FIAT DUCATO COURSE OUTLINE

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FIAT DUCATO COURSE OUTLINE
SECOND PHASE
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DOCUMENTATION MODIFICATIONS / UPDATES
Date
Referent
File Name
Description of modification
© 2006 - Fiat Auto S.p.A.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or disclosed in any form
or by any means.
Processing the material below may not involve specific responsibilities for unintentional
errors or omissions.
The information given in this publication is continuously updated; Fiat Auto S.p.A.
disclaims all responsibilities for any errors, omissions, damage or loss that might result
from the use of outdated information.
This publication is issued for training purposes only.
Exhaustive, updated technical information for servicing purposes can be found in the
service manual and any other service information for the vehicle model concerned.
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CONTENTS
INDICE................................................................................................................................................................... 2
1. BRIEFING ........................................................................................................................................................ 2
2. DATI TECNICI................................................................................................................................................... 2
2.1 MOTORE......................................................................................................................................................... 2
2.1.1 Dati caratteristici ....................................................................................................................................... 2
2.2 FRIZIONE........................................................................................................................................................ 2
2.3 CAMBIO DI VELOCITA’ ................................................................................................................................. 2
2.4 DIFFERENZIALE ............................................................................................................................................ 2
2.5 PIANO DI MANUTENZIONE PROGRAMMATA ........................................................................................... 2
3. MOTORE.......................................................................................................................................................... 2
3.1 MOTORE 3.0................................................................................................................................................... 2
3.1.1 Caratteristiche ........................................................................................................................................... 2
3.1.2 Supporti motore.......................................................................................................................................... 2
3.1.3 Basamento e sottobasamento .................................................................................................................. 2
3.1.4 Testa cilindri ............................................................................................................................................... 2
3.1.5 Alberi della distribuzione.......................................................................................................................... 2
3.1.6 Albero motore ........................................................................................................................................... 2
3.1.7 Volano......................................................................................................................................................... 2
3.1.8 Pistoni e bielle .......................................................................................................................................... 2
3.1.9 Comando della distribuzione ................................................................................................................... 2
3.1.10 Impianto alimentazione aria ................................................................................................................... 2
3.1.11 Impianto alimentazione combustibile .................................................................................................. 2
3.1.12 Impianto di scarico.................................................................................................................................. 2
3.1.13 Impianto EGR.......................................................................................................................................... 2
3.1.14 Impianto recupero vapori olio dal basamento .................................................................................... 2
3.1.15 Impianto lubrificazione motore .............................................................................................................. 2
3.1.16
Circuito raffreddamento motore .......................................................................................................... 2
3.2 GESTIONE ELETTRONICA MOTORE ......................................................................................................... 2
3.2.1 Controllo motore EDC 16 C 39 ................................................................................................................. 2
3.2.2
Pin out centralina controllo motore...................................................................................................... 2
3.2.3 Schema elettrico gestione motore.......................................................................................................... 2
3.2.4 Componenti dell’impianto di iniezione/accensione.............................................................................. 2
3.3 DIAGNOSI...................................................................................................................................................... 2
3.3.1 Sezione parametri...................................................................................................................................... 2
3.3..2 Sezione Errori ........................................................................................................................................... 2
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3.3.3 Diagnosi attive visualizzabili con l’examiner......................................................................................... 2
3.3.4 Configurazioni visualizzabili con examiner ............................................................................................. 2
3.4 PROCEDURE................................................................................................................................................. 2
3.4.1 Motore staccato- stacco testa/e cilindri e coppa olio per ispezione comprende posa su cavalletto e
rimozione............................................................................................................................................................ 2
3.4.2 Motore - Ricomposizione. Lavaggio e controllo parti smontate - Riattacco testa cilindri e coppa
olio - Non comprende interventi su testa cilindri e gruppo organi ausiliari................................................ 2
3.4.3 Attrezzi per la revisione motore .............................................................................................................. 2
4
TRASMISSIONE ............................................................................................................................................. 2
4.1 - CAMBIO DI VELOCITA E DIFFERENZIALE TIPO C 546 ( M40 )............................................................ 2
4.1.1 Caratteristiche costruttive ....................................................................................................................... 2
4.2 -PROCEDURE................................................................................................................................................. 2
4.2.1 CAMBIO MECCANICO (6 VELOCITA') CON DIFFERENZIALE SCOMPOSIZIONE E
RICOMPOSIZIONE - LAVAGGIO, VERIFICA PARTICOLARI - EV. SOST. SINCRONIZZATORI, COMANDI
INTERNI, RUOTISMI, ALBERI E CUSCINETTI ................................................................................................. 2
4.2.2 Attrezzi per la revisione del cambio ........................................................................................................ 2
5. SOSPENSIONI pneumatiche autolivellanti posteriori.................................................................................. 2
6. CRONOTACHIGRAFO DIGITALE ................................................................................................................. 2
6.1. Diagnosi con Examiner ................................................................................................................................ 2
7. TELECAMERA POSTERIORE ........................................................................................................................ 2
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1. BRIEFING
After the sales launch in June 2006, the new Fiat Ducato range is complemented by new features for
improved versatility and efficiency.
The range of engine versions is complemented by the 157 bhp 3.0 Multijet engine combined with the new
M40 gearbox.
The new self-levelling rear air suspension offers great comfort and consistent chassis attitude under all
loading conditions (vehicle laden or unladen, load distributed evenly or unevenly). In addition, the rear
loading sill can be lowered to facilitate loading and unloading and the rear end can be raised to improve
ramp breakover angle and/or increase ground clearance when driving over an obstacle.
The new rear-view parking camera system with in-cab display provides better rear visibility when
manoeuvring.
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Lastly, the new Ducato can be equipped with a digital tachograph to monitor vehicle usage, a convenient
feature for companies that operate large fleets of vehicles
2. TECHNICAL DATA
2.1 ENGINE
2.1.1 Characteristic data
Type code
SofimF1CE048ID
Cycle
Diesel
Number and arrangement of
cylinders
4 in-line
Piston diameter and stroke
(mm)
Total displacement
(cm3)
95.8x104
Compression ratio
19:1
Maximum power output
EEC(kW)
117
Maximum power output
EEC(bhp)
157
At
(rpm)
3500
2999
Maximum torque (EEC)
(Nm)
400
At
(rpm)
1600
Fuel
Diesel fuel (ENS 590 Specification)
Fuel system
Multijet” Common Rail” direct injection
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2.2 CLUTCH
Type
Dry single-plate, pressure plate with automatic play takeup device
Drive
Push-type
Outer diameter of driven
plate (mm)
258±1
Inner diameter of driven
plate (mm)
160±5
2.3 GEARBOX
Type
C546 (M40)
Gear ratios
I
4.167
II
2.350
III
1.462
IV
1.047
0.955(*)
V
0.786
0.659(*)
VI
0.652
0.552(*)
RM
4.083
(*) Different versions
2.4 DIFFERENTIAL
Axle ratio
3.950 - 4.222 - 4.563 (*)
(*) Different versions
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2.5 SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE PLAN
Description
Check tyre condition / check for wear,
adjust tyre pressure (if needed).
Check operation of lighting system
(headlamps, indicators, emergency lights,
luggage compartment/passenger & driver
compartment lights; instrument panel
warning lights, etc.).
Check operation of windscreen wiper &
washer; adjust nozzles if necessary.
Check
wipers
positioning/wear
of
windscreen
Check brake pads for wear; check front
and rear disk pad wear indicator for proper
operation (if fitted)
Visually inspect the conditions and
soundness of body outside, underbody
protection, rigid and flexible pipe lengths
(exhaust, fuel feed and brake pipes and
hoses), rubber parts (boots, sleeves,
bushes, etc.)
Visually inspect the accessory drive belts
Check the fluid levels (engine cooling,
brakes, windscreen washer, battery, etc.)
and top up, if necessary
Check the handbrake lever travel and
adjust as required
Check that the locks are clean and the
levers clean/lubricated
Measure exhaust emissions/smoke
Check operation of engine control systems
(via the diagnostic connector)
45
90
135
180
225
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Change air filter cartridge
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Replace the accessory drive belt
Change fuel filter
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Change engine oil and engine oil filter
+
Change brake fluid (or every 24 months)
Change pollen filter (or every 24 months)
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Training Academy
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Service must be performed every 30000 km if the vehicle is chiefly used in any of the following particularly
harsh conditions:
ƒ Towing trailer or caravan;
ƒ Dusty roads;
ƒ Frequent short trips (less than 7-8 km) with outside temperatures below freezing;
ƒ Engine frequently left idling or running long distances at low speed (door-to-door delivery for example),
or if not used for a long time;
ƒ City traffic.
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3. ENGINE
3.1 3.0 ENGINE
3.1.1 Features
- turbocharged Diesel engine with fixed
geometry turbocharger;
- Euro 4 emissions compliant
- power output: 160 bhp;
- four cylinders in line;
- 2998 cc displacement;
- bore: 95.8 mm;
- stroke: 104 mm;
- compression ratio: 19:1
- firing order: 1 – 3 – 4 - 2
- double overhead camshaft, 16 valves;
- aluminium alloy cylinder head;
- camshaft bearing housings incorporated in
upper head section;
- chain-driven timing system;
- rocker arms with hydraulic tappets;
- centrifugal water pump incorporated in
crankcase;
- engine control unit: Bosch EDC16C39;
- high-pressure pump: Bosch CP3.2 (no
transfer gear pump);
- nodular cast iron engine block;
- pressed sheet metal oil sump.
The main features of the 3.0 Multijet engine
are as follows:
650
120
600
110
550
100
500
90
450
80
400
70
350
60
300
50
250
40
200
30
150
20
100
10
50
Power [kW]
130
0
1000
Torque [Nm]
F1C 107 kW [145 HP] - 400 Nm
WG
0
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
[rpm]
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3.1.2 Engine mounts
GENERAL
The engine mounts connect engine and body.
They are designed to withstand engine weight and torque loads.
Engine mounts feature blocks made of metal and rubber that dampen engine vibration so as to
significantly reduce the amount of vibration transmitted to the body.
TYPE
The engine support system is a special baricentre system.
The engine is retained by two mounts (one on gearbox side and one on timing gear side) and a torque
linkage.
1 – Flexible mount, gearbox side
2 – Mounting bracket, gearbox side
3 – Rear mounting bracket
4 – Flexible mount, timing gear side
5 – Mounting bracket, timing gear side
3.1.3 Crankcase and lower block
The crankcase is made of cast iron.
There are five main bearing housings.
Suitable coolant and oil galleries are provided in the crankcase walls.
Spray jets installed in crankcase bottom use engine oil to cool the pistons and lubricate the piston pins.
Crankcase and lower block are sealed with sealant.
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1 - Crankcase
2 – Lower block
3 – Centring pin
4 – Piston cooling jet
5 – Jet connector
3.1.4 Cylinder head
The one-piece cylinder head is made from aluminium-silicon alloy.
Valve opening is controlled by two chain-driven hollow-section overhead camshafts; cams are fitted onto
the shafts; camshafts are installed in the upper head section.
The four valves per cylinder are located in their respective guides and operated by rocker arms actuated
by the cams of the camshafts; hydraulic tappets keep the rocker arms in contact with the valves.
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The valve guides are an interference fit in the seats in the cylinder head. The inner bore is bored to
specification after installation using a special boring tool.
Unlike cylinder heads with a prechamber, the whole combustion process occurs inside the combustion
chamber in the piston.
The cylinder head is made up of the following components:
- camshaft housing,
- hydraulic tappets,
- rocker arms,
- camshafts,
- exhaust and intake valves,
- valve guides,
- valve seats.
1 – Upper head section
2 – Gasket
3 – Cylinder head
4 – Centring bushes
1 – Cylinder head
2 – Gasket
3 – Centring bush
4 – Engine block
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The head accommodates: intake ports; exhaust ports; valve passages; coolant galleries; oil galleries;
injector holes, glow plug holes, bolt holes for fastening to the engine block.
The head is installed on top of the cylinders; the aluminium alloy construction combines such advantages
as ligthweight, compression strength and high heat conduction.
Two centring bushes ensure correct location of the upper head section.
Head gasket
The gasket between cylinder head and crankcase is composed of three layers of stainless steel coated
with special heat-resistant rubber material.
While head gaskets of three different thicknesses are used at the factory, replacement gaskets come in
one standard thickness only. Factory gaskets are differentiated by notches as follows
- 1 notch : thickness class 1
- 2 notches: thickness class 2
- 3 notches: thickness class 3
1 – Head gasket
2 – Thickness class notches
3.1.5 Camshafts
The camshafts are made from steel and feature a
hollow design
1 – Exhaust camshaft
2 – Intake camshaft
The timing sensor detects the position of the intake camshaft drive gear to determine the current phase
of engine operation.
The timing sensor is located on the engine oil filler cover on the upper head section.
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Hydraulic tappets
1. Tappet retaining spring
2. Hydraulic tappet
3. Rocker arm with spring
4. Cam
3.1.6 Crankshaft
The crankshaft is made of carbon steel and rests on five main bearing housings with plain bearings
in-between.
Crankshaft end float is determined by the half bearing housed at the central main bearing housing.
Eight counterweights set at 180° balance the rotating masses to provide perfect engine balance.
1 – Crankshaft
2 – Central main bearing (incorporates end
float adjustment)
3 – Main bearings
4 – Oilway hole
5. Phonic wheel
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3.1.7 Flywheel
The dual-mass flywheel is secured to the crankshaft by 8 screws.
The flywheel has 3 centring pins for the clutch mechanism
The flywheel is an energy storage device that stores energy during the power stroke and gives up energy
during the combustion stroke to smooth out engine rotation.
Flywheel size is designed to enable engine idling and overcome friction developed during idling.The DVA
dual-mass flywheel (or clutch flywheel) consists of two separate masses for crankshaft and gearbox main
shaft with a torsional damping system in-between.
Resonance points, normally found in the 800 to 2200 rpm range with conventional flywheels, occur at lower
rpms, namely outside the operating range.
This flywheel design offers the following advantages over conventional flywheels:
- pulsing engine power is dampened resulting in less transmission noise;
- less overall noise translates into less in-cab noise.
The clutch disk (with springs) located between the dual-mass flywheel and the gearbox has lower inertia
to enable smoother gearshifts.
1 – Mass integral with crankshaft.
2 – Mass integral with gearbox main shaft.
3 – Centring pin for clutch mechanism
4 – Hub
5 – Ball bearing
6 – Gearwheel
7 – Torsional damping system.
3.1.8 Pistons and connecting rods
CONSTRUCTION
The pistons are obtained from aluminium alloy castings; the connecting rods are forged from hardened
and tempered steel and split to obtain the con rod caps by the fracture splitting method.
The pistons have a recess for the combustion chamber.
The pistons and con rod small ends are joined by floating piston pins. Piston pins are restrained by two
circlips fitted in grooves in the piston pin sleeves.
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To ensure correct piston position, the mark on the piston must be pointing to the timing gear side
1 – Piston
2 – Piston pin
3 – Circlips
4 – Connecting rod
5 – Con rod bearings
6 – Piston mark for correct installation
1 – Connecting rod
2 – Con rod cap
The aluminium alloy pistons are grouped
into two size classes and have a mark on
the crown to indicate correct mounting
position
1 – Engine type
2 – Piston class
3 – Supplier
4 – Mounting position of piston inside the
cylinder barrel
The piston is made up of two main components:- head, or area where the piston rings sit; its diameter is
slightly smaller than the cylinder bore to accommodate heat expansion; the piston crown features the
valve pockets and recessed combustion chambers,
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- the skirt, which acts as a guide for the con rod small end which withstands its axial thrust. The skirt
accommodates two sleeves for the piston pin and a groove matching the piston cooling jet in the
crankcase.
Piston (1) and connecting rod (2) with con
rod cap must be assembled with piston
mark, connecting rod and con rod
positioned as shown in the figure.
3.1.9 Camshaft drive
The timing system is a double overhead camshaft system with four valves per cylinder and hydraulic
tappets.
Drive is transmitted by two drive chains:
- a double 3/8” chain transmits drive from the crankshaft to the oil pump/vacuum pump and high pressure
pump shafts;
- a single chain transmits drive from the high pressure pump shaft to the camshafts.
The camshaft drive gears are interchangeable and feature slots for the sensor.
Each rocker arm is kept in contact with its valve by a cam and hydraulic tappet to eliminate the need for
periodic adjustments.
1 – Rocker arm
2 – Hydraulic tappet
3 – Valve
4 – Exhaust camshaft
5 – Intake camshaft
6 – Cam chain
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The figure below shows how timing system and auxiliary drive system are operated
1 – Camshaft drive gears
2 – Single chain
3 – Hydraulic tensioner with backstop
4 – Chain tensioner mobile sliding shoes
5 – Hydraulic chain tensioner
6 – Drive gear on crankshaft
7 – Fixed sliding shoe
8 – Oil pump/vacuum pump and power
steering pump drive shaft gear
9 – Double chain
10 – High pressure pump drive shaft gear
Chain hydraulic tensioner
Timing chain tension is controlled by an automatic hydraulic tensioner with backstop that eliminates the
need for tension adjustments.
A = Fully extended: 76.9 ± 0.4 mm
B = With piston engaged: 53.6 mm
C = Minimum travel to disengage piston:
2.3 mm
D = Useful stroke: 24.5 mm
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3.1.10 Air supply system
The intake air is filtered and conveyed to the exhaust gas turbocharger; before reaching the engine, the
compressed air is cooled in the air-air heat exchanger (Intercooler).
The following figure schematically illustrates the main elements comprising the air supply circuit.
1 – Air filter
2 – Oil vapour recovery fitting
3 – Turbocharger
4 – Intake manifold
5 – Throttle body actuator
6 – Air intake connector
7 – Resonator
8 – Intercooler heat exchanger
9 – Exhaust manifold
Turbocharger
The turbocharger is of the fixed geometry type with waste-gate valve
1 – Compressor
2 – Turbine
3 – Air-operated exhaust gas bypass actuator
4 – Pressure pipe to control WASTE – GATE
valve
A – Air enters compressor
B – Air exits compressor
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3.1.11 Fuel system
GENERAL
The fuel feed system is divided into a low pressure circuit and a high pressure circuit.
The low pressure circuit is composed of:
- tank
- submerged auxiliary motor pump;
- Diesel fuel filter;
- return manifold.
The high pressure circuit is composed of:
- pressure pump;
- distribution manifold.
Low pressure circuit
Fuel tank
The plastic fuel tank features a flexible filler neck and incorporates a seat for electric fuel pump and fuel
level meter.
A – 90-litre tank
B – 125-litre tank
1 – Fuel tank
2 – Fuel filler neck
3 – Breather pipe
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Submerged pump assembly complete with level indicator control system
Main components:
- electric fuel pump
- fuel filter
- float level indicator
- diaphragm pressure regulator
- screen prefilter
A – Float level sensor
B – Delivery fitting
B – Return fitting
D – Electric connector
1 – Fuel level sensor power supply
2 – Fuel level sensor ground
3 – Fuel pump ground
4 – Fuel pump power supply
Pump characteristic data:
- safety valve setting: 600 - 800 KPa,
- pump nominal delivery: 134 l/h (23°C),
- power supply: 12.5V.
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Fuel filter
The fuel filter is fitted in the engine compartment near the fireproof bulkhead.
The filter is made of a plastic shell that contains a depth partition cartridge made of synthetic material,
which ensures high efficiency, long service life and effective water separation.
1 – Fuel inlet
2 – Fuel outlet
3 – Eectric connector for water presence
sensor
4 – Water drain screw
5 – Filter body
6 – Fuel temperature sensor connector
7 – Filter cartridge (sealing O-ring supplied)
8 – Cover gasket
9 – Cover fixing ring nut
10 – Cover
11 – Spacer
12 – Rubber seal
13 – Ferromagnetic ring
14 – Gasket
15 – Float
16 – Water sensor
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OPERATION
Diesel fuel is drawn from the tank by a 12 V electric pre-feed pump that provides adequate delivery to
lubricate and cool the Radialjet pump as well.
The Diesel fuel filter is installed between the electric pump and the Radialjet pump.
High-pressure hydraulic lines are steel pipes with 2 mm inner diameter and 6 mm outer diameter.
The fuel recirculated from pump and injectors is collected in a single pipe and delivered to the tank.
1 – Fuel tank
2 – Submerged pump assembly
3 – Pipe connecting tank with fuel filter
4 – Fuel filter
5 – Pipe connecting fuel filter with fuel pressure control valve
6 – Fuel pipe fitting
7 – Pipe connecting fuel pressure control valve with high pressure pump
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High pressure circuit
1 – Pressure pump
2 – Pressure regulator
3 – Fuel pipe fitting
4 – Pipe connecting high pressure pump with fuel manifold (Rail)
5 – Fuel pressure sensor
6 – Pipe connecting fuel manifold (Rail) with electro-injectors
7 – Fuel manifold (Rail)
8 – Return pipe from electro-injectors
9 – Plug
10 – Electro-injector
11 – Fuel pipe from filter
12 – Return to tank
High pressure pump
GENERAL’
The CP3.2 fuel pump of the Common Rail
system is called Radialjet pump because
pumping action is accomplished by three
pumping elements (pistons) arranged
radially in relation to the axis of rotation of
the pump shaft. The three pistons are
spaced 120° apart.
The quantity of fuel sent to the pumping
pistons is controlled by a pressure regulator
governed by the engine control unit
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RADIALJET PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
Pump pistons are operated by a rotating triangular cam integral with pump shaft. The rotating cam moves
a mechanical element (tappet) linking it to piston foot. Cam to tappet contact is ensured by a spring.
Each pumping unit has an intake valve and delivery ball valve. Fuel from the three delivery valves is
collected in a single point inside the pump and conveyed to a common manifold through a single duct. A
peculiar feature of this pump is that it is lubricated and cooled by the fuel circulating inside it or through
suitable ports.
Delivery pressure is controlled by a low-pressure solenoid valve installed at the pump inlet end so as to
compress just the amount of fuel needed to achieve required pressure according to ECU mapping.
The main features of the Radialjet pump are outlined below:
- type: Radialjet radial piston pump
- number of pistons: 3
- maximum operating pressure: 1600 bar
- feeding: Diesel fuel at 3.5 ÷ 5.0 bar
- lubrication: by Diesel fuel fed to pump
- cooling: by Diesel fuel fed to pump
Note: The high pressure pump cannot be serviced; do not remove or disturb the retaining screws.
OPERATION
The pump is driven by the crankshaft via a double chain and turns at the same speed as the engine. In
this injection system, valve timing and injection duration are controlled by the electronic control system
and the pump simply maintains the fuel in the manifold at the required pressure.
The figure below shows the layout of pump hydraulic feeding system.
