6.0L Technician Reference Manual

6.0L Technician Reference Manual
F O R WA R D
This publication is intended to provide technicians and service personnel with an overview of technical advancements in the
6.0L POWER STROKE Diesel Engine. The information contained in this publication will supplement information contained in
available service literature.
I M P O R TA N T S A F E T Y N O T I C E
Appropriate service methods and proper repair procedures are essential for the safe,
reliable operation of all motor vehicles, as well as, the personal safety of the individual
performing the work. This manual provides general directions for accomplishing service
repair work with tested, effective techniques. Following the directions will assure
reliability. There are numerous variations in the procedures; techniques, tools, parts for
servicing vehicles and the skill of the individual doing the work. This manual cannot
possibly anticipate all such variations and provide advice or cautions as to each.
Accordingly, anyone who departs from the instructions provided in this manual must first
establish that they do not compromise their personal safety or the vehicle integrity by
their choice of methods, tools or parts.
The following list contains some general WARNINGS that you should follow when you
work on a vehicle.
Always wear safety glasses for eye protection.
Use safety stands whenever a procedure requires you to be under the vehicle.
Be sure that the ignition switch is always in the OFF position, unless otherwise required
by the procedure.
Never perform any service to the engine with the air cleaner removed and the engine
running unless a turbocharger compressor inlet shield is installed.
Set the parking brake when working on the vehicle. If you have an automatic
transmission, set it in PARK unless instructed otherwise for a specific service operation.
If you have a manual transmission, it should be in REVERSE (engine OFF) or
NEUTRAL (engine ON) unless instructed otherwise for a specific service operation.
Operate the engine only in a well-ventilated area to avoid the danger of carbon
monoxide.
Keep yourself and your clothing away from moving parts when the engine is running,
especially the fan, belts, and the turbocharger compressor.
To prevent serious burns, avoid contact with hot metal parts such as the radiator,
turbocharger pipes, exhaust manifold, tail pipe, catalytic converter and muffler.
Do not smoke while working on the vehicle.
To avoid injury, always remove rings, watches, loose hanging jewelry, and loose clothing
before beginning to work on a vehicle. Tie long hair securely behind the head.
Keep hands and other objects clear of the radiator fan blades.
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6.0L POWER STROKE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
OVERVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Horsepower & Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
COMPONENT LOCATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
COOLING SYSTEM
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
System Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Water Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
LUBRICATION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
System Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
System Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Check Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
System Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
VGT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
EGR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
High Pressure Oil System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
System Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40
Fuel Injectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Stages of Injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Other Electrical Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
UNIQUE SERVICE PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
GENERAL DIAGNOSTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
APPENDIX
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
3
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1
6.0L Power Stroke
Direct Injection
Tu r b o c h a r g e d D i e s e l
Engine
6.0L POWER STROKE OVERVIEW
6.0L Power Stroke Overview
• This publication is not intended to replace
the Service Manual but to introduce the 6.0L
Power Stroke engine.
6.0L Power Stroke Direct Injection
Turbocharged Diesel Engine
Overview
• Engine Features
• Horsepower & Torque
• Engine Specifications
• Physical ID
• Labeling
2
Engine Features
Engine Features
• The 6.0L Power Stroke has been designed
to meet the customers’ expectations of high
horsepower and torque over a wide RPM
range.
• The 6.0L Power Stroke has also been
designed to meet the tougher emissions
standards set by the government.
• Meeting the more stringent customer and
regulated demands are accomplished in part
by: VGT, digital injection system, 4 valves
per cylinder, and dual timing system.
• Variable Geometry Turbocharger
• Digital Fuel Injection
• 4 Valves per Cylinder
• Reusable Gaskets
• Rear Gear train
• Dual Timing System
3
Horsepower & Torque Chart
Horsepower & Torque
• The 6.0L Power Stroke creates 325
horsepower at 3300 RPM and 560 ft/lb of
torque at 2000 RPM.
600
500
400
• Note: Torque has increased and occurs at
lower engine RPM than previous models.
300
200
100
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
engine speed [rpm ]
Torque [ft-lb]
6
Pow er [bhp]
4
6.0L POWER STROKE OVERVIEW
6.0L Power Stroke Diesel Specifications
Engine Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Diesel, 4-Cycle
Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 OHV/1 Cam-in-Crankcase-V8
Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365 cu. in (6.0 L)
Bore & Stroke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.74 X 4.134 in (95 X 105 mm)
Compression Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18.0:1
Aspiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .VGT/CAC
Rated Power @ RPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325 @ 3300 RPM
Peak Torque @ RPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .560 @ 2000 RPM
Engine Rotation, Facing Flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Counter Clockwise
Combustion System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Digital Direct Injection
Total Engine Weight (auto with oil) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .966 lb. (438 kg)
Coolant Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74.7 gal/min (282.8 L/min) @ 3300 RPM
Air Flow @ RPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .732 CFM (20.7 m3/min) @ 3300 RPM
Exhaust Flow @ RPM . . . . . . . . . . . . .1499 CFM (42.4 m3/min) @ 3300 RPM
Oil Flow @ RPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18.5 gal/min (70 L/min) @ 3300 RPM
Cooling System Capacity (engine only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.1 qts. (10.5 L)
Lube-System Capacity (including filter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 qts. (14.2 L)
Firing Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2-7-3-4-5-6-8
5
L
Front
R
2
1
4
3
6
5
8
7
Specifications
• The 6.0L Power Stroke engine is a totally
new engine design that will provide improved
performance, and cleaner emissions.
• The cylinders of the 6.0L Power Stroke are
numbered from the front on the right side
1,3,5,7 and from the front on the left side
2,4,6,8.
7
6.0L POWER STROKE OVERVIEW
Engine Serial Number
• The engine serial number is located on the
left rear corner of the crankcase.
• The engine serial number identifies the
engine family, build location, and the
sequential build number.
• 6.0 - is the engine family identifier.
• HU2U - is a manufacturing designator.
• 6000173 - is a sequential build number.
6
Serial Number/FICM Calibration Label
• Another location for the engine serial
number is a label on the FICM (Fuel
Injection Control Module).
• The engine serial number label also states
the build location and build date of the
engine.
• Another label on the FICM is the part
number and the FICM calibration label.
7
Emissions Label
• States the horsepower rating for the engine,
programmed in the powertrain control
module (PCM).
• Depicts where the engine meets or exceeds
emission standards.
• Shows the engine displacement.
• Is affixed to the right hand valve cover
behind the glow plug control module.
8
8
C O M P O N E N T L O C AT I O N S
Front of Engine
3
5
1
1) Thermostat
2) Fuel Inlets on Cylinder Heads
3) Fuel Pressure Regulator
4) ECT Sensor
5) EGR Throttle Actuator (If Equipped)
4
2
2
9
6
5
Left Front of Engine
3
1) Fuel Supply
2) Fuel Return
3) EBP Sensor and Tube
4) Upper Oil Pan
5) Secondary Fuel Filter
6) EGR Throttle Position Sensor (If Equipped)
1
2
4
10
9
C O M P O N E N T L O C AT I O N S
Left of Engine
3
1) FICM
1
2) CMP Sensor
3) Oil Level Gauge
4) Crankcase Ventilation
4
2
11
1
Left Rear of Engine
1) Rocker Arm Carrier
2) Bed Plate
3) Glow Plug Buss Bar
3
2
12
10
C O M P O N E N T L O C AT I O N S
1
Rear of Engine
1) Exhaust Expansion Joints
3
2) Heat Shields
3) Lifting “Eye”
4) Serial Number
5) ICP Sensor & IPR (Behind ICP)
2
2
4
5
13
3
Right Rear of Engine
2
1) Block Heater
2) Turbine Outlet
3) Exhaust Connection to EGR Cooler
4) Exhaust Expansion Joint
4
1
14
11
C O M P O N E N T L O C AT I O N S
Right Side of Engine
2
1) CKP Sensor
2) Glow Plug Control Module
1
15
Right Front of Engine
1) Heater Return
2) EGR Throttle Actuator
1
2
16
12
C O M P O N E N T L O C AT I O N S
Top of Engine
1) Oil Filter
2
3
2) Turbocharger Oil Supply Line
3) EVRT/VGT Control Valve
4) Injector Connectors
4
5) Secondary Fuel Filter
6) EGR Cooler Coolant Deaeration Port
6
1
5
17
Top of Engine
1) EGR Valve
2) EGR Cooler
3) Turbocharger Compressor Outlet
4) IAT2 Sensor
5) EOP Switch
6) EOT Sensor
2
5
4
1
3
6
18
13
6 . 0 L P O W E R S T R O K E F E AT U R E S
Rocker Carrier
• The aluminum rocker arm carrier is mounted
on top of the cylinder head and is held in
place by the cylinder head bolts.
CONNECTOR PASS THROUGH
ROCKER ARMS
• The rocker arm carrier provides the
mounting location for all of the rocker
fulcrums.
• The carrier also provides the connector pass
through for the injector and glow plug.
CYLINDER HEAD BOLTS
19
Cylinder Head
• The 6.0L POWER STROKE uses a four (4)
valve per cylinder head design to increase
air flow and efficiency.
INTAKE VALVES
INJECTOR NOZZLE
• For identification, the exhaust valves are
smaller than the intake valves.
EXHAUST VALVES
GLOW PLUG
20
Rear Geartrain
• The geartrain for the crankshaft, camshaft,
and high pressure pump are located in the
rear of the engine under the rear cover.
• This allows the high pressure pump to be
mounted inside the engine and also reduces
geartrain noise.
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP GEAR
CAMSHAFT GEAR
CRANKSHAFT GEAR
21
14
6 . 0 L P O W E R S T R O K E F E AT U R E S
Dual Mass Flywheel
STARTER RING
• The 6.0L Power Stroke uses two different
flywheels for the manual transmission.
RING OF BOLTS
• A dual-mass flywheel is used on the
F-250/350 Superduty truck.
• The dual-mass flywheel can be identified by
springs located around the flywheel on the
engine side.
• It can also be identified by an extra ring of
bolts on the transmission side of the
flywheel that holds the two masses together.
CLUTCH SURFACE
SPRINGS
• From the side it can be identified by the
separation between the clutch surface and
the starter ring.
22
Single Mass Flywheel
• A single mass flywheel is used on the
F-450/550 Superduty trucks.
• The single mass flywheel can be identified
by the absence of the above mentioned
parts and that it is machined from one solid
part.
23
Normal Heat Treatment Discoloration
• The bearing surfaces on the crankshaft are
induction hardened.
DISCOLORED AREA
• During the hardening process the
surrounding areas of the crankshaft discolor.
This condition is normal.
24
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COOLING
SYSTEM
Cooling System Features
Cooling System Features
• The modular water pump can be serviced
without disconnecting radiator hoses.
• Both the glow plug sleeves and the injector
sleeves are stainless steel.
• Modular Water Pump
• Stainless Steel Injector Sleeves
• Stainless Steel Glow Plug Sleeves
25
Cooling System Flow
26
17
COOLING SYSTEM
Cooling System Flow: Front Cover
• Coolant is drawn into the inlet of the front
cover and then flows from the water pump
through the front cover to the crankcase.
• Coolant is also routed from the front cover
into the crankcase to a passage that feeds
the oil cooler.
• Return coolant is directed to the thermostat
by the front cover. If the thermostat is open,
coolant flows to the radiator to be cooled. If
the thermostat is closed, coolant is returned
to the water pump via a bypass circuit in the
front cover.
27
Cooling System Flow: Back of Front
Cover
• Coolant is sealed via a silicon in metal one
piece gasket and is directed out of the front
cover through three (3) passages.
• Two of the passages route coolant to the
crankcase to cool the cylinder walls and
cylinder heads.
IN
IN
OUT
• The third passage routes coolant to the oil
cooler via a passage in the crankcase.
• There are two passages for coolant to return
from the crankcase into the front cover.
OUT
28
Cooling System Flow: Oil Cooler
• Coolant is directed out of the crankcase and
into the oil filter base at the front of the
engine.
• The oil filter base routes the coolant into the
front of the oil cooler then toward the back of
the engine.
• Once the coolant has passed through the oil
cooler it is directed out of the oil filter base
to the EGR cooler.
• Note: There are weep holes in the oil filter
base that allow coolant or oil to seep out
side of the filter base if an oil cooler seal
is damaged.
29
18
COOLING SYSTEM
Cooling System Flow: EGR Cooler
• Coolant flows out of the filter base and into
the EGR cooler through a tube that directs
the coolant to the back of the EGR cooler.
• Coolant flows through the EGR cooler and
removes heat from the exhaust gasses
before the exhaust arrives at the EGR valve.
• Coolant exits the front of the EGR cooler and
enters the coolant passage of the intake
manifold. The intake manifold directs the
coolant back into the front cover.
30
Water Pump & Front Cover
• The water pump, (hub and impeller) is
mounted into the front cover which is the
housing for the water pump.
IMPELLER
• The water pump impeller pulls coolant from
the center of the housing and pushes it
outward.
• The water pump has a built in reservoir to
catch small amounts coolant that during
normal operation of the engine may seep
past the seal.
• Note: The water pump impeller may be
damaged if dropped or hit by a hard
object.
RESERVOIR
31
Injector Sleeve
• The 6.0L Power Stroke uses stainless steel
injector sleeves to seal coolant from the
injector and to transfer heat from the injector
to the coolant.
• The injector sleeve is replaceable. See
unique service procedures or service
manual for more details.
INJECTOR SLEEVE
32
19
COOLING SYSTEM
Glow Plug Sleeve
• Glow plug sleeves are used to keep coolant
from coming in direct contact with the glow
plugs and to seal coolant from the
combustion chamber.
• The glow plug sleeve is replaceable. See
unique service procedures or the service
manual for more details.
GLOW PLUG SLEEVE
33
Coolant Recovery Bottle
• The coolant recovery bottle is located above
the left valve cover.
• One of the ports on the bottle is attached to
the EGR cooler deaeration port. If this port
or hose is blocked, damage could occur to
the EGR cooler.
COOLANT RECOVERY BOTTLE
TO EGR COOLER
34
20
L U B R I C AT I O N S Y S T E M
Lubrication System Features
Lubrication System Features
• The 6.0L Power Stroke uses an oil cooler
that is mounted in the valley of the engine
under the oil filter. There is also a oil
pressure test port in the front of the oil
cooler.
• Integrated Oil Cooler
• No External Oil Passages in Crankcase
• There are no oil passages located on the
outside of the crankcase. This reduces the
chance for oil leaks.
• Easy Access Canister Style Oil Filter
• Front Oil Pressure Test Port
• The oil filter is a canister style filter mounted
on the top of the engine, that drains to the
oil pan during servicing.
• External Oil Pressure Regulator
• The gerotor oil pump and oil pressure
regulator are both located in the front of the
engine behind the vibration damper.
35
System Flow
OIL FILTER BASE
GEROTOR OIL PUMP
OIL PRESSURE
REGULATOR
36
21
L U B R I C AT I O N S Y S T E M
Lubrication System Oil Flow
Lube Pressure Oil System Schematic
• Oil is drawn from the oil pan through the
pick-up tube to the gerotor oil pump.
• The oil pressure is regulated to 75 psi via
the oil pressure regulator relieving excessive
oil pressure to the inlet of the oil pump.
• From the oil filter the oil is supplied to four
(4) passages. One is to the turbocharger for
lubrication and VGT control via an external
line.
• The oil also is provided to the oil reservoir
that supplies the high pressure oil pump.
• The two (2) other passages are to the tappet
oil feed on the right and left banks. The
tappet galleries also provide oil to the piston
cooling jets.
• Cross drillings off of the right bank tappet
gallery feed the cam bearings, then the
crankshaft main bearings.
• The crankshaft has cross drillings in it to
direct oil to each of connecting rod bearings.
MB
T
Oil Filter
Filter
Bypass
20 PSI
Turbo
T
CB
T
Cooler
Bypass
25 PSI
Oil Reservoir
for High
Pressure
Pump 0.95 Qt.
CB
To High
Pressure Oil
System
CR
T
CB
CB
T
CR
T
CR
MB
T
CR
CR
Pump
Bypass
70 PSI
T
T
MB
Right Bank
Oil Pump
T
CR
MB
T
T
T
CR
T
T
CR
MB
T
Oil Cooler
• From the oil pump, oil is directed to the oil
cooler and then the to the oil filter.
CB
Left Bank
T= Tappet
CB = Cam Bearing
MB = Main Bearing
CR= Connecting Rod
= Piston Cooling Jet
37
Oil Pan / Bed Plate
• The 6.0L Power Stroke uses a two piece oil
pan. The lower half is wider than the bottom
of the engine to increase its capacity. Due to
this wider oil pan, an upper oil pan is used to
adapt the lower pan to the bed plate. The
upper pan also acts as an oil baffle.
• The upper pan is bolted to the bed plate.
The bed plate replaces the individual main
bearing caps. This one piece design results
in a more rigid bearing retaining system.
WIDER OIL PAN
UPPER OIL PAN
BED PLATE
• The pick-up tube is bolted to the upper pan
and oil is routed through the upper pan and
the bed plate to the front cover.
