream (GUI) 269
Configuring Media Stream (CLI) 273
Configuring Media Parameters (GUI) 274
Viewing and Debugging Media Stream 275
Multicast Domain Name System 275
Restrictions for Configuring Multicast DNS 277
Configuring Multicast DNS (GUI) 278
Configuring Multicast DNS (CLI) 280
Bonjour Gateway Based on Access Policy 283
Restrictions on Bonjour Gateway Based on Access Policy 284
Configuring mDNS Service Groups (GUI) 284
Configuring mDNS Service Groups (CLI) 284
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xiii
Contents
CHAPTER 17
Controller Security
287
FIPS, CC, and UCAPL 287
FIPS 287
FIPS Self-Tests 287
Information About CC 288
Information About UCAPL 288
Configuring FIPS (CLI) 289
Configuring CC (CLI) 289
Configuring UCAPL (CLI) 290
Preparing Controller in FIPS Mode for Management in Cisco Prime Infrastructure (CLI) 290
Cisco TrustSec 292
Guidelines and Restrictions on Cisco TrustSec 296
Configuring Cisco TrustSec 299
Configuring Cisco TrustSec on Controller (GUI) 299
Configuring Cisco TrustSec on Cisco WLC (CLI) 299
Configuring Cisco TrustSec Override for an Access Point (CLI) 299
SXP 299
Cisco TrustSec Credentials 302
Monitoring Environment Data 303
Configuring a Static Security Group Tag on a WLAN 304
Configuring Inline Tagging 305
Verifying SGACL Policy Download 306
Configuring Policy Enforcement 307
Debugging Cisco TrustSec in Cisco WLC (CLI) 308
Cisco TrustSec Commands on Lightweight APs 309
IPSec Profile 310
Configuring an IPSec Profile (GUI) 310
Configuring an IPSec Profile (CLI) 311
CHAPTER 18
Cisco Umbrella WLAN (OpenDNS) 313
Cisco Umbrella WLAN (OpenDNS) 313
Configuring Cisco Umbrella WLAN (GUI) 314
Configuring Cisco Umbrella WLAN (CLI) 315
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xiv
Contents
Configuring Local Policies for Cisco Umbrella (GUI) 316
CHAPTER 19
SNMP
319
Guidelines and Limitations for SNMP 319
Configuring SNMP (CLI) 319
SNMP Community Strings 321
Changing the SNMP Community String Default Values (GUI) 322
Changing the SNMP Community String Default Values (CLI) 322
Configuring Real Time Statistics (CLI) 323
SNMP Trap Enhancements 324
Configuring SNMP Trap Receiver (GUI) 324
PART III
Mobility 325
CHAPTER 20
Overview
327
Information About Mobility 327
Guidelines and Restrictions 330
CHAPTER 21
Auto-Anchor Mobility
333
Information about Auto-Anchor Mobility 333
Restrictions for Auto-Anchor Mobility 334
Configuring Auto-Anchor Mobility (GUI) 335
Configuring Auto-Anchor Mobility (CLI) 336
Guest Anchor Priority 338
Configuring Guest Anchor Priority (GUI) 339
Configuring Guest Anchor Priority (CLI) 339
CHAPTER 22
Mobility Groups
341
Information About Mobility Groups 341
Prerequisites for Configuring Mobility Groups 344
Configuring Mobility Groups (GUI) 346
Configuring Mobility Groups (CLI) 348
Viewing Mobility Group Statistics (GUI) 349
Viewing Mobility Group Statistics (CLI) 351
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xv
Contents
CHAPTER 23
Encrypted Mobility Tunnel
353
Information about Encrypted Mobility Tunnel 353
Restrictions for Encrypted Mobility Tunnel 353
Configuring Mobility Groups for Inter-Release Controller Mobility (IRCM) (GUI) 354
Configuring Mobility Groups for Inter-Release Controller Mobility (IRCM) (CLI) 355
CHAPTER 24
Monitoring and Validating Mobility
357
Mobility Ping Tests 357
Restrictions for Mobility Ping Tests 357
Running Mobility Ping Tests (CLI) 358
WLAN Mobility Security Values 358
PART IV
Wireless
CHAPTER 25
Country Codes
361
363
Information About Configuring Country Codes 363
Restrictions for Configuring Country Codes 364
Configuring Country Codes (GUI) 364
Configuring Country Codes (CLI) 365
CHAPTER 26
Radio Bands
369
802.11 Bands 369
Configuring the 802.11 Bands (GUI) 369
Configuring the 802.11 Bands (CLI) 371
802.11n Parameters 373
Configuring the 802.11n Parameters (GUI) 373
Configuring the 802.11n Parameters (CLI) 375
802.11ac Parameters 377
Restrictions for 802.11ac Support 379
Configuring the 802.11ac High-Throughput Parameters (GUI) 380
Configuring the 802.11ac High-Throughput Parameters (CLI) 380
CHAPTER 27
Radio Resource Management
383
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xvi
Contents
Information about Radio Resource Management 383
Radio Resource Monitoring 384
Benefits of RRM 384
Information About Configuring RRM 385
Configuring RRM (CLI) 385
Viewing RRM Settings (CLI) 390
RF Groups 390
Information About RF Groups 390
RF Group Leader 391
RF Group Name 392
Controllers and APs in RF Groups 393
Configuring RF Groups 393
Configuring an RF Group Name (GUI) 393
Configuring an RF Group Name (CLI) 394
Configuring the RF Group Mode (GUI) 394
Configuring the RF Group Mode (CLI) 395
Viewing RF Group Status 396
Viewing the RF Group Status (GUI) 396
Viewing the RF Group Status (CLI) 396
Rogue Access Point Detection in RF Groups 397
Enabling Rogue Access Point Detection in RF Groups (GUI) 397
Configuring Rogue Access Point Detection in RF Groups (CLI) 398
Off-Channel Scanning Deferral 398
Configuring Off-Channel Scanning Deferral for WLANs 399
Configuring Off-Channel Scanning Deferral for a WLAN (GUI) 399
Configuring Off Channel Scanning Deferral for a WLAN (CLI) 400
RRM NDP and RF Grouping 400
Configuring RRM NDP (CLI) 401
Channels 401
Dynamic Channel Assignment 401
Configuring Dynamic Channel Assignment (GUI) 403
Configuring RRM Profile Thresholds, Monitoring Channels, and Monitor Intervals (GUI) 406
Overriding RRM 408
Prerequisites for Overriding RRM 408
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xvii
Contents
Statically Assigning Channel and Transmit Power Settings (GUI) 409
Statically Assigning Channel and Transmit Power Settings (CLI) 410
Disabling Dynamic Channel and Power Assignment (CLI) 413
802.11h Parameters 414
Configuring the 802.11h Parameters (GUI) 414
Configuring the 802.11h Parameters (CLI) 415
Transmit Power Control 415
Overriding the TPC Algorithm with Minimum and Maximum Transmit Power Settings 416
Configuring Transmit Power Control (GUI) 416
Coverage Hole Detection and Correction 418
Configuring Coverage Hole Detection (GUI) 418
RF Profiles 419
Prerequisites for Configuring RF Profiles 422
Restrictions on Configuring RF Profiles 422
Configuring an RF Profile (GUI) 423
Configuring an RF Profile (CLI) 425
Applying an RF Profile to AP Groups (GUI) 427
Applying RF Profiles to AP Groups (CLI) 427
Flexible Radio Assignment 427
Advantages of Flexible Radio Assignment 428
Configuring Flexible Radio Assignment-Global (GUI) 429
Configuring Flexible Radio Assignment (CLI) 430
Configuring Flexible Radio Assignment for AP (GUI) 430
Configuring Auto Radio Role for the AP (CLI) 431
Configuring Manual Radio Role for the AP (CLI) 431
Configuring Radio Band for Client-Serving Radio (CLI) 432
Debug RRM Issues (CLI) 432
CHAPTER 28
Wireless Quality of Service
433
CleanAir 433
Role of the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller in a Cisco CleanAir System 434
Interference Types that Cisco CleanAir Can Detect 434
Persistent Devices 435
Persistent Devices Detection 435
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xviii
Contents
Persistent Devices Propagation 435
Detecting Interferers by an Access Point 436
Prerequisites for CleanAir 436
Restrictions for CleanAir 437
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on the Controller 437
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on Cisco WLC (GUI) 437
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on Cisco WLC (CLI) 440
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on an Access Point 444
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on an Access Point (GUI) 444
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on an Access Point (CLI) 445
Configuring Spectrum Intelligence 445
Information About Spectrum Intelligence 445
Configuring Spectrum Intelligence – Global (GUI) 446
Configuring Spectrum Intelligence per AP (GUI) 447
Configuring Spectrum Intelligence (CLI) 447
Monitoring Interference Devices 447
Prerequisites for Monitoring the Interference Devices 447
Monitoring the Interference Device (GUI) 448
Monitoring the Interference Device (CLI) 449
Monitoring Persistent Devices (GUI) 451
Monitoring Persistent Devices (CLI) 452
Monitoring the Air Quality of Radio Bands 453
Media and EDCA 456
Aggressive Load Balancing 456
Aggressive Load Balancing 456
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (GUI) 457
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (CLI) 458
Media Session and Snooping 459
Media Session Snooping and Reporting 459
Restrictions for Media Session Snooping and Reporting 459
Configuring Media Session Snooping (GUI) 459
Configuring Media Session Snooping (CLI) 460
QoS Enhanced BSS 464
QoS Enhanced BSS 464
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xix
Contents
Prerequisites for Using QoS Enhanced BSS on Cisco 7921 and 7920 Wireless IP Phones 465
Restrictions for QoS Enhanced BSS 465
Configuring QBSS (GUI) 466
Configuring QBSS (CLI) 466
Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients 467
Information About Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients 467
Restrictions for Configuring Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients 468
Configuring Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients (GUI) 468
Configuring Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients (CLI) 468
Call Admission Control 469
Voice and Video Parameters 469
Configuring Voice Parameters 469
Configuring Voice Parameters (GUI) 469
Configuring Voice Parameters (CLI) 471
Configuring Video Parameters 472
Configuring Video Parameters (GUI) 472
Configuring Video Parameters (CLI) 473
Viewing Voice and Video Settings 474
Viewing Voice and Video Settings (GUI) 474
Viewing Voice and Video Settings (CLI) 475
Configuring SIP-Based CAC 478
Restrictions for SIP-Based CAC 478
Configuring SIP-Based CAC (GUI) 478
Configuring SIP-Based CAC (CLI) 479
Configuring Media Parameters (GUI) 479
Voice Prioritization Using Preferred Call Numbers 480
Prerequisites for Configuring Voice Prioritization Using Preferred Call Numbers 480
Configuring a Preferred Call Number (GUI) 480
Configuring a Preferred Call Number (CLI) 481
Enhanced Distributed Channel Access Parameters 481
Configuring EDCA Parameters (GUI) 482
Configuring EDCA Parameters (CLI) 483
Key Telephone System-Based CAC 484
Restrictions for Key Telephone System-Based CAC 484
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xx
Contents
Configuring KTS-based CAC (GUI) 484
Configuring KTS-based CAC (CLI) 485
Application Visibility and Control 486
Restrictions for Application Visibility and Control 488
Configuring Application Visibility and Control (GUI) 489
Configuring Application Visibility and Control (CLI) 490
AVC-Based Reanchoring 491
Configuring AVC-Based Selective Reanchoring (GUI) 491
Configuring AVC-based Selective Reanchoring (CLI) 492
Application Visibility Control for FlexConnect 493
Configuring Application Visibility and Control for FlexConnect (GUI) 494
Configuring Application Visibility and Control for FlexConnect (CLI) 496
NetFlow 498
Restrictions for Using Netflow 500
Configuring NetFlow (GUI) 500
Configuring NetFlow (CLI) 501
QoS Profiles 501
Configuring QoS Profiles (GUI) 502
Configuring QoS Profiles (CLI) 504
Assigning a QoS Profile to a WLAN (GUI) 506
Assigning a QoS Profile to a WLAN (CLI) 507
Cisco Air Time Fairness 508
Configuring Cisco Air Time Fairness (GUI) 511
Configuring Cisco Air Tme Fairness (CLI) 512
CHAPTER 29
Location Services
515
Cisco Hyperlocation 515
Cisco Hyperlocation in a High Availability Environment 516
Cisco Hyperlocation Client Debug Tracing 516
Configuring Cisco Hyperlocation 517
FastLocate for Cisco Wave 2 Access Points 521
Configuring FastLocate on Cisco Wave 2 APs (GUI) 521
Optimizing RFID Tracking on Access Points 522
Optimizing RFID Tracking on Access Points (GUI) 523
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxi
Contents
Optimizing RFID Tracking on Access Points (CLI) 523
Location Settings 524
Configuring Location Settings (CLI) 524
Viewing Location Settings (CLI) 526
Modifying the NMSP Notification Interval for Clients, RFID Tags, and Rogues (CLI) 527
Viewing NMSP Settings (CLI) 528
Debugging NMSP Issues 528
Probe Request Forwarding 529
Configuring Probe Request Forwarding (CLI) 529
CCX Radio Management 530
Radio Measurement Requests 531
Location Calibration 531
Configuring CCX Radio Management 531
Configuring CCX Radio Management (GUI) 531
Configuring CCX Radio Management (CLI) 532
Viewing CCX Radio Management Information (CLI) 533
Debugging CCX Radio Management Issues (CLI) 534
Mobile Concierge 534
Configuring Mobile Concierge (802.11u) (GUI) 534
Configuring Mobile Concierge (802.11u) (CLI) 536
Online Sign Up 537
802.11u MSAP 539
Configuring 802.11u MSAP (GUI) 539
Configuring MSAP (CLI) 539
Configuring 802.11u HotSpot 540
Information About 802.11u HotSpot 540
Configuring 802.11u HotSpot (GUI) 540
Configuring HotSpot 2.0 (CLI) 541
Configuring Access Points for HotSpot2 (GUI) 542
Configuring Access Points for HotSpot2 (CLI) 543
Downloading the Icon File (CLI) 546
Configuring ICONs 546
Configuring OSEN Support (CLI) 548
Configuring OSU 549
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxii
Contents
Configuring WAN Metrics 550
CMX Cloud Connector 551
Prerequisites for CMX Cloud Connector 552
Restrictions for CMX Cloud Connector 552
Configuring CMX Cloud Connector (GUI) 552
Configuring CMX Cloud Connector (CLI) 553
Installing CMX-Serv CA Certificate on a Controller (CLI) 554
NMSP by AP Groups with Subscription List from CMX 554
Guidelines and Restrictions on NMSP by AP Groups with Subscription List from CMX 555
Monitoring NMSP by AP Groups with Subscription List from CMX (GUI) 555
Monitoring NMSP by AP Groups with Subscription List from CMX (CLI) 555
CHAPTER 30
Wireless Intrusion Detection System
557
Protected Management Frames (Management Frame Protection) 557
Configuring Infrastructure MFP (GUI) 558
Viewing the Management Frame Protection Settings (GUI) 559
Configuring Infrastructure MFP (CLI) 559
Viewing the Management Frame Protection Settings (CLI) 560
Debugging Management Frame Protection Issues (CLI) 560
Client Exclusion Policies 560
Configuring Client Exclusion Policies (GUI) 561
Configuring Client Exclusion Policies (CLI) 561
Rogue Devices 563
Configuring Rogue Detection (GUI) 568
Configuring Rogue Detection (CLI) 570
Rogue Access Point Classification 573
Guidelines and Restrictions for Classifying Rogue Access Points 576
Configuring Rogue Classification Rules (GUI) 576
Viewing and Classifying Rogue Devices (GUI) 579
Configuring Rogue Classification Rules (CLI) 583
Viewing and Classifying Rogue Devices (CLI) 585
Cisco Intrusion Detection System 588
Shunned Clients 588
Configuring IDS Sensors (GUI) 588
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxiii
Contents
Viewing Shunned Clients (GUI) 589
Configuring IDS Sensors (CLI) 590
Viewing Shunned Clients (CLI) 591
Intrusion Detection System Signatures 592
Uploading or Downloading IDS Signatures 594
Enabling or Disabling IDS Signatures 595
Viewing IDS Signature Events (GUI) 597
Configuring IDS Signatures (CLI) 597
Viewing IDS Signature Events (CLI) 599
Wireless Intrusion Prevention System 600
Restrictions for wIPS 607
Configuring wIPS on an Access Point (GUI) 607
Configuring wIPS on an Access Point (CLI) 608
Viewing wIPS Information (CLI) 609
Cisco Adaptive wIPS Alarms 609
CHAPTER 31
Advanced Wireless Tuning 611
Band Selection 611
Band Selection Algorithm
611
Restrictions for Band Selection 612
Configuring Band Selection (GUI) 612
Configuring Band Selection (CLI) 613
Aggressive Load Balancing 614
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (GUI) 615
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (CLI) 616
SpectraLink NetLink Telephones 617
Enabling Long Preambles (GUI) 617
Enabling Long Preambles (CLI) 618
Configuring Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (CLI) 618
Information About Receiver Start of Packet Detection Threshold 619
Restrictions for RxSOP 619
Configuring Rx SOP (GUI) 619
Configuring RxSOP (CLI) 620
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxiv
Contents
CHAPTER 32
Timers
621
Information about Wireless Timers 621
Restrictions for Wireless Timers 621
Configuring Wireless Timers (GUI) 621
Configuring Wireless Timers (CLI) 622
PART V
Access Points
CHAPTER 33
AP Power and LAN Connections
623
625
Power over Ethernet 625
Configuring Power over Ethernet (GUI) 625
Configuring Power over Ethernet (CLI) 626
Cisco Wave 2 AP’s USB Port as Power Source
628
Configuring Cisco Aironet AP’s USB Port as Power Source (GUI) 628
Configuring a Cisco AP Group to Use the Cisco AP’s USB Port as Power Source (GUI) 629
Configuring Cisco Aironet APs USB Port as Power Source (WLC-CLI) 629
Viewing Cisco Aironet APs USB Port as Power Source (AP-CLI) 630
Viewing AP Serviceability (AP CLI) 630
Cisco Discovery Protocol 630
Restrictions for Cisco Discovery Protocol 630
Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol 632
Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol (GUI) 632
Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CLI) 633
Viewing Cisco Discovery Protocol Information 634
Viewing Cisco Discovery Protocol Information (GUI) 634
Viewing Cisco Discovery Protocol Information (CLI) 636
Getting CDP Debug Information 637
Cisco 700 Series Access Points 637
Configuring Cisco 700 Series Access Points 637
Enabling the LAN Ports (CLI) 638
Remote LAN Support for Wired Ports on Cisco Aironet 702W APs 638
IEEE 802.1X Authentication Modes 639
Configuring Preauthentication Open (CLI) 640
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxv
Contents
Configuring IEEE 802.1X Authentication Modes (CLI) 640
Enabling IEEE 802.1X Authentication in Cisco WLC (GUI)
Enabling IEEE 802.1X Authentication (CLI)
641
641
Mapping an RLAN to an AP Port in Cisco WLC (GUI) 642
Mapping an RLAN to an AP Port in Cisco WLC (CLI) 642
Mapping an RLAN to an AP Port in Cisco WLC per AP (GUI) 643
MAB Authentication Support for AP Port LAN Client in Cisco Aironet 702w Access Points 643
Converting Cisco Wave 2 AP AUX Port to LAN Port (CLI) 644
Re-enabling LAG Mode on Cisco Wave 2 APs (CLI) 646
CHAPTER 34
AP Connectivity to Cisco WLC
647
CAPWAP 647
Restrictions for Access Point Communication Protocols 648
Viewing CAPWAP Maximum Transmission Unit Information 648
Debugging CAPWAP 649
Preferred Mode 649
Guidelines for Configuring Preferred Mode 649
Configuring CAPWAP Preferred Mode (GUI) 650
Configuring CAPWAP Preferred Mode (CLI) 650
UDP Lite 652
Configuring UDP Lite Globally (GUI) 652
Configuring UDP Lite on AP (GUI) 653
Configuring the UDP Lite (CLI) 653
Data Encryption 654
Restrictions on Data Encryption 655
Configuring Data Encryption (GUI) 656
Configuring Data Encryption (CLI) 656
VLAN Tagging for CAPWAP Frames from Access Points 657
Configuring VLAN Tagging for CAPWAP Frames from Access Points (GUI) 657
Configuring VLAN Tagging for CAPWAP Frames from Access Points (CLI) 658
Discovering and Joining Controllers 658
Controller Discovery Process 659
Guidelines and Restrictions on Controller Discovery Process 660
Using DHCP Option 43 and DHCP Option 60
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxvi
660
Contents
Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller 661
Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller (GUI) 661
Verifying that Access Points Join the Controller (CLI) 661
Backup Controllers 662
Restrictions for Configuring Backup Controllers 662
Configuring Backup Controllers (GUI) 662
Configuring Backup Controllers (CLI) 664
Failover Priority for Access Points 666
Configuring Failover Priority for Access Points (GUI) 667
Configuring Failover Priority for Access Points (CLI) 668
Viewing Failover Priority Settings (CLI) 668
AP Retransmission Interval and Retry Count 669
Restrictions for Access Point Retransmission Interval and Retry Count 669
Configuring the AP Retransmission Interval and Retry Count (GUI) 669
Configuring the Access Point Retransmission Interval and Retry Count (CLI) 670
Authorizing Access Points 670
Authorizing Access Points Using SSCs 670
Authorizing Access Points for Virtual Controllers Using SSC 671
Authorizing Access Points Using MICs 672
Authorizing Access Points Using LSCs 672
Configuring Locally Significant Certificates (GUI) 673
Configuring Locally Significant Certificates (CLI) 674
Authorizing Access Points (GUI) 676
Authorizing Access Points (CLI) 677
Plug and Play (PnP) 677
AP 802.1X Supplicant 678
Prerequisites for Configuring Authentication for Access Points 679
Restrictions for Authenticating Access Points 680
Configuring 802.1X Authentication Protocols for All Access Points (GUI) 680
Configuring 802.1X Authentication Protocols for All Access Points (CLI) 681
Configuring 802.1X Authentication Protocols for An Access Points (GUI) 682
Configuring 802.1X Authentication Protocols for An Access Points (CLI) 683
Configuring Cisco WLC – Cisco AP LSC Authentication State (GUI) 684
Configuring Cisco WLC – Cisco AP LSC Authentication State (CLI) 684
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxvii
Contents
Adding AP to an LSC Provisioned Network 684
Configuring the Switch for Authentication 685
Troubleshooting the Access Point Join Process 685
Configuring the Syslog Server for Access Points (CLI) 687
Viewing Access Point Join Information 688
Viewing Access Point Join Information (GUI) 688
Viewing Access Point Join Information (CLI) 689
CHAPTER 35
Managing APs
691
Converting Autonomous Access Points to Lightweight Mode 691
Restrictions for Converting Autonomous Access Points to Lightweight Mode 692
Converting Autonomous Access Points to Lightweight Mode 692
Reverting from Lightweight Mode to Autonomous Mode 693
Reverting to a Previous Release (CLI) 693
Reverting to a Previous Release Using the MODE Button and a TFTP Server 693
Configuring a Static IP Address on a Lightweight Access Point 694
Configuring a Static IP Address (GUI) 694
Configuring a Static IP Address (CLI) 695
Supporting Oversized Access Point Images 696
Recovering the Access Point—Using the TFTP Recovery Procedure 697
Global Credentials for Access Points 697
Restrictions for Global Credentials for Access Points 698
Configuring Global Credentials for Access Points 698
Configuring Global Credentials for Access Points (GUI) 698
Configuring Global Credentials for Access Points (CLI) 699
Configuring Telnet and SSH for Access Points 700
Configuring Telnet and SSH for APs (GUI) 700
Configuring Telnet and SSH for APs (CLI) 701
Spectrum Expert Connection 701
Configuring Spectrum Expert (GUI) 701
Cisco Universal Small Cell 8x18 Dual-Mode Module 704
Configuring Cisco Universal Small Cell 8x18 Dual-Mode Module 705
Configuring USC8x18 Dual-Mode Module in Different Scenarios 705
LED States for Access Points 707
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxviii
Contents
Configuring the LED State for Access Points in a Network Globally (GUI) 708
Configuring the LED State for Access Point in a Network Globally (CLI) 708
Configuring LED State on a Specific Access Point (GUI) 708
Configuring LED State on a Specific Access Point (CLI) 708
Configuring Flashing LEDs 709
Information About Configuring Flashing LEDs 709
Configuring Flashing LEDs (CLI) 709
Configuring LED Flash State on a Specific Access Point (GUI) 709
Access Points with Dual-Band Radios 710
Configuring Access Points with Dual-Band Radios (GUI) 710
Configuring Access Points with Dual-Band Radios (CLI) 710
Link Latency 711
Restrictions for Link Latency 711
Configuring Link Latency (GUI) 711
Configuring Link Latency (CLI) 712
Configuring Mesh Leaf Node 713
PART VI
Mesh Access Points
CHAPTER 36
Connecting Mesh Access Points to the Network
715
717
Overview 717
Adding Mesh Access Points to the Mesh Network 718
Adding MAC Addresses of Mesh Access Points to MAC Filter 719
Adding the MAC Address of the Mesh Access Point to the Controller Filter List (CLI) 719
Defining Mesh Access Point Role 720
Configuring the AP Role (CLI) 720
Configuring Multiple Controllers Using DHCP 43 and DHCP 60
720
Configuring External Authentication and Authorization Using a RADIUS Server 721
Configuring RADIUS Servers 722
Enable External Authentication of Mesh Access Points (CLI) 722
View Security Statistics (CLI) 723
Mesh PSK Key Provisioning
723
CLI Commands for PSK Provisioning
724
Configuring Global Mesh Parameters 725
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxix
Contents
Configuring Global Mesh Parameters (CLI) 725
Viewing Global Mesh Parameter Settings (CLI) 726
Backhaul Client Access 727
Configuring Backhaul Client Access (GUI) 728
Configuring Backhaul Client Access (CLI) 728
Configuring Local Mesh Parameters 728
Configuring Wireless Backhaul Data Rate 729
Configuring Ethernet Bridging 731
Configuring Native VLAN (CLI) 732
Configuring Bridge Group Names 733
Configuring Bridge Group Names (CLI) 733
Configuring Antenna Gain 733
Configuring Antenna Gain (CLI) 734
Configuring Advanced Features 734
Configuring Ethernet VLAN Tagging 734
Ethernet Port Notes 735
VLAN Registration 736
Configuring Ethernet VLAN Tagging (CLI) 738
Viewing Ethernet VLAN Tagging Configuration Details (CLI) 739
Workgroup Bridge Interoperability with Mesh Infrastructure 739
Configuring Workgroup Bridges 740
Guidelines for Configuration 743
Configuration Example 744
WGB Association Check 745
Link Test Result 747
WGB Wired/Wireless Client 748
Client Roaming 749
WGB Roaming Guidelines 749
Configuration Example 750
Troubleshooting Tips 750
Configuring Voice Parameters in Indoor Mesh Networks 751
Call Admission Control 751
Quality of Service and Differentiated Services Code Point Marking 751
Guidelines For Using Voice on the Mesh Network 756
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxx
Contents
Voice Call Support in a Mesh Network 757
Enabling Mesh Multicast Containment for Video 758
Viewing the Voice Details for Mesh Networks (CLI) 759
Enabling Multicast on the Mesh Network (CLI) 763
IGMP Snooping 763
Locally Significant Certificates for Mesh APs 764
Guidelines for Configuration 765
Differences Between LSCs for Mesh APs and Normal APs 765
Certificate Verification Process in LSC AP 765
Getting Certificates for LSC Feature 766
Configuring a Locally Significant Certificate (CLI) 767
LSC only MAP Authentication using wild card MAC 768
LSC-Related Commands 769
Controller GUI Security Settings 771
Deployment Guidelines 772
Configuring Antenna Band Mode 772
Information About Configuring Antenna Band Modes 772
Configuring Antenna Band Mode (CLI) 773
Configuring Daisy Chaining on Cisco Aironet 1530 Series Access Points 773
Information About Daisy Chaining the Cisco Aironet 1530 Series Access Points 773
Configuring Daisy Chaining (CLI) 777
Configuring a Daisy-Chain 778
Configuring Mesh Convergence 780
Information About Mesh Convergence 780
Restrictions on Mesh Convergence 780
Configuring Mesh Convergence (CLI) 781
Switching Between LWAPP and Autonomous Images (AP CLI) 781
Information About DHCP on RAP 781
Restrictions on DHCP on RAP 782
Configuring DHCP on RAP on a Controller (CLI) 782
Configuring DHCP on RAP on a Mesh AP (CLI) 782
Information About NAT-PAT on RAP 783
Restrictions on NAT-PAT on RAP 783
Viewing NAT-PAT on RAP on a Mesh AP (CLI) 783
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxxi
Contents
Configuring Mesh Leaf Node 784
CHAPTER 37
Checking the Health of the Network
787
Show Mesh Commands 787
Viewing General Mesh Network Details 787
Viewing Mesh Access Point Details 789
Viewing Global Mesh Parameter Settings 790
Viewing Bridge Group Settings 791
Viewing VLAN Tagging Settings 791
Viewing DFS Details 791
Viewing Security Settings and Statistics 792
Viewing GPS Status 792
Viewing Mesh Statistics for a Mesh Access Point 793
Viewing Mesh Statistics for a Mesh Access Point (GUI) 793
Viewing Mesh Statistics for an Mesh Access Point (CLI) 798
Viewing Neighbor Statistics for a Mesh Access Point 799
Viewing Neighbor Statistics for a Mesh Access Point (GUI) 799
Viewing the Neighbor Statistics for a Mesh Access Point (CLI) 800
CHAPTER 38
Troubleshooting Mesh Access Points
803
Installation and Connections 803
Debug Commands 804
Remote Debug Commands 804
AP Console Access 805
Cable Modem Serial Port Access From an AP 805
Configuration 806
Mesh Access Point CLI Commands 808
Mesh Access Point Debug Commands 811
Defining Mesh Access Point Roles 811
Backhaul Algorithm 811
Passive Beaconing (Anti-Stranding) 812
Dynamic Frequency Selection 813
DFS in RAP 814
DFS in MAP 814
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxxii
Contents
Preparation in a DFS Environment 815
Monitoring DFS 817
Frequency Planning 817
Good Signal-to-Noise Ratios 818
Access Point Placement 818
Bridge Group Name Misconfiguration 818
Misconfiguration of the Mesh Access Point IP Address 819
Misconfiguration of DHCP 820
Identifying the Node Exclusion Algorithm 820
Throughput Analysis 822
PART VII
Client Network
CHAPTER 39
Client Traffic Forwarding Configurations
825
827
802.3 Bridging 827
Restrictions on 802.3 Bridging 827
Configuring 802.3 Bridging (GUI) 827
Configuring 802.3 Bridging (CLI) 828
Enabling 802.3X Flow Control 828
Bridging Link Local Traffic 828
Configuring Bridging of Link Local Traffic (GUI) 828
Configuring Bridging of Link Local Traffic (CLI) 829
IP-MAC Address Binding 829
Configuring IP-MAC Address Binding (CLI) 829
TCP Adjust MSS 830
Configuring TCP Adjust MSS (GUI) 830
Configuring TCP Adjust MSS (CLI) 831
Passive Clients 831
Restrictions for Passive Clients 832
Configuring Passive Clients (GUI) 832
Configuring Passive Clients (CLI) 833
Enabling the Multicast-Multicast Mode (GUI) 834
Enabling the Global Multicast Mode on Controllers (GUI) 835
Enabling the Passive Client Feature on the Controller (GUI) 835
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxxiii
Contents
Multicast-to-Unicast Support for Passive Client ARPs 835
Configuring Unicast mode on WLC (GUI) 836
Configuring Unicast mode on WLC (CLI) 836
CHAPTER 40
Quality of Service
837
Quality of Service 837
QoS Profiles 838
Configuring QoS Profiles (GUI) 839
Configuring QoS Profiles (CLI) 841
Assigning a QoS Profile to a WLAN (GUI) 842
Assigning a QoS Profile to a WLAN (CLI) 843
Quality of Service Roles 844
Configuring QoS Roles (GUI) 845
Configuring QoS Roles (CLI) 846
QoS Map 847
Guidelines and Restrictions for QoS Map 847
Configuring QoS Map (GUI) 848
Configuring QoS Map (CLI) 849
FastLane QoS 850
Configuring Fastlane QoS (CLI) 850
Configuring Fastlane QoS (GUI) 858
Disabling Fastlane QoS Globally (GUI) 858
Media Session Snooping and Reporting 858
Restrictions for Media Session Snooping and Reporting 859
Configuring Media Session Snooping (GUI) 859
Configuring Media Session Snooping (CLI) 860
Voice and Video Parameters 864
Call Admission Control 864
Static CAC 865
Load-Based CAC 865
Expedited Bandwidth Requests 865
U-APSD 866
Traffic Stream Metrics 867
Configuring Voice Parameters 867
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxxiv
Contents
Configuring Voice Parameters (GUI) 867
Configuring Voice Parameters (CLI) 869
Configuring Video Parameters 870
Configuring Video Parameters (GUI) 870
Configuring Video Parameters (CLI) 871
Viewing Voice and Video Settings 872
Viewing Voice and Video Settings (GUI) 872
Viewing Voice and Video Settings (CLI) 873
SIP-based CAC 876
Restrictions for SIP-Based CAC 876
Configuring SIP-Based CAC (GUI) 877
Configuring SIP-Based CAC (CLI) 877
Enhanced Distributed Channel Access Parameters 877
Configuring EDCA Parameters (GUI) 878
Configuring EDCA Parameters (CLI) 879
CHAPTER 41
WLANs
881
Information About WLANs 881
Prerequisites for WLANs 881
Restrictions for WLANs 882
Creating and Removing WLANs (GUI) 882
Enabling and Disabling WLANs (GUI) 883
Editing WLAN SSID or Profile Name for WLANs (GUI) 884
Creating and Deleting WLANs (CLI) 884
Enabling and Disabling WLANs (CLI) 885
Editing WLAN SSID or Profile Name for WLANs (CLI) 885
Viewing WLANs (CLI) 886
Searching WLANs (GUI) 886
Assigning WLANs to Interfaces 886
CHAPTER 42
Per-WLAN Wireless Settings
887
DTIM Period 887
Configuring the DTIM Period (GUI) 888
Configuring the DTIM Period (CLI) 888
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxxv
Contents
Cisco Client Extensions 889
Prerequisites for Configuring Cisco Client Extensions 889
Configuring CCX Aironet IEs (GUI) 889
Viewing a Client’s CCX Version (GUI) 889
Configuring CCX Aironet IEs (CLI) 890
Viewing a Client’s CCX Version (CLI) 890
Client Profiling 890
Prerequisites for Configuring Client Profiling 891
Restrictions for Configuring Client Profiling 892
Configuring Client Profiling (GUI) 892
Configuring Client Profiling (CLI) 893
Configuring Custom HTTP Port for Profiling (GUI) 893
Configuring Custom HTTP Port for Profiling (CLI) 894
Client Count per WLAN 894
Restrictions for Setting Client Count for WLANs 894
Configuring the Client Count per WLAN (GUI) 895
Configuring the Maximum Number of Clients per WLAN (CLI) 895
Configuring the Maximum Number of Clients for each AP Radio per WLAN (GUI) 895
Configuring the Maximum Number of Clients for each AP Radio per WLAN (CLI) 896
Deauthenticating Clients (CLI) 896
CHAPTER 43
WLAN Interfaces
897
Multicast Optimization 897
Configuring a Multicast VLAN (GUI) 897
Configuring a Multicast VLAN (CLI) 898
Dynamic Anchoring for Clients with Static IP 898
How Dynamic Anchoring of Static IP Clients Works 898
Restrictions on Dynamic Anchoring for Clients With Static IP Addresses 899
Configuring Dynamic Anchoring of Static IP Clients (GUI) 899
Configuring Dynamic Anchoring of Static IP Clients (CLI) 900
CHAPTER 44
WLAN Timeouts
901
Timeout for Disabled Clients 901
Configuring Timeout for Disabled Clients (CLI) 901
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxxvi
Contents
Session Timeouts 901
Configuring a Session Timeout (GUI) 902
Configuring a Session Timeout (CLI) 902
User Idle Timeout per WLAN 903
Configuring Per-WLAN User Idle Timeout (CLI) 903
Address Resolution Protocol Timeout 904
Configuring ARP Timeout (GUI) 904
Configuring ARP Timeout (CLI) 904
Multisession ID Support 904
Viewing Multisession ID Support (CLI) 905
Authentication of Sleeping Clients 906
Restrictions for Authenticating Sleeping Clients 907
Configuring Authentication for Sleeping Clients (GUI) 907
Configuring Authentication for Sleeping Clients (CLI) 908
Authenticating Sleeping Clients on L2+L3 Enabled WLANs 908
Configuring Sleeping Client Authentication on L2+L3 Enabled WLANs (GUI) 908
Configuring Sleeping Client Authentication on L2+L3 Enabled WLANs (CLI) 909
CHAPTER 45
WLAN Security
911
Layer 2 Security 911
Prerequisites for Layer 2 Security 911
Guidelines and Limitations 912
Configuring Dynamic 802.1X Keys and Authorization (CLI) 912
RADIUS VSA 913
Sample RADIUS AVP List XML File 913
Downloading RADIUS AVP List (GUI) 914
Uploading RADIUS AVP List (GUI) 915
Uploading and Downloading RADIUS AVP List (CLI) 915
Custom NAS-ID for RADIUS Accounting Using Downloadable RADIUS AVP 916
Configuring Custom NAS-ID AVP XML File 917
Deleting a NAS-ID AVP (GUI) 918
Viewing Custom NAS-ID Enhancement Configuration (GUI) 918
Viewing Custom NAS-ID Enhancement (CLI) 919
Identity Networking 919
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxxvii
Contents
RADIUS Attributes Used in Identity Networking 920
MAC Filtering of WLANs 923
Restrictions for MAC Filtering 923
Enabling MAC Filtering 923
Local MAC Filters 924
Prerequisites for Configuring Local MAC Filters 924
Configuring Local MAC Filters (CLI) 924
MAC Authentication Failover to 802.1X Authentication 925
Configuring MAC Authentication Failover to 802.1x Authentication (GUI) 925
Configuring MAC Authentication Failover to 802.1X Authentication (CLI) 925
802.11w 925
Restrictions for 802.11w 926
Configuring 802.11w (GUI) 927
Configuring 802.11w (CLI) 927
802.11r Fast Transition 928
Restrictions for 802.11r Fast Transition 930
Configuring 802.11r Fast Transition (GUI) 931
Configuring 802.11r Fast Transition (CLI) 932
Troubleshooting 802.11r BSS Fast Transition 933
Sticky Key Caching 934
Restrictions for Sticky Key Caching 934
Configuring Sticky Key Caching (CLI) 934
WLAN for Static WEP 935
Restrictions for Configuring Static WEP 935
WPA1 and WPA2 936
Configuring WPA1+WPA2 (GUI) 937
Configuring WPA1+WPA2 (CLI) 938
Identity PSK 939
Prerequisites for Identity PSK 939
Configuring Identity PSK (GUI) 940
Configuring Identity PSK (CLI) 940
Web Redirect with 802.1X Authentication 940
Conditional Web Redirect 941
Splash Page Web Redirect 941
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxxviii
Contents
Configuring the RADIUS Server (GUI) 941
Configuring Web Redirect 942
Layer 3 Security 943
Information About Web Authentication 943
Prerequisites for Configuring Web Authentication on a WLAN 944
Restrictions for Configuring Web Authentication on a WLAN 945
Default Web Authentication Login Page 945
Using a Customized Web Authentication Login Page from an External Web Server 949
Downloading a Customized Web Authentication Login Page 952
Assigning Login, Login Failure, and Logout Pages per WLAN 955
Web Authentication Proxy 958
Configuring the Web Authentication Proxy (GUI) 959
Configuring the Web Authentication Proxy (CLI) 960
Captive Bypassing 960
Configuring Captive Bypassing (CLI) 961
Configuring Captive Network Assistant Bypass per WLAN (GUI) 961
Configuring Captive Network Assistant Bypass per WLAN (CLI) 962
Fallback Policy with MAC Filtering and Web Authentication 962
Configuring a Fallback Policy with MAC Filtering and Web Authentication (GUI) 962
Configuring a Fallback Policy with MAC Filtering and Web Authentication (CLI) 963
Central Web Authentication 964
AAA Servers 965
LDAP 965
Configuring LDAP (GUI) 966
Configuring LDAP (CLI) 968
Local EAP 970
Restrictions for Local EAP 971
Configuring Local EAP (GUI) 972
Configuring Local EAP (CLI) 976
RADIUS Realm 981
Prerequisites for Configuring RADIUS Realm 982
Restrictions for Configuring RADIUS Realm 982
Configuring Realm on a WLAN (GUI) 982
Configuring Realm on a WLAN (CLI) 982
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xxxix
Contents
Configuring Realm on a RADIUS Authentication Server (GUI) 983
Configuring Realm on a RADIUS Authentication Server (CLI) 983
Configuring Realm on a RADIUS Accounting Server (GUI) 983
Configuring Realm on a RADIUS Accounting Server (CLI) 984
Per-WLAN RADIUS Source Support 984
Prerequisites for Per-WLAN RADIUS Source Support 984
Restrictions for Per-WLAN RADIUS Source Support 985
Configuring Per-WLAN RADIUS Source Support (GUI) 985
Configuring Per-WLAN RADIUS Source Support (CLI) 985
Monitoring the Status of Per-WLAN RADIUS Source Support (CLI) 986
Uploading PACs 986
Uploading PACs (GUI) 987
Uploading PACs (CLI) 988
Disabling Accounting Servers per WLAN (GUI) 988
Local Network Users on Controller 989
Configuring Local Network Users for the Controller (GUI) 989
Configuring Local Network Users for the Controller (CLI) 990
Advanced WLAN Security 991
AAA Override 991
Restrictions for AAA Override 992
Updating the RADIUS Server Dictionary File for Proper QoS Values 992
Configuring AAA Override (GUI) 993
Configuring AAA Override (CLI) 994
Cisco Key Integrity Protocol
994
Configuring CKIP (GUI) 995
Configuring CKIP (CLI) 995
Disabling Coverage Hole Detection per WLAN 996
Disabling Coverage Hole Detection on a WLAN (GUI) 996
Disabling Coverage Hole Detection on a WLAN (CLI) 997
NAC Out-of-Band Integration 997
Prerequisites for NAC Out Of Band 998
Restrictions for NAC Out of Band 999
Configuring NAC Out-of-Band Integration (GUI) 999
Configuring NAC Out-of-Band Integration (CLI) 1001
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xl
Contents
ISE NAC Support 1002
Device Registration 1002
Central Web Authentication 1002
Local Web Authentication 1003
Guidelines and Restrictions on ISE NAC Support 1004
Configuring ISE NAC Support (GUI) 1005
Configuring ISE NAC Support (CLI) 1005
Enabling ISE NAC on a WPA/WPA2-PSK WLAN 1005
Client Exclusion Policies 1007
Configuring Client Exclusion Policies (GUI) 1007
Configuring Client Exclusion Policies (CLI) 1008
Wi-Fi Direct Client Policy 1009
Restrictions for the Wi-Fi Direct Client Policy 1009
Configuring the Wi-Fi Direct Client Policy (GUI) 1010
Configuring the Wi-Fi Direct Client Policy (CLI) 1010
Monitoring and Troubleshooting the Wi-Fi Direct Client Policy (CLI) 1011
Limit Clients per WLAN per AP Radio 1011
Limit Clients per WLAN per AP Radio (GUI) 1011
Limit Clients per WLAN per AP Radio (CLI) 1011
Peer-to-Peer Blocking 1012
Peer-to-Peer Blocking Using IPSK Tags 1012
Restrictions on Peer-to-Peer Blocking 1013
Configuring Peer-to-Peer Blocking (GUI) 1014
Configuring Peer-to-Peer Blocking (CLI) 1014
Local Policies 1015
Guidelines and Restrictions for Local Policy Classification 1016
Configuring Local Policies (GUI) 1017
Configuring Local Policies (CLI) 1018
Updating Organizationally Unique Identifier List 1020
Updating Device Profile List 1021
Wired Guest Access 1022
Prerequisites for Configuring Wired Guest Access 1022
Restrictions for Configuring Wired Guest Access 1023
Configuring Wired Guest Access (GUI) 1023
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xli
Contents
Configuring Wired Guest Access (CLI) 1025
Supporting IPv6 Client Guest Access 1027
Policy Enforcement and Quota Management 1028
Configuring Quota Management and Policy Enforcement (GUI) 1028
Viewing Quota Management and Policy Enforcement on a Controller (CLI) 1028
Viewing Quota Management and Policy Enforcement on an AP (CLI) 1029
Configuring Network Access Identifier (CLI) 1029
CHAPTER 46
Client Roaming
1031
Fast SSID Changing 1031
Configuring Fast SSID Changing (GUI) 1031
Configuring Fast SSID Changing (CLI) 1032
Assisted Roaming 1032
Restrictions for Assisted Roaming 1033
Configuring Assisted Roaming (CLI) 1033
802.11v
1035
Prerequisites for Configuring 802.11v
1036
Configuring 802.11v Network Assisted Power Savings (CLI) 1036
Monitoring 802.11v Network Assisted Power Savings (CLI) 1036
Configuration Examples for 802.11v Network Assisted Power Savings 1037
Enabling 802.11v BSS Transition Management 1037
Optimized Roaming 1038
Restrictions for Optimized Roaming 1038
Configuring Optimized Roaming (GUI) 1039
Configuring Optimized Roaming (CLI) 1040
CCX Layer 2 Client Roaming 1041
Restrictions for Client Roaming 1041
Configuring CCX Client Roaming Parameters (GUI) 1042
Configuring CCX Client Roaming Parameters (CLI) 1043
Obtaining CCX Client Roaming Information (CLI) 1043
Debugging CCX Client Roaming Issues (CLI) 1044
CHAPTER 47
DHCP
1045
Information about Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 1045
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xlii
Contents
Internal DHCP Servers 1045
External DHCP Servers 1046
DHCP Assignments 1046
DHCP Proxy 1047
Restrictions on Using DHCP Proxy 1047
Configuring DHCP Proxy (GUI) 1047
Configuring DHCP Proxy (CLI) 1048
Configuring a DHCP Timeout (GUI) 1049
Configuring a DHCP Timeout (CLI) 1049
Information About Configuring DHCP Link Select and VPN Select 1049
DHCP Link Select 1050
DHCP VPN Select 1050
Mobility Considerations 1050
Prerequisites for Configuring DHCP Link Select and VPN Select 1051
Configuring DHCP Link Select and VPN Select (CLI) 1051
Configuring DHCP Link Select and VPN Select (GUI) 1052
DHCP Option 82
1053
Restrictions on DHCP Option 82
1053
Configuring DHCP Option 82 (GUI) 1054
Configuring DHCP Option 82 (CLI) 1054
Configuring DHCP Option 82 Insertion in Bridge Mode (CLI) 1055
Internal DHCP Server 1055
Restrictions for Configuring Internal DHCP Server 1056
Configuring DHCP Scopes (GUI) 1056
Configuring DHCP Scopes (CLI) 1057
Restrictions for Configuring DHCP for WLANs 1058
Configuring DHCP (GUI) 1059
Configuring DHCP (CLI) 1060
Debugging DHCP (CLI) 1061
DHCP Client Handling 1061
CHAPTER 48
Client Data Tunneling
1063
Ethernet over GRE Tunnels 1063
Restrictions on EoGRE Tunneling 1067
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xliii
Contents
Configuring EoGRE on Cisco WLC (GUI) 1069
Configuring EoGRE on WLC (CLI) 1070
Configuring EoGRE for FlexConnect APs (GUI) 1072
Configuring EoGRE for FlexConnect APs (CLI) 1073
One-to-One Mapping of WLAN with EoGRE VLAN (GUI) 1073
One-to-One Mapping of WLAN with EoGRE VLAN (CLI) 1074
Proxy Mobile IPv6 1074
Restrictions on Proxy Mobile IPv6 1077
Configuring Proxy Mobile IPv6 (GUI) 1077
Configuring Proxy Mobile IPv6 (CLI) 1079
CHAPTER 49
AP Groups
1083
Access Point Groups 1083
Prerequisites for Configuring AP Groups 1083
Restrictions on Configuring Access Point Groups 1083
Configuring Access Point Groups 1084
Creating Access Point Groups (GUI) 1085
Creating Access Point Groups (CLI) 1087
Viewing Access Point Groups (CLI) 1088
802.1Q-in-Q VLAN Tagging 1089
Restrictions for 802.1Q-in-Q VLAN Tagging 1089
Configuring 802.1Q-in-Q VLAN Tagging (GUI) 1090
Configuring 802.1Q-in-Q VLAN Tagging (CLI) 1090
Captive Portal Configuration for AP Groups 1091
Restrictions for Captive Portal Configuration for AP Groups 1091
Configuring Captive Portal for an AP Group (GUI) 1092
Configuring Captive Portal for an AP Group (CLI) 1092
CHAPTER 50
Workgroup Bridges
1093
Cisco Workgroup Bridges 1093
Restrictions for Cisco Workgroup Bridges 1094
Workgroup Bridge (WGB) Downstream Broadcast On Multiple VLANs 1095
Reliable WGB Downstream Broadcast for Multiple VLANs 1098
Cisco Wireless Controller (WLC) Configuration 1100
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xliv
Contents
WGB Configuration 1101
Troubleshooting Reliable Broadcast 1101
Parallel Redundancy Protocol Enhancement on AP and WGB 1104
Verifying the PRP Configurations 1111
Dual Radio Parallel Redundancy Protocol Enhancement on WGB 1113
Sample Network Configuration 1113
Configuration of Roaming Coordination on a Single WGB 1114
WLC Configurations 1114
WGB Configurations 1115
Aggregated Switch Configuration 1118
PRP Switch Configuration 1118
Verifying the Configuration 1119
Debug Commands 1120
DLEP Client Support on WGB 1120
Configuring the Physical Interface 1121
Configuring DLEP Local TCP Port and Server Address 1121
Configuring Optional DLEP Timers 1121
Configuring DLEP Neighbors 1122
Verifying DLEP Configuration 1123
Debug Commands 1125
Configuration Example 1125
WGB Configuration Example 1138
Viewing the Status of Workgroup Bridges (GUI) 1139
Viewing the Status of Workgroup Bridges (CLI) 1139
Debugging WGB Issues (CLI) 1139
Non-Cisco Workgroup Bridges 1140
Restrictions for Non-Cisco Workgroup Bridges 1141
Cisco Wave 2 Access Points as Workgroup Bridges 1141
Guidelines and Restrictions on Cisco Wave 2 Access Points as Workgroup Bridges 1142
Configuring Cisco Wave 2 Access Points Image (CLI) 1142
Configuring Cisco Wave 2 Access Points as Workgroup Bridge (CLI) 1143
Configuring a Dot1X Credential (CLI) 1144
Configuring an EAP Profile (CLI) 1144
Configuring Manual-Enrollment of a Trustpoint for Workgroup Bridge (CLI) 1145
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xlv
Contents
Configuring an SSID Profile (CLI) 1145
Configuring Radio Interface for Workgroup Bridges (CLI) 1146
Configuring Workgroup Bridge Timeouts (CLI) 1148
Configuring Bridge Forwarding for Workgroup Bridge (CLI) 1148
CHAPTER 51
Software-Defined Access Wireless
1151
Introduction to Software-Defined Access Wireless
1151
AP Bring-up Process 1153
Onboarding the Wireless Clients 1153
Platform Support 1154
Migration From Converged Access 1156
Restrictions 1157
Configuring SD-Access Wireless (CLI) 1157
Enabling SD-Access Wireless (GUI) 1158
Configuring SD-Access Wireless VNID (GUI) 1159
Configuring SD-Access Wireless WLAN (GUI) 1159
Configuring DNS Access Control List on SD-Access (GUI) 1159
Configuring Access Control List Templates (GUI) 1160
PART VIII
FlexConnect
1161
CHAPTER 52
FlexConnect
1163
Information About FlexConnect 1163
FlexConnect Authentication Process 1164
Restrictions on FlexConnect 1168
Configuring FlexConnect 1170
Configuring the Switch at a Remote Site 1170
Configuring the Controller for FlexConnect 1171
Configuring the Controller for FlexConnect for a Centrally Switched WLAN Used for Guest
Access 1171
Configuring the Controller for FlexConnect (GUI) 1172
Configuring the Controller for FlexConnect (CLI) 1175
Configuring an Access Point for FlexConnect 1176
Configuring an Access Point for FlexConnect (GUI) 1176
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xlvi
Contents
Configuring an Access Point for FlexConnect (CLI) 1179
Configuring an Access Point for Local Authentication on a WLAN (GUI) 1181
Configuring an Access Point for Local Authentication on a WLAN (CLI) 1181
Connecting Client Devices to WLANs 1182
Configuring FlexConnect Ethernet Fallback 1182
Information About FlexConnect Ethernet Fallback 1182
Restrictions for FlexConnect Ethernet Fallback 1182
Configuring FlexConnect Ethernet Fallback (GUI) 1183
Configuring FlexConnect Ethernet Fallback (CLI) 1183
VideoStream for FlexConnect 1183
Information About VideoStream for FlexConnect 1183
Configuring VideoStream for FlexConnect (GUI) 1184
Configuring VideoStream for FlexConnect (CLI) 1185
FlexConnect plus Bridge Mode 1187
Information about Flex+Bridge Mode 1187
Configuring Flex+Bridge Mode (GUI) 1188
Configuring Flex+Bridge Mode (CLI) 1189
CHAPTER 53
FlexConnect Groups
1191
Information About FlexConnect Groups 1191
FlexConnect Groups and Backup RADIUS Servers 1192
FlexConnect Groups and CCKM 1192
FlexConnect Groups and Opportunistic Key Caching 1193
FlexConnect Groups and Local Authentication 1193
FlexConnect Groups and VLAN Support 1194
Default FlexGroup 1195
Restrictions for FlexConnect Groups 1197
Configuring FlexConnect Groups (GUI) 1197
Configuring FlexConnect Groups (CLI) 1200
Moving APs from a Default FlexConnect Group to Another FlexConnect Group (GUI) 1203
Viewing APs in a Default FlexGroup (GUI) 1203
Viewing Default FlexGroup Details (CLI) 1203
Configuring VLAN-ACL Mapping on FlexConnect Groups (GUI) 1206
Configuring VLAN-ACL Mapping on FlexConnect Groups (CLI) 1207
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xlvii
Contents
Viewing VLAN-ACL Mappings (CLI) 1207
Configuring WLAN-VLAN Mapping on FlexConnect Groups (GUI) 1207
Configuring WLAN-VLAN Mapping on FlexConnect Groups (CLI) 1208
CHAPTER 54
FlexConnect Security 1211
FlexConnect Access Control Lists 1211
Restrictions for FlexConnect Access Control Lists 1211
Configuring FlexConnect Access Control Lists (GUI) 1213
Configuring FlexConnect Access Control Lists (CLI) 1216
Viewing and Debugging FlexConnect Access Control Lists (CLI) 1217
Configuring CAPWAP Message Aggregation (CLI) 1218
Authentication, Authorization, Accounting Overrides 1218
Restrictions on AAA Overrides for FlexConnect 1221
Configuring AAA Overrides for FlexConnect on an Access Point (GUI) 1222
Configuring VLAN Overrides for FlexConnect on an Access Point (CLI) 1222
AAA Overrides for FlexConnect 1223
Software Defined Access and FlexConnect Post Authentication IPv6 ACL Support 1223
Applying FlexConnect Access Control Lists (GUI) 1223
Applying FlexConnect Access Control Lists (CLI) 1225
CHAPTER 55
OfficeExtend Access Points
1227
Information About OfficeExtend Access Points 1227
OEAP in Local Mode 1228
Implementing Security 1229
Licensing for an OfficeExtend Access Point 1230
Configuring OfficeExtend Access Points 1230
Configuring OfficeExtend Access Points (GUI) 1230
Configuring OfficeExtend Access Points (CLI) 1232
Configuring Split Tunneling for a WLAN or a Remote LAN 1235
Configuring Split Tunneling for a WLAN or a Remote LAN (GUI) 1235
Configuring Split Tunneling for a WLAN or a Remote LAN (CLI) 1235
Configuring OEAP ACLs 1236
Configuring OEAP ACLs (GUI) 1236
Configuring a Personal SSID on an OfficeExtend Access Point 1237
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xlviii
Contents
Viewing OfficeExtend Access Point Statistics 1238
Viewing Voice Metrics on OfficeExtend Access Points 1239
Network Diagnostics 1240
Running Network Diagnostics (GUI) 1240
Running Network Diagnostics (CLI) 1240
Remote LANs 1240
Configuring a Remote LAN (GUI) 1241
Configuring a Remote LAN (CLI) 1242
CHAPTER 56
FlexConnect AP Image Upgrades
1243
Information About FlexConnect AP Image Upgrades 1243
Restrictions on FlexConnect AP Image Upgrades 1243
Configuring FlexConnect AP Upgrades (GUI) 1244
Configuring FlexConnect AP Upgrades (CLI) 1245
CHAPTER 57
FlexConnect AP Easy Admin
1247
Information About FlexConnect AP Easy Admin 1247
Configuring FlexConnect AP Easy Admin on the Controller (GUI) 1247
Configuring FlexConnect AP Easy Admin on the Controller (CLI) 1248
CHAPTER 58
WeChat Authentication Based Internet Access
1249
Information About WeChat Client Authentication 1249
Restrictions on WeChat Client Authentication 1249
Configuring WeChat Client Authentication on WLC (GUI) 1249
Configuring WeChat Client Authentication on WLC (CLI) 1251
Authenticating Client Using WeChat App for Mobile Internet Access (GUI) 1252
Authenticating Client Using WeChat App for PC Internet Access (GUI) 1252
CHAPTER 59
Lawful Interception of Traffic
1255
Information About Lawful Interception of Traffic 1255
Restrictions on Lawful Interception of Traffic 1255
Configuring Lawful Interception of Traffic on a Cisco Controller (CLI) 1255
Viewing and Debugging Lawful Interception of Traffic on a Cisco Access Point (CLI) 1256
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
xlix
Contents
PART IX
Monitoring the Network
CHAPTER 60
Monitoring the Controller
1257
1259
Viewing System Resources 1259
Viewing System Resources (GUI) 1259
Viewing System Resources (CLI) 1260
CHAPTER 61
System and Message Logging
1261
System and Message Logging 1261
Configuring System and Message Logging (GUI) 1261
Viewing Message Logs (GUI) 1264
Configuring System and Message Logging (CLI) 1264
Viewing System and Message Logs (CLI) 1269
Viewing Access Point Event Logs 1269
Information About Access Point Event Logs 1269
Viewing Access Point Event Logs (CLI) 1269
Using the Debug Facility 1270
Configuring the Debug Facility (CLI) 1271
PART X
Troubleshooting
CHAPTER 62
Debugging on Cisco Wireless Controllers
1277
1279
Troubleshooting AAA RADIUS Interactions for WLAN Authentication 1279
Understanding Debug Client on Wireless Controllers 1287
Using the CLI to Troubleshoot Problems 1287
Potential Reasons for Controller Reset 1289
CHAPTER 63
Controller Unresponsiveness
1293
Upload Logs and Crash Files 1293
Uploading Logs and Crash Files (GUI) 1293
Uploading Logs and Crash Files (CLI) 1294
Uploading Core Dumps from the Controller 1295
Configuring the Controller to Automatically Upload Core Dumps to an FTP Server (GUI) 1295
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
l
Contents
Configuring the Controller to Automatically Upload Core Dumps to an FTP Server (CLI) 1296
Uploading Core Dumps from Controller to a Server (CLI) 1297
Uploading Packet Capture Files 1298
Restrictions for Uploading Packet Capture Files 1299
Uploading Packet Capture Files (GUI) 1299
Uploading Packet Capture Files (CLI) 1300
Monitoring Memory Leaks 1301
Monitoring Memory Leaks (CLI) 1301
Troubleshooting Memory Leaks 1302
CHAPTER 64
Debugging on Cisco Access Points
1305
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH 1305
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH (GUI) 1305
Troubleshooting Access Points Using Telnet or SSH (CLI) 1306
Debugging the Access Point Monitor Service 1306
Debugging Access Point Monitor Service Issues (CLI) 1307
Sending Debug Commands to Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode 1307
Understanding How Converted Access Points Send Crash Information to the Controller 1307
Understanding How Converted Access Points Send Radio Core Dumps to the Controller 1308
Retrieving Radio Core Dumps (CLI) 1308
Uploading Radio Core Dumps (GUI) 1308
Uploading Radio Core Dumps (CLI) 1309
Uploading Memory Core Dumps from Converted Access Points 1310
Uploading Access Point Core Dumps (GUI) 1310
Uploading Access Point Core Dumps (CLI) 1310
Viewing the AP Crash Log Information 1311
Viewing the AP Crash Log information (GUI) 1311
Viewing the AP Crash Log information (CLI) 1311
Displaying MAC Addresses for Converted Access Points 1312
Disabling the Reset Button on Access Points Converted to Lightweight Mode 1312
Viewing Access Point Event Logs 1312
Information About Access Point Event Logs 1312
Viewing Access Point Event Logs (CLI) 1312
Troubleshooting Clients on FlexConnect Access Points 1313
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
li
Contents
Troubleshooting OfficeExtend Access Points 1314
Positioning OfficeExtend Access Points for Optimal RF Coverage 1314
Troubleshooting Common Problems 1315
Link Test 1316
Performing a Link Test (GUI) 1317
Performing a Link Test (CLI) 1317
CHAPTER 65
Packet Capture
1319
Using the Debug Facility 1319
Configuring the Debug Facility (CLI) 1320
Wireless Sniffing 1324
Prerequisites for Wireless Sniffing 1324
Restrictions on Wireless Sniffing 1324
Configuring Sniffing on an Access Point (GUI) 1325
Configuring Sniffing on an Access Point (CLI) 1325
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
lii
Preface
This preface describes the audience, organization, and conventions of this document. It also provides information
on how to obtain other documentation. This chapter includes the following sections:
• Audience, on page liii
• Conventions, on page liii
• Related Documentation, on page liv
Audience
This publication is for experienced network administrators who configure and maintain Cisco wireless
controllers and Cisco lightweight access points.
Conventions
This document uses the following conventions:
Table 1: Conventions
Convention
Indication
bold font
Commands and keywords and user-entered text appear in bold font.
italic font
Document titles, new or emphasized terms, and arguments for which you supply
values are in italic font.
[]
Elements in square brackets are optional.
{x | y | z }
Required alternative keywords are grouped in braces and separated by vertical
bars.
[x|y|z]
Optional alternative keywords are grouped in brackets and separated by vertical
bars.
string
A nonquoted set of characters. Do not use quotation marks around the string.
Otherwise, the string will include the quotation marks.
courier
<>
font
Terminal sessions and information the system displays appear in courier font.
Nonprinting characters such as passwords are in angle brackets.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
liii
Preface
Related Documentation
Note
Tip
Caution
Convention
Indication
[]
Default responses to system prompts are in square brackets.
!, #
An exclamation point (!) or a pound sign (#) at the beginning of a line of code
indicates a comment line.
Means reader take note. Notes contain helpful suggestions or references to material not covered in the manual.
Means the following information will help you solve a problem.
Means reader be careful. In this situation, you might perform an action that could result in equipment damage
or loss of data.
Related Documentation
• Release Notes for Cisco Wireless Controllers and Lightweight Access Points for Cisco Wireless releases
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/wireless/wireless-lan-controller-software/
products-release-notes-list.html
• Cisco Wireless Solutions Software Compatibility Matrix
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/compatibility/matrix/compatibility-matrix.html
• Wireless and Mobility home page
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/wireless/index.html
• Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guides
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/wireless/wireless-lan-controller-software/
products-installation-and-configuration-guides-list.html
• Cisco Wireless Controller Command References
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/wireless/wireless-lan-controller-software/
products-command-reference-list.html
• Cisco Wireless Controller System Message Guides and Trap Logs
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/wireless/wireless-lan-controller-software/
products-system-message-guides-list.html
• Cisco Wireless Release Technical References
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/wireless/wireless-lan-controller-software/
products-technical-reference-list.html
• Cisco Wireless Mesh Access Point Design and Deployment Guides
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
liv
Preface
Preface
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/wireless/wireless-lan-controller-software/
products-technical-reference-list.html
• Cisco Prime Infrastructure
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/cloud-systems-management/prime-infrastructure/
tsd-products-support-series-home.html
• Cisco Connected Mobile Experiences
http://www.cisco.com/c/en_in/solutions/enterprise-networks/connected-mobile-experiences/index.html
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
lv
Preface
Preface
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
lvi
PA R T
I
Overview
• Cisco Wireless Solution Overview, on page 1
• Initial Setup, on page 5
CHAPTER
1
Cisco Wireless Solution Overview
Cisco Wireless Solution is designed to provide 802.11 wireless networking solutions for enterprises and
service providers. Cisco Wireless Solution simplifies deploying and managing large-scale wireless LANs and
enables a unique best-in-class security infrastructure. The operating system manages all data client,
communications, and system administration functions, performs radio resource management (RRM) functions,
manages system-wide mobility policies using the operating system security solution, and coordinates all
security functions using the operating system security framework.
This figure shows a sample architecture of a Cisco Wireless Enterprise Network:
Figure 1: Sample Cisco Wireless Enterprise Network Architecture
The interconnected elements that work together to deliver a unified enterprise-class wireless solution include:
• Client devices
• Access points (APs)
• Network unification through Cisco Wireless Controllers (WLCs)
• Network management
• Mobility services
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
1
Overview
Core Components
Beginning with a base of client devices, each element adds capabilities as the network needs to evolve and
grow, interconnecting with the elements above and below it to create a comprehensive, secure WLAN solution.
• Core Components, on page 2
Core Components
A Cisco Wireless network consists of the following core components:
• Cisco Wireless Controllers—Controllers are enterprise-class high-performance wireless switching
platforms that support 802.11a/n/ac and 802.11b/g/n protocols. They operate under control of the operating
system, which includes the radio resource management (RRM), creating a Cisco Wireless solution that
can automatically adjust to real-time changes in the 802.11 RF environment. Controllers are built around
high-performance network and security hardware, resulting in highly reliable 802.11 enterprise networks
with unparalleled security.
The following controllers are supported:
• Cisco 3504 Wireless Controller
• Cisco 5520 Wireless Controller
• Cisco 8540 Wireless Controller
• Cisco Virtual Wireless Controller
• Cisco Aironet Access Points (APs)—Cisco Aironet series wireless access points can be deployed in a
distributed or centralized network for a branch office, campus, or large enterprise. For more information
about APs, see https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/wireless/access-points/index.html
• Cisco Prime Infrastructure (PI)—Cisco Prime Infrastructure can be used to configure and monitor one
or more controllers and associated APs. Cisco PI has tools to facilitate large-system monitoring and
control. When you use Cisco PI in your Cisco wireless solution, controllers periodically determine the
client, rogue access point, rogue access point client, radio frequency ID (RFID) tag location and store
the locations in the Cisco PI database. For more information about Cisco PI, see
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/cloud-systems-management/prime-infrastructure/tsd-products-support-series-home.html.
• Cisco Connected Mobile Experiences (CMX)—Cisco Connected Mobile Experiences (CMX) acts as a
platform to deploy and run Cisco Connected Mobile Experiences (Cisco CMX). Cisco Connected Mobile
Experiences (CMX) is delivered in two modes—the physical appliance (box) and the virtual appliance
(deployed using VMware vSphere Client) . Using your Cisco wireless network and location intelligence
from Cisco MSE, Cisco CMX helps you create personalized mobile experiences for end users and gain
operational efficiency with location-based services. For more information about Cisco CMX, see
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/wireless/connected-mobile-experiences/
tsd-products-support-series-home.html.
• Cisco DNA Spaces—Cisco DNA Spaces is a multichannel engagement platform that enables you to
connect, know, and engage with visitors at their physical business locations. It covers various verticals
of business such as retail, manufacturing, hospitality, healthcare, education, financial services, enterprise
work spaces, and so on. Cisco DNA Spaces also provides solutions for monitoring and managing the
assets in your premises.
The Cisco DNA Spaces: Connector enables Cisco DNA Spaces to communicate with multiple Cisco
Wireless Controller (controller) efficiently by allowing each controller to transmit high intensity client
data without missing any client information.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
2
Overview
Overview of Cisco Mobility Express
For information about how to configure Cisco DNA Spaces and the Connector, see https://www.cisco.com/
c/en/us/support/wireless/dna-spaces/products-installation-and-configuration-guides-list.html.
For more information about design considerations for enterprise mobility, see the Enterprise Mobility Design
Guide at:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/controller/8-5/Enterprise-Mobility-8-5-Design-Guide/
Enterprise_Mobility_8-5_Deployment_Guide.html
Overview of Cisco Mobility Express
The Cisco Mobility Express wireless network solution comprises of at least one 802.11ac Wave 2 Cisco
Aironet Series access point (AP) with an in-built software-based wireless controller managing other APs in
the network.
The AP acting as the controller is referred to as the primary AP while the other APs in the Cisco Mobility
Express network, which are managed by this primary AP, are referred to as subordinate APs.
In addition to acting as a controllers, the primary AP also operates as an AP to serve clients along with the
subordinate APs.
Cisco Mobility Express provides most features of a controllers and has the capability to interface with the
following:
• Cisco Prime Infrastructure—For simplified network management, including managing AP groups
• Cisco Identity Services Engine—For advanced policy enforcement
• Connected Mobile Experiences (CMX)—For providing presence analytics and guest access using Connect
& Engage
For more information about using Cisco Mobility Express, see the user guide for relevant releases at:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/wireless/mobility-express/
products-installation-and-configuration-guides-list.html
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
3
Overview
Overview of Cisco Mobility Express
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
4
CHAPTER
2
Initial Setup
• Cisco WLAN Express Setup, on page 5
• Configuring the Controller Using the Configuration Wizard, on page 12
• Using the AutoInstall Feature for Controllers Without a Configuration, on page 25
• Managing the Controller System Date and Time, on page 26
Cisco WLAN Express Setup
Cisco WLAN Express Setup is a simplified, out-of-the-box installation and configuration interface for Cisco
Wireless Controllers. This section provides instructions to set up a controller to operate in a small, medium,
or large network wireless environment, where access points can join and together as a simple solution provide
various services such as corporate employee or guest wireless access on the network.
There are two methods:
• Wired method
• Wireless method
With this, there are three ways to set up Cisco controller:
• Cisco WLAN Express Setup
• Traditional command line interface (CLI) via serial console
• Updated method using network connection directly to the controller GUI setup wizard
Note
Cisco WLAN Express Setup can be used only for the first time in out-of-the-box installations or when controller
configuration is reset to factory defaults.
Feature History
• Release 7.6.120.0—This feature was introduced and supported only on Cisco 2500 Series Wireless
Controller. It includes an easy-to-use GUI Configuration Wizard, an intuitive monitoring dashboard and
several Cisco Wireless LAN best practices enabled by default.
• Release 8.0.110.0—The following enhancements were made:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
5
Overview
Cisco WLAN Express Setup
• Connect to any port—You can connect a client device to any port on the Cisco 2500 Series Wireless
Controller and access the GUI configuration wizard to run Cisco WLAN Express. Previously, you
were required to connect the client device to only port 2.
• Wireless Support to run Cisco WLAN Express—You can connect an AP to any of the ports on the
Cisco 2500 Series Wireless Controller, associate a client device with the AP, and run Cisco WLAN
Express. When the AP is associated with the Cisco 2500 Series Wireless Controller, only 802.11b
and 802.11g radios are enabled; the 802.11a radio is disabled. The AP broadcasts an SSID named
“CiscoAirProvision,” which is of WPA2-PSK type with the key being “password.” After a client
device associates with this SSID, the client device automatically gets an IP address in the 192.168.x.x
range. On the web browser of the client device, go to http://192.168.1.1 to open the GUI configuration
wizard.
This feature is supported only on the following web browsers:
• Microsoft Internet Explorer 11 and later versions
• Mozilla Firefox 32 and later versions
Note
This feature is not supported on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet
computers.
• Release 8.1—The following enhancements are made:
• Added support for the Cisco WLAN Express using the wired method to Cisco 5500, Flex 7500,
8500 Series Wireless Controllers and Virtual Controller.
• Introduced the Main Dashboard view and compliance assessment and best practices. For more
details, see the controller Online Help.
Configuration Checklist
The following checklist is for your reference to make the installation process easy. Ensure that you have these
requirements ready before you proceed:
1. Network switch requirements:
a. Controller switch port number assigned
b. Controller assigned switch port
c. Is the switch port configured as trunk or access?
d. Is there a management VLAN? If yes, Management VLAN ID
e. Is there a guest VLAN? If yes, Guest VLAN ID
2. Controller Settings:
a. New admin account name
b. Admin account password
c. System name for the controller
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
6
Overview
Cisco WLAN Express Setup
d. Current time zone
e. Is there an NTP server available? If yes, NTP server IP address
f.
Controller Management Interface:
1. IP address
2. Subnet Mask
3. Default gateway
g. Management VLAN ID
3. Corporate wireless network
4. Corporate wireless name/SSID
5. Is a RADIUS server required?
6. Security authentication option to select:
a. WPA/WPA2 Personal
b. Corporate passphrase (PSK)
c. WPA/WPA2 (Enterprise)
d. RADIUS server IP address and shared secret
7. Is a DHCP server known? If yes, DHCP server IP address
8. Guest Wireless Network (optional)
a. Guest wireless name/SSID
b. Is a password required for guest?
c. Guest passphrase (PSK)
d. Guest VLAN ID
e. Guest networking
1. IP address
2. Subnet Mask
3. Default gateway
9. Advanced option—Configure RF Parameters for Client Density as Low, Medium, or High.
Preparing for Setup Using Cisco WLAN Express
• Do not auto-configure the controller or use the wizard for configuration.
• Do not use console interface; the only connection to the controller should be client connected to service
port.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
7
Overview
Restrictions on Cisco WLAN Express
• Configure DHCP or assign static IP 192.168.1.X to laptop interface connected to service port.
Related Documentation
For more information about Cisco WLAN Express, see the WLAN Express Setup and Best Practices
Deployment Guide.
Restrictions on Cisco WLAN Express
• If you use the CLI configuration wizard or AutoInstall, Cisco WLAN Express is bypassed and associated
features are enabled.
• If you upgrade to Release 7.6.120.0 or a later release and do not perform a new configuration of the
controller using the GUI Configuration Wizard, Cisco WLAN Express is not enabled. You must use the
GUI Configuration Wizard to enable the Cisco WLAN Express features.
• After you upgrade to Release 7.6.120.0 or a later release, you can clear the controller configuration and
use the GUI Configuration Wizard to enable Cisco WLAN Express features.
• If you downgrade from Release 7.6.120.0 or a later release to an older release, Cisco WLAN Express
features are disabled. However, the configurations generated through Cisco WLAN Express are not
removed.
Setting up Cisco Wireless Controller using Cisco WLAN Express (Wired
Method)
Procedure
Step 1
Connect a laptop's wired Ethernet port directly to the Service port of the WLC. The port LEDs blink to indicate
that both the machines are properly connected.
Note
It may take several minutes for the WLC to fully power on to make the GUI available to the PC.
Do not auto-configure the WLC.
The LEDs on the front panel provide the system status:
• If the LED is off, it means that the WLC is not ready.
• If the LED is solid green, it means that the WLC is ready.
Step 2
Configure DHCP option on the laptop that you have connected to the Service port. This assigns an IP address
to the laptop from the WLC Service port 192.168.1.X, or you can assign a static IP address 192.168.1.X to
the laptop to access the WLC GUI; both options are supported.
Step 3
Open any one of the following supported web browsers and type http://192.168.1.1 in the address bar.
• Mozilla Firefox version 32 or later (Windows, MAC)
• Microsoft Internet Explorer version 10 or later (Windows)
• Google Chrome version 38.x or later (Windows, MAC)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
8
Overview
Setting up Cisco Wireless Controller using Cisco WLAN Express (Wired Method)
• Apple Safari version 7 or later (MAC)
Note
This feature is not supported on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.
Step 4
Create an administrator account by providing the name and password. Click Start to continue.
Step 5
In the Set Up Your Controller dialog box, enter the following details:
a. System Name for the WLC
b. Current time zone
c. NTP Server (optional)
d. Management IP Address
e. Subnet Mask
f.
Default Gateway
g. Management VLAN ID—If left unchanged or set to 0, the network switch port must be configured with
a native VLAN 'X0'
Note
Step 6
The setup attempts to import the clock information (date and time) from the computer via JavaScript.
We recommend that you confirm this before continuing. Access points rely on correct clock settings
to be able to join the WLC.
In the Create Your Wireless Networks dialog box, in the Employee Network area, use the checklist to enter
the following data:
a) Network name/SSID
b) Security
c) Pass Phrase, if Security is set to WPA/WPA2 Personal
d) DHCP Server IP Address—If left empty, the DHCP processing is bridged to the management interface
e) (Optional) Enable Apply Cisco ISE default settings to automatically set the following parameters:
• CoA is enabled by default
• The same Authentication server details (IP and shared-secret) are applied to the Accounting server
• When you add the Authentication server for a WLAN, the Authentication server details are also
applied to the Accounting server for the WLAN
• AAA override is enabled by default
• Set the NAC State to ISE NAC by default
• RADIUS client profiling: DHCP profiling and HTTP profiling are enabled by default
• Captive bypass mode is enabled by default
• The Layer 2 security of the WLAN is set to WPA+WPA2
• 802.1X is the default AKM.
• MAC filtering is enabled if the Layer 2 security is set to None.
The Layer 2 security is either WPA+WPA2 with 802.1X or None with MAC filtering. You can change
these default settings if required.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
9
Overview
RF Profile Configurations
Step 7
(Optional) In the Create Your Wireless Networks dialog box, in the Guest Network area, use the checklist
to enter the following data:
a) Network name/SSID
b) Security
c) VLAN IP Address, VLAN Subnet Mask, VLAN Default Gateway, VLAN ID
d) DHCP Server IP Address—If left empty, the DHCP processing is bridged to the management interface
Step 8
In the Advanced Setting dialog box, in the RF Parameter Optimization area, do the following:
a) Select the client density as Low, Typical, or High.
b) Configure the RF parameters for RF Traffic Type, such as Data and Voice.
c) Change the Service port IP address and subnet mask, if necessary.
Step 9
Click Next.
Step 10
Review your settings and then click Apply to confirm.
The WLC reboots automatically. You will be prompted that the WLC is fully configured and will be restarted.
Sometimes, you might not be prompted with this message. In this scenario, do the following:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Disconnect the laptop from the WLC service port and connect it to the Switch port.
Connect the WLC port 1 to the switch configured trunk port.
Connect access points to the switch if not already connected.
Wait until the access points join the WLC.
RF Profile Configurations
Procedure
Step 1
After a successful login as an administrator, choose Wireless > RF Profiles to verify whether the Cisco
WLAN Express features are enabled by checking that the predefined RF profiles are created on this page.
You can define AP Groups and apply appropriate profile to a set of APs.
Step 2
Choose Wireless > Advanced > Network Profile, verify the client density and traffic type details.
Note
We recommend that you use RF and Network profiles configuration even if Cisco WLAN Express
was not used initially or if the WLC was upgraded from a release that is earlier than Release 8.1.
Default Configurations
When you configure your Cisco Wireless Controller, the following parameters are enabled or disabled. These
settings are different from the default settings obtained when you configure the controller using the CLI
wizard.
Parameters in New Interface
Value
Aironet IE
Disabled
DHCP Address Assignment (Guest SSID)
Enabled
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
10
Overview
Default Configurations
Parameters in New Interface
Value
Client Band Select
Enabled
Local HTTP and DHCP Profiling
Enabled
Guest ACL
Applied.
Guest ACL denies traffic to the
management subnet.
Note
CleanAir
Enabled
EDRRM
Enabled
EDRRM Sensitivity Threshold
• Low sensitivity for 2.4 GHz.
• Medium sensitivity for 5 GHz.
Channel Bonding (5 GHz)
Enabled
DCA Channel Width
40 MHz
mDNS Global Snooping
Enabled
Default mDNS profile
Two new services added:
• Better printer support
• HTTP
AVC (only AV)
Enabled only with following prerequisites:
• Bootloader version—1.0.18
Or
• Field Upgradable Software version—1.8.0.0 and
above
Management
• Via Wireless Clients—Enabled
• HTTP/HTTPS Access—Enabled
• WebAuth Secure Web—Enabled
Virtual IP Address
192.0.2.1
Multicast Address
Not configured
Mobility Domain Name
Name of employee SSID
RF Group Name
Default
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
11
Overview
Configuring the Controller Using the Configuration Wizard
Configuring the Controller Using the Configuration Wizard
The configuration wizard enables you to configure basic settings on the controller. You can run the wizard
after you receive the controller from the factory or after the controller has been reset to factory defaults. The
configuration wizard is available in both GUI and CLI formats.
Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Connect your PC to the service port and configure it to use the same subnet as the controller.
Step 2
Browse to http://192.168.1.1. The configuration wizard appears.
Note
You can use both HTTP and HTTPS when using the service port interface. HTTPS is enabled by
default and HTTP can also be enabled. The default IP address to connect to the service port interface
is 192.168.1.1.
Note
For the initial GUI Configuration Wizard only, you cannot access the controller using IPv6 address.
Figure 2: Configuration Wizard — System Information Page
Step 3
In the System Name box, enter the name that you want to assign to this controller. You can enter up to 31
ASCII characters.
Step 4
In the User Name box, enter the administrative username to be assigned to this controller. You can enter up
to 24 ASCII characters. The default username is admin.
Step 5
In the Password and Confirm Password boxes, enter the administrative password to be assigned to this
controller. You can enter up to 24 ASCII characters. The default password is admin.
Starting in release 7.0.116.0, the following password policy has been implemented:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
12
Overview
Configuring the Controller (GUI)
• The password must contain characters from at least three of the following classes:
• Lowercase letters
• Uppercase letters
• Digits
• Special characters
• No character in the password must be repeated more than three times consecutively.
• The new password must not be the same as the associated username and not be the username reversed.
• The password must not be cisco, ocsic, or any variant obtained by changing the capitalization of letters
of the word Cisco. In addition, you cannot substitute 1, I, or ! for i, 0 for o, or $ for s.
Step 6
Click Next. The SNMP Summary page is displayed.
Figure 3: Configuration Wizard—SNMP Summary Page
Step 7
If you want to enable Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) v1 mode for this controller, choose
Enable from the SNMP v1 Mode drop-down list. Otherwise, leave this parameter set to Disable.
Note
SNMP manages nodes (servers, workstations, routers, switches, and so on) on an IP network.
Currently, there are three versions of SNMP: SNMPv1, SNMPv2c, and SNMPv3.
Step 8
If you want to enable SNMPv2c mode for this controller, leave this parameter set to Enable. Otherwise,
choose Disable from the SNVP v2c Mode drop-down list.
Step 9
If you want to enable SNMPv3 mode for this controller, leave this parameter set to Enable. Otherwise, choose
Disable from the SNVP v3 Mode drop-down list.
Step 10
Click Next.
Step 11
When the following message appears, click OK:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
13
Overview
Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Default values are present for v1/v2c community strings.
Please make sure to create new v1/v2c community strings once the system comes up.
Please make sure to create new v3 users once the system comes up.
The Service Interface Configuration page is displayed.
Figure 4: Configuration Wizard-Service Interface Configuration Page
Step 12
If you want the controller’s service-port interface to obtain an IP address from a DHCP server, check the
DHCP Protocol Enabled check box. If you do not want to use the service port or if you want to assign a
static IP address to the service port, leave the check box unchecked.
Note
Step 13
The service-port interface controls communications through the service port. Its IP address must
be on a different subnet from the management interface. This configuration enables you to manage
the controller directly or through a dedicated management network to ensure service access during
network downtime.
Perform one of the following:
• If you enabled DHCP, clear out any entries in the IP Address and Netmask text boxes, leaving them
blank.
• If you disabled DHCP, enter the static IP address and netmask for the service port in the IP Address and
Netmask text boxes.
Step 14
Click Next.
The LAG Configuration page is displayed.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
14
Overview
Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Figure 5: Configuration Wizard—LAG Configuration Page
Step 15
To enable link aggregation (LAG), choose Enabled from the Link Aggregation (LAG) Mode drop-down list.
To disable LAG, leave this text box set to Disabled.
Step 16
Click Next.
The Management Interface Configuration page is displayed.
Note
Step 17
The management interface is the default interface for in-band management of the controller and
connectivity to enterprise services such as AAA servers.
In the VLAN Identifier box, enter the VLAN identifier of the management interface (either a valid VLAN
identifier or 0 for an untagged VLAN). The VLAN identifier should be set to match the switch interface
configuration.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
15
Overview
Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Step 18
In the IP Address box, enter the IP address of the management interface.
Step 19
In the Netmask box, enter the IP address of the management interface netmask.
Step 20
In the Gateway box, enter the IP address of the default gateway.
Step 21
In the Port Number box, enter the number of the port assigned to the management interface. Each interface
is mapped to at least one primary port.
Step 22
In the Backup Port box, enter the number of the backup port assigned to the management interface. If the
primary port for the management interface fails, the interface automatically moves to the backup port.
Step 23
In the Primary DHCP Server box, enter the IP address of the default DHCP server that will supply IP
addresses to clients, the controller’s management interface, and optionally, the service port interface.
Step 24
In the Secondary DHCP Server box, enter the IP address of an optional secondary DHCP server that will
supply IP addresses to clients, the controller’s management interface, and optionally, the service port interface.
Step 25
Click Next. The AP-Manager Interface Configuration page is displayed.
Step 26
In the IP Address box, enter the IP address of the AP-manager interface.
Step 27
Click Next. The Miscellaneous Configuration page is displayed.
Figure 6: Configuration Wizard—Miscellaneous Configuration Page
Step 28
In the RF Mobility Domain Name box, enter the name of the mobility group/RF group to which you want
the controller to belong.
Note
Step 29
Although the name that you enter here is assigned to both the mobility group and the RF group,
these groups are not identical. Both groups define clusters of controllers, but they have different
purposes. All of the controllers in an RF group are usually also in the same mobility group and vice
versa. However, a mobility group facilitates scalable, system-wide mobility and controller redundancy
while an RF group facilitates scalable, system-wide dynamic RF management.
The Configured Country Code(s) box shows the code for the country in which the controller will be used.
If you want to change the country of operation, check the check box for the desired country.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
16
Overview
Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Note
You can choose more than one country code if you want to manage access points in multiple countries
from a single controller. After the configuration wizard runs, you must assign each access point
joined to the controller to a specific country.
Step 30
Click Next.
Step 31
When the following message appears, click OK:
Warning! To maintain regulatory compliance functionality, the country code
setting may only be modified by a network administrator or qualified IT professional.
Ensure that proper country codes are selected before proceeding.?
The Virtual Interface Configuration page is displayed.
Figure 7: Configuration Wizard — Virtual Interface Configuration Page
Step 32
In the IP Address box, enter the IP address of the controller’s virtual interface. You should enter a fictitious,
unassigned IP address.
Note
Step 33
In the DNS Host Name box, enter the name of the Domain Name System (DNS) gateway used to verify the
source of certificates when Layer 3 web authorization is enabled.
Note
Step 34
The virtual interface is used to support mobility management, DHCP relay, and embedded Layer
3 security such as guest web authentication and VPN termination. All controllers within a mobility
group must be configured with the same virtual interface IP address.
To ensure connectivity and web authentication, the DNS server should always point to the virtual
interface. If a DNS hostname is configured for the virtual interface, then the same DNS hostname
must be configured on the DNS servers used by the client.
Click Next. The WLAN Configuration page is displayed.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
17
Overview
Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Figure 8: Configuration Wizard — WLAN Configuration Page
Step 35
In the Profile Name box, enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters for the profile name to be assigned to this
WLAN.
Step 36
In the WLAN SSID box, enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters for the network name, or service set identifier
(SSID). The SSID enables basic functionality of the controller and allows access points that have joined the
controller to enable their radios.
Step 37
Click Next.
Step 38
When the following message appears, click OK:
Default Security applied to WLAN is: [WPA2(AES)][Auth(802.1x)]. You can
change this after the wizard is complete and the system is rebooted.?
The RADIUS Server Configuration page is displayed.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
18
Overview
Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Figure 9: Configuration Wizard-RADIUS Server Configuration Page
Step 39
In the Server IP Address box, enter the IP address of the RADIUS server.
Step 40
From the Shared Secret Format drop-down list, choose ASCII or Hex to specify the format of the shared
secret.
Note
Due to security reasons, the RADIUS shared secret key reverts to ASCII mode even if you have
selected HEX as the shared secret format from the Shared Secret Format drop-down list.
Step 41
In the Shared Secret and Confirm Shared Secret boxes, enter the secret key used by the RADIUS server.
Step 42
In the Port Number box, enter the communication port of the RADIUS server. The default value is 1812.
Step 43
To enable the RADIUS server, choose Enabled from the Server Status drop-down list. To disable the
RADIUS server, leave this box set to Disabled.
Step 44
Click Apply. The 802.11 Configuration page is displayed.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
19
Overview
Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Figure 10: Configuration Wizard—802.11 Configuration Page
Step 45
To enable the 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g lightweight access point networks, leave the 802.11a Network
Status, 802.11b Network Status, and 802.11g Network Status check boxes checked. To disable support for
any of these networks, uncheck the check boxes.
Step 46
To enable the controller’s radio resource management (RRM) auto-RF feature, leave the Auto RF check box
selected. To disable support for the auto-RF feature, uncheck this check box.
Note
Step 47
The auto-RF feature enables the controller to automatically form an RF group with other controllers.
The group dynamically elects a leader to optimize RRM parameter settings, such as channel and
transmit power assignment, for the group.
Click Next. The Set Time page is displayed.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
20
Overview
Configuring the Controller (GUI)
Figure 11: Configuration Wizard — Set Time Screen
Step 48
To manually configure the system time on your controller, enter the current date in Month/DD/YYYY format
and the current time in HH:MM:SS format.
Step 49
To manually set the time zone so that Daylight Saving Time (DST) is not set automatically, enter the local
hour difference from Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) in the Delta Hours box and the local minute difference
from GMT in the Delta Mins box.
Note
Step 50
When manually setting the time zone, enter the time difference of the local current time zone with
respect to GMT (+/–). For example, Pacific time in the United States is 8 hours behind GMT.
Therefore, it is entered as –8.
Click Next. The Configuration Wizard Completed page is displayed.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
21
Overview
Configuring the Controller—Using the CLI Configuration Wizard
Figure 12: Configuration Wizard—Configuration Wizard Completed Page
Step 51
Click Save and Reboot to save your configuration and reboot the controller.
Step 52
When the following message appears, click OK:
Configuration will be saved and the controller will be
rebooted. Click ok to confirm.?
The controller saves your configuration, reboots, and prompts you to log on.
Configuring the Controller—Using the CLI Configuration Wizard
Before you begin
• The available options appear in brackets after each configuration parameter. The default value appears
in all uppercase letters.
• If you enter an incorrect response, the controller provides you with an appropriate error message, such
as “Invalid Response”, and returns you to the wizard prompt.
• Press the hyphen key if you ever need to return to the previous command line.
Procedure
Step 1
When prompted to terminate the AutoInstall process, enter yes. If you do not enter yes, the AutoInstall process
begins after 30 seconds.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
22
Overview
Configuring the Controller—Using the CLI Configuration Wizard
Note
The AutoInstall feature downloads a configuration file from a TFTP server and then loads the
configuration onto the controller automatically.
Step 2
Enter the system name, which is the name that you want to assign to the controller. You can enter up to 31
ASCII characters.
Step 3
Enter the administrative username and password to be assigned to this controller. You can enter up to 24
ASCII characters for each.
Starting in release 7.0.116.0, the following password policy has been implemented:
• The password must contain characters from at least three of the following classes:
• Lowercase letters
• Uppercase letters
• Digits
• Special characters
• No character in the password must be repeated more than three times consecutively.
• The new password must not be the same as the associated username and not be the username reversed.
• The password must not be cisco, ocsic, or any variant obtained by changing the capitalization of letters
of the word Cisco. In addition, you cannot substitute 1, I, or ! for i, 0 for o, or $ for s.
Step 4
If you want the controller’s service-port interface to obtain an IP address from a DHCP server, enter DHCP.
If you do not want to use the service port or if you want to assign a static IP address to the service port, enter
none.
Note
The service-port interface controls communications through the service port. Its IP address must
be on a different subnet from the management interface. This configuration enables you to manage
the controller directly or through a dedicated management network to ensure service access during
network downtime.
Step 5
If you entered none in Step 4, enter the IP address and netmask for the service-port interface on the next two
lines.
Step 6
Enable or disable link aggregation (LAG) by choosing yes or NO.
Step 7
Enter the IP address of the management interface.
Note
The management interface is the default interface for in-band management of the controller and
connectivity to enterprise services such as AAA servers.
Step 8
Enter the IP address of the management interface netmask.
Step 9
Enter the IP address of the default router.
Step 10
Enter the VLAN identifier of the management interface (either a valid VLAN identifier or 0 for an untagged
VLAN). The VLAN identifier should be set to match the switch interface configuration.
Step 11
Enter the IP address of the default DHCP server that will supply IP addresses to clients, the management
interface of the controller, and optionally, the service port interface. Enter the IP address of the AP-manager
interface.
Step 12
Enter the IP address of the controller’s virtual interface. You should enter a fictitious unassigned IP address.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
23
Overview
Configuring the Controller—Using the CLI Configuration Wizard
Note
Step 13
The virtual interface is used to support mobility management, DHCP relay, and embedded Layer
3 security such as guest web authentication and VPN termination. All controllers within a mobility
group must be configured with the same virtual interface IP address.
If desired, enter the name of the mobility group/RF group to which you want the controller to belong.
Note
Although the name that you enter here is assigned to both the mobility group and the RF group,
these groups are not identical. Both groups define clusters of controllers, but they have different
purposes. All of the controllers in an RF group are usually also in the same mobility group and vice
versa. However, a mobility group facilitates scalable, system-wide mobility and controller redundancy
while an RF group facilitates scalable, system-wide dynamic RF management.
Step 14
Enter the network name or service set identifier (SSID). The SSID enables basic functionality of the controller
and allows access points that have joined the controller to enable their radios.
Step 15
Enter YES to allow clients to assign their own IP address or no to require clients to request an IP address from
a DHCP server.
Step 16
To configure a RADIUS server now, enter YES and then enter the IP address, communication port, and secret
key of the RADIUS server. Otherwise, enter no. If you enter no, the following message appears: “Warning!
The default WLAN security policy requires a RADIUS server. Please see the documentation for more details.”
Step 17
Enter the code for the country in which the controller will be used.
Note
Enter help to view the list of available country codes.
Note
You can enter more than one country code if you want to manage access points in multiple countries
from a single controller. To do so, separate the country codes with a comma (for example,
US,CA,MX). After the configuration wizard runs, you need to assign each access point joined to
the controller to a specific country.
Step 18
Enable or disable the 802.11b, 802.11a, and 802.11g lightweight access point networks by entering YES or
no.
Step 19
Enable or disable the controller’s radio resource management (RRM) auto-RF feature by entering YES or no.
Note
Step 20
The auto-RF feature enables the controller to automatically form an RF group with other controllers.
The group dynamically elects a leader to optimize RRM parameter settings, such as channel and
transmit power assignment, for the group.
If you want the controller to receive its time setting from an external Network Time Protocol (NTP) server
when it powers up, enter YES to configure an NTP server. Otherwise, enter no.
Note
The controller network module installed in a Cisco Integrated Services Router does not have a
battery and cannot save a time setting. Therefore, it must receive a time setting from an external
NTP server when it powers up.
Step 21
If you entered no in Step 20 and want to manually configure the system time on your controller now, enter
YES. If you do not want to configure the system time now, enter no.
Step 22
If you entered YES in Step 21, enter the current date in the MM/DD/YY format and the current time in the
HH:MM:SS format.
After you have completed step 22, the wizard prompts you to configure IPv6 parameters. Enter yes to proceed.
Step 23
Enter the service port interface IPv6 address configuration. You can enter either static or SLAAC.
• If you entered, SLAAC, then IPv6 address is autoconfigured.
• If you entered, static, you need to enter the IPv6 address and its prefix length of the service interface.
Step 24
Enter the IPv6 address of the management interface.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
24
Overview
Using the AutoInstall Feature for Controllers Without a Configuration
Step 25
Enter the IPv6 address prefix length of the management interface.
Step 26
Enter the gateway IPv6 address of the management interface .
Once the management interface configuration is complete, the wizard prompts to configure IPv6 parameters
for RADIUS server. Enter yes.
Step 27
Enter the IPv6 address of the RADIUS server.
Step 28
Enter the communication port number of the RADIUS server. The default value is 1812.
Step 29
Enter the secret key for IPv6 address of the RADIUS server.
Once the RADIUS server configuration is complete, the wizard prompts to configure IPv6 NTP server. Enter
yes.
Step 30
Enter the IPv6 address of the NTP server.
Step 31
When prompted to verify that the configuration is correct, enter yes or NO.
The controller saves your configuration when you enter yes, reboots, and prompts you to log on.
Using the AutoInstall Feature for Controllers Without a
Configuration
When you boot up a controller that does not have a configuration, the AutoInstall feature can download a
configuration file from a TFTP server and then load the configuration onto the controller automatically.
If you create a configuration file on a controller that is already on the network (or through a Prime Infrastructure
filter), place that configuration file on a TFTP server, and configure a DHCP server so that a new controller
can get an IP address and TFTP server information, the AutoInstall feature can obtain the configuration file
for the new controller automatically.
When the controller boots, the AutoInstall process starts. The controller does not take any action until
AutoInstall is notified that the configuration wizard has started. If the wizard has not started, the controller
has a valid configuration.
If AutoInstall is notified that the configuration wizard has started (which means that the controller does not
have a configuration), AutoInstall waits for an additional 30 seconds. This time period gives you an opportunity
to respond to the first prompt from the configuration wizard:
Would you like to terminate autoinstall? [yes]:
When the 30-second terminate timeout expires, AutoInstall starts the DHCP client. You can terminate the
AutoInstall task even after this 30-second timeout if you enter Yes at the prompt. However, AutoInstall cannot
be terminated if the TFTP task has locked the flash and is in the process of downloading and installing a valid
configuration file.
Note
The AutoInstall process and manual configuration using both the GUI and CLI of controller can occur in
parallel. As part of the AutoInstall cleanup process, the service port IP address is set to 192.168.1.1 and the
service port protocol configuration is modified. Because the AutoInstall process takes precedence over the
manual configuration, whatever manual configuration is performed is overwritten by the AutoInstall process.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
25
Overview
Managing the Controller System Date and Time
Managing the Controller System Date and Time
You can configure the controller system date and time at the time of configuring the controller using the
configuration wizard. If you did not configure the system date and time through the configuration wizard or
if you want to change your configuration, you can follow the instructions in this section to configure the
controller to obtain the date and time from a Network Time Protocol (NTP) server or to configure the date
and time manually. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is used as the standard for setting the time zone on the
controller.
You can also configure an authentication mechanism between various NTP servers.
Restrictions on Configuring the Controller Date and Time
• If you are configuring wIPS, you must set the controller time zone to UTC.
• Cisco Aironet lightweight access points might not connect to the controller if the date and time are not
set properly. Set the current date and time on the controller before allowing the access points to connect
to it.
• You can configure an authentication channel between the controller and the NTP server.
• Notifications for certificates expiring after the year 2049 are not triggered. This is due to the change in
the date format to Generalized time format from the year 2050. Currently UTC time format is used to
validate the certificate.
For more information, see section 4.1.2.5 of the RFC 5280 document at https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5280.
Configuring the Date and Time (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Commands > Set Time to open the Set Time page.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
26
Overview
Configuring the Date and Time (GUI)
Figure 13: Set Time Page
The current date and time appear at the top of the page.
Step 2
In the Timezone area, choose your local time zone from the Location drop-down list.