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(Relative) pressures in the circuit:
(a) 4.15 bar < p < 5.35 bar ; (b) 3.5 bar < p < 5.0 bar ; (c) p < 0.8 bar (d) 0.3 bar < p < 0.8 bar
1 – High pressure pump
2 – High pressure delivery pipe
3 – Return pipe from electro-injectors
4 – Electro-injectors
5 – Common Rail
6 – Fuel pressure sensor
7 – Filter with water separator
8 – Electric fuel pump check valve
9 – Line pressure relief valve
10 – Tank
11 – Electric fuel pump
12 – Filter at electric fuel pump intake end
13 – Electric fuel pump overpressure valve
14 – Pressure relief valve
15 – Proportional pressure regulating
valve.
Fuel regulator
The fuel pressure regulator is installed in the low-pressure circuit of the CP3.2 pump.
The pressure regulator meters the amount of fuel delivered to the high-pressure circuit according to the
commands it receives directly from the engine control unit
The main components of the pressure regulator are listed below:
- connector,
- body,
- solenoid,
- preload spring,
- shutter cylinder.
The pressure regulator is normally open unless it is receiving any input signals; in this condition, the
pump will be delivering its maximum flow rate.
The engine control unit varies fuel delivery in the high-pressure circuit by partially closing or opening the
fuel pipe sections in the low pressure circuit via a PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) signal
1 – Connector
2 – Fuel outlet holes
3 – Fuel inlet hole
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OPERATION
When the engine control unit governs the flow regulator (via PWM signal), the solenoid (1) is energised
and displaces the magnetic core (2).
The core causes the shutter cylinder (3) to move in an axial direction and fuel flow is restricted.
1 – Solenoid
2 – Magnetic core
3 – Shutter cylinder
4 – Fuel inlet
5 – Fuel outlet
When the solenoid (1) is de-energized, the magnetic core is pushed into its rest position by the preload
spring (3).
In this condition, the shutter cylinder (4) is in the position that provides a fully unrestricted fuel flow.
1 – Solenoid
2 – Magnetic core
3 – Preload spring
4 – Shutter cylinder
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Inertia switch
The inertia switch is located under the dashboard on passenger side. In the event of a collision, it cuts off
the fuel pump ground connection to shut off fuel delivery to the injection system.
It contains a ferromagnetic ball held in place in its tapered seat by a permanent magnet.
When vehicle deceleration exceeds a certain threshold due to a collision, the ball breaks free from its
seat and hits a switch, so that fuel pump relay ground is switched to the body computer.
This cuts off pump supply, releases the door locks and turns on the interior lighting.
The switch features a flexible cover to enable resetting.
NOTE: If you notice a burning smell or any leaks after an impact (including a minor collision), do no reset
the switch until you have located and repaired the trouble, or a fire may result. If there are no leaks and
the vehicle is capable of restarting, press the button to activate the fuel pump.
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3.1.12 Exhaust system
The engine exhaust gases flow through the manifold to the three-way catalytic converter
1 – Pre-catalyst bracket
2 – Clamp
3 – Gasket
4 – Pre-catalyst
5 – Pre-catalyst bracket
6 – Gasket
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7 – Exhaust pipe middle section
8 – Catalyst
9 – Catalyst bracket (on body)
10 – Flexible mounts
11 – Silencer bracket (on body)
12 – Silencer
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3.1.13 EGR system
GENERAL
This system recirculates part of the exhaust gases to the intake under certain particular operating
conditions.
This lowers peak temperature in the combustion chamber so as to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOx)
formation. The engine control unit recirculates a portion of the exhaust gases taken from the exhaust
manifold back to the engine intake.
To this end, the engine control unit processes the inputs from:
- atmospheric pressure sensor,
- water pressure sensor,
- engine rpm sensor,
- accelerator pedal potentiometer
and pilots both the vacuum control solenoid valve and the throttle valve via a PWM signal according to
the mapping stored in its memory.
Each time the engine control unit signals it to do so, the vacuum control solenoid valve opens a
connection between the servo brake vacuum circuit and the EGR circuit. This creates a certain amount of
vacuum in the EGR circuit according to the command signal. Vacuum operates the E.G.R. pneumatic
valve that retracts and lifts a shutter to open an exhaust gas passage to the intake.
This creates a connection between the exhaust and intake manifolds, so that part of the exhaust gases
flow into the intake manifold.
Exhaust gases are cooled while flowing through the heat exchanger and then conveyed into the throttle
valve chamber where they are mixed with the air from the intercooler and delivered to the intake manifold;
in the meantime, the engine control unit adjusts the amount of fuel injected into the cylinders depending
on the amount of exhaust gas recirculated.
When engine operating conditions are such that no gas recirculation is required (start-up, cold engine,
idle speed, load request, high altitude), the ECU sends no control signal to the vacuum control solenoid
valve. The solenoid valve closes the connection between the servo brake vacuum circuit and the E.G.R.
circuit and lets filtered air from the dedicated filter enter the E.G.R. circuit to restore atmospheric
pressure.
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5 – Engine rpm sensor
6 – E.G.R. pneumatic valve
7 – Air flow meter
8 – Intake air filter
9 – EGR vacuum control valve
10 – Vacuum-operated servo brake
a – Servo brake vacuum circuit
b – E.G.R. controlled vacuum circuit
1 – Engine control unit
2 – Throttle valve assembly
3 – Vacuum take-up point
4 – Water temperature sensor
E.G.R. valve
The E.G.R. valve is mounted at the end of the heat exchanger.
The valve is cooled by the engine coolant coming out of the heat exchanger to ensure improved efficiency
and long life.
The amount of recirculated exhaust gas is determined by a poppet valve operated by the vacuum let in by
a calibrated connector; vacuum is taken from the pipe connecting vacuum pump to servo brake.
The vacuum let in by the solenoid valve overcomes the pressure exerted by the spring (1) and raises a
diaphragm (2); the shutter (3) connected to it rises and lets burnt exhaust gases flow back into the intake
manifold.
1 – Vacuum duct,
2 – Spring
3 – Diaphragm.
4 – Shutter.
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E.G.R. solenoid valve
The E.G.R. solenoid valve operates the E.G.R. valve to determine the amount of exhaust gases to be
delivered to the intake duct.
The duty-cycle-controlled solenoid valve determines the amount of servo brake pump vacuum to be
connected to the E.G.R. valve so as to recirculate a certain amount of exhaust gas.
The figure below shows the layout of the EGR circuit.
1 – Servo brake vacuum pump
2 – Engine control unit
3 – E.G.R. solenoid valve
4 – Filter for connection to the atmosphere
5 – E.G.R. valve on engine
A – Exhaust gas from exhaust manifold
B – Exhaust gas recirculated to the intake
manifold
The figure below shows a detail diagram of the E.G.R. solenoid valve
1 – Connection to the atmosphere
2 – Electrical connector
3 – Connection to vacuum source
3a – White identification dot
4 – Connection to E.G.R. valve
4a – Yellow identification dot
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Solenoid valve characteristic data
Pilot frequency: 140 ± 7Hz.
Minimum duty cycle value: 6%.
Maximum duty cycle value: 6%.
Maximum feed vacuum: 930 mbar.
Winding resistance: 5.5 ±5 Ohm at 20 ± 5°C
The following graph shows the solenoid valve characteristic curve.
Heat exchanger
The heat exchanger installed between turbocharger and throttle valve assembly cools down exhaust gas
to reduce its volume.
Its body accommodates a set of corrugated pipes. The recirculated exhaust gas passing through the
pipes is cooled down by the engine coolant flowing inside the body.
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3.1.14 Crankcase oil vapour recovery system
General
A portion of combustion gases escapes past the end gaps of the piston rings into the sump; the oil fumes
in the sump become mixed with the exhaust gases.
From the chain compartment, this mixture is conveyed upwards, and oil is partly extracted by a device
located on top of the timing cover and conveyed into the air intake circuit. This device consists of a rotary
filter (3) splined to the shaft (1) of the high pressure/camshaft pump and a cover (2) that accommodates
two normally closed valves (4 and 5).
The diaphragm valve (4) controls the release of the partially filtered mixture to keep pressure inside the
chain compartment at ~ 10 ÷ 15 mbar. The umbrella valve (5) releases part of the remaining oil contained
in the mixture exiting the filter (3) into the chain compartment and oil condenses inside chamber (6).
A – Gas with an oil content greater than 10 g/h
B – Gas with an oil content ~ 0.2 g/h
C – Condensed oil returning to oil sump
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OPERATION
As the mixture passes through the rotary filter (3), oil particles are extracted by centrifugal force, hit the
cover walls, condense and are conveyed back into the lubrication circuit.
The filtered mixture is made to pass through the shaft holes (1) and the diaphragm valve (4) lets it flow
into the air conveyor upstream of the turbocharger. The valve (4) is opened or closed by the combined
action of the pressure acting on the diaphragm (4) and the vacuum underneath it. Any oil left in the
mixture exiting the rotary filter (3) condenses inside chamber (6) and is released into the chain
compartment by the umbrella valve (5) when the engine is stopped and the vacuum keeping the valve
closed is removed
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3.1.15 Engine lubrication system
GENERAL
The forced lubrication system consists of the following components:
- gear oil pump incorporated in the same assembly as the vacuum pump;
- pressure regulator incorporated in the oil pump;
- five-element heat exchanger;
- duel-filtration oil filter with incorporated safety valve.
OPERATION
Engine oil is drawn from the sump through the suction rose by the oil pump, pressurised and delivered to
the heat exchanger for cooling.
Oil flows through the oil filter and is conveyed to all lubrication points through galleries or pipes.
After the lubrication cycle, the oil drips back into the sump. The safety valve incorporated in the oil filter
cuts off the filter from the circuit when it becomes clogged.
In addition, the lubricating oil feeds the hydraulic tensioners of the auxiliary drive shafts and camshafts as
well as the hydraulic tappets.
A – Pressure regulator closed
B – Pressure regulator open
C – Oil pressure switch
D – Pressurised oil
E – Dripping oil
E – Coolant
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Oil pump/vacuum pump assembly
The oil pump/vacuum pump assembly is mounted on the crankcase on timing gear side.
The oil pump drive gear is driven by the crankshaft via a chain and transmits motion to the vacuum pump.
Note: this assembly cannot be serviced and must be replaced when faulty.
1 – Oil pump
2 – Oil pressure regulator
3 – Vacuum pump
The oil pump is a gear pump; the vacuum
pump is a radial vane pump.
The figure below shows a cross-section view of the oil pump
1 – Inlet duct for crankcase oil
2 – Oil intake duct
3 – Oil pressure regulator
4 – Oil delivery duct
5 – Vacuum pump air intake duct
6 – Vacuum pump oil intake duct
Oil pressure regulator
The oil pressure regulator is housed inside
the pump. The figure below shows its
components.
1 – Circlip
2 – Valve
3 – Spring
4 – Valve body.
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Oil pressure regulator valve closed
When oil pressure in duct C drops below
4.4 bar, the valve (1) shuts holes D and E
and the pressurised oil is delivered to the
crankcase.
1 – Valve
2 – Spring
A – Sump oil intake duct
B – Oil delivery duct to crankcase
C – Oil return duct from crankcase
D – Oil drain hole
E – Oil drain hole
Oil pressure regulator valve open
When pressure in duct C is 4.4 bar or
higher, it helps the valve (1)
overcome the spring (2); the valve lowers
and opens the drain holes D-E that connect
delivery duct A and intake duct B, so that
pressure drops.
As soon as pressure drops below 4.4 bar,
the spring (2) pushes the valve (1) back into
the closed position.
Oil filter
The oil filter is of the simple filtration type
with incorporated by-pass valve and opens
at a differential pressure of 2.5 ± 0.2 bar.
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Heat exchanger
The figure below shows the heat exchanger.
1 – Five-element heat exchanger
2 – Gasket
3 – Case
4 – Fitting
5 – Screw
6 – Oil filter mount
7 – Oil pressure switch
8 – Screw
9 – Heat exchanger case
10 – Gasket
The amount of oil in the circuit and oil pressure are continually monitored by:
- oil pressure sensor,
- oil level sensor,
- engine oil level control unit.
Engine oil pressure sensor
The engine oil pressure sensor is located near the oil filter on the water-oil heat exchanger.
1 – Engine oil pressure sensor
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The figure below shows the engine oil pressure sensor.
A – Detail of connector
1 – Connector
2 – Engine oil pressure sensor body
3 – Gasket
Engine oil level sensor
The engine oil level sensor is located near the alternator, on the crankcase exhaust side.
1 – Engine oil level sensor
The engine oil level sensor is a hot-wire
sensor.
The figure below shows the engine oil level sensor.
1 – Connector
2 – Engine oil level sensor body
3 – Gasket
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Engine oil level measurement
The system consists of an electronic control unit located near the engine control unit in the engine
compartment and a hot-wire sensor.
A – Engine oil level control unit
B – Detail of connector
1 – +12 Volt
2 – Output signal level
3 – Oil level sensor +
4 – Ground
5 – Ground signal
6 – Oil level sensor ground
Engine oil level is checked when the ignition key is turned to On to start the engine.
The system uses the heat dissipating properties of oil.
The current flowing through the hot wire causes its temperature and resistance to rise, while voltage
drops.
When the hot wire is submerged in oil, the oil will take up part of the heat; as a result, temperature,
resistance and voltage drop will be lower.
When the key is turned to On, the control unit feeds 210.5mA to the hot wire of the sensor. After a time
delay to allow for power supply to stabilise (t0 ÷ t1 = 150 mSec), the control unit takes a first voltage
reading (t1 ÷ t2 = 10 mSec ).
After another time delay (t0 ÷ t1 = 865 mSec), the control unit takes a second voltage reading and
compares it to the first reading.
At this point, one of the following may occur:
1) if the difference between the two readings is less than 125mV, it means that oil level is correct;
2) a difference greater than 445mV indicates minimum oil level;
3) if the second reading is greater than 3.5mV, it means that the sensor is interrupted;
4) if voltage is less than 1mV, it means that the sensor is shorted.
The oil control unit converts the reading into a PWM signal and sends it to the engine control unit. The
engine control unit sends the corresponding parameter over the C-CAN network to trigger the necessary
indications on the instrument panel.
PWM frequency : 125 ± 10Hz
Tolerance at ambient temperature PWM ± 3.5%
Oil level PWM signal represented by duty cycle TA
/ TP.
At the minimum level the PWM will be at 30%
(440mV) whereas at the max level it will be 90%
(125mV).
Between 10% and 15%, data acquisition is in
progress.
Between 3% and 7%, an error has occurred.
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Engine cooling circuit
The engine forced cooling system is a closed circuit and consists of the following components:
- expansion tank with an inlet and outlet valve incorporated in the plug to regulate circuit pressure;
- engine cooling module to dissipate the heat removed from the engine by the coolant;
- heat exchanger that cools lubricating oil;
- heat exchanger for exhaust gas (EGR) cooling;
- centrifugal water pump incorporated in crankcase;
- thermostat controlling coolant circulation
Diagram showing engine cooling system operation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Coolant pump
Coolant tank
Radiator
Thermostat
Oil/coolant heat exchanger
6. Exhaust gas/coolant heat
exchanger
7. Bleed screw
8. In-cab heater
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Engine coolant pump
The engine coolant pump is driven by the crankshaft via a poli-V belt; the pump delivers coolant to the
crankcase and - with greater pressure head - to the cylinder head.
The engine coolant pump is located on the crankcase on timing gear side.
1 – Engine coolant pump
2 – Seal
3 – Pipe connecting pump to expansion
tank
When coolant temperature reaches or exceeds operating temperature, the thermostat trips and conveys
coolant to radiator and cooling fan.
Pressure in the circuit varies with temperature and is controlled by the inlet and outlet valves incorporated
in the expansion tank filler plug.
Supplemental engine coolant tank
The tank feeds coolant to the circuit and takes up excess coolant when it expands from heat as engine
temperature rises.
A calibrated valve in the sealed plug
- lets air exit the circuit; this is the air drawn from the pipe coming from the coolant outlet fitting on the
head; or
- lets air in when the engine has cooled down and vacuum is created in the circuit.
1 – Expansion tank
2 – Engine coolant level sensor connector
3 – Fitting for coolant delivery to engine
cooling circuit
4 – Engine breather fitting
5 – Radiator breather fitting
6 – Expansion tank plug
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Expansion tank plug
The expansion tank plug maintains pressure in the cooling circuit within the specified range.
The plug accommodates two valves:
- one is set at 0.02÷0.07 kg/cm² and lets air at atmospheric pressure into the circuit to prevent vacuum
(inlet valve);
- the other valve is set at 1.4±0,1 kg/ cm² and releases exceeding pressure (outlet valve).
1 – Threaded cover
2 – Cover
3 – Outlet valve spring
4 – Inlet valve
5 – Outlet valve
6 – Inlet valve spring
7 – Outlet valve
8 – Lower cover
9 – Sealing O-ring
The outlet valve serves two purposes:
- it maintains a slight pressure in the circuit so as to increase coolant boiling point;
- it releases excess pressure to the atmosphere when coolant temperature rises.
The inlet valve lets air into the circuit when coolant cools down and shrinks in volume, creating vacuum in
the circuit.
Thermostat
The thermostat is housed inside the outlet manifold for the engine coolant exiting the head on the intake
side, and its purpose is to maintain ideal engine temperature:
A – Thermostatic valve closed
B – Thermostatic valve open
The by-pass thermostat requires no adjustment.
If you suspect a malfunction, replace it.
The water temperature sensor is mounted on thermostat body.
Valve travel at 79°C ± 2°C = 0.1 mm
Valve travel at 94°C ± °C = 7 mm
Valve travels 7 mm in less than 60”.
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3.2 ELECTRONIC ENGINE MANAGEMENT
FEATURES
The EDC16C39 Common Rail system is a high-pressure electronic injection system for fast directinjection diesel engines.
Its main features comprise:
- high injection pressures (1600 bar);
- pressure control range from 150 bar up to maximum operating pressure (1600 bar), regardless of
engine speed and loading;
- operation at high engine rpm (up to 6000 rpm under full loading);
- high pressure pump with three pumping elements;
- accurate injection (advance and duration) control;
- less consumption;
- less emissions.
The main features of the system are outlined below:
- fuel temperature control;
- engine coolant temperature control;
- injected fuel control;
- idle speed control;
- fuel cut-off during deceleration;
- cylinder balance control at idle speed;
- surge control;
- exhaust smoke control under acceleration;
- exhaust recirculation control (E.G.R.)
- torque limitation control;
- rpm limitation control;
- glow plug control;
- air conditioner control (where fitted);
- electric fuel pump control;
- cylinder position control;
- main and pilot injection advance control;
- closed-loop injection pressure control;
- electrical balance control;
- turbocharging pressure control;
- self-diagnosis;
- connection to Fiat CODE (Immobilizer) control unit.
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14 – Glow plug
15 – Glow plug control unit
16 – Air flow meter
17 – Rpm sensor
18 – Timing sensor
19 – Oil minimum pressure switch
20 – Lambda sensor on pre-catalyst
21 – Main catalyst
22 – Engine wiring harness
23 – Pedal unit
24 – Vehicle wiring harness
25 – Water temperature sensor
1 – Auxiliary fuel pump
2 – Fuel filter
3 – Fuel return manifold
4 – CP3.2 pressure pump
5 – Pressure regulator on pump
6 – Supercharging sensor
7 – Injection control unit
8 – Pressure sensor
9 – Rail
10 – Throttle body
11 – E.G.R. solenoid valve
12 – Oil level sensor
13 – E.G.R. actuator
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3.2.1 EDC 16 C 39 engine control
FEATURES
In this Common Rail fuel injection system equipped with CP3.2 pump, the flow regulator located at the
high pressure pump inlet controls the fuel flow required by the low pressure circuit. The high pump
pressure then feeds the Rail as appropriate.
This way, only the necessary amount of fuel is pressurised, there is less need to heat fuel in the system
and overall energy efficiency is improved
The CP3.2 pump maintains fuel at high pressure regardless of the current stroke of the cylinder that is
expecting the fuel and stores the fuel in a common duct for all electro-injectors (Rail).
As a result, fuel at the injection pressure determined by the ECU is constantly available at injector inlets.
When the ECU energises the solenoid valve of an injector, fuel is drawn from the rail and injected into the
corresponding cylinder.
The hydraulic system is comprised of a low pressure and high pressure circuit. The high pressure circuit
consists of the following pipes:
- pipe connecting high pressure pump outlet to Rail;
- Common Rail;
- feed pipes from Rail to injectors.
The low pressure circuit consists of the following pipes:
- suction pipe from tank to prefilter
- pipes feeding the mechanical supply pump and prefilter;
- pipes feeding the high pressure pump through the fuel filter;
- return pipe from high pressure pump;
- return pipe from electro-injectors;
- return pipe to tank.
Because of the high pressures in this hydraulic circuit, the following safety precautions must be strictly
observed:
- make sure to tighten the high pressure pipe fittings to the correct torque;
- do not disconnect high pressure pipes while the engine is running (DO NOT attempt to bleed the circuit,
this would be useless and dangerous!)
A low pressure circuit in good running order is critical to proper operation of the system, so do not make
changes to the circuit and repair any leaks without delay.
INJECTED FUEL CONTROL
The control unit controls fuel pressure regulator and electro-injectors based on the inputs from accelerator
pedal potentiometer, air flow meter or air pressure sensor in intake manifold and engine rpm sensor.
When the engine is started, injection timing and firing order are determined using the inputs from the
engine rpm sensor and the timing sensor (synchronisation); afterwards, injection timing is dependant on
the engine rpm sensor inputs only and the standard firing order of the 3000 JTD engine (1 – 3 – 4 – 2) is
resumed.
The control unit inhibits the injection when:
- fuel pressure exceeds 1700 bar;
- fuel pressure drops below 100 bar;
- engine rpm exceeds 5000 rpm.
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INJECTION ADVANCE CONTROL
The electronic control unit basically relies on two factors to calculate injection advance: the amount of fuel
to be injected and engine rpm.
Injection advance is adjusted according to engine coolant temperature so as to compensate for the
increasing injection delay during warm-up, while the combustion chambers are still cold.
INJECTION PRESSURE CONTROL
This is a critical feature, as injection pressure affects the following parameters:
- amount of fuel fed into the cylinders (injection duration being equal);
- fuel atomisation;
- injection depth;
- time delay after command signal before fuel is actually injected;
- duration of fuel injection into combustion chamber.
These parameters significantly affect engine operation and performance in terms of power output,
exhaust emissions, noise and driveability.
The engine control unit uses engine rpm and load inputs to control the pressure regulator at the high
pressure pump inlet so as to achieve and maintain optimal line pressure.
When the engine is cold, injection pressure is adjusted based on engine coolant temperature to meet
varying engine demand as operating temperature changes.
Fuel pressure is adjusted to instantaneous engine operating conditions (rpm, load, etc.).
The lower the pressure, the longer the injection times (and vice versa), also depending on load
requirements.