38
22
L U B R I C AT I O N S Y S T E M
Pick-up Tube / Oil Aeration
OIL PICK-UP TUBE
• The pick-up tube supplies oil from the oil pan
to the oil pump.
• The pick-up tube is sealed to the upper oil
pan utilizing an o-ring. If the o-ring is
damaged or missing, it could cause oil
aeration and poor performance.
• Oil aeration is the result of air being
introduced to the lubrication system on the
suction side of the system or by the
breakdown of the anti foaming agents in the
oil. Oil aeration can cause low power and
poor idle.
O-RING
• A damaged or loose pick-up tube could also
cause oil aeration.
UPPER OIL PAN
39
Oil Pressure Regulator
• The oil pressure regulator is located in the
front cover just below the gerotor oil pump.
OIL PUMP
• The oil pressure regulator is calibrated to
open at pressures above 75 psi. It should be
closed below that pressure.
REGULATOR HOUSING
OIL PRESSURE REGULATOR
40
Gerotor Oil Pump
• The gerotor oil pump is driven off of the flats
on the nose of the crankshaft.
DOWEL
CRANKSHAFT
• The pump is designed to flow the large
volume of oil required for the 6.0L POWER
STROKE.
OUTER GEAR
• The gerotor oil pump front cover is located
by two (2) dowel pins in the crankcase front
cover, and is sealed by a press in place
gasket.
• The outer housing for the oil pump is
designed into the crankcase front cover.
INNER GEAR
DOWEL
41
23
L U B R I C AT I O N S Y S T E M
Front Cover
• Oil flows from the crankcase to the oil pump
via a passage in the back of the front cover.
• When the oil pump is turned by the
crankshaft it creates oil pressure and
pushes oil through one of two passages.
One passage is to the oil cooler and the
other is through the oil pressure regulator
back to the oil pump inlet.
ONE PIECE GASKET
OIL FLOW TO OIL COOLER
• All of the passages from the front cover to
the crankcase are sealed with a silicon in
metal, one piece gasket.
RETURN TO OIL PUMP
42
Oil Cooler
• The oil cooler is mounted in the valley of the
engine and uses engine coolant to dissipate
heat from the engine oil.
OIL PRESSURE
TEST PORT
• Oil passes from the rear of the cooler to the
front, while coolant passes from the front of
the cooler to the rear.
• The coolant and oil are separated by
multiple plates that create passages in the
oil cooler.
• Note: If the oil cooler is damaged it could
cause contamination of the lubrication
and cooling systems.
OIL COOLER
43
Oil Cooler Housing & Filter Base
• The oil cooler housing has passages in it to
direct the flow of coolant and oil.
OIL FROM
OIL PUMP
OIL TO
OIL FILTER
TO RESERVOIR & CRANKCASE
COOLANT FROM WATER PUMP
• Oil is routed from the front of the crankcase
to the back of the housing where it enters
the oil cooler. The oil passes from the rear of
the oil cooler to the front of the cooler and is
cooled in the process. The oil is then sent to
the oil filter through the oil filter base.
Filtered oil is sent to the oil reservoir for the
high pressure pump and the oil passages in
the crankcase.
• The coolant is directed from the front of the
crankcase to the front of the oil cooler. It
then passes through the oil cooler and cools
the oil. As the coolant exits the rear of the oil
cooler it is directed to the EGR cooler.
24
OIL TO
OIL COOLER
COOLANT FROM
OIL COOLER
COOLANT TO
OIL COOLER
44
L U B R I C AT I O N S Y S T E M
Oil Filter Base & Valves
OIL TEMPERATURE SENSOR
• The oil filter base routes oil to the oil filter,
engine oil pressure switch (EOP), engine oil
temperature sensor (EOT), and the
turbocharger oil feed.
OIL PRESSURE SWITCH
• The oil filter base also houses the anti-drainback check valve that keeps oil in the oil
filter assembly after the engine is shut off.
OIL FILTER BYPASS
• The oil cooler bypass is in the filter base and
opens at a pressure differential of 25 psi.
• The oil filter bypass is in the oil filter stand
pipe and opens at a pressure differential of
20 psi.
OIL FILTER DRAIN
ANTI DRAIN BACK
OIL COOLER BYPASS
45
• There is an oil drain for the filter housing to
drain oil from the housing during an oil
change.
Oil Filter
• The 6.0L POWER STROKE uses a cartridge
style oil filter, located on the top of the
engine.
OIL FILTER ELEMENT
• When the oil filter is removed, the oil filter
housing drain valve is automatically opened
to drain most of the oil from the housing.
• The oil filter element snaps into the oil filter
lid.
• Note: The oil filter lid should be removed
before draining the oil from the oil pan so
that the oil can drain from the filter
housing into the oil pan.
46
Oil Reservoir & Screen
• The oil reservoir for the high pressure oil
pump is located under the oil cooler in the
valley of the engine.
• The oil reservoir holds about 1qt of oil.
OIL RESERVOIR SCREEN
• A screen in the oil reservoir catches any
large debris that may be in the oil before it
gets to the high pressure oil pump.
47
25
L U B R I C AT I O N S Y S T E M
Oil Flow at Oil Reservoir
OIL FILTER DRAIN TO PAN
• There are five (5) oil passages and one
coolant passage near the oil reservoir in the
crankcase.
• Two (2) of the oil passages are for oil feed to
the crankcase for lubrication.
• One (1) is for oil feed to the oil cooler and
the other oil passage is oil filter drain to the
oil pan.
• The passage in the bottom of the reservoir is
for oil feed to the high pressure oil pump.
• The coolant passage is for coolant feed from
the water pump to the oil cooler.
OIL FEED TO
OIL COOLER
TO LEFT
BANK TAPPET
GALLERY
OIL FEED TO HIGH
PRESSURE PUMP
TO RIGHT
BANK TAPPET
GALLERY
COOLANT
FEED TO OIL
COOLER
FRONT OF ENGINE
48
Turbocharger Oil Supply & VGT
Control
• Oil is supplied to the turbocharger from the
oil filter base via a flexible steel braided oil
line to the top of the turbocharger.
OIL SUPPLY
• The oil line is connected to the oil filter base
using a snap to connect fitting and requires
a special tool for removal.
• This line is also the feed to the VGT control
valve.
VGT CONTROL VALVE
49
Turbocharger Oil Drain Tube
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP COVER
• The VGT uses oil to control the turbocharger
and to lubricate the bearings.
• After oil passes through the turbocharger
center section, it is sent back to the
crankcase via a turbo oil drain tube.
• The turbo oil drain tube is located under the
turbocharger and is sealed with two (2)
o-rings, one fits into the turbocharger and
the other goes to the high pressure oil pump
cover.
DRAIN TUBE O-RINGS
50
26
F U E L S U P P LY S Y S T E M
Fuel Supply System Features
Fuel Supply System Features
• The fuel supply system uses a new
Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module
(HFCM). The HFCM filters fuel, separates
water, senses water, heats fuel, and
recirculates warm fuel through the pump
during cool fuel conditions.
• Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module
(HFCM)
• Secondary Fuel Filter
• Fuel Check Valves
• The 6.0L Power Stroke also has a secondary
fuel filter.
• There is a check valve in the front of each
cylinder head that does not allow fuel to
return to the fuel supply system. This type of
system is called a dead-end fuel system.
51
Engine Fuel System Flow
FUEL FILTER
FUEL SUPPLY TO HEADS
FUEL SUPPLY
FROM PUMP
FUEL CHECK VALVES
FUEL RETURN
TO TANK
52
27
F U E L S U P P LY S Y S T E M
53
Engine Fuel Flow
• The fuel pump, located in the
Horizontal Fuel Conditioning
Module (HFCM), draws fuel from
the fuel tank and through a 10
micron fuel filter.
• The HFCM contains the fuel pump,
filter, water separator, water in fuel
switch, fuel drain, fuel heater, and
diesel thermo recirculation valve
(DTRM).
• The DTRM controls the flow of fuel
returned from the secondary filter
through the HFCM. If the fuel being
drawn from the fuel tank is cool
then return fuel is recirculated into
the pump, if it is warm then return
fuel is sent to the fuel tank
28
• After the fuel is conditioned by the
HFCM, the clean pressurized fuel is
sent to the secondary fuel filter
assembly where particles larger
than 4 micron are filtered out of the
fuel.
• The secondary filter assembly also
regulates fuel pressure by releasing
excess pressure via a return fuel
line back to the HFCM.
• It also has an orifice at the top of
the housing in order to bleed air out
of the housing and back to the fuel
tank.
• After the fuel flows through the
secondary filter it is directed to the
two (2) cylinder heads via fuel lines
past the fuel check valves.
• The fuel is directed to the injectors
via passages that are drilled into
the cylinder heads.
• Once the fuel has entered the head
past the check valve, it does not
return to the fuel supply system.
This is called a dead-end fuel
system.
F U E L S U P P LY S Y S T E M
FUEL SUPPLY TO ENGINE
FUEL RETURN TO TANK
HFCM (Horizontal Fuel Conditioning
Module)
• The HFCM is mounted to the frame rail on
the drivers side.
FUEL RETURN TO HFCM
WATER IN FUEL
FUEL PUMP POWER
FUEL HEATER
FUEL SUPPLY TO HFCM
• The HFCM is a single module that performs
multiple tasks. It heats fuel, separates water
from the fuel, senses when water is present
in the fuel, filters particulates from the fuel,
creates fuel pressure needed to to supply
fuel to the engine mounted fuel filter
• A DTRM (Diesel Thermo Recirculation
Module) is also part of the HFCM. It
recirculates fuel that returns from the engine
mounted fuel filter back into the fuel filter
instead of back to the tank, which in cool
fuel conditions.
54
FUEL HEATER
FUEL PUMP
WIF SENSOR
HFCM (Horizontal Fuel Conditioning
Module) Fuel Flow
• Fuel is drawn into the HFCM from the fuel
tank via a supply line.
• If the temperature of the the fuel is below
50°F (10°C) it is heated by the fuel heater.
The fuel heater shuts off at 80°F (27°C).
DTRM
• After being heated, fuel enters the filter
housing via a one-way check valve.
• Once in the filter housing, water is separated
from the fuel. If large amounts of water are
found in the fuel, a sensor in the separator
warns the operator of this condition by
illuminating a light on the dash.
FUEL FILTER
55
• Fuel is then drawn through the 10 micron
fuel filter and into the fuel pump.
• Conditioned pressurized fuel is then supplied
to the engine mounted fuel filter via a fuel
supply line. The pump has an internal
regulator that limits fuel pressure to 100psi.
THROUGH FILTER INTO PUMP
• Fuel returning from the pressure regulator on
the engine mounted fuel filter comes into the
HFCM and a DTRM either allows the fuel to
return to the tank or returns it to the
unfiltered side of the fuel filter in the HFCM.
The DTRM starts to open (recirculating fuel
back into the pump) at 80°F (27°C) and is
fully open at 50°F (10°C).
56
29
F U E L S U P P LY S Y S T E M
Engine Mounted Fuel Filter
• A secondary fuel filter is mounted to the oil
filter housing.
SECONDARY FUEL FILTER
• The secondary filter is a 4 micron cartridge
style filter.
• It also incorporates a fuel pressure regulator
and an air bleed (to allow air to escape after
a filter change). Fuel from the regulator is
returned to the HFCM.
FUEL RETURN LINE
FUEL REGULATOR
FUEL PRESSURE TEST PORT
57
Fuel Pressure Regulator
• The fuel pressure regulator is mounted to
the engine mounted fuel filter.
• It regulates fuel pressure by routing
unfiltered fuel from the filter housing to the
HFCM via a spring loaded poppet style
valve.
FUEL RETURN LINE
• The cracking pressure(pressure at which the
valve begins to open) of the valve is 60psi
+\- 5psi. Actual fuel pressure may be above
or below this specification.
FUEL REGULATOR
58
Fuel Inlet Check Valves
• Each cylinder head has a fuel inlet check
valve at the front of the head.
• The check valve is incorporated into the bolt
for the banjo fitting that attaches the fuel line
to the head.
INLET CHECK VALVE
• The check valves are used to maintain
constant fuel pressure in the fuel rail.
• The fuel lines are sealed to the head by two
copper gaskets.
COPPER GASKETS
• Note: It is recommended that the copper
gaskets be replaced if the bolt has been
removed.
59
30
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Air Management System Features
Air Management System
Components/Features
• The air management system is made up of
the air filter, turbocharger, charge air cooler,
intake manifold, and the EGR system.
• Air Filter/Filter Minder
• Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT)
• Charge Air Cooler
• Intake Manifold
• EGR System
60
Air management System Flow
FROM CHARGE AIR COOLER
THROTTLE BODY
COMPRESSOR INLET
EGR VALVE
COMPRESSOR
OUTLET
EGR COOLER
TURBINE OUTLET
61
31
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
VGT
Control Valve
62
System Flow
• Air enters the system through the
air filter where particles are
removed from the air. The air filter
has a filter minder on it to warn the
operator of a restricted air filter.
• After the air is filtered, the mass of
the air and temperature is
measured by the mass air flow
sensor (MAF).
• The filtered air is then directed past
the crankcase ventilation system
where crankcase vapors and fresh
air are mixed.
• After mixing with crankcase vapors
the fresh air mixture is drawn into
the turbocharger compressor where
it is compressed and sent to the
charge air cooler (CAC).
32
• The CAC condenses the air by
cooling it then the air returns to the
engine through the intake manifold.
• There is a throttle body on the
intake manifold. The throttle body
may or may not have a throttle
plate. For 2003.25 the throttle plate
will not be active in the pcm
strategy
• The intake manifold directs the air
to the intake ports of the cylinder
heads.
• The burned air fuel mixture is
pushed out of the cylinder into the
exhaust manifold which collects the
exhaust gases and routes them to
the turbocharger turbine wheel.
• The exhaust up pipe, connected to
the passenger side exhaust
manifold has a passage that
connects it to the exhaust gas
recirculation (EGR) cooler.
• The exhaust gasses, cooled by the
EGR cooler are sent to the EGR
valve in the intake manifold.
• The EGR valve controls the flow of
exhaust gases into the intake
system where the gases are mixed
with intake air to reduce NOx
(Nitrogen Oxide) emissions and
noise.
• The hot and expanding exhaust
gases that are routed to the
turbocharger turbine, spin the
turbine wheel through flow and
expansion. The spinning turbine
wheel in turn spins the compressor
wheel via a common shaft.
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Air Filter / Filter Minder
FILTER MINDER
• The air filter is located on the drivers side of
the engine compartment between the battery
and the radiator.
• A filter minder, device used to measure filter
restriction, is located on the back of the air
filter housing.
• Fresh air, from the drivers side fender and
the grill area, is drawn into the air filter and
particulates are removed from the air before
going to the engine.
63
Air Filter Element
• The new air filter element is made into the
air filter housing. When replacing the filter,
the entire housing will have to be replaced.
• The air filter is capable of holding 1600
grams of particulates before needing
replacement.
• The filter element is a honeycomb design.
64
Charge Air Cooler
• The charge air cooler is located in the front
of the radiator.
COMPRESSOR OUTLET
• It is an air to air cooler designed to lower the
temperature of the air coming out of the
turbocharger outlet before entering the
intake manifold.
INTAKE MANIFOLD
CHARGE AIR COOLER PIPES
65
33
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
VGT Features
• The turbocharger for the 6.0L Power Stroke
engine is designed to provide boost control
at low and high speeds for improved throttle
response.
• The Variable Geometry Turbocharger (VGT)
is electronically controlled and hydraulically
actuated.
• The VGT may also be referred to as EVRT.
VGT Turbocharger Features
• Electronically Controlled Hydraulically
actuated
• Low & High Engine Speed Boost Control
• Incorporates Fast Warm-Up Device
• When the vanes of the turbocharger are
closed, the engine will have a higher
exhaust back pressure and create more
heat which will in turn warm the engine
faster in cold ambient conditions.
66
VGT Compressor
• The compressor on the VGT is similar to the
compressor on a conventional turbocharger.
COMPRESSOR HOUSING
• The compressor wheel is connected to the
turbine via a common shaft.
67
VGT Turbine
• The VGT uses a turbine wheel that is
similar to a conventional turbocharger but
the turbine housing has changed.
TURBINE HOUSING
• The turbine housing contains vanes that
control the effective size of the housing.
These vanes are hydraulically actuated and
electronically controlled.
TURBINE OUTLET
TURBINE INLET
68
34
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
VGT Control Valve
VGT COIL
OIL DRAIN TO PAN
• The VGT control valve is commanded by the
PCM, based on engine speed and load. The
magnetic field generated by this signal
moves a shaft in the control valve. This
movement meters engine oil through the
valve to either side of the piston. This design
feature reacts quickly to changes in demand
based on driving conditions. When one side
of the piston is pressurized, the opposite
side is vented.
OIL TO CLOSE SIDE
OF PISTON
OIL SUPPLY
CAM
FOLLOWER
OIL TO OPEN
SIDE OF PISTON
69
• Depending on which side of the piston is
pressurized, the vanes either open or close.
A cam follower at the end of the valve
assembly provides feedback to the valve
allowing it to reach a neutral position during
times the vanes are not commanded to
move.