Note
When you choose a time zone that uses Daylight Saving Time (DST), the controller automatically
sets its system clock to reflect the time change when DST occurs. In the United States, DST starts
on the second Sunday in March and ends on the first Sunday in November.
Note
You cannot set the time zone delta on the controller GUI. However, if you do so on the controller
CLI, the change is reflected in the Delta Hours and Mins boxes on the controller GUI.
Step 3
Click Set Timezone to apply your changes.
Step 4
In the Date area, choose the current local month and day from the Month and Day drop-down lists, and enter
the year in the Year box.
Step 5
In the Time area, choose the current local hour from the Hour drop-down list, and enter the minutes and
seconds in the Minutes and Seconds boxes.
Note
If you change the time zone location after setting the date and time, the values in the Time area are
updated to reflect the time in the new time zone location. For example, if the controller is currently
configured for noon Eastern time and you change the time zone to Pacific time, the time automatically
changes to 9:00 a.m.
Step 6
Click Set Date and Time to apply your changes.
Step 7
Click Save Configuration.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
27
Overview
Configuring the Date and Time (CLI)
Configuring the Date and Time (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Configure the current local date and time in GMT on the controller by entering this command:
config time manual mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss
When setting the time, the current local time is entered in terms of GMT and as a value between
00:00 and 24:00. For example, if it is 8:00 a.m. Pacific time in the United States, you would enter
16:00 because the Pacific time zone is 8 hours behind GMT.
Note
Step 2
Perform one of the following to set the time zone for the controller:
• Set the time zone location in order to have Daylight Saving Time (DST) set automatically when it occurs
by entering this command:
config time timezone location location_index
where location_index is a number representing one of the following time zone locations:
a.
(GMT-12:00) International Date Line West
b.
(GMT-11:00) Samoa
c.
(GMT-10:00) Hawaii
d.
(GMT-9:00) Alaska
e.
(GMT-8:00) Pacific Time (US and Canada)
f.
(GMT-7:00) Mountain Time (US and Canada)
g.
(GMT-6:00) Central Time (US and Canada)
h.
(GMT-5:00) Eastern Time (US and Canada)
i.
(GMT-4:00) Atlantic Time (Canada)
j.
(GMT-3:00) Buenos Aires (Argentina)
k.
(GMT-2:00) Mid-Atlantic
l.
(GMT-1:00) Azores
m.
(GMT) London, Lisbon, Dublin, Edinburgh (default value)
n.
(GMT +1:00) Amsterdam, Berlin, Rome, Vienna
o.
(GMT +2:00) Jerusalem
p.
(GMT +3:00) Baghdad
q.
(GMT +4:00) Muscat, Abu Dhabi
r.
(GMT +4:30) Kabul
s.
(GMT +5:00) Karachi, Islamabad, Tashkent
t.
(GMT +5:30) Colombo, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
28
Overview
Configuring the Date and Time (CLI)
u.
(GMT +5:45) Katmandu
v.
(GMT +6:00) Almaty, Novosibirsk
w.
(GMT +6:30) Rangoon
x.
(GMT +7:00) Saigon, Hanoi, Bangkok, Jakarta
y.
(GMT +8:00) Hong Kong, Beijing, Chongqing
z.
(GMT +9:00) Tokyo, Osaka, Sapporo
aa.
(GMT +9:30) Darwin
ab.
(GMT+10:00) Sydney, Melbourne, Canberra
ac.
(GMT+11:00) Magadan, Solomon Is., New Caledonia
ad.
(GMT+12:00) Kamchatka, Marshall Is., Fiji
ae.
(GMT+12:00) Auckland (New Zealand)
Note
If you enter this command, the controller automatically sets its system clock to reflect DST
when it occurs. In the United States, DST starts on the second Sunday in March and ends on
the first Sunday in November.
• Manually set the time zone so that DST is not set automatically by entering this command:
config time timezone delta_hours delta_mins
where delta_hours is the local hour difference from GMT, and delta_mins is the local minute difference
from GMT.
When manually setting the time zone, enter the time difference of the local current time zone with respect
to GMT (+/–). For example, Pacific time in the United States is 8 hours behind GMT. Therefore, it is
entered as –8.
Note
Step 3
You can manually set the time zone and prevent DST from being set only on the controller
CLI.
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 4
Verify that the controller shows the current local time with respect to the local time zone by entering this
command:
show time
Information similar to the following appears:
Time.................................... Thu Apr 7 13:56:37 2011
Timezone delta........................... 0:0
Timezone location....................... (GMT +5:30) Colombo, New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata
NTP Servers
NTP Polling Interval.........................
Index
-------
3600
NTP Key Index
NTP Server
NTP Msg Auth Status
---------------------------------------------------------------
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
29
Overview
Configuring the Date and Time (CLI)
1
Note
1
209.165.200.225
If you configured the time zone location, the Timezone Delta value is set to “0:0.” If you manually
configured the time zone using the time zone delta, the Timezone Location is blank.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
30
AUTH SUCCESS
PA R T
II
Management of Controllers
• Administration of Controller, on page 33
• Monitoring Dashboard, on page 47
• Managing Licenses, on page 53
• Managing Software, on page 79
• Managing Configuration, on page 93
• Network Time Protocol Setup, on page 107
• High Availability, on page 111
• Managing Certificates, on page 129
• AAA Administration, on page 145
• Managing Users, on page 179
• Ports and Interfaces, on page 193
• IPv6 Clients, on page 223
• Access Control Lists, on page 229
• Multicast/Broadcast Setup, on page 261
• Controller Security, on page 287
• Cisco Umbrella WLAN (OpenDNS), on page 313
• SNMP, on page 319
CHAPTER
3
Administration of Controller
• Using the Controller Interface, on page 33
• Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes, on page 38
• Telnet and Secure Shell Sessions, on page 41
• Management over Wireless, on page 45
• Configuring Management using Dynamic Interfaces (CLI), on page 46
Using the Controller Interface
You can use the controller interface in the following two methods:
Using the Controller GUI
A browser-based GUI is built into each controller.
It allows up to five users to simultaneously browse into the controller HTTP or HTTPS (HTTP + SSL)
management pages to configure parameters and monitor the operational status for the controller and its
associated access points.
For detailed descriptions of the controller GUI, see the Online Help. To access the online help, click Help on
the controller GUI.
Note
We recommend that you enable the HTTPS interface and disable the HTTP interface to ensure more robust
security.
The controller GUI is supported on the following web browsers:
• Microsoft Internet Explorer 11 or a later version (Windows)
• Mozilla Firefox, Version 32 or a later version (Windows, Mac)
• Google Chrome, Version 38.x or a later version (Windows, Mac)
• Apple Safari, Version 7 or a later version (Mac)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
33
Management of Controllers
Restrictions on using Controller GUI
Note
We recommend that you use the controller GUI on a browser loaded with webadmin certificate (third-party
certificate). We also recommend that you do not use the controller GUI on a browser loaded with self-signed
certificate. Some rendering issues have been observed on Google Chrome (73.0.3675.0 or a later version)
with self-signed certificates. For more information, see CSCvp80151.
Restrictions on using Controller GUI
Follow these guidelines when using the controller GUI:
• The controller Web UI is compatible with the following web browsers
• Microsoft Internet Explorer 11 and later versions
• Mozilla Firefox 32 and later versions
• To view the Main Dashboard that is introduced in Release 8.1.102.0, you must enable JavaScript on the
web browser.
Note
Ensure that the screen resolution is set to 1280x800 or more. Lesser resolutions
are not supported.
• You can use either the service port interface or the management interface to access the GUI.
• You can use both HTTP and HTTPS when using the service port interface. HTTPS is enabled by default
and HTTP can also be enabled.
• Click Help at the top of any page in the GUI to display online help. You might need to disable your
browser’s pop-up blocker to view the online help.
Logging On to the GUI
Note
Do not configure TACACS+ authentication when the controller is set to use local authentication.
Procedure
Step 1
Enter the controller IP address in your browser’s address bar. For a secure connection, enter
https://ip-address. For a less secure connection, enter https://ip-address.
Step 2
When prompted, enter a valid username and password, and click OK.
The Summary page is displayed.
Note
The administrative username and password that you created in the configuration wizard are case
sensitive.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
34
Management of Controllers
Logging out of the GUI
Logging out of the GUI
Procedure
Step 1
Click Logout in the top right corner of the page.
Step 2
Click Close to complete the log out process and prevent unauthorized users from accessing the
controllercontroller GUI.
Step 3
When prompted to confirm your decision, click Yes.
Using the Controller CLI
A Cisco Wireless solution command-line interface (CLI) is built into each controller. The CLI enables you
to use a VT-100 terminal emulation program to locally or remotely configure, monitor, and control individual
controllers and its associated lightweight access points. The CLI is a simple text-based, tree-structured interface
that allows up to five users with Telnet-capable terminal emulation programs to access the controller.
Note
Executing two simultaneous CLI operations are not recommended as that can lead to wrong behaviour or
display incorrect output of the CLI.
Note
For more information about specific commands, see the Cisco Wireless Controller Command Reference for
relevant releases at: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/wireless/wireless-lan-controller-software/
products-command-reference-list.html
Logging on to the Controller CLI
You can access the controller CLI using either of the following methods:
• A direct serial connection to the controller console port
• A remote session over the network using Telnet or SSH through the preconfigured service port or the
distribution system ports
For more information about ports and console connection options on controllers, see the relevant controller
platform's installation guide.
Using a Local Serial Connection
Before you begin
You need these items to connect to the serial port:
• A computer that is running a terminal emulation program such as Putty, SecureCRT, or similar
• A standard Cisco console serial cable with an RJ45 connector
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
35
Management of Controllers
Using a Remote Telnet or SSH Connection
To log on to the controller CLI through the serial port, follow these steps:
Procedure
Step 1
Connect console cable—Connect one end of a standard Cisco console serial cable with an RJ45 connector to
the controller’s console port and the other end to your PC’s serial port.
Step 2
Configure terminal emulator program with default settings:
• 9600 baud
• 8 data bits
• 1 stop bit
• No parity
• No hardware flow control
Note
The controller serial port is set for a 9600 baud rate and a short timeout. If you would like to change
either of these values, run the config serial baudrate value and config serial timeout value to
make your changes. If you set the serial timeout value to 0, serial sessions never time out.
If you change the console speed to a value other than 9600, the console speed used by controller
will be 9600 during boot and will only change upon the completion of boot process. Therefore, we
recommend that you do not change the console speed, except as a temporary measure on an as-needed
basis.
Step 3
Log on to the CLI—When prompted, enter a valid username and password to log on to the controller. The
administrative username and password that you created in the configuration wizard are case sensitive.
Note
The default username is admin, and the default password is admin.
The CLI displays the root level system prompt:
(Cisco Controller) >
Note
The system prompt can be any alphanumeric string up to 31 characters. You can change it by entering
the config prompt command.
Using a Remote Telnet or SSH Connection
Before you begin
You need these items to connect to a controller remotely:
• A PC with network connectivity to either the management IP address, the service port address, or if
management is enabled on a dynamic interface of the controller in question
• The IP address of the controller
• A VT-100 terminal emulation program or a DOS shell for the Telnet session
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
36
Management of Controllers
Logging Out of the CLI
Note
By default, controllers block Telnet sessions. You must use a local connection to the serial port to enable
Telnet sessions.
Note
The aes-cbc ciphers are not supported on WLC. The SSH client which is used to log in to the WLC should
have minimum a non-aes-cbc cipher.
Procedure
Step 1
Verify that your VT-100 terminal emulation program or DOS shell interface is configured with these parameters:
• Ethernet address
• Port 23
Step 2
Use the controller IP address to Telnet to the CLI.
Step 3
When prompted, enter a valid username and password to log into the controller. The administrative username
and password that you created in the configuration wizard are case sensitive.
Note
The default username is admin, and the default password is admin.
The CLI displays the root level system prompt.
Note
The system prompt can be any alphanumeric string up to 31 characters. You can change it by entering
the config prompt command.
Logging Out of the CLI
When you finish using the CLI, navigate to the root level and enter logout. The system prompts you to save
any changes you made to the volatile RAM.
Note
The CLI automatically logs you out without saving any changes after 5 minutes of inactivity. You can set the
automatic logout from 0 (never log out) to 160 minutes using the config serial timeout command.
To prevent SSH or Telnet sessions from timing out, run the config sessions timeout0 command.
Navigating the CLI
• When you log into the CLI, you are at the root level. From the root level, you can enter any full command
without first navigating to the correct command level.
• If you enter a top-level keyword such as config, debug, and so on without arguments, you are taken to
the submode of that corresponding keyword.
• Ctrl + Z or entering exit returns the CLI prompt to the default or root level.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
37
Management of Controllers
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes
• When navigating to the CLI, enter ? to see additional options available for any given command at the
current level.
• You can also enter the space or tab key to complete the current keyword if unambigious.
• Enter help at the root level to see available command line editing options.
The following table lists commands you use to navigate the CLI and to perform common tasks.
Table 2: Commands for CLI Navigation and Common Tasks
Command
Action
help
At the root level, view system wide navigation
commands
?
View commands available at the current level
command ?
View parameters for a specific command
exit
Move down one level
Ctrl + Z
Return from any level to the root level
save config
At the root level, save configuration changes from
active working RAM to nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM)
so they are retained after reboot
reset system
At the root level, reset the controller without logging
out
logout
Logs you out of the CLI
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes
This section provides instructions to enable the distribution system port as a web port (using HTTP) or as a
secure web port (using HTTPS). You can protect communication with the GUI by enabling HTTPS. HTTPS
protects HTTP browser sessions by using the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol. When you enable HTTPS,
the controller generates its own local web administration SSL certificate and automatically applies it to the
GUI. You also have the option of downloading an externally generated certificate.
You can configure web and secure web mode using the controller GUI or CLI.
This section contains the following subsections:
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > HTTP-HTTPS.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
38
Management of Controllers
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes (CLI)
The HTTP-HTTPS Configuration page is displayed.
Step 2
To enable web mode, which allows users to access the controller GUI using “http://ip-address,” choose
Enabled from the HTTP Access drop-down list. Otherwise, choose Disabled. The default value is Disabled.
Web mode is not a secure connection.
Step 3
To enable secure web mode, which allows users to access the controller GUI using “https://ip-address,” choose
Enabled from the HTTPS Access drop-down list. Otherwise, choose Disabled. The default value is Enabled.
Secure web mode is a secure connection.
Step 4
In the Web Session Timeout field, enter the amount of time, in minutes, before the web session times out
due to inactivity. You can enter a value between 10 and 160 minutes (inclusive). The default value is 30
minutes.
Step 5
Click Apply.
Step 6
If you enabled secure web mode in Step 3, the controller generates a local web administration SSL certificate
and automatically applies it to the GUI. The details of the current certificate appear in the middle of the
HTTP-HTTPS Configuration page.
Note
Step 7
If desired, you can delete the current certificate by clicking Delete Certificate and have the controller
generate a new certificate by clicking Regenerate Certificate. You have the option to use server
side SSL certificate that you can download to controller. If you are using HTTPS, you can use SSC
or MIC certificates.
Choose Controller > General to open the General page.
Choose one of the following options from the Web Color Theme drop-down list:
• Default—Configures the default web color theme for the controller GUI.
• Red—Configures the web color theme as red for the controller GUI.
Step 8
Click Apply.
Step 9
Click Save Configuration.
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Enable or disable web mode by entering this command:
config network webmode {enable | disable}
This command allows users to access the controller GUI using "http://ip-address." The default value is disabled.
Web mode is not a secure connection.
Step 2
Configure the web color theme for the controller GUI by entering this command:
config network webcolor {default | red}
The default color theme for the controller GUI is enabled. You can change the default color scheme as red
using the red option. If you are changing the color theme from the controller CLI, you need to reload the
controller GUI screen to apply your changes.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
39
Management of Controllers
Enabling Web and Secure Web Modes (CLI)
Step 3
Enable or disable secure web mode by entering this command:
config network secureweb {enable | disable}
This command allows users to access the controller GUI using “https://ip-address.” The default value is
enabled. Secure web mode is a secure connection.
Step 4
Enable or disable secure web mode with increased security by entering this command:
config network secureweb cipher-option high {enable | disable}
This command allows users to access the controller GUI using “https://ip-address” but only from browsers
that support 128-bit (or larger) ciphers. With Release 8.10, this command is, by default, in enabled state.
When high ciphers is enabled, SHA1, SHA256, SHA384 keys continue to be listed and TLSv1.0 is disabled.
This is applicable to webauth and webadmin but not for NMSP.
Step 5
Enable or disable SSLv3 for web administration by entering this command:
config network secureweb sslv3 {enable | disable}
Step 6
Enable 256 bit ciphers for a SSH session by entering this command:
config network ssh cipher-option high {enable | disable}
Step 7
[Optional] Disable telnet by entering this command:
config network telnet{enable | disable}
Step 8
Enable or disable preference for RC4-SHA (Rivest Cipher 4-Secure Hash Algorithm) cipher suites (over CBC
cipher suites) for web authentication and web administration by entering this command:
config network secureweb cipher-option rc4-preference {enable | disable}
Step 9
Verify that the controller has generated a certificate by entering this command:
show certificate summary
Information similar to the following appears:
Web Administration Certificate................. Locally Generated
Web Authentication Certificate................. Locally Generated
Certificate compatibility mode:................ off
Step 10
(Optional) Generate a new certificate by entering this command:
config certificate generate webadmin
After a few seconds, the controller verifies that the certificate has been generated.
Step 11
Save the SSL certificate, key, and secure web password to nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM) so that your changes
are retained across reboots by entering this command:
save config
Step 12
Reboot the controller by entering this command:
reset system
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
40
Management of Controllers
Telnet and Secure Shell Sessions
Telnet and Secure Shell Sessions
Telnet is a network protocol used to provide access to the controller’s CLI. Secure Shell (SSH) is a more
secure version of Telnet that uses data encryption and a secure channel for data transfer. You can use the
controller GUI or CLI to configure Telnet and SSH sessions.
In Release 8.10.130.0, Cisco Wave 2 APs support the following cipher suites only:
• HMAC: hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512
• KEX: diffie-hellman-group18-sha512,diffie-hellman-group14-sha1,ecdh-sha2-nistp256,
ecdh-sha2-nistp384, ecdh-sha2-nistp521
• Host Key: ecdsa-sha2-nistp256, ssh-rsa
• Ciphers: [email protected],[email protected],aes256-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes128-ctr
This section contains the following subsections:
Guidelines and Restrictions on Telnet and Secure Shell Sessions
• When the tool Putty is used as an SSH client to connect to the controller running versions 8.6 and above,
you may observe disconnects from Putty when a large output is requested with paging disabled. This is
observed when the controller has lots of configurations and/ or has a high count of APs and clients. We
recomend you to use alternate SSH clients in such situations.
• In Release 8.6, controllers are migrated from OpenSSH to libssh, and libssh does not support these key
exchange (KEX) algorithms: ecdh-sha2-nistp384 and ecdh-sha2-nistp521. Only ecdh-sha2-nistp256 is
supported.
• In Release 8.10.130.0, controllers stop supporting legacy cipher suites, weak ciphers, MACs and KEXs
Configuring Telnet and SSH Sessions (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > Telnet-SSH to open the Telnet-SSH Configuration page.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
41
Management of Controllers
Configuring Telnet and SSH Sessions (CLI)
Figure 14: Telnet-SSH Configuration Page
Step 2
In the Telnet Login Timeout text box, enter the number of minutes that a Telnet session is allowed to remain
inactive before being terminated. The valid range is 0 to 160 minutes (inclusive), and the default value is 5
minutes. A value of 0 indicates no timeout.
Step 3
From the Maximum Number of Sessions drop-down list, choose the number of simultaneous Telnet or SSH
sessions allowed. The valid range is 0 to 5 sessions (inclusive), and the default value is 5 sessions. A value
of zero indicates that Telnet/SSH sessions are disallowed.
Step 4
To forcefully close current login sessions, choose Management > User Sessions > close from the CLI session
drop-down list.
Step 5
From the Allow New Telnet Sessions drop-down list, choose Yes or No to allow or disallow new Telnet
sessions on the controller. The default value is No.
Step 6
From the \ drop-down list, choose Yes or No to allow or disallow new SSH sessions on the controller. The
default value is Yes.
Step 7
Click Apply.
Step 8
Click Save Configuration.
Step 9
To see a summary of the Telnet configuration settings, choose Management > Summary. The Summary
page appears.
Figure 15: Summary Page
This page shows whether additional Telnet and SSH sessions are permitted.
Configuring Telnet and SSH Sessions (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Allow or disallow new Telnet sessions on the controller by entering this command:
config network telnet {enable | disable}
The default value is disabled.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
42
Management of Controllers
Managing and Monitoring Remote Telnet and SSH Sessions
Step 2
Allow or disallow new SSH sessions on the controller by entering this command:
config network ssh {enable | disable}
The default value is enabled.
Note
Step 3
Use the config network ssh cipher-option high {enable | disable} command to enable sha2 which
is supported in WLC.
(Optional) Specify the number of minutes that a Telnet session is allowed to remain inactive before being
terminated by entering this command:
config sessions timeout timeout
where timeout is a value between 0 and 160 minutes (inclusive). The default value is 5 minutes. A value of
0 indicates no timeout.
Step 4
(Optional) Specify the number of simultaneous Telnet or SSH sessions allowed by entering this command:
config sessions maxsessions session_num
where session_num is a value between 0 and 5 (inclusive). The default value is 5 sessions. A value of zero
indicates that Telnet/SSH sessions are disallowed.
Step 5
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 6
You can close all the Telnet or SSH sessions by entering this command:
config loginsession close {session-id | all}
The session-id can be taken from the show login-session command.
Managing and Monitoring Remote Telnet and SSH Sessions
Procedure
Step 1
See the Telnet and SSH configuration settings by entering this command:
show network summary
Information similar to the following appears:
RF-Network Name............................. TestNetwork1
Web Mode.................................... Enable
Secure Web Mode............................. Enable
Secure Web Mode Cipher-Option High.......... Disable
Secure Web Mode Cipher-Option SSLv2......... Disable
Secure Shell (ssh).......................... Enable
Telnet................................... Disable
...
Step 2
See the Telnet session configuration settings by entering this command:
show sessions
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
43
Management of Controllers
Configuring Telnet Privileges for Selected Management Users (GUI)
Information similar to the following appears:
CLI Login Timeout (minutes)............ 5
Maximum Number of CLI Sessions....... 5
Step 3
See all active Telnet sessions by entering this command:
show login-session
Information similar to the following appears:
ID
User Name
Connection From
Idle Time
Session Time
-- --------------- --------------- ------------ -----------00
admin
EIA-232
00:00:00
00:19:04
Step 4
You can clear Telnet or SSH sessions by entering this command:
clear session session-id
The session-id for the clearing the session should be taken from the show login-session command.
Configuring Telnet Privileges for Selected Management Users (GUI)
Using the controller, you can configure Telnet privileges to selected management users. To do this, you must
have enabled Telnet privileges at the global level. By default, all management users have Telnet privileges
enabled.
Note
SSH sessions are not affected by this feature.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > Local Management Users.
Step 2
On the Local Management Users page, select or unselect the Telnet Capable check box for a management
user.
Step 3
Save the configuration.
Configuring Telnet Privileges for Selected Management Users (CLI)
Procedure
• Configure Telnet privileges for a selected management user by entering this command:
config mgmtuser telnet user-name {enable | disable}
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
44
Management of Controllers
Management over Wireless
Management over Wireless
The management over wireless feature allows you to monitor and configure local controllers using a wireless
client. This feature is supported for all management tasks except uploads to and downloads from (transfers
to and from) the controller.
This feature blocks wireless management access to the same controller that the wireless client device is
currently associated with. It does not prevent management access for a wireless client associated with another
controller entirely. To completely block manabgement access to wireless clients based on VLAN and so on,
we recommend that you use access control lists (ACLs) or similar mechanism.
Restrictions on Management over Wireless
• Management over Wireless can be disabled only if clients are on central switching.
• Management over Wireless is not supported for FlexConnect local switching clients. However,
Management over Wireless works for non-web authentication clients if you have a route to the controller
from the FlexConnect site.
This section contains the following subsections:
Enabling Management over Wireless (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > Mgmt Via Wireless to open the Management Via Wireless page.
Step 2
Check the Enable Controller Management to be accessible from Wireless Clients check box to enable
management over wireless for the WLAN or unselect it to disable this feature. By default, it is in disabled
state.
Step 3
Save the configuration.
Enabling Management over Wireless (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Verify whether the management over wireless interface is enabled or disabled by entering this command:
show network summary
• If disabled: Enable management over wireless by entering this command:config network
mgmt-via-wireless enable
• Otherwise, use a wireless client to associate with an access point connected to the controller that you
want to manage.
Step 2
Log into the CLI to verify that you can manage the WLAN using a wireless client by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
45
Management of Controllers
Configuring Management using Dynamic Interfaces (CLI)
telnet wlc-ip-addr CLI-command
Configuring Management using Dynamic Interfaces (CLI)
Dynamic interface is disabled by default and can be enabled if needed to be also accessible for most or all of
management functions. Once enabled, all dynamic interfaces are available for management access to controller.
You can use access control lists (ACLs) to limit this access as required.
Procedure
• Enable or disable management using dynamic interfaces by entering this command:
config network mgmt-via-dynamic-interface {enable | disable}
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
46
CHAPTER
4
Monitoring Dashboard
• Monitoring Dashboard, on page 47
• Network Summary, on page 50
• Rogues, on page 50
• Interferers, on page 51
• Wireless Dashboard, on page 51
• Best Practices, on page 51
Monitoring Dashboard
Cisco Wireless Controller can be accessed using two modes—Command Line Interface (CLI) and Graphical
User Interface (GUI). The controller GUI has a new monitoring dashboard that gives a single-window overview
of the network devices that are connected to the controller.
Figure 16: Monitoring Dashboard
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
47
Management of Controllers
Numerical Statistics
The monitor dashboard screen is the default screen when you log in to the GUI of the controller. This screen
is split into three sections:
• Numerical statistics
• Graphical widgets
• Monitor pane with selection options
This section contains the following subsections:
Numerical Statistics
This is the top section of the dashboard where you get a quick view of what is on the network:
• Wireless Networks—shows the number of WLANs enabled and disabled on this WLC.
• Wired Networks—shows the number of RLANs and clients that are associated to the network.
• Access Points—shows the number of active Cisco APs in the network.
• Active Clients—shows the number of 2.4 and 5–GHz clients in the network.
• Rogues—shows the number of APs and clients which are found in your network.
• Interferers—shows the number of detected interference devices on 2.4 and 5–GHz bands.
Note
Selecting the headline or the statistical value takes you to the respective page in the Advanced section.
Graphical Widgets
These graphical widgets present the numbers in the form of graphs. You can select the widgets to display
from the available list.
Access Points
You can see the donut graph representing the AP usage in percentage on this Cisco WLC. To change to the
list view, click
on the top right of the widget. The list view displays the APs with the number of connected
clients, amount of data traffic served, and the throughput values. By default, the AP list is sorted by name,
however you can sort the list by clients, usage, throughput also.
Note
The AP list is limited to display top 10 APs only, hence you may not see all the APs associated with the
controller in this widget.
Clicking on the AP takes you to the Access Point View page. The Access Point View page gives the Cisco
AP’s general, performance, and radio parameter details for both 2.4 GHz and 5-GHz radios. You can restart
the AP from this page.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
48
Management of Controllers
Graphical Widgets
The AP performance values displayed are gathered from the AP. The Usage Traffic parameter shows the
total amount of data transfered during the uptime duration of the AP. The Throughput value is the cumulative
value of number of bytes (during the past 90 seconds) divided by the number of seconds (90secs).
To export the values, click
Click
and save the excel sheet to your system.
to remove this widget from the dashboard.
Operating Systems
You can see the operating system running in the connected clients. This list is sorted according to the number
of clients of each OS type.
Applications
You can see the donut graph presenting the application with its usage and throughput. This widget gives you
the ability to clear the current records to start afresh, click
records.
on the top right of this widget to clear the
To change to list view click
values.
. This view shows details of each application like usage and the throughput
To export the values, click
and save the excel sheet to your system.
Click
to remove this widget from the dashboard.
Clients
You can see the donut graph presenting the network usage by each client in percentage. This widget gives
you the ability to clear the current records to start afresh, click
the records.
the the on top right of this widget to clear
To change to list view click
. This view shows each client’s details like the type of device, data usage,
and the throughput values. You can sort the client list by identity, device type, usage, throughput also.
Click the client to open the Client View page. The Client View page displays the general, the connectivity,
the QoS, and the security and policy details.
To export the values, click
Click
and save the excel sheet to your system.
to remove this widget from the dashboard.
Top WLANs
The donut graph shows the top SSIDs based on the number of clients and usage. The list view displays the
SSIDs with the statistics in numbers.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
49
Management of Controllers
Network Summary
Network Summary
This section contains the following subsections:
Network Summary—Access Points
Selecting this option displays the list of Cisco APs connected to this controller. The page segregates the 2.4
and 5 GHz APs in two tabs. The AP details are shown on this page. Choose any AP to know more details.
The Access Point View page shows the general and performance summary of the selected AP. The AP details
section provides tabs with information on the clients, RF Troubleshooting with neighboring and rogue APs
(2.4 and 5 GHz) found in the surroundings, CleanAir with active interferers and the tool tab to restart the AP.
Network Summary—Clients
This section displays the detailed information of clients that are associated with the access points in a list
view.
The Client View page is displayed when a client is selected. On this page, the client’s general details are
shown. Click Connection Score value to see the connection quality between the client and the AP.
There are two info graphic representations on the Client View page.
• The first infographic shows the connection stage of the client.
• The second infographic shows the connectivity roadmap between the controller and the client. It also
shows the types of connection and the path that is used in the network from the controller to the client.
The Network and QoS and the Security Policy dashlets show the status of their respective parameters.
The Client View page also offers debugging tools to assess the connectivity from the client with the controller.
Tools available are:
• Ping Test—helps to know the connectivity status and the latency between the two systems in a network.
• Connection—shows the connection logs for a client.
• Event Log—records the events and the option to save the logs on to a spreadsheet.
• Packet Capture—select from the various options to get precise information about the flow of packets to
help resolve issues.
Note
Cisco Wave 2 APs do not support Packet Capture feature.
Rogues
This section contains the following subsections:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
50
Management of Controllers
Rogue Access Points
Rogue Access Points
This page displays the rogue access points grouped under 2.4-GHz and 5-GHz networks in the following
groups.
• Unclassified
• Friendly
• Malicious
• Custom
Choose the rogue AP from the list to display the Rogue AP Detail page. This page displays the connection
details and the APs that are detected this rogue AP. To view the AP details choose the AP to get the Access
Point View page.
Rogue Clients
This page displays the list of clients that are yet to be identified. Choose the rogue client for more details.
The Rogue Client View page shows the connection information, the state and the APs that detected this client.
To view the AP details choose the AP to get the Access Point View page.
Interferers
This page displays the list of interfering devices that are detected in the 2.4 GHz and 5-GHz spectrum. Use
the filters available for each category to view a customized list which can help identify the the interfering
devices and take corrective actions to improve the air quality.
Wireless Dashboard
This page shows a graphical overview of various selectable widgets and their performances over 2.4 GHz
and 5–GHz networks.
AP Performance
This page displays the performance values of the Cisco APs graphically. These parameters are selectable
widgets to create a custom AP performance dashboard.
Client Performance
This page graphically displays the client parameters, which range from signal strength to state of association
and other selectable widgets.
Best Practices
The Best Practices page offers current compliance assessment and available categories of best practices. The
Best Practices are enabled by default if you have used the Cisco WLAN Express Setup to configure the WLC.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
51
Management of Controllers
Best Practices
Note
The Best Practices are not enabled through CLI setup wizard or image upgrades.
Every parameter under each category has a + icon which provides an expert recommendation and the option
Learn More gives detailed information on that parameter. Each parameter may have one or more of the
following options.
• Fix it Now—sets the parameter to the Cisco recommended settings.
• Restore Default—resets the Best Practice parameter configurations to default values.
• Manual Configuration—opens the advanced view to configure the parameter.
• Ignore—removes the parameter from the best practice list.
The ignored parameters are grouped under the
icon. This icon is found at the top right corner of the
Best Practices page. This icon displays the Add Best Practice window; click the parameter that you
want to add to the main page.
• Detailed—opens a new window with WLAN profile settings and option to manual configuration.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
52
CHAPTER
5
Managing Licenses
• Cisco Wireless Controller Licensing, on page 53
• Cisco Smart Software Licensing, on page 63
• Right to Use Licensing, on page 66
• Rehosting Licenses, on page 68
• License Agent, on page 71
• Call-Home, on page 74
• Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points, on page 77
Cisco Wireless Controller Licensing
For information about licensing in various Cisco Wireless Controller platforms, see the respective platform's
datasheet:
• Cisco 3504 WLC
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/wireless/3504-wireless-controller/
datasheet-c78-738484.html
• Cisco 5520 WLC
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/wireless/5520-wireless-controller/
datasheet-c78-734257.html
• Cisco 8540 WLC
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/wireless/8540-wireless-controller/
datasheet-c78-734258.html
• Cisco Virtual WLC
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/wireless/virtual-wireless-controller/data_sheet_
c78-714543.html
Related Information
• Cisco Software Central
https://software.cisco.com
• Special Notes for Licensed Data Payload Encryption on Cisco Wireless Controllers
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
53
Management of Controllers
Installing a License
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/controller/technotes/ldpe/ldpe-on-wlc.html
• Smart Licensing Deployment Guide
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/technology/mesh/8-2/b_Smart_Licensing_Deployment_
Guide.html
Installing a License
Installing a License (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > Software Activation > Commands to open the License Commands page.
Step 2
From the Action drop-down list, choose Install License. The Install License from a File section appears.
Step 3
In the File Name to Install text box, enter the path to the license (*.lic) on the TFTP server.
Step 4
Click Install License. A message appears to show whether the license was installed successfully. If the
installation fails, the message provides the reason for the failure, such as the license is an existing license, the
path was not found, the license does not belong to this device, you do not have correct permissions for the
license, and so on.
Step 5
If the end-user license agreement (EULA) acceptance dialog box appears, read the agreement and click Accept
to accept the terms of the agreement.
Note
Step 6
Typically, you are prompted to accept the EULA for evaluation, extension, and rehost licenses. The
EULA is also required for permanent licenses, but it is accepted during license generation.
Save a backup copy of all installed licenses as follows:
a) From the Action drop-down list, choose Save License.
b) In the File Name to Save text box, enter the path on the TFTP server where you want the licenses to be
saved.
You cannot save evaluation licenses.
Note
c) Click Save Licenses.
Step 7
Reboot the controller.
Note
We recommend that you reset the system to ensure that the newly installed license file is saved in
the WLC.
Installing a License (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Install a license on the controller by entering this command:
license install url
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
54
Management of Controllers
Viewing Licenses
where url is tftp://server_ip/path/filename.
Note
Step 2
If you are prompted to accept the end-user license agreement (EULA), read and accept the terms of the
agreement.
Note
Step 3
To remove a license from the controller, enter the license clear license_name command. For example,
you might want to delete an expired evaluation license or any unused license. You cannot delete
unexpired evaluation licenses, the permanent base image license, or licenses that are in use by the
controller.
Typically, you are prompted to accept the EULA for evaluation, extension, and rehost licenses. The
EULA is also required for permanent licenses, but it is accepted during license generation.
Add comments to a license or delete comments from a license by entering this command:
license comment {add | delete} license_name comment_string
Step 4
Save a backup copy of all installed licenses by entering this command:
license save url
where url is tftp://server_ip/path/filename.
Step 5
Reboot the controller by entering this command:
reset system.
Note
We recommend that you reset the system to ensure that the newly installed license file is saved in
the WLC.
Viewing Licenses
Viewing Licenses (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > Software Activation > Licenses to open the Licenses page.
This page lists all the licenses that are installed on the controller. For each license, it shows the license type,
expiration, count (the maximum number of access points that are allowed for this license), priority (low,
medium, or high), and status (in use, not in use, inactive, or EULA not accepted).
Note
Controller platforms do not support the status of “grace period” or “extension” as a license type.
The license status always shows as “evaluation” even if a grace period or an extension evaluation
license is installed.
If you ever want to remove a license from the controller, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down
arrow for the license and click Remove. For example, you might want to delete an expired evaluation
license or any unused license. You cannot delete unexpired evaluation licenses, the permanent base
image license, or licenses that are in use by the controller.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
55
Management of Controllers
Viewing Licenses (CLI)
Step 2
Click the link for the desired license to view more details for a particular license. The License Detail page
appears.
This page shows the following additional information for the license:
• The license type (permanent, evaluation, or extension)
• The license version
• The status of the license (in use, not in use, inactive, or EULA not accepted).
• The length of time before the license expires
Note
Permanent licenses never expire.
• Whether the license is a built-in license.
• The maximum number of access points allowed for this license
• The number of access points currently using this license
Step 3
If you want to enter a comment for this license, type it in the Comment text box and click Apply.
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Viewing Licenses (CLI)
Procedure
• See the license level, license type, and number of access points licensed on the controller by entering
this command:
See the license level, license type, and number of access points licensed on the controller by entering
this command:
Note
The maximum number of APs supported refers to the maximum number of APs supported by the controller.
It is not linked to the installed licenses.
show sysinfo
This example shows a sample output of the command run on Cisco 8540 Wireless Controller using
Release 8.3:
Manufacturer's Name..............................
Product Name.....................................
Product Version..................................
RTOS Version.....................................
Bootloader Version...............................
Emergency Image Version..........................
Cisco Systems Inc.
Cisco Controller
8.3.100.0
8.3.100.0
8.0.110.0
8.0.110.0
OUI File Last Update Time........................ Sun Sep 07 10:44:07 IST 2014
Build Type....................................... DATA + WPS
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
56
Management of Controllers
Viewing Licenses (CLI)
System Name......................................
System Location..................................
System Contact...................................
System ObjectID..................................
Redundancy Mode..................................
IP Address.......................................
IPv6 Address.....................................
System Up Time...................................
TestSpartan8500Dev1
1.3.6.1.4.1.9.1.1615
Disabled
8.1.4.2
::
0 days 17 hrs 20 mins 58 secs
--More-- or (q)uit
System Timezone Location.........................
System Stats Realtime Interval................... 5
System Stats Normal Interval..................... 180
Configured Country...............................
Operating Environment............................
Internal Temp Alarm Limits.......................
Internal Temperature.............................
Fan Status.......................................
Multiple Countries : IN,US
Commercial (10 to 35 C)
10 to 38 C
+21 C
OK
RAID Volume Status
Drive 0.......................................... Good
Drive 1.......................................... Good
State of 802.11b Network.........................
State of 802.11a Network.........................
Number of WLANs..................................
Number of Active Clients.........................
Enabled
Enabled
7
1
OUI Classification Failure Count................. 0
Burned-in MAC Address............................ F4:CF:E2:0A:27:00
Power Supply 1................................... Present, OK
--More-- or (q)uit
Power Supply 2...................................
Maximum number of APs supported..................
System Nas-Id....................................
WLC MIC Certificate Types........................
Licensing Type...................................
Present, OK
6000
SHA1/SHA2
RTU
• See a brief summary of all active licenses installed on the controller by entering this command:
show license summary
Information similar to the following appears:
Index 1 Feature: wplus
Period left: 0 minute 0 second
Index 2 Feature: wplus-ap-count
Period left: 0 minute 0 second
Index3
Feature: base
Period left: Life time
License Type: Permanent
License State: Active, In Use
License Count: Non-Counted
License Priority: Medium
Index 4 Feature: base-ap-count
Period left: 6 weeks, 4 days
License Type: Evaluation
License State: Active, In Use
License Count: 250/250/0
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
57
Management of Controllers
Viewing Licenses (CLI)
License Priority: High
• See all of the licenses installed on the controller by entering this command:
show license all
Information similar to the following appears:
License Store: Primary License Storage
StoreIndex: 1 Feature: base
Version: 1.0
License Type: Permanent
License State: Active, Not in Use
License Count: Non-Counted
License Priority: Medium
StoreIndex: 3 Feature: base-ap-count
Version: 1.0
License Type: Evaluation
License State: Active, In Use
Evaluation total period: 8 weeks 4 days
Evaluation period left: 8 weeks 3 days
License Count: 250/0/0
License Priority: High
• See the details for a particular license by entering this command:
show license detail license_name
Information similar to the following appears:
Index:
1
Feature: base-ap-count
Version: 1.0
License Type: Permanent
License State: Active, Not in Use
License Count: 12/0/0
License Priority: Medium
Store Index: 0
Store Name: Primary License Storage
Index:
2
Feature: base-ap-count
Version: 1.0
License Type: Evaluation
License State: Inactive
Evaluation total period: 8 weeks 4 days
Evaluation period left: 8 weeks 4 days
License Count: 250/0/0
License Priority: Low
Store Index: 3
Store Name: Evaluation License Storage
• See all expiring, evaluation, permanent, or in-use licenses by entering this command:
show license {expiring | evaluation | permanent | in-use}
Information similar to the following appears for the show license in-use command:
StoreIndex: 2
License
License
License
License
StoreIndex: 3
License
Feature: base-ap-count
Version: 1.0
Type: Permanent
State: Active, In Use
Count: 12/12/0
Priority: Medium
Feature: base Version: 1.0
Type: Permanent
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
58
Management of Controllers
Configuring the Maximum Number of Access Points Supported
License State: Active, In Use
License Count: Non-Counted License Priority: Medium
Note
Controller platforms do not support the status of “grace period” or “extension” as a license type. The license
status will always show “evaluation” even if a grace period or an extension evaluation license is installed.
• See the maximum number of access points allowed for this license on the controller, the number of access
points currently joined to the controller, and the number of access points that can still join the controller
by entering this command:
show license capacity
Information similar to the following appears:
Licensed Feature
---------------AP Count
Max Count
--------250
Current Count
------------4
Remaining Count
--------------246
• See statistics for all licenses on the controller by entering this command:
show license statistics
• See a summary of license-enabled features by entering this command:
show license feature
Configuring the Maximum Number of Access Points Supported
Configuring Maximum Number of Access Points to be Supported (GUI)
You can configure the maximum number APs that can be supported on a controller. The controller limits the
number of APs that are supported based on the licensing information and the controller model. The maximum
number of APs supported that is specified in the licensing information overrides the number that you configure
if the configured value is greater than the licensed value. By default, this feature is disabled. You must reboot
the controller if you change the configuration.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > General.
Step 2
Enter a value in the Maximum Allowed APs field.
Step 3
Save the configuration.
Configuring Maximum Number of Access Points to be Supported (CLI)
Procedure
• Configure the maximum number of access points to be supported on a controller by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
59
Management of Controllers
Troubleshooting Licensing Issues
config ap max-count count
• See the maximum number of access points that are supported on the controller by entering this command:
show ap max-count summary
Troubleshooting Licensing Issues
Procedure
• Configure debugging of licensing core events and core errors by entering this command:
debug license core {all | errors | events} {enable | disable}
• Configure debugging of licensing errors by entering this command:
debug license errors {enable | disable}
• Configure debugging of licensing events by entering this command:
debug license events {enable | disable}
Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License
Information About Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License
If you are considering upgrading to a license with a higher access point count, you can try an evaluation license
before upgrading to a permanent version of the license. For example, if you are using a permanent license
with a 50-access-point count and want to try an evaluation license with a 100-access-point count, you can try
out the evaluation license for 60 days.
AP-count evaluation licenses are set to low priority by default so that the controller uses the ap-count permanent
license. If you want to try an evaluation license with an increased access point count, you must change its
priority to high. If you no longer want to have this higher capacity, you can lower the priority of the ap-count
evaluation license, which forces the controller to use the permanent license.
Note
To prevent disruptions in operation, the controller does not switch licenses when an evaluation license expires.
You must reboot the controller in order to return to a permanent license. Following a reboot, the controller
defaults to the same feature set level as the expired evaluation license. If no permanent license at the same
feature set level is installed, the controller uses a permanent license at another level or an unexpired evaluation
license.
Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > Software Activation > Licenses to open the Licenses page.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
60
Management of Controllers
Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License (CLI)
The Status column shows which licenses are currently in use, and the Priority column shows the current
priority of each license.
Step 2
Activate an ap-count evaluation license as follows:
a) Click the link for the ap-count evaluation license that you want to activate. The License Detail page
appears.
b) Choose High from the Priority drop-down list and click Set Priority.
Note
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
Step 3
You can set the priority only for ap-count evaluation licenses. AP-count permanent licenses
always have a medium priority, which cannot be configured.
Click OK when prompted to confirm your decision about changing the priority of the license.
When the EULA appears, read the terms of the agreement and then click Accept.
When prompted to reboot the controller, click OK.
Reboot the controller in order for the priority change to take effect.
Click Licenses to open the Licenses page and verify that the ap-count evaluation license now has a high
priority and is in use. You can use the evaluation license until it expires.
If you decide to stop using the ap-count evaluation license and want to revert to using an ap-count permanent
license, follow these steps:
a) On the Licenses page, click the link for the ap-count evaluation license that is in use.
b) Choose Low from the Priority drop-down list and click Set Priority.
Note
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
You can set the priority only for ap-count evaluation licenses. AP-count permanent licenses
always have a medium priority, which cannot be configured.
Click OK when prompted to confirm your decision about changing the priority of the license.
When the EULA appears, read the terms of the agreement and then click Accept.
When prompted to reboot the controller, click OK.
Reboot the controller in order for the priority change to take effect.
Click Licenses to open the Licenses page and verify that the ap-count evaluation license now has a low
priority and is not in use. Instead, the ap-count permanent license should be in use.
Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
See the current status of all the licenses on your controller by entering this command:
show license all
Information similar to the following appears:
License Store: Primary License Storage
StoreIndex: 0 Feature: base-ap-count
Version: 1.0
License Type: Permanent
License State: Active, In Use
License Count: 12/0/0
License Priority: Medium
StoreIndex: 1 Feature: base
Version: 1.0
License Type: Permanent
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
61
Management of Controllers
Activating an AP-Count Evaluation License (CLI)
License State: Active, In Use
License Count: Non-Counted
License Priority: Medium
StoreIndex: 2 Feature: base
Version: 1.0
License Type: Evaluation
License State: Inactive
Evaluation total period: 8 weeks 4 days
Evaluation period left: 8 weeks 4 days
License Count: Non-Counted
License Priority: Low
StoreIndex: 3 Feature: base-ap-count
Version: 1.0
License Type: Evaluation
License State: Inactive
Evaluation total period: 8 weeks 4 days
Evaluation period left: 8 weeks 4 days
License Count: 250/0/0
License Priority: Low
The License State text box shows the licenses that are in use, and the License Priority text box shows the
current priority of each license.
Step 2
Activate an ap-count evaluation license as follows:
a) Raise the priority of the base-ap-count evaluation license by entering this command:
license modify priority license_name high
Note
You can set the priority only for ap-count evaluation licenses. AP-count permanent licenses
always have a medium priority, which cannot be configured.
b) Reboot the controller in order for the priority change to take effect by entering this command:
reset system
c) Verify that the ap-count evaluation license now has a high priority and is in use by entering this command:
show license all
You can use the evaluation license until it expires.
Step 3
If you decide to stop using the ap-count evaluation license and want to revert to using an ap-count permanent
license, follow these steps:
a) Lower the priority of the ap-count evaluation license by entering this command:
license modify priority license_name low
b) Reboot the controller in order for the priority change to take effect by entering this command:
reset system
c) Verify that the ap-count evaluation license now has a low priority and is not in use by entering this
command:
show license all
Instead, the ap-count permanent license should be in use.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
62
Management of Controllers
Cisco Smart Software Licensing
Cisco Smart Software Licensing
Cisco started the initiative of simplifying customer license management by building a Cisco Smart Software
Manager (SSM) portal. It helps the customers understand what licenses they have purchased and what licenses
they are using. Various other Cisco products are already Smart Enabled and with the introduction of this
release, Smart Licensing will now be available on the following platforms:
• Cisco 5520 WLC (AIR-CT5520-K9)
• Cisco 8540 WLC (AIR-CT8540-K9)
• Cisco vWLC (L-AIR-CTVM-5-K9)
• Cisco 3504 WLC (AIR-CT3504-K9)
You have to register for your own Smart Account, which is a one-time activity. Using the Smart Account you
can activate, monitor usage,m and track the purchased licenses. To know more about creating the Cisco Smart
Account, see Smart Account Quick Reference Guide.
Note
For information about migrating from RTU Licensing mechanism to Smart Licensing mechanism, consult
Cisco Technical Assistance Center.
Additional Reference
Smart Licensing Deployment Guide—https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/technology/mesh/8-2/
b_Smart_Licensing_Deployment_Guide.html
Related Topics
Information About Rehosting Licenses, on page 68
Restrictions for Using Cisco Smart Software Licensing
• We recommend you to perform the following procedure if you have the Cisco Smart License enabled
and the controller is registered on Cisco Smart Account.
Perform this procedure before upgrading the controller's boot image.
1. Deregister the controller running the old build from the Cisco Smart Software Manager (CSSM).
2. Upgrade the controller with new boot image.
3. Reregister the upgraded controller with new build on Cisco Smart Software Manager (CSSM).
• If you try to deregister the controller when CSSM is not reachable, the controller is deregistered internally.
This results in a stale entry in CSSM. The workaround for this issue is that you must remove the stale
entry from CSSM manually.
• Token-id that is generated for Cisco 5520 or 8450 WLC cannot be used with Cisco vWLC.
• Call-Home supports only HTTP and HTTPS mode of communication.
• Call-Home does not support email mode of communication.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
63
Management of Controllers
Configuring Cisco Smart Software Licensing (GUI)
• After the switch over to Smart Licensing mechanism some of the parameter reports, for example: runtime
statistics will not be cumulative reports.
• To create a new profile and avoid Smart Licensing transport mode from being disabled, ensure that the
active profile is disabled using config call-home tac-profile status disable before creating the new
profile.
Note
You can have a maximum of two profiles and only one active profile at any time.
One profile each can be configured for Smart Licensing messages and Call-Home
events.
• Do not use a non-tac profile using call-home data reporting format as this will disable Smart Licensing
service.
• There might be a difference in the timestamps when the WLC is in a different time zone, as the WLC is
set to local time zone time, whereas the Smart License server is set to UTC time.
• In a Smart License active HA pair, when the primary WLC stops functioning, and the standby WLC
takes over as the new primary, and initiates a reboot. After reboot, the device losses its registration
information. Manually registering the device with the Cisco Smart License Manager or rebooting and
re-pairing the primary and stand-by devices helps resolve this issue.
• On a Smart License active HA pair, any attempt to deregister before the switch over to active secondary
from active primary is complete, and the renew message is sent, the deregistration process may fail.
• In a Smart License active HA pair, the stand-by device displays evaluation authorization state, this
parameter gets updated to display the correct values after the switch over is complete and the WLC is
the active controller.
• To free the license on the server in a situation, where the license mechanism is changed to Right To Use
(RTU) from Smart Licensing, it is mandatory to manually deregister the device.
Related Topics
Information About Rehosting Licenses, on page 68
Configuring Cisco Smart Software Licensing (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
To activate Smart Licensing mechanism, follow these steps:
a) Choose Management > Software Activation > License Type to open the Smart-License page.
b) From the Licensing Type drop-down list, choose Smart-Licensing option.
c) Enter the DNS Server IP address in the DNS Server IP address field.
d) Click Apply
e) Reboot the controller.
Step 2
To register a device, follow these steps:
a) Choose Management > Smart-license > Device registration to open the device registration page.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
64
Management of Controllers
Configuring the Cisco Smart Software Licensing on WLC (CLI)
b) From the Action drop-down list choose Registration to register a new device.
c) Enter the device Token-id in the Smart License registration in the field field.
d) Click Apply
Step 3
To de-register a device, follow these steps:
a) Choose Management > Smart-license > Device registration to open the device registration page.
b) From the Action drop-down list choose De-registration to remove a registered device.
c) Click Apply
Step 4
To view the current Smart Licensing parameters, follow these steps:
a) Choose Management > Smart-license > Status to open the Status page.
b) To view the Smart-Licensing Parameters, choose from the following options in the drop-down list:
• Status
• Summary
• all
• Udi
• Usage
• Tech-support
Related Topics
Information About Rehosting Licenses, on page 68
Configuring the Cisco Smart Software Licensing on WLC (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Enable Cisco Smart Software Licensing by entering the following command:
config licensing smart-license dns-server ip-address
Note
Step 2
Device reboot is required to activate the chosen license mechanism.
To register or deregister a device and to retain the state of device registration after device reboots enter the
following command:
license smart {register | deregister} idtoken
Step 3
View the license status by entering the following command:
show license {status | summary | udi | all}
Note
Step 4
The Smart License service runs an asynchronous sync with the controller. Hence, until the sync is
completed, on executing the show command the local controller information is displayed and when
the show command invoked the next time, the updated values from the Smart Licence is displayed.
Clear the Cisco Smart Software Licensing statistics by entering the following command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
65
Management of Controllers
Updating DNS IP Address for Cisco Smart Software Licensing (CLI)
clear stats smart-lic
Related Topics
Information About Rehosting Licenses, on page 68
Updating DNS IP Address for Cisco Smart Software Licensing (CLI)
In a situation where you need to update the DNS IP address for Smart Licensing, remove the device from the
Cisco Smart Software Manager.
Procedure
Step 1
Reset the Smart Licensing DNS IP address by entering this command:
test smart-lic reset-all
Note
Step 2
In a HA setup, execute the command in the active device first and then on the standby device.
Reregister the device in Cisco SSM by entering this command:
license smart register token-id force
Step 3
Save the configuration and reboot the controller
Related Topics
Information About Rehosting Licenses, on page 68
Right to Use Licensing
Right to Use (RTU) licensing is a model in which licenses are not tied to a unique device identifier (UDI),
product ID, or serial number. Use RTU licensing to enable a desired AP license count on the controller after
you accept the End User License Agreement (EULA). This allows you to add AP counts on a controller
interacting with external tools.
RTU licensing is supported only on the following Cisco Wireless Controller platforms:
• Cisco 3504 WLC
• Cisco 5520 WLC
• Cisco 8540 WLC
• Cisco vWLC
In the RTU licensing model, the following types of licenses are available:
• Permanent or base licenses—These licenses are programmed into the controller hardware at the time of
manufacturing. These licenses are base count licenses that cannot be deleted or transferred.
• Adder licenses—These licenses are wireless access point count licenses that you can activate by accepting
the RTU EULA. The EULA states that you are obliged to purchase the specified access point count
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
66
Management of Controllers
Configuring Right to Use Licensing (GUI)
licenses at the time of activation. You must activate these licenses for the purchased access points count
and accept the EULA.
You can remove an adder license from one controller and transfer the license to another controller in the
same product family.
Note
Licenses embedded in the controller at the time of shipment is not transferrable.
• Evaluation licenses—These licenses are demo or trial mode licenses that are valid for 90 days. Fifteen
days prior to the expiry of the 90-day period, you are notified about the requirement to buy the permanent
license. These evaluation licenses are installed with the license image. You can activate the evaluation
licenses anytime with a command. A EULA is prompted after you run the activation command on the
controller CLI. The EULA states that you are obligated to pay for the specified license count within 90
days of usage. The countdown starts after you accept the EULA.
Whenever you add or delete an access point adder license on the controller, you are prompted with an RTU
EULA. You can either accept or decline the RTU EULA for each add or delete operation.
For high-availability (HA) controllers when you enable HA, the controllers synchronize with the enabled
license count of the primary controller and support high availability for up to the license count enabled on the
primary controller.
You can view the RTU licenses through the controller GUI or CLI. You can also view these licenses across
multiple wireless controllers through Cisco Prime Infrastructure.
With Release 8.1, the license management for Cisco Virtual Wireless Controller is changed from license-file
based management to Right-to-Use-based management. The previous licenses are still valid, and when you
upgrade to Release 8.1 from an earlier release, you are required to only accept an end-user license agreement
again to the quantity installed before.
Configuring Right to Use Licensing (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > Software Activation > Licenses to open the Licenses page.
Step 2
In the Adder License area, choose to add or delete the number of APs that an AP license can support, enter a
value, and click Set Count.
Step 3
Save the configuration.
Configuring Right to Use Licensing (CLI)
Procedure
• Add or delete the number of APs that an AP license can support by entering this command:
license {add | delete} ap-count count
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
67
Management of Controllers
Rehosting Licenses
• Add or delete a license for a feature by entering this command:
license {add | delete} feature license_name
• Activate or deactivate an evaluation AP count license by entering this command:
license {activate | deactivate} ap-count eval
Note
When you activate the license, you are prompted to accept or reject the End User License Agreement (EULA)
for the given license. If you activate a license that supports fewer number of APs than the current number of
APs connected to the controller, the activation command fails.
• Activate or deactivate a feature license by entering this command:
license {activate | deactivate} feature license_name
• See the licensing information by entering this command:
show license all
What to do next
Note
After you add or delete the license, WLC must use the save config command to save the license.
Rehosting Licenses
This section describes how to rehost licenses.
Information About Rehosting Licenses
Revoking a license from one controller and installing it on another is called rehosting. You might want to
rehost a license in order to change the purpose of a controller. For example, if you want to move your
OfficeExtend or indoor mesh access points to a different controller, you could transfer the adder license from
one controller to another controller of the same model (intramodel transfer). This can be done in the case of
RMA or a network rearchitecture that requires you to transfer licenses from one appliance to another. It is not
possible to rehost base licenses in normal scenarios of network rearchitecture. The only exception where the
transfer of base licenses is allowed is for RMA when you get a replacement hardware when your existing
appliance has a failure.
Evaluation licenses cannot be rehosted.
In order to rehost a license, you must generate credential information from the controller and use it to obtain
a permission ticket to revoke the license from the Cisco licensing site. Next, you must obtain a rehost ticket
and use it to obtain a license installation file for the controller on which you want to install the license.
Note
A revoked license cannot be reinstalled on the same controller.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
68
Management of Controllers
Rehosting a License
Related Topics
Cisco Smart Software Licensing, on page 63
Restrictions for Using Cisco Smart Software Licensing, on page 63
Configuring Cisco Smart Software Licensing (GUI), on page 64
Configuring the Cisco Smart Software Licensing on WLC (CLI), on page 65
Updating DNS IP Address for Cisco Smart Software Licensing (CLI), on page 66
Rehosting a License
Rehosting a License (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > Software Activation > Commands to open the License Commands page.
Step 2
From the Action drop-down list, choose Rehost. The Revoke a License from the Device and Generate Rehost
Ticket area appears.
Step 3
In the File Name to Save Credentials text box, enter the path on the TFTP server where you want the device
credentials to be saved and click Save Credentials.
Step 4
To obtain a permission ticket to revoke the license, follow these steps:
a) Click Cisco Licensing (https://tools.cisco.com/SWIFT/Licensing/PrivateRegistrationServlet).
b) On the Product License Registration page, click Look Up a License under Manage Licenses.
c) Enter the product ID and serial number for your controller.
Note
To find the controller’s product ID and serial number, choose Controller > Inventory on the
controller GUI.
d) Open the device credential information file that you saved in Step 3 and copy and paste the contents of
the file into the Device Credentials text box.
e) Enter the security code in the blank box and click Continue.
f) Choose the licenses that you want to revoke from this controller and click Start License Transfer.
g) On the Rehost Quantities page, enter the number of licenses that you want to revoke in the To Rehost text
box and click Continue.
h) On the Designate Licensee page, enter the product ID and serial number of the controller for which you
plan to revoke the license, read and accept the conditions of the End User License Agreement (EULA),
complete the rest of the text boxes on this page, and click Continue.
i) On the Review and Submit page, verify that all information is correct and click Submit.
j) When a message appears indicating that the registration is complete, click Download Permission Ticket.
The rehost permission ticket is e-mailed within 1 hour to the address that you specified.
k) After the e-mail arrives, copy the rehost permission ticket to your TFTP server.
Step 5
Use the rehost permission ticket to revoke the license from this controller and generate a rehost ticket as
follows:
a) In the Enter Saved Permission Ticket File Name text box, enter the TFTP path and filename (*.lic) for
the rehost permission ticket that you generated in Step 4.
b) In the Rehost Ticket File Name text box, enter the TFTP path and filename (*.lic) for the ticket that will
be used to rehost this license on another controller.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
69
Management of Controllers
Rehosting a License (CLI)
c) Click Generate Rehost Ticket.
d) When the End User License Agreement (EULA) acceptance dialog box appears, read the agreement and
click Accept to accept the terms of the agreement.
Step 6
Use the rehost ticket generated in Step 5 to obtain a license installation file, which can then be installed on
another controller as follows:
a) Click Cisco Licensing.
b) On the Product License Registration page, click Upload Rehost Ticket under Manage Licenses.
c) On the Upload Ticket page, enter the rehost ticket that you generated in Step 5 in the Enter Rehost Ticket
text box and click Continue.
d) On the Validate Features page, verify that the license information for your controller is correct, enter the
rehost quantity, and click Continue.
e) On the Designate Licensee page, enter the product ID and serial number of the controller on which you
plan to use the license, read and accept the conditions of the End User License Agreement (EULA),
complete the rest of the text boxes on this page, and click Continue.
f) On the Review and Submit page, verify that all information is correct and click Submit.
g) When a message appears indicating that the registration is complete, click Download License. The rehost
license key is e-mailed within 1 hour to the address that you specified.
h) After the e-mail arrives, copy the rehost license key to your TFTP server.
i) Follow the instructions in the Installing a License section to install this on another controller.
Step 7
After revoking the license on original controller, correspondent evaluation licence appear with High pritority.
Lower the priority of the evaluation license so that the parmanent license is in "In Use" status.
Rehosting a License (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Save device credential information to a file by entering this command:
license save credential url
where url is tftp://server_ip/path/filename.
Step 2
Obtain a permission ticket to revoke the license as follows:
a) Go to https://tools.cisco.com/SWIFT/Licensing/PrivateRegistrationServlet. The Product License
Registration page appears.
b) Under Manage Licenses, click Look Up a License.
c) Enter the product ID and serial number for your controller.
Note
To find the controller’s product ID and serial number, enter the show license udi command on
the controller CLI.
d) Open the device credential information file that you saved in Step 1 and copy and paste the contents of
the file into the Device Credentials text box.
e) Enter the security code in the blank box and click Continue.
f) Choose the licenses that you want to revoke from this controller and click Start License Transfer.
g) On the Rehost Quantities page, enter the number of licenses that you want to revoke in the To Rehost text
box and click Continue.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
70
Management of Controllers
License Agent
h) On the Designate Licensee page, enter the product ID and serial number of the controller for which you
plan to revoke the license, read and accept the conditions of the End-User License Agreement (EULA),
complete the rest of the text boxes on this page, and click Continue.
i) On the Review and Submit page, verify that all information is correct and click Submit.
j) When a message appears indicating that the registration is complete, click Download Permission Ticket.
The rehost permission ticket is e-mailed within 1 hour to the address that you specified.
k) After the e-mail arrives, copy the rehost permission ticket to your TFTP server.
Step 3
Use the rehost permission ticket to revoke the license from this controller and generate a rehost ticket as
follows:
a) Revoke the license from the controller by entering this command:
license revoke permission_ticket_url
where permission_ticket_url is tftp://server_ip/path/filename.
b) Generate the rehost ticket by entering this command:
license revoke rehost rehost_ticket_url
where rehost_ticket_url is tftp://server_ip/path/filename.
c) If prompted, read and accept the terms of the End-User License Agreement (EULA).
Step 4
Use the rehost ticket generated in Step 3 to obtain a license installation file, which can then be installed on
another controller as follows:
a) Go to https://tools.cisco.com/SWIFT/Licensing/PrivateRegistrationServlet.
b) On the Product License Registration page, click Upload Rehost Ticket under Manage Licenses.
c) On the Upload Ticket page, enter the rehost ticket that you generated in Step 3 in the Enter Rehost Ticket
text box and click Continue.
d) On the Validate Features page, verify that the license information for your controller is correct, enter the
rehost quantity, and click Continue.
e) On the Designate Licensee page, enter the product ID and serial number of the controller on which you
plan to use the license, read and accept the conditions of the End-User License Agreement (EULA),
complete the rest of the text boxes on this page, and click Continue.
f) On the Review and Submit page, verify that all information is correct and click Submit.
g) When a message appears indicating that the registration is complete, click Download License. The rehost
license key is e-mailed within 1 hour to the address that you specified.
h) After the e-mail arrives, copy the rehost license key to your TFTP server.
i) Follow the instructions in the Installing a License (GUI), on page 54 section to install this license on
another controller.
Step 5
After revoking the license on original controller, correspondent evaluation licence appear with High pritority.
Lower the priority of the evaluation license so that the parmanent license is in "In Use" status.
License Agent
If your network contains various Cisco-licensed devices, you might want to consider using the Cisco License
Manager (CLM) to manage all of the licenses using a single application. CLM is a secure client/server
application that manages Cisco software licenses network wide.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
71
Management of Controllers
Configuring the License Agent (GUI)
The license agent is an interface module that runs on the controller and mediates between CLM and the
controller’s licensing infrastructure. CLM can communicate with the controller using various channels, such
as HTTP, Telnet, and so on. If you want to use HTTP as the communication method, you must enable the
license agent on the controller.
The license agent receives requests from CLM and translates them into license commands. It also sends
notifications to CLM. It uses XML messages over HTTP or HTTPS to receive the requests and send the
notifications. For example, CLM sends a license install command, and the agent notifies CLM after the license
expires.
Note
You can download the CLM software and access user documentation at https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/
products/cloud-systems-management/license-manager/index.html.
This section contains the following subsections:
Configuring the License Agent (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > Software Activation > License Agent to open the License Agent Configuration
page.
Step 2
Select the Enable Default Authentication check box to enable the license agent, or leave it unselected to
disable this feature. The default value is unselected.
Step 3
In the Maximum Number of Sessions text box, enter the maximum number of sessions for the license agent.
The valid range is 1 to 25 sessions (inclusive).
Step 4
Configure the license agent to listen for requests from the CLM as follows:
a) Select the Enable Listener check box to enable the license agent to receive license requests from the
CLM, or unselect this check box to disable this feature. The default value is unselected.
b) In the Listener Message Processing URL text box, enter the URL where the license agent receives license
requests (for example, http://209.165.201.30/licenseAgent/custom). The Protocol parameter indicates
whether the URL requires HTTP or HTTPS.
Note
You can specify the protocol to use on the HTTP Configuration page.
c) Select the Enable Authentication for Listener check box to enable authentication for the license agent
when it is receiving license requests, or unselect this check box to disable this feature. The default value
is unselected.
d) In the Max HTTP Message Size text box, enter the maximum size for license requests. The valid range
is 0 to 9999 bytes, and the default value is 0.
Step 5
Configure the license agent to send license notifications to the CLM as follows:
a) Select the Enable Notification check box to enable the license agent to send license notifications to the
CLM, or unselect this check box to disable this feature. The default value is unselected.
b) In the URL to Send the Notifications text box, enter the URL where the license agent sends the notifications
(for example, http://www.cisco.com/license/notify).
c) In the User Name text box, enter the username required in order to view the notification messages at this
URL.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
72
Management of Controllers
Configuring the License Agent (CLI)
d) In the Password and Confirm Password text boxes, enter the password required in order to view the
notification messages at this URL.
Step 6
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 7
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring the License Agent (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Enable the license agent by entering one of these commands:
• config license agent default authenticate—Enables the license agent default listener with authentication.
• config license agent default authenticate none—Enables the license agent default listener without
authentication.
Note
Step 2
To disable the license agent default listener, enter the config license agent default disable
command. The default value is disabled.
Specify the maximum number of sessions for the license agent by entering this command:
config license agent max-sessions sessions
The valid range for the sessions parameter is 1 to 25 (inclusive), and the default value is 9.
Step 3
Enable the license agent to receive license requests from the CLM and to specify the URL where the license
agent receives the requests by entering this command:
config license agent listener http {plaintext | encrypt} url authenticate [none] [max-message size] [acl
acl]
The valid range for the size parameter is 0 to 65535 bytes, and the default value is 0.
Note
Step 4
To prevent the license agent from receiving license requests from the CLM, enter the config license
agent listener http disable command. The default value is disabled.
Configure the license agent to send license notifications to the CLM and to specify the URL where the license
agent sends the notifications by entering this command:
config license agent notify url username password
Note
To prevent the license agent from sending license notifications to the CLM, enter the config license
agent notify disable username password command. The default value is disabled.
Step 5
Enter the save config command to save your changes.
Step 6
See statistics for the license agent’s counters or sessions by entering this command:
show license agent {counters | sessions}
Information similar to the following appears for the show license agent counters command:
License Agent Counters
Request Messages Received:10: Messages with Errors:1
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
73
Management of Controllers
Call-Home
Request Operations Received:9: Operations with Errors:0
Notification Messages Sent:12: Transmission Errors:0: Soap Errors:0
Information similar to the following appears for the show license agent sessions command:
License Agent Sessions: 1 open, maximum is 9
Note
To clear the license agent’s counter or session statistics, enter the clear license agent {counters |
sessions} command.
Call-Home
You can create reporting profiles of your choice for the Smart Licensing messages and Call-Home events.
Call-Home reports Smart Licensing messages that are based on the active profile. At any time, only one profile
can be active. The messages use XML format. Therefore, ensure that you choose XML format for all the
profiles that you create.
Note
By default call-home TAC profile is enabled. However if you disable the TAC profile and try to register or
deregister Smart Licensing service, the profile status changes to active (enabled) dynamically.
This section contains the following subsections:
Configuring Call-Home (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
To enable or disable the Call-Home reporting function, follow the steps:
a) Choose Management > Smart-License > Call-home > configuration to open the Call-Home >
Configuration page.
b) From the Events drop-down list choose from the following options in the drop-down list:
• Enabled–enables Call-Home reporting
• Disabled–disables Call-Home reporting
c) Click Apply
Step 2
To set the Data privacy level, follow the steps:
a) From the Reporting Data-privacy-level drop-down list choose from the following options in the
drop-down list:
• normal–scrubs normal level commands
• high–scrubs all normal level commands, IP domain name and IP address commands
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
74
Management of Controllers
Configuring Call-Home (GUI)
b) Click Apply
Step 3
Enter the hostname in the Reporting Hostname text box.
Step 4
To configure the http-proxy settings, following the steps:
a) In the HTTP-proxy field, enter the IP-Address and port number
b) Click Apply
Step 5
To enable or disable the TAC Profile Status, follow the steps:
a) From the TAC Profile Status drop-down list, choose from the following options in the drop-down list:
• Enabled–enables the TAC profile
• Disabled–disables the TAC profile
b) Click Apply
Step 6
Enter the email address in the Contact person's email address text box.
Step 7
To create a new profile, follow the steps:
a) Enter the name for the new profile in the Name text box.
b) From the Status drop-down list choose from the following options in the drop-down list:
• Enabled–activates the profile
• Disabled–deactivates the profile
c) From the Module drop-down list, choose from the following options in the drop-down list:
• sm-license-data–smart license data
• all–combines smart license and call-home data
• call-home-data–call-home data
d) From the Reporting Format drop-down list, choose from the following options in the drop-down list:
• short-text–data reporting in short-text format
• long-text–data reporting in long-text format
• xml–call-data reporting in xml format
Note
The messages use XML format, hence, ensure XML message format is chosen for all profiles
created.
e) The current default is xml format.
f) Enter the url in the url text box.
g) Click Add
Step 8
To update an existing profile, follow the steps:
a) Place the mouse cursor over the blue down arrow icon in front of the Profile to edit.
b) Choose update from the drop-down list which appears.
c) Update the fields as required from the options available:
• Status
• Module
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
75
Management of Controllers
Configuring Call-Home Parameters (CLI)
• Url
d) Click Apply
Step 9
To delete a profile, follow the steps:
a) Place the mouse cursor over the blue down arrow icon in front of the Profile to edit.
b) Choose delete from the drop-down list which appears.
Configuring Call-Home Parameters (CLI)
Configure Call-Home parameters by entering the following commands:
Procedure
Step 1
Enable or disable Call-Home reporting by entering the following command:
config call-home events {enable | disable}
The default value is enable.
Step 2
Create a new profile or update an existing profile by entering the following command:
config call-home profile {create | update} profile-name {sm-license-data | all | call-home-data} XML
url
Note
Step 3
Currently, only XML format is supported. Hence, when call-home-data profile option is selected,
choose XML format from the drop-down menu.
Delete an existing profile by entering the following command:
config call-home profile delete profile-name
Step 4
Configure the proxy settings by adding the IP address and port number by entering the following command:
config call-home http-proxy ipaddr ip-address port port
Step 5
Reset the proxy settings by entering the following command:
config call-home http-proxy ipaddr 0.0.0.0
Step 6
Enable user data privacy by entering the following command:
config call-home reporting data-privacy-level {normal | high} hostname host-name
Step 7
Enable or disable the user profile by entering the following command:
config call-home profile status {enable | disable}
Step 8
Configure the contact email address by entering the following command:
config call-home contact-email-addr e-mail address
Step 9
Enable or disable the status of the TAC profile by entering the following command:
config call-home tac-profile status {enable | disable}
The default value is enable.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
76
Management of Controllers
Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points
Step 10
View the Call-Home settings by entering the following command:
config call-home summary
Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and
Access Points
The Unique Device Identifier (UDI) standard uniquely identifies products across all Cisco hardware product
families, enabling customers to identify and track Cisco products throughout their business and network
operations and to automate their asset management systems. The standard is consistent across all electronic,
physical, and standard business communications. The UDI consists of five data elements:
• The orderable product identifier (PID)
• The version of the product identifier (VID)
• The serial number (SN)
• The entity name
• The product description
The UDI is burned into the EEPROM of controllers and lightweight access points at the factory. It can be
retrieved through either the GUI or the CLI.
This section contains the following subsections:
Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Inventory to open the Inventory page.
This page shows the five data elements of the controller UDI.
Step 2
Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.
Step 3
Click the name of the desired access point.
Step 4
Choose the Inventory tab to open the All APs > Details for (Inventory) page.
This page shows the inventory information for the access point.
Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points (CLI)
Use these commands to retrieve the UDI on controllers and access points using the controller CLI:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
77
Management of Controllers
Retrieving the Unique Device Identifier on Controllers and Access Points (CLI)
Procedure
• show inventory—Shows the UDI string of the controller.
• show inventory ap ap_id—Shows the UDI string of the access point specified.
• show license udi—Shows UDI values for licenses.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
78
CHAPTER
6
Managing Software
• Upgrading the Controller Software, on page 79
• Considerations for Upgrading Controller Software, on page 79
• Upgrading Controller Software (GUI), on page 80
• Upgrading Controller Software (CLI), on page 82
• Predownloading an Image to an Access Point, on page 84
• Bootloader and Recovery Image, on page 90
Upgrading the Controller Software
When you upgrade the controller software, the software on the access points associated with the controller is
also automatically upgraded. When an access point is loading software, each of its LEDs blinks in succession.
Caution
Do not power down the controller or any access point during this process; otherwise, you might corrupt the
software image. Upgrading a controller with a large number of access points can take as long as 30 minutes,
depending on the size of your network. However, with the increased number of concurrent access point
upgrades supported in the controller software release, the upgrade time should be significantly reduced. The
access points must remain powered, and the controller must not be reset during this time.
Considerations for Upgrading Controller Software
The following are some of the general restrictions that are applicable when upgrading the controller software.
For any release-specific restrictions, see the relevant release notes.
For correct interoperability among Cisco Wireless infrastructure, including but not limited to mobility among
controllers, AP compatibility, we recommend that you consult the Cisco Wireless Solutions Software
Compatibility Matrix at:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/compatibility/matrix/compatibility-matrix.html
• For every software upgrade, we recommend that you consult the corresponding release notes for any
caveats, considerations, or possible interim upgrades required to upgrade your controller(s) to the desired
release of software.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
79
Management of Controllers
Upgrading Controller Software (GUI)
• We recommend that you have a backup of your configuration in an external repository prior to any
software upgrade activity.
• Ensure that the configuration file that you back up does not contain < or > special character. If either of
the special characters is present, then the download of the backed up configuration file fails.
• The upgrade of the controller software, with a fast connection to your TFTP, SFTP, or FTP file server,
can take approximately 15 to 25 minutes or less from the start of the software transfer to reboot of
controller (might take longer if the upgrade also includes a Field Upgrade Software installation during
the same maintenance window). The time required for the upgrade of the associated APs might vary
from one network to another, due to a variety of deployment-specific factors, such as number of APs
associated with controller, speed of network connectivity between a given AP and the controller, and so
on.
• We recommend that, during the upgrade process, you do not power off controller or any AP associated
with the controller.
• Controllers support standard SNMP Management Information Base (MIB) files. MIBs can be downloaded
from the Download Software area in Cisco.com.
• The objects under the SNMP table bsnAPIfDot11CountersEntry like bsnAPIfDot11RetryCount,
bsnAPIfDot11TransmittedFrameCount, and so on, per SNMP MIB description, are defined to use the
index as 802.3 (Ethernet) MAC address of the AP. However, the controller sends the AP radio MAC
address in snmpget, getnext, and getbulk. This is because the snmpwalk returns index using base radio
MAC address instead of the AP Ethernet MAC address.
• You can reduce the network downtime using the following options:
• You can predownload the AP image.
For more information about predownloading the AP image, see the "Predownloading an Image to
an Access Point" section.
• For FlexConnect access points, use the FlexConnect Efficient AP upgrade feature to reduce traffic
between the controller and the AP (main site and the branch).
For more information about configuring FlexConnect AP upgrades, see the "Configuring FlexConnect
AP Upgrades for FlexConnect APs" chapter.
Related Topics
Predownloading an Image to an Access Point, on page 84
Upgrading Controller Software (GUI)
Before you begin
Before upgrading the controller software, we recommend that you consult relevant release notes for any
release-specific restrictions.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
80
Management of Controllers
Upgrading Controller Software (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Upload your controller configuration files to a server to back them up.
Note
Step 2
We highly recommend that you back up your configuration files of the controller prior to upgrading
the controller software. Otherwise, you must manually reconfigure the controller.
Get the controller software image by following these steps:
a) Browse to http://www.cisco.com/cisco/software/navigator.html.
b) Choose Wireless > Wireless LAN Controller.
The following options are available: Integrated Controllers and Controller Modules, Mobility Express,
and Standalone Controllers.
c) Depending on your controller platform, click one of the above options.
d) Click the controller model number or name. The Download Software page is displayed.
e) Click a controller software release. The software releases are labeled as follows to help you determine
which release to download:
Early Deployment (ED)—These software releases provide new features, new hardware platform support,
and bug fixes.
Maintenance Deployment (MD)—These software releases provide bug fixes and ongoing software
maintenance.
Deferred (DF)—These software releases have been deferred. We recommend that you migrate to an
upgraded release.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
Step 3
Choose a software release number.
Click the filename (filename.aes).
Click Download.
Read Cisco’s End User Software License Agreement and then click Agree.
Save the file to your hard drive.
Repeat steps a through k to download the remaining file.
Copy the controller software image (filename.aes) to the default directory on your TFTP or FTP server.
Note
Step 4
In Release 8.1 and later releases, transfer over HTTP is also supported.
(Optional) Disable the 802.11 networks.
Note
For busy networks, controllers on high utilization, or small controller platforms, we recommend
that you disable the 802.11 networks as a precautionary measure.
Step 5
Choose Commands > Download File to open the Download File to Controller page.
Step 6
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Code.
Step 7
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
• HTTP (available in 8.1 and later releases)
Step 8
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
81
Management of Controllers
Upgrading Controller Software (CLI)
Step 9
(Optional) If you are using a TFTP server, the default values of 10 retries for the Maximum Retries text field,
and 6 seconds for the Timeout text field should work correctly without any adjustment. However, you can
change these values if desired. To do so, enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts
to download the software in the Maximum Retries text box and the amount of time (in seconds) that the
TFTP server attempts to download the software in the Timeout text box.
Step 10
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the software.
Step 11
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the controller software file (filename.aes).
Step 12
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download
occurs. The default value is 21.
Step 13
Click Download to download the software to the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the
download.
Step 14
(Optional) After the download is complete, you can choose to predownload the image to your access points.
For more information, see the "Predownloading an Image to an Access Point" section.
Step 15
Click Reboot to reboot the controller.
Step 16
If prompted to save your changes, click Save and Reboot.
Step 17
Click OK to confirm.
Step 18
After the controller reboots, repeat step 6 to step 16 to install the remaining file.
Step 19
If you have disabled the 802.11 networks, reenable them.
Step 20
To verify the controller software version, choose Monitor on the controller GUI and see Software Version
in the Controller Summary area.
Related Topics
Predownloading an Image to Access Points—Global Configuration (GUI), on page 87
Upgrading Controller Software (CLI)
Before you begin
Before upgrading the controller software, we recommend that you consult relevant release notes for any
release-specific restrictions.
Procedure
Step 1
Upload your controller configuration files to a server to back them up.
Note
Step 2
We highly recommend that you back up your controller's configuration files prior to upgrading the
controller software. Otherwise, you must manually reconfigure the controller.
Get the controller software image by following these steps:
a) Browse to http://www.cisco.com/cisco/software/navigator.html.
b) Choose Wireless > Wireless LAN Controller.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
82
Management of Controllers
Upgrading Controller Software (CLI)
The following options are available: Integrated Controllers and Controller Modules, Mobility Express,
and Standalone Controllers.
c) Depending on your controller platform, click one of the above options.
d) Click the controller model number or name. The Download Software page is displayed.
e) Click a controller software release. The software releases are labeled as follows to help you determine
which release to download:
Early Deployment (ED)—These software releases provide new features, new hardware platform support,
and bug fixes.
Maintenance Deployment (MD)—These software releases provide bug fixes and ongoing software
maintenance.
Deferred (DF)—These software releases have been deferred. We recommend that you migrate to an
upgraded release.
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
Choose a software release number.
Click the filename (filename.aes).
Click Download.
Read Cisco’s End User Software License Agreement and then click Agree.
Save the file to your hard drive.
Repeat steps a through k to download the remaining file.
Step 3
Copy the controller software image (filename.aes) to the default directory on your TFTP or FTP server.
Step 4
Log onto the controller CLI.
Step 5
On the controller CLI over Telnet or SSH, enter the ping server-ip-address command to verify that the
controller can contact the TFTP or FTP server.
Step 6
(Optional) Disable the 802.11 networks by entering this command:
config 802.11{a | b} disable network
For busy networks, controllers on high utilization, or small controller platforms, we recommend
that you disable the 802.11 networks as a precautionary measure.
Note
Step 7
Step 8
View current download settings by entering the transfer download start command. Press n at the prompt
to view the current download settings.
Change the download settings, if necessary by entering these commands:
• transfer download mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
• transfer download datatype code
• transfer download serverip server-ip-address
• transfer download filename filename
• transfer download path server-path-to-file
Note
Pathnames on a TFTP or FTP server are relative to the server’s default or root directory. For
example, in the case of the Solaris TFTP server, the path is “/”.
(Optional) If you are using a TFTP server, also enter these commands:
• transfer download tftpMaxRetries retries
• transfer download tftpPktTimeout timeout
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
83
Management of Controllers
Predownloading an Image to an Access Point
Note
The default values of 10 retries and a 6-second timeout should work correctly without any
adjustment. However, you can change these values. To do so, enter the maximum number of
times that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the retries parameter and the
amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the
timeout parameter.
If you are using an FTP server, also enter these commands:
• transfer download username username
• transfer download password password
• (Optional) transfer download port port
Note
The default value for the port parameter is 21.
Step 9
View the current updated settings by entering the transfer download start command. Press y at the prompt
to confirm the current download settings and start the software download.
Step 10
(Optional) After the download is complete, you can choose to predownload the image to your access points.
For more information, see the "Predownloading an Image to an Access Point" section.
Step 11
Save the code update to nonvolatile NVRAM and reboot the controller by entering this command:
reset system
The controller completes the bootup process.
Step 12
After the controller reboots, repeat Steps 7 through 11 to install the remaining file.
Step 13
If you have disabled the 802.11 networks in Step 6, renable them by entering this command:
config 802.11{a | b} enable network
Step 14
To verify the controller software that is installed, enter the show sysinfo command and see Product Version.
Step 15
(Optional) To verify the Cisco Unified Wireless Network Controller Boot Software file that is installed on
the controller, enter the show sysinfo command on the controller CLI and see Recovery Image Version or
Emergency Image Version.
Note
If a Cisco Unified Wireless Network Controller Boot Software ER.aes file is not installed, Recovery
Image Version or Emergency Image Version show 'N/A.'
Related Topics
Predownloading an Image to Access Points (CLI), on page 88
Predownloading an Image to an Access Point
To minimize network outages, you can download an upgrade image to the access point from the controller
without resetting the access point or losing network connectivity. Previously, you would download an upgrade
image to the controller and reset it, which causes the access point to go into discovery mode. After the access
point discovers the controller with the new image, the access point downloads the new image, resets, goes
into discovery mode, and rejoins the controller.
You can now download the upgrade image to the controller and then download the image to the access point
while the network is still operational. You can also schedule a reboot of the controller and access points, either
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
84
Management of Controllers
Access Point Predownload Process
after a specified amount of time or at a specific date and time. When both devices are up, the access point
discovers and rejoins the controller.
Concurrent Controller to AP Image Upgrade
This table lists the controllers and their maximum concurrent AP image download support.
Controller
Maximum Number of Concurrent AP Image Download
Supported
Cisco 5520 WLC
1000
Cisco 8540 WLC
1000
Cisco vWLC
1000
Flash Memory Requirements on Access Points
This table lists the Cisco AP models and the minimum amount of free flash memory required for the
predownload process to work:
Note
Cisco AP
Minimum Free Flash Memory Required
3700(I/E)
16 MB
2700(I/E)
16 MB
1700(I/E)
16 MB
• The required flash memory can vary based on the radio type and the number of antennas used.
• During the predownloading of image to APs, some APs do not have enough memory to keep the current
radio firmware available. After the image has been predownloaded, these APs have the image only on
flash memory and no other memory is available to host the current image or version radio firmware. The
APs that have this limitation are as follows: Cisco Aironet 700, 1520, 1530, 1550, 1600, 3500, and 3600
Series APs.
For more information about this limitation, see CSCvg41698.
• As part of the fix for CSCvb75682, if the flash memory of Cisco Aironet 1700, 2700, and 3700 Series
APs is less than 10 Mb and a recovery image is present, the backup images in these APs are deleted.
Related Topics
Considerations for Upgrading Controller Software, on page 79
Information About FlexConnect AP Image Upgrades, on page 1243
Access Point Predownload Process
The access point predownload feature works as follows:
• The controller image is downloaded.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
85
Management of Controllers
Access Point Predownload Process
• (Optional) The primary image becomes the backup image of the controller and the downloaded
image becomes the new primary image. Change the current boot image as the backup image by
using the config boot backup command to ensure that if a system failure occurs, the controller
boots with the last working image of the controller.
• Start the AP image predownload procedure for all joined APs or a specific AP, by entering the
config ap image predownload primary {all | ap-name} command.
• The upgrade image is downloaded as the backup image on the APs. You can verify this by using
the show ap image all command.
• Change the boot image to primary image manually using the config boot primary command and
reboot the controller for the upgrade image to be activated.
or
• You issue a scheduled reboot with the swap keyword. The swap keyword has the following
importance: The swapping occurs to the primary and backup images on the access point and the
currently active image on controller with the backup image.
• When the controller reboots, the access points are disassociated and eventually come up with an
upgraded image. Once the controller responds to the discovery request sent by an access point with
its discovery response packet, the access point sends a join request.
• The actual upgrade of the images occur. The following sequence of actions occur:
• During boot time, the access point sends a join request.
• The controller responds with the join response with the image version that the controller is running.
• The access point compares its running image with the running image on the controller. If the versions
match, the access point joins the controller.
• If the versions do not match, the access point compares the version of the backup image and if they
match, the access point swaps the primary and backup images and reloads and subsequently joins
the controller.
• If the primary image of the access point is the same as the controller image, the access point reloads
and joins the controller.
• If none of the above conditions are true, the access point sends an image data request to the controller,
downloads the latest image, reloads, and joins the controller.
Note
Normally, when upgrading the image of an AP, you can use the preimage download feature to reduce the
amount of time the AP is unavailable to serve clients. However, it also increases the downtime because the
AP cannot serve clients during an upgrade. The preimage download feature can be used to reduce this downtime.
However, in the case of a branch office set up, the upgrade images are still downloaded to each AP over the
WAN link, which has a higher latency.
A more efficient way is to use the FlexConnect AP Image Upgrade feature. When this feature is enabled, one
AP of each model in the local network first downloads the upgrade image over the WAN link. For more
information about FlexConnect AP upgrades, see the "FlexConnect AP Image Upgrades" chapter.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
86
Management of Controllers
Guidelines and Restrictions for Predownloading an Image to an Access Point
Related Topics
Information About FlexConnect AP Image Upgrades, on page 1243
Guidelines and Restrictions for Predownloading an Image to an Access Point
• The maximum number of concurrent predownloads is limited to half the number of concurrent normal
image downloads. This limitation allows new access points to join the controller during image
downloading.
• If you reach the predownload limit, then the access points that cannot get an image sleep for a time
between 180 to 600 seconds and then reattempt the predownload.
• Before you predownload, you should change the active controller boot image to the backup image to
ensure that if the controller reboots for some reason, it comes back up with the earlier running image,
not the partially downloaded upgrade image.
• When the system time is changed by using the config time command, the time set for a scheduled reset
is not valid and the scheduled system reset is canceled. You are given an option either to cancel the
scheduled reset before configuring the time or retain the scheduled reset and not configure the time.
• All the primary, secondary, and tertiary controllers should run the same images as the primary and backup
images. That is, the primary image of all three controllers should be X and the secondary image of all
three controllers should be Y or the feature is not effective.
Having different versions of the controller software running on primary, secondary, and tertiary controllers
adds unnecessary and protracted delays to APs failing over and joining the other available controllers in
an N+1 setup. This is due to the APs being forced to download different image versions when failing
over to a secondary or tertiary controller, and joining back to their primary controller when it is available.
• At the time of the reset, if any AP is downloading the controller image, the scheduled reset is canceled.
The following message appears with the reason why the scheduled reset was canceled:
%OSAPI-3-RESETSYSTEM_FAILED: osapi_task.c:4458 System will not reset as software is
being upgraded.
• If you upgrade from 8.2 to 8.4 release, the predownload process on Cisco AP1700, AP2700, or AP3700
fails with the following error message:
Not enough free space to download.
After the controller is reloaded with 8.4, the backup image version still shows up as 3.0.
• If an AP is in the process of downloading a software image, the status of the download is not shown on
the controller CLI. During the image download process, any configuration performed on the AP via the
controller CLI is not applied. Therefore, we recommend that you do not perform any configuration on
the AP via the controller CLI if an image download on the AP is in progress.
Predownloading an Image to Access Points—Global Configuration (GUI)
To predownload an image to the APs, you must perform the following steps after upgrading your controller
software image and before you reboot the controller for the new image to take effect.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
87
Management of Controllers
Predownloading an Image to Access Points (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
To configure the predownloading of access point images globally, choose Wireless > Access Points > Global
Configuration to open the Global Configuration page.
Step 2
In the AP Image Pre-download section, perform one of the following:
• To instruct all the access points to predownload a primary image from the controller, click Download
Primary under the AP Image Pre-download.
• To instruct all the access points to swap their primary and backup images, click Interchange Image.
• To download an image from the controller and store it as a backup image, click Download Backup.
• To terminate the predownload operation, click Abort Predownload.
Step 3
Click OK.
Step 4
Click Apply.
Related Topics
Upgrading Controller Software (GUI), on page 80
Predownloading an Image to Access Points (CLI)
To predownload an image to the APs, you must perform the following steps after upgrading your controller
software image and before you reboot the controller for the new image to take effect.
Procedure
Step 1
Specify APs that will receive the predownload image by entering one of these commands:
• Specify APs for predownload by entering this command:
config ap image predownload {primary | backup} {ap_name | all}
The primary image is the new image; the backup image is the existing image. APs always boot with the
primary image.
• Swap an AP’s primary and backup images by entering this command:
config ap image swap {ap_name | all}
• Display detailed information on APs specified for predownload by entering this command:
show ap image {all | ap-name}
The output lists APs that are specified for predownloading and provides for each AP, primary and secondary
image versions, the version of the predownload image, the predownload retry time (if necessary), and the
number of predownload attempts. The output also includes the predownload status for each device. The status
of the APs is as follows:
• None—The AP is not scheduled for predownload.
• Predownloading—The AP is predownloading the image.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
88
Management of Controllers
Predownloading an Image to Access Points (CLI)
• Initiated—The AP is waiting to get the predownload image because the concurrent download limit has
been reached.
• Failed—The AP has failed 64 predownload attempts.
• Complete—The AP has completed predownloading.
Step 2
Set a reboot time for the controller and the APs.
Use one of these commands to schedule a reboot of the controller and APs:
• Specify the amount of time delay before the devices reboot by entering this command:
reset system in HH:MM:SS image {swap | no-swap} reset-aps [save-config]
Note
The swap operand in the reset command will result in the swapping of the primary and backup
images on both the controller and the AP and sets the default flag on the next controller reboot.
The controller sends a reset message to all joined APs, and then the controller resets.
• Specify a date and time for the devices to reboot by entering this command:
reset system at YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS image {swap | no-swap} reset-aps [save-config]
The controller sends a reset message to all joined APs, and then the controller resets.
Note
The swap operand in the reset command will result in the swapping of the primary and backup
images on both the controller and the AP.
• (Optional) Set up an SNMP trap message that announces the upcoming reset by entering this command:
reset system notify-time minutes
The controller sends the announcement trap the configured number of minutes before the reset.
• Cancel the scheduled reboot by entering this command:
reset system cancel
Note
If you configure reset times and then use the config time command to change the system time
on the controller, the controller notifies you that any scheduled reset times will be canceled
and must be reconfigured after you set the system time.
Use the show reset command to display scheduled resets.
Information similar to the following appears:
System reset is scheduled for Apr 08 01:01:01 2010.
Current local time and date is Apr 07 02:57:44 2010.
A trap will be generated 10 minutes before each scheduled system reset.
Use 'reset system cancel' to cancel the reset.
Configuration will be saved before the system reset.
Related Topics
Upgrading Controller Software (CLI), on page 82
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
89
Management of Controllers
Bootloader and Recovery Image
Bootloader and Recovery Image
The controller, by default, maintains two software images: a primary image and a backup image. The primary
image is the active image used by the controller and the backup image is used as a backup for the primary
(active) image.
The controller bootloader (ppcboot) stores a copy of the primary (active) image and the backup image. If the
primary image is corrupted, you must use the bootloader to boot with the backup image.
You can change the active image using either of the following two methods:
• Assuming that the controller has a valid backup image, reboot the controller. During the boot process
on the controller, press Esc key to see additional options. You are prompted to choose an option from
the following:
1. Run primary image
2. Run backup image
3. Manually upgrade primary image
4. Change active boot image
5. Clear configuration
Choose Option 4: Change active boot image from the boot menu to set the backup image as the active
boot image. The controller, when rebooted, boots with the new active image.
• You can also manually change the active booti image of the controller using the config boot {primary
| backup} command.
Each controller can boot off the primary, previously loaded OS image or boot off the backup image, an
OS image that was loaded earlier. To change the controller boot option, use the config boot command.
By default, the primary image on the controller is chosen as the active image.
Note
To properly use the bootloader menu, you must have a console connection.
Configuring Boot Order (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Commands > Config Boot to navigate to the Config Boot Image page, which displays the primary
and backup images presently available on the controller and also indicates the current image in use.
Step 2
From the Image drop-down list, choose the image to be used as the active image.
Step 3
Save the configuration and reboot the controller.
• The controller, when rebooted, boots with the image that you chose.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
90
Management of Controllers
Recovering an Access Point Using TFTP
• When you upgrade the controller with the new image, the controller automatically writes the new image
as the primary image and the previously existing primary image is written over the backup image.
Note
The previously existing backup image will be lost.
• On the controller GUI, to see the active image that the controller is currently using, choose Monitor >
Summary to navigate to the Summary page and see the Software Version field.
On the controller CLI, use the show boot command to view the primary and backup image present on
the controller.
Recovering an Access Point Using TFTP
The recovery image provides a backup image that can be used if an AP power-cycles during an image upgrade.
The best way to avoid the need for AP recovery is to prevent an AP from power-cycling during a system
upgrade. If a power-cycle occurs during an upgrade to an oversized AP image, you can recover the AP using
the following TFTP recovery procedure.
Note
IPv6 is not supported in AP recovery images.
Procedure
Step 1
Download the required recovery image from Cisco.com and install it in the root directory of your TFTP server.
Step 2
Connect the TFTP server to the same subnet as the target access point and power-cycle the access point. The
access point boots from the TFTP image and then joins the controller to download the oversized access point
image and complete the upgrade procedure.
Step 3
After the access point has been recovered, you can remove the TFTP server.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
91
Management of Controllers
Recovering an Access Point Using TFTP
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
92
CHAPTER
7
Managing Configuration
• Resetting the Controller to Default Settings, on page 93
• Saving Configurations, on page 94
• Editing Configuration Files, on page 94
• Clearing the Controller Configuration, on page 96
• Restoring Passwords, on page 96
• Rebooting the Controller, on page 97
• Transferring Files to and from a Controller, on page 97
Resetting the Controller to Default Settings
You can return the controller to its original configuration by resetting the controller to factory-default settings.
This section contains the following subsections:
Resetting the Controller to Default Settings (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Start your Internet browser.
Step 2
Enter the controller IP address in the browser address line and press Enter. An Enter Network Password
dialog box appears.
Step 3
Enter your username in the User Name text box. The default username is admin.
Step 4
Enter the wireless device password in the Password text box and press Enter. The default password is admin.
Step 5
Choose Commands > Reset to Factory Default.
Step 6
Click Reset.
Step 7
When prompted, confirm the reset.
Step 8
Reboot the controller without saving the configuration.
Step 9
Use the configuration wizard to enter configuration settings.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
93
Management of Controllers
Resetting the Controller to Default Settings (CLI)
Resetting the Controller to Default Settings (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Enter the reset system command. At the prompt that asks whether you need to save changes to the configuration,
enter N. The unit reboots.
Step 2
When you are prompted for a username, enter the recover-config command to restore the factory-default
configuration. The controller reboots and displays this message:
Welcome to the Cisco WLAN Solution Wizard Configuration Tool
Step 3
Use the configuration wizard to enter configuration settings.
Saving Configurations
Controllers contain two types of memory: volatile RAM and NVRAM. At any time, you can save the
configuration changes from active volatile RAM to nonvolatile RAM (NVRAM). You are prompted to save
your configuration automatically whenever you initiate a reboot of the controller or log out of a GUI or a CLI
session. The following are some examples of the corresponding commands:
• save config—Saves the configuration from volatile RAM to NVRAM without resetting the controller.
• reset system—Prompts you to confirm that you want to save configuration changes before the controller
reboots.
• logout—Prompts you to confirm that you want to save configuration changes before you log out.
Editing Configuration Files
When you save the controller’s configuration, the controller stores it in XML format in flash memory. Controller
software release 5.2 or later releases enable you to easily read and modify the configuration file by converting
it to CLI format. When you upload the configuration file to a TFTP/FTP/SFTP server, the controller initiates
the conversion from XML to CLI. You can then read or edit the configuration file in a CLI format on the
server. When you are finished, you download the file back to the controller, where it is reconverted to an
XML format and saved.
Procedure
Step 1
Upload the configuration file to a TFTP/FTP/SFTP server by performing one of the following:
• Upload the file using the controller GUI.
• Upload the file using the controller CLI.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
94
Management of Controllers
Editing Configuration Files
Step 2
Read or edit the configuration file on the server. You can modify or delete existing CLI commands and add
new CLI commands to the file.
Note
To edit the configuration file, you can use your text editor of choice such as Notepad or Wordpad
on Windows platforms, VI editor on Linux, and so forth.
Step 3
Save your changes to the configuration file on the server.
Step 4
Download the configuration file to the controller by performing one of the following:
• Download the file using the controller GUI.
• Download the file using the controller CLI.
