DSG-423 Service Manual - Coulson Compression & Measurement

DSG-423 Service Manual - Coulson Compression & Measurement
DSG-423
2.3 LITER
INDUSTRIAL ENGINE SERVICE MANUAL
Powertrain Assemblies
& Components Provided
By Ford Component Sales
EDI 1060040
AUG, 2007
Section 01
Section
Index
Reproduction in any manner, in whole or in part, is
prohibited without the express permission in
writing from:
GENERAL INFO
Section 02
ENGINE
Section 03
IGNITION
Section 04
FUEL
Section 05
COOLING
Section 06
CHARGING
Section 07
STARTER
Section 08
ENG. CONTROLS
Section 09
METRICS
Section 10
DISTRIBUTORS
Engine Distributors Inc (EDI)
EDI policy is one of continuous improvement and while
every effort is made to ensure that this publication is up
to date and correct in all respects, the right to change
prices, specifications and equipment at any time without
notice is reserved. Accordingly this publication is not to
be regarded as a final description of any individual
engine.
HEALTH & SAFETY
WARNING: THE FOLLOWING HEALTH AND SAFETY RECOMMENDATIONS SHOULD BE
CAREFULLY OBSERVED
WARNING: CARRYING OUT CERTAIN OPERATIONS AND HANDLING SOME
SUBSTANCES CAN BE DANGEROUS OR HARMFUL TO THE OPERATOR IF THE
CORRECT SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ARE NOT OBSERVED. SOME SUCH PRECAUTIONS
ARE RECOMMENDED AT THE APPROPRIATE POINTS IN THIS BOOK.
WARNING: WHILE IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THESE RECOMMENDED SAFETY
PRECAUTIONS ARE OBSERVED, CARE NEAR MACHINERY IS ALWAYS NECESSARY,
AND NO LIST CAN BE EXHAUSTIVE. ALWAYS BE CAUTIOUS TO AVIOD POTENTIAL
SAFETY RISKS.
The following recommendations are for general guidance:
1. Always wear correctly fitting protective clothing which should be laundered regularly. Loose or baggy clothing
can be extremely dangerous when working on running engines or machinery. Clothing which becomes
impregnated with oil or other substances can constitute a health hazard due to prolonged contact with the skin
even through underclothing.
2. So far as practicable, work on or close to engines or machinery only when they are stopped. If this is not
practicable, remember to keep tools, test equipment and all parts of the body well away from the moving parts
of the engine or equipment—fans, drive belts and pulleys are particularly dangerous. The electric cooling fan
used on some installations is actuated automatically when the coolant reaches a specified temperature. For this
reason, care should be taken to ensure that the ignition/isolating switch is OFF when working in the vicinity of
the fan as an increase in coolant temperature may cause the fan suddenly to operate.
3. Avoid contact with exhaust pipes, exhaust manifolds and silencers when an engine is, or has recently been
running; these can be very hot and can cause severe burns.
4. Many liquids used in engines or vehicles are harmful if taken internally or splashed into the eyes. In the event of
accidentally swallowing gasoline (petrol), oil, diesel fuel, antifreeze, battery acid etc, do NOT encourage vomiting
and OBTAIN QUALIFIED MEDICAL ASSISTANCE IMMEDIATELY.
Wear protective goggles when handling liquids which are harmful to the eyes; these include ammonia and battery
acid. If any of these substances are splashed in the eyes, wash out thoroughly with clean water and OBTAIN
QUALIFIED MEDICAL ASSISTANCE IMMEDIATELY.
WARNING:
WARNING: ENGINE EXHAUST, SOME OF ITS CONSTITUENTS, AND
CERTAIN VEHICLE COMPONENTS CONTAIN OR EMIT CHEMICALS KNOWN
TO THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA TO CAUSE CANCER AND BIRTH DEFECTS
OR OTHER REPRODUCTIVE HARM. IN ADDITION, CERTAIN FLUIDS
CONTAINED IN VEHICLES AND CERTAIN PRODUCTS OF COMPONENT
WEAR CONTAIN OR EMIT CHEMICALS KNOWN TO THE STATE OF
CALIFORNIA TO CAUSE CANCER AND BIRTH DEFECTS OR OTHER
REPRODUCTIVE HARM.
IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE
Appropriate service methods and proper repair procedures are essential for the safe, reliable operation of all
industrial engines as well as the personal safety of the individual doing the work. This Service Manual provides
general directions for accomplishing service and repair work with tested, effective techniques. Following them will
help assure reliability.
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
INDEX
Subject
Page
General Information
Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................
Safety Notice .............................................................................................................................................
Notes, Cautions, and Warnings.................................................................................................................
Battery Handling and Charging .................................................................................................................
Forward .....................................................................................................................................................
Engine Identification ..................................................................................................................................
Parts and Service ......................................................................................................................................
Description and Operation.........................................................................................................................
01 - 3
01 - 3
01 - 3
01 - 4
01 - 5
01 - 5
01 - 5
01 - 5
Diagnosis and Testing
Special Tools............................................................................................................................................. 01 - 6
Inspection and Verification ........................................................................................................................ 01 - 7
Symptom Chart ......................................................................................................................................... 01 - 7
PCV System Malfunction......................................................................................................................... 01 - 10
Engine Oil Leaks ..................................................................................................................................... 01 - 10
Compression Tests ................................................................................................................................. 01 - 12
Cylinder Leakage Detection .................................................................................................................... 01 - 13
Intake Manifold Vacuum Test.................................................................................................................. 01 - 13
Excessive Engine Oil Consumption ........................................................................................................ 01 - 15
Oil Pressure Test..................................................................................................................................... 01 - 16
Valve Train Analysis – Static................................................................................................................... 01 - 17
Valve Train Analysis – Dynamic.............................................................................................................. 01 - 17
Camshaft Lobe Lift .................................................................................................................................. 01 - 18
Hydraulic Valve Lash Adjuster ................................................................................................................ 01 - 20
General Service Procedures
Camshaft Journal Diameter.....................................................................................................................
Camshaft Journal Clearance...................................................................................................................
Camshaft Lobe Surface...........................................................................................................................
Camshaft Lobe Lift ..................................................................................................................................
Camshaft Runout ....................................................................................................................................
Camshaft End Play..................................................................................................................................
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Diameter ............................................................................................
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Taper..................................................................................................
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Clearance...........................................................................................
Bearing Inspection ..................................................................................................................................
Crankshaft End Play................................................................................................................................
Crankshaft Runout ..................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Bore Taper ................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Bore Out-of-Round....................................................................................................................
Piston Inspection .....................................................................................................................................
Piston Diameter.......................................................................................................................................
Piston to Cylinder Bore Clearance ..........................................................................................................
Piston Selection ......................................................................................................................................
Piston Ring End Gap...............................................................................................................................
Piston Ring-to-Groove Clearance ...........................................................................................................
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal Diameter........................................................................................
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal Taper .............................................................................................
Connecting Rod Cleaning .......................................................................................................................
Connecting Rod Larger End Bore ...........................................................................................................
Piston Pin Diameter.................................................................................................................................
Connecting Rod Bushing Diameter .........................................................................................................
Connecting Rod Bend .............................................................................................................................
01-1
01 - 21
01 - 21
01 - 21
01 - 22
01 - 22
01 - 22
01 - 23
01 - 23
01 - 24
01 - 24
01 - 25
01 - 25
01 - 25
01 - 26
01 - 26
01 - 26
01 - 26
01 - 27
01 - 27
01 - 28
01 - 28
01 - 28
01 - 28
01 - 29
01 - 29
01 - 29
01 - 29
01
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
INDEX (CONT.)
Subject
Page
General Service Procedures
Connecting Rod Twist .............................................................................................................................
Connecting Rod Piston Pin Side Clearance............................................................................................
Connecting Rod Journal Clearance ........................................................................................................
Bearing Inspection ..................................................................................................................................
Roller Follower Inspection .......................................................................................................................
Hydraulic Lash Adjuster Inspection .........................................................................................................
Valve Stem Diameter ..............................................................................................................................
Valve Stem-to-Valve Guide Clearance....................................................................................................
Valve Inspection ......................................................................................................................................
Valve Guide Inner Diameter ....................................................................................................................
Valve Guide Reaming .............................................................................................................................
Valve Spring Installed Length..................................................................................................................
Valve Spring Free Length........................................................................................................................
Valve Spring Out-of-Square ....................................................................................................................
Valve Spring Compression Pressure ......................................................................................................
Valve and Seat Refacing Measurements ................................................................................................
Valve Seat Width.....................................................................................................................................
Valve Seat Runout ..................................................................................................................................
Flywheel Inspection.................................................................................................................................
Oil Pump Gear Radial Clearance ............................................................................................................
Oil Pump Rotor Inspection ......................................................................................................................
Oil Pump Side Clearance ........................................................................................................................
Cylinder Bore Honing ..............................................................................................................................
Cylinder Bore Cleaning ...........................................................................................................................
Cylinder Block Repair - Cast Iron Porosity Defects.................................................................................
Cylinder Block Core Plug Replacement ..................................................................................................
Cylinder Head - Distortion .......................................................................................................................
Spark Plug Thread Repair.......................................................................................................................
Exhaust Manifold Straightness................................................................................................................
01 - 29
01 - 30
01 - 30
01 - 31
01 - 31
01 - 31
01 - 32
01 - 32
01 - 32
01 - 33
01 - 33
01 - 33
01 - 33
01 - 33
01 - 34
01 - 34
01 - 34
01 - 34
01 - 35
01 - 35
01 - 35
01 - 35
01 - 36
01 - 36
01 - 37
01 - 37
01 - 37
01 - 39
01 - 40
SPECIFICATIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 01 - 41
01-2
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
GENERAL INFORMATION
This section covers various engine tests, adjustments,
service procedures and cleaning/inspection
procedures. Engine assembly and service
specifications appear at the end of the Section 02.
added information that will help you to complete a
particular procedure. CAUTIONS are given to prevent
you from making an error that could damage the
equipment. WARNINGS remind you to be especially
careful in those areas where carelessness can cause
personal injury. The following list contains some general
WARNINGS that you should follow when you work on
the equipment.
For engine disassembly, assembly, installation,
adjustment procedures and specifications, refer to
Section 02.
GENERAL WARNINGS:
Introduction
TO HELP AVOID INJURY:
This engine incorporates a closed-type crankcase
ventilation system.
•
To maintain the required performance level, the fuel
system, ignition system and engine must be kept in
good operating condition and meet recommended
adjustment specifications.
•
Before replacing damaged or worn engine components
such as the crankshaft, cylinder head, valve guide,
valves, camshaft or cylinder block, make sure part(s) is
not serviceable.
•
•
WARNING: TO AVOID THE POSSIBILITY OF
PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE, DO NOT
OPERATE THE ENGINE UNTIL THE FAN BLADE
HAS FIRST BEEN EXAMINED FOR POSSIBLE
CRACKS OR SEPARATION.
CAUTION: Use of abrasive grinding discs to remove
gasket material from the engine sealing surfaces
during repair procedures can contribute to engine
damage and wear. Airborne debris and abrasive grit
from the grinding disc may enter the engine
through exposed cavities causing premature wear
and eventual engine damage.
•
Engine Distributors Inc. (EDI) does not recommend
using abrasive grinding discs to remove engine gasket
material. Use manual gasket scrapers for removing
gasket material from the engine sealing surfaces.
•
Take added care to prevent scratching or gouging
aluminum sealing surfaces.
•
•
Safety Notice
•
There are numerous variations in procedures,
techniques, tools and parts for servicing equipment, as
well as in the skill of the individual doing the work. This
manual cannot possibly anticipate all such variations
and provide advice or cautions as to each. Accordingly,
anyone who departs from the instructions provided in
this Manual must first establish that neither personal
safety nor equipment integrity are compromised by the
choice of methods, tools or parts.
•
Notes, Cautions, and Warnings
As you read through the procedures, you will come
across NOTES, CAUTIONS, and WARNINGS. Each
one is there for a specific purpose. NOTES gives you
01-3
ALWAYS WEAR SAFETY GLASSES FOR EYE
PROTECTION.
USE SAFETY STANDS WHENEVER A
PROCEDURE REQUIRES YOU TO BE UNDER
THE EQUIPMENT.
BE SURE THAT THE IGNITION SWITCH IS
ALWAYS IN THE OFF POSITION, UNLESS
OTHERWISE REQUIRED BY THE PROCEDURE.
SET THE PARKING BRAKE (IF EQUIPPED)
WHEN WORKING ON THE EQUIPMENT. IF YOU
HAVE AN AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION, SET IT
IN PARK (ENGINE OFF) OR NEUTRAL (ENGINE
ON) UNLESS INSTRUCTED OTHERWISE FOR A
SPECIFIC OPERATION. PLACE WOOD BLOCKS
(4”X 4” OR LARGER) TO THE FRONT AND REAR
SURFACES OF THE TIRES TO PROVIDE
FURTHER RESTRAINT FROM INADVERTENT
EQUIPMENT MOVEMENT.
OPERATE THE ENGINE ONLY IN A WELL
VENTILATED AREA TO AVOID THE DANGER OF
CARBON MONOXIDE.
KEEP YOURSELF AND YOUR CLOTHING AWAY
FROM MOVING PARTS WHEN THE ENGINE IS
RUNNING, ESPECIALLY THE FAN BELTS.
TO PREVENT SERIOUS BURNS, AVOID
CONTACT WITH HOT METAL PARTS SUCH AS
THE RADIATOR, EXHAUST MANIFOLD, TAIL
PIPE, CATALYTIC CONVERTER AND MUFFLER.
DO NOT SMOKE WHILE WORKING ON THE
EQUIPMENT.
ALWAYS REMOVE RINGS, WATCHES, LOOSE
HANGING JEWELRY, AND LOOSE CLOTHING
BEFORE BEGINNING TO WORK ON THE
EQUIPMENT. TIE LONG HAIR SECURELY
BEHIND THE HEAD.
KEEP HANDS AND OTHER OBJECTS CLEAR OF
THE RADIATOR FAN BLADES. ELECTRIC
COOLING FANS CAN START TO OPERATE AT
ANY TIME BY AN INCREASE IN UNDERHOOD
TEMPERATURES, EVEN THOUGH THE
IGNITION IS IN THE OFF POSITION.
THEREFORE, CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN TO
ENSURE THAT THE ELECTRIC COOLING FAN IS
COMPLETELY DISCONNECTED WHEN
WORKING UNDER THE HOOD.
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Battery Handling and Charging
It is important that all labelling on the battery is carefully
read, understood and complied with. The format of the
following symbols and labels is common to most brands
of lead acid battery.
The handling and correct use of lead acid batteries is
not as hazardous provided that sensible precautions
are observed and that operatives have been trained in
their use and are adequately supervised.
Typical Battery Labelling
Read relevant
instructions
Explosive gases
Keep away from
children
Eye protection must
be WORN.
No smoking or naked
flames.
Do not dispose of as
household waste.
Recycle (via
recognized disposal
system).
Corrosive acid
Electrical current may
cause injury to
personnel
Flush eyes
immediately when
contacted with acid
Caution/important
notice.
NOTE: Observe all manufacturers’ instructions when
using charging equipment.
CAUTION: Batteries should not be charged in the
vehicle or equipment. May damage electrical components.
01-4
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Forward
Parts and Service
This book contains service information for the engine(s)
listed on the title page.
Replacement parts can be obtained through your local
EDI Distributor listed in the back portion of this manual.
They also may be found in the yellow pages under
“Engines” or contact EDI directly at 1 800 220 2700.
The life of your engine unit and the delivery of the high
performance built into it will depend on the care it
receives throughout its life. It is the operator’s
responsibility to ensure that the engine is correctly
operated. We consider it to be in your interests to enlist
the aid of an authorized EDI Distributor, not only when
repairs are required but also for regular maintenance.
Distributors are listed at the back of this manual.
Engines manufactured by Ford Motor Company are
available through EDI Distributors. When in need of
parts or service, contact your local Authorized
Distributor. In overseas territories, in the event of
difficulties, communicate directly with the supervising
EDI affiliated Company in your area whose address
appears at the end of this book.
EDI Distributors are equipped to perform major and
minor repairs. They are anxious to see that all of your
maintenance and service needs are quickly and
courteously completed.
Description and Operation
Section 01 of this manual covers general procedures
and diagnosis of the engine system, including base
engine repair procedures, that would be common to
most engines. Refer to Section 02 for more specific
service information on the DSG-423 engine.
Where the terms “Right” or “Left” occur in this
publication, they refer to the respective sides of the
engine when viewed from the rear or flywheel end.
Pistons and valves are numbered from the front or
timing cover end of the engine commencing at No. 1.
You may find that your engine assembly includes
optional equipment not specifically covered in the
following text. Nevertheless, the service procedures
outlined in this book still apply to your engine.
Engine Identification
Because Ford Power Products markets such a wide
range of industrial gasoline and diesel engines manufactured both in the U.S. and overseas - it is
important that you have as complete identification of the
engine as possible in order to provide the correct
replacement parts. Review the list in the back of this
book, for an EDI distributor in your area. You can obtain
a standard parts listing describing the parts. It remains
a distributor function to identify the part number.
The DSG-423 engine incorporates a closed positive
crankcase ventilation system and an exhaust emission
control system.
The engine’s, fuel, ignition, emissions system and
exhaust system all affect exhaust emission levels and
must be maintained according to the maintenance
schedule. Refer to the Maintenance and Operator’s
Handbook or contact your nearest EDI distributor listed
in the back of this manual.
DSG-423L
An identification Decal is affixed to the valve cover of
the engine. The decal contains the engine serial
number which identifies this unit from all others. Use all
numbers when seeking information or ordering
replacement parts for this engine.
01-5
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Special Tools
Commercially Available
Leakdown Tester
Compression Tester
014-00707 or Equivalent
Cup Shaped Adapter
TOOL-6565-AB or Equivalent
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
Engine Cylinder Leak
Detection/Air Pressurization Kit
014-00705 or Equivalent
Engine Oil Pressure Gauge
T73L-6600-A
12 Volt Master UV Diagnostic
Inspection Kit 164-R0756 or
Equivalent
Vacuum/Pressure Tester 164R0253 or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for by the procedures can
be obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA (1-800-768-8632).
01-6
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Inspection and Verification
1. Verify the customer concern by operating the engine
to duplicate the condition.
2. Visually inspect for obvious signs of mechanical and
electrical damage:
•
Engine coolant leaks.
•
Engine oil leaks.
•
Fuel leaks.
•
Damaged or severely worn pads.
•
Loose mounting bolts, studs, and nuts.
3. If the inspection reveals obvious concerns that can
be readily identified, repair as required.
4. If the concerns remain after the inspection,
determine the symptoms and go to the symptom
chart.
Symptom Chart
Condition
Difficult Starting
Poor Idling
Abnormal combustion
Possible Source
Action
Damaged starting system.
Refer to Section 07.
Damaged charging system/battery.
Refer to Section 06.
Burnt valve.
Replace valve.
Worn piston.
Replace piston and pin.
Worn piston rings or worn cylinder.
Repair or replace cylinder blocks.
Damaged cylinder head gasket.
Replace cylinder head gasket.
Damaged fuel system.
Refer to Section 04.
Damaged ignition system.
Refer to Section 03.
Spark plugs gapped incorrectly.
Check plug gap.
Damaged hydraulic tappet or hydraulic lash adjuster.
Replace tappet or lash adjuster.
Damaged hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
Replace hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
Damaged hydraulic lash adjuster guide or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
Replace hydraulic lash adjuster guide or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
Improper valve-to-valve seat contact.
Replace valve or valve seat.
Damaged cylinder head gasket.
Replace cylinder head gasket.
Malfunctioning or damaged fuel system.
Refer to Section 04 of this manual*.
Malfunctioning or damaged ignition system.
Refer to Section 03 of this manual*.
Spark plugs gapped incorrectly.
Check plug gap.
Malfunctioning or damaged IAC motor or system.
Refer to Section 03 of this manual.
Damaged hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
Replace hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic lash
adjuster
Damaged hydraulic lash adjuster guide or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
Replace hydraulic lash adjuster guide or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
Burnt or sticking valve.
Repair or replace valve.
Weak or broken valve spring
Replace valve spring
Carbon accumulation in combustion chamber.
Eliminate carbon buildup.
Malfunctioning or damaged fuel system
Refer to Section 04 of this manual*.
Malfunctioning or damaged ignition system.
Refer to Section 03 of this manual*.
01-7
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Condition
Excessive Oil
Consumption
Possible Source
Action
Worn piston ring groove.
Replace piston and pin.
Sticking piston rings.
Repair or replace piston rings.
Worn piston or cylinders.
Repair or replace piston or cylinder blocks.
Worn valve stem seal.
Replace valve stem seal.
Worn valve stem or valve guide.
Replace valve stem and guide.
Leaking oil.
Repair oil leakage.
Worn piston rings.
Replace piston rings.
Plugged PCV system.
Service PCV system.
01-8
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Condition
Engine Noise
Insufficient Power
Possible Source
Action
Excessive main bearing oil clearance.
Adjust clearance or replace main bearing.
Seized or heat damaged main bearing.
Replace main bearing.
Excessive crankshaft end play.
Replace crankshaft thrust main bearing.
Excessive connecting rod bearing oil clearance.
Replace connecting rod.
Heat damaged connecting rod bearing.
Replace connecting rod bearing.
Damaged connecting rod bushing.
Replace connecting rod bushing.
Worn cylinder.
Repair or replace cylinder blocks.
Worn piston or piston pin.
Replace piston or piston pin.
Damaged piston rings.
Replace piston rings.
Bent connecting rod.
Replace connecting rod.
Malfunctioning hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
Replace hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
Excessive hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic lash
adjuster clearance.
Adjust clearance or replace hydraulic lash adjuster
guide or hydraulic lash adjuster.
Broken valve spring.
Replace valve spring.
Excessive valve guide clearance.
Repair clearance or replace valve guide/stem.
Malfunctioning or damaged cooling system.
Refer to Section 05.
Malfunctioning or damaged fuel system.
Refer to Section 04.
Leaking exhaust system.
Repair exhaust leakage.
Improper drive belt tension.
Refer to Section 05.
Malfunctioning generator bearing.
Refer to Section 06 for diagnosis and testing of the
generator.
Loose timing chain/belt.
Adjust or replace timing chain/belt.
Damaged timing belt tensioner.
Replace timing belt tensioner.
Malfunctioning water pump bearing.
Replace water pump.
Malfunctioning hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
Replace hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
Damaged hydraulic lash adjuster guide or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
Replace hydraulic lash adjuster guide or hydraulic lash
adjuster.
Compression leakage at valve seat.
Repair or replace valve, valve seat or cylinder head.
Seized valve stem.
Replace valve stem.
Weak or broken valve spring.
Replace valve spring.
Damaged cylinder head gasket.
Replace cylinder head gasket.
Cracked or distorted cylinder head.
Replace cylinder head.
Damaged, worn or sticking piston ring(s).
Repair or replace piston ring(s).
Worn or damaged piston.
Replace piston.
Malfunctioning or damaged fuel system.
Refer to Section 04.
Malfunctioning or damaged ignition system.
Refer to Section 03.
Damaged or plugged exhaust system.
Repair or replace exhaust system.
01-9
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
PCV System Malfunction
Pressure Method
A malfunctioning Positive Crankcase Ventilation
System (closed type) may be indicated by loping or
rough engine idle. Do not attempt to compensate for this
idle condition by disconnecting the PCV system and
making an air bypass or idle speed adjustment.
The crankcase can be pressurized to locate oil leaks.
The following materials are required to fabricate the tool
to be used:
•
air supply and air hose
•
air pressure gauge that registers pressure in 4 kPa
(1 psi) increments
•
air line shutoff valve
•
appropriate fittings to attach the above parts to oil fill,
PCV grommet hole and crankcase ventilation tube
Engine Oil Leaks
•
NOTE: When diagnosing engine oil leaks, the source
and location of the leak must be positively identified
prior to service.
appropriate plugs to seal any openings leading to
the crankcase
•
a solution of liquid detergent and water to be applied
with a suitable applicator such as a squirt bottle or
brush
CAUTION: The removal of the PCV system from the
engine will adversely affect fuel economy and
engine crankcase ventilation with resultant
shortening of engine life.
Prior to performing this procedure, clean the cylinder
block, cylinder heads, valve covers, oil pan and flywheel
with a suitable solvent to remove all traces of oil.
Oil Leak
Detector
Y112-R0021
Fabricate the air supply hose to include the air line
shutoff valve and the appropriate adapter to permit the
air to enter the engine through the crankcase ventilation
tube. Fabricate the air pressure gauge to a suitable
adapter for installation on the engine at the oil filler
opening.
CAUTION: Use extreme caution when pressurizing
crankcase. Applying air pressure above specified
pressure risks damage to seals, gaskets and core
plugs. Under no circumstances should pressure be
allowed to exceed 27 kPa (4 psi)
Testing Procedure
Fluorescent Oil Additive Method
Use a 12 Volt Master UV Diagnostic Inspection Kit, such
as the Rotunda Oil Leak Detector Y112-R0021 or
equivalent, to perform the following procedure for oil
leak diagnosis.
1. Clean the engine with a suitable solvent to remove
all traces of oil.
2. Drain engine oil crankcase and refill with
recommended oil, premixed with Diesel Engine Oil
Dye 164-R3705 meeting Ford specification ESEM9C103-B1 or equivalent. Use a minimum 14.8 ml
(0.5 ounce) to a maximum 29.6 ml (1 ounce) of
fluorescent additive to all engines. If the oil is not
premixed, fluorescent additive must first be added to
crankcase.
3. Run the engine for 15 minutes. Stop the engine and
inspect all seal and gasket areas for leaks using the
12 Volt Master UV diagnostic Inspection Kit. A clear
bright yellow or orange area will identify the leak. For
extremely small leaks, several hours may be
required for the leak to appear.
4. If necessary, pressurize the main oil gallery system
to locate leaks due to improperly sealed, loose or
cocked plugs.
5. Repair all leaks as required.
•
Open the air supply valve until the pressure gauge
maintains 20 kPa (3 psi).
•
Inspect sealed or gasketed areas for leaks by
applying a solution of liquid detergent and water over
areas for formation of bubbles which indicates
leakage.
Leakage Points - Above Engine
Examine the following areas for oil leakage.
•
valve cover gaskets
•
intake manifold gaskets
•
cylinder head gaskets
•
oil filter
•
oil pump (if external)
•
oil level indicator tube connection
•
oil pressure sensor
Leakage Points - Under Engine
•
oil pan gaskets
•
oil pan sealer
•
oil pan rear seal
•
engine front cover gasket
01-10
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
•
crankshaft front seal
•
crankshaft rear oil seal
Leakage Points - with Flywheel Removed
NOTE: Air leakage in the area around a crankshaft rear
oil seal does not necessarily indicate a crankshaft rear
oil seal leak. However, if no other cause can be found
for oil leakage, assume that the crankshaft rear oil seal
is the cause of the oil leak.
NOTE: Light foaming equally around valve cover bolts
and crankshaft seals is not detrimental; no repairs are
required.
•
rear main bearing cap and seals
•
flywheel mounting bolt holes (with flywheel installed)
•
camshaft rear bearing covers or pipe plugs at the
end of oil passages (except for overhead cam)
Oil leaks at crimped seams in sheet metal parts and
cracks in cast or stamped parts can be detected when
pressurizing the crankcase.
01-11
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Compression Tests
Compression Pressure Limit Chart
Compression Gauge Check
MAX-MIN
kPa (psi)
MAX-MIN
kPa (psi)
MAX-MIN
kPa (psi)
MAX-MIN
kPa (psi)
1. Make sure the oil in the crankcase is of the correct
viscosity and at the proper level and that the battery
is properly charged. Operate until the engine is at
normal operating temperature. Turn the ignition
switch to the OFF position, then remove all the spark
plugs.
924 - 696
(134 - 101)
1131 - 848
(164 - 123)
1338 - 1000
(194 - 146)
1154 - 1158
(224 - 168)
938 - 703
(136 - 102)
1145 - 855
(166 - 124)
1351 - 1014
(196 - 147)
1558 - 1165
(226 - 169)
952 - 717
(138 - 104)
1158 - 869
(168 - 126)
1365 - 1020
(198 - 148)
1572 - 1179
(228 - 171)
965 - 724
(140 - 106)
1172 - 876
(170 - 127)
1379 - 1034
(200 - 150)
1586 - 1186
(230 - 172)
979 - 738
(142 - 107)
1186 - 889
(172 - 129)
1303 - 1041
(202 - 151)
1600 - 1200
(232 - 174)
933 - 745
(144 - 109)
1200 - 903
(174 - 131)
1407 - 1055
(204 - 153)
1055 - 1207
(153 - 175)
1007 - 758
(146 - 110)
1214 - 910
(176 - 132)
1420 - 1062
(206 - 154)
1627 - 1220
(154 - 177)
1020 - 765
(148 - 111)
1227 - 917
(178 - 133)
1434 - 1075
(208 - 156)
1641 - 1227
(238 - 178)
1034 - 779
(150 - 113)
1241 - 931
(180 - 135)
1448 - 1083
(210 - 157)
1655 - 1241
(240 - 180)
1048 - 786
(152 - 114)
1225 - 936
(182 - 136)
1462 - 1089
(212 - 158)
1669 - 1248
(242 - 181)
1062 - 793
(154 - 115)
1269 - 952
(184 - 138)
1476 - 1103
(214 - 160)
1682 - 1262
(244 - 183)
1076 - 807
(156 - 117)
1282 - 965
(186 - 140)
1489 - 1117
(216 - 162)
1696 - 1269
(246 - 184)
1089 - 814
(158 - 118)
1296 - 972
(188 - 141)
1503 - 1124
(218 - 163)
1710 - 1202
(248 - 186)
1103 - 872
(160 - 120)
1310 - 979
(190 - 142)
1517 - 1138
(220 - 165)
1724 - 1289
(250 - 187)
1110 - 834
(161 - 121)
1324 - 993
(192 - 144)
1631 - 1145
(222 - 166)
2. Set the throttle plates in the wide-open position.
3. Install a Compression Tester such as Rotunda
Compression Tester 059-R0009, or equivalent, in
the No. 1 cylinder.
4. Install an auxiliary starter switch in the starting
circuit. With the ignition switch in the OFF position,
and using the auxiliary starter switch, crank the
engine a minimum of five compression strokes and
record the highest reading. Note the approximate
number of compression strokes required to obtain
the highest reading.
5. Repeat the test on each cylinder, cranking the
engine approximately the same number of
compression strokes.
Test Results
The indicated compression pressures are considered
within specification if the lowest reading cylinder is
within 75 percent of the highest reading. Refer to the
Compression Pressure Limit Chart.
If one or more cylinders reads low, squirt approximately
one tablespoon of clean engine oil meeting Ford
specification ESE-M2C153-E on top of the pistons in
the low-reading cylinders. Repeat the compression
pressure check on these cylinders.
Example Readings
If, after checking the compression pressures in all
cylinders, it was found that the highest reading obtained
was 1351 kPa (196 psi), and the lowest pressure
reading was 1069 kPa (155 psi), the engine is within
specification and the compression is considered
satisfactory.
Interpreting Compression Readings
1. If compression improves considerably, with the
addition of oil, piston rings are faulty.
2. If compression does not improve with oil, valves are
sticking or seating improperly.
3. If two adjacent cylinders indicate low compression
pressures and squirting oil on each piston does not
increase compression, the head gasket may be
leaking between cylinders. Engine oil or coolant in
cylinders could result from this condition.
Use the Compression Pressure Limit Chart when
checking cylinder compression so that the lowest
reading is within 75 percent of the highest reading.
01-12
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Cylinder Leakage Detection
Intake Manifold Vacuum Test
When a cylinder produces a low reading, use of the
Engine Cylinder Leak Detection/Air Pressurization Kit,
such as the Rotunda Pressurization Kit 014-00705, or
equivalent, will be helpful in pinpointing the exact cause.
Bring the engine to normal operating temperature.
Connect a Vacuum/Pressure Tester, such as Rotunda
Vacuum/Pressure Tester 059-00008 or equivalent, to
the intake manifold. Run the engine at the specified idle
speed.
Rotunda Pressurization
Kit 014-00705
Vacuum Pressure
Tester
059-00008
The leakage detector is inserted in the spark plug hole,
the piston is brought up to dead center on the
compression stroke, and compressed air is admitted.
Once the combustion chamber is pressurized, a special
gauge included in the kit will read the percentage of
leakage. Leakage exceeding 20 percent is excessive.
While the air pressure is retained in the cylinder, listen
for the hiss of escaping air. A leak at the intake valve will
be heard in the throttle body. A leak at the exhaust valve
can be heard at the tail pipe. Leakage past the piston
rings will be audible at the positive crankcase ventilation
(PCV) connection. If air is passing through a blown
head gasket to an adjacent cylinder, the noise will be
evident at the spark plug hole of the cylinder into which
the air is leaking. Cracks in the cylinder blocks or gasket
leakage into the cooling system may be detected by a
stream of bubbles in the radiator.
The vacuum gauge should read between 51-74 kPa
(15-22 in-Hg) depending upon the engine condition and
the altitude at which the test is performed. Subtract 5.5
kPa (1 in-Hg) from the specified reading for every 500
meters (1,000 feet) of elevation above sea level.
The reading should be quite steady. If necessary, adjust
the gauge damper control (where used) if the needle is
fluttering rapidly. Adjust the damper until the needle
moves easily without excessive flutter.
Oil Leak and Valve Stem Seal Test
The cylinder leakage detector tests for engine oil leaks
and checks the valve stem seals for leakage.
1. Plug all crankcase openings except the one used for
connecting the leakage detector.
2. Connect the Engine Cylinder Leak Detection/Air
Pressurization Kit to a crankcase opening (an oil
level indicator tube is convenient). Adjust the air
pressure to approximately 34 kPa (5 psi).
3. Using a solution of liquid soap and water, brush the
solution along the gasket sealing surfaces and
bearing seals. Look for bubbles or foam.
4. Remove the spark plugs and rotate the crankshaft
slowly with a wrench. Check for large amounts of air
escaping into the cylinders as each intake valve and
exhaust valve opens.
5. The spark plugs on the leaking cylinders will
probably show deposits of burned oil.
01-13
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Interpreting Vacuum Gauge Readings
A careful study of the vacuum gauge reading while the
engine is idling will help pinpoint trouble areas. Always
conduct other appropriate tests before arriving at a final
diagnostic decision. Vacuum gauge readings, although
helpful, must be interpreted carefully.
Most vacuum gauges have a normal band indicated on
the gauge face.
The following are potential gauge readings. Some are
normal; others should be investigated further.
4. WORN RINGS OR DILUTED OIL: When the engine
is accelerated (dotted needle), the needle drops to 0
kPa (0 in-Hg). Upon deceleration, the needle runs
slightly above 74 kPa (22 in-Hg).
5. STICKING VALVES: When the needle (dotted)
remains steady at a normal vacuum but occasionally
flicks (sharp, fast movement) down and back about
13 kPa (4 in-Hg), one or more valves may be
sticking.
6. BURNED OR WARPED VALVES: A regular, evenlyspaced, downscale flicking of the needle indicates
one or more burned or warped valves. Insufficient
hydraulic lash adjuster or hydraulic lash adjuster
(HLA) clearance will also cause this reaction.
7. POOR VALVE SEATING: A small but regular
downscale flicking can mean one or more valves are
not seating.
8. WORN VALVE GUIDES: When the needle oscillates
(swings back and forth) over about a 13 kPa (4 inHg) range at idle speed, the valve guides could be
worn. As engine speed increases, the needle will
become steady if guides are responsible.
9. WEAK VALVE SPRINGS: When the needle
oscillation becomes more violent as engine rpm is
increased, weak valve springs are indicated. The
reading at idle could be relatively steady.
10.LATE VALVE TIMING: A steady but low reading
could be caused by late valve timing.
11.IGNITION TIMING RETARDING: Retarded ignition
timing will produce a steady but somewhat low
reading.
12.INSUFFICIENT SPARK PLUG GAP: When spark
plugs are gapped too close, a regular, small
pulsation of the needle can occur.
13.INTAKE LEAK: A low, steady reading can be caused
by an intake manifold or throttle body gasket leak.
14.BLOWN HEAD GASKET: A regular drop of approx.
33-50 kPa (10-15 in-Hg) can be caused by a blown
head gasket or warped cylinder head-to-cylinder
block surface.
1. NORMAL READING: Needle between 51-74 kPa
(15-22 in-Hg) and holding steady.