VGTCV Flows
• When the VGTCV is commanded to the full
open position, low or no duty cycle, oil from
the oil supply line is directed to the open
side of the actuator piston.
• Oil on the closed side of the piston is then
directed through the actuator piston, back to
the VGTCV, and then to drain.
70
• Note: If the VGTCV is disconnected the
valve will default to the open position.
• Once the desired turbocharger vane position
is obtained, the VGTCV goes to a neutral
position and both the open and closed sides
of the actuator piston is blocked off.
• When the VGTCV is commanded to the full
closed position, high duty cycle, oil from the
oil supply line is directed through the actuator piston to the closed side of the piston.
• Oil on the open side of the piston is directed
back to the VGTCV and then to drain.
71
72
35
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
VGT Turbine Vanes Closed
• During engine operation at low engine
speeds and load, little energy is available
from the exhaust to generate boost. In order
to maximize the use of the energy that is
available, the vanes are closed. In doing so,
the exhaust gas is accelerated between the
vanes and across the turbine wheel. In
general, this allows the turbocharger to
behave as a smaller turbocharger than it
actually is.
ACTUATOR PISTON
UNISON RING
VANES
• Closing the vanes also increases the back
pressure in the exhaust manifold which is
used to drive the exhaust gas through the
EGR cooler and valve into the intake
manifold. This is also the position for cold
ambient warm up.
73
VGT Turbine Vanes Partially Closed
• During Engine operation at moderate engine
speeds and load, the vanes are commanded
partially open.
ACTUATOR PISTON
UNISON RING
VANES
• The vanes are set to this intermediate position to supply the correct amount of boost to
the engine for optimal combustion as well as
providing the necessary back pressure to
drive EGR.
• Note: The VGT control valve piston is
coupled to the vanes through a shaft and
the unison ring.
74
VGT Turbine Vanes Open
• During engine operation at high engine
speeds and load, there is a great deal of
energy available in the exhaust.
ACTUATOR PISTON
UNISON RING
VANES
• Excessive boost under high speed, high load
conditions can negatively affect component
durability, therefore the vanes are
commanded open preventing turbocharger
overspeed.
• Essentially, this allows the turbocharger to
act as a large turbocharger.
75
36
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
EGR Valve
• The PCM controlled EGR (Exhaust Gas
Recirculation) valve adds cooled exhaust
gases to the intake manifold to reduce NOx
emissions.
• The EGR valve is opened during steady
state throttle positions when exhaust back
pressures are higher than intake manifold
pressures (boost).
EGR VALVE
76
EGR Flow
• The EGR valve has two valves connected by
a common shaft.
COOLED EXHAUST
INTAKE
• Cooled exhaust gases come to the center of
the valve through a passage in the intake
manifold.
• When the valves open they allow exhaust
gases to flow into the intake air stream from
the top and bottom of the passage.
O-RING SEALS
77
EGR Cooler
EGR COOLER
EXHAUST CONNECTION
• The EGR cooler is a coolant to air heat
exchanger that is used to cool the exhaust
gases before they are sent to the EGR
valve.
EGR COOLER
• The exhaust gasses are routed into the EGR
cooler from the exhaust up pipes at the rear
of the engine.
• The exhaust gasses are cooled by passing
through metal tubes that are surrounded by
engine coolant. Depending on conditions,
the temperature drop across the cooler
could be as much as 700°F.
78
• The cooled gasses are then routed to the
EGR valve that is mounted in the intake
manifold.
37
AIR MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
EGR Throttle
• All 2003.25 6.0L Power Stroke engines are
equipped with a throttle body.
THROTTLE PLATE
• Some early versions also have a throttle
plate in the throttle body. Later versions will
retain the throttle body, but not the throttle
plate.
• The throttle was designed to assist with EGR
operation, but later was determined
unnecessary.
• The PCM software for controlling the throttle
body was not added and the plate was
removed.
• The throttle body may become operational
for the 2004 model year.
• Note: All engines have the wiring plugged
into the throttle body and position sensor
even if the throttle plate is not present.
79
NO THROTTLE PLATE
80
Intake Manifold
• The intake manifold on the 6.0L Power
Stroke is made of aluminum and directs the
flow of air to the intake ports in the cylinder
heads.
INTAKE MANIFOLD
EGR COOLER
• The Intake manifold provides a path for
coolant from the EGR cooler to the front
cover.
• There is a passage for EGR gasses to go to
the EGR valve where they mix with
compressed intake air.
• The manifold absolute pressure sensor
(MAP) port and the intake air temperature 2
(IAT2) sensor are both mounted in the intake
manifold.
• The passage at the rear of the manifold is to
equalize pressure on both sides of the
manifold.
38
81
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Generation II Fuel Management
System Diagram
• The generation II fuel management system
uses high pressure oil and electronics to
actuate and control fuel injection into the
cylinders.
82
Generation II Fuel Management
System Major Components
Fuel Management System Major
Components
• The fuel management system is comprised
of several sub systems.
• Fuel Supply System.
• Fuel Supply System
• High Pressure Oil System.
• High Pressure Oil System
• Lubrication System.
• Lubrication System
• Sensors.
• Sensors
• Injectors.
• Injectors
• Electrical Components.
• Electrical Components
• Actuators.
• Actuators
83
Generation II Fuel Management
System Advantages
Fuel Management System
Features
• Emissions and noise have been reduced
through improvements in rate and timing
control.
• Emissions
• No external high pressure oil lines exist.
• Noise
• The high pressure system’s pressure relief is
located in the IPR (Injection Pressure
Regulator).
• Rate Control
• Timing Control
• No External High Pressure Lines
• IPR valve with integrated pressure relief
84
39
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
PUMP DISCHARGE LINE
RESERVOIR
HIGH PRESSURE
STAND PIPE
CHECK VALVE
AND FITTING
INJECTOR
HIGH PRESSURE
OIL RAIL
HIGH PRESSURE
PUMP GEAR
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP
REA
RO
HIGH PRESSURE
OIL BRANCH
F EN
GIN
E
85
High Pressure Oil System Flow
• Oil reservoir is filled by the lube oil
system and contains approximately
1 qt.
• High pressure pump is sealed
inside the crankcase, and has only
one (1) outlet.
• High pressure pump discharge line
connects the pump to the left and
right branches and to the IPR valve
in the high pressure pump cover.
• High pressure oil stand pipe
connects to the branch outlets and
provides a path through the
pushrod area to the high pressure
lines.
40
• High pressure oil line connects the
stand pipes to the high pressure oil
rail.
• High pressure oil rail is bolted to the
cylinder heads and acts as a
reservoir for high pressure oil.
• Check valves incorporated in the
inlet fitting for the high pressure oil
rail, limit hydraulic disturbance/feed
back from injector operation.
• Injectors deliver fuel when the spool
valve is positioned to allow oil to
enter the area above the intensifier
piston.
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Oil Cooler
Filter
Bypass
20 PSI
Cooler
Bypass
25 PSI
Oil Reservoir for
High Pressure
Pump 0.95 Qt.
High Pressure Oil Rail
Oil Filter
High Pressure Oil Rail
High Pressure Oil System Schematic
High
Pressure
Pump
Check Valve with Orifice
Oil Pump
Pump
Bypass
70 PSI
ICP
Sensor
IPR Valve
Contains
4000 PSI
Relief Valve
Drain to Crankcase
86
High Pressure Oil System
Schematic
• After lube oil is cooled and filtered,
some is directed to the reservoir.
fastened to the cylinder head and
connected to the top of the
injectors.
• The reservoir provides oil to the
high pressure pump.
• The IPR (Injection Pressure
Regulator) is PCM controlled and
contains the system’s pressure
relief valve which opens at 4000
psi.
• The plumbing from the pump to the
high pressure oil rails for each head
contains a check valve and orifice.
• The oil rails are not cast into the
head but are removable and
41
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
High Pressure Pump & Cover
DISCHARGE LINE
• The high pressure pump is installed inside
the crankcase.
• The pump is a seven (7) piston swash plate
style pump that is driven off of the rear gear
train.
HIGH PRESSURE PUMP
HIGH PRESSURE
PUMP COVER
• Minor leakage from the pump will not create
external oil leaks.
• Both banks of cylinders are supplied oil
through one (1) pump outlet.
87
IPR (Injection Control Pressure
Regulator) & ICP (Injection Control
Pressure Sensor)
IPR
ICP
• The IPR and ICP are both installed into the
high pressure pump cover, beneath the
turbocharger turbine inlet pipes.
88
High Pressure Oil Rail with AWA
Feature
• The high pressure oil rail has special AWA
(Acoustic Wave Attenuation) features to
dampen hydraulic noises.
• To accomplish this an AWA fitting is placed in
the center of the high pressure oil rail and
two specially designed end caps are used.
AWA FITTING
END CAP
89
42
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Fuel Injector Features
Fuel Injector Features
• The injector uses two (2) 48 volt 20 amp
coils to control a spool valve that directs oil
flow in and out of the injector.
• Digital Valve
• The injector coils are turned on for
approximately 800 µsec (micro second or
millionth of a second).
• 48 Volts
• 20 Amps/coil
• No special tools are needed to remove the
injectors from their bore. The injector is
slowly removed from its bore by removing
the hold down clamp bolt.
• Short Coil On Times
• Self extracting hold down clamp
90
Injector & O-rings
INTERNAL O-RING
• The injector has two (2) replaceable o-rings
on the outside of the body, one (1) internal
non-replaceable o-ring in the top of the
injector, and one (1) replaceable copper
combustion gasket on the tip of the injector.
• The injector’s two (2) coils have a single four
(4) pin connector that passes through the
rocker arm carrier.
INJECTOR COILS
O-RINGS
COPPER GASKET
91
Injector Coils & Spool Valve
HIGH PRESSURE OIL IN
• There is an open coil and a close coil on the
injector that move the spool valve from side
to side using magnetic force.
• The spool valve has two positions, when the
valve is in the open position it allows oil to
flow from the high pressure oil rail into the
injector.
• When the valve is in the closed position it
allows oil to drain from the injector back to
the crankcase.
COIL
COIL
• The total movement of the valve is only
.017”.
SPOOL VALVE
92
43
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Intensifier Piston
• When the spool valve is in the open position,
high pressure oil is allowed to enter the
injector and pushes the intensifier piston and
plunger downward.
INTENSIFIER PISTON
• Since the intensifier piston is 7.1 times
greater in surface area than the plunger, the
injection force is also 7.1 times greater at
the plunger than what the injection control
pressure (ICP) is.
93
Plunger & Barrel
• The bottom of plunger and barrel of the
injector is where the fuel injection pressure
is built.
• When the plunger is pushed downward by
the intensifier piston, it increases the fuel
pressure in the barrel 7.1 times that of the
ICP pressure.
BARREL
PLUNGER
• The plunger is coated with a tungsten
carbide coating to reduce the possibility of
scuffing and poor performance.
94
Injection Nozzle
• The injection nozzle needle is an inwardly
opening type which lifts off its seat when
pressure overcomes the VOP (Valve
Opening Pressure) of approximately 3100
psi.
• Fuel is atomized at high pressure through
the nozzle tip.
PINTLE
95
44
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Stages of Injection
Three Stages of Injection
• The injection cycle has three (3) stages.
• Fill.
• Fill
• Main injection.
• Main Injection
• End of main injection.
• End of Main Injection
• During some conditions the injector will
perform all three steps of the injection cycle
two times per firing cycle. This is called pilot
injection.
96
Fill Cycle
• During the fill stage, the spool valve is in the
closed position.
• High pressure oil from the oil rail is dead
headed at the spool valve.
SPOOL VALVE
CLOSED
• Low pressure fuel fills the port below the
plunger.
INTENSIFIER PISTON
AT REST
• The needle control spring holds the needle
on its seat so that fuel can not enter the
combustion chamber.
FUEL INLET
PINTLE CLOSED
97
45
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Main Injection Step 1
• Pulse width controlled current energizes the
open coil, magnetic force moves the spool
valve to the open position.
• High pressure oil flows past the spool valve
into the intensifier piston chamber.
SPOOL VALVE OPEN
• Oil pressure overcomes the intensifier piston
spring force and the intensifier starts to
move.
INTENSIFIER PISTON
MOVING DOWN
• Fuel inlet check ball seats due to an
increase of fuel pressure under the plunger.
• Fuel pressure starts to build once the
plunger passes the fuel spill port of the
barrel.
• Force on the nozzle needle begins to build.
PINTLE CLOSED
98
Main Injection Step 2
• The pulse width controlled current is shut off
after 800 µsec (micro second or millionth of
a second), but the spool remains in the open
position.
SPOOL VALVE OPEN
• High pressure oil from the rail continues to
flow past the spool valve.
• The intensifier piston and plunger continue
to move and pressure increases in the
barrel.
INTENSIFIER PISTON
MOVING DOWN
• When fuel pressure rises above the VOP
(Valve Opening Pressure) of about 3100 psi,
the nozzle needle lifts off of it’s seat and
injection begins.
PINTLE OPEN
99
46
FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
End of Main Injection Step 1
SPOOL VALVE
CLOSED
INTENSIFIER PISTON
MOVING UP
• When the IDM (Injector Drive Module)
determines that the correct injector on time
has been reached (meaning that the correct
amount of fuel has been delivered), it sends
a pulse width controlled current to the close
coil of the injector.
• The current energizes the close coil.
Magnetic force moves the spool valve to the
closed position.
• High pressure oil is dead headed against the
spool valve.
PINTLE OPEN
100
End of Main Injection Step 2
• The pulse width controlled current is shut off
after 800 µsec (micro seconds or millionth of
a second), but the spool remains in the
closed position.
SPOOL VALVE
CLOSED
• The intensifier piston and plunger begin to
return to their initial position.
• Oil above the intensifier piston flows past the
spool valve through the exhaust ports.
INTENSIFIER PISTON
AT REST
• Fuel pressure decreases until the nozzle
needle control spring forces the needle back
onto its seat.
PINTLE CLOSED
101
47
T h i s pa g e i n t e n t i o n a l l y
l e ft b l a n k
48
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
Generation II Electrical Components
Overview
Electrical Components
• The PCM uses information from the sensors
to decide which commands to send to the
FICM, the actuators, and the glow plug
system.
• Sensors
• Actuators
• PCM
• FICM
• Glow plug System
102
103
Sensors Overview
• The PCM sends a Vref of 5.0 volts
to the engine sensors except for
CMP and CKP which generate
voltage through the collapse of a
magnetic field.
• The PCM uses 5 volts as the
reference voltage to maintain
consistency throughout all
operating conditions.
• The Vref is conditioned by the
sensors then returned to the PCM
for use in determining the fueling
strategy.
49
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
104
AP (Accelerator Pedal
Position)
• The AP (Accelerator Pedal) is a
three track pedal. The AP
incorporates three potentiometers.
Through out the movement of the
AP the resistance values of the
three potentiometers must agree.
During the movement of the AP if
one of the three potentiometer
readings do not agree, the check
engine light will illuminate and the
vehicle will continue to perform as
normal. If two signals from the AP
are lost the PCM will allow the
engine to idle only and illuminate
the check engine light.
50
• The three-track pedal is a safety
feature. The three track pedal takes
the place of the Idle Validation
Switch allowing for limited system
failure and still maintaining
performance.
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
105
Baro (Barometric Pressure)
• The BP sensor is a three (3) wire
variable capacitance sensor.
• The PCM supplies a 5 volt
reference signal which the BP
sensor uses to produce a linear
analog voltage signal that indicates
pressure.
• The primary function of the BP
sensor is to provide altitude
information so that the PCM can
adjust timing, fuel quantity, glow
plug on time, and VGT control.
51
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
WIDE SLOT
106
CKP (Crankshaft Position)
• The crankshaft position signal
source is a magnetic pickup sensor
mounted in the right front side of
the engine block.
• The sensor reacts to a target wheel
positioned on the crankshaft. The
target wheel is a 60 minus 2 tooth
steel disk with 58 evenly spaced
teeth and a slot that’s width is
equivalent to removing 2 teeth
(minus 2 slot) that is the SYNC
gap.
• The sensor will produce pulses for
each tooth edge that breaks the
magnetic field created by the
permanent magnet that is in the
52
end of the sensor.
• Crankshaft speed is derived from
the frequency of the CKP sensor
signal.
• Crankshaft position can be
determined by the sycronization of
the CMP peg signal to the CKP
minus 2 slot signal.
• Diagnostic information on the CKP
input signal is obtained by
performing accuracy checks on frequency, and/or duty cycle with software strategies.
• The PCM needs both the CKP and
CMP signal to calculate engine
speed and position. The CKP
creates a signal the relates to
crankshaft speed and position
relative to TDC (Top Dead Center).
The CMP creates a signal relative
to which stroke the piston is
currently on (compression or
exhaust).
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
CAMSHAFT TIMING PIN
107
CMP (Camshaft Position)
• The camshaft position signal source
is a magnetic pickup sensor
mounted on the left front side of the
engine block.
• The sensor reacts to a peg, pressed
into the camshaft at the front of the
engine.