The controller converts the configuration file to an XML format, saves it to flash memory, and then reboots
using the new configuration. CLI commands with known keywords and proper syntax are converted to XML
while improper CLI commands are ignored and saved to flash memory. Any CLI commands that have invalid
values are replaced with default values. To see any ignored commands or invalid configuration values, enter
this command:
show invalid-config
Note
Step 5
You cannot execute this command after the clear config or save config command.
If the downloaded configuration contains a large number of invalid CLI commands, you might want to upload
the invalid configuration to the TFTP or FTP server for analysis. To do so, perform one of the following:
• Upload the invalid configuration using the controller GUI. Follow the instructions in the Uploading
Configuration Files (GUI) section but choose Invalid Config from the File Type drop-down list in Step
2 and skip Step 3.
• Upload the invalid configuration using the controller CLI. Follow the instructions in the Uploading
Configuration Files (CLI) section but enter the transfer upload datatype invalid-config command in
Step 2 and skip Step 3.
Step 6
The controller does not support the uploading and downloading of port configuration CLI commands. If you
want to configure the controller ports, enter these commands:
• config port linktrap {port | all} {enable | disable}—Enables or disables the up and down link traps for
a specific controller port or for all ports.
• config port adminmode {port | all} {enable | disable}—Enables or disables the administrative mode
for a specific controller port or for all ports.
Step 7
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Related Topics
Uploading Configuration Files, on page 98
Downloading Configuration Files, on page 100
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
95
Management of Controllers
Clearing the Controller Configuration
Clearing the Controller Configuration
Procedure
Step 1
Clear the configuration by entering this command:
clear config
Enter y at the confirmation prompt to confirm the action.
Step 2
Reboot the system by entering this command:
reset system
Enter n to reboot without saving configuration changes. When the controller reboots, the configuration wizard
starts automatically.
Step 3
Follow the instructions in the Configuring the Controller-Using the Configuration Wizard section to complete
the initial configuration.
Restoring Passwords
Before you begin
Ensure that you are accessing the controller CLI through the console port.
Procedure
Step 1
After the controller boots up, enter Restore-Password at the User prompt.
Note
For security reasons, the text that you enter does not appear on the controller console.
Step 2
At the Enter User Name prompt, enter a new username.
Step 3
At the Enter Password prompt, enter a new password.
Step 4
At the Re-enter Password prompt, reenter the new password. The controller validates and stores your entries
in the database.
Step 5
When the User prompt reappears, enter your new username.
Step 6
When the Password prompt appears, enter your new password. The controller logs you in with your new
username and password.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
96
Management of Controllers
Rebooting the Controller
Rebooting the Controller
You can reset the controller and view the reboot process on the CLI console using one of the following two
methods:
• Turn the controller off and then turn it back on.
• On the CLI, enter the reset system command. At the confirmation prompt, press y to save configuration
changes to NVRAM. The controller reboots.
When the controller reboots, the CLI console displays the following reboot information:
• Initializing the system.
• Verifying the hardware configuration.
• Loading microcode into memory.
• Verifying the operating system software load.
• Initializing with its stored configurations.
• Displaying the login prompt.
Transferring Files to and from a Controller
Controllers have built-in utilities for uploading and downloading various files. Follow the instructions in these
sections to import files using either the controller GUI or CLI:
Backing Up and Restoring Controller Configuration
We recommend that you upload your controller's configuration file to a server to back it up. If you lose your
configuration, you can then download the saved configuration to the controller.
Caution
Do not download a configuration file to your controller directly that was uploaded from a different controller
platform.
Note
While controller configuration backup is in progress, we recommend you do not initiate any new configuration
or modify any existing configuration settings. This is to avoid corrupting the configuration file.
Follow these guidelines when working with configuration files:
• Any CLI with an invalid value is filtered out and set to default by the XML validation engine. Validation
occurs during bootup. A configuration may be rejected if the validation fails. A configuration may fail
if you have an invalid CLI. For example, if you have a CLI where you try to configure a WLAN without
adding appropriate commands to add the WLAN.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
97
Management of Controllers
Uploading Configuration Files
• A configuration may be rejected if the dependencies are not addressed. For example, if you try to configure
dependent parameters without using the add command. The XML validation may succeed but the
configuration download infrastructure will immediately reject the configuration with no validation errors.
• An invalid configuration can be verified by using the show invalid-config command. The show
invalid-config command reports the configuration that is rejected by the controller either as part of
download process or by XML validation infrastructure.
Note
You can also read and modify the configuration file via a text editor, to correct
any incorrect configuration commands. After you are done, you can save the
changes and once again try the configuration download to the controller in
question.
• A wireless client that connects to the controller when Management over Wireless has been enabled can
still conduct an upgrade using the newer HTTP transfer method.
Uploading Configuration Files
You can upload configuration files using either the GUI or the CLI.
Related Topics
Editing Configuration Files, on page 94
Uploading the Configuration Files (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Commands > Upload File to open the Upload File from Controller page.
Step 2
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Configuration.
Step 3
(Optional) Encrypt the configuration file by checking the Configuration File Encryption check box and
entering the encryption key in the Encryption Key field.
Step 4
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 5
In the IP Address field, enter the IP address of the server.
Step 6
In the File Path field, enter the directory path of the configuration file.
Step 7
In the File Name field, enter the name of the configuration file.
Step 8
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username field, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password field, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number field, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the upload
occurs. The default value is 21.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
98
Management of Controllers
Uploading the Configuration Files (CLI)
Step 9
Click Upload to upload the configuration file to the server. A message appears indicating the status of the
upload. If the upload fails, repeat this procedure and try again.
Uploading the Configuration Files (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Specify the transfer mode used to upload the configuration file by entering this command:
transfer upload mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 2
Specify the type of file to be uploaded by entering this command:
transfer upload datatype config
Step 3
(Optional) Encrypt the configuration file by entering these commands:
• transfer encrypt enable
• transfer encrypt set-key key, where key is the encryption key used to encrypt the file.
Step 4
Specify the IP address of the server by entering this command:
transfer upload serverip server-ip-address
Step 5
Specify the directory path of the configuration file by entering this command:
transfer upload path server-path-to-file
Step 6
Specify the name of the configuration file to be uploaded by entering this command:
transfer upload filename filename
Step 7
If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands to specify the username and password used to log into
the FTP server and the port number through which the upload occurs:
• transfer upload username username
• transfer upload password password
• transfer upload port port
Note
The default value for the port parameter is 21.
Step 8
Initiate the upload process by entering this command:
transfer upload start
Step 9
When prompted to confirm the current settings, answer y.
Information similar to the following appears:
Mode.............................................
TFTP Server IP...................................
TFTP Path........................................
TFTP Filename....................................
Data Type........................................
Encryption.......................................
TFTP
224.0.0.1
Config/
AS_5520_x_Config.xml
Config File
Disabled
**************************************************
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
99
Management of Controllers
Downloading Configuration Files
*** WARNING: Config File Encryption Disabled ***
**************************************************
Are you sure you want to start? (y/N) Y
File transfer operation completed successfully.
If the upload fails, repeat this procedure and try again.
Downloading Configuration Files
You can download configuration files using either the GUI or the CLI.
Related Topics
Editing Configuration Files, on page 94
Downloading the Configuration Files (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Commands > Download File to open the Download File to Controller page.
Step 2
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Configuration.
Step 3
If the configuration file is encrypted, check the Configuration File Encryption check box and enter the
encryption key used to decrypt the file in the Encryption Key field.
Note
Step 4
The key that you enter here should match the one entered during the upload process.
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 5
In the IP Address field, enter the IP address of the server.
If you are using a TFTP server, the default values of 10 retries and 6 seconds for the Maximum Retries and
Timeout fields should work correctly without any adjustment. However, you can change these values.
Step 6
(Optional) Enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts to download the configuration
file in the Maximum Retries field and the amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to
download the configuration file in the Timeout field.
Step 7
In the File Path field, enter the directory path of the configuration file.
Step 8
In the File Name field, enter the name of the configuration file.
Step 9
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username field, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password field, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number field, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download
occurs. The default value is 21.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
100
Management of Controllers
Downloading the Configuration Files (CLI)
Step 10
Click Download to download the file to the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the download,
and the controller reboots automatically. If the download fails, repeat this procedure and try again.
Downloading the Configuration Files (CLI)
Note
The controller does not support incremental configuration downloads. The configuration file contains all
mandatory commands (all interface address commands, mgmtuser with read-write permission commands,
and interface port or LAG enable or disable commands) required to successfully complete the download. For
example, if you download only the config time ntp server index server_address command as part of the
configuration file, the download fails. Only the commands present in the configuration file are applied to the
controller, and any configuration in the controller prior to the download is removed.
Procedure
Step 1
Specify the transfer mode used to download the configuration file by entering this command:
transfer download mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 2
Specify the type of file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download datatype config
Step 3
If the configuration file is encrypted, enter these commands:
• transfer encrypt enable
• transfer encrypt set-key key, where key is the encryption key used to decrypt the file.
Note
The key that you enter here should match the one entered during the upload process.
Step 4
Specify the IP address of the TFTP or FTP server by entering this command:
transfer download serverip server-ip-address
Step 5
Specify the directory path of the configuration file by entering this command:
transfer download path server-path-to-file
Step 6
Specify the name of the configuration file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download filename filename
Step 7
(Optional) If you are using a TFTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer download tftpMaxRetries retries
• transfer download tftpPktTimeout timeout
Note
The default values of 10 retries and a 6-second timeout should work correctly without any
adjustment. However, you can change these values. To do so, enter the maximum number of
times that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the retries parameter and the
amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the
timeout parameter.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
101
Management of Controllers
Downloading a Login Banner File
Step 8
If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands to specify the username and password used to log into
the FTP server and the port number through which the download occurs:
• transfer upload username username
• transfer upload password password
• transfer upload port port
Note
The default value for the port parameter is 21.
Step 9
View the updated settings by entering this command:
transfer download start
Step 10
When prompted to confirm the current settings and start the download process, answer y.
Information similar to the following appears:
Mode.............................................
TFTP Server IP...................................
TFTP Path........................................
TFTP Filename....................................
Data Type........................................
Encryption.......................................
TFTP
224.0.0.1
Config/
AS_5520_x_Config.xml
Config File
Disabled
**************************************************
*** WARNING: Config File Encryption Disabled ***
**************************************************
Are you sure you want to start? (y/N)
y
File transfer operation completed successfully.
If the download fails, repeat this procedure and try again.
Downloading a Login Banner File
You can download a login banner file using either the GUI or the CLI. The login banner is the text that appears
on the page before user authentication when you access the controller GUI or CLI using Telnet, SSH, or a
console port connection.
You save the login banner information as a text (*.txt) file. The text file cannot be larger than 1296 characters
and cannot have more than 16 lines of text.
Note
The ASCII character set consists of printable and nonprintable characters. The login banner supports only
printable characters.
Here is an example of a login banner:
Welcome to the Cisco Wireless Controller!
Unauthorized access prohibited.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
102
Management of Controllers
Downloading a Login Banner File (GUI)
Contact [email protected] for access.
Follow the instructions in this section to download a login banner to the controller through the GUI or CLI.
However, before you begin, make sure that you have a TFTP or FTP server available for the file download.
Follow these guidelines when setting up a TFTP or FTP server:
• If you are downloading through the service port, the TFTP or FTP server must be on the same subnet as
the service port because the service port is not routable, or you must create static routes on the controller.
• If you are downloading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP or FTP server can be on
the same or a different subnet because the distribution system port is routable.
Downloading a Login Banner File (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Copy the login banner file to the default directory on your server.
Step 2
Choose Commands > Download File to open the Download File to Controller page.
Step 3
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Login Banner.
Step 4
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 5
In the IP Address field, enter the IP address of the server type you chose in Step 4.
If you are using a TFTP server, the default values of 10 retries and 6 seconds for the Maximum Retries and
Timeout fieldes should work correctly without any adjustment. However, you can change these values.
Step 6
(Optional) Enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts to download the certificate in
the Maximum Retries field and the amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download
the certificate in the Timeout field.
Step 7
In the File Path field, enter the directory path of the login banner file.
Step 8
In the File Name field, enter the name of the login banner text (*.txt) file.
Step 9
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username field, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password field, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number field, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download
occurs. The default value is 21.
Step 10
Click Download to download the login banner file to the controller. A message appears indicating the status
of the download.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
103
Management of Controllers
Downloading a Login Banner File (CLI)
Downloading a Login Banner File (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Log onto the controller CLI.
Step 2
Specify the transfer mode used to download the config file by entering this command:
transfer download mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 3
Download the controller login banner by entering this command:
transfer download datatype login-banner
Step 4
Specify the IP address of the TFTP or FTP server by entering this command:
transfer download serverip server-ip-address
Step 5
Specify the name of the config file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download path server-path-to-file
Step 6
Specify the directory path of the config file by entering this command:
transfer download filename filename.txt
Step 7
(Optional) If you are using a TFTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer download tftpMaxRetries retries
• transfer download tftpPktTimeout timeout
Note
Step 8
The default values of 10 retries and a 6-second timeout should work correctly without any
adjustment. However, you can change these values. To do so, enter the maximum number of
times that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the retries parameter and the
amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the
timeout parameter.
If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer download username username
• transfer download password password
• transfer download port port
Note
Step 9
The default value for the port parameter is 21.
View the download settings by entering the transfer download start command. Enter y when prompted to
confirm the current settings and start the download process.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
104
Management of Controllers
Clearing the Login Banner (GUI)
Clearing the Login Banner (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Commands > Login Banner to open the Login Banner page.
Step 2
Click Clear.
Step 3
When prompted, click OK to clear the banner.
To clear the login banner from the controller using the controller CLI, enter the clear login-banner command.
Uploading Diagnostic Support Bundle
Some commonly collected diagnostic information of various types can be made available in a single bundle
that you can upload from controller. The diagnostic information that can you can include in the bundle are
core files, crash files, show run-config and config commands, msglog, and traplog.
Uploading Diagnostic Support Bundle (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Commands > Upload File to open the Upload File from Controller page.
Step 2
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Support Bundle.
Step 3
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 4
In the IP Address (IPv4/IPv6) text box, enter the IPv4/IPv6 address of the server.
Step 5
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the bundle.
Step 6
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the bundle file.
Step 7
If you are using an FTP or SFTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log into the server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log into the server.
c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the server through which the upload occurs.
The default value is 22.
Step 8
Click Upload to upload the diagnostic bundle from the controller.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
105
Management of Controllers
Uploading Diagnostic Support Bundle (CLI)
Uploading Diagnostic Support Bundle (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Log on to the controller CLI.
Step 2
Specify the transfer mode used to upload the bundle file by entering this command:
transfer upload mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 3
Upload the diagnostic support bundle by entering this command:
transfer upload datatype support-bundle
Step 4
Specify the IP address of the TFTP or FTP server by entering this command:
transfer upload serverip server-ip-address
The server supports both, IPv4 and IPv6.
Note
Step 5
Specify the directory path of the bundle file by entering this command:
transfer upload path server-path-to-file
Step 6
Specify the name of the bundle file to be uploaded by entering this command:
transfer upload filename file-name
Step 7
If you are using an FTP or SFTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer upload username username
• transfer upload password password
• transfer upload port port
Note
Step 8
The default value for the port parameter is 22.
View the updated settings by entering the transfer upload start command. Answer y when prompted to
confirm the current settings and start the upload process.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
106
CHAPTER
8
Network Time Protocol Setup
• Authentication for the Controller and NTP/SNTP Server, on page 107
• Configuring the NTP/SNTP Server to Obtain the Date and Time (GUI), on page 108
• Configuring the NTP/SNTP Server to Obtain the Date and Time (CLI), on page 108
• Configuring NTPv4 Keys for Authentication (GUI), on page 109
Authentication for the Controller and NTP/SNTP Server
We highly recommend that controllers synchronize their time with an external NTP/SNTP server. We also
recommend that you authenticate this connection to the NTP/SNTP server, as a best practice. By default, an
MD5 checksum is used in this scenario.
Each NTP/SNTP server IP address is added to the controller database. The respective controller then attempts
to poll an NTP/SNTP server from this database in the index order. The controller then obtains and synchronizes
the current time at each user-defined polling interval, as well as following a reboot event. By default, the NTP
polling interval is 600 seconds.
Guidelines and Restrictions on NTP
• When the time difference between the NTP server and the controller exceeds 1000s, the ntpd process
exits and adds a panic message to the system log. In this situation, set the time on the controller manually.
• As a part of the federal certification requirements, controller supports NTPv4 protocol which is a standard
Open Source Code.
• Controllers support both the versions—NTPv3 and NTPv4 versions. However you can use either one of
the two versions and not both at the same time.
• NTPv4 supports both IPv4 and IPv6 servers, and supports SHA1 authentication for NTP messages.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
107
Management of Controllers
Configuring the NTP/SNTP Server to Obtain the Date and Time (GUI)
Configuring the NTP/SNTP Server to Obtain the Date and Time
(GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > NTP > Server to open the NTP Severs page.
Step 2
From the NTP Version drop-down list, choose 4.
Step 3
Click Apply.
Step 4
Click New to add a new NTP/SNTP Server.
Step 5
(Optional) In the Server Index (Priority) field, enter the NTP/SNTP server index.
The controller tries Index 1 first, then Index 2 through 3, in a descending order. Set this to 1 if your network
is using only one NTP/SNTP server.
Step 6
Enter the server IP address.
You can enter an IPv4 or an IPv6 address or a fully qualified domain name (FQDN), which should meet the
following criteria:
• Contains only a-z , A-Z, and 0-9 characters.
• Does not start with a dot (.) or a hyphen (-).
• Does not end with a dot (.).
• Does not have 2 consecutive dots (..).
Step 7
Enable or disable the NTP/SNTP Authentication.
Step 8
If you enable the NTP/SNTP Authentication, enter the Key Index.
Step 9
Click Apply.
Step 10
Delete an exisitng NTP server IP address or DNS server by hovering the cursor over the blue drop-down
arrow for that server index and choose Remove.
Step 11
Confirm the deletion by clicking on OK in the dialog box.
Configuring the NTP/SNTP Server to Obtain the Date and Time
(CLI)
Use these commands to configure an NTP/SNTP server to obtain the date and time:
Procedure
• To specify the NTP/SNTP server for the controller, enter this command:
config time ntp server index ip-address
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
108
Management of Controllers
Configuring NTPv4 Keys for Authentication (GUI)
• (Optional) To specify the polling interval (in seconds), enter this command:
config time ntp interval
• To enable or disable NTP/SNTP server authentication, enter these commands:
• config time ntp auth enable server-index key-index—Enables NTP/SNTP authentication on a given
NTP/SNTP server.
• config time ntp key-auth add key-index md5 {ascii | hex} key—Adds an authentication key. By
default MD5 is used. The key format can be ASCII or hexadecimal.
• config time ntp key-auth delete key-index—Deletes authentication keys.
• config time ntp auth disable server-index—Disables NTP/SNTP authentication.
• show ntp-keys—Displays the NTP/SNTP authentication related parameter.
• To delete an NTP server IP address or DNS server from the controller, enter this command:
config time ntp delete NTP_server index
• Configure the NTP version by entering this command:
config time ntp version version
Note
When the NTP version changes, the configured servers are deleted.
• Configuring the NTP polling interval when using NTP version 4 by entering this command:
config time ntp pollinterval maxpoll minpoll server-index
Configuring NTPv4 Keys for Authentication (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > NTP > Keys to open the NTP Key page.
Step 2
Click New to add a new NTP key.
Step 3
Enter the Key Index number in the Key Index field.
Step 4
From the Checksum drop-down list, choose SHA1.
Step 5
From the Key Format drop-down list, choose ASCII.
Step 6
Enter the Key in the Key field.
Step 7
Click Apply.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
109
Management of Controllers
Configuring NTPv4 Keys for Authentication (GUI)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
110
CHAPTER
9
High Availability
• Information About High Availability, on page 111
• Restrictions for High Availability, on page 115
• Configuring High Availability (GUI), on page 118
• Enabling High Availability (CLI), on page 120
• vWLC and N+1 High Availability, on page 123
• Adding a Hash Key to a Cisco vWLC (GUI), on page 124
• Adding a Hash Key to Cisco vWLC (CLI), on page 124
• Monitoring High Availability Standby WLC, on page 125
• Replacing the Primary Controller in an HA Setup, on page 126
Information About High Availability
High availability (HA) in controllers allows you to reduce the downtime of the wireless networks that occurs
due to the failover of controllers.
A 1:1 (Active:Standby-Hot) stateful switchover of access points and clients is supported (HA SSO). In an
HA architecture, one controller is configured as the primary controller and another controller as the secondary
controller.
After you enable HA, the primary and secondary controllers are rebooted. During the boot process, the role
of the primary controller is negotiated as active and the role of the secondary controller as standby-hot. After
a switchover, the secondary controller becomes the active controller and the primary controller becomes the
standby-hot controller. After subsequent switchovers, the roles are interchanged between the primary and the
secondary controllers. The reason or cause for most switchover events is due to a manual trigger, a controller
and/or a network failure.
During an HA SSO failover event, all of the AP CAPWAP sessions and client sessions in RUN state on the
controller are statefully switched over to the standby controller without interruption, except PMIPv6 clients,
which will need to reconnect and authenticate to the controller following an HA SSO switchover. For additional
client SSO behaviors and limitations, see the "Client SSO" section in the High Availability (SSO) Deployment
Guide at:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/controller/technotes/8-1/HA_SSO_DG/High_Availability_
DG.html#pgfId-53637
The standby-hot controller continuously monitors the health of the active controller through its dedicated
redundancy port. Both the controllers share the same configurations, including the IP address of the management
interface.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
111
Management of Controllers
Information About High Availability
Before you enable HA, ensure that both the controllers can successfully communicate with one another through
their dedicated redundancy port, either through a direct cable connection or through Layer 2. For more details,
see the "Redundancy Port Connectivity" section in the High Availability (SSO) Deployment Guide:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/controller/technotes/8-1/HA_SSO_DG/High_Availability_
DG.html#pgfId-83028
In the Release 8.0 and later releases, the output of the show ap join stats summary command displays the
status of the access points based on whether the access point joined the controller or it was synchronized from
Active controller. One of the following statuses is displayed:
• Synched—The access point joined the controller before the SSO.
• Connected—The access point joined the controller after the SSO.
• Joined—The access point rejoined the controller, or a new AP has joined the controller after the SSO.
In Release 8.0 and later, the output of the show redundancy summary command displays the bulk
synchronization status of access points and clients after the pair-up of active and standby controllers occurs.
The values are:
• Pending— Indicates that synchronization of access points and the corresponding clients details from the
active to standby controller is yet to begin.
• In-progress— Indicates that synchronization of access points and the corresponding clients details from
the active to standby controller has begun and synchronization is in progress.
• Complete—Indicates that synchronization is complete and the standby controller is ready for a switchover
to resume the services of the active controller.
From release 8.0 and later, in a High Availability scenario, the sleeping timer is synchronized between active
and standby.
ACL and NAT IP configurations are synchronized to the HA standby controller when these parameters are
configured before HA pair-up. If the NAT IP is set on the management interface, the access point sets the AP
manager IP address as the NAT IP address.
The following are some guidelines for high availability:
• We recommend that you do not pair two controllers of different hardware models. If they are paired, the
higher controller model becomes the active controller and the other controller goes into maintenance
mode.
• We recommend that you do not pair two controllers on different controller software releases. If they are
paired, the controller with the lower redundancy management address becomes the active controller and
the other controller goes into maintenance mode.
• We recommend that you disable HA and add license in Cisco 55208540 WLCs (RTU based). However,
it is not mandatory to disable HA as AP licenses added in Primary WLC will be inherited to Secondary
WLC.
• All download file types, such as image, configuration, web-authentication bundle, and signature files–
are downloaded on the active controller first and then pushed to the standby-hot controller.
• Certificates should be downloaded separately on each controller before they are paired.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
112
Management of Controllers
Information About High Availability
• You can upload file types such as configuration files, event logs, crash files, and so on, from the
standby-hot controller using the GUI or CLI of the active controller. You can also specify a suffix to the
filename to identify the uploaded file.
• To perform a peer upload, use the service port. In a management network, you can also use the redundancy
management interface (RMI) that is mapped to the redundancy port or RMI VLAN, or both, where the
RMI is the same as the management VLAN. Note that the RMI and the redundancy port should be in
two separate Layer2 VLANs, which is a mandatory configuration.
• If the controllers cannot reach each other through the redundant port and the RMI, the primary controller
becomes active and the standby-hot controller goes into the maintenance mode.
Note
When the RMIs for two controllers that are a pair, and that are mapped to same
VLAN and connected to same Layer3 switch stop working, the standby controller
is restarted.
The "mobilityHaMac is out of range" XML message is seen during the
active/standby second switchover in an HA setup. This occurs if mobility HA
MAC field is more than 128.
• When HA is enabled, the standby controller always uses the Remote Method Invocation (RMI), and all
the other interfaces—dynamic and management, are invalid.
Note
The RMI is meant to be used only for active and standby communications and
not for any other purpose.
• You must ensure that the maximum transmission unit (MTU) on RMI port is 1500 bytes or higher before
you enable high availability.
• When HA is enabled, ensure that you do not use the backup image. If this image is used, the HA feature
might not work as expected:
• The service port and route information that is configured is lost after you enable SSO. You must
configure the service port and route information again after you enable SSO. You can configure the
service port and route information for the standby-hot controller using the peer-service-port and
peer-route commands.
• We recommend that you do not use the reset command on the standby-hot controller directly. If
you use this, unsaved configurations will be lost.
• We recommend that you enable link aggregation configuration on the controllers before you enable the
port channel in the infrastructure switches.
• All the configurations that require reboot of the active controller results in the reboot of the standby-hot
controller.
• The Rogue AP Ignore list is not synchronized from the active controller to the standby-hot controller.
The list is relearned through SNMP messages from Cisco Prime Infrastructure after the standby-hot
controller becomes active.
• Client SSO related guidelines:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
113
Management of Controllers
Information About High Availability
• The standby controller maintains two client lists: one is a list of clients in the Run state and the other
is a list of transient clients in all the other states.
• Only the clients that are in the Run state are maintained during failover. Clients that are in transition,
such as roaming, 802.1X key regeneration, web authentication logout, and so on, are dissociated.
• As with AP SSO, Client SSO is supported only on WLANs. The controllers must be in the same
subnet. Layer3 connection is not supported.
• In Release 7.3.x, AP SSO is supported, but client SSO is not supported, which means that after an HA
setup that uses Release 7.3.x encounters a switchover, all the clients associated with the controller are
deauthenticated and forced to reassociate.
• You must manually configure the mobility MAC address on the then active controller post switchover,
when a peer controller has a controller software release that is prior to Release 7.2.
• To enable an access point to maintain controlled quality of service (QoS) for voice and video parameters,
all the bandwidth-based or static call admission control (CAC) parameters are synchronized from active
to standby when a switchover occurs.
• From 8.0 release and later, the standby controller does not reboot; instead enters the maintenance mode
when unable to connect to the default gateway using the redundant port. Once the controller reconnects
to the default gateway, the standby controller reboots and the HA pair with the active controller is initiated.
However, the active controller still reboots before entering the maintenance mode.
• The following are supported from Release 8.0:
• Static CAC synchronization—To maintain controlled Quality-of-Service (QoS) for voice and video
parameters, all the bandwidth-based or static CAC parameters services are readily available for
clients when a switchover occurs.
• Internal DHCP server—To serve wireless clients of the controller, the internal DHCP server data
is synchronized from the active controller to the standby controller. All the assigned IP addresses
remain valid, and IP address assignation continues when the role changes from active to standby
occurs.
• Enhanced debugging and serviceability—All the debugging and serviceability services are enhanced
for users.
• The physical connectivity or topology of the access points on the switch are not synchronized from the
active to the standby controller. The standby controller learns the details only when the synchronization
is complete. Hence, you must execute the show ap cdp neighbors all command only after synchronization
is complete, and only when the standby becomes the then active controller.
• To enable access points to join the HA-SKU secondary controller that has been reset to factory defaults,
you must:
• Configure the HA SKU controller as secondary controller. To do this, you must execute the config
redundancy unit secondary command on the HA SKU controller.
• Reboot the HA SKU controller after you successfully execute the config redundancy unit secondary
command.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
114
Management of Controllers
Restrictions for High Availability
Redundancy Management Interface
The active and standby-hot controllers use the RMI to check the health of the peer controller and the default
gateway of the management interface through network infrastructure.
The RMI is also used to send notifications from the active controller to the standby-hot controller if a failure
or manual reset occurs. The standby-hot controller uses the RMI to communicate to the syslog, NTP/SNTP
server, FTP, and TFTP server.
It is mandatory to configure the IP addresses of the Redundancy Management Interface and the Management
Interface in the same subnet on both the primary and secondary controllers.
Redundancy Port
The redundancy port is used for configuration, operational data synchronization, and role negotiation between
the primary and secondary controllers.
The redundancy port checks for peer reachability by sending UDP keepalive messages every 100 milliseconds
(default frequency) from the standby-hot controller to the active controller. If a failure of the active controller
occurs, the redundancy port is used to notify the standby-hot controller.
If an NTP/SNTP server is not configured, the redundancy port performs a time synchronization from the
active controller to the standby-hot controller.
The redundancy ports can connect over an L2 switch. Ensure that the redundancy port round-trip time is less
than 80 milliseconds if the keepalive timer is set to default, that is, 100 milliseconds, or 80 percent of the
keepalive timer if you have configured the keepalive timer in the range of 100 milliseconds to 400 milliseconds.
The failure detection time is calculated, for example, if the keepalive timer is set to 100 milliseconds, as
follows: 3 * 100 = 300 + 60 = 360 + jitter (12 milliseconds) = ~400 milliseconds. Also, ensure that the
bandwidth between redundancy ports is 60 Mbps or higher. Ensure that the maximum transmission unit (MTU)
is 1500 bytes or higher.
Related Documentation
• High Availability (SSO) Deployment Guide—https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/controller/
technotes/8-1/HA_SSO_DG/High_Availability_DG.html
• N+1 High Availability Deployment Guide—https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/technology/
hi_avail/N1_High_Availability_Deployment_Guide.html
Restrictions for High Availability
• We recommend that you do not disable LAG physical ports when HA SSO is enabled.
• HA sync for Fabric-related statistics is not supported.
• You should apply an access list for SSH to the redundancy interface on upper switch, if controller is
configured for HA SSO and redundancy management is configured over a dynamic interface. Failure to
do so enables the SSH client to connect through the redundancy management interface regardless of the
CPU ACL.
• In an HA environment using FlexConnect locally switched clients, the client information might not show
the username. To get details about the client, you must use the MAC address of the client. This restriction
does not apply to FlexConnect centrally switched clients or central (local) mode clients.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
115
Management of Controllers
Restrictions for High Availability
• In an HA environment, an upgrade from an LDPE image to a non-LDPE image is not supported.
• It is not possible to pair two primary controllers or two secondary controllers.
• Standby controllers are unavailable on the APs connected switch port.
• An HA-SKU controller with an evaluation license cannot become a standby controller. However, an
HA-SKU controller with zero license can become a standby controller.
• In an HA setup, CPU-ACL cannot be applied on the service port. However, if you want to block the
service port using CPU-ACL, you can use the command config acl high-priority to configure as required.
• Service VLAN configuration is lost when moving from HA mode to non-HA mode and conversely. You
should then configure the service IP address manually again.
• The following scenario is not supported: The primary controller has the management address and the
redundancy management address in the same VLAN, and the secondary controller has the management
address in the same VLAN as the primary one, and the redundancy management address in a different
VLAN.
• The following is a list of some software upgrade scenarios:
• A software upgrade on the active controller ensures the upgrade of the standby-hot controller.
• An in-service upgrade is not supported. Therefore, you should plan your network downtime before
you upgrade the controllers in an HA environment.
• Rebooting the active controller after a software upgrade also reboots the standby-hot controller.
• We recommend that both active and standby-hot controllers have the same software image in the
backup before running the config boot backup command. If both active and standby-hot controllers
have different software images in the backup, and if you run the config boot backup command in
the active controller, both the controllers reboot with their respective backup images breaking the
HA pair due to a software mismatch.
• A schedule reset applies to both the controllers in an HA environment. The peer controller reboots
a minute before the scheduled time expires on the active controller.
• You can reboot the standby-hot controller from the active controller by entering the reset peer-system
command if the scheduled reset is not planned. If you reset only the standby-hot controller with this
command, any unsaved configurations on the standby-hot controller are lost. Therefore, ensure that
you save the configurations on the active controller before you reset the standby-hot controller.
• If an SSO is triggered at the time of the image transfer, a preimage download is reinitiated.
• Only debug and show commands are allowed on the standby-hot controller.
• After a switchover, if a peer controller has a controller software release that is prior to Release 7.5,
all the mobility clients are deauthenticated.
• It is not possible to access the standby-hot controller through the controller GUI, Cisco Prime
Infrastructure, or Telnet. You can access the standby-hot controller only on its console.
• In an HA setup, client Tx or Rx packets are not sent to the standby controller, hence, Remote Method
Invocation (RMI) is not supported.
• When a failover occurs, the standby controller must be in a standby-hot state and the redundant port in
a terminal state in SSO for successful switchover to occur.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
116
Management of Controllers
Restrictions for High Availability
• To enable or disable LAG, you must disable HA.
Note
If LAG is disabled and both primary and backup ports are connected to the
management interface and if the primary port becomes nonoperational, a
switchover might occur because the default gateway is not reachable and backup
port failover might exceed 12 seconds.
• When a failover occurs and the standby controller becomes the new active controller, it takes approximately
15–20 minutes to synchronize the database (AP, client, and multicast) between the two controllers. If
another failover occurs during this time, the HA structures would not yet be synchronized. Therefore,
the APs and clients would have to get reassociated and reauthenticated respectively.
• Pairwise Master Key (PMK) cache synchronization is not supported on FlexConnect local-authenticated
clients.
• Client SSO restrictions:
• New mobility is not supported.
• Posture and network admission control out-of-band are not supported because the client is not in
the Run state.
• The following are not synchronized between the active and standby controller:
• Cisco Compatible Extension-based applications
• Client statistics
• Proxy Mobile IPv6, Application Visibility and Control, session initiation protocol (SIP), and
static call admission control (CAC) tree
• Workgroup bridges and the clients that are associated with them
• Passive clients
• Encryption is supported.
• Encryption is supported only if the active and standby controllers communicate through the Redundancy
Management Interface on the management ports. Encryption is not supported if the redundancy port is
used for communication between the active and standby controllers.
• You cannot change the NAT address configuration of the management interface when the controllers
are in redundancy mode. To enable NAT address configuration on the management interface, you must
remove the redundancy configuration first, make the required changes on the primary controller, and
then reenable the redundancy configuration on the same controller.
• After you enable SSO, you must access both the standby and active controller using:
• The console connection
• SSH facility on the service port
• SSH facility on the redundant management interface
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
117
Management of Controllers
Configuring High Availability (GUI)
• Synchronization of bulk configurations is supported only for the configurations that are stored in XMLs.
Scheduled reboot is a configuration that is not stored in XMLs or Flash. Therefore, the scheduled reboot
configuration is not included in the synchronization of bulk configurations.
• When a switchover occurs, the controller does not synchronize the information on DHCP dirty bit from
the active to standby controller even when DHCP dirty bit is set on the active controller. After a switchover,
the controller populates the DHCP dirty bit based on the client DHCP retries.
Configuring High Availability (GUI)
Before you begin
Ensure that the management interfaces of both controllers are in the same subnet. You can verify this on the
GUI of both the controllers by choosing Controllers > Interfaces and viewing the IP addresses of the
management interface.
Procedure
Step 1
On the GUI of both the controllers, choose Controller > Redundancy > Global Configuration.
The Global Configuration window is displayed.
Step 2
Enter the addresses of the controllers in the Redundant Management IP field and the Peer Redundant
Management IP field.
Note
Ensure that the Redundant Management Interface IP address of one controller is the same as the
Redundant Management Interface IP address of the peer controller.
Step 3
From the Redundant Unit drop-down list, choose one of the controllers as primary and the other as secondary.
Step 4
On the GUI of both the controllers, set the SSO to Enabled state.
Note
Step 5
After you enable an SSO, the service port peer IP address and the service port netmask appear on
the configuration window. Note that the service port peer IP address and the netmask can be pushed
to the peer only if the HA peer is available and operational. When you enable HA, you do not have
to configure the service port peer IP address and the service port netmask parameters. You must
configure the parameters only when the HA peer is available and operational. After you enable
SSO, both the controllers are rebooted. During the reboot process, the controllers negotiate the
redundancy role through the redundant port, based on the configuration. The primary controller
becomes the active controller and the secondary controller becomes the standby controller.
[Optional] After the HA pair becomes available and operational, you can configure the peer service port IP
address and the netmask after the service port is configured as static. If you enable DHCP on the service port,
you do not have to configure these parameters on the Global Configuration window:
• Service Port Peer IP—IP address of the service port of the peer controller.
• Service Port Peer Netmask—Netmask of the service port of the peer controller.
• Mobility MAC Address—A common MAC address for both the active and standby controllers that is
used in the mobility protocol. If an HA pair has to be added as a mobility member for a mobility group,
the mobility MAC address (instead of the system MAC address of the active or standby controller) should
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
118
Management of Controllers
Configuring High Availability (GUI)
be used. Normally, the mobility MAC address is chosen as the MAC address of the active controller and
you do not have to manually configure this.
• Keep Alive Timer—The timer that controls how often the standby controller sends keepalive messages
to the active controller. The valid range is between 100 to 1000 milliseconds.
• Peer Search Timer—The timer that controls how often the active controller sends peer search messages
to the standby controller. The valid range is between 60 to 300 seconds.
Note
After you enable the HA and pair the controllers, there is only one unified GUI to manage the HA
pair through the management port. GUI access through the service port is not feasible for both the
active and standby controllers. The standby controller can be managed only through the console
port or the service port.
Only Telnet and SSH sessions are allowed through the service port of the active and standby
controllers.
Step 6
[Optional] To encrypt the link between the HA pair, on the Global Configuration page, select Enabled from
the Link Encryption drop-down list
Step 7
Click Save Configuration.
Step 8
View the redundancy status of the HA pair by choosing Monitor > Redundancy > Summary.
The Redundancy Summary window is displayed.
Step 9
View the redundancy status of the HA pair by choosing Monitor > Redundancy > Detail.
The Redundancy Detail page is displayed.
Step 10
View the redundancy statistics information of the HA pair by choosing Monitor > Redundancy > Statistics.
The Redundancy Statistics page is displayed.
Step 11
(Optional) Perform these steps to configure the peer network route:
a) Choose Controller > Redundancy > Peer Network Route.
The Network Routes Peer window is displayed.
This window provides a summary of the existing service port network routes of the peer controller to
network or element management systems on a different subnet. You can view the IP address, IP netmask,
and gateway IP address.
b) To create a new peer network route, click New.
c) Enter the IP address, IP netmask, and the Gateway IP address of the route.
d) Click Apply.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
119
Management of Controllers
Enabling High Availability (CLI)
Enabling High Availability (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Before you configure HA, it is mandatory to have the management interface of both the controllers in the
same subnet. See the interface summary information by entering these commands on both the controllers:
show interface summary
Step 2
HA is disabled by default. Before you enable HA, it is mandatory to configure the redundancy management
IP address and the peer redundancy management IP address. Both the interfaces must be in the same subnet
as the management interface. Enter the following commands to configure the redudancy management IP
addresses:
• On WLC1: config interface redundancy-management
redundancy-mgmt-ip-addr-wlc1peer-redundancy-management peer-redundancy-mgmt-ip-addr-wlc2
• On WLC2: config interface redundancy-management
redundancy-mgmt-ip-addr-wlc2peer-redundancy-management peer-redundancy-mgmt-ip-addr-wlc1
Step 3
Configure one controller as primary (by default, the WLC HA Unit ID is primary and should have a valid
AP-BASE count license installed) and another controller as secondary (AP-BASE count from the primary
controller is inherited by this unit) by entering these commands:
• WLC1 as primary—config redundancy unit primary
• WLC2 as secondary—config redundancy unit secondary
Note
Step 4
You are not required to configure the unit as secondary if it is a factory-ordered HA SKU that can
be ordered from Release 7.3 onwards. A factory-ordered HA SKU is a default secondary unit and
takes the role of the standby controller the first time it is paired with an active controller that has a
valid AP count license.
After you have configured the controllers with redundancy management and peer redundancy management
IP addresses and have configured the redundant units, you must enable SSO. Ensure that the physical
connections are operational between both the controllers (that is, both the controllers are connected back to
back via the redundant port using an Ethernet cable) and the uplink is also connnected to the infrastructure
switch and the gateway is reachable from both the controllers before SSO is enabled.
After SSO is enabled, controllers are rebooted. During the boot process, the controllers negotiate the HA role
as per the configuration via the redundant port. If the controllers cannot reach each other via the redundant
port or via the redundant management interface, the controller that is configured as secondary might go into
maintenance mode.
Enable SSO on both the controllers by entering these commands:
config redundancy mode sso
Note
Step 5
Enabling SSO initiates a controller reboot.
Enabling SSO reboots the controllers to negotiate the HA role as per the configuration performed. Once the
role is determined, configuration is synchronized from the active controller to the standby controller via the
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
120
Management of Controllers
Configuring High Availability Parameters (CLI)
redundant port. Initially, the controller configured as secondary reports XML mismatch and downloads the
configuration from the active controller and reboot again. During the next reboot after determining the HA
role, the controller validates the configuration again, reports no XML mismatch,and process further to establish
itself as the standby controller.
Note
Step 6
Once SSO is enabled, you can access the standby controller through a console connection or through
SSH on the service port and on the redundant management interface.
After SSO is enabled, controllers are rebooted, the XML configuration is synchronized, WLC1 transitions its
state to active and WLC2 transitions its state to standby hot. From this point, GUI, Telnet, and SSH for WLC2
on the management interface does not work because all the configurations and management must be done
from the active controller. If required, the standby controller (WLC2) can be managed only through the console
or service port.
Once the peer controller transitions to the standby hot state, the -Standby keyword is automatically appended
to the standby controller's prompt name.
Step 7
To see the redundancy summary information for both the controllers, enter this command:
show redundancy summary
Configuring High Availability Parameters (CLI)
Procedure
• Configure encryption of communication between controllers by entering this command:
config redundancy link-encryption {enable | disable}
• Configure the IP address and netmask of the peer service port of the standby controller by entering this
command:
config redundancy interface address peer-service-port ip-address netmask
This command can be run only if the HA peer controller is available and operational.
• (Optional) Configure the route configurations of the standby controller by entering this command:
config redundancy peer-route {add network-ip-addr ip-mask | delete network-ip-addr}
Note
This command can be run only if the HA peer controller is available and operational.
• (Optional) Configure a mobility MAC address by entering this command:
config redundancy mobilitymac mac-addr
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
121
Management of Controllers
Troubleshooting Tips for IPsec Encryption for High Availability
Note
• This command can be run only when SSO is disabled.
• From Release 8.0.132.0 onwards, mobility MAC configuration is no longer present in the uploaded
configuration. Therefore, if you download this configuration file back to the controller, you must add
the config redundancy mobilitymac mac_addresscommand in the config file before download.
• Configure a redundancy timer by entering this command:
config redundancy timer {keep-alive-timer time-in-milliseconds | peer-search-timer time-in-seconds}
• View the status of the redundancy by entering this command:
show redundancy {summary | detail}
• View information about the redundancy management interface by entering this command:
show interface detailed redundancy-management
• View information about the redundancy port by entering this command:
show interface detailed redundancy-port
• Reboot a peer controller by entering this command:
reset peer-system
• Start the upload of file types, such as configuration, event logs, crash files, and so on from the standby-hot
controller by entering this command on the active controller:
transfer upload peer-start
• View information about sleeping clients after a switchover, by entering this command on the then active
controller :
show custom-web sleep-client summary
Troubleshooting Tips for IPsec Encryption for High Availability
Procedure
• If the HA pair does not come up, check the link encryption setting on both controllers.
• Both the controllers must have same link encryption setting.
• Check IPsec status on both controllers to check which link is broken RP or RMI.
• Perform rping on both controllers to check if the peer is reachable.
• Check the link encryption status by entering this command:
show redundancy summary
• Check the IPsec status between the HA pair by entering this command:
show ipsec status
• Enable IPsec debug messages and reboot the peer secondary controller by entering this command:
debug ipsec events enable
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
122
Management of Controllers
vWLC and N+1 High Availability
This command enables the IPsec debug messages. Reboot the peer secondary controller after enabling
this command.
Note
The debug ipsec events enable will not print logs during next reboot (at bootup).
vWLC and N+1 High Availability
Cisco Wireless Controller (WLC) Release 8.4 introduces support for N+1 High Availability (HA) on the
Cisco Virtual Wireless Controller (vWLC) platform. For information on how to configure HA, see:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/technology/hi_avail/N1_High_Availability_Deployment_
Guide/N1_HA_Overview.html#pgfId-1054644
The Cisco vWLC HA has the following prerequisites:
• The primary, secondary, and tertiary vWLCs should be part of the same mobility group.
• The vWLC in the mobility group should have a uniform set of hash keys to seamlessly move an AP from
one vWLC to another. For example, if we have vWLCs, N, in a mobility group, or vWLC, M, and normal
WLCs (where M is greater than N), then all vWLCs should have the hashes of other vWLCs in the same
group.
• For effective connectivity of the APs on all the vWLCs in a mobility group (including vWLC mobility
members in N+1 format), the mobility hash table should contain all the vWLC hash keys.
Note
A hash table works only when vWLCs are paired as mobility members.
Figure 17: vWLC N+1 in a Mobility Group
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
123
Management of Controllers
Adding a Hash Key to a Cisco vWLC (GUI)
Adding a Hash Key to a Cisco vWLC (GUI)
Perform the procedure given below to add hash key to Cisco vWLC.
Before you begin
Create mobility peers before adding a hash key to Cisco vWLC.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Mobility Management > Mobility Groups.
The Static Mobility Group Members window displays the existing members and the hash keys configured
for them.
Step 2
Click New.
The Mobility Group Member > New window is displayed.
Step 3
In the Member IP Address(Ipv4/Ipv6) field, enter the member's IP address. In the Member MAC Address
field, enter the member's MAC address. In the Group Name field, enter the group name. In the Hash field,
enter the hash key.
Step 4
Click Apply.
Adding a Hash Key to Cisco vWLC (CLI)
Perform the procedure given below to add a hash key to a Cisco vWLC, using the CLIs.
• Read the hash key.
• Copy the hash key to the other members of the mobility group.
• Verify the mobility hash configuration.
Before you begin
• The hash value should be unique for each vWLC.
• Create mobility peers before adding a hash key to a vWLC.
Procedure
Step 1
show mobility group member hash
Example:
(Cisco Controller)> show mobility group member hash
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
124
Management of Controllers
Monitoring High Availability Standby WLC
Reads the existing hash key.
Step 2
config mobility group member hash ipv4-address hash-key
Example:
(Cisco Controller)> config mobility group member hash 9.11.34.55
1f81d80082e9d30312d3b4920be22aed34b93b56
Copies the hash to other members in the mobility group.
Step 3
show mobility group member hash
Example:
(Cisco Controller)> show mobility group member hash
Default Mobility Domain.......................... default
IP Address
Hash Key
--------------------------------------------------------9.11.34.55
1f81d80082e9d30312d3b4920be22aed34b93b56
Verifies the mobility hash configuration on all the mobility members in the group.
Monitoring High Availability Standby WLC
You can view the status and health information of active and standby WLC separately. This section describes
the details of getting health information and traps from the standby WLC.
The standby WLC uses the redundancy management interface for any external communications such as when
talking to Syslog, NTP server, TFTP server, and so on. On the standby WLC, the management user
authentication and accounting is performed on the redundancy management interface. RADIUS or TACACS+
server can be used for user authentication, apart from a local management user account. To support this, the
redundancy interface IP address(es) should be added as network device on the RADIUS or TACACS+ server.
The authentication request is sent to RADIUS or TACACS+ server over redundancy management interface.
Whenever you log on to the standby WLC, accounting message is sent to the RADIUS server. The purpose
of the accounting message is to log the admin logon events on the standby WLC console.
This feature is supported on all WLC models supporting HA SSO feature:
• Cisco 8500 Series WLCs
• Cisco 3504 WLCs
• Cisco 5500 Series WLCs
Events and Notifications
• Trap when WLC becomes Hot Standby—A trap is reported with time stamp when HA peer becomes
Hot Standby and the trap shown below is reported
"RF notification EventType:37 Reason :HA peer is Hot-Standby...At:..."
A new trap type is added in CISCO-RF-SUPPLEMENTAL-MIB.my
• Trap when Bulk Sync Complete—After the HA pairing is done and Bulk sync is complete, the following
trap is reported:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
125
Management of Controllers
Replacing the Primary Controller in an HA Setup
"RF notification EventType:36 Reason :Bulk Sync Completed...At:.."
A new trap type is added in CISCO-RF-SUPPLEMENTAL-MIB.my
• Trap when Standby WLC goes down—When the standby peer goes down due to manual reset, crash,
memory leak/hang, or moving to maintenance mode, the following trap is reported:
"RF failure notification ErrorType: 34 Reason :Lost Peer, Moving to Active-No-Peer State!"
On the CLI, you can view the trap by entering the show traplog command.
• Syslog notification when Admin login on Standby
1. Admin login to Standby via SSH generates an event in msglog/syslog. The following is a sample
system message:
*emWeb: Mar 06 20:34:42.675: #CLI-3-LOGIN_STANDBY: [SS] cli_lvl7.c:4520 [USER@9
name="admin" from="SSH"] user login success on standby controller.
You can view this message on the standby WLC by entering the show msglog command.
2. Admin login to Standby via console generates an event in msglog/syslog. The following is a sample
system message:
*emWeb: Mar 06 20:34:42.675: #CLI-3-LOGIN_STANDBY: [SS] cli_lvl7.c:4520 [USER@9
name="admin" from="console"] user login success on standby controller.
You can view this message on the standby WLC by entering the show msglog command.
• Peer Process Statistics—The CPU and Memory statistics of all the threads of the standby WLC are
synchronized with the active WLC every 10 seconds. This information is displayed when you query for
the Peer statistics on the active WLC.
Enter these commands on the active WLC to view the peer process system, CPU, and memory statistics:
• show redundancy peer-system statistics
• show redundancy peer-process cpu
• show redundancy peer-process memory
On the GUI, choose Monitor > Redundancy > Peer Statistics to view the peer process system, CPU,
and memory statistics.
Replacing the Primary Controller in an HA Setup
In an HA setup, suppose the primary controller is not operational and you are required to replace it; the standby
controller is operational with all the APs associated with it; and the new controller received return material
authorization (RMA) that can be added with one of the failed controllers in the HA pair. Follow these steps
to replace the primary controller in an active HA setup:
Procedure
Step 1
Ensure that the new controller and the controller to be replaced are running the same version of the controller
software.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
126
Management of Controllers
Replacing the Primary Controller in an HA Setup
Step 2
Configure the new controller with the same subnet management IP addresses as the controller to replaced.
Step 3
Configure the new controller with HA configuration that includes redundancy management, IP address, and
peer primary. Accept the licensing EULA on the primary controller and then enable AP SSO.
Note
Step 4
If you enable AP SSO without accepting the EULA, the controllers do not synchronize.
When AP SSO is enabled, the controller reboots. While the controller reboots, the AP SSO discovers the
currently active standby controller, synchronized the configuration, and transitions to a standby-hot state.
Note
You do not need to break the HA configuration on the current active controller or reboot the current
active controller. The configuration will be synchronized with the current active controller.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
127
Management of Controllers
Replacing the Primary Controller in an HA Setup
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
128
CHAPTER
10
Managing Certificates
• Information about Loading an Externally Generated SSL Certificate, on page 129
• Downloading Device Certificates, on page 131
• Uploading Device Certificates, on page 134
• Downloading CA Certificates, on page 136
• Uploading CA Certificates, on page 138
• Generating a Certificate Signing Request, on page 139
• Downloading Third-Party Certificate, on page 143
Information about Loading an Externally Generated SSL
Certificate
You can use a supported transfer method such as TFTP server to download an externally generated SSL
certificate to the controller. Follow these guidelines for using TFTP:
• If you load the certificate through the service port, the TFTP server must be on the same subnet as the
controller because the service port is not routable, or you must create static routes on the controller. Also,
if you load the certificate through the distribution system network port, the TFTP server can be on any
subnet.
• A third-party TFTP server cannot run on the same PC as the Cisco Prime Infrastructure because the
Prime Infrastructure built-in TFTP server and the third-party TFTP server require the same communication
port.
Note
Chained certificates are supported for web authentication and management
certificate.
CSR compliance with RFC-5280
With all parameters in CSR aligned with RFC-5280, there are some restrictions as follows:
• emailAddress in CSR can only be 128 characters long.
• If the CSR is generated using the CLI, the maximum number of characters (of all input combined for
CSR) is limited to 500 including config certificate generate csr-*****.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
129
Management of Controllers
Loading an SSL Certificate (GUI)
Related Documentation
Generate CSR for Third-Party Certificates and Download Chained Certificates to the
WLC—https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/wireless/4400-series-wireless-lan-controllers/
109597-csr-chained-certificates-wlc-00.html
Loading an SSL Certificate (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > Web Auth > Certificate.
Step 2
On the Web Authentication Certificate page, check the Download SSL Certificate check box.
Note
On the controller GUI, only TFTP transfer mode is used. You can use other methods such as FTP,
and so on, on the controller CLI.
Step 3
In the Server IP Address field, enter the IP address of the TFTP server.
Step 4
In the Maximum Retries field, enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts to download
the certificate.
Step 5
In the Timeout field, enter the amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the
certificate.
Step 6
In the Certificate File Path field, enter the directory path of the certificate.
Step 7
In the Certificate File Name field, enter the name of the certificate (webadmincert_name.pem).
Step 8
(Optional) In the Certificate Password field, enter a password to encrypt the certificate.
Step 9
Save the configuration.
Step 10
Choose Commands > Reboot > Reboot > Save and Reboot to reboot the controller for your changes to take
effect,
Loading an SSL Certificate (CLI)
The procedure described in this section is similar for both webauthcert and webadmincert installation, with
the difference being in the download of the datatype.
Procedure
Step 1
Use a password to encrypt the HTTPS certificate in a .PEM-encoded file. The PEM-encoded file is called a
web administration certificate file (webadmincert_name.pem).
Step 2
Move the webadmincert_name.pem file to the default directory on your TFTP server.
Step 3
To view the current download settings, enter this command and answer n to the prompt:
transfer download start
Information similar to the following appears:
Mode........................................... TFTP
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
130
Management of Controllers
Downloading Device Certificates
Data Type...................................... Admin Cert
TFTP Server IP................................. xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
TFTP Path...................................... <directory path>
TFTP Filename..................................
Are you sure you want to start? (y/n) n
Transfer Canceled
Step 4
Use these commands to change the download settings:
transfer download mode tftp
transfer download datatype webadmincert
transfer download serverip TFTP_server IP_address
transfer download path absolute_TFTP_server_path_to_the_update_file
transfer download filename webadmincert_name.pem
Step 5
To set the password for the .PEM file so that the operating system can decrypt the web administration SSL
key and certificate, enter this command:
transfer download certpassword private_key_password
Step 6
To confirm the current download settings and start the certificate and key download, enter this command and
answer y to the prompt:
transfer download start
Information similar to the following appears:
Mode...........................................
Data Type......................................
TFTP Server IP.................................
TFTP Path......................................
TFTP Filename..................................
Are you sure you want to start? (y/n) y
TFTP Webadmin cert transfer starting.
Certificate installed.
Please restart the switch (reset system) to use
TFTP
Site Cert
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
directory path
webadmincert_name
the new certificate.
Step 7
To save the SSL certificate, key, and secure web password to NVRAM so that your changes are retained
across reboots, enter this command:
save config
Step 8
To reboot the controller, enter this command:
reset system
Downloading Device Certificates
Each wireless device (controller, access point, and client) has its own device certificate. For example, the
controller is shipped with a Cisco-installed MIC device certificate.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
131
Management of Controllers
Downloading Device Certificates (GUI)
Note
For more information about configuring local EAP, see the "Configuring Local EAP" section.
Follow the instructions in this section to download a vendor-specific device certificate to the controller through
the GUI or CLI. However, before you begin, make sure you have a TFTP or FTP server available for the
certificate download. Follow these guidelines when setting up a TFTP or FTP server:
• If you are downloading through the service port, the TFTP or FTP server must be on the same subnet as
the service port because the service port is not routable, or you must create static routes on the controller.
• If you are downloading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP or FTP server can be on
the same or a different subnet because the distribution system port is routable.
• A third-party TFTP or FTP server cannot run on the same computer as Cisco Prime Infrastructure because
the Prime Infrastructure built-in TFTP or FTP server and the third-party TFTP or FTP server require the
same communication port.
Note
Note
All certificates downloaded to the controller must be in PEM format.
Clients using Microsoft Windows 10 with default (zero-touch config) supplicant fail to connect to controller
when there is no CA certificate to validate the server certificate. This is because the supplicant does not pop
up a window to accept the server certificate and silently rejects the 802.1X authentication. Therefore, we
recommend that you do either of the following:
• Manually install a third-party CA certificate on the AAA server, which the clients using Microsoft
Windows 10 can trust.
• Use any other supplicant, such as Cisco AnyConnect, which pops up a window to trust or not trust the
server certificate. If you accept the trust certificate, then the client is authenticated.
Related Topics
Local EAP, on page 970
Downloading Device Certificates (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Copy the device certificate to the default directory on your server.
Step 2
Choose Commands > Download File to open the Download File to Controller page.
Step 3
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Vendor Device Certificate.
Step 4
In the Certificate Password text box, enter the password that was used to protect the certificate.
Step 5
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
132
Management of Controllers
Downloading Device Certificates (CLI)
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 6
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
If you are using a TFTP server, the default values of 10 retries and 6 seconds for the Maximum Retries and
Timeout text boxes should work correctly without any adjustment. However, you can change these values.
Step 7
Enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts to download the certificate in the Maximum
Retries text box and the amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the certificate
in the Timeout text box.
Step 8
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the certificate.
Step 9
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the certificate.
Step 10
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log into the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log into the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download
occurs. The default value is 21.
Step 11
Click Download to download the device certificate to the controller. A message appears indicating the status
of the download.
Step 12
After the download is complete, choose Commands > Reboot > Reboot.
Step 13
If prompted to save your changes, click Save and Reboot.
Step 14
Click OK to confirm your decision to reboot the controller.
Downloading Device Certificates (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Log onto the controller CLI.
Step 2
Specify the transfer mode used to download the config file by entering this command:
transfer download mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 3
Specify the type of the file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download datatype eapdevcert
Step 4
Specify the certificate’s private key by entering this command:
transfer download certpassword password
Step 5
Specify the IP address of the TFTP or FTP server by entering this command:
transfer download serverip server-ip-address
Step 6
Specify the name of the config file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download path server-path-to-file
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
133
Management of Controllers
Uploading Device Certificates
Step 7
Specify the directory path of the config file by entering this command:
transfer download filename filename.pem
Step 8
(Optional) If you are using a TFTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer download tftpMaxRetries retries
• transfer download tftpPktTimeout timeout
Note
Step 9
The default values of 10 retries and a 6-second timeout should work correctly without any
adjustment. However, you can change these values. To do so, enter the maximum number of
times that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the retries parameter and the
amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the
timeout parameter.
If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands (skip this step if you are not using FTP server):
• transfer download username username
• transfer download password password
• transfer download port port
Note
The default value for the port parameter is 21.
Step 10
View the updated settings by entering the transfer download start command. Answer y when prompted to
confirm the current settings and start the download process.
Step 11
Reboot the controller by entering this command:
reset system
Uploading Device Certificates
Uploading Device Certificates (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Commands > Upload File to open the Upload File from Controller page.
Step 2
From the File Type drop-down list, choose IPSec Device Certificate.
Step 3
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP
Step 4
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
Step 5
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the certificate.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
134
Management of Controllers
Uploading Device Certificates (CLI)
Step 6
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the certificate.
Step 7
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps (skip this step if you are not using FTP server):
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log on to the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log on to the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download
occurs. The default value is 21. For SFTP, the default value is 22.
Step 8
Click Upload to upload the CA certificate from the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the
upload.
Step 9
After the upload is complete, choose Commands > Reboot > Reboot.
Step 10
If prompted to save your changes, click Save and Reboot.
Step 11
Click OK to confirm your decision to reboot the controller.
Uploading Device Certificates (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Log on to the controller CLI.
Step 2
Specify the type of the file to be uploaded by entering this command:
transfer upload datatype ipsecdevcert
Step 3
Specify the transfer mode used to upload the file by entering this command:
transfer upload mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 4
Specify the IP address of the TFTP or FTP server by entering this command:
transfer upload serverip server-ip-address
Step 5
Specify the directory path of the file by entering this command:
transfer upload path server-path-to-file
Step 6
Specify the name of the file to be uploaded by entering this command:
transfer upload filename filename
Step 7
If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands (skip this step if you are not using FTP server):
• transfer upload username username
• transfer upload password password
• transfer upload port port
Note
Step 8
The default value for the port parameter for is 21. For SFTP, the default value is 22.
View the updated settings by entering the transfer upload start command. Answer y when prompted to
confirm the current settings and start the upload process.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
135
Management of Controllers
Downloading CA Certificates
Step 9
Reboot the controller by entering the reset system command.
Downloading CA Certificates
Controllers and access points have a Certificate Authority (CA) certificate that is used to sign and validate
device certificates. The controller is shipped with a Cisco-installed CA certificate. This certificate may be
used by EAP-FAST (when not using PACs), EAP-TLS, PEAP-GTC, and PEAP-MSCHAPv2 to authenticate
wireless clients during local EAP authentication. However, if you want to use your own vendor-specific CA
certificate, it must be downloaded to the controller.
Note
For more information about configuring local EAP, see the "Configuring Local EAP" section.
Follow the instructions in this section to download CA certificates to the controller through the GUI or CLI.
However, before you begin, make sure that you have a TFTP or FTP server available for the certificate
download. Follow these guidelines when setting up a TFTP or FTP server:
• If you are downloading through the service port, the TFTP or FTP server must be on the same subnet as
the service port because the service port is not routable, or you must create static routes on the controller.
• If you are downloading through the distribution system network port, the TFTP or FTP server can be on
the same or a different subnet because the distribution system port is routable.
• A third-party TFTP or FTP server cannot run on the same computer as Cisco Prime Infrastructure because
the Prime Infrastructure built-in TFTP or FTP server and the third-party TFTP or FTP server require the
same communication port.
Note
All certificates downloaded to the controller must be in PEM format.
Download CA Certificates (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Copy the CA certificate to the default directory on your server.
Step 2
Choose Commands > Download File to open the Download File to Controller page.
Step 3
From the File Type drop-down list, choose Vendor CA Certificate.
Step 4
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP (available in 7.4 and later releases)
Step 5
In the IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the server.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
136
Management of Controllers
Downloading CA Certificates (CLI)
If you are using a TFTP server, the default values of 10 retries and 6 seconds for the Maximum Retries and
Timeout text boxes should work correctly without any adjustment. However, you can change these values.
Step 6
Enter the maximum number of times that the TFTP server attempts to download the certificate in the Maximum
Retries text box and the amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the certificate
in the Timeout text box.
Step 7
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the certificate.
Step 8
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the certificate.
Step 9
If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps:
a) In the Server Login Username text box, enter the username to log on to the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password text box, enter the password to log on to the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number text box, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download
occurs. The default value is 21.
Step 10
Click Download to download the CA certificate to the controller. A message appears indicating the status of
the download.
Step 11
After the download is complete, choose Commands > Reboot > Reboot.
Step 12
If prompted to save your changes, click Save and Reboot.
Step 13
Click OK to confirm your decision to reboot the controller.
Downloading CA Certificates (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Log on to the controller CLI.
Step 2
Specify the transfer mode used to download the config file by entering this command:
transfer download mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 3
Specify the type of the file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download datatype eapdevcert
Step 4
Specify the IP address of the TFTP or FTP server by entering this command:
transfer download serverip server-ip-address
Step 5
Specify the directory path of the config file by entering this command:
transfer download path server-path-to-file
Step 6
Specify the name of the config file to be downloaded by entering this command:
transfer download filename filename
Step 7
(Optional) If you are using a TFTP server, enter these commands:
• transfer download tftpMaxRetries retries
• transfer download tftpPktTimeout timeout
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
137
Management of Controllers
Uploading CA Certificates
Note
Step 8
The default values of 10 retries and a 6-second timeout should work correctly without any
adjustment. However, you can change these values. To do so, enter the maximum number of
times that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the retries parameter and the
amount of time (in seconds) that the TFTP server attempts to download the software for the
timeout parameter.
If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands (skip this step if you are not using FTP server):
• transfer download username username
• transfer download password password
• transfer download port port
Note
The default value for the port parameter is 21.
Step 9
View the updated settings by entering the transfer download start command. Answer y when prompted to
confirm the current settings and start the download process.
Step 10
Reboot the controller by entering the reset system command.
Uploading CA Certificates
Uploading CA Certificates (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Commands > Upload File to open the Upload File from Controller page.
Step 2
From the File Type drop-down list, choose IPSec CA Certificate.
Step 3
From the Transfer Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• TFTP
• FTP
• SFTP
Step 4
In the IP Address field, enter the IP address of the server.
Step 5
In the File Path field, enter the directory path of the certificate.
Step 6
In the File Name field, enter the name of the certificate.
Step 7
(Optional) If you are using an FTP server, follow these steps (skip this step if you are not using FTP server):
a) In the Server Login Username field, enter the username to log on to the FTP server.
b) In the Server Login Password field, enter the password to log on to the FTP server.
c) In the Server Port Number field, enter the port number on the FTP server through which the download
occurs. The default value is 21. For SFTP, the default value is 22.
Step 8
Click Upload to upload the CA certificate from the controller. A message appears indicating the status of the
upload.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
138
Management of Controllers
Uploading CA Certificates (CLI)
Step 9
If prompted to save your changes, click Save.
Uploading CA Certificates (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Log on to the controller CLI.
Step 2
Specify the type of the file to be uploaded by entering this command:
transfer upload datatype ipseccacert
Step 3
Specify the transfer mode used to upload the file by entering this command:
transfer upload mode {tftp | ftp | sftp}
Step 4
Specify the IP address of the TFTP or FTP server by entering this command:
transfer upload serverip server-ip-address
Step 5
Specify the directory path of the file by entering this command:
transfer upload path server-path-to-file
Step 6
Specify the name of the file to be uploaded by entering this command:
transfer upload filename filename
Step 7
(Optional) If you are using an FTP server, enter these commands (skip this step if you are not using FTP
server):
• transfer upload username username
• transfer upload password password
• transfer upload port port
Note
The default value for the port parameter is 21. For SFTP, the default value is 22.
Step 8
View the updated settings by entering the transfer upload start command. Answer y when prompted to
confirm the current settings and start the upload process.
Step 9
Reboot the controller by entering the reset system command.
Generating a Certificate Signing Request
This section describes how to generate a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) to get a third-party certificate and
how to download a chained certificate to the controller. You can generate a CSR using either of the following
methods:
• Using OpenSSL
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
139
Management of Controllers
Generating a Certificate Signing Request using OpenSSL
• Using the controller itself
Related Documentation
Generate CSR for Third-Party Certificates and Download Chained Certificates to the WLC:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/wireless/4400-series-wireless-lan-controllers/
109597-csr-chained-certificates-wlc-00.html
Generating a Certificate Signing Request using OpenSSL
Procedure
Step 1
Install and open the OpenSSL application.
Step 2
Enter the command:
OpenSSL> req -new -newkey rsa:1024 -nodes -keyout mykey.pem -out myreq.pem
Generating the CSR by the controller itself will use a 2048-bit key size and the mximum ECDSA key size is
256 bits.
Note
You must provide the correct Common Name. Ensure that the host name that is used to create the
certificate (Common Name) matches the Domain Name System (DNS) host name entry for the
virtual interface IP on the controller. This name should exist in the DNS as well. Also, after you
make the change to the VIP interface, you must reboot the system in order for this change to take
effect.
After you issue the command, you are prompted to enter information such as country name, state, city, and
so on.
Information similar to the following appears:
OpenSSL> req -new -newkey rsa:1024 -nodes -keyout mykey.pem -out myreq.pem
Loading 'screen' into random state - done
Generating a 1024 bit RSA private key
................................................................++++++
...................................................++++++
writing new private key to 'mykey.pem'
----You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
----Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:US
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:CA
Locality Name (eg, city) []:San Jose
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:ABC
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:CDE
Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:XYZ.ABC
Email Address []:[email protected]
Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
140
Management of Controllers
Generating a Certificate Signing Request using OpenSSL
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:Test123
An optional company name []:
OpenSSL>
After you provide all the required details two files are generated:
• A new private key that includes the name mykey.pem
• A CSR that includes the name myreq.pem
Step 3
Copy and paste the Certificate Signing Request (CSR) information into any CA enrollment tool. After you
submit the CSR to a third party CA, the third party CA digitally signs the certificate and sends back the signed
certificate chain through e-mail. In case of chained certificates, you receive the entire chain of certificates
from the CA. If you only have one intermediate certificate similar to the example above, you will receive the
following three certificates from the CA:
• Root certificate.pem
• Intermediate certificate.pem
• Device certificate.pem
Note
Step 4
Ensure that the certificate is Apache-compatible with SHA1 encryption.
Once you have all the three certificates, copy and paste into another file the contents of each .pem file in this
order:
------BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----*Device cert*
------END CERTIFICATE-----------BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----*Intermediate CA cert *
------END CERTIFICATE-------------BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----*Root CA cert *
------END CERTIFICATE------
Step 5
Save the file as All-certs.pem.
Step 6
Combine the All-certs.pem certificate with the private key that you generated along with the CSR (the private
key of the device certificate, which is mykey.pem in this example), and save the file as final.pem.
Step 7
Create the All-certs.pem and final.pem files by entering these commands:
openssl> pkcs12 -export -in All-certs.pem -inkey mykey.pem
-out All-certs.p12 -clcerts -passin pass:check123
-passout pass:check123
openssl> pkcs12 -in All-certs.p12 -out final.pem
-passin pass:check123 -passout pass:check123
final.pem is the file that we need to download to the controller.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
141
Management of Controllers
Generating a Certificate Signing Request using Cisco Wireless Controller (GUI)
Note
You must enter a password for the parameters -passin and -passout. The password that is configured
for the -passout parameter must match the certpassword parameter that is configured on the controller.
In the above example, the password that is configured for both the -passin and -passout parameters
is check123.
What to do next
Download the final.pem file to the controller either using CLI or GUI.
Generating a Certificate Signing Request using Cisco Wireless Controller
(GUI)
In Release 8.3 or a later release, the more secure option is to use the controller itself to generate the CSR.
If you generate the CSR and do not install the resulting certificate, the controller will be inaccessible over
HTTPS upon the next reboot because the controller looks for the newly generated CSR key after the reboot.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > Certificate > CSR.
Step 2
On the CSR page, specify the following details:
• Certificate Type
• Country Code
• State
• City
• Organization
• Department
• Common Name
• E-mail
• Key Type
Step 3
Click Generate.
What to do next
Download the CSR certificate file that is generated by navigating to Commands > Upload File.
Generating a Certificate Signing Request using Cisco Wireless Controller (CLI)
In Release 8.3 or a later release, the more secure option is to use the controller itself to generate the CSR.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
142
Management of Controllers
Downloading Third-Party Certificate
If you generate the CSR and do not install the resulting certificate, the controller will be inaccessible over
HTTPS upon the next reboot because the controller looks for the newly generated CSR key after the reboot.
Procedure
• Generate a CSR by entering this command:
config certificate generate csr-webauth {csr-webauth | csr-webadmin} country state city organization
department common-name e-mail
The CSR is printed on the terminal after you enter the command.
What to do next
You must copy and paste the CSR printed on the terminal to a file on your computer. You must hand over
the CSR to your third-party signing authority or your enterprise public key infrastructure (PKI).
The generated key stays in the controller until the next CSR is generated (the previously generated CSR is
overwritten). If you have to change the controller hardware later on (RMA), it is not possible to reinstall the
same certificate; instead, you must generate the certificate newly on the new controller.
Downloading Third-Party Certificate
Downloading Third-Party Certificate (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Copy the device certificate final.pem to the default directory on your TFTP server.
Step 2
Choose Security > Web Auth > Certificate to open the Web Authentication Certificate page.
Step 3
Check the Download SSL Certificate check box to view the Download SSL Certificate From Server
parameters.
Step 4
In the Server IP Address text box, enter the IP address of the TFTP server.
Step 5
In the File Path text box, enter the directory path of the certificate.
Step 6
In the File Name text box, enter the name of the certificate.
Step 7
In the Certificate Password text box, enter the password to protect the certificate.
Step 8
Click Apply.
Step 9
After the download is complete, choose Commands > Reboot and click Save and Reboot.
Step 10
Click OK in order to confirm your decision to reboot the controller.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
143
Management of Controllers
Downloading Third-Party Certificate (CLI)
Downloading Third-Party Certificate (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Move the final.pem file to the default directory on your TFTP server. Change the download settings by entering
the following commands:
(Cisco
(Cisco
(Cisco
(Cisco
(Cisco
Step 2
Controller)
Controller)
Controller)
Controller)
Controller)
>
>
>
>
>
transfer
transfer
transfer
transfer
transfer
download
download
download
download
download
mode tftp
datatype webauthcert
serverip <TFTP server IP address>
path <absolute TFTP server path to the update file>
filename final.pem
Enter the password for the .pem file so that the operating system can decrypt the SSL key and certificate.
(Cisco Controller) > transfer download certpassword password
Note
Step 3
Ensure that the value for certpassword is the same as the -passout parameter when you generate a
CSR.
Start the certificate and key download by entering the this command:
transfer download start
Example:
(Cisco Controller) > transfer download start
Mode............................................. TFTP
Data Type........................................ Site Cert
TFTP Server IP................................... 10.77.244.196
TFTP Packet Timeout.............................. 6
TFTP Max Retries................................. 10
TFTP Path........................................./
TFTP Filename.................................... final.pem
This may take some time.
Are you sure you want to start? (y/N) y
TFTP EAP Dev cert transfer starting.
Certificate installed.
Reboot the switch to use new certificate.
Step 4
Reboot the controller.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
144
CHAPTER
11
AAA Administration
• Setting up RADIUS, on page 145
• Setting up TACACS+, on page 168
• Maximum Local Database Entries, on page 176
Setting up RADIUS
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) is a client/server protocol that provides centralized
security for users attempting to gain management access to a network. It serves as a backend database similar
to local and TACACS+ and provides authentication and accounting services:
• Authentication—The process of verifying users when they attempt to log into the controller.
Users must enter a valid username and password in order for the controller to authenticate users to the
RADIUS server. If multiple databases are configured, you can specify the sequence in which the backend
database must be tired.
Note
The management password for RADIUS server or Cisco controller which is set
for local authentication is limited to 127 charecters in length.
Note
Clients using Microsoft Windows 10 with default (zero-touch config) supplicant
fail to connect to controller when there is no CA certificate to validate the server
certificate. This is because the supplicant does not pop up a window to accept
the server certificate and silently rejects the 802.1X authentication. Therefore,
we recommend that you do either of the following:
• Manually install a third-party CA certificate on the AAA server, which the
clients using Microsoft Windows 10 can trust.
• Use any other supplicant, such as Cisco AnyConnect, which pops up a
window to trust or not trust the server certificate. If you accept the trust
certificate, then the client is authenticated.
• Accounting—The process of recording user actions and changes.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
145
Management of Controllers
Setting up RADIUS
Whenever a user successfully executes an action, the RADIUS accounting server logs the changed
attributes, the user ID of the person who made the change, the remote host where the user is logged in,
the date and time when the command was executed, the authorization level of the user, and a description
of the action performed and the values provided. If the RADIUS accounting server becomes unreachable,
users are able to continue their sessions uninterrupted.
RADIUS uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP) for its transport. It maintains a database and listens on UDP
port 1812 for incoming authentication requests and UDP port 1813 for incoming accounting requests. The
controller, which requires access control, acts as the client and requests AAA services from the server. The
traffic between the controller and the server is encrypted by an algorithm defined in the protocol and a shared
secret key configured on both devices.
You can configure multiple RADIUS accounting and authentication servers. For example, you may want to
have one central RADIUS authentication server but several RADIUS accounting servers in different regions.
If you configure multiple servers of the same type and the first one fails or becomes unreachable, the controller
automatically tries the second one, then the third one if necessary, and so on.
When a management user is authenticated using a RADIUS server, only the PAP protocol is used. For web
authentication users, PAP, MSCHAPv2 and MD5 security mechanisms are supported.
RADIUS Server Support
• You can configure up to 32 RADIUS authentication and accounting servers each.
• If multiple RADIUS servers are configured for redundancy, the user database must be identical in all the
servers for the backup to work properly.
• One Time Passwords (OTPs) are supported on the controller using RADIUS. In this configuration, the
controller acts as a transparent passthrough device. The controller forwards all client requests to the
RADIUS server without inspecting the client behavior. When using OTP, the client must establish a
single connection to the controller to function properly. The controller currently does not have any
intelligence or checks to correct a client that is trying to establish multiple connections.
• To create a read-only controller user on the RADIUS sever, you must set the service type to NAS prompt
instead of Callback NAS prompt. If you set the service type to Callback NAS Prompt, the user
authentication fails while setting it to NAS prompt gives the user read-only access to the controller.
Also, the Callback Administrative service type gives the user the lobby ambassador privileges to the
controller.
• If RADIUS servers are mapped per WLAN, then controller do not use RADIUS server from the global
list on that WLAN.
• To configure the RADIUS server:
• Using Access Control Server (ACS)—See the latest Cisco Secure Access Control System guide at
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/security/secure-access-control-system/
products-user-guide-list.html.
• Using Identity Services Engine (ISE)—See the Configuring External RADIUS Servers section in
the Cisco Identity Services Engine Administrator Guide at https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/
security/identity-services-engine/products-installation-and-configuration-guides-list.html.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
146
Management of Controllers
Restrictions on Configuring RADIUS
Primary and Fallback RADIUS Servers
The primary RADIUS server (the server with the lowest server index) is assumed to be the most preferable
server for the controller. If the primary server becomes unresponsive, the controller switches to the next active
backup server (the server with the next lowest server index). The controller continues to use this backup server,
unless you configure the controller to fall back to the primary RADIUS server when it recovers and becomes
responsive or to a more preferable server from the available backup servers.
Note
Functionality change introduced in Release 8.5.140.0:
When RADIUS aggressive failover for controller is disabled: Packet is retried for six times unless there is a
termination from clients. The RADIUS server (both AUTH and ACCT) is marked unreachable after three
timeout events (18 consecutive retries) from multiple clients (previously, from exactly three clients).
When RADIUS aggressive failover for controller is enabled: Packet is retried for six times unless there is a
termination from clients. The RADIUS server (both AUTH and ACCT) is marked unreachable after one
timeout event (6 consecutive retries) from multiple clients (previously, from exactly one client).
It means 18 consecutive retries per RADIUS server (both AUTH and ACCT) can be from multiple clients.
Therefore, it is not always guaranteed that each packet will be retried for six times.
RADIUS DNS
You can use a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) that enables you to change the IP address when needed,
for example, for load balancing updates. A submenu, DNS, is added to the Security > AAA > RADIUS menu,
which you can use to get RADIUS IP information from a DNS. The DNS query is disabled by default.
This section contains the following subsections:
Restrictions on Configuring RADIUS
• You can configure the session timeout value for RADIUS server up to 65535 seconds. The controller
does not support configuring session timeout value for RADIUS server higher than 65535 seconds.
• The session timeout value configured on RADIUS server if set beyond 24 days, then the RADIUS session
timeout value does not override the session timeout value configured locally over a WLAN.
• A network address translation (NAT) scenario when IPSec is enabled on traffic between the controller
and RADIUS server is not supported.
Configuring RADIUS Authentication (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > AAA > RADIUS > Authentication.
This page lists any RADIUS servers that have already been configured.
• If you want to delete an existing server, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that server
and choose Remove.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
147
Management of Controllers
Configuring RADIUS Authentication (GUI)
• If you want to make sure that the controller can reach a particular server, hover your cursor over the blue
drop-down arrow for that server and choose Ping.
Step 2
From the Auth Called Station ID Type drop-down list, choose the option that is sent to the RADIUS server
in the Access-Request message. The following options are available:
• IP Address
• System MAC Address
• AP MAC Address
• AP MAC Address:SSID
• AP Name:SSID
• AP Name
• AP Group
• Flex Group
• AP Location
• VLAN ID
• AP Ethernet MAC Address
• AP Ethernet MAC Address:SSID
Step 3
Enable RADIUS-to-controller key transport using AES key wrap protection by checking the Use AES Key
Wrap check box. The default value is unchecked. This feature is required for FIPS customers.
Step 4
From the MAC Delimiter drop-down list, choose the option that is sent to the RADIUS server in the
Access-Request message. The following options are available:
• Colon
• Hyphen
• Single-hyphen
• None
Step 5
Click Apply. Perform one of the following:
• To edit an existing RADIUS server, click the server index number for that server. The RADIUS
Authentication Servers > Edit page appears.
• To add a RADIUS server, click New. The RADIUS Authentication Servers > New page appears.
Step 6
If you are adding a new server, choose a number from the Server Index (Priority) drop-down list to specify
the priority order of this server in relation to any other configured RADIUS servers providing the same service.
Step 7
If you are adding a new server, enter the IP address of the RADIUS server in the Server IP Address text box.
Note
Auto IPv6 is not supported on RADIUS server. The RADIUS server must not be configured with
Auto IPv6 address. Use fixed IPv6 address instead.
Step 8
From the Shared Secret Format drop-down list, choose ASCII or Hex to specify the format of the shared
secret key to be used between the controller and the RADIUS server. The default value is ASCII.
Step 9
In the Shared Secret and Confirm Shared Secret text boxes, enter the shared secret key to be used for
authentication between the controller and the server.
Note
Step 10
The shared secret key must be the same on both the server and the controller.
If you are configuring a new RADIUS authentication server and want to enable AES key wrap, which makes
the shared secret between the controller and the RADIUS server more secure, follow these steps:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
148
Management of Controllers
Configuring RADIUS Authentication (GUI)
Note
AES key wrap is designed for Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) customers and
requires a key-wrap compliant RADIUS authentication server.
a) Check the Key Wrap check box.
b) From the Key Wrap Format drop-down list, choose ASCII or HEX to specify the format of the AES
key wrap keys: Key Encryption Key (KEK) and Message Authentication Code Key (MACK).
c) In the Key Encryption Key (KEK) text box, enter the 16-byte KEK.
d) In the Message Authentication Code Key (MACK) text box, enter the 20-byte KEK.
Step 11
(Optional) Check the Apply Cisco ISE Default settings check box.
Enabling Cisco ISE Default settings changes the following parameters:
• CoA is enabled by default.
• The Authentication server details (IP and shared-secret) are also applied to the Accounting server.
• The Layer 2 security of the WLAN is set to WPA+WPA2
• 802.1X is the default AKM.
• MAC filtering is enabled if the Layer 2 security is set to None.
The Layer 2 security is either WPA+WPA2 with 802.1X or None with MAC filtering. You can change these
default settings if required.
Step 12
If you are adding a new server, enter the RADIUS server’s UDP port number for the interface protocols in
the Port Number text box. The valid range is 1 to 65535, and the default value is 1812 for authentication.
Step 13
From the Server Status text box, choose Enabled to enable this RADIUS server or choose Disabled to
disable it. The default value is enabled.
Step 14
If you are configuring a new RADIUS authentication server, from the Support for CoA drop-down list,
choose Enabled to enable change of authorization, which is an extension to the RADIUS protocol that allows
dynamic changes to a user session, or choose Disabled to disable this feature. By default, this is set to Disabled
state. Support for CoA includes support for disconnecting users and changing authorizations applicable to a
user session and supports disconnect and change of authorization (CoA) messages. Disconnect messages
cause a user session to be terminated immediately where CoA messages modify session authorization attributes
such as data filters.
Step 15
In the Server Timeout box, enter the number of seconds between retransmissions. The valid range is 2 to 30
seconds, and the default value is 2 seconds.
Check the Key Wrap check box.
Note
We recommend that you increase the timeout value if you experience repeated reauthentication
attempts or the controller falls back to the backup server when the primary server is active and
reachable.
Step 16
Check the Network User check box to enable network user authentication, or uncheck it to disable this feature.
The default value is unchecked. If you enable this feature, this entry is considered the RADIUS authentication
server for network users. If you did not configure a RADIUS server entry on the WLAN, you must enable
this option for network users.
Step 17
If you are configuring a RADIUS authentication server, check the Management check box to enable
management authentication, or uncheck the check box to disable this feature. The default value is checked.
If you enable this feature, this entry is considered the RADIUS authentication server for management users,
and authentication requests go to the RADIUS server.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
149
Management of Controllers
Configuring RADIUS Accounting Servers (GUI)
Step 18
Enter the Management Retransmit Timeout value, which denotes the network login retransmission timeout
for the server.
Step 19
If you want to use a tunnel gateway as AAA proxy, check the Tunnel Proxy check box. The gateway can
function as a proxy RADIUS server as well as a tunnel gateway.
Step 20
Check the PAC Provisioning check box to enable PAC for RADIUS authentication, or uncheck it to disable
this feature. The default value is unchecked. If you enable this feature, the entry is considered by the RADIUS
authentication server to provision PAC for users.
Note
Step 21
Check the IPSec check box to enable the IP security mechanism, or uncheck the check box to disable this
feature. The default value is unchecked.
Note
Step 22
You must not enable PAC Provisioning for RADIUS authentication server, if the Tunnel Proxy
check box is enabled for an AAA server.
From Release 8.3 onwards, IPSec is supported over IPv6 interfaces as well.
From the IPSec Profile Name drop-down list, choose the IPSec profile.
You can create an IPSec profile by navigating to Management > IPSec. For more information, see the "IPSec
Profile" section in the "Controller Security" chapter.
Step 23
Click Apply.
Step 24
Click Save Configuration.
Step 25
Repeat the previous steps if you want to configure any additional services on the same server or any additional
RADIUS servers.
Configuring RADIUS Accounting Servers (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > AAA > RADIUS > Accounting.
This page lists any RADIUS servers that have already been configured.
• If you want to delete an existing server, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that server
and choose Remove.
• If you want to make sure that the controller can reach a particular server, hover your cursor over the blue
drop-down arrow for that server and choose Ping.
Step 2
From the Acct Called Station ID Type drop-down list, choose the option that is sent to the RADIUS server
in the Access-Request message. The following options are available:
• IP Address
• System MAC Address
• AP MAC Address
• AP MAC Address:SSID
• AP Name:SSID
• AP Name
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
150
Management of Controllers
Configuring RADIUS Accounting Servers (GUI)
• AP Group
• Flex Group
• AP Location
• VLAN ID
• AP Ethernet MAC Address
• AP Ethernet MAC Address:SSID
Step 3
From the MAC Delimiter drop-down list, choose the option that is sent to the RADIUS server in the
Access-Request message. The following options are available:
• Colon
• Hyphen
• Single-hyphen
• None
Step 4
Click Apply. Perform one of the following:
• To edit an existing RADIUS server, click the server index number for that server. The RADIUS
Accounting Servers > Edit page is displayed.
• To add a RADIUS server, click New. The RADIUS Accounting Servers > New page is displayed.
Step 5
If you are adding a new server, choose a number from the Server Index (Priority) drop-down list to specify
the priority order of this server in relation to any other configured RADIUS servers providing the same service.
Step 6
If you are adding a new server, enter the IP address of the RADIUS server in the Server IP Address text box.
Note
Auto IPv6 is not supported on RADIUS server. The RADIUS server must not be configured with
Auto IPv6 address. Use fixed IPv6 address instead.
Step 7
From the Shared Secret Format drop-down list, choose ASCII or Hex to specify the format of the shared
secret key to be used between the controller and the RADIUS server. The default value is ASCII.
Step 8
In the Shared Secret and Confirm Shared Secret text boxes, enter the shared secret key to be used for
accounting between the controller and the server.
Note
The shared secret key must be the same on both the server and the controller.
Step 9
If you are adding a new server, enter the RADIUS server’s UDP port number for the interface protocols in
the Port Number text box. The valid range is 1 to 65535, and the default value is 1813 for accounting.
Step 10
From the Server Status text box, choose Enabled to enable this RADIUS server or choose Disabled to
disable it. The default value is enabled.
Step 11
In the Server Timeout text box, enter the number of seconds between retransmissions. The valid range is 2
to 30 seconds, and the default value is 2 seconds.
Step 12
Check the Network User check box to enable network user accounting, or uncheck it to disable this feature.
The default value is unchecked. If you enable this feature, this entry is considered the RADIUS accounting
server for network users. If you did not configure a RADIUS server entry on the WLAN, you must enable
this option for network users.
Step 13
Check the Management check box to enable management accounting, or uncheck the check box to disable
this feature. The default value is checked. If you enable this feature, this entry is considered the RADIUS
accounting server for management users, and accounting requests go to the RADIUS server.
Step 14
If you want to use a tunnel gateway as AAA proxy, check the Tunnel Proxy check box. The gateway can
function as a proxy RADIUS server as well as a tunnel gateway.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
151
Management of Controllers
Configuring RADIUS (CLI)
Step 15
Check the PAC Provisioning check box to enable PAC for RADIUS accounting, or uncheck it to disable this
feature. The default value is unchecked. If you enable this feature, the entry is considered by the RADIUS
accounting server to provision PAC for users.
Note
Step 16
You must not enable PAC Provisioning for RADIUS accounting server, if the Tunnel Proxy check
box is enabled for an AAA server.
Check the IPSec check box to enable the IP security mechanism, or uncheck the check box to disable this
feature. The default value is unchecked.
Note
Step 17
From Release 8.3 onwards, IPSec is supported over IPv6 interfaces as well.
From the IPSec Profile Name drop-down list, choose the IPSec profile.
You can create an IPSec profile by navigating to Management > IPSec. For more information, see the "IPSec
Profile" section in the "Controller Security" chapter.
Step 18
Click Apply.
Step 19
Click Save Configuration.
Step 20
Repeat the previous steps if you want to configure any additional services on the same server or any additional
RADIUS servers.
Configuring RADIUS (CLI)
Procedure
• Specify whether the IP address, system MAC address, AP MAC address, AP Ethernet MAC address of
the originator will be sent to the RADIUS server in the Access-Request message by entering this command:
config radius callStationIdType {ipaddr | macaddr | ap-macaddr-only | ap-macaddr-ssid |
ap-ethmac-only | ap-ethmac-ssid | ap-group-name | ap-label-address | ap-label-address-ssid |
ap-location | ap-mac-ssid-ap-group | ap-name | ap-name-ssid | flex-group-name | vlan-id}
This command supports both IPv4 and IPv6 address formats.
Note
Caution
The default is System MAC Address.
Do not use Called Station ID Type for IPv6-only clients.
• Specify the delimiter to be used in the MAC addresses that are sent to the RADIUS authentication or
accounting server in Access-Request messages by entering this command:
config radius {auth | acct} mac-delimiter {colon | hyphen | single-hyphen | none}
where
• colon sets the delimiter to a colon (the format is xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx).
• hyphen sets the delimiter to a hyphen (the format is xx-xx-xx-xx-xx-xx). This is the default value.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
152
Management of Controllers
Configuring RADIUS (CLI)
• single-hyphen sets the delimiter to a single hyphen (the format is xxxxxx-xxxxxx).
• none disables delimiters (the format is xxxxxxxxxxxx).
• Configure a RADIUS authentication server by entering these commands:
• config radius auth add index server_ip_address port_number {ascii | hex} shared_secret—Adds
a RADIUS authentication server.
This command supports both IPv4 and IPv6 address formats.
• config radius auth keywrap {enable | disable}—Enables AES key wrap, which makes the shared
secret between the controller and the RADIUS server more secure. AES key wrap is designed for
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) customers and requires a key-wrap compliant
RADIUS authentication server.
• config radius auth keywrap add {ascii | hex} kek mack index—Configures the AES key wrap
attributes
where
• kek specifies the 16-byte Key Encryption Key (KEK).
• mack specifies the 20-byte Message Authentication Code Key (MACK).
• index specifies the index of the RADIUS authentication server on which to configure the AES
key wrap.
• config radius auth rfc3576 {enable | disable} index—Enables or disables RFC 3576, which is an
extension to the RADIUS protocol that allows dynamic changes to a user session. RFC 3576 includes
support for disconnecting users and changing authorizations applicable to a user session and supports
disconnect and change-of-authorization (CoA) messages. Disconnect messages cause a user session
to be terminated immediately where CoA messages modify session authorization attributes such as
data filters.
• config radius auth retransmit-timeout index timeout—Configures the retransmission timeout
value for a RADIUS authentication server.
• config radius auth mgmt-retransmit-timeout index timeout—Configures the default management
login retransmission timeout for a RADIUS authentication server.
• config radius auth network index {enable | disable}—Enables or disables network user
authentication. If you enable this feature, this entry is considered the RADIUS authentication server
for network users. If you did not configure a RADIUS server entry on the WLAN, you must enable
this option for network users.
• config radius auth management index {enable | disable}—Enables or disables management
authentication. If you enable this feature, this entry is considered the RADIUS authentication server
for management users, and authentication requests go to the RADIUS server.
• config radius auth ipsec {enable | disable} index—Enables or disables the IP security mechanism.
• config radius auth ipsec profile ipsec-profile-name radius-index—Configures an IPSec profile
for the RADIUS server specified. You can apply all of the IPSec parameters via this IPSec profile.
You can create a generic IPSec profile by entering the config ipsec-profile command. For more
information, see the "IPSec Profile" section in the "Controller Security" chapter.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
153
Management of Controllers
Configuring RADIUS (CLI)
• config radius auth {enable | disable} index—Enables or disables a RADIUS authentication server.
• config radius auth delete index—Deletes a previously added RADIUS authentication server.
• Configure a RADIUS accounting server by entering these commands:
• config radius acct add index server_ip_address port# {ascii | hex} shared_secret—Adds a RADIUS
accounting server.
This command supports both IPv4 and IPv6 address formats.
• config radius acct server-timeout index timeout—Configures the retransmission timeout value
for a RADIUS accounting server.
• config radius acct network index {enable | disable}—Enables or disables network user accounting.
If you enable this feature, this entry is considered the RADIUS accounting server for network users.
If you did not configure a RADIUS server entry on the WLAN, you must enable this option for
network users.
• config radius acct ipsec {enable | disable} index—Enables or disables the IP security mechanism.
• config radius acct {enable | disable} index—Enables or disables a RADIUS accounting server.
• config radius acct delete index—Deletes a previously added RADIUS accounting server.
• config radius acct region {group | none | provincial}—Configures the RADIUS region.
• config radius acct realm {add | delete } radius-index realm-string—Configures the realm of the
RADIUS accounting server.
• config radius auth callStationIdType {ap-ethmac-only | ap-ethmac-ssid}—Sets the Called
Station ID type to be AP’s radio MAC address or AP’s radio MAC address with SSID.
• config radius auth callStationIdType ap-label-address—Sets the Called Station ID Type to the
AP MAC address that is printed on the AP label, for the authentication messages.
config radius auth callStationIdType ap-label-address-ssid—Sets the Called Station ID Type to
the <AP label MAC address>:<SSID> format, for the authentication messages.
• config radius auth callStationIdType ap-group-name —Sets the Called Station ID type to use
the AP group name. If the AP is not part of any AP group, default-group is taken as the AP group
name.
• config radius auth callStationIdType ap-location—Sets the Called Station ID to the AP Location.
• config radius auth callStationIdType ap-mac-ssid-ap-group—Sets Called Station ID type to the
format <AP MAC address>:<SSID>:<AP Group>.
• config radius auth callStationIdType {ap-macaddr-only | ap-macaddr-ssid}—Sets the Called
Station ID type to be AP’s radio MAC address or AP’s radio MAC address with SSID in the <AP
radio MAC address>:<SSID> format.
• config radius auth callStationIdType {ap-name | ap-name-ssid}—Sets the Called Station ID
type to be AP name or AP name with SSID in the <AP name>:<SSID> format.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
154
Management of Controllers
Configuring RADIUS (CLI)
Note
When the Called Station ID type is set to AP name, the conversion of uppercase
letters to lowercase letters for the AP name is not considered. For example, while
creating an AP, if the AP name is provided with uppercase letters, then the AP
name for the call station ID type gets displayed with upper case letters only.
• config radius auth callStationIdType flex-group-name—Sets the Called Station ID type to the
FlexConnect group name.
• config radius auth callStationIdType {ipaddr | macaddr}—Sets the Called Station ID type to
use the IP address (only Layer 3) or system's MAC address.
• config radius auth callStationIdType vlan-id—Sets the Called Station ID type to the system's
VLAN ID.
• Configure the RADIUS server fallback behavior by entering this command:
config radius fallback-test mode {off | passive | active}
where
• off disables RADIUS server fallback.
• passive causes the controller to revert to a server with a lower priority from the available backup
servers without using extraneous probe messages. The controller simply ignores all inactive servers
for a time period and retries later when a RADIUS message needs to be sent.
• active Causes the controller to revert to a server with a lower priority from the available backup
servers by using RADIUS probe messages to proactively determine whether a server that has been
marked inactive is back online. The controller ignores all inactive servers for all active RADIUS
requests. Once the primary server receives a response from the recovered ACS server, the active
fallback RADIUS server no longer sends probe messages to the server requesting the active probe
authentication. If probing is enabled, the RADIUS server will be probed at every probing time
interval irrespective of the probe response having been received or not. For more information, see
CSCvc01761.Active management RADIUS servers are probed only if management-kick-out feature
is enabled.
Note
RADIUS server is probed if you enable probing at every probing time interval irrespective of the probe
response. For more information, see CSCvc01761.
• If you enabled Active mode in Step 5, enter these commands to configure additional fallback parameters:
• config radius fallback-test username username—Specifies the name to be sent in the inactive
server probes. You can enter up to 16 alphanumeric characters for the username parameter.
• config radius fallback-test interval interval—Specifies the probe interval value (in seconds).
Note
While configuring more than seven servers, you must increase the fallback-test
interval to 1000 for a default retransmit timeout of 5 seconds.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
155
Management of Controllers
Configuring RADIUS (CLI)
• Configure RADIUS DNS parameters by entering these commands:
• config radius dns global port-num {ascii | hex} secret—Adds global port number and secret
information for the RADIUS DNS.
• config radius dns query url timeout-in-days—Configures the FQDN of the RADIUS server and
timeout after which a refresh is performed to get the latest update from the DNS server.
• config radius dns serverip ip-addr—Configures the IP address of the DNS server.
• config radius dns {enable | disable}—Enables or disables the DNS query.
• Configure RADIUS extended source ports support by entering this command:
config radius ext-source-ports {enable | disable}
Enabling multiple source ports allows the number of outstanding RADIUS requests to be increased. With
single source port, the number of outstanding requests was limited to 255 for each authentication and
accounting request.
The number of RADIUS queues supported on various WLC platforms:
• Cisco 5520 and 8540 WLCs support 16 RADIUS queues
• Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
• Configure the order of authentication when multiple databases are configured by entering this command:
config aaa auth mgmt AAA_server_type AAA_server_type
where AAA_server_type is local, RADIUS, or TACACS+.
To see the current management authentication server order, enter the show aaa auth command.
• See RADIUS statistics by entering these commands:
• show radius summary—Shows a summary of RADIUS servers and statistics with AP Ethernet
MAC configurations.
• show radius auth statistics—Shows the RADIUS authentication server statistics.
• show radius acct statistics—Shows the RADIUS accounting server statistics.
• show radius rfc3576 statistics—Shows a summary of the RADIUS RFC-3576 server.
• See active security associations by entering these commands:
• show ike {brief | detailed} ip_or_mac_addr—Shows a brief or detailed summary of active IKE
security associations.
• show ipsec {brief | detailed} ip_or_mac_addr—Shows a brief or detailed summary of active IPSec
security associations.