2. NORMAL READING DURING RAPID
ACCELERATION AND DEACCELERATION: When
the engine is rapidly accelerated (dotted needle), the
needle will drop to a low reading (not to zero). When
the throttle is suddenly released, the needle will
snap back up to a higher than normal figure.
3. NORMAL FOR HIGH-LIFT CAMSHAFT WITH
LARGE OVERLAP: The needle will register as low
as 51 kPa (15 in-Hg) but will be relatively steady.
Some oscillation is normal.
15.RESTRICTED EXHAUST SYSTEM: When the
engine is first started and is idled, the reading may
be normal, but as the engine rpm is increased, the
back pressure caused by a clogged muffler, kinked
tail pipe or other concerns will cause the needle to
slowly drop to 0 kPa (0 in-Hg). The needle then may
slowly rise. Excessive exhaust clogging will cause
the needle to drop to a low point even if the engine
is only idling.
When vacuum leaks are indicated, search out and
correct the cause. Excess air leaking into the system
will upset the fuel mixture and cause concerns such as
rough idle, missing on acceleration or burned valves. If
the leak exists in an accessory unit such as the power
brake booster, the unit will not function correctly. Always
fix vacuum leaks.
01-14
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Excessive Engine Oil Consumption
Oil Consumption Test
The amount of oil an engine uses will vary with the way
the equipment is driven in addition to normal engine-toengine variation. This is especially true during the first
340 hours or 16,100 km (10,000 miles) when a new
engine is being broken in or until certain internal engine
components become conditioned. Engines used in
heavy-duty operation may use more oil. The following
are examples of heavy-duty operation:
The following diagnostic procedure is used to determine
the source of excessive internal oil consumption.
•
severe loading applications
•
sustained high speed operation
1. Determine customer’s engine load habits, such as
sustained high speed operation, extended idle,
heavy work loads and other considerations.
Engines need oil to lubricate the following internal
components:
•
cylinder block, cylinder walls
•
pistons, piston pins and rings
•
intake and exhaust valve stems
•
intake and exhaust valve guides
•
all internal engine components
NOTE: Oil use is normally greater during the first 300
hours of service. As hours increase, oil use generally
decreases. Engines in normal service should get at
least 31.7 hours per quart (900 miles per quart) after
300 hours of service. High speeds, heavy loads, high
ambient temperature and other factors may result in
greater oil use.
2. Verify that the engine has no external oil leak as
described under Engine Oil Leaks in the Diagnosis
and Testing portion of this section.
3. Verify that the engine has the correct oil level
dipstick.
4. Verify that the engine is not being run in an overfilled
condition. Check the oil level at least five minutes
after a hot shutdown with the engine/vehicle parked
on a level surface. In no case should the level be
above the top of the cross-hatched area and the
letter F in FULL. If significantly overfilled, perform
steps 5 through 9. If not proceed to step 10.
When the pistons move downward, a thin film of oil is
left on the cylinder walls. As the engine is operated,
some oil is also drawn into the combustion chambers
past the intake and exhaust valve stem seals and
burned.
The following is a partial list of conditions that can affect
oil consumption rates:
5. Drain the engine oil, remove and replace the oil filter
and refill with one quart less than the recommended
amount.
•
engine size
•
operator driving habits
6. Run the engine for three minutes (10 minutes if
cold), and allow the oil to drain back for at least five
minutes with the engine/vehicle on a level surface.
•
ambient temperature
7. Remove oil level dipstick and wipe clean.
•
quality and viscosity of the oil
CAUTION: Do not wipe with anything contaminated
with silicone compounds.
Operating under varying conditions can frequently be
misleading. An engine that has been run for short hours
or in below-freezing ambient temperatures may have
consumed a “normal” amount of oil.
However, when checking engine oil level, it may
measure up to the full mark on the oil level dipstick due
to dilution (condensation and fuel) in the engine
crankcase. The engine might then be run at high
speeds where the condensation and fuel boil off. The
next time the engine oil is checked, it may appear that a
liter (quart) of oil was used in about 3 to 3-1/2 hours.
This perceived 3 to 3-1/2 hours per liter (quart) oil
consumption rate causes customer concern even
though the actual overall oil consumption rate is about
50 hours per liter (quart).
8. Reinstall the oil level dipstick, being sure to seat it
firmly in the oil level indicator tube. Remove the oil
level dipstick and draw a mark on the back
(unmarked) surface at the indicated oil level. This
level should be about the same as the ADD mark on
the face of the oil level dipstick.
9. Add one quart of oil. Restart the engine and allow to
idle for at least two minutes. Shut off the engine and
allow the oil to drain back for at least five minutes.
Mark the oil level dipstick, using the procedure
above. This level may range from slightly below the
top of the cross-hatched area to slightly below the
letter F in FULL.
10.Record the vehicle mileage or hours.
Make sure the selected engine oil meets Ford
specification WSS-M2C153-F and the recommended
API performance category “SJ” or higher and SAE
viscosity grade as shown in the equipment Owner’s or
Operators Engine handbook. It is also important that the
engine oil is changed at the intervals specified. Refer to
the Engine Operator’s handbook.
01-15
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Oil Pressure Test
11.Instruct the customer to run engine as usual and
perform the following:
•
Check the oil level regularly at intervals of
3 to 3-1/2 hours.
• Return to the service point when the oil level
drops below the lower (ADD) mark on the oil level
dipstick.
• Add only full quarts of the same oil in an emergency. Note the mileage at which the oil is added.
12.Check the oil level under the same conditions and at
the same location as in Steps 7-9.
•
Measure the distance from the oil level to the UPPER mark on the oil level dipstick and record.
• Measure the distance between the two scribe
marks and record.
• Divide the first measurement by the second.
• Divide the hours run during the oil test by the result. This quantity is the approximate oil consumption rate in hours per quart.
13.If the oil consumption rate is unacceptable, proceed
to next step.
1. Disconnect and remove the oil pressure sensor from
the engine.
2. Connect the Engine Oil Pressure Gauge and
Transmission Test Adapter to the oil pressure
sender oil gallery port.
3. Run the engine until normal operating temperature is
reached.
4. Run the engine at 3000 rpm and record the gauge
reading.
5. The oil pressure should be within specifications.
6. If the pressure is not within specification, check the
following possible sources:
14.Check the positive crankcase ventilation (PCV)
system. Make sure the system is not plugged.
15.Check for plugged oil drain-back holes in the
cylinder heads and cylinder blocks.
16.If the condition still exists after performing the above
steps, proceed to next step.
17.Perform a cylinder compression test -- Refer
to“Compression Tests” on page 12 or perform a
cylinder leak detection test with Engine Cylinder
Leak Detection/Air Pressurization Kit -- Refer
to“Cylinder Leakage Detection” on page 13. This
can help determine the source of oil consumption
such as valves, piston rings or other areas.
NOTE: After determining if worn parts should be
replaced, make sure correct replacement parts are
used.
18.Check valve guides for excessive guide clearances.
REPLACE all valve stem seals after verifying valve
guide clearance.
19.Worn or damaged internal engine components can
cause excessive oil consumption. Small deposits of
oil on the tips of spark plugs can be a clue to internal
oil consumption. If internal oil consumption still
persists, proceed as follows:
•
Remove the engine from the vehicle and place it
on an engine work stand. Remove the intake
manifolds, cylinder heads, oil pan and oil pump.
• Check piston ring clearance, ring gap and ring
orientation. Repair as required.
• Check for excessive bearing clearance. Repair
as required.
20.Perform the oil consumption test to confirm the oil
consumption concern has been resolved.
01-16
•
•
•
•
•
•
insufficient oil
oil leakage
worn or damaged oil pump
oil pump screen cover and tube
excessive main bearing clearance
excessive connecting rod bearing clearance
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Valve Train Analysis – Static
Valve Train Analysis – Dynamic
With engine off and valve cover removed, check for
damaged or severely worn parts and correct assembly.
Make sure correct parts are used with the static engine
analysis as follows.
Start the engine and, while idling, check for proper
operation of all parts. Check the following:
Rocker Arm
•
Check for plugged oil in the rocker arms or cylinder
head.
•
Check for loose mounting bolts, studs and nuts.
•
Check for proper overhead valve train lubrication.
•
Check for plugged oil feed in the rocker arms or
cylinder head.
If insufficient oiling is suspected, accelerate the engine
to 1200 rpm ± 100 rpm with the PTO in NEUTRAL or
load removed and the engine at normal operating
temperature. Oil should spurt from the rocker arm oil
holes such that valve tips and rocker arms are well oiled
or, with the valve covers off, oil splash may overshoot
the rocker arms. If oiling is insufficient for this to occur,
check oil passages for blockage.
Camshaft Roller Followers and Hydraulic Lash
Adjusters
•
Check for loose mounting bolts on camshaft carriers.
•
Check for plugged oil feed in the camshaft roller
followers, hydraulic lash adjusters (HLA) or cylinder
heads.
Camshaft
•
Check for broken or damaged parts.
•
Check the bolts on the intake manifold.
•
Check for bent push rods and restricted oil passage.
Check for broken or damaged parts.
Valve Spring Retainer and Valve Spring Retainer
Keys
•
Check for proper seating of the valve spring retainer
key on the valve stem and in valve spring retainer.
Valve Spring Retainer Keys
•
Check for bent push rods and restriction in oil
passage.
Positive Rotator and Valve Spring Retainer Keys
Valve Springs
•
Push Rods (if equipped)
•
Push Rods (if equipped)
•
Rocker Arm
Check for proper seating on the valve stem.
Valves and Cylinder Head
•
Check for plugged oil drain back holes.
•
Check for missing or damaged valve stem seals or
guide mounted valve stem seals.
If insufficient oiling is suspected, check oil passages for
blockage, then accelerate the engine to 1200 rpm with
the PTO in NEUTRAL or load removed and the engine
at normal operating temperature. Oil should spurt from
the rocker arm oil holes such that valve tips and
camshaft roller followers are well oiled. With the valve
covers off, some oil splash may overshoot camshaft
roller followers.
Valves and Cylinder Head
•
Check the head gasket for proper installation.
•
Check for plugged oil drain back holes.
•
Check for worn or damaged valve tips.
•
Check for missing or damaged guide-mounted valve
stem seal.
•
Check collapsed lash adjuster gap.
•
Check installed valve spring height.
•
Check for missing or worn valve spring seats.
•
Check for plugged oil metering orifice in cylinder
head oil reservoir (if equipped).
Check for proper operation of positive rotator.
Static checks (engine off) are to be made on the engine
prior to the dynamic procedure.
01-17
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Camshaft Lobe Lift
Check the lift of each lobe in consecutive order and
make a note of the readings.
1. Remove the valve covers.
2. Remove the rocker arm seat bolts, rocker arm seat
and rocker arms (if equipped).
Dial
Indicator
5. Remove the spark plugs.
6. Connect an auxiliary starter switch in the starting
circuit. Crank the engine with the ignition switch in
the OFF position. Bump the crankshaft over until the
indicator is measuring on the base circle of the
camshaft lobe (in its lowest position). If checking
during engine assembly, turn the crankshaft using a
socket or ratchet.
Cup Shaped
Adapter
Typical Engine with Push Rods
3. Make sure the lash adjuster is seated against
camshaft. Install the dial Indicator with Bracketry so
the ball socket adapter of the indicator is on top of
the hydraulic lash adjuster or the Cup Shaped
Adapter is on top of the push rod and in the same
plane as the lash adjuster push rod movement.
4. On engines with overhead cam, install the dial
Indicator with Bracketry so the plunger is on top of
the camshaft lobe and in the same plane as the
camshaft lobe movement.
7. Zero the dial indicator. Continue to rotate the
crankshaft slowly until the camshaft lobe is in the
fully-raised position (highest indicator reading).
NOTE: If the lift on any lobe is below specified service
limits, the camshaft and any component operating on
worn lobes must be replaced.
01-18
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
8. Compare the total lift recorded on the dial indicator
with specifications.
9. To check the accuracy of the original dial indicator
reading, continue to rotate the crankshaft until the
indicator reads zero.
10.Remove the dial indicator, adapter and auxiliary
starter switch.
11.Reinstall components as necessary.
CAUTION: Do not rotate the crankshaft until lash
adjusters have had sufficient time to bleed down.
To do otherwise may cause serious valve damage.
Manually bleeding-down lash adjusters will reduce
waiting time.
01-19
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Hydraulic Valve Lash Adjuster
Hydraulic lash adjuster noise can be caused by any of
the following:
•
excessively collapsed lash adjuster gap
•
sticking lash adjuster plunger
•
lash adjuster check valve not functioning properly
•
air in lubrication system
•
leakdown rate too rapid
•
excessive valve guide wear
2. Place the lash adjuster in the tester with the plunger
facing upward. Position the steel ball provided in the
plunger cap. Add testing fluid to cover the hydraulic
lash adjuster and compress Leakdown Tester until
the hydraulic lash adjuster is filled with testing fluid
and all traces of air bubbles have disappeared. The
fluid can be purchased from the tester’s
manufacturer. Using kerosene or any other fluid will
not provide an accurate test.
Excessive collapsed lash adjuster gap can be caused
by loose rocker arm seat bolts/nuts, incorrect initial
adjustment or wear of lash adjuster face, or worn roller
lash adjusters, push rod, rocker arm, rocker arm seat or
valve tip. With lash adjuster collapsed, check gap
between the valve tip and the rocker arm to determine if
any other valve train parts are damaged, worn or out of
adjustment.
Steel Ball
Leakdown
Tester
Lash Adjuster
A sticking lash adjuster plunger can be caused by dirt,
chips or varnish inside the lash adjuster.
A lash adjuster check valve that is not functioning can
be caused by an obstruction such as dirt or chips that
prevent it from closing when the camshaft lobe is lifting
the lash adjuster. It may also be caused by a broken
check valve spring.
Air bubbles in the lubrication system will prevent the
lash adjuster from supporting the valve spring load. This
can be caused by too high or too low an oil level in the
oil pan or by air being drawn into the system through a
hole, crack or leaking gasket on the oil pump screen
cover and tube.
If the leakdown time is below the specified time for used
lash adjusters, noisy operation can result. If no other
cause for noisy lash adjusters can be found, the
leakdown rate should be checked and any lash
adjusters outside the specification should be replaced.
Assembled lash adjusters can be tested with Hydraulic
lash adjuster Leakdown Tester to check the leakdown
rate. The leakdown rate specification is the time in
seconds for the plunger to move a specified distance
while under a 22.7 kg (50 lb.) load. Test the lash
adjusters as follows:
Leakdown Testing
3. Adjust the length of the ram so the pointer is just
below the start timing mark when the ram contacts
the hydraulic lash adjuster. Start Timing as the
pointer passes the start timing mark and end timing
as the pointer reaches the center mark.
Center
Mark
Start
Timing
Mark
Ram
Pointer
4. A satisfactory lash adjuster must have a leakdown
rate (time in seconds) within specified minimum and
maximum limits.
5. If the lash adjuster is not within specification, replace
it with a new lash adjuster. Do not disassemble and
clean new lash adjusters before testing because oil
contained in the new lash adjuster is test fluid.
NOTE: Do not mix parts from different hydraulic lash
adjusters. Parts are select-fit and are not
interchangeable.
1. Clean the lash adjuster to remove all traces of
engine oil.
NOTE: Lash adjusters cannot be checked with engine
oil in them. Use only testing fluid. New hydraulic lash
adjusters are already filled with testing fluid.
6. Remove the fluid from the cup and bleed the fluid
from the lash adjuster by working the plunger up and
down. This step will aid in depressing the lash
adjuster plungers when checking valve clearance.
01-20
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES
WARNING: TO AVOID THE POSSIBILITY OF
PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE TO THE
EQUIPMENT, DO NOT OPERATE THE ENGINE
UNTIL THE FAN BLADE HAS BEEN EXAMINED FOR
POSSIBLE CRACKS AND SEPARATION.
NOTE: Illustrations are typical and may not reflect your
particular engine. Specifications show the expected
minimum or maximum condition.
NOTE: If a component fails to meet the specifications, it
is necessary to replace or refinish. If the component can
be refinished, wear limits are provided as an aid to
making a decision. Any component that fails to meet
specifications and cannot be refinished must be
replaced.
Camshaft Journal Diameter
•
Measure each camshaft journal diameter in two
directions.
•
If it is out of specification, replace as necessary.
Journal
Camshaft Lobe Surface
•
Camshaft Journal Clearance
NOTE: The camshaft journals must meet specifications
before checking camshaft journal clearance.
•
Measure each camshaft bearing in two directions.
•
Subtract the camshaft journal diameter from the
camshaft bearing diameter
01-21
Inspect camshaft lobes for pitting or damage in the
active area. Minor pitting is acceptable outside the
active area
.
Active Area
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Camshaft Lobe Lift
Camshaft Runout
Special Tool(s)
Special Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
1. Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure
camshaft intake lobe lift.
NOTE: Camshaft journals must be within specifications
before checking runout.
•
Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure the
camshaft runout.
•
Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest dial
indicator reading from the highest dial indicator
reading.
2. Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest dial
indicator reading from the highest dial indicator
reading to figure the camshaft lobe lift.
3. Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure
camshaft exhaust lobe lift.
4. Rotate the camshaft and subtract the lowest dial
indicator reading from the highest dial indicator
reading to figure the camshaft lobe lift.
Camshaft End Play
•
Move camshaft to the rear.
•
Zero dial indicator.
•
Move camshaft to the front.
•
Compare end play with specifications.
Dial Indicator
01-22
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Diameter
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal Taper
•
Measure each of the crankshaft main bearing journal
diameters in at least two directions.
•
•
If it is out of specification, replace as necessary.
Measure each of the crankshaft main bearing journal
diameters in at least two directions at each end of
the main bearing journal.
•
If it is out of specifications, replace as necessary.
01-23
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Crankshaft Main Bearing Journal
Clearance
4. Verify the crankshaft journal clearance.
•
If it is out of specification, replace as necessary
Special Tool(s)
Plastigage®
D81L-6002-B or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
NOTE: Crankshaft main bearing journals must be within
specifications before checking journal clearance.
1. Remove the crankshaft main bearing caps and
bearings.
Bearing Inspection
2. Lay a piece of Plastigage® across the face of each
crankshaft main surface.
Inspect bearings for the following defects. Possible
causes are shown:
•
Cratering – fatigue failure (A)
•
Spot polishing – improper seating (B)
•
Scratching – dirty (C)
•
Base exposed – poor lubrication (D)
•
Both edges worn – journal damaged (E)
•
One edge worn – journal tapered or bearing not
seated (F)
NOTE: Do not turn the crankshaft while doing this
procedure.
3. Install and remove the crankshaft main bearing cap.
01-24
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Crankshaft End Play
Use the Dial Indicator with Bracketry to measure the
crankshaft runout.
Special Tool(s)
•
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
Rotate the crankshaft and subtract the lowest dial
indicator reading from the highest dial indicator
reading to figure the crankshaft runout. If it is out of
specification, replace as necessary.
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
1. Measure the crankshaft end play. Use the Dial
Indicator with Bracketry to measure crankshaft end
play.
2. Position the crankshaft to the rear of the cylinder
block.
3. Zero the Dial Indicator with Bracketry.
Cylinder Bore Taper
Measure the cylinder bore at the top and bottom. Verify
the cylinder bore is within the wear limit. The difference
indicates the cylinder bore taper. Bore the cylinder to
the next oversize.
4. Move the crankshaft to the front of the cylinder block.
Note and record the camshaft end play.
•
If camshaft end play exceeds specifications, replace the crankshaft thrust washers or thrust
bearing.
Crankshaft Runout
Special Tool(s)
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
NOTE: Crankshaft main bearing journals must be within
specifications before checking runout.
01-25
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Cylinder Bore Out-of-Round
•
Make sure the oil ring holes are clean.
Measure the cylinder bore in two directions. The
difference is the out-of-round. Verify the out-of-round is
within the wear limit and bore the cylinder to the next
oversize limit.
Piston Diameter
•
Measure the piston skirt diameter.
Piston Inspection
Special Tool(s)
Piston Ring Groove Cleaner
D81L-6002-D or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
CAUTION: Do not use a caustic cleaning solution or
a wire brush to clean the pistons or possible damage can occur.
Piston to Cylinder Bore Clearance
Subtract the piston diameter from the cylinder bore
diameter to find the piston-to-cylinder bore clearance.
1. Clean and inspect the ring lands, skirts, pin bosses,
and the tops of the pistons. If wear marks or
polishing is found on the piston skirt, check for a bent
or twisted connecting rod.
Top of Piston
Ring Lands
Skirts
Pin Bosses
2. Use the Piston Ring Groove Cleaner to clean the
piston ring grooves.
01-26
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Piston Selection
NOTE: The cylinder bore must be within the
specifications for taper and out-of-round before fitting a
piston.
1. Select a piston size based on the cylinder bore.
CAUTION: Use care when fitting piston rings to
avoid possible damage to the piston ring or the cylinder bore.
CAUTION: Piston rings should not be transferred
from one piston to another to prevent damage to
cylinder worn or piston.
NOTE: Cylinder bore must be within specification for
taper and out-of-round to fit piston rings.
1. Use a piston without rings to push a piston ring in a
cylinder to the bottom of ring travel.
NOTE: For precision fit, new pistons are divided into
three categories within each size range based on their
relative position within the range. A paint spot on the
new pistons indicates the position within the size range.
2. Use a feeler gauge to measure the top piston ring
end gap and the second piston ring end gap.
2. Choose the piston with the proper paint color.
•
•
•
Red – in the lower third of the size range.
Blue – in the middle third of the size range.
Yellow – in the upper third of the size range.
Piston Ring End Gap
Special Tool(s)
Feeler Gauge
D81L-4201-A or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
01-27
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Piston Ring-to-Groove Clearance
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal Taper
•
Special Tool(s)
Feeler Gauge
D81L-4201-A or Equivalent
Measure the crankshaft rod journal diameters in two
directions perpendicular to one another at each end
of the connecting rod journal. The difference in the
measurements from one end to the other is the
taper. Verify measurement is within the wear limit.
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
1. Inspect for a stop in the grooves.
2. Measure the piston-to-groove clearance.
Connecting Rod Cleaning
CAUTION: Do not use a caustic cleaning solution or
damage to connecting rods can occur.
NOTE: The connecting rod large end is mechanically
split or cracked to produce a unique parting face. This
produces a locking joint. Parts are not interchangeable.
•
Crankshaft Connecting Rod Journal
Diameter
•
Measure the crankshaft connecting rod journal
diameters in at least two directions perpendicular to
one another. The difference between the
measurements is the out-of-round. Verify the journal
is within the wear limit specification.
01-28
Mark and separate the parts and clean with solvent.
Clean the oil passages.
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Connecting Rod Larger End Bore
Connecting Rod Bushing Diameter
CAUTION: The connecting rod bolts are torque to
yield and must be discarded and replaced after this
diagnostic test.
•
•
Measure the inner diameter of the connecting rod
bushing. Verify the diameter is within specification.
Measure the bore in two directions. The difference is
the connecting rod bore out-of-round. Verify the outof-round is within specification.
Connecting Rod Bend
•
Measure the connecting rod bend on a suitable
alignment fixture. Follow the instructions of the
fixture manufacturer. Verify the bend measurement
is within specification.
Piston Pin Diameter
•
Measure the piston pin diameter in two directions at
the points shown. Verify the diameter is within
specifications.
Connecting Rod Twist
•
01-29
Measure the connecting rod twist on a suitable
alignment fixture. Follow the instructions of the
fixture manufacturer. Verify the measurement is
within specification.
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Connecting Rod Piston Pin Side Clearance
•
Measure the clearance between the connecting rod
and the piston. Verify the measurement is within
specification.
3. Install and torque to specifications, then remove the
connecting rod bearing cap.
4. Measure the Plastigage® to get the connecting rod
bearing journal clearance. The Plastigage® should
be smooth and flat. A change width indicates a
tapered or damaged connecting rod bearing or
connecting rod.
Connecting Rod Journal Clearance
Special Tool(s)
Plastigage®
D81L-6002-B or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
NOTE: The crankshaft connecting rod journals must be
within specifications to check the connecting rod
bearing journal clearances.
CAUTION: The connecting rod bolts are torque to
yield and must be discarded and replaced after this
diagnostic test.
1. Remove the connecting rod bearing cap.
2. Position a piece of Plastigage® across the bearing
surface.
NOTE: Do not turn the crankshaft during this step.
01-30
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Bearing Inspection
Roller Follower Inspection
Inspect bearings for the following defects. Possible
causes are shown:
•
•
Cratering – fatigue failure (A)
•
Spot polishing – improper seating (B)
•
Scratching – dirty (C)
•
Base exposed – poor lubrication (D)
•
Both edges worn – journal damaged (E)
•
One edge worn – journal tapered or bearing not
seated (F)
Inspect the roller for flat spots or scoring. If any
damage is found, inspect the camshaft lobes and
hydraulic lash adjusters for damage.
Hydraulic Lash Adjuster Inspection
•
01-31
Inspect the hydraulic lash adjuster and roller for
damage. If any damage is found, inspect the
camshaft lobes and valves for damage.
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Valve Stem Diameter
•
Measure the diameter of each intake and exhaust
valve stem at the points shown. Verify the diameter
is within specification.
2. Move the Valve Stem Clearance Tool toward the
Dial Indicator and zero the Dial Indicator. Move the
Valve Stem Clearance Tool away from the Dial
Indicator and note the reading. The reading will be
double the valve stem-to-valve guide clearance.
Valves with oversize stems will need to be installed
if out of specification.
Valve Stem-to-Valve Guide Clearance
Valve Inspection
Special Tool(s)
Inspect the following valve areas:
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
•
The end of the stem for grooves or scoring.
•
The valve face and the edge for pits, grooves or
scores.
•
The valve head for signs of burning, erosion,
warpage and cracking. Minor pits, grooves and other
abrasions may be removed.
•
The valve head thickness for wear.
Valve Stem Clearance Tool
TOOL-6505-E or Equivalent
Valve Stem
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
Valve Head
Thickness
Valve Face
NOTE: Valve stem diameter must be within
specifications before checking valve stem to valve
guide clearance.
Valve Head
NOTE: If necessary, use a magnetic base.
1. Install the Valve Stem Clearance Tool on the valve
stem and install the Dial Indicator with Bracketry.
Lower the valve until the Valve Stem Clearance Tool
contacts the upper surface of the valve guide.
01-32
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Valve Guide Inner Diameter
Valve Spring Installed Length
•
1. Measure the inner diameter of the valve guides in
two directions where indicated.
Measure the installed length of each valve spring.
2. If the valve guide is not within specifications, ream
the valve guide and install a valve with an oversize
stem or remove the valve guide and install a new
valve guide.
Valve Spring Free Length
•
Measure the free length of each valve spring.
Valve Guide Reaming
1. Use a hand-reaming kit to ream the valve guide.
Valve Spring Out-of-Square
Measure the out-of-square on each valve spring.
•
2. Reface the valve seat.
3. Clean the sharp edges left by reaming.
01-33
Turn the valve spring and observe the space
between the top of the valve spring and the square.
Replace the valve spring if out of specification.
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Valve Spring Compression Pressure
Valve Seat Width
•
Special Tool(s)
Measure the valve seat width. If necessary, grind the
valve seat to specification.
Valve/Clutch Spring Tester
TOOL-6513-DD or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
•
Use the Valve/Clutch Spring Tester to check the
valve springs for proper strength at the specified
valve spring length.
Valve Seat Runout
•
Valve and Seat Refacing Measurements
NOTE: After grinding valves or valve seats, check valve
clearance.
•
Check the valve seat and valve angles.
01-34
Use the Valve Seat Runout Gauge to check valve
seat runout.
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Flywheel Inspection
Oil Pump Rotor Inspection
•
Special Tool(s)
Inspect the oil pump rotor tips for damage or wear.
Dial Indicator with Bracketry
TOOL-4201-C or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
1. Inspect the flywheel for:
• Cracks (A).
• Worn ring gear teeth (B).
• Chipped or cracked ring gear teeth (C).
2. Inspect the flywheel ring gear runout.
Oil Pump Side Clearance
Special Tool(s)
Feeler Gauge
D81L-4201-A or Equivalent
Straight Edge
D83L-4201-A or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
Oil Pump Gear Radial Clearance
•
Measure the clearance between the rotor and the
pump housing.
•
01-35
Place the Straight Edge across the top of the oil
pump and rotors and use the Feeler Gauge to
measure the clearance between the rotors and the
Straight Edge.
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Cylinder Bore Honing
Special Tool(s)
Engine Cylinder Hone Set
T73L-6011-A
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
NOTE: Before any cylinder bore is honed, all main
bearing caps must be installed so the crankshaft
bearing bores will not become distorted.
NOTE: To correct taper or out-of-round, bore the
cylinder block.
NOTE: Honing should be done when fitting new piston
rings or to remove minor surface.
•
Hone with the Engine Cylinder Hone Set, at a speed
of 300-500 rpm and a hone grit of 180-220 to provide
the desired cylinder bore surface finish.
Cylinder Bore Cleaning
CAUTION: If these procedures are not followed,
rusting of the cylinder bores may occur.
1. Clean the cylinder bores with soap or detergent and
water.
2. Thoroughly rinse with clean water and wipe dry with
a clean, lint-free cloth.
3. Use a clean, lint-free cloth and lubricate the cylinder
bores.
•
Use Engine Oil XO-10W30-QSP or -DSP or
equivalent meeting Ford specification ESEM2C153-E.
01-36
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Cylinder Block Repair - Cast Iron Porosity
Defects
CAUTION: Do not attempt to repair cracks, areas
where temperature will exceed 260°C (500°F) or areas exposed to engine coolant or oil. These areas
will not repair and could cause future failure.
2. Inspect the cylinder block plug bore for any damage
that would interfered with the proper sealing of the
plug. If the cylinder block plug bore is damaged, bore
for the next oversize plug.
NOTE: Oversize plugs are identified by the OS stamped
in the flat located on the cup side of the plug.
3. Coat the cylinder block core plug and bore lightly
with Threadlock® 262 E2FZ-19554-B or equivalent
meeting Ford specification WSK-M2G351-A6 and
install the cylinder block core plug.
Repair porosity defects with an epoxy sealer meeting
Ford specification M3D35-A (E).
1. Clean the surface to be repaired to a bright, oil-free
metal surface.
2. Chamfer or undercut the repair area to a greater
depth than the rest of the cleaned surface. Solid
metal must surround the area to be repaired.
Cylinder Head - Distortion
Special Tool(s)
Straightedge
303-D039 (D83L-4201-A) or
equivalent
3. Apply the epoxy sealer and heat-cure with a 250watt lamp placed 254 mm (10 inches) from the
repaired surface, or air dry for 10-12 hours at a
temperature above 10°C (50°F).
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
4. Sand or grind the repaired area to blend with the
general contour of the surface.
5. Paint the surface to match the rest of the cylinder
block.
•
Cylinder Block Core Plug Replacement
Use a straight edge and a feeler gauge to inspect the
cylinder head for flatness. Compare with
specifications. If the cylinder head is distorted, install
a new cylinder head.
Special Tool(s)
Feeler Gauge
Impact Slide Hammer
T50T-100-A
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
1. Use a slide hammer or tools suitable to remove the
cylinder block core plug.
01-37
Straight Edge
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Cylinder Block Core Plug – Cup-Type
CAUTION: Do not contact the flange when installing
a cup type cylinder block core plug as this could
damage the sealing edge and result in leakage.
NOTE: When installed, the flanged edge must be below
the chamfered edge of the bore to effectively seal the
bore.
•
Use a fabricated tool to seat the cup type cylinder
block core plug.
Cylinder Block Core Plug – Expansion-Type
CAUTION: Do not contact the crown when installing
an expansion type cylinder block core plug. This
could expand the plug before seating and result in
leakage.
•
Use a fabricated tool to seat the expansion type
cylinder block core plug.
01-38
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Spark Plug Thread Repair
2. Start the tap into the spark plug hole, being careful
to keep it properly aligned. As the tap begins to cut
new threads, apply aluminum cutting oil
.
Special Tool(s)
Tapersert Installation Kit
107-R0921 or Equivalent
Feeler Gauge
D81L-4201-A or Equivalent
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
3. Continue cutting the threads and applying oil until
the stop ring bottoms against the spark plug seat.
4. Remove the tap and metal chips.
CAUTION: The cylinder head must be removed from
the engine before installing a tapersert. If this procedure is done with the cylinder head on the engine,
the cylinder walls can be damaged by metal chips
produced by the thread cutting process.
5. Coat the threads of the mandrel with cutting oil.
Thread the tapersert onto the mandrel until one
thread of the mandrel extends beyond the tapersert.
CAUTION: Do not use power or air-driven tools for
finishing taperserts.
NOTE: This repair is permanent and will have no effect
on cylinder head or spark plug life.
1. Clean the spark plug seat and threads.
NOTE: A properly installed tapersert will be either flush
with or 1.0 mm (0.039 inch) below the spark plug gasket
seat.
01-39
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
Exhaust Manifold Straightness
6. Tighten the tapersert into the spark plug hole.
Special Tool(s)
Straightedge
303-D039 (D83L-4201-A) or
equivalent
Special Service Tools called for
by the procedures can be
obtained by calling:
1-800-ROTUNDA
(1-800-768-8632)
•
7. Turn the mandrel body approximately one-half turn
counterclockwise and remove.
Place the Straightedge across the exhaust manifold
flanges and check for warping with a feeler gauge.
NOTE: The exhaust manifold shown is a typical exhaust
manifold.
01-40
DSG-423 GENERAL INFORMATION
SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Epoxy Sealer
M3D35-A (E)
Threadlock 262
E2FZ-19554-B
WSK-M2G351-A6
Super Premium SAE5W20
WSS M2C930-A
NOTE: Ford engines are designed to perform with
engine oils that are licensed by the American Petroleum
Institute (API), and oils carrying the most current API
classification SJ or greater must be used.
01-41
DSG-423 ENGINE
NOTE:
INDEX
Subject
Page
General Information
Engine .......................................................................................................................................................
Positive Crankcase Ventilation System.....................................................................................................
Engine Cooling System .............................................................................................................................
Lubrication System....................................................................................................................................
Drive Belt System......................................................................................................................................
Ignition System..........................................................................................................................................
Fuel System ..............................................................................................................................................
02 - 3
02 - 3
02 - 3
02 - 5
02 - 5
02 - 5
02 - 5
Removal And Installation
Intake Manifold - Removal......................................................................................................................... 02 - 6
Intake Manifold - Installation...................................................................................................................... 02 - 6
Camshaft Cover - Removal ....................................................................................................................... 02 - 6
Camshaft Cover - Installation .................................................................................................................... 02 - 7
Crankshaft Pulley - Removal..................................................................................................................... 02 - 8
Crankshaft Pulley - Installation.................................................................................................................. 02 - 9
Crankshaft Front Seal - Removal ............................................................................................................ 02 - 10
Crankshaft Front Seal - Installation ......................................................................................................... 02 - 10
Engine Front Cover - Removal................................................................................................................ 02 - 11
Engine Front Cover - Installation............................................................................................................. 02 - 12
Timing Drive Components - Removal ..................................................................................................... 02 - 14
Timing Drive Components - Installation .................................................................................................. 02 - 15
Valve Spring - Removal........................................................................................................................... 02 - 16
Engine Front Cover - Removal................................................................................................................ 02 - 11
Engine Front Cover - Installation............................................................................................................. 02 - 12
Timing Drive Components - Removal ..................................................................................................... 02 - 14
Timing Drive Components - Installation .................................................................................................. 02 - 15
Valve Spring - Removal........................................................................................................................... 02 - 16
Valve Spring - Installation........................................................................................................................ 02 - 16
Valve Seal - Removal.............................................................................................................................. 02 - 17
Valve Seal - Installation........................................................................................................................... 02 - 17
Valve Tappet - Replacement................................................................................................................... 02 - 18
Camshafts - Removal.............................................................................................................................. 02 - 18
Camshafts - Installation........................................................................................................................... 02 - 18
Exhaust Manifold - Removal ................................................................................................................... 02 - 19
Exhaust Manifold - Installation ................................................................................................................ 02 - 19
Cylinder Head - Removal ........................................................................................................................ 02 - 20
Exhaust Manifold - Installation ................................................................................................................ 02 - 19
Exhaust Manifold - Installation ................................................................................................................ 02 - 19
Cylinder Head - Removal ........................................................................................................................ 02 - 20
Cylinder Head - Installation ..................................................................................................................... 02 - 20
Oil Filter Adapter - Removal .................................................................................................................... 02 - 23
Oil Filter Adapter - Installation ................................................................................................................. 02 - 23
Oil Pressure Sender - Replacement........................................................................................................ 02 - 23
Oil Level Indicator & Tube - Replacement............................................................................................... 02 - 24
Oil Pan - Removal ................................................................................................................................... 02 - 24
Oil Pan - Installation ................................................................................................................................ 02 - 25
Oil Pickup Tube - Replacement............................................................................................................... 02 - 25
Oil Pump - Removal ................................................................................................................................ 02 - 26
Oil Pump - Installation ............................................................................................................................. 02 - 26
Flywheel/Flexplate - Replacement .......................................................................................................... 02 - 27
Oil Pickup Tube - Replacement............................................................................................................... 02 - 25
02-1
02
DSG-423 ENGINE
INDEX
Subject
Page
Removal And Installation
Oil Pump - Removal ................................................................................................................................