• The peg will pass the sensor once
per camshaft revolution, the sensor
will produce a single pulse
correspondingly.
• Camshaft speed is derived from the
frequency of the CMP sensor
signal.
• Diagnostic information on the CMP
input signal is obtained by
performing accuracy checks on
signal levels, frequency, and/or duty
cycle with software strategies.
PCM to the FICM so that the FICM
can perform fueling calculations.
• The PCM conditions the signal and
sends it out as TACH signal for
body builder use.
• The ECM needs both the CKP and
CMP signal to calculate engine
speed and position. The CMP
creates a signal that the PCM uses
to indicate a particular bank.
• The CMP contains a permanent
magnet which creates a magnetic
field, when the magnetic field is
broken by the peg on the camshaft
a signal is created.
• A conditioned CMPO (Camshaft
Position Output) is sent from the
53
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
108
ECT (Engine Coolant Temp.)
• The ECT sensor is a two (2) wire
thermistor sensor.
• The PCM supplies a 5 volt
reference signal which the ECT
sensor uses to produce an analog
voltage.
• The ECT sensor changes
resistance when exposed to
different temperatures.
• When the temperature of the
coolant decreases, the resistance
of the thermistor increases and the
signal voltage increases.
54
• When the temperature of the
coolant increases, the resistance of
the thermistor decreases and the
signal voltage decreases.
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
109
EGRVP (Exhaust Gas
Recirculation Valve Position)
• The EGRVP sensor is a three (3)
wire potentiometer type sensor.
• The PCM supplies a 5 volt
reference voltage that the EGRVP
uses to produce a linear analog
voltage that indicates the amount of
movement of the valve.
• The PCM monitors EGRP as the
engine is operating to modulate the
EGR valve.
• This is a closed loop function which
means that the PCM continuously
monitors the EGRVP to ensure
proper valve operation.
55
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
110
EOP (Engine Oil Pressure
Switch)
• The EOP (Engine Oil Pressure
Switch) is a switch that closes a
circuit to ground after engine oil
pressure reaches approximately
5-7psi.
• This switch controls the oil pressure
gauge on the instrument panel.
When pressure is above 7psi the
gauge will read normal and if the
pressure drops below 6 psi the
gauge will show 0.
• The information from the switch is
not fed back to the PCM in any way
and is to be used as a reference
only.
56
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
111
EOT (Engine Oil Temperature)
• The EOT sensor is a two (2) wire
thermistor type sensor.
changes in the operating
environment, ensuring adequate
power and torque are available for
all operating conditions.
• The PCM supplies a 5 volt
reference signal which the EOT
sensor uses to produce an analog
voltage that indicates temperature.
• The PCM monitors engine oil
temperature via the EOT sensor
signal to control,EGR, glow plugs,
VGT, and fuel quantity and timing
throughout the operating range of
the engine.
• The EOT signal allows the PCM to
compensate for oil viscosity
variations due to temperature
57
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
112
EP (Exhaust Pressure)
• The EP sensor is a three (3) wire
variable capacitance sensor.
• The PCM supplies a 5 volt
reference signal which the EP
sensor uses to produce a linear
analog voltage that indicates
pressure.
• The EP measures exhaust back
pressure so that the PCM can
control the VGT and EGR system.
58
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
113
IAT1 (Intake Air Temperature
#1)
• The Intake Air Temperature1 (IAT1)
sensor is a two wire thermistor
sensor that is located inside the
Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor
sions.
• The MAF/IAT1 sensor is mounted in
the intake air piping after the air
filter.
• The PCM supplies a 5 volt
reference signal which the IAT1
uses to produce an analog voltage
that indicates the intake air
temperature.
• The IAT1 sensor’s primary function
is to measure intake air
temperature to control the timing
and fuel rate when cold starting.
The continuous monitoring by the
IAT1 sensor limits smoke emis-
59
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
114
IAT2 (Intake Air Temperature
#2)
• The IAT2 sensor is a two (2) wire
thermistor type sensor.
• The IAT2 sensor changes
resistance when exposed to
different air temperature.
• When temperature decreases, the
resistance of the thermistor
increases. This causes the signal
voltage to increase.
• When the temperature increases,
the resistance of the thermistor
decreases. This causes the signal
voltage to decrease.
60
• The primary function of the IAT2
sensor is to provide a feedback
signal to the PCM indicating
manifold air temperature.
• The PCM supplies a 5 volt
reference signal which the IAT2
sensor uses to produce an analog
voltage that indicates temperature.
• The PCM monitors the IAT2 signal
to determine if the temperature is
satisfactory.
• During engine operation, if the PCM
recognizes that the IAT2 signal is
lower or higher than the expected
value it will set a Diagnostic Trouble
Code (DTC) and illuminate the
amber malfunction indicator lamp
on the dash.
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
115
ICP (Injection Control
Pressure)
• The ICP sensor is a three (3) wire
variable capacitance sensor.
• The PCM supplies a 5 volt
reference signal which the ICP
sensor uses to produce a linear
analog voltage that indicates
pressure.
• The primary function of the ICP
sensor is to provide a feedback
signal to the PCM indicating ICP.
• The PCM monitors ICP as the
engine is operating to modulate the
IPR. This is a closed loop function
which means the PCM continuously
monitors and adjusts for ideal ICP
determined by conditions such as
load, speed, and temperature.
• The PCM monitors the ICP signal to
determine if the performance of the
hydraulic system is satisfactory.
• During engine operation, if the PCM
recognizes that the ICP signal is
lower or higher than the value the
IPR is trying to achieve the PCM
will set a Diagnostic Trouble Code
(DTC) and illuminate the amber
malfunction indicator lamp on the
dash.
• The ICP signal from the PCM is one
of the signals the FICM uses to
command the correct injection
timing.
61
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
116
MAF (Mass Air Flow)
• The Mass Air Flow (MAF) sensor
uses a hot wire sensing element to
measure the amount of air entering
the engine. Air passing over the hot
wire causes it to cool. This hot wire
is maintained at 200°C (392°F)
above ambient temperature as
measured by a constant cold wire.
• The current required to maintain the
temperature of the hot wire is
proportional to the air mass flow.
• The MAF sensor then outputs and
analog voltage signal to the PCM
proportional to the air mass.
62
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
117
MAP (Manifold Absolute
Pressure)
• The MAP sensor is a three (3) wire
variable capacitance sensor.
• The PCM uses the MAP sensor
signal to assist in the calculation of
EGR duty cycle.
• The PCM measures the MAP signal
to determine intake manifold (boost)
pressure.
63
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
Actuators
• Actuators convert electrical output from the
PCM to hydraulic, mechanical, or electronic
work.
• The 6.0L Power Stroke uses four (4)
actuators: Injection Pressure Regulator,
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve, Variable
Geometry Turbocharger Control Valve, and
Glow Plug Control module.
Actuators
• Injection Pressure Regulator (IPR)
• Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve (EGR)
• Variable Geometry Turbocharger Control
Valve (VGTCV)
• Glow Plug Control Module (GPCM)
118
IPR (Injection Pressure Regulator)
• The IPR (Injector Pressure Regulator) is a
duty cycle controlled valve that the PCM
uses to control ICP (Injection Control
Pressure).
O-RINGS
• The IPR is a valve that blocks the path to
drain for oil coming out from high pressure
pump. As duty cycle signal increases at the
IPR the restriction to drain increases, thus
increasing ICP.
• When the valve is disconnected it is in its
open or drain state and the engine should
not start.
OIL IN
OIL OUT
• The IPR valve also contains the pressure
relief valve for the high pressure oil system.
119
EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation)
Valve
COOLED EXHAUST
• The EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) valve
is used to mix cooled exhaust gasses with
intake air to lower emissions and noise.
INTAKE AIR
• The EGR valve is duty cycle controlled, the
higher the duty cycle the more the valve
opens.
• When the valve is disconnected it is in its
closed state.
INTAKE AIR
O-RINGS
120
64
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
VGTCV (Variable Geometry
Turbocharger Control Valve)
VGT COIL
CLOSE
OPEN
• The VGTCV (Variable Geometry
Turbocharger Control Valve) is a duty cycle
controlled valve that directs oil flow to the
piston that controls the vanes in the
turbocharger.
• The valve controls pressure to both the open
and close side of the piston.
• If the valve is disconnected the turbocharger
vanes will remain in a open state.
DRAIN TO PAN
OIL SUPPLY
121
Other Electrical Components
Other Electrical Components
• Other electrical system components include
the FICM, PCM, and the glow plug system.
• Fuel Injection Control Module (FICM)
• Powertrain Control Module (PCM)
• Glow Plug System
122
X1 CONNECTOR
X2 CONNECTOR
FICM (Fuel Injection Control Module)
X3 CONNECTOR
• The FICM (Fuel Injection Control Module)
receives Information from the PCM (like
volume of fuel desired, RPM, EOT, ICP and
others) and uses those signals to calculate
injector start of injection and duration.
• After calculating injector fuel delivery time
the IDM sends a 48 volt 20 amp pulse to the
correct injector so that the correct amount of
fuel will be delivered to the cylinder at the
correct time.
123
65
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
PCM (Powertrain Control Module)
• The Powertrain Control Module (PCM),
which is mounted behind the battery on the
drivers side inner fender panel, uses sensor
inputs to control actuators and send fueling
commands to the FICM.
PCM
• The PCM controls the fuel and air
management systems on the 6.0L Power
Stroke.
124
Glow Plug System
• The glow plug system is used to warm the
air in the cylinders to enhance cold weather
startability and reduce start up smoke.
• The glow plug system is PCM controlled.
125
GPCM (Glow Plug Control Module)
• The GPCM (Glow Plug Control Module) is a
unit that controls the glow plugs in order to
warm the air in the cylinders.
GPCM
• The GPCM uses a glow plug enable signal
to turn the glow plugs on for a time
controlled by the PCM.
• The GPCM is capable of diagnosing a
problem with one glow plug and then
sending a diagnostic signal to the PCM.
• It also has the ability to turn off one glow
plug if a short is detected in that circuit.
126
66
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
Glow Plug
• The glow plug is used to heat the air in the
cylinder.
• Inside the plug are two (2) coils (resistance)
connected in series, one to create heat and
one to control heat at its peak.
127
Glow Plug Sleeve
• The glow plug sleeve is used to protect the
glow plug from engine coolant and is made
of stainless steel.
128
Glow Plug Buss Bar
• Each bank of glow plugs is connected to the
wiring harness via a glow plug buss bar.
• The glow plug buss bar has four connectors
attached to a single metal rail.
GLOW PLUG BUSS BAR
• The entire rail must be removed to gain
access to any of the glow plugs on that
bank.
129
67
ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
Glow Plug System Diagnostics
• One way to verify diagnostic data from the
GPCM is to measure the amperage draw
with an inductive amp probe.
INDUCTIVE
AMP METER
• Once the glow plug system has been
commanded on by the PCM (when engine
temperature is warm you may need to trick
the system into a cold condition) for about
40 sec., the glow plug amperage should be
stable. Each glow plug should draw between
10-12 amps.
• When testing the glow plug system, it is best
to measure one bank of glow plugs at a
time. The bank with the lower current draw
would be the bank with the bad glow plug
and/or wiring concerns.
GLOW PLUG
WIRING
130
68
UNIQUE SERVICE PROCEDURES
Oil Filter: Replacement
OIL FILTER LID
• First loosen the oil filter cap which will open
the oil filter drain and allow the oil from the
filter housing to drain into the crankcase.
OIL FILTER ELEMENT
• Drain the oil from the oil pan.
• After all of the oil has drained from the oil
pan remove the oil filter and discard it in the
appropriate location.
• Note: The oil filter snaps into the oil filter
lid.
• Install the new oil filter element and tighten
the oil filter cap to the recommended torque.
This will close the oil filter drain.
131
• Refill crankcase with correct volume of
recommended oil.
Fuel Filter: Replacement
FUEL FILTER LID
• Remove the fuel filter lid and lift the filter
element out of the housing and discard in
the appropriate location.
FUEL FILTER ELEMENT
• To avoid fuel spills, use a suction gun or
simular device to remove the remaining fuel
from the fuel filter housing.
• Install the new filter and tighten the fuel filter
lid to the specified torque.
• Note: Before starting the vehicle, cycle
the key to the on position and let the fuel
pump run a full cycle 3 times to ensure
the fuel filter housing is full of fuel before
starting the vehicle.
132
Injector: Removal
• After removing the valve cover(s),
disconnect the snap to connect fitting for the
high pressure oil line leading to the high
pressure oil rail using tool #303-755.
• Remove the eight (8) high pressure oil rail
bolts that mount the oil rail to the rocker arm
carrier.
TOOL #303-755
• Pull the oil rail straight up to remove it.
• Note: Do not pry against the valve cover
sealing surface to remove the rail.
• Note: Oil will come out of the rail when
the rail is removed.
133
69
UNIQUE SERVICE PROCEDURES
Injector Removal: cont.
• The injector connectors on the 6.0L Power
Stroke are locked into the rocker arm carrier.
• To disconnect the external engine wiring
harness from the injector push in on the
spring loaded metal clip on the harness.
• To remove the injector connector from the
rocker arm carrier use a twelve (12) point
19mm socket. Place the open end of the
socket over the connector and push inward
lightly to disengage the locks and then pull
the connector out of the rocker carrier.
134
Injector Removal: cont.
• To remove the injector loosen the T40 torx
socketed bolt that holds the injector in place
this will also unseat the injector from it’s
bore.
• Note: Do not use air tools to remove the
injector.
• Carefully lift the injector from the bore.
• Note: Do not pry on the injector coils to
remove the injector they may be
damaged and are not replaceable. Also
watch for rocker arm to injector
interference.
INJECTOR
INJECTOR HOLD DOWN
• Note: Make sure that the copper gasket at
the bottom of the injector has not fallen
into the injector bore.
135
Injector O-ring: Replacement
• Once the injector has been removed,
carefully remove the external o-rings.
• Note: Be careful not to scratch the
injector body during removal or the
replacement o-rings may not seal.
• Carefully install new o-rings on the injector
body.
• Note: If the o-ring is cut or nicked during
assembly it will have to be replaced.
• Note: Do not pull on the wires while
working with the injector.
FUEL UPPER
FUEL LOWER
COMBUSTION GAS SEAL
136
70
UNIQUE SERVICE PROCEDURES
Injector O-ring Replacement: cont.
• To install the copper gasket to the injector tip
use a twelve (12) point 9mm deep well
socket so that pressure is applied evenly
around the gasket during installation.
• Note: If the gasket is mis-shaped or
damaged during installation it must be
replaced.
• The internal upper o-ring is not removable. If
the internal o-ring is leaking the entire
injector assembly must be replaced.
9mm DEEP
WELL SOCKET
INTERNAL UPPER O-RING
IS NOT REMOVABLE
137
Injector Installation
LUBRICATE O-RINGS
• Before installing the injector, the o-rings
should be lubricated with clean engine oil.
• Place the injector into the bore with the
injector hold down on the injector.
• Note: Make sure that the copper washer
does not fall off the tip of the injector
during installation, engine damage could
result if the gasket is not in place.
FUEL INLET
• Using the hold down bolt to seat the injector
in the bore, slowly tighten the bolt to the
specified torque.
• Note: Again do not use air/electric tools
to install injectors.
138
Injector Installation: cont.
• Before installing the high pressure oil rail to
the rocker carrier, lubricate the internal
o-ring that the oil rail jumper tube contacts.
LUBRICATE O-RINGS
• Place the oil rail over the injectors and seat it
by hand. The oil rail should then be
tightened as specified.
• Note: Anytime injectors are changed Ford
lubricity additive should be added to the
fuel filter and fuel tank.
139
71
UNIQUE SERVICE PROCEDURES
Cylinder Head - Rocker Carrier:
Removal
• Before removing the rocker arm carrier the
glow plug and injector connectors must be
removed from the carrier.
HEAD BOLTS
• The rocker arm carrier is held in place with
the cylinder head bolts.
• There are also five (5) small bolts that hold
the cylinder head in place.
• Note: If one or more of the cylinder head
bolts are removed (required for rocker
arm carrier replacement) then the
cylinder head gasket and all cylinder
head bolts must be replaced.
• When reinstalling the carrier be sure to
realign the rocker fulcrums as shown below.
HEAD BOLTS
140
Rocker Arms / Bridges
• The rocker arms must be installed in their
original position during reassembly.
INTAKE ROCKER
EXHAUST ROCKER
• The valve bridges that connect the two (2)
mating valves must be installed in their
original position and orientation during
reassembly.
• Note: If the rocker arms and/or valve
bridges are not correctly installed,
premature valve train wear may result.
VALVE BRIDGE
Note: If the rocker arms and/or valve bridges are not correctly
installed, premature valve train wear may result.
141
Cylinder Head - Rocker Fulcrums
• To remove the rocker arm fulcrums first
remove the corresponding head bolt and
then the small fulcrum retaining bolt.
• Note: If one or more of the cylinder head
bolts are removed (required for rocker
arm carrier replacement) then the
cylinder head gasket and all cylinder
head bolts must be replaced.