• Clear the statistics for one or more RADIUS servers by entering this command:
clear stats radius {auth | acct} {index | all}
• Make sure that the controller can reach the RADIUS server by entering this command:
ping server_ip_address
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
156
Management of Controllers
RADIUS Authentication Attributes Sent by the Controller
RADIUS Authentication Attributes Sent by the Controller
The following tables identify the RADIUS authentication attributes sent between the controller and the
RADIUS server in access-request and access-accept packets.
Table 3: Authentication Attributes Sent in Access-Request Packets
Attribute ID
Description
1
User-Name
2
Password
3
CHAP-Password
4
NAS-IP-Address
5
NAS-Port
6
Service-Type
12
Framed-MTU
30
Called-Station-ID (MAC address)
31
Calling-Station-ID (MAC address)
32
NAS-Identifier
33
Proxy-State
60
CHAP-Challenge
61
NAS-Port-Type
79
EAP-Message
1
To specify read-only or read-write access to controllers through RADIUS authentication, you must set
the Service-Type attribute (6) on the RADIUS server to Callback NAS Prompt for read-only access
or to Administrative for read-write privileges.
Table 4: Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Cisco)
Note
Attribute ID
Description
1
Cisco-LEAP-Session-Key
2
Cisco-Keywrap-Msg-Auth-Code
3
Cisco-Keywrap-NonCE
4
Cisco-Keywrap-Key
5
Cisco-URL-Redirect
6
Cisco-URL-Redirect-ACL
These Cisco-specific attributes are not supported: Auth-Algo-Type and SSID.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
157
Management of Controllers
RADIUS Authentication Attributes Sent by the Controller
Table 5: Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Standard)
Note
Attribute ID
Description
6
Service-Type. To specify read-only or read-write access to controllers
through RADIUS authentication, you must set the Service-Type attribute
(6) on the RADIUS server to Callback NAS Prompt for read-only access
or to Administrative for read-write privileges.
8
Framed-IP-Address
25
Class
26
Vendor-Specific
27
Timeout
29
Termination-Action
40
Acct-Status-Type
64
Tunnel-Type
79
EAP-Message
81
Tunnel-Group-ID
Message authentication is not supported.
Table 6: Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Microsoft)
Attribute ID
Description
11
MS-CHAP-Challenge
16
MS-MPPE-Send-Key
17
MS-MPPE-Receive-Key
25
MS-MSCHAP2-Response
26
MS-MSCHAP2-Success
Table 7: Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace)
Attribute ID
Description
1
VAP-ID
3
DSCP
4
8021P-Type
5
VLAN-Interface-Name
6
ACL-Name
7
Data-Bandwidth-Average-Contract
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
158
Management of Controllers
Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace)
Attribute ID
Description
8
Real-Time-Bandwidth-Average-Contract
9
Data-Bandwidth-Burst-Contract
10
Real-Time-Bandwidth-Burst-Contract
11
Guest-Role-Name
Note
Guest-Role-Name is honored only on L3 security web
authentication with AAA over-ride enabled on the controller.
13
Data-Bandwidth-Average-Contract-US
14
Real-Time-Bandwidth-Average-Contract-US
15
Data-Bandwidth-Burst-Contract-US
16
Real-Time-Bandwidth-Burst-Contract-US
Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace)
This section lists the RADIUS authentication Airespace attributes currently supported on the controller.
VAP ID
This attribute indicates the WLAN ID of the WLAN to which the client should belong. When the WLAN-ID
attribute is present in the RADIUS Access Accept, the system applies the WLAN-ID (SSID) to the client
station after it authenticates. The WLAN ID is sent by the controller in all instances of authentication except
IPsec. In case of web authentication, if the controller receives a WLAN-ID attribute in the authentication
response from the AAA server, and it does not match the ID of the WLAN, authentication is rejected. The
802.1X/MAC filtering is also rejected. The rejection, based on the response from the AAA server, is because
of the SSID Cisco AVPair support. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
WLAN ID (VALUE)
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 1
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – ID of the WLAN to which the client should belong.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
159
Management of Controllers
Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace)
QoS-Level
This attribute indicates the QoS level to be applied to the mobile client's traffic within the switching fabric,
as well as over the air. This example shows a summary of the QoS-Level Attribute format. The fields are
transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
QoS Level
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 2
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – Three octets:
• 3 – Bronze (Background)
• 0 – Silver (Best Effort)
• 1 – Gold (Video)
• 2 – Platinum (Voice)
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP)
DSCP is a packet header code that can be used to provide differentiated services based on the QoS levels.
This attribute defines the DSCP value to be applied to a client. When present in a RADIUS Access Accept,
the DSCP value overrides the DSCP value specified in the WLAN profile. The fields are transmitted from
left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type | Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
DSCP (VALUE)
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
160
Management of Controllers
Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace)
• Vendor type – 3
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – DSCP value to be applied for the client.
802.1p Tag Type
802.1p VLAN tag received from the client, defining the access priority. This tag maps to the QoS Level for
client-to-network packets. This attribute defines the 802.1p priority to be applied to the client. When present
in a RADIUS Access Accept, the 802.1p value overrides the default specified in the WLAN profile. The fields
are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type | Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
802.1p (VALUE)
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 4
• Vendor length – 3
• Value – 802.1p priority to be applied to a client.
VLAN Interface Name
This attribute indicates the VLAN interface a client is to be associated to. A summary of the Interface-Name
Attribute format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type | Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Interface Name...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – >7
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 5
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
161
Management of Controllers
Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace)
• Vendor length – >0
• Value – A string that includes the name of the interface the client is to be assigned to.
Note
This attribute only works when MAC filtering is enabled or if 802.1X or WPA
is used as the security policy.
ACL-Name
This attribute indicates the ACL name to be applied to the client. A summary of the ACL-Name Attribute
format is shown below. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
ACL Name...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – >7
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 6
• Vendor length – >0
• Value – A string that includes the name of the ACL to use for the client
Data Bandwidth Average Contract
This attribute is a rate limiting value. It indicates the Data Bandwidth Average Contract that will be applied
for a client for non-realtime traffic such as TCP. This value is specific for downstream direction from wired
to wireless. When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the Data Bandwidth Average Contract value overrides
the Average Data Rate value present in the WLAN or QoS Profile. The fields are transmitted from left to
right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Data Bandwidth Average Contract...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
162
Management of Controllers
Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace)
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 7
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – A value in kbps
Real Time Bandwidth Average Contract
This attribute is a rate limiting value. It indicates the Data Bandwidth Average Contract that will be applied
to a client for realtime traffic such as UDP. This value is specific for downstream direction from wired to
wireless. When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the Real Time Bandwidth Average Contract value
overrides the Average Real-Time Rate value present in the WLAN or QoS Profile. The fields are transmitted
from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Real Time Bandwidth Average Contract...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 8
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – A value in kbps
Data Bandwidth Burst Contract
This attribute is a rate limiting value. It indicates the Data Bandwidth Burst Contract that will be applied to
a client for non-realtime traffic such as TCP. This value is specific to downstream direction from wired to
wireless. When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the Data Bandwidth Burst Contract value overrides the
Burst Data Rate value present in the WLAN or QoS Profile. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Data Bandwidth Burst Contract...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
163
Management of Controllers
Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace)
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 9
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – A value in kbps
Real Time Bandwidth Burst Contract
This attribute is a rate limiting value. It indicates the Data Bandwidth Burst Contract that will be applied to
a client for realtime traffic such as UDP. This value is specific to downstream direction from wired to wireless.
When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the Real Time Bandwidth Burst Contract value overrides the
Burst Real-Time Rate value present in the WLAN or QoS Profile. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
Note
If you try to implement Average Data Rate and Burst Data Rate as AAA override parameters to be pushed
from a AAA server, both Average Data Rate and Burst Data Rate have to be sent from ISE.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Real Time Bandwidth Burst Contract...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 10
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – A value in kbps
Guest Role Name
This attribute provides the bandwidth contract values to be applied for an authenticating user. When present
in a RADIUS Access Accept, the bandwidth contract values defined for the Guest Role overrides the bandwidth
contract values (based on QOS value) specified for the WLAN. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
GuestRoleName ...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
164
Management of Controllers
Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace)
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 11
• Vendor length – Variable based on the Guest Role Name length
• Value – A string of alphanumeric characters
Data Bandwidth Average Contract Upstream
This attribute is a rate limiting value. It indicates the Data Bandwidth Average Contract that will be applied
to a client for non-realtime traffic such as TCP. This value is specific to upstream direction from wireless to
wired. When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the Data Bandwidth Average Contract value overrides the
Average Data Rate value present in the WLAN or QoS Profile. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Data Bandwidth Average Contract Upstream...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 13
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – A value in kbps
Real Time Bandwidth Average Contract Upstream
This attribute is a rate limiting value. It indicates the Data Bandwidth Average Contract that will be applied
to a client for realtime traffic such as UDP. This value is specific to upstream direction from wireless to wired.
When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the Real Time Bandwidth Average Contract value overrides the
Average Real-Time Rate value present in the WLAN or QoS Profile. The fields are transmitted from left to
right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Real Time Bandwidth Average Contract Upstream...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
165
Management of Controllers
Authentication Attributes Honored in Access-Accept Packets (Airespace)
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 14
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – A value in kbps
Data Bandwidth Burst Contract Upstream
This attribute is a rate limiting value. It indicates the Data Bandwidth Burst Contract that will be applied to
a client for non-realtime traffic such as TCP. This value is specific to upstream direction from wireless to
wired. When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the Data Bandwidth Burst Contract value overrides the
Burst Data Rate value present in the WLAN or QoS Profile. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Data Bandwidth Burst Contract Upstream...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 15
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – A value in kbps
Real Time Bandwidth Burst Contract Upstream
This attribute is a rate limiting value. It indicates the Data Bandwidth Burst Contract that will be applied to
a client for realtime traffic such as UDP. This value is specific to upstream direction from wireless to wired.
When present in a RADIUS Access Accept, the Real Time Bandwidth Burst Contract value overrides the
Burst Real-Time Rate value present in the WLAN or QoS Profile. The fields are transmitted from left to right.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Type
| Length
|
Vendor-Id
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Vendor-Id (cont.)
| Vendor type
| Vendor length |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Real Time Bandwidth Burst Contract Upstream...
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-
• Type – 26 for Vendor-Specific
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
166
Management of Controllers
RADIUS Accounting Attributes
• Length – 10
• Vendor-Id – 14179
• Vendor type – 16
• Vendor length – 4
• Value – A value in kbps
RADIUS Accounting Attributes
This table identifies the RADIUS accounting attributes for accounting requests sent from a controller to the
RADIUS server.
Table 8: Accounting Attributes for Accounting Requests
Attribute ID
Description
1
User-Name
4
NAS-IP-Address
5
NAS-Port
8
Framed-IP-Address
25
Class
30
Called-Station-ID (MAC address)
31
Calling-Station-ID (MAC address)
32
NAS-Identifier
40
Accounting-Status-Type
41
Accounting-Delay-Time (Stop and interim messages only)
42
Accounting-Input-Octets (Stop and interim messages only)
43
Accounting-Output-Octets (Stop and interim messages only)
44
Accounting-Session-ID
45
Accounting-Authentic
46
Accounting-Session-Time (Stop and interim messages only)
47
Accounting-Input-Packets (Stop and interim messages only)
48
Accounting-Output-Packets (Stop and interim messages only)
49
Accounting-Terminate-Cause (Stop messages only)
52
Accounting-Input-Gigawords
53
Accounting-Output-Gigawords
55
Event-Timestamp
64
Tunnel-Type
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
167
Management of Controllers
Setting up TACACS+
Attribute ID
Description
65
Tunnel-Medium-Type
81
Tunnel-Group-ID
IPv6-Framed-Prefix
190
IPv6-Framed-Address
This table lists the different values for the Accounting-Status-Type attribute (40).
Table 9: Accounting-Status-Type Attribute Values
Attribute ID
Description
1
Start
2
Stop
3
Interim-Update
Note
RADIUS Accounting Interim updates are sent upon each client
authentication, even if the RADIUS Server Accounting - Interim
Update feature is not enabled on the client's WLAN.
Interim updates can also be triggered by events such as mobility
events, every time clients receive IPv4 addresses, PEM state
changes, and so on.
7
Accounting-On
8
Accounting-Off
9-14
Reserved for Tunneling Accounting
15
Reserved for Failed
Setting up TACACS+
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System Plus (TACACS+) is a client/server protocol that provides
centralized security for users attempting to gain management access to a controller. It serves as a backend
database similar to local and RADIUS. However, local and RADIUS provide only authentication support and
limited authorization support while TACACS+ provides three services:
• Authentication—The process of verifying users when they attempt to log into the controller.
Users must enter a valid username and password in order for the controller to authenticate users to the
TACACS+ server. The authentication and authorization services are tied to one another. For example,
if authentication is performed using the local or RADIUS database, then authorization would use the
permissions that are associated with the user in the local or RADIUS database (which are read-only,
read-write, and lobby-admin) and not use TACACS+. Similarly, when authentication is performed using
TACACS+, authorization is tied to TACACS+.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
168
Management of Controllers
Setting up TACACS+
Note
The TACACS+ management password is limited to 127 characters in length.
Note
When multiple databases are configured, you can use the controller GUI or CLI
to specify the sequence in which the backend databases should be tried.
• Authorization—The process of determining the actions that users are allowed to take on the controller
based on their level of access.
For TACACS+, authorization is based on privilege (or role) rather than specific actions. The available
roles correspond to the seven menu options on the controller GUI: MONITOR, WLAN, CONTROLLER,
WIRELESS, SECURITY, MANAGEMENT, and COMMANDS. An additional role, LOBBY, is available
for users who require only lobby ambassador privileges. The roles to which users are assigned are
configured on the TACACS+ server. Users can be authorized for one or more roles.
Note
Both MANAGEMENT and SECURITY roles are needed for creating local
management user and IPsec profile.
• The minimum authorization is MONITOR only, and the maximum is ALL, which authorizes the user to
execute the functionality associated with all seven menu options. For example, a user who is assigned
the role of SECURITY can make changes to any items appearing on the Security menu (or designated
as security commands in the case of the CLI). If users are not authorized for a particular role (such as
WLAN), they can still access that menu option in read-only mode (or the associated CLI show commands).
If the TACACS+ authorization server becomes unreachable or unable to authorize, users are unable to
log into the controller.
Note
If users attempt to make changes on a controller GUI page that are not permitted
for their assigned role, a message appears indicating that they do not have
sufficient privilege. If users enter a controller CLI command that is not permitted
for their assigned role, a message may appear indicating that the command was
successfully executed although it was not. In this case, the following additional
message appears to inform users that they lack sufficient privileges to successfully
execute the command: “Insufficient Privilege! Cannot execute command!”
• Accounting—The process of recording user actions and changes.
Whenever a user successfully executes an action, the TACACS+ accounting server logs the changed
attributes, the user ID of the person who made the change, the remote host where the user is logged in,
the date and time when the command was executed, the authorization level of the user, and a description
of the action performed and the values provided. If the TACACS+ accounting server becomes unreachable,
users are able to continue their sessions uninterrupted.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
169
Management of Controllers
Setting up TACACS+
Note
The logs under TACACS+ records the configurations as user readable statements.
TACACS+ uses Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for its transport, unlike RADIUS which uses User
Datagram Protocol (UDP). It maintains a database and listens on TCP port 49 for incoming requests. The
controller, which requires access control, acts as the client and requests AAA services from the server. The
traffic between the controller and the server is encrypted by an algorithm that is defined in the protocol and
a shared secret key that is configured on both devices.
You can configure up to three TACACS+ authentication, authorization, and accounting servers each. For
example, you may want to have one central TACACS+ authentication server but several TACACS+
authorization servers in different regions. If you configure multiple servers of the same type and the first one
fails or becomes unreachable, the controller automatically tries the second one and then the third one if
necessary.
Note
If multiple TACACS+ servers are configured for redundancy, the user database must be identical in all the
servers for the backup to work properly.
The following are some guidelines about TACACS+:
• You must configure TACACS+ on both your CiscoSecure Access Control Server (ACS) and your
controller. You can configure the controller through either the GUI or the CLI.
• TACACS+ is supported on CiscoSecure ACS version 3.2 and later releases. See the CiscoSecure ACS
documentation for the version that you are running.
• One Time Passwords (OTPs) are supported on the controller using TACACS. In this configuration, the
controller acts as a transparent passthrough device. The controller forwards all client requests to the
TACACS server without inspecting the client behavior. When using OTP, the client must establish a
single connection to the controller to function properly. The controller currently does not have any
intelligence or checks to correct a client that is trying to establish multiple connections.
• We recommend that you increase the retransmit timeout value for TACACS+ authentication, authorization,
and accounting servers if you experience repeated reauthentication attempts or the controller falls back
to the backup server when the primary server is active and reachable. The default retransmit timeout
value is 2 seconds and you can increase the retransmit timeout value to a maximum of 30 seconds.
• To configure the TACACS+ server:
• Using Access Control Server (ACS)—See the latest Cisco Secure Access Control System guide at
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/security/secure-access-control-system/
products-user-guide-list.html.
• Using Identity Services Engine (ISE)—See the ISE TACACS+ Configuration Guide for Wireless
LAN Controllers at http://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en/us/td/docs/security/ise/how_to/
HowTo-TACACS_for_WLC.pdf.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
170
Management of Controllers
TACACS+ VSA
TACACS+ DNS
You can use a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) that enables you to change the IP address when needed,
for example, for load-balancing updates. A submenu, DNS, is added to the Security > AAA > TACACS+
menu, which you can use to get TACACS+ IP information from a DNS. The DNS query is disabled by default.
Note
IPv6 is not supported for TACAS+ DNS.
It is not possible to use both the static list and the DNS list at the same time. The addresses that are returned
by the DNS override the static entries.
DNS AAA is valid for FlexConnect AP clients that use central authentication.
DNS AAA is not supported to define a RADIUS for FlexConnect AP groups. For FlexConnect clients with
local switching, you have to manually define AAA.
Rogue, 802.1X, web authentication, MAC filtering, mesh, and other features that use the global list also use
the DNS-defined servers.
Dynamic Management User Login via AAA Server
The management users, who logged in using local credentials when external AAA servers were not available,
are notified to re-authenticate within the set timeframe when external TACACS+ servers are available. Failing
to authenticate terminates the user session. TACACS+ uses the TACACS+ fallback-test configuration and
the re-authentication configuration is common to RADIUS and TACACS+. This enhancement was introduced
in 8.2 release.
This section contains the following subsections:
TACACS+ VSA
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) draft standard specifies a method for communicating
vendor-specific attributes (VSAs) between the network access server and the TACACS+ server. The IETF
uses attribute 26. VSAs allow vendors to support their own extended attributes that are not suitable for general
use.
The Cisco TACACS+ implementation supports one vendor-specific option using the format recommended
in the IETF specification. The Cisco vendor ID is 9, and the supported option is vendor type 1, which is named
cisco-av-pair. The value is a string with the following format:
protocol : attribute separator value *
The protocol is a Cisco attribute for a particular type of authorization, the separator is = (equal sign) for
mandatory attributes, and * (asterisk) indicates optional attributes.
Configuring TACACS+ (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > AAA > TACACS+.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
171
Management of Controllers
Configuring TACACS+ (GUI)
Step 2
Perform one of the following:
• If you want to configure a TACACS+ server for authentication, choose Authentication.
• If you want to configure a TACACS+ server for authorization, choose Authorization.
• If you want to configure a TACACS+ server for accounting, choose Accounting.
Note
The pages used to configure authentication, authorization, and accounting all contain the same text
boxes. Therefore, these instructions walk through the configuration only once, using the
Authentication pages as examples. You would follow the same steps to configure multiple services
and/or multiple servers.
For basic management authentication via TACACS+ to succeed, it is required to configure
authentication and authorization servers on the WLC. Accounting configuration is optional.
The TACACS+ (Authentication, Authorization, or Accounting) Servers page appears. This page lists any
TACACS+ servers that have already been configured.
• If you want to delete an existing server, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that server
and choose Remove.
• If you want to make sure that the controller can reach a particular server, hover your cursor over the blue
drop-down arrow for that server and choose Ping.
Step 3
Perform one of the following:
• To edit an existing TACACS+ server, click the server index number for that server. The TACACS+
(Authentication, Authorization, or Accounting) Servers > Edit page appears.
• To add a TACACS+ server, click New. The TACACS+ (Authentication, Authorization, or Accounting)
Servers > New page appears.
Step 4
If you are adding a new server, choose a number from the Server Index (Priority) drop-down list to specify
the priority order of this server in relation to any other configured TACACS+ servers providing the same
service. You can configure up to three servers. If the controller cannot reach the first server, it tries the second
one in the list and then the third if necessary.
Step 5
If you are adding a new server, enter the IP address of the TACACS+ server in the Server IP Address text
box.
Step 6
From the Shared Secret Format drop-down list, choose ASCII or Hex to specify the format of the shared
secret key to be used between the controller and the TACACS+ server. The default value is ASCII.
Step 7
In the Shared Secret and Confirm Shared Secret text boxes, enter the shared secret key to be used for
authentication between the controller and the server.
Note
The shared secret key must be the same on both the server and the controller.
Step 8
If you are adding a new server, enter the TACACS+ server’s TCP port number for the interface protocols in
the Port Number text box. The valid range is 1 to 65535, and the default value is 49.
Step 9
In the Server Status text box, choose Enabled to enable this TACACS+ server or choose Disabled to disable
it. The default value is Enabled.
Step 10
In the Server Timeout text box, enter the number of seconds between retransmissions. The valid range is 5
to 30 seconds, and the default value is 5 seconds.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
172
Management of Controllers
Configuring TACACS+ (GUI)
Note
We recommend that you increase the timeout value if you experience repeated reauthentication
attempts or the controller falls back to the backup server when the primary server is active and
reachable.
Step 11
Click Apply.
Step 12
Specify the TACACS+ DNS parameters as follows:
a) Choose Security > AAA > TACACS+ > DNS. The TACACS DNS Parameters page appears.
b) Select or unselect the DNS Query check box.
c) In the Interval in sec text box, enter the authentication port number. The valid range is 1 to 65535.
The accounting port number is an increment of 1 of the authentication port number. For example, if you
define the authentication port number as 1812, the accounting port number is 1813. The accounting port
number is always derived from the authentication port number.
d) From the Secret Format drop-down list, choose the format in which you want to configure the secret.
Valid options are ASCII and Hex.
e) Depending on the format selected, enter and confirm the secret.
Note
All servers are expected to use the same authentication port and the same secret.
f) In the DNS Timeout text box, enter the number of days after which the DNS query is refreshed to get
the latest update from the DNS server.
g) In the URL text box, enter the fully qualified domain name or the absolute domain name of the TACACS+
server.
h) In the Server IP Address text box, enter the IPv4 address of the DNS server.
Note
IPv6 is not supported for TACACS+ DNS.
i) Click Apply.
Step 13
Configure the TACACS+ probe duration mode as follows:
a) Choose Security > AAA > TACACS+ > Fallback. The TACACS+ Fallback Parameters page appears.
b) From the Fallback Mode drop-down list, select Enable.
c) In the Interval in sec text box, enter the time in seconds. The valid range is between 180 and 3600 seconds.
d) Click Apply.
Step 14
Configure the re-authentication terminal interval for a user before being logged out as follows:
a) Choose Security > AAA > General. The AAA General page appears.
b) In the Mgmt User Re-auth Interval text box, enter the time in seconds. The valid range is between 0
and 300.
c) Click Apply.
Step 15
Click Save Configuration.
Step 16
Repeat the previous steps if you want to configure any additional services on the same server or any additional
TACACS+ servers.
Step 17
Specify the order of authentication when multiple databases are configured by choosing Security > Priority
Order > Management User. The Priority Order > Management User page appears.
Step 18
In the Order Used for Authentication text box, specify which servers have priority when the controller
attempts to authenticate management users.
Use the > and < buttons to move servers between the Not Used and Order Used for Authentication text
boxes. After the desired servers appear in the Order Used for Authentication text box, use the Up and Down
buttons to move the priority server to the top of the list. By default, the local database is always queried first.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
173
Management of Controllers
Configuring TACACS+ (CLI)
If the username is not found, the controller switches to the RADIUS server if configured for RADIUS or to
the TACACS+ server if configured for TACACS+. The default setting is local and then RADIUS.
Step 19
Click Apply.
Step 20
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring TACACS+ (CLI)
Procedure
• Configure a TACACS+ authentication server by entering these commands:
• config tacacs auth add index server_ip_address port# {ascii | hex} shared_secret—Adds a
TACACS+ authentication server.
This command supports both IPv4 and IPv6 address formats.
• config tacacs auth delete index—Deletes a previously added TACACS+ authentication server.
• config tacacs auth (enable | disable} index—Enables or disables a TACACS+ authentication
server.
• config tacacs auth server-timeout index timeout—Configures the retransmission timeout value
for a TACACS+ authentication server.
• Configure a TACACS+ authorization server by entering these commands:
• config tacacs athr add index server_ip_address port# {ascii | hex} shared_secret—Adds a
TACACS+ authorization server.
This command supports both IPv4 and IPv6 address formats.
• config tacacs athr delete index—Deletes a previously added TACACS+ authorization server.
• config tacacs athr (enable | disable} index—Enables or disables a TACACS+ authorization server.
• config tacacs athr server-timeout index timeout—Configures the retransmission timeout value
for a TACACS+ authorization server.
• config tacacs athr mgmt-server-timeout index timeout—Configures the default management login
server timeout for a TACACS+ authorization server.
• Configure a TACACS+ accounting server by entering these commands:
• config tacacs acct add index server_ip_address port# {ascii | hex} shared_secret—Adds a
TACACS+ accounting server.
This command supports both IPv4 and IPv6 address formats.
• config tacacs acct delete index—Deletes a previously added TACACS+ accounting server.
• config tacacs acct (enable | disable} index—Enables or disables a TACACS+ accounting server.
• config tacacs acct server-timeout index timeout—Configures the retransmission timeout value for
a TACACS+ accounting server.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
174
Management of Controllers
Configuring TACACS+ (CLI)
• config tacacs acct mgmt-server-timeout index timeout—Configures the default management login
server timeout for a TACACS+ accounting server.
• See TACACS+ statistics by entering these commands:
• show tacacs summary—Shows a summary of TACACS+ servers and statistics.
• show tacacs auth stats—Shows the TACACS+ authentication server statistics.
• show tacacs athr stats—Shows the TACACS+ authorization server statistics.
• show tacacs acct stats—Shows the TACACS+ accounting server statistics.
• Clear the statistics for one or more TACACS+ servers by entering this command:
clear stats tacacs [auth | athr | acct] {index | all}
• Configure the order of authentication when multiple databases are configured by entering this command.
The default setting is local and then radius.
config aaa auth mgmt [radius | tacacs]
See the current management authentication server order by entering the show aaa auth command.
• Make sure the controller can reach the TACACS+ server by entering this command:
ping server_ip_address
• Configure TACACS+ DNS parameters by entering these commands:
• config tacacs dns global port-num {ascii | hex} secret—Adds global port number and secret
information for the TACACS+ DNS.
• config tacacs dns query url timeout-in-days—Configures the FQDN of the TACACS+ server and
timeout after which a refresh is performed to get the latest update from the DNS server.
• config tacacs dns serverip ip-addr—Configures the IP address of the DNS server.
• config tacacs dns {enable | disable}—Enables or disables the DNS query.
• Configure TACACS+ probe and re-authentication interval by entering these commands:
• config tacacs fallback-test interval seconds—Enables and sets the probe interval for TACACS+
server. The valid range is 0 to disable and between 180 and 3600 seconds when enabled.
• config mgmtuser termination-interval seconds—Sets the interval of re-authentication window
for the user before being logged out of the system. The valid range is between 0 and 300. Default
value is 0.
• View the user authentication server configuration by entering the following commands:
• show aaa auth —Displays AAA related information for authentication servers.
• show tacacs summary —Displays TACACS+ summary
• Enable or disable TACACS+ debugging by entering this command:
debug aaa tacacs {enable | disable}
• Save your changes by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
175
Management of Controllers
Maximum Local Database Entries
save config
Maximum Local Database Entries
You can configure the controller to specify the maximum number of local database entries that are used for
storing user authentication information. The database entries include local management users (including lobby
ambassadors), local network users (including guest users), MAC filter entries, exclusion list entries, and access
point authorization list entries. Together they cannot exceed the configured maximum value.
The maximum entries that are supported by each platform are listed in the following table.
Table 10: Maximum Supported Local Database Entries
Note
Platform
Maximum Entries Supported
Cisco 3504 Wireless Controller
12000
Cisco 5520 Wireless Controller
12000
Cisco 8540 Wireless Controller
12000
Cisco Virtual Wireless Controller
2048
If you modify the maximum local database entry parameter, you must reboot the controller for the changes
to take effect.
This section contains the following subsections:
Related Topics
Restrictions on Managing User Accounts, on page 179
Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > AAA > General to open the General page.
Step 2
In the Maximum Local Database Entries text box, enter a value for the maximum number of entries that can
be added to the local database the next time the controller reboots. The currently configured value appears in
parentheses to the right of the text box. The valid range is 512 to 2048, and the default setting is 2048.
The Number of Entries, Already Used text box shows the number of entries currently in the database.
Step 3
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your settings.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
176
Management of Controllers
Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries (CLI)
Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Specify the maximum number of entries that can be added to the local database the next time the controller
reboots by entering this command:
config database size max_entries
Step 2
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 3
View the maximum number of database entries and the current database contents by entering this command:
show database summary
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
177
Management of Controllers
Configuring Maximum Local Database Entries (CLI)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
178
CHAPTER
12
Managing Users
• Administrator Usernames and Passwords, on page 179
• Lobby Ambassador Account, on page 180
• Guest Accounts, on page 183
• Client Whitelisting, on page 184
• Password Policies, on page 189
Administrator Usernames and Passwords
You can configure administrator usernames and passwords to prevent unauthorized users from reconfiguring
the controller and viewing configuration information. This section provides instructions for initial configuration
and for password recovery.
Restrictions on Managing User Accounts
• The local user database is limited to a maximum of 12000 entries, which is also the default value. This
database is shared by local management users (including lobby ambassadors), local network users
(including guest users), MAC filter entries, exclusion list entries, and access point authorization list
entries. Together they cannot exceed the configured maximum value.
• For net user accounts or guest user accounts, the following special characters are allowed along with
alphanumeric characters: ~, @, #, $, %, ^, &, (, ), !, _, -, `, ., [, ], =, +, *, :, ;, {, }, ,, /, and \.
Related Topics
Maximum Local Database Entries, on page 176
Configuring Usernames and Passwords (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > Local Management Users.
Step 2
Click New.
Step 3
Enter the username and password, and confirm the password.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
179
Management of Controllers
Configuring Usernames and Passwords (CLI)
Usernames and passwords are case-sensitive and can contain up to 24 ASCII characters. Usernames and
passwords cannot contain spaces.
Step 4
Choose the User Access Mode as one of the following:
• ReadOnly
• ReadWrite
• LobbyAdmin
Step 5
Click Apply.
Configuring Usernames and Passwords (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Configure a username and password by entering one of these commands:
• config mgmtuser add username password read-write description—Creates a username-password pair
with read-write privileges.
• config mgmtuser add username password read-only description—Creates a username-password pair
with read-only privileges.
Usernames and passwords are case-sensitive and can contain up to 24 ASCII characters. Usernames and
passwords cannot contain spaces.
Note
If you ever need to change the password for an existing username, enter the config mgmtuser
password username new_password command.
• config mgmtuser add username password lobby-admin description—Creates a username-password
pair with Lobby Administrator privileges.
• config mgmtuser type5-add username md5-encrypt_pwd { read-write | read-only | lobby-admin
} description —Creates a management username-password pair with type-5 encryption.
• config mgmtuser type5-password username md5-encrypt_pwd —Configures type-5 encrypted password
for an existing management user account.
Step 2
List the configured users by entering this command:
show mgmtuser
Lobby Ambassador Account
This section contains the following subsections:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
180
Management of Controllers
Creating a Lobby Ambassador Account (GUI)
Creating a Lobby Ambassador Account (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > Local Management Users to open the Local Management Users page.
This page lists the names and access privileges of the local management users.
Note
If you want to delete any of the user accounts from the controller, hover your cursor over the blue
drop-down arrow and choose Remove. However, deleting the default administrative user prohibits
both GUI and CLI access to the controller. Therefore, you must create a user with administrative
privileges (ReadWrite) before you remove the default user.
Step 2
Click New to create a lobby ambassador account. The Local Management Users > New page appears.
Step 3
In the User Name text box, enter a username for the lobby ambassador account.
Note
Step 4
Management usernames must be unique because they are stored in a single database.
In the Password and Confirm Password text boxes, enter a password for the lobby ambassador account.
Note
Passwords are case sensitive. The settings for the management User Details parameters depends on
the settings that you make in the Password Policy page. The following requirements are enforced
on the password:
• The password should contain characters from at least three of the following classes: lowercase letters,
uppercase letters, digits, and special characters.
• No character in the password can be repeated more than three times consecutively.
• The password should not contain a management username or the reverse letters of a username.
• The password should not contain words like Cisco, oscic, admin, nimda, or any variant obtained by
changing the capitalization of letters by substituting 1, |, or ! or substituting 0 for o or substituting $ for
s.
• If you want to downgrade from Release 8.6 to Release 8.5 or an earlier release, ensure that you have a
management user account password that is less than or equal to 24 characters to be compatible with the
earlier releases. Else, during the downgrade and before you can reboot the controller, you will be prompted
with the following message:
"Warning!!! Please Configure Mgmt user compatible with older release"
Step 5
Choose LobbyAdmin from the User Access Mode drop-down list. This option enables the lobby ambassador
to create guest user accounts.
Note
The ReadOnly option creates an account with read-only privileges, and the ReadWrite option creates
an administrative account with both read and write privileges.
Step 6
Click Apply to commit your changes. The new lobby ambassador account appears in the list of local
management users.
Step 7
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
181
Management of Controllers
Creating a Lobby Ambassador Account (CLI)
Creating a Lobby Ambassador Account (CLI)
Procedure
• To create a lobby ambassador account use the following command:
config mgmtuser add lobbyadmin_username lobbyadmin_pwd lobby-admin
Note
Replacing lobby-admin with read-only creates an account with read-only privileges. Replacing lobby-admin
with read-write creates an administrative account with both read and write privileges.
Creating Guest User Accounts as a Lobby Ambassador (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Log into the controller as the lobby ambassador, using the username and password. The Lobby Ambassador
Guest Management > Guest Users List page appears.
Step 2
Click New to create a guest user account. The Lobby Ambassador Guest Management > Guest Users List >
New page appears.
Step 3
In the User Name text box, enter a name for the guest user. You can enter up to 24 characters.
Step 4
Perform one of the following:
• If you want to generate an automatic password for this guest user, select the Generate Password check
box. The generated password is entered automatically in the Password and Confirm Password text boxes.
• If you want to create a password for this guest user, leave the Generate Password check box unselected
and enter a password in both the Password and Confirm Password text boxes.
Passwords can contain up to 24 characters (Release 8.5 and earlier releases) and 127 characters
(Release 8.6 and later releases) and are case sensitive.
Note
Step 5
From the Lifetime drop-down lists, choose the amount of time (in days, hours, minutes, and seconds) that this
guest user account is to remain active. A value of zero (0) for all four text boxes creates a permanent account.
Default: 1 day
Range: 5 minutes to 30 days
Note
The smaller of this value or the session timeout for the guest WLAN, which is the WLAN on which
the guest account is created, takes precedence. For example, if a WLAN session timeout is due to
expire in 30 minutes but the guest account lifetime has 10 minutes remaining, the account is deleted
in 10 minutes upon guest account expiry. Similarly, if the WLAN session timeout expires before
the guest account lifetime, the client experiences a recurring session timeout that requires
reauthentication.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
182
Management of Controllers
Guest Accounts
Note
Step 6
You can change a guest user account with a nonzero lifetime to another lifetime value at any time
while the account is active. However, to make a guest user account permanent using the controller
GUI, you must delete the account and create it again. If desired, you can use the config netuser
lifetime user_name 0 command to make a guest user account permanent without deleting and
recreating it.
From the WLAN SSID drop-down list, choose the SSID that will be used by the guest user. The only WLANs
that are listed are those WLANs for which Layer 3 web authentication has been configured.
Note
We recommend that you create a specific guest WLAN to prevent any potential conflicts. If a guest
account expires and it has a name conflict with an account on the RADIUS server and both are on
the same WLAN, the users associated with both accounts are disassociated before the guest account
is deleted.
Step 7
In the Description text box, enter a description of the guest user account. You can enter up to 32 characters.
Step 8
Click Apply to commit your changes. The new guest user account appears in the list of guest users on the
Guest Users List page.
From this page, you can see all of the guest user accounts, their WLAN SSID, and their lifetime. You can
also edit or remove a guest user account. When you remove a guest user account, all of the clients that are
using the guest WLAN and are logged in using that account’s username are deleted.
Step 9
Repeat this procedure to create any additional guest user accounts.
Guest Accounts
The controller can provide guest user access on WLANs for which you must create guest user accounts. Guest
user accounts can be created by network administrators, or, if you would like a non-administrator to be able
to create guest user accounts on demand, you can do so through a lobby administrator account. The lobby
ambassador has limited configurration privileges and has access only to the web pages used to manage the
guest user accounts.
The lobby ambassador can specify the amount of time that the guest user accounts remain active. After the
specified time elapses, the guest user accounts expire automatically.
This section contains the following subsections:
Viewing the Guest Accounts (GUI)
Procedure
Choose Security > AAA > Local Net Users. The Local Net Users page appears.
From this page, you can see all of the local net user accounts (including guest user accounts) and can edit or
remove them as desired. When you remove a guest user account, all of the clients that are using the guest
WLAN and are logged in using that account’s username are deleted.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
183
Management of Controllers
Viewing the Guest Accounts (CLI)
Viewing the Guest Accounts (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Command or Action
Purpose
To see all of the local net user accounts
(including guest user accounts) using the
controller CLI, enter this command:
show netuser summary
Client Whitelisting
Locations such as a university receive many guests with multiple devices. It becomes eminent to protect the
network from misuse or unauthorized access and allow legitimate clients to connect to the network. Registering
or deregistering of clients is a tedious and time consuming task to perform regularly. Hence the requirement
for a simpler solution.
This feature addresses the need of allowing clients on a particular WLAN or SSID based on the MAC address.
For this purpose, the currently existing features are reused - MAC filtering option on WLAN, adding lobby
admin user and reuse AAA DB to store the list of allowed clients on a WLAN.
Two types of administrators manage the feature administration:
• Global Administrator—Creates a lobby admin user on the WLC and enables the lobby administrator
access on a WLAN.
• Lobby Administrator—Adds or deletes the clients from an allowed list to manage the association to a
WLAN or SSID through the GUI interface only. Existing lobby administrators can also be used to
configure the allowed lists.
This section contains the following subsections:
Restrictions for Client Whitelisting
• For Cisco vWLC, the AAA database is restricted to 2048 entries.
• For Cisco 5520, 3504, and 8540 WLCs, the AAA database size is increased to 12000 entries.
• The MAC address cannot be registered under multiple WLANs or SSIDs.
• Lobby Administrator can only configure using GUI interface.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
184
Management of Controllers
Configuring Lobby Administrator by Global Administrator (GUI)
Note
This AAA database is shared across:
• MAC filtering
• Local net users
• Management users
• Manual blocked list users
• AP authenticated list users
• Guest users
Configuring Lobby Administrator by Global Administrator (GUI)
This section provides instructions to create or delete the lobby administrator on the controller for the
management of guest users and allowed users by the global administrator.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > Local Management Users.
Step 2
In the Local Management Users section, add the lobby administrator:
a) Click New.
b) Enter the User Name.
c) Enter the Password.
d) Confirm Password.
e) Choose lobby admin under the User Access Mode drop-down list.
f) Click Apply.
What to do next
Configure Lobby Administrator Access on WLAN.
Configuring Lobby Administrator by Global Administrator (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Add a local lobby admin to WLC by entering this command.
config mgmtuser add username password lobby-admin
Step 2
Enable or disable the lobby admin access on the WLAN by entering this command.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
185
Management of Controllers
Configuring Client Whitelist by Global Administrator (CLI)
config wlan lobby-admin-access { enable | disable} wlan-id
Configuring Client Whitelist by Global Administrator (CLI)
The global administrator can configure clients that need to be allowed by using the following commands.
Procedure
Step 1
View the WLAN lobby access status by entering this command.
show wlan lobby-admin-access
Step 2
View the WLAN associated client list by entering this command.
show client wlan wlan-id
Step 3
Add selected or all clients of the allowed group by entering this command.
config mac-filter add mac-address wlan-id interface description
Note
Step 4
For this feature, the interface field value is set to 0.
Delete selected or all selected clients of the allowed group by entering this command.
config mac-filter delete mac-addr
Step 5
View the summary of all the MAC filter entries on all WLANs by entering this command.
show macfilter summary
Step 6
View the list of all MAC filter entries on a given WLAN entering this command.
show macfilter wlan wlan-id
Step 7
Enable or disable MAC filtering on a WLAN by entering this command.
config wlan mac-filtering {enable |disable} wlan-id
Configuring Lobby Administrator Access on WLAN by Global Administrator
(GUI)
This section provides instructions to enable the lobby admin for a WLAN.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs > WLAN ID > Security tab.
Step 2
Check the Lobby Admin Access check box.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
186
Management of Controllers
Creating Client Whitelist by Lobby Administrator (GUI)
Step 3
Click Apply.
Creating Client Whitelist by Lobby Administrator (GUI)
Adding MAC Addresses to a Whitelist by SSID
This section provides multiple methods which you can use as a lobby administrator to create an allowed list
of valid users for a WLAN.
Before you begin
1. The lobby administrator must be in config mode under the required WLAN.
2. Inform the target users to connect their devices to a particular SSID.
Procedure
Step 1
Log in to the Controller as the lobby administrator.
Step 2
Choose White List Users.
Step 3
Choose the WLAN from the drop-down list for which the allowed list must be applied.
Step 4
Choose Config Mode.
Step 5
Click Apply.
Step 6
Click Filter by.
Select AP Name and enter the AP name.
Step 7
Click the search icon.
The result displays the connected clients to the select AP.
Step 8
Check the Select All check box.
All the clients displayed are selected.
Step 9
Enter the description in the Description field.
Enter an identity tag to this list for easy administration.
Step 10
Click Add.
Step 11
Select Running Mode.
Step 12
Click Apply.
The radio will restart for the new WLAN configuration to take effect.
Only clients in the allowed list continue to be associated, rest of the clients are disassociated from the AP.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
187
Management of Controllers
Adding Single MAC Address to Whitelist
Adding Single MAC Address to Whitelist
Procedure
Step 1
Log in to the Controller as the lobby ambassador.
Step 2
Choose White List Users.
Step 3
Choose the WLAN from the drop-down list for which the allowed list must be applied.
Step 4
Enter the MAC address.
Step 5
Enter the Description.
Step 6
Click Add.
Note
Repeat steps 4 to 6 to add more single MAC address.
Importing MAC Address CSV List to Whitelist
Procedure
Step 1
Log in to the Controller as the lobby ambassador.
Step 2
Choose White List Users.
Step 3
Choose the WLAN from the drop-down list for which the allowed list must be applied.
Step 4
Click the Config Mode radio button.
Step 5
Click Apply.
Step 6
Check the Upload CSV file check box.
Step 7
Click Browse File.
Step 8
Choose the CSV file to import.
Click OK in the dialog box.
Step 9
Click Add
Deleting MAC Address from Whitelist (GUI)
You can delete a single MAC address or in bulk from the whitelist.
Procedure
Step 1
Log in to the Controller as the lobby administrator
Step 2
Choose White List Users
Step 3
Choose the WLAN from the drop-down list to retrieve the allowed list.
Step 4
Choose one of the following deletion methods:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
188
Management of Controllers
Password Policies
a) Single client deletion—Either enter the client MAC address and click delete or click the X delete
icon in front of the MAC address to delete.
b) Multiple client deletion—Filter the clients to be deleted based on either AP name or description, select
all or selected multiple MAC addresses and click delete
Password Policies
The password policies allows you to enforce strong password checks on newly created passwords for additional
management users of controller and access point. The following are the requirements enforced on the new
password:
• When the controller is upgraded from old version, all the old passwords are maintained as it is, even
though the passwords are weak. After the system upgrade, if strong password checks are enabled, the
same is enforced from that time and the strength of previously added passwords will not be checked or
altered.
• Depending on the settings done in the Password Policy page, the local management and access point
user configuration is affected.
Guidelines and Restrictions on Password Policies
• Strong password requirement based on WLAN-CC requirement is applicable only to WLAN admin login
passwords and is not applicable to AP Management user passwords.
• The valid length of AP Management user passwords is minimum of 8 characters and maximum of 127
characters. Also, it is not possible to change the AP Management user password. Therefore, the restrictions
of local net users for strong password does not apply to AP Management user passwords.
• Strong password: lockout feature is not applied if you try to access the controller through a serial
connection or a terminal server connection and it has unlimited attempts.
This section contains the following subsections:
Configuring Password Policies (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > AAA > Password Policies to open the Password Policies page.
Step 2
Select the Password must contain characters from at least 3 different classes check box if you want your
password to contain characters from at least three of the following classes: lower case letters, upper case
letters, digits, and special characters.
Step 3
Select the No character can be repeated more than 3 times consecutively check box if you do not want
character in the new password to repeat more than three times consecutively.
Step 4
Select the Password cannot be the default words like cisco, admin check box if you do not want the
password to contain words such as Cisco, ocsic, admin, nimda, or any variant obtained by changing the
capitalization of letters or by substituting 1, |, or! or substituting 0 for o or substituting $ for s.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
189
Management of Controllers
Configuring Password Policies (CLI)
Step 5
Select the Password cannot contain username or reverse of username check box if you do not want the
password to contain a username or the reverse letters of a username.
Step 6
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 7
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring Password Policies (CLI)
Procedure
• Enable or disable strong password check for AP and WLC by entering this command:
config switchconfig strong-pwd {case-check | consecutive-check | default-check | username-check
| all-checks| position-check | case-digit-check} {enable | disable}
where
• case-check—Checks the occurrence of same character thrice consecutively
• consecutive-check—Checks the default values or its variants are being used.
• default-check—Checks either username or its reverse is being used.
• all-checks—Enables/disables all the strong password checks.
• position-check—Checks four-character range from old password.
• case-digit-check—Checks all four combinations to be present: lower, upper, digits, and special
characters.
• Configure minimum number of upper, lower, digit, and special characters in a password by entering this
command:
config switchconfig strong-pwd minimum {upper-case | lower-case | digits | special-chars}
num-of-chars
• Configure minimum length for a password by entering this command:
config switchconfig strong-pwd min-length pwd-length
• Configure lockout for management or SNMPv3 users by entering this command:
config switchconfig strong-pwd lockout {mgmtuser | snmpv3user} {enable | disable}
• Configure lockout time for management or SNMPv3 users by entering this command:
config switchconfig strong-pwd lockout time {mgmtuser | snmpv3user} timeout-in-mins
• Configure the number of consecutive failure attempts for management or SNMPv3 users by entering
this command:
config switchconfig strong-pwd lockout attempts {mgmtuser | snmpv3user} num-of-failure-attempts
• Configure lifetime for management or SNMPv3 users by entering this command:
config switchconfig strong-pwd lifetime {mgmtuser | snmpv3user} lifetime-in-days
• See the configured options for strong password check by entering this command:
show switchconfig
Information similar to the following appears:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
190
Management of Controllers
Configuring Password Policies (CLI)
802.3x Flow Control Mode......................... Disabled
FIPS prerequisite features....................... Disabled
secret obfuscation............................... Enabled
Strong Password Check Features:
case-check ...........Enabled
consecutive-check ....Enabled
default-check .......Enabled
username-check ......Enabled
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
191
Management of Controllers
Configuring Password Policies (CLI)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
192
CHAPTER
13
Ports and Interfaces
• Ports, on page 193
• Link Aggregation, on page 197
• Interfaces, on page 201
Ports
A port is a physical entity that is used for connections on the controller platform. controllers have two types
of ports:
• Distribution system ports
• Service port
Note
For a comparison of ports in different controllers, see https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/wireless/
wireless-lan-controller/product-comparison.html.
This section contains the following subsections:
Distribution System Ports
A distribution system port connects the controller to a neighbor switch and serves as the data path between
these two devices.
Restrictions for Configuring Distribution System Ports
• Controller configuration in access mode is not supported. We recommend that you configure controllers
in trunk mode when you configure controller ports on a switch.
• If an IPv6 packet is destined to controller management IPv6 address and the client VLAN is different
from the controller management VLAN, then the IPv6 packet is switched out of the WLC box. If the
same IPv6 packet comes as a network packet to the WLC, management access is not denied.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
193
Management of Controllers
Service Port
Service Port
The service port can be used management purposes, primarily for out-of-band management. However, AP
management traffic is not possible across the service port. In most cases, the service port is used as a "last
resort" means of accessing the controller GUI for management purposes. For example, in the case where the
system distribution ports on the controller are down or their communication to the wired network is otherwise
degraded.
The service port is controlled by the service-port interface and is reserved for out-of-band management of the
controller and system recovery and maintenance in the event of a network failure. It is also the only port that
is active when the controller is in boot mode. The service port is not capable of carrying 802.1Q tags, so it
must be connected to an access port on the neighbor switch. Use of the service port is optional.
Service ports are not intended for high volume of traffic. We recommend that you use the management interface
through the system distribution ports (dedicated or LAG).
Service ports can be used for SNMP polling in Release 8.2 or a later release.
Note
Caution
Note
The service port is not auto-sensing. You must use the correct straight-through or crossover Ethernet cable
to communicate with the service port.
Do not configure wired clients in the same VLAN or subnet of the service port of the controller on the network.
If you configure wired clients on the same subnet or VLAN as the service port, it is not possible to access the
management interface of the controller. We recommend that you place the service port in a VLAN or a subnet
that is dedicated to out-of-band management.
For Cisco 5520 and 8540 Wireless Controllers, the disabling of administrative mode of the port does not
physically disable the port. Only the packets are blocked due to which switchover does not happen.
For information about service ports in the applicable controllers, see the respecitve controller documentation:
• Cisco 3504 WLC Deployment Guide
• Cisco 5520 WLC Deployment Guide
• Cisco 8540 WLC Deployment Guide
Configuring Ports (GUI)
The controller’s ports are configured with factory-default settings designed to make the controllers’ ports
operational without additional configuration. However, you can view the status of the controller’s ports and
edit their configuration parameters at any time.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
194
Management of Controllers
Configuring Ports (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Ports to open the Ports page.
This page shows the current configuration for each of the controller’s ports.
If you want to change the settings of any port, click the number for that specific port. The Port > Configure
page appears.
Note
If the management and AP-manager interfaces are mapped to the same port and are members of the
same VLAN, you must disable the WLAN before making a port-mapping change to either interface.
If the management and AP-manager interfaces are assigned to different VLANs, you do not need
to disable the WLAN.
Note
The number of parameters available on the Port > Configure page depends on your controller type.
The following show the current status of the port:
• Port Number—Number of the current port.
• Admin Status—Current state of the port. Values: Enable or Disable
• Physical Mode—Configuration of the port physical interface. The mode varies by the controller type.
• Physical Status—The data rate being used by the port. The available data rates vary based on controller
type.
• Link Status—Link status of the port. Values: Link Up or Link Down
• Link Trap—Whether the port is set to send a trap when the link status changes. Values: Enable or Disable
• Power over Ethernet (PoE)—If the connecting device is equipped to receive power through the Ethernet
cable and if so, provides –48 VDC. Values: Enable or Disable
Note
Some older Cisco access points do not draw PoE even if it is enabled on the controller port.
In such cases, contact the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC).
The following is a list of the port’s configurable parameters.
a. Admin Status—Enables or disables the flow of traffic through the port. Options: Enable or Disable, with
default option of Enable.
Note
When a primary port link goes down, messages may get logged internally only and not be posted
to a syslog server. It may take up to 40 seconds to restore logging to the syslog server.
b. Physical Mode—Determines whether the port’s data rate is set automatically or specified by the user.
The supported data rates vary based on the controller type. Default: Auto.
c. Link Trap—Causes the port to send a trap when the port’s link status changes. Options: Enable or Disable,
with default option of Enable.
Step 2
Click Apply.
Step 3
Click Save Configuration.
Step 4
Click Back to return to the Ports page and review your changes.
Step 5
Repeat this procedure for each additional port that you want to configure.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
195
Management of Controllers
Configuring Ports (CLI)
Configuring Ports (CLI)
The controller’s ports are configured with factory-default settings designed to make the controllers’ ports
operational without additional configuration. However, you can view the status of the controller’s ports and
edit their configuration parameters at any time.
Procedure
Step 1
Configure the administrative mode for a specific port or all ports by entering this command:
config port adminmode {port | all} {enable | disable}
Step 2
Configure the up and down link traps for a specific port or all ports by entering this command:
config port linktrap {port | all} {enable | disable}
Step 3
Configure the maximum speed for a port by entering this command:
config port maxspeed port {1000 | 2500 | 5000}
• 1000: 1 Gbps
• 2500: 2.5 Gbps
• 5000: 5 Gbps
Step 4
Configure Power over Ethernet for a specific port or all ports by entering this command:
config port power {port | all} {enable | disable}
Monitoring Ports (CLI)
Procedure
• See a summary or a detailed information about all ports by entering this command:
show port {summary | detailed-info}
• See information about a specific port by entering this command:
show port port-num
• See a VLAN port table summary by entering this command:
show port vlan
• See port statistics information by entering this command:
show stats port {detailed | summary}
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
196
Management of Controllers
Link Aggregation
Link Aggregation
Link aggregation (LAG) is a partial implementation of the 802.3ad port aggregation standard. It bundles all
of the controller’s distribution system ports into a single 802.3ad port channel. This reduces the number of
IP addresses required to configure the ports on your controller. When LAG is enabled, the system dynamically
manages port redundancy and load balances access points transparently to the user.
LAG simplifies controller configuration because you no longer require to configure primary and secondary
ports for each interface. If any of the controller ports fail, traffic is automatically migrated to one of the other
ports. As long as at least one controller port is functioning, the system continues to operate, access points
remain connected to the network, and wireless clients continue to send and receive data.
You can use fast restart for any LAG changes.
Controller does not send CDP advertisements on a LAG interface.
Note
LAG is supported across switches.
LAG in Transition
We recommend that the best practice, when enabling or disabling LAG on the controller, is to not leave the
controller in a transitional state. Instead, we recommend that you reboot the controller immediately to implement
the desired change.
A controller that supports link aggregation (LAG) can go into a LAG-in-Transition (LAT) mode during
transition between LAG to non-LAG mode or vice-versa. The transition is complete only when the controller
is rebooted. During the LAT mode, you can make configuration or interface changes and also revert to the
previous LAG mode. After the controller is rebooted, your configuration could be lost or you might encounter
a system failure. From Release 8.4, it is possible to prevent such incidents by restricting interface related
configuration changes when the controller is in LAT state (CSCuz53972).
This section contains the following subsections:
Restrictions on Link Aggregation
• Terminating on two different modules within a single Catalyst 6500 series switch provides redundancy
and ensures that connectivity between the switch and the controller is maintained when one module fails.
The controller’s port 1 is connected to Gigabit interface 3/1, and the controller’s port 2 is connected to
Gigabit interface 2/1 on the Catalyst 6500 series switch. Both switch ports are assigned to the same
channel group.
• The controller relies on the switch for the load balancing decisions on traffic that come from the network,
with “source-destination IP” as the typically recommended option. It is important to select a correct
balancing configuration on the switch side, as some variations might have an impact on controller
performance or cause packet drops on some scenarios, where traffic from different ports is split across
different data planes internally.
• When using Link aggregation (LAG) make sure all ports of the controller have the same Layer 2
configuration on the switch side. For example, avoid filtering some VLANs in one port, and not the
others.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
197
Management of Controllers
Restrictions on Link Aggregation
• LAG requires the EtherChannel to be configured for 'mode on' on both the controller and the Catalyst
switch.
• Once the EtherChannel is configured as on at both ends of the link, the Catalyst switch should not be
configured for either Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) or Cisco proprietary Port Aggregation
Protocol (PAgP) but be set unconditionally to LAG. Because no channel negotiation is done between
the controller and the switch, the controller does not answer to negotiation frames and the LAG is not
formed if a dynamic form of LAG is set on the switch. Additionally, LACP and PAgP are not supported
on the controller.
• If the recommended load-balancing method cannot be configured on the Catalyst switch, then configure
the LAG connection as a single member link or disable LAG on the controller.
Figure 18: Link Aggregation with the Catalyst 6500 Series Neighbor Switch
• You cannot configure the controller’s ports into separate LAG groups. Only one LAG group is supported
per controller.
• When you enable LAG or make any changes to the LAG configuration, you must immediately reboot
the controller.
• When you enable LAG, you can configure only one AP-manager interface because only one logical port
is needed.
• When you enable LAG, all dynamic AP-manager interfaces and untagged interfaces are deleted, and all
WLANs are disabled and mapped to the management interface. Also, the management, static AP-manager,
and VLAN-tagged dynamic interfaces are moved to the LAG port.
• Multiple untagged interfaces to the same port are not allowed.
• When you enable LAG, all ports participate in LAG by default. You must configure LAG for all of the
connected ports in the neighbor switch.
• When you enable LAG, if any single link goes down, traffic migrates to the other links.
• When you enable LAG, only one functional physical port is needed for the controller to pass client traffic.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
198
Management of Controllers
Configuring Link Aggregation (GUI)
• When you enable LAG, access points remain connected to the controller until you reboot the controller,
which is needed to activate the LAG mode change, and data service for users continues uninterrupted.
• When you enable LAG, you eliminate the need to configure primary and secondary ports for each
interface.
• When you enable LAG, the controller sends packets out on the same port on which it received them. If
a CAPWAP packet from an access point enters the controller on physical port 1, the controller removes
the CAPWAP wrapper, processes the packet, and forwards it to the network on physical port 1. This may
not be the case if you disable LAG.
• When you disable LAG, the management, static AP-manager, and dynamic interfaces are moved to port
1.
• When you disable LAG, you must configure primary and secondary ports for all interfaces.
• If you have configured a port-channel on the switch and you have not configured the AP for LAG, the
AP moves to standalone mode.
• We recommend that you configure LAG with HA-SSO in disabled state. Therefore, you must enable
LAG before placing the controllers in HA-SSO pair or schedule a maintenance window to break the
HA-SSO (requires controller reboot) and then enable LG and re enable HA-SSO thereafter (incurs
multiple controller reboots in the process).
Configuring Link Aggregation (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > General to open the General page.
Step 2
Set the LAG Mode on next reboot parameter to Enabled.
Step 3
Save the configuration.
Step 4
Reboot the controller.
Configuring Link Aggregation (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Enter the config lag enable command to enable LAG.
Note
Enter the config lag disable command if you want to disable LAG.
Step 2
Enter the save config command to save your settings.
Step 3
Reboot controller.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
199
Management of Controllers
Verifying Link Aggregation Settings (CLI)
Verifying Link Aggregation Settings (CLI)
Procedure
Verify your LAG settings by entering this command:
show lag summary
Information similar to the following appears:
LAG Enabled
Configuring Neighbor Devices to Support Link Aggregation
The controller’s neighbor devices must also be properly configured to support LAG.
• Each neighbor port to which the controller is connected should be configured as follows:
interface GigabitEthernet <interface id>
switchport
channel-group <id> mode on
no shutdown
• The port channel on the neighbor switch should be configured as follows:
interface port-channel <id>
switchport
switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
switchport trunk native vlan <native vlan id>
switchport trunk allowed vlan <allowed vlans>
switchport mode trunk
no shutdown
Choosing Between Link Aggregation and Multiple AP-Manager Interfaces
controllers have no restrictions on the number of access points per port, but we recommend that you use link
aggregation (LAG) or multiple AP-manager interfaces on each Gigabit Ethernet port to automatically balance
the load.
The following factors should help you decide which method to use if your controller is set for Layer 3 operation:
• With LAG, all of the controller ports need to connect to the same neighbor switch. If the neighbor switch
goes down, the controller loses connectivity.
• With multiple AP-manager interfaces, you can connect your ports to different neighbor devices. If one
of the neighbor switches goes down, the controller still has connectivity. However, using multiple
AP-manager interfaces presents certain challenges when port redundancy is a concern.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
200
Management of Controllers
Interfaces
Interfaces
An interface is a logical entity on the controller. An interface has multiple parameters associated with it,
including an IP address, default gateway (for the IP subnet), primary physical port, secondary physical port,
VLAN identifier, and DHCP server.
These five types of interfaces are available on the controller. Four of these are static and are configured at
setup time:
Note
A interface that is static means that at least one must exist in the controller and cannot be deleted. However,
you can choose to modify the parameters for these interfaces after the initial setup.
• Management interface (static and configured at setup time; mandatory)
• AP-manager interface (static and configured at setup time; mandatory)
• Virtual interface (static and configured at setup time; mandatory)
• Service-port interface (static and configured at setup time; optional)
• Dynamic interface (user-defined)
Note
Typically, you define the management, AP-manager, virtual, and service-port interface parameters using the
Startup Wizard. However, you can display and configure interface parameters through either the GUI or CLI
after the controller is running.
When LAG is disabled, each interface is mapped to at least one primary port, and some interfaces (management
and dynamic) can be mapped to an optional secondary (or backup) port. If the primary port for an interface
fails, the interface automatically moves to the backup port. In addition, multiple interfaces can be mapped to
a single controller port.
The controllers mark packets greater than 1500 bytes as long. However, the packets are not dropped. The
workaround for this is to configure the MTU on a switch to less than 1500 bytes.
Note
Interfaces that are quarantined are not displayed on the Controller > Interfaces page. For example, if there
are 6 interfaces and one of them is quarantined, the quarantined interface is not displayed and the details of
the other 5 interfaces are displayed on the GUI. You can get the total number of interfaces that is inclusive
of quarantined interfaces through the count displayed on the top-right corner of the GUI.
This section contains the following subsections:
Restrictions on Configuring Interfaces
• When the port comes up in VMware ESXi with configuration for NIC teaming, the vWLC may lose
connectivity. However, the Cisco vWLC resumes connectivity after a while.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
201
Management of Controllers
Dynamic AP Management
• IPv4 address needs to be configured on the interface prior to configuring the IPv6 address.
Dynamic AP Management
A dynamic interface is created as a WLAN interface by default. However, any dynamic interface can be
configured as an AP-manager interface, with one AP-manager interface allowed per physical port. A dynamic
interface with the Dynamic AP Management option enabled is used as the tunnel source for packets from the
controller to the access point and as the destination for CAPWAP packets from the access point to the controller.
Note
If link aggregation (LAG) is enabled, there can be only one AP-manager interface.
WLANs
A WLAN associates a service set identifier (SSID) to an interface or an interface group. It is configured with
security, quality of service (QoS), radio policies, and other wireless network parameters. Up to 512 WLANs
can be configured per controller.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
202
Management of Controllers
WLANs
Figure 19: Relationship between Ports, Interfaces, and WLANs
Each controller port connection is an 802.1Q trunk and should be configured as such on the neighbor switch.
On Cisco switches, the native VLAN of an 802.1Q trunk is an untagged VLAN. If you configure an interface
to use the native VLAN on a neighboring Cisco switch, make sure you configure the interface on the controller
to be untagged.
Note
A zero value for the VLAN identifier (on the Controller > Interfaces page) means that the interface is
untagged.
The default (untagged) native VLAN on Cisco switches is VLAN 1. When controller interfaces are configured
as tagged (meaning that the VLAN identifier is set to a nonzero value), the VLAN must be allowed on the
802.1Q trunk configuration on the neighbor switch and not be the native untagged VLAN.
We recommend that tagged VLANs be used on the controller. You should also allow only relevant VLANs
on the neighbor switch’s 802.1Q trunk connections to controller ports. All other VLANs should be disallowed
or pruned in the switch port trunk configuration. This practice is extremely important for optimal performance
of the controller.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
203
Management of Controllers
Management Interface
Note
We recommend that you assign one set of VLANs for WLANs and a different set of VLANs for management
interfaces to ensure that controllers properly route VLAN traffic.
Management Interface
The management interface is the default interface for in-band management of the controller and connectivity
to enterprise services such as AAA servers. It is also used for communications between the controller and
access points, for all CAPWAP or intercontroller mobility messaging and tunneling traffic. You can access
the GUI of the controller by entering the management interface IP address of the controller in the address
field of your browser. The AP management is enabled by default on the management interface.
For CAPWAP, the controller requires one management interface to control all inter-controller communications
and one AP-manager interface to control all controller-to-access point communications, regardless of the
number of ports.
Note
Caution
To prevent or block a wired or wireless client from accessing the management network on a controller (from
the wireless client dynamic interface or VLAN), the network administrator should ensure that only authorized
clients gain access to the management network through proper CPU ACLs, or use a firewall between the client
dynamic interface and the management network.
Do not map a guest WLAN to the management interface. If the EoIP tunnel breaks, the client could obtain
an IP and be placed on the management subnet.
In a High Availability environment with Release 8.0 or a later release, ensure that the management interface
and the redundancy management interface (RMI) are tagged for the HA-SSO to work as expected.
This section contains the following subsections:
Configuring the Management Interface (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the Interfaces page.
Step 2
Click the management link.
The Interfaces > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Set the management interface parameters:
Note
The management interface uses the controller’s factory-set distribution system MAC address.
• Quarantine and quarantine VLAN ID, if applicable
• VLAN identifier
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
204
Management of Controllers
Configuring the Management Interface (CLI)
Enter 0 for an untagged VLAN or a nonzero value for a tagged VLAN. We recommend using
tagged VLANs for the management interface.
Note
• Configuring Management Interface using IPv4— Fixed IP address, IP netmask, and default gateway.
• Configuring Management Interface using IPv6—Fixed IPv6 address, prefix-length (interface subnet
mask for IPv6) and the link local address of the IPv6 gateway router.
• In a setup where IPv6 is used, we recommend the APs to be at least one hop away from
the controller. As the IPv6 packets are always sent to the Gateway, if the AP and controller
are in the same subnet, it increases the packet hops and impacts the performance.
Note
• Once the primary IPv6 Address, prefix length, and primary IPv6 gateway are configured
on the management interface, they cannot be changed back to default values (:: /128).
• In a setup where IPv6 CAPWAP is used, we recommend that the APs are at least 1 hop
away from the controller because all IPv6 traffic is first forwarded to the gateway.
• A configuration backup must be carried out before configuring IPv6 in case the user wants
to revert back to IPv4 only management interface.
• Physical port assignment
• Primary and secondary DHCP servers
• Access control list (ACL) setting, if required
Step 4
Click Save Configuration.
Step 5
If you made any changes to the management or virtual interface, reboot the controller so that your changes
take effect.
Configuring the Management Interface (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Enter the show interface detailed management command to view the current management interface settings.
Note
Step 2
Step 3
The management interface uses the controller’s factory-set distribution system MAC address.
Enter the config wlan disable wlan-number command to disable each WLAN that uses the management
interface for distribution system communication.
Enter these commands to define the management interface:
a) Using IPv4 Address
• config interface address management ip-addr ip-netmask gateway
• config interface quarantine vlan management vlan_id
Note
Use the config interface quarantine vlan management vlan_id command to configure
a quarantine VLAN on the management interface.
• config interface vlan management {vlan-id | 0}
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
205
Management of Controllers
Configuring the Management Interface (CLI)
Note
Enter 0 for an untagged VLAN or a nonzero value for a tagged VLAN. We recommend
using tagged VLANs for the management interface.
• config interface ap-manager management {enable | disable}
Note
Use the config interface ap-manager management {enable | disable} command to enable
or disable dynamic AP management for the management interface.
• config interface port management primary-port [secondary-port]
• config interface dhcp management ip-address-of-primary-dhcp-server
[ip-address-of-secondary-dhcp-server]
• config interface acl management access-control-list-name
b) Using IPv6 Address
we recommend the APs to be at least one hop away from the controller. As the IPv6 packets
are always sent to the Gateway, if the AP and controller are in same subnet, it increases the
packet hops and impacts the performance.
Note
• config ipv6 interface address management primary ip-address prefix-length IPv6_Gateway_Address
Note
Once the Primary IPv6 Address, Prefix Length, and Primary IPv6 Gateway are configured
on the management interface, they cannot be changed back to default values (:: /128). A
configuration backup must be carried out before configuring IPv6 in case the user wants
to revert back to IPv4 only management interface.
• config interface quarantine vlan management vlan_id
Note
Use the config interface quarantine vlan management vlan_id command to configure
a quarantine VLAN on the management interface.
• config interface vlan management {vlan-id | 0}
Note
Enter 0 for an untagged VLAN or a nonzero value for a tagged VLAN. We recommend
using tagged VLANs for the management interface.
• config interface ap-manager management {enable | disable}
Note
Use the config interface ap-manager management {enable | disable} command to enable
or disable dynamic AP management for the management interface.
• config interface port management physical-ds-port-number
• config interface dhcp management ip-address-of-primary-dhcp-server
[ip-address-of-secondary-dhcp-server]
• config ipv6 interface acl management access-control-list-name
Step 4
Enter these commands if you want to be able to deploy your controller behind a router or other gateway device
that is using one-to-one mapping network address translation (NAT):
• config interface nat-address management {enable | disable}
• config interface nat-address management set public_IP_address
NAT allows a device, such as a router, to act as an agent between the Internet (public) and a local network
(private). In this case, it maps the controller's intranet IP addresses to a corresponding external address. The
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
206
Management of Controllers
Virtual Interface
controller’s dynamic AP-manager interface must be configured with the external NAT IP address so that the
controller can send the correct IP address in the Discovery Response.
Note
These commands are supported for use only with one-to-one-mapping NAT, where each private
client has a direct and fixed mapping to a global address. These commands do not support
one-to-many NAT, which uses source port mapping to enable a group of clients to be represented
by a single IP address.
Step 5
Enter the save config command.
Step 6
Enter the show interface detailed management command to verify that your changes have been saved.
Step 7
If you made any changes to the management interface, enter the reset system command to reboot the controller
in order for the changes to take effect.
Virtual Interface
The virtual interface is used to support mobility management, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
relay, and embedded Layer 3 security such as guest web authentication. It also maintains the DNS gateway
host name used by Layer 3 security and mobility managers to verify the source of certificates when Layer 3
web authorization is enabled.
Specifically, the virtual interface plays these two primary roles:
• Acts as the DHCP server placeholder for wireless clients that obtain their IP address from a DHCP server.
• Serves as the redirect address for the web authentication login page.
The virtual interface IP address is used only in communications between the controller and wireless clients.
It never appears as the source or destination address of a packet that goes out a distribution system port and
onto the switched network. For the system to operate correctly, the virtual interface IP address must be set (it
cannot be 0.0.0.0), and no other device on the network can have the same address as the virtual interface.
Therefore, the virtual interface must be configured with an unassigned and unused gateway IP address. The
virtual interface IP address is not pingable and should not exist in any routing table in your network. In addition,
the virtual interface cannot be mapped to a physical port.
We recommend that you configure a non-routable IP address for the virtual interface, ideally not overlapping
with the network infrastructure addresses or external. Use one of the options proposed on RFC5737, for
example, 192.0.2.0/24, 198.51.100.0/24, and 203.0.113.0/24 networks. This is to avoid using an IP address
that is assigned to another device or system.
Restrictions
• All controllers within a mobility group must be configured with the same virtual interface IP address.
Otherwise, inter-controller roaming may appear to work, but the handoff does not complete, and the
client loses connectivity for a period of time.
This section contains the following subsections:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
207
Management of Controllers
Configuring Virtual Interfaces (GUI)
Configuring Virtual Interfaces (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the Interfaces page.
Step 2
Click Virtual.
The Interfaces > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Enter the following parameters:
• Any valid unassigned, and unused gateway IP address
• DNS gateway hostname
Note
To ensure connectivity and web authentication, the DNS server should always point to the
virtual interface. If a DNS hostname is configured for the virtual interface, then the same DNS
host name must be configured on the DNS server(s) used by the client.
Step 4
Click Save Configuration.
Step 5
If you made any changes to the management or virtual interface, reboot the controller so that your changes
take effect.
Configuring Virtual Interfaces (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Enter the show interface detailed virtual command to view the current virtual interface settings.
Step 2
Enter the config wlan disable wlan-number command to disable each WLAN that uses the virtual interface
for distribution system communication.
Step 3
Enter these commands to define the virtual interface:
• config interface address virtual ip-address
Note
For ip-address, enter a valid, unassigned, and unused gateway IP address.
• config interface hostname virtual dns-host-name
Step 4
Enter the reset system command. At the confirmation prompt, enter Y to save your configuration changes to
NVRAM. The controller reboots.
Step 5
Enter the show interface detailed virtual command to verify that your changes have been saved.
Service-Port Interfaces
The service-port interface controls communications through and is statically mapped by the system to the
service port. The service port can be used for out-of-band management.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
208
Management of Controllers
Service-Port Interfaces
The service port can obtain an IPv4 address using DHCP, or it can be assigned a static IPv4 address, but a
default gateway cannot be assigned to the service-port interface. Static IPv4 routes can be defined through
the controller for remote network access to the service port.
If the service port is in use, the management interface must be on a different supernet from the service-port
interface.
Similarly, the service port can be statically assigned an IPv6 address or select an IPv6 address using Stateless
Address Auto-Configuration (SLAAC). The default gateway cannot be assigned to the service-port interface.
Static IPv6 routes can be defined through the controller for remote network access to the service port.
Note
While IPv6 addressing is used along with stateless address auto-configuration, the controller does not perform
the subnet verification; however, you must not connect the service-port in the same subnet as the other interfaces
in the controller.
Note
This is the only SLAAC interface on the controller, all other interfaces must be statically assigned (just like
for IPv4).
Note
User does not require IPv6 static routes to reach service port from the same network, but IPv6 routes requires
to access service port from different network. The IPv6 static routes should be as same as IPv4.
The service-port interface supports the following protocols:
• SSH and Telnet
• HTTP and HTTPS
• SNMP
• FTP, TFTP, and SFTP
• Syslog
• ICMP (ping)
• NTP
Note
TACACS+ and RADIUS are not supported through the service port.
This section contains the following subsections:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
209
Management of Controllers
Configuring Service-Port Interfaces Using IPv4 (GUI)
Configuring Service-Port Interfaces Using IPv4 (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the Interfaces page.
Step 2
Click the service-port link to open the Interfaces > Edit page.
Step 3
Enter the Service-Port Interface parameters:
Note
The service-port interface uses the controller’s factory-set service-port MAC address.
• DHCP protocol (enabled)
• DHCP protocol (disabled) and IP address and IP netmask
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 5
If you made any changes to the management or virtual interface, reboot the controller so that your changes
take effect.
Configuring Service-Port Interfaces Using IPv4 (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
To view the current service-port interface settings, enter this command:
show interface detailed service-port
Note
Step 2
The service-port interface uses the controller’s factory-set service-port MAC address.
Enter these commands to define the service-port interface:
• To configure the DHCP server, enter this command:
config interface dhcp service-port enable
• To disable the DHCP server, enter this command:
config interface dhcp service-port disable
• To configure the IPv4 address, enter this command:
config interface address service-port ip-addr ip-netmask
The service port is used for out-of-band management of the controller. If the management workstation is in
a remote subnet, you may need to add a IPv4 route on the controller in order to manage the controller from
that remote workstation. To do so, enter this command:
config route add network-ip-addr ip-netmask gateway
To remove the IPv4 route on the controller, enter this command:
config route delete ip_address
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
210
Management of Controllers
Configuring Service-Port Interface Using IPv6 (GUI)
Caution
Communication through the management interface might not work as expected if subnet that is
added to static route overlaps with other infrastructure or devices.
Step 3
Enter the save config command to save your changes.
Step 4
Enter the show interface detailed service-port command to verify that your changes have been saved.
Configuring Service-Port Interface Using IPv6 (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the Interfaces page.
Step 2
Click the service-port link to open the Interfaces > Edit page.
Step 3
Enter the Service-Port Interface parameters:
Note
The service-port interface uses the controller’s factory-set service-port MAC address. Service Port
can be statically assigned an address or select an address using SLAAC.
• SLACC(enabled)
• SLACC (disabled) and Primary Address and Prefix Length
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 5
If you made any changes to the management or virtual interface, reboot the controller so that your changes
take effect.
Configuring Service-Port Interfaces Using IPv6 (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
To view the current service-port interface settings, enter this command:
show interface detailed service-port
Note
Step 2
The service-port interface uses the controller’s factory-set service-port MAC address.
Enter these commands to define the service-port interface:
• To configure the service port using SLACC , enter this command:
config ipv6 interface slacc service-port enable
• To disable the service port from using SLACC, enter this command:
config ipv6 interface slacc service-port disable
• To configure the IPv6 address, enter this command:
config ipv6 interface address service-port iipv6_address prefix-length
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
211
Management of Controllers
Dynamic Interface
Step 3
The service port is used for out-of-band management of the controller. If the management workstation is in
a remote subnet, you may need to add a route on the controller in order to manage the controller from that
remote workstation. To do so, enter this command:
config ipv6 route add network_ipv6_addr prefix-len ipv6_gw_addr
Step 4
To remove the IPv6 route on the controller, enter this command:
config ipv6 route delete network _ipv6 addr
Step 5
Enter the save config command to save your changes.
Step 6
Enter the show interface detailed service-port command to verify that your changes have been saved.
Dynamic Interface
Dynamic interfaces are created by users and designed to be analogous to VLANs for wireless LAN clients.
In a LAG setup, the dynamic interface on a controller is conceptually analogous to an SVI on a switch or
router associated with a single VLAN and single subnet, although the controller does not have any routing
capabilities. A controller can support up to 512 dynamic interfaces (VLANs). Each dynamic interface is
individually configured and allows separate communication streams to exist on any or all of a controller’s
distribution system ports. A dynamic interface is a Layer 3 interface on the controller to map a WLAN to a
particular VLAN and subnet. If DHCP relay is enabled on the controller, then the applicable dynamic interface
is used as the relay address. The dynamic interface will also be the interface through which network
communication to and from the controller will occur if the destination address is in the same subnet assigned
to a dynamic interface. Alternatively, a dynamic interface can also be configured as an AP management
interface as well, in place of the default management interface on a separate port in a non-LAG setup. You
can assign dynamic interfaces to distribution system ports, WLANs, the Layer 2 management interface, and
the Layer 3 AP-manager interface, and you can map the dynamic interface to a backup port.
Management traffic such as Telnet or SSH, HTTP or HTTPS, and so on, can use a dynamic interface as their
destination address if management by dynamic interface option is enabled.
You can configure zero, one, or multiple dynamic interfaces on a distribution system port. However, all
dynamic interfaces must be on a different VLAN or IP subnet from all other interfaces configured on the port.
If the port is untagged, all dynamic interfaces must be on a different IP subnet from any other interface
configured on the port.
For information about maximum number of VLANs supported on a controller platform, see the respective
controller platform's datasheet.
Note
You must not configure a dynamic interface in the same network as that of Local Mobility Anchor (LMA).
If you do so, the GRE tunnel between the controller and LMA does not come up.
This section contains the following subsections:
Prerequisites for Configuring Dynamic Interfaces
While configuring on the dynamic interface of the controller, you must ensure the following:
• You must use tagged VLANs for dynamic interfaces.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
212
Management of Controllers
Restrictions on Configuring Dynamic Interfaces
• You must allocate a dedicated, static IP address for the subnet and VLAN that will be assigned to the
dynamic interface.
Restrictions on Configuring Dynamic Interfaces
The following restrictions apply for configuring the dynamic interfaces on the controller:
• If the SNMP management station is in the same subnet that is assigned to a dynamic interface, then for
any SNMP polling, the request should be issued to the IP address assigned to that dynamic interface,
rather than the management interface of the controller.
• If you are using DHCP proxy and/or a RADIUS source interface, ensure that the dynamic interface has
a valid routable address. Duplicate or overlapping addresses across controller interfaces are not supported.
• You must not use ap-manager as the interface name while configuring dynamic interfaces as
ap-manager is a reserved name.
Configuring Dynamic Interfaces (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the Interfaces page.
Step 2
Perform one of the following:
• To create a new dynamic interface, click New. The Interfaces > New page appears. Go to Step 3.
• To modify the settings of an existing dynamic interface, click the name of the interface. The Interfaces
> Edit page for that interface appears. Go to Step 5.
• To delete an existing dynamic interface, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired
interface and choose Remove.
Step 3
Enter an interface name and a VLAN ID.
You cannot enter ap-manager as the interface name while confiiguring a dynamic interface as
ap-manager is a reserved name.
Note
Step 4
Click Apply to commit your changes. The Interfaces > Edit page is displayed.
Step 5
Configure the following parameters:
• Guest LAN, if applicable
• Quarantine and quarantine VLAN ID, if applicable
Note
Select the Quarantine check box if you want to configure this VLAN as unhealthy or you
want to configure network access control (NAC) out-of-band integration. Doing so causes the
data traffic of any client that is assigned to this VLAN to pass through the controller.
• Physical port assignment
• NAT address
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
213
Management of Controllers
Configuring Dynamic Interfaces (CLI)
Check the Enable NAT Address check box and enter the external NAT IP address if you want
to be able to deploy your controller behind a router or other gateway device that is using
one-to-one mapping network address translation (NAT). NAT allows a device, such as a router,
to act as an agent between the Internet (public) and a local network (private). In this case, it
maps the controller’s intranet IP addresses to a corresponding external address. The controller’s
dynamic AP-manager interface must be configured with the external NAT IP address so that
the controller can send the correct IP address in the Discovery Response.
Note
The NAT parameters are supported for use only with one-to-one-mapping NAT, where each
private client has a direct and fixed mapping to a global address. The NAT parameters do not
support one-to-many NAT, which uses source port mapping to enable a group of clients to be
represented by a single IP address.
• Dynamic AP management
When you enable this feature, this dynamic interface is configured as an AP-manager interface
(only one AP-manager interface is allowed per physical port). A dynamic interface that is
marked as an AP-manager interface cannot be used as a WLAN interface.
Note
Set the APs in a VLAN that is different than the dynamic interface configured on the controller.
If the APs are in the same VLAN as the dynamic interface, the APs are not registered on the
controller and the “LWAPP discovery rejected” and “Layer 3 discovery request not received
on management VLAN” errors are logged on the controller.
• VLAN identifier
• Fixed IP address, IP netmask, and default gateway.
Enter valid IP addresses in these fields.
Note
• Primary and secondary DHCP servers
• Access control list (ACL) name, if required
To ensure proper operation, you must set the Port Number and Primary DHCP Server
parameters.
Note
Step 6
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 7
Repeat this procedure for each dynamic interface that you want to create or edit.
Configuring Dynamic Interfaces (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Enter the show interface summary command to view the current dynamic interfaces.
Step 2
View the details of a specific dynamic interface by entering this command:
show interface detailed operator_defined_interface_name.
Note
Interface names that contain spaces must be enclosed in double quotes. For example: config interface
create "vlan 25"
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
214
Management of Controllers
Configuring Dynamic Interfaces (CLI)
Step 3
Enter the config wlan disable wlan_id command to disable each WLAN that uses the dynamic interface for
distribution system communication.
Step 4
Enter these commands to configure dynamic interfaces:
• config interface create operator_defined_interface_name {vlan_id | x}
• config interface address interface ip_addr ip_netmask [gateway]
• config interface vlan operator_defined_interface_name {vlan_id | o}
• config interface port operator_defined_interface_name physical_ds_port_number
• config interface ap-manager operator_defined_interface_name {enable | disable}
Note
Use the config interface ap-manager operator_defined_interface_name {enable | disable}
command to enable or disable dynamic AP management. When you enable this feature, this
dynamic interface is configured as an AP-manager interface (only one AP-manager interface
is allowed per physical port). A dynamic interface that is marked as an AP-manager interface
cannot be used as a WLAN interface. You cannot use ap-manager as the
operator_defined_interface_name while configuring a dynamic interface as ap-manager is
a reserved name.
• config interface dhcp operator_defined_interface_name ip_address_of_primary_dhcp_server
[ip_address_of_secondary_dhcp_server]
• config interface quarantine vlan interface_name vlan_id
Note
Use the config interface quarantine vlan interface_name vlan_id command to configure a
quarantine VLAN on any interface.
• config interface acl operator_defined_interface_name access_control_list_name
Step 5
Enter these commands if you want to be able to deploy your controller behind a router or other gateway device
that is using one-to-one mapping network address translation (NAT):
• config interface nat-address dynamic-interface operator_defined_interface_name {enable | disable}
• config interface nat-address dynamic-interface operator_defined_interface_name set public_IP_address
NAT allows a device, such as a router, to act as an agent between the Internet (public) and a local network
(private). In this case, it maps the controller’s intranet IP addresses to a corresponding external address. The
controller’s dynamic AP-manager interface must be configured with the external NAT IP address so that the
controller can send the correct IP address in the Discovery Response.
Note
These commands are supported for use only with one-to-one-mapping NAT, whereby each private
client has a direct and fixed mapping to a global address. These commands do not support
one-to-many NAT, which uses source port mapping to enable a group of clients to be represented
by a single IP address.
Step 6
Enter the config wlan enable wlan_id command to reenable each WLAN that uses the dynamic interface for
distribution system communication.
Step 7
Enter the save config command to save your changes.
Step 8
Enter the show interface detailed operator_defined_interface_name command and show interface summary
command to verify that your changes have been saved.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
215
Management of Controllers
AP-Manager Interface
Note
If desired, you can enter the config interface delete operator_defined_interface_name command
to delete a dynamic interface.
AP-Manager Interface
A controller configured with IPv4 has one or more AP-manager interfaces, which are used for all Layer 3
communications between the controller and lightweight access points after the access points have joined the
controller. The AP-manager IP address is used as the tunnel source for CAPWAP packets from the controller
to the access point and as the destination for CAPWAP packets from the access point to the controller.
Note
A controller configured with IPv6 has only one AP-manager and is applicable on management interface. You
cannot remove the AP-manager configured on management interface.
Note
The controller does not support jumbo frames. To avoid having the controller transmit CAPWAP packets to
the AP that will necessitate fragmentation and reassembly, reduce MTU/MSS on the client side.
A controller configured with IPv6 does not support Dynamic AP-Manager. By default, the management
interface acts like an AP-manager interface. Link Aggregation (LAG) is used for IPv6 AP load balancing.
This section contains the following subsections:
Restrictions for Configuring AP Manager Interface
• For IPv4—The MAC address of the management interface and the AP-manager interface is the same as
the base LAG MAC address.
• An AP-manager interface is not required to be configured. The management interface acts like an
AP-manager interface by default, and the access points can join on this interface.
• If link aggregation (LAG) is enabled, there can be only one AP-manager interface. But when LAG is
disabled, one or more AP-manager interfaces can be created, generally one per physical port.
• When LAG is enabled—Supports only one AP Manager, which can either be on the management
or dynamic interface with AP management.
• When LAG is disabled—Supports one AP Manager per port. The Dynamic Interface tied to a VLAN
can act as an AP Manager (when enabled).
Note
When you enable LAG, all the ports would lose their AP Manager status and the
AP management reverts back onto the Management interface.
• Port redundancy for the AP-manager interface is not supported. You cannot map the AP-manager interface
to a backup port.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
216
Management of Controllers
Configuring the AP-Manager Interface (GUI)
• It is not possible to have APs and a non-AP-manager interface on the same VLAN. If they are in the
same VLAN, the controller will move the traffic up on the incorrect VLAN as the controller gets the
CAPWAP discovery on the non-AP-manager interface.
Configuring the AP-Manager Interface (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the Interfaces page.
Step 2
Click AP-Manager Interface.
The Interface > Edit page is displayed.
For IPv6 only—A controller configured with IPv6 address does not support Dynamic AP-Manager.
By default, the management interface acts like an AP-manager interface.
Note
Step 3
Set the AP-Manager Interface parameters:
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 5
If you made any changes to the management or virtual interface, reboot the controller so that your changes
take effect.
Configuring the AP Manager Interface (CLI)
Before you begin
A controller configured with IPv6 address does not support Dynamic AP-Manager. The management interface
acts like an AP-manager interface by default.
Procedure
Step 1
Enter the show interface summary command to view the current interfaces.
Step 2
Enter the show interface detailed interface-name command to view the current AP-manager interface settings.
Step 3
Enter the config wlan disable wlan-id command to disable each WLAN that uses the AP-manager interface
for distribution system communication.
Step 4
Enter these commands to define the AP-manager interface:
• config interface address management ip-addr ip-netmask gateway
• config interface vlan management {vlan-id | 0}
Note
Enter 0 for an untagged VLAN or a nonzero value for a tagged VLAN. We recommend using
tagged VLANs for the AP-manager interface.
• config interface port management physical-ds-port-number
• config interface dhcp management ip-address-of-primary-dhcp-server
[ip-address-of-secondary-dhcp-server]
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
217
Management of Controllers
Interface Groups
• config interface acl management access-control-list-name
Step 5
Enter the save config command to save your changes.
Step 6
Enter the show interface detailed interface-name command to verify that your changes have been saved.
Interface Groups
Interface groups are logical groups of interfaces. Interface groups facilitate user configuration where the same
interface group can be configured on multiple WLANs or while overriding a WLAN interface per AP group.
An interface group can exclusively contain either quarantine or nonquarantine interfaces. An interface can be
part of multiple interface groups.
A WLAN can be associated with an interface or interface group. The interface group name and the interface
name cannot be the same.
This feature also enables you to associate a client to specific subnets based on the foreign controller that they
are connected to. The anchor controller WLAN can be configured to maintain a mapping between foreign
controller MAC and a specific interface or interface group (Foreign maps) as needed. If this mapping is not
configured, clients on that foreign controller gets VLANs associated in a round robin fashion from interface
group configured on WLAN.
You can also configure AAA override for interface groups. This feature extends the current access point group
and AAA override architecture where access point groups and AAA override can be configured to override
the interface group WLAN that the interface is mapped to. This is done with multiple interfaces using interface
groups.
Controller marks VLAN as dirty when the clients are unable to receive IP address using DHCP. The VLAN
interface is marked as dirty based on two methods:
Aggressive Method—When only one failure is counted per association per client and controller marks VLAN
as dirty interface when a failure occurs three times for a client or for three different clients.
Non-Aggressive Method—When only one failure is counted per association per client and controller marks
VLAN as a dirty interface only when three or more clients fail.
This section contains the following subsections:
Restrictions on Configuring Interface Groups
• The priority order for configuring interface groups for WLAN is:
• AAA override
• AP group
• Interface group
Note
AP group interface mapping for a WLAN is not supported in an anchor-foreign
scenario.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
218
Management of Controllers
Creating Interface Groups (GUI)
• While you configure VLAN-ACL mapping using the native VLAN identifier as part of Flex group
configuration, the ACL mapping does not take place. However, if you use the same VLAN to configure
ACL mapping at the access point level, the configuration is allowed.
• Dual stack clients with a static-IPv4 address is not supported.
Creating Interface Groups (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interface Groups.
The Interface Groups page appears with the list of interface groups already created.
Note
Step 2
To remove an interface group, hover your mouse pointer over the blue drop-down icon and choose
Remove.
Click Add Group.
The Add New Interface Group page appears.
Step 3
Enter the details of the interface group:
• Interface Group Name—Specify the name of the interface group.
• Description—Add a brief description of the interface group.
Step 4
Click Add.
Creating Interface Groups (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
config interface group {create | delete} interface_group_name—Creates or deletes an interface group
Step 2
config interface group description interface_group_name description—Adds a description to the interface
group
Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interface Groups.
The Interface Groups page appears with a list of all interface groups.
Step 2
Click the name of the interface group to which you want to add interfaces.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
219
Management of Controllers
Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (CLI)
The Interface Groups > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Choose the interface name that you want to add to this interface group from the Interface Name drop-down
list.
Step 4
Click Add Interface to add the interface to the Interface group.
Step 5
Repeat Steps 2 and 3 if you want to add multiple interfaces to this interface group.
Note
To remove an interface from the interface group, hover your mouse pointer over the blue drop-down
arrow and choose Remove.
Adding Interfaces to Interface Groups (CLI)
Procedure
Add interfaces to interface groups by entering this command:
config interface group interface add interface_group interface_name
Viewing VLANs in Interface Groups (CLI)
Procedure
View a list of VLANs in the interface groups by entering this command:
show interface group detailed interface-group-name
Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose the WLAN tab.
The WLANs page appears listing the available WLANs.
Step 2
Click the WLAN ID of the WLAN to which you want to add the interface group.
Step 3
In the General tab, choose the interface group from the Interface/Interface Group (G) drop-down list.
Step 4
Click Apply.
Note
Suppose that the interface group that you add to a WLAN has RADIUS Server Overwrite interface
enabled. In this case, when a client requests for authentication, the controller selects the first IP
address from the interface group as the RADIUS server.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
220
Management of Controllers
Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (CLI)
Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (CLI)
Procedure
Add an interface group to a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan interface wlan_id interface_group_name
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
221
Management of Controllers
Adding an Interface Group to a WLAN (CLI)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
222
CHAPTER
14
IPv6 Clients
• IPv6 Client Mobility, on page 223
• Prerequisites for Configuring IPv6 Mobility, on page 223
• Restrictions on Configuring IPv6 Mobility, on page 224
• Global IPv6, on page 224
• RA Guard, on page 225
• RA Throttling, on page 226
• IPv6 Neighbor Discovery, on page 227
IPv6 Client Mobility
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the next-generation network layer Internet protocol intended to replace
version 4 (IPv4) in the TCP/IP suite of protocols. This new version increases the Internet global address space
to accommodate users and applications that require unique global IP addresses. IPv6 incorporates 128-bit
source and destination addresses, which provide significantly more addresses than the 32-bit IPv4 addresses.
To support IPv6 clients across controllers, ICMPv6 messages must be dealt with specially to ensure the IPv6
client remains on the same Layer 3 network. The controllers keep track of IPv6 clients by intercepting the
ICMPv6 messages to provide seamless mobility and protect the network from network attacks. The ICMPv6
packets are converted from multicast to unicast and delivered individually per client. This process allows
more control. Specific clients can receive specific Neighbor Discovery and Router Advertisement packets,
which ensures correct IPv6 addressing and avoids unnecessary multicast traffic.
The configuration for IPv6 mobility is the same as IPv4 mobility and requires no separate software on the
client side to achieve seamless roaming. The controllers must be part of the same mobility group. Both IPv4
and IPv6 client mobility are enabled by default.
Prerequisites for Configuring IPv6 Mobility
• Up to eight client addresses can be tracked per client.
• To allow stateful DHCPv6 IP addressing to operate properly, you must have a switch or router that
supports the DHCP for IPv6 feature that is configured to act like a DHCPv6 server, or you need a dedicated
server such as a Windows 2008 server with a built-in DHCPv6 server.
To support the seamless IPv6 Mobility, you might need to configure the following:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
223
Management of Controllers
Restrictions on Configuring IPv6 Mobility
• Configuring RA Guard for IPv6 Clients
• Configuring RA Throttling for IPv6 Clients
• Configuring IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Caching
Restrictions on Configuring IPv6 Mobility
• The Dynamic VLAN function for IPv6 is not supported.
• Roaming of IPv6 clients that are associated with a WLAN that is mapped to an untagged interface to
another WLAN that is mapped to a tagged interface is not supported.
• The controllers that have the same mobility group, same VLAN ID, and different IPv4 and IPv6 subnets,
generate different IPv6 router advertisements. WLAN on these WLCs is assigned to the same dynamic
interface with the same VLAN ID on all the controllers. The client receives correct IPv4 address; however
it receives a router advertisement from the different subnets that reach the other controllers. There could
be issue of no traffic from the client, because the first given IPv6 address to the client does not match to
the subnet for the IPv4 address. To resolve this, make sure if performing Layer 3 roams between controllers
that the client is assigned to different VLANs.
• IPv6 is not supported in Flex local switching with AAA override VLAN.
• IPv6 ping from controller to a client is not supported if the client is in the management subnet.
• Controller sends all application IPv6 traffic to the gateway even if the host is in the same subnet. The
gateway forwards the traffic to the host in the same subnet. If the gateway is a Cisco ASA, by default,
the Cisco ASA drops traffic sent by the controller to the gateway, if traffic has to be sent to the same
subnet. This is because traffic ingress and egress interface is the same. To allow Cisco ASA to forward
this traffic, use the same-security-traffic permit intra-interface command in Cisco ASA. For more
information, see https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/security/asa/asa92/configuration/vpn/asa-vpn-cli/
vpn-params.html#56144.
Global IPv6
This section contains the following subsections:
Restrictions on Global IPv6
• IPv4 address needs to be configured on the interface prior to configuring the IPv6 address.
Configuring IPv6 Globally (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > General.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
224
Management of Controllers
Configuring IPv6 Globally (CLI)
Step 2
From the Global IPv6 Config drop-down list, choose Enabled or Disabled.
Step 3
Click Apply.
Step 4
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring IPv6 Globally (CLI)
Procedure
Command or Action
Step 1
Purpose
Enable or disable IPv6 globally by entering this config ipv6 {enable | disable}
command:
RA Guard
IPv6 clients configure IPv6 addresses and populate their router tables based on IPv6 Router Advertisement
(RA) packets. The RA Guard feature is similar to the RA guard feature of wired networks. RA Guard increases
the security of the IPv6 network by dropping the unwanted or rogue RA packets that come from wireless
clients. If this feature is not configured, malicious IPv6 clients could announce themselves as the router for
the network, which would take higher precedence over legitimate IPv6 routers.
RA Guard occurs at the controller. You can configure the controller to drop RA messages at the access point
or at the controller. By default, RA Guard is configured at the access point and also enabled in the controller.
All IPv6 RA messages are dropped, which protects other wireless clients and upstream wired network from
malicious IPv6 clients.
Note
• IPv6 RA guard feature works on wireless clients only. This feature does not work on wired guest access
(GA).
• RA guard is also supported in FlexConnect local switching mode.
This section contains the following subsections:
Configuring RA Guard (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > IPv6 > RA Guard to open the IPv6 RA Guard page. By default the IPv6 RA Guard
on AP is enabled.
Step 2
From the drop-down list, choose Disable to disable RA Guard. The controller also displays the clients that
have been identified as sending RA packets.
Step 3
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
225
Management of Controllers
Configuring RA Guard (CLI)
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring RA Guard (CLI)
Procedure
Command or Action
Step 1
Purpose
Configure RA Guard by entering this command: config ipv6 ra-guard ap {enable | disable}
RA Throttling
RA throttling allows the controller to enforce limits to RA packets headed toward the wireless network. By
enabling RA throttling, routers that send many RA packets can be trimmed to a minimum frequency that will
still maintain an IPv6 client connectivity. If a client sends an RS packet, then an RA is sent back to the client.
This is allowed through the controller and unicasted to the client. This process ensures that the new clients or
roaming clients are not affected by the RA throttling.
This section contains the following subsections:
Configuring RA Throttling (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > IPv6 > RA Throttle Policy page. By default the IPv6 RA Throttle Policy is disabled.
Unselect the check box to disable RA throttle policy.
Step 2
Configure the following parameters:
• Throttle period—The period of time for throttling. RA throttling takes place only after the Max Through
limit is reached for the VLAN or the Allow At-Most value is reached for a particular router. The range
is from 10 seconds to 86400 seconds. The default is 600 seconds.
• Max Through—The maximum number of RA packets on a VLAN that can be sent before throttling
takes place. The No Limit option allows an unlimited number of RA packets through with no throttling.
The range is from 0 to 256 RA packets. The default is 10 RA packets.
• Interval Option—This option allows the controller to act differently based on the RFC 3775 value set
in IPv6 RA packets.
• Passthrough— Allows any RA messages with the RFC 3775 interval option to go through without
throttling.
• Ignore—Causes the RA throttle to treat packets with the interval option as a regular RA and subject
to throttling if in effect.
• Throttle—Causes the RA packets with the interval option to always be subject to rate limiting.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
226
Management of Controllers
Configuring the RA Throttle Policy (CLI)
• Allow At-least—The minimum number of RA packets per router that can be sent as multicast before
throttling takes place. The range is from 0 to 32 RA packets.