Oil Pump - Installation .............................................................................................................................
Flywheel/Flexplate - Replacement ..........................................................................................................
Crankshaft Rear Seal/Retainer - Removal ..............................................................................................
Crankshaft Rear Seal/Retainer - Installation ...........................................................................................
02 - 26
02 - 26
02 - 27
02 - 27
02 - 27
Disassembly & Assembly
Engine Disassembly................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Head Disassembly ....................................................................................................................
Engine Cleaning ......................................................................................................................................
Cylinder Head Assembly .........................................................................................................................
Engine Assembly.....................................................................................................................................
02 - 28
02 - 33
02 - 34
02 - 35
02 - 36
Adjustments
Valve Clearance Check........................................................................................................................... 02 - 45
Specifications
02-2
DSG-423 ENGINE
GENERAL INFORMATION
All fuels are controlled in closed loop. Gasoline is
delivered by sequential port fuel injection. The
electronic engine management system has built in
engine protection against:
•
detonation
•
high coolant temperature
•
low oil pressure
•
engine overspeed
•
starter engagement while engine is running.
NOTE: A set of metric wrenches are required to service
the DSG 423 engine.
WARNING: TO AVOID THE POSSIBILITY OF
PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE, DO NOT
OPERATE THE ENGINE UNTIL THE FAN BLADE
HAS BEEN FIRST EXAMINED FOR POSSIBLE
CRACKS OR SEPARATION.
Positive Crankcase Ventilation System
Engine
This engine is equipped with a positive, closed-type
crankcase ventilation system, which recycles
crankcase vapors to the intake manifold.
The DSG 423 is a 4 valve per cylinder, dual overhead
cam engine. The engine block is cast aluminum with
iron cylinder liners. Connecting rods are made of
sintered metal, the crankshaft is nodular iron with five
main bearings. The cam cover, oil pan and front cover
are also made of aluminum.
Engine Cooling System
The 2.3L engine is liquid cooled, using an engine
mounted coolant pump and external radiator. This is a
full flow system regulated by a thermostat, located
behind the water outlet connection. The thermostat
controls and maintains engine temperature.
Refer to Section 05 of this manual for more information
on the cooling system.
The dual camshafts are chain driven with an automatic
tensioning system. The valve train components are
alternate fuel ready. Spark is delivered by an individual
coil on plug ignition system. A broadband knock sensor
is calibrated for individual cylinder use.
02-3
DSG-423 ENGINE
02-4
DSG-423 ENGINE
Lubrication System
Drive Belt System
The engine lubrication system consists of:
Engine accessories, such as the generator and water
pump, are driven by a single serpentine belt. Tension is
automatically adjusted by a tensioner.
•
Oil pan.
•
Oil pump screen cover and tube.
•
Oil pump.
•
Oil filter.
•
Passageways in the cylinder block, crankshaft,
camshaft and cylinder head.
Power
Steering
Idler
Fan
The oil pan is pressure-cast aluminum and serves as
both an oil reservoir and engine bottom cover. The oil
pan has reinforcing ribs which strengthen the pan,
reduce engine noise transmission, and aid in oil cooling.
Generator
The oil pump is mounted to the engine block and is
driven by chain from the crankshaft. Oil cooling jets
spray to the underside of the piston skirt.
Coolant
Pump
Tensioner
Crankshaft
Ignition System
The ignition used on the 2.3L engine is an Electronic
Distributorless Ignition System (EDIS). Individual
ignition coils are located directly above each spark plug
and are used to ignite the fuel in the cylinders.
Refer to Section 03 of this manual for more information
on the ignition system.
Fuel System
Oil Pump
The fuel system includes a remote mounted electric fuel
pump. The pump regulates and maintains fuel flow,
through an in-line fuel filter to the electronic actuator
mounted on the intake manifold.
The engine can be adapted for dry fuel use. Refer to
Section 04 of this manual for more information on the
fuel system.
02-5
DSG-423 ENGINE
REMOVAL & INSTALLATION
Intake Manifold - Installation
Intake Manifold - Removal
1. Install new intake gaskets.
1. Drain the engine cooling system -- Refer to Section
5.
2. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the intake manifold. Label if
necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
CAUTION: Relieve fuel system pressure before
disconnecting fuel supply lines -- refer to Section 4.
3. Remove fuel supply connections -- refer to Section
4.
2. Position intake manifold and install 5 bolts.
• Tighten to 18 Nm (13 lb-ft).
3. Reconnect fuel supply connections -- refer to
Section 4.
4. Reinstall or connect any components that were
removed or disconnected.
5. Fill and bleed the engine cooling system -- refer to
Section 5.
Camshaft Cover - Removal
1. Disconnect negative battery cable -- refer to Section
6.
Intake Manifold
2. Remove intake manifold -- Refer to“Intake Manifold
- Removal” on page 6 of this section.
3. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the camshaft cover. Label if
necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
CHT
Cover
CMP
Sensor
CHT
Connector
Gaskets
Bolt
Vent Tube
Bolts
O-Ring
4. Remove 5 bolts and the intake manifold.
CAUTION: Do not use metal scrapers, wire brushes,
power abrasive discs or other abrasive means to
clean the sealing surfaces. These tools cause
scratches and gouges which make leak paths. Use
a plastic scraping tool to remove all traces of old
sealant.
5. Clean the sealing surface of the cylinder head with
silicone gasket remover and metal surface prep.
4. Disconnect CHT sensor connector.
5. Disconnect ignition coil connectors.
WARNING: OBSERVE ALL WARNINGS AND
CAUTIONS AND FOLLOW ALL APPLICATION
DIRECTIONS CONTAINED ON THE PACKAGING OF
THE SILICONE GASKET REMOVER AND METAL
SURFACE PREP.
6. Remove and discard intake manifold gaskets.
6. Disconnect Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor
connector.
7. Remove CMP Sensor.
8. Disconnect crankcase ventilation tube quick connect
coupling.
02-6
DSG-423 ENGINE
Camshaft Cover - Installation
9. Remove bolts and camshaft cover.
Capacitor
1. Install new gaskets.
Bolt
2. Position camshaft cover and install bolts in
sequence shown.
•
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
Cover
Gaskets
Tightening Sequence
3. Reconnect crankcase ventilation tube.
NOTE: Apply clean engine oil to CMP sensor o-ring
seal prior to installation.
4. Install CMP sensor and bolt.
• Tighten to 7 Nm (62 lb-in).
5. Reconnect CMP sensor, ignition coil and CHT
Sensor connectors.
10.Remove and discard gaskets.
CAUTION: Do not use metal scrapers, wire brushes,
power abrasive discs or other abrasive means to
clean the sealing surfaces. These tools cause
scratches and gouges which make leak paths. Use
a plastic scraping tool to remove all traces of old
sealant.
6. Reinstall or connect any other components that were
removed or disconnected
7. Install intake manifold -- Refer to“Intake Manifold Installation” on page 6 of this section.
8. Reconnect negative battery cable -- refer to Section
6.
11.Clean the sealing surface of the cylinder head with
silicone gasket remover and metal surface prep.
WARNING: OBSERVE ALL WARNINGS AND
CAUTIONS AND FOLLOW ALL APPLICATION
DIRECTIONS CONTAINED ON THE PACKAGING OF
THE SILICONE GASKET REMOVER AND METAL
SURFACE PREP.
02-7
DSG-423 ENGINE
Crankshaft Pulley - Removal
6. Remove plug bolt.
CAUTION: The crankshaft, the crankshaft sprocket
and the pulley are fitted together by friction, with
diamond washers between the flange faces on each
part. For that reason, the crankshaft sprocket is
also unfastened if you loosen the pulley. Therefore,
the engine must be retimed each time the damper is
removed. Otherwise severe damage can occur.
1. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the crankshaft pulley. Label if
necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
2. Remove the drive belt -- refer to Section 6.
3. Remove the camshaft cover -- Refer to“Camshaft
Cover - Removal” on page 6 of this section.
CAUTION: Failure to position the No.1 piston at top
dead center (TDC) can result in damage to the
engine. Turn the engine in the normal direction of
rotation only.
CAUTION: Installing special tool in this next step
will prevent engine from being rotated in the
clockwise direction. However, the engine can still
be rotated in the counterclockwise direction. Only
turn the engine in the normal direction of rotation.
7. Install special tool 303-507.
4. Using the crankshaft pulley bolt, turn the crankshaft
clockwise to position the No. 1 piston at TDC.
8. Install special tools 205-126 and 205-072-02
CAUTION: The special tool 303-465 is for camshaft
alignment only. Using this tool to prevent engine
rotation can result in engine damage.
5. Install special tool 303-465 in the slots on the rear of
both camshafts.
CAUTION: Failure to hold the crankshaft pulley in
place during bolt loosening can cause damage to
the engine.
NOTE: Camshaft timing slots are offset. If special tool
cannot be installed, rotate crankshaft one complete
revolution clockwise to correctly position camshafts.
02-8
DSG-423 ENGINE
9. Remove bolt, washer and pulley. Discard crankshaft
pulley bolt.
3. Using special tools 205-126 and 205-072-02 to hold
the crankshaft pulley in place, tighten the crankshaft
pulley bolt in 2 stages:
Pulley
Bolt
•
•
Stage 1: Tighten to 100 Nm (74 lb-ft).
Stage 2: Rotate an additional 90 degrees.
Washer
Crankshaft Pulley - Installation
CAUTION: Do not reuse the crankshaft pulley bolt.
4. Remove all special tools and 6 mm bolt.
1. Apply clean engine oil on the crankshaft front seal
and install crankshaft pulley, washer and hand
tighten new bolt.
CAUTION: Only turn the engine in the normal
direction of rotation.
CAUTION: Only hand-tighten the bolt or damage to
the front cover can occur.
NOTE: This next step will correctly align the crankshaft
pulley to the crankshaft.
5. Turn the engine 2 complete revolutions, then
continue to turn until piston is at TDC.
6. Install special tool 303-507.
2. Install a standard 6mm x 18mm bolt as shown and
thread it into the front cover.
NOTE: Rotate the crankshaft pulley as necessary to
align the bolt hole.
CAUTION: Failure to hold the crankshaft pulley in
place during bolt tightening can cause damage to
the engine front cover.
CAUTION: Only hand tighten the bolt in the next
step or damage to the front cover can occur.
7. Using the 6mm x 18 mm bolt, check the position of
the crankshaft pulley. If it is not possible to install this
bolt, correct the engine timing.
02-9
DSG-423 ENGINE
8. Using special tool 303-465, check the position of the
camshaft. If it is not possible to install the special
tool, correct the engine timing.
Crankshaft Front Seal - Removal
CAUTION: The crankshaft, the crankshaft sprocket
and the pulley are fitted together by friction, with
diamond washers between the flange faces on each
part. For that reason, the crankshaft sprocket is
also unfastened if you loosen the pulley. Therefore,
the engine must be retimed each time the damper is
removed. Otherwise severe damage can occur.
1. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the crankshaft front seal.
Label if necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
2. Remove crankshaft pulley -- Refer to“Crankshaft
Pulley - Removal” on page 8 of this section.
CAUTION: Use care not to damage the engine front
cover or the crankshaft when removing the seal.
9. Remove all special tools and 6mm bolt.
3. Using special tool 303-409, remove the crankshaft
front seal.
10.Install the plug bolt.
•
Tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
11.Install camshaft cover -- Refer to“Camshaft Cover Installation” on page 7 of this section.
Crankshaft Front Seal - Installation
12.Install accessory drive belt -- refer to Section 6.
1. Lubricate the new crankshaft front seal with clean
engine oil prior to installation.
13.Install or reconnect any other components that were
removed or disconnected.
2. Using special tool 303-096, install the crankshaft
front seal.
3. Install the crankshaft pulley -- Refer to“Crankshaft
Front Seal - Installation” on page 10 of this section.
4. Install or reconnect any other components that were
removed or disconnected.
02-10
DSG-423 ENGINE
Engine Front Cover - Removal
Tensioner
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable -- refer to
Section 6.
CAUTION: The crankshaft, the crankshaft sprocket
and the pulley are fitted together by friction, with
diamond washers between the flange faces on each
part. For that reason, the crankshaft sprocket is
also unfastened if you loosen the pulley. Therefore,
the engine must be retimed each time the damper is
removed. Otherwise severe damage can occur.
2. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the engine front cover. Label
if necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
Fan Pulley
3. Remove the crankshaft pulley -- Refer to“Crankshaft
Pulley - Removal” on page 8 of this section.
4. Disconnect Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor
connector.
Coolant Pump
Pulley
Connector
CKP Sensor
Bolt
7. Remove the three bolts and the coolant pump pulley.
8. Remove three bolts and power steering pump and
set aside.
Power
Steering
Pump
CAUTION: A new CKP Sensor must be installed
whenever the old sensor is removed.
5. Remove the CKP Sensor and discard.
6. Remove bolt and accessory drive tensioner.
CAUTION: There is one bolt behind the cooling fan
drive pulley. This bolt can be accessed by lining up
one of the holes in the pulley with the bolt.
NOTE: The next step is only necessary if a new front
cover is being installed.
02-11
DSG-423 ENGINE
Engine Front Cover - Installation
9. Using a 3 jaw puller, remove the fan drive pulley.
NOTE: This step is needed only if a new front cover is
being installed.
1. Install the fan drive pulley, using a nut and bolt with
flat washers as shown below.
10.Remove bolts and engine front cover.
Front Cover
Bolt
NOTE: If not secured within 4 minutes, the sealant must
be removed and the sealing area recleaned as before.
Refer to previous CAUTION & WARNING.
2. Apply a 2.5 mm (0.1 in) bead of silicone gasket and
sealant to the cylinder head and oil pan joint areas
and also to front cover as shown below.
CAUTION: Do not use metal scrapers, wire brushes,
power abrasive discs or other abrasive means to
clean the sealing surfaces. These tools cause
scratches and gouges which make leak paths. Use
a plastic scraping tool to remove all traces of old
sealant.
11.Clean the sealing surface with silicone gasket
remover and metal surface prep.
WARNING: OBSERVE ALL WARNINGS AND
CAUTIONS AND FOLLOW ALL APPLICATION
DIRECTIONS CONTAINED ON THE PACKAGING OF
THE SILICONE GASKET REMOVER AND METAL
SURFACE PREP.
02-12
DSG-423 ENGINE
3. Install the front cover and tighten the bolts in the
sequence shown to the following specifications:
•
•
•
5. Position the coolant pump pulley and install the 3
bolts:
Tighten 8 mm bolts to 10 Nm (89 lb-in)
Tighten 10 mm bolts to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft)
Tighten 13 mm bolts to 48 Nm (35 lb-ft).
•
Tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
Tensioner
Fan Pulley
Coolant Pump
Pulley
6. Install the accessory drive belt tensioner and the
bolt:
4. Position the power steering pump and install the
bolts:
•
Tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
Power
Steering
Pump
• Tighten to 50 Nm (37 lb-ft).
CAUTION: The crankshaft, the crankshaft sprocket
and the pulley are fitted together by friction, with
diamond washers between the flange faces on each
part. For that reason, the crankshaft sprocket is
also unfastened if you loosen the pulley. Therefore,
the engine must be retimed each time the damper is
removed. Otherwise severe damage can occur.
7. Install the crankshaft pulley -- Refer to“Crankshaft
Pulley - Installation” on page 9 of this section.
8. Position a new CKP Sensor and loosely install the 2
bolts.
Connector
CKP Sensor
Bolt
02-13
DSG-423 ENGINE
9. Adjust the CKP with the alignment tool supplied with
the new sensor. The tool must engage a tooth of the
vibration damper. Tighten 2 bolts:
•
4. Remove the right timing chain guide.
Tighten to 7 Nm (62 lb-in).
5. Remove the timing chain.
10.Connect CKP Sensor connector.
11.Connect battery negative cable -- refer to Section 6.
12.Install or reconnect any other component removed
or disconnected.
Timing Drive Components - Removal
CAUTION: The crankshaft, the crankshaft sprocket
and the pulley are fitted together by friction, with
diamond washers between the flange faces on each
part. For that reason, the crankshaft sprocket is
also unfastened if you loosen the pulley. Therefore,
the engine must be retimed each time the damper is
removed. Otherwise severe damage can occur.
6. Remove the 2 bolts and left timing chain guide.
1. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the timing drive components.
Label if necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
2. Remove the engine front cover -- Refer to“Engine
Front Cover - Removal” on page 11 of this section.
3. Compress the timing chain tensioner, and insert a
paper clip into the hole. Remove the 2 bolts and the
timing chain tensioner.
CAUTION: Do not rely on the Camshaft Alignment
Plate to prevent camshaft rotation. Damage to the
tool or the camshaft can occur.
02-14
DSG-423 ENGINE
3. Install the timing chain.
7. If necessary, remove the bolts and the camshaft
sprockets.
4. Install the right timing chain guide.
NOTE: Use the flats on the camshaft to prevent
camshaft rotation.
Timing Drive Components - Installation
CAUTION: Do not rotate the camshafts. Damage to
the valves and pistons can occur.
CAUTION: Do not rely on the Camshaft Alignment
Plate to prevent camshaft rotation. Damage to the
tool or the camshaft can occur.
NOTE: If the camshaft sprockets were not removed,
use the flats on the camshafts to prevent camshaft
rotation and loosen the sprocket bolts.
5. Position the timing chain tensioner and install the 2
bolts:
•
•
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
Remove the paper clip to release the piston.
1. If removed, install the camshaft sprockets and the
bolts finger tight.
2. Install the left timing chain guide and 2 bolts:
6. Install special tool 303-465.
•
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
02-15
DSG-423 ENGINE
CAUTION: Do not rely on the Camshaft Alignment
Plate to prevent camshaft rotation. Damage to the
tool or the camshaft can occur.
7. Using the flats on the camshaft to prevent camshaft
rotation, tighten the sprocket bolts:
•
Tighten to 65 Nm (48 lb-ft).
8. Install the front cover -- Refer to“Engine Front Cover
- Installation” on page 12 of this section.
4. Remove the valve spring retainer and valve spring.
NOTE: Place all parts in order to one side.
9. Install or reconnect any other component removed
or disconnected.
CAUTION: Keep air pressure in cylinder until valve
spring is reinstalled.
Valve Spring - Removal
Valve Spring - Installation
CAUTION: The crankshaft, the crankshaft sprocket
and the pulley are fitted together by friction, with
diamond washers between the flange faces on each
part. For that reason, the crankshaft sprocket is
also unfastened if you loosen the pulley. Therefore,
the engine must be retimed each time the damper is
removed. Otherwise severe damage can occur.
CAUTION: Check that there is no dirt or particles
within the valve stem grooves. Check the seating of
the valve collets.
1. Remove the valve tappets -- Refer to“Valve Tappet Replacement” on page 18 of this section.
3. Release spring and check that keys are seated
properly.
1. Install the valve spring and retainer.
2. Using special tools, compress valve spring and
install the valve retainer keys.
4. Remove air supply and all special tools.
WARNING: ALWAYS WEAR PROTECTIVE
GOGGLES WHEN WORKING WITH COMPRESSED
AIR. THIS CAN PREVENT INJURY. FAILURE TO
FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS CAN RESULT IN
PERSONAL INJURY.
5. Install the valve tappets -- Refer to“Valve Tappet Replacement” on page 18 of this section.
6. Install spark plug:
CAUTION: Use compressed air at 7-10 bars (100-150
psi). Do not disconnect the compressed air from the
cylinder until the valve spring, valve retainer and
valve spring retainer keys are installed.
1. Remove spark plug of the cylinder being serviced.
2. Using special tools, apply compressed air to the
cylinder of the valve spring being removed.
3. Using special tools 303-350, 303-300 and 303-472,
compress valve spring and remove the retainer keys
using some grease and a small screwdriver.
02-16
•
Tighten to 15 Nm (11 lb-ft).
DSG-423 ENGINE
Valve Seal - Removal
Valve Seal - Installation
CAUTION: During engine repair procedures,
cleanliness is extremely important. Any foreign
material, including any material created while
cleaning gasket surfaces, that enters the oil
passages, coolant passages or the oil pan can
cause engine failure.
1. Install the valve stem seal installation sleeve.
Installation
Sleeve
1. Remove camshafts -- Refer to“Camshafts Removal” on page 18 of this section.
CAUTION: If the camshafts and valve tappets are to
be reused, mark the location of the valve tappets to
make sure they are assembled in their original
positions.
NOTE: The number on the valve tappets only reflects
the digits that follow the decimal. For example, a tappet
with the number 0.650 has the thickness of 3.650 mm.
2. Remove the valve tappets -- Refer to“Valve Tappet Replacement” on page 18 of this section.
2. Using special tool 303-470, install a new valve seal.
3. Remove valve spring assembly -- Refer to“Valve
Spring - Removal” on page 16 of this section.
4. Using special tools 307-005 and 303-468, remove
and discard the valve seal.
3. Install valve spring -- Refer to“Valve Spring Installation” on page 16 of this section.
4. Install tappets -- Refer to“Valve Tappet Replacement” on page 18 of this section.
CAUTION: If reusing tappets, install in original
locations.
5. Install camshafts -- Refer to“Camshafts Installation” on page 18 of this section.
6. Repeat for each cylinder being serviced.
02-17
DSG-423 ENGINE
Valve Tappet - Replacement
NOTE: Note the position of the lobes on the No. 1
cylinder before removing the camshafts for assembly
reference.
CAUTION: During engine repair procedures,
cleanliness is extremely important. Any foreign
material, including any material created while
cleaning gasket surfaces, that enters the oil
passages, coolant passages or the oil pan can
cause engine failure.
3. Loosen the camshaft bearing cap bolts, in sequence
shown, one turn at a time.
NOTE: Valve tappets are select fit and the valve
clearance must be checked before removing the
tappets -- Refer to“Valve Clearance Check” on page 45
of this section.
1. Remove camshafts -- Refer to“Camshafts Removal” on page 18 of this section.
CAUTION: If the camshafts and valve tappets are to
be reused, mark the location of the valve tappets to
make sure they are assembled in their original
positions.
NOTE: The number on the valve tappets only reflects
the digits that follow the decimal. For example, a tappet
with the number 0.650 has the thickness of 3.650 mm.
2. Remove and inspect valve tappets.
4. Repeat until all tension is released from the
camshaft bearing caps.
5. Remove bearing caps and camshafts.
3. Reverse procedure to install.
Camshafts - Installation
Valve
Tappet
CAUTION: Install the camshafts with the alignment
slots in the camshafts lined up so the camshaft
alignment plate can be installed without rotating the
camshafts. Make sure the lobes on the No. 1
cylinder are in the same position as noted in the
removal procedure. Rotating the camshafts when
the timing chain is removed, or installing the
camshafts 180 degrees out of position, can cause
severe damage to the valves and pistons.
NOTE: Lubricate the camshaft journals and bearing
caps with clean engine oil prior to installation.
NOTE: Coat valve tappets with clean engine oil prior to
installation.
1. Install the camshafts and bearing caps. Tighten bolts
in the sequence shown in 3 stages:
Camshafts - Removal
CAUTION: The crankshaft, the crankshaft sprocket
and the pulley are fitted together by friction, with
diamond washers between the flange faces on each
part. For that reason, the crankshaft sprocket is
also unfastened if you loosen the pulley. Therefore,
the engine must be retimed each time the damper is
removed. Otherwise severe damage can occur.
1. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the timing drive components.
Label if necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
2. Remove timing chain and sprockets -- Refer
to“Timing Drive Components - Removal” on page 14
of this section.
CAUTION: Failure to follow the camshaft loosening
procedure can result in damage to the camshafts.
02-18
•
•
•
Stage 1: Tighten one turn at a time until tight
Stage 2: Tighten bolts to 7 Nm (62 lb-in)
Stage 3: Tighten bolts to 16 Nm (12 lb-ft).
DSG-423 ENGINE
2. Install timing chain and sprockets -- Refer to“Timing
Drive Components - Installation” on page 15 of this
section.
3. Install or reconnect any other components removed
or disconnected.
CAUTION: Do not use metal scrapers, wire brushes,
power abrasive discs or other abrasive means to
clean the sealing surfaces. These tools cause
scratches and gouges which make leak paths. Use
a plastic scraping tool to remove all traces of old
sealant.
11.Clean the sealing surface with silicone gasket
remover and metal surface prep.
Exhaust Manifold - Removal
1. Disconnect negative battery cable -- refer to Section
6.
2. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the exhaust manifold. Label
if necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
3. Remove accessory drive belt -- refer to Section 6.
WARNING: OBSERVE ALL WARNINGS AND
CAUTIONS AND FOLLOW ALL APPLICATION
DIRECTIONS CONTAINED ON THE PACKAGING OF
THE SILICONE GASKET REMOVER AND METAL
SURFACE PREP.
4. Drain the engine cooling system -- refer to Section 5.
Exhaust Manifold - Installation
5. Disconnect exhaust pipe from manifold.
1. Install new studs:
• Tighten to 17 Nm (13 lb-ft).
2. Install new gasket.
3. Position exhaust manifold and install nuts:
•
Tighten to 54 Nm (40 lb-ft).
Nuts
6. Remove oil level indicator -- Refer to“Oil Level
Indicator & Tube - Replacement” on page 24 of this
section.
7. Remove generator support bracket -- refer to
Section 6.
8. Remove nuts, exhaust manifold and gasket (discard
nuts and gasket)
Gasket
Nuts
Exhaust
Manifold
4. Install generator support bracket -- refer to Section
6.
5. Install oil level indicator -- Refer to“Oil Level Indicator
& Tube - Replacement” on page 24 of this section.
Gasket
Exhaust
Manifold
9. Remove and discard exhaust manifold studs.
10.Inspect manifold for flatness -- refer to Section 1.
02-19
DSG-423 ENGINE
6. Install exhaust pipe to manifold.
7. Remove and discard cylinder head bolts.
Bolt
Head
Coolant Pipes
7. Install accessory drive belt -- refer to Section 6.
8. Connect battery negative cable -- refer to Section 6.
Gasket
9. Install or reconnect any other components removed
or disconnected.
Block
Cylinder Head - Removal
CAUTION: The crankshaft, the crankshaft sprocket
and the pulley are fitted together by friction, with
diamond washers between the flange faces on each
part. For that reason, the crankshaft sprocket is
also unfastened if you loosen the pulley. Therefore,
the engine must be retimed each time the damper is
removed. Otherwise severe damage can occur.
1. Disconnect negative battery cable -- refer to Section
6.
2. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the cylinder head. Label if
necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
3. Remove camshaft cover -- Refer to“Camshaft Cover
- Removal” on page 6 of this section.
4. Remove the camshafts -- Refer to“Camshafts Removal” on page 18 of this section.
5. Remove exhaust manifold -- Refer to“Exhaust
Manifold - Removal” on page 19 of this section.
6. Remove fuel rail -- refer to Section 4.
8. Remove and discard gasket.
9. Inspect mating surfaces -- refer to Section 1.
Cylinder Head - Installation
CAUTION: Do not use metal scrapers, wire brushes,
power abrasive discs or other abrasive means to
clean the sealing surfaces. These tools cause
scratches and gouges which make leak paths. Use
a plastic scraping tool to remove all traces of old
head gasket.
1. Clean the mating surface of cylinder head and block,
with silicone gasket remover and metal surface prep.
Remove all traces of gasket, sealant, oil and coolant.
WARNING: OBSERVE ALL WARNINGS AND
CAUTIONS AND FOLLOW ALL APPLICATION
DIRECTIONS CONTAINED ON THE PACKAGING OF
THE SILICONE GASKET REMOVER AND METAL
SURFACE PREP.
CAUTION: Failure to follow this procedure can
cause future oil leakage.
NOTE: Do not attempt to make the metal shiny. Some
staining of the metal surfaces is normal.
02-20
DSG-423 ENGINE
2. Apply silicone gasket and sealant to the locations
shown.
NOTE: If not secured within 4 minutes, the sealant must
be removed and the sealing area recleaned as before.
Refer to previous CAUTION & WARNING.
3. Install a new cylinder head gasket.
4. Lubricate new cylinder head bolts with clean engine
oil.
CAUTION: Cylinder head bolts are torque-to-yield
and must not be reused. New bolts must be
installed.
5. Install cylinder head carefully.
Bolt
Head
Coolant Pipes
Gasket
Block
02-21
DSG-423 ENGINE
6. Tighten bolts in sequence shown in 5 stages:
•
•
•
•
•
Stage 1: Tighten to 5 Nm (44 lb-in)
Stage 2: Tighten to 15 Nm (11 lb-ft)
Stage 3: Tighten to 45 Nm (33 lb-ft)
Stage 4: Tighten an additional 90 degrees
Stage 5: Tighten an additional 90 degrees.
7. Install fuel rail -- refer to Section 4.
8. Install exhaust manifold -- Refer to“Exhaust Manifold
- Installation” on page 19 of this section.
9. Install camshafts -- Refer to“Camshafts Installation” on page 18 of this section.
10.Install camshaft cover -- Refer to“Camshaft Cover Installation” on page 7 of this section.
11.Install or reconnect any other component that was
removed or disconnected.
12.Reconnect negative battery cable -- refer to Section
6.
02-22
DSG-423 ENGINE
Oil Filter Adapter - Removal
5. Tighten to 15 Nm (11 lb-ft).
1. Disconnect negative battery cable -- refer to Section
6.
2. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the oil filter adapter. Label if
necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
3. Drain the engine oil.
6. Connect oil pressure sender connector.
7. Fill the engine with clean engine oil.
8. Run the engine and check for leaks.
9. Install or reconnect any other component that was
removed or disconnected.
4. Disconnect the oil pressure sender connector.
Oil Pressure Sender - Replacement
5. Remove the oil pressure sender -- Refer to“Oil
Pressure Sender - Replacement” on page 23 of this
section.
1. Disconnect negative battery cable -- refer to Section
6.
3. Disconnect the oil pressure sender connector.
Adapter
4. Remove the oil pressure sender.
Bolts
Filter
2. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the oil pressure sender.
Label if necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
Oil Pressure
Sender
6. Remove and discard the oil filter.
7. Remove 4 bolts and oil filter adapter.
8. Remove and discard the gasket.
Oil Filter Adapter - Installation
CAUTION: Do not use metal scrapers, wire brushes,
power abrasive discs or other abrasive means to
clean the sealing surfaces. These tools cause
scratches and gouges which make leak paths. Use
a plastic scraping tool to remove all traces of old
sealant.
5. Apply thread sealant with PTFE to the oil pressure
sender threads and install the sender:
6. Tighten to 15 Nm (11 lb-ft).
7. Connect oil pressure sender connector.
1. Clean the mating surface of adapter and block, with
silicone gasket remover and metal surface prep.
WARNING: OBSERVE ALL WARNINGS AND
CAUTIONS AND FOLLOW ALL APPLICATION
DIRECTIONS CONTAINED ON THE PACKAGING OF
THE SILICONE GASKET REMOVER AND METAL
SURFACE PREP.
2. Using a new gasket, install the oil filter adapter and
4 bolts:
• Tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
3. Install a new oil filter.
4. Apply thread sealant with PTFE to the oil pressure
sender threads and install the sender:
02-23
DSG-423 ENGINE
Oil Level Indicator & Tube - Replacement
4. Remove oil pan and bolts.
1. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the oil level indicator & tube.
Label if necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
2. Remove the oil level indicator.
Oil Pan
Indicator
Tube
Drain Plug
Bolt
Bolt
CAUTION: Do not use metal scrapers, wire brushes,
power abrasive discs or other abrasive means to
clean the sealing surfaces. These tools cause
scratches and gouges which make leak paths. Use
a plastic scraping tool to remove all traces of old
sealant.
5. Clean the mating surface of oil pan and block, with
silicone gasket remover and metal surface prep.
O-Ring
3. Remove the 2 bolts and tube.
WARNING: OBSERVE ALL WARNINGS AND
CAUTIONS AND FOLLOW ALL APPLICATION
DIRECTIONS CONTAINED ON THE PACKAGING OF
THE SILICONE GASKET REMOVER AND METAL
SURFACE PREP.
4. Remove and discard the o-ring.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
•
•
•
Install a new o-ring
Apply clean engine oil to o-ring
Tighten bolts to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
Oil Pan - Removal
CAUTION: Failure to follow this procedure can
cause future oil leakage.
1. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the oil pan. Label if
necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
2. Drain the engine oil.
3. Remove oil level indicator & tube -- Refer to“Oil
Level Indicator & Tube - Replacement” on page 24
of this section.
02-24
DSG-423 ENGINE
Oil Pan - Installation
3. Remove gasket and discard.
NOTE: If not secured within 4 minutes, the sealant must
be removed and the sealing area recleaned as before.
Refer to previous CAUTION & WARNING.
4. Clean the sealing surface with metal surface prep.
1. Apply a 2.5 mm (0.1 in) bead of silicone gasket and
sealant to the oil pan. Install the oil pan and bolts in
sequence shown:
WARNING: OBSERVE ALL WARNINGS AND
CAUTIONS AND FOLLOW ALL APPLICATION
DIRECTIONS CONTAINED ON THE PACKAGING OF
THE SILICONE GASKET REMOVER AND METAL
SURFACE PREP.
•
Tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
5. Reverse procedure to install:
•
•
2. Install oil level indicator and tube -- Refer to“Oil Level
Indicator & Tube - Replacement” on page 24 of this
section.
3. Install drain plug:
• Tighten to 28 Nm (21 lb-ft).
4. Fill engine with clean engine oil.
5. Install or reconnect any other component that was
removed or disconnected.
Oil Pickup Tube - Replacement
1. Remove the oil pan -- Refer to“Oil Pan - Removal” on
page 24 of this section.
2. Remove bolts and oil pickup tube.
Gasket
Pickup Tube
Bolt
Baffle
02-25
Use a new gasket
Tighten bolts to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
DSG-423 ENGINE
Oil Pump - Removal
2. Install oil pump and 4 bolts in sequence shown in 2
stages:
1. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the oil pump. Label if
necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
•
•
Stage 1: Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in)
Stage 2: Tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
2. Remove engine front cover -- Refer to“Engine Front
Cover - Removal” on page 11 of this section.
3. Remove oil pan -- Refer to“Oil Pan - Removal” on
page 24 of this section.
4. Remove oil pickup tube -- Refer to“Oil Pickup Tube Replacement” on page 25 of this section.
5. Release the tension on the tensioner spring and
remove the bolt and tensioner.
Tightening Sequence
3. Install sprocket and bolt:
Sprocket
• Tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
4. Install the chain onto the sprockets.
Tensioner
5. Install guide and 2 bolts:
Oil Pump
• Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
6. Install tensioner and bolt:
•
•
Chain
Hook tensioner spring around the shoulder bolt.
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
Guide
6. Remove 2 bolts and oil pump chain guide.
7. Remove oil pump chain.
8. Remove bolt and oil pump sprocket.
9. Remove 4 bolts and oil pump.
Oil Pump - Installation
1. Clean the oil pump and block mating surface with
metal surface prep.
7. Install pickup tube -- Refer to“Oil Pickup Tube Replacement” on page 25 of this section.
WARNING: OBSERVE ALL WARNINGS AND
CAUTIONS AND FOLLOW ALL APPLICATION
DIRECTIONS CONTAINED ON THE PACKAGING OF
THE SILICONE GASKET REMOVER AND METAL
SURFACE PREP.
8. Install oil pan -- Refer to“Oil Pan - Installation” on
page 25 of this section.
9. Install engine front cover -- Refer to“Engine Front
Cover - Installation” on page 12 of this section.
10.Install or reconnect any other component that was
removed or disconnected.
02-26
DSG-423 ENGINE
Flywheel/Flexplate - Replacement
Crankshaft Rear Seal/Retainer - Removal
1. Remove any components necessary to gain access
to the flywheel/flexplate.
1. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the rear seal. Label if
necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
2. Remove the transmission or PTO.
3. Remove the pressure plate and clutch if equipped.
4. Remove bolts using tool 303-103.
2. Remove flywheel or flexplate -- Refer to“Flywheel/
Flexplate - Replacement” on page 27 of this section.