Up to 2800 rpm, a pre-injection feature reduces the noise typically associated with direct injection
systems.
Pre-injection advance angles, intervals between pre-injection and main injection and main injection
advance angles vary according to the instantaneous operating conditions of the engine.
ELECTRIC FUEL PRE-FEED PUMP CONTROL
The auxiliary fuel pump submerged in the tank is powered by the engine control unit through a contactor
when the ignition key is set to RUN.
Power supply to the electric pump is removed when:
- the engine has not started after the ignition key has been in the RUN position for 10 seconds;
- the inertia switch has tripped.
FUEL CUT-OFF DURING DECELERATION
Fuel cut-off occurs when the engine control unit receives an input from the potentiometer indicating that
the accelerator has been released.
In this condition, the control unit cuts off power supply to electro-injectors and restores it before idle rpm is
reached; the ECU also controls the fuel pressure regulator accordingly.
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IDLE SPEED CONTROL
The control unit controls fuel pressure regulator and electro-injector timing based on the inputs from the
engine rpm and coolant sensors so as to keep idle rpm stable. Under certain conditions, the ECU will also
use battery voltage to control idle speed.
MAXIMUM RPM LIMITATION CONTROL
The engine control unit achieves rpm limitation in two ways:
- it lowers line pressure to reduce the amount of fuel injected as the engine is approaching the maximum
rpm limit (4500 rpm);
- it shuts down the electro-injectors in the event the engine exceeds 5000 rpm.
MAXIMUM TORQUE LIMITATION CONTROL
The injection control unit uses rpm to calculate maximum torque parameters and maximum smoke rate
allowed based on the mapping stored in its memory. The control unit adjusts these parameters based on
engine coolant temperature and vehicle speed, and uses the resulting corrected parameters to meter out
the correct amount of fuel through the pressure regulators and the electro-injectors.
FUEL TEMPERATURE CONTROL
The injection control unit continually monitors fuel temperature through the sensor in the fuel filter.
When fuel reaches a predetermined temperature (80°C), the engine control unit begins to gradually
decrease maximum power and keeps cutting power up to 90°C, until achieving a minimum value of 60%
of rated power.
ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE CONTROL
The injection control unit continually monitors engine coolant temperature through the sensor on the
thermostat.
If engine coolant temperature exceeds certain predetermined values, the control unit will:
- signal the fuel pressure regulator and the electro-injectors to reduce the amount of fuel injected (power
reduction starting from 106°C).
- actuate the engine cooling fan (switch-on/off temperatures: 95 / 91°C for first speed, 99 / 95°C for
second speed).
When the ignition key is turned to STOP (and temperature is higher than the cooling system switch-on
threshold), the fan will keep running for up to 20 sec., so that temperature drops below the switch-on
threshold.
When the ignition key is turned to RUN (and coolant temperature is higher than the cooling system
switch-on threshold), the fans will not switch on until engine speed rises above 770 rpm (rpm with a warm
engine is 800 rpm).
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EXHAUST SMOKE RATE CONTROL
The injection control unit also provides smoke limitation, for event smoke emissions are produced under
sharp acceleration
To meet this requirement, the control unit processes the signals sent by accelerator pedal potentiometer,
engine rpm sensor and intake air sensor (air flow meter or pressure/temperature sensor); the injection
control unit controls the fuel pressure regulator and the electro-injectors so that the right amount of fuel to
reduce exhaust smoke is injected into the combustion chamber .
EXHAUST RECIRCULATION CONTROL (E.G.R.)
To ensure compliance with EURO 4 emissions standard, the control unit reduces the amount of fresh air
taken in according to engine load and accelerator pedal potentiometer inputs, and signals the pneumatic
EGR valve to open so as to draw a portion of the exhaust gas.
AIR CONDITIONER CONTROL
The engine control unit controls the air conditioner compressor clutch so as to preserve engine
performance when the air conditioner is on.
When the air conditioner is switched on, the engine control unit provides more fuel at idle speed to meet
the increased demand from the engine and shuts down the air conditioner in the event of:
- exceeding engine coolant temperature (AC is shut down at 105°C and re-enabled at 100°C).
ENGINE IMMOBILIZER
The system offers an engine immobilizer feature. This is achieved thanks to a Fiat CODE control unit that
communicates with the engine control unit and an electronic key that incorporates a code transponder.
Each time the key is turned to STOP, the Fiat CODE system shuts down the engine control unit
completely.
When the key is turned to RUN, the following occurs in the order:
- the engine control unit (which has the secret code stored in its memory) asks the Fiat CODE control unit
to transmit the secret code required to cancel the inhibit condition;
- the Fiat CODE control unit will only send the secret code after receiving the identification code from the
key transponder;
- when the secret code is recognised, the engine control unit inhibit is disabled and the unit is restored to
normal operation.
SELF-DIAGNOSIS
The injection system can be fully diagnosed by connecting the EXAMINER equipment to the diagnostic
connector located in the engine compartment.
The system includes a self-diagnosis feature to recognise, store and warn of possible malfunctions.
In the event a sensor or actuator is found to be malfunctioning, preset signal recovery strategies ensure
acceptable engine operation. This way, the vehicle can be driven to nearest service centre for the
necessary repairs.
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FIXED GEOMETRY TURBINE CONTROL (VGT)
The control unit processes the supercharging sensor inputs at varying engine rpm and determines the
amount of fuel to be injected:
- the ECU adjusts injection duration;
- it adjusts the amount of exhaust gas flowing through the turbocharger so as to ensure optimal
performance under all operating conditions.
LAMBDA SENSOR CONTROL
The control unit uses the inputs from the Lambda sensor to prepare “correction maps” for the main injection
and compensate for injection component decay (EGR, injectors, pressure rail, air flow meter, Lambda
sensor)
SOLENOID VALVE CONTROL
The control unit switches on the cooling fans at the first or second speed depending on engine coolant
temperature and coolant pressure in the air conditioning system.
CRUISE CONTROL (WHERE FITTED)
The control unit directly adjusts the amount of fuel injected depending on the position of the cruise control
lever so as to control and maintain the vehicle speed stored in the memory.
It also controls a status light on the instrument panel to indicate whether the system is on or off.
The cruise control system is temporarily disabled:
- when the brake is operated,
- when the clutch is operated;
- pressing the "resume" button brings the vehicle back to the stored speed.
The cruise control is not disabled when the accelerator pedal is depressed (for instance, when overtaking)
and automatically brings the vehicle back to stored speed as soon as the accelerator is released.
For safety reasons, the ASR (antispin) feature overrides the cruise control.
3.2.2
Engine Control unit pinout
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37 – Particulate filter differential sensor
negative power supply (where fitted)
38 – Resume from cruise control command
39 – NC
40 – NC
41 – NC
42 – NC
43 – NC
44 – Particulate filter differential sensor
power supply (where fitted)
45 – Accelerator pedal potentiometer 1
power supply
46 – Accelerator pedal potentiometer 2
power supply
47 – NC
48 – NC
49 – NC
50 – NC
51 – Lambda sensor heating (negative)
52 – Glow plug preheating time/fault
detection feedback input
53 – NC
54 – Compressor cut-in request from
pushbutton positive signal
55 – NC
56 – Cruise control for “set / acc.”
57 – NC
58 – NC
59 – NC
60 – NC
61 – NC
62 – NC
63 – NC
64 – Lambda sensor Nerst cell reference
voltage signal
65 – Lambda sensor pumping current
66 – NC
67 – NC
68 – (Provision for) Diesel filter heater
contactor command
69 – Engine cooling fan speed contactor 2
cut-in command
70 – NC
71 – Malfunction indicator light (EOBD/MIL)
72 – Direct power supply from battery
73 – NC
74 – Water in fuel sensor (signal)
75 – NC
76 – NC
77 – Cruise control on/off control lever
positive
78 – Cruise control “set/dec.” command
positive
79 – Clutch pedal pressed positive signal
(NC switch)
M010A connector
1 – Key-on power source from main
contactor
2 – Control unit ground 1
3 – NC
4 – Control unit ground 2
5 – Key-on power source from main
contactor
6 – Control unit ground 3
7 – NC
8 – Accelerator pedal potentiometer 2
ground
9 – Accelerator pedal potentiometer 1
signal
10 – Fuel temperature signal (ground)
11 – Fuel temperature signal (signal)
12 – Air conditioner linear pressure sensor
(ground)
13 – Air conditioner linear pressure sensor
(signal)
14 – NC
15 – NC
16 – NC
17 – Brake pedal switch (signal)
18 – NC
19 – NC
20 – Fuel pump contactor power supply
(positive)
21 – NC
22 – Air conditioner linear pressure sensor
(power supply)
23 – NC
24 – NC
25 – K line for diagnosis
26 – NC
27 – NC
28 – Direct power supply from switch +15
29 – Compressor cut-in contactor control
30 – Accelerator pedal potentiometer 1
ground
31 – Accelerator pedal potentiometer 2
signal
32 – DPF exhaust gas temperature signal
(where fitted)
33 – DPF exhaust gas temperature ground
(where fitted)
34 – Exhaust gas temperature sensor 1
signal (where fitted)
35 – Exhaust gas temperature sensor 1
ground (where fitted)
36 – Particulate filter differential sensor
signal (where fitted)
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23 – Absolute pressure sensor (negative)
24 – NC
25 – NC
26 – NC
27 – Rpm sensor (positive input)
28 – Rail pressure sensor (positive)
29 – NC
30 – NC
31 – Injector 2 (negative command)
32 – NC
33 – Injector 4 (negative command)
34 – NC
35 – NC
36 – NC
37 – Air temperature sensor (signal) inside
air flow meter
38 – NC
39 – NC
40 – Absolute pressure sensor (signal)
41 – Water temperature sensor (ground)
42 – Air mass quantity in flow meter signal
43 – Fuel pressure sensor on rail (signal)
44 – Air flow meter (ground)
45 – NC
46 – Injector 3 (negative command)
47 – Injector 1 (negative command)
48 – NC
49 – Flow regulator control (negative)
50 – Timing sensor (signal)
51 – NC
52 – Oil level sensor (signal)
53 – Air temperature signal of absolute
pressure sensor
54 – NC
55 – NC
56 – Signal oil pressure sensor (normally
closed)
57 – NC
58 – Water temperature sensor (signal)
59 – Powered throttle actuator command
60 – EGR negative command
80 – Clutch pedal pressed redundant signal
(positive), normally closed.
81 – NC
82 – NC
83 – Can line from NBC – (Can low)
84 – Can line from NBC – (Can High)
85 – NC
86 – Ground for Lambda sensor signal
87 – Lambda sensor reference current
88 – NC
89 – NC
90 – Engine cooling fan speed contactor 1
cut-in command
91 – NC
92 – NC
93 – Glow plug preheating contactor
94 – Engine cooling fan speed contactor 3
cut-in command
M010B Connector
1 – Injector no. 3, supply
2 – Injector no. 2, supply
3 – NC
4 – NC
5 – NC
6 – NC
7 – NC
8 – Fuel pressure sensor (ground)
9 – NC
10 – NC
11 – Timing sensor (power supply)
12 – Rpm sensor (negative input)
13 – Absolute pressure sensor (power
supply)
14 – NC
15 – NC
16 – Injector no. 1, supply
17 – Injector no. 4, supply
18 – NC
19 – Fuel flow regulator (power supply)
20 – Timing sensor (negative)
21 – NC
22 – Oil level sensor (ground)
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3.2.3 Engine management wiring diagram
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Key to engine management wiring diagram components
A040. Preheating glow plugs
B001. Engine compartment connector box
B002. Connector box under dashboard
B099. Pmaxi-fuse box on battery
C010. Front left ground
C022. Central dashboard ground
C100. Cab ground
D001. Dashboard/front junction
D004. Engine/front junction
E050. Instrument panel
H001. Ignition switch
I030. Brake pedal switch
I031. Clutch pedal switch
I050. Inertia switch
K030. Engine oil pressure sensor
K031. Water in diesel filter sensor
K032. Engine oil level sensor
K036. Engine water temperature sensor
K040. Lambda sensor
K041. Air flow meter
K044. Intake air pressure and temperature sensor
K046. Rpm sensor
K047. Timing sensor
K055. Accelerator pedal potentiometer
K081. Fuel temperature sensor
K083. Fuel pressure sensor
L030. EGR solenoid valve
L062. Throttle body
M001. Body computer
M010. Engine control unit
M015. Glow plug preheating control unit
M186. Engine oil level control unit
N040. Electric fuel pump and fuel level meter
N070. Electro-injectors
N193. Fuel flow regulator
O007. Oil vapour heating resistor
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3.2.4 Injection/ignition system components
ENGINE CONTROL UNIT
It is fitted in the engine compartment on the right-hand side panel.The control unit is of the "flash
e.p.r.o.m." type, i.e. it can be reprogrammed from outside without removing the hardware.
The injection control unit incorporates the absolute pressure sensor.
The figure below shows the control unit.
RPM SENSOR
Features
The rpm sensor is fitted on the crankcase
with its sensing surface facing the phonic
wheel on the engine flywheel. It is an
inductive sensor that changes its output as
it senses the changes in the magnetic field
caused by the phonic wheel teeth (60 - 2
teeth) passing across it.
The injection control unit uses the rpm
sensor signal to:
- determine the rotation speed;
- determine the angular position of the
crankshaft.
TIMING SENSOR
Features
The timing sensor is a Hall sensor fitted on
engine oil filler cover on the upper cylinder
head section.
It determines engine timing by sensing
the position of intake camshaft drive gear.
The injection control unit uses the signal of
the timing sensor to determine T.D.C. at the
end of the compression stroke.
1 –Timing sensor
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INTAKE AIR TEMPERATURE AND OVERPRESSURE SENSOR
Features
The intake air overpressure and temperature sensor is an integrated component used to measure the
pressure and temperature of the air inside the intake manifold.
The sensor is fitted on the intake manifold and its output is used by the engine control unit:
- to adjust turbocharger pressure
- to protect the engine from overheating
- to diagnose air flow meter operation
Sensor pinout:
1 – Ground
2 – Air temperature signal
3 – 5 V power supply (from engine control
unit)
4 – Turbocharging pressure output signal
Sensor output voltage changes with absolute pressure according to the following law:
Ua=(c1*pabs+c0)*Us
where:
- Ua = signal output voltage in V
- Us = power supply voltage in V
- pabs = absolute pressure in kPa
- c0 = 5.4/280
- c1 = 0.85/280 kPa-1
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The graph below shows output signal tolerance in relation to pressure.
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The following table lists temperature sensor resistance values in relation to air
temperature
Temperature
(°C)
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120
125
130
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Resistance in Ohm
Minimum
45301
33703
25350
19265
14785
11453
8951
7055
5605
4487
3618.7
2938.5
2401.9
1975.8
1644.7
1374.2
1152.4
969.9
819.1
694.2
590.3
503.6
431.0
370.1
318.68
275.25
238.43
207.12
180.42
157.37
137.63
120.68
106.09
93.48
82.58
Rated
48153
35763
26854
20376
15614
12078
9426
7419
5887
4707
3791.1
3074.9
2510.6
2062.9
1715.4
1431.8
1199.6
1008.6
851.1
720.7
612.3
521.9
446.3
382.89
329.48
284.37
246.15
213.67
186.00
162.35
142.08
124.66
109.65
96.68
85.45
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Maximum
51006
37823
28359
21487
16443
12702
9901
7783
6168
4926
3693.5
3211.3
2619.3
2150.1
1786.2
1489.5
1246.7
1047.4
883.0
747.1
634.2
540.2
461.6
395.7
340.27
293.48
253.86
220.23
191.58
167.32
146.52
128.63
113.21
99.88
88.32
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ENGINE COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR
The engine coolant temperature sensor is
mounted on a thermostatic plate and
detects coolant temperature by means of a
double
NTC
(negative
temperature
coefficient) thermistor.
One NTC thermistor sends a signal to the injection control unit, while the other sends a signal to
temperature indicator and light on the instrument panel.
The sensor uses semiconductor technology; as sensor temperature increases with coolant temperature,
sensor resistance drops.
The change in resistance is not linear; temperature increase being equal, resistance will drop faster in the
low temperature range than at higher temperatures.
AIR FLOW METER WITH INCORPORATED AIR TEMPERATURE SENSOR
Features
The hot-film air flow meter is located on the air intake sleeve.
It incorporates the intake air temperature sensor.
Air flow meter pinout:
1 – Power supply
2 – Ground
3 – Air temperature sensor signal
4 – Air mass quantity signal
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ACCELERATOR PEDAL POTENTIOMETER
Features
The sensor casing is secured to the accelerator pedal and accommodates two (main and safety)
potentiometers connected by an axial shaft.
The shaft is fitted with two springs: a coil spring provides the correct resistance when pressure is applied
to the pedal, the second is the return spring for when the pedal is released.
1 – Accelerator
power supply
2 – Accelerator
power supply
3 – Accelerator
ground
4 – Accelerator
signal
5 – Accelerator
ground
6 – Accelerator
signal
pedal potentiometer 2
pedal potentiometer 1
pedal potentiometer 1
pedal potentiometer 1
pedal potentiometer 2
pedal potentiometer 2
Sensor output voltage changes with accelerator pedal position and is sent to the injection control unit.
The accelerator pedal position signal is processed together with the rpm input to calculate injection times
and pressure.
MOTOR-DRIVEN THROTTLE BODY
Double potentiometer = factor 2
Power supply voltage (U1, U2) = 5 V ± 0.3 V
Series and contact resistance (Rs + Rc) = 1 kOhm ±0.4 kOhm
Maximum load on sliding contact = 0.5 micro Ampere
Potentiometer resistance Rn1 = 1.2 kOhm ±0.5 kOhm
Potentiometer resistance Rn2 + Rv2 = 1.7 kOhm ±0.8 kOhm
Linearity = ±0.02 u/U
P1/P2 synchronisation = absolute value(u1/(U1/2)-u2/U2) ≤ 0.014 u
The (normally open) throttle valve assembly fitted on the intake manifold controls the flow rate of
intercooler air to be mixed with the exhaust gases recirculated by the E.G.R. valve, according to a
programmed percentage.
Recirculated exhaust gas is mixed with intercooler air in a duct inside the cylinder head.
The throttle valve is operated by an electric actuator controlled by a PWM signal from the EDC 16 control
unit.
If the throttle valve jams, the control unit will reduce engine performance to prevent engine damage.
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The motor-driven throttle body performs two functions:
- shut-off management
- it controls exhaust gas temperature by restricting the cross-section area of the intake duct.
Connector pinout
1 – PWM (Pulse Width Modulate) command
2 – Power supply
3 – Ground
4 – Position signal
A– Throttle valve
B – Electrical actuator
CLUTCH PEDAL POSITION SWITCH
The clutch pedal position switch is mounted on the pedal assembly and generates a positive signal for the
electronic control unit when the clutch is engaged (pedal released).
Whenever the clutch is disengaged to shift gears, the control unit senses that the switch signal is missing
and disables the Cruise Control (where fitted).
A – Power supply positive
B – Electrical load
C – Wiring diagram (pedal depressed)
BRAKE PEDAL POSITION SWITCH
The brake pedal position switch is mounted on the pedal assembly. When the brake pedal is released,
the switch generates a positive signal. The control unit uses this signal to determine when the brake is
operated so as to disable the Cruise Control (where fitted) and cut off fuel.
The switch also operates the brake lights.
A – Power supply positive
B – Electrical load
C – Not connected
D – Not connected
E – Wiring diagram (pedal depressed)
F – Diagram showing operation
0 – Brake pedal released
1 – Brake pedal depressed
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3.3 DIAGNOSIS
3.3.1 Parameter section
Exhaustive system information can be viewed in the parameter screen, starting with typical engine
operation parameters (rpm, water temperature, etc.).
The system is derived from the EDC16C39 SYSTEM developed for Fiat Croma and Alfa 159, so the
following parameters should be noted:
SPEED LIM FUNCTION: Possible states are:LEARNT: After proxi alignment, when the vehicle did not
exceed the speed limit set in the ECU
SPEED LIMITATION: Displays vehicle speed limitation set in the ECU
-
WARNING: The following OPTIONAL parameters:
AC cut-in request
AC control relay
Air conditioner pressure
Cruise control switch
Request from Cruise control lever
Irrev. Cruise control error state
will be labelled 'Not available' unless the teach-in procedure for that function has been performed
Parameter description can be viewed by pressing the HELP button in the PARAMETER SELECTION
screen
DESCRIPTION
Engine rpm
Accelerator pedal
Accelerator pos.
1 AD/C
Accelerator pos.
2 AD/C
Fuel COR CYL 1
Fuel COR CYL 2
Fuel COR CYL 3
Fuel COR CYL 4
TOTAL
FUEL
QTY
Target
fuel
PRESS
Measured
fuel
PRESS
Fuel
pressure
AD/C
Press reg opng
(MPROP)
Meas
TURBO
PRESS
Turbo
PRESS
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HELP
ENGINE RPM: Shows engine rotation speed
ACCELERATOR POSITION 1 AD/C: Voltage reading of accelerator
potentiometer channel 1
ACCELERATOR POSITION 2 AD/C: Voltage reading of accelerator
potentiometer channel 2.
FUEL CORRECTION CYL 1/2/3/4: Amount of fuel added/subtracted for
each injector to obtain the same performance from all cylinders and
correct possible engine malfunctions.
FUEL CORRECTION CYL 1/2/3/4: Amount of fuel added/subtracted for
each injector to obtain the same performance from all cylinders and
correct possible engine malfunctions.
FUEL CORRECTION CYL 1/2/3/4: Amount of fuel added/subtracted for
each injector to obtain the same performance from all cylinders and
correct possible engine malfunctions.
FUEL CORRECTION CYL 1/2/3/4: Amount of fuel added/subtracted for
each injector to obtain the same performance from all cylinders and
correct possible engine malfunctions.
TOTAL FUEL QTY: Total overall quantity of Diesel fuel injected
TARGET FUEL PRESSURE: This is the pressure calculated by the
control unit and estimated to occur in the high pressure fuel circuit.
MEASURED FUEL PRESSURE: This is the pressure reading taken in
the high pressure fuel circuit.
FUEL PRESSURE AD/C: Voltage reading at sensor output.
PRESS REG OPNG (MPROP): Opening rate of pressure regulator
fitted on the high pressure pump at the low pressure circuit end
MEASURED TURBOCHARGING PRESSURE: This is the pressure
reading taken in the turbocharging circuit.