• Allow At-most—The maximum number of RA packets per router that can be sent as multicast before
throttling takes place. The No Limit option allows an unlimited number of RA packets through the router.
The range is from 0 to 256 RA packets.
Note
Step 3
When RA throttling occurs, only the first IPv6 capable router is allowed through. For networks
that have multiple IPv6 prefixes being served by different routers, you should disable RA
throttling.
Save the configuration.
Configuring the RA Throttle Policy (CLI)
Procedure
Configure the RA throttle policy by entering this command:
config ipv6 neigbhor-binding ra-throttle {allow at-least at-least-value | enable | disable | interval-option
{ ignore | passthrough | throttle} | max-through {max-through-value | no-limit}}
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery is a set of messages and processes that determine relationships between neighboring
nodes. Neighbor Discovery replaces ARP, ICMP Router Discovery, and ICMP Redirect used in IPv4.
At any given time, only eight IPv6 addresses are supported per client. When the ninth IPv6 address is
encountered, the controller removes the oldest stale entry and accommodates the latest one.
IPv6 Neighbor Discovery inspection analyzes neighbor discovery messages in order to build a trusted binding
table database, and IPv6 neighbor discovery packets that do not comply are dropped. The neighbor binding
table in the controller track each IPv6 address and its associated MAC address. Clients are expired from the
table according to Neighbor Binding timers.
This section contains the following subsections:
Configuring Neighbor Binding (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > IPv6 > Neighbor Binding page.
Step 2
Configure the following:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
227
Management of Controllers
Configuring Neighbor Binding (CLI)
• Down–Lifetime—Specifies how long IPv6 cache entries are kept if the interface goes down. The range
is from 0 to 86400 seconds.
• Reachable–Lifetime—Specifies how long IPv6 addresses are active. The range is from 0 to 86400 seconds.
• Stale–Lifetime—Specifies how long to keep IPv6 addresses in the cache. The range is from 0 to 86400
seconds.
Step 3
Enable or disable the Unknown Address Multicast NS Forwarding.
Step 4
Enable or disable NA Multicast Forwarding.
If you enable NA Multicast Forwarding, all unsolicited multicast NA from Wired/Wireless is not forwarded
to Wireless.
Step 5
Click Apply.
Step 6
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring Neighbor Binding (CLI)
Procedure
• Configure the neighbor binding parameters by entering this command:
config ipv6 neighbor-binding timers {down-lifetime | reachable-lifetime | stale-lifetime} {enable |
disable}
• Configure the Unknown Address Multicast NS Forwarding by entering this command:
config ipv6 ns-mcast-fwd {enable | disable}
• Configure NA Multicast Forwarding by entering this command:
config ipv6 na-mcast-fwd {enable | disable}
If you enable NA Multicast Forwarding, all unsolicited multicast NA from Wired/Wireless is not forwarded
to Wireless.
• See the status of neighbor binding data that are configured on the controller by entering this command:
show ipv6 neighbor-binding summary
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
228
CHAPTER
15
Access Control Lists
• Information about Access Control Lists, on page 229
• Guidelines and Restrictions on Access Control Lists, on page 230
• Configuring Access Control Lists (GUI), on page 231
• Applying an Access Control List to an Interface (GUI), on page 233
• Applying an Access Control List to the Controller CPU (GUI), on page 233
• Applying an Access Control List to a WLAN (GUI), on page 234
• Applying a Preauthentication Access Control List to a WLAN (GUI), on page 235
• Configuring Access Control Lists (CLI), on page 235
• Applying Access Control Lists (CLI), on page 236
• Layer 2 Access Control Lists, on page 237
• DNS-based Access Control Lists, on page 241
• URL Filtering, on page 244
• CNAME IPv6 Filtering, on page 251
• Domain Based Filtering, on page 253
Information about Access Control Lists
An Access Control List (ACL) is a set of rules used to limit access to a particular interface (for example, if
you want to restrict a wireless client from pinging the management interface of the controller). After ACLs
are configured on the controller, they can be applied to the management interface, the AP-manager interface,
any of the dynamic interfaces, or a WLAN to control data traffic to and from wireless clients or to the controller
central processing unit (CPU) to control all traffic destined for the CPU.
You may also want to create a preauthentication ACL for web authentication. Such an ACL could be used to
allow certain types of traffic before authentication is complete.
Both IPv4 and IPv6 ACL are supported. IPv6 ACLs support the same options as IPv4 ACLs including source,
destination, source and destination ports.
Note
You can enable only IPv4 traffic in your network by blocking IPv6 traffic. That is, you can configure an IPv6
ACL to deny all IPv6 traffic and apply it on specific or all WLANs.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
229
Management of Controllers
Guidelines and Restrictions on Access Control Lists
Guidelines and Restrictions on Access Control Lists
• You can define up to 64 ACLs, each with up to 64 rules (or filters) for both IPv4 and IPv6. Each rule
has parameters that affect its action. When a packet matches all of the parameters for a rule, the action
set for that rule is applied to the packet.
• All ACLs have an implicit “deny all rule” as the last rule. If a packet does not match any of the rules, it
is dropped by the controller.
• Multicast traffic received from wired networks that is destined to wireless clients is not processed by
WLC ACLs. Multicast traffic initiated from wireless clients, destined to wired networks or other wireless
clients on the same controller, is processed by WLC ACLs.
• ACLs are configured on the controller directly or configured through templates. The ACL name must
be unique.
• You can configure ACL per client (AAA overridden ACL) or on either an interface or a WLAN. The
AAA overridden ACL has the highest priority. However, each interface, WLAN, or per client ACL
configuration that you apply can override one another.
• If peer-to-peer blocking is enabled, traffic is blocked between peers even if the ACL allows traffic between
them.
• When you create an ACL, it is recommended to perform the two actions (create an ACL or ACL ruleand
apply the ACL or ACL rule) continuously either from CLI or GUI.
• Mobility pings on ports 16666 and 16667 are notable exemptions and these ports cannot be blocked by
any ACL.
• When high priority for an ACL is enabled, two types of rules are possible as follows:
• Deny: If you add the Deny rule, all the relevant services under the rule are blocked or disabled. This
does not depend on the configuration status of the services.
• Permit: If you add the Permit rule, all the relevant services might require more configuration that
are based on the nature of the service, for the service to be functional. For example, Telnet/SSH do
not require more configuration for their services to be functional, whereas HTTP/HTTPS do require
more configuration for their services to be functional.
• ACLs do not affect the service ports of controllers.
• URL domain configuration for IPv6 ACLs is not supported. However, it is supported in the case of IPv4
ACLs.
• DNS traffic is permitted by default with or without ACL entries for clients that are awaiting web
authentication.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
230
Management of Controllers
Configuring Access Control Lists (GUI)
Configuring Access Control Lists (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > Access Control Lists > Access Control Lists to open the Access Control Lists page.
Step 2
If you want to see if packets are hitting any of the ACLs configured on your controller, select the Enable
Counters check box and click Apply. Otherwise, leave the check box unselected, which is the default value.
This feature is useful when troubleshooting your system.
If you want to clear the counters for an ACL, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for
that ACL and choose Clear Counters.
Note
Step 3
Add a new ACL by clicking New. The Access Control Lists > New page appears.
Step 4
In the Access Control List Name text box, enter a name for the new ACL. You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric
characters.
Step 5
Choose the ACL type. There are two types of ACL supported, IPv4 and IPv6.
Step 6
Click Apply. When the Access Control Lists page reappears, click the name of the new ACL.
Step 7
When the Access Control Lists > Edit page appears, click Add New Rule. The Access Control Lists > Rules
> New page appears.
Step 8
Configure a rule for this ACL as follows:
a) The controller supports up to 64 rules for each ACL. These rules are listed in order from 1 to 64. In the
Sequence text box, enter a value (between 1 and 64) to determine the order of this rule in relation to any
other rules defined for this ACL.
Note
If rules 1 through 4 are already defined and you add rule 29, it is added as rule 5. If you add or
change a sequence number for a rule, the sequence numbers for other rules adjust to maintain
a continuous sequence. For instance, if you change a rule’s sequence number from 7 to 5, the
rules with sequence numbers 5 and 6 are automatically reassigned as 6 and 7, respectively.
b) From the Source drop-down list, choose one of these options to specify the source of the packets to which
this ACL applies:
• Any—Any source (this is the default value).
• IP Address—A specific source. If you choose this option, enter the IP address and netmask of the
source in the text boxes. If you are configuring IPv6 ACL, enter the IPv6 address and prefix length
of the destination in the text boxes.
c) From the Destination drop-down list, choose one of these options to specify the destination of the packets
to which this ACL applies:
• Any—Any destination (this is the default value).
• IP Address—A specific destination. If you choose this option, enter the IP address and netmask of
the destination in the text boxes. If you are configuring IPv6 ACL, enter the IPv6 address and prefix
length of the destination in the text boxes.
d) From the Protocol drop-down list, choose the protocol ID of the IP packets to be used for this ACL. These
are the protocol options:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
231
Management of Controllers
Configuring Access Control Lists (GUI)
• Any—Any protocol (this is the default value)
• TCP—Transmission Control Protocol
• UDP—User Datagram Protocol
• ICMP/ICMPv6—Internet Control Message Protocol
Note
ICMPv6 is only available for IPv6 ACL.
• ESP—IP Encapsulating Security Payload
• AH—Authentication Header
• GRE—Generic Routing Encapsulation
• IP in IP—Internet Protocol (IP) in IP (permits or denies IP-in-IP packets)
• Eth Over IP—Ethernet-over-Internet Protocol
• OSPF—Open Shortest Path First
• Other—Any other Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) protocol
Note
If you choose Other, enter the number of the desired protocol in the Protocol text box. You
can find the list of available protocols in the INAI website.
The controller can permit or deny only IP packets in an ACL. Other types of packets (such as ARP packets)
cannot be specified.
e) If you chose TCP or UDP in the previous step, two additional parameters appear: Source Port and
Destination Port. These parameters enable you to choose a specific source port and destination port or
port ranges. The port options are used by applications that send and receive data to and from the networking
stack. Some ports are designated for certain applications such as Telnet, SSH, HTTP, and so on.
Note
Source and Destination ports based on the ACL type.
f) From the DSCP drop-down list, choose one of these options to specify the differentiated services code
point (DSCP) value of this ACL. DSCP is an IP header text box that can be used to define the quality of
service across the Internet.
• Any—Any DSCP (this is the default value)
• Specific—A specific DSCP from 0 to 63, which you enter in the DSCP edit box
g) From the Direction drop-down list, choose one of these options to specify the direction of the traffic to
which this ACL applies:
• Any—Any direction (this is the default value)
• Inbound—From the client
• Outbound—To the client
Note
If you are planning to apply this ACL to the controller CPU, the packet direction does not have
any significance, it is always ‘Any’.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
232
Management of Controllers
Applying an Access Control List to an Interface (GUI)
h) From the Action drop-down list, choose Deny to cause this ACL to block packets or Permit to cause this
ACL to allow packets. The default value is Deny.
i) Click Apply to commit your changes. The Access Control Lists > Edit page reappears, showing the
rules for this ACL.
The Deny Counters fields shows the number of times that packets have matched the explicit deny ACL
rule. The Number of Hits field shows the number of times that packets have matched an ACL rule. You
must enable ACL counters on the Access Control Lists page to enable these fields.
If you want to edit a rule, click the sequence number of the desired rule to open the Access
Control Lists > Rules > Edit page. If you want to delete a rule, hover your cursor over the
blue drop-down arrow for the desired rule and choose Remove.
Note
j) Repeat this procedure to add any additional rules for this ACL.
Step 9
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 10
Repeat this procedure to add any additional ACLs.
Related Topics
Configuring FlexConnect Access Control Lists (GUI), on page 1213
Applying an Access Control List to an Interface (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interfaces.
Step 2
Click the name of the desired interface. The Interfaces > Edit page for that interface appears.
Step 3
Choose the desired ACL from the ACL Name drop-down list and click Apply. The default is None.
Note
Step 4
IPv6 ACLs are supported only on management interface.
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Applying an Access Control List to the Controller CPU (GUI)
Before you begin
Before you apply ACL rules, ensure that you have explicitly set the following RRM ports to allow in the CPU
ACL:
• 12124-12125
• 12134-12135
Also ensure that you add these ACL rules specifically at the top of the ACL list.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
233
Management of Controllers
Applying an Access Control List to a WLAN (GUI)
If you do not set these RRM ports to allow, the ports are blocked by default.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > Access Control Lists > CPU Access Control Lists to open the CPU Access Control
Lists page.
Step 2
Select the Enable CPU ACL check box to enable a designated ACL to control the IPv4 traffic to the controller
CPU or unselect the check box to disable the CPU ACL feature and remove any ACL that had been applied
to the CPU. The default value is unselected.
Step 3
From the ACL Name drop-down list, choose the ACL that will control the IPv4 traffic to the controller CPU.
None is the default value when the CPU ACL feature is disabled. If you choose None while the Enable CPU
ACL check box is selected, an error message appears indicating that you must choose an ACL.
Step 4
Note
This parameter is available only if you have selected the CPU ACL Enable check box.
Note
When CPU ACL is enabled, it is applicable to both wireless and wired traffic.
Select the Enable CPU IPv6 ACL check box to enable a designated ACL to control the IPv6 traffic to the
controller CPU or unselect the check box to disable the CPU ACL feature and remove any ACL that had been
applied to the CPU. The default value is unselected.
Note
For CPU IPv6 ACL, along with permit rules for HTTP/Telnet, you must add a rule to allow ICMPv6
(NA/ND uses ICMPv6) for the CPU IPv6 ACLs to work.
Step 5
From the IPv6 ACL Name drop-down list, choose the ACL that will control the IPv6 traffic to the controller
CPU. None is the default value when the CPU ACL feature is disabled. If you choose None while the Enable
CPU IPv6 ACL check box is selected, an error message appears indicating that you must choose an ACL.
Step 6
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 7
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Applying an Access Control List to a WLAN (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Step 2
Click the ID number of the desired WLAN to open the WLANs > Edit page.
Step 3
Choose the Advanced tab to open the WLANs > Edit (Advanced) page.
Step 4
From the Override Interface ACL drop-down list, choose the IPv4 or IPv6 ACL that you want to apply to
this WLAN. The ACL that you choose overrides any ACL that is configured for the interface. None is the
default value.
Note
Step 5
To support centralized access control through AAA server such as ISE or ACS, IPv6 ACL must be
configured on the controller and the WLAN must be configured with AAA override enabled feature.
Click Apply.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
234
Management of Controllers
Applying a Preauthentication Access Control List to a WLAN (GUI)
Step 6
Click Save Configuration.
Applying a Preauthentication Access Control List to a WLAN
(GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Step 2
Click the ID number of the desired WLAN to open the WLANs > Edit page.
Step 3
Choose the Security and Layer 3 tabs to open the WLANs > Edit (Security > Layer 3) page.
Step 4
Select the Web Policy check box.
Step 5
From the Preauthentication ACL drop-down list, choose the desired ACL and click Apply. None is the
default value.
Step 6
Save the configuration.
Configuring Access Control Lists (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
See all of the ACLs that are configured on the controller by entering this command:
show [ipv6] acl summary
Step 2
See detailed information for a particular ACL by entering this command:
show [ipv6] acl detailed acl_name
The Counter text box increments each time a packet matches an ACL rule, and the DenyCounter text box
increments each time a packet does not match any of the rules.
Note
Step 3
If a traffic/request is allowed from the controller by a permit rule, then the response to the
traffic/request in the opposite direction also is allowed and cannot be blocked by a deny rule in the
ACL.
Enable or disable ACL counters for your controller by entering this command:
config acl counter {start | stop}
Note
Step 4
If you want to clear the current counters for an ACL, enter the clear acl counters acl_name command.
Add a new ACL by entering this command:
config [ipv6] acl create acl_name.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
235
Management of Controllers
Applying Access Control Lists (CLI)
You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters for the acl_name parameter.
When you try to create an interface name with space, the controller CLI does not create an interface.
For example, if you want to create an interface name int 3, the CLI will not create this since there
is a space between int and 3. If you want to use int 3 as the interface name, you need to enclose
within single quotes like ‘int 3’.
Note
Step 5
Add a rule for an ACL by entering this command:
config [ipv6] acl rule add acl_name rule_index
Step 6
Configure an ACL rule by entering config [ipv6] acl rule command:
Step 7
Save your settings by entering this command:
save config
To delete an ACL, enter the config [ipv6] acl delete acl_name command. To delete an ACL rule,
enter the config [ipv6] acl rule delete acl_name rule_index command.
Note
Applying Access Control Lists (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Perform the following to apply an IPv4 ACL:
• To apply an ACL to the IPv4 data path, enter this command:
config acl apply acl_name
• To apply an ACL to the controller CPU to restrict the IPv4 type of traffic (wired, wireless, or both)
reaching the CPU, enter this command:
config acl cpu acl_name {wired | wireless | both}
Note
Step 2
To see the ACL that is applied to the controller CPU, enter the show acl cpu command. To
remove the ACL that is applied to the controller CPU, enter the config acl cpu none command.
Perform the following to apply an IPv6 ACL:
• To apply an ACL to an IPv6 data path, enter this command:
config ipv6 acl apply name
• To apply an ACL to the controller CPU to restrict the IPv6 type of traffic (wired, wireless, or both)
reaching the CPU, enter this command:
config ipv6 acl cpu {name|none}
Step 3
To apply an ACL to a WLAN, enter this command:
• config wlan acl wlan_id acl_name
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
236
Management of Controllers
Layer 2 Access Control Lists
Note
Step 4
To see the ACL that is applied to a WLAN, enter the show wlan wlan_id command. To remove
the ACL that is applied to a WLAN, enter the config wlan acl wlan_id none command.
To apply a pre-authentication ACL to a WLAN, enter this command:
• config wlan security web-auth acl wlan_id acl_name
Step 5
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Layer 2 Access Control Lists
You can configure rules for Layer 2 access control lists (ACLs) based on the Ethertype associated with the
packets. Using this feature, if a WLAN with central switching is required to support only PPPoE clients, you
can apply Layer 2 ACL rules on the WLAN to allow only PPPoE packets after the client is authenticated and
the rest of the packets are dropped. Similarly, if the WLAN is required to support only IPv4 clients or only
IPv6 clients, you can apply Layer 2 ACL rules on the WLAN to allow only IPv4 or IPv6 packets after the
client is authenticated and the rest of the packets are dropped. For a locally-switched WLAN, you can apply
the same Layer 2 ACL either for the WLAN or a FlexConnect AP. AP-specific Layer 2 ACLs can be configured
only on FlexConnect APs. This is applicable only for locally-switched WLANs. The Layer 2 ACL that is
applied to the FlexConnect AP takes precedence over the Layer 2 ACL that is applied to the WLAN.
In a mobility scenario, the mobility anchor configuration is applicable.
The following traffic is not blocked:
• Wireless traffic for wireless clients:
• 802.1X
• Inter-Access Point Protocol
• 802.11
• Cisco Discovery Protocol
• Traffic from a distributed system:
• Broadcast
• Multicast
• IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)
• Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and Gratuitous ARP Protection (GARP)
• Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
• Domain Name System (DNS)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
237
Management of Controllers
Restrictions on Layer 2 Access Control Lists
Layer 2 ACL Mapping to WLAN
If you map a Layer 2 ACL to a WLAN, the Layer 2 ACL rules that you configure apply to all the clients that
are associated with that WLAN.
When you map a Layer 2 ACL to a centrally switched WLAN, the rule to pass traffic based on the Ethertype
is determined by Fast-Path for every client that is associated with the WLAN. Fast-Path looks into the Ethernet
headers associated with the packets and forwards the packets whose Ethertype matches with the one that is
configured for the ACL.
When you map a Layer 2 ACL to a locally switched WLAN, the rule to pass traffic based on the Ethertype
is determined by the forwarding plane of the AP for every client that is associated with the WLAN. The AP
forwarding plane looks into the Ethernet headers associated with the packets and forwards or denies the packets
based on the action whose Ethertype matches with the one that is configured for the ACL.
Note
Controllers configured to preform Central Switching and Centralized Authentication displays the name of the
Layer-2 ACL being applied to roaming users incorrectly. The situation occurs when an authorized device
preforms a Layer-3 roam from the anchor controller to a foreign controller. After roaming, if an administrator
issues the show acl layer2 summary command on the CLI of the foreign controller the incorrect information
is displayed. It is expected that the ACL applied by the anchor will follow the authenticated client as it roams
from controller to controller.
This section contains the following subsections:
Restrictions on Layer 2 Access Control Lists
• You can create a maximum of 16 rules for a Layer 2 ACL.
• AP-specific Layer 2 ACLs can be configured only on FlexConnect APs. This is applicable only for
locally-switched WLANs.
• You can create a maximum of 64 Layer 2 ACLs on a controller.
• A maximum of 16 Layer 2 ACLs are supported per AP because an AP supports a maximum of 16 WLANs.
• Ensure that the Layer 2 ACL names do not conflict with the FlexConnect ACL names because an AP
does not support the same Layer 2 and Layer 3 ACL names.
Configuring Layer 2 Access Control Lists (CLI)
Procedure
• config acl layer2 {create | delete} acl-name—Creates or deletes a Layer 2 ACL.
• config acl layer2 apply acl-name—Applies a Layer 2 ACL to a data path.
• config acl layer2 rule {add | delete} acl-rule-name index—Creates or deletes a Layer 2 ACL rule.
• config acl layer2 rule change index acl-rule-name old-index new-index—Changes the index of a Layer
2 ACL rule.
• config acl layer2 rule action acl-rule-name index {permit | deny}—Configures an action for a rule.
• config acl layer2 rule etherType name index ether-type-number-in-hex
ether-type-mask-in-hex—Configures the destination IP address and netmask for a rule.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
238
Management of Controllers
Mapping of Layer 2 ACLs with WLANs (CLI)
• config acl layer2 rule swap index acl-rule-name index-1 index-2—Swaps the index values of two rules.
• config acl counter {start | stop}—Starts or stops the ACL counter. This command is applicable for all
types of ACLs. In an HA environment, the counters are not synchronized between the active and standby
controllers.
• show acl layer2 summary—Shows a summary of the Layer 2 ACL profiles.
• show acl layer2 detailed acl-name—Shows a detailed description of the Layer 2 ACL profile specified.
• show client detail client-mac-addr—Shows the Layer 2 ACL rule that is applied to the client.
Mapping of Layer 2 ACLs with WLANs (CLI)
This is applicable to centrally switched WLANs and locally switched WLANs without FlexConnect access
points.
Procedure
• config wlan layer2 acl wlan-id acl-name—Maps a Layer 2 ACL to a centrally switched WLAN.
• config wlan layer2 acl wlan-id none—Clears the Layer 2 ACLs mapped to a WLAN.
• show wlan wlan-id—Shows the status of a Layer 2 ACL that is mapped to a WLAN.
Mapping of Layer 2 ACLs with Locally Switched WLANs Using FlexConnect Access Points (CLI)
This is applicable to locally switched WLANs that have FlexConnect access points.
Procedure
• config ap flexconnect wlan l2acl add wlan-id ap-name acl-name—Maps a Layer 2 ACL to a locally
switched WLAN.
• config ap flexconnect wlan l2acl delete wlan-id ap-name—Deletes the mapping.
• show ap config general ap-name—Shows the details of the mapping.
Configuring Layer 2 Access Control Lists (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > Access Control Lists > Layer2 ACLs to open the Layer2 Access Control Lists page.
Step 2
Add a new ACL by clicking New. The Layer2 Access Control Lists > New page appears.
Step 3
In the Access Control List Name text box, enter a name for the new ACL. You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric
characters.
Step 4
Click Apply. When the Layer2 Access Control Lists page reappears, click the name of the new ACL.
Step 5
When the Layer2 Access Control Lists > Edit page appears, click Add New Rule. The Layer2 Access Control
Lists > Rules > New page appears.
Step 6
Configure a rule for this ACL as follows:
a) The controller supports up to 16 rules for each ACL. These rules are listed in order from 1 to 16. In the
Sequence text box, enter a value (between 1 and 16) to determine the order of this rule in relation to any
other rules defined for this ACL.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
239
Management of Controllers
Applying a Layer2 Access Control List to a WLAN (GUI)
Note
If rules 1 through 4 are already defined and you add rule 15, it is added as rule 5. If you add or
change a sequence number for a rule, the sequence numbers for other rules adjust to maintain
a continuous sequence. For instance, if you change a rule’s sequence number from 7 to 5, the
rules with sequence numbers 5 and 6 are automatically reassigned as 6 and 7, respectively.
b) From the Ether Type drop-down list, choose any option from the following Ether type:
• AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol
• VLAN-tagged Frame & Short Path Bridging
• IPX (0x8137)
• IPX (0x8138)
• QNS Qnet
• Internet Protocol Version 6
• Ethernet Flow Control
• Slow Protocol
• CobraNet
• MPLS Unicast
• MPLS Multicast
• PPPoE Discovery Stage
• PPPoE Session Stage
• Jumbo Frames
• HomePlug 1.0 MME
• EAP over LAN
• PROFINET over Protocol
• HyperSCSI
• ATA over Ethernet
• EtherCAT Protocol
Note
You can select any predefined Ether Types from the Ether Type drop-down list or enter your
own Ether type value using the custom option from the Ether Type drop-down list.
c) From the Action drop-down list, choose Deny to cause this ACL to block packets or Permit to cause this
ACL to allow packets. The default value is Deny.
d) Click Apply to commit your changes. The Layer2 Access Control Lists > Edit page reappears, showing
the rules for this ACL.
e) Repeat this procedure to add any additional rules for this ACL.
Step 7
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 8
Repeat this procedure to add any additional ACLs.
Applying a Layer2 Access Control List to a WLAN (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Step 2
Click the ID number of the desired WLAN to open the WLANs > Edit page.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
240
Management of Controllers
Applying a Layer2 Access Control List to an AP on a WLAN (GUI)
Step 3
Choose the Advanced tab to open the WLANs > Edit (Advanced) page.
Step 4
From the Layer2 ACL drop-down list, choose the ACL you have created.
Step 5
Click Apply.
Step 6
Click Save Configuration.
Applying a Layer2 Access Control List to an AP on a WLAN (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.
Step 2
Click the name of the desired access point to open the All APs > Details page.
Step 3
On the All APs > Details page, click the FlexConnect tab.
Step 4
From the PreAuthentication Access Control Lists area, click the Layer2 ACLs link to open the ACL
Mappings page.
Step 5
From the Layer2 ACL drop-down list in the WLAN ACL Mapping area, choose the ACL you have created
and click Add.
Step 6
Save the configuration.
DNS-based Access Control Lists
The DNS-based ACLs are used for client devices such as Apple and Android devices. When using these
devices, you can set pre-authentication ACLs on the controller to determine where devices have the right to
go.
To enable DNS-based ACLs on the controller, you need to configure the allowed URLs for the ACLs. The
URLs need to be pre-configured on the ACL.
With DNS-based ACLs, the client when in registration phase is allowed to connect to the configured URLs.
The controller is configured with the ACL name and that is returned by the AAA server for pre-authentication
ACL to be applied. If the ACL name is returned by the AAA server, then the ACL is applied to the client for
web-redirection.
At the client authentication phase, the ISE server returns the pre-authentication ACL (url-redirect-acl). The
DNS snooping is performed on the AP for each client until the registration is complete and the client is in
SUPPLICANT PROVISIONING state. When the ACL configured with the URLs is received on the controller,
the CAPWAP payload is sent to the AP enabling DNS snooping on the client and the URLs to be snooped.
With URL snooping in place, the AP learns the IP address of the resolved domain name in the DNS response.
If the domain name matches the configured URL, then the DNS response is parsed for the IP address, and the
IP address is sent to the controller as a CAPWAP payload. The controller adds the IP address to the allowed
list of IP addresses and thus the client can access the URLs configured.
In Release 8.0, support was added for DNS-based ACL with local web authentication.
This section contains the following subsections:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
241
Management of Controllers
Restrictions on DNS-based Access Control Lists
Restrictions on DNS-based Access Control Lists
• In Release 8.2 and later releases, a maximum of 20 URLs can be allowed for an access control list.
• In Release 8.2 and later releases, on the controller, 40 IP addresses are allowed for one client.
• Local authentication is not supported for FlexConnect APs.
• DNS-based ACLs are not supported on FlexConnect APs with Local Switching.
Note
In Release 8.7, support was added in Cisco Wave 2 APs for DNS-based ACLs
on FlexConnect APs with Local Switching.
• If a client is anchored, be it auto-anchor or after roaming, DNS-based ACLs do not work.
Configuring DNS-based Access Control Lists (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Specifies to create ACL. You can enter an IPv4 ACL name up to 32 alphanumeric characters.
config acl create name
Example:
(Cisco Controller) >> config acl create android
Step 2
Specifies to add a new URL domain for the access control list. URL domain name should be given in a valid
format, for example, Cisco.com, bbc.in, or play.google.com. The hostname comparison is a sub string matched
(wildcard based). You must use the ACL name that you have created already.
config acl url-domain add domain-name acl-name
Example:
(Cisco Controller) >> config acl url-domain add cisco.com android
(Cisco Controller) >> config acl url-domain add play.google.com android
Step 3
Specifies to delete an existing URL domain for the access control list.
config acl url-domain delete domain-name acl-name
Example:
(Cisco Controller) >> config acl url-domain delete cisco.com android
Step 4
Specifies to apply the ACL.
config acl apply acl-name
Example:
(Cisco Controller) >> config acl apply android
Step 5
Displays DNS-based ACL information by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
242
Management of Controllers
Configuring DNS-based Access Control Lists (GUI)
show acl summary
Example:
(Cisco Controller) >> show acl summary
ACL Counter Status
Disabled
---------------------------------------IPv4 ACL Name
Applied
-------------------------------- ------android
No
StoreACL
Yes
---------------------------------------IPv6 ACL Name
Applied
-------------------------------- -------
Step 6
Displays detailed DNS-based ACL information by entering this command:
show acl detailed acl-name
Example:
(Cisco Controller) >> show acl detailed android
o rules are configured for this ACL.
DenyCounter : 0
URLs configured in this ACL
--------------------------*.play.google.com
*.store.google.com
Step 7
Displays the IP addresses per client learned through DNS snooping (DNS-based ACL) by entering this
command:
show client detail mac-address
Example:
(Cisco Controller) >> show client detail mac-address
Step 8
Enables debugging of information related to DNS-based ACL.
debug aaa events enable
Example:
(Cisco Controller) >> debug aaa events enable
Configuring DNS-based Access Control Lists (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Step 2
Choose Security > Access Control Lists > Access Control Lists to open the Access Control Lists page.
If you want to see if packets are hitting any of the ACLs configured on your controller, select the Enable
Counters check box and click Apply. Otherwise, leave the check box unselected, which is the default value.
This feature is useful when troubleshooting your system.
Note
If you want to clear the counters for an ACL, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for
that ACL and choose Clear Counters.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
243
Management of Controllers
URL Filtering
Step 3
Add a new ACL by clicking New. The Access Control Lists > New page appears.
Step 4
In the Access Control List Name text box, enter a name for the new ACL. You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric
characters.
Step 5
Select the ACL type as IPv4.
Step 6
Click Apply.
Step 7
When the Access Control Lists page reappears, click the name of the new ACL. The ACLs have no IP rules.
Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow, choose Add-Remove URL from the drop-down list to
open the URL List page.
Step 8
To add a new URL domain for an ACL, enter the new URL domain for the access control list in the URL
String Name text box. The URL domain name should be given in a valid format, for example, Cisco.com,
bbc.in, or play.google.com.
Step 9
To delete an URL domain, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow under the URL Name you want
to delete, and select Delete.
URL Filtering
URL filtering feature allows you to control access to internet websites. It does so by permitting or denying
access to specific websites based on information contained in a URL access control list (ACL). The URL
filtering then restricts access based on the ACL list.
Using location based filtering, APs are grouped under various AP groups and WLAN profiles separate trusted
and non-trusted clients within the same SSID. This forces re-authentication and new VLAN when a trusted
client moves to a non-trusted AP or vice-versa.
Controllers support up to 64 ACLs. These ACLs are configured to either permit or deny requests, and can be
associated with different interfaces (ex: WLAN, LAN), thus increasing effective filtering. Policies can be
implemented locally on a WLAN or an AP group that is different from the applied global policy.
The following is the policy priority order:
1. Policy
2. Interface
3. WLAN
The number of rules (URLs) supported in each ACL varies for different controllers:
• Cisco 5520, 8540 controllers support 100 rules in one ACL.
This section contains the following subsections:
Restrictions for URL Filtering
• URL filtering is not supported in the following controllers:
• Cisco vWLC
• Cisco Mobility Express
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
244
Management of Controllers
Configuring URL Filtering (GUI)
• This feature is supported only on WLAN central switching and not local switching.
• Not supported in FlexConnect mode with local switching.
• The following types of URLs are not supported:
• Wildcard URLs (ex: www.uresour*loc.com).
• Sub-URL (ex: www.uresour*loc.com/support).
• Sub-Domain (ex: reach.url.com or sub1.url.com)
• URL name is limited to 32 characters in length.
• No AVC Profile for the matched URLs. ACL Actions support for the Matched URLs.
• Allowed list and blocked list can be created using the "*" implicit rule in the ACL to permit or deny
requests respectively.
• Only HTTP URLs are supported.
• RADIUS server returning URL filtering ACL name is not supported.
• ACL might fail to filter in the following situations:
• URL is across fragmented packets.
• IP packets are fragmented.
• Direct IP address or proxy setup used instead of URL.
Configuring URL Filtering (GUI)
Configuring Access Control Lists (GUI)
To create or delete access control lists in an WLAN.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > Access Control Lists > URL ACLs to open the URL Access Control Lists page.
Step 2
Select the Enable URL Acl check box to enable the URL ACL feature.
Step 3
Add a new ACL by clicking New. The URL Access Control Lists > New page appears.
In the URL ACL Name text box, enter a name for the new ACL. You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric
characters.
Step 4
Click Apply.
• Repeat this procedure to add any additional URL ACLs.
• To delete any URL ACL, in the URL Access Control Lists page, hover the mouse cursor over the blue
drop-down arrow for that ACL and choose Remove.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
245
Management of Controllers
Configuring an URL ACL List (GUI)
If you want to clear the counters for an ACL, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow
for that ACL and choose Clear Counters.
Note
Configuring an URL ACL List (GUI)
Configuring rules in an URL ACL List.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > Access Control Lists > URL ACLs to open the URL Access Control Lists page
Step 2
Choose the URL ACL.
URL Access Control Lists > Editpage appears.
Step 3
Choose Add New Rule.
Step 4
Configure a rule for this ACL from the drop-down menu.
• Rule Index—range between 1 and 100.
• URL—enter the URL address.
• Action—select Permit or Deny.
Step 5
Click Apply.
Repeat this procedure to add any additional rules.
Note
To have seamless access to websites which use different port number instead of default port 80,
you will need to create a rule which includes the port number in URL-name:Port format. Example:
Enter the URL as website.com:8080 and apply permit action.
Applying a URL Filtering Access Control List Globally (GUI)
Applying the URL ACL to the entire network.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > Local Policies to open the local policy page.
Step 2
Choose the desired policy.
Policy > Editpage appears.
Step 3
Enter the Match Role String in the text box.
Step 4
Select the URL ACL from the URL ACL drop-down list.
Step 5
Click Apply.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
246
Management of Controllers
Applying a URL Filtering Access Control List to an Interface (GUI)
Note
The Match Role String name should match the role name in Cisco AV pair.
Applying a URL Filtering Access Control List to an Interface (GUI)
Applying the URL ACL to an interface in the network.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the interface page.
Step 2
Choose the desired interface.
The interface page for the selected interface appears.
Step 3
Select the URL ACL from the URL ACL drop-down list.
Step 4
Click Apply.
Applying a URL Filtering Access Control List for a WLAN (GUI)
Applying the URL ACL to a WLAN in the network.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLAN page.
Step 2
Click the ID number of the desired WLAN.
The WLANs > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Choose the Advanced tab.
Step 4
From the URL ACL drop-down list, choose the ACL that you want to apply to this WLAN.
Step 5
Click Apply.
Mapping the policy to a WLAN (GUI)
Mapping the policy to a WLAN in the network.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLAN page.
Step 2
Click the ID number of the desired WLAN.
The WLANs > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Choose the Policy-Mapping tab.
a. Enter the Priority Index value.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
247
Management of Controllers
To delete a Policy-Mapping in a WLAN (GUI)
b. Choose the local policy from the Local Policy drop-down list.
c. Click Add.
Step 4
Click Apply.
To delete a Policy-Mapping in a WLAN (GUI)
This procedure helps delete the policy-mapping in a WLAN.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLAN page.
Step 2
Click the ID number of the desired WLAN.
The WLANs > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Hover the mouse cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that local policy
Step 4
Choose Remove
The confirmation box appears.
Step 5
Click OK.
Step 6
Click Apply.
Mapping the policy to an AP Group (GUI)
Mapping the policy to an AP Group in the network.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLAN page.
Step 2
Choose Advanced > AP Groups.
Step 3
Choose the AP Group.
The AP Groups > Edit page appears.
Step 4
Choose the WLANs tab.
Step 5
Hover the mouse cursor over the blue drop-down arrow of the required WLAN, select Policy-Mapping.
Step 6
In the AP Group > Policy > Mappings page.
a. Enter the Priority Index value.
b. Choose the local policy from the Local Policy drop-down list.
c. Click Add.
Step 7
Click Apply.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
248
Management of Controllers
Configuring URL Filtering (CLI)
The WLAN and AP Group are Local Role based policies.
Configuring URL Filtering (CLI)
Configuring URL Filtering (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Configure the URL based Filtering feature by entering this command:
config acl url-acl {enabled | disable}
Step 2
Create or delete a URL ACL by entering this command:
config acl url-acl{ create | delete} id-token
Step 3
Apply the URL ACL to the data path by entering this command:
config acl url-acl applyacl-name
Step 4
Configure an acl to an interface by entering this command:
config interface url-acl interface-name acl-name
Step 5
Configure an acl to a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan url-acl wlan-id acl-name
Configuring Access Control List Rules (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Create or delete a ACL by entering this command:
config acl url-acl rule{ add | delete} acl-name index
Step 2
Configure the URL address in a valid format (example: www.cisco.com) by entering this command:
config acl url-acl rule urlacl-name index url-name
Step 3
Configure the action of the rule by entering this command:
config acl url-acl rule action acl-name index{ permit | deny}
Note
To have seamless access to websites which use different port number instead of default port 80,
you will need to create a rule which includes the port number in URL-name:Port format. Example:
enter the URL as website.com:8080 and apply permit action.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
249
Management of Controllers
Applying Local Policy (CLI)
Applying Local Policy (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Create or delete a local profiling policy by entering this command:
config policy policy-name{create | delete}
Step 2
Configure a match type to a policy by entering this command:
config policy policy-name match role {role-name| none}
Step 3
Configure an action to a policy by entering this command:
config policy policy-name action url-acl {enable | disable} acl-name
Step 4
Activate a local policy to a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan policy add priority-index policy-name wlan-id
Step 5
Add or delete a local policy in an AP group in a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan apgroup policy {add | delete} priority-index policy-name ap-group-name wlan-id
Viewing URL Filtering (CLI)
Procedure
• View ACL summary by entering this command:
show acl url-acl summary
• View detailed URL ACL profile information by entering this command:
show acl url-acl detailed acl-name
• View the details of a policy by entering this command:
show policy {summary|policy-name}
• View client details by MAC address by entering this command:
show client detail mac-address
• View the WLAN configuration details by entering this command:
show wlan wlan-id
• View the interface details by entering this command:
show interface detailed interface-name
• Clear the counters by entering this command:
clear url-acl-counters
Troubleshooting URL Filtering (CLI)
You can troubleshoot the URL Filtering feature by entering these commands:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
250
Management of Controllers
CNAME IPv6 Filtering
Procedure
• debug fastpath dump urlacldb aclid ruleindex dataplane
• debug fastpath dump stats dataplane
The dataplane options available are 0, 1, All.
• debug fastpath dump scbdb
CNAME IPv6 Filtering
This feature enables the use of IPv6 address via FQDN in the network to authenticate the client traffic via
controller and external AAA server. The client pre-authentication can be configured to use internal or external
URL ACLs.
For the feature to function, you must set the SSID to central switching and the APs to local mode.
Restrictions for CNAME IPv6 Filtering
• Supported only on Cisco 3504, 5520, and 8540 WLCs
• Maximum supported ACLs are 64.
• Maximum supported rules in an ACL are 20.
• Total number of resolved IPs is 40.
• CNAME parsing in different packets is not supported.
• AP in FlexConnect mode is not supported.
Configuring CNAME URL ACL (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > Access Control Lists > URL ACLs to open the URL Access Control Lists page.
Step 2
Add a new ACL by clicking New.
The URL Access Control Lists > New page appears. In the URL ACL Name text box, enter a name for the
new ACL. You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric characters.
Step 3
Click the URL ACL name that you want to configure.
Step 4
Note
You can add the FQDN of the IPv6 server in the pre-authentication IPv4 ACL in the WLC so that
the AAA server can allow or deny the requested traffic to the client.
Click Add New Rule.
Step 5
Configure a rule for this ACL from the drop-down list.
• Rule Index—range between 1 and 100.
• URL—enter the URL address.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
251
Management of Controllers
Configuring Web Authentication for CNAME IPv6 Filtering on a WLAN (GUI)
Note
Step 6
To use a IPv6 address, add the FQDN of the server address.
Click Apply.
Repeat this procedure to add any additional rules in the URL ACL.
Step 7
To delete any rule within a URL ACL, in the URL Access Control Lists > Edit page, hover the mouse cursor
over the blue drop-down arrow for that ACL and choose Remove.
Step 8
To delete any URL ACL, in the URL Access Control Lists page, hover the mouse cursor over the blue
drop-down arrow for that ACL and choose Remove.
Step 9
If you want to clear the counters for an ACL, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that ACL
and choose Clear Counters.
Configuring Web Authentication for CNAME IPv6 Filtering on a WLAN (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Select Security > Authentication tab.
Step 2
Click New to add a new RADIUS server or click the Server Index of an existing server.
Step 3
Choose Enable from the Support for CoA drop-down list.
Step 4
Choose WLAN > WLAN ID > Security > Layer 3 to open the Layer 3 page.
Step 5
Choose Web Policy from the Layer 3 Security drop-down list.
Step 6
Choose the URL ACL from the Preauthentication ACL IPv4 drop-down list.
Step 7
Click Apply.
Configuring Web Authentication for CNAME IPv6 Filtering Using External
RADIUS Server (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Select Security > Authentication tab.
Step 2
Click New to add a new RADIUS server or click the Server Index of an existing server.
When adding a new RADIUS server, enter appropriate details in the fields.
Step 3
Choose Enable from the Support for CoA drop-down list.
Step 4
Choose WLAN > WLAN ID > Advanced to open the advanced page.
Step 5
Choose ISE NAC from the NAC State drop-down list.
Step 6
Click Apply.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
252
Management of Controllers
Configuring IPv6 CNAME Filtering (CLI)
Configuring IPv6 CNAME Filtering (CLI)
Procedure
• Create a URL ACL by entering this command:
config acl create acl-name
• Add a URL rule in a URL ACL by entering this command:
config acl URL-domain add domain-name acl-name
• Enable a URL ACL by entering this command:
cofig acl apply acl-name
• View the ACL summary by entering this command:
show acl summary
• View detailed ACL profile statistics by entering this command:
show acl detailed acl-name
Domain Based Filtering
This feature allows you to control access to websites by permitting or denying access to websites using
DNS-based access control list (ACL).
Cisco 3504, 5520, and 8540 Wireless Controllers support up to 64 ACLs. These ACLs are configured to either
permit or deny traffic based on allowed list or blocked list on any protocol. Hence when a URL request is
blocked, access is denied regardless of the protocol. An ACL can either be an allowed list (permit) or a blocked
list (deny). Rules with an independent permit or deny settings are not supported within an ACL. Each ACL
supports up to 100 rules (URLs).
Note
By default, all the URLs that do not match the applied ACL are denied.
ACLs can be associated with different interfaces (for example: WLAN, LAN, and so on) using the following
priority:
1. Role-based Policy
2. Interface
3. WLAN
Note
Policies can be implemented locally on a WLAN or on an AP group that is different from the applied global
policy.
This section contains the following subsections:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
253
Management of Controllers
Restrictions on Domain Based Filtering
Restrictions on Domain Based Filtering
• The following are not supported:
• vWLC
• Mobility Express
• Supported only on WLAN Central Switching.
• Not supported on Local switching or FlexConnect mode with local switching.
• ACLs can have a maximum of 10 wildcard URLs (for example: *.example.com) and 5 sub-domains per
wildcard (for example: sub.example.com).
• Sub-URL are not allowed (for example: www.example.com/support).
• URL name is limited to a maximum of 255 characters.
• Direct IP address access is blocked in the allowed list. However, it is not blocked in the blocked list.
• Layer 2 roaming is not supported.
• IPv6 is not supported.
• RADIUS server returning URL filtering ACL name is not supported.
• ACL may fail to filter in the following situations:
• URL is across fragmented packets
• IP packets are fragmented
Configuring Domain Based Filtering (GUI)
Configuring Access Control Lists (GUI)
Configuring rules in a URL ACL List.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > Access Control Lists > URL ACLs to open the URL Access Control Lists page
Step 2
Choose the URL ACL.
URL Access Control Lists > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Choose Add New Rule.
Step 4
Configure a rule for this ACL as follows
• Rule Index – Range between 1 and 100
• URL—Enter the URL address.
• Action—Select Permit or Deny.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
254
Management of Controllers
Creating a URL ACL List (GUI)
Step 5
Click Apply.
Repeat this procedure to add any additional rules.
To have seamless access to websites which use a different port number instead of the default port
80, create a rule which includes the port number in URL-name: Port format. Example: Enter the
URL as website.com:8080 and apply permit action.
Note
Creating a URL ACL List (GUI)
To create or delete access control lists in a WLAN.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > Access Control Lists > URL ACLs to open the URL Access Control Lists page.
Step 2
Select the Enable URL Acl check box to enable the URL ACL feature.
Step 3
Add a new ACL by clicking New. The URL Access Control Lists > New page appears.
In the URL ACL Name text box, enter a name for the new ACL. You can enter up to 32 alphanumeric
characters.
Step 4
Click Apply.
• Repeat this procedure to add any additional URL ACLs.
• To delete any URL ACL, in the URL Access Control Lists page, hover the mouse cursor over the blue
drop-down arrow for that ACL and choose Remove.
Note
If you want to clear the counters for an ACL, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow
for that ACL and choose Clear Counters.
Applying a URL Filtering Access Control List Globally (GUI)
Applying the URL ACL to the entire network.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > Local Policies to open the local policy page.
Step 2
Choose the desired policy.
Policy > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Enter the Match Role String in the text box.
Step 4
Select the URL ACL from the URL ACL drop-down list.
Step 5
Click Apply.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
255
Management of Controllers
Applying a URL Filtering Access Control List to an Interface (GUI)
Note
The Match Role String name must match the role name in the Cisco AV pair.
Applying a URL Filtering Access Control List to an Interface (GUI)
Applying the URL ACL to an interface in the network.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Interfaces to open the interface page.
Step 2
Choose the desired interface.
The interface page for the selected interface appears.
Step 3
Select the URL ACL from the URL ACL drop-down list.
Step 4
Click Apply.
Applying a URL Filtering Access Control List for a WLAN (GUI)
Applying the URL ACL to a WLAN in the network.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLAN page.
Step 2
Click the ID number of the desired WLAN.
The WLANs > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Choose the Advanced tab.
Step 4
From the URL ACL drop-down list, choose the ACL that you want to apply to this WLAN.
Step 5
Click Apply.
Mapping the Policy to a WLAN (GUI)
Mapping the policy to a WLAN in the network.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLAN page.
Step 2
Click the ID number of the desired WLAN.
The WLANs > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Choose the Policy-Mapping tab.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
256
Management of Controllers
To Delete a Policy-Mapping in a WLAN (GUI)
a. Enter the Priority Index value.
b. Choose the local policy from the Local Policy drop-down list.
c. Click Add.
Step 4
Click Apply.
To Delete a Policy-Mapping in a WLAN (GUI)
This procedure helps delete the policy-mapping in a WLAN.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLAN page.
Step 2
Click the ID number of the desired WLAN.
The WLANs > Edit page appears.
Step 3
Hover the mouse cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for that local policy
Step 4
Choose Remove
The confirmation box appears.
Step 5
Click OK.
Step 6
Click Apply.
Mapping the Policy to an AP Group (GUI)
Mapping the policy to an AP Group in the network.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLAN page.
Step 2
Choose Advanced > AP Groups.
Step 3
Choose the AP Group.
The AP Groups > Edit page appears.
Step 4
Choose the WLANs tab.
Step 5
Hover the mouse cursor over the blue drop-down arrow of the required WLAN, select Policy-Mapping.
Step 6
In the AP Group > Policy > Mappings page.
a. Enter the Priority Index value.
b. Choose the local policy from the Local Policy drop-down list.
c. Click Add.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
257
Management of Controllers
Configuring DNS Filtering (CLI)
Step 7
Click Apply.
The WLAN and AP Group are Local Role based policies.
Configuring DNS Filtering (CLI)
Configuring URL Filtering (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Configure the URL-based Filtering feature by entering this command:
config acl url-acl {enabled | disable}
Step 2
Create or delete a URL ACL by entering this command:
config acl url-acl{ create | delete} id-token
Step 3
Apply the URL ACL to the data path by entering this command:
config acl url-acl applyacl-name
Step 4
Configure an acl to an interface by entering this command:
config interface url-acl interface-name acl-name
Step 5
Configure an acl to a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan url-acl wlan-id acl-name
Configuring Access Control List Rules (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Create or delete an ACL by entering this command:
config acl url-acl rule{ add | delete} acl-name index
Step 2
Configure the URL address in a valid format (example: www.cisco.com) by entering this command:
config acl url-acl rule urlacl-name index url-name
Step 3
Configure the action of the rule by entering this command:
config acl url-acl rule action acl-name index{ permit | deny}
Note
Step 4
To have seamless access to websites which use a different port number instead of the default port
80, create a rule which includes the port number in URL-name: Port format. Example: enter the
URL as website.com:8080 and apply permit action.
Configure the allowed list or blocked list ACL by entering this command:
config acl url-acl list-type acl-name {whitelist|blacklist}
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
258
Management of Controllers
Applying Local Policy (CLI)
Step 5
Configure the external server to the redirect the web page requests by entering this command:
config acl url-acl external-server-ip ip-address
Related Topics
Configuring FlexConnect Access Control Lists (CLI), on page 1216
Applying Local Policy (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Create or delete a local profiling policy by entering this command:
config policy policy-name{create | delete}
Step 2
Configure a match type to a policy by entering this command:
config policy policy-name match role {role-name| none}
Step 3
Configure an action to a policy by entering this command:
config policy policy-name action url-acl {enable | disable} acl-name
Step 4
Activate a local policy to a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan policy add priority-index policy-name wlan-id
Step 5
Add or delete a local policy in an AP group in a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan apgroup policy {add | delete} priority-index policy-name ap-group-name wlan-id
Viewing URL Filtering (CLI)
Procedure
• View ACL summary by entering this command:
show acl url-acl summary
• View detailed URL ACL profile information by entering this command:
show acl url-acl detailed acl-name
• View the details of a policy by entering this command:
show policy {summary|policy-name}
• View client details by MAC address by entering this command:
show client detail mac-address
• View the WLAN configuration details by entering this command:
show wlan wlan-id
• View the interface details by entering this command:
show interface detailed interface-name
• Clear the counters by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
259
Management of Controllers
Troubleshooting URL Filtering (CLI)
clear url-acl-counters
Troubleshooting URL Filtering (CLI)
You can troubleshoot the URL Filtering feature by entering these commands:
Procedure
• debug fastpath dump urlacldb aclid ruleindex dataplane
• debug fastpath dump stats dataplane
The dataplane options available are 0, 1, All.
• debug fastpath dump scbdb
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
260
CHAPTER
16
Multicast/Broadcast Setup
• Multicast/Broadcast Mode, on page 261
• Media Stream, on page 268
• Multicast Domain Name System, on page 275
Multicast/Broadcast Mode
If your network supports packet multicasting, you can configure the multicast method that the controller uses.
The controller can perform multicasting in one of two modes:
• Unicast mode—In this mode, the controller unicasts every multicast packet to every access point associated
to the controller. This mode is inefficient but might be required on networks that do not support
multicasting.
• Multicast mode—In this mode, the controller sends multicast packets to a CAPWAP multicast group.
This method reduces overhead on the controller processor and shifts the work of packet replication to
your network, which is much more efficient than the unicast method.
Note
We recommend that you use the unicast method only in networks where 50 or
fewer APs are joined with the controller.
When you enable multicast mode and the controller receives a multicast packet from the wired LAN, the
controller encapsulates the packet using CAPWAP and forwards the packet to the CAPWAP multicast group
address. The controller always uses the management interface for sending multicast packets. Access points
in the multicast group receive the packet and forward it to all the BSSIDs mapped to the interface on which
clients receive multicast traffic. From the access point perspective, the multicast appears to be a broadcast to
all SSIDs.
The controller supports Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) v1 snooping for IPv6 multicast. This feature
keeps track of and delivers IPv6 multicast flows to the clients that request them. To support IPv6 multicast,
you must enable Global Multicast Mode.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
261
Management of Controllers
Multicast/Broadcast Mode
Note
When you disable the Global Multicast Mode, the controller still forwards the IPv6 ICMP multicast messages,
such as router announcements and DHCPv6 solicits, as these are required for IPv6 to work. As a result,
enabling the Global Multicast Mode on the controller does not impact the ICMPv6 and the DHCPv6 messages.
These messages will always be forwarded irrespective of whether or not the Global Multicast Mode is enabled.
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) snooping is available to better direct multicast packets. When
this feature is enabled, the controller gathers IGMP reports from the clients, processes them, creates unique
multicast group IDs (MGIDs) from the IGMP reports after selecting the Layer 3 multicast address and the
VLAN number, and sends the IGMP reports to the infrastructure switch. The controller sends these reports
with the source address as the interface address on which it received the reports from the clients. The controller
then updates the access point MGID table on the access point with the client MAC address. When the controller
receives multicast traffic for a particular multicast group, it forwards it to all the access points, but only those
access points that have active clients listening or subscribed to that multicast group send multicast traffic on
that particular WLAN. IP packets are forwarded with an MGID that is unique for an ingress VLAN and the
destination multicast group. Layer 2 multicast packets are forwarded with an MGID that is unique for the
ingress interface.
When IGMP snooping is disabled, the following is true:
• The controller always uses Layer 2 MGID when it sends multicast data to the access point. Every interface
created is assigned one Layer 2 MGID. For example, the management interface has an MGID of 0, and
the first dynamic interface created is assigned an MGID of 8, which increments as each dynamic interface
is created.
• The IGMP packets from clients are forwarded to the router. As a result, the router IGMP table is updated
with the IP address of the clients as the last reporter.
When IGMP snooping is enabled, the following is true:
• The controller always uses Layer 3 MGID for all Layer 3 multicast traffic sent to the access point. For
all Layer 2 multicast traffic, it continues to use Layer 2 MGID.
• IGMP report packets from wireless clients are consumed or absorbed by the controller, which generates
a query for the clients. After the router sends the IGMP query, the controller sends the IGMP reports
with its interface IP address as the listener IP address for the multicast group. As a result, the router
IGMP table is updated with the controller IP address as the multicast listener.
• When the client that is listening to the multicast groups roams from one controller to another, the first
controller transmits all the multicast group information for the listening client to the second controller.
As a result, the second controller can immediately create the multicast group information for the client.
The second controller sends the IGMP reports to the network for all multicast groups to which the client
was listening. This process aids in the seamless transfer of multicast data to the client.
• If the listening client roams to a controller in a different subnet, the multicast packets are tunneled to the
anchor controller of the client to avoid the reverse path filtering (RPF) check. The anchor then forwards
the multicast packets to the infrastructure switch.
Note
The MGIDs are controller specific. The same multicast group packets coming
from the same VLAN in two different controllers may be mapped to two different
MGIDs.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
262
Management of Controllers
Restrictions on Configuring Multicast Mode
Note
If Layer 2 multicast is enabled, a single MGID is assigned to all the multicast
addresses coming from an interface.
Note
The maximum number of multicast groups supported per VLAN for a controller
is 100.
This section contains the following subsections:
Restrictions on Configuring Multicast Mode
• The Cisco Wireless network solution uses some IP address ranges for specific purposes, and you should
keep these ranges in mind when configuring a multicast group:
• 224.0.0.0 through 224.0.0.255—Reserved link local addresses
• 224.0.1.0 through 238.255.255.255—Globally scoped addresses
• 239.0.0.0 through 239.255.x.y /16—Limited scope addresses
• When you enable multicast mode on the controller, you must also configure a CAPWAP multicast group
address. APs subscribe to the CAPWAP multicast group using IGMP.
• APs in monitor mode, sniffer mode, or rogue detector mode do not join the CAPWAP multicast group
address.
• The CAPWAP multicast group configured on the controllers should be different for different controllers.
• Lightweight APs transmit multicast packets at one of the configured mandatory data rates.
Because multicast frames are not retransmitted at the MAC layer, clients at the edge of the cell might
fail to receive them successfully. If reliable reception is a goal, multicast frames should be transmitted
at a low data rate, by disabling the higher mandatory data rates. If support for high data rate multicast
frames is required, it might be useful to shrink the cell size and disable all lower data rates, or to use
Media Stream.
Depending on your requirements, you can take the following actions:
• If you need to transmit multicast data with the greatest reliability and if there is no need for great
multicast bandwidth, then configure a single basic rate, that is low enough to reach the edges of the
wireless cells.
• If you need to transmit multicast data at a certain data rate in order to achieve a certain throughput,
you can configure that rate as the highest basic rate. You can also set a lower basic rate for coverage
of nonmulticast clients.
• Configure Media Stream.
• Multicast mode does not operate across intersubnet mobility events such as guest tunneling. It does,
however, operate across Layer 3 roams.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
263
Management of Controllers
Restrictions on Configuring Multicast Mode
• For CAPWAP, the controller drops multicast packets sent to UDP control and data ports 5246 and 5247,
respectively. Therefore, you may want to consider not using these port numbers with the multicast
applications on your network. We recommend that you do not use any Multicast UDP ports listed in
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/wireless/5500-series-wireless-controllers/113344-cuwn-ppm.html#anc8
as being UDP ports used by the controller.
• We recommend that any multicast applications on your network not use the multicast address configured
as the CAPWAP multicast group address on the controller.
• We recommend that you do not use Broadcast-Unicast or Multicast-Unicast mode on controller setup
where there are more than 50 APs joined.
• While using Local and FlexConnect AP mode the controller's multicast support differs for different
platforms.
The parameters that affect Multicast forwarding are:
• Controller platform.
• Global AP multicast mode configuration at controller.
• Mode of the AP—Local, FlexConnect central switching.
• For Local switching, it does not send/receive the packet to/from controller, so it does not matter
which Multicast mode is configured on the controller.
Note
FlexConnect APs will join the CAPWAP multicast group only if they have
centrally switched WLANs. Flex APs with only locally switched WLANs do not
join the CAPWAP multicast group.
• Effective with Release 8.2.100.0, it is not possible to download some of the older configurations from
the controller because of the Multicast and IP address validations introduced in this release. The platform
support for global multicast and multicast mode are listed in the following table.
Table 11: Platform Support for Global Multicast and Multicast Mode
Platform
Global Multicast
Multicast Mode
Supported
Cisco 5520 and 8540
Controllers
Enabled
Unicast
No
Enabled
Multicast
Yes
Disabled
Unicast
No multicast support
(config supported)
Disabled
Multicast
No mulitcast support
(config supported)
Cisco vWLC
Multicast is not supported; only Unicast mode is supported.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
264
Management of Controllers
Enabling Multicast Mode (GUI)
Platform
Global Multicast
Multicast Mode
Supported
Cisco 3504 Controller
Enabled
Unicast
Yes
Enabled
Multicast
Yes
Disabled
Unicast
Yes
Disabled
Multicast
No
• For central switching downstream multicast, AP switching traffic is based on the MGID-to-WLAN
mapping (bit map).
Enabling Multicast Mode (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Multicast to open the Multicast page.
Step 2
Select the Enable Global Multicast Mode check box to configure sending multicast packets. The default
value is disabled.
Step 3
If you want to enable IGMP snooping, select the Enable IGMP Snooping check box. If you want to disable
IGMP snooping, leave the check box unselected. The default value is disabled.
Step 4
To set the IGMP timeout, enter a value between 30 and 7200 seconds in the IGMP Timeout text box. The
controller sends three queries in one timeout value at an interval of timeout/ 3 to see if any clients exist for a
particular multicast group. If the controller does not receive a response through an IGMP report from the
client, the controller times out the client entry from the MGID table. When no clients are left for a particular
multicast group, the controller waits for the IGMP timeout value to expire and then deletes the MGID entry
from the controller. The controller always generates a general IGMP query (that is, to destination address
224.0.0.1) and sends it on all WLANs with an MGID value of 1.
Step 5
Enter the IGMP Query Interval (seconds).
Step 6
Select the Enable MLD Snooping check box to support IPv6 forwarding decisions.
Note
To enable MLD Snooping, you must enable Global Multicast Mode of the controller.
Step 7
In the MLD Timeout text box, enter a value between 30 and 7200 seconds to set the MLD timeout.
Step 8
Enter the MLD Query Interval (seconds). The valid range is between 15 and 2400 seconds.
Step 9
Click Apply.
Step 10
Click Save Configuration.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
265
Management of Controllers
Enabling Multicast Mode (CLI)
Enabling Multicast Mode (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Enable or disable multicasting on the controller by entering this command:
config network multicast global {enable | disable}
The default value is disabled.
Note
Step 2
The config network broadcast {enable | disable} command allows you to enable or disable
broadcasting without enabling or disabling multicasting as well. This command uses the multicast
mode currently on the controller to operate.
Perform either of the following:
a) Configure the controller to use the unicast method to send multicast and/or broadcast packets by entering
this command:
config network multicast mode unicast
b) Configure the controller to use the multicast method to send multicast and/or broadcast packets to a
CAPWAP multicast group by entering this command:
config network multicast mode multicast multicast_group_ip_address
Step 3
Enable or disable IGMP snooping by entering this command:
config network multicast igmp snooping {enable | disable}
The default value is disabled.
Step 4
Set the IGMP timeout value by entering this command:
config network multicast igmp timeout timeout
You can enter a timeout value between 30 and 7200 seconds. The controller sends three queries in one timeout
value at an interval of timeout/3 to see if any clients exist for a particular multicast group. If the controller
does not receive a response through an IGMP report from the client, the controller times out the client entry
from the MGID table. When no clients are left for a particular multicast group, the controller waits for the
IGMP timeout value to expire and then deletes the MGID entry from the controller. The controller always
generates a general IGMP query (that is, to destination address 224.0.0.1) and sends it on all WLANs with
an MGID value of 1.
Step 5
Enable or disable Layer 2 Multicast by entering this command:
config network multicast l2mcast {enable {all | interface-name} | disable}
Step 6
Enable or disable MLD snooping by entering this command:
config network multicast mld snooping {enable | disable}
The default value is disabled.
Note
Step 7
To enable MLD snooping, you must enable global multicast mode of the controller.
Set the MLD timeout value by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
266
Management of Controllers
Viewing Multicast Groups (GUI)
config network multicast mld timeout timeout
Enter the MLD timeout value in seconds. The valid range is between 30 and 7200 seconds.
Step 8
Set the MLD query interval by entering this command:
config network multicast mld query interval interval
Enter the MLD query interval value in seconds. The valid range is between 15 and 2400 seconds.
Step 9
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Viewing Multicast Groups (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Monitor > Multicast. The Multicast Groups page appears.
This page shows all the multicast groups and their corresponding MGIDs.
Step 2
Click the link for a specific MGID (such as MGID 550) to see a list of all the clients joined to the multicast
group in that particular MGID.
Viewing Multicast Groups (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
See all the multicast groups and their corresponding MGIDs by entering this command:
show network multicast mgid summary
Information similar to the following appears:
Layer2 MGID Mapping:
------------------InterfaceName
-------------------------------management
test
wired
vlanId
-----0
0
20
MGID
---0
9
8
Layer3 MGID Mapping:
------------------Number of Layer3 MGIDs........................... 1
Group address
--------------239.255.255.250
Vlan
---0
MGID
---550
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
267
Management of Controllers
Viewing an Access Point’s Multicast Client Table (CLI)
Step 2
See all the clients joined to the multicast group in a specific MGID by entering this command:
show network multicast mgid detail mgid_value
where the mgid_value parameter is a number between 550 and 4095.
Information similar to the following appears:
Mgid........................................ 550
Multicast Group Address..................... 239.255.255.250
Vlan........................................ 0
Rx Packet Count............................. 807399588
No of clients............................... 1
Client List.................................
Client MAC
Expire Time (mm:ss)
00:13:02:23:82:ad
0:20
Viewing an Access Point’s Multicast Client Table (CLI)
To help troubleshoot roaming events, you can view an access point’s multicast client table from the controller
by performing a remote debug of the access point.
Procedure
Step 1
Initiate a remote debug of the access point by entering this command:
debug ap enable Cisco_AP
Step 2
See all of the MGIDs on the access point and the number of clients per WLAN by entering this command:
debug ap command “show capwap mcast mgid all” Cisco_AP
Step 3
See all of the clients per MGID on the access point and the number of clients per WLAN by entering this
command:
debug ap command “show capwap mcast mgid id mgid_value” Cisco_AP
Media Stream
The IEEE 802.11 wireless multicast delivery mechanism does not provide a reliable way to acknowledge lost
or corrupted packets. As a result, if any multicast packet is lost in the air, it is not sent again which may cause
an IP multicast stream unviewable.
The Media Stream (formerly VideoStream) feature makes the IP multicast stream delivery reliable over the
air, by converting the multicast frame to a unicast frame over the air. Each Media Stream client acknowledges
receiving a video IP multicast stream.
For more information about deploying Media Stream, see:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
268
Management of Controllers
Prerequisites for Media Stream
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/docs/wireless/5500-series-wireless-controllers/
112889-cuwns-vidstrm-guide-00.html
This section contains the following subsections:
Prerequisites for Media Stream
Make sure that the multicast feature is enabled. We recommend configuring IP multicast on the controller
with multicast-multicast mode.
Check for the IP address on the client machine. The machine should have an IP address from the respective
VLAN.
Verify that the access points have joined the controllers.
Make sure that the clients are able to associate to the configured WLAN at 802.11n speed.
Restrictions for Configuring Media Stream
• Media Stream is supported in the 7.0.98.0 and later controller software releases.
• To enforce the EDCA parameter changes on an AP, all clients must be disconnected irrespective of the
radio to which they are connected. This requires that all WLANs must also be disabled. For more
information about this, see CSCvq29269.
Configuring Media Stream (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Configure the multicast feature by following these steps:
a) Choose Wireless > MediaStream > General.
b) Select or unselect the Multicast Direct feature check box. The default value is disabled.
Note
Enabling the multicast direct feature does not automatically reset the existing client state. The
wireless clients must rejoin the multicast stream after enabling the multicast direct feature on
the controller.
c) In the Session Message Config area, select Session announcement State check box to enable the session
announcement mechanism. If the session announcement state is enabled, clients are informed each time
a controller is not able to serve the multicast direct data to the client.
d) In the Session announcement URL text box, enter the URL where the client can find more information
when an error occurs during the multicast media stream transmission.
e) In the Session announcement e-mail text box, enter the e-mail address of the person who can be contacted.
f) In the Session announcement Phone text box, enter the phone number of the person who can be contacted.
g) In the Session announcement Note text box, enter a reason as to why a particular client cannot be served
with a multicast media.
h) Click Apply.
Step 2
Add a media stream by following these steps:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
269
Management of Controllers
Configuring Media Stream (GUI)
a) Choose Wireless > Media Stream > Streams to open the Media Stream page.
b) Click Add New to configure a new media stream. The Media Stream > New page appears.
The Stream Name, Multicast Destination Start IP Address (IPv4 or IPv6), and Multicast
Destination End IP Address (IPv4 or IPv6) text boxes are mandatory. You must enter information
in these text boxes.
Note
c) In the Stream Name text box, enter the media stream name. The stream name can be up to 64 characters.
d) In the Multicast Destination Start IP Address (IPv4 or IPv6) text box, enter the start (IPv4 or IPv6)
address of the multicast media stream.
e) In the Multicast Destination End IP Address (IPv4 or IPv6) text box, enter the end (IPv4 or IPv6)
address of the multicast media stream.
Ensure that the Multicast Destination Start and End IP addresses are of the same type, that is
both addresses should be of either IPv4 or IPv6 type.
Note
f) In the Maximum Expected Bandwidth text box, enter the maximum expected bandwidth that you want
to assign to the media stream. The values can range between 1 to 35000 kbps.
We recommend that you use a template to add a media stream to the controller.
Note
g) From the Select from Predefined Templates drop-down list under Resource Reservation Control (RRC)
Parameters, choose one of the following options to specify the details about the resource reservation
control:
• Very Coarse (below 300 kbps)
• Coarse (below 500 kbps)
• Ordinary (below 750 kbps)
• Low (below 1 Mbps)
• Medium (below 3 Mbps)
• High (below 5 Mbps)
Note
When you select a predefined template from the drop-down list, the following text boxes
under the Resource Reservation Control (RRC) Parameters list their default values that
are assigned with the template.
• Average Packet Size (100-1500 bytes)—Specifies the average packet size. The value can be in the
range of 100 to 1500 bytes. The default value is 1200.
• RRC Periodic update—Enables the RRC (Resource Reservation Control Check) Periodic update.
By default, this option is enabled. RRC periodically updates the admission decision on the admitted
stream according to the correct channel load. As a result, it may deny certain low priority admitted
stream requests.
• RRC Priority (1-8)—Specifies the priority bit set in the media stream. The priority can be any number
between 1 and 8. The larger the value means the higher the priority is. For example, a priority of 1
is the lowest value and a value of 8 is the highest value. The default priority is 4. The low priority
stream may be denied in the RRC periodic update.
• Traffic Profile Violation—Specifies the action to perform in case of a violation after a re-RRC.
Choose an action from the drop-down list. The possible values are as follows:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
270
Management of Controllers
Configuring Media Stream (GUI)
Drop—Specifies that a stream is dropped on periodic revaluation.
Fallback—Specifies that a stream is demoted to Best Effort class on periodic reevaluation.
The default value is drop.
h) Click Apply.
Step 3
Enable the media stream for multicast-direct by following these steps:
a) Choose WLANs > WLAN ID to open the WLANs > Edit page.
b) Click the QoS tab and select Gold (Video) from the Quality of Service (QoS) drop-down list.
c) Click Apply.
Step 4
Set the EDCA parameters to voice and video optimized (optional) by following these steps:
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > EDCA Parameters.
b) From the EDCA Profile drop-down list, choose the Voice and Video Optimized option.
c) Click Apply.
Step 5
Enable the admission control on a band for video (optional) by following these steps:
Note
Keep the voice bandwidth allocation to a minimum for better performance.
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > Media to open the 802.11a (5 GHZ) or 802.11b >
Media page.
b) Click the Video tab.
c) Select the Admission Control (ACM) check box to enable static CAC for this radio band. The default
value is disabled.
d) Click Apply.
Step 6
Configure the video bandwidth by following these steps:
Note
The template bandwidth that is configured for a media stream should be more than the bandwidth
for the source media stream.
Note
The voice configuration is optional. Keep the voice bandwidth allocation to a minimum for better
performance.
a) Disable all WMM WLANs.
b) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > Media to open the 802.11a (5 GHZ) or 802.11b >
Media page.
c) Click the Video tab.
d) Select the Admission Control (ACM) check box to enable the video CAC for this radio band. The default
value is disabled.
e) In the Max RF Bandwidth field, enter the percentage of the maximum bandwidth allocated to clients for
video applications on this radio band. Once the client reaches the value specified, the access point rejects
new requests on this radio band.
f) The range is 5 to 85%.
g) The default value is 9%.
h) Click Apply.
i) Reenable all WMM WLANs and click Apply.
Step 7
Configure the media bandwidth by following these steps:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
271
Management of Controllers
Configuring Media Stream (GUI)
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > Media to open the 802.11a (or 802.11b) > Media >
Parameters page.
b) Click the Media tab to open the Media page.
c) Select the Unicast Video Redirect check box to enable Unicast Video Redirect. The default value is
disabled.
d) In the Maximum Media Bandwidth (0-85%) text box, enter the percentage of the maximum bandwidth
to be allocated for media applications on this radio band. Once the client reaches a specified value, the
access point rejects new calls on this radio band.
e) The default value is 85%; valid values are from 0% to 85%.
f) In the Client Minimum Phy Rate text box, enter the minimum transmission data rate to the client. If the
transmission data rate is below the phy rate, either the video will not start or the client may be classified
as a bad client. The bad client video can be demoted for better effort QoS or subject to denial.
g) In the Maximum Retry Percent (0-100%) text box, enter the percentage of maximum retries that are
allowed. The default value is 80. If it exceeds 80, either the video will not start or the client might be
classified as a bad client. The bad client video can be demoted for better effort QoS or subject to denial.
h) Select the Multicast Direct Enable check box to enable the Multicast Direct Enable field. The default
value is enabled.
i) From the Max Streams per Radio drop-down list, choose the maximum number of streams allowed per
radio from the range 0 to 20. The default value is set to No-limit. If you choose No-limit, there is no limit
set for the number of client subscriptions.
j) From the Max Streams per Client drop-down list, choose the maximum number of streams allowed per
client from the range 0 to 20. The default value is set to No-limit. If you choose No-limit, there is no limit
set for the number of client subscriptions.
k) Select the Best Effort QoS Admission check box to enable best-effort QoS admission.
l) Click Apply.
Step 8
Enable a WLAN by following these steps:
a) Choose WLANs > WLAN ID.
The WLANs > Edit page appears.
b) Select the Status check box.
c) Click Apply.
Step 9
Enable the 802.11 a/n/ac or 802.11 b/g/n network by following these steps:
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > Network.
b) Select the 802.11a or 802.11b/g Network Status check box to enable the network status.
c) Click Apply.
Step 10
Verify that the clients are associated with the multicast groups and group IDs by following these steps:
a) Choose Monitor > Clients.
The Clients page appears.
b)
c)
d)
e)
Check if the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n network clients have the associated access points.
Choose Monitor > Multicast. The Multicast Groups page appears.
Select the MGID check box for the Media Stream to the clients.
Click MGID. The Multicast Group Detail page appears. Check the Multicast Status details.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
272
Management of Controllers
Configuring Media Stream (CLI)
Configuring Media Stream (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Configure the multicast-direct feature on WLANs media stream by entering this command:
config wlan media-stream multicast-direct {wlan_id | all} {enable | disable}
Step 2
Enable or disable the multicast feature by entering this command:
config media-stream multicast-direct {enable | disable}
Step 3
Configure various message configuration parameters by entering this command:
config media-stream message {state [enable | disable] | url url | email email | phone phone _number | note
note}
Step 4
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 5
Configure various global media-stream configurations by entering this command:
config media-stream add multicast-direct stream-name media_stream_name start_IP end_IP [template
{very-coarse | coarse | ordinary | low-resolution | med-resolution | high-resolution} | detail
{Max_bandwidth bandwidth | packet size packet_size | Re-evaluation re-evaluation {periodic | initial}}
video video priority {drop | fallback}
• The Resource Reservation Control (RRC) parameters are assigned with the predefined values based on
the values assigned to the template.
• The following templates are used to assign RRC parameters to the media stream:
• Very Coarse (below 3000 kbps)
• Coarse (below 500 kbps)
• Ordinary (below 750 kbps)
• Low Resolution (below 1 mbps)
• Medium Resolution (below 3 mbps)
• High Resolution (below 5 mbps)
Step 6
Delete a media stream by entering this command:
config media-stream delete media_stream_name
Step 7
Enable a specific enhanced distributed channel access (EDC) profile by entering this command:
config advanced{ 801.11a | 802.11b} edca-parameters optimized-video-voice
Step 8
Enable the admission control on the desired bandwidth by entering the following commands:
• Enable bandwidth-based voice CAC for 802.11a or 802.11b/g network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice acm enable
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
273
Management of Controllers
Configuring Media Parameters (GUI)
• Set the percentage of the maximum bandwidth allocated to clients for voice applications on the 802.11a
or 802.11b/g network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice max-bandwidth bandwidth
• Configure the percentage of the maximum allocated bandwidth reserved for roaming voice clients on
the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cac voice roam-bandwidth bandwidth
Note
Step 9
For TSpec and SIP based CAC for video calls, only Static method is supported.
Set the maximum number of streams per radio and/or per client by entering these commands:
• Set the maximum limit to the number multicast streams per radio by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} media-stream multicast-direct radio-maximum [value | no-limit]
• Set the maximum number of multicast streams per client by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} media-stream multicast-direct client-maximum [value | no-limit]
Step 10
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Configuring Media Parameters (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Ensure that the WLAN is configured for WMM and the Gold QoS level.
Step 2
Disable all WLANs with WMM enabled and click Apply.
Step 3
Choose Wireless and then Network under 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n, unselect the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g)
Network Status check box, and click Apply to disable the radio network.
Step 4
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > Media. The 802.11a (or 802.11b) > Media > Parameters
page appears.
Step 5
Choose the Media tab to open the Media page.
Step 6
Select the Unicast Video Redirect check box to enable Unicast Video Redirect. The default value is disabled.
Step 7
In the Maximum Media Bandwidth (0-85%) text box, enter the percentage of the maximum bandwidth to
be allocated for media applications on this radio band. Once the client reaches the specified value, the access
point rejects new calls on this radio band.
The default value is 85%; valid values are from 0 to 85%.
Step 8
In the Client Phy Rate text box, enter the value for the rate in kilobits per second at which the client operates.
Step 9
In the Maximum Retry Percent (0-100%) text box, enter the percentage of the maximum retry. The default
value is 80.
Step 10
Select the Multicast Direct Enable check box to enable the Multicast Direct Enable text box. The default
value is enabled.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
274
Management of Controllers
Viewing and Debugging Media Stream
Step 11
From the Max Streams per Radio drop-down list, choose the maximum number of allowed multicast direct
streams per radio. Choose a value between 1 to 20 or No Limit. The default value is set to No Limit.
Step 12
From the Max Streams per Client drop-down list, choose the maximum number of allowed clients per radio.
Choose a value between 1 to 20 or No Limit. The default value is set to No Limit.
Step 13
If you want to enable the best radio queue for this radio, select the Best Effort QoS Admission check box.
The default value is disabled.
Viewing and Debugging Media Stream
Procedure
Step 1
See the configured media streams by entering this command:
show wlan wlan_id
Step 2
See the details of the media stream name by entering this command:
show 802.11{a | b | h} media-stream media-stream_name
Step 3
See the clients for a media stream by entering this command:
show 802.11a media-stream client media-stream-name
Step 4
See a summary of the media stream and client information by entering this command:
show media-stream group summary
Step 5
See details about a particular media stream group by entering this command:
show media-stream group detail media_stream_name
Step 6
See details of the 802.11a or 802.11b media resource reservation configuration by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} media-stream rrc
Step 7
Enable debugging of the media stream history by entering this command:
debug media-stream history {enable | disable}
Multicast Domain Name System
Multicast Domain Name System (mDNS) is a protocol used for service discovery by Apple products (called
Bonjour) and by Google products (called Chromecast). The mDNS service discovery enables wireless clients
to access Apple services such as Apple Printer and Apple TV advertised in a different Layer 3 network. mDNS
performs DNS queries over IP multicast. mDNS supports zero-configuration IP networking. As a standard,
mDNS uses multicast IP address 224.0.0.251 as the destination address and 5353 as the UDP destination port.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
275
Management of Controllers
Multicast Domain Name System
Location Specific Services
The processing of mDNS service advertisements and mDNS query packets support Location-Specific Services
(LSS). All the valid mDNS service advertisements that are received by the controller are tagged with the MAC
address of the AP that is associated with the service advertisement from the service provider while inserting
the new entry into the service provider database. The response formulation to the client query filters the
wireless entries in the SP-DB using the MAC address of the AP associated with the querying client. The
wireless service provider database entries are filtered based on the AP-NEIGHBOR-LIST if LSS is enabled
for the service. If LSS is disabled for any service, the wireless service provider database entries are not filtered
when they respond to any query from a wireless client for the service.
LSS applies only to wireless service provider database entries. There is no location awareness for wired service
provider devices.
The status of LSS cannot be enabled for services with ORIGIN set to wired and vice-versa.
mDNS AP
The mDNS AP feature allows the controller to have visibility of wired service providers that are on VLANs
that are not visible to the controller. You can configure any AP as an mDNS AP and enable the AP to forward
mDNS packets to the controller. VLAN visibility on the controller is achieved by APs that forward the mDNS
advertisements to the controller. The mDNS packets between the AP and the controller are forwarded in
Control and Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP) data tunnel that is similar to the mDNS
packets from a wireless client. Only CAPWAPv4 tunnels are supported. APs can be in either the access port
or the trunk port to learn the mDNS packets from the wired side and forward them to the controller.
You can use the configurable knob that is provided on the controller to start or stop mDNS packet forwarding
from a specific AP. You can also use this configuration to specify the VLANs from which the AP should
snoop the mDNS advertisements from the wired side. The maximum number of VLANs that an AP can snoop
is 10.
If the AP is in the access port, you should not configure any VLANs on the AP to snoop. The AP sends
untagged packets when a query is to be sent. When an mDNS advertisement is received by the mDNS AP,
the VLAN information is not passed on to the controller. The service provider's VLAN that is learned through
the mDNS AP's access VLAN is maintained as 0 in the controller.
By default, the mDNS AP snoops in native VLAN. When an mDNS AP is enabled, native VLAN snooping
is enabled by default and the VLAN information is passed as 0 for advertisements received on the native
VLAN.
The mDNS AP feature is supported only on local mode and monitor mode APs.
The mDNS AP configuration is retained on those mDNS APs even if global mDNs snooping is disabled.
Note
There is no check to ensure that no two mDNS APs are duplicating the same traffic for the same service. But,
for the same VLAN, there is such a check.
If an mDNS AP is reset or associated with the same controller or another controller, one of the following
occurs:
• If the global snooping is disabled on the controller, a payload is sent to the AP to disable mDNS snooping.
• If the global snooping is enabled on the controller, the configuration of the AP before the reset or the
association procedure is retained.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
276
Management of Controllers
Restrictions for Configuring Multicast DNS
The process flow for the mDNS AP feature is as follows:
• Uplink (Wired infrastructure to AP to Controller):
1. Receives the 802.3 mDNS packet on configured VLANs.
2. Forwards the received mDNS packet over CAPWAP.
3. Populates multicast group ID (MGID) based on the received VLAN.
• Downlink (Controller to AP to Wired Infrastructure):
1. Receives an mDNS query over CAPWAP from the controller.
2. Forwards the query as 802.3 packet to wired infrastructure.
3. The VLAN is identified from dedicated MGIDs.
Priority MAC Support
You can configure up to 50 MAC addresses per service; these MAC addresses are the service provider MAC
addresses that require priority. This guarantees that any service advertisements originating from these MAC
addresses for the configured services are learned even if the service provider database is full by deleting the
last nonpriority service provider from the service that has the highest number of service providers. When you
configure the priority MAC address for a service, there is an optional parameter called ap-group, which is
applicable only to wired service providers to associate a sense of location to the wired service provider devices.
When a client mDNS query originates from this ap-group, the wired entries with priority MAC and ap-group
are looked up and the wired entries are listed first in the aggregated response.
Origin-Based Service Discovery
You can configure a service to filter inbound traffic that is based on its origin, that is either wired or wireless.
All the services that are learned from an mDNS AP are treated as wired. When the learn origin is wired, the
LSS cannot be enabled for the service because LSS applies only to wireless services.
A service that has its origin set to wireless cannot be changed to wired if the LSS status is enabled for the
service because LSS is applicable only to wireless service provider database. If you change the origin between
wired and wireless, the service provider database entries with the prior origin type is cleared.
Related Documentation
• Cisco Wireless LAN Controller Bonjour Phase IV Deployment Guide: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/
td/docs/wireless/controller/technotes/8-1/WLAN-Bonjour-DG/WLAN-Bonjour-DG.html
• mDNS Gateway with Chromecast Support Feature Deployment Guide: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/
td/docs/wireless/technology/mesh/8-2/b_mDNS_gateway_chromecast_support_feature_deployment_
guide.html
This section contains the following subsections:
Restrictions for Configuring Multicast DNS
• mDNS over IPv6 is not supported.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
277
Management of Controllers
Configuring Multicast DNS (GUI)
• mDNS snooping is not supported on access points in FlexConnect mode in a locally switched WLAN
and mesh access points. For locally switched WLANs, all multicast traffic including mDNS is simply
bridged between the local VLAN and the SSID.
• mDNS is not supported on remote LANs.
• Third-party mDNS servers or applications are not supported on the controller using the mDNS feature.
Devices that are advertised by the third-party servers or applications are not populated on the mDNS
service or device table correctly on the controller.
• The controller prevents addition or modification of the mDNS-profile when any interface is in use by an
active WLAN in an AP group. When attempting to make changes to the mDNS profile which is already
linked to an active WLAN, the following error message is displayed—Interface is mapped to an AP
Group.
• mDNS snooping is not necessary in order to forward mDNS multicasts, if the network is configured to
forward multicast traffic. However, Apple mDNS (Bonjour) traffic is sent with time to live of 1, so
without mDNS snooping, Bonjour will work within a Layer 2 broadcast domain.
• In a large campus network, if multicast forwarding is enabled, it is recommended to enable mDNS
snooping, and then disable mDNS on all WLANs, except anywhere mDNS is required. This is in order
to prevent Bonjour multicast traffic from overwhelming the network.
• mDNS APs cannot duplicate the same traffic for the same service or VLAN.
• LSS filtering is restricted to only wireless services.
• The LSS, mDNS AP, Priority MAC address, and origin-based discovery features can be configured only
using the controller CLI and cannot be configured using the controller GUI.
• mDNS-AP feature is not supported in CAPWAP V6.
• ISE dynamic mDNS policy mobility is not supported.
• mDNS user profile mobility is not supported in guest anchors.
Configuring Multicast DNS (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Configure the global mDNS parameters and the Master Services Database by following these steps:
a) Choose Controller > mDNS > General.
b) Select or unselect the mDNS Global Snooping check box to enable or disable snooping of mDNS packets,
respectively.
c) Enter the mDNS query interval in minutes. The query interval is the frequency at which the controller
queries for a service.
d) Choose a service from the Select Service drop-down list.
Note
To add a new mDNS-supported service to the list, choose Other. Specify the service name and
the service string. The controller snoops and learns about the mDNS service advertisements
only if the service is available in the Master Services Database. The controller can snoop and
learn a maximum of 64 services.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
278
Management of Controllers
Configuring Multicast DNS (GUI)
e) Select or unselect the Query Status check box to enable or disable an mDNS query for a service,
respectively.
f) Click Add.
g) Click Apply.
h) To view the details of an mDNS service, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow of a service,
and choose Details.
Step 2
Configure an mDNS profile by following these steps:
a) Choose Controller > mDNS > Profiles.
The controller has a default mDNS profile, which is default-mdns-profile. It is not possible to delete the
default profile.
b) To create a new profile, click New, enter a profile name, and click Apply.
c) To edit a profile, click a profile name on the mDNS Profiles page; from the Service Name drop-down
list, choose a service to be associated with the profile, and click Apply.
You can add multiple services to a profile.
Step 3
Click Save Configuration.
What to do next
After creating a new profile, you must map the profile to an interface group, an interface, or a WLAN. Clients
receive service advertisements only for the services associated with the profile. The highest priority is given
to the profiles associated with interface groups, followed by the interface profiles, and then the WLAN profiles.
Each client is mapped to a profile based on the order of priority.
• Map an mDNS profile to an interface group by following these steps:
1. Choose Controller > Interface Groups.
2. Click the corresponding interface group name.
The Interface Groups > Edit page is displayed.
3. From the mDNS Profile drop-down list, choose a profile.
• Map an mDNS profile to an interface by following these steps:
1. Choose Controller > Interfaces.
2. Click the corresponding interface name.
The Interfaces > Edit page is displayed.
3. From the mDNS Profile drop-down list, choose a profile.
• Map an mDNS profile to a WLAN by following these steps:
1. Choose WLANs. click the WLAN ID to open the WLANs > Edit page.
2. Click the corresponding WLAN ID.
The WLANs > Edit page is displayed.
3. Click the Advanced tab.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
279
Management of Controllers
Configuring Multicast DNS (CLI)
4. Select the mDNS Snooping check box.
5. From the mDNS Profile drop-down list, choose a profile.
Note
The wireless controller advertises the services from the wired devices (such as Apple TVs) learnt over VLANs,
when:
• mDNS snooping is enabled in the WLAN Advanced options.
• mDNS profile is enabled either at interface group (if available), interface, or WLAN.
Configuring Multicast DNS (CLI)
• Configure mDNS snooping by entering this command:
config mdns snooping {enable | disable}
• Configure mDNS services by entering this command:
config mdns service {{create service-name service-string origin {wireless | wired | all} lss {enable |
disable} [query] [enable | disable]} | delete service-name}
• Configure a query for an mDNS service by entering this command:
config mdns service query {enable | disable} service-name
• Configure a query interval for mDNS services by entering this command:
config mdns query interval value-in-minutes
• Configure an mDNS profile by entering this command:
config mdns profile {create | delete} profile-name
Note
If you try to delete an mDNS profile that is already associated with an interface
group, an interface, or a WLAN, an error message is displayed.
• Configure mDNS services to a profile by entering this command:
config mdns profile service {add | delete} profile-name service-name
• Map an mDNS profile to an interface group by entering this command:
config interface group mdns-profile {interface-group-name | all} {mdns-profile-name | none}
Note
If the mDNS profile name is none, no profiles are attached to the interface group.
Any existing profile that is attached is removed.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
280
Management of Controllers
Configuring Multicast DNS (CLI)
• View information about an mDNS profile that is associated with an interface group by entering this
command:
show interface group detailed interface-group-name
• Map an mDNS profile to an interface by entering this command:
config interface mdns-profile {management | {interface-name | all}} {mdns-profile-name | none}
• View information about the mDNS profile that is associated with an interface by entering this command:
show interface detailed interface-name
• Configure mDNS for a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan mdns {enable | disable} {wlan-id | all}
• Map an mDNS profile to a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan mdns profile {wlan-id | all} {mdns-profile-name | none}
• View information about an mDNS profile that is associated with a WLAN by entering this command:
show wlan wlan-id
• View information about all mDNS profiles or a particular mDNS profile by entering this command:
show mdns profile {summary | detailed mdns-profile-name}
• View information about all mDNS services or a particular mDNS service by entering this command:
show mdns service {summary | detailed mdns-service-name}
• View information about the mDNS domain names that are learned by entering this command:
show mdns domain-name-ip summary
• View the mDNS profile for a client by entering this command:
show client detail client-mac-address
• View the mDNS details for a network by entering this command:
show network summary
• Clear the mDNS service database by entering this command:
clear mdns service-database {all | service-name}
• View events related to mDNS by entering this command:
debug mdns message {enable | disable}
• View mDNS details of the events by entering this command:
debug mdns detail {enable | disable}
• View errors related to mDNS processing by entering this command:
debug mdns error {enable | disable}
• Configure debugging of all mDNS details by entering this command:
debug mdns all {enable | disable}
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
281
Management of Controllers
Configuring Multicast DNS (CLI)
Procedure
• Location Specific Service-related commands:
• Enable or disable location specific service on a specific mDNS service or all mDNS services by
entering this command:
config mdns service lss {enable | disable} {service-name | all}
Note
By default, LSS is in disabled state.
• View the status of LSS by entering these commands:
Summary—show mdns service summary
Detailed—show mdns service detailed service-name
• Configure troubleshooting HA-related mDNS by entering this command:
debug mdns ha {enable | disable}
• Origin-based service discovery-related commands:
• Configure learning of services from wired, wireless, or both by entering this command:
config mdns service origin {Wireless | Wired | All} {service-name | all}
It is not possible to configure wired services if LSS is enabled and vice versa. It is not possible to
enable LSS for wired-only service learn origin.
• View the status of origin-based service discovery by entering this command:
Summary—show mdns service summary
Detailed—show mdns service detailed service-name
• View all the service advertisements that are present in the controller, but not discovered because of
restrictions on learning those services, by entering this command:
show mdns service not-learnt
Service advertisements across all VLANs and origin types that are not learned are displayed.
• Priority MAC address-related commands:
• Configure per-service MAC addresses of service-providing devices to ensure that they are snooped
and discovered even if the service provider database is full, by entering this command:
config mdns service priority-mac {add | delete} priority-mac-addr service-name ap-group
ap-group-name
The optional AP group is applicable only to wired service provider devices to give them a sense of
location; these service providers are placed higher in the order than the other wired devices.
• View the status of Priority MAC address by entering this command:
Detailed—show mdns service detailed service-name
• mDNS AP-related commands:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
282
Management of Controllers
Bonjour Gateway Based on Access Policy
• Enable or disable mDNS forwarding on an AP that is associated with the controller by entering this
command:
config mdns ap {enable | disable} {ap-name | all} vlan vlan-id
There is no default mDNS AP. VLAN ID is an optional node.
• Configure the VLAN on which the AP should snoop, and forward the mDNS packets by entering
this command:
config mdns ap vlan {add | delete} vlan-id ap-name
• View all the APs for which mDNS forwarding is enabled by entering this command:
show mdns ap summary
Bonjour Gateway Based on Access Policy
From 7.4 release WLC supports Bonjour gateway functionality on WLC itself for which you need not even
enable multicast on the controller. The WLC explores all Bonjour discovery packets and does not forward
them on AIR or Infra network.
Bonjour is Apple's version of Zeroconf - it is Multicast Domain Name System (mDNS) with DNS-SD (Domain
Name System-Service Discovery). Apple devices will advertise their services via IPv4 and IPv6 simultaneously
(IPv6 link local and Globally Unique). To address this issue controller acts as a Bonjour Gateway. The WLC
listens for Bonjour services and by caching those Bonjour advertisements (AirPlay, AirPrint etc) from the
source/host e.g. AppleTV and responds to Bonjour clients when they ask/request for a service.
Bonjour gateway has inadequate capabilities to filter cached wired or wireless service instances based on the
credentials of the querying client and its location.
Currently the limitations are:
• Location-Specific Services (LSS) filters the wireless service instances only while responding to a query
from wireless clients. The filtering is based on the radio neighborhood of the querying client.
• LSS cannot filter wired service instance because of no sense of location.
• LSS filtering is per service type and not per client. It means that all clients receive the location based
filtered response if LSS is enabled for the service type and clients cannot override the behavior.
• There is no other filtering mechanism based on client role or user-id.
The requirement is to have configuration per service instance.
Following are the three criteria of the service instance sharing:
• User-id
• Client-role
• Client location
The configuration can be applied to wired and wireless service instances. The response to any query is on the
policy configured for each service instance. The response enables the selective sharing of service instances
based on the location, user-id or role.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
283
Management of Controllers
Restrictions on Bonjour Gateway Based on Access Policy
As the most service publishing devices are wired, the configuration allows filtering of wired services at par
with the wireless service instances.
There are two levels of filtering client queries:
1. At the service type level by using the mDNS profile
2. At the service instance level using the access policy associated with the service.
Restrictions on Bonjour Gateway Based on Access Policy
• The total number of policies that can be created is same as the number of service instances that are
supported on the platform. Hundred policies can be supported; 99 policies and one default policy.
• The number of rules per policy is limited to one.
• Policy and rules can be created irrespective of the service instances. The policy is applied only when it
is complete and discovers the target service instances.
• A service instance can be associated with a maximum of five policies.
• Five service groups can be assigned for a MAC address.
Configuring mDNS Service Groups (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > mDNS > mDNS Policies.
Step 2
Select service group from the list of Group Names.
Step 3
Under Service Instance List perform the following steps:
a) Enter the service provider MAC address in MAC address.
b) Enter the name of service provider in Name. Click Add.
c) From the Location Type drop-down list, choose the type of location.
Note
If the location is selected as 'Any', the policy checks on the location attribute are not performed.
In the case of mDNS policy filtered by AP groups, the design is for substring match. The policy is
applied on the first substring match.
Note
Step 4
The list of current service instances associated with the service group is shown in a table.
Under Policy / Rule enter the role names and the user names as the criteria of enforcing the policy.
Configuring mDNS Service Groups (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Enable or disable the mDNS policy by entering this command: config mdns policy enable | disable
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
284
Management of Controllers
Configuring mDNS Service Groups (CLI)
Step 2
Create or delete a mDNS policy service group by entering this command: config mdns policy service-group
create | delete <service-group-name>
Step 3
Configure the parameters of a service group by entering this command: config mdns policy service-group
device-mac add <service-group-name> <mac-addr> <device name> location-type [<AP_LOCATION |
AP_NAME | AP_GROUP>] device-location [<location string | any | same>]
Step 4
Configure the user role for a service-group by entering this command: config mdns policy service-group
user-role add | delete <service-group-name> <user-role-name>
Step 5
Configure the user name for a service-group by entering this command: config mdns policy service-group
user-name add | delete <service-group-name> <user-name>
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
285
Management of Controllers
Configuring mDNS Service Groups (CLI)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
286
CHAPTER
17
Controller Security
• FIPS, CC, and UCAPL, on page 287
• Cisco TrustSec, on page 292
• IPSec Profile, on page 310
FIPS, CC, and UCAPL
This section contains the following subsections:
FIPS
Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 is a security standard used to validate cryptographic
modules. The cryptographic modules are produced by the private sector for use by the U.S. government and
other regulated industries (such as financial and healthcare institutions) that collect, store, transfer, share and
disseminate sensitive but unclassified (SBU) information.
For more information about FIPS, see
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/industries/government/global-government-certifications/fips-140.html.
FIPS Self-Tests
A cryptographic module must perform power-up self-tests and conditional self-tests to ensure that it is
functional.
Power-up self-tests run automatically after the device powers up. A device goes into FIPS mode only after
all self-tests are successfully completed. If any self-test fails, the device logs a system message and moves
into an error state. Also, if the power-up self test fails, the device fails to boot.
Using a known-answer test (KAT), a cryptographic algorithm is run on data for which the correct output is
already known, and then the calculated output is compared to the previously generated output. If the calculated
output does not equal the known answer, the known-answer test fails.
Power-up self-tests include the following:
• Software integrity
• Algorithm tests
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
287
Management of Controllers
Information About CC
Conditional self-tests must be run when an applicable security function or operation is invoked. Unlike the
power-up self-tests, conditional self-tests are executed each time their associated function is accessed.
The device uses a cryptographic algorithm known-answer test (KAT) to test FIPS mode for each FIPS
140-2-approved cryptographic function (encryption, decryption, authentication, and random number generation)
implemented on the device. The device applies the algorithm to data for which the correct output is already
known. It then compares the calculated output to the previously generated output. If the calculated output
does not equal the known answer, the KAT fails.
Conditional self-tests run automatically when an applicable security function or operation is invoked. Unlike
the power-up self-tests, conditional self-tests are executed each time their associated function is accessed.
Conditional self-tests include the following:
• Pair-wise consistency test—This test is run when a public or private key-pair is generated.
• Continuous random number generator test—This test is run when a random number is generated.
• Bypass
• Software load
Information About CC
Common Criteria (CC) is a testing standard to verify that a product provides security functions that are claimed
by its developer. CC evaluation is against a created protection profile (PP) or security target (ST).
The four security levels in FIPS 140–2 do not map directly to specific CC EALs or CC functional requirements.
For more information about CC, see Common Criteria Portal and CC evaluation and validation scheme.
To configure the controller into CC mode of operation, refer the Admin Guidance Document published on
the Certified Product page of the Common Criteria Portal website.