3. Remove oil pan -- Refer to“Oil Pan - Removal” on
page 24 of this section.
4. Remove bolts and retainer plate.
Bolts
5. Remove flywheel/Flexplate.
Crankshaft Rear Seal/Retainer - Installation
1. Using special tool 303-328, position rear oil seal with
retainer plate onto crankshaft.
Bolt
Flywheel
(flexplate similar)
CAUTION: Special bolts are used for installation. Do
not use standard bolts.
6. Reverse procedure to install. Tighten bolts in
sequence shown in three stages:
•
•
•
Stage 1: Tighten to 50 Nm (37 lb-ft)
Stage 2: Tighten to 80 Nm (59 lb-ft)
Stage 3: Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
2. Install 6 bolts in the sequence shown:
•
02-27
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
DSG-423 ENGINE
6. Remove generator and bracket assembly.
3. Install oil pan -- Refer to“Oil Pan - Installation” on
page 25 of this section.
4. Install flywheel or flexplate -- Refer to“Flywheel/
Flexplate - Replacement” on page 27 of this section.
5. Install or connect any other component removed or
disconnected.
DISASSEMBLY & ASSEMBLY
Engine Disassembly
CAUTION: During engine repair procedures,
cleanliness is extremely important. Any foreign
material, including any material created while
cleaning gasket surfaces can enter the oil
passages, coolant passages or the oil pan, and
cause engine failure.
7. Remove nuts and exhaust manifold. Discard nuts.
Nuts
CAUTION: Due to the precision fit and timing of the
balancer shaft assembly, it cannot be removed from
the engine block.
1. Remove engine from equipment and mount on an
engine stand -- Refer to“Flywheel/Flexplate Replacement” on page 27 of this section.
2. Remove the drivebelt.
3. Remove bolts and oil level indicator.
Stud
Gasket
Exhaust Manifold
8. Remove and discard exhaust manifold gasket and
studs.
9. Inspect exhaust manifold for flatness -- refer to
Section 1.
10.If equipped, remove block heater.
Block
Heater
4. Remove all coolant pipes and hoses.
5. Remove A/C compressor (if equipped).
02-28
DSG-423 ENGINE
11.Remove 4 bolts and power steering pump.
Power
Steering
Pump
Knock Sensor
Bolt
Bolt
12. Remove 5 bolts and intake manifold.
16.Remove engine vent cover.
Engine
Vent
Cover
Gasket
Intake
Manifold
PCV Valve
PCV Hose
17.Remove fuel rail and injectors. Discard o-rings.
Bolt
13.Remove ignition coils.
14.Remove 3 bolts and thermostat housing.
Fuel Rail
Thermostat
Housing
Injector
Bolt
Bolt
18.Remove 3 bolts and water pump pulley.
Water Pump
Pulley
15.Remove knock sensor.
Bolt
02-29
O-ring
DSG-423 ENGINE
19.Remove 3 bolts and coolant pump. Discard the oring.
Coolant Pump
CAUTION: Failure to position the No. 1 piston at top
dead center (TDC) can result in damage to the
engine. Turn the engine in the normal direction of
rotation only.
CAUTION: The crankshaft, the crankshaft sprocket
and the pulley are fitted together by friction, with
diamond washers between the flange faces on each
part. For that reason, the crankshaft sprocket is
also unfastened if you loosen the pulley. Therefore,
the engine must be retimed each time the damper is
removed. Otherwise severe damage can occur.
Bolt
22.Using the crankshaft pulley bolt, turn the crankshaft
clockwise to position the No. 1 piston at TDC.
O-ring
20.Remove camshaft cover.
Bolt
Camshaft Cover
CAUTION: The special tool 303-465 is for camshaft
alignment only. Using this tool to prevent engine
rotation can result in engine damage.
Gasket
NOTE: The camshaft timing slots are offset. If the
special tool cannot be installed, rotate the crankshaft
one complete revolution clockwise to correctly position
the camshafts.
23.Install special tool 303-465 in the slots on the rear of
both camshafts.
21.Remove 2 bolts and CKP sensor. Discard sensor.
CKP Sensor
Bolt
02-30
DSG-423 ENGINE
24.Install special tools 205-126 & 205-072-02.
28.Compress the timing chain tensioner and insert a
paper clip into the hole.
CAUTION: Failure to hold the crankshaft pulley in
place during bolt loosening can cause damage to
the engine.
29.Remove 2 bolts and tensioner.
30.Remove right timing chain guide.
25.Using the special tools, remove bolt, washer and
crankshaft pulley. Discard the bolt.
CAUTION: There is one front cover bolt behind the
cooling fan drive pulley.
26.Remove bolt behind cooling fan drive pulley through
one of access holes.
27.Remove all front cover bolts and front cover.
31.Remove timing chain.
32.Remove 2 bolts and left timing chain guide.
02-31
DSG-423 ENGINE
CAUTION: Do not rely on camshaft alignment plate
to prevent camshaft rotation. Damage to the tool or
the camshaft can occur.
33.Using a wrench on the camshaft flats, remove bolts,
washers and sprockets.
CAUTION: Failure to follow the camshaft loosening
procedure can result in damage to the camshafts.
NOTE: Note the position of the lobes on the number
one cylinder before removing the camshafts for
assembly reference.
39.Remove the camshaft bearing caps as follows:
•
Loosen the camshaft bearing cap bolts in the sequence shown one turn at a time
• Repeat until all the tension is released from the
camshaft bearing caps.
• Remove the bearing caps.
40.Remove the camshafts.
Cap
Bolt
34.Release tension on oil pump chain tensioner.
Camshafts
CAUTION: The cylinder head must be cool before
removing it from the engine. Cylinder head warpage
can result if a warm or hot cylinder head is
removed.
CAUTION: The cylinder head bolts must be
discarded and new bolts must be installed. They are
tighten-to-yield designed and cannot be reused.
35.Remove the bolt and tensioner.
Tensioner
41.Remove and discard cylinder head bolts.
Oil Pump
Sprocket
Guide
Washers
Chain
36.Remove bolts and guide.
37.Holding oil pump sprocket in place, remove bolt,
chain, sprockets and diamond washers.
42.Remove cylinder head.
43.Remove and discard the gasket.
38.Remove special tool 303-465.
02-32
DSG-423 ENGINE
44.Remove the cylinder head alignment dowels.
47.Remove bolts, oil pump pickup tube and discard
gasket.
Gasket
Pickup
Tube
Bolt
Bolt
45.Remove bolts and oil pan.
48.Remove 4 bolts and oil pump.
46.Remove bolts and rear seal retainer plate.
49.Remove and discard oil pump gasket.
Cylinder Head Disassembly
1. Remove rear lifting eye and front bracket.
Front
Lifting Eye
Rear
Lifting Eye
02-33
DSG-423 ENGINE
2. Remove cylinder head temperature (CHT) sensor.
Tappet
extremely important. Any foreign material, including any
material created while cleaning gasket surfaces can
enter the oil passages, coolant passages or the oil pan,
and cause engine failure.
CHT Sensor
Key
Spark Plug
Retainer
Spring
Place clean shop towels over exposed engine cavities.
Carefully remove the towels so foreign material is not
dropped into the engine.
CAUTION: Do not use metal scrapers, wire brushes,
power abrasive discs or other abrasive means to
clean the sealing surfaces. These tools cause
scratches and gouges that make leak paths. Use a
plastic scraping tool to remove all traces of the
gasket material and sealant.
Seal
CAUTION: Aluminum surfaces are soft and can be
scratched easily. Never place the cylinder head
gasket surface, unprotected, on a bench surface.
Valves
To clean residual sealant, oil, coolant and gasket
material from sealing area, use silicone gasket remover
and metal surface prep. A second application may be
required if traces of silicone or gasket material remain.
3. Remove coolant outlet pipe.
4. Remove spark plugs and discard.
Allow to dry until there is no sign of wetness, or 4
minutes, whichever is longer. Failure to follow this
procedure can cause future oil leakage.
CAUTION: Note location of the tappets prior to
removal.
5. Remove 16 valve tappets.
6. Using special tools 303-350, 303-300 & 303-472,
compress valve spring and remove valve spring
retainer keys, retainers and springs.
WARNING: OBSERVE ALL WARNINGS AND
CAUTIONS AND FOLLOW ALL APPLICATION
DIRECTIONS CONTAINED ON THE PACKAGING OF
THE SILICONE GASKET REMOVER AND METAL
SURFACE PREP.
NOTE: Do not attempt to make metal shiny. Some
staining of metal surfaces is normal.
7. Remove all special tools.
CAUTION: Note location of valves if they are to be
reused.
8. Remove valves.
9. Using special tools 303-005 and 303-468, remove
and discard valve stem seals.
10.Inspect valve, valve springs, retainers and keys -refer to Section 1.
Engine Cleaning
During engine repair procedures, cleanliness is
02-34
DSG-423 ENGINE
Cylinder Head Assembly
NOTE: Make sure keys are seated properly.
CAUTION: If installing original valves, make sure
they are installed in the same position as removed.
CAUTION: Be sure to install tappets in the same
location as removed.
1. Coat valve stems and guides with clean engine oil
and install into cylinder head.
5. Install 16 valve tappets.
CAUTION: Use protector provided with replacement
kit to prevent damage to the valve seals.
2. Using special tool 303-470, install valve seals onto
the guides.
6. Install a new CHT Sensor:
• Tighten to 12 Nm (9 lb-ft).
7. Install 4 new spark plugs (properly gapped):
• Tighten to 15 Nm (11 lb-ft).
8. Using a new gasket, install coolant outlet pipe and 4
bolts:
•
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
3. Position valve springs and retainers.
Tappet
CHT Sensor
Key
Spark Plug
9. Install rear lifting eye and front lifting eye bracket:
Retainer
Spring
•
Tighten to 45 Nm (33 lb-ft).
Seal
Front
Lifting Eye
Valves
Rear
Lifting Eye
4. Using special tools 303-350, 303-300 and 303-472,
compress valve spring and install retainer keys.
02-35
DSG-423 ENGINE
Engine Assembly
3. Install special tool 303-507.
CAUTION: The crankshaft, the crankshaft sprocket
and the pulley are fitted together by friction, with
diamond washers between the flange faces on each
part. For that reason, the crankshaft sprocket is
also unfastened if you loosen the pulley. Therefore,
the engine must be retimed each time the damper is
removed. Otherwise severe damage can occur.
CAUTION: Failure to position the No. 1 piston at top
dead center (TDC) can result in damage to the
engine. Turn the engine in the normal direction of
rotation only.
1. Using the crankshaft pulley bolt, turn the crankshaft
clockwise to position the No. 1 piston on TDC>
4. Position the oil pump assembly and tighten the bolts
in the sequence shown in 2 stages:
•
•
Stage 1: Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in)
Stage 2: Tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
2. Remove plug bolt.
5. Position a new oil pump pickup tube gasket and the
pickup tube, and tighten 4 bolts in the sequence
shown:
•
CAUTION: Only turn the engine in the normal
direction of rotation. Installing the special tool in
this next step will prevent the engine from being
rotated in the clockwise direction. However, the
engine can still be rotated in the counterclockwise
direction.
02-36
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
DSG-423 ENGINE
6. Using special tool 303-328, install a new crankshaft
rear seal and retainer plate assembly. Tighten bolts
in the sequence shown:
•
9. Apply silicone gasket and sealant to the locations
shown.
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
10.Install a new gasket and position cylinder head.
CAUTION: Do not reuse cylinder head bolts.
NOTE: If oil pan is not secured within 4 minutes, the
sealant must be removed and the sealing area
recleaned -- Refer to“Engine Cleaning” on page 34 of
this section.
11.Lubricate new bolts and install in the sequence
shown in 5 stages:
•
•
•
•
7. Apply a 2.5 mm (0.1 in) bead of silicone gasket and
sealant to the oil pan. Install the oil pan and bolts.
Tighten in the sequence shown:
•
Tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
•
8. Install cylinder head alignment dowels until fully
seated in block.
Stage 1: Tighten to 5 Nm (44 lb-in)
Stage 2: Tighten to 15 Nm (11 lb-ft)
Stage 3: Tighten to 45 Nm (33 lb-ft)
Stage 4: Tighten an additional 90 degrees (1/4
turn)
Stage 5: Tighten an additional 90 degrees (1/4
turn).
CAUTION: Install the camshafts with alignment
slots in the camshaft lined up so the camshaft
alignment plate can be installed without rotating the
camshafts. Make sure the lobes on the No.1
cylinder are in the same position as noted in the
disassembly procedure. Rotating the camshafts or
installing the camshafts 180 degrees out of position
can cause severe damage to the valves and pistons.
NOTE: Lubricate camshaft journals and bearing caps
with clean engine oil.
NOTE: If cylinder head is not secured within 4 minutes,
the sealant must be removed and the sealing area
recleaned -- Refer to“Engine Cleaning” on page 34 of
this section.
02-37
DSG-423 ENGINE
12.Install the camshafts and bearing caps. Tighten bolts
in sequence shown in three stages:
•
•
•
14.Holding the oil pump chain sprocket in place, tighten
oil pump sprocket bolt:
• Tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
15.Install oil pump chain guide and shoulder bolt:
Stage 1: Tighten finger tight
Stage 2: Tighten to 7 Nm (62 lb-in)
Stage 3: Tighten to 16 Nm (12 lb-ft).
• Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
16.Install oil pump chain tensioner. Hook spring around
shoulder bolt and tighten:
•
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
CAUTION: The crankshaft, the crankshaft sprocket
and the pulley are fitted together by friction, with
diamond washers between the flange faces on each
part. The diamond washers must be installed
correctly or severe engine damage can result.
NOTE: Sprockets must turn freely on the camshafts.
13. Install washers and oil pump chain and sprockets.
17.Position camshaft sprockets and loosely install bolts.
Tensioner
Oil Pump
Sprocket
Guide
Washers
CAUTION: Do not compress the ratchet assembly.
This will damage the ratchet assembly.
Chain
18.Using the edge of a vise, compress the timing chain
tensioner plunger.
NOTE: The crankshaft sprocket flange must be facing
away from the engine block.
Engine
Block
Side
02-38
DSG-423 ENGINE
19.Using a small pick, push back and hold the ratchet
mechanism.
23.Position timing chain guides and install guide bolts:
20.While holding the ratchet mechanism, push the
ratchet arm back into the tensioner housing.
24.Install timing chain tensioner and 2 bolts. Remove
the paper clip to apply tension to chain:
•
•
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
Paper Clip
21.Install a paper clip into the hole in the tensioner
housing to hold the ratchet assembly and the
plunger in during installation.
22.Install the timing chain.
CAUTION: The special tool 303-465 is for camshaft
alignment only. Using this tool to prevent engine
rotation can result in engine damage.
25.Install special tool 303-465 in the timing slots on rear
of both camshafts. Timing slots are offset from the
centerline of the camshaft.
02-39
DSG-423 ENGINE
28. Install the front cover and bolts. Tighten in the
sequence shown in 3 stages:
NOTE: Use a wrench on the flats between cylinders
No.1 and No. 2 to hold the camshafts in place.
•
•
•
Stage 1: Tighten 8mm bolts to 10 nm (89 lb-in)
Stage 2: Tighten 10 mm bolts to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft)
Stage 3: Tighten 13 mm bolts to 48 Nm (35 lb-ft).
26.Tighten camshaft sprocket bolts:
•
Tighten to 65 Nm (48 lb-ft).
NOTE: If front cover is not secured within 4 minutes, the
sealant must be removed and the sealing area
recleaned -- Refer to“Engine Cleaning” on page 34 of
this section.
27.Apply a 2.5 mm (0.1 in) bead of silicone gasket and
sealant to the front cover, and to block as shown.
CAUTION: Do not reuse crankshaft pulley bolt.
NOTE: Apply clean engine oil to crankshaft front seal
area prior to installing.
29.Install crankshaft pulley and hand-tighten bolt.
Pulley
Washer
Bolt
CAUTION: Only hand tighten crankshaft pulley bolt
or damage to front cover can occur.
NOTE: This next step will correctly align crankshaft
pulley to crankshaft.
02-40
DSG-423 ENGINE
30.Install a standard 6 mm x 18 mm bolt through the
crankshaft pulley and thread it into the front cover.
35.Install special tool 303-507.
CAUTION: Only hand tighten the bolt in this next
step or damage to the front cover can occur.
31.Rotate the crankshaft pulley as necessary to align
the bolt holes.
36.Using a 6mm x 18 mm bolt, check the position of the
crankshaft pulley. If it is not possible to install the
bolt, correct the engine timing.
CAUTION: Failure to hold the crankshaft pulley in
place during bolt tightening can cause damage to
the engine front cover.
32.Using special tools 205-072-02 and 205-126, hold
crankshaft pulley in place and tighten crankshaft
pulley bolt in 2 stages:
•
•
Stage 1: Tighten to 100 Nm (74 lb-ft).
Stage 2: Rotate an additional 90 degrees.
37.Using special tool 303-465, check the position of the
camshafts. If it is not possible to install the special
tool, correct the engine timing.
33.Remove all special tools (205-072-02, 205-126, 303507, 303-465) and 6mm bolt.
CAUTION: Only turn engine in the normal direction
of rotation.
34.Turn the engine 2 complete revolutions, then
continue turning in same direction until the No. 1
piston is at top dead center (TDC).
38.Remove all special tools (303-507, 303-465) and
6mm bolt.
02-41
DSG-423 ENGINE
39.Install the plug bolt:
•
42.Apply silicone gasket and sealant to the locations
shown.
Tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
40.Position a new crankshaft position (CKP) sensor and
loosely install 2 bolts.
43.Install camshaft cover and tighten bolts in sequence
show:
•
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
CKP Sensor
Bolts
41.Using alignment tool that came with new sensor,
adjust CKP alignment. The tool must engage a tooth
of the damper, then tighten bolts:
•
Tighten to 7 Nm (62 lb-in).
44.Install camshaft position (CMP) sensor and bolt:
• Tighten to 7 Nm (62 lb-in).
45.Install cylinder head temperature (CHT) sensor:
• Tighten to 12 Nm (9 lb-ft).
46.Install spark plugs:
•
Tighten to 15 Nm (11 lb-ft).
CHT Sensor
NOTE: If camshaft cover is not secured within 4
minutes, the sealant must be removed and the sealing
area recleaned -- Refer to“Engine Cleaning” on page 34
of this section.
Spark Plugs
02-42
CMP Sensor
DSG-423 ENGINE
47.Lubricate a new coolant pump o-ring seal with clean
engine coolant and install coolant pump and 3 bolts:
•
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
Knock
Sensor
Coolant Pump
Bolts
Bolt
O-ring
51.Install engine vent cover and bolts:
48.Install coolant pump pulley and 3 bolts:
•
•
Tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
Coolant
Pump
Pulley
PCV
Vent
Cover
PCV Valve
Hose
52.Using a new gasket, install thermostat, housing and
3 bolts:
NOTE: Lubricate new fuel injector o-ring seals with
clean engine oil prior to installation.
•
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
49.Using new o-ring seals, install fuel rail assembly and
bolts:
•
Thermostat
& Housing
Tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
Injector
Fuel Rail
O-ring
Bolt
CAUTION: The knock sensor (KS) must not touch
the engine vent cover.
50.Install knock sensor:
•
Tighten to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
NOTE: Apply silicone dielectric compound to inside of
spark plug boot area prior to installation of coils.
53.Install coils over spark plugs and tighten bolts:
• Tighten to ???????????????????
54.Make any connections that will not be accessible
after intake manifold is installed.
55.Inspect and install new intake manifold gaskets if
necessary.
02-43
DSG-423 ENGINE
56.Install intake manifold and bolts:
•
59.Install 7 new exhaust manifold studs:
Tighten to 18 Nm (13 lb-ft).
•
Tighten to 17 Nm (13 lb-ft).
Gasket
Nut
Gasket
Stud
Intake
Manifold
Bolt
57.Install power steering pump and bolts:
•
Exhaust
Manifold
Tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
60.Position a new gasket and install exhaust manifold
and 7 new nuts:
• Tighten to 54 Nm (40 lb-ft).
61.Install generator and support bracket.
Power Steering
Pump
Bolt
58.Install block heater (if equipped).
62.Tighten bolts in the sequence shown in 2 stages:
Block
Heater
•
•
Stage 1: Tighten finger tight
Stage 2: Tighten to 47 Nm (935 lb-ft).
63.Install A/C compressor (if equipped) and bolts:
•
02-44
Tighten to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
DSG-423 ENGINE
ADJUSTMENTS
64.Install oil level indicator tube:
•
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
Valve Clearance Check
Oil Level
Indicator
1. Remove camshaft cover -- Refer to“Camshaft Cover
- Removal” on page 6 of this section.
Tube
2. Use a feeler gauge to measure each valve’s
clearance and record its location. A mid range
clearance is most desirable:
CAUTION: Turn the engine clockwise only, and use
the crankshaft bolt only.
Bolt
•
•
Intake: 0.22-0.28 mm (0.008-0.011 inch)
Exhaust: 0.27-0.33 mm (0.010-0.013 inch)
O-ring
65.Install accessory drive belt.
Idler
Generator
Power Steering
Fan
Tensioner
Coolant Pump
Crankshaft
66.Install any tubes, hoses or components removed or
disconnected.
NOTE: Measure each valve’s clearance at base circle
with lobe pointed away from the tappet, before
removing camshafts. Failure to measure all clearances
prior to removing camshafts will necessitate repeated
removal and installation and wasted labor time.
3. Select tappets and mark location using the following
formula:
•
67.Remove engine from engine stand and install
flywheel or flexplate.
NOTE: If any tappets do not measure within
specifications, install new tappets in those locations -Refer to“Valve Tappet - Replacement” on page 18 of
this section.
68.Using special tool, tighten bolts in the sequence
shown in 3 stages:
•
•
•
tappet thickness = measured clearance, plus
base tappet thickness, minus most desirable
thickness.
Stage 1: Tighten to 50 Nm (37 lb-ft)
Stage 2: Tighten to 80 Nm (59 lb-ft)
Stage 3: Tighten to 112 Nm (83 lb-ft).
69.Lubricate transmission input shaft pilot bearing with
grease.
02-45
DSG-423 ENGINE
SPECIFICATIONS
02-46
DSG-423 ENGINE
02-47
DSG-423 ENGINE
02-48
DSG-423 ENGINE
02-49
DSG-423 IGNITION SYSTEM
INDEX
Subject
Page
General Information ........................................................................................................................................
Description ................................................................................................................................................
Operation ..................................................................................................................................................
Wiring Diagram..........................................................................................................................................
03 - 2
03 - 2
03 - 3
03 - 4
Diagnosis and Testing.................................................................................................................................... 03 - 5
Spark Plug Inspection ............................................................................................................................... 03 - 5
Removal and Installation................................................................................................................................
Ignition Coil - Replacement .......................................................................................................................
Spark Plug - Removal ...............................................................................................................................
Spark Plug - Installation ............................................................................................................................
03 - 6
03 - 6
03 - 6
03 - 6
Specifications.................................................................................................................................................. 03 - 7
03-1
03
DSG-423 IGNITION SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
Camshaft Position
(CMP) Sensor
Crankshaft Position
(CKP) Sensor
GCP
Engine Coolant Temp
(ECT) Sensor
Ignition Coil
Spark Plug
Description
•
Ignition Coils
The DSG-423 engine is equipped with an individual coil
on plug electronic ignition system. The brain of this
system is the Electronic Engine Control (GCP) Module
which receives inputs from the following:
•
Spark Plugs.
•
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor
•
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor
•
Engine Temperature Sensor
From these inputs, the GCP module computes spark
strategy (spark advance) to obtain optimum engine
performance for correct input conditions, through the
following outputs:
WARNING: HIGH TENSION VOLTAGE PRODUCED
BY A DISTRIBUTORLESS IGNITION SYSTEM IS
HIGHER THAN FOR A CONVENTIONAL IGNITION
SYSTEM. WHEN CARRYING OUT SERVICE
OPERATIONS ON AN ENGINE EQUIPPED WITH
DISTRIBUTORLESS IGNITION, IT IS IMPORTANT
TO BE AWARE OF THE ABOVE POINT AS WELL AS
ALL THE USUAL SAFETY MEASURES TO
PREVENT THE POSSIBILITY OF ELECTRIC
SHOCKS.
03-2
DSG-423 IGNITION SYSTEM
Compression Stroke
Exhaust Stroke
Operation
Engine Temperature
With this system, the GCP monitors the engine speed
and operating temperature and decides what degree of
spark advance is correct for all of the operating
conditions. Because timing is set for life inherently in the
design of the engine, and there are no moving parts in
the ignition system itself, no maintenance is required
except for periodic spark plug checks. The system
provides for fixed spark advance at start-up, for cold
weather starting, and for “average value” default
settings in case of component failure. Particular
attention has been given to spark optimization for
excellent fuel economy in the warm-up mode.
The Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor sends
engine temperature information to the GCP. It is located
in the rear coolant outlet pipe.
The spark plugs are paired so that one plug fires during
the compression stroke and its companion plug fires
during the exhaust stroke. The next time that coil is
fired, the plug that was on exhaust will be on
compression, and the one that was on compression will
be on exhaust. The spark in the exhaust cylinder is
wasted (referred to as the “waste spark”) but little of the
coil energy is lost.
The GCP switches 4 individual ignition coils on and off
at the correct times to give the desired spark advance.
Ignition timing is adjusted constantly by the GCP. Many
factors including all the sensor inputs, affect the final
ignition setting.
Engine Speed and Crankshaft Position
The crankshaft position and speed information comes
to the GCP from the Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor,
mounted near the crankshaft pulley. The CKP Sensor is
triggered by teeth on a trigger wheel located on the
crankshaft pulley. The pulse frequency indicates
crankshaft speed and a missing tooth indicates
crankshaft position.
Fuel Octane Level Adjustment
In the event that the engine is operated on dry fuels
such as natural gas, compressed natural gas (CNG), or
liquefied petroleum gas (LGP), timing can be modified
by GCP “Fuel Type”.
Ignition Coil Driver
Run Mode
The GCP interprets engine speed above 200 rpm as
Run Mode. The Base Spark advance (BSA) is
calculated by the GCP processing the engine speed
input.
Transient Mode
This function is to provide detonation protection when
the engine load is increased rapidly by fast opening of
the throttle plate.
Overspeed Mode
If the engine speed exceeds 4000 rpm the dwell will be
reduced until the speed drops below 4000 rpm.
03-3
16 RD
16 RD
F5
15A
16 RD
16 RD
03-4
Spark
Coil 1A
18 YE/BK
Ignition
Coil
Cylinder
1
16 RD
Fuse Panel
Relayed Power
Spark
Coil 2B
18 DG/VT
Ignition
Coil
Cylinder
2
16 RD
16 RD
Spark
Coil 2A
18 YE/RD
Ignition
Coil
Cylinder
3
16 RD
16 RD
Spark
Coil 1B
18 WH/PK
Ignition
Coil
Cylinder
4
16 RD
GCP
DSG-423 IGNITION SYSTEM
Wiring Diagram
DSG-423 IGNITION SYSTEM
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Spark Plug Inspection
Inspect the spark plug tip as in the chart below:
03-5
DSG-423 IGNITION SYSTEM
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Spark Plug - Removal
Ignition Coil - Replacement
Spark Plug
Bolt
Ignition
Coil
1. Remove ignition coil -- Refer to“Ignition Coil Replacement” on page 6 of this section.
2. Loosen spark plugs and remove any dirt or foreign
material from spark plug areas of cylinder head with
compressed air.
1. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the ignition coil. Label if
necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
2. Disconnect electrical connector.
3. Remove bolt.
4. Remove ignition coil.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
•
•
Inspect for cracks, carbon tracking or dirt
Apply silicone dielectric compound to the inside
of coil.
3. Remove spark plugs and mark location using a
piece of masking tape.
4. Inspect condition of spark plug -- Refer to“Spark
Plug Inspection” on page 7 of this section.
Spark Plug - Installation
1. Apply a few drops of engine oil to spark plug threads
near tip.
2. Adjust spark plug gap to: 1.25 - 1.35 mm (0.049 0.053 in.).
3. Install spark plugs (to original locations) and tighten
to 11 lb.ft. (15 Nm).
4. Install coil -- Refer to“Ignition Coil - Replacement” on
page 6 of this section.
03-6
DSG-423 IGNITION SYSTEM
SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Firing Order
1-3-4-2
Spark Plug
Type: AGSF32YPC
Gap: 1.25 - 1.35 mm
(0.049 - 0.053 in.)
Silicone Brake Caliper Grease
and Dielectric Compound XG3-A
ESE-M1C171-A
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Description
Nm
lb.ft.
lb.in.
Spark plugs
15
11
132
Coil bolts
8
6
71
03-7
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
INDEX
Subject
Page
Cautions & Warnings....................................................................................................................................... 04- 2
General Information - Gasoline ......................................................................................................................
Description .................................................................................................................................................
Operation ...................................................................................................................................................
Fuel System Requirements ........................................................................................................................
Wiring Diagrams.........................................................................................................................................
04- 3
04- 3
04- 4
04- 4
04- 5
General Information - Dry Fuel .......................................................................................................................
Description .................................................................................................................................................
Operation ...................................................................................................................................................
Fuel System Requirements ........................................................................................................................
Wiring Diagrams.........................................................................................................................................
04- 7
04- 7
04- 7
04- 7
04- 9
Diagnosis and Testing - NG ............................................................................................................................ 04- 8
Diagnosis and Testing - LPG ........................................................................................................................
Symptom Chart ........................................................................................................................................
Preliminary Test .......................................................................................................................................
Diagnostic Charts .....................................................................................................................................
04- 10
04- 10
04- 11
04- 12
Diagnosis and Testing - GASOLINE.............................................................................................................
Visual Inspection ......................................................................................................................................
Symptom Chart ........................................................................................................................................
Fuel Pressure Check................................................................................................................................
04- 30
04- 30
04- 31
04- 30
General Service Procedures .........................................................................................................................
Fuel Pressure Relief.................................................................................................................................
Spring Lock Coupling - Type I - Disconnect .............................................................................................
Spring Lock Coupling - Type I - Connect .................................................................................................
Spring Lock Coupling - Type II - Disconnect ............................................................................................
Spring Lock Coupling - Type II - Connect ................................................................................................
Quick Connect Coupling - Type I - Disconnect ........................................................................................
Quick Connect Coupling - Type I - Connect.............................................................................................
Quick Connect Coupling - Type II - Disconnect .......................................................................................
Quick Connect Coupling - Type II - Connect............................................................................................
04- 31
04- 31
04- 31
04- 31
04- 32
04- 32
04- 33
04- 33
04- 33
04- 34
Removal and Installation...............................................................................................................................
Fuel Rail & Injectors - Replacement.........................................................................................................
Actuator - Removal...................................................................................................................................
Actuator - Installation................................................................................................................................
04- 35
04- 35
04- 36
04- 36
Specifications................................................................................................................................................. 04- 37
04-1
04
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
CAUTIONS & WARNINGS
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR CARRY LIGHTED TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME OF ANY TYPE WHEN
WORKING ON OR NEAR ANY FUEL-RELATED COMPONENT. HIGHLY FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE
ALWAYS PRESENT AND MAY BE IGNITED. FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN
PERSONAL INJURY.
WARNING: FUEL IN THE FUEL SYSTEM REMAINS UNDER HIGH PRESSURE EVEN WHEN THE ENGINE IS
NOT RUNNING. BEFORE REPAIRING OR DISCONNECTING ANY OF THE FUEL LINES OR FUEL SYSTEM
COMPONENTS, THE FUEL SYSTEM PRESSURE MUST BE RELIEVED TO PREVENT ACCIDENTAL
SPRAYING OF FUEL, CAUSING A FIRE HAZARD. FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY
RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
WARNING: DO NOT CARRY PERSONAL ELECTRONIC DEVICES SUCH AS CELL PHONES, PAGERS OR
AUDIO EQUIPMENT OF ANY TYPE WHEN WORKING ON OR NEAR ANY FUEL-RELATED COMPONENTS.
HIGHLY FLAMMABLE MIXTURES ARE ALWAYS PRESENT AND CAN BE IGNITED. FAILURE TO FOLLOW
THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
WARNING: THESE PROCEDURES INVOLVE FUEL HANDLING. BE PREPARED FOR FUEL SPILLAGE AT
ALL TIMES AND ALWAYS OBSERVE FUEL HANDLING PRECAUTIONS. FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE
INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
CAUTION: If the liquid or vapor tube is damaged (torn, holes or delaminated), a new tube assembly must be
installed. Do not use aftermarket sleeving. Do not re-adhere loose sleeving material.
CAUTION: Fuel injection equipment is manufactured to very precise tolerances and fine clearances. It is
therefore essential that absolute cleanliness is observed when working with these components. Always cap
off any open orifices or tubes.
CAUTION: When reusing liquid or vapor tube connectors, make sure to use compressed air to remove any
foreign material from the connector retaining clip area before separating from the tube. Apply clean engine
oil to the end of the tube before inserting the tube into the connector.
CAUTION: To ensure absolute cleanliness is observed when working with fuel system components, always
cap off any open orifices or tubes.
04-2
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION - GASOLINE
Engine Coolant
Temperature
(ECT) Sensor
Camshaft Position
(CMP) Sensor
GCP
Fuel Rail
Actuator
Injectors
Description
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor
The fuel system delivers fuel by an electronic fuel pump.
A fuel pressure regulator controls fuel pressure and also
contains a fuel filter. The Electronic Control Module
(GCP) uses information from various sensors and
controls fuel delivery to the cylinders by individual fuel
injectors mounted in the cylinder head near each intake
valve. Air delivery is controlled by an actuator.
The Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor is mounted in the
camshaft cover. This signal is sent to the GCP which
uses it to indicate the position of the #1 piston during its
power stroke. The GCP uses the CMP signal as a “sync
pulse” to trigger the injectors in the proper sequence.
This allows the GCP to calculate true sequential fuel
injection (SFI) mode of operation.
Fuel Rail
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
The fuel rail is mounted to the top of the engine and
distributes fuel to the individual injectors. Fuel is
delivered to the fuel inlet tube of the fuel rail by the fuel
lines and hoses.
The Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor is a
thermistor mounted in the engine coolant stream in the
rear coolant outlet pipe. The GCP uses this information
to calculate the correct air/fuel mixture which varies with
engine temperature.
Fuel Injector
The fuel injector is a solenoid operated device mounted
to the cylinder head. The GCP energizes the solenoid,
which opens a valve to allow fuel delivery into the
cylinder.
Actuator
The actuator controls air delivery into the cylinders. An
integral Throttle Position (TP) Sensor sends a signal to
the GCP indicating throttle position. The GCP
calculates fuel delivery based on throttle valve angle
(operator demand).
04-3
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Fuel Pressure
Sensor
To
Fuel
Injectors
Fuel Pump
Fuel Filter
Return to
Tank
From
Tank
Operation
Fuel System Requirements
The fuel delivery system starts with the fuel in the tank.
Fuel is drawn up to the fuel pump through a pre-filter.
The electric fuel pump then delivers the fuel to the fuel
rail and injectors. The GCP controls the fuel pump to
deliver fuel pressure required by the injectors. The GCP
monitors system pressure through a fuel pressure
sensor.
Fuel Tanks
The DOEM or OEM supplies the tanks. There must be
a fuel outlet and a fuel inlet. The gas cap must also be
vented.
Wet Fuels
Fuel is injected under pressure in a conical spray
pattern at the opening of the intake valve. There is a
return line to the tank with a small orifice to prevent
vapor lock in the pump
The following fuels must all be unleaded and clean:
•
Gasoline/petrol: This engine is designed to operate
on unleaded 87 or 89 octane gasoline.
An actuator controls air supply to the intake manifold.
Governor settings are not adjustable. They can only be
programmed by authorized personnel only. Contact
your local EDI Distributor listed in the back of this
manual for further information.
•
Gasohol/Ethanol: A mixture of gasoline and ethanol
(grain alcohol) containing up to 10% ethanol by
volume with properly formulated cosolvents and
other necessary additives. Blends index of 87 or 89.
•
Gasohol/Methanol: A mixture of gasoline and
alcohol (wood alcohol, etc.) containing up to 5%
methanol by volume with properly formulated
cosolvents and other necessary additives. Blends
index of 87 or 89.
CAUTION: Do not force the throttle plate open. This
may cause permanent damage to the actuator.
A pressure relief valve is located on the fuel rail. This is
used to read fuel pressure and also to relieve fuel
pressure prior to component replacement.
The GCP controls the amount of fuel/air delivery - refer
to Section 8 for further information on Electronic Engine
Control.