TURBOCHARGING PRESSURE AD/C: Voltage reading at sensor
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AD/C
Engine
oil
pressure
Target air mass
Measured
air
mass
EGR control
EGR
valve
opening
Atmospheric
pressure
Air Temp (air flow
meter)
Air Temp (Turbo)
Air Temp AD/C
(Turbo)
Water temperature
Water Temp AD/C
Fuel temperature
Fuel temperature
AD/C
Battery voltage
Lambda
sensor
voltage
Lambda
oxygen
conc
Vehicle speed
Preheat
ECU
Diag
Fuel pump relay
command
Fan speed
Throttle
SV
opening
Throttle state
AC cut-in request
AC
relay
command
AC PRESS
Brake pedal state
Brake contact 2
Clutch pedal
Water in diesel
filter
Cruise
control
switch
Request
from
Cruise lever
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output.
TARGET AIR MASS: Air quantity calculated by control unit according to
sensor inputs.
MEASURED AIR MASS: Quantity of air measured by air flow meter.
EGR VALVE OPENING: EGR valve opening rate dictated by ECU
signal
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE: Pressure reading taken by sensor
housed inside control unit
AIR TEMP (AIR FLOW METER): Air temperature measurement taken
by digital air flow meter
AIR TEMPERATURE (TURBO): Air temperature reading taken inside
turbo sensor.
AIR TEMPERATURE AD/C: Voltage reading at air temperature sensor
output.
WATER TEMPERATURE: Engine coolant temperature
WATER TEMPERATURE AD/C: Voltage reading at water temperature
sensor output
FUEL TEMPERATURE: Fuel temperature inside Diesel fuel pump.
FUEL TEMPERATURE AD/C: Voltage reading at Diesel fuel
temperature sensor output
BATTERY VOLTAGE: Power supply voltage fed to control unit
LAMBDA SENSOR VOLTAGE: Voltage at sensor expressed in
milliVolts.
LAMBDA OXYGEN CONC: Concentration rate . .
of Lambda
sensor, range is 0% to 21%.
VEHICLE SPEED: Vehicle speed.
PREHEATING CONTROL UNIT DIAG: 'ON' means that the glow plug
preheating control unit has cut in
FUEL PUMP RELAY COMMAND: State of Diesel fuel low pressure
pump relay command
THROTTLE SV OPENING: Opening rate of throttle in intake duct (5% =
throttle wide open, 95% = throttle closed)
AC CUT-IN REQUEST: Request to switch on air condition compressor
AC RELAY COMMAND: State of air conditioner relay command from
control unit.
BRAKE PEDAL STATE: Indicates whether brake pedal is 'Pressed or
'Released'.
BRAKE CONTACT 2: Brake pedal position detected by secondary
contact of brake pedal.
CLUTCH PEDAL: Clutch pedal position.
CRUISE SWITCH: Possible states are 'On' and 'Off'; when set to 'On', it
automatically maintains the cruising speed set by the driver.
REQUEST FROM CRUISE LEVER: Request triggered by cruise lever
(None, Cruise Resume Button (RCL), Set Cruise deceler (-),Set Cruise
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Target
cruise
speed
Irrev. Cruise error
state
Current gear
Fuel consumption
Fuel
level
indicator
Gearbox
type
fitted
Injection control
unit
Engine start
Universal code
Max engine rpm
Max rpm time
counter
Overrev events
Programming
sessions
Speed limitation
Speed
function
Odometer
Odo count
time prog
LIM
last
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deceler (+)
TARGET CRUISE SPEED: Reference speed used by cruise control for
vehicle cruising speed
IRREV. CRUISE ERROR STATE: Covers all events leading to cruise
control inhibition. To re-enable the cruise control, perform a 'Key Off'
(STOP)-'Key On' (RUN) sequence and proceed to re-enable the cruise
control.
CURRENT GEAR: Gear currently in use
FUEL CONSUMPTION: Fuel consumption expressed in L/100KM
FUEL LEVEL INDICATOR : Quantity of fuel in the tank.
GEARBOX TYPE FITTED: Type of gearbox used in the vehicle. A 'Not
plausible' state indication may only occur when the engine control units
of vehicles with different transmission types (manual/automatic) have
been swapped
INJECTION CONTROL UNIT: Indicates whether the injection control
unit has been programmed
ENGINE START: Indicates whether the injection control unit enables
engine starting
UNIVERSAL CODE: Indicates whether the injection control unit is
receiving a universal code from the Electronic Key Control Unit/Body
Computer
MAX ENGINE RPM: Maximum rpm reached by engine
MAX RPM TIME COUNTER: Indicates how long engine kept running at
maximum rpm
OVERREV EVENTS: Indicates how many times the engine overrevved.
PROGRAMMING SESSIONS: Indicates how many times the control
unit has been programmed.
SPEED LIMITATION: Displays the vehicle speed limitation set in the
control unit.
SPEED LIM FUNCTION: State 'LEARNT' indicates that proxi alignment
was performed and the vehicle did not exceed the speed limit set in the
Engine Control Unit.
ODOMETER: Distance travelled by vehicle in km.
ODOMETER COUNT LAST TIME PROGRAMMED: Odometer count
when control unit was last programmed.
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3.3..2 Error Section
Errors are divided into the following classes:
TRANSIENT: Error detected for a short time, namely too short to be classified as present
INTERMITTENT: Error no longer detected by the control unit but stored in the error memory.
PRESENT: Error is still detected by the control unit.
Pressing the 'Del. Errors' key deletes errors in the non-volatile memory.
In this system, the trouble code is displayed before the description in the ERROR environment.
P0271 - Cylinder 4 injector
P0335 - Engine rpm sensor
P0340 - Timing sensor
P0380 - Preheating unit command
P0401 - EGR valve
P0402 - EGR valve
P0403 - EGR valve
P0480 - Fan 1 or PWM
P0481 - Cooling fan command 2
P0482 - Cooling fan command 3
P0500 - Vehicle speed signal (CAN)
P0504 - Brake switch
P0520 - Oil pressure switch
P0530 - Air conditioner pressure sensor
P0560 - Battery voltage
P0564 - Cruise control (irreversible cut-off)
P0579 - Cruise cut-in commands
P0601 - ECU faulty (EEPROM)
P0606 - ECU faulty (Microprocessor)
P060A - Monitoring interrupted during
initialisation
P060B - Adc control
P0611 - Injection control
P061B - ECU calibration
P061C - Shut-off control
P062D - ECU faulty (injector control)
P062E - ECU faulty (injector control)
P0638 - Throttle valve command
P0641 - Sensor power supply 1
P0645 - AC relay command
P0651 - Sensor power supply 2
P0683 - Preheating control unit (feedback)
P0685 - Main relay
P0697 - Sensor power supply 3
P0700 - Request to turn on MIL from AT
P0704 - Clutch switch
P0748 - Fuel Press reg (at HI press pump
inlet)
P1131 - Upstream Lambda 1 signal
(plausibility)
P1132 - Upstream Lambda 1 signal
(plausibility)
P0016 - Timing/rpm synchronisation
P0053 - Lambda sensor resistance
P0090 - Fuel Press (regulator at HI press
pump inlet)
P0091 - Fuel Press (regulator at HI press
pump inlet)
P0092 - Fuel Press (regulator at HI press
pump inlet)
P0093 - Fuel Press (regulator at HI press
pump inlet)
P0094 - Fuel Press (regulator at HI press
pump inlet)
P0095 - Air Temp sensor (inside turbo)
P0100 - Air flow meter
P0101 - Air flow meter signal
P010F - Air mass/air flow meter mismatch
P0110 - Air flow meter air temp signal
P0111 - Air flow meter air temp signal
P0115 - Water temperature sensor
P0116 - Water temperature sensor
P0120 - Accelerator pedal sensor 1
P0122 - Accelerator pedal connector
P0130 - Lambda sensor electrical diagnosis
P0135 - Lambda sensor electrical diagnosis
P0168 - Limit for high fuel temp
P0180 - Fuel temperature sensor
P0190 - Fuel high pressure sensor
P0191 - Fuel pressure signal
P0201 - Cylinder 1 injector
P0202 - Cylinder 2 injector
P0203 - Cylinder 3 injector
P0204 - Cylinder 4 injector
P0216 - Injection time
P0219 - High engine rpm
P0220 - Accelerator pedal sensor 2
P0230 - Fuel pump relay command
P0234 - Turbocharging pressure
P0235 - Turbocharging pressure sensor
P0262 - Cylinder 1 injector
P0265 - Cylinder 2 injector
P0268 - Cylinder 3 injector
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P1140 - Lambda sensor
P1205 - Particulate filter
P1206 - Particulate filter
P1218 - ECU faulty (HW recovery)
P1219 - Regeneration time too long
P1301 - Injector registration
P1605 - ECU faulty (HW CY310)
P1606 - ECU faulty (communication)
P1607 - Lambda sensor control circuit
P1611 - Lambda sensor control circuit
P1618 - ECU faulty (HW CY940)
P1619 - ECU faulty (HW CY940)
P1623 - ECU faulty (BUS com)
P2084 - Temp snsr at particulate filter inlet
P2085 - Temp snsr at particulate filter inlet
P2135 - Accelerator pedal power
(plausibility)
P2146 - Group 1 injector command
P2148 - Group 1 injector command
P2149 - Group 2 injector command
P2151 - Group 2 injector command
P2226 - Atmospheric press sensor
P2231 - Lambda sensor resistance
P2243 - Lambda sensor electrical diagnosis
P2264 - Water in fuel filter sensor
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P2299 - Accelerator brake plausibility
P2452 - Differential pressure sensor
P2453 - Differential pressure sensor signal
P2455 - Differential pressure sensor
P2505 - Key input
2626 - Lambda sensor electrical diagnosis
P2A00 - Lambda sensor
U1601 - C-CAN line error
U1700 - CAN network (NCM - NBC)
U1706 - CAN network (NCM - NFR)
U1711 - CAN network (NCM - NCA)
U0426 - Electronic key
P0102 - Air flow meter adapt offset
presetting
P0103 - Air flow meter adapt offset
P0104 - Air flow meter adapt offset (engine
idling)
P0105 - Air flow meter adapt offset (engine
under loading)
P011A - Water temperature sensor
P0336 - Rpm sensor (phonic wheel)
P250A - Engine oil level sensor
P0089 - Fuel Press (regulator at HI press
pump inlet)
P1303 - Speed limitation
P1304 - Speed limitation
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3.3.3 Active diagnosis displayed with the examiner
DESCRIPTION
HELP
Lets you start the engine using the vehicle's Code
Card in the event the Key or the Electronic Key Control
Unit/Body computer (if fitted) is faulty.
CODE CARD START
FUEL PUMP RELAY
EGR VALVE ACTUATION
FAN LOW SPEED ACTUATION
FAN HIGH SPEED ACTUATION
If the key is turned to STOP, the Code Card starting
procedure will have to be repeated
The Diesel fuel pump is operated for a few seconds.
You should hear a hissing sound coming from the fuel
fittings.
You should hear a clicking sound from the valve
You should hear the fan running
.
The cooling fan is operated at high speed for a few
seconds
The relay should keep clicking for a few seconds
PREHEATING RELAY
AC RELAY ACTUATION
FUEL PRESS REG (HIGH PRESS
PUMP INLET)
You should hear the compressor clutch engage
repeatedly for about 10 seconds.
Operates the Diesel fuel pressure regulator several
times
NOTE: The Diesel fuel pressure regulator is installed
on the high pressure pump (low pressure circuit end)
MALFUNCTION LAMP
ACTUATION
The lamp flashes for a few seconds
WARNING: In vehicles equipped with Body Computer,
lamp actuation command is sent to the Body
Computer, that physically actuates the lamp. However,
the lamp not turning on DOES NOT indicate a Body
Computer malfunction.
PREHEATING LAMP
ACTUATION
The lamp flashes for a few seconds
WARNING: In vehicles equipped with Body Computer,
lamp actuation command is sent to the Body
Computer, that physically actuates the lamp. However,
the lamp not turning on DOES NOT indicate a Body
Computer malfunction.
CRUISE LAMP
The lamp flashes for a few seconds
WARNING: In vehicles equipped with Body Computer,
lamp actuation command is sent to the Body
Computer, that physically actuates the lamp. However,
the lamp not turning on DOES NOT indicate a Body
Computer malfunction.
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WATER TEMPERATURE LAMP
WATER IN FUEL FILTER LAMP
OIL PRESSURE LAMP
ACTUATION
THROTTLE SOLENOID VALVE
TEACH-IN RESET
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The lamp flashes for a few seconds
WARNING: In vehicles equipped with Body Computer,
lamp actuation command is sent to the Body Computer,
that physically actuates the lamp. However, the lamp not
turning on DOES NOT indicate a Body Computer
malfunction.
Check that the indicator light is flashing
WARNING: In vehicles equipped with Body Computer,
lamp actuation command is sent to the Body Computer,
that physically actuates the lamp. However, the lamp not
turning on DOES NOT indicate a Body Computer
malfunction.
Check that the indicator light is flashing
WARNING: In vehicles equipped with Body Computer,
lamp actuation command is sent to the Body Computer,
that physically actuates the lamp. However, the lamp not
turning on DOES NOT indicate a Body Computer
malfunction.
You should hear a clicking sound from the valve
This command resets the teach-in parameters (air
conditioner and cruise control) stored in the control unit
When the teach-in functions are reset, the state of
parameters (available in the selection list) is updated as
follows:
air conditioner presence is stored automatically
upon switch-on
cruise control presence is stored automatically
upon switch-on
WARNING: Teach-in reset should only be used after
swapping the ECUs of vehicles featuring different
functions
3.3.4 Configurations displayed with the examiner
This command lets you view the injector codes stored in the control unit
VIEW INJECTOR
CODES
WARNING: On 4-cylinder vehicles (1.9 engine), parameter 'CYL 5
injector code' will read 'Not available'
CYL 1…..4
REPLACEMENT
INJECTOR
REPLACEMENT (BANK)
This command lets you store the code of a new injector into the control
unit
If you replaced an injector, you must perform the 'Injector registration'
procedure, i.e. enter the code stamped on the magnet of the new
injector
This command lets you store the code of a new injector into the control
unit
The 'Injector replacement (bank)' procedure must be used when you
replace all injectors.
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CONTROL UNIT
REPLACEMENT
CONTROL UNIT AND
INJECTOR(S)
REPLACEMENT
RAIL PRESSURE
SENSOR
REPLACEMENT
RAIL PRESSURE
SENSOR AND
INJECTOR(S)
REPLACEMENT
LAMBDA SENSOR
REPLACEMENT (ONLY
FOR VERSIONS WITH
LAMBDA SENSOR)
AIR FLOW METER
REPLACEMENT (ONLY
FOR VERSIONS WITH
LAMBDA SENSOR)
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WARNING: This procedure should be carried out:
- when the control unit has been replaced
This procedure is aimed at reducing engine noise and enhancing
compliance with emission regulations.
This command stores the injector codes (when the injectors were not
replaced) into the control unit and resets the following parameters:
- Pilot injection fuel amount correction (to compensate for injector
ageing)
- Main injection fuel amount correction (dependant on Lambda sensor
reading)
WARNING: This procedure should be carried out:
- when the control unit and one or more injectors have been replaced
This procedure is aimed at reducing engine noise and enhancing
compliance with emission regulations.
This command stores the code of the new injector(s) into the control
unit and resets the following parameters:
- Pilot injection fuel amount correction (to compensate for injector
ageing)
- Main injection fuel amount correction (dependant on Lambda sensor
reading)
WARNING: This procedure should be carried out:
- when the rail pressure sensor has been replaced
This procedure is aimed at reducing engine noise and enhancing
compliance with emission regulations.
This command resets the following parameters stored in the control
unit:
- Pilot injection fuel amount correction (to compensate for injector
ageing)
- Main injection fuel amount correction (dependant on Lambda sensor
reading)
WARNING: This procedure should be carried out:
- when the rail pressure sensor has been replaced
This procedure is aimed at reducing engine noise and enhancing
compliance with emission regulations.
This command stores the code of the new injector(s) into the control
unit and resets the following parameters:
- Pilot injection fuel amount correction (to compensate for injector
ageing)
- Main injection fuel amount correction (dependant on Lambda sensor
reading)
WARNING: This procedure should be carried out:
- when the Lambda sensor has been replaced
This procedure is aimed at enhancing compliance with emission
regulations.
This command resets all fuel correction values for the main injection
stored in the control unit for the different Lambda sensor readings.
WARNING: This procedure should be carried out:
- when the air flow meter has been replaced
This procedure is aimed at enhancing compliance with emission
regulations.
This command resets all fuel correction values for the main injection
stored in the control unit for the different Lambda sensor readings.
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3.4 PROCEDURES
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4. Disconnect the wiring connections of
throttle body actuator (1a) and fuel pressure
sensor (1b).
5. Release wiring harness from its retainers
and remove.
3.4.1 Engine removed - removal of head/and
cylinders and oil sump for inspection, includes
placement on stand and removal
1. Disconnect the wiring connections of
engine rpm sensor (1a), engine oil level
sensor (1b) and alternator (1c).
2. Disconnect the wiring connections of
electro-injectors (1a) and timing sensor
(1b).
6. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a),
remove the clamp (1b), disconnect and
remove the oil vapour recovery pipe (1c).
7. Unscrew the retaining screw (2a) and
remove the engine oil dipstick (2b).
3. Disconnect the wiring connections of
engine oil pressure sensor (1a), fuel
pressure regulator (1b), air temperature /
pressure sensor (1c), engine coolant
temperature sensor (1d) and preheating
glow plugs (1e).
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8. Press the retaining clips (1a) in the
direction shown by the arrow and
disconnect the fuel recovery pipes (1b) from
the electro-injectors (1c).
12. Install tool 99342153 (1a) and extract
the electro-injectors (1b).
9. Detach the fuel recovery pipe (1) from
the fitting and remove it.
13. Unscrew the retaining screw of the fuel
delivery pipe.
14. Unscrew fittings (2a) on the fuel
collector pipe and (2b) on the high pressure
pump and remove the fuel delivery pipe
(2c).
15. Remove the screws (3a) and the fuel
collector pipe (3b).
10 Loosen the retaining screws of the fuel
collector pipe and of the electro-injector
retaining brackets.
11. Unscrew the fittings on the fuel collector
pipe (1a) and on the electro-injectors (1b);
remove the fuel pipes (1c).
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20. Unscrew the retaining screws of the
retaining bracket for the fuel low pressure
pipes.
21. Unscrew the retaining screws (2a),
remove the spacers and the high pressure
fuel pump (2b) along with the low pressure
pipes (2c); collect the coupling (2d) and
remove the seal (2e).
16. Remove the screws (1a) and the
retaining brackets (1b) of the electroinjectors (1c).
17. Use a suitable tool to unscrew and
remove the engine oil filter (1).
18. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
remove the water-oil heat exchanger (1b)
along with its gasket.
22. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
remove spacers (1b) and power steering
pump (1c).
23. Collect the coupling (2a) and remove
the seal (2b).
19. Unscrew the retaining screw (1a) at the
intake manifold end and the fitting (1b), and
then remove the vacuum pipe (1c).
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24. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
remove the guard (1b).
25. Unscrew the screws retaining EGR
valve pipe to exhaust manifold.
26. Unscrew the retaining screw and loosen
collar (3a), disconnect the pipe (3b) and
collect the gasket.
27. Remove the clamp (4a) and disconnect
the water pipe (4b).
28. Unscrew the retaining screws (5a) and
remove the EGR heat exchanger (5b) along
with valve and pipes.
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34. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
nuts (1b) and remove the upper timing
cover (1c).
NOTE: Collect the gasket at the exhaust
manifold end.
35. Work the automatic belt tensioner (1a)
with a suitable key so as to slacken the
auxiliary drive belt (1b) and remove the belt.
29. Unscrew the oil delivery fitting (delivery
from cylinder head to turbocharger).
30. Unscrew the oil return fitting (return
from crankcase to turbocharger).
31. Unscrew the retaining nuts and collect
the spacers.
32. Remove the exhaust manifold-andturbocharger assembly and collect the
gasket.
33. Unscrew the retaining screws (5a) and
remove the bracket (5b).
36. Fit tool 1.860.815.000 to the crankshaft
(1).
37. Unscrew the retaining screw (2a) and
remove the auxiliary drive belt pulley (2b).
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38. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
remove the oil vapour separator (1b).
39. Remove the circlip (2a) and extract the
centrifugal filter (2b).
42. Rotate the crankshaft and install the
crankshaft timing tools 99360615 (1a) and
the camshaft timing tool 99360614 (1b)
40. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
remove the lower timing cover (1b) along
with its gasket.
41. Remove the front crankshaft oil seal.
43. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
remove water pump/rigid engine mount
(1b).
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44. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
remove the oil pump–vacuum pump
assembly (1b).
45. Remove the key (2).
50. Unscrew and remove the plug (1).
51. Unscrew the retaining screws (2a) and
remove the fixed upper sliding shoe (2b).
46. Unscrew and remove the upper (1a)
and lower (1b) hydraulic chain tensioners.
47. Unscrew the retaining pin (2a) and
remove the lower (2b) and upper sliding
shoe (2c).
NOTE: The upper hydraulic chain tensioner
is equipped with a backstop and must be
replaced after each removal
52. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
remove the fixed sliding shoes (1b).
48. Unscrew the retaining screw (1a),
collect the washer (1b) and remove the
gear (1c).
49. Unscrew the retaining screw (2a),
collect the washer (2b) and remove gear
(2c) and upper timing chain (2d).
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56. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
remove the upper head section (1b).
53. Lock out rotation of the high pressure
pump drive shaft (1) using a suitable key.
54. Unscrew the retaining screw (1a) and
separate the shaft along with the drive gear
of the oil pump-vacuum pump assembly
(1b) from the high pressure drive shaft (1c).
57. Remove the upper head gasket (1).
55. Remove gear (1b) and lower timing
chain (1c) from the high pressure pump
drive shaft (1a).
58. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
remove the cylinder head (1b).
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59. Remove the cylinder head gasket.
60. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and remove
the engine oil suction funnel (1b).
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4. Unscrew the retaining screw (1a) and
remove the rpm sensor (1b).
5. Unscrew and remove the engine oil level
sensor (2).
3.4.2 Engine - Reassembly. Washing and
inspecting removed parts - Cylinder head and oil
sump installation - Does not include procedures
for cylinder head and auxiliary drive assembly
1. Unscrew the retaining screw (1a) and
remove the automatic tensioner (1b) of the
auxiliary drive belt pulley.
2. Unscrew the screw (2a) and the retaining
bolt (2b) and remove the alternator (2c).
6. Remove the fuel high pressure pump
drive shaft (1).
7. Unscrew the retaining nuts (2a) and
remove the fuel high pressure pump mount
(2b).
3. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
remove the alternator / intermediate shaft
mount (1b).
8. Secure tool 99360187 (1b) to the power
steering pump mount (1c) to lock out rotation
of the power steering drive shaft (1a).
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9. Unscrew the retaining screw (1a) and
remove the power steering pump shaft gear
(1b).
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13. Rotate the crankshaft until bringing
pistons no. 1 and 4 close to BDC.
14. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
remove the con rod caps (1b) of pistons 1
and 4 and their bearings.
15. Withdraw pistons no. 1 and 4 (2) along
with the connecting rods and bearings.
- Follow the same procedure to remove
pistons no. 2 and 3 and their con rod caps,
connecting rods and con rod bearings.
NOTE: Mark connecting rods and con rod
caps with the number of the cylinder they
were removed from and their relative
mounting positions; keep the con rod
bearings in their housings. If reused, all
components must be refitted in their original
positions.
10. Unscrew the retaining screw and remove
the tool you used to lock the power steering
pump shaft.
11. Remove the power steering pump drive
shaft (1).
12. Unscrew the retaining nuts (2a) and
remove the power steering pump mount
(2b).
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23. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
(1b) and remove the lower block.
16. Rotate the service stand.
17. Unscrew the screws retaining the rear
engine mount (1) to the lower engine block.
18. Unscrew the nut retaining the rear
engine mount (2) to the service stand.
19. Remove the rear engine mount (3).
24. Remove the lower main bearings (1).
NOTE: Mark the main bearings with their
mounting positions; if reused, all bearings
must be refitted in their original positions.
20. Unscrew the screws retaining the front
engine mount (1) to the lower engine block.
21. Unscrew the nut (2) retaining the front
engine mount to the service stand.
22. Remove the front engine mount (3).
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25. Remove the crankshaft (1) from the
lower block. You will need a hydraulic hoist
or an assistant.
26. Remove the upper main bearing (2) and
the thrust half-rings.
27. Remove the upper main bearings (3).
NOTE: Mark the main bearings with their
mounting positions; if reused, all bearings
must be refitted in their original positions.
28. Unscrew the fittings (1a) and remove the
piston cooling jets (1b).
- Remove the water/oil sealing plugs from
the engine crankcase using suitable tools.
- Unscrew the retaining screws and remove
the crankcase from the service stand.
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2. Inspect the cylinders: check barrel surface
for signs of seizure, scoring, oval and
exceeding wear.
3. To check cylinder barrel inner diameter
and measure oval, taper and wear, use a
bore gauge (1) with a dial gauge you will
have set to zero on the ring gauge of the
cylinder barrel bore or on a micrometer.
Installation
- Thoroughly clean all parts you have removed
and inspect their condition.
- Fit the water/oil sealing plugs - smeared with
LOCTITE 270 sealant - to the engine
crankcase using suitable tools.
- Lubricate all mechanical mating parts with
engine oil.
WARNING: On refitting, always renew the
following components: snap rings and circlips,
seals and gaskets, and the screws with the
threads coated with sealant.
1. Inspect the head mating face of the
cylinder assembly for distortion; you may
use a calibrated ruler (1b) and a feeler
gauge (1c) (remove the centring dowels (1a)
first).
- If you find any distortion, grind the mating
face.
NOTE: Before grinding the crankcase, make
sure that piston height over cylinder barrel
and the difference in height among the four
pistons will not exceed the specified values
after grinding.
Piston height over crankcase (mm): 0.3 ÷ 0.6
Difference in height over crankcase among
the four pistons
(mm) ≤ 0.15
4. Check the inside diameter of each
individual cylinder at three different heights
(1a), (1b) and (1c) on two planes at right
angles to each other: one plane should be
parallel to engine longitudinal axis (1d), the
other should be at right angles to it (1e); the
worst wear is normally found on the latter
plane and in the first measurement.
- If you find any oval, taper or wear, bore/grind and
plateau hone the barrels.
NOTE: When regrinding the cylinder barrels,
ensure to obtain the specified fit and
clearance to the replacement pistons; spare
pistons come with a 0.4 mm oversize with
respect to nominal value.
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- The figure below shows the planes and
reference axes for bore diameter
measurements.
NOTE: Planes and reference axes are also
shown in the figure above.
* Surface roughness parameters:
R1 = 4 ÷ 10 µm
Rz = 3 ÷ 8 µm
Ra = 0.3 ÷ 0.6 µm
W1 < 2 µm
- Carefully check surface porosity after
regrinding:
1. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and remove
the phonic wheel (1b).
2. Remove the timing drive gear (2b) from the
crankshaft (2a) using a suitable extractor.
AREA B1= Area subjected to maximum
mechanical stress (piston rings contact
barrel), maximum porosity allowed: 2 noncontinuous items max. 0.5 x 0.5
AREA B2= Area where piston rings rub
against barrel, maximum porosity allowed: 2
non-continuous items max. 1 x 0.8
- Check main journals and crank pins and
grind them if you find any signs of seizure,
scoring or exceeding oval.
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Training Academy
- Measure crank pin and main journal oval.
1. Before grinding the crank pins (1a),
measure the main journals (1b) with a
micrometer to determine to what diameter
the crank pins should be ground.
Main journal oval (mm)
0.006
Crank pin oval (mm)
0.006
Flywheel mounting flange oval
(mm)
0.01
- Measure crank pin and main journal taper.
0.00
7
0.00
7
Main journal taper (mm)
Crank pin taper (mm)
Flywheel mounting flange
taper (mm)
1. We recommend noting your
measurements in a table as shown below:
- nominal diameter of main journals no. 1-23-4 (1a);
- nominal diameter of main journal no. 5
(1b);
- main journal diameter measurements (minmax) (1c);
- nominal diameter of crank pins (1d);
- crank pin diameter measurements (minmax) (1e).
Diameter of main journals
no. 1-2-3-4 (mm)
Diameter of main journal
no. 5 (mm)
Diameter of crank pins
(mm)
0.04
- Check the parallelism of crank pin
surfaces.
Crank pin parallelism
0.017
76.182 ÷ 76.208
83.182 ÷ 83.208
64.015 ÷ 64.038
NOTE: If crankshaft journals need grinding,
check the following tolerances after grinding.
NOTE: Main journals and crank pins must
always be ground to the same undersize
class. Main journal or crank pin undersize
must be marked on the side of the crank pin
no. 1:
- Use letter M for undersize crank pins.
- Use letter B for undersize main journals.
- Use letters MB for undersize crank pins
and main journals.
Main journal undersize (mm)
0,254 - 0,508
Crank pin undersize (mm)
0,254 - 0,508
© 2006 Fiat Auto S.p.A. - All rights reserved
1. Check that the crank pins (1a) and main
journals (1b) are symmetrical with respect to
the nominal position (1c) of the main
journals.
Crank pin symmetry (deviation
from nominal position of main
journal) (mm)
Crank pin symmetry (distance
between centres allowed) (mm)
Crank pin symmetry (angle
allowed)
88 / 182
Max
0.35
104 ±
0.125
180° ±
15
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WARNING: Round off the edges of main
journal and crank pin lubrication holes.
Training Academy
- Install the phonic wheel and tighten the
retaining screw to 1.5 daN m
1. Install the piston cooling jets (1a) and tighten the
fittings (1b) to 2.5 daN m.
- Grinding the crank pins and main journals to
an undersize may damage the rolled areas of
their side grooves. Turn and roll the grooves
to the following specifications:
- Rolling force: main journal no. 1 925 ±25
daN, main journals no. 2-3-4-5 1850 ±50
daN, crank pins 1850 ±50 daN.
- Rolling turns: 3 approach turns, 12 rolling
turns, 3 exit turns.
- Rolling speed: 56 rpm.
- Reduction of crank pin groove diameter
after rolling:
0.15 ÷ 0.30 mm.
- Reduction of main journal grooves after
rolling 0.15 ÷ 0.30
mm.
1. Clean the upper main bearings (1a) and (1b)
thoroughly and place them in their original positions
in the crankcase.
NOTE: Replacement main bearings (1a)
come with an undersize inner diameter.
Main bearing undersize (mm)
0.254 - 0.508
NOTE: The central main bearing (1b) has
thrust rings.
NOTE: Do not attempt to adapt the bearings.
Relief radius for crank
1.6 ÷ 1.7
pins and main journals
(mm)
,
- Heat the timing drive gear up to 180ºC for
15 minutes maximum and install it on the
crankshaft.
- Wait for the timing drive gear to cool down
and perform a slip strength test.
15.0
Slip strength testing of timing
drive gear on crankshaft
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1. Refit the crankshaft into place in the
crankcase. You will need a hydraulic hoist or
an assistant.
- Unscrew the retaining screws and remove the
lower block.
1. Clean the lower main bearings (1a)
thoroughly and place them in their original
positions in the lower block (1b).
1. To determine the clearance between main
bearing and main journal, compare the width of the
squeezed calibrated wire at the position where it is
thinnest with the scale included in the package. The
marks on the calibrated scale indicate clearance (in
millimetres). If clearance is not as specified, change
the bearings and repeat the inspection.
Main bearings to main
journal clearance (mm)
- Position the calibrated wire (filagage) to
measure clearances between main bearings
and main journals.
1. Measure crankshaft end float using a dial
gauge with a magnetic base (1a) positioned
on the crankshaft (1b) as shown in the
figure.
1. Install the lower block (1a) and tighten the
retaining screws (1b) to the specified torque.
5.0 + 60° +
60°
2.6
Scre
w
Scre
w
Inside lower block
Crankshaft end float
(mm)
0.060 ÷
0.310
- If end float is greater than specified,
change the thrust main bearings and check
clearance between main journals and main
bearings again. If end float is still outside the
specified range, replace the crankshaft.
Outside lower block
© 2006 Fiat Auto S.p.A. - All rights reserved
0.032 ÷ 0.102
90 / 182
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NOTE: The thrust rings are integral with the
central main bearing. The central main
bearing comes in one standard size
(including replacements).
- Clean the mating faces of crankcase and
lower block thoroughly.
Training Academy
5.0 + 60° + 60°
Scre
w
Inside lower block
1. Tighten the outer retaining screws of the
lower block to
2.6 daN m.
1. Apply LOCTITE 510 sealant to the
crankcase as shown in the diagram, taking
care to spread it evenly over the whole
mating face.
NOTE: Install the lower block within 10
minutes of applying the sealant.
1. Install the rear engine mount and its
centring pins.
2. Tighten the screws retaining the rear
engine mount to the lower engine block to
the specified torque.
1. Install the lower block (1a) and tighten the
retaining screws (1b) to the specified torque
and in the specified order.
3. Tighten the nut retaining the rear engine
mount to the service stand.
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1. Using a piston ring compressor (1a), fit the
connecting rod-and-piston assemblies (1b) into
the cylinder barrels and ensure that:
•
•
•
•
- Install the con rod caps of pistons no. 1 and
4 in the same order noted during removal
and install the retaining screw, but do not
tighten yet.
- Follow the same procedure to install
pistons no. 2 and 3 and their con rod caps,
connecting rods and con rod bearings.
1. Install the front engine mount and its
centring pins.
2. Tighten the screws retaining the front
engine mount to the lower engine block to
the specified torque.
NOTE: If the con rod bearings do not need
replacing, refit them in the same order and in
their original positions noted during removal.
3. Tighten the nut retaining the front engine
mount to the service stand.
1. Remove the con rod cap and clean
crankshaft journal and con rod bearing
thoroughly so as to remove any trace of oil.
2. Place a length of calibrated wire (2b)
(filagage) on the crankshaft journal (2a).
- Fit the con rod cap and tighten the retaining
screws to 50 daN m + 70°.
- Lubricate pistons, circlips and the inner
bore of the cylinder barrels properly.
- Rotate the crankshaft until bringing the
crank pins of pistons no. 1 and 4 close to
BDC.
© 2006 Fiat Auto S.p.A. - All rights reserved
connecting rod number matches con rod cap
number;
piston ring end gaps are spaced 120° apart
from one another;
pistons are all the same weight;
the symbol stamped on piston crown is
pointing to engine flywheel; or the recess in
piston skirt is located at the position of the oil
squirts.
- Repeat the procedure for the other con rod
caps.
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- Unscrew the retaining screws and
remove the con rod cap.
Training Academy
1. After installing the connecting rod-andpiston assemblies, check piston height over
crankcase face (1a) with the pistons at TDC
using a dial gauge with a magnetic base
(1b).
- To determine the clearance between
con rod bearing and connecting rod,
compare the width of the squeezed
calibrated wire at the position where it is
thinnest with the scale included in the
package. The marks on the calibrated
scale indicate clearance (in millimetres).
Clearance should be 30.035 ÷ 0.08 mm; if
clearance is not as specified, change the
bearings and repeat the inspection.
Piston height over
crankcase (mm)
Difference in height
over crankcase
among the four
pistons (mm)
0.3 ÷ 0.6
0.15
- Repeat the procedure for the other con
rod caps.
- Fit the con rod caps and install new
retaining screws; tighten to 5.0 daN m +
70°.
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1. Install the power steering pump mount
(1a) and tighten the retaining nuts (1b) to
2.5 daN m.
2. Refit the power steering pump drive
shaft.
1. Install the engine oil suction funnel (1a) with a
new seal and tighten the retaining screws (1b) to
1.0 daN m.
1. Install oil sump (1a), gasket (1b) and
trim (1c).
2. Tighten the retaining screws to 2.5
1. Insert tool 9936017 (1b) into to the power
steering pump drive shaft (1a) to lock out
shaft rotation and secure the tool to mount
(1c) using the screws (1d).
daN m.
3. Tighten the oil drain plug to 5.0 ± 1
daN m
1. Lubricate new seals (1a) and (1b) with
engine oil and fit them on the power
steering pump mount (1c).
1. Fit the gear (1a) to the power steering
pump drive shaft (1b).
2. Install the retaining screw but do not
tighten yet.
© 2006 Fiat Auto S.p.A. - All rights reserved
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1. Fit the shaft with drive gear (1a) on the
high pressure pump shaft (1b) and tighten
the retaining screw (1c).
1. Lubricate new seals (1a) and (1b) with
engine oil and fit them on the high pressure
pump mount (1c).
- Inspect the fixed sliding shoes and replace
them if worn.
1. Position the fixed sliding shoe (1a) and
tighten the retaining screws (1b) to 2.5 daN
m.
1. Install the high pressure pump mount
(1a) and tighten the retaining nuts (1b) to
2.5 daN m.
2. Refit the high pressure pump drive shaft.
2. Position the fixed sliding shoe (2a) and
tighten the retaining screws (2b) to 2.5 daN
m.
1. Wrap a new chain (1a) around gears (1b),
(1c) and (1d) and install the gear (1c) on the
shaft (1e) so as to tension up portions A and
B of the chain.
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- Ensure that the mating faces of cylinder
head and crankcase are clean.
1. If you had removed the cylinder head
centring dowels, refit them into place on the
crankcase.
2. Position the cylinder head gasket with
the work “ALTO” (UP) facing the cylinder
head.
Training Academy
NOTE: Head gaskets come in one standard
thickness.
NOTE: Keep the head gasket sealed in its
package until shortly before installation and
avoid contact with dirt.
1. With the aid of an assistant, install the
cylinder head.
2. Install the retaining screws but do not
tighten yet.
90°
Scre
w
Cylinder head 78-9-10 (2nd step)
M12x1.5
L165
3rd STEP (angle)
90°
Scre
w
60°
Scre
w
Cylinder head 12-3-4-5-6 (3rd
step)
Cylinder head 78-9-10 (3rd step)
M15x1.5
L193
M12x1.5
L165
2. - Tighten the cylinder head retaining
screws on timing chain compartment side
to 2.5 daN m
1. Tighten the cylinder head retaining
screws to the specified torque in 3 steps;
follow the order shown in the figure and
observe the following procedure:
1st STEP (torque)
13.0
Scre
w
6.5
Scre
w
Cylinder head 12-3-4-5-6 (1st
step)
Cylinder head 78-9-10 (1st step)
M15x1.5
L193
M12x1.5
L165
1. If you had removed the upper head
section centring dowels, refit them into
place on the cylinder head.
2. Clean the hydraulic tappets (2a)
thoroughly, lubricate them and install into
the cylinder head (2b), making sure to fit
the rocker arms (2c) in their correct
positions on the valves.
2nd STEP (angle)
90°
Scre
w
Cylinder head 12-3-4-5-6 (2nd
step)
© 2006 Fiat Auto S.p.A. - All rights reserved
M15x1.5
L193
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3. Install the upper head gasket.
1. Wrap a new chain (1a) around gear
(1b) and gear (1c).
NOTE: Install the gear so that when it
engages the centring dowel on the intake
camshaft, slots A are in the position
shown in the figure.
NOTE: The portion of chain between the
two gears must be taut.
2. Fit the washer (2a) and install the
retaining screw (2b), but do not tighten
yet.
1. Position the upper head section (1a)
complete with the camshaft timing
templates 99360614 (1b).
2. Tighten the retaining screws to
2.5 daN m.
1. Wrap the chain (1a) around gear (1b)
and mount the gear on the exhaust
camshaft.
2. Fit the washer (2a) and install the
retaining screw (2b), but do not tighten
yet.
1. Position the fixed upper sliding shoe
(1a) and tighten the retaining screws (1b)
to 1.0 daN m.
2. Fit the plug into place with a new
gasket and tighten to the specified torque.
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1. Rotate the crankshaft into the
appropriate position that will permit
installation of the crankshaft timing tool
99360615 in the correct position.
- Inspect the mobile sliding shoes and
replace them if worn.
1. Position the mobile sliding shoes (1a)
and tighten the retaining pin (1b) to 4.0
daN m.
1. Fit the lower hydraulic chain tensioner
into place and tighten to 5.0 daN m.
1. Tighten the screw retaining the gear to
power steering pump shaft to 13.0 daN
m.
1. Fit a new upper hydraulic chain
tensioner (with backstop) (1a) and tighten
to 5.0 daN m.
WARNING: Never reuse the upper
hydraulic chain tensioner (with backstop).
If the piston (1b) slips off the new chain
tensioner accidentally, another new chain
tensioner must be used.
© 2006 Fiat Auto S.p.A. - All rights reserved
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2. Insert a suitable screwdriver through
the opening in the upper head section
and push down on the mobile sliding shoe
(2b) tab (2a) until pushing the piston (2c)
of the upper hydraulic chain tensioner
(2d) to end of travel position. Release the
mobile sliding shoe (2b) and ensure that
the piston (2c) pulls the chain (2e) taut as
it slides out of its housing.
Training Academy
1. Ensure that the portion of chain between
the camshaft drive gears is taut.
2. Tighten the retaining screw of the
exhaust camshaft drive gear to 11.0 daN m.
3. Remove the camshaft timing tools
99360614.
1. Tighten the retaining screw of the
intake camshaft drive gear to 1.0 daN m.
1. Lock out rotation of the high pressure
pump drive shaft using a suitable key.
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4. Remove the crankshaft timing tool
99360615.
1. Ensure that the portion of chain (1a)
between the high pressure pump drive
gear (1b) and the power steering pump
drive gear (1c) is taut.
2. Tighten the retaining screw of the shaft
with drive gear to 11.0 daN m.
- Unscrew the retaining screw and
remove the tool 99360187 you used to
lock the power steering pump shaft.
1. Fit a new gasket to the upper timing
cover.
2. Install the upper timing cover (2a) and
tighten retaining screws (2b) and nuts
(2c) to 1.0 daN m.
3. If you had removed the timing sensor
(3a), refit it and tighten the retaining
screw (3b) to 1.0 daN m.
1. Fit the lower timing cover (1a) with a
new gasket and install the retaining
screws (1b), but do not tighten yet.
1. Clean the seat for the front crankshaft
seal thoroughly.
1. Fit the coupling (1a) into the power
steering pump drive gear (1b).
2. Position the oil pump–vacuum pump
assembly (2a); use a new gasket (2b).
3. Tighten the retaining screws to 2.5
daN m.
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2. Screw part (2a) of tool 99346258 into
the crankshaft extension. Lubricate
crankshaft extension and outer side of
part (2a); fit the new front seal (2b) for the
crankshaft onto the tool part. Place part
(2c) over part (2a) and tighten the nut (2d)
until the crankshaft front oil seal (2b)
slides fully into place in the lower timing
cover.
1. Install a new centrifugal filter (1a) and
a new circlip (1b).
2. Fit the cover (2a) and tighten the
retaining screws (2b) to the specified
torque.
1. Fit the lower timing cover (1b) centring
tool 99396039 into the seat of the
centrifugal filter and tighten the retaining
screws (1c) to 2.5 daN m.
1. Fit the engine oil level sensor into
place and tighten to 2.5 daN m.
2. Fit the rpm sensor (2a) into place and
tighten the retaining screw (2b) to
- Remove the crankshaft timing tool
99360615 and the
lower timing
99396039.
cover
centring
1.0 daN m.
tool
101 / 182
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1. Fit the alternator (1a) and tighten
retaining screw (1b) and bolt (1c) to 5.0
daN m.
2. Install the automatic belt tensioner (2a)
for the auxiliary drive belt and tighten the
retaining screw (2b) to 2.5 daN m.
1. Fit tool 1.860.815.000 to the
crankshaft.
2. Install the auxiliary drive pulley (2a)
and tighten the retaining screw (2b) to 35
daN m.
1. Fit the alternator mount / intermediate
shaft (1a) into place and tighten the
retaining screws (1b) to the specified
torque.
© 2006 Fiat Auto S.p.A. - All rights reserved
1. Fit the water pump / rigid engine mount
(1a) into place and tighten the retaining
screws (1b) to the specified torque.
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2. Fit the spacers and tighten the
retaining nuts to 2.5 daN m
3. Tighten the oil return fitting (from
turbocharger to crankcase) to 4.5 daN m.
4. Tighten the oil delivery fitting (from
turbocharger to cylinder head) to 3.5 daN
m.
5. Fit the retaining bracket (5a) and
tighten the retaining screws (5b).
1. Work the automatic belt tensioner (1a)
with a suitable key and install the auxiliary
drive belt (1b) making sure the belt ribs
engage the pulley grooves.
- Rotate the crankshaft through one turn
to help the auxiliary drive belt become
properly engaged on the pulleys.
- Fit a new gasket to the exhaust manifold.
1. Install the EGR heat exchanger (1a)
complete with valve and pipes and tighten
the retaining screws (1b) to the specified
torque.
2. Tighten the screws retaining EGR
valve pipe to exhaust manifold to the
specified torque.
- Remove tool 1.860.815.000 from the
crankshaft.
3. Fit the guard (3a) and tighten the
retaining screws (3b).
4. Connect the water pipe (4a) and
secure it with a new clamp (4b).
5. Fit a new gasket and connect pipe (5a);
tighten the collar (5c) retaining screw (5b)
to the specified torque.
1. Fit a new gasket and the exhaust
manifold-and-turbocharger assembly into
place.
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1. Fit the coupling (1a) to the shaft (1b).
2. Lubricate a new seal and fit it to the
power steering pump.
3. Install the power steering pump (3a) and
the spacers (3b) and tighten the retaining
screws (3c) to 4.0 daN m.
1. Fit the vacuum pipe (1a) and tighten the
fitting (1b) to 3.5 daN m; tighten the
retaining screw (1c) at the intake manifold
end.