After providing CC for the controller, the controller series name is listed in the Common Criteria Portal. Click
the Security Documents tab to view the list of documented available for the controller.
Information About UCAPL
The US Department of Defense (DoD) Unified Capabilities Approved Product List (APL) certification process
is the responsibility of the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) Unified Capabilities Certification
Office (UCCO). Certifications are performed by approved distributed testing centers including the Joint
Interoperability Test Command (JITC).
DoD customers can only purchase unified capabilities related equipment, both hardware and software, that
has been certified. Certified equipment is listed on the DoD UC APL. UC APL certifications verify the system
complies with and is configured consistent with the DISA Field Security Office (FSO) Security Technical
Implementation Guides (STIG).
For more information about the UC APL process, see Defense Information System Agency.
Guidelines on UCAPL
• In UCAPL web authentication login, multifactor authentication, which includes client (browser) certificate
validation and user authentication, is performed; Certificate validation prior to user authentication is
mandatory. Certificate validation is part of DTLS handshake, which is performed only once for a session
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
288
Management of Controllers
Configuring FIPS (CLI)
till its lifetime (default session lifetime is 5 minutes). When a user tries to login again, certificate validation
is not performed because the old session is not yet flushed and user authentication is not performed
without certificate validation. For more information, see https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5246.
• UCAPL certification requires a maximum of three unsuccessful login attempts to SSH. With some SSH
clients, fourth attempts are also observed; however, controller does not accept the fourth attempt even
if the credentials are correct.
Configuring FIPS (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Configure FIPS on the controller by entering this command:
config switchconfig fips-prerequisite {enable | disable }
In FIPS mode both TLSv1.0 and TLSv1.2 are supported and only FIPS 140-2 compliant algorithms are used.
Step 2
View the FIPS configuration by entering this command:
show switchconfig
Information similar to the following appears:
802.3x Flow Control Mode.........................
FIPS prerequisite features.......................
WLANCC prerequisite features.....................
UCAPL prerequisite features......................
secret obfuscation...............................
Disable
Enabled
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Configuring CC (CLI)
Before you begin
FIPS must be enabled on the controller.
Procedure
Step 1
Configure FIPS on the controller by entering this command:
config switchconfig wlancc {enable | disable }
Step 2
View the FIPS configuration by entering this command:
show switchconfig
Information similar to the following appears:
802.3x Flow Control Mode......................... Disable
FIPS prerequisite features....................... Enabled
WLANCC prerequisite features..................... Enabled
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
289
Management of Controllers
Configuring UCAPL (CLI)
UCAPL prerequisite features...................... Disabled
secret obfuscation............................... Enabled
Configuring UCAPL (CLI)
Before you begin
FIPS and WLAN CC must be enabled on the controller.
Procedure
Step 1
Configure UCAPL on the controller by entering this command:
config switchconfig ucapl {enable | disable }
Step 2
View the FIPS configuration by entering this command:
show switchconfig
Information similar to the following appears:
802.3x Flow Control Mode.........................
FIPS prerequisite features.......................
WLANCC prerequisite features.....................
UCAPL prerequisite features......................
secret obfuscation...............................
Disable
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Preparing Controller in FIPS Mode for Management in Cisco Prime
Infrastructure (CLI)
This is an update to the existing FIPS feature function. As per this update, when the controller is in FIPS mode
or when the Cisco Prime Infrastructure (PI) is used for SNMP management, SNMP trap logger, and as a syslog
server with IPsec, you must add the Cisco PI IP address in the controller before adding the controller IP address
in the PI configuration.
Procedure
Step 1
Enable FIPS mode in controller
a) Configure FIPS on the controller by entering this command:
config switchconfig fips-prerequisite {enable | disable}
b) [Optional] Configure WLAN Common Criteria on the controller by entering this command:
config switchconfig wlancc {enable | disable}
c) [Optional] Configure UCAPL on the controller by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
290
Management of Controllers
Preparing Controller in FIPS Mode for Management in Cisco Prime Infrastructure (CLI)
config switchconfig ucapl {enable | disable}
d) Save the current configuration to the NVRAM by entering this command:
save config
e) Reboot the controller by entering this command:
reset system
Step 2
Configure the Cisco PI IP address to manage the controller by entering this command:
config snmp pi-ip-address ip-address {add | delete}
Note
Step 3
The IP address is the Cisco PI eth0 interface IP address.
Configure the IPSec profile.
a) Create the IPSec profile by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile {create | delete } profile-name
b) Configure the IPSec profile encryption by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile encryption {aes-128-cbc | aes-256-cbc | aes-128-gcm | aes-256-gcm } profile-name
c) Configure the IPSec profile authentication by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile authentication {hmac-sha256 | hmac-sha384 } profile-name
d) Configure the IPSec life time in seconds by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile life-time-ipsec life-time-ipsec seconds profile-name
The valid range is between 1800 and 28800 seconds. Default is 1800 seconds.
e) Configure Internet Key Exchange (IKE) lifetime in seconds by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile life-time-ike life-time-ipsec seconds profile-name
The valid range is between 1800 and 86400 seconds. Default is 28800 seconds.
f) Configure the IPSec profile Internet Key Exchange (IKE) version by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile ike version {1 | 2 } profile-name
Note
Currently only IKE version 1 is supported.
g) Configure the IKE authentication method by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile ike auth-mode certificate profile-name
h) Attach the IPSec profile to SNMP by entering this command:
config snmp community ipsec profile profile-name
i) Enable IPSec for SNMP by entering this command:
config snmp community ipsec enable
Step 4
Configure SNMP Trap Receiver.
a) Configure the IPSec profile to the Trap receiver by entering this command:
config snmp trapreceiver ipsec profile profile-name trap-receiver-name
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
291
Management of Controllers
Cisco TrustSec
b) Enable SNMP Traps over IPSec by entering this command:
config snmp trapreceiver ipsec enable trap-receiver-name
Step 5
Configure Syslog.
a) Configure the host IP for the syslog by entering this command:
config logging syslog host ip address
You can add up to three syslog servers to the controller.
b) Assign an IPSec profile to syslog by entering this command:
config logging syslog ipsec profile profile-name
c) Enable logging messages to syslog over IPSEC by entering this command:
config logging syslog ipsec enable
d) Deleting syslog server IP address by entering this command:
config logging syslog host ip address delete
Step 6
Disabling and unlinking the IPSec profile prior to editing the IPSec profile.
• SNMP
a. Disable—config snmp community ipsec disable
b. Unlink—config snmp community ipsec none
• Trap Receiver
a. Disable—config snmp trapreceiver ipsec disable trapreceiver-name
b. Unlink—config snmp trapreciver ipsec profile none trapreceiver-name
• Syslog
a. Disable—config logging syslong ipsec disable
b. Unlink—config logging syslong ipsec profile none
Step 7
View the active IPSec tunnel details by entering this command:
show ipsec status
Cisco TrustSec
Cisco TrustSec enables organizations to secure their networks and services through identity-based access
control to anyone, anywhere, anytime. The solution also offers data integrity and confidentiality services,
policy-based governance, and centralized monitoring, troubleshooting, and reporting services. You can combine
Cisco TrustSec with personalized, professional service offerings to simplify the solution deployment and
management, and is a foundational security component to Cisco Borderless Networks.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
292
Management of Controllers
Cisco TrustSec
The Cisco TrustSec security architecture helps build secure networks by establishing domains of trusted
network devices. Each device in the domain is authenticated by its peers. Communication on the links between
the devices in the domain is secured with a combination of encryption, message integrity check, and data path
replay protection mechanisms. Cisco TrustSec uses a device and user credentials that are acquired during
authentication for classifying the packets by security groups (SGs), as they enter the network. This packet
classification is maintained by tagging packets on an ingress to the Cisco TrustSec network. This is because
they can be correctly identified to apply security and other policy criteria along the data path. The tag, called
the security group tag (SGT), allows the network to enforce the access control policy by enabling the endpoint
device to act upon the SGT to filter traffic. Note that the Cisco TrustSec security group tag is applied only
when you enable AAA override on a WLAN.
One of the components of Cisco TrustSec architecture is the security group-based access control. In the security
group-based access control component, access policies in the Cisco TrustSec domain are topology-independent,
based on the roles (as indicated by the security group number) of source and destination devices rather than
on network addresses. Individual packets are tagged with the security group number of the source.
The Cisco TrustSec solution is implemented across the following three distinct phases:
• Client classification at ingress by a centralized policy database (Cisco ISE) and assigning unique SGT
to clients based on client identity attributes such as the role and so on.
• Propagation of IP-to-SGT binding to neighboring devices using the SGT Exchange Protocol (SXP) or
inline tagging methods or both.
• Security Group Access Control List (SGACL) policy enforcement. Cisco AP is the enforcement point
for central or local switching (central authentication).
For more information about deploying the Cisco TrustSec solution, see the Wireless TrustSec Deployment
Guide at:
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/controller/technotes/8-4/b_wireless_trustsec_deployment_
guide.html.
SGT Exchange Protocol
Cisco devices use the SGT Exchange Protocol (SXP) to propagate SGTs across network devices that do not
have any hardware support for Cisco TrustSec. The SXP is the software solution to eliminate the need for
upgrade of Cisco TrustSec hardware on all Cisco switches. Controller supports the SXP as part of the Cisco
TrustSec architecture. The SXP sends SGT information to the Cisco TrustSec-enabled switches so that
appropriate role-based access control lists (RBAC lists) can be activated. This depends on the role information
present in the SGT. To implement the SXP on a network, only the egress distribution switch has to be Cisco
TrustSec-enabled. All the other switches can be non-Cisco TrustSec-capable switches.
The SXP runs between the access layer and the distribution switch or between two distribution switches. The
SXP uses TCP as the transport layer. Cisco TrustSec authentication is performed for the host (client) joining
the network on the access layer switch. This is similar to an access switch with the hardware that is enabled
with Cisco TrustSec. The access layer switch is not Cisco TrustSec hardware enabled. Therefore, data traffic
is not encrypted or cryptographically authenticated when it passes through the access layer switch. The SXP
is used to pass the IP address of the authenticated device, which is a wireless client and the corresponding
SGT up to the distribution switch. If the distribution switch is a hardware that is enabled with Cisco TrustSec,
the switch inserts the SGT into the packet on behalf of the access layer switch. If the distribution switch is
not a hardware that is enabled with Cisco TrustSec, the SXP on the distribution switch passes the IP-SGT
mapping to all the distribution switches that have the Cisco TrustSec hardware. On the egress side, the
enforcement of the RBAC lists occurs at the egress L3 interface on the distribution switch.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
293
Management of Controllers
Cisco TrustSec
The following are some guidelines for Cisco TrustSec SXP:
• The SXP is supported only on the following security policies:
• WPA2-dot1x
• WPA-dot1x
• MAC filtering using RADIUS servers
• Web authentication using RADIUS servers for user authentication
• The SXP is supported for both IPv4 and IPv6 clients.
• By default, the controller always works in the Speaker mode.
• From Release 8.3, the SXP on the controller is supported for both centrally and locally switched networks.
• It is possible to do IP-SGT mapping on the WLANs as well for clients that are not authenticated by Cisco
ISE.
From Release 8.4, SXPv4 is supported in FlexConnect mode APs.
For more information about Cisco TrustSec, see
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/enterprise-networks/trustsec/index.html.
Environment Data
Cisco TrustSec environment data is a set of information or attributes that helps controller to perform Cisco
TrustSec-related functions.
The controller acquires the environment data from the authentication server (Cisco ISE) when the controller
first joins a Cisco TrustSec domain by sending a secure RADIUS Access request. The authentication server
returns a RADIUS Access-Accept message with attributes, including environment expiry timeout attributes.
This is the time interval that controls how often the Cisco TrustSec device must refresh its environment data.
Security Group Access Control List Policy Download
A Security Group is a group of users, endpoint devices, and resources that share access control policies.
Security groups are defined by the administrator in the Cisco ISE. As new users and devices are added to the
Cisco TrustSec domain, the authentication server assigns these new entities to the appropriate security groups.
Cisco TrustSec assigns each of the security group a unique 16-bit number whose scope is global in a Cisco
TrustSec domain. The number of security groups in a wireless device is limited to the number of authenticated
network entities. You do not have to manually configure the security group numbers.
After a device is authenticated, the Cisco TrustSec tags any packet that originates from that device with an
SGT that contains the security group number of the device. The packet carries this SGT everywhere in the
network, in the Cisco TrustSec header.
As the SGT contains the security group of the source, the tag can be referred to as the source SGT (S-SGT).
The destination device is also assigned to a security group (destination SG) that can be referred to as the
destination SGT (D-SGT), although the Cisco TrustSec packet does not contain the security group number
of the destination device.
You can control the operations that users can perform based on the security group assignments of users and
destination resources, using the Security Group Access Control Lists (SGACLs). Policy enforcement in a
Cisco TrustSec domain is represented by a permission matrix, with the source security group on one axis and
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
294
Management of Controllers
Cisco TrustSec
destination security group numbers on the other axis. Each cell in the matrix body contains an ordered list of
SGACLs, which specifies the permissions that must be applied to packets originating from the source security
group and destined for the destination security group. When a wireless client is authenticated, it downloads
all the SGACLs in the matrix cells.
When a wireless client connects to the network, the client pushes all the ACLs to the controller.
This figure shows an example of a Cisco TrustSec permission matrix with three defined user roles, one defined
destination resource, and three SGACL policies that control access to the destination server based on the user
roles.
Figure 20: Example of an SGACL Policy Matrix
Cisco TrustSec achieves role-based topology-independent access control in a network by assigning users and
devices in the network to security groups and applying access control between the security groups. The
SGACLs define access control policies based on the device identities. As long as the roles and permissions
remain the same, changes to the network topology do not change the security policy. When a user is added
to the wireless group, you simply assign the user to an appropriate security group and the user immediately
receives permissions to that group.
The size of ACLs is reduced and their maintenance is simplified with the use of role-based permissions. With
Cisco TrustSec, the number of Access Control Entities (ACEs) configured is determined by the number of
permissions that are specified, resulting in a much smaller number of ACEs.
Note
By default, the following predefined SGACL policies are downloaded:
• Default policy—This is applied when source and destination SGTs are available, but SGACLs are not
defined for a cell or column.
• Unknown policy—This is applied when the source SGT is unknown. You can use the session group
named Unknown and apply the unknown policy on that traffic.
Inline Tagging
Inline tagging is a transport mechanism using which a controller or a Cisco AP understands the source SGT.
Transport mechanism is of two types:
• Central switching—For centrally switched packets, controller performs inline tagging for all the packets
that are sourced from wireless clients that are associated with the controller by tagging it with the Cisco
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
295
Management of Controllers
Guidelines and Restrictions on Cisco TrustSec
Meta Data (CMD) tag. For packets inbound from the Distribution System, inline tagging also involves
controller stripping off the CMD header from the packet to learn the S-SGT tag. Controller thereafter
forwards the packet including the S-SGT for SGACL enforcement.
• Local switching—To transmit locally switched traffic, Cisco AP performs inline tagging for packets that
are associated with the Cisco AP and sourced from clients. To receive traffic, Cisco AP handles both
locally switched packets and centrally switched packets, uses an S-SGT tag for packets, and applies the
SGACL policy.
With wireless Cisco TrustSec enabled on the controller, the choice of enabling and configuring SXP to
exchange tags with the switches is optional. Both wireless Cisco TrustSec and SXP modes are supported;
however, there is no use case to have both wireless Cisco TrustSec on AP and SXP to be in the enabled state
concurrently.
Policy Enforcement
Cisco TrustSec access control is implemented using ingress tagging and egress enforcement. At the ingress
point to the Cisco TrustSec domain, the traffic from the source is tagged with an SGT containing the security
group number of the source entity. The SGT is propagated across the domain with the traffic. At the egress
point of the Cisco TrustSec domain, an egress device uses the source SGT (S-SGT) and the security group of
the destination entity (D-SGT) to determine the access policy to apply from the SGACL policy matrix.
You can apply policy enforcement to both central and local switched traffic on an AP. If wired clients
communicate with wireless clients, the Cisco AP enforces the downstream traffic. If wireless clients
communicate with wired clients, the Cisco AP enforces the upstream traffic. This way, the Cisco AP enforces
traffic in both downstream and wireless-to-wireless traffic. You require S-SGT, D-SGT, and ACLs for
enforcement to work. Cisco APs get the SGT information for all wireless clients from the information available
on the Cisco ISE server.
Note
A Cisco AP must be in either Listener or Both (Listener and Speaker) mode to enforce traffic as the Listener
mode maintains the complete set of IP-SGT bindings. After you enable enforcement on a Cisco AP, the
corresponding policies are downloaded and pushed to the Cisco AP.
Guidelines and Restrictions on Cisco TrustSec
• The configuration of the default password should be consistent for both the controller and the switch.
• IP-SGT mapping requires authentication with external Cisco ISE servers.
• In auto-anchor/guest-anchor mobility, the SGT information that is passed by the RADIUS server to a
foreign controller can be communicated to the anchor controller through the EoIP/CAPWAP mobility
tunnel. The anchor controller can then build the SGT-IP mapping and communicate it to another peer
via SXP.
• In a local web authentication with AAA override scenario, if a client tries to login after logging out, SGT
from WLAN is not applied again and the client retains the AAA overridden SGT.
• It is possible to change the interface management IP address even if you have Cisco TrustSec SXP in
enabled state.
• Cisco TrustSec is not supported in L3 and Guest Access deployments.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
296
Management of Controllers
Guidelines and Restrictions on Cisco TrustSec
• Cisco TrustSec in Monitor mode is not supported.
• Device or Multicast SGT and server list as part of environment data is not supported.
• Change of Authorization (CoA) for policy and environment data refresh is not supported.
• In a High Availability (HA) setup, environment data, and SGACLs are not synchronized with standby
controllers. The PAC information and device ID and password are synchronized. Upon a controller
failover, environment data and SGACLs are downloaded from Cisco ISE.
Note
In an HA setup, when a client connects to an AP that is associated with the active
controller, the AP-SGT information is updated in the standby controller. This
AP-SGT mapping is used to download the SGT policy after an HA switchover.
The policy is not synchronized with the standby controller. However, the AP-SGT
information is used to initiate the policy download after the HA switchover.
Only the active controller can set create an SXP socket connection to the peer;
The standby controller does not establish the SXP socket connection. Therefore,
the SXP status in the standby controller is 'OFF'.
• When a controller running Release 8.4 or a later release becomes nonoperational, an AP associated with
the WLC might switch to another controller running Release 8.3 or an earlier release and download the
image. Then, the AP cannot communicate with the controller because Release 8.3 and older releases do
not support inline tagging. In this case, we recommend that you disable Cisco TrustSec manual
configuration mode (cts manual) on the AP switchport so that the AP can download the image.
• The policy static sgt tag trusted command, in the Cisco TrustSec manual configuration mode, is used
in an inline tagging enabled setup, when the AP switch port is required to trust the SGT tag set by the
peer. In case of untagged traffic, the switch port tags all the packets with the value that is configured in
this command. Therefore, this configuration must not be used when inline tagging is disabled.
• Static SGACL policy is not supported on controller.
• Policy enforcement is not applied to multicast traffic.
• Inline and SXPv4 are not supported in a FlexConnect split tunneling scenario.
• In a mixed-mode deployment scenario, if a Cisco AP is configured with two SXP peer connections, the
password of one peer connection is set to default and the password of the other peer connection is set to
none. In such a scenario, the peer connection with the password set to none will not be operational.
However, if all the SXP peer connections are configured with the password none, the SXP peer connections
are operational.
• To have a heterogeneous network consisting of Wave 1 and Wave 2 APs, configure the Cisco 3850
switch SGACL ACEs for TrustSec. If the Cisco 3850 switch is not used for TrustSec, then the network
supports only a homogeneous network of either Cisco Wave 1 or Wave 2 APs.
Note
ACLs are not applied to clients which are associated to unsupported TrustSec
AP devices.
• Cisco TrustSec is not supported for Guest LAN clients.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
297
Management of Controllers
Guidelines and Restrictions on Cisco TrustSec
• Cisco TrustSec is not supported on Outdoor and Industrial Wireless mesh APs.
• Cisco TrustSec is not supported in Cisco Wave 2 APs that are in Flex+Bridge mode.
• PAC provisioning is not supported on Cisco vWLC.
• PAC provisioning is not supported on a IPv6 server.
• Inline tagging and SGACL download and enforcement are not supported on Cisco vWLC.
• SXPv4 Listener and Both modes are not supported in FlexConnect deployments with Cisco vWLC.
• Inline tagging is not supported in Cisco Wave 2 APs that are in Flex+Bridge mode.
• We recommend that you do not use SXPv4 for a NAT scenario (FlexConnect Central DHCP).
• If you encounter the CTS CORE: AAA-3-AUTH_REQUEST_QUEUE_FAILED system message, no action is
required. This is an expected error log after every controller reboot. This system message is displayed
because the Cisco TrustSec core is initialized before AAA.
Cisco TrustSec Feature Support Matrix
Table 12: Cisco TrustSec Feature Support Matrix
AP Mode
SXPv4 Support
Inline Tagging
Support
Enforcement
Support
Cisco Aironet AP Remarks
Series
Local
No
No
Yes
1700, 2700,
3700
NA
18xx, 38xx, 28xx
FlexConnect
Yes
Yes
Yes
1700, 2700,
3700
NA
18xx, 38xx, 28xx
Flex+Bridge
Mesh
Yes
No
Yes
1700, 2700,
3700
No
No
No
18xx, 38xx, 28xx Flex+Bridge
mode is not
supported on
these APs.
No
No
Yes (Online for
indoor mesh)
1700, 2700,
3700
No
No
No
18xx, 38xx, 28xx Mesh mode is
not supported.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
298
NA
No support for
outdoor mesh
Management of Controllers
Configuring Cisco TrustSec
Configuring Cisco TrustSec
Configuring Cisco TrustSec on Controller (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > TrustSec > General.
The General page is displayed.
Step 2
Check the CTS check box to enable Cisco TrustSec. By default, Cisco TrustSec is in disabled state.
Step 3
Save the configuration.
Configuring Cisco TrustSec on Cisco WLC (CLI)
Procedure
• Enable Cisco TrustSec on the controller by entering this command:
config cts enable
Note
If you enable Cisco TrustSec, the SGACL is also enabled in the controller. Also, you will need to manually
enable inline tagging.
Configuring Cisco TrustSec Override for an Access Point (CLI)
Procedure
• Enable or disable override of global Cisco TrustSec configuration on a specific AP by entering this
command:
config cts ap override {enable | disable} cisco-ap
SXP
Configuring SXP on Cisco WLC (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > TrustSec > SXP Config.
The SXP Configuration page is displayed with the following SXP configuration details:
• Total SXP Connections—Number of SXP connections that are configured.
• SXP State—Status of SXP connections as either disabled or enabled.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
299
Management of Controllers
Configuring SXP on Cisco WLC (CLI)
• SXP Mode—SXP mode of the Cisco WLC. The Cisco WLC is always set to Speaker mode for SXP
connections.
• Default Password—Password for MD5 authentication of SXP messages. We recommend that the
password contain a minimum of 6 characters.
• Default Source IP—IP address of the management interface. SXP uses the default source IP address
for all new TCP connections.
• Retry Period—SXP retry timer. The default value is 120 seconds (2 minutes). The valid range is 0 to
64000 seconds. The SXP retry period determines how often the controller retries for an SXP connection.
When an SXP connection is not successfully set up, the controller makes a new attempt to set up the
connection after the SXP retry period timer expires. Setting the SXP retry period to 0 seconds disables
the timer and retries are not attempted.
This page also displays the following information about SXP connections:
• Peer IP Address—The IP address of the peer, that is, the IP address of the next-hop switch to which
the Cisco WLC is connected. There is no effect on the existing TCP connections when you configure a
new peer connection.
• Source IP Address—The IP address of the source, that is, the management IP address of the Cisco
WLC.
• Connection Status—Status of the SXP connection.
Step 2
From the SXP State drop-down list, choose Enabled to enable SXP.
Step 3
Enter the default password that should be used to make an SXP connection. We recommend that the password
contain a minimum of 6 characters.
Step 4
In the Retry Period field, enter the time, in seconds, that determines how often the Cisco TrustSec software
retries for an SXP connection.
Step 5
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Configuring SXP on Cisco WLC (CLI)
Procedure
• Enable or disable the SXP on the controller by entering this command:
config cts sxp {enable | disable}
• Configure the default password for MD5 authentication of SXP messages by entering this command:
config cts sxp default password password
• Configure the IP address of the next-hop switch with which the controller is connected by entering this
command:
config cts sxp connection peer ip-address
• Configure the interval between connection attempts by entering this command:
config cts sxp retry period time-in-seconds
• Remove an SXP connection by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
300
Management of Controllers
Configuring SXP on Cisco Access Points (GUI)
config cts sxp connection delete ip-address
• See a summary of the SXP configuration by entering this command:
show cts sxp summary
The following is a sample output of this command:
SXP State........................................
SXP Mode.........................................
Default Password.................................
Default Source IP................................
Connection retry open period ....................
Enable
Speaker
****
209.165.200.224
120
• See the list of SXP connections that are configured by entering this command:
show cts sxp connections
The following is a sample output of this command:
Total num of SXP Connections..................... 1
SXP State........................................ Enable
Peer IP
Source IP
Connection Status
--------------------------------------------209.165.200.229
209.165.200.224
On
• Establish connection between the controller and a Cisco Nexus 7000 Series switch by following either
of these steps:
• Enter the following commands:
1. config cts sxp version sxp version 1 or 2 1
2. config cts sxp disable
3. config cts sxp enable
• If SXP version 2 is used on the controller and version 1 is used on the Cisco Nexus 7000 Series
switch, an amount of retry period is required to establish the connection. We recommend that you
initially have less interval between connection attempts. The default is 120 seconds.
Configuring SXP on Cisco Access Points (GUI)
This configuration is applicable to only FlexConnect, Flex+Bridge, Mesh, and Local mode APs.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs and the name of the desired access point.
Step 2
Click the Advanced tab.
Step 3
In the Trusted Security area, click TrustSec Config.
The All APs > <ap-name> > Trusted Security page is displayed.
Step 4
In the Trusted Security area, check the SGACL Enforcement check box.
Step 5
Save the configuration.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
301
Management of Controllers
Configuring SXP on Cisco Access Points (CLI)
Configuring SXP on Cisco Access Points (CLI)
This configuration is applicable to only FlexConnect, Flex+Bridge, Mesh, and Local mode APs.
Procedure
• Enable or disable the SXP for an access point or all access points by entering this command:
config cts sxp ap {enable | disable} {ap_name | all}
• Configure the default password for the SXP connection by entering this command:
config cts sxp ap default password password {ap-name | all}
• Configure the SXP peer IP address with which a Cisco AP is connected by entering this command:
config cts sxp ap connection peer ip-address password {default | none} mode {both | listener |
speaker} {ap-name | all}
• Configure the minimum and maximum time intervals for the SXP connection to be alive by entering this
command:
config cts sxp ap listener hold-time min max {ap-name | all}
• Configure the reconciliation time interval on a Cisco AP by entering this command:
config cts sxp ap reconciliation period time-in-seconds {ap-name | all}
• Configure the interval between connection attempts by entering this command:
config cts sxp ap retry period time-in-seconds {ap-name | all}
• Configure the connection hold time by entering this command:
config cts sxp ap speaker hold-time hold-time-in-seconds {ap-name | all}
Note
If a Cisco AP with a DHCP IP is rebooted, associates with the Cisco WLC after the reboot, and has a different
IP address, the SXP connection fails. To overcome this, perform either of the following tasks:
• Define a reserved set of IP addresses in DHCP for the Cisco AP.
• Configure a static IP address for the Cisco AP.
Cisco TrustSec Credentials
Configuring Cisco TrustSec Credentials (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > TrustSec > General.
The General page is displayed.
Step 2
In the Device ID field, enter the Cisco TrustSec device ID.
Step 3
In the Password field, enter the Cisco TrustSec device password.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
302
Management of Controllers
Configuring Cisco TrustSec Credentials (CLI)
Step 4
Check or uncheck the Inline Tagging check box to enable or disable inline tagging.
Step 5
In the Environment Data area, the following information is displayed:
• Current State—Shows whether the environment data is complete or not.
• Last Status—Shows the last state of the environment data.
Step 6
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 7
Click Refresh Env Data to refresh the environment data.
Configuring Cisco TrustSec Credentials (CLI)
Procedure
• Configure a Cisco TrustSec device ID and password by entering this command:
config cts device-id device-id password password
Configuring a RADIUS AAA Server (GUI)
You can configure multiple RADIUS accounting and authentication servers. For example, you may want to
have one central RADIUS authentication server but several RADIUS accounting servers in different regions.
If you configure multiple servers of the same type and the first one fails or becomes unreachable, the controller
automatically tries the second one, then the third one if necessary, and so on.
Configuring RADIUS AAA Server (CLI)
Procedure
Configure a RADIUS authentication server to enable RADIUS PAC by entering the command:
config radius auth pac srv-index enable
Here srv-index specifies the RADIUS server index between 1 and 32.
Monitoring Environment Data
Monitoring Environment Data (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > TrustSec > General.
The General page is displayed with the following details as part of Environment data: Current State and
Last Status.
Step 2
To view the updated information, click Refresh Env Data.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
303
Management of Controllers
Monitoring Environment Data (CLI)
Monitoring Environment Data (CLI)
Procedure
• View Cisco TrustSec environment data by entering this command:
show cts environment-data
• Refresh Cisco TrustSec environment data by entering this command:
config cts refresh environment-data
Note
You must manually refresh the environment data from Cisco ISE because CoA is not supported in Cisco
Wireless Release 8.4.
Configuring a Static Security Group Tag on a WLAN
Configuring a Static Security Group Tag on a WLAN (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Step 2
Click the WLAN ID.
Step 3
On the WLANs > Edit page, click the Advanced tab.
Step 4
Under the TrustSec area, in the Security Group Tag field, enter a value between 0 and 65533.
Step 5
Save the configuration.
Configuring a Static Security Group Tag on a WLAN (CLI)
Procedure
• Configure a static Security Group Tag (SGT) on a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan security sgt value wlan-id
The valid range for value is between 0 and 65533.
Note
This command is applicable for local and web authentication of clients in Cisco WLC. The SGT also applies
to clients that are connected to WLANs with AAA override disabled.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
304
Management of Controllers
Configuring Inline Tagging
Configuring Inline Tagging
Configuring Inline Tagging in Cisco WLC (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > TrustSec > General.
The General page is displayed.
Step 2
Check the Inline Tagging check box to enable inline tagging. By default, inline tagging is in disabled state.
Step 3
Save the configuration.
Configuring Inline Tagging in Cisco WLC (CLI)
Procedure
• Enable or disable inline taging in Cisco WLC by entering this command:
config cts inline-tag {enable | disable}
Note
Cisco WLC performs the task of inline tagging for central switching packets.
Configuring Inline Tagging in Cisco Access Points (GUI)
Before you begin
1. Inline tagging is supported only on APs in FlexConnect mode.
2. By default, inline tagging is in disabled state.
Procedure
Step 1
To configure inline tagging on all APs:
a) Choose Wireless > Access Points > Global Configuration.
The Global Configuration page is displayed.
b) Under the TrustSec area, click TrustSec Config.
The All APs Trusted Security page is displayed.
c) To enable inline tagging, check the Inline Tagging check box.
d) Click Apply.
Step 2
To configure inline tagging on a specific AP:
a) Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs.
b) Click the name of the AP.
The All APs > Details for <ap-name> page is displayed.
c) Click the Advanced tab.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
305
Management of Controllers
Configuring Inline Tagging in Cisco Access Points (CLI)
d) Under the TrustSec area, click TrustSec Config.
e) In the Trusted Security area, check the Inline Tagging check box to enable inline tagging.
f) Click Apply.
Configuring Inline Tagging in Cisco Access Points (CLI)
Before you begin
1. Inline tagging is supported only on APs in FlexConnect mode.
2. By default, inline tagging is in disabled state.
Procedure
• Enable or disable inline tagging on a specific AP or all APs by entering this command:
config cts ap inline-tagging {enable | disable} {Cisco AP | all}
• See if a configuration is applied to a specific AP by entering this command:
show ap config general {Cisco AP}
• See the status of inline tagging on all FlexConnect APs by entering this command:
show cts ap summary
Note
APs perform the task of inline tagging for local switching packets.
Verifying SGACL Policy Download
Verifying SGACL Policy Download in Cisco WLC (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > TrustSec > Policy.
Step 2
Click a D-SGT.
The SGT Detail page is displayed with details of the SGT including the SGACL policy name.
Step 3
Click Refresh to refresh the SGT information.
Note
CoA is not supported. Therefore, we recommend that you manually refresh the SGACL policy from
the Cisco ISE.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
306
Management of Controllers
Verifying SGACL Policy Download in Cisco WLC (CLI)
Verifying SGACL Policy Download in Cisco WLC (CLI)
Procedure
• View all or specific SGT policy information by entering this command:
show cts policy {all | sgt_tag}
• View all or specific SGACL information by entering this command:
show cts sgacl {all | sgacl name}
• Check if the SGACL is enabled or disabled for a specific AP by entering this command:
show ap config general cisco-ap
• View the SGACL policy enabled globally by entering this command:
show cts ap summary
• Refresh all SGTs by entering this command:
config cts refresh policy sgt all
• Refresh a specific SGT by entering this command:
config cts refresh policy sgt sgt-tag
Note
CoA is not supported. Therefore, we recommend that you manually refresh the SGACL policy from Cisco
ISE.
Configuring Policy Enforcement
Configuring Policy Enforcement (GUI)
Before you begin
SGACL enforcement is supported only on Cisco 3504, 5520, and 8540 Wireless Controllers.
Procedure
Step 1
To configure policy enforcement in a specific Cisco AP:
a) Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.
b) Click the AP name.
The All APs > Details for <ap-name> page is displayed.
c) Click the Advanced tab.
d) In the Trusted Security area, click TrustSec Config.
The All APs > <ap-name> > Trusted Security page is displayed.
e) In the Trusted Security area, check the SGACL Enforcement check box to enforce SGACL policies
on the AP.
By default, SGACL enforcement is in disabled state.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
307
Management of Controllers
Configuring Policy Enforcement (CLI)
f) Click Apply.
Step 2
To configure policy enforcement in all Cisco APs:
a) Choose Wireless > Access Points > Global Configuration.
b) In the TrustSec area, click TrustSec Config.
The All APs Trusted Security page is displayed.
c) Check the SGACL Enforcement check box to enforce SGACL policies on all APs.
d) Click Apply.
Configuring Policy Enforcement (CLI)
Procedure
• Enable the SGACL enforcement for a specific AP or all APs by entering this command:
config cts ap sgacl-enforcement enable {ap-name | all}
Note
If you enable SGACL enforcement for all APs, the configuration is applied on all APs, except the ones for
which CTS override is enabled.
Debugging Cisco TrustSec in Cisco WLC (CLI)
Procedure
• Configure the debug options for Cisco TrustSec AAA by entering this command:
debug cts aaa {all | errors | events} {enable | disable}
• Configure the debug options Cisco TrustSec authorization by entering this command:
debug cts authz {all | errors | events | aaa} {enable | disable}
• Configure the debug options for Cisco TrustSec policy download over CAPWAP messages by entering
this command:
debug cts capwap {all | errors | events | messages} {enable | disable}
• Configure the debug options for Cisco TrustSec environment data by entering this command:
debug cts env-data {all | errors | events} {enable | disable}
• Configure the debug options for Cisco TrustSec HA by entering this command:
debug cts ha {all | errors | events} {enable | disable}
• Configure the debug options for Cisco TrustSec key store by entering this command:
debug cts key-store {enable | disable}
• Configure the debug options for Cisco TrustSec PAC provisioning by entering this command:
debug cts provisioning {all | errors | events | packets} {enable | disable}
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
308
Management of Controllers
Cisco TrustSec Commands on Lightweight APs
• Configure the debug options for Cisco TrustSec SXP by entering this command:
debug cts sxp {all | errors | events | framework | message} {enable | disable}
• Configure SGT debugging for up to 10 SGTs by entering this command::
debug cts sgt sgt-1…sgt-10
• Display all the AP-SGT information by entering this command:
show cts ap sgt-info
Cisco TrustSec Commands on Lightweight APs
Enter these commands in a lightweight AP console:
Procedure
• Show commands:
a) Check the SXP connection status by entering this command:
• On Cisco Aironet 1700, 2700, and 3700 Series APs: show cts sxp connections brief
• On Cisco Aironet 18xx, 28xx, and 38xx Series APs: show cts sxp connections
b) Check SXP bindings by entering this command:
• On Cisco Aironet 1700, 2700, and 3700 Series APs: show cts sxp sgt-map brief
• On Cisco Aironet 18xx, 28xx, and 38xx Series APs: show cts sxp sgt-map
c) Check IP-SGT binding by entering this command:
• On Cisco Aironet 1700, 2700, and 3700 Series APs for local switching only: show cts role-based
sgt-map all
• On Cisco Aironet 18xx, 28xx, and 38xx Series APs for local switching and central switching
only: show cts role-based sgt-map all
d) Check SGT for central switching clients by entering this command:
show controllers {dot11Radio0|1 | begin SGT}
e) Check SGACLs for S-SGT and D-SGT by entering this command:
show cts role-based permissions [default | from | ipv4 | ipv6 | to | cr]
f) Check counter for given source and destination SGT by entering this command:
show cts role-based counters [default | from | ipv4 | ipv6 | to | cr]
g) Check ACEs for a given SGACL by entering this command:
show access-lists access-list-name
• Debug commands:
a) Debug Cisco TrustSec enforcement by entering this command:
On Cisco Aironet 18xx, 28xx, and 38xx Series APs: debug cts enforcement
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
309
Management of Controllers
IPSec Profile
b) Debug enforcement related issues, for both central and local switched data traffic. by entering this
command:
On Cisco Aironet 1700, 2700, and 3700 Series APs: debug rbm dp packets
IPSec Profile
Configuring an IPSec Profile (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > IPSec to navigate to the IPSec Profile Name page.
Step 2
Click New and enter a name for the IPSec profile.
Step 3
In the IPSec Profile Name listing, click the newly created IPSec profile name to configure the profile
parameters.
Step 4
Enter the IKE Version. Supported Internet Key Exchange (IKE) versions are 1 and 2.
Step 5
From the Encryption drop-down list, choose from the following encryption types:
• aes-128-cbc
• aes-256-cbc
• aes-128-gcm
• aes-256-gcm
Note
Step 6
The encryption type choices are of either 128 or 256 key lengths and either Cipher Block Chaining
mode or Galois/Counter mode.
From the Authentication drop-down list, choose from the following hash-based message authentication code
(HMAC) secure hash algorithm (SHA) options:
• HMAC SHA1
• HMAC SHA256
• HMAC SHA384
Step 7
From the IKE DH Group drop-down list, choose from the following Diffie-Hellman groups:
• Group 14 (2048 bits)
• Group 19 (256-bit elliptic curve)
• Group 20 (384-bit elliptic curve)
Step 8
In the IKE Lifetime (1800-86400) field, enter a value (in seconds) to specify the timeout interval for IKE.
The valid range is 1800 to 86400 seconds, and the default value is 28,800 seconds.
Step 9
In the IPSec Lifetime (1800-28800) field, enter a value (in seconds) to specify the timeout interval for IPSec.
The valid range is 1800 to 28800 seconds, and the default value is 1800 seconds.
Step 10
From the IKE Phase 1 drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify the IKE protocol:
• Main
• Aggressive
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
310
Management of Controllers
Configuring an IPSec Profile (CLI)
IKE Phase 1 is used to negotiate how IKE should be protected. Aggressive mode passes more information in
fewer packets with the benefit of slightly faster connection establishment at the cost of transmitting the
identities of the security gateways in the clear.
Step 11
From the IKE Peer Identification drop-down list, choose from the following options to be used:
• FQDN
• User FQDN
• CN
• IP
Step 12
In the IKE Peer Value field, enter the peer value for IKE.
Step 13
From the IKE Authentication Mode drop-down list, choose from the following options:
• PSK
• Certificate
Step 14
From the Shared Secret Format drop-down list, choose ASCII or Hex to specify the format of the shared
secret key to be used between the controller and the RADIUS server. The default value is ASCII.
Step 15
In the Shared Secret and Confirm Shared Secret fields, enter the shared secret key to be used for
authentication between the controller and the server.
Note
Step 16
Step 17
In the Shared Secret and Confirm Shared Secret fieldes, enter the shared secret key to be used for
authentication between the controller and the server.
Note
Step 18
The shared secret key must be the same on both the server and the controller.
The shared secret key must be the same on both the server and the controller.
Save the configuration.
Configuring an IPSec Profile (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Create the IPSec profile by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile {create | delete } profile-name
Step 2
Configure the IPSec profile Internet Key Exchange (IKE) version by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile ike version {1 | 2 } profile-name
Step 3
Configure the IPSec profile encryption by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile encryption {aes-128-cbc | aes-256-cbc | aes-128-gcm | aes-256-gcm } profile-name
Step 4
Configure the IPSec profile authentication by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile authentication {hmac-sha1 |hmac-sha256 | hmac-sha384 } profile-name
Step 5
Configure the IKE Diffie-Hellman group by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
311
Management of Controllers
Configuring an IPSec Profile (CLI)
config ipsec-profile ike dh-group {group-14 |group-19 | group-20 } profile-name
Step 6
Configure the IKE lifetime by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile life-time-ike lifetime-in-seconds profile-name
The valid range is 1800 to 86400 seconds, and the default value is 28,800 seconds.
Step 7
Configure the IPSec lifetime by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile life-time-ipsec lifetime-in-seconds profile-name
The valid range is 1800 to 28800 seconds, and the default value is 1800 seconds.
Step 8
Configure IKE Phase1 mode by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile ike phase1 {aggressive |main } profile-name
Step 9
Configure the peer identification mode by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile ike peer-identification {fqdn |user-fqdn | dn | ip } profile-name
Step 10
Configure the IKE authentication method and the shared secret by entering this command:
config ipsec-profile ike auth-mode {{pre-shared-key profile-name {ascii | hex} shared-secret} | {certificate
profile-name}}
Step 11
Save the configuration.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
312
CHAPTER
18
Cisco Umbrella WLAN (OpenDNS)
• Cisco Umbrella WLAN (OpenDNS), on page 313
• Configuring Cisco Umbrella WLAN (GUI), on page 314
• Configuring Cisco Umbrella WLAN (CLI), on page 315
• Configuring Local Policies for Cisco Umbrella (GUI), on page 316
Cisco Umbrella WLAN (OpenDNS)
The Cisco Umbrella WLAN (OpenDNS) provides a cloud-delivered network security service at the Domain
Name System (DNS) level, with automatic detection of both known and emergent threats.
This feature allows you to block sites that host malware, bot networks, and phishing before they actually
become malicious.
Cisco Umbrella WLAN provides:
• Policy configuration per user group at a single point.
• Policy configuration per network, group, user, device, or IP address.
The following is policy priority order:
1. Local policy
2. AP group
3. WLAN
• Visual security activity dashboard in real time with aggregated reports.
• Schedule and send reports through email.
• Support up to 60 content categories, with a provision to add custom allowed list and blocked list entries.
This feature does not work in the following scenarios:
• If an application or host use an IP address directly, instead of using DNS to query domain names.
• If a client is connected to a web proxy and does not send a DNS query to resolve the server address.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
313
Management of Controllers
Configuring Cisco Umbrella WLAN (GUI)
Note
For more information about integrating this feature, see the Cisco Umbrella WLAN Integration Guide at
https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/controller/technotes/8-4/b_cisco_umbrella_wlan_integration_
guide.html
.
Configuring Cisco Umbrella WLAN (GUI)
Before you begin
• You should have an account with Cisco Umbrella.
• You should have an API token from Cisco Umbrella.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > OpenDNS > General..
The OpenDNS General Configuration window is displayed.
Step 2
Check the OpenDNS Global Status check box to enable OpenDNS configuration.
Step 3
In the OpenDns-ApiToken field, enter the API-token obtained from the OpenDNS Server account.
Step 4
In the Profile Name field, enter the profile name that is to be used in the OpenDNS configuration.
Step 5
Click Add.
Step 6
Map the profile to the corresponding WLAN or AP group.
a) To map the profile to a WLAN, choose WLAN > WLAN ID > Advanced, and from the OpenDNS
Profile, select the desired profile.
Note
An administrator can configure OpenDNS in a WLAN in the following modes under the WLAN
advanced tab:
• DHCP Proxy for DNS override̶̶-This is the interface-level configuration, which forms
part of the DHCP process to propagate OpenDNS IP address to all WLANs associated to
the interface.
• OpenDNS Mode Force (default)- This mode is enforced per WLAN, which blocks
intentional client activity after client is associated to aWLAN.
• OpenDNS Mode Ignore (default)-The Cisco WLC honors the DNS server used by the
client, which could be OpenDNS server or enterprise/external DNS.
b) To map the profile to an AP group, choose WLANs > Advanced > AP Groups, select the corresponding
AP group, click the WLAN tab, and mouse over the blue button and select OpenDNS Profile.
To view OpenDNS mapping, choose Security > OpenDNS > General and click the Profile Mapped Summary
hyperlink.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
314
Management of Controllers
Configuring Cisco Umbrella WLAN (CLI)
Note
Step 7
Each Cisco Umbrella profile will have a unique OpenDNS-Identity generated on the controller (in
the format WLC name _profile name). This will be pushed to the associated Cisco Umbrella account
in the cloud.
Click Apply.
What to do next
1. From Cisco Umbrella Dashboard, verify that your Cisco WLC shows up under Device Name, along with
their identities
2. Create classification rules for the user roles, for example, rules for employees and nonemployees.
3. Configure policies on the Cisco Umbrella server.
Configuring Cisco Umbrella WLAN (CLI)
This section describes the procedure to configure Cisco Umbrella for a wireless LAN (WLAN) or an access
point (AP) group in a WLAN.
Before you begin
• You should have an account with Cisco Umbrella.
• You should have an API token from Cisco Umbrella.
Procedure
Step 1
config network dns serverip server-ip
Example:
(Cisco Controller) > config network dns serverip 208.67.222.222
Configures the DNS server IP address of the network.
Step 2
config opendns enable
Example:
(Cisco Controller) > config opendns enable
Enables the Cisco Umbrella global configuration.
Step 3
config opendns api-token api-token
Example:
(Cisco Controller) > config opendns api-token D72996C18DC334FB2E3AA46148D600A4001E5997
Registers the Cisco Umbrella API token on the network.
Step 4
config opendns profile create profilename
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
315
Management of Controllers
Configuring Local Policies for Cisco Umbrella (GUI)
Example:
(Cisco Controller) > config opendns profile create profile1
Creates an Cisco Umbrella profile that can be applied over a WLAN.
Step 5
config wlan opendns-profile wlan-id profile-name enable
Example:
(Cisco Controller) > config wlan opendns-profile wlan1 profile1 enable
Applies the Cisco Umbrella profile to a WLAN.
Step 6
config wlan apgroup opendns-profile wlan-id site-name profile-name enable
Example:
(Cisco Controller) >config wlan apgroup opendns-profile wlan1 apgrp1 profile1
(Optional) Applies the Cisco Umbrella profile to an AP group with the WLAN.
Step 7
config policy policy-name create
Example:
(Cisco Controller) > config policy ipad create
Creates a policy name.
In Cisco WLC, policy is generic term that specifies a rule and the associated action when that rule criteria is
met for given client.
You can create policy and have rule on that by saying if the rolename from AAA server comes as employee
take an action to apply Cisco Umbrella profile associated to that policy. Cisco Umbrella profile is applied to
the client if the WLAN of that client is mapped for this policy.
Step 8
config policy policy-name action opendns-profile-name enable
Example:
(Cisco Controller) > config policy ipad action opendns-profile-name enable
Attaches the policy name to the Cisco Umbrella profile.
What to do next
Configure policies in opendns.com.
• Configure granular policies to block sites based on the category of each profile (profiles are listed as
identities).
• Add allowed list and blocked list rules for each profile.
Configuring Local Policies for Cisco Umbrella (GUI)
When mapped to local policy, the Cisco Umbrella allows for a granular differentiated user browsing experience
based on dynamic evaluation of attributes (user role, device type, and so on).
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
316
Management of Controllers
Configuring Local Policies for Cisco Umbrella (GUI)
Use this procedure to configure user role based local policy and tie the corresponding Cisco Umbrella profile
to it. This procedure also provides information about how to map a local policy to a WLAN.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Security > Local Policies > New.
This opens the new policy creation page.
a) In the Policy Name field, enter the local policy name.
b) Click Apply.
Step 2
From the policies listed under Policy List, choose a Policy Name to configure the Cisco Umbrella profile.
a) From the Match Criteria sub-section, enter the Match Role String.
b) From the Action sub-section, select the required option from the OpenDNS Profile drop-down list.
c) Click Apply.
Step 3
Choose WLAN > WLAN ID > Policy Mapping.
a) In the Priority Index field, enter the priority index number.
b) From the Local Policy drop-down list, choose a value.
c) Click Add.
What to do next
Verify whether the policies you created are working, by connecting a client to the WLAN.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
317
Management of Controllers
Configuring Local Policies for Cisco Umbrella (GUI)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
318
CHAPTER
19
SNMP
• Guidelines and Limitations for SNMP, on page 319
• Configuring SNMP (CLI), on page 319
• SNMP Community Strings, on page 321
• Configuring Real Time Statistics (CLI), on page 323
• Configuring SNMP Trap Receiver (GUI), on page 324
Guidelines and Limitations for SNMP
We recommend that you do not have the SNMP management station in the subnet of dynamic interface or
service port of the controller.
If the SNMP management station subnet is the same as that of the dynamic interface, we recommend that you
set the SNMP queries to the IP address of the dynamic interface of the controller. Similarly, if the SNMP
management station subnet is the same as that of the service port, we recommend that you set the SNMP
queries to the IP address of the service port of the controller.
Controller has a limitation where, even if the queries are made to the management IP address, SNMP response
packets are sent with the source IP address as the dynamic interface or the service port respectively.
For more information, see CSCvk38081.
Configuring SNMP (CLI)
Note
Starting from Release 8.3, SNMP over IPSec, and SNMP Traps over IPSec is supported over IPv6 interfaces.
Note
To view the controller trap log, choose Monitor and click View All under “Most Recent Traps” on the
controller GUI.
Procedure
• Create an SNMP community name by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
319
Management of Controllers
Configuring SNMP (CLI)
config snmp community create name
• Delete an SNMP community name by entering this command:
config snmp community delete name
• Configure an SNMP community name with read-only privileges by entering this command:
config snmp community accessmode ro name
• Configure an SNMP community name with read-write privileges by entering this command:
config snmp community accessmode rw name
• For IPv4 configuration—Configure an IPv4 address and subnet mask for an SNMP community by
entering this command:
config snmp community ipaddr ip-address ip-mask name
Note
This command behaves like an SNMP access list. It specifies the IP address from which the device accepts
SNMP packets with the associated community. An AND operation is performed between the requesting
entity’s IP address and the subnet mask before being compared to the IP address. If the subnet mask is set to
0.0.0.0, an IP address of 0.0.0.0 matches to all IP addresses. The default value is 0.0.0.0.
Note
The controller can use only one IP address range to manage an SNMP community.
• For IPv6 configuration—Configure an IPv6 address and prefix-length for an SNMP community by
entering this command:
config snmp community ipaddr ipv6-address ip-mask name
• Enable or disable a community name by entering this command:
config snmp community mode {enable | disable}
• Enable or disable a community name by entering this command:
config snmp community ipsec {enable | disable}
• Configure a destination for a trap by entering this command:
config snmp trapreceiver create name ip-address
• Delete a trap by entering this command:
config snmp trapreceiver delete name
• Change the destination for a trap by entering this command:
config snmp trapreceiver ipaddr old-ip-address name new-ip-address
• Configure the trap receiver IPSec session entering this command:
config snmp trapreceiver ipsec {enable | disable} community-name
Trap receiver IPSec must be in the disabled state to change the authentication mode.
• Enable or disable the traps by entering this command:
config snmp trapreceiver mode {enable | disable}
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
320
Management of Controllers
SNMP Community Strings
• Configure the name of the SNMP contact by entering this command:
config snmp syscontact syscontact-name
Enter up to 31 alphanumeric characters for the contact name.
• Configure the SNMP system location by entering this command:
config snmp syslocation syslocation-name
Enter up to 31 alphanumeric characters for the location.
• Verify that the SNMP traps and communities are correctly configured by entering these commands:
show snmpcommunity
show snmptrap
Note
Related issue: CSCvr33858.
Read-only community does not get snmpEngineID. As per RFC 2575, the recommendation is such that, some
of the OIDs are to be restricted and one of them is SnmpEngineId(engineId). For more information, see
https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2575.
• See the enabled and disabled trap flags by entering this command:
show trapflags
If necessary, use the config trapflags command to enable or disable trap flags.
• Configure when the warning message should be displayed after the number of clients or RFID tags
associated with the controller hover around the threshold level by entering this command:
config trapflags {client | rfid} max-warning-threshold {threshold-between-80-to-100 | enable | disable}
The warning message is displayed at an interval of 600 seconds (10 minutes).
• Configure the SNMP engine ID by entering this command:
config snmp engineID engine-id-string
• View the engine ID by entering this command:
show snmpengineID
• Configure the SNMP version by entering this command:
config snmp version {v1 | v2c | v3} {enable | disable}
SNMP Community Strings
The controller has commonly known default values of "public" and "private" for the read-only and read-write
SNMP community strings. Using these standard values presents a security risk. If you use the default community
names, and since these are known, the community names could be used to communicate to the controller
using SNMP. Therefore, we strongly advise that you change these values.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
321
Management of Controllers
Changing the SNMP Community String Default Values (GUI)
Changing the SNMP Community String Default Values (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management and then Communities under SNMP. The SNMP v1 / v2c Community page appears.
Step 2
If “public” or “private” appears in the Community Name column, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down
arrow for the desired community and choose Remove to delete this community.
Step 3
Click New to create a new community. The SNMP v1 / v2c Community > New page appears.
Step 4
In the Community Name text box, enter a unique name containing up to 16 alphanumeric characters. Do not
enter “public” or “private.”
Step 5
In the next two text boxes, enter the IPv4/IPv6 address and IP Mask/Prefix Length from which this device
accepts SNMP packets with the associated community and the IP mask.
Step 6
Choose Read Only or Read/Write from the Access Mode drop-down list to specify the access level for this
community.
Step 7
Choose Enable or Disable from the Status drop-down list to specify the status of this community.
Step 8
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 9
Click Save Configuration to save your settings.
Step 10
Repeat this procedure if a “public” or “private” community still appears on the SNMP v1 / v2c Community
page.
Changing the SNMP Community String Default Values (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
See the current list of SNMP communities for this controller by entering this command:
show snmp community
Step 2
If "public" or "private" appears in the SNMP Community Name column, enter this command to delete this
community:
config snmp community delete name
The name parameter is the community name (in this case, “public” or “private”).
Step 3
Create a new community by entering this command:
config snmp community create name
Enter up to 16 alphanumeric characters for the name parameter. Do not enter “public” or “private.”
Step 4
For IPv4 specific configuration, enter the IPv4 address from which this device accepts SNMP packets with
the associated community by entering this command:
config snmp community ipaddr ip_address ip_mask name
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
322
Management of Controllers
Configuring Real Time Statistics (CLI)
Step 5
For IPv6 specific configuration, enter the IPv6 address from which this device accepts SNMP packets with
the associated community by entering this command:
config snmp community ipaddr ip_address prefix_length name
Step 6
Specify the access level for this community by entering this command, where ro is read-only mode and rw
is read/write mode:
config snmp community accessmode {ro | rw} name
Step 7
Enable or disable this SNMP community by entering this command:
config snmp community mode {enable | disable} name
Step 8
Enable or disable SNMP IPSec sessions for all SNMP communities by entering this command:
config snmp community ipsec {enable | disable} name
By default SNMP IPSec session is disabled. SNMP IPSec session must be disabled state to change the
authentication mode.
Step 9
Configure the IKE authentication methods by entering this command:
config snmp community ipsec ike auth-mode {certificate | pre-shared-key ascii/hex secret}
• If authentication mode is configured as pre-shared-key, then enter a secret value. The secret value can
either be an ASCII or a hexadecimal value. If auth-mode configured is certificate, then WLC will use
the ipsecCaCert and ipsecDevCerts for SNMP over IPSEC.
• If authentication mode is configured as certificate, then controller uses the IPSEC CA and IPSEC device
certificates for SNMP sessions. You need to download these certificates to the controller using the
transfer download datatype {ipseccacert | ipsecdevcert} command.
Step 10
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 11
Repeat this procedure if you still need to change the default values for a “public” or “private” community
string.
Configuring Real Time Statistics (CLI)
SNMP traps are defined for CPU and memory utilization of AP and controller. The SNMP trap is sent out
when the threshold is crossed. The sampling period and statistics update interval can be configured using
SNMP and CLI.
Note
To get the right value for the current memory usage, you should configure either sampling interval or statistics
interval.
• Configure the sampling interval by entering this command:
config service statistics sampling-interval seconds
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
323
Management of Controllers
SNMP Trap Enhancements
• Configure the statistics interval by entering this command:
config service statistics statistics-interval seconds
• See sampling and service interval statistics by entering this command:
show service statistics interval
SNMP Trap Enhancements
This feature provides soaking of SNMP traps and resending of traps after a threshold that you can configure
called the hold time. The hold time helps in suppressing false traps being generated. The traps that are supported
are for CPU and memory utilization of AP and controller. The retransmission of the trap occurs until the trap
is cleared.
Procedure
• Configure the hold time after which the SNMP traps are to be resent by entering this command:
config service alarm hold-time seconds
• Configure the retransmission interval of the trap by entering this command:
config service alarm trap retransmit-interval seconds
• Configure debugging of the traps by entering this command:
debug service alarm {enable | disable}
Configuring SNMP Trap Receiver (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Management > SNMP > Trap Receivers.
Step 2
Click New.
The SNMP Trap Receiver > New page is displayed.
Step 3
In the SNMP Trap Receiver Name box, enter the SNMP trap receiver name.
Step 4
In the IP Address (IPv4/IPv6) box, enter the IP address of the trap receiver. Both IPv4 and IPv6 address
formats are supported.
Step 5
From the Status drop-down list, choose to Enable or Disable the trap receiver.
Step 6
Check the IPSec check box if you want to enable IPSec parameters for the trap receiver.
Step 7
(Optional) If you enable the IPSec for the trap receiver, choose an IPSec Profile Name from the drop-down
list.
Step 8
Save the configuration.
You can create a maximum of 6 such SNMP trap receivers.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
324
PA R T
III
Mobility
• Overview, on page 327
• Auto-Anchor Mobility, on page 333
• Mobility Groups, on page 341
• Encrypted Mobility Tunnel, on page 353
• Monitoring and Validating Mobility, on page 357
CHAPTER
20
Overview
• Information About Mobility, on page 327
Information About Mobility
Mobility, or roaming, is a wireless LAN client’s ability to maintain its association seamlessly from one access
point to another securely and with as little latency as possible. This section explains how mobility works when
controllers are included in a wireless network.
When a wireless client associates and authenticates to an access point, the access point’s controller places an
entry for that client in its client database. This entry includes the client’s MAC and IP addresses, security
context and associations, quality of service (QoS) contexts, the WLAN, and the associated access point. The
controller uses this information to forward frames and manage traffic to and from the wireless client.
Note
The information about mobility in this section applies to APs in only Local Mode. For APs in FlexConnect
mode, see the FlexConnect section.
The figure below shows a wireless client that roams from one local mode access point to another local mode
access point when both access points are joined to the same controller.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
327
Mobility
Information About Mobility
Figure 21: Intracontroller Roaming
When the wireless client moves its association from one access point to another, the controller simply updates
the client database with the newly associated access point. If necessary, new security context and associations
are established as well.
The process becomes more complicated, however, when a client roams from an access point joined to one
controller to an access point joined to a different controller. It also varies based on whether the controllers are
operating on the same subnet.
The figure below shows intercontroller Layer 2 roaming, which occurs when the wireless LAN interfaces of
the controllers are on the same IP subnet.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
328
Mobility
Information About Mobility
Figure 22: Intercontroller Layer 2 Roaming
When the client associates to an access point joined to a new controller, the new controller exchanges mobility
messages with the original controller, and the client database entry is moved to the new controller. New
security context and associations are established if necessary, and the client database entry is updated for the
new access point. This process remains transparent to the user.
The figure below shows intercontroller Layer 3 roaming, which occurs when the wireless LAN interfaces of
the controllers are on different IP subnets.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
329
Mobility
Guidelines and Restrictions
Figure 23: Intercontroller Layer 3 Roaming
Layer 3 roaming is similar to Layer 2 roaming in that the controllers exchange mobility messages on the client
roam. However, instead of moving the client database entry to the new controller, the original controller marks
the client with an “Anchor” entry in its own client database. The database entry is copied to the new controller
client database and marked with a “Foreign” entry in the new controller. The roam remains transparent to the
wireless client, and the client maintains its original IP address.
Guidelines and Restrictions
• If the management VLAN of one controller is present as a dynamic VLAN on another controller, the
mobility feature is not supported.
• If a client roams in web authentication state, the client is considered as a new client on another controller
instead of considering it as a mobile client.
• When the primary and secondary controller fail to ping each other’s IPv6 addresses, and they are in the
same VLAN, you need to disable snooping to get the controller to ping each other successfully.
• Cisco Wireless Controllers (that are mobility peers) must use the same DHCP server to have an updated
client mobility move count on intra-VLAN.
• The New Mobility feature is not supported in Release 8.6 and later releases.
• Ensure that the interface name is the same across mobility peers for AAA override to work as expected.
• Up through 8.5, intercontroller roaming was not supported in the following scenarios:
• Central web authentication (CWA) without 802.1X
• Web authenticationon MAC filter failure
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
330
Mobility
Guidelines and Restrictions
These scenarios are supported with intercontroller roaming beginning with Release 8.6.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
331
Mobility
Guidelines and Restrictions
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
332
CHAPTER
21
Auto-Anchor Mobility
• Information about Auto-Anchor Mobility, on page 333
• Restrictions for Auto-Anchor Mobility, on page 334
• Configuring Auto-Anchor Mobility (GUI), on page 335
• Configuring Auto-Anchor Mobility (CLI), on page 336
• Guest Anchor Priority, on page 338
Information about Auto-Anchor Mobility
You can use auto-anchor mobility (also called guest tunneling) to improve load balancing and security for
roaming clients on your wireless LANs. Under normal roaming conditions, client devices join a wireless LAN
and are anchored to the first controller that they contact. If a client roams to a different subnet, the controller
to which the client roamed sets up a foreign session for the client with the anchor controller. However, when
you use the auto-anchor mobility feature, you can specify a controller or set of controllers as the anchor points
for clients on a wireless LAN.
In auto-anchor mobility mode, a subset of a mobility group is specified as the anchor controllers for a WLAN.
You can use this feature to restrict a WLAN to a single subnet, regardless of a client’s entry point into the
network. Clients can then access a guest WLAN throughout an enterprise but still be restricted to a specific
subnet. Auto-anchor mobility can also provide geographic load balancing because the WLANs can represent
a particular section of a building (such as a lobby, a restaurant, and so on), effectively creating a set of home
controllers for a WLAN. Instead of being anchored to the first controller that they happen to contact, mobile
clients can be anchored to controllers that control access points in a particular vicinity.
When a client first associates to a controller of a mobility group that has been preconfigured as a mobility
anchor for a WLAN, the client associates to the controller locally, and a local session is created for the client.
Clients can be anchored only to preconfigured anchor controllers of the WLAN. For a given WLAN, you
should configure the same set of anchor controllers on all controllers in the mobility group.
When a client first associates to a controller of a mobility group that has not been configured as a mobility
anchor for a WLAN, the client associates to the controller locally, a local session is created for the client, and
the client is announced to the other controllers in the mobility list. If the announcement is not answered, the
controller contacts one of the anchor controllers configured for the WLAN and creates a foreign session for
the client on the local switch. Packets from the client are encapsulated through a mobility tunnel using EtherIP
and sent to the anchor controller, where they are decapsulated and delivered to the wired network. Packets to
the client are received by the anchor controller and forwarded to the foreign controller through a mobility
tunnel using EtherIP. The foreign controller decapsulates the packets and forwards them to the client.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
333
Mobility
Restrictions for Auto-Anchor Mobility
If multiple controllers are added as mobility anchors for a particular WLAN on a foreign controller, the foreign
controller internally sorts the controller by their IP address. The controller with the lowest IP address is the
first anchor. For example, a typical ordered list would be 172.16.7.25, 172.16.7.28, 192.168.5.15. If the first
client associates to the foreign controller's anchored WLAN, the client database entry is sent to the first anchor
controller in the list, the second client is sent to the second controller in the list, and so on, until the end of
the anchor list is reached. The process is repeated starting with the first anchor controller. If any of the anchor
controller is detected to be down, all the clients anchored to the controller are deauthenticated, and the clients
then go through the authentication/anchoring process again in a round-robin manner with the remaining
controller in the anchor list. This functionality is also extended to regular mobility clients through mobility
failover. This feature enables mobility group members to detect failed members and reroute clients.
Restrictions for Auto-Anchor Mobility
• Mobility list members can send ping requests to one another to check the data and control paths among
them to find failed members and reroute clients. You can configure the number and interval of ping
requests that are sent to each anchor controller. This functionality provides guest N+1 redundancy for
guest tunneling and mobility failover for regular mobility.
• You must add controllers to the mobility group member list before you can designate them as mobility
anchors for a WLAN.
• You can configure multiple controllers as mobility anchors for a WLAN.
• You must configure the WLANs on both the foreign controller and the anchor controller with mobility
anchors. On the anchor controller, configure the anchor controller itself as a mobility anchor. On the
foreign controller, configure the anchor as a mobility anchor.
• It is not possible for clients, WGB, and wired clients to directly connect to a DMZ guest anchor and
move to a foreign controller.
• Auto-anchor mobility is not supported for use with DHCP option 82.
• When using the guest N+1 redundancy and mobility failover features with a firewall, make sure that the
following ports are open:
• UDP 16666 for tunnel control traffic
• IP Protocol 97 for user data traffic
• UDP 161 and 162 for SNMP
• In case of roaming between anchor controller and foreign mobility, the client addresses learned at the
anchor controller is shown at the foreign controller. You must check the foreign controller to view the
RA throttle statistics.
• For Layer 3 RADIUS authentication, the RADIUS requests for authentication are sent by the anchor
controller.
• The mobility anchor is not supported on virtual wireless LAN controllers.
• In a guest anchor Cisco WLC deployment, ensure that the foreign Cisco WLC does not have a WLAN
mapped to a VLAN that is associated with the guest anchor Cisco WLC.
• In Old Mobility, when roaming from foreign to anchor WLC, the other foreign WLCs in the mobility
group do not receive mobile announce messages.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
334
Mobility
Configuring Auto-Anchor Mobility (GUI)
Configuring Auto-Anchor Mobility (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Configure the controller to detect failed anchor controllers within a mobility group as follows:
a) Choose Controller > Mobility Management > Mobility Anchor Config to open the Mobility Anchor
Config page.
b) In the Keep Alive Count text box, enter the number of times a ping request is sent to an anchor controller
before the anchor is considered to be unreachable. The valid range is 3 to 20, and the default value is 3.
c) In the Keep Alive Interval text box, enter the amount of time (in seconds) between each ping request that
is sent to an anchor controller. The valid range is 1 to 30 seconds, and the default value is 10 seconds.
d) In the DSCP Value text box, enter the DSCP value. The default is 0.
Note
While configuring the Mobility DSCP value, the mobility control socket (i.e control messages
exchanged between mobility peers only and not the data) is also updated. The configured value
must reflect in the IPV4 header TOS field. This is a global configuration on the controller that
is used to communicate among configured mobility peers only.
e) Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 2
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Step 3
Click the blue drop-down arrow for the desired WLAN or wired guest LAN and choose Mobility Anchors.
The Mobility Anchors page appears.
This page lists the controllers that have already been configured as mobility anchors and shows the current
state of their data and control paths. Controllers within a mobility group communicate among themselves over
a well-known UDP port and exchange data traffic through an Ethernet-over-IP (EoIP) tunnel. They send
mpings, which test mobility control packet reachability over the management interface over mobility UDP
port 16666 and they send epings, which test the mobility data traffic over the management interface over EoIP
port 97. The Control Path text box shows whether mpings have passed (up) or failed (down), and the Data
Path text box shows whether epings have passed (up) or failed (down). If the Data or Control Path text box
shows “down,” the mobility anchor cannot be reached and is considered failed.
Step 4
Select the IPv4/IPv6 address of the controller to be designated a mobility anchor in the Switch IP Address
(Anchor) drop-down list.
Step 5
Click Mobility Anchor Create. The selected controller becomes an anchor for this WLAN or wired guest
LAN.
Note
To delete a mobility anchor for a WLAN or wired guest LAN, hover your cursor over the blue
drop-down arrow for the anchor and choose Remove.
Step 6
Click Save Configuration.
Step 7
Repeat Step 4 and Step 6 to set any other controllers as mobility anchors for this WLAN or wired guest LAN.
Step 8
Configure the same set of mobility anchors on every controller in the mobility group.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
335
Mobility
Configuring Auto-Anchor Mobility (CLI)
Configuring Auto-Anchor Mobility (CLI)
Procedure
Command or Action
Step 1
The controller is programmed to always detect
failed mobility list members. To change the
parameters for the ping exchange between
mobility members, enter these commands:
Purpose
• config mobility group keepalive count
count—Specifies the number of times a
ping request is sent to a mobility list
member before the member is considered
to be unreachable. The valid range is 3 to
20, and the default value is 3.
• config mobility group keepalive interval
seconds—Specifies the amount of time (in
seconds) between each ping request sent
to a mobility list member. The valid range
is 1 to 30 seconds, and the default value is
10 seconds.
Step 2
Disable the WLAN or wired guest LAN for
config {wlan | guest-lan} disable {wlan_id |
which you are configuring mobility anchors by guest_lan_id}
entering this command:
Step 3
Create a new mobility anchor for the WLAN
or wired guest LAN by entering one of these
commands:
• config mobility group anchor add {wlan
| guest-lan} {wlan_id | guest_lan_id}
anchor_controller_ip_address
• config {wlan | guest-lan} mobility
anchor add {wlan_id | guest_lan_id}
anchor_controller_ip_address
Note
The wlan_id or guest_lan_id
must exist and be disabled, and
the
anchor_controller_ip_address
must be a member of the
default mobility group.
Auto-anchor mobility is
enabled for the WLAN or wired
guest LAN when you configure
the first mobility anchor.
Step 4
Delete a mobility anchor for the WLAN or
wired guest LAN by entering one of these
commands:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
336
• config mobility group anchor delete
{wlan | guest-lan} {wlan_id |
guest_lan_id}
anchor_controller_ip_address
Mobility
Configuring Auto-Anchor Mobility (CLI)
Command or Action
Purpose
• config {wlan | guest-lan} mobility anchor
delete {wlan_id | guest_lan_id}
anchor_controller_ip_address
The wlan_id or guest_lan_id
must exist and be disabled.
Note
Deleting the last anchor
disables the auto-anchor
mobility feature and resumes
normal mobility for new
associations.
Step 5
Save your settings by entering this command: save config
Step 6
See a list and status of controllers configured
as mobility anchors for a specific WLAN or
wired guest LAN by entering this command:
show mobility anchor {wlan | guest-lan}
{wlan_id | guest_lan_id}
Note
The wlan_id and guest_lan_id
parameters are optional and constrain the
list to the anchors in a particular WLAN
or guest LAN. To see all of the mobility
anchors on your system, enter the show
mobility anchor command.
The Status text box shows one of these
values:
UP—The controller is reachable and able
to pass data.
CNTRL_PATH_DOWN—The mpings
failed. The controller cannot be reached
through the control path and is
considered failed.
DATA_PATH_DOWN—The epings
failed. The controller cannot be reached
and is considered failed.
CNTRL_DATA_PATH_DOWN—Both
the mpings and epings failed. The
controller cannot be reached and is
considered failed.
Step 7
See the status of all mobility group members
by entering this command:
Step 8
Troubleshoot mobility issues by entering these
commands:
show mobility summary
• debug mobility handoff {enable |
disable}—Debugs mobility handoff issues.
• debug mobility keep-alive {enable |
disable} all—Dumps the keepalive
packets for all mobility anchors.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
337
Mobility
Guest Anchor Priority
Command or Action
Purpose
• debug mobility keep-alive {enable |
disable} IP_address—Dumps the
keepalive packets for a specific mobility
anchor.
Guest Anchor Priority
The guest anchor priority feature provides a mechanism that gives "active/standby" load distribution amongst
the anchor controllers. This is achieved by assigning a fixed priority to each anchor controller, by distributing
the load to highest priority controller and in round-robin fashion if they have the same priority value.
Releases Prior to 8.1
With Release 8.1
All guest clients are load balanced in round robin
fashion amongst anchor controllers
All guest clients are sent to anchor controller with
highest priority in relation to local internal controller
If an anchor fails, guest clients will be load balanced If an anchor fails, guest clients will be sent to the next
amongst remaining anchor controllers
highest priority or round robin if remaining anchors
have same priority value
You can configure a priority to the guest anchor when you configure a WLAN. Priority values range from 1
(high) to 3 (low) or primary, secondary or tertiary and defined priority is displayed with guest anchor. Only
one priority value is allowed per anchor controller. Selection of guest anchor is round-robin based on a single
priority value. If a guest anchor is down, the fallback would be on guest anchors with equal priority. If all
guest anchors with same priority value are down, the selection would be on a round-robin basis on next highest
priority and so on. Default priority value is 3. If controller is upgraded to Release 8.1, it will be marked with
priority 3. Priority configurations are retained across reboots. The priority configuration would be synchronized
on HA pair for seamless switchover. Same set of rules apply in determining the anchor controller regardless
of IPv4 and/or IPv6 addressing. That is, highest priority value is determinant and not addressing including
dual stack case.
Restrictions
• No hard limit on the number of times a priority value is used
• Feature applies only to wireless and "old" mobility model
• Maximum supported anchor per WLAN is 24 (same as maximum anchor per WLAN in releases prior
to 8.1)
• Downgrading from Release 8.1 would void this feature since it is not supported on earlier images
• If a guest anchor with higher priority comes up, the existing connections will not shift to the new high
priority anchor and only the new connections will go to it
• This feature is applicable when all internal and anchor controllers are using Release 8.1
• There should not be a local address with priority of zero at the Internal/Foreign controller. Priority 0 in
the output indicates a local IP address. For example at the anchor controller on DMZ with tunnel
termination
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
338
Mobility
Configuring Guest Anchor Priority (GUI)
Deployment Considerations
• Priority configuration should only be done on foreign controller WLAN. On the mobility list if you are
seeing value zero and non-zero that means the same controller is acting as Anchor for few WLANs and
foreign controller for few WLAN, if you have controller in DMZ and there is no APs connected to it,
then we should not see any non-zero priority for any of its WLANs, as this should be the terminating
point for all the clients on the network.
• Ideally we should not see priority zero on foreign controller and non-zero on anchor controller. example:
10.10.10.10(SF) and 20.20.20.20(NY) should not have any priority with zero and DMZ controller
172.10.10.10(SF) and 172.20.20.20(NY) should not have any priority with non-zero values.
• Here priority values zero is not configurable when we select the controller own IP Address as anchor. It
will automatically set the priority zero if controller own IP address is selected as anchor.
Examples
• Local anchor controllers may be grouped together with higher priority value than group of remote anchor
controllers
• Guest client traffic goes to Anchor controller(s) that is/are local to internal controller rather than remote
one(s) due to having higher priority value
• Guest client traffic will be load balanced in round-robin across local anchor controllers since local anchors
have same priority value
• If all local anchor controllers fail then traffic will be load balanced in round-robin across remote anchor
controller with next priority level
This section contains the following subsections:
Configuring Guest Anchor Priority (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs.
Step 2
Mouse over the blue down arrow and click Mobility Anchors.
Step 3
On the Mobility Anchors page, select the mobility anchor from the Switch IP Address (Anchor) drop-down
list and assign a priority.
Configuring Guest Anchor Priority (CLI)
Procedure
• To configure Guest Anchor priority:
config wlan mobility anchor add wlan-id ip-addr priority prioirity-number
• To validate proper anchor WLC through assigned client address:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
339
Mobility
Configuring Guest Anchor Priority (CLI)
show client summary ip
• To check whether the expected anchor is getting the request:
debug mobility handoff enable
• To check the anchor priority list of a WLAN:
test mobility anchor-prioritylist wlan-id
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
340
CHAPTER
22
Mobility Groups
• Information About Mobility Groups, on page 341
• Prerequisites for Configuring Mobility Groups, on page 344
• Configuring Mobility Groups (GUI), on page 346
• Configuring Mobility Groups (CLI), on page 348
• Viewing Mobility Group Statistics (GUI), on page 349
• Viewing Mobility Group Statistics (CLI), on page 351
Information About Mobility Groups
A mobility group is a set of controllers, identified by the same mobility group name, that defines the realm
of seamless roaming for wireless clients. By creating a mobility group, you can enable multiple controllers
in a network to dynamically share information and forward data traffic when inter-controller or inter-subnet
roaming occurs. Controllers in the same mobility group can share the context and state of client devices as
well as their list of access points so that they do not consider each other’s access points as rogue devices. With
this information, the network can support inter-controller wireless LAN roaming and controller redundancy.
Note
When an AP moves from one controller to another controller (when both controllers are mobility peers), a
client associated to the first controller before the move may be anchored to it even after the move. To prevent
such a scenario, you should remove the mobility peer configuration of the controller.
Note
Controllers do not have to be of the same model to be a member of a mobility group. Mobility groups can be
comprised of any combination of controller platforms.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
341
Mobility
Information About Mobility Groups
Figure 24: Example of a Single Mobility Group
As shown above, each controller is configured with a list of the other members of the mobility group. Whenever
a new client joins a controller, the controller sends out a unicast message (or multicast message if mobility
multicast is configured) to all of the controllers in the mobility group. The controller to which the client was
previously connected passes on the status of the client.
For example, if a controller supports 6000 access points, a mobility group that consists of 24 such controllers
supports up to 144,000 access points (24 * 6000 = 144,000 access points).
Mobility groups enable you to limit roaming between different floors, buildings, or campuses in the same
enterprise by assigning different mobility group names to different controllers within the same wireless
network.
You can configure both IPv4 and IPv6 multicast address for a mobility group. When both the address formats
are configured:
• For all IPv4 mobility group members in the mobility group, the IPv4 multicast group is displayed in the
mobility summary information.
• For all IPv6 mobility group members in the mobility group, the IPv6 multicast group is displayed in the
mobility summary information.
• If you have configured IPv4 multicast for a mobility group, the IPv4 multicast address is not displayed
in the mobility summary information if there are no IPv4 mobility group members.
• If you have configured IPv6 multicast for a mobility group, the IPv6 multicast address is not displayed
in the mobility summary information if there are no IPv6 mobility group members.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
342
Mobility
Information About Mobility Groups
Figure 25: Two Mobility Groups
This figure shows the results of creating distinct mobility group names for two groups of controllers.
The controllers in the ABC mobility group share access point and client information with each other. The
controllers in the ABC mobility group do not share the access point or client information with the XYZ
controllers, which are in a different mobility group. Likewise, the controllers in the XYZ mobility group do
not share access point or client information with the controllers in the ABC mobility group. This feature
ensures mobility group isolation across the network.
Every controller maintains information about its peer controllers in a mobility list. Controllers can communicate
across mobility groups and clients may roam between access points in different mobility groups if the controllers
are included in each other’s mobility lists. In the following example, controller 1 can communicate with either
controller 2 or 3, but controller 2 and controller 3 can communicate only with controller 1 and not with each
other. Similarly, clients can roam between controller 1 and controller 2 or between controller 1 and controller
3 but not between controller 2 and controller 3.
Table 13: Example
Controller 1
Controller 2
Controller 3
Mobility group: A
Mobility group: A
Mobility group: C
Mobility list:
Mobility list:
Mobility list:
Controller 1 (group A)
Controller 1 (group A)
Controller 1 (group A)
Controller 2 (group A)
Controller 2 (group A)
Controller 3 (group C)
Controller 3 (group C) ?
In a mobility list, the following combinations of mobility groups and members are allowed:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
343
Mobility
Prerequisites for Configuring Mobility Groups
• 3 mobility groups with 24 members in each group
• 12 mobility groups with 6 members in each group
• 24 mobility groups with 3 members in each group
• 72 mobility groups with 1 member in each group
The controller supports seamless roaming across multiple mobility groups. During seamless roaming, the
client maintains its IP address across all mobility groups; however, Cisco Centralized Key Management
(CCKM) and proactive key caching (PKC) are supported only for inter-mobility-group roaming. When a
client crosses a mobility group boundary during a roam, the client is fully authenticated, but the IP address is
maintained, and mobility tunneling is initiated for Layer 3 roaming.
Note
When client moves to a non anchored SSID from an anchored sSSID on foreign, there is a stale entry on
foreign .This happens when multicast mobile announce does not reach from foreign to guest anchor due to
whatsoever reason, due to this the service is not impacted and configuration goes unnoticed but silently leaks
MSCB on GA .There is no debug or error message shown nor does the GA runs a timer per client to cleanup.
A HandoffEnd needs to be sent from foreign to Anchor since there is no timer.
Prerequisites for Configuring Mobility Groups
Before you add controllers to a mobility group, you must verify that the following requirements have been
met for all controllers that are to be included in the group:
• IP connectivity must exist between the management interfaces of all controllers.
Note
You can verify IP connectivity by pinging the controllers.
Note
Mobility control packets can use any interface address as the source, based on
routing table. It is recommended that all controllers in the mobility group should
have the management interface in the same subnet. A topology where one
controller's management interface and other controller's dynamic interface are
on same subnet not recommended for seamless mobility.
• When controllers in the mobility list use different software versions, Layer 2 or Layer 3 clients have
limited roaming support. Layer 2 or Layer 3 client roaming is supported only between controllers that
use the same version or with controllers that run versions 7.X.X.
Note
If you inadvertently configure a controller with a failover controller that runs a
different software release, the access point might take a long time to join the
failover controller because the access point starts the discovery process in
CAPWAP and then changes to LWAPP discovery.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
344
Mobility
Prerequisites for Configuring Mobility Groups
• All controllers must be configured with the same virtual interface IP address.
Note
If necessary, you can change the virtual interface IP address by editing the virtual
interface name on the Controller > Interfaces page.
Note
If all the controllers within a mobility group are not using the same virtual
interface, inter-controller roaming may appear to work, but the handoff does not
complete, and the client loses connectivity for a period of time.
• You must have gathered the MAC address and IP address of every controller that is to be included in the
mobility group. This information is necessary because you will be configuring all controllers with the
MAC address and IP address of all the other mobility group members.
Note
You can find the MAC and IP addresses of the other controllers to be included
in the mobility group on the Controller > Mobility Groups page of each controller’s
GUI.
• When you configure mobility groups using a third-party firewall, for example, Cisco PIX, or Cisco ASA,
you must open port 16666, and IP protocol 97.
• For intercontroller CAPWAP data and control traffic, you must open the ports 5247 and 5246.
This table lists the protocols and port numbers that must be used for management and operational purposes:
Table 14: Protocol/Service and Port Number
Note
Protocol/Service
Port Number
SSH/Telnet
TCP Port 22 or 29
TFTP
UDP Port 69
NTP/SNTP
UDP Port 123
SNMP
UDP Port 161 for gets and sets and UDP port 162 for
traps.
HTTPS/HTTP
TCP port 443 for HTTPS and port 80 for HTTP
Syslog
TCP port 514
Radius Auth/Account
UDP port 1812 and 1813
To view information on mobility support across controllers with different software versions, see the
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/td/docs/wireless/compatibility/matrix/compatibility-matrix.html. .
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
345
Mobility
Configuring Mobility Groups (GUI)
Note
You cannot perform port address translation (PAT) on the firewall. You must configure one-to-one network
address translation (NAT).
Configuring Mobility Groups (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Mobility Management > Mobility Groups to open the Static Mobility Group Members
page.
This page shows the mobility group name in the Default Mobility Group text box and lists the MAC address
and IPv4/IPv6 address of each controller that is currently a member of the mobility group. The first entry is
the local controller, which cannot be deleted.
If you want to delete any of the remote controllers from the mobility group, hover your cursor over
the blue drop-down arrow for the desired controller and choose Remove.
Note
Step 2
Perform one of the following to add controllers to a mobility group:
• If you are adding only one controller or want to individually add multiple controllers, click New.
OR
• If you are adding multiple controllers and want to add them in bulk, click EditAll.
Note
The EditAll option enables you to enter the MAC and IPv4/IPv6 addresses of all the current mobility
group members and then copy and paste all the entries from one controller to the other controllers
in the mobility group.
Step 3
Click New to open the Mobility Group Member > New page.
Step 4
Add a controller to the mobility group as follows:
a. In the Member IP Address text box, enter the management interface IPv4/IPv6 address of the controller
to be added.
Note
If you are configuring the mobility group in a network where network address translation (NAT)
is enabled, enter the IPv4/IPv6 address that is sent to the controller from the NAT device rather
than the controller’s management interface IPv4/IPv6 address. Otherwise, mobility will fail
among controllers in the mobility group.
b. In the Member MAC Address text box, enter the MAC address of the controller to be added.
c. In the Group Name text box, enter the name of the mobility group.
Note
The mobility group name is case sensitive.
d. In the Hash text box, enter the hash key of the peer mobility controller, which should be a virtual controller
in the same domain.
You must configure the hash only if the peer mobility controller is a virtual controller in the same domain.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
346
Mobility
Configuring Mobility Groups (GUI)
Note
Hash is not supported for IPv6 members.
e. Click Apply to commit your changes. The new controller is added to the list of mobility group members
on the Static Mobility Group Members page.
f.
Click Save Configuration.
g. Repeat Step a through Step e to add all of the controllers in the mobility group.
h. Repeat this procedure on every controller to be included in the mobility group. All controllers in the
mobility group must be configured with the MAC address and IPv4/IPv6 address of all other mobility
group members.
The Mobility Group Members > EditAll page lists the MAC address, IPv4/IPv6 address, and mobility group
name (optional) of all the controllers currently in the mobility group. The controllers are listed one per line
with the local controller at the top of the list.
Note
Step 5
If desired, you can edit or delete any of the controllers in the list.
Add more controllers to the mobility group as follows:
a. Click inside the edit box to start a new line.
b. Enter the MAC address, the management interface IPv4/IPv6 address, and the name of the mobility group
for the controller to be added.
Note
You should enter these values on one line and separate each value with one or two spaces.
Note
The mobility group name is case sensitive.
c. Repeat Step a and Step b for each additional controller that you want to add to the mobility group.
d. Highlight and copy the complete list of entries in the edit box.
e. Click Apply to commit your changes. The new controllers are added to the list of mobility group members
on the Static Mobility Group Members page.
f.
Click Save Configurationto save your changes.
g. Paste the list into the text box on the Mobility Group Members > Edit All page of all the other controllers
in the mobility group and click Apply and Save Configuration.
Step 6
Choose Mobility Management > Multicast Messaging to open the Mobility Multicast Messaging page.
The names of all the currently configured mobility groups appear in the middle of the page.
Step 7
On the Mobility Multicast Messaging page, check the Enable Multicast Messaging check box to enable
the controller to use multicast mode to send Mobile Announce messages to the mobility members. If you
leave it unselected, the controller uses unicast mode to send the Mobile Announce messages. The default
value is unselected.
Step 8
If you enabled multicast messaging in the previous step, enter the multicast group IPv4 address for the local
mobility group in the Local Group Multicast IPv4 Address text box. This address is used for multicast
mobility messaging.
Note
In order to use multicast messaging, you must configure the IPv4 address for the local mobility
group.
Note
In release 8.0, IPv6 is not supported for mobility multicast.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
347
Mobility
Configuring Mobility Groups (CLI)
Step 9
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 10
If desired, you can also configure the multicast group IPv4 address for non-local groups within the mobility
list. To do so, click the name of a non-local mobility group to open the Mobility Multicast Messaging > Edit
page, and enter the multicast group IPv4 address for the non-local mobility group in the Multicast IP Address
text box.
Note
If you do not configure the multicast IPv4 address for non-local groups, the controller uses unicast
mode to send mobility messages to those members.
Step 11
Click Apply.
Step 12
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring Mobility Groups (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Check the current mobility settings by entering this command:
show mobility summary
Step 2
Create a mobility group by entering this command:
config mobility group domain domain_name
Note
Step 3
Enter up to 31 case-sensitive ASCII characters for the group name. Spaces are not allowed in mobility
group names.
Add a group member by entering this command:
config mobility group member add mac_address ip_address
Step 4
Note
If you are configuring the mobility group in a network where network address translation (NAT)
is enabled, enter the IP address that is sent to the controller from the NAT device rather than the
controller’s management interface IP address. Otherwise, mobility will fail among controllers in
the mobility group.
Note
Enter the config mobility group member delete mac_address command if you want to delete a
group member.
To configure the hash key of a peer mobility controller, which is a virtual controller in the same domain, enter
this command:
config mobility group member hash peer-ip-address key
Step 5
Enable or disable multicast mobility mode by entering this command:
config mobility multicast-mode {enable | disable} local_group_multicast_address
where local_group_multicast_address is the multicast group IPv4 address for the local mobility group. This
address is used for multicast mobility messaging.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
348
Mobility
Viewing Mobility Group Statistics (GUI)
Note
In order to use multicast messaging, you must configure the IPv4 address for the local mobility
group.
Note
In release 8.0, IPv6 is not supported for mobility multicast.
If you enable multicast mobility mode, the controller uses multicast mode to send Mobile Announce messages
to the local group. If you disable multicast mobility mode, the controller uses unicast mode to send the Mobile
Announce messages to the local group. The default value is disabled.
Step 6
(Optional) You can also configure the multicast group IPv4 address for non-local groups within the mobility
list. To do so, enter this command:
config mobility group multicast-address group_name IP_address
If you do not configure the multicast IPv4 address for non-local groups, the controller uses unicast mode to
send mobility messages to those members.
Step 7
Verify the mobility configuration by entering this command:
show mobility summary
Step 8
To see the hash key of mobility group members in the same domain, enter this command:
show mobility group member hash
Step 9
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 10
Repeat this procedure on every controller to be included in the mobility group. All controllers in the mobility
group must be configured with the MAC address and IP address of all other mobility group members.
Step 11
Enable or disable debugging of multicast usage for mobility messages by entering this command:
debug mobility multicast {enable | disable}
Viewing Mobility Group Statistics (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Monitor > Statistics > Mobility Statistics to open the Mobility Statistics page.
This page contains the following fields
• Global Mobility Statistics
• Rx Errors—Generic protocol packet receive errors, such as packet too short or format incorrect.
• Tx Errors—Generic protocol packet transmit errors, such as packet transmission fail.
• Responses Retransmitted—Mobility protocol that uses UDP and resends requests several times if
it does not receive a response. Because of network or processing delays, the responder may receive
one or more retry requests after it initially responds to a request. This text box shows a count of the
response resends.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
349
Mobility
Viewing Mobility Group Statistics (GUI)
• Handoff Requests Received—Total number of handoff requests received, ignored, or responded to.
• Handoff End Requests Received—Total number of handoff end requests received. These requests
are sent by the anchor or foreign controller to notify the other about the close of a client session.
• State Transitions Disallowed—Policy enforcement module (PEM) that has denied a client state
transition, usually resulting in the handoff being terminated.
• Resource Unavailable—Necessary resource, such as a buffer, was unavailable, resulting in the
handoff being terminated.
• Mobility Initiator Statistics
• Handoff Requests Sent—Number of clients that have associated to the controller and have been
announced to the mobility group.
• Handoff Replies Received—Number of handoff replies that have been received in response to the
requests sent.
• Handoff as Local Received—Number of handoffs in which the entire client session has been
transferred.
• Handoff as Foreign Received—Number of handoffs in which the client session was anchored
elsewhere.
• Handoff Denys Received—Number of handoffs that were denied.
• Anchor Request Sent—Number of anchor requests that were sent for a three-party (foreign-to-foreign)
handoff. The handoff was received from another foreign controller, and the new controller is
requesting the anchor to move the client.
• Anchor Deny Received—Number of anchor requests that were denied by the current anchor.
• Anchor Grant Received—Number of anchor requests that were approved by the current anchor.
• Anchor Transfer Received—Number of anchor requests that closed the session on the current anchor
and transferred the anchor back to the requestor.
• Mobility Responder Statistics
• Handoff Requests Ignored—Number of handoff requests or client announcements that were ignored
because the controller had no knowledge of that client.
• Ping Pong Handoff Requests Dropped—Number of handoff requests that were denied because the
handoff period was too short (3 seconds).
• Handoff Requests Dropped—Number of handoff requests that were dropped due to either an
incomplete knowledge of the client or a problem with the packet.
• Handoff Requests Denied—Number of handoff requests that were denied.
• Client Handoff as Local—Number of handoff responses sent while the client is in the local role.
• Client Handoff as Foreign—Number of handoff responses sent while the client is in the foreign
role.
• Anchor Requests Received—Number of anchor requests received.
• Anchor Requests Denied—Number of anchor requests denied.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
350
Mobility
Viewing Mobility Group Statistics (CLI)
• Anchor Requests Granted—Number of anchor requests granted.
• Anchor Transferred—Number of anchors transferred because the client has moved from a foreign
controller to a controller on the same subnet as the current anchor.
Step 2
If you want to clear the current mobility statistics, click Clear Stats.
Viewing Mobility Group Statistics (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
See mobility group statistics by entering this command:
show mobility statistics
Step 2
Clear the current mobility statistics by entering this command:
clear stats mobility
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
351
Mobility
Viewing Mobility Group Statistics (CLI)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
352
CHAPTER
23
Encrypted Mobility Tunnel
• Information about Encrypted Mobility Tunnel, on page 353
• Restrictions for Encrypted Mobility Tunnel, on page 353
• Configuring Mobility Groups for Inter-Release Controller Mobility (IRCM) (GUI), on page 354
• Configuring Mobility Groups for Inter-Release Controller Mobility (IRCM) (CLI), on page 355
Information about Encrypted Mobility Tunnel
A secure link in which data is encrypted using CAPWAP DTLS protocol can be established between two
controllers. This secured link is called Encrypted Mobility Tunnel.
If encrypted mobility tunnel is in enabled state, the data traffic is encrypted and the controller uses UDP port
16667, instead of EoIP, to send the data traffic.
To ensure that controllers with expired MIC certificates are able to join the encrypted mobility tunnel enabled
network, an existing CLI is used to disable the MIC certificate date validation.
Note
This command disables the date validation check during Cisco AP join and encrypted mobility tunnel creation.
When the config ap cert-expiry-ignore CLI is enabled, the lifetime check is disabled.
Restrictions for Encrypted Mobility Tunnel
• This feature is supported on Cisco 3504, 5520, and 8540 controllers only.
• Native IPv6 is not supported.
• Mobility Multicast infrastructure for an encrypted tunnel is not supported.
• The Encrypted Mobility Tunnel feature should be enabled on all the mobility peers in the network to
have the tunnel created. The default state is set to disabled.
• Only MIC certificate is supported to create the tunnel.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
353
Mobility
Configuring Mobility Groups for Inter-Release Controller Mobility (IRCM) (GUI)
Configuring Mobility Groups for Inter-Release Controller
Mobility (IRCM) (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > Mobility Management > Mobility Groups to open the Static Mobility Group
Members page.
Note
If you want to delete any of the remote controllers from the mobility group, hover your cursor over
the blue drop-down arrow for the desired controller and choose Remove.
Step 2
Click New to open the Mobility Group Member > New page.
Step 3
Add a controller to the mobility group as follows:
a. In the Member IP Address text box, enter the management interface IPv4 address of the controller to be
added.
Note
IPv6 address is not supported.
b. In the Member MAC Address text box, enter the MAC address of the controller to be added.
c. In the Group Name text box, enter the name of the mobility group.
Note
The mobility group name is case sensitive.
d. From the Secure Mobility drop-down list, choose Enabled.
e. From the Data Tunnel Encryption drop-down list, choose Enabled.
f.
From the High Cipher drop-down list, choose Enabled.
You must enable High Cipher only if you require DTLS v1.2 encryption. The default value is Disabled.
In disabled state, DTLS v1.0 encryption is enabled.
g. In the Hash text box, enter the virtual controller's hash key of the peer mobility controller.
You must configure the hash only if the peer mobility controller is a virtual controller.
h. Click Apply to commit your changes. The new controller is added to the list of mobility group members
on the Static Mobility Group Members page.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
354
Mobility
Configuring Mobility Groups for Inter-Release Controller Mobility (IRCM) (CLI)
Configuring Mobility Groups for Inter-Release Controller
Mobility (IRCM) (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Add a peer controller in the mobility group by entering this command:
config mobility group member add peer-mac-addr peer-ip-addr group-name encrypt {enable | disable}
Step 2
(Optional) Configure the peer controller data traffic encryption by entering this command:
config mobility group member data-dtls peer-mac-addr {enable | disable}
Default value is Enabled.
Step 3
(Optional) Configure high cipher encryption to enable DTLS 1.2 protocol by entering this command:
config mobility group member add member-switch-mac-addr member-switch-ip-addr grp-name encrypt
enable high-cipher-option enable
Default value is Disabled.
Step 4
Configure the SSC hash of the Cisco Catalyst 9800 Series Wireless Controllers by entering this command:
config mobility group member hash peer-ip-addr 40-digit-ssc-hash-key
Note
Step 5
SSC hash is needed on for peers that do not use a MIC certificate. For example: Cisco Catalyst
9800-CL Wireless Controllers.
View the peer to peer mobility encryption status by entering this command:
show mobility summary encryption
Step 6
To see the hash key of mobility group members in the same domain, enter this command:
show mobility group member hash
Step 7
View mobility DTLS connection status by entering this command:
show mobility dtls connections
Step 8
View mobility statistics by entering this command:
show mobility statistics
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
355
Mobility
Configuring Mobility Groups for Inter-Release Controller Mobility (IRCM) (CLI)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
356
CHAPTER
24
Monitoring and Validating Mobility
• Mobility Ping Tests, on page 357
• WLAN Mobility Security Values, on page 358
Mobility Ping Tests
Controllers in a mobility list communicate with each other by controlling information over a well-known
UDP port and exchanging data traffic through an Ethernet-over-IP (EoIP) tunnel. Because UDP and EoIP are
not reliable transport mechanisms, there is no guarantee that a mobility control packet or data packet will be
delivered to a mobility peer. Mobility packets may be lost in transit due to a firewall filtering the UDP port
or EoIP packets or due to routing issues.
Restrictions for Mobility Ping Tests
• You can test the mobility communication environment by performing mobility ping tests. These tests
may be used to validate connectivity between members of a mobility group (including guest controllers).
Two ping tests are available:
• Mobility ping over UDP—This test runs over mobility UDP port 16666. It tests whether the mobility
control packet can be reached over the management interface.
• Mobility ping over EoIP—This test runs over EoIP. It tests the mobility data traffic over the
management interface.
• Only one mobility ping test per controller can be run at a given time.
• These ping tests are not Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) based. The term “ping” is used to
indicate an echo request and an echo reply message.
Note
Any ICMP packet greater than 1280 bytes will always be responded with a packet
that is truncated to 1280 bytes. For example, a ping with a packet that is greater
than 1280 bytes from a host to the management interface is always responded
with a packet that is truncated to 1280 bytes.
• Mobility pings on ports 16666 and 16667 are notable exemptions and these ports cannot be blocked by
any ACL.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
357
Mobility
Running Mobility Ping Tests (CLI)
Running Mobility Ping Tests (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
To test the mobility UDP control packet communication between two controllers, enter this command:
mping mobility_peer_IP_address
The mobility_peer_IP_address parameter must be the IP address of a controller that belongs to the mobility
list.