Fuel Pump
The fuel pump must be mounted on the frame rail, not
on the engine. It must also be mounted in packed foam.
CAUTION: The electric fuel pump MUST NOT be
mounted directly on the engine assembly, as engine vibration will shorten the life of the pump.
04-4
F5
15A
6
16 RD
Relayed Power
16 RD
04-5
16 RD
67
Injector
#4 LS
Injector
#1 LS
16 WH
Injector
#2
64
16 TN
Injector
#1
16 RD
Injector
#2 LS
65
16 BN/YE
Injector
#3
16 RD
Injector
#3 LS
66
GCP
16 BN/LB
Injector
#4
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Wiring Diagrams
Revision Level
The following wiring schematics are taken from the wiring diagram labeled below:
Fuel Injectors
04-6
48
TPS 2
TPS 1
18 YE/WH
5
47
18 GY/WH
6
LB/DG
DBW +
80
18
4
3
DBW -
82
18 GY/OR 18 BN/WH
1
18 BN/WH
18 GY/RD
18 GY/RD
18 GY/RD
2
5V
REF
2
ANA
RTN
1
Bosch
Throttle
(Actuator)
PC TX
55
18 DG
3
PC
TX
PC RX
56
18 OG
4
PC
RX
Data link
Connector
(DLC)
8
CAN-
CAN1+
CAN1-
18 DG/VT
14
15
Twist
10 turns
per foot
(min.)
18 OG/LG
(min.)
Twist
10 turns
per foot
18 DG/VT
18 OG/LG
7
CAN+
GCP
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Actuator / Data Link Connector (DLC)
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION - DRY FUEL
Liquid
Propane
Line
Vapor
Carburetor
GCP
Vapor
Propane
Line
Engine
Description
This engine with the proper fuel equipment, can also
operate on dry fuel such as LPG Grade HD5 and natural
gas (1050 BTU/ft3). Natural Gas fuel specification must
meet or exceed 38.7 MJ/m3 (UK) 39.0 MJ/m3 (USA).
the throat and hence on the top of the diaphragm. When
the pressure on the top of the diaphragm is low enough,
the diaphragm overcomes the spring force holding it
down and lifts and allows fuel to be drawn from the fuel
port into the air flow into the engine.
Vaporized propane is introduced into the engine with a
Vapor Carburetor. Pressure is regulated by an
Electronic Pressure Regulator (EPR) which is controlled
by the GCP. Coolant is circulated through the EPR.
Operation
The dry fuel vapor carburetor is a device by which fuel
can be added to passing air flow. The amount of fuel
added is related to the amount of air passing through
the carburetor.
The greater the airflow into the engine, the greater the
pressure drop across the diaphragm and the more lift
occurs on the fuel valve. This allows more fuel to be
The variable venturi carburetor controls fuel flow based
on a differential pressure across the diaphragm. The
more air the engine demands, the lower the pressure in
04-7
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
carburetor so that the actual “Delta P” matches the
Delta P command from the GCP.
drawn into the engine.
This provides an extremely accurate open loop type of
fuel control. There is also a dry fuel temperature sensor
for increased pressure command accuracy.
After a preset time has passed, the engine will go into
closed loop control, using information from the pre and
post oxygen sensors to allow further adjustement to
meet emissions regulations.
While the carburetor is designed to mix the fuel and air
and adjust fuel to match the speed and load of the
engine, it has only “ballpark” accuracy. This accuracy is
not fine enough to achieve emissions targets. To
achieve accurate fueling, the air inlet pressure to the
carburetor is controlled by an Electronic Pressure
Regulator (EPR).
The EPR serves two functions; to vaporize the liquid
propane and to control the vapor pressure to the mixer.
EPR
As the propane vaporizes, the EPR monitors and
controls the vapor pressure to the mixer in reference to
the inlet air pressure to the carburetor.
The EPR receives a pressure command from the GCP
called “Delta P” which is the difference between fuel
vapor pressure and the air inlet pressure. This has been
calibrated for all speeds and loads. There is a sensor
internal to the EPR that measures the actual “Delta P”
of the delivered fuel.
The actuator of the EPR will then drive the diaphragm of
the vaporizer to adjust the fuel pressure to the
04-8
Grounding
Ring
12 BK/WH
1
CAN-
7
Power
04-9
CAN1+
CAN1-
18 DG/VT
14
15
(min.)
Twist
10 turns
per foot
18 OG/LG
Twist
10 turns
per foot
(min.)
GCP
EPR
16 RD/LB
18 DG/VT
18 OG/LG
7
CAN+
6
Ground
18 BK/WH
F1
10A
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Wiring Diagrams
Revision Level
The following wiring schematics are taken from the wiring diagram labeled below:
Engine Controls - Dry Fuel EPR
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - LPG
Symptom Chart
Symptom
Go to
Engine Cranking But Will Not Start
Page 12
Engine Starts But Has Rough Idle
Page 14
Engine Idles with Rough Acceleration at Load
Page 16
Engine Is Unable To Reach Full Power
Page 18
Overall Power Loss
Page 12
Engine Misses
Page 20
Backfire
Page 22
Emissions Failure (Rich Mixture)
Page 24
Emissions Failure (Lean Mixture)
Page 25
Engine Overheats
Page 27
Engine Stops Running (Dies)
Page 28
04-10
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Preliminary Test
This Pinpoint Test checklist is your guide to the most probable causes of an engine performance complaint when
the malfunction is due to the fuel system.
Test Step
1
Result
Inspect installation.
•
Check fuel hose for kings.
•
Check fuel hose lengths, orientation and presence of
parts.
Action to Take
Yes
Go to Step 2..
No
Repair as necessary.
Yes
Repair the leak.
No
Go to Step 3.
Yes
Repair or Replace as Necessary.
No
Go to Step 4.
Yes
Repair the Leak.
No
Go to Step 5.
Yes
Remove the obstruction, re-install the
aircleaner and attempt to start.
Is everything OK?
2
Inspect Fuel System for Supply Leaks.
•
Key OFF.
•
Check for leaks or damaged supply lines from the fuel
tank to the fuel lockoff.
Are there any leaks present?
3
Inspect the Fuel System for any loose wires or
hoses.
•
Key OFF.
•
Check the Fuel Lockoff connection and FCV valve
connection.
•
Check the vacuum hoses to the FCV valve and
carburetor for any damage or leakage.
Is there any damaged or loose wires or vacuum hoses?
4
Check for fuel system leaks?
•
Key ON.
•
Check the fuel system for leaks.
•
Key OFF.
Are there any leaks present?
5
•
Check Carburetor air inlet for obstructions.
Remove the air cleaner.
Are there any obstructions in the air inlet of the
carburetor?
No
04-11
Proceed to appropriate
Troubleshooting Section.
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Diagnostic Charts
Perform the preliminary test before proceeding.
Engine Cranking But Will Not Start
Test Step
1
Check fuel tank.
Is fuel tank empty?
2
Check fuel valve.
Is liquid fuel valve closed ?
3
Check the excess flow valve.
Result
Action to Take
Yes
Fill or replace the fuel tank.
(Do not exceed 80% of liquid capacity)
No
Go to Step 2.
Yes
Slowly Open the Fuel Valve.
No
Go to Step 3.
Yes
Reset excess flow safety valve
Is excess flow valve tripped and closed?
4
Check fuelock supply voltage.
•
Key OFF.
•
Disconnect Fuelock connector from harness.
•
Key ON.
•
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt supply
at the harness connector.
•
Close the main fuel valve.
•
Wait for a clicking sound from the
excess flow valve indicating the
valve has reset.
•
Slowly open the main fuel valve.
No
Perform Preliminary Test before
proceeding to Step 4.
Yes
12 volt fuelock activation circuit is
open, shorted to ground or the GCP
module is faulty. Check wiring,
connectors and fuses for possible
cause.
No
Go to Step 5.
Yes
Fuel filter element may be clogged,
inspect and/or replace the fuel filter as
described in section 475F-1. Repeat
test steps 4-5, if pressure is still less
than specified the fuelock is faulty.
Replace the fuel lock.
No
Go to Step 6.
Yes
The presence of ice on the converter
without the engine cranking, indicates
the possibility of a fuel leak past the
primary seat of the converter. See
section 475R-1 for service of the
converter.
No
Go to Step 6.
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
5
Check primary fuel pressure to regulator.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 test kit, install the primary
pressure gauge as described in section 475G-1.
•
Key ON.
Is the pressure less than "X" psi?
5
Check for icing or freezing of the Regulator.
•
Key ON.
•
Check for ice or frost build up on the converter casing and
outlet port.
•
Key OFF.
Is ice present?
04-12
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Engine Cranking But Will Not Start (Continued)
Test Step
7
•
Check FCV vacuum fitting bypass port.
Result
Action to Take
Yes
Clean out bypass with a .050 size pin
or drill bit and retest.
CAUTION: Do not enlarge the bypass port
No
Go to Step 8.
Yes
Try and free the primer button. If you
cannot reseat the primer then see
section 475R-1 for servicing the
converter.
No
Go to Step 9.
Yes
The Regulator is malfunctioning. See
section 475R-1 for service of the
converter.
No
Go to Step 7.
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
Go to Step 8.
Yes
Replace the carburetor and retest.
The bypass port is located on the back of the 90 degree
elbow which connects the vacuum line from the converter
to the FCV valve.
Is this bypass closed with dirt or debris?
8
Check for stuck primer button.
•
Key Off.
•
Press the primer button on the converter once to assure
the primer is not sticking open. A small amount of fuel that
is trapped between the fuel lock and the converter should
pass through to the carburetor.
Is the primer button stuck in the depressed position?
6
Check regulator operation.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 test kit, install the secondary
pressure gauge as described in section G-1. (note: the
secondary spring color and pressure range)
•
Crank the engine
Is the pressure less than "X" psi?
7
•
Check carburetor air valve for binding.
With the air cleaner removed, pull the air valve piston
upwards to ensure free movement of the carburetor air
valve.
Is the air valve binding?
8
Check air valve operation.
•
Using the WTK-1 test kit, connect the vacuum gauge
between the carburetor and the FCV valve to measure the
carburetor air valve vacuum (AVV).
•
Crank the engine and observe the amount of measured
vacuum.
No
Refer to Diagnostic Aids below.
Is the measured vacuum outside the specifications?
Diagnostic Aids
Fuel Lock Solenoid :The fuel lock is an electronic solenoid that is opened to allow fuel flow when the key is turned
ON. High temperatures may cause the solenoid to become intermittent, not opening to supply sufficient fuel
pressure.
Fuel Filter:There is a filter element located in the inlet of the fuel lock which may become clogged and limit fuel flow,
especially at low tank pressures. Check the filter and replace or clean as necessary.
Fuel Line Restrictions:The vehicle specifications table specifies the fuel line to be a certain size. If the fuel line from
the tank to the fuel lock is not the proper size, or any valves or fittings with flow restrictive characteristics are used,
the fuel flow will not be sufficient to the converter with low tank pressure. Correct any fuel line or fitting restrictions.
Mixer Assembly (Carburetor):It is possible that a backfire may have caused the fuel valve to partially come off of it's
retainer and restrict fuel, check the mixer fuel valves, see section 475-1 for disassembly.
Regulator Assembly (Converter): If no other problems have been identified, replace the fuel management assembly
with a known good part of the same pressure range. Retest.
04-13
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Engine Cranks but Will Not Start” chart
Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor, GCP or solenoid valve
problems before proceeding.
Engine Starts But Has Rough Idle
Test Step
1
Check for icing or freezing of the Regulator.
•
With the Engine at Idle.
•
Check for ice or frost build up on the converter casing and
outlet port.
Is ice present?
2
Check for stuck primer button.
•
Key Off.
•
Press the primer button on the converter once to ensure
the primer is not sticking open. A small amount of fuel that
is trapped between the fuel lock and the converter should
pass through to the carburetor.
Result
Action to Take
Yes
The presence of ice on the converter,
with the engine running, indicates the
possibility of a coolant supply problem.
Check Coolant level and the coolant
system for leaks. Check for proper
coolant type
No
Go to Step 2.
Yes
Try and free the primer button. If you
cannot reseat the primer then see
section 475R-1 for servicing the
converter.
No
Go to Step 3.
Yes
This would indicate the engine is too
lean at idle. Possible causes:
Is the primer button stuck in the depressed position?
3
Check FCV for operation.
•
With the Engine at Idle.
•
Disconnect the vacuum hose from the FCV valve to the
regulator.
Does the idle run smooth with the hose disconnected?
•
Plugged bypass port, go to Step 4.
•
Faulty FCV valve connection, go to
Step 5.
•
GCP fault
.
4
•
Check FCV vacuum fitting bypass port.
No
Go to Step 6.
Yes
Clean out bypass with a .050 size pin
or drill bit and retest.
CAUTION: Do not enlarge the bypass port!
No
Go to Step 5.
Yes
12 volt FCV circuit is open, shorted to
ground or the GCP module is faulty.
Check wiring, connectors and fuses
for possible cause.
No
Go to Step 6.
The bypass port is located on the back of the 90 degree
elbow which connects the vacuum line from the converter
to the FCV valve
Is this bypass partially closed with dirt or debris?
5
Check FCV supply voltage.
•
Key OFF.
•
Disconnect FCV connector from harness.
•
With the engine at idle.
•
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt supply
at the harness connector.
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
04-14
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Engine Starts But Has Rough Idle (Continued)
Test Step
2
Check regulator operation.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 test kit, install the primary and
secondary pressure gauge as described in section 475G1. (note: the secondary spring color and pressure range)
•
With the engine at idle.
Are the pressures less than "X" psi?
3
•
Check carburetor air valve for binding.
Result
Action to Take
Yes
The Regulator is malfunctioning. See
section 475R-1 for service of the
converter.
No
Go to Step 3.
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
Go to Step 4.
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
The Idle mixture may be mis-adjusted.
Refer to Diagnostic Aids Below.
With the air cleaner removed, pull the air valve piston
upwards to ensure free movement of the carburetor air
valve.
Is the air valve binding?
4
Check air valve operation.
•
Using the WTK-1 test kit, connect the vacuum gauge
between the carburetor and the FCV valve to measure the
carburetor air valve vacuum (AVV).
•
With the engine at idle observe the amount of measured
vacuum.
Is the measured vacuum outside the specifications?
Diagnostic Aids
Fuel Lock Solenoid :The fuel lock is an electronic solenoid that is opened to allow fuel flow when the key is turned
ON. High temperatures may cause the solenoid to become intermittent, not opening to supply sufficient fuel
pressure.
Fuel Filter:There is a filter element located in the inlet of the fuel lock which may become clogged and limit fuel flow,
especially at low tank pressures. Check the filter and replace as necessary.
Fuel Line Restrictions:The vehicle specifications table specifies the fuel line to be a certain size. If the fuel line from
the tank to the fuel lock is not the proper size, or any valves or fittings with flow restrictive characteristics are used,
the fuel flow will not be sufficient to the converter with low tank pressure. Correct any fuel line or fitting restrictions.
Mixer Assembly (Carburetor):It is possible that a backfire may have caused the fuel valve to partially come off of it's
retainer and restrict fuel, check the mixer fuel valves, see section 475-1 for disassembly.
Idle Mixture Adjustment:The idle mixture adjustment is pre-set at the factory with a tamper proof seal installed.
Regulator Assembly: If no other problems have been identified, replace the fuel management assembly with a
known good part of the same pressure range. Retest.
04-15
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Engine Cranks but Will Not Start”
chart Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor, GCP or solenoid
valve problems before proceeding
Engine Idles With Rough Acceleration At Load
Test Step
1
•
Check carburetor air valve for binding.
Result
Action to Take
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
Go to Step 2.
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
Go to Step 3.
Yes
The fuel filter may be restricting flow or
the fuel lock may be intermittent. Go
to Step 4.
No
Go to Step 5.
Yes
12 volt fuelock activation circuit is
open, shorted to ground or the GCP
module is faulty. Check wiring,
connectors and fuses for possible
cause.
No
Fuel filter element may be clogged,
inspect and/or replace the fuel filter as
described in section 475F-1. Repeat
test Step 3, if pressure is still less than
specified replace the fuel lock and retest before moving to Step 5.
Yes
Remove the vacuum hose from the
FCV valve to the regulator. If the
pressure is not -1.5 inches of w.c.,
the Regulator is malfunctioning. See
section 475R-1 for service of the
regulator.
No
Go to ???????.
With the air cleaner removed, pull the air valve piston
upwards to ensure free movement of the carburetor air
valve.
Is the air valve binding?
2
•
Check air valve operation.
Using the WTK-1 test kit, connect the vacuum gauge
between the carburetor and the FCV valve to measure the
carburetor air valve vacuum (AVV).
•
With the engine accelerating observe the amount of
measured vacuum.
Is the measured vacuum non-linear and outside the
specifications?
3
Check regulator fuel supply.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 test kit, install the primary
pressure gauge as described in section 475G-1.
•
Accelerate to induce symptom.
Is the primary pressure less than "X" psi or fluctuating?
4
Check fuelock supply voltage.
•
Key OFF.
•
Disconnect Fuelock connector from harness.
•
Key ON.
•
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt supply
at the harness connector
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
5
Check regulator operation.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 test kit, install the primary and
secondary pressure gauge as described in section 475G1. (note: the secondary spring color and pressure range)
•
Accelerate to induce symptom.
Are the pressures less than "X" specified?
04-16
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Engine Idles With Rough Acceleration At Load (Continued)
Test Step
6
Result
Yes
Check FCV operation.
•
Accelerate engine to induce symptom.
•
Disconnect the vacuum hose from the FCV valve to the
regulator.
Does the engine accelerate smooth with the hose
disconnected?
7
•
Check FCV vacuum fitting bypass port.
Action to Take
This would indicate the engine is too
lean. Possible causes:
•
Plugged bypass port, go to Step 7.
•
Faulty FCV valve connection, go to
Step 8.
•
GCP fault.
No
Go to Step 9.
Yes
Clean out bypass with a .050 size pin
or drill bit and retest.
CAUTION: Do not enlarge the bypass port.
No
Go to Step 8.
Yes
12 volt FCV circuit is open, shorted to
ground or the GCP module is faulty.
Check wiring, connectors and fuses
for possible cause
No
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor. Also refer to the Diagnostic
Aids below.
The bypass port is located on the back of the 90 degree
elbow which connects the vacuum line from the converter
to the FCV valve.
Is this bypass partially closed with dirt or debris?
8
Check FCV supply voltage.
•
Key OFF.
•
Disconnect FCV connector from harness.
•
With engine at idle and upon acceleration.
•
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt supply
at the harness connector.
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
Diagnostic Aids
Fuel Line Restrictions:The vehicle specifications table specifies the fuel line to be a certain size. If the fuel line from
the tank to the fuel lock is not the proper size, or any valves or fittings with flow restrictive characteristics are used,
the fuel flow will not be sufficient to the converter with low tank pressure. Correct any fuel line or fitting restrictions.
Mixer Assembly (Carburetor):It is possible that a backfire may have caused the fuel valve to partially come off of it's
retainer and restrict fuel, check the mixer fuel valves, see section 475-1 for disassembly. If no other problems have
been identified and the mixer has been serviced, replace the fuel management assembly with a known good part of
the same pressure range. Retest.
04-17
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Engine Cranks but Will Not Start”
chart Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor, GCP or solenoid
valve problems before proceeding
Engine Is Unable To Reach Full Power
Test Step
1
•
Check carburetor air valve for binding.
Result
Action to Take
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
With the air cleaner removed, pull the air valve piston
upwards to ensure free movement of the carburetor air
valve.
Is the air valve binding?
2
•
No
Check air valve operation.
Using the WTK-1 test kit, connect the vacuum gauge
between the carburetor and the FCV valve to measure the
carburetor air valve vacuum (AVV).
•
Go to Step 2.
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
Go to Step 3.
Yes
The fuel filter may be restricting flow or
the fuel lock may be intermittent. Go
to Step 3.
No
Go to Step 4.
Yes
12 volt fuelock activation circuit is
open, shorted to ground or the GCP
module is faulty. Check wiring,
connectors and fuses for possible
cause.
No
Fuel filter element may be clogged,
inspect and/or replace the fuel filter as
described in section 475F-1. Repeat
test Step 2, if pressure is still less than
specified replace the fuel lock and retest before moving to Step 4.
Yes
Remove the vacuum hose from the
FCV valve to the regulator. If the
pressure is not -1.5 inches of w.c.,
the Regulator is malfunctioning. See
section 475R-1 for service of the
regulator.
No
Go to ????????.
With the engine accelerating observe the amount of
measured vacuum.
Is the measured vacuum non-linear and outside the
specifications?
2
Check regulator fuel supply.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 test kit, install the primary
pressure gauge as described in section 475G-1.
•
Accelerate to induce symptom.
Is the primary pressure less than "X" psi or fluctuating?
3
Check fuelock supply voltage.
•
Key OFF.
•
Disconnect Fuelock connector from harness.
•
Key ON.
•
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt supply
at the harness connector
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
4
Check regulator operation.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 test kit, install the primary and
secondary pressure gauge as described in section 475G1. (note: the secondary spring color and pressure range)
•
Accelerate to induce symptom.
Are the pressures less than "X" specified?
04-18
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Engine Is Unable To Reach Full Power (Continued)
Test Step
6
Result
Yes
Check FCV operation.
•
Accelerate engine to induce symptom.
•
Disconnect the vacuum hose from the FCV valve to the
regulator.
Does the engine accelerate to full power with the hose
disconnected?
7
•
Check FCV vacuum fitting bypass port.
Action to Take
This would indicate the engine is too
lean. Possible causes:
•
Plugged bypass port, go to Step 7.
•
Faulty FCV valve connection or
vacuum leaks, go to Step 8.
•
GCP fault.
No
Go to Step 9.
Yes
Clean out bypass with a .050 size pin
or drill bit and retest.
CAUTION: Do not enlarge the bypass port.
No
Go to Step 8.
Yes
12 volt FCV circuit is open, shorted to
ground or the GCP module is faulty.
Check wiring, connectors and fuses
for possible cause
No
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor. Also refer to the Diagnostic
Aids below.
Yes
This would indicate the engine is too
lean. Possible causes:
The bypass port is located on the back of the 90 degree
elbow which connects the vacuum line from the converter
to the FCV valve.
Is this bypass partially closed with dirt or debris?
8
Check FCV supply voltage.
•
Key OFF.
•
Disconnect FCV connector from harness.
•
With engine at idle and upon acceleration.
•
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt supply
at the harness connector.
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
9
Check FCV operation.
•
Accelerate Engine to induce symptom.
•
Disconnect the vacuum hose from the FCV valve to the
regulator.
Does the engine accelerate to full power with the hose
disconnected?
No
•
Plugged bypass port, go to Step 7.
•
Faulty FCV valve connection or
vacuum leaks, go to Step 8.
•
GCP fault.
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor. Also refer to the Diagnostic
Aids below.
Diagnostic Aids
Fuel Line Restrictions:The vehicle specifications table specifies the fuel line to be a certain size. If the fuel line from
the tank to the fuel lock is not the proper size, or any valves or fittings with flow restrictive characteristics are used,
the fuel flow will not be sufficient to the converter with low tank pressure. Correct any fuel line or fitting restrictions.
Mixer Assembly (Carburetor):It is possible that a backfire may have caused the fuel valve to partially come off of it's
retainer and restrict fuel, check the mixer fuel valves, see section 475-1 for disassembly. If no other problems have
been identified and the mixer has been serviced, replace the fuel management assembly with a known good part of
the same pressure range. Retest
.
Overall Power Loss
After performing the Preliminary Test, refer to “Unable to reach Full Power” Chart.
04-19
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Engine Cranks but Will Not Start”
chart Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor, GCP or solenoid
valve problems before proceeding.
Engine Misses
Test Step
1
Check regulator fuel supply.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 test kit, install the primary
pressure gauge as described in section 475G-1.
•
With the Engine at Idle or on acceleration, to induce
symptom
Result
Action to Take
Yes
The fuel filter may be restricting flow or
the fuel lock may be intermittent. Go
to Step 2.
No
Go to Step 3.
Yes
12 volt fuelock activation circuit is
open, shorted to ground or the GCP
module is faulty. Check wiring,
connectors and fuses for possible
cause.
No
Fuel filter element may be clogged,
inspect and/or replace the fuel filter as
described in section 475F-1. Repeat
test step 1, if pressure is still less than
specified replace the fuel lock and retest before moving to Step 3.
Yes
Remove the vacuum hose from the
FCV valve to the regulator. If the
pressure is not -1.5 inches of w.c.,
the Regulator is malfunctioning. See
Section 475R-1 for service of the
regulator.
No
Go to Step 4.
Yes
This would indicate the engine is
experiencing a momentary mixture
change. Possible causes:
Is the primary pressure less than "X" psi or fluctuating?
2
Check fuelock supply voltage.
•
Key OFF.
•
Disconnect Fuelock connector from harness.
•
Key ON.
•
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt supply
at the harness connector.
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
3
Check regulator operation.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 test kit, install the primary and
secondary pressure gauge as described in section 475G1. (note: the secondary spring color and pressure range)
•
At Idle or accelerate to induce symptom.
Are the pressures less than "X" specified?
4
Check FCV operation.
•
At Idle or accelerate Engine to induce symptom.
•
Disconnect the vacuum hose from the FCV valve to the
regulator
Does the engine continue to miss with the hose
disconnected?
5
Check FCV supply voltage.
•
Key OFF.
•
Disconnect FCV connector from harness.
•
With engine at idle and upon acceleration.
•
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt supply
at the harness connector.
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
04-20
•
Faulty FCV valve connection or
vacuum leaks, go to Step 5.
•
GCP fault.
No
Go to Step 6.
Yes
12 volt FCV circuit is open, shorted to
ground or the GCP module is faulty.
Check wiring, connectors and fuses
for possible cause..
No
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor. Also refer to the Diagnostic
Aids below.
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Engine Misses (Continued)
Test Step
4
•
Check carburetor air valve for binding.
With the air cleaner removed, pull the air valve piston
upwards to ensure free movement of the carburetor air
valve.
Is the air valve binding?
5
•
•
Result
Action to Take
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
Go to Step 5.
Check air valve operation.
Using the WTK-1 test kit, connect the vacuum gauge
between the carburetor and the FCV valve to measure the
carburetor air valve vacuum (AVV).
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
Refer to Diagnostic Aids Below.
With the engine at idle and accelerating observe the
amount of measured vacuum.
Is the measured vacuum outside the specifications?
Diagnostic Aids
Fuel Lock Solenoid :The fuel lock is an electronic solenoid that is opened to allow fuel flow when the key is turned
ON. High temperatures may cause the solenoid to become intermittent, not opening to supply sufficient fuel
pressure.
Fuel Filter:There may be a strainer element located in the inlet of the fuel lock which may become clogged and limit
fuel flow, especially at low tank pressures. Check the filter and replace as necessary.
Fuel Line Restrictions:The vehicle specifications table specifies the fuel line to be a certain size. If the fuel line from
the tank to the fuel lock is not the proper size, or any valves or fittings with flow restrictive characteristics are used,
the fuel flow will not be sufficient to the converter with low tank pressure. Correct any fuel line or fitting restrictions.
Mixer Assembly (Carburetor):It is possible that a backfire may have caused the fuel valve to partially come off of it's
retainer and restrict fuel, check the mixer fuel valves, see section 475-1 for disassembly. Also check the mixer
adapter plates for leakage past the carburetor.
Regulator Assembly: If no other problems have been identified, replace the fuel management assembly with a
known good part of the same pressure range. Retest.
04-21
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Engine Cranks but Will Not Start”
chart Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor, GCP or solenoid
valve problems before proceeding.
Engine Backfires
1
Test Step
Result
Action to Take
During Start-up, check for fuel lock leakage (not
closing).
Yes
This would indicate the fuel lock is not
closing and allowing fuel to pass in the
OFF position. Replace the Fuel Lock.
No
Go to Step 2.
Yes
Fuel filter element may be clogged,
inspect and/or replace the fuel filter as
described in section 475F-1. Repeat
test, if pressure is still less than
specified the fuelock is faulty.
Replace the fuel lock.
No
Go to Step 3.
Yes
Remove the vacuum hose from the
FCV valve to the regulator. If the
pressure is not -1.5 inches of w.c.,
the Regulator is malfunctioning. See
section 475R-1 for service of the
regulator.
•
Close the tanks main fuel valve.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 test kit, install the primary
pressure gauge as described in section 475G-1.
•
Key OFF.
•
Slowly open the main fuel valve
Do you measure any fuel pressure?
2
With engine running, check primary fuel pressure to
regulator.
•
With the primary pressure gauge installed as described in
section 475G-1, measure the supply pressure.
•
Key ON, Engine Running.
Is the pressure less than "X" psi?
3
With engine running, check regulator operation.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 test kit, install the primary and
secondary pressure gauge as described in section 475G1. (note: the secondary spring color and pressure range)
•
With the engine at idle or accelerate to induce symptom.
Are the pressures less than "X" specified?
No
Go to Step 4.
4
Yes
Check FCV operation.
•
At idle or accelerate Engine to induce symptom.
•
Disconnect the vacuum hose from the FCV valve to the
regulator
Is the backfire present with the hose disconnected?
5
Check FCV Supply Voltage.
•
Key OFF.
•
Disconnect FCV connector from harness.
•
With engine at idle.
•
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt supply
at the harness connector.
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
04-22
This would indicate the engine is
experiencing a momentary mixture
change. Possible causes:
•
Faulty FCV valve connection or
vacuum leaks, go to Step 5.
•
GCP fault.
No
Go to Step 6.
Yes
12 volt FCV circuit is open, shorted to
ground or the GCP module is faulty.
Check wiring, connectors and fuses
for possible cause.
No
Go to Step 6.
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Engine Backfires (Continued)
Test Step
4
Check carburetor air valve for binding.
•
Key ON, Engine Running.
•
With the air cleaner removed, pull the air valve piston
upwards to ensure free movement of the carburetor air
valve.
Result
Action to Take
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
Go to ?????????.
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
Refer to Diagnostic Aids Below.
Is the air valve binding?
7
•
•
Check air valve operation.
Using the WTK-1 test kit, connect the vacuum gauge
between the carburetor and the FCV valve to measure the
carburetor air valve vacuum (AVV).
With the engine at idle and accelerating observe the
amount of measured vacuum.
Is the measured vacuum outside the specifications?
Diagnostic Aids
Fuel Lock Solenoid :The fuel lock is an electronic solenoid that is opened to allow fuel flow when the key is turned
ON. High temperatures may cause the solenoid to become intermittent, not opening to supply sufficient fuel
pressure.
Fuel Filter:There is a filter element located in the inlet of the fuel lock which may become clogged and limit fuel flow,
especially at low tank pressures. Check the filter and replace as necessary.
Fuel Line Restrictions:The vehicle specifications table specifies the fuel line to be a certain size. If the fuel line from
the tank to the fuel lock is not the proper size, or any valves or fittings with flow restrictive characteristics are used,
the fuel flow will not be sufficient to the converter with low tank pressure. Correct any fuel line or fitting restrictions.
Mixer Assembly (Carburetor):It is possible that a backfire may have caused the fuel valve to partially come off of it's
retainer and restrict fuel, check the mixer fuel valves, see section 475-1 for disassembly. Also check the mixer
adapter plates for leakage past the carburetor.
Regulator Assembly: If no other problems have been identified, replace the fuel management assembly with a
known good part of the same pressure range. Retest..
04-23
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Engine Cranks but Will Not Start”
chart Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor, GCP or solenoid
valve problems before proceeding.
Emission Failure - Rich Mixture
Test Step
1
Result
Check for clogged or restricted air filter.
•
Remove the air filter.
•
Start the engine and re-check emission levels.
Has the (rich) emission failure been eliminated?
2
•
Check carburetor air valve for binding.
With the air cleaner removed, pull the air valve piston
upwards to ensure free movement of the carburetor air
valve.
Action to Take
Yes
This would indicate a clogged air
cleaner as the cause. Replace as
necessary.
No
Go to Step 2.
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
Go to Step 3.
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
Is the air valve binding?
3
Check air valve operation.
•
Using the WTK-1 test kit, connect the vacuum gauge
between the carburetor and the FCV valve to measure the
carburetor air valve vacuum (AVV).
•
With the engine at idle and accelerating observe the
amount of measured vacuum.
No
Go to Step 4.
Is the measured vacuum outside the specifications?
4
Check regulator operation.
•
Using a secondary pressure gauge described in section
475G-1. (note: the secondary spring color and pressure
range)
•
Start the engine.
Is the pressure constant and at -1.5 inches of w.c. as
specified?
Yes
The Regulator is functioning properly
and the problem is with the FCV valve
or vacuum hoses. Inspect the vacuum
hoses and fittings, replace as
necessary. Replace the FCV valve
and retest.
No
The Regulator is malfunctioning. See
section 475R-1 for service of the
regulator.
Diagnostic Aids
Regulator Assembly (Converter & FCV): If no other problems have been identified, replace the fuel management
assembly with a known good part of the same pressure range. Retest.
04-24
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Engine Cranks but Will Not Start”
chart Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor, GCP or solenoid
valve problems before proceeding.
Emission Failure - Lean Mixture
Test Step
1
Check regulator fuel supply.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 test kit, install the primary
pressure gauge as described in section 475G-1.
•
Start the engine to induce the failure.
Is the primary pressure less than "X" psi or fluctuating?
2
Check fuelock supply voltage.
•
Key OFF.
•
Disconnect Fuelock connector from harness.
•
Key ON.
•
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt supply
at the harness connector.
Result
Action to Take
Yes
The fuel filter may be restricting flow or
the fuel lock may be intermittent. Go
to Step 2.
No
Go to Step 3.
Yes
12 volt fuelock activation circuit is
open, shorted to ground or the GCP
module is faulty. Check wiring,
connectors and fuses for possible
cause.
No
Fuel filter element may be clogged,
inspect and/or replace the fuel filter as
described in section 475F-1. Repeat
test step Step 1, if pressure is still less
than specified replace the fuel lock
and re-test before moving to Step 3.
Yes
The Regulator is functioning properly
and the problem is with the FCV valve,
vacuum hoses or carburetor. Go to
Step 4.
No
The Regulator is malfunctioning. See
section 475R-1 for service of the
regulator. Repair or replace as
necessary.
Yes
Clean out bypass with a .050 size pin
or drill bit and retest.
CAUTION: Do not enlarge the bypass port.
No
Go to Step 5.
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
Go to Step 5.
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
3
Check regulator operation.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 secondary pressure gauge as
described in section 475G-1. (note: the secondary spring
color and pressure range)
•
Remove the vacuum hose from the FCV valve to the
regulator.
•
Start the engine.
Is the pressure constant and at -1.5 inches of w.c. as
specified?
4
•
Check FCV vacuum fitting bypass port.
The bypass port is located on the back of the 90 degree
elbow which connects the vacuum line from the converter
to the FCV valve.
Is this bypass partially closed with dirt or debris?
4
•
Check carburetor air valve for binding.
With the air cleaner removed, pull the air valve piston
upwards to ensure free movement of the carburetor air
valve.
Is the air valve binding?
04-25
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Emission Failure - Lean Mixture (Continued)
Test Step
5
•
•
Check air valve operation.
Using the WTK-1 test kit, connect the vacuum gauge
between the carburetor and the FCV valve to measure the
carburetor air valve vacuum (AVV).
With the engine at idle and accelerating observe the
amount of measured vacuum.
Is the measured vacuum non-linear and outside the
specifications?
Result
Action to Take
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
Check the adapter plates between the
mixer and the manifold for leaks. If
none can be found, service the
carburetor (see section 475-1) and
retest. If the failure is still present
replace the FCV valve.
Diagnostic Aids
Regulator Assembly (Converter & FCV): Check the regulator primer button for slight sticking or a small leak around
the seat. This may be enriching the mixture enough for a failure. If a leak is found, see section 475R-1 for servicing
the regulator. If no other problems have been identified, replace the fuel management assembly with a known good
part of the same pressure range. Retest.
04-26
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the preliminary tests and “Engine Cranks but Will Not Start”
chart Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should have been performed to eliminate any sensor, GCP or solenoid
valve problems before proceeding.
Engine Overheats
Test Step
1
Check for icing or freezing of the Regulator.
•
With the Engine at Idle.
•
Check for ice or frost build up on the converter casing and
outlet port.
Result
Action to Take
Yes
The presence of ice on the converter,
with the engine running, indicates the
possibility of a coolant supply problem.
Check Coolant level and the coolant
system for leaks. Check for proper
coolant type.
No
Go to Step 2.
Yes
The Regulator is functioning properly
and the problem may be with the FCV
valve, vacuum hoses or carburetor.