1. Fit the water-oil heat exchanger (1a)
with a new gasket into the crankcase and
tighten the retaining screws (1b) to the
specified torque.
1. Lubricate a new seal and fit it to the high
pressure steering pump.
2. Fit the coupling (2b) and the high
pressure pump (2c) complete with low
pressure pipes (2c).
3. Fit the spacers and tighten the high
pressure pump retaining screws to 2.5
daN m
4. Tighten the retaining screws of the low
pressure pump retaining bracket to 2.5
daN m
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2. Install the fuel delivery pipe (2a) and
tighten the fittings (2b) on high pressure
pump (2c) and fuel collector pipe.
WARNING: Whenever you disconnect the
fuel pipes, replace them to avoid fuel
leaks from the fittings.
3. Tighten the fuel delivery pipe retaining
screw loosely by a few turns so that the
fuel collector / fuel delivery pipe assembly
are allowed some degree of movement.
1. Lubricate the oil filter gasket with
engine oil and tighten it into place to 2.5
daN m.
1. Install a new gasket (1a) and fit the
electro-injectors (1b).
1. Install the electro-injector (1b) retaining
brackets (1a) and tighten the retaining
screws (1c) to 2.8 daN m.
1. Install the fuel collector pipe (1a) and
screw the retaining screws (1b) loosely
(just a few turns) to allow some degree of
movement.
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1. Press the retaining clips (1a) in the
direction shown by the arrow and connect
the fuel recovery pipes (1b) from the
electro-injectors (1c).
1. Install the fuel pipes (1a) and tighten
the fittings loosely onto fuel collector pipe
(1b) and electro-injectors (1c).
NOTE: Whenever you disconnect the fuel
pipes, replace them to avoid fuel leaks
from the fittings.
- Tighten the fuel collector pipe retaining
screws to 2.8 daN m.
1. Connect the fuel recovery pipe to the
fitting.
- Tighten the fuel pipe fittings and the
retaining screw of the fuel delivery pipe
mounting bracket to the specified torque.
1.9 ± 0.2
Filler neck
Fuel
delivery
pipe fitting
2.5 ± 0.2
Filler neck
Fuel
delivery
pipe fitting
Screw
Fuel
delivery
pipe
mounting
bracket
2.5
© 2006 Fiat Auto S.p.A. - All rights reserved
1.Lubricate and install a new seal, install
the engine oil dipstick (1a) and tighten the
retaining screw (1b) to 1.0 daN m.
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2. Connect the oil vapour recovery pipe
(2a) and secure it with a new clamp (2b);
tighten the retaining screws (2c) to 2.8 daN
m.
1. Connect the wiring connections of
engine oil pressure sensor (1a), fuel
pressure regulator (1b), air temperature /
pressure sensor (1c), engine coolant
temperature sensor (1d) and preheating
glow plugs (1e).
- Install the wiring harness.
1. Connect the wiring connections of
throttle body actuator (1a) and fuel
pressure sensor (1b).
1. Connect the wiring connections of
electro-injectors (1a) and timing sensor
(1b).
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1. Connect the wiring connections of
engine rpm sensor (1a), engine oil level
sensor (1b) and alternator (1c).
3.4.3 Engine tools
99360615
Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Engine: 3.0/2.3 Jtd
16V
Engine: 3.0/2.3 Jtd
99360260
16V
Engine: 3.0/2.3 Jtd
2000003100
16V
Crankshaft timing pin
Existing
Camshaft timing pins
Existing
Valve spring compressor
Existing
Glow plug key
Existing
1860804000 Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Valve retaining plate
Existing
1870894000 Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Valve oil seal pliers
Existing
1860470000 Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Head stand
Existing
99360614
1860846000 Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Luk clutch installation
tool kit
Flywheel locking tool
1860815000 Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Crankshaft cranking tool
1871003100 Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Existing
Existing
Existing
99360187
Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Torque arm for power
steering pump shaft
IVECO-derived tools
99342153
Engine: 3.0/2.3 Jtd
16V
Injector extractors
IVECO-derived tools
99340059
Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Crankshaft oil seal
extractor (timing gear
side)
IVECO-derived tools
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99346258
Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Crankshaft oil seal drift
tool (timing gear side)
IVECO-derived tools
99396039
Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Timing cover centring
tool (to oil pump)
IVECO-derived tools
99346259
Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Crankshaft oil seal drift
tool (flywheel side)
IVECO-derived tools
2000015900 Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
2000016000 Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
2000016100 Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Engine: 3.0/2.3 Jtd
2000016200
16V
Engine: 3.0/2.3 Jtd
2000016300
16V
2000020400 Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
2000020500 Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
2000020900 Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
2000021000 Engine: 3.0 Jtd 16V
Crankshaft oil seal
extractor (flywheel side)
Clutch centring tool kit
Valve guide reamer
Slide hammer for valve
guides
Valve guide drift tool
Tool to install flexible
belt on compressor
Engine hoisting bracket
Tachograph extractor
Connector for engine oil
pressure check (for use
with 2000018801)
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New
New
New
New
New
New
New
New
Prototype
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Fiat Auto S.p.A.
4
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TRANSMISSION
4.1 - GEARBOX AND DIFFERENTIAL TYPE C 546 ( M40 )
The vehicle is equipped with an advanced C546 gearbox designed to improve handling and reliability; this
gearbox is used with 3.0 Multijet engines.
4.1.1 Construction
GEARBOX
Superior gear materials, an upgraded differential with oversize bevel gears and a gearwheel case with
screw connection ensure great reliability.
Main features comprise:
- easy to operate gear shift control
- quiet operation
- lightweight.
The gearbox features the transverse 3-shaft configuration with differential.
The figure below shows a cross-section view of the gearbox.
1 – Upper secondary shaft
2 – Main shaft
3 – Lower secondary shaft
4 – Differential assembly
5 – Differential case
6 – Gearbox gearing case
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The figure below shows gearbox shafts and gear selector mechanism.
1 – Upper secondary shaft
2 – Main shaft
3 – Lower secondary shaft
4 – Gear selector mechanism
Main shaft
The main shaft comprises:
- 1st and 2nd speed gears integral with shaft;
- 3rd, 4th, 6th and 5th speed gears splined to the shaft;
The main shaft rides in:
- a roller bearing at the front end,
- a ball bearing at the rear end
1 – Front roller bearing
2 – Main shaft
2a – 1st speed gear (integral with shaft)
2b – 2nd speed gear (integral with shaft)
3 – 5th speed drive gear
4 – 3rd speed drive gear
5 – Spacer
6 – 4th/6th speed drive gear
7 – Circlip
8 – Rear ball bearing
9 – Gear fixing ring nut
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Upper secondary shaft
The upper secondary shaft comprises:
- reverse, 3rd and 4th speed gears splined to the shaft;
The upper secondary shaft rides in:
- a roller bearing at the front end,
- a ball bearing at the rear end.
The reverse gear is driven by the 1st speed gear splined to the lower secondary shaft.
1 – Upper secondary shaft
2 – Front roller bearing
3 – Circlip
4 – Roller cage
5 – Reverse driven gear
6 – Reverse synchroniser rings
7 – Reverse synchroniser
8 – Spacer
9 – Circlip
10 – Roller cage
11 – 3rd speed driven gear
12 – 3rd speed synchroniser rings
13 – 3rd/4th speed synchroniser
14 – 4th speed synchroniser rings
15 – Circlip
16 – Roller cage
17 – 4th speed driven gear
18 – Circlip
19 – Rear ball bearing
20 – Gear fixing ring nut
Lower secondary shaft
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The lower secondary shaft comprises:
- 1st, 2nd, 5th and 6th speed gears splined to the shaft;
The lower secondary shaft rides in:
- a roller bearing at the front end,
- a ball bearing at the rear end.
The 1st speed gear drives the reverse gear splined to the upper secondary shaft
12 – Half rings
13 – Retaining ring
14 – 5th speed driven gear
15 – 5th and 6th speed synchroniser
16 – 6th speed synchroniser ring
17 – Circlip
18 – Roller cage
19 – 6th speed driven gear
20 – Circlip
21 – Rear ball bearing
22 – Gear fixing ring nut
1 – Lower secondary shaft
2 – Front roller bearing
3 – Spacer
4 – Roller cage
5 – 1st speed driven gear
6 – 1st speed synchroniser rings
7 – 1st and 2nd speed synchroniser
8 – 2nd speed synchroniser rings
9 – Circlip
10 – Roller cage
11 – 2nd speed driven gear
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Gears
Helical gears are used for all speeds, including reverse. All gears are of the HCR (High Contact Ratio)
type. Lubrication for gearsets and moving parts inside the gearbox is provided through oil holes in the
hollow secondary shafts and galleries in the gearbox case, with the following advantages: - improved
efficiency in torque transmission and wear resistance - smooth shifting at low temperatures ensured by
multi-grade synthetic oil.
Synchronisers
Gear synchronisation for all gears (including reverse) is of the brass free-ring (Borg-Warner) type and its
layout is as follows:
- 3rd, 4th gear and reverse synchronisers are fitted to the upper secondary
shaft;
- 1st, 2nd, 5th and 6th gear synchronisers are fitted to the lower secondary shaft.
– 1st and 2nd gear synchroniser
The figure below shows the 1st and 2nd gear synchroniser.
1 – Hub
2 – Sleeve
3 – Presynchroniser block
4 – Outer synchroniser ring
5 – Intermediate synchroniser ring
6 – Inner synchroniser ring
– 3rd and 4th gear synchroniser
The figure below shows the 3rd and 4th gear synchroniser.
1 – Hub
2 – Sleeve
3 – Presynchroniser block
4 – Outer synchroniser ring
5 – Intermediate synchroniser ring
6 – Inner synchroniser ring
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5th and 6th gear synchroniser
The figure below shows the 5th and 6th gear synchroniser
1 – Hub
2 – Sleeve
3 – Presynchroniser block
4 – Synchroniser ring
Reverse synchroniser
The figure below shows reverse synchroniser components.
1 – Hub
2 – Sleeve
3 – Presynchroniser block
4 – Outer synchroniser ring
5 – Intermediate synchroniser ring
6 – Inner synchroniser ring
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DIFFERENTIAL
The differential assembly is located at the
rear end of the gearbox case.
It consists of:
- reduction spur gearset
- one-piece differential case that
incorporates sun and planet gears.
1 – Differential gear case
2 – Wormwheel
3 – Flanged differential cover
4 – Taper roller bearings
5 – Sun gear thrust washer
© 2006 Fiat Auto S.p.A. - All rights reserved
The differential is supported by two taper
roller bearings.
The planet gears feature a grooved
section inside for the two couplings
connected to
to the two axle shafts that drive the
wheels.
The back end of sun and planet gears is
rounded; suitable spacers are installed
between gears and case
6 – Sun gear
7 – Planet carrier retaining pin
8 – Planet carrier pin
9 – Planet gear thrust washer
10 - Planet gear
11 – Wormwheel retaining screw
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4.2 PROCEDURES
4.2.1 (6-SPEED') MECHANICAL GEARBOX WITH DIFFERENTIAL - DISASSEMBLY AND
REASSEMBLY - PART WASHING AND INSPECTION - SYNCHRONISER, INTERNAL CONTROL
DEVICE, GEARSET, SHAFT AND BEARING REPLMT (IF NEEDED)
1. Place the gearbox on the rotary stand
(1a) using the support (1b).
2. Unscrew the oil drain plug on the
differential cover (1).
3. Unscrew the magnetic plug on the differential
cover (1).
4. Unscrew the oil filler plug on the gearbox
case (1); unscrew and remove the reverse
switch (2).
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5. Unscrew the retaining screws (1a) and
remove the rear cover (1b).
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8. Use tweezers (1a) to remove the circlip
(1b) from the lower secondary shaft
bearing.
6. Use tweezers (1a) to remove the circlip
(1b) from the main shaft bearing.
9. Remove the shim (1) from the
lower secondary shaft bearing.
7. Use tweezers (1a) (1870492000) to
remove the circlip (1b) from the upper
secondary shaft bearing.
10. Engage two gears.
Note: Engaging two gears at the same
time locks up the gearbox shafts; this will
make it easier to release the ring nuts that
hold the gears in place on the shafts.
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11. Unscrew the ring nuts that secure the
gears to the gearbox shafts (1).
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14. Use the extractor/drift tool (1a) (2000019400)
to remove the gearing case (1b).
12. Unscrew the screws (1a) and remove
the gear selector mechanism (1b).
15. Unscrew the screws (1a) and remove the
flange (1b).
13. Unscrew the retaining of the gearbox
gearing
case.
16. Remove the case adjusting ring
Differential (1).
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17. Unscrew the screws (1a) and remove
the differential cover (1b).
18. Remove the oil seal (1) from the
differential case (clutch side)
21. Extract the magnet from its housing and
remove any metal grit (1).
19. Remove the differential (1).
20. Remove main shaft and secondary shafts
complete with gears and gear selector levers with
their forks (1).
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22. Extract the clip that secures the pipe
connecting clutch delivery pipe and clutch
disengagement sleeve to the sleeve (1).
23. Remove the fitting connecting clutch
delivery pipe and clutch disengagement
sleeve (1).
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24. Unscrew the screws (1a) and remove the
clutch disengagement sleeve (1b).
25. Use tools (1a) (Usag 468/1) and (1b) (Usag
468°/5) to remove the main shaft bearing (1c)
from the gearbox support case.
Note: Check outer ring, inner ring and rollers for
scoring, signs of overheating and wear; the
bearing should turn freely with no tight points,
otherwise replace the bearing as an assembly.
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28. Use tools (1a) (Usag 468/1) and (1b)
(Usag 468/3) to remove the mounting
bushes for the for selector fork shafts (1c).
26. Use tools (1a) (1847017000) and (1b)
(1840207813) to remove the gear
selector/engagement shaft bearing (1c).
Note: Ensure that the bearing turns freely
and has no tight points; replace the
bearing if needed.
27. Unscrew the screws (1a) and remove
the oil conveyor (1b).
Installation
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1. Wash the complete gearbox case and
the gearing case.
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3. Fit the oil conveyor (1a) and tighten the
retaining screws (1b) to the specified
torque.
1. Use tool (1a) (1860858000) to insert
the mounting bushes (1b) for the
selector fork shafts both into the
gearbox case and the gearing case.
4. Use tools (1a) (2000004900) and (1b)
(1874365000) to install the gear
selector/engagement shaft bearing (1c).
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7. Fit the differential case cover and
tighten the retaining screws to the
specified torque in the specified order.
5. Use tool (1a) (2000019700) to install
the main shaft bearing (1b) on the
gearbox case.
6. Install the differential case assembly
(1a) and its bearings (1b) and (1c) on the
gearbox case.
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8. Ensure that the outer ring of the differential
bearing on differential sealing cover becomes
properly seated in its housing.
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9. Position tool (1a) (1895655000)
complete with a dial gauge (1b) graduated
in hundredths of a millimetre on the
mating face of the differential sealing
cover and set gauge stylus in contact with
the outer ring of the taper roller bearing.
Set dial gauge to zero with 1 mm preload.
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11. Add 0.23 to the difference measured
to obtain the required shimming that will
give the correct differential bearing prelod.
12. The 0.23 mm value is the required
interference fit for the differential bearings
to bed in properly and to achieve the
correct preload.
Note: If you cannot obtain the exact
shimming value using one shim or a
combination of two shims, choose one or
two shims that will give the next higher
total thickness.
13. Install a differential bearing preload
shim having the required thickness
determined during the shimming
procedure or choose the next bigger shim.
10. Position the tool (1a) complete with
the 1/100 dial gauge on the differential
sealing cover (1b) as shown in the figure
and measure the difference.
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14. Fit the differential sealing cover and
tighten the retaining screws to the
specified torque in the specified order.
16. Position the magnet into its seat in the
gearbox case.
17. Fit the gearbox shafts (1) complete
with selector forks into place in the
gearbox case.
15. Use a torque meter (1a) and the suitable tool
(1b) (2000019600b) to measure differential unit
rolling torque and ensure it falls within the
specified range. ( 0-3 Nm )
18. Spread an even layer of sealant (2)
over the mating surface between gearbox
case and gearing case.
- Unscrew the retaining screws and remove the
differential sealing cover.
- Remove the differential bearing preload shim.
- Unscrew the retaining screws and remove the
differential case cover.
- Remove the differential case assembly and its
bearings from the gearbox case.
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19. Use the extractor/drift tool (1a) to
install the gearbox gearing case (1b).
20. Tighten the retaining screws of the gearbox
gearing case to the specified torque in two steps
and following the specified sequence.
First step: tighten all screws to half the nominal
torque.
Second step: tighten all screws to the final
nominal torque.
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21. Fit the shim (1) for the lower secondary
gearbox shaft bearing.
22. Use tweezers (1a) to install the
circlip (1b) on shaft bearing
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23. Use tweezers (1a) to install the circlip
(1b) on the upper secondary shaft
bearing.
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25. Fit the gear selector/engagement
mechanism (1a) and tighten the screws (1b) to
the specified torque.
- Engage two gears.
Note: Engaging two gears at the same time
locks up the gearbox shafts; this will make it
easier to tighten the ring nuts that hold the
gears in place on the shafts to the specified
torque.
24. Use tweezers (1a) to install the circlip (1b)
on the main shaft bearing.
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26. Tighten the ring nuts (1) that secure
the gears on the gearbox shafts to the specified
torque.
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27. Fit the rear cover (1a) and tighten
the retaining screws to the specified torque in two
steps and in the sequence shown.
First step: tighten all screws to half the
nominal torque.
Second step: tighten all screws to the final
nominal torque.
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- Refit differential case cover, differential bearing
preload shim and differential sealing cover as
outlined above.
30. Fit the clutch disengagement sleeve (1a) and
tighten the screws (1b) to the specified torque.
31. Insert the fitting connecting clutch
delivery pipe and clutch disengagement sleeve.
28. Install the differential case assembly (1a) and
its bearings (1b) and (1c) on the gearbox case.
29. Spread an even layer of sealant over the
mating surface (2) between gearbox case and
differential case.
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32. Install the clip that secures the pipe
connecting clutch delivery pipe and clutch
disengagement sleeve on the sleeve.
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34. Tighten the magnetic plug onto the differential
cover (1) to the specified torque.
35. Tighten the oil filler plug on the gearbox case
(1) to the specified torque.
36. Tighten the reverse switch (2) to the specified
torque.
33. Tighten the oil drain plug on the differential
cover (1) to the specified torque.
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37. Use tool (1a) to install the oil seal (1b) on the
clutch-side differential case.
38. Use tool (1a) to install the oil seal (1b) on
the differential case on gearing case side.
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4.2.2 Gearbox tools
Tool Code
2000019400
2000019500
2000019600
2000019700
2000019800
1.840.207.813
1.874.365.000
2.000.004.900
1.860.858.000
1.860.954.000
2.000.005.000
1.845.028.000
1.870.658.000
1.870.812.000
1.870.675.000
1.870.100.002
1.871.006.700
1.870.710.000
70465
Make Model c.c.
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
© 2006 Fiat Auto S.p.A. - All rights reserved
Designation
Type
Gearbox case extractor/drift kit
New
Torque bush/rolling torque tool
New
Adapter for differential rolling
torque inspection
New
Bearing drift tool
New
Tool to check differential rolling
torque (on bench)
New
Gear selector bearing extractor
Drift tool for gear selector
bearing installation
Existing
Slide hammer
Existing
Drift tool to install gear selector
fork shaft bushes
Existing
Drift tool for main shaft bearing
removal/installation
Existing
Supporting plates
Existing
Existing
Torque plate for secondary
shaft bearing removal
Drift tool for secondary shaft
bearing installation
Existing
Torque plate for secondary
shaft bearing removal
Existing
Supporting plates
Existing
Drift tool for secondary shaft
synchroniser installation
Existing
Drift tool for corteco installation
Existing
Torque plate for differential
bearing removal
Driver tool for main shaft
bearing installation
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Existing
Existing
Drift tool
Fiat Auto S.p.A.
SAT-A 95655
Usag 468A/5
Usag 468A/3
Usag 454N/2
Usag 472/3
Usag 472A/3
Usag 468/1
FIAT DUCATO COURSE OUTLINE
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
M40 gearbox Fiat
Ducato 3.0
Training Academy
Dial gauge base
Extractor for main shaft bearing
removal
Drift tool to remove gear
selector fork shaft bushes
Extractor for secondary shaft
bearing removal
Extractor for differential bearing
removal
Extractor for differential bearing
removal
Extractor for differential bearing
removal
Existing
Generic tool
Generic tool
Generic tool
Generic tool
Generic tool
Generic tool
5. Self-levelling rear air SUSPENSION
Features
In addition to such advantages as high flexibility and enhanced vibration damping, the self-levelling air
suspension is capable of maintaining a constant ground clearance (distance from underside of chassis to
road) regardless of vehicle load.
The electronically controlled air suspension is automatically enabled upon engine starting. When the
vehicle is stopped, ground clearance - and vehicle platform loading height - can be set manually using the
in-cab controls.
The electronic control unit incorporated in the compressor-and-valve assembly automatically controls
ground clearance by comparing the actual readings supplied by sensors with the nominal values stored in
its memory.
When a change in ride height is detected during running, the electronic control unit signals an electropneumatic unit to correct actual level according to the nominal level set or stored by the driver.
The system controls the rear axle to maintain a constant chassis attitude at the rear end regardless of
load, thus ensuring improved ride comfort. When the vehicle is stopped, preferred rear ride height can be
selected choosing from 7 different settings to facilitate access to the rear load compartment.
The system installed on the vehicle is shown in the figure below.
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The system consists of:
- two air springs,
- an ASU (Air Supply Unit) Module: electric air compressor complete with valves, electronic control unit
(ECU) and mounting bracket to facilitate module installation,
- tank complete with mounting bracket,
- two level sensors located between body and rear axle (close to the wheels) complete with drives,
- a suction tube with air filter,
- three air lines (in different colours to facilitate identification),
- a splashguard,
- a dedicated wiring harness,
- an upper cross member to hold system components,
- a Panhard rod,
- two quarter-elliptic leaf springs with spring saddle pads,
- axle with Panhard rod mount,
- two bump stops,
- two dampers,
- an Anti-Roll bar,
- a dash plate with two momentary pushbuttons,
- “Comfort” style NQS instrument panel with indicator light and appropriate messages.
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1 – Compressor
2 – Anti-roll bar
3 – Air lines
4 – Body mounts
5 – Bump stop
6 – Panhard rod
7 – Damper
1 – Quarter-elliptic leaf spring
2 – Height sensors
3 – Wiring harness for connection to electric system
4 – Compressor guard
5 – Tank
6 – Air spring
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Operation
When the vehicle is stopped, ground clearance can be set to one of 7 preset levels ranging from “ride
height -3” to “ride height 0”, through to “ride height +3” by pressing the pushbuttons on the dash.