DOWEL
ROCKER FULCRUM
• When reinstalling the fulcrums make sure
the alignment dowel is in place and not
damaged to insure that the fulcrum is
properly aligned for correct valve train
geometry.
• First install the small fulcrum bolt, then the
head bolt and torque to specifications.
72
142
UNIQUE SERVICE PROCEDURES
Glow Plug / Injector Sleeve: Removal
• Place the tap (part of tool #303-764) into the
glow plug sleeve and cut threads into the
sleeve.
• Remove the tap and insert the puller (part of
tool #303-764) into the glow plug sleeve.
• Turn the puller clockwise until the sleeve is
removed.
• Injector sleeve removal is simular to glow
plug sleeve removal except that
tool #303-768 is used.
143
Glow Plug / Injector Sleeve:
Installation
• Instructions for injector and glow plug
sleeves are similar so the instructions are
combined.
• First clean out any sealant from the bore
before installing a new sleeve.
• Apply sealant (Loctite #620 green in color) to
the two (2) locations that the sleeve contacts
the cylinder head.
• Note: Refer to service manual for proper
location of sealant application.
144
• Use the special tool (tool #303-767 for
injector sleeve or tool #303-763 for glow
plug sleeve) to drive the sleeve into its bore.
EGR Valve: Removal
• To remove the EGR valve, remove the two
mounting screws from the intake manifold.
TOOL #303-760
• Rotate the valve so that the mounting tabs
on the valve align with the EGR valve puller
(tool #303-760).
• Position the other two (2) legs of the puller
on the bolt bosses of the intake manifold
and turn the forcing screw clockwise.
• When reinstalling the valve check the o-rings
for cuts and nicks.
145
73
UNIQUE SERVICE PROCEDURES
EGR Cooler: Removal & Installation
• Before removing the EGR cooler you must
first drain the coolant from the cooling
system.
EGR COOLER HOSE
• To disconnect the hose that supplies coolant
to the EGR cooler, rotate it and pull till the
tabs release.
• Both the inlet and outlet for exhaust gasses
are sealed with metal gaskets.
• The coolant connections are sealed with
o-rings.
146
Turbocharger Oil Supply: Removal
• Use tool #303-755 to remove the oil feed to
the turbocharger that is connected to the oil
filter base.
TOOL #303-755
• The connection at the turbocharger is a
bolted flange and is sealed with a gasket.
COMPRESSOR OUTLET
OIL SUPPLY TUBE
147
Crankcase Ventilation: Removal / Oil
Carryover
COMPRESSOR
INLET HOSE
• To disconnect the crankcase ventilation tube
from the engine, remove the air inlet tube
from the compressor inlet and rotate the
vent counter clockwise until it releases.
• Note: Since the 6.0L POWER STROKE
uses a closed crankcase ventilation
system, it is normal to see oil carry over
in the intake air system.
CRANKCASE BREATHER HOSE
148
74
UNIQUE SERVICE PROCEDURES
TURBO MOUNTING
PEDESTAL
TURBO OIL DRAIN
TUBE
Turbocharger Oil Drain Tube:
Removal
• The turbocharger oil drain is located under
the turbocharger and is sealed with o-rings.
• To remove the drain tube pull it forward, out
of the high pressure pump cover.
149
Intake Manifold
INTAKE PORTS
• When reinstalling the intake manifold, the
locating tabs on the intake manifold gasket
should face up and toward the center of the
engine.
• There is a port on the intake manifold for
cooling system deaeration that returns to the
coolant reservoir.
GASKET LOCATING TAB
150
IPR Valve: Removal
• To remove the IPR valve use the IPR socket
tool #303-769 and turn counterclockwise.
TOOL #303 769
• Note: The connector for the IPR might hit
the cylinder head. If this occurs the coil
body can be repositioned on the valve.
151
75
UNIQUE SERVICE PROCEDURES
High Pressure Pump Cover: Removal
• After removing the bolts that hold the high
pressure pump cover to the crankcase, pull
the cover straight up to disengage it from
the high pressure pump discharge tube.
• When reinstalling the cover, be sure to
lubricate the discharge tube o-ring before
installing the cover.
HIGH PRESSURE
PUMP COVER
DISCHARGE TUBE
O-RING
152
Front Cover: Removal
• The point were the crankcase and main
bearing carrier meet, is sealed to the front
cover gasket with a dab of RTV sealant that
must be cut to remove the front cover
gasket.
CUT AT THESE TWO PLACES
153
Front Cover: Dowel Locations
• The front cover is located to the crankcase
with dowels.
• Note: If the dowels are missing or
damaged the front cover could be
misaligned and damage to the cover or
oil pump could result.
DOWELS
154
76
UNIQUE SERVICE PROCEDURES
Front Cover: Gerotor Oil Pump
• The lube oil pump is located to the front
cover by dowels and sealed with a push in
place gasket.
PRESS IN PLACE GASKET
DOWELS
155
Front Cover: Sealant Application
• When installing the front cover the joint
between the crankcase and main bearing
carrier needs a dab of RTV sealer applied.
• Note: If too much sealant is applied it
could get into the lube oil system.
SEALANT LOCATIONS
BLOCK
BED PLATE
UPPER PAN
LOWER PAN
156
Glow Plug / Buss Bar: Removal
• In order to access the glow plugs, the glow
plug buss bar must be removed.
GLOW PLUG BUSS BAR
• To remove the glow plug buss bar pull out on
the bar evenly.
• After the buss bar has been removed, the
glow plugs can be accessed through the
rocker carrier.
CONNECTOR O-RINGS
• To reinstall the buss bar push evenly on the
bar to seat the o-rings on each connection.
• Note: Do not hit the buss bar with a
hammer, damage may occur.
CONNECTOR PASS THROUGH HOLES
157
77
UNIQUE SERVICE PROCEDURES
Crankshaft Rear Seal Dust Cover
• There is a metal plate pressed onto the
primary flange of the crankshaft.
DUST SHIELD
• This plate acts as a dust shield for the rear
seal and the mounting surface for the
flexplate/flywheel.
• The plate must be removed before the rear
cover can be removed.
• It can be removed with a common “finger
type” gear puller.
158
Crankshaft Primary Flange
• The crankshaft primary flange is bolted to
the rear of the crankshaft and it provides the
sealing surface for the rear seal.
PRIMARY FLANGE
• The flange is machined after being bolted to
the crankshaft.
• Note: Do not remove the six bolts in the
primary flange. If the bolts are removed
the crankshaft will have to be replaced or
repeated seal damage will occur.
DO NOT REMOVE
THESE BOLTS
159
78
GENERAL DIAGNOSTICS
Air in Fuel
• Air in the fuel supply system can cause
rough run, white smoke and low power.
• To check for air in the fuel system, remove
the return line (to tank from fuel pump
module) from the fuel pump module.
• Install a 1/4” ID hose to the fuel pump
module and place the other end of the hose
into a diesel fuel safe container.
• Turn the ignition to the on position. The fuel
pump will run for approx. 20 sec.. Continue
to cycle the key to the on position until fuel
flows from the attached hose.
160
• Start the engine, run at WOT, and observe
the returning fuel for air.
• If air is present, the fuel will appear white,
foamy, or non-transparent. If no or very little
air is present in the fuel, the fuel exiting the
return hose will appear clear/transparent.
• Were to look?
a) Fuel pick up in the fuel tank.
b) Fuel supply line entering the fuel
pump module from the fuel tank.
c) Fuel return line entering the fuel pump
module from the engine.
d) Combustion leaks past the copper
washer on the injector.
High Boost/High EP at WOT no Load
•
VGTCV DISCONNECTED
If high boost (consistently over 14 psi MGP)
and high exhaust pressure (constantly over
23 psi EP) is present at WOT no load, the
VGT or VGT control valve may be at fault.
• To verify that the VGT is not being
commanded to a closed position, disconnect
the wiring at the VGT control valve and run
the engine at WOT.
• If the readings do not return to normal then
the VGT or VGT control valve are at fault.
161
79
GENERAL DIAGNOSTICS
ICP Pressure Low During Crank
• If you have no (0 psi) ICP pressure during
crank it could be the result of: major high
pressure oil leak, lack of oil supply to the
high pressure pump, bad high pressure
pump, or the gear on the high pressure
pump is loose. Use PC/ED ICP diagnostics
to determine root cause.
IPR
• If ICP during crank is between 200-300 psi
and does not change as IPR duty cycle
increases, the IPR valve may not be
receiving V-power or a ground signal from
the PCM. If V-power and PCM signal are
present then the IPR may be at fault. Use
PC/ED IPR Diagnostics to determine root
cause.
162
Power or Ground Issues
• When diagnosing a power or ground issue
be aware that there is a 12 way connector
that feeds power and/or ground to the
following components.
12 WAY CONNECTOR
• FICM
• IPR
• EGR
• The 12 way connector is located in the rear
left hand corner of the engine compartment.
163
Injector I/O Test
• There is now a new test incorporated into
the WDS.
• This test allows the technician to disable one
injector at a time and monitor pids to identify
weak injectors.
• While disabling injectors watch the Mfdes
pid. The injector(s) that have the least effect
on Mfdes while being disabled could be the
weak injector.
164
80
GENERAL DIAGNOSTICS
Cylinder Balance Test
• The cylinder balance test is now available for
the 6.0L Power Stroke.
#5 INJECTOR OFF
• The cylinder balance test measures the
increase of engine RPM during each firing
cycle. It then compares the RPM of all
cylinders to determine a weak cylinder.
• Further testing should be done to verify the
weak cylinder (Relative compression,
Injector disable, actual compression, etc.).
ALL INJECTORS ON
165
Relative Compression Test
#5 GLOW PLUG
REMOVED
GOOD ENGINE
• The relative compression test is now
available for the 6.0L Power Stroke.
• The relative compression test measures
engine RPM during each compression
stroke while cranking the engine. It then
compares the RPM of all of the cylinders to
determine if there is a cylinder that is
weaker than the rest.
• Once a cylinder is determined to be weak a
manual compression test should be run on
that cylinder and a good cylinder to verify
results.
166
Oil Aeration Test
• If oil aeration is suspected, install a valve
and hose into the oil system at either the
EOT or EOP sensor.
• Note: All materials being used should be
rated above 300 psi and 300°F.
NON AERATED OIL
• Run the engine until the oil is at a normal
operating temperature.
• Run the engine at high idle for approximately
one minute and then return to idle.
AERATED OIL
• With engine at idle open the valve and drain
a sample of oil into a clear container and
observe for air or foam in the oil.
167
• Caution: Oil will be hot and under
pressure.
81
GENERAL DIAGNOSTICS
Crankcase Pressure Test
• A new crankcase pressure orifice tool has
been developed for the 6.0L Power Stroke.
• The new tool has a smaller orifice in the top
so that more accurate readings could be
taken with the 0-60” gauge on the gauge
bar.
• When using the new tool on the 6.0L Power
Stroke the maximum reading for a good
engine is 8” of water.
168
Injector Buzz/No Buzz
• Every time the key is cycled to the on
position, the injectors should buzz.
• If no buzz is heard one of the following
conditions may be present:
a) No power or ground to the FICM or
PCM.
b) No CAN communication between the
FICM and the PCM.
c) V-ref shorted to ground.
d) Bad PCM or FICM.
e) All injectors bad or wiring to all
injectors bad (not likely).
• If the injectors do buzz and all conditions are
met for the engine to run but the injectors do
not fire during crank, check the FICM logic
power feed to the FICM.
• To check powers and grounds to the FICM
you can bring up the following pids on the
WDS:
FICMVPWR (FICM Vehicle Power battery
voltage)
FICMMPWR (FICM Main Power or output
voltage approximately 48 volts)
FICMLPWR (FICM Logic Power battery
voltage)
82
FICM LOGIC FUSE
169
APPENDIX
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Torque Charts
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Hard Start/No Start Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
Performance Diagnostics
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Wiring Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Diagnostic Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
Glossary
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
83
SPECIAL TORQUE CHART
COMPONENT
STANDARD
Air inlet duct clamp ........................................................44 lbf/in
C a m s h a ft f o l l o w e r r e ta i n i n g d e v i c e b o l t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 l b f / ft
C a m s h a ft p o s i t i o n ( C M P ) s e n s o r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6 l b f / i n
C a m s h a ft t h r u s t p l a t e m o u n t i n g b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 l b f / ft
C o n n e c t i n g r o d b o l t ( I n i t i a l ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 l b f / ft
( F i n a l ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 0 l b f / ft
C o o l a n t ( b l o c k ) h e a t e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 0 l b f / ft
C r a n k c a s e b r e a t h e r n u ts ( u n d e r v a l v e c o v e r ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 l b f / i n
C r a n k c a s e P l u g ( M 1 6 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 l b f / ft
C r a n k s h a ft p o s i t i o n ( C K P ) s e n s o r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6 l b f / i n
C y l i n d e r h e a d b o l ts ( s e e f i g u r e A ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f i g u r e A
EGR cooler coolant supply port cover (on oil filter base)
(M6) ..........................................................89 lbf/in
E G R c o o l e r V- b a n d c l a m p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 l b f / i n
E G R c o o l e r f l a n g e ( s t u d s ) ( s e e n o t e 1 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 l b f / ft
E G R c o o l e r s u p p o r t ( s e e n o t e 1 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 l b f / ft
E G R v a l v e m o u n t i n g b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 l b f / ft
Engine coolant temperature sensor (ECT) ........................106 lbf/in
Engine oil pressure switch (EOP) ....................................106 lbf/in
E x h a u s t m a n i f o l d f l a n g e ( t o u p p i p e ) ( s e e n o t e 2 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 l b f / ft
E x h a u s t m a n i f o l d ( s e e n o t e 2 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8 l b f / ft
Exhaust pressure (EP) sensor bracket ............................106 lbf/in
Exhaust pressure (EP) sensor ..........................................106 lbf/in
E x h a u s t p r e s s u r e ( E P ) t u b e n u ts ( s e e n o t e 2 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 l b f / ft
E x h a u s t u p p i p e t o E G R c o o l e r ( v - b a n d ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 l b f / ft
E x h a u s t u p p i p e c o u p l i n g o n r i g h t s i d e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 l b f / ft
F l y w h e e l b o l ts ( s e e f i g u r e B ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 9 l b f / ft
F r o n t c o v e r m o d u l e b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 l b f / ft
F u e l c h e c k v a l v e ( b a n j o b o l t ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8 l b f / ft
F u e l f i l t e r s u p p l y a n d r e t u r n l i n e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2 l b f / ft
F u e l f i l t e r s u p p l y t o h e a d l i n e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 l b f / ft
F u e l i n j e c t o r h o l d d o w n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 l b f / ft
F u e l r a i l p l u g ( r e a r o f h e a d ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 l b f / ft
Glow plug
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 l b f / ft
Glow plug control module (GPCM) ..................................71 lbf/in
H e a t s h i e l d f o r i n ta k e m a n i f o l d ( M 6 n u t ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6 l b f / i n
H e a t s h i e l d b o l ts f o r r e a r ( M 6 t h r e a d f o r m i n g ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6 l b f / i n
( M 1 0 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 6 l b f / ft
H i g h p r e s s u r e d i s c h a r g e t u b e m o u n t i n g b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1 l b f / i n
H i g h p r e s s u r e s ta n d p i p e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 l b f / ft
H i g h p r e s s u r e o i l r a i l c h e c k v a l v e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5 l b f / ft
H i g h p r e s s u r e o i l r a i l p l u g ( M 1 4 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 l b f / ft
(M8) ......................................96 lbf/in
High pressure oil rail bolt (see figure C) ..........................96 lbf/in
H i g h p r e s s u r e p u m p c o v e r b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6 l b f / i n
H i g h p r e s s u r e p u m p c o v e r p l u g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 l b f / ft
H i g h p r e s s u r e p u m p d r i v e g e a r b o l t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5 l b f / ft
H i g h p r e s s u r e p u m p m o u n t i n g b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 l b f / ft
Injection control pressure (ICP) sensor ............................106 lbf/in
I n j e c t i o n p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r ( I P R ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 7 l b f / ft
I n ta k e a i r t e m p e r a t u r e 2 ( I AT 2 ) s e n s o r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 l b f / ft
I n ta k e m a n i f o l d ( s e e f i g u r e D ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6 l b f / i n
L i ft i n g e y e b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 0 l b f / ft
L o w e r c r a n k c a s e m a i n b o l ts ( s e e f i g u r e E ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f i g u r e A
84
METRIC
5 Nm
13 Nm
11 N m
31 Nm
45 Nm
68 Nm
41 Nm
7 Nm
20 Nm
11 N m
figure A
10 Nm
6 Nm
13 Nm
31 Nm
13 Nm
12 Nm
12 Nm
27 Nm
38 Nm
12 Nm
12 Nm
30 Nm
27 Nm
27 Nm
94 Nm
24 Nm
38 Nm
43 Nm
26 Nm
33 Nm
27 Nm
19 Nm
8 Nm
11 N m
11 N m
49 Nm
8 Nm
45 Nm
34 Nm
45 Nm
11 N m
11 N m
11 N m
35 Nm
129 Nm
24 Nm
12 Nm
50 Nm
17 Nm
11 N m
41 Nm
figure A
SPECIAL TORQUE CHART
COMPONENT
STANDARD
METRIC
L o w e r c r a n k c a s e o u t e r b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 l b f / i n
24 Nm
O i l c o o l e r m o u n t i n g b o l ts ( M 8 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 6 l b f / ft
22 Nm
(M6) ........................................89 lbf/in
10 Nm
O i l f i l t e r c a p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 l b f / ft
24 Nm
O i l f i l t e r h o u s i n g b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 l b f / ft
15 Nm
O i l f i l t e r s ta n d p i p e b o l t ( n e w ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 l b f / i n
6 Nm
( r e i n s ta l l a t i o n ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 l b f / i n
3 Nm
O i l pa n d r a i n p l u g ( s e e n o t e 3 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 l b f / ft
25 Nm
O i l p i c k u p t u b e f l a n g e b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 l b f / ft
24 Nm
O i l p u m p h o u s i n g b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 l b f / i n
8 Nm
O i l p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r p l u g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 - 2 1 l b f / ft
26-29 Nm
P i s t o n c o o l i n g j e t ( s e e n o t e 4 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 l b f / ft
13 Nm
R o c k e r a r m f u l c r u m b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 l b f / ft
31 Nm
Wa t e r p u m p b o l ts ( M 8 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 l b f / ft
23 Nm
Wa t e r p u m p p l u g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 - 2 8 l b f / ft
35-38 Nm
Wa t e r p u m p p u l l e y b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 l b f / ft
31 Nm
T h e r m o s ta t h o u s i n g b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 l b f / ft
23 Nm
Tu r b o e x h a u s t a d a p t e r v - b a n d c l a m p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 0 l b f / i n
9 Nm
Tu r b o o i l s u p p l y b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 l b f / ft
24 Nm
Tu r b o o i l s u p p l y s n a p t o c o n n e c t f i t t i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 1 3 l b f / ft
11 - 1 8 N m
Tu r b o t o m o u n t i n g b r a c k e t b o l ts ( s e e n o t e 2 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8 l b f / ft
38 Nm
Tu r b o b r a c k e t t o c r a n k c a s e m o u n t i n g b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 l b f / ft
31 Nm
Va l v e c o v e r b o l ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1 l b f / i n
8 Nm
Vi b r a t i o n d a m p e r ( s e e n o t e 5 ) ( i n i t i a l ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 0 l b f / ft
68 Nm
( F i n a l ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a d d i t i o n a l 9 0 d e g r e e s r o ta t i o n
Thread
Diameter
M6 x 1
M8 x 1.25
M10 x 1.5
M12 x 1.75
M16 x 2
S TA N D A R D TO R Q U E C H A R T
Hex Flange Head
To r q u e
To r q u e
Wr e n c h
l b f / ft
Nm
Size (mm)
8
11
8
18
24
10
36
49
13
61
83
15
154
208
21
M6 x 1
M8 x 1.25
M10 x 1.5
M12 x 1.75
M16 x 2
6
15
30
51
128
1/8”
1/4”
3/8”
1/2”
3/4”
7
10
15
25
30
NPT
NPT
NPT
NPT
NPT
Hex Head
8
20
40
69
173
Pipe Thread
10.2
13.6
20.4
34.0
40.8
10
13
16
18
24
Special Torque Chart Notes
• 1) Tighten 2 M6 studs in front EGR cooler flange
first then install M8 EGR cooler support bolt.