Go to J3.
No
The Regulator is malfunctioning. See
section 475R-1 for service of the
regulator. Repair or replace as
necessary.
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
Is ice present?
2
Check regulator operation.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 secondary pressure gauge as
described in section 475G-1. (note: the secondary spring
color and pressure range)
•
Start the engine.
Is the pressure constant and at -1.5 inches of w.c. as
specified?
3
Check air valve operation.
•
Using the WTK-1 test kit, connect the vacuum gauge
between the carburetor and the FCV valve to measure the
carburetor air valve vacuum (AVV).
•
With the engine at idle and accelerating observe the
amount of measured vacuum.
Is the measured vacuum non-linear and outside the
specifications?
No
Service the carburetor (see section
475-1) and retest. Refer to the
Diagnostic Aids below.
Diagnostic Aids
Regulator Assembly (Converter & FCV): Overheating is typically related to a cooling or coolant problem. There is
a possibility of a gasket leak inside the regulator, which would allow coolant to pass through to the fuel supply. This
may effect the emissions if large enough. In this situation the coolant level should consistently drop, as coolant is
lost through the fuel path. Refer to section 457R-1 for servicing the regulator. If no other problems have been
identified, replace the fuel management assembly with a known good part of the same pressure range. Retest.
04-27
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
The pinpoint tests below should be performed after the
preliminary tests and “Engine Cranks but Will Not
Start” chart Steps 1-3. Any electrical diagnostics should
have been performed to eliminate any sensor, GCP or
solenoid valve problems before proceeding.
Engine Stops Running - Dies
Test Step
1
Check for icing or freezing of the regulator.
•
With the Engine at Idle.
•
Check for ice or frost build up on the converter casing and
outlet port.
Result
Action to Take
Yes
The presence of ice on the converter,
with the engine running, indicates the
possibility of a coolant supply problem.
Check Coolant level and the coolant
system for leaks. Check for proper
coolant type.
No
Go to Step 2.
Yes
Clean out bypass with a .050 size pin
or drill bit and retest.
CAUTION: Do not enlarge the bypass port.
Is ice present?
2
•
Check FCV vacuum fitting bypass port.
The bypass port is located on the back of the 90 degree
elbow which connects the vacuum line from the converter
to the FCV valve.
Is this bypass partially closed with dirt or debris?
3
Check regulator fuel supply.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 test kit, install the primary
pressure gauge as described in section 475G-1.
•
Start the engine to induce the failure.
Is the primary pressure less than "X" psi or fluctuating?
4
Check fuelock supply voltage.
•
Key OFF.
•
Disconnect Fuelock connector from harness.
•
Key ON.
•
Using a high impedance DVOM, check for 12 volt supply
at the harness connector.
No
Yes
The fuel filter may be restricting flow or
the fuel lock may be intermittent. Go
to Step 4.
No
Go to Step 5.
Yes
12 volt fuelock activation circuit is
open, shorted to ground or the GCP
module is faulty. Check wiring,
connectors and fuses for possible
cause.
No
Fuel filter element may be clogged,
inspect and/or replace the fuel filter as
described in section 475F-1. Repeat
test Step 3, if pressure is still less than
specified replace the fuel lock and retest before moving to Step 5.
Yes
The Regulator is functioning properly
and the problem may be with the FCV
valve, vacuum hoses or carburetor.
Go to Step 6.
No
The Regulator is malfunctioning. See
section 475R-1 for service of the
regulator. Repair or replace as
necessary.
Is the voltage less than 11.5 volts?
5
Check regulator operation.
•
Using Woodward WTK-1 secondary pressure gauge as
described in section 475G-1. (note: the secondary spring
color and pressure range)
•
Remove the vacuum hose from the FCV valve to the
regulator.
•
Start the engine.
Is the pressure constant and at -1.5 inches of w.c. as
specified?
04-28
Go to Step 3.
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Engine Stops Running - Dies (Continued)
Test Step
6
Check air valve operation.
•
Using the WTK-1 test kit, connect the vacuum gauge
between the carburetor and the FCV valve to measure the
carburetor air valve vacuum (AVV).
•
With the engine at idle and accelerating observe the
amount of measured vacuum.
Is the measured vacuum non-linear and outside the
specifications?
Diagnostic Aids
Fuel Lock Solenoid :The fuel lock is an electronic
solenoid that is opened to allow fuel flow when the key
is turned ON. High temperatures may cause the
solenoid to become intermittent, not opening to supply
sufficient fuel pressure.
Fuel Filter:There is a filter element located in the inlet of
the fuel lock which may become clogged and limit fuel
flow, especially at low tank pressures. Check the filter
and replace as necessary.
Fuel Line Restrictions:The vehicle specifications table
specifies the fuel line to be a certain size. If the fuel line
from the tank to the fuel lock is not the proper size, or
any valves or fittings with flow restrictive characteristics
are used, the fuel flow will not be sufficient to the
converter with low tank pressure. Correct any fuel line
or fitting restrictions.
Mixer Assembly (Carburetor):It is possible that a
backfire may have caused the fuel valve to partially
come off of it's retainer and restrict fuel, check the mixer
fuel valves, see section 475-1 for disassembly. Also
check the mixer adapter plates for leakage past the
carburetor.
Regulator Assembly (Converter & FCV): If no other
problems have been identified, replace the fuel
management assembly with a known good part of the
same pressure range. Retest.
04-29
Result
Action to Take
Yes
Refer to section 475-1 for servicing the
carburetor.
No
Service the carburetor (see section
475-1) and retest. Refer to the
Diagnostic Aids below.
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING - GASOLINE
NOTE: For diagnosis of Electronic Engine Control refer to Section 08.
WARNING: REFER TO WARNINGS AT THE
BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
Visual Inspection
1. Remove the Schrader valve cap and attach a fuel
pressure gauge.
Check for dirt or water in the fuel tank. Water and dirt
that accumulate in the fuel tank can cause a restricted
fuel line, filter or a malfunction of the fuel pump.
Condensation, which is the greatest source of water
entering the fuel tank, is formed by moisture in the air
when it strikes the cold interior walls of the fuel tank.
2. Bleed air from guage line into a suitable container.
3. Fuel pressure should be as follows:
•
Key on, Engine off: 414-448 kPa (60-65 psi)
•
Engine running: 414-448 kPa (60-65 psi)
Fuel Pressure
Gauge 310-012
Fuel
Sample
Schrader
Valve
If fuel pressure is insufficient, check for a clogged pump
filter, screen or fuel filter. Also check for a break or
restriction in the fuel lines. If fuel pump is inoperative,
check for damaged or loose ground or improper wiring.
Make sure fuel lines connections area tight and not
leaking.
Water Falls
to Bottom
Check the fuel filter. If the accumulation of dirt and water
in the filter is excessive, the fuel tank should be
removed and flushed, and the line from the fuel pump to
the tank should be blown out.
Check fuel lines for damage. Air leakage in the fuel inlet
line can cause low fuel pump pressure and volume.
Check fuel tank vent. A restricted fuel tank vent can
cause low fuel pump pressure and volume and can
result in collapsed inlet hoses or a collapsed fuel tank.
High or low pressure are the two most likely fuel pump
troubles that will affect engine performance. Low
pressure will cause a lean mixture and fuel starvation at
high speeds, and excessive pressure will cause high
fuel consumption and possible flooding.
Fuel Pressure Check
04-30
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES
3. Install special tool 310-D005 as shown.
Fuel Pressure Relief
WARNING: REFER TO WARNINGS AT THE
BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Disconnect the negative battery cable -- refer to
Section 6.
2. Remove the Schrader valve cap and attach a fuel
pressure gauge.
Fuel Pressure
Gauge 310-012
4. Close and push the special tool into the open side of
the cage.
Schrader
Valve
5. Separate the fitting.
WARNING: OPEN MANUAL VALVE SLOWLY TO
RELIEVE SYSTEM PRESSURE.
3. Open the manual valve on the pressure gauge and
drain some fuel into a suitable container.
4. Fuel pressure is now relieved from system.
Spring Lock Coupling - Type I - Disconnect
WARNING: REFER TO WARNINGS AT THE
BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Relieve the fuel system pressure -- Refer to“Fuel
Pressure Relief” on page 31 of this section.
Spring Lock Coupling - Type I - Connect
2. If equipped, remove the fuel tube clip.
1. Inspect and clean both the coupling ends and install
new o-ring seals and garter springs if necessary.
04-31
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
push into fitting.
2. Lubricate o-ring seals with clean engine oil.
CAUTION: Make sure the fuel tube clicks into place
when installing the tube. To make sure that the fuel
tube is fully seated, pull on the tube.
4. Separate the fitting.
3. Fit the male fitting into female end and push until the
garter spring snaps over the flared end of the female
fitting.
Spring Lock Coupling - Type II - Connect
1. Inspect for damage and clean fittings.
4. Make sure the coupling is engaged by pulling on the
lines and install the safety clip.
CAUTION: Make sure the fuel tube clicks into place
when installing the tube. To make sure that the fuel
tube is fully seated, pull on the tube.
Spring Lock Coupling - Type II - Disconnect
2. Lubricate the tube end with clean engine oil to ease
assembly.
3. Align and push the tube into the fitting until you hear
a click.
WARNING: REFER TO WARNINGS AT THE
BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Relieve the fuel system pressure -- Refer to“Fuel
Pressure Relief” on page 31 of this section.
2. Disconnect the safety clip from the male hose.
4. Pull on the fitting to make sure it is fully engaged,
3. Install the fuel tube disconnect tool 310-S039 and
04-32
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
it is fully seated.
then install safety clip.
4. Pull on the fitting to make sure it is fully engaged.
Quick Connect Coupling - Type I Disconnect
Quick Connect Coupling - Type II Disconnect
WARNING: REFER TO WARNINGS AT THE
BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
CAUTION: Do not use any tools. Use of tools may
cause a deformity in the coupling components
which can cause fuel leaks.
WARNING: REFER TO WARNINGS AT THE
BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
CAUTION: Do not use any tools. Use of tools may
cause a deformity in the coupling components
which can cause fuel leaks.
1. Relieve the fuel system pressure -- Refer to“Fuel
Pressure Relief” on page 31 of this section.
2. Press the fuel tube quick connect coupling button
and pull fuel tube to disconnect.
1. Relieve the fuel system pressure -- Refer to“Fuel
Pressure Relief” on page 31 of this section.
2. Release the locking tab on the quick connect
coupling.
Quick Connect Coupling - Type I - Connect
1. Inspect for damage and clean fittings.
CAUTION: Make sure the fuel tube clicks into place
when installing the tube. To make sure that the fuel
tube is fully seated, pull on the tube.
3. Separate the quick connect coupling from the fitting
2. Lubricate the o-ring seals with clean engine oil.
3. Install the quick connect coupling onto the tube until
04-33
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Quick Connect Coupling - Type II - Connect
1. Inspect for damage and clean fittings.
CAUTION: Make sure the fuel tube clicks into place
when installing the tube. To make sure that the fuel
tube is fully seated, pull on the tube.
2. Lubricate the o-ring seals with clean engine oil.
3. Release the locking tab and install the quick connect
coupling onto the fitting.
4. Position the locking tab into the latched position.
5. Pull on the fitting to make sure it is fully engaged.
04-34
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
RESULTING IN POSSIBLE PERSONAL INJURY.
Fuel Rail & Injectors - Replacement
WARNING: DO NOT SMOKE OR CARRY LIGHTED
TOBACCO OR OPEN FLAME OF ANY TYPE WHEN
WORKING ON OR NEAR ANY FUEL-RELATED
COMPONENT. HIGHLY FLAMMABLE MIXTURES
ARE ALWAYS PRESENT AND MAY BE IGNITED,
WARNING: FUEL IN THE FUEL SYSTEM REMAINS
UNDER HIGH PRESSURE EVEN WHEN THE
ENGINE IS NOT RUNNING. BEFORE WORKING ON
OR DISCONNECTING ANY OF THE FUEL LINES OR
FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, THE FUEL SYSTEM
PRESSURE MUST BE RELIEVED. FAILURE TO
FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN
PERSONAL INJURY.
Bolts
Fuel Rail
Retainer Clips
Electrical
Connector
Fuel Injectors
O-ring Seals
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
2. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the fuel rail & injectors. Label
if necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
CAUTION: After disconnecting fuel lines, plug the
ends to prevent fuel leakage.
3. Disconnect fuel lines -- Refer to“General Service
Procedures” on page 31of this section.
7. If necessary, remove the retaining clips and
separate the fuel injectors from the fuel rail - discard
the o-rings.
CAUTION: Use o-ring seals that are made of special
fuel-resistance material. The use of ordinary o-rintg
seals can cause the fuel system to leak. Do not reuse the o-ring seals
8. Reverse procedure to install:
4. Disconnect injector electrical connectors.
5. Remove bolts.
6. Carefully remove the fuel rail and injector assembly.
04-35
•
Lubricate new o-rings with clean engine oil
•
Tighten fuel rail bolts to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
Actuator - Removal
Actuator - Installation
1. Remove and/or disconnect components to allow
access and removal of the actuator. Label if
necessary to allow for correct reinstallation.
1. Inspect gasket and install a new one if necessary.
2. Disconnect air cleaner components from actuator.
3. Disconnect accelerator cable.
4. Disconnect electrical connectors.
5. Remove nuts.
6. Remove actuator and gasket.
2. Position actuator onto studs.
3. Install nuts:
• Tighten to ????
4. Reconnect electrical connectors.
5. Reconnect accelerator cable.
6. Reconnect air cleaner components to actuator.
7. Install or connect any other component removed or
disconnected.
04-36
DSG-423 FUEL SYSTEM
SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Fuel pressure
414-448 kPa (60-65 psi)
Motorcraft SAE 5W20 Super
Premium
WSS-M2C930-A
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Description
Nm
lb.ft.
Fuel rail bolts
25
18
lb.in.
04-37
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
INDEX
Subject
Page
General Information ........................................................................................................................................ 05 - 3
Description ................................................................................................................................................ 05 - 3
Diagnosis and Testing....................................................................................................................................
Visual Inspection .......................................................................................................................................
Coolant Inspection ....................................................................................................................................
Coolant Range Check ...............................................................................................................................
Drive Belt Inspection .................................................................................................................................
Symptom Chart .........................................................................................................................................
Cooling System Pressure Test..................................................................................................................
Radiator Cap Pressure Test......................................................................................................................
Thermostat Operational Check .................................................................................................................
05 - 5
05 - 5
05 - 5
05 - 5
05 - 6
05 - 7
05 - 8
05 - 8
05 - 8
General Service Procedures ..........................................................................................................................
Draining the Cooling System.....................................................................................................................
Flushing the Cooling System.....................................................................................................................
Filling the Cooling System.........................................................................................................................
05 - 9
05 - 9
05 - 9
05 - 9
Removal and Installation..............................................................................................................................
Drive Belt - Removal ...............................................................................................................................
Drive Belt - Installation ............................................................................................................................
Belt Tensioner - Replacement.................................................................................................................
Idler Pulley - Replacement ......................................................................................................................
Radiator Hose - Removal ........................................................................................................................
Radiator Hose - Installation .....................................................................................................................
Thermostat & Housing - Replacement ....................................................................................................
Coolant Pump - Replacement .................................................................................................................
Outlet Pipe - Replacement ......................................................................................................................
Block Heater - Replacement ...................................................................................................................
Coolant Bypass - Replacement...............................................................................................................
05 - 10
05 - 10
05 - 10
05 - 10
05 - 10
05 - 11
05 - 11
05 - 12
05 - 13
05 - 14
05 - 14
05 - 15
Specifications................................................................................................................................................ 05 - 16
05-1
05
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
CAUTIONS & WARNINGS
This may cause permanent damage to the engine.
CAUTION: The use of straight water as a coolant
will cause permanent damage to the engine.
CAUTION: Never use a cold coolant mixture to topup the radiator or degas tank of a hot engine if the
coolant level is very low; this could cause serious
engine damage.
WARNING: THE RADIATOR OR DEGAS TANK IS
EQUIPPED WITH A PRESSURE CAP. IT IS
DANGEROUS TO REMOVE THIS WHEN THE
SYSTEM IS VERY HOT.
WARNING: NEVER REMOVE THE PRESSURE
RELIEF CAP WHILE THE ENGINE IS OPERATING
OR WHEN THE COOLING SYSTEM IS HOT. MAY
CAUSE PERSONAL INJURY OR DAMAGE TO
COOLING SYSTEM OR ENGINE. TO REDUCE THE
RISK OF HAVING SCALDING HOT COOLANT OR
STEAM BLOW OUT OF THE DEGAS BOTTLE WHEN
REMOVING THE PRESSURE RELIEF CAP, WAIT
UNTIL THE ENGINE HAS COOLED DOWN TO AT
LEAST 40°C (110°F).
1. Wrap a thick cloth around the pressure relief cap and
turn it slowly one-half turn counterclockwise.
Stepping back while the pressure is released from
the cooling system.
WARNING: ANTIFREEZE CONTAINS MONO
ETHYLENE GLYCOL AND OTHER CONSTITUENTS
WHICH ARE TOXIC IF TAKEN INTERNALLY AND
CAN BE ABSORBED IN TOXIC AMOUNTS ON
REPEATED OR PROLONGED SKIN CONTACT.
PERSONS USING ANTIFREEZE ARE
RECOMMENDED TO ADHERE TO THE FOLLOWING
PRECAUTIONS:
•
•
CAUTION: Only this antifreeze, or proprietary antifreeze meeting Ford specification WSS-M97B51-A1
should be used when topping-up or re-filling the
cooling system. Do not mix coolant types.
CAUTION: Do not add or mix an orange-colored extended life coolant, such as Motorcraft Specialty Orange engine coolant with factory filled coolant
WSS-M97B44-D. Mixing Motorcraft Specialty Orange engine coolant or any orange colored extended life product, with factory filled coolant, can result
in degraded corrosion protection.
CAUTION: If there is engine coolant in the engine oil
or transmission fluid, the cause must be corrected
and oil/fluid changed or major component damage
can occur.
2. When you are sure all the pressure has been
released, (still with a cloth) turn counterclockwise
and remove the pressure relief cap.
•
CAUTION: In territories where freezing conditions
may occur, the coolant should consist of a mixture
of 50% plain water and 50% Motorcraft Premium
Gold coolant, or equivalent. This antifreeze contains additional corrosion inhibitors designed to
provide lasting protection for the engine.
ANTIFREEZE MUST NEVER BE TAKEN
INTERNALLY. IF ANTIFREEZE IS SWALLOWED
ACCIDENTALLY, MEDICAL ADVICE SHOULD BE
SOUGHT IMMEDIATELY.
PRECAUTIONS SHOULD BE TAKEN TO AVOID
SKIN CONTACT WITH ANTIFREEZE. IN THE
EVENT OF ACCIDENTAL SPILLAGE ONTO THE
SKIN, ANTIFREEZE SHOULD BE WASHED OFF
AS SOON AS PRACTICABLE. IF CLOTHING IS
SPLASHED WITH ANTIFREEZE, IT SHOULD BE
REMOVED AND WASHED BEFORE BEING
WORN AGAIN, TO AVOID PROLONGED SKIN
CONTACT.
FOR REGULAR AND FREQUENT HANDLING OF
ANTIFREEZE, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
(PLASTIC OR RUBBER GLOVES, BOOTS AND
IMPERVIOUS OVERALLS OR APRONS) MUST
BE USED TO MINIMIZE SKIN CONTACT.
CAUTION: When removing coolant, the coolant
must be recovered in a suitable, clean container for
reuse. If the coolant is contaminated, it must be recycled or disposed of correctly.
WARNING: DO NOT STAND INLINE WITH OR NEAR
THE ENGINE COOLING FAN BLADE WHEN
REVVING THE ENGINE. FAILURE TO FOLLOW
THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN
PERSONAL INJURY.
CAUTION: Under no circumstances should the
drive belt, tensioner or pulleys be lubricated as potential damage to the belt material and tensioner
dampening mechanism will occur. Do not apply any
fluids or belt dressing to the drive belt or pulleys.
CAUTION: Under no circumstances should the engine be started without liquid in the cooling system.
05-2
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
Radiator
system as it cools. The degas bottle allows air
separation during operation which reduces engine hot
spots.
Upper Hose
Fan Assembly
Degas
Bottle
Belt Tensioner
Coolant
Pump
Lower Hose
Description
The cooling system consists of the following:
•
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
•
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor
•
Fan Assembly
•
Radiator and Cap
•
Thermostat and Housing
•
Degas Bottle
•
Engine Block Heater
•
Coolant pump
•
Coolant
The coolant pump circulates the coolant through the
engine block and cylinder heads to the thermostat. If the
thermostat is closed, the coolant returns to the coolant
pump through a bypass hose. Once the coolant reaches
a specified temperature, the thermostat will open,
allowing the coolant to flow to the radiator for heat
transfer and back to the coolant pump inlet.
Engine coolant provides freeze and boil protection to
the engine and cooling components. In order to obtain
these protections, the engine coolant must be
maintained at the correct concentration and fluid level in
the degas bottle or coolant expansion tank.
Walter C. Avrea, the owner of patents 3,601,181 and
RE27,965, has granted Ford Motor Company rights with
respect to cooling systems covered by these patents.
The ECT Sensor is used by the GCP to obtain coolant
temperature information. Refer to Section 8 for further
information on this sensor.
The engine block heater is an optional electrical heating
element installed in the core plug opening. It uses a
standard 110 volt electrical supply. The heater keeps
engine coolant warm during cold weather.
The coolant fan blade can either draw or push air
through the radiator to help cool the system coolant.
The fan clutch is a thermostatic-controlled clutch that
controls the fan drive.
The radiator allows excess heat to be transferred to the
air. The radiator tanks can not be repaired. The radiator
cap maintains system pressure. This pressure raises
the boiling point of the coolant and helps prevent vapor
locks in the engine block and cooling system.
The thermostat prevents coolant flow until it reaches a
specified temperature. At this temperature, it will open
and allow coolant flow through the engine and radiator.
The thermostat and housing are serviced as a unit.
The radiator degas bottle holds a surplus coolant when
the engine is hot. It also replenishes coolant back to the
Coolant is made up of a 50/50 mix of ethylene glycol
permanent antifreeze and water. This mixture is to be
used year-round with temperatures
above -34.4°C (-30°F). If recycled coolant is used, it
must meet Ford specification ESE-M97B44-A or WSSM97B44-D.
05-3
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
CAUTION: Not all coolant recycling processes produce coolant which meets Ford specification ESEM97B44-A or WSS-M97B44-D. Use of coolant that
does not meet specifications may harm engine and
cooling system components.
CAUTION: Do not use alcohol type antifreeze, alkaline brine solutions, or 100,000 mile, red in color antifreeze. This may cause serious engine cooling
system damage.
05-4
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Coolant Inspection
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
Begin diagnosis by verifying the customer’s concern by
operating the engine to duplicate the condition. The
most frequent cooling system complaints are leakage
and overheating. Either of these problems will soon
render the engine inoperable.
Check level and condition of coolant:
• A dark brown color could indicate a stop leak was
used.
• A light or reddish brown color indicates that rust
may be present in the cooling system. Flush the
system and refill with the correct mixture of distilled water and premium engine coolant.
• An iridescent sheen on top of the coolant could
indicate a trace of oil is entering the system.
• A milky brown color may indicate that either engine oil or transmission fluid is entering the cooling system. If transmission fluid is suspected, it
may be entering through the transmission cooler
in the radiator. If engine oil is suspected, the
cause may an internal leak in the engine.
Perform a visual inspection. If the inspection reveals an
obvious concern that can be readily identified, repair as
necessary. If the concern remains after the inspection,
determine the symptom(s) and go to the Symptom
Chart. The Symptom Chart lists cooling system
problems, their possible cause and recommended
correction.
Visual Inspection
Check for leaks or damage at:
•
all hoses, connections and hose clamps
•
radiator seams, core and drain petcock
•
all block core plugs and drain plugs
•
edges of all cooling system gaskets
•
transmission oil cooler (if equipped)
•
coolant pump shaft and bushing
•
thermostat, head and intake manifold gaskets
•
coolant pump
•
degas bottle
•
heater core (if equipped)
•
fan and fan clutch
•
engine coolant temperature sensor and wiring
•
drive belt.
Coolant Range Check
If the engine coolant appearance is acceptable, test the
engine coolant freezing point and concentration level.
The antifreeze concentration in a cooling system can be
determined by using a suitable hydrometer or a battery/
antifreeze tester.
The freezing point should be in the range -45°C to -23°C
(-50°F to -10°F). If the equipment is run in cold climates
colder than -36°C (-34°F), it may be necessary to
increase the coolant concentration to get adequate
freeze protection.
NOTE: A small amount of antifreeze coming out the
coolant pump weep hole may be considered normal.
Examine oil dipstick for evidence of coolant
contaminated engine oil (white milky appearance).
check radiator for evidences of oil in coolant (leakage at
transmission oil cooler if equipped).
Some engines use an ethylene glycol base antifreeze
solution to which the manufacturers have added a dye
color. The dye color makes the antifreeze solution an
excellent leak detector. If this type of solution is not
being used in the cooling system, a vegetable dye may
be added to aid in locating external leakage.
Maximum coolant concentration is 60% coolant to 40%
distilled water. If coolant tests too strong, remove some
of the coolant and ad distilled water until the readings
are acceptable.
Minimum coolant concentration is 40% coolant to 60%
distilled water. If coolant tests too weak, drain some
coolant out and add straight coolant until readings are
acceptable.
05-5
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
Drive Belt Inspection
•
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
Longer deposits building up to 50% of the rib height
is also not a concern, except it can result in
excessive noise.
Medium
Piling
With engine running, observe the belt movement. It
should respond when engine is accelerated rapidly. If
tensioner moves excessively without rapid acceleration,
Install a new belt. If excessive movement still exists,
install a new tensioner.
Visually inspect the belt for obvious signs of damage.
•
Up to 15 cracks in a rib over a distance of 100 mm
(4.0 in) can be considered acceptable.
•
If heavy deposits are apparent, resulting in noise
and belt instability, install a new belt.
Heavy
Piling
•
•
If cracks are beyond acceptable or, any chunks are
found to be missing from the ribs, a new belt must be
installed.
•
Drive belt squeal that is short and intermittent is
expected and considered normal. Constant or
reoccurring drive belt squeal can occur with a
damaged pulley bearing, fluid contamination, or a
loose belt.
•
Also check for belt misalignment which can cause a
chirping noise. If misalignment is found, check the
tensioner for damage, especially the mounting pad
surface. Check for a damaged pulley that wobbles.
Check mounting brackets for tightness and for any
interference.
•
Check tensioner with a suitable release tool that it
moves without sticking or binding.
•
With belt off, check that all pulleys rotate freely
without binding.
Small scatted deposits of rubber material (known as
piling) is not a concern.
Small
Piling
CAUTION: Incorrect drive belt installation will cause
excessive drive belt wear and can cause the belt to
come off the pulleys.
05-6
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
Symptom Chart
Refer to the following Diagnosis Chart for cooling system problems, their possible cause and recommended
correction.
CONDITION
Loss of coolant
Engine Overheats
Engine fails to
reach normal
operating
temperature
•
POSSIBLE SOURCE
Pressure cap and gasket
•
•
•
Leakage
External leakage
•
•
•
Internal leakage
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Low coolant level
Loose fan belt
Pressure cap
Radiator obstruction
Closed thermostat
Fan drive clutch
Ignition
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Temp gauge or cold light
•
•
•
Engine
Coolant mixture
•
•
•
•
Open thermostat
Temperature gauge or cold
light
•
•
05-7
ACTION
Inspect, wash gasket and test. Replace only if
cap will not hold pressure to specification.
Pressure test system.
Inspect hose, hose connection, radiator,
edges of cooling system gaskets, core plugs
and drain plugs, transmission oil cooler lines,
water pump, heater system components.
Repair or replace as required.
Disassembly engine as necessary - check
for:cracked intake manifold, blown head
gaskets, warped head or block gasket
surfaces, cracked cylinder head or engine
block.
Fill as required. Check for coolant loss.
Adjust.
Test. Replace if necessary.
Remove bugs, leaves, etc.
Test, Replace if necessary.
Test, replace if necessary.
Check timing and advance. Adjust as
required.
Check electrical circuits and repair as
required.
Check water pump, block for blockage.
1/2 water and 1/2 permanent anti-freeze
mixture.
Test, replace if necessary.
Check electrical circuits and repair as
required.
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
Cooling System Pressure Test
2. Fit the radiator cap to the pressure tester using an
adapter.
Pressure
Tester
Pressure
Tester
Adapter
Cap
NOTE: If the plunger of the pressure tester is depressed
too fast, an incorrect pressure reading will result.
3. Slowly pump the pressure tester until the gauge
stops increasing and note the highest pressure
reading.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Remove the radiator cap from the radiator filler neck.
CAUTION: Do not pressurize the cooling system beyond 138 kPa (20 psi).
2. Fill the radiator as needed.
4. Release the pressure and repeat the test.
5. Install a new radiator cap if the pressure is not 124
kPa (18 psi).
Thermostat Operational Check
3. Fit the pressure tester to the radiator neck.
4. Pump the cooling system to a maximum of 138 kPa
(20 psi) and hold for 2 minutes.
5. If the pressure drops within this time, inspect for
leaks and repair as necessary.
Radiator Cap Pressure Test
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Inspect radiator cap and seals for damage or
deterioration - replace as necessary.
Seal
1. Hold thermostat up to the light.
2. Visually check the valve to be sure it is air tight.
•
Leakage of light all around the valve (at room
temperature) indicates a bad thermostat.
• A slight leakage of light at one or two locations on
the perimeter of the valve is normal.
3. Place the thermostat and a thermometer in water.
4. Gradually increase the water temperature
5. Replace thermostat if it does not open at the
specified temperatures:
•
•
05-8
Starts to open: 90°C (194°F)
Fully open: 97 - 106°C (206.6 - 222.8°F)
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES
Flushing the Cooling System
Draining the Cooling System
To remove rust, sludge and other foreign material from
the cooling system, use Rotunda Cooling System
Cleanser. Removal of such material restores cooling
efficiency and avoids overheating.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
Always remove the thermostat prior to pressure
flushing. A pulsating or reversed direction of flushing
water flow will loosen sediment more quickly than a
steady flow in the normal direction of coolant flow.
1. Remove radiator cap.
CAUTION: The coolant must be recovered in a suitable, clean container for reuse. If the coolant is contaminated, it must be recycled or disposed of
correctly.
2. Open drain cock at radiator and drain old coolant
from engine into a suitable container. Close the drain
cock when finished.
Radiator Drain Cock
In severe cases where cleaning solvents will not
properly clean the cooling system for efficient operation,
it will be necessary to use the pressure flushing method.
Various types of flushing equipment are available.
Follow manufacturer’s operating instructions.
Filling the Cooling System
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
Coolant is made up of a 50/50 mix of ethylene glycol
permanent antifreeze and distilled water. This mixture is
to be used year-round with temperatures above -34.4°C
(-30°F). If recycled coolant is used, it must meet Ford
specification ESE-M97B44-A or WSS-M97B44-D.
3. If necessary, remove the lower radiator hose to
completely drain the system. Reinstall when
finished.
CAUTION: Not all coolant recycling processes produce coolant which meets Ford specification ESEM97B44-A or WSS-M97B44-D. Use of coolant that
does not meet specifications may harm engine and
cooling system components.
4. If rust, sludge or other foreign material are present in
the old coolant, system should be flushed -- Refer
to“Flushing the Cooling System” on page 9 of this
section.
The engine cooling system is filled with Motorcraft
Premium Gold Engine Coolant. Always refill the cooling
system with the same coolant that was drained from the
system, Do not mix coolant types.
CAUTION: Do not use alcohol type antifreeze, alkaline brine solutions, or 100,000 mile - red in color
antifreeze. This may cause serious engine cooling
system damage.
NOTE: The use of stop leak may change the color of the
coolant.
1. Make sure the radiator drain cock is completely
closed.
2. Fill the system with the proper coolant mix.
3. Start engine and hold at 2,500 rpm engine speed for
approximately 8 minutes until thermostat opens.
4. Maintain 2,500 rpm for an additional 3 minutes. Add
coolant as necessary.
5. Increase engine speed to 4000 rpm and hold for 5
seconds.
6. Return engine speed to 2,500 rpm and hold for an
additional 3 minutes.
7. Stop the engine and check for leaks.
8. Verify correct fluid level after engine cools for 20
minutes. Top off the degas bottle to “max” line.
05-9
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Idler Pulley
Tensioner
Belt
NOTE: If a major component of the cooling system is
renewed such as the radiator, water pump etc., the
system should be flushed and re-filled with a 50%
solution of Motorcraft Premium Gold engine coolant, or
equivalent, and clean water -- Refer to“Flushing the
Cooling System” on page 9 of this section.
on page 10 of this section.
2. Remove bolt.
3. Remove belt tensioner.
4. Reverse procedure to install:
•
Drive Belt - Removal
Tighten bolt to 47 Nm (35 lb-ft).
Idler Pulley - Replacement
NOTE: Note belt routing for installation purposes.
1. Remove drive belt -- Refer to“Drive Belt - Removal”
on page 10 of this section.
1. Rotate tensioner counterclockwise to relieve belt
tension.
2. Remove belt idler pulley assembly.
2. Remove belt.
3. Reverse procedure to install:
3. Inspect belt and pulleys -- Refer to“Visual
Inspection” on page 5 in this section.
•
Drive Belt - Installation
1. Rotate tensioner counterclockwise to relieve
tension.
2. Route belt correctly and release tensioner onto belt.
3. Run engine for a minute and then turn off.
4. Recheck belt routing and groove alignment.
Belt Tensioner - Replacement
1. Remove drive belt -- Refer to“Drive Belt - Removal”
05-10
Tighten to 47 Nm (35 lb-ft).
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
Radiator Hose - Removal
Radiator Hose - Installation
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Drain the cooling system -- Refer to“Draining the
Cooling System” on page 9 of this section.
2. Loosen the clamps at each end of the hose to be
removed.
3. Slide the hose off the radiator connection and the
engine water outlet connection.
Upper Hose
1. Position the clamps at least 1/8 inch from each end
of the hose.
2. Coat the connection areas with an approved waterresistant sealer and slide the hose on the
connection.
NOTE: Make sure the clamps are beyond the bead and
placed in the center of the clamping surface of the
connections.
3. Tighten the clamps.
4. Fill the system with coolant -- Refer to“Filling the
Cooling System” on page 9 of this section.
5. Operate the engine for several minutes, then check
the hoses and connections for leaks.
Lower Hose
05-11
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
Thermostat & Housing - Replacement
1. Allow the engine to cool down until the coolant has
lowered in temperature to below 110°F.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
NOTE: The thermostat and housing are serviced as an
assembly.
2. Drain the radiator so coolant level is below the
thermostat -- Refer to“Draining the Cooling System”
on page 9 of this section.
3. Remove or disconnect components as necessary to
gain access to the thermostat housing.
4. Disconnect the lower radiator hose.
Thermostat
& Housing
Radiator
Hose
Bolt
Gasket
5. Remove bolts and thermostat housing.
6. Reverse procedure to install:
•
•
Clean and inspect gasket, install a new gasket if
necessary.
Tighten bolts to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
05-12
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
Coolant Pump - Replacement
Cooling System” on page 9 of this section.
2. Remove or disconnect components as necessary to
gain access to the coolant pump.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
3. Remove the drive belt -- Refer to“Drive Belt Installation” on page 10 of this section.
4. Remove 3 bolts and coolant pump pulley.
1. Drain the cooling system -- Refer to“Draining the
5. Remove 3 bolts and coolant pump.
Coolant PUmp
Pulley
O-ring
6. Reverse procedure to install:
•
•
•
Lubricate coolant pump o-ring with clean coolant.
Tighten coolant pump bolts to 10 Nm (89 lb-in)
Tighten pulley bolts to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft)
05-13
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
Block Heater - Replacement
1. Drain the cooling system -- Refer to“Draining the
Cooling System” on page 9 of this section.
2. Disconnect the block heater electrical connector.
Block
Heater
Electrical
Connector
Screw
Outlet Pipe - Replacement
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS AND WARNINGS
AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Drain the cooling system -- Refer to“Draining the
Cooling System” on page 9 of this section.
NOTE: Do not loosen the screw more than necessary
for removal.
3. Loosen the block heater screw and twist and slide
the block heater to release the retainer clip. Discard
the retainer clip and remove the block heater.
4. Reverse procedure to install.
2. Remove or disconnect components as necessary to
gain access to the outlet pipe.