Step 2
To test the mobility EoIP data packet communication between two controllers, enter this command:
eping mobility_peer_IP_address
The mobility_peer_IP_address parameter must be the IP address of a controller that belongs to the mobility
list.
Step 3
To troubleshoot your controller for mobility ping, enter these commands:
config logging buffered debugging
show logging
Step 4
To troubleshoot your controller for mobility ping over UDP, enter this command to display the mobility
control packet:
debug mobility handoff enable
Note
We recommend using an ethereal trace capture when troubleshooting.
WLAN Mobility Security Values
For any anchoring or mobility event, the WLAN security policy values on each controller must match. These
values can be validated in the controller debugs. This table lists the WLAN mobility security values and their
corresponding security policy.
Table 15: WLAN Mobility Security Values
Security Hexadecimal Value
Security Policy
0x00000000
Security_None
0x00000001
Security_WEP
0x00000002
Security_802_1X
0x00000004
Security_IPSec*
0x00000008
Security_IPSec_Passthrough*
0x00000010
Security_Web
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
358
Mobility
WLAN Mobility Security Values
Security Hexadecimal Value
Security Policy
0x00000020
Security_PPTP*
0x00000040
Security_DHCP_Required
0x00000080
Security_WPA_NotUsed
0x00000100
Security_Cranite_Passthrough*
0x00000200
Security_Fortress_Passthrough*
0x00000400
Security_L2TP_IPSec*
0x00000800
Security_802_11i_NotUsed
Note
0x00001000
Controllers running software release 6.0
or later do not support this security policy.
Security_Web_Passthrough
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
359
Mobility
WLAN Mobility Security Values
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
360
PA R T
IV
Wireless
• Country Codes, on page 363
• Radio Bands, on page 369
• Radio Resource Management, on page 383
• Wireless Quality of Service, on page 433
• Location Services, on page 515
• Wireless Intrusion Detection System, on page 557
• Advanced Wireless Tuning, on page 611
• Timers, on page 621
CHAPTER
25
Country Codes
• Information About Configuring Country Codes, on page 363
• Restrictions for Configuring Country Codes, on page 364
• Configuring Country Codes (GUI), on page 364
• Configuring Country Codes (CLI), on page 365
Information About Configuring Country Codes
Controllers and access points are designed for use in many countries with varying regulatory requirements.
The radios within the access points are assigned to a specific regulatory domain at the factory (such as -E for
Europe), but the country code enables you to specify a particular country of operation (such as FR for France
or ES for Spain). Configuring a country code ensures that each radio’s broadcast frequency bands, interfaces,
channels, and transmit power levels are compliant with country-specific regulations.
The following are some guidelines for configuring country codes:
• Generally, you configure one country code per controller, the one matching the physical location of the
controller and its access points. However, you can configure more than one country code per Cisco WLC.
Prior to Release 8.2, you could configure up to 20 country codes per Cisco WLC; from Release 8.2
onwards, you can configure up to 110 country codes per Cisco WLC. This multiple-country support
enables you to manage access points in various countries from a single Cisco WLC.
• Although the controller supports different access points in different regulatory domains (countries), it
requires all radios in a single access point to be configured for the same regulatory domain. For example,
you should not configure a Cisco 1231 access point’s 802.11b/g radio for the US (-A) regulatory domain
and its 802.11a radio for the Great Britain (-E) regulatory domain. Otherwise, the controller allows only
one of the access point’s radios to turn on, depending on which regulatory domain you selected for the
access point on the controller. Therefore, make sure that the same country code is configured for both
of the access point’s radios.
For a complete list of country codes supported per product, see
http://tools.cisco.com/cse/prdapp/jsp/externalsearch.do?action=externalsearch&page=EXTERNAL_SEARCH
or
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/wireless/access-points/product_data_sheet0900aecd80537b6a.html
• When the multiple-country feature is being used, all controllers that are going to join the same RF group
must be configured with the same set of countries, configured in the same order.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
363
Wireless
Restrictions for Configuring Country Codes
• When multiple countries are configured and the RRM auto-RF feature is enabled, the RRM assigns the
channels that are derived by performing a union of the allowed channels per the AP country code. The
APs are assigned channels by the RRM based on their PID country code. APs are only allowed to use
legal frequencies that match their PID country code. Ensure that your AP's country code is legal in the
country that it is deployed.
• The country list configured on the RF group leader determines what channels the members would operate
on. This list is independent of what countries have been configured on the RF group members.
Information About Japanese Country Codes
Country codes define the channels that can be used legally in each country. These country codes are available
for Japan:
• JP—Allows only -J radios to join the controller
• J2—Allows only -P radios to join the controller
• J3—Uses the -U frequencies, but allows -U, -P, and -Q radios to join the WLC
• J4—Allows 2.4G JPQU and 5G PQU to join the controller.
See the Channels and Maximum Power Settings for Cisco Aironet Lightweight Access Points document for
the list of channels and power levels supported by access points in the Japanese regulatory domains.
Restrictions for Configuring Country Codes
• APs can only operate on the channels for the countries that they are designed for.
Note
If an AP was already set to a higher legal power level or is configured manually,
the power level is limited only by the particular country to which that AP is
assigned.
Configuring Country Codes (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Disable the 802.11 networks as follows:
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac > Network.
b) Unselect the 802.11a Network Status check box.
c) Click Apply.
d) Choose Wireless > 802.11b/g/n > Network.
e) Unselect the 802.11b/g Network Status check box.
f) Click Apply.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
364
Wireless
Configuring Country Codes (CLI)
Step 2
Choose Wireless > Country to open the Country page.
Step 3
Select the check box for each country where your access points are installed. If you selected more than one
check box, a message appears indicating that RRM channels and power levels are limited to common channels
and power levels.
Step 4
Click OK to continue or Cancel to cancel the operation.
Step 5
Click Apply.
If you selected multiple country codes in Step 3, each access point is assigned to a country.
Step 6
See the default country chosen for each access point and choose a different country if necessary as follows:
Note
If you remove a country code from the configuration, any access points currently assigned to the
deleted country reboot and when they rejoin the controller, they get re-assigned to one of the
remaining countries if possible.
a) Perform one of the following:
• Leave the 802.11 networks disabled.
• Reenable the 802.11 networks and then disable only the access points for which you are configuring
a country code. To disable an access point, choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs, click the
link of the desired access point, choose Disable from the Status drop-down list, and click Apply.
b) Choose Wireless > Access Points > All APs to open the All APs page.
c) Click the link for the desired access point.
d) Choose the Advanced tab to open the All APs > Details for (Advanced) page.
The default country for this access point appears in the Country Code drop-down list.
e) If the access point is installed in a country other than the one shown, choose the correct country from the
drop-down list. The box contains only those country codes that are compatible with the regulatory domain
of at least one of the access point’s radios.
f) Click Apply.
g) Repeat these steps to assign all access points joined to the controller to a specific country.
h) Reenable any access points that you disabled in Step a.
Step 7
Reenable the 802.11 networks if you did not enable them in Step 6.
Step 8
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring Country Codes (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
See a list of all available country codes by entering this command:
show country supported
Step 2
Disable the 802.11 networks by entering these commands:
config 802.11a disable network
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
365
Wireless
Configuring Country Codes (CLI)
config 802.11b disable network
Step 3
Configure the country codes for the countries where your access points are installed by entering this command:
config country code1[,code2,code3,...]
If you are entering more than one country code, separate each by a comma (for example, config country
US,CA,MX).
Step 4
Enter Y when prompted to confirm your decision.
Step 5
Verify your country code configuration by entering this command:
show country
Step 6
See the list of available channels for the country codes configured on your controller by entering this command:
show country channels
Step 7
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 8
See the countries to which your access points have been assigned by entering this command:
To see a summary of specific access point you can specify the access point name. You can also use wildcard
searches when filtering for access points.
show ap summary
Step 9
If you entered multiple country codes in Step 3, follow these steps to assign each access point to a specific
country:
a) Perform one of the following:
• Leave the 802.11 networks disabled.
• Reenable the 802.11 networks and then disable only the access points for which you are configuring
a country code. To Reenable the networks, enter this command:
config 802.11{a | b} enable network
To disable an access point, enter this command:
config ap disable ap_name
b) To assign an access point to a specific country, enter this command:
config ap country code {ap_name | all}
Make sure that the country code you choose is compatible with the regulatory domain of at least one of
the access point’s radios.
Note
If you enabled the networks and disabled some access points and then run the config ap country
code all command, the specified country code is configured on only the disabled access points.
All other access points are ignored.
c) To reenable any access points that you disabled in Step a, enter this command:
config ap enable ap_name
Step 10
If you did not reenable the 802.11 networks in Step 9, enter these commands to reenable them now:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
366
Wireless
Configuring Country Codes (CLI)
config 802.11{a | b} enable network
Step 11
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
367
Wireless
Configuring Country Codes (CLI)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
368
CHAPTER
26
Radio Bands
• 802.11 Bands, on page 369
• 802.11n Parameters, on page 373
• 802.11ac Parameters, on page 377
802.11 Bands
You can configure the 802.11b/g/n (2.4 GHz) and 802.11a/n/ac (5 GHz) bands for the controller to comply
with the regulatory requirements in your country. By default, both 802.11b/g/n and 802.11a/n/ac are enabled.
When a controller is configured to allow only 802.11g traffic, 802.11b client devices are able to successfully
connect to an access point, but cannot pass traffic. When you configure the controller only for 802.11g traffic,
you must mark 11g rates as mandatory.
Note
The Block Acks in a Cisco 2800, 3800, 1560 APs are sent at configured mandatory data rates in controller
for 2.4 GHz radio.
This section contains the following subsections:
Configuring the 802.11 Bands (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > Network to open the Global Parameters page.
Step 2
Select the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box to enable the 802.11a or 802.11b/g band. To
disable the band, unselect the check box. The default value is enabled. You can enable both the 802.11a and
802.11b/g bands.
Step 3
If you enabled the 802.11b/g band in Step 2, select the 802.11g Support check box if you want to enable
802.11g network support. The default value is enabled. If you disable this feature, the 802.11b band is enabled
without 802.11g support.
Step 4
Specify the period at which the SSID is broadcast by the access point by entering a value between 20 and
1000 milliseconds (inclusive) in the Beacon Period text box. The default value is 100 milliseconds.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
369
Wireless
Configuring the 802.11 Bands (GUI)
Note
The beacon period in controllers is listed in terms of milliseconds. The beacon period can also be
measured in time units, where one time unit equals 1024 microseconds or 102.4 milliseconds. If a
beacon interval is listed as 100 milliseconds in a controller, it is only a rounded off value for 102.4
milliseconds. Due to hardware limitation in certain radios, even though the beacon interval is, say
100 time units, it is adjusted to 102 time units, which roughly equals 104.448 milliseconds. When
the beacon period is to be represented in terms of time units, the value is adjusted to the nearest
multiple of 17.
Step 5
Specify the size at which packets are fragmented by entering a value between 256 and 2346 bytes (inclusive)
in the Fragmentation Threshold text box. Enter a low number for areas where communication is poor or where
there is a great deal of radio interference.
Step 6
Make access points advertise their channel and transmit power level in beacons and probe responses for CCX
clients. Select the DTPC Support check box. Otherwise, unselect this check box. The default value is enabled.
Client devices using dynamic transmit power control (DTPC) receive the channel and power level information
from the access points and adjust their settings automatically. For example, a client device used primarily in
Japan could rely on DTPC to adjust its channel and power settings automatically when it travels to Italy and
joins a network there.
Note
On access points that run Cisco IOS software, this feature is called world mode.
Note
DTPC and 801.11h power constraint cannot be enabled simultaneously.
Step 7
Specify the maximum allowed clients by entering a value between 1 to 200 in the Maximum Allowed Client
text box. The default value is 200.
Step 8
Select or unselect the RSSI Low Check check box to enable or disable the RSSI Low Check feature.
Step 9
Enter the RSSI Threshold value.
The default value is –80 dBm.
Step 10
Use the Data Rates options to specify the rates at which data can be transmitted between the access point and
the client. These data rates are available:
• 802.11a—6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbps
• 802.11b/g—1, 2, 5.5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, or 54 Mbps
For each data rate, choose one of these options:
• Mandatory—Clients must support this data rate in order to associate to an access point on the controller.
• Supported—Any associated clients that support this data rate may communicate with the access point
using that rate. However, the clients are not required to be able to use this rate in order to associate.
• Disabled—The clients specify the data rates used for communication.
Step 11
Click Apply.
Step 12
Click Save Configuration.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
370
Wireless
Configuring the 802.11 Bands (CLI)
Configuring the 802.11 Bands (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Disable the 802.11a band by entering this command:
config 802.11a disable network
Note
Step 2
The 802.11a band must be disabled before you can configure the 802.11a network parameters in
this section.
Disable the 802.11b/g band by entering this command:
config 802.11b disable network
Note
Step 3
The 802.11b band must be disabled before you can configure the 802.11b network parameters in
this section.
Specify the rate at which the SSID is broadcast by the access point by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} beaconperiod time_unit
where time_unit is the beacon interval in time units (TUs). One TU is 1024 microseconds. You can configure
the access point to send a beacon every 20 to 1000 milliseconds.
Step 4
Specify the size at which packets are fragmented by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} fragmentation threshold
where threshold is a value between 256 and 2346 bytes (inclusive). Specify a low number for areas where
communication is poor or where there is a great deal of radio interference.
Step 5
Make access points advertise their channel and transmit power level in beacons and probe responses by entering
this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b } dtpc {enable | disable}
The default value is enabled. Client devices using dynamic transmit power control (DTPC) receive the channel
and power level information from the access points and adjust their settings automatically. For example, a
client device used primarily in Japan could rely on DTPC to adjust its channel and power settings automatically
when it travels to Italy and joins a network there.
Note
Step 6
On access points that run Cisco IOS software, this feature is called world mode.
Specify the maximum allowed clients that can be configured by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} max-clients max_allow_clients
The valid range is between 1 to 200.
Step 7
Configure the RSSI Low Check feature by entering this command:
config 802.11{a | b} rssi-check {enable | disable}
Step 8
Configure the RSSI Threshold value by entering this command:
config 802.11{a | b} rssi-threshold value-in-dBm
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
371
Wireless
Configuring the 802.11 Bands (CLI)
Note
Step 9
The default value is –80 dBm.
Specify the rates at which data can be transmitted between the controller and the client by entering this
command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} rate {disabled | mandatory | supported} rate
where
• disabled—Clients specify the data rates used for communication.
• mandatory—Clients support this data rate in order to associate to an access point on the controller.
• supported—Any associated clients that support this data rate may communicate with the access point
using that rate. However, the clients are not required to be able to use this rate in order to associate.
• rate—The rate at which data is transmitted:
• 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbps (802.11a)
• 1, 2, 5.5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, or 54 Mbps (802.11b/g)
Step 10
Enable the 802.11a band by entering this command:
config 802.11a enable network
The default value is enabled.
Step 11
Enable the 802.11b band by entering this command:
config 802.11b enable network
The default value is enabled.
Step 12
Enable or disable 802.11g network support by entering this command:
config 802.11b 11gSupport {enable | disable}
The default value is enabled. You can use this command only if the 802.11b band is enabled. If you disable
this feature, the 802.11b band is enabled without 802.11g support.
Step 13
Enter the save config command to save your changes.
Step 14
View the configuration settings for the 802.11a or 802.11b/g band by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b}
Information similar to the following appears:
802.11a Network............................... Enabled
11nSupport.................................... Enabled
802.11a Low Band........................... Enabled
802.11a Mid Band........................... Enabled
802.11a High Band.......................... Enabled
802.11a Operational Rates
802.11a 6M Rate.............................. Mandatory
802.11a 9M Rate.............................. Supported
802.11a 12M Rate............................. Mandatory
802.11a 18M Rate............................. Supported
802.11a 24M Rate............................. Mandatory
802.11a 36M Rate............................. Supported
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
372
Wireless
802.11n Parameters
802.11a 48M Rate............................. Supported
802.11a 54M Rate............................. Supported
...
Beacon Interval.................................. 100
...
Default Channel............................... 36
Default Tx Power Level........................ 1
DTPC Status................................... Enabled
Fragmentation Threshold....................... 2346
Maximum Number of Clients per AP................. 200
802.11n Parameters
This section provides instructions for managing 802.11n access points on your network. The 802.11n devices
support the 2.4 and 5-GHz bands and offer high throughput data rates.
The 802.11n high throughput rates are available on all the 802.11n access points for the WLANs using WMM
with no Layer 2 encryption or with WPA2/AES encryption enabled.
The 802.11n-only access points can filter out clients without high-throughput information element on the
association request. The 802.11n-only access points access points reject association requests from clients
without high-throughput information element (11n).
In the 802.11n high-throughput mode, there are no 802.11a/b/g stations using the same channel. The 802.11a/b/g
devices cannot communicate with the 802.11n high-throughput mode access point, where as the 802.11n-only
mode access point uses 802.11a/g rates for beacons or management frames.
Note
Some Cisco 802.11n APs may intermittently emit incorrect beacon frames, which can trigger false wIPS
alarms. We recommend that you ignore these alarms.
Configuring the 802.11n Parameters (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > High Throughput to open the (5 GHz or 2.4 GHz) High
Throughput page.
Step 2
Select the 11n Mode check box to enable 802.11n support on the network. The default value is enabled.
If you want to disable 802.11n mode when both 802.11n and 802.11ac modes are enabled, you must disable
the 802.11ac mode first.
Step 3
Select the check boxes of the desired rates to specify the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) rates at which
data can be transmitted between the access point and the client. These data rates, which are calculated for a
20-MHz channel width using a short guard interval, are available:
• 0 (7 Mbps)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
373
Wireless
Configuring the 802.11n Parameters (GUI)
• 1 (14 Mbps)
• 2 (21 Mbps)
• 3 (29 Mbps)
• 4 (43 Mbps)
• 5 (58 Mbps)
• 6 (65 Mbps)
• 7 (72 Mbps)
• 8 (14 Mbps)
• 9 (29 Mbps)
• 10 (43 Mbps)
• 11 (58 Mbps)
• 12 (87 Mbps)
• 13 (116 Mbps)
• 14 (130 Mbps)
• 15 (144 Mbps)
Any associated clients that support the selected rates may communicate with the access point using those
rates. However, the clients are not required to be able to use this rate in order to associate. The MCS
settings determine the number of spatial streams, the modulation, the coding rate, and the data rate values
that are used.
• 16 (22 Mbps)
• 17 (43 Mbps)
• 18 (65 Mbps)
• 19 (87 Mbps)
• 20 (130 Mbps)
• 21 (173 Mbps)
• 22 (195 Mbps)
• 23 (217 Mbps)
• 24 (29 Mbps)
• 25 (58 Mbps)
• 26 (87 Mbps)
• 27 (116 Mbps)
• 28 (173 Mbps)
• 29 (231 Mbps)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
374
Wireless
Configuring the 802.11n Parameters (CLI)
• 30 (260 Mbps)
• 31 (289 Mbps)
Step 4
Click Apply.
Step 5
Use the 802.11n data rates that you configured by enabling WMM on the WLAN as follows:
a) Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
b) Click the ID number of the WLAN for which you want to configure WMM mode.
c) When the WLANs > Edit page appears, choose the QoS tab to open the WLANs > Edit (Qos) page.
d) From the WMM Policy drop-down list, choose Required or Allowed to require or allow client devices
to use WMM. Devices that do not support WMM cannot join the WLAN.
If you choose Allowed, devices that cannot support WMM can join the WLAN but will not benefit from
the 802.11n rates.
e) Click Apply.
Step 6
Click Save Configuration.
Note
To determine if an access point supports 802.11n, look at the 11n Supported text box on either the
802.11a/n/ac (or 802.11b/g/n) Cisco APs > Configure page or the 802.11a/n/ac (or 802.11b/g/n)
AP Interfaces > Details page.
Configuring the 802.11n Parameters (CLI)
Procedure
• Enable 802.11n support on the network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} 11nsupport {enable | disable}
• Specify the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) rates at which data can be transmitted between the
access point and the client by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} 11nsupport mcs tx {0-15} {enable | disable}
• Use the 802.11n data rates that you configured by enabling WMM on the WLAN as follows:
config wlan wmm {allow | disable | require} wlan_id
The require parameter requires client devices to use WMM. Devices that do not support WMM cannot
join the WLAN.
If set to allow, devices that cannot support WMM can join the WLAN but do not benefit from 802.11n
rates.
• Specify the aggregation method used for 802.11n packets as follows:
a) Disable the network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} disable network
b) Specify the aggregation method entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} 11nsupport {a-mpdu | a-msdu} tx priority {0-7 | all} {enable | disable}
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
375
Wireless
Configuring the 802.11n Parameters (CLI)
Aggregation is the process of grouping packet data frames together rather than transmitting them
separately. Two aggregation methods are available: Aggregated MAC Protocol Data Unit (A-MPDU)
and Aggregated MAC Service Data Unit (A-MSDU). A-MSDU is performed in hardware and
therefore is the default method.
Note
For 802.11ac, all packets are A-MPDU. The A-MSDU option does not apply for 802.11ac.
You can specify the aggregation method for various types of traffic from the access point to the
clients. This table defines the priority levels (0-7) assigned per traffic type.
Table 16: Traffic Type Priority Levels
User Priority
Traffic Type
0
Best effort
1
Background
2
Spare
3
Excellent effort
4
Controlled load
5
Video, less than 100-ms latency and jitter
6
Voice, less than 10-ms latency and jitter
7
Network control
You can configure each priority level independently, or you can use the all parameter to configure
all of the priority levels at once. When you use the enable command, the traffic associated with that
priority level uses A-MPDU transmission. When you use the disable command, the traffic associated
with that priority level uses A-MSDU transmission. Configure the priority levels to match the
aggregation method used by the clients. By default, A-MPDU is enabled for priority level 0, 4 and
5 and the rest are disabled. By default, A-MSDU is enabled for all priorities except 6 and 7.
c) Reenable the network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} enable network
• Configure the 802.11n-5 GHz A-MPDU transmit aggregation scheduler by entering this command:
config 802.11{a | b} 11nsupport a-mpdu tx scheduler {enable | disable | timeout rt timeout-value}
The timeout value is in milliseconds. The valid range is between 1 millisecond to 1000 milliseconds.
• Configure the guard interval for the network by entering this command:
config 802.11{a | b} 11nsupport guard_interval {any | long}
• Configure the Reduced Interframe Space (RIFS) for the network by entering this command:
config 802.11{a | b} 11nsupport rifs rx {enable | disable}
• Save your changes by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
376
Wireless
802.11ac Parameters
save config
• View the configuration settings for the 802.11 networks by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b}
802.11ac Parameters
The 802.11ac radio module for the Cisco Aironet 3600 Series access point and Cisco Aironet 3700 Series
access point provides enterprise-class reliability and wired-network-like performance. It supports three spatial
streams and up to 160 MHz-wide channels for a maximum data rate of 2.5 Gbps.
The 802.11ac radio in slot 2 is a subordinate radio for which you can configure specific parameters. Because
the 802.11ac is a subordinate radio, it inherits many properties from the main 802.11a/n radio on slot 1. The
parameters that you can configure for the 802.11ac radio are as follows:
• Admin status—Interface status of the radio that you can enable or disable. By default, the Admin status
is in an enabled state. If you disable 802.11n, the 802.11ac radio is also disabled.
• Channel width—You can choose the RF channel width as 20 MHz, 40 MHz, 80 MHz, or 160 MHz. If
you choose the channel width as 160 MHz, you must enable the 802.11ac mode on the High Throughput
page.
Note
Note
The 11ac Supported field is a nonconfigurable parameter that appears for the
802.11ac subordinate radio in slot 2.
When the Cisco Aironet 3600 Series access point with 802.11ac radio module is in unsupported mode such
as Monitor and Sniffer, Admin Status and Channel Width will not be configured.
This section provides instructions to manage 802.11ac devices such as the Cisco Aironet 3600 Series Access
Points and Cisco Aironet 3700 Series Access Point on your network.
Note
For the Cisco Aironet 3600 Series APs:
• With default AP group—Only WLAN IDs 1 to 8 are advertised on the 5-GHz radios; there is no limit
on the 2.4-GHz radios.
• With user-defined AP group—Only the first 8 WLAN IDs are advertised on the 5-GHz radios regardless
of the ID number; there is no limit on the 2.4-GHz radios.
Changing the 802.11n radio channel also changes the 802.11ac channels.
On the Cisco WLC GUI, the 802.11ac clients that are connected to the 802.11n radio are displayed 802.11an
clients, and the 802.11ac clients that are connected to the 802.11ac radio are displayed as 802.11ac clients.
Ensure that your WLAN has WMM enabled and open or WPA2/AES for 802.11ac to be supported. Otherwise,
the speed of 802.11ac is not available, even on 802.11ac clients.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
377
Wireless
802.11ac Parameters
For more information about the 802.11ac module on the Cisco Aironet 3600 Series access point, see
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/wireless/aironet-3600-series/relevant-interfaces-and-modules.html.
802.11ac Wave 2 and MU-MIMO
The 802.11ac Wave 2 introduces additional capabilities beyond what were added with Wave 1. It utilizes
MU-MIMO technology and other advancements to help increase wireless performance for applications such
as HD video streaming. Wave 2 provides better RF efficiency that Wave 1 provides, in addition to a number
of other features that further improve wireless connectivity.
MU-MIMO
MU-MIMO is short for Multi-User, Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output. MU-MIMO is an enhanced form of the
MIMO technology that enables multiple independent radio terminals to access a system.
With 802.11n or 802.11ac Wave 1, an access point can transmit multiple spatial streams at the same time, but
only directed to a single wireless client. This means only a single device gets data at a time. This is referred
to as single-user MIMO (SU-MIMO).
802.11ac Wave 2 allows for MU-MIMO, which enables multiple users to simultaneously receive data from
the AP simultaneously using the same channel. With MU-MIMO a Wave 2 capable access point is able to
use its antenna resources to transmit to multiple clients, all at the same time and over the same channel.
MU-MIMO is used in the downstream direction and requires the wireless clients to also be Wave 2 capable.
More Spatial Streams
802.11ac Wave 2 allows for up to eight spatial streams. However, initial Wave2 implementations will only
increase the number of spatial streams from 3 to 4 as compared to Wave 1 implementations. The support of
an additional spatial stream allows for additional increased performance as compared to 3 SS APs.
References
For more information on these technologies, see the following documents on Cisco.com:
• Cisco 802.11ac Wave 2 FAQs at
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/enterprise-networks/802-11ac-solution/q-and-a-c67-734152.html
• Fundamentals of 802.11ac Wave 2 post on the Cisco Interaction Network at
http://blogs.cisco.com/cin/fundamentals-of-802-11ac-wave-2
• 802.11ac: The Fifth Generation of Wi-Fi technical white paper at
http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/collateral/wireless/aironet-3600-series/white_paper_c11-713103.html
Explicit Compressed Beamforming Feedback
The AP 1850 supports standards-based Explicit Compressed Beamforming Feedback (ECBF) as defined in
the 802.11ac standards. With ECBF the client provides estimates of the wireless channel conditions to the
access point. As these are based on explicit channel measurements from the client, both the AP and the client
must support it. For 802.11ac, the access point’s ECBF is typically referred to as Transmit Beamforming or
TxBF for short.
While both TxBF and ClientLink 3.0 improve the performance of wireless client devices, ClientLink3.0
provides an additional advantage over TxBF. ClientLink3.0 technology does not depend on any client-side
hardware or software capabilities and operates seamlessly in mixed-mode environments where 802.11ac and
802.11a/n clients coexist on the same access point. In comparison, TxBF requires client-side support to take
advantage of the performance improvements of beamforming and therefore benefits only 802.11ac clients
that support TxBF.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
378
Wireless
Restrictions for 802.11ac Support
The Cisco 1850 AP supports TxBF but not beamforming to legacy client devices. Therefore, Cisco 1850 AP
does not support ClientLink 3.0.
Note
ClientLink 3.0 is supported on the Cisco Aironet 2700 and 3700 Series 802.11ac APs.
Note
You can disable TxBF only on the APs that support ClientLink 1.0. It cannot be disabled on the APs that
supports ClientLink 2.0 and above.
Restrictions for 802.11ac Support
• The 802.11ac module is supported only on the following access points:
• 1700
• 1800
• 2700
• 2800
• 3700
• 3800
• The 802.11ac module is turned off if the built-in 5-GHz radio is turned off.
• You must ensure that the configuration of the channel, power values, and the mode of the 802.11ac
module is the same as those of the built-in 5-GHz radio on the AP. Also, the 802.11ac module serves
only 802.11ac clients.
• The 802.11ac module main channel cannot be changed individually.
• This 802.11ac support is applicable only to the following controller platforms:
• Cisco 3504 WLC
• Cisco 5520 WLC
• Cisco 8540 WLC
• Controllers do not support High availability for 802.11ac modules. The 802.11ac configuration (802.11ac
Data Rates and 802.11ac Global mode) on the controller is not synchronized with the standby controller.
This might result in client throughput fluctuations and reassociations when you explicitly disable those
configurations on the active controller.
In addition, the 802.11ac Global mode configuration controls whether the radio module is enabled. If
802.11ac Global mode is enabled on one controller but not on another, the 802.11ac module might be
disabled if the access point associates with a controller on which 802.11ac Global mode is disabled.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
379
Wireless
Configuring the 802.11ac High-Throughput Parameters (GUI)
• When changing AP from static to auto channel assignment, by default AP moves to best possible bandwidth
supported by the radio and a valid channel. Channel number and width assignment may be suboptimal
until next DCA cycle gets started.
• SSIDs with TKIP and SSIDs with TKIP+AES are not enabled on the 802.11ac radios. Therefore, all the
5-GHz clients are expected to associate with the 802.11n radios.
Configuring the 802.11ac High-Throughput Parameters (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac > High Throughput (802.11n/ac).
Step 2
Check the 11ac mode check box to enable the 802.11ac support on the network.
You can modify the 802.11ac status only if the 802.11n mode is enabled.
Note
Step 3
Ensure that all of the 0 to 31 MCS data rate indices are enabled (which is the default setting).
Step 4
Save the configuration.
Configuring MU-MIMO (GUI)
This feature is supported on all the supporting Cisco Wave 2 APs.
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs and click the WLAN ID.
Step 2
In the Advanced tab, check or uncheck the 11ac MU-MIMO check box.
Step 3
Configuring the 802.11ac High-Throughput Parameters (CLI)
Procedure
• Enable or disable 802.11ac support by entering this command:
config 802.11a 11acSupport {enable | disable}
• Configure MCS transmit rates by entering this command:
config 802.11a 11acSupport mcs tx {rate-8 | rate-9} ss spatial-stream-value {enable | disable}
Note
Ensure that all of the 0 to 31 MCS data rate indices are enabled (which is the default setting). In 8.1 and later
releases, RF profiles should include MCS 0-31 instead of MCS 0-23 in earlier releases.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
380
Wireless
Configuring MU-MIMO (CLI)
Configuring MU-MIMO (CLI)
This feature is supported on all the Cisco Wave 2 APs.
Procedure
Step 1
Enable or disable MU-MIMO by entering this command on the Cisco WLC console:
config wlan mu-mimo {enable | disable} wlan-id
Step 2
See the status of MU-MIMO by entering these commands on the AP console:
• For a WLAN: show interfaces Dot11Radio Dot11-radio-interface-number mumimo wlan wlan-id
• For a client: show interfaces Dot11Radio Dot11-radio-interface-number mumimo client mac-addr
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
381
Wireless
Configuring MU-MIMO (CLI)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
382
CHAPTER
27
Radio Resource Management
• Information about Radio Resource Management, on page 383
• Radio Resource Monitoring, on page 384
• Benefits of RRM, on page 384
• Information About Configuring RRM, on page 385
• Configuring RRM (CLI), on page 385
• Viewing RRM Settings (CLI), on page 390
• RF Groups, on page 390
• Off-Channel Scanning Deferral, on page 398
• RRM NDP and RF Grouping, on page 400
• Configuring RRM NDP (CLI), on page 401
• Channels, on page 401
• Overriding RRM, on page 408
• 802.11h Parameters, on page 414
• Transmit Power Control, on page 415
• Coverage Hole Detection and Correction, on page 418
• RF Profiles, on page 419
• Flexible Radio Assignment, on page 427
• Debug RRM Issues (CLI), on page 432
Information about Radio Resource Management
The Radio Resource Management (RRM) software embedded in the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller acts as
a built-in RF engineer to consistently provide real-time RF management of your wireless network. RRM
enables Cisco WLCs to continually monitor their associated lightweight access points for the following
information:
• Traffic load—The total bandwidth used for transmitting and receiving traffic. It enables wireless LAN
managers to track and plan network growth ahead of client demand.
• Interference—The amount of traffic coming from other 802.11 sources.
• Noise—The amount of non-802.11 traffic that is interfering with the currently assigned channel.
• Coverage—The received signal strength (RSSI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for all connected clients.
• Other—The number of nearby access points.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
383
Wireless
Radio Resource Monitoring
Using this information, RRM can periodically reconfigure the 802.11 RF network for best efficiency. To do
this, RRM performs these functions:
• Radio resource monitoring
• Transmit power control
• Dynamic channel assignment
• Coverage hole detection and correction
Radio Resource Monitoring
RRM automatically detects and configures new Cisco WLCs and lightweight access points as they are added
to the network. It then automatically adjusts associated and nearby lightweight access points to optimize
coverage and capacity.
Lightweight access points can simultaneously scan all valid 802.11a/b/g channels for the country of operation
as well as for channels available in other locations. The access points go “off-channel” for a period not greater
than 60 ms to monitor these channels for noise and interference. Packets collected during this time are analyzed
to detect rogue access points, rogue clients, ad-hoc clients, and interfering access points.
Note
In the presence of voice traffic (in the last 100 ms), the access points defer off-channel measurements.
Each access point spends only 0.2 percent of its time off-channel. This activity is distributed across all access
points so that adjacent access points are not scanning at the same time, which could adversely affect wireless
LAN performance.
Note
When there are numerous rogue access points in the network, the chance of detecting rogues on channels 157
or 161 by a FlexConnect or local mode access point is small. In such cases, the monitor mode AP can be used
for rogue detection.
Benefits of RRM
RRM produces a network with optimal capacity, performance, and reliability. It frees you from having to
continually monitor the network for noise and interference problems, which can be transient and difficult to
troubleshoot. RRM ensures that clients enjoy a seamless, trouble-free connection throughout the Cisco unified
wireless network.
RRM uses separate monitoring and control for each deployed network: 802.11a and 802.11b/g. The RRM
algorithms run separately for each radio type (802.11a and 802.11b/g). RRM uses both measurements and
algorithms. RRM measurements can be adjusted using monitor intervals, but they cannot be disabled. RRM
algorithms are enabled automatically but can be disabled by statically configuring channel and power
assignment. The RRM algorithms run at a specified updated interval, which is 600 seconds by default.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
384
Wireless
Information About Configuring RRM
Information About Configuring RRM
The controller’s preconfigured RRM settings are optimized for most deployments. However, you can modify
the controller’s RRM configuration parameters at any time through either the GUI or the CLI.
You can configure these parameters on controllers that are part of an RF group or on controllers that are not
part of an RF group.
The RRM parameters should be set to the same values on every controller in an RF group. The RF group
leader can change as a result of controller reboots or depending on which radios hear each other. If the RRM
parameters are not identical for all RF group members, varying results can occur when the group leader
changes.
Using the controller GUI, you can configure the following RRM parameters: RF group mode, transmit power
control, dynamic channel assignment, coverage hole detection, profile thresholds, monitoring channels, and
monitor intervals.
Configuring RRM (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Disable the 802.11 network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} disable network
Step 2
Choose the Transmit Power Control version by entering this command:
config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} tpc-version {1 | 2}
where:
• TPCv1: Coverage-optimal—(Default) Offers strong signal coverage and stability with negligent intercell
interferences and sticky client syndrome.
• TPCv2: Interference-optimal—For scenarios where voice calls are extensively used. Tx power is
dynamically adjusted with the goal of minimum interference. It is suitable for dense networks. In this
mode, there can be higher roaming delays and coverage hole incidents.
Step 3
Perform one of the following to configure transmit power control:
• Have RRM automatically set the transmit power for all 802.11 radios at periodic intervals by entering
this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} txPower global auto
• Have RRM automatically reset the transmit power for all 802.11a or 802.11b/g radios one time by entering
this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} txPower global once
• Configure the transmit power range that overrides the Transmit Power Control algorithm, use this
command to enter the maximum and minimum transmit power used by RRM:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
385
Wireless
Configuring RRM (CLI)
Note
In Cisco WLC software release 7.6 or later releases, disabling the 802.11 network is not required
for this command.
config {802.11a | 802.11b} txPower global {max | min} txpower
where txpower is a value from –10 to 30 dBM. The minimum value cannot be greater than the maximum
value; the maximum value cannot be less than the minimum value.
If you configure a maximum transmit power, RRM does not allow any access point to exceed this transmit
power (whether the maximum is set at RRM startup, or by coverage hole detection). For example, if you
configure a maximum transmit power of 11 dBm, then no access point would transmit above 11 dBm,
unless the access point is configured manually.
• Manually change the default transmit power setting by entering this command:
config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} {tpcv1-thresh | tpcv2-thresh} threshold
where threshold is a value from –80 to –50 dBm. Increasing this value causes the access points to operate
at higher transmit power rates. Decreasing the value has the opposite effect.
In applications with a dense population of access points, it may be useful to decrease the threshold to
–80 or –75 dBm in order to reduce the number of BSSIDs (access points) and beacons seen by the wireless
clients. Some wireless clients may have difficulty processing a large number of BSSIDs or a high beacon
rate and may exhibit problematic behavior with the default threshold.
• Configure the Transmit Power Control Version 2 on a per-channel basis by entering this command:
config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} tpcv2-per-chan {enable | disable}
Step 4
Perform one of the following to configure dynamic channel assignment (DCA):
• Have RRM automatically configure all 802.11 channels based on availability and interference by entering
this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} channel global auto
• Have RRM automatically reconfigure all 802.11 channels one time based on availability and interference
by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} channel global once
• Disable RRM and set all channels to their default values by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} channel global off
• Restart aggressive DCA cycle by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} channel global restart
• To specify the channel set used for DCA by entering this command:
config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel {add | delete} channel_number
You can enter only one channel number per command. This command is helpful when you know that
the clients do not support certain channels because they are legacy devices or they have certain regulatory
restrictions.
Step 5
Configure additional DCA parameters by entering these commands:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
386
Wireless
Configuring RRM (CLI)
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel dca anchor-time value—Specifies the time of day when
the DCA algorithm is to start. value is a number between 0 and 23 (inclusive) representing the hour of
the day from 12:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel dca interval value—Specifies how often the DCA
algorithm is allowed to run. value is one of the following: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, or 24 hours or 0, which is
the default value of 10 minutes (or 600 seconds).
If your Cisco WLC supports only OfficeExtend access points, we recommend that you set the
DCA interval to 6 hours for optimal performance. For deployments with a combination of
OfficeExtend access points and local access points, the range of 10 minutes to 24 hours can
be used.
Note
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel dca sensitivity {low | medium | high}—Specifies how
sensitive the DCA algorithm is to environmental changes such as signal, load, noise, and interference
when determining whether to change channel.
• low means that the DCA algorithm is not particularly sensitive to environmental changes.
• medium means that the DCA algorithm is moderately sensitive to environmental changes.
• high means that the DCA algorithm is highly sensitive to environmental changes.
The DCA sensitivity thresholds vary by radio band, as noted in following table.
Table 17: DCA Sensitivity Thresholds
Option
2.4-GHz DCA Sensitivity
Threshold
5-GHz DCA Sensitivity
Threshold
High
5 dB
5 dB
Medium
10 dB
15 dB
Low
20 dB
20 dB
• config advanced 802.11a channel dca chan-width {20 | 40 | 80 | 80+80 | 160 | best}—Configures
the DCA channel width for all 802.11n radios in the 5-GHz band.
where
• 20 sets the channel width for 802.11n radios to 20 MHz. This is the default value.
• 40 sets the channel width for 802.11n radios to 40 MHz.
Note
If you choose 40, be sure to set at least two adjacent channels in the config advanced
802.11a channel {add | delete} channel_number command in Step 4 (for example, a
primary channel of 36 and an extension channel of 40). If you set only one channel, that
channel is not used for 40-MHz channel width.
Note
If you choose 40, you can also configure the primary and extension channels used by
individual access points.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
387
Wireless
Configuring RRM (CLI)
Note
To override the globally configured DCA channel width setting, you can configure an
access point’s radio mode using the config 802.11a chan_width Cisco_AP {20 | 40 |
80| 160| best} command. If you change the static configuration to global on the access
point radio, the global DCA configuration overrides the channel width configuration that
the access point was previously using. It can take up to 30 minutes (depending on how
often DCA is configured to run) for the change to take effect.
• 80 sets the channel width for the 802.11ac radios to 80 MHz.
• 80+80 sets the channel width for the 802.11 radio to 80+80 MHz.
• 160 sets the channel width for the 802.11ac radio to 160 MHz.
• best sets the channel width for the 802.11ac radio to best suitable bandwidth.
• Configure slot-specific channel width by entering this command:
config slot slot-id chan_widthap-name {20 | 40 | 80| 160}
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel outdoor-ap-dca {enable | disable}—Enables or disables
to the Cisco WLC to avoid checks for non-DFS channels.
Note
This parameter is applicable only for deployments having outdoor access points such as 1522
and 1524.
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel foreign {enable | disable}—Enables or disables foreign
access point interference avoidance in the channel assignment.
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel load {enable | disable}—Enables or disables load
avoidance in the channel assignment.
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel noise {enable | disable}—Enables or disables noise
avoidance in the channel assignment.
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel update—Initiates an update of the channel selection for
every Cisco access point.
Step 6
Configure coverage hole detection by entering these commands:
Note
You can disable coverage hole detection on a per-WLAN basis.
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} coverage {enable | disable}—Enables or disables coverage hole
detection. If you enable coverage hole detection, the Cisco WLC automatically determines, based on
data received from the access points, if any access points have clients that are potentially located in areas
with poor coverage. The default value is enabled.
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} coverage {data | voice} rssi-threshold rssi—Specifies the
minimum receive signal strength indication (RSSI) value for packets received by the access point. The
value that you enter is used to identify coverage holes (or areas of poor coverage) within your network.
If the access point receives a packet in the data or voice queue with an RSSI value below the value you
enter here, a potential coverage hole has been detected. The valid range is –90 to –60 dBm, and the
default value is –80 dBm for data packets and –75 dBm for voice packets. The access point takes RSSI
measurements every 5 seconds and reports them to the Cisco WLC in 90-second intervals.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
388
Wireless
Configuring RRM (CLI)
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} coverage level global clients—Specifies the minimum number
of clients on an access point with an RSSI value at or below the data or voice RSSI threshold. The valid
range is 1 to 75, and the default value is 3.
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} coverage exception global percent—Specifies the percentage of
clients on an access point that are experiencing a low signal level but cannot roam to another access
point. The valid range is 0 to 100%, and the default value is 25%.
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} coverage {data | voice} packet-count packets—Specifies the
minimum failure count threshold for uplink data or voice packets. The valid range is 1 to 255 packets,
and the default value is 10 packets.
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} coverage {data | voice} fail-rate percent—Specifies the failure
rate threshold for uplink data or voice packets. The valid range is 1 to 100%, and the default value is
20%.
Note
Step 7
If both the number and percentage of failed packets exceed the values entered in the
packet-count and fail-rate commands for a 5-second period, the client is considered to be in
a pre-alarm condition. The Cisco WLC uses this information to distinguish between real and
false coverage holes. False positives are generally due to the poor roaming logic implemented
on most clients. A coverage hole is detected if both the number and percentage of failed clients
meet or exceed the values entered in the coverage level global and coverage exception global
commands over a 90-second period. The Cisco WLC determines if the coverage hole can be
corrected and, if appropriate, mitigates the coverage hole by increasing the transmit power
level for that specific access point.
Configure RRM NDP mode by entering this command:
config advanced 802.11{a|b} monitor ndp-mode {protected | transparent}
This command configures NDP mode. By default, the mode is set to “transparent”. The following options are
available:
• Protected—Packets are encrypted.
• Transparent—Packets are sent as is.
Note
Step 8
See the discovery type by entering the show advanced 802.11{a|b} monitor command.
Configure 802.11a or 802.11b/g network neighbor timeout-factor by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} monitor timeout-factor factor-bw-5-to-60-minutes
If you are using Release 8.1 or a later release, we recommend that you set the timeout factor to default 20. If
the access point radio does not receive a neighbor packet from an existing neighbor within 60 minutes when
the default NDP interval of 180s is in use, Cisco WLC deletes the neighbor from the neighbor list.
Note
Step 9
The Neighbor Timeout Factor was hardcoded to 60 minutes in Release 7.6, but was changed to 5
minutes in Release 8.0.100.0.
Enable the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} enable network
Note
To enable the 802.11g network, enter config 802.11b 11gSupport enable after the config 802.11b
enable network command.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
389
Wireless
Viewing RRM Settings (CLI)
Step 10
Save your settings by entering this command:
save config
Viewing RRM Settings (CLI)
Procedure
To see 802.11a and 802.11b/g RRM settings, use these commands:
show advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} ?
where ? is one of the following:
• ccx {global | Cisco_AP}—Shows the CCX RRM configuration.
• channel—Shows the channel assignment configuration and statistics.
• coverage—Shows the coverage hole detection configuration and statistics.
• logging—Shows the RF event and performance logging.
• monitor—Shows the Cisco radio monitoring.
• profile {global | Cisco_AP}—Shows the access point performance profiles.
• receiver—Shows the 802.11a or 802.11b/g receiver configuration and statistics.
• summary—Shows the configuration and statistics of the 802.11a or 802.11b/g access points.
• txpower—Shows the transmit power assignment configuration and statistics.
RF Groups
Information About RF Groups
An RF group is a logical collection of controllers that coordinate to perform RRM in a globally optimized
manner to perform network calculations on a per-radio basis. An RF group exists for each 802.11 network
type. Clustering WLCs into a single RF group enables the RRM algorithms to scale beyond the capabilities
of a single WLC .
An RF group is created based on the following parameters:
• User-configured RF network name.
• Neighbor discovery performed at the radio level.
• Country list configured on MC.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
390
Wireless
RF Group Leader
RF grouping runs between MCs.
Lightweight access points periodically send out neighbor messages over the air. Access points using the same
RF group name validate messages from each other.
When access points on different controllers hear validated neighbor messages at a signal strength of –80 dBm
or stronger, the controllers dynamically form an RF neighborhood in auto mode. In static mode, the leader is
manually selected and the members are added to the RF Group. .
Note
RF groups and mobility groups are similar, in that, they both define clusters of controllers , but they are
different in terms of their use. An RF group facilitates scalable, system-wide dynamic RF management, while
a mobility group facilitates scalable, system-wide mobility and controller redundancy.
RF Group Leader
Starting in the 7.0.116.0 release, the RF Group Leader can be configured in two ways as follows:
• Auto Mode—In this mode, the members of an RF group elect an RF group leader to maintain a primary
power and channel scheme for the group. The RF grouping algorithm dynamically chooses the RF group
leader and ensures that an RF group leader is always present. Group leader assignments can and do
change (for instance, if the current RF group leader becomes inoperable or RF group members experience
major changes).
• Static Mode—In this mode, a user selects a controller as an RF group leader manually. In this mode, the
leader and the members are manually configured and fixed. If the members are unable to join the RF
group, the reason is indicated. The leader tries to establish a connection with a member every minute if
the member has not joined in the previous attempt.
The RF group leader analyzes real-time radio data collected by the system, calculates the power and channel
assignments, and sends them to each of the controllers in the RF group. The RRM algorithms ensure
system-wide stability, and restrain channel and power scheme changes to the appropriate local RF
neighborhoods.
Note
When a a controller becomes both leader and member for a specific radio, you get to view the IPv4 and IPv6
address as part of the group leader.
When a Controller A becomes a member and Controller B becomes a leader, the Controller A displays either
IPv4 or IPv6 address of Controller B using the address it is connected.
So, if both leader and member are not the same, you get to view only one IPv4 or IPv6 address as a group
leader in the member.
In Cisco WLC software releases prior to 6.0, the dynamic channel assignment (DCA) search algorithm attempts
to find a good channel plan for the radios associated to Cisco WLCs in the RF group, but it does not adopt a
new channel plan unless it is considerably better than the current plan. The channel metric of the worst radio
in both plans determines which plan is adopted. Using the worst-performing radio as the single criterion for
adopting a new channel plan can result in pinning or cascading problems.
Pinning occurs when the algorithm could find a better channel plan for some of the radios in an RF group,
but is prevented from pursuing such a channel plan change because the worst radio in the network does not
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
391
Wireless
RF Group Name
have any better channel options. The worst radio in the RF group could potentially prevent other radios in the
group from seeking better channel plans. The larger the network, the more likely pinning becomes.
Cascading occurs when one radio’s channel change results in successive channel changes to optimize the
remaining radios in the RF neighborhood. Optimizing these radios could lead to their neighbors and their
neighbors’ neighbors having a suboptimal channel plan and triggering their channel optimization. This effect
could propagate across multiple floors or even multiple buildings if all the access point radios belong to the
same RF group. This change results in considerable client confusion and network instability.
The main cause of both pinning and cascading is the way in which the search for a new channel plan is
performed and that any potential channel plan changes are controlled by the RF circumstances of a single
radio. In Cisco WLC software release 6.0, the DCA algorithm has been redesigned to prevent both pinning
and cascading. The following changes have been implemented:
• Multiple local searches—The DCA search algorithm performs multiple local searches initiated by different
radios in the same DCA run rather than performing a single global search that is driven by a single radio.
This change addresses both pinning and cascading, while maintaining the desired flexibility and
adaptability of DCA and without jeopardizing stability.
• Multiple Channel Plan Change Initiators (CPCIs)—Previously, the single worst radio was the sole initiator
of a channel plan change. Now each radio in an RF group is evaluated and prioritized as a potential
initiator. Intelligent randomization of the resulting list ensures that every radio is eventually evaluated,
which eliminates the potential for pinning.
• Limiting the propagation of channel plan changes (Localization)—For each CPCI radio, the DCA
algorithm performs a local search for a better channel plan, but only the CPCI radio itself and its one-hop
neighboring access points are actually allowed to change their current transmit channels. The impact of
an access point triggering a channel plan change is felt only to within two RF hops from that access point,
and the actual channel plan changes are confined to within a one-hop RF neighborhood. Because this
limitation applies across all CPCI radios, cascading cannot occur.
• Non-RSSI-based cumulative cost metric—A cumulative cost metric measures how well an entire region,
neighborhood, or network performs with respect to a given channel plan. The individual cost metrics of
all the access points in that area are considered in order to provide an overall understanding of the channel
plan’s quality. These metrics ensure that the improvement or deterioration of each single radio is factored
into any channel plan change. The objective is to prevent channel plan changes in which a single radio
improves, but at the expense of multiple other radios experiencing a considerable performance decline.
The RRM algorithms run at a specified updated interval, which is 600 seconds by default. Between update
intervals, the RF group leader sends keepalive messages to each of the RF group members and collects real-time
RF data.
Note
Several monitoring intervals are also available. See the Configuring RRM section for details.
RF Group Name
A controller is configured in an RF group name, which is sent to all the access points joined to the controller
and used by the access points as the shared secret for generating the hashed MIC in the neighbor messages.
To create an RF group, you configure all of the controllers to be included in the group with the same RF group
name.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
392
Wireless
Controllers and APs in RF Groups
If there is any possibility that an access point joined to a controller might hear RF transmissions from an
access point on a different controller , you should configure the controller with the same RF group name. If
RF transmissions between access points can be heard, then system-wide RRM is recommended to avoid
802.11 interference and contention as much as possible.
Controllers and APs in RF Groups
• Controller software supports up to 20 controllers and 6000 access points in an RF group.
• The RF group members are added based on the following criteria:
• Maximum number of APs Supported: The maximum limit for the number of access points in an RF
group is 6000. The number of access points that are supported is determined by the number of APs
licensed to operate on the controller.
• Twenty controllers: Only 20 controllers (including the leader) can be part of an RF group if the sum
of the access points of all controllers combined is less than or equal to the upper access point limit.
Configuring RF Groups
This section describes how to configure RF groups through either the GUI or the CLI.
Note
The RF group name is generally set at deployment time through the Startup Wizard. However, you can change
it as necessary.
Note
When the multiple-country feature is being used, all controllers intended to join the same RF group must be
configured with the same set of countries, configured in the same order.
Note
You can also configure RF groups using the Cisco Prime Infrastructure.
Configuring an RF Group Name (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Controller > General to open the General page.
Step 2
Enter a name for the RF group in the RF-Network Name text box. The name can contain up to 19 ASCII
characters.
Step 3
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 4
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
393
Wireless
Configuring an RF Group Name (CLI)
Step 5
Repeat this procedure for each controller that you want to include in the RF group.
Configuring an RF Group Name (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Create an RF group by entering the config network rf-network-name name command:
Enter up to 19 ASCII characters for the group name.
Note
Step 2
See the RF group by entering the show network command.
Step 3
Save your settings by entering the save config command.
Step 4
Repeat this procedure for each controller that you want to include in the RF group.
Configuring the RF Group Mode (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n> RRM > RF Grouping to open the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g)
RRM > RF Grouping page.
Step 2
From the Group Mode drop-down list, select the mode you want to configure for this Cisco WLC.
You can configure RF grouping in the following modes:
• auto—Sets the RF group selection to automatic update mode.
Note
This mode does not support IPv6 based configuration.
• leader—Sets the RF group selection to static mode, and sets this Cisco WLC as the group leader.
Note
Leader supports static IPv6 address.
Note
If a RF group member is configured using IPv4 address, then IPv4 address is used to
communicate with the leader. The same is applicable for a RF group member configured using
IPv6 too.
• off—Sets the RF group selection off. Every Cisco WLC optimizes its own access point parameters.
Step 3
Note
A configured static leader cannot become a member of another Cisco WLC until its mode is
set to “auto”.
Note
A Cisco WLC with a lower priority cannot assume the role of a group leader if a Cisco WLC
with a higher priority is available. Here priority is related to the processing power of the Cisco
WLC.
Note
We recommend that Cisco WLCs participate in automatic RF grouping. You can override
RRM settings without disabling automatic RF group participation.
Click Apply to save the configuration and click Restart to restart RRM RF Grouping algorithm.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
394
Wireless
Configuring the RF Group Mode (CLI)
Step 4
If you configured RF Grouping mode for this Cisco WLC as a static leader, you can add group members from
the RF Group Members section as follows:
a. In the Cisco WLC Name text box, enter the Cisco WLC that you want to add as a member to this group.
b. In the IP Address (IPv4/IPv6) text box, enter the IPv4/IPv6 address of the RF Group Member.
c. Click Add Member to add the member to this group.
If the member has not joined the static leader, the reason of the failure is shown in parentheses.
Note
Step 5
Click Apply.
Step 6
Click Save Configuration.
Configuring the RF Group Mode (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Configure the RF Grouping mode by entering this command:
config advanced { 802.11a | 802.11b} group-mode {auto | leader | off | restart}
• auto—Sets the RF group selection to automatic update mode.
• leader—Sets the RF group selection to static mode, and sets this Cisco WLC as the group leader.
Note
If a group member is configured with IPv4 address, then IPv4 address is used to communicate
with a leader and vice versa with IPv6 also.
• off—Sets the RF group selection off. Every Cisco WLC optimizes its own access point parameters.
• restart—Restarts the RF group selection.
Step 2
Note
A configured static leader cannot become a member of another Cisco WLC until its mode is
set to “auto”.
Note
A Cisco WLC with a lower priority cannot assume the role of a group leader if a Cisco WLC
with higher priority is available. Here priority is related to the processing power of the Cisco
WLC.
Add or remove a Cisco WLC as a static member of the RF group (if the mode is set to “leader”) by entering
the these commands:
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} group-member add controller-name ipv4-or-ipv6-address
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} group-member remove controller-name ipv4-or-ipv6-address
Note
Step 3
You can add RF Group Members using either IPv4 or IPv6 address.
See RF grouping status by entering this command:
show advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} group
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
395
Wireless
Viewing RF Group Status
Viewing RF Group Status
Viewing the RF Group Status (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac > or 802.11b/g/n > RRM > RF Grouping to open the 802.11a/n/ac (or
802.11b/g/n) RRM > RF Grouping page.
This page shows the details of the RF group, displaying the configurable parameter RF Group mode, the RF
Group role of this Cisco WLC, the Update Interval and the Cisco WLC name and IP address of the Group
Leader to this Cisco WLC.
Note
RF grouping mode can be set using the Group Mode drop-down list.
Tip Once a Cisco WLC has joined as a static member and you want to change the grouping mode,
we recommend that you remove the member from the configured static-leader and also make sure
that a member Cisco WLC has not been configured to be a member on multiple static leaders. This
is to avoid repeated join attempts from one or more RF static leaders.
Step 2
(Optional) Repeat this procedure for the network type that you did not select (802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n).
Viewing the RF Group Status (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
See which Cisco WLC is the RF group leader for the 802.11a RF network by entering this command:
show advanced 802.11a group
Information similar to the following appears:
Radio RF Grouping
802.11a Group Mode.............................
802.11a Group Update Interval..................
802.11a Group Leader...........................
802.11a Group Member.........................
802.11a Last Run...............................
STATIC
600 seconds
test (209.165.200.225)
test (209.165.200.225)
397 seconds ago
This output shows the details of the RF group, specifically the grouping mode for the Cisco WLC, how often
the group information is updated (600 seconds by default), the IP address of the RF group leader, the IP
address of this Cisco WLC, and the last time the group information was updated.
Step 2
Note
If the IP addresses of the group leader and the group member are identical, this Cisco WLC is
currently the group leader.
Note
A * indicates that the Cisco WLC has not joined as a static member.
See which Cisco WLC is the RF group leader for the 802.11b/g RF network by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
396
Wireless
Rogue Access Point Detection in RF Groups
show advanced 802.11b group
Rogue Access Point Detection in RF Groups
After you have created an RF group of controller , you need to configure the access points connected to the
controller to detect rogue access points. The access points will then select the beacon or probe-response frames
in neighboring access point messages to see if they contain an authentication information element (IE) that
matches that of the RF group. If the selection is successful, the frames are authenticated. Otherwise, the
authorized access point reports the neighboring access point as a rogue, records its BSSID in a rogue table,
and sends the table to the controller .
Enabling Rogue Access Point Detection in RF Groups (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Make sure that each Cisco WLC in the RF group has been configured with the same RF group name.
Note
The name is used to verify the authentication IE in all beacon frames. If the Cisco WLCs have
different names, false alarms will occur.
Step 2
Choose Wireless to open the All APs page.
Step 3
Click the name of an access point to open the All APs > Details page.
Step 4
Choose either local or monitor from the AP Mode drop-down list and click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 5
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 6
Repeat Step 2 through Step 5 for every access point connected to the Cisco WLC.
Step 7
Choose Security > Wireless Protection Policies > AP Authentication/MFP to open the AP Authentication
Policy page.
The name of the RF group to which this Cisco WLC belongs appears at the top of the page.
Step 8
Choose AP Authentication from the Protection Type drop-down list to enable rogue access point detection.
Step 9
Enter a number in the Alarm Trigger Threshold edit box to specify when a rogue access point alarm is generated.
An alarm occurs when the threshold value (which specifies the number of access point frames with an invalid
authentication IE) is met or exceeded within the detection period.
Note
The valid threshold range is from1 to 255, and the default threshold value is 1. To avoid false alarms,
you may want to set the threshold to a higher value.
Step 10
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 11
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Step 12
Repeat this procedure on every Cisco WLC in the RF group.
Note
If rogue access point detection is not enabled on every Cisco WLC in the RF group, the access
points on the Cisco WLCs with this feature disabled are reported as rogues.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
397
Wireless
Configuring Rogue Access Point Detection in RF Groups (CLI)
Configuring Rogue Access Point Detection in RF Groups (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Make sure that each Cisco WLC in the RF group has been configured with the same RF group name.
Note
Step 2
The name is used to verify the authentication IE in all beacon frames. If the Cisco WLCs have
different names, false alarms will occur.
Configure a particular access point for local (normal) mode or monitor (listen-only) mode by entering this
command:
config ap mode local Cisco_AP or config ap mode monitor Cisco_AP
Step 3
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 4
Repeat Step 2 and Step 3 for every access point connected to the Cisco WLC.
Step 5
Enable rogue access point detection by entering this command:
config wps ap-authentication
Step 6
Specify when a rogue access point alarm is generated by entering this command. An alarm occurs when the
threshold value (which specifies the number of access point frames with an invalid authentication IE) is met
or exceeded within the detection period.
config wps ap-authentication threshold
Note
The valid threshold range is from 1 to 255, and the default threshold value is 1. To avoid false
alarms, you may want to set the threshold to a higher value.
Step 7
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 8
Repeat Step 5 through Step 7 on every Cisco WLC in the RF group.
Note
If rogue access point detection is not enabled on every Cisco WLC in the RF group, the access
points on the Cisco WLCs with this feature disabled are reported as rogues.
Off-Channel Scanning Deferral
A lightweight access point, in normal operational conditions, periodically goes off-channel and scans another
channel. This is in order to perform RRM operations such as the following:
• Transmitting and receiving Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) packets with other APs.
• Detecting rogue APs and clients.
• Measuring noise and interference.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
398
Wireless
Configuring Off-Channel Scanning Deferral for WLANs
During the off-channel period, which normally is about 70 milliseconds, the AP is unable to transmit or receive
data on its serving channel. Therefore, there is a slight impact on its performance and some client transmissions
might be dropped.
While the AP is sending and receiving important data, it is possible to configure off-channel scanning deferral
so that the AP does not go off-channel and its normal operation is not impacted. You can configure off-channel
scanning deferral on a per-WLAN basis, per WMM UP class basis, with a specified time threshold in
milliseconds. If the AP sends or receives, on a particular WLAN, a data frame marked with the given UP class
within the specified threshold, the AP defers its next RRM off-channel scan. For example, by default,
off-channel scanning deferral is enabled for UP classes 4, 5, and 6, with a time threshold of 100 millseconds.
Therefore, when RRM is about to perform an off-channel scan, a data frame marked with UP 4, 5, or 6 is
received within the last 100 milliseconds, RRM defers going off-channel. The AP radio does not go off-channel
when a voice call sending and receiving audio samples are marked as UP class 6 for every active 20
milliseconds.
Off-channel scanning deferral does come with a tradeoff. Off-channel scanning can impact throughput by 2
percent or more, depending on the configuration, traffic patterns, and so on. Throughput can be slightly
improved if you enable off-channel scanning deferral for all traffic classes and increase the time threshold.
However, by not going off-channel, RRM can fail to identify AP neighbors and rogues, resulting in negative
impact to security, DCA, TPC, and 802.11k messages.
We recommend that you do not change the default off-channel scanning deferral settings.
Configuring Off-Channel Scanning Deferral for WLANs
Configuring Off-Channel Scanning Deferral for a WLAN (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Step 2
Click the WLAN ID.
Step 3
Choose the Advanced tab from the WLANs > Edit page.
Step 4
In the Off Channel Scanning Defer section, set the Scan Defer Priority by clicking on the priority argument.
Step 5
Set the time in milliseconds in the Scan Defer Time field.
Valid values are between 0 and 60000 milliseconds; the default value is 100 milliseconds. If you sent the time
to 0, the scan deferral does not happen.
The scan defer time is common for all priorities on the same WLAN and the scan is deferred if a packet is
transmitted or received in any one of the defer priorities.
Step 6
Save the configuration.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
399
Wireless
Configuring Off Channel Scanning Deferral for a WLAN (CLI)
Configuring Off Channel Scanning Deferral for a WLAN (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Assign a defer-priority for the channel scan by entering this command:
config wlan channel-scan defer-priority priority-value {enable | disable} wlan-id
Valid priority value is betweeen 0 and 7 (this value should be set to 6 on the client and on the WLAN).
Use this command to configure the amount of time that scanning will be deferred following an UP packet in
the queue.
Step 2
Assign the channel scan defer time (in milliseconds) by entering this command:
config wlan channel-scan defer-time time-in-msecswlan-id
The time value is in miliseconds (ms) and the valid range is between 0 and 60000 ms (60 seconds); the default
value is 100 ms. This setting should match the requirements of the equipment on your WLAN. If you sent
the time to 0, the scan deferral does not happen.
The scan defer time is common for all priorities on the same WLAN and the scan is deferred if a packet is
transmitted or received in any one of the defer priorities.
RRM NDP and RF Grouping
The Cisco Neighbor Discovery Packet (NDP) is the fundamental tool for RRM and other wireless applications
that provides information about the neighbor radio information. You can configure the controller to encrypt
neighbor discovery packets.
An RF group can only be formed between controllers that have the same encryption mechanism. That is, an
access point associated to a controller that is encrypted can not be neighbors with an access point associated
to a controller that is not encrypted. The two controllers and their access points will not recognize each other
as neighbors and cannot form an RF group. It is possible to assign two controllers in a static RF group
configuration that has mismatched encryption settings. In this case, the two controllers do not function as a
single RF group because the access points belonging to the mismatched controllers do not recognize one
another as neighbors in the group.
Guidelines
• This feature enables you to be compliant with the PCI specifications.
• An RF group can only be formed between controllers that have the same encryption mechanism. That
is, an access point associated to a controller that is encrypted can not be neighbors with an access point
associated to a controller that is not encrypted. The two controllers and their access points will not
recognize each other as neighbors and cannot form an RF group. It is possible to assign two controllers
in a static RF group configuration that has mismatched encryption settings. In this case, the two controllers
do not function as a single RF group because the access points belonging to the mismatched controllers
do not recognize one another as neighbors in the group.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
400
Wireless
Configuring RRM NDP (CLI)
• Ensure that the Cisco Wave 2 APs have an SSID enabled for the APs to send NDP packets. If only the
AP radios are enabled but not SSID, then the APs cannot send NDP packets and thus RRM does not
work as expected.
Configuring RRM NDP (CLI)
Procedure
Command or Action
Step 1
Purpose
To configure RRM NDP using the Cisco WLC config advanced 802.11{a|b} monitor
CLI, enter this command:
ndp-mode {protected | transparent}
This command configures NDP mode. By
default, the mode is set to “transparent”. The
following options are available:
• Protected—Packets are encrypted.
• Transparent—Packets are sent as is.
Step 2
To configure RRM NDP using the Cisco WLC show advanced 802.11{a|b} monitor
CLI, enter this command:
Channels
Dynamic Channel Assignment
Two adjacent access points on the same channel can cause either signal contention or signal collision. In a
collision, data is not received by the access point. This functionality can become a problem, for example,
when someone reading an e-mail in a café affects the performance of the access point in a neighboring business.
Even though these are separate networks, someone sending traffic to the café on channel 1 can disrupt
communication in an enterprise using the same channel. Controllers can dynamically allocate access point
channel assignments to avoid conflict and increase capacity and performance. Channels are reused to avoid
wasting scarce RF resources. In other words, channel 1 is allocated to a different access point far from the
café, which is more effective than not using channel 1 altogether.
The controller’s Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) capabilities are also useful in minimizing adjacent
channel interference between access points. For example, two overlapping channels in the 802.11b/g band,
such as 1 and 2, cannot simultaneously use 11 or 54 Mbps. By effectively reassigning channels, the controller
keeps adjacent channels that are separated.
Note
We recommend that you use only nonoverlapping channels (1, 6, 11, and so on).
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
401
Wireless
Dynamic Channel Assignment
Note
Channel change does not require you to shut down the radio.
The controller examines a variety of real-time RF characteristics to efficiently handle channel assignments
as follows:
• Access point received energy—The received signal strength measured between each access point and
its nearby neighboring access points. Channels are optimized for the highest network capacity.
• Noise—Noise can limit signal quality at the client and access point. An increase in noise reduces the
effective cell size and degrades user experience. By optimizing channels to avoid noise sources, the
controller can optimize coverage while maintaining system capacity. If a channel is unusable due to
excessive noise, that channel can be avoided.
• 802.11 interference—Interference is any 802.11 traffic that is not a part of your wireless LAN, including
rogue access points and neighboring wireless networks. Lightweight access points constantly scan all
the channels looking for sources of interference. If the amount of 802.11 interference exceeds a predefined
configurable threshold (the default is 10 percent), the access point sends an alert to the controller. Using
the RRM algorithms, the controller may then dynamically rearrange channel assignments to increase
system performance in the presence of the interference. Such an adjustment could result in adjacent
lightweight access points being on the same channel, but this setup is preferable to having the access
points remain on a channel that is unusable due to an interfering foreign access point.
In addition, if other wireless networks are present, the controller shifts the usage of channels to complement
the other networks. For example, if one network is on channel 6, an adjacent wireless LAN is assigned
to channel 1 or 11. This arrangement increases the capacity of the network by limiting the sharing of
frequencies. If a channel has virtually no capacity remaining, the controller may choose to avoid this
channel. In huge deployments in which all nonoverlapping channels are occupied, the controller does its
best, but you must consider RF density when setting expectations.
• Load and utilization—When utilization monitoring is enabled, capacity calculations can consider that
some access points are deployed in ways that carry more traffic than other access points, for example, a
lobby versus an engineering area. The controller can then assign channels to improve the access point
that has performed the worst. The load is taken into account when changing the channel structure to
minimize the impact on the clients that are currently in the wireless LAN. This metric keeps track of
every access point’s transmitted and received packet counts to determine how busy the access points are.
New clients avoid an overloaded access point and associate to a new access point. This Load and utilization
parameter is disabled by default.
The controller combines this RF characteristic information with RRM algorithms to make system-wide
decisions. Conflicting demands are resolved using soft-decision metrics that guarantee the best choice for
minimizing network interference. The end result is optimal channel configuration in a three-dimensional
space, where access points on the floor above and below play a major factor in an overall wireless LAN
configuration.
Note
Radios using 40-MHz channels in the 2.4-GHz band or 80MHz channels are not supported by DCA.
The RRM startup mode is invoked in the following conditions:
• In a single-controller environment, the RRM startup mode is invoked after the controller is upgraded
and rebooted.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
402
Wireless
Configuring Dynamic Channel Assignment (GUI)
• In a multiple-controller environment, the RRM startup mode is invoked after an RF Group leader is
elected.
You can trigger the RRM startup mode from the CLI.
The RRM startup mode runs for 100 minutes (10 iterations at 10-minute intervals). The duration of the RRM
startup mode is independent of the DCA interval, sensitivity, and network size. The startup mode consists of
10 DCA runs with high sensitivity (making channel changes easy and sensitive to the environment) to converge
to a steady-state channel plan. After the startup mode is finished, DCA continues to run at the specified interval
and sensitivity.
Note
DCA algorithm interval is set to 1 hour, but DCA algorithm always runs in default interval of 10 min, channel
allocation occurs at 10-min intervals for the first 10 cycles, and channel changes occur as per the DCA algorithm
every 10 min. After that the DCA algorithm goes back to the configured time interval. This is common for
both DCA interval and anchor time because it follows the steady state.
Note
If Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA)/Transmit Power Control (TPC) is turned off on the RF group member,
and auto is set on RF group leader, the channel or TX power on a member gets changed as per the algorithm
that is run on the RF group leader.
Configuring Dynamic Channel Assignment (GUI)
You can specify the channels that the dynamic channel assignment (DCA) algorithm considers when selecting
the channels to be used for RRM scanning by using the controller GUI.
Note
This functionality is helpful when you know that the clients do not support certain channels because they are
legacy devices or they have certain regulatory restrictions.
Procedure
Step 1
Disable the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n network as follows:
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > Network to open the Global Parameters page.
b) Uncheck the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box.
c) Click Apply.
Step 2
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > RRM > DCA to open the Dynamic Channel Assignment
(DCA) page.
Step 3
Choose one of the following options from the Channel Assignment Method drop-down list to specify the
controller’s DCA mode:
• Automatic—Causes the controller to periodically evaluate and, if necessary, update the channel assignment
for all joined access points. This is the default value.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
403
Wireless
Configuring Dynamic Channel Assignment (GUI)
• Freeze—Causes the controller to evaluate and update the channel assignment for all joined access points,
if necessary, but only when you click Invoke Channel Update Once.
Note
The controller does not evaluate and update the channel assignment immediately after you
click Invoke Channel Update Once. It waits for the next interval to elapse.
• OFF—Turns off DCA and sets all access point radios to the first channel of the band, which is the default
value. If you choose this option, you must manually assign channels on all radios.
Note
Step 4
For optimal performance, we recommend that you use the Automatic setting.
From the Interval drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify how often the DCA algorithm
is allowed to run: 10 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours, or 24 hours.
The default value is 10 minutes.
Note
If your controller supports only OfficeExtend access points, we recommend that you set the DCA
interval to 6 hours for optimal performance. For deployments with a combination of OfficeExtend
access points and local access points, the range of 10 minutes to 24 hours can be used.
Step 5
From the AnchorTime drop-down list, choose a number to specify the time of day when the DCA algorithm
is to start. The options are numbers between 0 and 23 (inclusive) representing the hour of the day from 12:00
a.m. to 11:00 p.m.
Step 6
Check the Avoid Foreign AP Interference check box to cause the controller’s RRM algorithms to consider
802.11 traffic from foreign access points (those not included in your wireless network) when assigning channels
to lightweight access points, or uncheck it to disable this feature. For example, RRM may adjust the channel
assignment to have access points avoid channels close to foreign access points. The default value is selected.
Step 7
Check the Avoid Cisco AP Load check box to cause the controller’s RRM algorithms to consider 802.11
traffic from APs in your wireless network when assigning channels, or uncheck it to disable this feature. For
example, RRM can assign better reuse patterns to access points that carry a heavier traffic load. The default
value is unselected.
Step 8
Check the Avoid Non-802.11a (802.11b) Noise check box to cause the controller’s RRM algorithms to
consider noise (non-802.11 traffic) in the channel when assigning channels to lightweight access points, or
uncheck it to disable this feature. For example, RRM may have access points avoid channels with significant
interference from nonaccess point sources, such as microwave ovens. The default value is selected.
Step 9
Check the Avoid Persistent Non-WiFi Interference check box to configure the controller to stop ignoring
persistent non-Wi-Fi interference in new channel calculation. The persistent non-Wi-Fi interference is considered
during the metric calculation for channels.
Step 10
From the DCA Channel Sensitivity drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify how
sensitive the DCA algorithm is to environmental changes such as signal, load, noise, and interference when
determining whether to change channels:
• Low—The DCA algorithm is not particularly sensitive to environmental changes.
• Medium—The DCA algorithm is moderately sensitive to environmental changes.
• High—The DCA algorithm is highly sensitive to environmental changes.
The default value is Medium. The DCA sensitivity thresholds vary by radio band, as noted in the table below.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
404
Wireless
Configuring Dynamic Channel Assignment (GUI)
Table 18: DCA Sensitivity Thresholds
Step 11
Option
2.4-GHz DCA Sensitivity Threshold 5-GHz DCA Sensitivity Threshold
High
5 dB
5 dB
Medium
10 dB
15 dB
Low
20 dB
20 dB
For 802.11a/n/ac networks only, choose one of the following channel width options to specify the channel
bandwidth supported for all 802.11n radios in the 5-GHz band:
• 20 MHz—The 20-MHz channel bandwidth.
• 40 MHz—The 40-MHz channel bandwidth
Note
If you choose 40 MHz, be sure to choose at least two adjacent channels from the DCA
Channel List in Step 13 (for example, a primary channel of 36 and an extension channel
of 40). If you choose only one channel, that channel is not used for 40-MHz channel
width.
Note
If you choose 40 MHz, you can also configure the primary and extension channels used
by individual access points.
Note
To override the globally configured DCA channel width setting, you can statically configure
an access point’s radio for 20- or 40-MHz mode on the 802.11a/n Cisco APs > Configure
page. if you then change the static RF channel assignment method to WLC Controlled on
the access point radio, the global DCA configuration overrides the channel width
configuration that the access point was previously using. It can take up to 30 minutes
(depending on how often DCA is configured to run) for the change to take effect.
Note
If you choose 40 MHz on the 802.11a radio, you cannot pair channels 116, 140, and 165
with any other channels.
• 80 MHz—The 80-MHz bandwidth for the 802.11ac radios.
• 160 MHz—The 160-MHz bandwidth for 802.11ac radios.
• best—It selects the best bandwidth suitable. This option is enabled for the 5-GHz radios only.
This page also shows the following nonconfigurable channel parameter settings:
• Channel Assignment Leader—The MAC address of the RF group leader, which is responsible for channel
assignment.
• Last Auto Channel Assignment—The last time RRM evaluated the current channel assignments.
Step 12
Select the Avoid check for non-DFS channel to enable the controller to avoid checks for non-DFS channels.
DCA configuration requires at least one non-DFS channel in the list. In the EU countries, outdoor deployments
do not support non-DFS channels. Customers based in EU or regions with similar regulations must enable
this option or at least have one non-DFS channel in the DCA list even if the channel is not supported by the
APs.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
405
Wireless
Configuring RRM Profile Thresholds, Monitoring Channels, and Monitor Intervals (GUI)
Note
Step 13
This parameter is applicable only for deployments having outdoor access points such as 1522 and
1524.
In the DCA Channel List area, the DCA Channels field shows the channels that are currently selected. To
choose a channel, check its check box in the Select column. To exclude a channel, uncheck its check box.
The ranges are as follows: 802.11a—36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 132, 136, 140,
149, 153, 157, 161, 165, 190, 196 802.11b/g—1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
The defaults are as follows: 802.11a—36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 132, 136, 140,
149, 153, 157, 161 802.11b/g—1, 6, 11
Note
These extended UNII-2 channels in the 802.11a band do not appear in the channel list: 100, 104,
108, 112, 116, 132, 136, and 140. If you are upgrading from a previous release, verify that these
channels are included in the DCA channel list. To include these channels in the channel list, check
the Extended UNII-2 Channels check box.
Step 14
Click Apply.
Step 15
Reenable the 802.11 networks as follows:
a. Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > Network to open the Global Parameters page.
b. Check the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box.
c. Click Apply.
Step 16
Click Save Configuration.
Note
To see why the DCA algorithm changed channels, choose Monitor and then choose View All under
Most Recent Traps. The trap provides the MAC address of the radio that changed channels, the
previous channel and the new channel, the reason why the change occurred, the energy before and
after the change, the noise before and after the change, and the interference before and after the
change.
Configuring RRM Profile Thresholds, Monitoring Channels, and Monitor Intervals (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > RRM > General to open the 802.11a/n/ac (or 802.11b/g/n)
> RRM > General page.
Step 2
Configure profile thresholds used for alarming as follows:
Note
The profile thresholds have no bearing on the functionality of the RRM algorithms. Lightweight
access points send an SNMP trap (or an alert) to the Cisco WLC when the values set for these
threshold parameters are exceeded.
a) In the Interference text box, enter the percentage of interference (802.11 traffic from sources outside of
your wireless network) on a single access point. The valid range is 0 to 100%, and the default value is
10%.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
406
Wireless
Configuring RRM Profile Thresholds, Monitoring Channels, and Monitor Intervals (GUI)
b) In the Clients text box, enter the number of clients on a single access point. The valid range is 1 to 200,
and the default value is 12.
c) In the Noise text box, enter the level of noise (non-802.11 traffic) on a single access point. The valid range
is –127 to 0 dBm, and the default value is –70 dBm.
d) In the Utilization text box, enter the percentage of RF bandwidth being used by a single access point.
The valid range is 0 to 100%, and the default value is 80%.
Step 3
From the Channel List drop-down list, choose one of the following options to specify the set of channels that
the access point uses for RRM scanning:
• All Channels—RRM channel scanning occurs on all channels supported by the selected radio, which
includes channels not allowed in the country of operation.
• Country Channels—RRM channel scanning occurs only on the data channels in the country of operation.
This is the default value.
• DCA Channels—RRM channel scanning occurs only on the channel set used by the DCA algorithm,
which by default includes all of the non-overlapping channels allowed in the country of operation.
However, you can specify the channel set to be used by DCA if desired. To do so, follow instructions in
the Dynamic Channel Assignment.
Note
Step 4
Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) request is sent only on Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA)
channels.
Configure monitor intervals as follows:
a. In the Channel Scan Interval box, enter (in seconds) the sum of the time between scans for each channel
within a radio band. The entire scanning process takes 50 ms per channel, per radio and runs at the interval
configured here. The time spent listening on each channel is determined by the non-configurable 50-ms
scan time and the number of channels to be scanned. For example, in the U.S. all 11 802.11b/g channels
are scanned for 50 ms each within the default 180-second interval. So every 16 seconds, 50 ms is spent
listening on each scanned channel (180/11 = ~16 seconds). The Channel Scan Interval parameter determines
the interval at which the scanning occurs.The valid range is 60 to 3600 seconds, and the default value is
60 seconds for 802.11a radios and 180 seconds for the 802.11b/g radios.
Note
If your Cisco WLC supports only OfficeExtend access points, we recommend that you set the
channel scan interval to 1800 seconds for optimal performance. For deployments with a
combination of OfficeExtend access points and local access points, the range of 60 to 3600
seconds can be used.
b. In the Neighbor Packet Frequency box, enter (in seconds) how frequently neighbor packets (messages)
are sent, which eventually builds the neighbor list. The valid range is 60 to 3600 seconds, and the default
value is 60 seconds.
Note
If your Cisco WLC supports only OfficeExtend access points, we recommend that you set the
neighbor packet frequency to 600 seconds for optimal performance. For deployments with a
combination of OfficeExtend access points and local access points, the range of 60 to 3600
seconds can be used.
c. In the Neighbor Timeout Factor box, enter the NDP timeout factor value in minutes. The valid range is
5 minutes to 60 minutes with the default value being 5 minutes.
If you are using Release 8.1 or a later release, we recommend that you set the timeout factor to default
20. If the access point radio does not receive a neighbor packet from an existing neighbor within 60
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
407
Wireless
Overriding RRM
minutes when the default NDP interval of 180s is in use, Cisco WLC deletes the neighbor from the neighbor
list.
The Neighbor Timeout Factor was hardcoded to 60 minutes in Release 7.6, but was changed to
5 minutes in Release 8.0.100.0.
Note
Step 5
Click Apply.
Step 6
Click Save Configuration.
Note
Click Set to Factory Default if you want to return all of the Cisco WLC’s RRM parameters to their
factory-default values.
Overriding RRM
In some deployments, it is desirable to statically assign channel and transmit power settings to the access
points instead of relying on the RRM algorithms provided by Cisco. Typically, this is true in challenging RF
environments and non standard deployments but not the more typical carpeted offices.
Note
If you choose to statically assign channels and power levels to your access points and/or to disable dynamic
channel and power assignment, you should still use automatic RF grouping to avoid spurious rogue device
events.
You can disable dynamic channel and power assignment globally for a Cisco WLC, or you can leave dynamic
channel and power assignment enabled and statically configure specific access point radios with a channel
and power setting. While you can specify a global default transmit power parameter for each network type
that applies to all the access point radios on a Cisco WLC, you must set the channel for each access point
radio when you disable dynamic channel assignment. You may also want to set the transmit power for each
access point instead of leaving the global transmit power in effect.
This section contains the following subsections:
Prerequisites for Overriding RRM
We recommend that you assign different nonoverlapping channels to access points that are within
close proximity to each other. The nonoverlapping channels in the U.S. are 36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56,
60, 64, 149, 153, 157, and 161 in an 802.11a network and 1, 6, and 11 in an 802.11b/g network.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
408
Wireless
Statically Assigning Channel and Transmit Power Settings (GUI)
Statically Assigning Channel and Transmit Power Settings (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > Access Points > Radios > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n to open the 802.11a/n/ac (or
802.11b/g/n) Radios page.
This page shows all the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n access point radios that are joined to the Cisco WLC and
their current settings. The Channel text box shows both the primary and extension channels and uses an asterisk
to indicate if they are globally assigned.
Step 2
Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the access point for which you want to modify the radio
configuration and choose Configure. The 802.11a/n/ac (or 802.11b/g/n) Cisco APs > Configure page appears.
Step 3
Specify the RF Channel Assignment from the following options:
• Global—Choose this to specify a global value.
• Custom—Choose this and then select a value from the adjacent drop-down list to specify a custom value.
Step 4
Configure the antenna parameters for this radio as follows:
a. From the Antenna Type drop-down list, choose Internal or External to specify the type of antennas used
with the access point radio.
b. Select and unselect the check boxes in the Antenna text box to enable and disable the use of specific
antennas for this access point, where A, B, and C are specific antenna ports. The D antenna appears for
the Cisco 3600 Series Access Points. A is the right antenna port, B is the left antenna port, and C is the
center antenna port. For example, to enable transmissions from antenna ports A and B and receptions
from antenna port C, you would select the following check boxes: Tx: A and B and Rx: C. In 3600 APs,
the valid combinations are A, A+B, A+B+C or A+B+C+D. When you select a dual mode antenna, you
can only apply single spatial 802.11n stream rates: MCS 0 to 7 data rates. When you select two dual mode
antennae, you can apply only the two spatial 802.11n stream rates: MCS 0 to 15 data rates.
c. In the Antenna Gain text box, enter a number to specify an external antenna’s ability to direct or focus
radio energy over a region of space. High-gain antennas have a more focused radiation pattern in a specific
direction. The antenna gain is measured in 0.5 dBi units, and the default value is 7 times 0.5 dBi, or 3.5
dBi.
If you have a high-gain antenna, enter a value that is twice the actual dBi value (see Cisco Aironet Antenna
Reference Guide for antenna dBi values). Otherwise, enter 0. For example, if your antenna has a 4.4-dBi
gain, multiply the 4.4 dBi by 2 to get 8.8 and then round down to enter only the whole number (8). The
Cisco WLC reduces the actual equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) to make sure that the antenna
does not violate your country’s regulations.
d. Choose one of the following options from the Diversity drop-down list:
Enabled—Enables the antenna connectors on both sides of the access point. This is the default value.
Side A or Right—Enables the antenna connector on the right side of the access point.
Side B or Left—Enables the antenna connector on the left side of the access point.
Step 5
In the RF Channel Assignment area, choose Custom for the Assignment Method under RF Channel Assignment
and choose a channel from the drop-down list to assign an RF channel to the access point radio.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
409
Wireless
Statically Assigning Channel and Transmit Power Settings (CLI)
Step 6
In the Tx Power Level Assignment area, choose the Custom assignment method and choose a transmit power
level from the drop-down list to assign a transmit power level to the access point radio.
The transmit power level is assigned an integer value instead of a value in mW or dBm. The integer corresponds
to a power level that varies depending on the regulatory domain in which the access points are deployed. The
number of available power levels varies based on the access point model. However, power level 1 is always
the maximum power level allowed per country code setting, with each successive power level representing
50% of the previous power level. For example, 1 = maximum power level in a particular regulatory domain,
2 = 50% power, 3 = 25% power, 4 = 12.5% power, and so on.
Note
See the hardware installation guide for your access point for the maximum transmit power levels
supported per regulatory domain. Also, see the data sheet for your access point for the number of
power levels supported.
Note
If the access point is not operating at full power, the “Due to low PoE, radio is transmitting at
degraded power” message appears under the Tx Power Level Assignment section.
Step 7
Choose Enable from the Admin Status drop-down list to enable this configuration for the access point.
Step 8
Click Apply.
Step 9
Have the Cisco WLC send the access point radio admin state immediately to Cisco Prime Infrastructure as
follows:
a. Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Network to open the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Global
Parameters page.
b. Select the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box.
c. Click Apply.
Step 10
Click Save Configuration.
Step 11
Repeat this procedure for each access point radio for which you want to assign a static channel and power
level.
Statically Assigning Channel and Transmit Power Settings (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Disable the radio of a particular access point on the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n network by entering this
command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} disable Cisco_AP
Step 2
Configure the channel width for a particular access point by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} chan_width Cisco_AP {20 | 40 | 80 | 160}
where
• 20 allows the radio to communicate using only 20-MHz channels. Choose this option for legacy 802.11a
radios, 20-MHz 802.11n radios, or 40-MHz 802.11n radios that you want to operate using only 20-MHz
channels. This is the default value.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
410
Wireless
Statically Assigning Channel and Transmit Power Settings (CLI)
• 40 allows 40-MHz 802.11n radios to communicate using two adjacent 20-MHz channels bonded together.
The radio uses the primary channel that you choose as well as its extension channel for faster throughput.
Each channel has only one extension channel (36 and 40 are a pair, 44 and 48 are a pair, and so on). For
example, if you choose a primary channel of 44, the Cisco WLC would use channel 48 as the extension
channel. If you choose a primary channel of 48, the Cisco WLC would use channel 44 as the extension
channel.
Note
This parameter can be configured only if the primary channel is statically assigned.
Note
Statically configuring an AP’s radio for one of the available modes overrides the globally
configured DCA channel width setting (configured using the config advanced 802.11a channel
dca chan-width-11n {20 | 40 | 80 | 160 | best} command). If you ever change the static
configuration back to global on the access point radio, the global DCA configuration overrides
the channel width configuration that the access point was previously using. It can take up to
30 minutes (depending on how often DCA is configured to run) for the change to take effect.
• 80 sets the channel width for the 802.11ac radios to 80 MHz.
• 160 sets the channel width for the 802.11ac radio to 160 MHz.
• best sets the channel width for the 802.11ac radio to best suitable bandwidth.
Step 3
Note
Channels 116, 120, 124, and 128 are not available in the U.S. and Canada for 40-MHz channel
bonding.
Note
You should disable the operational and admin status of the slot 1 and slot 2 on the Cisco Aironet
3600 Series APs with 802.11 ac module before changing the channel width using the config 802.11
{a | b} chan_width ap ap-name channel command. We recommend that you use the config 802.11
{a | b} disable ap command to disable the operational and admin status.
Enable or disable the use of specific antennas for a particular access point by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} 11nsupport antenna {tx | rx} Cisco_AP {A | B | C} {enable | disable}
where A, B, and C are antenna ports. A is the right antenna port, B is the left antenna port, and C is the center
antenna port. For example, to enable transmissions from the antenna in access point AP1’s antenna port C on
the 802.11a network, you would enter this command:
config 802.11a 11nsupport antenna tx AP1 C enable
Note
Step 4
You cannot enable or disable individual antennas for 802.11ac because the 802.11ac module antennas
are internal.
Specify the external antenna gain, which is a measure of an external antenna’s ability to direct or focus radio
energy over a region of space entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} antenna extAntGain antenna_gain Cisco_AP
High-gain antennas have a more focused radiation pattern in a specific direction. The antenna gain is measured
in 0.5 dBi units, and the default value is 7 times 0.5 dBi, or 3.5 dBi.
If you have a high-gain antenna, enter a value that is twice the actual dBi value (see Cisco Aironet Antenna
Reference Guide for antenna dBi values). Otherwise, enter 0. For example, if your antenna has a 4.4-dBi gain,
multiply the 4.4 dBi by 2 to get 8.8 and then round down to enter only the whole number (8). The Cisco WLC
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
411
Wireless
Statically Assigning Channel and Transmit Power Settings (CLI)
reduces the actual equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) to make sure that the antenna does not violate
your country’s regulations.
Step 5
Configure beamforming for the 5-GHz radios for all APs or a specific by entering this command:
config 802.11a {global | ap ap-name} {enable | disable}
Step 6
Specify the channel that a particular access point is to use by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} channel ap Cisco_AP channel
For example, to configure 802.11a channel 36 as the default channel on AP1, enter the config 802.11a channel
ap AP1 36 command.
The channel you choose is the primary channel (for example, channel 36), which is used for communication
by legacy 802.11a radios and 802.11n 20-MHz radios. 802.11n 40-MHz radios use this channel as the primary
channel but also use an additional bonded extension channel for faster throughput, if you chose 40 for the
channel width.
Note
Step 7
Changing the operating channel causes the access point radio to reset.
Specify the transmit power level that a particular access point is to use by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} txPower ap Cisco_AP power_level
For example, to set the transmit power for 802.11a AP1 to power level 2, enter the config 802.11a txPower
ap AP1 2 command.
The transmit power level is assigned an integer value instead of a value in mW or dBm. The integer corresponds
to a power level that varies depending on the regulatory domain in which the access points are deployed. The
number of available power levels varies based on the access point model. However, power level 1 is always
the maximum power level allowed per country code setting, with each successive power level representing
50% of the previous power level. For example, 1 = maximum power level in a particular regulatory domain,
2 = 50% power, 3 = 25% power, 4 = 12.5% power, and so on.
In certain cases, Cisco access points support only 7 power levels for certain channels, so that the Cisco Wireless
Controller considers the 7th and 8th power levels as the same. If the 8th power level is configured on those
channels, the configuration would fail since the controller considers the 7th power level as the lowest acceptable
valid power level. These power values are derived based on the regulatory compliance limits and minimum
hardware limitation which varies across different Cisco access points.
Note
See the hardware installation guide for your access point for the maximum transmit power levels
supported per regulatory domain. Also, see data sheet for your access point for the number of power
levels supported.
Step 8
Save your settings by entering this command:
save config
Step 9
Repeat Step 2 through Step 7 for each access point radio for which you want to assign a static channel and
power level.
Step 10
Reenable the access point radio by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} enable Cisco_AP
Step 11
Have the Cisco WLC send the access point radio admin state immediately to WCS by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} enable network
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
412
Wireless
Disabling Dynamic Channel and Power Assignment (CLI)
Step 12
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 13
See the configuration of a particular access point by entering this command:
show ap config {802.11a | 802.11b} Cisco_AP
Information similar to the following appears:
Cisco AP Identifier..............................
Cisco AP Name....................................
...
Tx Power
Num Of Supported Power Levels ............. 8
Tx Power Level 1 ..........................
Tx Power Level 2 ..........................
Tx Power Level 3 ..........................
Tx Power Level 4 ..........................
Tx Power Level 5 ..........................
Tx Power Level 6 ..........................
Tx Power Level 7 ..........................
Tx Power Level 8 ..........................
Tx Power Configuration ....................
Current Tx Power Level ....................
Phy OFDM parameters
Configuration .............................
Current Channel ...........................
Extension Channel .........................
Channel Width..............................
Allowed Channel List.......................
.........................................
TI Threshold ..............................
Antenna Type...............................
External Antenna Gain (in .5 dBi units)....
Diversity..................................
7
AP1
20 dBm
17 dBm
14 dBm
11 dBm
8 dBm
5 dBm
2 dBm
-1 dBm
CUSTOMIZED
1
CUSTOMIZED
36
40
40 Mhz
36,44,52,60,100,108,116,132,
149,157
-50
EXTERNAL_ANTENNA
7
DIVERSITY_ENABLED
802.11n Antennas
Tx
A....................................... ENABLED
B....................................... ENABLED
Rx
A....................................... DISABLED
B....................................... DISABLED
C.................................... ENABLED
Disabling Dynamic Channel and Power Assignment (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Disable the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} disable network
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
413
Wireless
802.11h Parameters
Step 2
Disable RRM for all 802.11a or 802.11b/g radios and set all channels to the default value by entering this
command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} channel global off
Step 3
Enable the 802.11a or 802.11b/g network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} enable network
Note
Step 4
To enable the 802.11g network, enter the config 802.11b 11gSupport enable command after the
config 802.11b enable network command.
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
802.11h Parameters
802.11h informs client devices about channel changes and can limit the transmit power of those client devices.
Configuring the 802.11h Parameters (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Disable the 802.11 band as follows:
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac > Network to open the 802.11a Global Parameters page.
b) Unselect the 802.11a Network Status check box.
c) Click Apply.
Step 2
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac > DFS (802.11h) to open the 802.11h Global Parameters page.
Step 3
In the Power Constraint area, enter the local power constraint. The valid range is between 0 dBm and 30 dBm.
Step 4
In the Channel Switch Announcement area, select the Channel Announcement check box if you want the
access point to announce when it is switching to a new channel and the new channel number, or unselect this
check box to disable the channel announcement. The default value is disabled.
Step 5
If you enabled the channel announcement, the Channel Quiet Mode check box appears. Select this check
box if you want the access point to stop transmitting on the current channel, or unselect this check box to
disable quiet mode. The default value is disabled.
Step 6
Click Apply.
Step 7
Reenable the 802.11a band as follows:
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac > Network to open the 802.11a Global Parameters page.
b) Select the 802.11a Network Status check box.
c) Click Apply.
Step 8
Click Save Configuration.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
414
Wireless
Configuring the 802.11h Parameters (CLI)
Configuring the 802.11h Parameters (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Disable the 802.11a network by entering this command:
config 802.11a disable network
Step 2
Enable or disable an access point to announce when it is switching to a new channel, and the new channel
number by entering this command:
config 802.11h channelswitch {enable {loud | quiet} | disable}
Enter either quiet or loud for the enable parameter. When the quiet mode is enabled, all the clients who can
enable 802.11h channel switch announcements should stop transmitting packets immediately because the AP
detects that the radar and client devices should also quit transmitting to reduce interference. By default, the
Channel Switch feature is in disabled state.
Step 3
Configure a new channel using the 802.11h channel announcement by entering this command:
config 802.11h setchannel channel channel
Step 4
Configure the 802.11h power constraint value by entering this command:
config 802.11h powerconstraint value
Use increments of 3 dB for the value so that the AP goes down one power level at a time.
Step 5
Reenable the 802.11a network by entering this command:
config 802.11a enable network
Step 6
View the status of the 802.11h parameters by entering this command:
show 802.11h
Information similar to the following appears:
Power Constraint................................. 0
Channel Switch................................... Disabled
Channel Switch Mode.............................. 0
Transmit Power Control
The Cisco WLC dynamically controls access point transmit power based on real-time wireless LAN conditions.
You can choose between two versions of transmit power control: TPCv1 and TPCv2. With TPCv1, typically,
power can be kept low to gain extra capacity and reduce interference. With TPCv2, transmit power is
dynamically adjusted with the goal of minimum interference. TPCv2 is suitable for dense networks. In this
mode, there could be higher roaming delays and coverage hole incidents.
The Transmit Power Control (TPC) algorithm increases and decreases an access point’s power in response
to changes in the RF environment. In most instances, TPC seeks to lower an access point's power to reduce
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
415
Wireless
Overriding the TPC Algorithm with Minimum and Maximum Transmit Power Settings
interference, but in the case of a sudden change in the RF coverage, for example, if an access point fails or
becomes disabled, TPC can also increase power on the surrounding access points. This feature is different
from coverage hole detection, which is primarily concerned with clients. TPC provides enough RF power to
achieve the required coverage levels while avoiding channel interference between access points.
These documents provide more information on Transmit Power Control values for the following access points:
Cisco Aironet 3500 Series http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/wireless/aironet-3500-series/
products-installation-guides-list.html
Cisco Aironet 3700 Series http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/wireless/aironet-3700-series/
products-installation-guides-list.html
Cisco Aironet 700 Series http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/wireless/aironet-700-series/
products-installation-guides-list.html
Cisco Aironet 1530 Series http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/support/wireless/aironet-1530-series/
products-installation-guides-list.html
Overriding the TPC Algorithm with Minimum and Maximum Transmit Power
Settings
The TPC algorithm balances RF power in many diverse RF environments. However, it is possible that automatic
power control will not be able to resolve some scenarios in which an adequate RF design was not possible to
implement due to architectural restrictions or site restrictions, for example, when all the access points must
be mounted in a central hallway, placing the access points close together, but requiring coverage to the edge
of the building.
In these scenarios, you can configure maximum and minimum transmit power limits to override TPC
recommendations. The maximum and minimum TPC power settings apply to all the access points through
RF profiles in a RF network.
To set the Maximum Power Level Assignment and Minimum Power Level Assignment, enter the maximum
and minimum transmit power used by RRM in the fields in the Tx Power Control window. The range for
these parameters is -10 to 30 dBm. The minimum value cannot be greater than the maximum value; the
maximum value cannot be less than the minimum value.
If you configure a maximum transmit power, RRM does not allow any access point attached to the controller
to exceed this transmit power level (whether the power is set by RRM TPC or by coverage hole detection).
For example, if you configure a maximum transmit power of 11 dBm, no access point will transmit above 11
dBm, unless the access point is configured manually.