• 2) Apply High Temperature Nickel Anti-Seize
Lubricant (F6AZ-9L494-AA) to threads of bolts
prior to assembly.
• 3) Lightly coat o-ring with engine oil before
installing.
• 4) Apply Threadlock 262 to bolt threads prior to
assembly
• 5) Tighten bolts across center of crankshaft.
Always use new bolts in vibration damper!
• All Figures on next page.
85
SPECIAL TORQUE CHART
15
Intake Side
11
13
12
14
9
5
1
3
7
10
6
2
4
8
Exhaust Side
Figure A
Cylinder Head Bolts
• Step 1: Torque the M14 (1-10) cylinder head bolts to 65 lbf/ft (88 Nm) in the numerical sequence shown.
• Step 2: Torque the M14 cylinder head bolts 1, 3, 5, 7, & 9 to 85 lbf/ft (115 Nm) in the numerical sequence shown.
• Step 3: Tighten the M14 cylinder head bolts an additional 90o clockwise in the numerical sequence shown.
• Step 4: Tighten the M14 cylinder head bolts an additional 90o clockwise in the numerical sequence shown.
• Step 5: Tighten the M14 cylinder head bolts an additional 90o clockwise in the numerical sequence shown.
• Step 6: Torque the M8 (11-15) cylinder head bolts to 18 lbf/ft (24 Nm) in the numerical sequence shown.
• Final Step: Torque the M8 cylinder head bolts to 24 lbf/ft (32 Nm) in the numerical sequence shown.
• Note: Always use new head bolts.
1
7
5
3
9
10
4
6
8
2
Figure B
Flywheel Bolts
• Step 1: Torque the bolts to 1-5 lbf/ft (1.4-7 Nm) in the numerical sequence shown above.
• Final step: Torque the bolts to 69 lbf/ft (94 Nm) in the numerical sequence shown above.
86
SPECIAL TORQUE CHART
2
1
4
6
3
5
7
8
High Pressure Oil Rail Bolts
• Step 1: Install bolts 1, 2 and 3 finger tight.
Figure C
• Step 2: Press rail down until seated.
8
7
6
4
2
1
3
5
• Final step: Install remaining bolts and torque to 96 lbf/in (11 Nm) in sequence shown above.
9
11
13
15
12
Figure D
Bottom View
15 16
14 13
8
5
6
7
2
1
3
9 10
12 11
4
17 18
20 19
• Final step: Torque all bolts to 8 lbf/ft (11 Nm) in the numerical sequence shown.
Front of Engine
14
16
• Step 2: Torque bolts 9 though 16 to 8 lbf/ft (11 Nm).
10
Intake Manifold Bolts
• Step 1: Install bolts 1 through 8 finger tight.
Figure E
Main Bearing Bolts
• Step 1: Torque the bolts to 110 lbf/ft (149 Nm) in the numerical sequence shown.
• Step 2: Torque the bolts to 130 lbf/ft (176 Nm) in the numerical sequence shown.
• Final step: Torque the bolts to 170 lbf/ft (231 Nm) in the numerical sequence shown.
87
H A R D S TA R T / N O S TA R T D I A G N O S T I C S
-NOTEIF CONCERN IS FOUND, SERVICE AS
REQUIRED. IF THIS CORRECTS THE
CONDITION, IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO
COMPLETE THE REMAINDER OF THE
DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE.
F-Series/Excursion Powerstroke 2003.25
6.0L Power Stroke Diesel Engine Diagnostic Guide
CUSTOMER NAME
MODEL YEAR
VEHICLE SERIAL N0.(VIN)
CHASSIS STYLE
Customer Concerns (Please list in this box)
DEALER NAME
P&A
CODE
1863 CLAIM NUMBER
ENGINE SERIAL NUMBER
VEHICLE GVW
ODOMETER
TRANSMISSION
NOTE: A hard start/ No start concern with EOT
Temp. below 60F perform step 10 first.
7. Perform KOEO On-Demand Self Test
• Use the scan tool.
• DTC's retrieved during this test are historical faults.
Diagnostic
9. KOEO Injector Electrical Self Test (Click Test)
• Correct Grade/Viscosity.
• Use scan tool. Injector DTC's will be displayed at test end.
• Miles/Hours on oil ,correct level.
• All injectors will momentarily click, then each injector will
»
• Inspect exhaust system.
• Scan tool may reset below 9.5 volts.
• Select the parameters indicated from the scan tool
Check
parameter list and monitor while cranking engine.
Parameter
Spec.
Measurement
V PWR
4. Sufficient Clean Fuel
• Check if the WATER IN FUEL lamp has been
glow plug "on" time .
• Turn key to run position, measure voltage ("on"time)
(Dependent on oil temperature and altitude)
Relay on time
Spec.
Measurement
1 to 120
B+
illuminated.
sample from fuel control module.
• Measure each Glow Plug resistance to Bat. ground.
• Measure engine harness resistance to GPCM
Glow
Glow Plug
Harness to
Plug
Number
to Ground
.1 to 2 ohms
GPCM connector
0 to 1 ohms
RPM
ICP volts
100 RPM
minimum
3.5 mPa min.
(500 PSI)
.80 V min.
#1
#3
#5
#7
#2
FUEL PW
FICMSYNC
500 uS - 2 mS
Yes/No
#4
#6
ICP
Check
Glow Plug Resistance
• Disconnect the 4-pin connector at front of valve cover
8 volt min.
• Cetane rating between 40-50 is recommended for
optimum start.
seconds
Wait to Start Lamp "on" time is independent from g/p "on" time
FICMLPWR
FICMVPWR
• After verifying that there is fuel in the tank, drain a
Method
Visual
• Using the scan tool GPCTM and EOT pids, verify
If self test codes are retrieved, go to appropriate PPT test.
• Check if air filter minder indicator has been illuminated
Method
Visual
comes on between 1 and 120 sec., and does not come
on at all if oil temp is above 131 F.
• Using a scan tool , check Continuous and KOEO DTC's.
If codes are present go to Pinpoint Test AF.
click in sequence 1-8. Sequence repeats three times.
Injector
Trouble Codes
10. Scan Tool - Data List Monitoring
• Inspect air filter and inlet ducts.
GPCM Operation
• Verify B+ voltage is being supplied to GPCM.
Trouble Codes
3. Intake/Exhaust Restriction
11. Glow Plug System Operation
and altitude. The Glow Plug Control Module (GPCM)
Trouble Codes
Check
A - V PWR - If low voltage condition is present, check battery,
5. Electric Fuel Pump Pressure
• Verify that the fuel pump has voltage and gnd. At key on.
COMMERCIAL
• Glow Plug ON time is dependent on oil temperature
8. Retrieve Continuous Trouble Codes
2. Check Engine Oil Level
Method
Visual
PERSONAL
• Use scan tool. DTC's set during this test are current faults
1. Visual Engine/Chassis Inspection
• Check for contaminants (fuel, coolant).
TYPE OF SERVICE
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
Diagnostic
Fuel Oil Coolant Electrical Hoses Leaks
Method
Check
Visual
DATE
#8
charging system, or power/gnd circuits to the PCM.
B - FICMLPWR - No/low voltage indicated could be caused
140
120
port with a (0-160 PSI) gauge at key on.
Fuel pump runs for 20 sec. at key on and pressure
falls after key off.
Instrument
Spec.
Measurement
0-160 PSI
45 PSI min.
by 12-way connector issue or logic power fuse.
Refer to Pinpoint S for detailed 12-way conn. diagnostics
C - FICMVPWR - No or low voltage indicated could be caused
by 12-way connector issues.
D - RPM - Low RPM can be caused by starting/charging
system issues. No RPM indicated while cranking could be
Gauge
CMP or CKP faults.
If pressure fails low go to next step to verify no restriction
E - ICP - A minimum of 500 PSI (3.5 mPa) is required for
6. Electric Fuel Pump Inlet Restriction
the injectors to be enabled. No or low oil in the system,
system leakage, injector O-Rings, faulty IPR, or high
• Measure restriction at fuel pump inlet.
Instrument
Spec.
0-30 " Hg
vacuum
6" Hg MAX
Measurement
»
If > 6" Hg restriction, check lines between pump and fuel tank.
»
If < 6" Hg, inspect both fuel filters. If filters are OK, check fuel
regulator. If regulator and filters are OK, replace fuel pump.
pressure pump could cause low pressure.
IPR duty cycle defaults to 14 % (300 PSI) w/o CKP signal.
F - ICP V - Voltage reading below spec indicates low ICP
during crank.
G - FUEL PW - Pulse width defaults to 0 w/o CKP signal
H - FICMSYNC- No sync could be caused CMP or CKP faults.
»
88
Refer to PC/ED section 4 for detailed test procedures.
Time (seconds)
• Measure fuel pressure at engine fuel filter housing test
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
20
40
60
80
EOT (°F)
100
120
• Add 5 seconds to glow plug on time when above
7000 feet in altitude, but not to exceed 120 seconds.
140
PERFORMANCE DIAGNOSTICS
-NOTEIF CONCERN IS FOUND, SERVICE AS
REQUIRED. IF THIS CORRECTS THE
CONDITION, IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO
COMPLETE THE REMAINDER OF THE
DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE.
F-Series/Excursion Powerstroke 2003.25
6.0L Power Stroke Diesel Engine Diagnostic Guide
CUSTOMER NAME
MODEL YEAR
VEHICLE SERIAL N0.(VIN)
CHASSIS STYLE
Customer Concerns (Please list in this box)
DEALER NAME
P&A
CODE
1863 CLAIM NUMBER
ENGINE SERIAL NUMBER
VEHICLE GVW
ODOMETER
TRANSMISSION
1. Visual Engine/Chassis Inspection
DATE
TYPE OF SERVICE
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
PERSONAL
8. EGR Position
COMMERCIAL
12a. Low Idle Stability (ICP Pressure)
• Verify that there are no fluid or pressure leaks.
• Perform with key on, engine off.
• Check at low idle, EOT above 70° C (170° F)
• Inspect all wire connections for damage.
• Use scan tool to command Output State Control for EGR.
• Monitor ICP and RPM with scan tool.
• Inspect MAP hose,intercooler hose,and manifolds for leaks.
• Monitor EGR position sensor PID and calculate travel..
Fuel Oil Coolant Electrical Hoses Leaks
Method
Check
Visual
Instrument
Scan tool
Spec. Percent
0% (0.6-1.2 V)
Closed
Actual Percent
Parameter
Spec. @ 670 RPM
ICP
4.5-5.5 Mpa + .3MPa
Measurement
(650-800 PSI + 45 PSI)
_______ Closed
Take reading before disconnecting ICP
If engine RPM is unstable, disconnect ICP sensor (ICP will default).
2. Sufficient Clean Fuel
90 % - 100%
• Check if WATER IN FUEL indicator has been illuminated.
(4.0-4.52 V)
• Drain sample from fuel control module housing.
_______ Open
»
If RPM is still unstable, re-connect sensor and go to 12b.
»
If RPM smoothes out, the ICP sensor is at fault.
12b. Injection Pressure Regulator Test
Open
• Cetane rating between 40-50 is recommended for
• Check at low idle, EOT above 70° C (170° F)
optimum performance
90 % and 3.2 V
Travel
Method
Check
»
_______ Travel
• Visually inspect exhaust system for damage
3. Check Engine Oil Level
at 70° C (170° F)minimum at 3,800 RPM in park/neutral.
Parameter
Spec.
Measurement
EP
234 kPa (34 PSI)
• Correct Grade/Viscosity.
• Miles/hours on oil, correct level.
Check
If duty cycle is below MAX spec go to next step.
If duty cycle is above MAX spec, check for system leak with
procedure in Hard Start/No Start section. Test 10c.
13. Boost Pressure Test
• Carefully inspect intercooler tubes/connections, turbocharger
connections, and MAP hose for signs of damage or leaks.
• Perform boost test at 3300 RPM.
10a. Electric Fuel Pump Pressure
• Monitor MGP and RPM with scan tool.
• Measure fuel pressure at engine filter housing test port.
4. Perform KOEO On Demand Test
Instrument
• DTCs set during this test are current faults.
0-1.1 Mpa
Diagnostic
Trouble Codes
(0-160 PSI)
Spec.
310-379 kPa
(45-55 PSI) min.
speed and full load on engine climbing hill or loaded truck..
Measurement
Parameter
MGP
Gauge
5. Retrieve Continuous DTC's
• Use the scan tool.
»
If fuel pressure fails low, Go to step10b.
»
If pressure is above spec, check fuel return lines for restriction.
• DTCs retrieved during this test are historical faults.
»
If no restriction is present, replace fuel pressure regulator valve.
6. KOEO Injector Electrical Self-Test
Instrument
0-30 " Hg
vacuum
• Use the scan tool.
• All injectors will momentarily click, then individual
injectors will click in sequence 1 though 8.
Injector
Trouble Codes
Spec.
6" Hg MAX
• Block breather tube on left valve cover.
• Measure at WOT with no load at 3,000 RPM.
If > 6" Hg restriction, check lines between pump and fuel tank.
»
If < 6" Hg, inspect both fuel filters. If filters are OK, check fuel
10c. Fuel Aeration Test
Instrument
Magnehelic/
Spec.
Filter Minder
2"-25" H²0
Method
Check
• Take oil sample from the Oil Pressure Switch port at idle.
• Inspect sample for presence of air bubbles.
Check
Method
Visual
»
Measurement
• Run engine at 3000 RPM for 1 minute.
• Run at WOT for 2 min. Return fuel should be free of bubbles.
at WOT with magnehelic gauge.
8" H²0 MAX
15. Oil Aeration Test
Refer to shop manual for approved procedure.
• Measure vacuum on clean side of air inlet system
Spec.
(0-60" H²0)
Magnehelic
• Install clear hose on fuel return line at fuel control module.