3. Disconnect hoses from outlet pipe.
4. Disconnect electrical connector at ECT Sensor.
5. Remove bolts and outlet pipe.
6. Reverse procedure to install:
•
•
•
Clean gasket mating surfaces
Install new gasket
Tighten bolts to 10 Nm (89 lb-in).
05-14
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
Coolant Bypass - Replacement
2. Remove or disconnect components as necessary to
gain access to the bypass hose.
1. Drain the cooling system -- Refer to“Draining the
Cooling System” on page 9 in this section.
3. Detach coolant bypass hose from the routing clip.
Retainer
Clip
Bypass
Hose
4. Disconnect the coolant bypass hose from the tubes.
5. Reverse procedure to install.
05-15
DSG-423 COOLING SYSTEM
SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Coolant/Water Mixture
50/50
Pressure Relief Cap Opening
Pressure kPa (psi)
89 - 124 kPa (13 - 18 psi)
Radiator Pressure Test
138 kPa (20 psi)
Thermostat start to open
temperature
90°C (194° F)
Thermostat full open
temperature
97 - 106°C (206 - 222° F)
Coolant Specification
WSS-M97B51-A1
Motorcraft Premium Gold
Engine Coolant
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Description
Nm
lb.ft.
lb.in.
Block heater
screw
2
Coolant
pump pulley
bolts
25
Coolant
pump to block
bolts
10
89
Draincock
2
18
Thermostat
housing bolts
10
89
18
18
05-16
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
INDEX
Subject
Page
General Information .........................................................................................................................................
Description .................................................................................................................................................
Operation ...................................................................................................................................................
Wiring Diagram...........................................................................................................................................
06- 3
06- 3
06- 3
06- 4
Diagnosis and Testing.....................................................................................................................................
Preliminary Checks ....................................................................................................................................
Warning Indicator Check ............................................................................................................................
Symptom Chart ..........................................................................................................................................
Battery Drain Test ......................................................................................................................................
Battery Load Test .......................................................................................................................................
Generator Output Test ...............................................................................................................................
Generator Voltage Test ..............................................................................................................................
06- 5
06- 5
06- 5
06- 6
06- 7
06- 7
06- 8
06- 8
General Service Procedures ........................................................................................................................... 06- 9
Battery Cleaning and Inspection ................................................................................................................ 06- 9
Battery Tools .............................................................................................................................................. 06- 9
Battery Charging ...................................................................................................................................... 06- 10
Removal and Installation...............................................................................................................................
Generator - Replacement.........................................................................................................................
Voltage Regulator - Replacement ............................................................................................................
Generator Pulley - Replacement ..............................................................................................................
Battery - Removal.....................................................................................................................................
Battery - Installation..................................................................................................................................
06- 11
06- 11
06- 11
06- 12
06- 13
06- 13
Specifications................................................................................................................................................. 06- 14
06
06-1
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
CAUTIONS & WARNINGS
Typical Battery Labeling
The handling and correct use of lead acid batteries is not as hazardous provided that sensible precautions are
observed and that operatives have been trained in their use and are adequately supervised. It is important that all
labeling on the battery is carefully read, understood and complied with. The format of the following symbols and
labels is common to most brands of lead acid battery.
CAUTION: Observe all manufacturers’ instructions
when using charging equipment.
WATER FOR A MINIMUM OF 15 MINUTES AND GET
PROMPT MEDICAL ATTENTION. IF ACID IS
SWALLOWED, CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY.
FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY
RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
WARNING: BATTERIES NORMALLY PRODUCE
EXPLOSIVE GASES WHICH CAN CAUSE
PERSONAL INJURY. THEREFORE, DO NOT ALLOW
FLAMES, SPARKS OR ANY IGNITED OBJECT TO
COME NEAR THE BATTERY. WHEN CHARGING OR
WORKING NEAR A BATTERY, ALWAYS SHIELD
YOUR EYES. ALWAYS PROVIDE VENTILATION.
NOTE: Battery posts and cable clamps must be clean
and tight for accurate meter indications.
CAUTION: Always remove the negative cable first to
prevent possible arcing possibly damaging other
electrical components.
WARNING: WHEN LIFTING A BATTERY, ALWAYS
LIFT WITH A BATTERY CARRIER OR WITH YOUR
HANDS ON OPPOSITE CORNERS. EXCESSIVE
PRESSURE ON THE END WALLS COULD CAUSE
ACID TO SPEW THROUGH THE VENT CAPS,
RESULTING IN PERSONAL INJURY.
WARNING: IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT THE WIRING
CONNECTIONS TO THE GENERATOR ARE NOT
REMOVED WHILE THE ENGINE IS RUNNING, AS
THIS WILL RESULT IN DAMAGE TO THE
REGULATOR OR PERSONAL INJURY.
WARNING: KEEP BATTERIES OUT OF THE REACH
OF CHILDREN. BATTERIES CONTAIN SULFURIC
ACID. AVOID CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES OR
CLOTHING. ALSO, SHIELD YOUR EYES WHEN
WORKING NEAR THE BATTERY TO PROTECT
AGAINST POSSIBLE SPLASHING OF THE ACID
SOLUTION. IN CASE OF ACID CONTACT WITH THE
SKIN OR EYES, FLUSH IMMEDIATELY WITH
06-2
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
Battery power
The battery is a 12 volt DC source connected in a
negative ground system. There are three main functions
of the battery:
Bracket
Generator
Drive Belt
Voltage
Regulator
•
To supply power to the starter and ignition system so
the engine can be cranked and started.
•
To supply extra power required when the equipment
load requirements exceed the supply from the
charging system.
•
To act as a voltage stabilizer by smoothing out or
reducing temporary high voltages within the
electrical system.
Operation
With the ignition on, voltage is applied to the voltage
regulator. This turns the regulator on, allowing current to
flow from the battery to the generator field coil.
When the engine is started, the generator begins to
generate alternating current (AC) which is internally
converted to direct current (DC). This current is then
supplied to the equipment electrical system through the
B+ terminal of the generator.
Description
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
The charging system consists of a generator, voltage
regulator and battery. A serpentine belt drives the
generator from the crankshaft pulley -- refer to Section
5 for information on the drive belt.
Once the generator begins generating current, a
voltage signal is taken from the generator stator and fed
back to the regulator. This voltage feedback signal
(typically half the battery voltage) is used to turn off the
warning indicator.
With the system functioning normally, the generator
output current is determined and compared to a set
voltage internal to the regulator, and the regulator
controls the generator field current to maintain the
correct generator output.
The generator produces alternating current which is
subsequently converted to direct current
The charging rate is adjusted automatically by the builtin regulator to provide sufficient electric current to keep
the battery fully charged under normal operating
conditions.
The set voltage varies with temperature and typically is
higher in cold temperatures and lower in warm
temperatures. This allows for better battery recharge in
the winter and reduces the chance of overcharging in
the summer.
06-3
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
Wiring Diagram
Revision Level
The following wiring schematics are taken from the wiring diagram labeled below:
Starter
Relay
86
18 RD/LG
3
18 RD/LG
Generator
Connector
2
1
Battery
Ring +
12 RD
16 RD
06-4
Fuel Pump
Relay
86
12 RD
18 RD/LG
F2 VSW
5A
18 RD/LG
14 RD
F3 GCP
10A
Fuse Panel
Charging System
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
Warning Indicator Check
Check the operation of the charging system warning
indicator as follows:
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
NOTE: When the battery is disconnected and
connected, some abnormal symptoms may occur while
the GCP relearns its adaptive strategy. The engine may
need to run to relearn its strategy.
•
Ignition OFF = Indicator should be OFF.
•
Ignition ON, Engine OFF = Indicator should be ON.
•
Ignition ON, Engine ON = Indicator should be OFF.
Preliminary Checks
Before beginning test procedures, check battery cables
and generator wiring (especially grounds) for clean,
tight connections. Wires and connectors should not be
damaged or corroded.
Perform the following checks before any testing:
•
Loose or corroded connections at battery, grounded
starter motor cutout relay or engine.
•
Inspect all connectors for loose or damaged pins,
wires, etc.
•
Make sure the batteries are at 75% state of charge
(SOC) or higher. This represents an open circuit
voltage (OCV) of 12.4 volts. Batteries with an OCV
of 12 volts or less are either completely discharged
or have a dead cell.
•
Check the generator drive belt tension. This will
cause low generator output.
•
Check any light or indicator lamp filaments that are
suspected of being open (burned out). This is done
to avoid unnecessary extensive circuit checks.
•
If a fuse is blown, locate the cause of the overload
condition and repair it. The common procedure is as
follows: isolate sections of the circuit, by
disconnecting connectors, and measure the
resistance to ground to find the circuit that is shorted
to ground. Then locate the damaged spot in the wire
or connector and repair.
•
Excessive battery drain due to lamps left on,
damaged or misadjusted switch, accessories left on,
etc.
06-5
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
Symptom Chart
CONDITION
POSSIBLE SOURCE
Dead battery.
•
Key-off battery drain.
Battery will not stay charged.
•
Open/voltage drop in B+ circuit.
Slow crank.
•
Open voltage drop in A circuit.
Low battery voltage.
•
Open/high resistance in I circuit.
No generator output.
•
Voltage regulator.
•
Generator.
Indicator lamp on with engine running.
Indicator lamp flickers or intermittent.
Battery over charging (battery voltage
greater than 15.5 volts).
Indicator lamp off, key on, engine not
running.
Generator noisy.
Indicator lamp on, key off.
•
Open "A" circuit.
•
Shorted "I" circuit.
•
Open/high resistance in "S" circuit.
•
Voltage regulator.
•
Generator.
•
Loose connection to generator, voltage
regulator or battery.
•
Loose fuse or poor connection in "A"
circuit.
•
Loose brush holder screw.
•
Voltage regulator.
•
Generator.
•
Voltage drop in "A" circuit.
•
Voltage drop in "I" circuit.
•
Poor ground.
•
Voltage regulator.
•
Generator.
•
Open/high resistance in "I" circuit.
•
Burned out bulb.
•
Poor ground.
•
"S" circuit shorted to B+.
•
Voltage regulator.
•
Generator.
•
Accessory drive belt.
•
Accessory brackets.
•
Bent generator pulley.
•
Generator.
•
Other components.
•
Lamp circuit shorted to B+.
•
Improper lamp circuit wiring.
06-6
ACTION
Repair as necessary
Repair as necessary.
Repair as necessary.
Repair as necessary.
Repair as necessary.
Repair as necessary.
Repair as necessary
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
Battery Drain Test
Battery Load Test
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
A defective component or wiring defect may be causing
a small current drain that is less than the fuse rating for
the circuit so the fuse does not open. Perform the
following to determine if an excessive drain is occurring:
1. Disconnect both battery terminal cables. Check the
battery visually.
NOTE: Batteries should be fully charged for the
following test.
WARNING: DO NOT ATTEMPT THIS TEST ON A
LEAD-ACID BATTERY THAT HAS RECENTLY BEEN
RECHARGED. EXPLOSIVE GASES MAY CAUSE
PERSONAL INJURY. FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE
INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL
INJURY.
2. Examine the hydrometer eye (if no eye go to next
step).
• Eye shows green - go to step 4.
• Eye shows dark - recharge, then go to step 4.
• Eye shows yellow - replace battery.
3. Apply a 300 amp load for 15 seconds. Turn off load
and wait one minute.
•
•
CAUTION: To prevent damage to the meter, do not
crank engine or operate accessories that draw more
than 10A.
If 12.4 volts or more - go to step 4.
If less than 12.4 volts - recharge, then repeat step
3.
4. Apply a test load equal to 50% of the battery CCA
rating at - 17.8° C (0°F). After 15 seconds, with the
load still applied, measure and record terminal
voltage ___________. Turn the load OFF.
1. Allow the engine to sit with the ignition off for at least
40 minutes to allow the GCP to power down.
5. Estimate the battery temperature. If measured
voltage does not meet or exceed the value shown in
the following table, replace the battery.
2. Connect a fused (10A) jumper wire between the
negative battery cable and post to prevent the GCP
from resetting and to catch capacitive drains.
3. Disconnect the negative battery cable without
breaking the connection of the jumper wire.
NOTE: It is very important that continuity between the
negative battery cable and post is not broken. If it is, the
entire procedure must be repeated so the GCP can
power down again.
NOTE: If after this next step, the meter settings need to
be switched or the test leads need to be moved to
another jack, the jumper wire must be reinstalled to
avoid breaking continuity.
5. Remove the jumper wire and note the amperage
draw:
•
•
•
21.1°
10°
-1.1°
-9.4°
-17.8°
Temp. °F
70°
50°
30°
15°
0°
Min. Volts
9.6
9.4
9.1
8.8
8.5
6. Clean all cable ends and terminals of the battery with
a wire brush.
4. Connect an ammeter between the negative battery
cable and post. The meter should have a 10 amp
capability.
•
Temp. °C
There should not be any more than 50 mA (0.050
amp) draw.
If excessive, remove fuses one at a time until the
circuit with the excessive draw is located.
Use the wiring diagram to locate any circuits that
do not pass through the fuse box.
Disconnect the generator connections to check
for an internal short causing an excessive draw.
06-7
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
Generator Output Test
Generator Voltage Test
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
CAUTION: To prevent damage to the generator, do
not make jumper wire connections except as directed.
CAUTION: Do not allow any metal object to come in
contact with the housing and the internal diode
cooling fins with the ignition on or off. A short circuit may result and burn out the diodes.
In order to check the generator, the use of rotunda
Starting and charging System Tester 078-00005 (VAT40) or equivalent, is recommended.
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Switch the tester to the voltmeter function.
2. Connect the positive lead to the generator Aterminal connector and the negative lead to ground.
3. Turn off all electrical accessories.
4. With the engine running at 2000 rpm, check the
generator voltage.
5. Voltage should be between 13.0-15.5 volts.
NOTE: Refer to the test equipment user’s manual for
complete directions on examining the charging system.
NOTE: Turn off all lamps and accessories.
1. Switch the tester to ammeter function.
2. Connect the positive and negative leads of the tester
to the battery.
3. Connect current probe to generator B+ terminal to
measure generator output.
4. With the engine running at 2000 rpm, adjust the
VAT-40 or equivalent load bank to determine the
output of the generator. Generator output should be
greater than values given in the graph below.
06-8
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
Battery Cleaning and Inspection
Use a suitable battery carrier for lifting and transporting
the battery. The illustration shows a clamp-type carrier
used to grip the sidewalls of the container just below the
lip of the cover. The carrier is used on the sidewalls,
rather than the end walls, since the sidewalls have
additional strength from the inner cell partitions. This is
particularly important with the plastic-cased battery
which has end walls that are flexible.
Keeping the battery top clean and dry reduces the need
for service and extends battery life. Also, make certain
the cable clamps are tightly fastened to the battery
posts. If corrosion is found, disconnect the cables and
clean clamps and posts with a wire brush. Neutralize
the corrosion with a solution of baking soda and water.
After installing cables, apply a small quantity of
Premium Long-Life Grease XG-1-C or -K or equivalent
grease meeting Ford specification ESA-M1C75-B to
each battery post to help prevent corrosion.
Battery Tools
Anyone working with a battery needs the proper tools.
Using the right tools will prevent damage to the battery,
battery cables and battery hold down clamp.
Tools and equipment manufactured for servicing
batteries have parts insulated to help prevent arcing
should the tool be dropped or placed accidentally
between a terminal and some other contact surface.
Clamp Puller
Use a clamp puller to remove a cable clamp from the
battery terminal. With the jaws gripping the underside of
the cable clamp, pull the clamp up by means of
pressure exerted against the top of the battery terminal.
Proper use of this tool avoids the damaging lateral or
twisting forces that result when using a pry bar or pliers.
Battery Clamp Spreader
The spreader is used to expand the cable clamp after it
has been removed from the terminal and the clamp bolt
has been loosened. The cable clamp can then be easily
placed in its correct position completely on the terminal.
Terminal Cleaning Brush
The terminal cleaning brush is designed with units to
clean both tapered battery terminal and the mating
surface of the cable clamp.
Carrier
WARNING: GRIPPING THE END WALLS ON THE
PLASTIC-CASED BATTERY COULD CAUSE
ELECTROLYTE TO SPEW FROM SOME OF THE
CELLS, RESULTING IN PERSONAL INJURY AND
POSSIBLY CAUSE DAMAGE TO SOME OF THE
INTERNAL COMPONENTS.
06-9
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
Battery Charging
•
Perform a two-hour charge using 20A constant
current (manual setting on charger).
•
Perform a two-hour charge using a constant
potential (automatic setting on charger).
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
NOTE: If excessive gassing or electrolyte spewing
occurs during the charge, discontinue charging. The
battery has reached serviceable charge. If the battery
will not accept at least 5A after 20 minutes of charging,
replace the battery.
WARNING: WEAR SAFETY GLASSES. BATTERY
CHARGING CAN BE DANGEROUS. WHILE BEING
CHARGED, THE BATTERY PRODUCES A
POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE MIXTURE OF
HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN GASSES. KEEP
SPARKS, FLAMES AND LIGHTED CIGARETTES
AWAY FROM BATTERIES. IN CASE OF ACID
CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES OR CLOTHING,
FLUSH IMMEDIATELY WITH LARGE AMOUNTS OF
WATER. GET MEDICAL ATTENTION.
Inspect and service any of the following pre-existing
conditions before recharging a discharged battery -Refer to“Preliminary Checks” on page 5 of this section.
Cold batteries will not readily accept a charge.
Therefore, batteries should be allowed to warm up to
approximately 5°C (41°F) before charging. This may
require four to eight hours at room temperature
depending on the initial temperature and battery size.
A battery which has been completely discharged may
be slow to accept a charge initially, and in some cases
may not accept charge at the normal charger setting.
When batteries are in this condition, charging can be
started by use of the dead battery switch on chargers so
equipped.
To determine whether a battery is accepting a charge,
follow charger manufacturer’s instructions for use of
dead battery switch. If switch is the spring-loaded type,
it should be held in the ON position for up to three
minutes.
After releasing switch and with charger still on, measure
battery voltage. If it shows 12 volts or higher, the battery
is accepting a charge and is capable of being
recharged. However, it may require up to two hours of
charging with batteries colder than 5°C (41°F) before
charging rate is high enough to show on the charger
ammeter. It has been found that all non-damaged
batteries can be charged by this procedure. If a battery
cannot be charged by this procedure, it should be
replaced.
A rapid recharge procedure has been developed for
recharging batteries that only need a quick recharge.
This can be due to battery in-service no-start battery
failures (engine will not crank due to low battery state of
charge) or battery discharged due to key-off loads.
The battery can be rapidly recharged by using either of
the following methods.
06-10
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
Voltage Regulator - Replacement
1. Remove the generator -- Refer to“Generator Replacement” on page 11 of this section.
2. Remove 4 screws and voltage regulator (includes
brush and holder).
Generator
Bolts
Voltage Regulator
Insertion Hole
Drive Belt
Screws
3. Reverse procedure to install:
•
Generator - Replacement
•
1. Disconnect battery negative cable -- Refer to“Battery
Cleaning and Inspection” on page 9 of this section.
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of generator.
3. Remove drive belt -- refer to Section 5.
4. Remove 2 bolts and position the generator aside.
5. Disconnect electrical connector.
6. Remove generator.
7. Reverse procedure to install:
•
•
Tighten generator bolts to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
Tighten B+ terminal to 8 Nm (71 lb-in).
06-11
Insert a wire into the insertion hole to hold the
brushes during assembly. Remove wire when
done.
Tighten screws to 3 Nm (27 lb-in).
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
Generator Pulley - Replacement
1. Remove generator assembly -- Refer to“Generator Replacement” on page 11 of this section.
2. Remove nut.
Pulley
Nut
3. Remove pulley.
4. Reverse procedure to install:
•
Tighten nut to 109 Nm (80 lb-ft).
06-12
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
Battery - Removal
Battery - Installation
1. Clean cable terminals and battery hold down clamp
with a wire brush. Replace all cables or parts that are
worn or frayed.
2. Clean battery tray with a wire brush and scraper.
3. Place battery in battery tray with positive and
negative cables in same position as when removed.
4. Assemble and tighten battery hold down clamp so
battery is secure. Do not tighten excessively.
5. Secure cables to proper terminals. Tighten to 6 Nm
(53 lb-in). Apply petroleum jelly to terminals.
WARNING: WHEN LIFTING PLASTIC CASED
BATTERY, EXCESSIVE PRESSURE ON THE END
WALLS COULD CAUSE ACID TO SPEW THROUGH
THE VENT CAPS, RESULTING IN PERSONAL
INJURY, DAMAGE TO THE EQUIPMENT OR
BATTERY. LIFT WITH A BATTERY CARRIER OR
WITH YOUR HANDS ON OPPOSITE CORNERS.
Ford Motor Company strongly recommends that leadacid batteries be returned to an authorized recycling
facility for disposal.
WARNING: KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
BATTERIES CONTAIN SULFURIC ACID. AVOID
CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES, OR CLOTHING.
ALSO, SHIELD YOUR EYES WHEN WORKING
NEAR THE BATTERY TO PROTECT AGAINST
POSSIBLE SPLASHING OF THE ACID SOLUTION.
IN CASE OF ACID CONTACT WITH SKIN OR EYES,
FLUSH IMMEDIATELY WITH WATER FOR A
MINIMUM OF 15 MINUTES AND GET PROMPT
MEDICAL ATTENTION. IF ACID IS SWALLOWED,
DRINK LARGE QUANTITIES OF MILK OR WATER,
FOLLOWED BY MILK OF MAGNESIA, A BEATEN
EGG, OR VEGETABLE OIL. CALL A PHYSICIAN
IMMEDIATELY.
CAUTION: Care should be taken when removing or
replacing the cable clamp bolts so that the battery
terminal is not subjected to any excessive lateral or
twisting forces. Such forces could cause major
damage to the internal components of the battery,
and leakage at the terminals.
1. Remove battery cables from battery terminals
(battery ground cable first).
2. Remove battery hold down components.
CAUTION: When lifting a plastic-cased battery, excessive pressure on the end walls could cause acid
to spew through the vent caps, resulting in personal
injury, damage to the equipment or battery. Lift with
a battery carrier or with your hands on opposite corners.
3. Remove battery from equipment.
06-13
DSG-423 CHARGING SYSTEM
SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Generator output
65/110 max. amps @ 1800 6000 generator rpm (approx.
500 - 2000 engine rpm).
Battery
Motorcraft 12 Volt
540 CCA (at -18°C (0°F)
58 amp/hr.
Battery Charging Voltage
13 - 15.5 volts
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Description
Nm
lb.ft.
Generator mounting bolts
25
18
Regulator attachment screws
3
27
Battery cable nuts
6
53
Generator pulley nut
109
Generator wiring nuts
8
lb.in.
80
71
SPECIAL TOOLS
VAT-40 Starting/charging
Tester
078-00005
06-14
DSG-423 STARTER
INDEX
Subject
Page
Cautions & Warnings...................................................................................................................................... 07 - 2
General Information ........................................................................................................................................
Description ................................................................................................................................................
Operation ..................................................................................................................................................
Wiring Diagram..........................................................................................................................................
07 - 3
07 - 3
07 - 3
07 - 4
Diagnosis and Testing....................................................................................................................................
Visual Inspection .......................................................................................................................................
Symptom Chart .........................................................................................................................................
Motor Feed Circuit - Voltage Drop Test.....................................................................................................
Starter Motor - Ground Circuit Check........................................................................................................
07 - 5
07 - 5
07 - 6
07 - 7
07 - 7
General Service Procedures .......................................................................................................................... 07 - 8
Jump Starting ............................................................................................................................................ 07 - 8
Removal and Installation................................................................................................................................ 07 - 9
Starter Relay - Replacement ..................................................................................................................... 07 - 9
Starter Motor - Replacement ..................................................................................................................... 07 - 9
Specifications................................................................................................................................................ 07 - 10
07
07-1
DSG-423 STARTER
CAUTIONS & WARNINGS
CAUTION: Be sure to disconnect the battery ground
cable before repairing the starter motor.
WARNING: WHEN SERVICING STARTER OR
PERFORMING OTHER WORK IN THE VICINITY OF
THE STARTER, BE AWARE THAT THE HEAVY
GAUGE BATTERY INPUT LEAD AT THE STARTER
SOLENOID IS “ELECTRICALLY HOT” AT ALL
TIMES. FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE
INSTRUCTIONS MAY RESULT IN PERSONAL
INJURY.
WARNING: WHEN WORKING IN THE AREA OF THE
STARTER MOTOR, BE CAREFUL TO AVOID
TOUCHING HOT EXHAUST COMPONENTS.
FAILURE TO FOLLOW THESE INSTRUCTIONS MAY
RESULT IN PERSONAL INJURY.
CAUTION: A protective cap or boot is provided over
the battery input terminal and must be reinstalled
after removal.
WARNING: HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN GASES ARE
PRODUCED DURING NORMAL BATTERY
OPERATION. THIS GAS MIXTURE CAN EXPLODE IF
FLAMES, SPARKS OR LIGHTED TOBACCO ARE
BROUGHT NEAR THE BATTERY. WHEN
CHARGING OR USING A BATTERY IN AN
ENCLOSED SPACE, ALWAYS PROVIDE
VENTILATION AND SHIELD YOUR EYES.
WARNING: KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
BATTERIES CONTAIN SULFURIC ACID. AVOID
CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES OR CLOTHING. ALSO,
SHIELD YOUR EYES WHEN WORKING NEAR THE
BATTERY TO PROTECT AGAINST POSSIBLE
SPLASHING OF THE ACID SOLUTION. IN CASE OF
ACID CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES OR CLOTHING,
FLUSH IMMEDIATELY WITH WATER FOR A
MINIMUM OF 15 MINUTES. IF ACID IS
SWALLOWED, DRINK LARGE QUANTITIES OF
MILK OR WATER, FOLLOWED BY MILK OF
MAGNESIA, A BEATEN EGG, OR VEGETABLE OIL.
CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY.
WARNING: TO AVOID INJURY, USE PARTICULAR
CARE WHEN CONNECTING A BOOSTER BATTERY
TO A DISCHARGED BATTERY.
07-2
DSG-423 STARTER
GENERAL INFORMATION
Description
The starter motor provides the rotation of the engine
crankshaft, through the flywheel, that is needed to start
the engine.
The starter system consists of:
•
starter motor
•
starter solenoid
•
starter relay
•
battery.
The starter motor is a permanent magnet, gear
reduction type. It runs on 12 volts DC current. The
starter solenoid is integral to the motor and a relay is
also used. Refer to section 6 for information on the
battery.
M Terminal
B+ Terminal
S Terminal
Starter Motor
Solenoid
Operation
When the ignition is turned to the start position, the
starter relay switches power to the starter solenoid,
causing the starter motor to engage (transmission must
be in PARK or NEUTRAL).
Battery power is always present at the starter motor B+
terminal. The starter motor relay, when energized,
sends current to the starter motor “S” terminal, which
causes the motor’s shaft to rotate. When the starter
switch is released, a spring returns the solenoid to the
released position.
(??Is there any info on a starter lockout circuit??)
07-3
07-4
15
Start in
Interrupt
16 WH/PK
16 LB/PK
19
GCP
87A
Starter
Relay
Start in
Auto
Crank
87
30
Starter
18 LG/VT
18 RD/LG
16 LB/PK
Starter
Solenoid
Ring
Fuse Panel
72
85
86
18 RD/LG
18 RD/LG
18 RD/LG
F2
5A
Switched Ignition
42 Pin
Conn.
DSG-423 STARTER
Wiring Diagram
Revision Level
The following wiring schematics are taken from the wiring diagram labeled below:
Starting System
DSG-423 STARTER
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
NOTE: When testing with a meter, always make
connections with the component terminal rather than at
the wiring end connector. Making connection with the
wiring end connector can result in a false reading,
because the meter will not pick up any high resistance
between the wiring connector and the component.
Visual Inspection
CAUTION: Be sure to disconnect battery negative
cable before servicing starter.
•
Verify the concern by operating the starting system
to duplicate the conditions.
•
Inspect starting system for loose connections.
•
Check the wear patterns on the starter drive and the
flywheel ring gear. If the starter drive gear and the
flywheel ring gear are not fully meshing or the gears
are milled or damaged, replace the starter motor and
if necessary, replace flywheel ring gear.
Flywheel
Ring Gear
Starter Teeth
If the inspection reveals an obvious concern that can be
readily identified, repair as necessary.
If the concern remains after the inspection, note
condition and continue diagnosis using the symptom
chart.
07-5
DSG-423 STARTER
Symptom Chart
CONDITION
Starter does not crank (audible click may or
may not be heard)
Unusual starter noise
Starter spins but the engine does not crank
Starter cranks but engine does not start
Starter cranks slowly
Starter remains engaged and runs with
engine
Starter clicks and engages but engine will
not crank
POSSIBLE SOURCE
ACTION
Open fuse
Check fuse continuity
Low battery
Refer to battery diagnosis in section 6
Defective remote relay
Check relay
Open circuit or high resistance in external
feed circuit to starter solenoid
Check starter wiring
Defective starter
Replace starter motor
Defective neutral park switch
Replace switch
Starter not mounted flush (cocked)
Realign starter on transmission bell housing
or SAE housing
Noise from other components
Investigate other powertrain accessory noise
contributors
Ring gear tooth damage or excessive ring
gear runout
Replace flywheel ring gear
Defective starter
Replace starter motor
Starter not mounted flush (cocked)
Realign starter on transmission bell housing
or SAE housing
Ring gear tooth damage
Replace flywheel ring gear
Problem in fuel system
Refer to fuel system section 4
Engine related problem
Refer to Section 01, Diagnosis and Testing
Low Battery
Charge or replace battery -- refer to section 6
High resistance or loose connections in
starter solenoid battery feed or ground
circuit.
Check that all connections are secure
Ring gear runout excessive
Replace ring gear
Defective starter
Replace starter motor
Shorted ignition switch
Replace ignition switch
Battery cable touching solenoid “S” terminal
(defective or mispositioned cable)
Replace or relocate cable
Defective starter
Replace starter motor
Hydrolocked cylinder
Remove all plugs one at a time while
checking for fluid in cylinders
Seized main or rod bearing
Repair as needed - Refer to Section 01
07-6
DSG-423 STARTER
Motor Feed Circuit - Voltage Drop Test
Starter Motor - Ground Circuit Check
Slow cranking is often caused by high resistance in the
battery cables or connections, especially in cold
weather. After all batteries check good and terminals
are clean and tight, check the starter motor feed circuit:
A slow cranking condition can be caused by resistance
in the ground or return portion of the cranking circuit.
Check the voltage drop in the ground circuit as follows:
1. Connect a remote starter switch between the starter
“S” terminal and the battery positive (+) terminal.
1. Connect a remote starter switch between the starter
solenoid “S” termingal and the battery positive (+)
post.
2. Connect a digital multimeter positive lead to the
battery positive (+) post. Connect negative lead to
the starter solenoid “M” terminal.
Remote
Start
Switch
Remote
Start
Switch
Voltmeter
Starter
Casing
Voltmeter
3. Engage the remote starter switch. Read and record
the voltage. The voltage reading should be 0.5 volt
or less.
•
•
If 0.5 volt or less -- refer to starter motor ground
circuit test.
If greater than 0.5 volt, indicating excessive resistance, move the negative lead to the “B” terminal
as shown and repeat the test. If voltage reading
at the “B” terminal is lower that 0.5 volt, the concern is either in the connections at the starter solenoid or in the solenoid contacts. By moving the
lead toward the battery and checking each mechanical connection point, the excessive voltage
drop can be located. When the high reading disappears, the last mechanical point that was
checked is the concern. Clean or repair as necessary.
2. Connect a digital multimeter positive (+) lead to the
starter motor housing (the connection must be clean
and free of rust or grease).
3. Connect the negative (-) lead of the voltmeter to the
negative (-) battery terminal.
4. Engage the remote starter switch and crank the
engine. Read and record the voltage reading.
•
•
A reading of 0.2 volt or less indicates a good
ground connection.
If reading is more than 0.2 volts, clean all ground
connections and retest. If still too high replace
battery negative cable.
NOTE: If the voltage reading is less than 0.2 volt and
the engine still cranks slowly, install a new starter motor.
07-7
DSG-423 STARTER
GENERAL SERVICE PROCEDURES
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
Jump Starting
For cases of a starter that cranks the engine very
slowly, connect a 12 volt booster battery to the system.
To avoid damage to the equipment and battery or the
possibility of personal injury, follow these instructions
and precautions:
WARNING: TO AVOID INJURY, USE PARTICULAR
CARE WHEN CONNECTING A BOOSTER BATTERY
TO A DISCHARGED BATTERY.
1. Position equipment so jumper cables will reach,
being careful that equipment does not touch each
other.
WARNING: HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN GASES ARE
PRODUCED DURING NORMAL BATTERY
OPERATION. THIS GAS MIXTURE CAN EXPLODE IF
FLAMES, SPARKS OR LIGHTED TOBACCO ARE
BROUGHT NEAR THE BATTERY. WHEN
CHARGING OR USING A BATTERY IN AN
ENCLOSED SPACE, ALWAYS PROVIDE
VENTILATION AND SHIELD YOUR EYES.
WARNING: KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
BATTERIES CONTAIN SULFURIC ACID. AVOID
CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES OR CLOTHING. ALSO,
SHIELD YOUR EYES WHEN WORKING NEAR THE
BATTERY TO PROTECT AGAINST POSSIBLE
SPLASHING OF THE ACID SOLUTION. IN CASE OF
ACID CONTACT WITH SKIN, EYES OR CLOTHING,
FLUSH IMMEDIATELY WITH WATER FOR A
MINIMUM OF 15 MINUTES. IF ACID IS
SWALLOWED, DRINK LARGE QUANTITIES OF
MILK OR WATER, FOLLOWED BY MILK OF
MAGNESIA, A BEATEN EGG, OR VEGETABLE OIL.
CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY.
CAUTION: Do not disconnect the battery of the engine to be started. Disconnecting the battery could
damage the equipment’s electronic system.
Negative (-)
Jumper Lead
(Black)
Positive (+)
Jumper Lead
(Red)
1
Discharged
Battery
2
Booster
Battery
NOTE: Be sure to disconnect battery negative cable
before servicing starter.
2. Connect one end of positive red jumper cable (+) 1
to positive terminal of discharged battery and other
end to positive terminal of booster battery.
3. Connect one end of negative black jumper cable (-)
3 to negative terminal of booster battery. Connect
other end to an engine bolthead or good metallic
contact spot on engine of equipment to be started.
NOT TO NEGATIVE (-) BATTERY TERMINAL.
4. Make sure jumper cables are not in way of moving
engine parts.
5. Start engine with good battery. Run engine at a
moderate speed.
6. Start engine with discharged battery. Follow starting
instructions in the Operator handbook.
WARNING: MAKING THE FINAL CABLE
CONNECTION COULD CAUSE AN ELECTRICAL
SPARK NEAR THE BATTERY AND COULD CAUSE
AN EXPLOSION. REFER TO WARNING AT THE
BEGINNING OF THE JUMP STARTING
PROCEDURE.
7. Completely discharged batteries may require an
electrical load to initialize charging.
8. Remove cables in exact REVERSE sequence.
Begin by removing negative cable from engine that
had discharged battery.
If the starter does not turn the engine over, even with the
booster battery attached, refer to Diagnosis.
WARNING: WHEN SERVICING STARTER OR
PERFORMING OTHER UNDERHOOD WORK IN THE
VICINITY OF THE STARTER, BE AWARE THAT THE
HEAVY GAUGE BATTERY INPUT LEAD AT THE
STARTER SOLENOID IS “ELECTRICALLY HOT” AT
ALL TIMES.
07-8
DSG-423 STARTER
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
Starter Motor - Replacement
WARNING: WHEN SERVICING STARTER OR
PERFORMING OTHER WORK IN THE VICINITY OF
THE STARTER, BE AWARE THAT THE HEAVY
GAUGE BATTERY INPUT LEAD AT THE STARTER
SOLENOID IS “ELECTRICALLY HOT” AT ALL
TIMES.
B+ Terminal
M Terminal
S Terminal
Starter Motor
Solenoid
5. Reverse procedure to install:
WARNING: REFER TO CAUTIONS & WARNINGS AT
THE BEGINNING OF THIS SECTION.
1. Disconnect negative battery cable.
2. Remove any component to allow access and
removal of the starter motor.
3. Remove terminal cover and nuts.
4. Remove starter mount bolts.
07-9
•
•
•
Tighten “B” and “M” nuts to 12 Nm (9 lb-ft)
Tighten “S” nut to 5 Nm (44 lb-in)
Tighten mount bolts to 25 Nm (18 lb-ft).