While setting ground clearance, the amber LED on the push-button that corresponds to the direction of
movement will blink.
A LED turning steady on after the push-button has been pressed indicates that:
- process has been aborted due to low circuit pressure,
- compressor has been temporarily cut off due to overheating
1 – Up push-button
2 – Down push-button
The multifunction display in the middle of the instrument panel can display current ride height (while either
one of the pushbuttons is activated).
In the event of a malfunction, the red malfunction indicator light on the instrument panel will turn on.
1 – (Red) self-levellling suspension malfunction indicator light
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Automatic levelling
During running, the system automatically restores and maintains “ride height 0”.
When automatic levelling kicks in, the LED on the up or down push-button will blink to indicate the
direction of the adjustment.
The system can compensate for up to 300 Kg side-to-side load unbalance and 35 mm height variation
approximately.
The system recognises reverse and will not kick in if transient pressure and height variations occur when
reversing.
The system recognises when the vehicle is negotiating a curve and will not kick in when it detects a
height unbalance while running at any speed greater than zero.
Manual setting
The desired height can be set when the vehicle is stopped (regardless of whether the engine is running or
stopped). With a full load (a total of about 1900 Kg at rear axle) and the engine is stopped, rear ride
height can be raised from level -3 (full bump) to level 0 only two times.
Pressing the up push-button for less than 1 second selects the next higher level; holding the push-button
depressed for more the 1 second jumps to maximum level: ride height +3.
Pressing the down push-button for less than 1 second selects the next lower level; holding the pushbutton depressed for more the 1 second jumps to minimum level: ride height -3.
During the setting procedure, the LED on the up or down push-button will blink to indicate the direction of
the adjustment.
If the LED stays on steady (for about 5 seconds) instead of blinking after a push-button has been
pressed, it means that the setting mode is not available at the moment.
This may be due to one of the following reasons:
– air stored insufficient: operation will be restored when engine is started;
– system reached max operating temperature limit: allow a few minutes for the system to cool down
before pressing a push-button.
The level selected when the vehicle is stopped is maintained up to a speed of 20km/h approximately;
when the vehicles exceeds this speed, the system automatically restores standard ride height (“ride
height 0”).
Lifting the vehicle
If you need to raise the vehicle, disable the system by holding both pushbuttons depressed for at least 5
seconds.
This activates a special mode designed for vehicle lifting; both pushbuttons LEDs turn on steady and the
vehicle can be lifted.
To exit this mode, press both pushbuttons for 5 more seconds; both push-button LEDs turn off and the
system is restored to normal operation.
This mode shuts off automatically when the vehicle exceeds 5 km/h.
Description of components
Self-levelling system components
Level sensors
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The self-levelling suspension system uses two level sensors.
1 – Level sensor
2 – Electrical connector
3 – Sensor arm
4 – Linkage for connection to axle
The level sensors are placed between the upper cross member that holds system components and the
axle
1 – Mounting bracket on component carrier cross-member
2 – Level sensor
3 – Axle
Sensor arm will fit in three different positions relative to sensor, but only one position is correct, namely at
0°.
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Each position provides an operating range of 120°.
The sensor has two outputs that change as sensor arm changes its angle to the sensor; sensor outputs
provide:
- an analogue signal (that varies between 5% and 95% of sensor supply voltage),
- PWM digital signal (800Hz ± 25% frequency).
The system uses the PWM signal to control the self-levelling suspension: ride height 0 corresponds to a
50% duty cycle.
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The figure below shows sensor pinout.
1 – Ground
2 – Not connected
3 – Not connected
4 – Analogue signal
5 – +5V power supply
6 – PWM signal
Sensors are fed 5V ± 0.5V directly from the self-levelling suspension control unit.
ASU ( Air Supply Unit) Module
The ASU Module is comprised of compressor, valve assembly and control unit. The Module cannot be
taken apart and is only enabled when the engine is running.
The module is retained to the upper component carrier cross-member by a bracket.
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1 – ASU Module
2 – Mounting bracket
The figure below shows a bottom view of the ASU module.
1 – ASU Module
2 – Upper cross member holding system components
3 – Air connection for left spring
4 – Air connection for right spring
5 – Air connection for tank
6 – Air connection for air suction
The following figure shows a front view of the ASU module and its electrical connectors.
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Connector A pinout (power supply)
A – Power supply
B – Ground
Connector B pinout (signals)
A – Right sensor ground
B – Left sensor ground
C – “Down” command (from pushbutton)
D – N.C.
E – Power supply from battery
F – N.C.
G – Right sensor power supply
H – LED on Up push-button
J – LED on Down push-button
K – Left sensor power supply
L – C-Can H
M – C-Can L
N – “Up” command (from pushbutton)
P – Left sensor signal
R – Right sensor signal
S – Ground
The control unit sends information messages for the instrument panel over the CAN line and receives
vehicle speed, brake pedal, handbrake, reverse and engine rpm input signals from the network.
LIST OF PARAMETERS
_VIN (Vehicle ID No.)
_Energy saving
_RL height sensor absolute incr.
_RR height sensor absolute incr.
_Programming sessions
_Sensor power supply
_H deviation from 0 (LH PB)
_H deviation from 0 (RH PB)
_H deviation from Target (RH PB)
_H deviation from Target (LH PB)
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_Average deviation from 0
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_Longitudinal acceleration
_Recirculation Key
_Exhaust valve state
_Spring valve sensor (RH PB)
_Spring valve sensor (LH PB)
_Rear exhaust valve
_Available reserve
_Compressor pressure
_LH height sensor
_RH height sensor
_Led Up Pos.
_Led Down Pos.
_PB up
_PB Down
_Door opening
_Key position
_Vehicle speed
_Compressor state
_Tank valve state
_Battery voltage
TROUBLE CODE LIST
DTC
5001
DESCRIPTION
Battery voltage
5002
Key up
5003
Key Down
5004
ECU faulty (Microprocessor)
5005
5006
5007
Height actuator up
Height actuator down
Height actuator up
5008
Solenoid valve 1
5009
Solenoid valve 2
5010
Solenoid valve 3
5011
Solenoid valve 4
5012
Compress. enable relay
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SYMPTOM
Below lower limit
Above plausible upper
limit
Signal not plausible
No signal
Signal not plausible
No signal
No additional
information
ECU internal error
ECU internal error
Electrical fault
Electrical fault
No signal
Below lower limit
Above plausible upper
limit
No signal
Below lower limit
Above plausible upper
limit
No signal
Below lower limit
Above plausible upper
limit
No signal
Below lower limit
Above plausible upper
limit
ECU internal error
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5013
ECU temperature
5014
Pressure sensor
5015
Sensor power supply
5016
Sensor power supply
5017
Sensor power supply
5018
5019
5020
5021
5022
Left spring valve
Right spring valve
Breather valve
Reserve valve
Manual pitch correction
5023
5024
Compressor state
Air adaptation
5025
Wrong end-of-line
configuration
Initialisation failed
5026
5027
D602
Wrong ECU or wrong
calibration
Bus off
D700
NBC node missing
D701
D706
5028
NCM node error
NFR node error
Vehicle speed inconsistent
5029
Engine rpm threshold
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Above plausible upper
limit
No signal
Not calibrated
Above plausible upper
limit
Below lower limit
Left
Below lower limit
No signal
No additional
information
Below lower limit
No signal
Excess air
Excess air
Excess air
Excess air
No additional
information
Excess air
No additional
information
No additional
information
No additional
information
No additional
information
No additional
information
Above plausible upper
limit
No signal
No signal
Above plausible upper
limit
Above plausible upper
limit
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Characteristic data:
Power supply voltage: 12V (+4V, -3V)
Compressor maximum draw: 25A
Solenoid valve maximum draw: 5A
Operating temperature: -40°C up to +80°C
Operation limit: < 3 minutes at 100°C
Burst pressure: > 35 bar
Maximum operating pressure (w/limitation): absolute 17 bar (relative 16 bar)
Air springs
Air springs are made up of a top plate for fastening to cross-member, bellows and a lower piston with
fastening system and locators for installation to quarter-elliptic leaf spring.
Pressure inside the springs is about 1.5 bar under no-load and about 6.5 bar under full load when the
vehicle is stopped.
A – Cross-section view
1 – Upper plate
2 – Jig for installation on component carrier cross-member
3 – Bellows
4 – Lower piston
5 – Locating pin for installation on quarter-elliptic leaf spring
6 – Air line fitting
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The figure below shows a bottom view of the air spring.
– Locating pins for installation on quarter-elliptic leaf spring
Tank
The pressurised air storage tank is secured to the upper component carrier cross-member by a bracket.
1 – Tank
2 – Mounting bracket
3 – Air line fitting
Characteristic data:
Volume: 5.4 l
Burst pressure: > 40 bar
Operating pressure: > 16 bar
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Air lines
The air lines are semirigid pipes with a 4 mm diameter in different colours; the specified bending radius
must not be exceeded.
The air quick fittings (Voss air connections) feature a spring collar that must be replaced each time the
lines are disconnected.
To avoid wrong assembly, match the colour on the label affixed to the compressor to the quick fittings of
the valve assembly.
1 – Line from compressor to tank (BLACK)
2 – Line from compressor to right spring (RED)
3 – Line from compressor to left spring (GREEN)
4 – Wiring harness
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Chassis components
Upper component holder cross member
The upper cross member is a structural component that connects:
- vehicle floor to air springs,
- vehicle floor to Panhard rod.
Panhard rod
The Panhard rod is a round-section steel rod with a rubber-and-metal bush at both ends; it connects the
axle to the upper cross member that holds system components.
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Axle
The axle carries the retaining bracket for the Panhard rod.
1 – Panhard rod retaining bracket
Quarter-elliptic leaf springs
The quarter-elliptic leaf springs (one on the left and one on the right) are specifically designed for the air
suspension and are secured to the axle by two U bolts.
1 – Quarter-elliptic leaf spring
2 – U bolts
3 – Axle
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6. DIGITAL TACHOGRAPH
REGULATIONS
After the publication of Art. 27 of Regulation (EC) no. 561/2006, the law requires
that all vehicles registered for the first time in the European Union
from 1st May 2006 (newly registered M2-N2-N1 vehicles) be equipped with a digital tachograph.
Affected Fiat Ducato vehicles are:
- minibuses - M2 vehicles seating more than 9 persons
- goods vehicles having a maximum laden mass > 3.5t - N2 vehicles
- goods vehicles having a maximum laden mass < 3.5t and with an overall mass
> 3.5t when towing a trailer - N1 vehicles
The digital tachograph is not mandatory on all other vehicles in the range.
To equip the Fiat Ducato vehicle with the digital tachograph Smartach® and its associated
speed
sensor, FIAT Auto adopted the ACTIA Group system.
Drivers' hours rules introduced with Reg. (EEC) 3820/85
Weekly rest
As a general rule, 45 consecutive hours rest must be taken. The following concessions apply
Driving hours
As a general rule, daily driving limit is nine hours.
The following options are possible:
-continuous driving: maximum 4.5 hours continuous driving followed by a 45-minute break, only once. The
45-minute break may be split into several breaks, each at least 15 minutes long for a total of 45 minutes.
-daily driving: nine hours extendable to 10 consecutive hours twice a week.
-fortnightly driving: maximum of 90 hours driving during a maximum of 6 consecutive days after which
compensation rest must be taken.
- can be reduced to 36 consecutive hours if taken at drivers’ or vehicle’s base. Reductions must be
compensated en bloc before the end of the third week following the week of reduction and attached to
another rest period at least eight hours long.
- can be reduced to 24 consecutive hours if taken in a place other than drivers’ or vehicle’s base.
Reductions must be compensated before the end of the third week following the week of reduction and
attached to another rest period at least eight hours long.
Special provisions have been laid down for occasional international passenger transport. In this case, the
driver may drive for 12 consecutive days up to 90 hours maximum; compensation rest for two weeks must
be taken en-bloc at the end of the 12-day period.
Daily rest
As a general rule, 11 consecutive hours rest must be taken. The following concessions apply:
- can be reduced to 9 consecutive hours, up to three days a week. Reductions must be compensated
before the end of the following week and attached to another rest period at least eight hours long taken at
the driver's domicile.
- can be split in up to three breaks during one day, in which case one the three following options must be
observed: 12 hours total daily rest, with one break of at least 8 consecutive hours and anyway never less
than one hour at a time.
Double manning concessions
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Each driver must have a rest period of not less than 8 consecutive hours during each period of 30 hours.
General description
The mandatory use of the digital tachograph to record driving hours has been introduced
because analogue tachographs proved easy to tamper with and their
time recordings are not reliable for law enforcement purposes.
The digital tachograph consists of three main components (1-2-3):
Example of connection.
Key
1. speed sensor mounted on gearbox
- rotary sensor on MLGU mechanical gearbox + antitampering wire;
- static sensor on M40 gearbox + antitampering wire;
- static on axle ( automatic transmission) + antitampering wire.
2. smart card
4. wiring harness
3. vehicle unit
5. instrument panel
ACTIA SMART TACH TACHOGRAPH
The equipment, also termed VU (Vehicle Unit), consists of an electronic unit equipped with display,
printer, two smart card readers and a set of control pushbuttons.
The unit can only be activated by inserting a registered smart card and a PIN which is issued by local
chambers of commerce.
Two smart card readers are provided for double manned long journeys, when two drivers are required by
law to take turns in driving.
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The figure shows a front view of the equipment.
KEY:
(1) Key to extract smart card from reader slot (8) or toggle driver 1 activity.
(2) Key to extract smart card from slot (9) or toggle driver 2 activity;
(3) Display (lights up upon KEY ON).
The default screen always shows:
-current Driver 1 activity and his/her total rest time.
-whether smart cards are present in the 2 readers and selected Driver 1 and Driver 2 activities. If needed
individual menu items such as error log, programming data, etc. are shown.
(4) CANCEL key returns to previous menu or cancels current selection.
(5) PREVIOUS key returns to previous menu or menu item or changes a set value;
(6) NEXT key goes to next menu or menu item or changes a set value;
(7) OK key selects a submenu or confirms a setting;
(8) Reader for electronic driver's licence of first driver.
The workshop card used to activate the customisation and setup procedure must be inserted into this
reader;
(9) Reader for electronic driver's licence of second driver;
(10) Connector for programming – data download cable, protected by rubber cover;
(11) Printer to print set parameters;
(12) Warning light comes on in the event of a fault (while an error message appears on display).
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Symbols
Activity symbols
The display shows a set of symbols that represent equipment activity states.
First driver activities are shown in the left portion of the display; second driver activities in the right portion
of the screen.
The symbols signify the following:
1 First driver's smart card inserted.
2 Activity: driving.
3 Activity: working.
4 Activity: available.
5 Activity: rest.
6 Second driver's smart card inserted.
Operation mode symbols
A symbol on the display indicates which type of smart card is inserted.
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Other symbols
Other symbols may appear on the screen depending on the settings and information displayed.
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Tachograph main features
Event recording:
-Infringement alarms: Ex: after 4 h and 15 min continuous driving, an alarm informs the driver that he/she
must take a break within the next 15 min. After 4.5 h the system informs the driver that he/she is
committing an infringement. Ex. overspeed.
-System malfunction alarms : for instance, printer or tachograph card failure, sensor/tachograph power
supply failure.
-General system safety checks (e.g. sensor authentication)
-The tachograph can communicate with the other on-board electronic devices; (e.g. transmission of
speed information to speedometer)
Vehicle Unit memory
-The vehicle unit can store up to about 365 days duty and the speeds during the last 24 hours (field. 1 s).
The latest data overwrite the oldest data (365 days, assuming average utilisation).
-Data download every 3 months (Europe).
Tachograph card memory:
-The driver card holds up 28 days driver duty data. Latest data overwrite the oldest data.
-Data download every 3 weeks (Europe).
Tickets:
All data on tachograph and user activities can be printed on a ticket.
All tachographs that use symbols have the same format.
There are six types of tickets:
-Daily driver duty printout from smart card.
-Daily driver duty printout from equipment memory.
-Printout of events and failure events from smart card.
-Printout of events and failure events from equipment memory.
-Printout of technical data.
-Printout of speed infringements.
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Example of a ticket
Key to ticket data.
1. ACTIA Smartach printout heading logo.
2. Current print date and time.
3. Type of printout: daily from smart card.
4. Driver card information: surname, name, state, card number, card validity.
5. Vehicle identification: Vehicle Identification Number, country, vehicle registration number.
6.Tachograph identification. Brand and part number
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7. Workshop card identification: name of workshop, state, card number, last calibration date.
8. Control card identification: state, card number, date and time of last control, type of control.
9 .Date ticket was printed, number of days driver card has been used.
10. Previous unknown activities of the day (starting at 00.00) while smart card was not inserted in
tachograph.
11. Activities done while card was in slot 1 as first driver.
- Activities done while card was in slot 2 as second driver.
12. Vehicle registration number and odometer where card was inserted.
13. Driving mode indication: OO indicates double manning; * indicates that a rest period of more than one
hour was taken.
14. Unknown activities while card was not inserted in the tachograph.
15. Activities done while card was in slot 2 as second driver.
- Activities done while card was in slot 1 as driver.
16. Vehicle registration number of vehicle where the card was inserted.
17. Cumulative summaries of activities and distances travelled.
18. Events and/or faults stored in the card, details if any, type of fault, date, time, duration, ID number.
19. Events and/or faults stored in tachograph, details if any, type of fault, date, time, duration, card number.
20. Control place and space for control officer's signature
21. Space for driver's signature.
22. End of printout.
SMART CARDS
The Council of the European Union has brought into force the mandatory fitment and use of digital
tachographs; these are electronic devices that record the activities of vehicles used for the carriage of
passenger or goods.
The tachograph card is a smart card that interfaces with the digital tachograph to store driver's driving
and rest time information.
From 5 August 2005, card applications may be submitted to all Italian Chambers of Commerce; from 1
January 2006, all vehicles registered for the first time having a mass exceeding 3.5 t or seating over 9
persons must be equipped with a digital tachograph.
Under the European Regulation, competent authorities must make tachograph cards available at least
three months before the mandatory installation of digital tachographs takes effect.
To obtain a tachograph card, an application must be submitted to the local Chamber of Commerce using
the suitable form (available at http://www.unioncamere.net/Web_tachigrafo).
Within 15 days of submission, the Chamber of Commerce issues the tachograph card to the card holder
and, if the applicant is a workshop, a PIN.
Tachograph cards and digital tachographs have been introduced in place of analogue equipment
because the need was felt to make a safer, more user-friendly and more reliable technology
available to drivers, transport undertakings, workshops and enforcement authorities. The intent of the
European Union is to improve the working conditions of lorry drivers and - as a result - road safety.
All member countries, including some non-member countries, take part in this initiative.
(EC Regulation no.2135/98 of 24 September 1998 amending EEC Regulation no. 3821/85)
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There are 4 types of tachograph cards (smart cards), each with its specific purpose and application
depending on who the card holder is:
- Driver card
- Company card
- Control card
- Workshop card.
In Italy, tachograph cards are issued by the local Chamber of Commerce in the place of residence of the
applicant.
Driver smart card
It has a white background; it is a personal card with 5 year validity required to drive certain vehicles as
provided for by Regulation 3820/85. The driver must insert it before he/she starts driving.
It records the following data: travel/stop time, speed, distance, significant events.
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Company smart card
If has a yellow background; validity is 5 years; this card identifies the company that owns the vehicle,
facilitates fleet management and enables inspection, downloading and/or printing of utilisation data for all
vehicles of the company equipped with a digital tachograph.
Control smart card
It has a blue background and 5-year validity; it enables the verification of driving times and speeds by
viewing, printing and downloading the information stored in the tachograph.
Activities of enforcement authorities
-Verification of rest times: 4.5.
-Enforcement
of
traffic
rules
and
regulations.
-Overspeed events.
-Periodic system calibration/activation.
-Fraud enforcement.
-Tachograph card session errors.
Fraud enforcement.
• Improper tachograph calibration.
-On digital tachograph.
• Period : N/A
• Where/how to check :
-Test at service centre
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Workshop smart card
It has a red background and 5-year validity; it is issued by national authorities to workshops authorised to
activate, calibrate, program tachograph systems and download data.
AUTHORISED SERVICE NETWORK
The new digital tachograph system complies with certain safety rules specifically designed to make it
impossible for the digital equipment to be tampered with so as to ensure the accuracy of speed and
driving time data, as enforcement of the relevant rules is considered to be critical to ensuring road safety.
As a result, the technical and professional skills at workshops authorised to install and service digital
tachographs also play a critical role.
European and national regulations lay down the requirements for workshops and installers authorised to
install and service new digital equipment as well as authorisation criteria for tacograph service centre
approval.
In Italy, service centre approval is issued by the Ministry of Production Activities (MAP); applications are
to be submitted to Chambers of Commerce, that initiate the control procedure for submission to MAP.
The Ministry of Production Activities notifies issued approvals to Unioncamere (the Association of the
Chambers of Commerce), that prepares a list of authorised service centres. The list is available to the
public and can be viewed at any time. This information is available at:
http://www.unioncamere.net/Web_tachigrafo/index.php
CUSTOMER INFORMATION
Dealers/workshops are required to provide Customers who purchase a vehicle equipped with
digital tachograph with the following information:
- The Customer is required by law to contact an authorised ACTIA service centre and have the first
mandatory calibration performed within 15 days after the date of registration. The calibration
procedure is at Customer's charge. (rates are around €150).
- The Customer must submit an application to obtain a Driver card for every driver employed with the
company.
Driver cards are issued to the driver's name and are personal. In Italy, card applications must be
submitted to the local Chambers of Commerce.
- Daily duty data stored in the digital tachograph must be downloaded every three months, whereas the
data stored in the Driver card must be downloaded every three weeks.
Data must be retained for twelve months.
- The Company that owns the vehicles may apply for a Company card that allows management of
downloaded data or may appoint an authorised ACTIA service centre to take care of data management.
- Communication between tachograph and sensor is always active, which means the system draws
current even when the ignition key is removed from the switch; in the event the vehicle is to be left
unused for long periods, the battery must be disconnected or it will run flat.
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Tachograph activation
Upon vehicle registration, the tachograph must be activated at an authorised service centre, that will
perform the following procedures:
-Tachograph activation (data storage)
-Tachograph sensor to Vehicle Unit authentication.
-Vehicle information entry (VIN, license plate, company details,..)
-Tachograph calibration.
Periodic inspections
After the first calibration, periodic inspections (in Italy, yearly inspections) and recalibration procedures
must be performed.
Periodic inspections are at the Customer's charge and must be performed by authorised ACTIA service
centres. (rates are around €190).
Inspection is mandatory in the following events :
-After tachograph repair.
-When changes have been made to the driveline (wheels, gearbox, etc.)
-If clock drift exceeds 20 min.