• Check filter minder switch/indicator.
Instrument
If more than 8 " H²0, refer to base engine in Shop Manual
regulator. If regulator and filters are OK, replace fuel pump.
If self test codes are retrieved, go to appropriate PPT.
If test fails low, inspect turbo blades for damage.
p/n 303-758, with engine at 70° C (170° F) minimum.
Measurement
»
7. Intake Restriction
Measurement
• Measure at oil fill tube with 6.0L Crankcase Pressure Tester
• Measure restriction at fuel pump inlet.
Trouble Codes
3300 RPM
Spec. PSI G
22 PSIG MIN
14. Crankcase Pressure Test
10b. Electric Fuel Pump Inlet Restriction
Diagnostic
»
• Road Test - select appropriate gear to obtain desired engine
• Road Test- engine at full load condition
• Use the scan tool.
Measurement
30 % MAX
»
MAX '@ 3800 RPM
Visual
Spec. @ 670 RPM
»
• Monitor EP with the scan tool with the engine temperature
• Check for contaminants (fuel, coolant).
Method
Parameter
IPR
Repair issue causing out of spec. values before continuing.
9. Exhaust Restriction
Visual
• Monitor IPR with scan tool.
Check
Visual
If air is present in return fuel, inspect fuel system for leaks.
11. Perform KOER On Demand Test
• This will test the ICP, EGR and VGT performance.
KOER
DTC
»
Excessive oil aeration can be caused by depleated oil additives,
pick-up tube leak, front cover seal leak, or upper pan seal leak.
Note: If performance concern still exists, refer to Enhanced Injector
Diagnostics in this section.
89
W I R I N G D I A G R A M ( S I N G L E A LT. )
90
W I R I N G D I A G R A M ( S I N G L E A LT. )
91
W I R I N G D I A G R A M ( D U A L A LT. )
92
W I R I N G D I A G R A M ( D U A L A LT. )
93
DIAGNOSTIC CODES
* - MIL (Malfunction Indicator Light) Illuminates
^ - Tow/Haul Light flashes
[] - Assigned but not used
C - Continuous Operation
O - Self Test - Key On Engine Off(KOEO)
R - Self Test - Key On Engine Running(KOER)
Condition Description
DTC How SET
P0046 C* O R Turbo Boost Control Solenoid Circuit
Range/Performance
P0069 C*
MAP/BARO Correlation
30 kPa (4.4 PSI)/Compares BP and MAP at idle.
Probable Causes
Diagnostic circuit associated with 1 Amp driver checks for open circuit,
short to ground, and short to power.
VGT, BP, MAP, EGR - System Fault, Biased Sensor, Circuit Integrity.
P0096 C*
5 deg. C (41 deg F)/Checks for Minimum Change in IAT2
IAT 2 Biased Sensor, System Fault, PCM.
EGR disabled, less than 0.15v
EGR disabled, greater than 4.8v
Indicates an MAF range/performance problem was detected
during normal driving conditions when MAF is enabled. 4.0
Volts when RPM is less than 1500, 4.9 volts when RPM is
greater than 1500 rpm.
Indicates MAF sensor circuit low input was detected during
KOEO Self Test or during continuous diagnostic monitoring.
MAF voltage less than 0.35 volts.
Indicates MAF sensor circuit high input detected during
KOEO On-Demand Self Test or during continuous diagnostic
monitoring. MAF voltage is greaterh than 4.95 volts.
MAT signal circuit, shorted to ground or defective sensor.
MAT signal circuit, open, short to power or defective sensor.
Damaged MAF sensor-plugged or restricted sensor supply tube-MAF,
PCM.
Intake Air Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit
Range/Performance
P0097 C* O R Intake Air Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit Low Input
P0098 C* O R Intake Air Temperature Sensor 2 Circuit High Input
P0101 C*
Mass or Volume Air Flow Circuit Range/Performance
P0102 C*
R Mass or Volume Air Flow Circuit Low Input
P0103 C* O R Mass or Volume Air Flow Circuit High Input
P0107 C* O
P0112 C* O R Intake Air Temperature Circuit Low Input
P0113 C* O R Intake Air Temperature Circuit High Input
P0117 C* O R Engine Coolant Temperature Circuit Low Input
P0118 C* O R Engine Coolant Temperature High Input
Fueling Error
R Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Circuit
Range/Performance
P0197 C* O R Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Circuit Low Input
P0198 C* O R Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Circuit High Input
P0219 C
Engine Overspeed Condition
P0230 C O R Fuel Pump Primary Circuit
P0231 C O R Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit Low
P0232 C O R Fuel Pump Secondary Circuit High
P0236 C* O
Turbo/Super Charger Boost Sensor A Circuit
Range/Performance
P0237 C* O R Turbo/Super Charger Boost Sensor A Circuit Low
P0238 C* O R Turbo/Super Charger Boost Sensor A Circuit High
P0261
P0262
P0264
P0265
P0267
P0268
P0270
P0271
P0273
P0274
P0276
P0277
P0279
P0280
C*
C
C*
C
C*
C
C*
C
C*
C
C*
C
C*
C
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
94
Open MAF sensor circuit-biased sensor, PCM-short to SIGN RTN or
PWR GND on MAF sensor circuit-open in VREF circuit.
Biased sensor, PCM-MAF circuit shorted to VREF.
Manifold Absolute Pressure/BARO Sensor Low Input Checks BP for a signal lower than a specified barometric
Circuit is open, shorted to ground.
pressure expected for normal operations when BP is less
than 0.04 volts. Default 101 kpa (14.6 PSI).
Manifold Absolute Pressure/BARO Sensor High Input Checks BP for a signal greater than a specified barometric Circuit is shorted to power.
pressure expected for normal operations when BP is greater
than 4.9 volts. Default 101 kpa (14.6 PSI).
P0108 C* O
P0148 C
P0196
Fault Trigger/Comments
Internal to PCM. VGT Actuator Circuit check.
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
Cylinder #1 Injector Circuit Low
Cylinder #1 Injector Circuit High
Cylinder #2 Injector Circuit Low
Cylinder #2 Injector Circuit High
Cylinder #3 Injector Circuit Low
Cylinder #3 Injector Circuit High
Cylinder #4 Injector Circuit Low
Cylinder #4 Injector Circuit High
Cylinder #5 Injector Circuit Low
Cylinder #5 Injector Circuit High
Cylinder #6 Injector Circuit Low
Cylinder #6 Injector Circuit High
Cylinder #7 Injector Circuit Low
Cylinder #7 Injector Circuit High
Checks sensor output for a value higher than a maximum
probable temperature when IAT voltage is less than 0.15
volts. Default 77oF/25oC.
Checks sensor output for a value lower than a minimum
probable temperature when IAT voltage is greater than 4.9
volts. Default 77o F/25oC.
Checks ECT for a temperature higher than a specified oil
temperature expected for normal operation when ECT
voltage is greater than 0.15 volts. Default 180oF/82oC - no
Checks ECT for a temperature lower than a specified oil
temperature expected for normal operation when ECT
voltage is greater than 4.78 volts. Default 180oF/82oC - no
fast idle.
Engine RPM has exceeded requested RPM.
Checks for an EOT temperature signal which is unable to
reach the EOT cold minimum limit within a specified amount
of time. Function of initial EOT. (in-range fault based off of a
change in EOT and MFDES)
Checks EOT for a temperature higher than a specified oil
temperature expected for normal operations WHEN eot
VOLTAGE IS LESS THAN 0.15 VOLTS. Default
212oF/100oC - no fast idle.
Checks EOT for a temperature lower than a specified oil
temperature expected for normal operations when EOT
voltage is greater than 4.76 volts. Default 212oF/100oC - no
fast idle.
PCMrecorded excessive engine speed greater than 4300
rpm for more than 5 seconds.
Fuel Pump Relay driver failure.
No voltage present at the Fuel Pump monitor circuit when it
has been commanded "on" for more than 1 second.
Voltage present at the Fuel Pump monitor circuit when it has
NOT been commanded "on" for more than 1 second.
Default inferred MAP - low power, slow acceleration, greater
than 120kpa(2.7 PSI) at low idle.
Default inferred MAP - low power, slow acceleration, MAP
voltage is less than 0.039 volts.
Default inferred MAP - low power, slow acceleration, MAP
voltage is greater than 4.91 volts.
FICM detected a short in an injector circuit to ground.
FICM detected an open injector circuit.
FICM detected a short in an injector circuit to ground.
FICM detected an open injector circuit.
FICM detected a short in an injector circuit to ground.
FICM detected an open injector circuit.
FICM detected a short in an injector circuit to ground.
FICM detected an open injector circuit.
FICM detected a short in an injector circuit to ground.
FICM detected an open injector circuit.
FICM detected a short in an injector circuit to ground.
FICM detected an open injector circuit.
FICM detected a short in an injector circuit to ground.
FICM detected an open injector circuit.
Short to ground.
Open circuit, short to power.
Short to ground on the circurt.
Open in circuit, short to power.
Alternative fuel source, Interferance on CKP & CMP, Faulty PCM.
Faulty, Biased sensor, circuit fault, PCM.
Shorted to ground on the circuit.
Open in circuit, short to power.
Improper downshift, Interferance on CKP & CMP, Faulty PCM
Open control circuit, failed fuel pump relay or PCM.
Indicates open, short circuit, relay, inertia switch or fuel pump.
Indicates short to power,sticking relay.
MAP sensor plugged, defective sensor.
MAP circuit short to ground or open, defective sensor.
MAP circuit short to Vref or Vbat, defective sensor.
Injector circuit short to ground, defective coil.
Injector circuit open, defective coil.
Injector circuit short to ground, defective coil.
Injector circuit open, defective coil.
Injector circuit short to ground, defective coil.
Injector circuit open, defective coil.
Injector circuit short to ground, defective coil.
Injector circuit open, defective coil.
Injector circuit short to ground, defective coil.
Injector circuit open, defective coil.
Injector circuit short to ground, defective coil.
Injector circuit open, defective coil.
Injector circuit short to ground, defective coil.
Injector circuit open, defective coil.
DIAGNOSTIC CODES
P0341 C*
R Camshaft Position Sensor A Circuit
Range/Performance (Bank 1 or single sensor)
P0381 C* O
Glow Plug/Heater Indicator Circuit
P0401 C*
P0402 C*
P0403 C*
P0404 C*
P0405 C*
CMP signal intermittent.
Poor connection, defective sensor, electrical noise.
Indicator Circuit Check - Instrument cluster driver checks for Open/Short circuit, lamp, fuse, PCM.
open circuit, or short circuit when lamp turns on and off.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Insufficient Detected EGR Valve Position does not match desired, limits based on
engine speed / load.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Excessive Detected EGR Valve Position does not match desired, limits based on
engine speed / load.
O R Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control Circuit
EGR actuator circuit check. Diagnostic circuit associated
with 1 Amp driver Internal to PCM.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Control Circuit
+/- 0.10 EGRP error from commanded to actual EGRP
Range/Performance
during normal driving conditions.
O R Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor A Circuit Low
EGR is disabled when EGR voltage is less than 0.30 volts.
EGR Valve stuck or sticking - EGR Valve Position Sensor Bias - EP
Sensor bias.
EGR Valve stuck or sticking - EGR Valve Position Sensor Bias - EP
Sensor bias.
Open circuit, short to ground, and short to power.
Faulty EGR sensor, valve or PCM integrity of EGR position circuit.
EGRP circuit short to ground or open, defective sensor.
P0406 C* O R Exhaust Gas Recirculation Sensor A Circuit High
EGR is disabled when EGR voltage is greater than 4.9 volts. EGRP circuit short to Vref or Vbat, defective sensor.
P0460 C O R Fuel Level Sensor Circuit
Fuel Level Indicator (FLI) Circuit Check - Instrument cluster
driver checks for open circuit, or short circuit.
Maximum EP when the engine is not running 150 kpa (21.8
PSI) absolute.
Minimum EP when the engine is running, Pressure
difference of +/-10 kPa (1.5 PSI) from desired.
EGR disabled, default inferred for VGT operation when EGR
voltage is less than 0.03 volts.
EGR disabled, default inferred for VGT operation when EGR
voltage is greater than 4.8 volts.
EP is higher than EP desired by 260 kpa (37.7 PSI) for
greater than 30 seconds.
"REFER to the appropriate section in the Workshop Manual."
P0480 C
R Fan 1 Control Circuit
P0500 C
Vehicle Speed Sensor A
P0562 C* O R System Voltage Low
Vehicle speed sensor malfunction.
PCM voltage less than 7v - cause of no start/misfire.
P0563 C O R System Voltage High
P0565 C O R Cruise Control ON Signal
P0566 C O R Cruise Control OFF Signal
P0567
O
Cruise Control RESUME Signal
P0568
O
Cruise Control SET Signal
P0569
O
Cruise Control COAST Signal
P0571
O
Brake Switch A Circuit
PCM voltage continuously more than 23.3v.
KOER switch test(code set if cruise not present).
KOER switch test(code set if cruise not present).
KOER switch test(code set if cruise not present).
KOER switch test(code set if cruise not present).
KOER switch test(code set if cruise not present).
Brake switch A circuit malfunction
Sensor, circuit, PSM, PSOM, low transmission fluid.
Low Vbat, loose connections/resistance in circuit, Vref engine
concerns.
Charging system fault.
P0470
O
Exhaust Pressure Sensor
P0471 C*
Exhaust Pressure Sensor Range/Performance
P0472 C* O R Exhaust Pressure Sensor Low Input
P0473 C* O R Exhaust Pressure Sensor High Input
P0478 C*
Exhaust Pressure Control Valve High Input
P0602 C O R Powertrain Control Module Programming Error
P0603 C
Powertrain Control Module Keep Alive Memory (KAM)
Error
P0605
O
Powertrain Control Module Read Only Memory
(ROM) Error
P0615 C O R Starter Relay Circuit
P0620 C O R Generator 1 Control Circuit
P0623 C O R Generator Lamp Control Circuit
P0645 C O R A/C Clutch Relay Control Circuit
P0649 C O R Cruise Control Lamp Control Circuit
P0670 C* O R Glow Plug Module Control Circuit
P0671 C* O R Cylinder 1 Glow Plug Circuit
P0672 C* O R Cylinder 2 Glow Plug Circuit
P0673 C* O R Cylinder 3 Glow Plug Circuit
P0674 C* O R Cylinder 4 Glow Plug Circuit
P0675 C* O R Cylinder 5 Glow Plug Circuit
P0676 C* O R Cylinder 6 Glow Plug Circuit
P0677 C* O R Cylinder 7 Glow Plug Circuit
P0678 C* O R Cylinder 8 Glow Plug Circuit
P0683 C* O R Glow Plug Control Module to PCM Communication
Circuit
P0684 C* O R Glow Plug Control Module to PCM Communication
Circuit Range/Performance
P0700 C O R Transmission Control System (MIL Request)
P0703
R Brake Switch B Input Circuit
P0704 C
R Clutch Switch Input Circuit
P1000
P1001
P1139
P1148
P1149
P1184
OBD Systems Readiness Test Not Complete
KOER not able to complete, KOER aborted
Water in Fuel Indicator Circuit
Generator 2 Control Circuit
Generator 2 Control Circuit High
Engine Oil Temperature Sensor Out Of Self Test
Range
Theft Detected, Vehicle Immobilized
R Aborted KOER - Injector Control Pressure Regulator
C O R
R
C O R
C* O R
C O R
R
Faulty EP Sensor, PCM.
Faulty EP Sensor, PCM or VGT.
EP circuit is short to ground or open, defective sensor.
EP circuit is short to Vref or Vbat, defective sensor.
Faulty EP sensor, VGT control valve slow to respond, Stuck VGT
valve, faulty PCM.
Open or short circuit, switch failure, PCM failure or failed to activate
switch during KOER switch test. (code will set if cruise is not present
Cruise control code will be set on every switch test on vevicles not
equipped with cruise control
No historical faults output during self test.
Disconnected/Discharged Battery, Open PCM pin, faulty PCM.
PCM failure
Defective PCM.
Glow plug control module control line failure
Glow plug #1 failure
Glow plug #2 failure
Glow plug #3 failure
Glow plug #4 failure
Glow plug #5 failure
Glow plug #6 failure
Glow plug #7 failure
Glow plug #8 failure
GPCM glow plug control module communication line failure
Open/grounded circuit, open/shorted GPCM, failed PCM
Open/shorted circuit, faulty glow plug, failed GPCM
Open/shorted circuit, faulty glow plug, failed GPCM
Open/shorted circuit, faulty glow plug, failed GPCM
Open/shorted circuit, faulty glow plug, failed GPCM
Open/shorted circuit, faulty glow plug, failed GPCM
Open/shorted circuit, faulty glow plug, failed GPCM
Open/shorted circuit, faulty glow plug, failed GPCM
Open/shorted circuit, faulty glow plug, failed GPCM
Open/shorted circuit, failed GPCM, failed PCM
Nosie was detected in the GPCM communication line
Noise in GPD line
KOER switch test.
Open/short circuit, switch, PCM, failed to activate during KOER switc
test.
Open/short circuit, switch, PCM, failed to activate during KOER switc
test.