Configuring Transmit Power Control (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > RRM > TPC to open the 802.11a/n/ac (or 802.11b/g/n)
> RRM > Tx Power Control (TPC) page.
Step 2
Choose the Transmit Power Control version from the following options:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
416
Wireless
Configuring Transmit Power Control (GUI)
• Interference Optimal Mode (TPCv2)—For scenarios where voice calls are extensively used. Transmit
power is dynamically adjusted with the goal of minimum interference. It is suitable for dense networks.
In this mode, there could be higher roaming delays and coverage hole incidents.
Note
We recommend that you use TCPv2 only in cases where RF issues cannot be resolved by using
TCPv1. Please evaluate and test the use of TPCv2 with the assistance of Cisco Services.
• Coverage Optimal Mode (TPCv1)—(Default) Offers strong signal coverage and stability. In this mode,
power can be kept low to gain extra capacity and reduce interference.
Step 3
Choose one of the following options from the Power Level Assignment Method drop-down list to specify the
Cisco WLC’s dynamic power assignment mode:
• Automatic—Causes the Cisco WLC to periodically evaluate and, if necessary, update the transmit power
for all joined access points. This is the default value.
• On Demand—Causes the Cisco WLC to periodically evaluate the transmit power for all joined access
points. However, the Cisco WLC updates the power, if necessary, only when you click Invoke Power
Update Now.
Note
The Cisco WLC does not evaluate and update the transmit power immediately after you click
Invoke Power Update Now. It waits for the next 600-second interval. This value is not
configurable.
• Fixed—Prevents the Cisco WLC from evaluating and, if necessary, updating the transmit power for
joined access points. The power level is set to the fixed value chosen from the drop-down list.
Step 4
Note
The transmit power level is assigned an integer value instead of a value in mW or dBm. The
integer corresponds to a power level that varies depending on the regulatory domain, channel,
and antennas in which the access points are deployed.
Note
For optimal performance, we recommend that you use the Automatic setting.
Enter the maximum and minimum power level assignment values in the Maximum Power Level Assignment
and Minimum Power Level Assignment text boxes.
The range for the Maximum Power Level Assignment is –10 to 30 dBm.
The range for the Minimum Power Level Assignment is –10 to 30 dBm.
Step 5
In the Power Threshold text box, enter the cutoff signal level used by RRM when determining whether to
reduce an access point’s power. The default value for this parameter is –70 dBm for TPCv1 and –67 dBm for
TPCv2, but can be changed when access points are transmitting at higher (or lower) than desired power levels.
The range for this parameter is –80 to –50 dBm. Increasing this value (between –65 and –50 dBm) causes the
access points to operate at a higher transmit power. Decreasing the value has the opposite effect.
In applications with a dense population of access points, it may be useful to decrease the threshold to –80 or
–75 dBm to reduce the number of BSSIDs (access points) and beacons seen by the wireless clients. Some
wireless clients might have difficulty processing a large number of BSSIDs or a high beacon rate and might
exhibit problematic behavior with the default threshold.
This page also shows the following nonconfigurable transmit power level parameter settings:
• Power Neighbor Count—The minimum number of neighbors an access point must have for the transmit
power control algorithm to run.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
417
Wireless
Coverage Hole Detection and Correction
• Power Assignment Leader—The MAC address of the RF group leader, which is responsible for power
level assignment.
• Last Power Level Assignment—The last time RRM evaluated the current transmit power level assignments.
Step 6
Click Apply.
Step 7
Click Save Configuration.
Coverage Hole Detection and Correction
The RRM coverage hole detection algorithm can detect areas of radio coverage in a wireless LAN that are
below the level needed for robust radio performance. This feature can alert you to the need for an additional
(or relocated) lightweight access point.
If clients on a lightweight access point are detected at threshold levels (RSSI, failed client count, percentage
of failed packets, and number of failed packets) lower than those specified in the RRM configuration, the
access point sends a “coverage hole” alert to the controller. The alert indicates the existence of an area where
clients are continually experiencing poor signal coverage, without having a viable access point to which to
roam. The controller discriminates between coverage holes that can and cannot be corrected. For coverage
holes that can be corrected, the controller mitigates the coverage hole by increasing the transmit power level
for that specific access point. The controller does not mitigate coverage holes caused by clients that are unable
to increase their transmit power or are statically set to a power level because increasing their downstream
transmit power might increase interference in the network.
Configuring Coverage Hole Detection (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Disable the 802.11 network as follows:
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > Network to open the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Global
Parameters page.
b) Unselect the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check box.
c) Click Apply.
Step 2
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > RRM > Coverage to open the 802.11a/ac (or 802.11b/g/n)
> RRM > Coverage page.
Step 3
Select the Enable Coverage Hole Detection check box to enable coverage hole detection, or unselect it to
disable this feature. If you enable coverage hole detection, the Cisco WLC automatically determines, based
on data received from the access points, if any access points have clients that are potentially located in areas
with poor coverage. The default value is selected.
Step 4
In the Data RSSI text box, enter the minimum receive signal strength indication (RSSI) value for data packets
received by the access point. The value that you enter is used to identify coverage holes (or areas of poor
coverage) within your network. If the access point receives a packet in the data queue with an RSSI value
below the value that you enter here, a potential coverage hole has been detected. The valid range is –90 to
–60 dBm, and the default value is –80 dBm. The access point takes data RSSI measurements every 5 seconds
and reports them to the Cisco WLC in 90-second intervals.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
418
Wireless
RF Profiles
Step 5
In the Voice RSSI text box, enter the minimum receive signal strength indication (RSSI) value for voice
packets received by the access point. The value that you enter is used to identify coverage holes within your
network. If the access point receives a packet in the voice queue with an RSSI value below the value that you
enter here, a potential coverage hole has been detected. The valid range is –90 to –60 dBm, and the default
value is –75 dBm. The access point takes voice RSSI measurements every 5 seconds and reports them to the
Cisco WLC in 90-second intervals.
Step 6
In the Min Failed Client Count per AP text box, enter the minimum number of clients on an access point
with an RSSI value at or below the data or voice RSSI threshold. The valid range is 1 to 75, and the default
value is 3.
Step 7
In the Coverage Exception Level per AP text box, enter the percentage of clients on an access point that are
experiencing a low signal level but cannot roam to another access point. The valid range is 0 to 100%, and
the default value is 25%.
Note
If both the number and percentage of failed packets exceed the values configured for Failed Packet
Count and Failed Packet Percentage (configurable through the Cisco WLC CLI) for a 5-second
period, the client is considered to be in a pre-alarm condition. The Cisco WLC uses this information
to distinguish between real and false coverage holes. False positives are generally due to the poor
roaming logic implemented on most clients. A coverage hole is detected if both the number and
percentage of failed clients meet or exceed the values entered in the Min Failed Client Count per
AP and Coverage Exception Level per AP text boxes over a 90-second period. The Cisco WLC
determines if the coverage hole can be corrected and, if appropriate, mitigates the coverage hole by
increasing the transmit power level for that specific access point.
Step 8
Click Apply.
Step 9
Reenable the 802.11 network as follows:
a) Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > Network to open the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Global
Parameters page.
b) Select the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g/n) Network Status check box.
c) Click Apply.
Step 10
Click Save Configuration.
RF Profiles
RF Profiles allows you to tune groups of APs that share a common coverage zone together and selectively
change how RRM will operates the APs within that coverage zone.
For example, a university might deploy a high density of APs in an area where a high number of users will
congregate or meet. This situation requires that you manipulate both data rates and power to address the cell
density while managing the co-channel interference. In adjacent areas, normal coverage is provided and such
manipulation would result in a loss of coverage.
Using RF profiles and AP groups allows you to optimize the RF settings for AP groups that operate in different
environments or coverage zones. RF profiles are created for the 802.11 radios. RF profiles are applied to all
APs that belong to an AP group, where all APs in that group will have the same profile settings.
The RF profile gives you the control over the data rates and power (TPC) values.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
419
Wireless
RF Profiles
Note
The application of an RF profile does not change the AP’s status in RRM. It is still in global configuration
mode controlled by RRM.
To address high-density complex RF topologies, the following configurations are available:
• High Density Configurations—The following configurations are available to fine tune RF environments
in a dense wireless network:
• Client limit per WLAN or radio—Maximum number of clients that can communicate with the AP
in a high-density environment.
• Client trap threshold—Threshold value of the number of clients that associate with an access point,
after which an SNMP trap is sent to the controller and Cisco Prime Infrastructure.
• Stadium Vision Configurations—You can configure the following parameter:
• Multicast data rates—Configurable data rate for multicast traffic based on the RF condition of an
AP.
• Out-of-Box AP Configurations—To create an Out-of-Box AP group that consists of newly installed
access points that belong to the default AP group. When you enable this feature:
•
• Newly installed access points (assigned to the 'default-group' AP group by default) are automatically
assigned to the Out-of-Box AP group upon associating with the controller, and their radios are
administratively disabled. This eliminates any RF instability caused by the new access points.
• When Out-of-Box is enabled, default-group APs currently associated with the controller remain in
the default group until they reassociate with the controller.
• All default-group APs that subsequently associate with the controller (existing APs on the same
controller that have dropped and reassociated, or APs from another controller) are placed in the
Out-of-Box AP group.
Note
When removing APs from the Out-of-Box AP group for production use, we
recommend that you assign the APs to a custom AP group to prevent inadvertently
having them revert to the Out-of-Box AP group.
• Special RF profiles are created per 802.11 band. These RF profiles have default settings for all the
existing RF parameters and additional new configurations.
Note
When you disable this feature after you enable it, only subscription of new APs
to the Out of Box AP group stops. All APs that are subscribed to the Out of Box
AP Group remain in this AP group. The network administrators can move such
APs to the default group or a custom AP group upon network convergence.
• Band Select Configurations— Band Select addresses client distribution between the 2.4-GHz and 5-GHz
bands by first understanding the client capabilities to verify whether a client can associate on both 2.4-GHz
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
420
Wireless
RF Profiles
and 5-GHz spectrum. Enabling band select on a WLAN forces the AP to do probe suppression on the
2.4-GHz band that ultimately moves dual band clients to 5-GHz spectrum. You can configure the following
band select parameters per AP Group:
• Probe response—Probe responses to clients that you can enable or disable.
• Probe Cycle Count—Probe cycle count for the RF profile. The cycle count sets the number of
suppression cycles for a new client.
• Cycle Threshold—Time threshold for a new scanning RF Profile band select cycle period. This
setting determines the time threshold during which new probe requests from a client come in a new
scanning cycle.
• Suppression Expire—Expiration time for pruning previously known 802.11b/g clients. After this
time elapses, clients become new and are subject to probe response suppression.
• Dual Band Expire—Expiration time for pruning previously known dual-band clients. After this time
elapses, clients become new and are subject to probe response suppression.
• Client RSSI—Minimum RSSI for a client to respond to a probe.
• Load Balancing Configurations—Load balancing maintains fair distribution of clients across APs. You
can configure the following parameters:
• Window—Load balancing sets client association limits by enforcing a client window size. For
example, if the window size is defined as 3, assuming fair client distribution across the floor area,
then an AP should have no more than 3 clients associated with it than the group average.
• Denial—The denial count sets the maximum number of association denials during load balancing.
• Coverage Hole Mitigation Configurations—You can configure the following parameters:
• Data RSSI—Minimum receive signal strength indication (RSSI) value for data packets received by
the access point. The value that you enter is used to identify coverage holes (or areas of poor
coverage) within your network.
• Voice RSSI—Minimum receive signal strength indication (RSSI) value for voice packets received
by the access point.
• Coverage Exception—Percentage of clients on an access point that are experiencing a low signal
level but cannot roam to another access point. If an access point has more number of such clients
than the configured coverage level it triggers a coverage hole event.
• Coverage Level—Minimum number of clients on an access point with an RSSI value at or below
the data or voice RSSI threshold to trigger a coverage hole exception.
• DCA—You can configure the following DCA parameters:
• Avoid foreign AP interference—DCA algorithm bases its optimization on multiple sets of inputs,
which include detected traffic and interference from foreign 802.11 traffic access points. Each access
point periodically measures interference, noise level, foreign interference, and load and maintains
a list of neighbor APs. Foreign AP interference is that which is received from 802.11 non-neighbors
(i.e., 802.11 APs which are not in the same RF domain – for instance a foreign 802.11 network).
This interference is measured using the same mechanism as the noise level.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
421
Wireless
Prerequisites for Configuring RF Profiles
Due to being out of the reach of the radio resource management module of the current deployment,
such APs may be disruptive for RRM and hence the user is able to unselect their contribution to
DCA in an RF profile to disable this feature.
• Channel width—You can choose one of the following channel width options to specify the channel
bandwidth supported for all 802.11n and 802.11ac radios in the 5-GHz band:
• 20 MHz—The 20-MHz channel bandwidth (default)
Note
The maximum bandwidth allowed for the 2.4-GHz band is 20 MHz.
• 40 MHz—The 40-MHz channel bandwidth
• 80 MHz—The 80-MHz channel bandwidth
• DCA channel list—You can choose a channel set used by DCA to assign one of the channels to an
access point radio. The channel set selected for an RF profile must be a subset of the DCA global
channel list. The available channels are preselected based on the globally configured countries.
DCA compares the metrics measured on these channels and selects the most suitable channel. If the
bandwidth is larger than 20 MHz, channel bonding takes place in sequential channels. For example,
if the bandwidth is 40 MHz, the selected pair is 36 MHz and 40 MHz. For a higher bandwidth such
as 80-MHz, the bandwidths selected are 36, 40, 44, and 48 MHz.
• Auto switch-over on Radar detection—With the enhancements made in DFS architecture, radar
trigger on the serving channel AP will move to a new best channel that is conformed by RRM
Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) list. The channel width applied to such AP will also follow
respective DCA channel width settings configured globally or under RF Profiles (if configured).
• Trap thresholds—The profile threshold for the traps can be configured for the specific AP groups
based on the RF profiles.
Prerequisites for Configuring RF Profiles
Once you create an AP group and apply RF profiles or modify an existing AP group, the new settings are in
effect and the following rules become effective:
• The same RF profile must be applied and present on every controller of the AP group or the action will
fail for that controller.
• You can assign the same RF profile to more than one AP group.
Restrictions on Configuring RF Profiles
• Once you create an AP group and apply RF profiles or modify an existing AP group, the new settings
are in effect and the following rules become effective:
• AP that has a custom power setting applied for AP power is not in global mode configuration, an
RF profile has no effect on this AP. For RF profiling to work, all APs must have their channel and
power managed by RRM.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
422
Wireless
Configuring an RF Profile (GUI)
• Within the AP group, changing the assignment of an RF profile on either band causes the AP to
reboot.
• Once you assign an RF profile to an AP group, you cannot make changes to that RF profile. You
must change the AP group RF profile settings to none in order to change the RF profile and then
add it back to the AP group. You can also work around this restriction by disabling the network that
will be affected by the changes that you will be making either for 802.11a or 802.11b.
• You cannot delete an AP group that has APs assigned to it.
• You cannot delete an RF profile that is applied to an AP group.
Configuring an RF Profile (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > RF Profiles to open the RF profiles page.
Step 2
To configure the out-of-box status for all RF profiles, select or unselect the Enable Out Of Box check box.
Step 3
Click New.
Step 4
Enter the RF Profile Name and choose the radio band.
Step 5
Click Apply to configure the customizations of power and data rate parameters.
Step 6
In the General tab, enter the description for the RF profile in the Description text box.
Step 7
In the 802.11 tab, configure the data rates to be applied to the APs of this profile.
Step 8
In the RRM tab, do the following:
a) In the TPC area, configure the Maximum and Minimum Power Level Assignment, that is the maximum
and minimum power that the APs in this RF profile are allowed to use.
b) In the TPC area, configure a custom TPC power threshold for either Version1 or Version 2 of TPC.
Note
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
Only one version of TPC can be operable for RRM on a given controller Version 1 and Version
2 are not interoperable within the same RF profile. If you select a threshold value for TPCv2
and it is not in the chosen TPC algorithm for the RF profile, this value will be ignored.
In the Coverage Hole Detection area, configure the voice and data RSSI.
In the Coverage Exception text box, enter the number for clients.
In the Coverage Level text box, enter the percentage.
In the Profile threshold for Traps area, enter the interference percentage, number of clients, noise level,
and utilization percentage.
In the DCA area, select the Avoid Foreign AP interference Enabled check box to avoid foreign AP
interference.
In the High-Speed Roam area, select the HSR mode Enabled check box to optimize high-speed roaming.
In the High-Speed Roam area, enter the neighbor timeout factor.
In the DCA area, choose one of the following channel width options to specify the channel bandwidth
supported for all 802.11n and 802.11 ac radios in the 5-GHz band:
• 20 MHz—The 20-MHz channel bandwidth (default)
• 40 MHz—The 40-MHz channel bandwidth
• 80 MHz—The 80-MHz channel bandwidth
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
423
Wireless
Configuring an RF Profile (GUI)
k) In the DCA area, the DCA Channels text box shows the channels that are currently selected. To choose
a channel, select its check box in the Select column. To exclude a channel, unselect its check box. The
channel numbers listed are applicable only for that particular RF profile.
The ranges are as follows:
• 802.11a—36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 132, 136, 140, 149, 153, 157, 161,
165, 190, 196
• 802.11b/g—1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
The defaults are as follows:
• 802.11a—36, 40, 44, 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 132, 136, 140, 149, 153, 157, 161
• 802.11b/g—1, 6, 11
Note
Step 9
If you are upgrading from a release earlier than Release 8.0, verify that these channels are
included in the DCA channel list.
In the High Density tab, do the following:
a) In the High Density Parameters area, enter the maximum number of clients to be allowed per AP radio
and the client trap threshold value.
b) In the Multicast Parameters area, choose the data rates from the Multicast Data Rates drop-down list.
Step 10
In the Client Distribution tab, do the following:
a) In the Load Balancing area, enter the client window size and the denial count.
The window size becomes part of the algorithm that determines whether an access point is too heavily
loaded to accept more client associations:
load-balancing window + client associations on AP with the lightest load = load-balancing threshold
In the group of access points accessible to a client device, each access point has a different number of
client associations. The access point with the lowest number of clients has the lightest load. The client
window size plus the number of clients on the access point with the lightest load forms the threshold.
Access points with more client associations than this threshold is considered busy, and clients can associate
only to access points with client counts lower than the threshold.
The denial count sets the maximum number of association denials during load balancing.
b) In the Band Select area, select or unselect the Probe Response check box.
Note
The Band Select configurations are available only for the 802.11b/g RF profiles.
c) In the Cycle Count text box, enter a value that sets the number of suppression cycles for a new client. The
default count is 2.
d) In the Cycle Threshold text box, enter a time period in milliseconds that determines the time threshold
during which new probe requests from a client from a new scanning cycle. The default cycle threshold is
200 milliseconds.
e) In the Suppression Expire text box, enter a time period after which the 802.11 b/g clients become new
and are subject to probe response suppression.
f) In the Dual Band Expire text box, enter a time period after which the dual band clients become new and
are subject to probe response suppression.
g) In the Client RSSI text box, enter the minimum RSSI for a client to respond to a probe.
Step 11
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
424
Wireless
Configuring an RF Profile (CLI)
Step 12
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring an RF Profile (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
To configure the out-of-box status for all RF profiles, enter this command:
config rf-profile out-of-box {enable | disable}
Step 2
To create or delete an RF profile, enter this command:
config rf-profile {create {802.11a | 802.11b} | delete} profile-name
Step 3
To specify a description for the RF profile, enter this command:
config rf-profile description text profile-name
Step 4
To configure the data rates to be applied to the APs of this profile, enter this command:
config rf-profile data-rates {802.11a | 802.11b} {disabled | mandatory | supported} rate profile-name
Step 5
To configure the maximum and minimum power level assignment, that is the maximum and minimum power
that the APs in this RF profile are allowed to use, enter this command:
config rf-profile {tx-power-max | tx-power-min} power-value profile-name
Step 6
To configure a custom TPC power threshold for either Version1 or Version 2 of TPC, enter this command:
config rf-profile {tx-power-control-thresh-v1 | tx-power-control-thresh-v2} power-threshold profile-name
Step 7
To configure the coverage hole detection parameters:
a) To configure the coverage data, enter this command:
config rf-profile coverage data value-in-dBm profile-name
b) To configure the minimum client coverage exception level, enter this command:
config rf-profile coverage exception clients profile-name
c) To configure the coverage exception level percentage, enter this command:
config rf-profile coverage level percentage-value profile-name
d) To configure the coverage of voice, enter this command:
config rf-profile coverage voice value-in-dBm profile-name
Step 8
To configure the maximum number of clients to be allowed per AP radio, enter this command:
config rf-profile max-clients num-of-clients profile-name
Step 9
To configure the client trap threshold value, enter this command:
config rf-profile client-trap-threshold threshold-value profile-name
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
425
Wireless
Configuring an RF Profile (CLI)
Step 10
To configure multicast, enter this command:
config rf-profile multicast data-rate rate profile-name
Step 11
To configure load balancing, enter this command:
config rf-profile load-balancing {window num-of-clients | denial value} profile-name
Step 12
To configure band select:
a) To configure the band select cycle count, enter this command:
config rf-profile band-select cycle-count max-num-of-cycles profile-name
b) To configure the cycle threshold, enter this command:
config rf-profile band-select cycle-threshold time-in-milliseconds profile-name
c) To configure the expiry of the band select, enter this command:
config rf-profile band-select expire {dual-band | suppression} time-in-seconds profile-name
d) To configure the probe response, enter this command:
config rf-profile band-select probe-response {enable | disable} profile-name
e) To configure the minimum RSSI for a client to respond to a probe, enter this command:
config rf-profile band-select client-rssi value-in-dBm profile-name
Step 13
Configure the 802.11n only mode for an access point group base by entering this command:
config rf-profile 11n-client-only {enable | disable} rf-profile-name
In the 802.11n only mode, the access point broadcasts support for 802.11n speeds. Only 802.11n clients are
allowed to associate with the access point
Step 14
To configure the DCA parameters for an RF profile:
• To configure foreign AP interference, enter this command:
config rf-profile channel foreign { enable | disable } profile-name
• To configure channel width, enter this command:
config rf-profile channel foreign { enable | disable } profile-name
• To configure a DCA channel list, enter this command:
config rf-profile channel { add | delete } chan profile_name
• To configure trap threshold, enter this command:
config rf-profile trap-threshold { clients | interference | noise | utilization } profile-name
• clients—The number of clients on an access point's radio for the trap is between 1 and 200. The
default is 12.
• interference—The percentage of interference threshold for the trap is from 0 to 100 percent. The
default is 10 percent.
• noise—The noise threshold for the trap is from -127 to 0 dBm. The default is -17 dBm.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
426
Wireless
Applying an RF Profile to AP Groups (GUI)
• utilization—The percentage of bandwidth being used by an access-point threshold for the trap is
from 0 to 100 percent. The default is 80 percent.
Applying an RF Profile to AP Groups (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs > Advanced > AP Groups to open the AP Groups page.
Step 2
Click the AP Group Name to open the AP Group > Edit page.
Step 3
Click the RF Profile tab to configure the RF profile details. You can choose an RF profile for each band
(802.11a/802.11b) or you can choose just one or none to apply to this group.
Note
Until you choose the APs and add them to the new group, no configurations are applied. You can
save the new configuration as is, but no profiles are applied. Once you choose the APs to move the
AP group, the process of moving the APs into the new group reboots the APs and the configurations
for the RF profiles are applied to the APs in that AP group.
Step 4
Click the APs tab and choose the APs to add to the AP group.
Step 5
Click Add APs to add the selected APs to the AP group. A warning message displays that the AP group will
reboot the APs will rejoin the controller.
Note
Step 6
APs cannot belong to two AP groups at once.
Click Apply. The APs are added to the AP Group.
Applying RF Profiles to AP Groups (CLI)
Procedure
Command or Action
Step 1
Purpose
Apply RF profiles to AP groups by entering this config wlan apgroup profile-mapping {add
command:
| delete} ap-group-name rf-profile-name
Flexible Radio Assignment
Cisco Flexible Radio Assignment (FRA) as a feature is a part of the Radio Resource Management (RRM)
which takes the advantage of the access point’s hardware to analyze NDP measurements and determine the
role for the radio on the AP. The feature assigns the role for the radio to be a 2.4-GHz AP, a 5-GHz AP or to
monitor the network.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
427
Wireless
Advantages of Flexible Radio Assignment
In the traditional legacy dual band APs always had two radio slots, one slot per band and organized by the
band they were serving - slot0= 802.11b,g,n, and slot1=802.11a,n,ac.
Note
FRA feature is enabled by default.
The Dual–Band Radio (XOR) offers the ability to serve either the 2.4 or 5-GHz bands or passively monitor
both bands on the same AP. The AP models that are offered are designed to support dual 5-GHz band operations
with the Cisco APs "i" model supporting a dedicated Macro/Micro architecture and the "e" and "p" models
supporting Macro/Macro architecture.
When using FRA with the internal antenna ("i" series models), two 5–GHz radios may be used in a Micro/Macro
cell mode. When using FRA with external antenna ("e and p" models) the antennas may be placed to enable
the creation of two separate Macro (wide area cells) or two Micro cells (small cells) for HDX or any
combination.
FRA calculates and maintains a measurement of redundancy for 2.4-GHz radios and represents this as a new
measurement metric called COF (Coverage Overlap Factor).
This feature is integrated into existing RRM and runs in mixed environments with legacy APs. The AP MODE
selection sets the entire AP (slot 0 and slot1) into one of several operating modes including:
• Local Mode
• Monitor Mode
• FlexConnect Mode
• Sniffer Mode
• Spectrum Connect Mode
Before XOR was introduced, changing the mode of the AP propagated the change to the entire AP, both radio
slots 0/1. The addition of the XOR radio in the slot0 position provides the ability to operate a single radio
interface in many of the previous modes, eliminating the need to place whole AP into a mode. When this
concept is applied to a single radio level, it is called “role.” Two such roles can be assigned now:
• Client Serving role
• Monitor role
Advantages of Flexible Radio Assignment
• Introduces concept of Macro/Micro cells for airtime efficiency.
• Enhances the High-Density Experience (HDX) with one AP.
• Allows more bandwidth to be applied to an area within a larger coverage cell.
• Can be used to address nonlinear traffic.
• Permits one AP with one Ethernet drop to function like two 5–GHz APs.
• Creating two diverse 5–GHz cells doubles the airtime.
• XOR radio can be user-selected in either band servicing clients or in monitor mode.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
428
Wireless
Configuring Flexible Radio Assignment-Global (GUI)
• Reduces 2.4–GHz overcoverage issues.
Configuring Flexible Radio Assignment-Global (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > Advanced > Flexible Radio Assignment to open the Flexible Radio Assignment
Configuration page.
Step 2
Select Enable to enable Flexible Radio Assignment feature.
• To create a new dynamic interface, click New. The Interfaces > New page appears. Go to Step 3.
• To modify the settings of an existing dynamic interface, click the name of the interface. The Interfaces
> Edit page for that interface appears. Go to Step 5.
• To delete an existing dynamic interface, hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired
interface and choose Remove.
Step 3
From the Sensitivity drop-down list,
• Low
• Medium
• High
Step 4
From the Interval drop-down list, select the interval in hours.
Default is 1 hour.
Step 5
From the Service Priority drop-down list choose the priority for the FRA service from the following options:
• Coverage
• Client Aware–Enter the percentage values for the Client Select and Client Reset fields.
• Service Assurance-Choose the sensor threshold from the following options:
• Balanced
• Client-preferred
• Client-priority
• Sensor-preferred
• Sensor-priority
Step 6
Save the configuration.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
429
Wireless
Configuring Flexible Radio Assignment (CLI)
Configuring Flexible Radio Assignment (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Enable or disable FRA by entering this command:
config advanced fra {enable | disabled}
Step 2
Reset the radio to 2.4 GHz by entering this command:
config advanced fra revert {all | auto-only} { static | auto}
Note
Step 3
Use this command to reset the radio to 2.4-GHz band from 5-GHz band after disabling the FRA
feature.
Set the FRA interval time in hours by entering this command:
config advanced fra interval
Step 4
Set the FRA coverage overlap sensitivity by entering this command:
config advanced fra sensitivity {high | medium | low}
Step 5
Configure the client aware FRA feature by entering this command:
config advanced fra client-aware {client-select | client-reset}percentage
Valid range is 0 to 100.
Step 6
Configure the FRA sensor service priority by entering this command:
config advanced fra service-priority{client-aware | coverage | service-assurance}
Step 7
Configure the FRA sensor threshold by entering this command:
config advanced fra sensor-threshold{balanced | client-preferred | client-priority |
sensor-preferred | sensor-priority}
Step 8
View the FRA status by entering this command:
show advanced fra
Configuring Flexible Radio Assignment for AP (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > Radio > Dual-band radios to open the Dual-band radios page.
Step 2
Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow on the AP of choice and choose Configure.
Step 3
In the 802.11a/b/g/n Cisco APs Configure page, select Auto under the Radio Role Assignment section to
push FRA to decide the role and the band.
Step 4
In the 802.11a/b/g/n Cisco APs > Configure page, select Manual under the Radio Role Assignment section.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
430
Wireless
Configuring Auto Radio Role for the AP (CLI)
Step 5
Choose the mode for the selected AP from the following options:
• Client Serving–When the radio role is Client Serving, you can set the radio band.
• 2.4 GHz
• 5 GHz
• Monitor
Step 6
Save the configuration.
Configuring Auto Radio Role for the AP (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Disable the radio on the AP by entering this command:
config 802.11-abgn disable ap-name
Step 2
Change the Role of the AP by entering this command:
config 802.11-abgn role ap-name auto
Step 3
Enable the radio on the AP by entering this command:
config 802.11-abgn enable ap-name
Configuring Manual Radio Role for the AP (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Disable the radio on the AP by entering this command:
config 802.11-abgn disable ap-name
Step 2
Change the Role of the AP by entering one of the following commands:
• Change the role to monitor:
config 802.11-abgn role ap-name monitor
• Change the role to client-serving:
config 802.11-abgn role ap-name client-serving
Step 3
Enable the radio on the AP by entering this command:
config 802.11-abgn enable ap-name
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
431
Wireless
Configuring Radio Band for Client-Serving Radio (CLI)
Configuring Radio Band for Client-Serving Radio (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Disable the radio on the AP by entering this command:
config 802.11-abgn disable ap-name
Step 2
Change the band of the AP by entering this command:
config 802.11-abgn band ap-name {2.4GHz | 5GHz}
Step 3
Enable the radio on the AP by entering this command:
config 802.11-abgn enable ap-name
Debug RRM Issues (CLI)
Procedure
Use these commands to troubleshoot and verify RRM behavior:
debug airewave-director ?
where ? is one of the following:
• all—Enables debugging for all RRM logs.
• channel—Enables debugging for the RRM channel assignment protocol.
• detail—Enables debugging for RRM detail logs.
• error—Enables debugging for RRM error logs.
• group—Enables debugging for the RRM grouping protocol.
• manager—Enables debugging for the RRM manager.
• message—Enables debugging for RRM messages.
• packet—Enables debugging for RRM packets.
• power—Enables debugging for the RRM power assignment protocol as well as coverage hole detection.
• profile—Enables debugging for RRM profile events.
• radar—Enables debugging for the RRM radar detection/avoidance protocol.
• rf-change—Enables debugging for RRM RF changes.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
432
CHAPTER
28
Wireless Quality of Service
• CleanAir, on page 433
• Media and EDCA, on page 456
• Call Admission Control, on page 469
• Application Visibility and Control, on page 486
• NetFlow, on page 498
• QoS Profiles, on page 501
• Cisco Air Time Fairness, on page 508
CleanAir
Cisco CleanAir is a spectrum intelligence solution designed to proactively manage the challenges of a shared
wireless spectrum. It allows you to see all of the users of the shared spectrum (both native devices and foreign
interferers). It also enables you or your network to act upon this information. For example, you could manually
remove the interfering device, or the system could automatically change the channel away from the interference.
CleanAir provides spectrum management and RF visibility.
A Cisco CleanAir system consists of CleanAir-enabled access points, Cisco Wireless LAN Controllers, and
Cisco Prime Infrastructure. These access points collect information about all devices that operate in the
industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands, identify and evaluate the information as a potential interference
source, and forward it to the Cisco WLC. The Cisco WLC controls the access points, collects spectrum data,
and forwards information to Cisco Prime Infrastructure or a Cisco mobility services engine (MSE) upon
request.
For every device operating in the unlicensed band, Cisco CleanAir tells you what it is, where it is, how it is
impacting your wireless network, and what actions you or your network should take. It simplifies RF so that
you do not have to be an RF expert.
Wireless LAN systems operate in unlicensed 2.4- and 5-GHz ISM bands. Many devices, such as microwave
ovens, cordless phones, and Bluetooth devices also operate in these bands and can negatively affect Wi-Fi
operations.
Some of the most advanced WLAN services, such as voice over wireless and IEEE 802.11n radio
communications, could be significantly impaired by the interference caused by other legal users of the ISM
bands. The integration of Cisco CleanAir functionality into the Cisco Unified Wireless Network addresses
this problem of radio frequency (RF) interference.
CleanAir is supported on mesh AP backhaul at a 5-GHz radio of mesh. You can enable CleanAir on backhaul
radios and can provide report interference details and air quality.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
433
Wireless
Role of the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller in a Cisco CleanAir System
This section contains the following subsections:
Role of the Cisco Wireless LAN Controller in a Cisco CleanAir System
The Cisco WLC performs the following tasks in a Cisco CleanAir system:
• Configures Cisco CleanAir capabilities on the access point.
• Provides interfaces (GUI, CLI, and SNMP) for configuring Cisco CleanAir features and retrieving data
• Displays spectrum data.
• Collects and processes air quality reports from the access point and stores them in the air quality database.
The Air Quality Report (AQR) contains information about the total interference from all identified sources
represented by the Air Quality Index (AQI) and summary for the most severe interference categories.
The CleanAir system can also include unclassified interference information under per interference type
reports, which enables you to take action in cases where the interference due to unclassified interfering
devices is more.
• Collects and processes interference device reports (IDRs) from the access point and stores them in the
interference device database.
• Forwards spectrum data to Prime Infrastructure and the MSE.
Interference Types that Cisco CleanAir Can Detect
Cisco CleanAir can detect interference, report on the location and severity of the interference, and recommend
different mitigation strategies. Two such mitigation strategies are persistent device avoidance and spectrum
event-driven RRM.
Wi-Fi chip-based RF management systems share these characteristics:
• Any RF energy that cannot be identified as a Wi-Fi signal is reported as noise.
• Noise measurements that are used to assign a channel plan tend to be averaged over a period of time to
avoid instability or rapid changes that can be disruptive to certain client devices.
• Averaging measurements reduces the resolution of the measurement. As such, a signal that disrupts
clients might not look like it needs to be mitigated after averaging.
• All RF management systems available today are reactive in nature.
Cisco CleanAir is different and can positively identify not only the source of the noise but also its location
and potential impact to a WLAN. Having this information allows you to consider the noise within the context
of the network and make intelligent and, where possible, proactive decisions. For CleanAir, two types of
interference events are common:
• Persistent interference
• Spontaneous interference
Persistent interference events are created by devices that are stationary in nature and have intermittent but
largely repeatable patterns of interference. For example, consider the case of a microwave oven located in a
break room. Such a device might be active for only 1 or 2 minutes at a time. When operating, however, it can
be disruptive to the performance of the wireless network and associated clients. Using Cisco CleanAir, you
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
434
Wireless
Persistent Devices
can positively identify the device as a microwave oven rather than indiscriminate noise. You can also determine
exactly which part of the band is affected by the device, and because you can locate it, you can understand
which access points are most severely affected. You can then use this information to direct RRM in selecting
a channel plan that avoids this source of interference for the access points within its range. Because this
interference is not active for a large portion of the day, existing RF management applications might attempt
to again change the channels of the affected access points. Persistent device avoidance is unique, however,
in that it remains in effect as long as the source of interference is periodically detected to refresh the persistent
status. The Cisco CleanAir system knows that the microwave oven exists and includes it in all future planning.
If you move either the microwave oven or the surrounding access points, the algorithm updates RRM
automatically.
Note
Spectrum event-driven RRM can be triggered only by Cisco CleanAir-enabled access points in local mode.
Spontaneous interference is interference that appears suddenly on a network, perhaps jamming a channel or
a range of channels completely. The Cisco CleanAir spectrum event-driven RRM feature allows you to set a
threshold for air quality (AQ) that, if exceeded, triggers an immediate channel change for the affected access
point. Most RF management systems can avoid interference, but this information takes time to propagate
through the system. Cisco CleanAir relies on AQ measurements to continuously evaluate the spectrum and
can trigger a move within 30 seconds. For example, if an access point detects interference from a video camera,
it can recover by changing channels within 30 seconds of the camera becoming active. Cisco CleanAir also
identifies and locates the source of interference so that more permanent mitigation of the device can be
performed at a later time.
In the case of Bluetooth devices, Cisco CleanAir-enabled access points can detect and report interferences
only if the devices are actively transmitting. Bluetooth devices have extensive power save modes. For example,
interference can be detected when data or voice is being streamed between the connected devices.
Persistent Devices
Some interference devices such as outdoor bridges and Microwave Ovens only transmit when needed. These
devices can cause significant interference to the local WLAN due to short duration and periodic operation
remain largely undetected by normal RF management metrics. With CleanAir the RRM DCA algorithm can
detect, measure, register and remember the impact and adjust the DCA algorithm. This minimizes the use of
channels affected by the persistent devices in the channel plan local to the interference source. Cisco CleanAir
detects and stores the persistent device information in the Cisco WLC and this information is used to mitigate
interfering channels.
Persistent Devices Detection
CleanAir-capable Monitor Mode access point collects information about persistent devices on all configured
channels and stores the information in the Cisco WLC. Local/Bridge mode AP detects interference devices
on the serving channels only.
Persistent Devices Propagation
Persistent device information that is detected by local or monitor mode access points is propagated to the
neighboring access points connected to the same Cisco WLC to provide better chance of handling and avoiding
persistent devices. Persistent device detected by the CleanAir-enabled access point is propagated to neighboring
non-CleanAir access points, thus enhancing channel selection quality.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
435
Wireless
Detecting Interferers by an Access Point
Detecting Interferers by an Access Point
When a CleanAir-enabled access point detects interference devices, detections of the same device from multiple
sensors are merged together to create clusters. Each cluster is given a unique ID. Some devices conserve
power by limiting the transmit time until actually needed which results in the spectrum sensor to temporarily
stop detecting the device. This device is then correctly marked as down. A down device is correctly removed
from the spectrum database. In cases when all the interferer detections for a specific devices are reported, the
cluster ID is kept alive for an extended period of time to prevent possible device detection bouncing. If the
same device is detected again, it is merged with the original cluster ID and the device detection history is
preserved.
For example, some bluetooth headsets operate on battery power. These devices employ methods to reduce
power consumption, such as turning off the transmitter when not actually needed. Such devices can appear
to come and go from the classification. To manage these devices, CleanAir keeps the cluster IDs longer and
they are remerged into a single record upon detection. This process smoothens the user records and accurately
represents the device history.
Prerequisites for CleanAir
You can configure Cisco CleanAir only on CleanAir-enabled access points.
Only Cisco CleanAir-enabled access points using the following access point modes can perform Cisco CleanAir
spectrum monitoring:
• Local—In this mode, each Cisco CleanAir-enabled access point radio provides air quality and interference
detection reports for the current operating channel only. An AP can only measure air quality and
interference when the AP is not busy transmitting wi-fi frames. This implies that CleanAir detections
will be drastically lower if the AP is having a high channel utiliaztion.
• FlexConnect—When a FlexConnect access point is connected to the controller , its Cisco CleanAir
functionality is identical to local mode.
• Monitor—When Cisco CleanAir is enabled in monitor mode, the access point provides air quality and
interference detection reports for all monitored channels.
The following options are available:
• All—All channels
• DCA—Channel selection governed by the DCA list
• Country—All channels are legal within a regulatory domain
Note
Suppose you have two APs, one in the FlexConnect mode and the other in the
monitor mode. Also suppose that you have created a profile enabling EAP attack
against 802.1x auth. The Airmagnet (AM) tool, which can generate different
types of attacks, fails to generate any attack even if you have provided valid AP
MAC and STA MAC addresses. But if the AP MAC and STA MAC addresses
in the AM tool are swapped, that is, the AP MAC address is specified in the STA
MAC field and the STA MAC address is specified in the AP MAC field, then
the tool is able to generate attacks, which the AP in the Monitor mode is also able
to detect.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
436
Wireless
Restrictions for CleanAir
Note
The access point does not participate in AQ HeatMap in Prime Infrastructure.
• SE-Connect—This mode enables a user to connect a Spectrum Expert application running on an external
Microsoft Windows XP or Vista PC to a Cisco CleanAir-enabled access point in order to display and
analyze detailed spectrum data. The Spectrum Expert application connects directly to the access point,
bypassing the controller. An access point in SE-Connect mode does not provide any Wi-Fi, RF, or
spectrum data to the controller. All CleanAir system functionality is suspended while the AP is in this
mode, and no clients are served. This mode is intended for remote troubleshooting only. Up to three
active Spectrum Expert connections are possible.
Restrictions for CleanAir
• Access points in monitor mode do not transmit Wi-Fi traffic or 802.11 packets. They are excluded from
radio resource management (RRM) planning and are not included in the neighbor access point list. IDR
clustering depends on the controller’s ability to detect neighboring in-network access points. Correlating
interference device detections from multiple access points is limited between monitor-mode access points.
• Spectrum Expert (SE) Connect functionality is supported for local, FlexConnect, bridge, and monitor
modes. The access point provides spectrum information to Spectrum Expert only for the current channel(s).
For local, FlexConnect, and bridge modes, the spectrum data is available for the current active channel(s)
and for the monitor mode, the common monitored channel list is available. The access point continues
to send AQ (Air Quality) and IDR (Interference Device Reports) reports to the controller and perform
normal activities according to the current mode. Sniffer and rogue detections access point modes are
incompatible with all types of CleanAir spectrum monitoring.
• Monitor Mode access point in slot 2 operates at 2.4 GHz only. For 4800 AP slot 1 5ghz is dedicated and
cannot be individually moved to monitor mode. However, slot 0 is XOR and can be moved to monitor
as well as 2.4/5ghz. Slot 2 is dedicated monitor and will operate in 5ghz and in AP monitor mode, slot
2 will be disabled because a monitor radio is alreay available in both 2.4/5ghz. 3700 AP has dedicated
2.4ghz (slot0) and 5ghz (slot1).
• We recommend a ratio of 1 monitor-mode access point for every 5 local-mode access points; this can
vary based on the network design and expert guidance for best coverage.
• Spectrum Expert (Windows XP laptop client) and AP should be pingable, otherwise; it will not work.
• CleanAir is not supported wherein the channel width is 160 MHz.
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on the Controller
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on Cisco WLC (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > CleanAir to open the 802.11a (or 802.11b) > CleanAir
page.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
437
Wireless
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on Cisco WLC (GUI)
Step 2
Check the CleanAir check box to enable Cisco CleanAir functionality on the 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n
network, or uncheck it to prevent the Cisco WLC from detecting spectrum interference. By default, this feature
is in enabled state.
Step 3
Check the Report Interferers check box to enable the Cisco CleanAir system to report any detected sources
of interference, or uncheck it to prevent the Cisco WLC from reporting interferers. By default, this feature is
in enabled state.
Note
Device Security alarms, Event Driven RRM, and the Persistence Device Avoidance algorithm do
not work if Report Interferers are disabled.
Step 4
Check the Persistent Device Propagation check box to enable propagation of information about persistent
devices that can be detected by CleanAir. Persistent device propagation enables you to propagate information
about persistent devices to the neighboring APs connected to the same Cisco WLC. Persistent interferers are
present at the location and interfere with the WLAN operations even if they are not detectable at all times.
Step 5
Ensure that any sources of interference that need to be detected and reported by the Cisco CleanAir system
appear in the Interferences to Detect box and any that do not need to be detected appear in the Interferences
to Ignore box. By default, all interference sources are detected, except BLE Beacon. The possible sources of
interference that you can choose are as follows:
• Bluetooth Paging Inquiry—A Bluetooth discovery (802.11b/g/n only)
• Bluetooth Sco Acl—A Bluetooth link (802.11b/g/n only)
• Generic DECT—A digital enhanced cordless communication (DECT)-compatible phone
• Generic TDD—A time division duplex (TDD) transmitter
• Generic Waveform—A continuous transmitter
• Jammer—A jamming device
• Microwave—A microwave oven (802.11b/g/n only)
• Canopy—A canopy bridge device
• Spectrum 802.11 FH—An 802.11 frequency-hopping device (802.11b/g/n only)
• Spectrum 802.11 inverted—A device using spectrally inverted Wi-Fi signals
• Spectrum 802.11 non std channel—A device using nonstandard Wi-Fi channels
• Spectrum 802.11 SuperG—An 802.11 SuperAG device
• Spectrum 802.15.4—An 802.15.4 device (802.11b/g/n only)
• Video Camera—An analog video camera
• WiMAX Fixed—A WiMAX fixed device (802.11a/n/ac only)
• WiMAX Mobile—A WiMAX mobile device (802.11a/n/ac only)
• XBox—A Microsoft Xbox (802.11b/g/n only)
Note
APs that are associated to the Cisco WLC send interference reports only for the interferers that
appear in the Interferences to Detect box. This functionality allows you to filter out interferers
that you do not want as well as any that may be flooding the network and causing performance
problems for the Cisco WLC or Prime Infrastructure. Filtering allows the system to resume normal
performance levels.
Prior to Release 8.7, if CleanAir was enabled, by default, the BLE Beacon was included in the list
of interferences to be detected. In 8.7 and later releases, the functionality is changed wherein the
BLE Beacon is by default excluded from the list of interferences to be detected. This change in
functionality is made to eliminate unwanted off-channel scans to improve performance. If you want
the BLE Beacon to be detected, you will have to explicitly add it to the list of interferences to be
detected.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
438
Wireless
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on Cisco WLC (GUI)
Step 6
Configure Cisco CleanAir alarms as follows:
a) Check the Enable AQI (Air Quality Index) Trap check box to enable the triggering of air quality alarms,
or uncheck the box to disable this feature. By default, this feature is in enabled state.
b) If you checked the Enable AQI Trap check box in Step a, enter a value between 1 and 100 (inclusive)
in the AQI Alarm Threshold field to specify the threshold at which you want the air quality alarm to be
triggered. When the air quality falls below the threshold level, the alarm is triggered. A value of 1 represents
the worst air quality, and 100 represents the best. The default value is 35.
c) Enter the AQI Alarm Threshold (1 to 100) that you want to set. An alarm is generated when the air
quality reaches a threshold value. The default is 35. Valid range is from 1 and 100.
d) Check the Enable trap for Unclassified Interferences check box to enable the AQI alarm to be generated
upon detection of unclassified interference beyond the severity threshond specified in the AQI Alarm
Threshold field. Unclassified interferences are interferences that are detected but do not correspond to
any of the identifiable interference types.
e) Enter the Threshold for Unclassified category trap (1 to 99). Enter a value from 1 and 99. The default
is 20. This is the severity index threshold for an unclassified interference category.
f) Check the Enable Interference Type Trap check box to trigger interferer alarms when the Cisco WLC
detects specified device types, or uncheck it to disable this feature. By default, this feature is in enabled
state.
g) Ensure that any sources of interference that need to trigger interferer alarms appear in the Trap on These
Types box and any that do not need to trigger interferer alarms appear in the Do Not Trap on These
Types box. By default, all interference sources trigger interferer alarms.
For example, if you want the Cisco WLC to send an alarm when it detects a jamming device, check the
Enable Interference Type Trap check box and move the jamming device to the Trap on These Types
box.
Step 7
Click Apply.
Step 8
Trigger spectrum event-driven radio resource management (RRM) to run when a Cisco CleanAir-enabled AP
detects a significant level of interference as follows:
a) Look at the EDRRM field to see the current status of spectrum event-driven RRM and, if enabled, the
Sensitivity Threshold field to see the threshold level at which event-driven RRM is invoked.
b) If you want to change the current status of event-driven RRM or the sensitivity level, click Change
Settings. The 802.11a (or 802.11b) > RRM > Dynamic Channel Assignment (DCA) page is displayed.
c) Check the EDRRM check box to trigger RRM to run when an AP detects a certain level of interference,
or uncheck it to disable this feature. By default, this feature is in enabled state.
d) If you checked the EDRRM check box in Step c, choose Low, Medium, High, or Custom from the
Sensitivity Threshold drop-down list to specify the threshold at which you want RRM to be triggered.
When the interference for the AP rises above the threshold level, RRM initiates a local dynamic channel
assignment (DCA) run and changes the channel of the affected AP radio if possible to improve network
performance. Low represents a decreased sensitivity to changes in the environment while High represents
an increased sensitivity.
If you selected the EDRRM sensitivity threshold as custom, you must set a threshold value in the Custom
Sensitivity Threshold field. The default sensitivity is 35.
The EDRRM AQ threshold value for low sensitivity is 35, medium sensitivity is 50, and high sensitivity
is 60.
e) To configure rogue duty cycle, check the Rogue Contribution check box and then specify the Rogue
Duty-Cycle in terms of percentage. The default value of Rogue Duty-Cycle is 80%.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
439
Wireless
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on Cisco WLC (CLI)
f) Save the configuration.
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on Cisco WLC (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Configure Cisco CleanAir functionality on the 802.11 network by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair {enable | disable} all
If you disable this feature, the Cisco WLC does not receive any spectrum data. By default, this feature is in
enabled state.
Step 2
Enable CleanAir on all associated access points in a network:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair enable network
You can enable CleanAir on a 5-GHz radio of mesh access points.
Step 3
Configure interference detection and specify sources of interference that need to be detected by the Cisco
CleanAir system by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair device {enable | disable} type
where you choose the type as one of the following:
• 802.11-fh—An 802.11 frequency-hopping device (802.11b/g/n only)
• 802.11-inv—A device using spectrally inverted Wi-Fi signals
• 802.11-nonstd—A device using nonstandard Wi-Fi channels
• 802.15.4—An 802.15.4 device (802.11b/g/n only)
• all—All interference device types (this is the default value)
• bt-discovery—A bluetooth discovery (802.11b/g/n only)
• bt-link—A bluetooth link (802.11b/g/n only)
• canopy—A canopy device
• cont-tx—A continuous transmitter
• dect-like—A digital enhanced cordless communication (DECT)-compatible phone
• jammer—A jamming device
• mw-oven—A microwave oven (802.11b/g/n only)
• superag—An 802.11 SuperAG device
• tdd-tx—A time division duplex (TDD) transmitter
• video camera—An analog video camera
• wimax-fixed—A WiMAX fixed device
• wimax-mobile—A WiMAX mobile device
• xbox—A Microsoft Xbox (802.11b/g/n only)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
440
Wireless
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on Cisco WLC (CLI)
Note
Access points that are associated to the Cisco WLC send interference reports only for the interference
types specified in this command. This functionality allows you to filter out interferers that may be
flooding the network and causing performance problems for the Cisco WLC or Prime Infrastructure.
Filtering allows the system to resume normal performance levels.
Prior to Release 8.7, if CleanAir was enabled, by default, the BLE Beacon was included in the list
of interferences to be detected. In 8.7 and later releases, the functionality is changed wherein the
BLE Beacon is by default excluded from the list of interferences to be detected. This change in
functionality is made to eliminate unwanted off-channel scans to improve performance. If you want
the BLE Beacon to be detected, you will have to explicitly add it to the list of interferences to be
detected.
Step 4
Configure the triggering of air quality alarms by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair alarm air-quality {enable | disable}
The default value is enabled.
Step 5
Specify the threshold at which you want the air quality alarm to be triggered by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair alarm air-quality threshold threshold
where threshold is a value between 1 and 100 (inclusive). When the air quality falls below the threshold level,
the alarm is triggered. A value of 1 represents the worst air quality, and 100 represents the best. The default
value is 35.
Step 6
Enable the triggering of interferer alarms by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair alarm device {enable | disable}
The default value is enable.
Step 7
Specify sources of interference that trigger alarms by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair alarm device type {enable | disable}
where you choose the type as one of the following:
• 802.11-fh—An 802.11 frequency-hopping device (802.11b/g/n only)
• 802.11-inv—A device using spectrally inverted Wi-Fi signals
• 802.11-nonstd—A device using nonstandard Wi-Fi channels
• 802.15.4—An 802.15.4 device (802.11b/g/n only)
• all—All interference device types (this is the default value)
• bt-discovery—A Bluetooth discovery (802.11b/g/n only)
• bt-link—A Bluetooth link (802.11b/g/n only)
• canopy—A canopy device
• cont-tx—A continuous transmitter
• dect-like—A digital enhanced cordless communication (DECT)-compatible phone
• jammer—A jamming device
• mw-oven—A microwave oven (802.11b/g/n only)
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
441
Wireless
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on Cisco WLC (CLI)
• superag—An 802.11 SuperAG device
• tdd-tx—A time division duplex (TDD) transmitter
• video camera—An analog video camera
• wimax-fixed—A WiMAX fixed device
• wimax-mobile—A WiMAX mobile device
• xbox—A Microsoft Xbox (802.11b/g/n only)
Step 8
Configure the triggering of air quality alarms for unclassified devices by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair alarm unclassified {enable | disable}
Step 9
Specify the threshold at which you want the air quality alarm to be triggered for unclassified devices by
entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair alarm unclassified threshold threshold
where threshold is a value from 1 and 99 (inclusive). When the air quality falls below the threshold level, the
alarm is triggered. A value of 1 represents the worst air quality, and 100 represents the best. The default value
is 35.
Step 10
Trigger spectrum event-driven radio resource management (RRM) to run when a Cisco CleanAir-enabled
access point detects a significant level of interference by entering these commands:
config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel cleanair-event {enable | disable}—Enables or disables
spectrum event-driven RRM. The default value is disabled.
config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel cleanair-event sensitivity {low | medium | high |
custom}—Specifies the threshold at which you want RRM to be triggered. When the interference level for
the access point rises above the threshold level, RRM initiates a local dynamic channel assignment (DCA)
run and changes the channel of the affected access point radio if possible to improve network performance.
Low represents a decreased sensitivity to changes in the environment while high represents an increased
sensitivity. You can also set the sensitivity to a custom level of your choice. The default value is medium.
config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel cleanair-event sensitivity threshold thresholdvalue—If you
set the threshold sensitivity as custom, you must set a custom threshold value. The default is 35.
Step 11
Configure and monitor Interference Awareness by entering the following commands:
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel cleanair-event {enable | disable}
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel cleanair-event rogue-contribution {enable | disable}
• config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel cleanair-event rogue-contribution duty-cycle value
• show {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair config
• debug airewave-director profile enable
• debug airewave-director channel enable
Step 12
Enable persistent devices propagation by entering this command:
config advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel pda-prop {enable | disable}
Step 13
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
442
Wireless
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on Cisco WLC (CLI)
Step 14
See the Cisco CleanAir configuration for the 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n network by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair config
Information similar to the following appears:
(Cisco Controller) >show 802.11a cleanair config
Clean Air Solution............................... Disabled
Air Quality Settings:
Air Quality Reporting........................ Enabled
Air Quality Reporting Period (min)........... 15
Air Quality Alarms........................... Enabled
Air Quality Alarm Threshold................ 35
Unclassified Interference.................. Disabled
Unclassified Severity Threshold............ 20
Interference Device Settings:
Interference Device Reporting................ Enabled
Interference Device Types:
TDD Transmitter.......................... Enabled
Jammer................................... Enabled
Continuous Transmitter................... Enabled
DECT-like Phone.......................... Enabled
Video Camera............................. Enabled
WiFi Inverted............................ Enabled
WiFi Invalid Channel..................... Enabled
SuperAG.................................. Enabled
Canopy................................... Enabled
WiMax Mobile............................. Enabled
WiMax Fixed.............................. Enabled
Interference Device Alarms................... Enabled
Interference Device Types Triggering Alarms:
TDD Transmitter.......................... Disabled
Jammer................................... Enabled
Continuous Transmitter................... Disabled
DECT-like Phone.......................... Disabled
Video Camera............................. Disabled
WiFi Inverted............................ Enabled
WiFi Invalid Channel..................... Enabled
SuperAG.................................. Disabled
Canopy................................... Disabled
WiMax Mobile............................. Disabled
WiMax Fixed.............................. Disabled
Additional Clean Air Settings:
CleanAir ED-RRM State........................ Disabled
CleanAir ED-RRM Sensitivity.................. Medium
CleanAir ED-RRM Custom Threshold............. 50
CleanAir Persistent Devices state............ Disabled
CleanAir Persistent Device Propagation....... Enabled
Step 15
See the spectrum event-driven RRM configuration for the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n network by entering
this command:
show advanced {802.11a | 802.11b} channel
Information similar to the following appears:
Automatic Channel Assignment
Channel Assignment Mode........................
Channel Update Interval........................
Anchor time (Hour of the day)..................
Channel Update Contribution....................
AUTO
600 seconds [startup]
0
SNI
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
443
Wireless
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on an Access Point
CleanAir Event-driven RRM option.............. Enabled
CleanAir Event-driven RRM sensitivity...... Medium
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on an Access Point
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on an Access Point (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > Access Points > Radios > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n to open the 802.11a/n/ac (or
802.11b/g/n) Radios page.
Step 2
Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired access point and click Configure. The
802.11a/n/ac (or 802.11b/g/n) Cisco APs > Configure page appears.
The CleanAir Capable field shows whether this access point can support CleanAir functionality. If it can,
go to the next step to enable or disable CleanAir for this access point. If the access point cannot support
CleanAir functionality, you cannot enable CleanAir for this access point.
Note
Step 3
By default, the Cisco CleanAir functionality is enabled on the radios.
Enable Cisco CleanAir functionality for this access point by choosing Enable from the CleanAir Status
drop-down list. To disable CleanAir functionality for this access point, choose Disable. The default value is
Enable. This setting overrides the global CleanAir configuration for this access point.
The Number of Spectrum Expert Connections text box shows the number of Spectrum Expert applications
that are currently connected to the access point radio. Up to three active connections are possible.
Step 4
Click Apply.
Step 5
Click Save Configuration.
Step 6
Click Back to return to the 802.11a/n/ac (or 802.11b/g/n) Radios page.
Step 7
View the Cisco CleanAir status for each access point radio by looking at the CleanAir Status text box on
the 802.11a/n/ac (or 802.11b/g/n) Radios page.
The Cisco CleanAir status is one of the following:
• UP—The spectrum sensor for the access point radio is currently operational (error code 0).
• DOWN—The spectrum sensor for the access point radio is currently not operational because an error
has occurred. The most likely reason for the error is that the access point radio is disabled (error code
8). To correct this error, enable the radio.
• ERROR—The spectrum sensor for the access point radio has crashed (error code 128), making CleanAir
monitoring nonoperational for this radio. If this error occurs, reboot the access point. If the error continues
to appear, you might want to disable Cisco CleanAir functionality on the radio.
• N/A—This access point radio is not capable of supporting Cisco CleanAir functionality.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
444
Wireless
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on an Access Point (CLI)
Note
You can create a filter to make the 802.11a/n/ac Radios page or the 802.11b/g/n Radios page show
only access point radios that have a specific Cisco CleanAir status (such as UP, DOWN, ERROR,
or N/A). This feature is especially useful if your list of access point radios spans multiple pages,
preventing you from viewing them all at once. To create a filter, click Change Filter to open the
Search AP dialog box, select one or more of the CleanAir Status check boxes, and click Find. Only
the access point radios that match your search criteria appear on the 802.11a/n/ac Radios page or
the 802.11b/g/n Radios page, and the Current Filter parameter at the top of the page specifies the
filter used to generate the list (for example, CleanAir Status: UP).
Configuring Cisco CleanAir on an Access Point (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Configure Cisco CleanAir functionality for a specific access point by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair {enable | disable}Cisco_AP
Step 2
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 3
See the Cisco CleanAir configuration for a specific access point on the 802.11a/n/ac/ac or 802.11b/g/n/ac
network by entering this command:
show ap config {802.11a | 802.11b} Cisco_AP
Information similar to the following appears:
Cisco AP Identifier.............................. 0
Cisco AP Name.................................... CISCO_AP3500
...
Spectrum Management Information
Spectrum Management Capable.............. Yes
Spectrum Management Admin State.......... Enabled
Spectrum Management Operation State...... Up
Rapid Update Mode........................ Disabled
Spectrum Expert connection............... Disabled
Spectrum Sensor State................. Configured (Error code = 0)
Configuring Spectrum Intelligence
Information About Spectrum Intelligence
This feature scans for non-Wi-Fi radio interference on 2.4 and 5 GHz bands. The feature supports client
serving mode and monitor mode.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
445
Wireless
Restrictions on Spectrum Intelligence
Restrictions on Spectrum Intelligence
• Only the following Cisco APs support Spectrum Intelligence:
• Cisco Aironet 1800 APs
• Cisco Aironet 1810 APs
• Cisco Aironet 1815 APs
• Cisco Aironet 1832 APs
• Cisco Aironet 1852 APs
• Cisco Aironet 1542 APs
• No mitigation of interferer.
• Limited to detect three types of devices.
• Microwave
• Continuous wave—video recorder, baby monitor
• SI-FHSS—BlueTooth, Frequency hopping DECT phones
• Cannot differentiate between devices of the same type.
• Does not report to the CleanAir Infrastructure - it is only reported in the WLC.
• When the AP is in Local Mode, it reports the first interference detected.
• When in Monitor Mode, it reports all three types of interference if present.
• Does not provide location as only RSSI is measured at the reporting APs.
• Does not alert through Cisco Prime Infrastructure.
• Does not send information to CMX or MSE (as CleanAir does).
• It cannot provide location of interfering device.
Configuring Spectrum Intelligence – Global (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > 802.11a > CleanAir to open the CleanAir page.
Step 2
Check Spectrum Intelligence to enable the Spectrum Intelligence feature.
This enables Spectrum Intelligence feature on all the APs which support Spectrum Intelligence.
Step 3
Click Apply.
Step 4
To view the APs supporting Spectrum Intelligence, choose Wireless > Access Points > Radios > 802.11a/b
to open the 802.11a/b Radio page.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
446
Wireless
Configuring Spectrum Intelligence per AP (GUI)
The names of the APs that are spectrum intelligence capable have $ as a suffix.
Configuring Spectrum Intelligence per AP (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > Access Points > Radios > 802.11a/b to open the 802.11a/b radio page.
Step 2
The names of the APs that are spectrum intelligence capable have $ as a suffix. Hover your cursor over the
blue drop-down arrow in front of the AP name with the $ sign. Click Configure.
The Cisco APs > Configure page is displayed.
Step 3
Under the Spectrum Intelligence section, from the Spectrum Intelligence Admin Status drop-down list,
choose Enable or Disable option.
Step 4
Click Apply.
Configuring Spectrum Intelligence (CLI)
Procedure
• Configure spectrum intelligence globally on all spectrum intelligence capable APs or on an individual
AP by entering this command:
config {802.11a | 802.11b} SI {enable | disable} network | ap-name
• View the global admin status by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} SI config
• View interferences by AP by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} SI device ap ap-name
• View interferences by interferer type by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} SI device-type interferer_type_name
Monitoring Interference Devices
Prerequisites for Monitoring the Interference Devices
You can configure Cisco CleanAir only on CleanAir-enabled access points.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
447
Wireless
Monitoring the Interference Device (GUI)
Monitoring the Interference Device (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Monitor > Cisco CleanAir > 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n > Interference Devices to open the CleanAir
> Interference Devices page.
This page shows the following information:
• AP Name—The name of the access point where the interference device is detected.
• Radio Slot #—Slot where the radio is installed.
• Interferer Type—Type of the interferer.
• Affected Channel—Channel that the device affects.
• Detected Time—Time at which the interference was detected.
• Severity—Severity index of the interfering device.
• Duty Cycle (%)—Proportion of time during which the interfering device was active.
• RSSI—Receive signal strength indicator (RSSI) of the access point.
• DevID—Device identification number that uniquely identified the interfering device.
• ClusterID—Cluster identification number that uniquely identifies the type of the devices.
Step 2
Click Change Filter to display the information about interference devices based on a particular criteria.
Step 3
Click Clear Filter to remove the filter and display the entire access point list.
You can create a filter to display the list of interference devices that are based on the following filtering
parameters:
• Cluster ID—To filter based on the Cluster ID, select the check box and enter the Cluster ID in the text
box next to this field.
• AP Name—To filter based on the access point name, select the check box and enter the access point
name in the text box next to this field.
• Interferer Type—To filter based on the type of the interference device, select the check box and select
the interferer device from the options.
Select one of the interferer devices:
• BT Link
• MW Oven
• 802.11 FH
• BT Discovery
• TDD Transmit
• Jammer
• Continuous TX
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
448
Wireless
Monitoring the Interference Device (CLI)
• DECT Phone
• Video Camera
• 802.15.4
• WiFi Inverted
• WiFi Inv. Ch
• SuperAG
• Canopy
• XBox
• WiMax Mobile
• WiMax Fixed
• WiFi ACI
• Unclassified
• Activity Channels
• Severity
• Duty Cycle (%)
• RSSI
Step 4
Click Find.
The current filter parameters are displayed in the Current Filter field.
Monitoring the Interference Device (CLI)
Detecting Interferers by an Access Point
Procedure
See information for all of the interferers detected by a specific access point on the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n
radio band by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair device ap Cisco_AP
When a CleanAir-enabled access point detects interference devices, detections of the same device from multiple
sensors are merged together to create clusters. Each cluster is given a unique ID. Some devices conserve
power by limiting the transmit time until actually needed which results in the spectrum sensor to temporarily
stop detecting the device. This device is then correctly marked as down. A down device is correctly removed
from the spectrum database. In cases when all the interferer detections for a specific devices are reported, the
cluster ID is kept alive for an extended period of time to prevent possible device detection bouncing. If the
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
449
Wireless
Detecting Interferers by Device Type
same device is detected again, it is merged with the original cluster ID and the device detection history is
preserved.
For example, some Bluetooth headsets operate on battery power. These devices employ methods to reduce
power consumption, such as turning off the transmitter when not actually needed. Such devices can appear
to come and go from the classification. To manage these devices, CleanAir keeps the cluster IDs longer and
they are remerged into a single record upon detection. This process smoothens the user records and accurately
represents the device history.
Detecting Interferers by Device Type
Procedure
See information for all of the interferers of a specific device type on the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n radio
band by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair device type type
where you choose type as one of the following:
• 802.11a
• 802.11-inv—A device using spectrally inverted Wi-Fi signals
• 802.11-nonstd—A device using nonstandard Wi-Fi channels
• canopy—A canopy bridge device
• cont-tx—A continuous transmitter
• dect-like—A digital enhanced cordless communication (DECT)-compatible phone
• jammer—A jamming device
• superag—An 802.11 SuperAG device
• tdd-tx—A time division duplex (TDD) transmitter
• video—A video device
• wimax-fixed—A WiMAX fixed device
• wimax-mobile—A WiMAX mobile device
• 802.11b
• bt-link—A bluetooth link device
• bt-discovery—A bluetooth discovery device
• ble-beacon—A BLE beacon device
• mw-oven—A microwave oven device
• 802.11-fh—An 802.11 frequency-hopping device
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
450
Wireless
Detecting Persistent Sources of Interference
• 802.15.4—An 802.15.4 device
• tdd-tx—A time division duplex (TDD) transmitter
• jammer—A jamming device
• cont-tx—A continuous transmitter
• dect-like—A digital enhanced cordless communication (DECT)-compatible phone
• video—A video device
• 802.11-inv—A device using spectrally inverted Wi-Fi signals
• 802.11-nonstd—A device using nonstandard Wi-Fi channels
• superag—An 802.11 SuperAG device
• canopy—A canopy bridge device
• wimax-mobile—A WiMAX mobile device
• wimax-fixed—A WiMAX fixed device
• msft-xbox—A Microsoft Xbox device
Note
No more than 25 interferers can be detected by a Cisco AP.
Detecting Persistent Sources of Interference
Procedure
See a list of persistent sources of interference for a specific access point on the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n
radio band by entering this command:
show ap auto-rf {802.11a | 802.11b} Cisco_AP
Monitoring Persistent Devices (GUI)
Procedure
Choose Wireless > Access Points > Radios > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n to open the 802.11a/n/ac (or
802.11b/g/n) Radios page. Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired access point and
click Detail. The 802.11a/n/ac (or 802.11b/g/n) AP Interfaces > Detail page is displayed.
This page displays the details of the access points along with the list of persistent devices detected by this
access point. Details of the persistent devices is displayed under the Persistent Devices section.
The following information for each persistent device is available:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
451
Wireless
Monitoring Persistent Devices (CLI)
• Class Type—The class type of the persistent device.
• Channel—Channel this device is affecting.
• DC(%)—Duty cycle (in percentage) of the persistent device.
• RSSI(dBm)—RSSI indicator of the persistent device.
• Last Seen Time—Timestamp when the device was last active.
Monitoring Persistent Devices (CLI)
Procedure
To view the list of persistent devices using the CLI, use the following command:
show ap auto-rf {802.11a | 802.11b} ap_name
Information similar to the following appears:
Number Of Slots..................................
AP Name..........................................
MAC Address......................................
Slot ID........................................
Radio Type.....................................
Sub-band Type..................................
Noise Information
. . ..
. . . .
Power Level.................................. 1
RTS/CTS Threshold............................
Fragmentation Threshold......................
Antenna Pattern..............................
Persistent Interference Devices
Class Type
Channel
------------------------- ------Video Camera
149
2
AP_1142_MAP
c4:7d:4f:3a:35:38
1
RADIO_TYPE_80211a
All
2347
2346
0
DC (%%) RSSI (dBm) Last Update Time
------ ---------- -----------------------100
-34
Tue Nov 8 10:06:25 2011
The following information for each persistent device is available:
• Class Type—The class type of the persistent device.
• Channel—Channel this device is affecting.
• DC(%)—Duty cycle (in percentage) of the persistent device.
• RSSI(dBm)—RSSI indicator of the persistent device.
• Last Seen Time—Timestamp when the device was last active.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
452
Wireless
Monitoring the Air Quality of Radio Bands
Monitoring the Air Quality of Radio Bands
This section describes how to monitor the air quality of the 802.11a/n/ac and 802.11b/g/n radio bands using
both the Cisco WLC GUI and CLI.
Monitoring the Air Quality of Radio Bands (GUI)
Procedure
Choose Monitor > Cisco CleanAir > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n >Air Quality Report to open the CleanAir
> Air Quality Report page.
This page shows the air quality of both the 802.11a/n/ac and 802.11b/g/n radio bands. Specifically, it shows
the following information:
• AP Name—The name of the access point that reported the worst air quality for the 802.11a/n/ac or
802.11b/g/n radio band.
• Radio Slot—The slot number where the radio is installed.
• Channel—The radio channel where the air quality is monitored.
• Minimum AQ—The minimum air quality for this radio channel.
• Average AQ—The average air quality for this radio channel.
• Interferer—The number of interferers detected by the radios on the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n radio
band.
• DFS—Dynamic Frequency Selection. This indicates if DFS is enabled or not.
Monitoring the Air Quality of Radio Bands (CLI)
Viewing a Summary of the Air Quality
Procedure
See a summary of the air quality for the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n radio band by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair air-quality summary
Viewing Air Quality for all Access Points on a Radio Band
Procedure
See information for the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n access point with the air quality by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
453
Wireless
Viewing Air Quality for an Access Point on a Radio Band (CLI)
show {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair air-quality
Viewing Air Quality for an Access Point on a Radio Band (CLI)
Procedure
See air quality information for a specific access point on the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n radio band by entering
this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair air-quality Cisco_AP
Monitoring the Worst Air Quality of Radio Bands (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Monitor > Cisco CleanAir >Worst Air-Quality to open the CleanAir > Worst Air Quality Report
page.
This page shows the air quality of both the 802.11a/n/ac and 802.11b/g/n radio bands. Specifically, it shows
the following information:
• AP Name—The name of the access point that reported the worst air quality for the 802.11 radio band.
• Channel Number—The radio channel with the worst reported air quality.
• Minimum Air Quality Index(1 to 100)—The minimum air quality for this radio channel. An air quality
index (AQI) value of 100 is the best, and 1 is the worst.
• Average Air Quality Index(1 to 100)—The average air quality for this radio channel. An air quality
index (AQI) value of 100 is the best, and 1 is the worst.
• Interference Device Count—The number of interferers detected by the radios on the 802.11 radio band.
Step 2
See a list of persistent sources of interference for a specific access point radio as follows:
a) Choose Wireless > Access Points > Radios > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n to open the 802.11a/n/ac (or
802.11b/g/n) Radios page.
b) Hover your cursor over the blue drop-down arrow for the desired access point radio and click
CleanAir-RRM. The 802.11a/n/ac (or 802.11b/g/n) Cisco APs > Access Point Name > Persistent Devices
page appears. This page lists the device types of persistent sources of interference detected by this access
point radio. It also shows the channel on which the interference was detected, the percentage of time that
the interferer was active (duty cycle), the received signal strength (RSSI) of the interferer, and the day
and time when the interferer was last detected.
Monitoring the Worst Air Quality of Radio Bands (CLI)
This section describes the commands that you can use to monitor the air quality of the 802.11 radio band.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
454
Wireless
Viewing a Summary of the Air Quality (CLI)
Viewing a Summary of the Air Quality (CLI)
See a summary of the air quality for the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n radio band by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair air-quality summary
Viewing the Worst Air Quality Information for all Access Points on a Radio Band (CLI)
See information for the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n access point with the worst air quality by entering this
command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair air-quality worst
Viewing the Air Quality for an Access Point on a Radio Band (CLI)
See the air quality information for a specific access point on the 802.11 radio band by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair air-quality Cisco_AP
Viewing the Air Quality for an Access Point by Device Type (CLI)
• See information for all of the interferers detected by a specific access point on the 802.11a/n/ac or
802.11b/g/n radio band by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair device ap Cisco_AP
• See information for all of the interferers of a specific device type on the 802.11a/n or 802.11b/g/n radio
band by entering this command:
show {802.11a | 802.11b} cleanair device type type
where you choose type as one of the following:
• 802.11a
• 802.11-inv—A device using spectrally inverted Wi-Fi signals
• 802.11-nonstd—A device using nonstandard Wi-Fi channels
• canopy—A canopy bridge device
• cont-tx—A continuous transmitter
• dect-like—A digital enhanced cordless communication (DECT)-compatible phone
• jammer—A jamming device
• superag—An 802.11 SuperAG device
• tdd-tx—A time division duplex (TDD) transmitter
• video—A video device
• wimax-fixed—A WiMAX fixed device
• wimax-mobile—A WiMAX mobile device
• 802.11b
• bt-link—A bluetooth link device
• bt-discovery—A bluetooth discovery device
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
455
Wireless
Detecting Persistent Sources of Interference (CLI)
• ble-beacon—A BLE beacon device
• mw-oven—A microwave oven device
• 802.11-fh—An 802.11 frequency-hopping device
• 802.15.4—An 802.15.4 device
• tdd-tx—A time division duplex (TDD) transmitter
• jammer—A jamming device
• cont-tx—A continuous transmitter
• dect-like—A digital enhanced cordless communication (DECT)-compatible phone
• video—A video device
• 802.11-inv—A device using spectrally inverted Wi-Fi signals
• 802.11-nonstd—A device using nonstandard Wi-Fi channels
• superag—An 802.11 SuperAG device
• canopy—A canopy bridge device
• wimax-mobile—A WiMAX mobile device
• wimax-fixed—A WiMAX fixed device
• msft-xbox—A Microsoft Xbox device
Detecting Persistent Sources of Interference (CLI)
See a list of persistent sources of interference for a specific access point on the 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n
radio band by entering this command:
show ap auto-rf {802.11a | 802.11b} Cisco_AP
Media and EDCA
This section contains the following subsections:
Aggressive Load Balancing
Aggressive Load Balancing
Enabling aggressive load balancing on the controller allows lightweight access points to load balance wireless
clients across access points. You can enable aggressive load balancing using the controller.
Note
Clients are load balanced between access points on the same controller. Load balancing does not occur between
access points on different controllers.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
456
Wireless
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (GUI)
When a wireless client attempts to associate to a lightweight access point, association response packets are
sent to the client with an 802.11 response packet including status code 17. The code 17 indicates that the AP
is busy. The AP does not respond with an association response bearing 'success' if the AP threshold is not
met, and with code 17 (AP busy) if the AP utilization threshold is exceeded, and another less busy AP heard
the client request.
For example, if the number of clients on AP1 is more than the number of clients on AP2 plus the load-balancing
window, then AP1 is considered to be busier than AP2. When a client attempts to associate to AP1, it receives
an 802.11 response packet with status code 17, indicating that the access point is busy, and the client attempts
to associate to a different access point.
You can configure the controller to deny client associations up to 10 times (if a client attempted to associate
11 times, it would be allowed to associate on the 11th try). You can also enable or disable load balancing on
a particular WLAN, which is useful if you want to disable load balancing for a select group of clients (such
as time-sensitive voice clients).
Note
Voice Client does not authenticate when delay is configured more than 300 ms. To avoid this configure a
Central-Auth, Local Switching WLAN with CCKM, configure a Pagent Router between AP and WLC with
a delay of 600 ms (300 ms UP and 300 ms DOWN and try associating the voice client
Passive scanning clients will be able to associate to an AP irrespective of whether load balancing is enabled
or not.
Note
With the 7.4 release, FlexConnect access points do support client load balancing.
You can configure the controller to analyze the WAN interface utilization of neighboring APs and then load
balance the clients across the lightly loaded APs. You can configure this by defining a load balancing threshold.
By defining the threshold, you can measure the WAN interface utilization percentage. For example, a threshold
value of 50 triggers the load balancing upon detecting utilization of 50% or more on an AP-WAN interface.
Note
For a FlexConnect AP the association is locally handled. The load-balancing decisions are taken at the Cisco
WLC. A FlexConnect AP initially responds to the client before knowing the result of calculations at the Cisco
WLC. Load-balancing doesn't take effect when the FlexConnect AP is in standalone mode.
FlexConnect AP does not send (re)association response with status 17 for Load-Balancing as Local mode
APs do; instead, it first sends (re)association with status 0 (success) and then deauth with reason 5.
This section contains the following subsections:
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose Wireless > Advanced > Load Balancing to open the Load Balancing page.
Step 2
In the Client Window Size text box, enter a value between 1 and 20.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
457
Wireless
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (CLI)
The window size becomes part of the algorithm that determines whether an access point is too heavily loaded
to accept more client associations:
load-balancing window + client associations on AP with the lightest load = load-balancing threshold
In the group of access points accessible to a client device, each access point has a different number of client
associations. The access point with the lowest number of clients has the lightest load. The client window size
plus the number of clients on the access point with the lightest load forms the threshold. Access points with
more client associations than this threshold is considered busy, and clients can associate only to access points
with client counts lower than the threshold.
Step 3
In the Maximum Denial Count text box, enter a value between 0 and 10.
The denial count sets the maximum number of association denials during load balancing.
Step 4
Click Apply.
Step 5
Click Save Configuration.
Step 6
To enable or disable aggressive load balancing on specific WLANs, do the following:
a) Choose WLANs > WLAN ID. The WLANs > Edit page appears.
b) In the Advanced tab, select or unselect the Client Load Balancing check box.
c) Click Apply.
d) Click Save Configuration.
Configuring Aggressive Load Balancing (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Set the client window for aggressive load balancing by entering this command:
config load-balancing window client_count
You can enter a value between 0 and 20 for the client_count parameter.
Step 2
Set the denial count for load balancing by entering this command:
config load-balancing denial denial_count
You can enter a value between 1 and 10 for the denial_count parameter.
Step 3
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 4
Enable or disable aggressive load balancing on specific WLANs by entering this command:
config wlan load-balance allow {enable | disable} wlan_ID
You can enter a value between 1 and 512 for wlan_ID parameter.
Step 5
Verify your settings by entering this command:
show load-balancing
Step 6
Save your changes by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
458
Wireless
Media Session and Snooping
save config
Step 7
Configure the load balance mode on a WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan load-balance mode {client-count | uplink-usage} wlan-id
This feature requires the AP to upload its uplink usage statistics to the controller periodically. Check these
statistics by entering this command:
show ap stats system cisco-AP
Media Session and Snooping
Media Session Snooping and Reporting
This feature enables access points to detect the establishment, termination, and failure of Session Initiation
Protocol (SIP) voice calls and then report them to the controller and Cisco Prime Infrastructure. You can
enable or disable Voice over IP (VoIP) snooping and reporting for each WLAN.
When you enable VoIP Media Session Aware (MSA) snooping, the access point radios that advertise this
WLAN look for SIP voice packets that comply with SIP RFC 3261. They do not look for non-RFC
3261-compliant SIP voice packets or Skinny Call Control Protocol (SCCP) voice packets. Any SIP packets
destined to or originating from port number 5060 (the standard SIP signaling port) are considered for further
inspection. The access points track when Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) and non-WMM clients are establishing
a call, are already on an active call, or are in the process of ending a call. Upstream packet classification for
both client types occurs at the access point. Downstream packet classification occurs at the controller for
WMM clients and at the access point for non-WMM clients. The access points notify the controller and Cisco
Prime Infrastructure of any major call events, such as call establishment, termination, and failure.
The controller provides detailed information for VoIP MSA calls. For failed calls, the controller generates a
trap log with a timestamp and the reason for failure (in the GUI) and an error code (in the CLI) to aid in
troubleshooting. For successful calls, the controller shows the number and duration of calls for usage tracking
purposes. Cisco Prime Infrastructure displays failed VoIP call information in the Events page.
This section contains the following subsections:
Restrictions for Media Session Snooping and Reporting
Controller software release 6.0 or later releases support Voice over IP (VoIP) Media Session Aware (MSA)
snooping and reporting.
Configuring Media Session Snooping (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Step 2
Click the ID number of the WLAN for which you want to configure media session snooping.
Step 3
On the WLANs > Edit page, click the Advanced tab.
Step 4
Under Voice, select the Media Session Snooping check box to enable media session snooping or unselect it
to disable this feature. The default value is unselected.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
459
Wireless
Configuring Media Session Snooping (CLI)
Step 5
Click Apply.
Step 6
Click Save Configuration.
Step 7
See the VoIP statistics for your access point radios as follows:
a) Choose Monitor > Access Points > Radios > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n to open the 802.11a/n/ac (or
802.11b/g/n) Radios page.
b) Scroll to the right and click the Detail link for the access point for which you want to view VoIP statistics.
The Radio > Statistics page appears.
The VoIP Stats section shows the cumulative number and length of voice calls for this access point radio.
Entries are added automatically when voice calls are successfully placed and deleted when the access
point disassociates from the controller.
Step 8
Choose Management > SNMP > Trap Logs to see the traps generated for failed calls. The Trap Logs page
appears.
For example, log 0 in the figure shows that a call failed. The log provides the date and time of the call, a
description of the failure, and the reason why the failure occurred.
Configuring Media Session Snooping (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Enable or disable VoIP snooping for a particular WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan call-snoop {enable | disable} wlan_id
Step 2
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 3
See the status of media session snooping on a particular WLAN by entering this command:
show wlan wlan_id
Information similar to the following appears:
WLAN Identifier.................................. 1
Profile Name..................................... wpa2-psk
Network Name (SSID).............................. wpa2-psk
Status........................................... Enabled
...
FlexConnect Local Switching........................ Disabled
FlexConnect Learn IP Address....................... Enabled
Infrastructure MFP protection.............. Enabled (Global Infrastructure MFP
Disabled)
Client MFP.................................... Optional
Tkip MIC Countermeasure Hold-down Timer....... 60
Call Snooping.................................. Enabled
Step 4
See the call information for an MSA client when media session snooping is enabled and the call is active by
entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
460
Wireless
Configuring Media Session Snooping (CLI)
show call-control client callInfo client_MAC_address
Information similar to the following appears:
Uplink IP/port......................................
Downlonk IP/port....................................
UP..................................................
Calling Party.......................................
Called Party........................................
Call ID.............................................
Number of calls for given client is.............. 1
Step 5
192.11.1.71 / 23870
192.12.1.47 / 2070
6
sip:1054
sip:1000
58635b00-850161b7-14853-1501a8
See the metrics for successful calls or the traps generated for failed calls by entering this command:
show call-control ap {802.11a | 802.11b} Cisco_AP {metrics | traps}
Information similar to the following appears when you enter show call-control ap {802.11a | 802.11b}
Cisco_AP metrics:
Total Call Duration in Seconds................... 120
Number of Calls.................................. 10
Information similar to the following appears when you enter show call-control ap {802.11a | 802.11b}
Cisco_AP traps:
Number of traps sent in one min.................. 2
Last SIP error code.............................. 404
Last sent trap timestamp...................... Jun 20 10:05:06
To aid in troubleshooting, the output of this command shows an error code for any failed calls. This table
explains the possible error codes for failed calls.
Table 19: Error Codes for Failed VoIP Calls
Error Code
Integer
Description
1
unknown
Unknown error.
400
badRequest
The request could not be
understood because of malformed
syntax.
401
unauthorized
The request requires user
authentication.
402
paymentRequired
Reserved for future use.
403
forbidden
The server understood the request
but refuses to fulfill it.
404
notFound
The server has information that the
user does not exist at the domain
specified in the Request-URI.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
461
Wireless
Configuring Media Session Snooping (CLI)
Error Code
Integer
Description
405
methodNotallowed
The method specified in the
Request-Line is understood but not
allowed for the address identified
by the Request-URI.
406
notAcceptabl
The resource identified by the
request is only capable of
generating response entities with
content characteristics that are not
acceptable according to the Accept
header text box sent in the request.
407
proxyAuthenticationRequired
The client must first authenticate
with the proxy.
408
requestTimeout
The server could not produce a
response within a suitable amount
of time, if it could not determine
the location of the user in time.
409
conflict
The request could not be completed
due to a conflict with the current
state of the resource.
410
gone
The requested resource is no longer
available at the server, and no
forwarding address is known.
411
lengthRequired
The server is refusing to process a
request because the request
entity-body is larger than the server
is willing or able to process.
413
requestEntityTooLarge
The server is refusing to process a
request because the request
entity-body is larger than the server
is willing or able to process.
414
requestURITooLarge
The server is refusing to service the
request because the Request-URI
is longer than the server is willing
to interpret.
415
unsupportedMediaType
The server is refusing to service the
request because the message body
of the request is in a format not
supported by the server for the
requested method.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
462
Wireless
Configuring Media Session Snooping (CLI)
Error Code
Integer
Description
420
badExtension
The server did not understand the
protocol extension specified in a
Proxy-Require or Require header
text box.
480
temporarilyNotAvailable
The callee’s end system was
contacted successfully, but the
callee is currently unavailable.
481
callLegDoesNotExist
The UAS received a request that
does not match any existing dialog
or transaction.
482
loopDetected
The server has detected a loop.
483
tooManyHops
The server received a request that
contains a Max-Forwards header
text box with the value zero.
484
addressIncomplete
The server received a request with
a Request-URI that was incomplete.
485
ambiguous
The Request-URI was ambiguous.
486
busy
The callee’s end system was
contacted successfully, but the
callee is currently not willing or
able to take additional calls at this
end system.
500
internalServerError
The server encountered an
unexpected condition that
prevented it from fulfilling the
request.
501
notImplemented
The server does not support the
functionality required to fulfill the
request.
502
badGateway
The server, while acting as a
gateway or proxy, received an
invalid response from the
downstream server it accessed in
attempting to fulfill the request.
503
serviceUnavailable
The server is temporarily unable to
process the request because of a
temporary overloading or
maintenance of the server.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
463
Wireless
QoS Enhanced BSS
Error Code
Integer
Description
504
serverTimeout
The server did not receive a timely
response from an external server it
accessed in attempting to process
the request.
505
versionNotSupported
The server does not support or
refuses to support the SIP protocol
version that was used in the request.
600
busyEverywhere
The callee’s end system was
contacted successfully, but the
callee is busy or does not want to
take the call at this time.
603
decline
The callee’s machine was contacted
successfully, but the user does not
want to or cannot participate.
604
doesNotExistAnywhere
The server has information that the
user indicated in the Request-URI
does not exist anywhere.
606
notAcceptable
The user’s agent was contacted
successfully, but some aspects of
the session description (such as the
requested media, bandwidth, or
addressing style) were not
acceptable.
If you experience any problems with media session snooping, enter the debug call-control {all |
event} {enable | disable} command to debug all media session snooping messages or events.
Note
QoS Enhanced BSS
QoS Enhanced BSS
The QoS Enhanced Basis Service Set (QBSS) information element (IE) enables the access points to
communicate their channel usage to wireless devices. Because access points with high channel usage might
not be able to handle real-time traffic effectively, the 7921 or 7920 phone uses the QBSS value to determine
if they should associate to another access point. You can enable QBSS in these two modes:
• Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM) mode, which supports devices that meet the 802.11E QBSS standard (such
as Cisco 7921 IP Phones)
• 7920 support mode, which supports Cisco 7920 IP Phones on your 802.11b/g network
The 7920 support mode has two options:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
464
Wireless
Prerequisites for Using QoS Enhanced BSS on Cisco 7921 and 7920 Wireless IP Phones
• Support for 7920 phones that require call admission control (CAC) to be configured on and advertised
by the client device (these are typically older 7920 phones)
• Support for 7920 phones that require CAC to be configured on and advertised by the access point
(these are typically newer 7920 phones)
When access point-controlled CAC is enabled, the access point sends out a Cisco proprietary CAC
Information Element (IE) and does not send out the standard QBSS IE.
This section contains the following subsections:
Prerequisites for Using QoS Enhanced BSS on Cisco 7921 and 7920 Wireless IP Phones
Follow these guidelines to use Cisco 7921 and 7920 Wireless IP Phones with controllers:
• Aggressive load balancing must be disabled for each controller. Otherwise, the initial roam attempt by
the phone may fail, causing a disruption in the audio path.
• The Dynamic Transmit Power Control (DTPC) information element (IE) must be enabled using the
config 802.11b dtpc enable command. The DTPC IE is a beacon and probe information element that
allows the access point to broadcast information on its transmit power. The 7921 or 7920 phone uses
this information to automatically adjust its transmit power to the same level as the access point to which
it is associated. In this manner, both devices are transmitting at the same level.
• Both the 7921 and 7920 phones and the controllers support Cisco Centralized Key Management (CCKM)
fast roaming.
• When configuring WEP, there is a difference in nomenclature for the controller and the 7921 or 7920
phone. Configure the controller for 104 bits when using 128-bit WEP for the 7921 or 7920.
• For standalone 7921 phones, load-based CAC must be enabled, and the WMM Policy must be set to
Required on the WLAN.
• The controller supports traffic classification (TCLAS) coming from 7921 phones using firmware version
1.1.1. This feature ensures proper classification of voice streams to the 7921 phones.
• When using a 7921 phone with the 802.11a radio of a 1242 series access point, set the 24-Mbps data rate
to Supported and choose a lower Mandatory data rate (such as 12 Mbps). Otherwise, the phone might
experience poor voice quality.
Restrictions for QoS Enhanced BSS
• QBSS is disabled by default.
• 7920 phones are non-WMM phones with limited CAC functionality. The phones look at the channel
utilization of the access point to which they are associated and compare that to a threshold that is beaconed
by the access point. If the channel utilization is less than the threshold, the 7920 places a call. In contrast,
7921 phones are full-fledged WMM phones that use traffic specifications (TSPECs) to gain access to
the voice queue before placing a phone call. The 7921 phones work well with load-based CAC, which
uses the percentage of the channel set aside for voice and tries to limit the calls accordingly.
Because 7921 phones support WMM and 7920 phones do not, capacity and voice quality problems can
arise if you do not properly configure both phones when they are used in a mixed environment. To enable
both 7921 and 7920 phones to co-exist on the same network, make sure that load-based CAC and 7920
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
465
Wireless
Configuring QBSS (GUI)
AP CAC are both enabled on the controller and the WMM Policy is set to Allowed. These settings become
particularly important if you have many more 7920 users than 7921 users.
• We recommend that aggressive load balancing always be turned off either through the controller GUI
or CLI in any wireless network that is supporting voice, regardless of vendor. When aggressive load
balancing is turned on, voice clients can hear an audible artifact when roaming, if the handset is refused
at its first reassociation attempt.
Configuring QBSS (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Step 2
Click the ID number of the WLAN for which you want to configure WMM mode.
Step 3
When the WLANs > Edit page appears, choose the QoS tab to open the WLANs > Edit (Qos) page.
Step 4
From the WMM Policy drop-down list, choose one of the following options, depending on whether you want
to enable WMM mode for 7921 phones and other devices that meet the WMM standard:
• Disabled—Disables WMM on the WLAN. This is the default value.
• Allowed—Allows client devices to use WMM on the WLAN.
• Required—Requires client devices to use WMM. Devices that do not support WMM cannot join the
WLAN.
Step 5
Select the 7920 AP CAC check box if you want to enable 7920 support mode for phones that require access
point-controlled CAC. The default value is unselected.
Step 6
Select the 7920 Client CAC check box if you want to enable 7920 support mode for phones that require
client-controlled CAC. The default value is unselected.
Note
You cannot enable both WMM mode and client-controlled CAC mode on the same WLAN.
Step 7
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 8
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring QBSS (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Determine the ID number of the WLAN to which you want to add QBSS support by entering this command:
show wlan summary
Step 2
Disable the WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan disable wlan_id
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
466
Wireless
Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients
Step 3
Configure WMM mode for 7921 phones and other devices that meet the WMM standard by entering this
command:
config wlan wmm {disabled | allowed | required} wlan_id
where
• disabled disables WMM mode on the WLAN.
• allowed allows client devices to use WMM on the WLAN.
• required requires client devices to use WMM. Devices that do not support WMM cannot join the WLAN.
Step 4
Enable or disable 7920 support mode for phones that require client-controlled CAC by entering this command:
config wlan 7920-support client-cac-limit {enable | disable} wlan_id
Note
Step 5
You cannot enable both WMM mode and client-controlled CAC mode on the same WLAN.
Enable or disable 7920 support mode for phones that require access point-controlled CAC by entering this
command:
config wlan 7920-support ap-cac-limit {enable | disable} wlan_id
Step 6
Reenable the WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan enable wlan_id
Step 7
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 8
Verify that the WLAN is enabled and the Dot11-Phone Mode (7920) text box is configured for compact mode
by entering this command:
show wlan wlan_id
Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients
Information About Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients
You can allow voice clients to get anchored on the best suited and nearest available controller, which is useful
when intercontroller roaming occurs. By using this feature, you can avoid the use of tunnels to carry traffic
between the foreign controller and the anchor controller and remove unnecessary traffic from the network.
The ongoing call during roaming is not affected and can continue without any problem. The traffic passes
through proper tunnels that are established between the foreign controller and the anchor controller.
Disassociation occurs only after the call ends, and then the client then gets reassociated to a new controller.
Note
You can reanchor roaming of voice clients for each WLAN.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
467
Wireless
Restrictions for Configuring Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients
Restrictions for Configuring Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients
• The ongoing data session might be affected due to disassociation and then reassociation.
• This feature is supported for TSPEC-based calls and non-TSPEC SIP-based calls only when you enable
the admission control.
• This feature is not recommended for use on Cisco 792x phones.
Configuring Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Choose WLANs to open the WLANs page.
Step 2
Click the ID number of the WLAN for which you want to configure reanchoring of roaming voice clients.
Step 3
When the WLANs > Edit page appears, choose the Advanced tab to open the WLANs > Edit (Advanced)
page.
Step 4
In the Voice area select the Re-anchor Roamed Clients check box.
Step 5
Click Apply to commit your changes.
Step 6
Click Save Configuration to save your changes.
Configuring Reanchoring of Roaming Voice Clients (CLI)
Procedure
Step 1
Enable or disable reanchoring of roaming voice clients for a particular WLAN by entering this command:
config wlan roamed-voice-client re-anchor {enable | disable} wlan id
Step 2
Save your changes by entering this command:
save config
Step 3
See the status of reanchoring roaming voice client on a particular WLAN by entering this command:
show wlan wlan_id
Information similar to the following appears:
WLAN Identifier..................................
Profile Name.....................................
Network Name (SSID)..............................
Status...........................................
...
Call Snooping....................................
Roamed Call Re-Anchor Policy.....................
Band Select......................................
Load Balancing...................................
Step 4
Save your changes by entering this command:
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
468
1
wpa2-psk
wpa2-psk
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Wireless
Call Admission Control
save config
Call Admission Control
This section contains the following subsections:
Voice and Video Parameters
Three parameters on the controller affect voice and/or video quality:
• Call admission control
• Expedited bandwidth requests
• Unscheduled automatic power save delivery
Each of these parameters is supported in Cisco Compatible Extensions (CCX) v4 and v5.
This section contains the following subsections:
Configuring Voice Parameters
Configuring Voice Parameters (GUI)
Procedure
Step 1
Ensure that the WLAN is configured for WMM and the Platinum QoS level.
Step 2
Choose Wireless and then Network under 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n, unselect the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g)
Network Status check box, and click Apply to disable the radio network.
Step 3
Choose Wireless > 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n > Media. The 802.11a (or 802.11b) > Media page appears.
The Voice tab is displayed by default.
Step 4
(Optional) Select the Admission Control (ACM) check box to enable static CAC for this radio band. The
default value is disabled.
Step 5
(Optional) Select the Admission Control (ACM) you want to use by choosing from the following choices:
• Load-based—To enable channel-based CAC. This is the default option.
• Static—To enable radio-based CAC.
Step 6
In the Max RF Bandwidth text box, enter the percentage of the maximum bandwidth allocated to clients for
voice applications on this radio band. Once the client reaches the value specified, the access point rejects new
calls on this radio band.
The range is 5% to 85%. The sum of maximum bandwidth percentage of voice and video should not exceed
85%.
The default is 75%.
Cisco Wireless Controller Configuration Guide, Release 8.8
469
Wireless
Configuring Voice Parameters (GUI)
Step 7
In the Reserved Roaming Bandwidth text box, enter the percentage of maximum allocated bandwidth that
is reserved for roaming voice clients. The controller reserves this bandwidth from the maximum allocated
bandwidth for roaming voice clients.
The range is 0% to 25%.
The default is 6%.
Step 8
To enable expedited bandwidth requests, select the Expedited Bandwidth check box. By default, this text
box is disabled.
Step 9
To enable SIP CAC support, select the SIP CAC Support check box. By default, SIP CAC support is disabled.
Step 10
From the SIP Codec drop-down list, choose one of the following options to set the codec name. The default
value is G.711. The options are as follows:
• User Defined
• G.711
• G.729
Step 11
In the SIP Bandwidth (kbps) text box, enter the bandwidth in kilobits per second.
The possible range is 8 to 64.
The default value is 64.
Note
The SIP Bandwidth (kbps) text box is highlighted only when you select the SIP codec as
User-Defined. If you choose the SIP codec as G.711, the SIP Bandwidth (kbps) text box is set to
64. If you choose the SIP codec as G.729, the SIP Bandwidth (kbps) text box is set to 8.
Step 12
In the SIP Voice Sample Interval (msecs) text box, enter the value for the sample interval.
Step 13
In the Maximum Calls text box, enter the maximum number of calls that can be made to this radio. The
maximum call limit includes both direct and roaming-in calls. If the maximum call limit is reached, the new
or roaming-in calls result in failure.
The possible range is 0 to 25.
The default value is 0, which indicates that there is no check for maximum call limit.
Note
If SIP CAC is supported and the CAC method is static, the Maximum Possible Voice Calls and
Maximum Possible Roaming Reserved Calls fields appear.
Step 14
Select the Metrics Collection check box to collect traffic stream metrics. By default, this box is unselected.
That is, the traffic stream metrics is not collected by default.
Step 15
Click Apply.
Step 16
Choose Network under 802.11a/n/ac or 802.11b/g/n, select the 802.11a (or 802.11b/g) Network Status check
box, and click Apply to reenable the radio network.
Step 17
Click Save Configuration.
Step 18
Rep