-Every two years.
Voluntary inspections at request :
-Installation verification.
-Component verification.
-Tachograph calibration (see “Parameters” section).
-Data update.
Data management
If the tachograph is replaced.
-Data download from faulty tachograph and upload to the new tachograph.
-Secure delivery of tachograph data to concerned company.
-Additional services (small carriage businesses):
-Secure Data download from Driver to other medium and storage every 21 days
-Digital Tachograph: Secure Data download from Smart Card to other medium every 3 months (provision
not yet finally approved).
- Upgrade from Analogue to Digital Tachograph.
Warranty
Warranty service for the digital tachograph and its speed sensor is provided by the ACTIA Group through
their approved ACTIA service centres. To have the system serviced or repaired, contact an approved
ACTIA service centre. The ACTIA Group bears the labour costs incurred in replacing a faulty component
at approved ACTIA service centres, the costs for the download of old equipment data and delivery to the
Client Company (where feasible) and for faulty components (digital tachograph and/or speed sensor)
replaced under warranty.
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Wiring diagram
Tachograph pinout
The connector on the front end is used to:
-download data via RS 232 interface;
- diagnose, calibrate and program equipment via K line;
- test signal input/output (motion sensor signal output, clock signal output, or vehicle speed input).
Front connector for tachograph programming, data read/write.
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Notes
Ground
K line for diagnosis
To EOBD connector
RxD–Downloading
data download (RS232)
Calibration I/O line
+30 power supply
TxD–
Downloading
data download (RS232)
Rear connectors.
Power supplies
+30 power supply protected by
fuse
+12 lighting
Opt. RPM sensor connection
Not used
+ 15 (protected by external fuse
)
N.C.
Not used
Battery negative
N.C.
Ground
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
N.C.
Motion sensor signals
Power supply for motion sensor
(8 VDC +/- 10%)
Motion sensor negative
Additional functions
N.C.
Pulses from motion sensor
N.C.
Data exchange with sensor
N.C.
Not used
Not used
N.C.
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Not used
Not used
Not used
Not used
Speed signal output
K line for diagnosis
Not used
K line for data broadcast
VEHICLE SPEED SENSOR
This is a Hall motion sensor designed for installation on road vehicles. The sensor meets the
requirements of Annex 1B to Regulation 2135/98/EC and its conformity must be certified. Conformity
certification includes a safety certification (ITSEC level: E3 high).
The sensor provides the tachograph (VU) with accurate information on vehicle motion (speed and
distance travelled). The sensor must be screwed into its housing in the gearbox and a suitable seal must
be affixed.
Motion sensors are available in different versions to suit different transmission configurations; all versions
have the same specifications except for the length of the portion that enters the gearbox or sensor design
(rotary or static).
Input/output signals are available at a 4-pin connector.
- the sensor is permanently fed 8 VDC +/- 10% from the VU it is connected to.
- it sends real-time speed pulses to the VU.
- a secure, two-way communication line provides for data exchange between sensor and VU.
The secure communication line allows:
- sensor to VU communication (including mutual authentication of sensor and VU);
- transmission of a feedback value representing the number of real-time speed pulses sent to the VU over
the speed signal line during a certain period of time;
- transmission of other data at VU's request.
The sensor block diagram is provided below for reference only:
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Sensor pinout
Pin occupancy is as follows:
Pin
1
2
3
4
Signal
8 VDC power supply
Electrical ground
Speed signal
Data communication signal
VSO (Vehicle Speed Output)
In vehicles not equipped with a tachograph, the VSO (vehicle speed) signal is generated by the NFR (pin
23) and sent to the NBC via a dedicated connection (dash lines in the diagram). The NBC encodes the
signal and makes it available both over the network for the NQS and over the bus for the CSG (power
steering) and VPAS (park assist camera) control units.
If the vehicle is equipped with a tachograph, the speed values recorded by the tachograph and the
speedometer readouts must be synchronised.
To achieve synchronisation, the signal generated by the tachograph is used to obtain the VSO signal for
the speedometer; the signal is sent from pin B7 to the NBC where it is processed and adapted and then
sent over the B – CAN network to the NQS. In the diagram, the tachograph VSO signal is marked SPEED
and highlighted in purple, whereas the conventional VSO signal generated by the NFR is represented by
a dash line.
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Key.
NBC: computer body node; NFR: brake node; NQS: instrument panel node; CSG: power steering control
unit; 081/16: opt. for body shops, pin 16; VPAS: park assist camera; CCT: tachograph control unit;
PULSE GENERATOR: pulse generator on gearbox; SPEED: vehicle speed pulses; DATA: two-way serial
data bus connecting CCT and pulse generator: VSO: vehicle speed output (vehicle speed signal)
Gearbox servicing
The speed sensor is mounted on the gearbox and sealed with a lead seal.
In the event the vehicle is repaired at the FIAT service network and repair procedures require removal of
the sensor from the gearbox, after repair the vehicle must be brought to an authorised ACTIA service
centre (included in the list published by Unioncamere) to have a new seal affixed. Seal application is at
supplier's charge. (rates are around €30).
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Tachograph configuration and calibration.
Tachograph configuration and calibration may only be performed by authorised service centres
whose personnel has received specific ACTIA training.
6.1. Diagnosis with Examiner
The diagnostic procedure supported by the examiners available to the FIAT service network is limited to
viewing control unit parameters and any errors present, and a few settings that do not affect unit security.
FOREWORD
To establish communication with the control unit, the A-16 HS cable with the red connector must be
connected to the diagnostic connector. The control unit is in the compartment above the imperial node on
all versions except the SCUDO versions, where the control unit is in the dashboard. The control unit
connected to two wiring harnesses by two "ISO autoradio" connectors; the yellow connector is for the
speed sensor (at gearbox output) and the white one is for control unit power supply. The standardised 16pin diagnostic connector is under the fuse carrier near the driver's side.
PARAMETER SCREENS
All system information can be retrieved in the parameter and parameter selection environment. The
following parameters are available :
-vehicle speed parameters : vehicle speed, overspeed, gearbox output signal, etc.
-driver parameters : smart card in slot, driver duty.
-control unit date and time parameters: GMT date and time, local time and minute offset, etc.
-vehicle speed calculation parameters : K, L and W factors, control unit state, etc.
-vehicle identification configuration: Country of registration, Vehicle license number, type of tyres, etc.
-control unit configuration : distance measurement unit, trip reset menu, local time, language selection,
etc.
In addition, the following parameters are worth mentioning:
-Odometer
-Vehicle state (indicates whether vehicle is moving or stopped)
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PARAMETER SELECTION ENVIRONMENT
The Select key lets you select the parameters you want displayed.
The less parameters you select, the faster the refresh speed. Maximum refresh speed
is achieved when one parameter is selected.
LIST OF PARAMETERS
Description
Serial number
Sensor serial number
Type approval number
Country of registration
Vehicle license number
K factor
L factor
W factor
Type of tyres
Maximum speed
Local time offset
Local minutes offset
Odometer
Vehicle speed
Gearbox output signal
Lighting
Distance Meas Unit
Language selection
Trip reset menu
Local time menu
Control unit language
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Measurement
Unit / State
Value
Pulses/m
mm
Pulses/m
Km/h
h
min
km
Km/h
Pulses/m
Can
Dedicated line
Km/h
mph
From control unit
From smart card
Disabled
Enabled
Disabled
Enabled
Danish
Dutch
English
Finnish
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Description
Smart card in slot 1
Smart card in slot 2
Driver 1 duty
Driver 2 duty
Vehicle state
Control unit state
Overspeed
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Measurement
Unit / State
Value
French
German
Irish
Greek
Italian
Portuguese
Spanish
Swedish
Wrong
None
Driver
Workshop
Control
Special
error
None
Driver
Workshop
Control
Special
error
Break
Available
Working
Driving
error
Break
Available
Working
Driving
error
Stopped
Moving
normal
control
calibration
special
error
No
Yes
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PARAMETER SCREENS HELP
Parameter
Sensor
serial no.
Type
approval
number
Lighting
Country of
registration
Vehicle
license
number
Distance
Meas Unit
Language
selection
Trip
reset
menu
Local
menu
time
Control unit
language
K factor
L factor
Help
Serial number of speed sensor
Type approval number of speed sensor
Indicates how display lighting is controlled. On this vehicle, default
setting is “dedicated line”.
This entry must conform to vehicle document information.
If no so, contact an approved tachograph centre to have the control unit
updated.
Upon first activation, it is mandatory to have the equipment calibrated
and the parameters updated at an authorised service centre.
This entry must conform to vehicle document information.
If no so, contact an approved tachograph centre to have the control unit
updated.
Upon first activation, it is mandatory to have the equipment calibrated
and the parameters updated at an authorised service centre.
Unit of measurement used for distance (km/h or mph).
If set to the wrong measurement unit, perform the configuration
procedure to correct this setting.
LCD display language may be set to match either control unit language
(see parameter “Control unit language”) or the language of the smart
card in the slot (default setting).
To change this setting, perform the configuration procedure.
Lets you enable or disable the corresponding menu on the control unit
LCD.
If the driver (or fleet manager) wishes to use this menu on the control unit
LCD, perform the configuration procedure to change this setting.
Lets you enable or disable the corresponding menu on the control unit
LCD.
If the driver (or fleet manager) wishes to use this menu on the control unit
LCD, perform the configuration procedure to change this setting.
To change this setting, perform the configuration procedure.
This configuration parameter set in the control unit is used to calculate
the distance travelled by the vehicle.
If you find that the distance travelled or speed indication on the control
unit LCD is inaccurate, have the control unit calibrated at an authorised
tachograph centre.
Upon first activation, it is mandatory to have the equipment calibrated
and the parameters updated at an authorised service centre.
This configuration parameter set in the control unit is used to calculate
the distance travelled by the vehicle.
If you find that the distance travelled or speed indication on the control
unit LCD is inaccurate, have the control unit calibrated at an authorised
tachograph centre.
Upon first activation, it is mandatory to have the equipment calibrated
and the parameters updated at an authorised service centre.
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Parameter
Help
W factor
Type
tyres
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This configuration parameter set in the control unit is used to calculate
the distance travelled by the vehicle.
If you find that the distance travelled or speed indication on the control
unit LCD is inaccurate, have the control unit calibrated at an authorised
tachograph centre.
Upon first activation, it is mandatory to have the equipment calibrated
and the parameters updated at an authorised service centre.
of
Maximum
speed
Local time
offset
Local
minuses
offset
Odometer
Smart card
in slot 1
Smart card
in slot 2
Driver 1 duty
Driver 2 duty
Vehicle
state
Control unit
state
Overspeed
Vehicle
speed
Gearbox
output signal
This entry must conform to vehicle document information.
If no so, contact an approved tachograph centre to have the control unit
updated.
Indicates the maximum speed limit set in the control unit.
To change speed limit setting, contact an approved tachograph centre to
have the control unit updated.
To set local time, perform the configuration procedure to change this
setting or use the appropriate control unit menu (if enabled).
To set local time, perform the configuration procedure to change this
setting or use the appropriate control unit menu (if enabled).
If you find that the distance travelled or speed indication on the control
unit LCD is inaccurate, have the control unit calibrated at an authorised
tachograph centre. (calculated based on the W factor)
Indicates the type of smart card inserted in the slot
Indicates the type of smart card inserted in the slot
Indicates driver duty. This information is recorded in the smart card
inserted in the slot
Indicates driver duty. This information is recorded in the smart card
inserted in the slot
Indicates whether vehicle is moving or stopped
Indicates control unit state. Any state other than “normal” indicates that
the smart card in the slot is not a Driver card.
Indicates whether vehicle exceeds speed limit or not.
VEHICLE SPEED: Vehicle speed in Km/h.
Indicates the number of pulses per second received from gearbox output
Notes:
- K factor
Control equipment constant: expressed in k = pulses/km. Indicates how many revolutions or pulses it
takes before the equipment records 1 km travel.
Default setting:
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- W factor
Vehicle characteristic coefficient: expressed in w = pulses/km. This number represents the vehicle onboard speed sensor output when the vehicle travels a 1 km distance. In other words, it indicates the
number of revolutions or pulses generated by the mechanism connected to the power takeoff when the
vehicle has travelled 1 km.
-L factor
Actual circumference of tyres installed on vehicle: expressed in l = mm. Indicates the linear distance
covered by a wheel during one full revolution. This parameter is critical to device calibration. These
values must be always be reported on the installation plate.
K and W are equal.
W = Vehicle characteristic coefficient (pulses\km)
K = Tachograph characteristic coefficient (pulses\km), i.e. the conversion factor the tachograph uses to
process the pulses from the vehicle.
This conversion factor is =1 (same as tachograph of previous generation).
K -was a significant factor in first generation tachographs because they incorporated mechanical parts
and the ratio of these parts would affect the information from the vehicle.
ERROR ENVIRONMENT
Errors are divided into the following classes:
-Present (fault is still detected by control unit).
-Intermittent (fault stored previously that is no longer present when control unit is queried). The error
environment provides an error delete key.
NOTE
The only authorised service for speed sensor and/or tachograph control unit is wiring and connector
inspection.
In the event of speed sensor or control unit replacement or calibration, the vehicle must be brought to an
authorised tachograph service centre.
These centres are also authorised to perform first activation and/or sensor unit- control unit- vehicle
calibration.
This control unit must be powered permanently. In the event the battery is disconnected, it will indicate
and record an error.
HOW TO DELETE ERRORS
The error environment provides a key to delete (intermittent) errors from the control unit
memory.
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LIST OF ERRORS
Code
9001
9002
Description
1
Speed sensor
power supply
Control unit power
supply
Description
2
-
Type
Above upper
limit
Below lower
limit
No signal
Above upper
limit
-
Below lower
limit
No signal
9006
Vehicle speed
signal
Speed signal
9007
Vehicle speed
signal
Vehicle speed
sensor
Wrong time or date
Speed invalid or
Serial line fault
Serial line
Signal faulty
-
Vehicle moving
when no Key ON
Control unit
-
-
9018
Control unit
Control unit
Vehicle speed
sensor
Control unit
No additional
information
No additional
information
Checksum
error
Calibration
LCD
Internal error
9019
Control unit
9020
Vehicle moving
when no card in slot
9008
9010
9011
9012
9014
9016
9017
-
Speed signal output
for instrument panel
-
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No signal
No additional
information
No additional
information
No additional
information
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LIKELY CAUSES
DTC
DTC description
9001
Speed sensor power supply
9002
Control unit power supply
9006
Vehicle speed sensor - Speed signal - No signal
9007
9008
Vehicle speed sensor - Speed invalid or Serial
line - Signal faulty
Vehicle speed sensor - Serial line - No signal
9010
Wrong time or date
9011
Vehicle moving when no Key ON
9012
9014
Control unit - Checksum error
Control unit - Calibration
9016
9017
Control unit - LCD
Vehicle speed sensor - Internal error
9018
Speed signal output for instrument panel
9019
9020
Control unit
Vehicle moving when no card in slot
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Likely cause
Faulty connections
Faulty wiring
Faulty sensor
Faulty control unit
Faulty connections
Faulty wiring
Faulty control unit
Faulty connections
Faulty wiring
Faulty sensor
Faulty control unit
Faulty connections
Faulty wiring
Faulty sensor
Faulty control unit
Faulty connections
Faulty wiring
Faulty sensor
Faulty control unit
Configuration error
Faulty control unit
Faulty connections
Faulty wiring
Faulty sensor
Faulty control unit
Faulty control unit
Wrong calibration
Faulty control unit
Faulty control unit
Faulty sensor
Faulty control unit
Faulty connections
Faulty wiring
Faulty instrument
panel
Faulty control unit
Faulty control unit
No smart card in
slot
Faulty sensor
Faulty control unit
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ACTIVE DIAGNOSIS ENVIRONMENT
Available active diagnosis features are as follows:
- "Light ON", turns on malfunction indicator lamp (when off).
- "Light OFF", turns off malfunction indicator lamp (when on).
- "Buzzer", sounds control unit buzzer.
Screen helps are provided for all active diagnosis procedures.
LIST OF ACTIVE DIAGNOSIS FEATURES
Active Diagnosis
Light ON
Light OFF
BUZZER
Help
The malfunction indicator lamp is operated for a few
seconds.
The malfunction indicator lamp is operated for a few
seconds.
You should hear the Buzzer.
PROCEDURES / CONFIGURATIONS
This environment can be accessed from Active Diagnosis and holds the following procedures:
"Write control unit setup":
Allows configuration of the following parameters:
-Distance Meas Unit
-Trip reset menu
-Local time menu
-Language selection
-Control unit language
"Summer/Winter time date":
This procedure lets you set the next Summer/Winter time changeover date (normally in March and
October every year) and time change offset (summer time: local time + 1 hour). Upon the set date, the
clock will be automatically advanced/set back by the selected offset.
Up to 5 summer/winter time changeovers can be entered.
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7. REAR-VIEW CAMERA
SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The main purpose of the rear view camera is to assist the driver during parking and loading/unloading.
The system displays a mirror-like image of the view from the vehicle rear end when reverse is engaged
or an ON/OFF key is pressed.
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COMPONENTS
The system consists of the following components:
•
camera with optics unit;
•
connection cables (not included in scope of supply);
•
third stop light (not included in scope of supply);
•
housing for camera and third stop light;
•
display;
•
mounting bracket to install display near rear view mirror;
•
ON/OFF key, display backlighting and brightness adjustment keys.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
DISPLAY
The display performs the following tasks:
•
•
•
operates and feeds the park assist rear view camera;
displays the images sent by the park assist rear view camera;
displays warning messages for the driver in several languages.
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Display module – most significant specifications:
Technology
TFT-active matrix-LCD
Dimensions (diagonal)
13 cm [5"]
Signal mode
NTSC(M)
Image size
4:3
Viewing angle
Min: 45º vertical up - 45° vertical down / 60º
horizontal left - 60° horizontal right; Typ: 50°
vertical high - 70° vertical down / 70° horizontal
left - 70° horizontal right.
Resolution
74,880 pixel (320 x 234 pixel)
Dot pitch
0.107 (hor.) x 0.319 (vert.)
Dot configuration
R·G·B strip configuration
Contrast ratio
100 min. / 200 typ.
Luminance
300 cd/m^2 min. / 350 cd/m^2 tip.
Active surface
102.2 (hor.) x 74.76 (vert.) mm
Response time
30 ms (rise time); 15 ms (drop time)
Power supply
10 – 16 V
Current draw
900 mA
Dimensions (unpacked)
127 x 90 x 13 mm
Pixel size
3 x 0.107 x 0.319 mm
Weight (unpacked)
183 g
Backlighting
Adjustable, in 16 steps
Brightness
Adjustable, in 16 steps
Key lighting
2 cd/m2 ± 20% fixed
Key chromatic characteristics
Orange – X = 0.65 ± 0.02; Y = 0.35 ± 0.02
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PARK ASSIST REAR VIEW CAMERA
The colour camera acquires a picture of the rear view behind the vehicle.
Camera module – specifications:
Colour
CMOS sensor
Power supply
9 – 16 V
Current draw
120 mA typ. 150 mA max.
Resolution
640 x 480 pixel
Range of vision
80°(hor.); 65°(vert.); 87°(diag.)
Image size
4:3
Size
25 x 30 x 28 mm
Weight (unpacked)
80 g
Output format
NTSC, composite, asymmetrical
(75 Ω)
Signal/noise ratio
> 48 dB
Low light sensitivity threshold
< 2 lux
Mirror-like image
Provided
Dynamic field
> 60 dB
Lens
2.1 mm
Other specifications
Fiat Specification 9.90110
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BLOCK DIAGRAM AND CONNECTIONS
The display requires the following connections:
•
•
reverse signal (digital signal – manifold open);
vehicle speed signal (VSO)
NFR transmits vehicle speed information (VSO); the same information is sent over the CAN network after
vehicle speed has been calculated.
The VSO signal is set at 275.714 mm/pulses. For the VSO receiver, speed is calculated by the following
formula:
Vehicle speed [mm/s] = VSO frequency [Hz] * 275.714 [mm/pulses]
The VSO signal will have 0 pulses/sec and a high digital level when vehicle speed is 0 km/h; conversely,
when vehicle speed does not apply, the VSO signal will have a low digital level.
Frequency: 7 pulses/1930 mm
Duty cycle: 50% ± 20% (30% to 70%)
Max. current IOUT: < 1A
•
Display to camera connection.
A shielded cable (75 Ω) is used to connect camera to display.
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OPERATING SPECIFICATIONS
SYSTEM CUT-IN / CUT-OFF
The system cuts in when the following conditions are verified:
•
key on and reverse engaged;
•
key on, On key pressed, speed lower than 15 km/h.
When reverse is disengaged, the image is displayed for 5 seconds.
The system does not provide standard diagnostic features. When video input is missing, an appropriate
error message in several languages is displayed (Table 6). No messages or images are displayed in the
event of a display fault.
USER INTERFACE
•
•
•
The display user interface features:
ON/OFF key: on-board, allows display of camera images regardless of the gear engaged;
backlighting adjustment: 2 digital keys;
brightness adjustment: 2 digital keys.
Key size: 14 x 8 mm.
Key symbol size: 3 x mm.
Brightness indicates video signal compensation to modify intensity. It is used to enhance detail in dark
images or reduce intensity when images are too bright.
Backlighting means display lighting lamp control. It is used to improve vision in strong sunlight or to
reduce dazzling in the dark.
User preferences (backlighting or brightness) must be stored in the system when the On key or reverse
state are deactivated. These settings - if different from default settings - must be retrieved the next time
the system is activated.
Display image is the same as that shown on the internal rear view mirror.
Multi-language messages must be displayed when:
•
•
•
•
reverse is engaged (for 2 seconds);
speed exceeds 18 km/h and only the On key is activated.
The system will go into stand-by mode 5 seconds after the multi-message has appeared on the display;
when speed exceeds 18 km/h with reverse engaged.
In this case, the message remains displayed until speed drops below 15 km/h or reverse is disengaged;
when video input is missing.
If reverse is engaged, the multi-language message are superimposed on display image; in all other
cases, messages are shown on a dark background.
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Language
Reverse
engagement
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On key ON
and speed >
18 km/h
Reverse
engaged and
speed > 18
km/h
Video
input
missing
Italian
Guardare attorno
per evitare urti
Velocità
massima
raggiunta
Sistema
non
disponibile
French
Regarder en
arrière avant de
reculer
Vitesse
dépassée
Système
pas
disponible
English
Check
surroundings for
safety
Max speed
reached
System not
available
Maximale
Geschwindigkeit
erreicht
System
nicht
vorhanden
Velocidad máxima
conseguida
Sistema no
disponible
German
Spanish
Einschalten der
Sichthilfe um
Schäden zu
vermeiden
Mirar detras por
seguridad
Table 6: The multi-language warning messages are displayed in the order shown
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