KOER switch test.
Drive cycle is not complete.
Conditions not met.
Indicates falt in circuit.
A/C, Parking Brake, Clutch, PRNDL, (EOT, ETC.)
Faulty sensor, Open or Short in circuit.
Engine not warm enough to run KOEO CCT - aborts test.
Engine not warm enough, leaking themostat, circuit failure.
ICP failure--Aborts KOER CCT test
See codes P2284, P2285, P2286, P2288, P2623
P1378 C O R FICM Supply Voltage Circuit Low
IDM detects logic power low, less than 7 volts.
Low batteries, loose connections/resistance in circuit, defective relay
P1379 C O R FICM Supply Voltage Circuit High
P1397
R System Voltage Out Of Self Test Range
P1408
R Exhaust Gas Recirculation Flow Out Of Self Test
IDM detects excessive voltage, greater than 16 volts.
Charging system fault.
Voltage too high or low for glow plug monitor test
EGR Control circuit open, short to Vref, Vbat, ground, defective coil.
P1260 C
P1284
EGRC output circuit check - engine off test only
95
DIAGNOSTIC CODES
P1703
P1705
P1725
P1726
P2121 C
P2122 C
P2123 C
P2124 C
P2126 C
P2127 C
P2128 C
P2129 C
P2131 C
P2132 C
P2133 C
P2134 C
P2138 C*
P2139 C*
P2140 C*
P2199 C*
O R Brake Switch Out Of Self Test Range
O R Transmission Range Circuit Not Indicating
Park/Neutral During Self Test
R Insufficent engine speed increase during self test.
R Insufficent engine speed decrease during self test.
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch D Circuit
Range/Performance
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch D Circuit Low
Input
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch D Circuit High
Input
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch D Circuit
Intermittent
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch E Circuit
Range/Performance
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch E Circuit Low
Input
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch E Circuit High
Input
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch E Circuit
Intermittent
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch F Circuit
Range/Performance
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch F Circuit Low
Input
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch F Circuit High
Input
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch F Circuit
Intermittent
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch D / E Voltage
Correlation
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch D / F Voltage
Correlation
O R Throttle/Pedal Position Sensor/Switch E / F Voltage
Correlation
Intake Air Temperature 1/2 Correlation
P2262 C
Turbo/Super Charger Boost Pressure not Detected Mechanical
Turbo/Super Charger System Performance
P2263 C
P2269 C O R Water in Fuel Condition
Not in park during KOEO or KOER.
Operator error, circuit failure, faulty sensor, PCM.
Pedal Sensors will use SAE D,E,F codes
Pedal Sensors will use SAE D,E,F codes
Pedal Sensors will use SAE D,E,F codes
Correlation between IAT1 and IAT2 are not at expected
values
No boost pressure increase was detected
Indicates water in fuel.
P2284 C
R Injector Control Pressure Sensor Circuit
Range/Performance
P2285 C O R Injector Control Pressure Sensor Circuit Low
Open/shorted circuit, bias sensor, PCM
MAP hose, MAP sensor, CAC system leaks, Intake leaks, EP sensor,
exhaust restriction
MAP hose, MAP sensor, CAC system leaks, Intake leaks, EP sensor,
exhaust restriction, exhaust leaks
Drain water in fuel seperator, defective WIF sensor, circuit integrity.
Default inferred ICP, ICP desired does not equal ICP signal,
difference of 362psi/2.5mpa.
Default open loop control - underrun at idle, ICP is less than
0.04 volts.
P2286 C O R Injector Control Pressure Sensor Circuit High
Default open loop control - underrun at idle, ICP is greater
than 4.91 volts.
P2288 C
R Injector Control Pressure Too High
Default inferred ICP is used, ICP is greater than
3675psi/25mpa.
P2289 C O
Injector Control Pressure Too High - Engine Off
Default inferred ICP, KOEO ICP is greater than
P2290 C O
Injector Control Pressure Too Low
Default inferred ICP is used, ICP is below desired pressure
P2291 C
Injector Control Pressure Too Low - Engine Cranking No start ICP is less than 725psi/5mpa.
ICP signal ground, circuit open, defective sensor.
See diagnostic manual - ICP system.
See diagnostic manual - ICP system
P2552
P2614
P2617
P2623
Circuit open/short, FICM, PCM
Poor connection, electrical noise. In CMPO from PCM
Poor connection, electrical noise. In CKPO from PCM
Open/grounded circuit, stuck IPR, loose connection
C
C
C
C
96
O
O
O
O
R
R
R
R
FICMM Circuit - Throttle/Fuel Inhibit Circuit
Camshaft Position Output Circuit
Crankshaft Position Output Circuit
Injector Control Pressure Regulator Circuit
No signal from the FICM Monitor circuit
CMPO signal intermittent
CKPO signal intermittent
IPR circuit failure
See diagnostic manual - ICP system.
ICP circuit short to ground or open, defective sensor.
ICP circuit short, Vref or Vbat, defective sensor.
See diagnostic manual - ICP system.
GLOSSARY
Actuator
D i g i ta l F u e l I n j e c t i o n
A device which delivers motion in response to an electrical
signal.
A fuel injection system that uses both an open and close
signal to control fuel injectors.
Analog
D u a l Ti m i n g S y s t e m
A continuously variable voltage.
A timing System that uses both a CKP and CMP sensors to
determine engine speed and rotational position.
APS Accelerator Position Sensor
A potentiometer style sensor that indicates the operator's
pedal position.
AWA F e a t u r e
A feature built into the high pressure oil rails used to dampen
noises that can be caused by the hydraulic system.
D V O M D i g i ta l Vo l t O h m M e t e r
A meter that uses a digital display to indicate a measured
value. Preferred for use on microprocessor systems because
a DVOM has a very high internal impedance and will not load
down the circuit being measured.
PCM Powertrain Control Module
BARO Barometric Pressure Sensor
The housing which contains the micro computer, Vref
regulator, input conditioners and output drivers.
An analog device which indicates atmospheric pressure
which allows the PCM to compensate for altitude. A BARO
sensor has three connections, signal return(gnd), BARO
signal, and Vref.
E C T E n g i n e C o o l a n t Te m p e r a t u r e S e n s o r
CAC Charge Air Cooling
A process of cooling the air coming out of the turbocharger
before it enters the engine.
C a n i s t e r St y l e O i l F i l t e r
An oil filter that requires only the element be replaced and not
the housing.
CAN
A communication protocol for data transfer between the control modules.
C K P C r a n k s h a ft P o s i t i o n S e n s o r
A magnetic pickup sensor that creates a sine wave voltage
when the timing wheel on the crankshaft breaks its magnetic
field. The CKP determines crankshaft position and speed.
A thermistor style sensor used to indicate engine coolant
temperature.
EGR Cooler
A device used to cool exhaust gases before they are returned
to the intake air system.
E G R E x h a u s t G a s R e c i r c u l a t i o n Va l v e
A valve used to control the flow of exhaust gases into the
intake manifold.
E G R P E x h a u s t G a s R e c i r c u l a t i o n Va l v e
Position Sensor
A potentiometer style sensor that indicates the amount of
movement of the EGR valve.
EOP Engine Oil Pressure Sensor
A variable capacitance style sensor used to indicate engine
oil pressure.
Closed Crankcase Breather
A ventilation system that recirculates crankcase vapors into
the intake air system.
E O T E n g i n e O i l Te m p e r a t u r e
C M P C a m s h a ft P o s i t i o n S e n s o r
E V R T C o n t r o l Va l v e
A magnetic pickup sensor that creates a sine wave voltage
when a peg on the camshaft breaks its magnetic field. The
CMP determines which cycle the piston is in (compression or
exhaust).
See VGTCV Variable Geometry Turbocharger Control Valve.
A thermistor type sensor which indicates engine temperature.
EVRT
See VGT Variable Geometry Turbocharger.
C o m b i n a t i o n F u e l P u m p / P o w e r St e e r i n g
Pump
FICM Fuel Injection Control Module
A fuel pump and power steering pump that are made into one
unit and driven off of the rear gear train.
An electronic unit which has the primary function of an
electronic distributor for the injectors. It also is the power
supply for the injectors.
97
GLOSSARY
Glow Plug Sleeves
Long Life Ethylene Glycol Coolant
Stainless steel sleeves used to protect the glow plugs from
coolant.
A premium coolant, with an Ethylene Glycol base, that can be
used in a cooling system for an extended time without needing to be changed. Long life coolants do not require the use
of extenders. Long life coolants can be identified by its yellow
color.
GPCM Glow Plug Control Module
Module which supplies power to the glow plugs and identifies
variation in current flow to the glow plugs.
I AT I n ta k e A i r Te m p e r a t u r e S e n s o r
A thermistor style sensor used to indicate air temperature
before the charge air cooler.
ICP Injection Control Pressure
A variable capacitance style sensor used to indicate high
pressure oil system pressure.
I AT 2 I n ta k e A i r Te m p e r a t u r e 2 S e n s o r
A thermistor style sensor used to indicate air temperature
after passing through the charge air cooler.
IDM Injector Driver Module
An electronic unit which has the primary function of an
electronic distributor for the injectors. It also is the power
supply for the injectors.
Main Power Relays
(Two) Battery power relay switches for the ECM and IDM
(modules) that are key power initiated and controlled by the
corresponding powered module.
MAP Manifold Absolute Pressure
A MAP sensor generates a digital frequency that indicates
manifold boost pressure above atmospheric pressure. The
signal is created by switching action caused by manifold
pressure of a diaphragm connected to a capacitor circuit in
the sensor. The digital frequency increases as pressure
increases. A MAP sensor has three connection: signal
return(gnd), MAP signal, and Vref.
Misfire Detection
Uses engine RPM changes during a firing cycle to determine
a low contributing cylinder.
M o d u l a r Wa t e r P u m p
Impedance
A form of opposition to AC current flow measured in Ohms.
I / O I n j e c t o r Te s t
A test that can be performed using the WDS to disable one
injector at a time while watching Mfdes to determine a weak
contributing injector.
Is a water pump that uses the front cover as a housing and
only the hub and impeller are replaceable.
Normally Closed
Refers to a switch or a solenoid that is closed when no control or force is acting on it.
Normally Open
IPR Injection Pressure Regulator
Controls injection oil pressure. An electrical signal to a
solenoid creates a magnetic field which applies a variable
force on a poppet to control pressure. The quantity of fuel
delivered to the combustion chamber is proportional to injection control pressure.
I V S I d l e Va l i d a t i o n S w i t c h
An on/off switch that indicates when the accelerator pedal is
in the idle position.
K O E O K e y o n E n g i n e O f f Te s t
A self-test operation that is performed with the ignition switch
in the ON position with the engine OFF.
K O E R K e y o n E n g i n e R u n n i n g Te s t
A self-test operation that is performed with the ignition switch
in the ON position and the engine RUNNING.
98
Refers to a switch or a solenoid that is open when no control
or force is acting on it.
POT Potentiometer
Converts a mechanical motion to a voltage value. Most often
used to sense the position of a component. This sensor
works as a variable voltage divider. The wiper arm is
mechanically connected to the component desired to be
sensed. Potentiometers have three connections: Vref, signal
out, and ground.
P u l s e W i dt h
The length of time an actuator, such as an injector, remains
energized.
R e l a t i v e C o m p r e s s i o n Te s t
A test that can be run with the WDS to measure compression
of a cylinder relative to the other cylinders in the engine. This
test is accomplished by comparing the rpm of the engine
during each compression stroke.
GLOSSARY
Rocker Arm Carrier
A housing that the rocker arms and their fulcrums are
mounted to.
Thermistor
Sensor used to determine temperature. A thermistor changes
it's resistance value in relation to temperature change.
Increasing temperature results in decreasing resistance,
decreasing temperature results in increasing resistance. The
thermistor in conjunction with a current limiting resistor in the
PCM forms a voltage divider that provides a voltage signal
indicating temperature. Since the top half of the voltage
divider is the current limiting resistor and is internal to the
PCM, a thermistor sensor only has two connections, signal
return and ground.
Va r i a b l e C a pa c i ta n c e S e n s o r
A sensor that is used to determine pressure. A variable
capacitance sensor changes it capacitance value in relation
pressure change. Increasing pressure results in a lower
capacitance, thus increasing return voltage. Decreasing
pressure results in a higher capacitance and a lower voltage.
Variable capacitance sensors are 3 wire sensors.
V B AT
Battery voltage.
V G T Va r i a b l e G e o m e t r y Tu r b o c h a r g e r
Could also be called EVRT. A turbocharger that has a turbine
housing that can change sizes through electronically controlled hydraulics.
V G T C V Va r i a b l e G e o m e t r y Tu r b o c h a r g e r
C o n t r o l Va l v e
Could also be called EVRTCV. Controls oil flow in and out of
the VGT actuator in order to change the effective size of its
turbine housing.
VPWR
Battery voltage.
V S S Ve h i c l e Sp e e d S e n s o r
Normally a magnetic pickup style sensor that is mounted on
the tailshaft of the transmission to indicate ground speed.
99
INDEX
A
D
Actuators, 64
Dual mass flywheel, 15
Air filter/ filter minder, 33
E
ECT (Engine Coolant Temperature), 54
Air in fuel, 79
EGR
Cooler, 37
Installation, 74
Removal, 74
Flow, 37
Throttle, 38
Valve, 37-38
Removal, 73
VP (Valve Position), 55
Air management system
features, 31
flow, 31-32
AP (Accelerator Pedal), 50
B
BP (Barometric Pressure), 51
Barrel, 44
bed plate, 22
Bridges, 72
C
Charge air cooler, 33
CKP (Crankshaft Position), 52
CMP (Camshaft Position), 53
Component Locations, 9-13
Coolant recovery bottle, 20
Electrical Components, 49,65
Emission label, 8
Engine mounted fuel filter, 30
Engine serial number, 8
EOP (Engine Oil Pressure, 56
EOT (Engine Oil Temperature, 57
EP (Exhaust Pressure), 58
F
Features, 6
FICM (Fuel Injection Control Module), 65
Cooling system
Features, 17
Flow, 17-19
Forward, 1
Crankcase pressure test, 82
Front cover, 24
Dowel locations, 76
Installation, 77
Removal, 76
Crankcase ventilation, 74
Fuel filter replacement, 69
Crankshaft
Heat treatment discoloration, 15
Primary flange, 78
Rear seal dust cover, 78
Cylinder balance test, 81
Cylinder head, 14
Removal,72
100
Fuel injector, 43
Coil, 47
End of main injection, 47
Features, 43
Fill cycle, 45
Main injection, 46
O-rings, 43
Spool valve, 43
INDEX
Fuel inlet check valves, 30
Injector
Buzz, 82
I/O test, 80
Installation, 71
O-ring replacement, 70-71
Removal, 69-70
Sleeve, 19
Installation, 73
Removal, 73
Fuel pressure regulator, 30
Fuel supply system
Features, 27
Flow, 27-28
G
Generation II fuel management system
advantages, 39
diagram, 39
major components, 39
Glow plug, 67
buss bar, 67
Removal, 77
removal, 77
sleeve, 20, 67
Removal, 73
System, 66
Diagnostics, 68
CM (Control Module), 66
H
HFCM (Horizontal Fuel Conditioning Module), 29
High boost, 79
Intake manifold, 38, 75
Intensifier Piston, 44
IPR (Injection Pressure Regulator), 42,64
Valve removal, 75
L
Lubrication system
Features, 21
flow, 21-22
M
MAF (Mass Air Flow), 62
MAP (Manifold Absolute Pressure), 63
O
Oil
High EP, 79
aeration, 23
Test, 81
Carryover, 74
cooler, 24
housing, 24
Filter, 25
Base, 24-25
Replacement, 69
Pan, 22
Pressure Regulator, 23
pump, 23
Removal, 77
Reservoir, 25-26
Screen, 25
High pressure oil rail, 42
High pressure oil system flow, 40-41
High pressure pump, 42
cover, 42
removal, 76
Horsepower & Torque, 6
I
IAT1 (Intake Air Temperature 1), 59
IAT2 (Intake Air Temperature 2), 60
ICP (Injection Control Pressure), 42, 61
low, 80
Injection nozzle, 44
Overview, 6
P
PCM (Powertrain Control Module), 66
Pick-up tube, 23
Plunger, 44
Power or ground issues, 80
101
INDEX
R
Rear Geartrain, 14
Relative compression test, 81
Rocker Arms, 72
Rocker carrier, 14
Removal, 72
Rocker fulcrums, 72
S
Sensors overview, 49
Single mass flywheel, 15
Specifications, 7
Stages of injection, 45
T
Table of contents, 3
Turbocharger
Oil drain tube, 26
Removal, 75
Oil supply, 26
Removal, 74
V
VGT (Variable Geometry Turbocharger)
Compressor, 34
Control valve, 35
Flow, 35
Features, 34
Turbine, 34
Vanes closed, 36
Vanes open, 34
Vanes partially closed, 36
VGTCV (Variable Geometry Turbocharger Control Valve), 65
W
Water pump, 19
102
NOTES
103
NOTES
104
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