DSG-423 STARTER
SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
Current draw NO load
60 - 80 AMPS
Current draw NORMAL load
Current draw MAX. load
800 AMPS
Minumum stall torque
(@5 volts)
14.7 Nm (16 lb-ft)
Cranking speed
140 - 220 RPM
Max. voltage drop
(normal operating temp.)
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Description
Nm
lb.ft.
Mounting bolts/nuts/studs
27
20
Battery cable nuts
6
53
Solenoid terminal nut
5
44
Solenoid terminal B+ nut
12
SPECIAL TOOLS
VAT-40 Starting/charging
Tester
078-00005
07-10
9
lb.in.
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Subject
Page
General Information ........................................................................................................................................ 08 - 2
GCP and Sensors ..................................................................................................................................... 08 - 2
Fuel System Components - Gasoline........................................................................................................ 08 - 8
Coil-on-plug Ignition .................................................................................................................................. 08 - 9
Open Loop and Closed Loop Operation.................................................................................................. 08 - 10
Adaptive Learn ........................................................................................................................................ 08 - 10
GCP Service Precautions........................................................................................................................ 08 - 10
Use of Circuit Testing Tools .................................................................................................................... 08 - 10
Electrostatic Discharge Damage ............................................................................................................. 08 - 10
Diagrams and Schematics ...................................................................................................................... 08 - 11
Engine Component Locator View............................................................................................................ 08 - 23
Connector End Views.............................................................................................................................. 08 - 16
Diagnosis and Testing..................................................................................................................................
Diagnostic Approach ...............................................................................................................................
GCP Diagnostic Overview.......................................................................................................................
On-Board Diagnostics - GCP ..................................................................................................................
Engine Control Module (GCP) Limp Home Mode Strategy.....................................................................
Intermittent MIL .......................................................................................................................................
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) DTC Retrieval Procedure...................................................................
Diagnosis Using a Personal Computer ...................................................................................................
Visual Inspection .....................................................................................................................................
Intermittent Problems ..............................................................................................................................
Symptom Charts......................................................................................................................................
Engine Control Module (GCP) - Diagnostic Trouble Codes ....................................................................
08 - 24
08 - 24
08 - 24
08 - 24
08 - 24
08 - 25
08 - 25
08 - 26
08 - 36
08 - 36
08 - 37
08 - 40
Removal and Installation..............................................................................................................................
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor - Replacement ...................................................................................
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor - Removal.........................................................................................
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor - Installation......................................................................................
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor - Replacement ....................................................................
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor - Replacement...................................................................
Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) - Replacement .....................................................................................
Knock Sensor (KS) - Replacement .........................................................................................................
Temperature Manifold Absolute Pressure (TMAP) Sensor - Replacement.............................................
Actuator/Throttle Position (TP) Sensor - Replacement ...........................................................................
08 - 43
08 - 43
08 - 43
08 - 44
08 - 45
08 - 45
08 - 45
08 - 46
08 - 46
08 - 46
Specifications................................................................................................................................................ 08 - 47
08
08-1
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
GENERAL INFORMATION
GCP and Sensors
CMP Sensor
CKP Sensor
TMAP Sensor
HO2S Sensor
KS Sensor
ECT Sensor
GCP
Actuator
Fuel Injector
Ignition Coil
Engine Control Module (GCP)
•
The Engine Control Module (GCP) has the following
features:
Configurable inputs available based on customer
requirements.
•
Configurable outputs available based on ECT, RPM
or MAP signals and customer requirements.
•
Diagnostic software allows viewing of historical and
active faults with on-demand diagnostics to assist
technicians and reduce equipment downtime.
•
Programmable four speed electronic governing,
throttle-by-wire or variable speed control governing.
•
Programmable emergency warning/shut-down
feature for high water temperature, low oil pressure,
etc.
•
Starter lockout.
•
Auto crank
•
Programmable overspeed protection.
•
Automatic altitude compensation.
The Engine Control Module (GCP) engine control
system is a complete engine control system for Ford
industrial engines running on gasoline, propane or
natural gas. Each module can be set up to run an
engine on any two of the three fuels in certified closedloop control, with virtually transparent on-the-fly fuel
switching.
•
Sequential port fuel injection (gasoline) with
pressure regulator to precisely control fuel delivery.
Each module can also be set up to run on a variety of
electronic governing:
•
Dry fuel lockout controlled by the GCP produces a
reliable transition when switching fuels.
•
It can be programmed to provide up to four specific
speeds with use of a matching toggle switch.
•
Certified closed loop dry fuel control.
•
It can be programmed to provide an infinite variety of
08-2
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
operational problems, alert the operator through the
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL), and store diagnostic
trouble codes (DTC’s). DTC’s identify the problem
areas to aid the technician in making repairs.
speeds (with customer-specified minimum and
maximum) based on a variable signal input.
•
It can be an electronic replacement for a throttle
cable with maximum speed governing (throttle-bywire).
•
Or it can switch between throttle-by-wire and a
second fixed or variable input based on a neutral/
parking brake signal.
With the GCP system, a laptop and a communications
cable, diagnosis becomes simpler. The technician can
either view engine data with a real time graphing
program, or store that data into a numeric data file.
Every time a fault is set, the laptop will give you detailed
information about the fault, including:
•
when it happened
•
if the fault still exists
•
a list of essential engine data from the time of the
fault.
It can also display a 10 second graph of critical engine
data, from 8 seconds before the fault occurred to two
seconds after. And if you only want to view engine
parameters and fault codes, all you need is a Personal
Digital Assistant (PDA) and our easy to load software
and a communications cable.
The GCP supplies either 5 or 12 volts to power various
sensors or switches. The power is supplied through
resistances in the GCP which are so high in value that
a test light will not light when connected to the circuit. In
some cases, even an ordinary shop voltmeter will not
give an accurate reading because its resistance is too
low. Therefore, a digital voltmeter with at least 10 megohms input impedance is required to ensure accurate
voltage readings. The GCP controls output circuits such
as the fuel injectors, electronic governor, etc., by
controlling the ground or the power feed circuit through
transistors or other solid state devices.
The GCP is designed to maintain exhaust emission
levels to government mandated standards while
providing excellent operation and fuel efficiency. The
GCP monitors numerous engine functions via electronic
sensors such as the throttle position (TP) sensor and
the heated oxygen sensor (HO2S).
GCP Inputs (operating conditions read)
•
Engine Coolant Temperature
•
Crankshaft Position
•
Exhaust Oxygen Content
•
Manifold Absolute Pressure
•
Battery Voltage
•
Throttle Position / Electronic Actuator
•
Fuel Pump Voltage
The GCP also carries auxiliary features that can be
programmed to control OEM devices, allowing the OEM
to eliminate components from their machinery.
•
Intake Air Temperature
•
Camshaft Position
The GCP is also equipped with multiple safety and
protection devices that protect the user and engine from
hazards such as:
GCP Outputs (systems controlled)
With many OEMs using control modules to control their
machinery, the GCP has the ability to communicate
engine data to and receive commands from other
control modules through a Controller Area Network
(CAN) link, with messages written in the J1939 protocol.
This allows large amounts of data to move throughout
the machine through only two wires, and can be used to
run some module based gauge packages.
•
over speed
•
over temperature
•
over voltage
•
low oil pressure
•
unauthorized tampering
•
over cranking starter motor.
•
Fuel control
•
Electronic Throttle Control
•
Electric Fuel Pump
•
Diagnostics - Malfunction Indicator Lamp (check
engine lamp)
•
Diagnostics - Data Link Connector (DLC)
The GCP controls the following:
•
Fuel metering system
•
Ignition timing
•
On-board diagnostics for engine functions
The GCP constantly observes the information from
various sensors. The GCP controls the systems that
affect engine performance. The GCP performs the
diagnostic function of the system. It can recognize
08-3
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor
The Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor provides a
signal used by the Engine Control Module (GCP) to
calculate the ignition sequence. The sensor initiates the
reference pulses which the GCP uses to calculate RPM
and crankshaft position.
CKP
Sensor
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor
The Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor uses a variable
reluctor sensor to detect camshaft position. The CMP
signal is created as piston #1 is a pre-determined
number of degrees after top dead center on the power
stroke.
The Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor sends a CMP
signal to the GCP. The GCP uses this signal as a “sync
pulse” to trigger the injectors in the proper sequence.
The GCP uses the CMP signal to indicate the position
of the #1 piston during its power stroke. The CMP uses
a Hall Effect sensor to measure piston position. This
allows the GCP to calculate true sequential fuel
injection (SFI) mode of operation. If the GCP detects an
incorrect CMP signal while the engine is running, DTC
245 will set.
If the CMP signal is lost while the engine is running, the
fuel injection system will shift to a calculated sequential
fuel injection mode based on the last fuel injection
pulse, and the engine will continue to run. As long as the
fault (DTC 244) is present, the engine can be restarted.
It will run in the previously established injection
sequence.
CMP Sensor
08-4
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
The Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor is a
thermistor (a resistor which changes value based on
temperature) mounted in the engine coolant stream.
Low coolant temperature produces a high resistance of
100,000 ohms at -40°C (-40°F). High temperature
causes a low resistance of 70 ohms at 130°C (266°F).
The GCP supplies a 5 volt signal to the ECT sensor
through resistors in the GCP and measures the voltage.
The signal voltage will be high when the engine is cold
and low when the engine is hot. By measuring the
voltage, the GCP calculates the engine coolant
temperature. Engine coolant temperature affects most
of the systems that the GCP controls.
ECT
Sensor
After engine start-up, the temperature should rise
steadily to about 85°C (185°F). It then stabilizes when
the thermostat opens. If the engine has not been run for
several hours (overnight), the engine coolant
temperature and intake air temperature displays should
be close to each other. A fault in the engine coolant
sensor circuit will set a DTC 221 or DTC 222.
TEMP. C°
TEMP. F°
NOM Rt,
(OHMS)
NOM EOUT
(VOLTS)
-40
-40
925,021
4.54
-35
-31
673,787
4.50
-30
-22
496,051
4.46
-25
-13
368,896
4.41
-20
-4
276,959
4.34
-15
5
209,816
4.25
-10
14
160,313
4.15
-5
23
123,485
4.02
0
32
95,851
3.88
5
41
74,914
3.71
10
50
58,987
3.52
15
59
46,774
3.32
20
68
37,340
3.09
25
77
30,000
2.86
30
86
24,253
2.62
35
95
19,716
2.39
40
104
16,113
2.15
45
113
13,236
1.93
50
122
10,926
1.72
55
131
9,061
1.52
60
140
7,548
1.34
65
149
6,332
1.18
70
158
5,335
1.04
75
167
4,515
.91
80
176
3,837
.79
85
185
3,274
.70
90
194
2,804
.61
95
203
2,411
.53
100
212
2,080
.47
105
221
1,801
.41
110
230
1,564
.36
115
239
1,363
.32
120
248
1,191
.28
125
257
1,044
.25
130
266
918
.22
135
275
809
.19
140
284
715
.17
145
293
633
.15
150
302
563
.14
Voltage values calculated for VREF = 5 volts (may vary ± 15% due
to sensor and VREF variations)
08-5
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
result in a lean command to compensate.
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor
The Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor is a
thermistor which changes its resistance based on the
temperature of cylinder head. Low temperature
produces a high resistance of 100,000 ohms at -40°C (40°F). High temperature causes a low resistance of 70
ohms at 130°C (266°F). The GCP supplies a 5 volt
signal to the sensor through a resistor in the GCP and
monitors the signal voltage. The signal voltage will be
high when the cylinder head is cold and low when the
cylinder head is hot. By measuring the voltage, the GCP
calculates the cylinder head temperature. The CHT
sensor signal is used to adjust spark timing according to
the incoming air density.
CHT
Sensor
Specifications
•
Accuracy of measurement: ±1.5%
•
Operating Temp. Range: 350°C to 850°C (sensor
tip)
•
Sensor Response Time: 300-1500 msec.
•
Heater Current Draw: 1 A steady state
•
Voltage Output:
0 - 450 mV (lean exhaust gas)
450 - 1000 mV (rich exhaust gas)
Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S)
The Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) is mounted in the
exhaust stream where it can monitor the oxygen content
of the exhaust gas. The oxygen present in the exhaust
gas reacts with the sensor to produce a voltage output.
This voltage should constantly fluctuate from
approximately 100mV to 900 mV, when the engine is
running in closed loop fuel control.
The Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) voltage can be
monitored on an IBM PC compatible computer with
diagnostic software. By monitoring the voltage output of
the oxygen sensor, the GCP calculates the pulse width
command for the injectors to produce the proper
combustion chamber mixture.
The 4-wire HO2S indicates whether the air/fuel ratio is
rich or lean with respect to stoichiometry. The signal
from this sensor contains valid air/fuel ratio information
only when the sensor element has reached its normal
operating temperature. The 4-wire HO2S also has an
isolated case ground which goes to Signal Return
(SIGRTN) either in the processor (as a dedicated HO2S
ground) or as a jumper to SIGRTN in the wiring
harness.
Low HO2S voltage indicates a lean mixture which will
result in a rich command to compensate.
High HO2S voltage indicates a rich mixture which will
08-6
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
electronically-actuated throttle plate, and a built-in
throttle position (TP) Sensor.
Temperature Manifold Absolute Pressure (TMAP)
Sensor
The Temperature Manifold Absolute Pressure (TMAP)
Sensor responds to changes in intake manifold
pressure (vacuum). The TMAP sensor signal voltage to
the GCP varies from below 2 volts at idle (high vacuum)
to above 4 volts with the ignition ON, engine not running
or at wide-open throttle (low vacuum).
The TMAP sensor consists of a pressure sensing
element (capacitor) and signal conditioning electronics.
The capacitor has a vacuum/pressure reference which
results in one surface (diaphragm) of the capacitor
being partially deflected. Further changes in pressure
produce corresponding changes in the deflection of the
diaphragm and therefore a change in capacitance. This
capacitance change is converted to a frequency by the
conditioning electronics.
The TMAP sensor is used to determine the following:
•
Engine vacuum level for engine control purposes.
•
Barometric pressure (BARO).
The Electronic Actuator also acts as an idle air control
(IAC) valve. Changes in engine load are detected by the
GCP by comparing manifold absolute pressure (TMAP)
with throttle position. When the GCP detects a change
in engine load, it can adjust idle speed by changing the
PWM signal to the actuator.
As the throttle valve opens, the output increases so that
at wide open throttle (WOT), the output voltage should
be above 4 volts.
TMAP
Sensor
The GCP calculates fuel delivery based on throttle valve
angle (operator demand). A hard failure in the TP
sensor 5 volt reference or signal circuits for greater than
2 consecutive seconds will set a DTC 531 or DTC 533.
A hard failure with the TP sensor ground circuit for more
than two consecutive seconds may set DTC 532. If any
(TP) DTC is set the GCP will shut down the engine
immediately.
Specifications:
Specifications:
•
Range of Measurement: 1.7 - 15.2 psi.
•
Measurement Accuracy: ± 0.2 psi
•
Sensor Response Time: 3-15 msec.
•
Resolution: 0.02 psi
•
Range of Measurement: 0-85° (angular)
•
Measurement Accuracy: ±2% of VREF
•
Resolution: 0.5° max.
Present design: Silicon Capacitive Absolute Pressure
(SCAP) sensor with a maximum operating temperature
of 100°C. The output is a 50% duty cycle wave form
whose frequency is proportional to the pressure input.
Throttle Position (TP) Sensor / Electronic Actuator
The Throttle Position (TP) Sensor is a dual track rotary
potentiometer that uses a variable resistive element
which is packaged inside a plastic housing. The
resistive element varies linearly and is directly
proportional to the throttle plate angle. The GCP applies
reference voltage and ground to the sensor and
monitors the sensor’s ratio metric output voltage to
determine precise throttle position. The electronic
actuator has two TP outputs that the GCP monitors.
The Electronic Actuator consists of a throttle body, an
08-7
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Fuel System Components - Gasoline
Fuel Injector
The fuel metering system is made up of the following
parts:
The Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) fuel injector is a
solenoid operated device controlled by the GCP. The
GCP energizes the solenoid, which opens a valve to
allow fuel delivery.
•
The fuel injectors
•
The fuel rail
•
The fuel filter
•
The GCP
•
The Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor
•
The Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor
•
The fuel pump
•
The fuel pump relay
•
Heated Oxygen (HO2S) Sensor
•
Temp/Manifold Absolute Pressure (TMAP) Sensor
The basic function of the air/fuel metering system is to
control the air/fuel delivery to the engine. Fuel is
delivered to the engine by individual fuel injectors
mounted in the intake manifold near each intake valve.
The fuel metering system starts with the fuel in the fuel
tank. The fuel is drawn up to the fuel pump through a
pre-filter. The electric fuel pump then delivers the fuel to
the fuel rail through an in-line fuel filter. The pump is
designed to provide fuel at a pressure above the
pressure needed by the injectors. A fuel pressure
regulator in the fuel filter assembly keeps fuel available
to the fuel injectors at a constant pressure. ?A return
line delivers unused fuel back to the tank?.
The main control sensor is the heated oxygen sensor
(HO2S) located in the exhaust system. The HO2S tells
the GCP how much oxygen is in the exhaust gas. The
GCP changes the air/fuel ratio to the engine by
controlling the amount of time that the fuel injector is
“ON”. The best mixture to minimize exhaust emissions
is 14.7 parts of air to 1 part of gasoline by weight, which
provides the most efficient combustion. Because of the
constant measuring and adjusting of the air/fuel ratio,
the fuel injection system is called a “closed loop”
system.
The fuel is injected under pressure in a conical spray
pattern at the opening of the intake valve. Excess fuel
not used by the injectors passes through the fuel
pressure regulator before being returned to the fuel
tank.
A fuel injector which is stuck partly open will cause a
loss of fuel pressure after the engine is shut down,
causing long crank times.
Fuel Rail
The fuel rail is mounted to the top of the engine and
distributes fuel to the individual injectors. Fuel is
delivered to the fuel inlet tube of the fuel rail by the fuel
lines.
The GCP monitors signals from several sensors in
order to determine the fuel needs of the engine. Fuel is
delivered under one of several conditions called
“modes”. All modes are controlled by the GCP. Refer to
“Open Loop and Closed Loop Operation” for more
information.
08-8
Fuel Injector
Fuel Rail
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Fuel Filter
The fuel filter is an inline filter assembly. Refer to
Section 4 for information on relieving fuel pressure,
disconnecting fuel lines and fuel filter replacement.
Ignition Coil
(coil-on-plug)
Fuel Filter
Fuel Pump Electrical Circuit
When the key is first turned “ON”, the GCP energizes
the fuel pump relay for two seconds to build up the fuel
pressure quickly. If the engine is not started within two
seconds, the GCP shuts the fuel pump off and waits
until the engine is cranked. When the engine is cranked
and crankshaft position signal has been detected by the
GCP, the GCP supplies 12 volts to the fuel pump relay
to energize the electric fuel pump.
The coil-on-plug design has individual coils mounted
directly over each spark plug. Each cylinder is paired
with its opposing cylinder in the firing order, so that one
cylinder on compression fires simultaneously with the
opposing cylinder on exhaust. The spark that occurs in
the cylinder on the exhaust stroke is referred to as a
“waste spark”.
(waste spark)
An inoperative fuel pump will cause a “no-start”
condition. A fuel pump which does not provide enough
pressure will result in poor performance.
Coil-on-plug Ignition
The coil-on-plug ignition system controls fuel
combustion by providing a spark to ignite the
compressed air/fuel mixture at the correct time. To
provide optimum engine performance, fuel economy,
and control of exhaust emissions, the GCP controls the
spark advance of the ignition system. Coil-on-plug
ignition has the following advantages over a mechanical
distributor system:
•
No moving parts
•
Less maintenance
•
Remote mounting capability
•
No mechanical load on the engine
•
More coil cooldown time between firing events
•
Elimination of mechanical timing adjustments
•
Increased available ignition coil saturation time
•
Elimination of high tension wires
Power Stroke
Exhaust Stroke
The primary coils in the coil pack are triggered by the
“ignition coil feed#1” and ignition coil feed #2” signals
from the GCP.
08-9
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Open Loop and Closed Loop Operation
megohms.
NOTE: No DTC will be set unless engine has operated
in closed loop status for more than 6 seconds.
•
Do not employ any non-standard practices such as
charging the battery with an arc welder.
The GCP will operate in the following two modes:
•
Take proper precautions to avoid static damage to
the GCP. Refer to “electrostatic Discharge Damage”
for more information.
•
Open loop
•
Closed loop
When the engine is first started, the system is in “open
loop” operation. In open loop, the GCP ignores the
signal from the Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S). It uses
a pre-programmed routine to calculate the air/fuel ratio
based on inputs from the TP, ECT, TMAP & CKP
sensors.
The system remains in open loop until the following
conditions are met:
•
The ECT has reached 95°F (35°C).
•
15 seconds has elapsed since starting the engine.
Adaptive Learn
Adaptive Learn is a fuel correction coefficient that is
derived from the closed loop correction and is stored in
the GCP’s memory.
The normal purpose of the Adaptive Learn is to
compensate fuel flow for the following:
Fuel composition variance
•
Engine wear
•
Component variation
•
Component degradation
Do not use a test light to diagnose the engine electrical
systems unless specifically instructed by the diagnostic
procedures. A test light can put an excessive load on a
GCP circuit and result in component damage. For
voltage measurements, use only a digital voltmeter with
an input impedance of at least 10 megohms.
Electrostatic Discharge Damage
After these conditions are met, the engine is said to be
operating in “closed loop”. In closed loop, the GCP
continuously adjusts the air/fuel ratio by responding to
signals from the HO2S (except at wide-open throttle).
When the HO2S reports a lean condition (low sensor
signal voltage), the GCP responds by increasing the
“on” time of the fuel injectors, thus enriching the mixture.
When the HO2S reports a rich condition (high sensor
signal voltage), the GCP responds by reducing the “on”
time of the fuel injectors, thus leaning out the mixture.
•
Use of Circuit Testing Tools
Electronic components used in the GCP are often
designed to carry very low voltage. Electronic
components are susceptible to damage caused by
electrostatic discharge. Less than 100 volts of static
electricity can cause damage to some electronic
components. By comparison, it takes as much as 4000
volts for a person to feel the spark of a static discharge.
There are several ways for a person to become
statically charged. The most common methods of
charging are by friction and induction.
An example of charging by friction is a person sliding
across a seat.
Charge by induction occurs when a person with well
insulated shoes stands near a highly charged object
and momentarily touches ground. Charges of the same
polarity are drained off, leaving the person highly
charged with the opposite polarity. Static charges can
cause damage, therefore it is important to use care
when handling and testing electronic components.
CAUTION: To prevent possible electrostatic discharge damage, follow these guidelines:
•
Do not touch the GCP connector pins or soldered
components on the GCP board.
The GCP system will operate in closed loop plus
adaptive learn when the ECT reaches 165°F.
•
Do not open the replacement part package until the
part is ready to be installed.
NOTE: The adaptive learn coefficient will get erased if
battery power falls below 9.5 volts.
•
Before removing the part from the package, ground
the package to a known good ground on the
equipment.
GCP Service Precautions
•
If the part has been handled while sliding across a
seat, while sitting down from a standing position, or
while walking a distance, touch a known good
ground before installing the part.
The GCP is designed to withstand normal current draws
associated with engine operation. When servicing the
GCP, observe the following guidelines:
•
Do not overload any circuit.
•
When testing for opens and shorts, do not ground or
apply voltage to any of the GCP’s circuits unless
instructed to do so.
•
When measuring voltages, use only a digital
voltmeter with an input impedance of at least 10
08-10
08-11
Male connector
Female connector
Connector
Ground
Removable connection
Splice
Crossed wiring
without connection
Distributed splice
Connector attached to
component lead (pigtail)
Connector attached
to component
Component with
screw terminals
Component case directly
attached to metal part of
equipment (ground)
Part of a component
Entire component
+
Heating element,
conductor loop
Circuit breaker
Fuse
Battery
Potentiometer (outside
influence)
Potentiometer (pressure
or temperature)
Resistor or heating element
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Diagrams and Schematics
Symbols
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
GCP - Power Distribution Box
Part of -5250010- Wiring Harness
Empty
Power
Relay
Fuel pump
Relay
Starter
Relay
1
2
3
4
5
6
Fuse
Amps
Circuits protected
1
10
Battery Voltage to EPR
2
5
Ignition Voltage to GCP and Relays
3
10
Battery Voltage to GCP
4
15
Fuel pump
5
15
Battery Voltage out of Power Relay
6
-
Not used
08-12
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Wire Colors
Symbol
Color
BK
BLACK
BN
BROWN
BU
BLUE
DB
DARK BLUE
DG
DARK GREEN
GN
GREEN
GY
GRAY
LB
LIGHT BLUE
LG
LIGHT GREEN
NA
NATURAL
OG
ORANGE
PK
PINK
RD
RED
SR
SILVER
TN
TAN
VT
VIOLET
WH
WHITE
YE
YELLOW
Revision Level
The following wiring schematics are taken from the wiring diagram labeled below:
08-13
08-14
VSW
44
87
79
16 RD/TN
18 RD/LG
30
86
VBAT
16 RD/TN
16 PK/BK
To Starter Relay
Fuel Pump
Relay
60
RD 12
To Generator
18 RD/LG
This line
is not
+
fused
To
Generator
Ground
Battery
RD 12
30
Fuel Pump Rec
Aux PWM3 Rec
89
86
18 RD/TN
14 RD/TN
RD 14
GCP
87
Power
Relay
RD16
7
Power
EPR
16 RD/LB
F1
10A
18 RD/LG
F2
5A
5
16 PK/BK
F3
10A
Hot at at
all times.
RD16
Fuel
Pump
16 PK/BK
F4
15A
1
VSW
Connector
42 Pin
16 Rd
16 Rd
16 Rd
To
HO2S
To
Ignition
Coils
To
Injectors
Fuse panel
F5
15A
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Power Distribution
16 RD
16 RD
F5
15A
16 RD
16 RD
08-15
Spark
Coil 1A
18 YE/BK
Ignition
Coil
Cylinder
1
16 RD
Fuse Panel
Relayed Power
Spark
Coil 2B
18 DG/VT
Ignition
Coil
Cylinder
2
16 RD
16 RD
Spark
Coil 2A
18 YE/RD
Ignition
Coil
Cylinder
3
16 RD
16 RD
Spark
Coil 1B
18 WH/PK
Ignition
Coil
Cylinder
4
16 RD
GCP
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Ignition System
08-16
15
Start in
Interrupt
16 WH/PK
16 LB/PK
19
GCP
87A
Starter
Relay
Start in
Auto
Crank
87
30
Starter
18 LG/VT
18 RD/LG
16 LB/PK
Starter
Solenoid
Ring
Fuse Panel
72
85
86
18 RD/LG
18 RD/LG
18 RD/LG
F2
5A
Switched Ignition
42 Pin
Conn.
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Starting System
Battery
Ring +
12 RD
16 RD
F2 VSW
5A
08-17
86
Fuel Pump
Relay
18 RD/LG
12 RD
18 RD/LG
14 RD
86
Starter
Relay
18 RD/LG
3
2
1
F3 GCP
10A
18 RD/LG
Generator
Connector
Fuse Panel
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Charging System
18 LG/RD
08-18
37
ECT
20
5V
RTN
18 GY/RD
18 GY/RD
18 GY/RD
To
Gasoline
Sensor A
Interface
18 GY/RD
Cam +
27
Camshaft
Position
(CMP)
Sensor
18 DB/OG
18 GY
18 GY
Crank +
25
Twist 10 turns
per foot
(min.)
18 DB/OG
Cam -
28
18 GY/RD
18 GY/RD
Cyl.
Head
Temp.
(CHT)
Sensor
Crank -
26
18 DB
18 DB
Crankshaft
Position
(CKP)
Sensor
IAT
36
18 GY
2
5V EXT 1
19
18 BN/WH
18 BN/WH
18 BN/WH
3
MAP
23
18 LG/BK
4
5V RTN
20
18 GY/RD
18 GY/RD
18 GY/RD
1
GCP
Temperature Manifold
Absolute Pressure
(TMAP) Sensor
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Controls - Sensors (1 of 2)
08-19
Knock -
52
18 YE/RD
Twist 10 turns
per foot
(min.)
18 YE/RD
Knock +
51
18 DG/VT
18 DG/VT
Knock
Sensor
(KS)
35
18 DG/WH
Oil
Pressure
To
42 Pin
Conn.
18 DG/WH
Oil
Pressure
Sensor
EGOH
#1
62
EGO
#1
21
18 BK/LG
F5
15A
5V
RTN
20
18 GY/RD
EGO
#2
22
18 GY/RD
EGOH
#2
61
Connector
LP Temp
Aux ANA
PU2
39
GCP
18 WH/RD
A
LPG
Temp.
Sensor
18 GY/RD
B
To
Diagnostic
Link (DLC)
18 BK/LB
D
Heated
Oxygen
(HO2S)
Sensor
#2
18 GY/YE
B
A
C
18 GY/RD
18 GY/RD
18 RD
18 GY/LB
Heated
Oxygen
(HO2S)
Sensor
#1
Relayed Power
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Controls - Sensors (2 of 2)
F5
15A
6
16 RD
Relayed Power
16 RD
08-20
16 RD
67
Injector
#4 LS
Injector
#1 LS
16 WH
Injector
#2
64
16 TN
Injector
#1
16 RD
Injector
#2 LS
65
16 BN/YE
Injector
#3
16 RD
Injector
#3 LS
66
GCP
16 BN/LB
Injector
#4
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Fuel Injectors
08-21
48
TPS 2
TPS 1
18 YE/WH
5
47
18 GY/WH
6
LB/DG
DBW +
80
18
4
3
DBW -
82
18 GY/OR 18 BN/WH
1
18 BN/WH
18 GY/RD
18 GY/RD
18 GY/RD
2
5V
REF
2
ANA
RTN
1
Bosch
Throttle
(Actuator)
PC TX
55
18 DG
3
PC
TX
PC RX
56
18 OG
4
PC
RX
Data link
Connector
(DLC)
8
CAN-
CAN1+
CAN1-
18 DG/VT
14
15
Twist
10 turns
per foot
(min.)
18 OG/LG
(min.)
Twist
10 turns
per foot
18 DG/VT
18 OG/LG
7
CAN+
GCP
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Controls - Actuator / Data Link Connector (DLC)
Grounding
Ring
12 BK/WH
1
CAN-
7
Power
08-22
CAN1+
CAN1-
18 DG/VT
14
15
(min.)
Twist
10 turns
per foot
18 OG/LG
Twist
10 turns
per foot
(min.)
GCP
EPR
16 RD/LB
18 DG/VT
18 OG/LG
7
CAN+
6
Ground
18 BK/WH
F1
10A
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Controls - Dry Fuel EPR
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Component Locator View
CHT Sensor
CMP Sensor
TMAP Sensor
Actuator with
Throttle
Position
(TP)
Sensor
ECT Sensor
GCP
HO2S Sensor
CKP
Sensor
08-23
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
DIAGNOSIS AND TESTING
unless directed to do otherwise by the fault tree. The
DTC’s are numbered in order of importance. Having
DTC 112 and DTC 122, both concerning the oxygen
sensor, is possible. By repairing DTC 112 first, the
problem causing the DTC 122 may also be corrected.
Diagnostic Approach
Use the following step by step approach when
diagnosing an engine performance problem:
1. Verify the concern and determine if it is a deviation
from normal operation.
2. Once the concern has been verified, preliminary
checks can be done. Conduct a thorough visual
inspection, be alert for unusual sounds or odors, and
gather diagnostic trouble code (DTC) information.
3. If a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) is stored, follow
the designated DTC chart exactly to make an
effective repair.
4. If no DTC is stored, select the symptom from the
symptom charts and follow the suggestions to
complete the repair.
5. If no matching symptom is available, analyze the
complaint and develop a plan for diagnostics utilizing
the wiring diagrams, technical assistance and repair
history.
6. Some diagnostic charts contain diagnostic aids
which give additional information about a system. Be
sure to use all of the information that is available to
you.
GCP Diagnostic Overview
FORD Diagnostic Trouble Codes are set when the
FORD system GCP runs a diagnostic self-test and the
test fails. When a DTC is set, the FORD system GCP
will illuminate the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) on
the instrument panel and save the code in memory. The
FORD system GCP will continue to run the self-test
unless the DTC is an oxygen sensor lean, oxygen
sensor rich, or a GCP related DTC. If the system
continues to fail the test, the lamp will stay illuminated
and the DTC is current (ACTIVE). All DTC’s are stored
as historical faults until they are cleared. All DTC’s
except the GCP related DTC’s will automatically clear
from memory if the DTC does not reset within 50
consecutive engine run cycles.
While a Diagnostic Trouble Code is current for a sensor,
the FORD system GCP may assign a default limp home
value and use that value in its control algorithms. All of
the FORD system diagnostic self-tests run continuously
during normal engine operation.
The Diagnostic Trouble Codes can be read by using
either the Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) or a Laptop
computer. Refer to Using a Laptop Computer to
Diagnose the FORD System and Using a Diagnostic
Jumper to Diagnose the FORD System, located in this
section. Diagnostic Trouble Codes can be cleared from
memory with a laptop computer or by turning the ignition
key to the OFF position and removing the FORD system
main power fuse (F3) for 15 seconds.
If more than one DTC is detected, begin with the lowest
number DTC and diagnose each problem to correction
On-Board Diagnostics - GCP
The diagnostic tests and circuit charts are designed to
assist the technician to locate a faulty circuit or
component through a process of logical decisions. The
tests and charts are prepared with the requirement that
the engine functioned correctly at the time of assembly
and that there were not multiple faults present.
There is a continuous self-diagnosis on certain control
functions. This diagnostic capability is complimented by
the diagnostic procedures contained in this section. The
language for communicating the source of the
malfunction is a system of diagnostic trouble codes.
When a malfunction is detected by the Engine Control
Module (GCP), a Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) is set
and the Malfunction Indicator (MIL) lamp will be
illuminated (refer to MIL DTC Retrieval Procedure for
process description) -- Refer to“Diagnosis Using a
Personal Computer” on page 26 or Palm Pilot
Diagnosis, for information regarding performing GCP
and engine control system diagnosis.
Engine Control Module (GCP) Limp Home
Mode Strategy
The GCP has four settings for limp home mode.
Depending on what Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC) is
set, one or more of the limp home modes will be in
effect.
The four limp home modes are as follows:
Power Derate 1
The actuator is limited to a maximum opening of 50%. If
“Power Derate 1” is active, it will remain active until the
active DTC goes away.
The following DTC’s will cause Power Derate 1 to take
affect:
•
DTC 223: CHT/ECT higher than expected 1. (CHT/
ECT is greater than 240 °F).
•
DTC 213: IAT higher than expected 1. (IAT is greater
than 200°F).
•
DTC 253: Knock sensor open. (1.6L and 4.2L only)
•
DTC 254: Excessive knock signal. (1.6L and 4.2L
only)
•
DTC 511: FPP1 high voltage.
•
DTC 512 FPP1 low voltage.
•
DTC 521: FPP2 high voltage.
•
DTC 522: FPP2 low voltage.
•
DTC 545: IVS/Brake interlock failure.
Power Derate 2
08-24
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
The actuator is limited to a maximum opening of 20%. If
“Power Derate 2” is active, it will remain active until the
active DTC goes away and the ignition input to the GCP
(usually the ignition switch) is cycled.
RPM. If the “Force to Idle” is active, it will remain active
until the active DTC goes away.
•
DTC 511: FPP1 high voltage.
•
DTC 512: FPP1 low voltage.
•
DTC 521: FPP2 high voltage.
•
DTC 522: FPP2 low voltage.
•
DTC 513: FPP1 higher than IVS limit.
•
DTC 514: FPP1 lower than IVS limit.
•
DTC 523: FPP2 higher than IVS limit.
•
DTC 524: FPP2 lower than IVS limit.
•
DTC 515: FPP1 higher than FPP2.
•
DTC 516: FPP1 lower than FPP2.
•
DTC 513: FPP1 higher than IVS limit.
•
DTC 514: FPP1 lower than IVS limit.
•
DTC 523: FPP2 higher than IVS limit.
•
DTC 524: FPP2 lower than IVS limit.
•
DTC 515: FPP1 higher than FPP2.
•
DTC 516: FPP1 lower than FPP2.
•
DTC 353: MegaJector delivery pressure higher than
expected.
•
DTC 354: MegaJector delivery pressure lower than
expected.
•
DTC 355: MegaJector communication lost.
Intermittent MIL
•
DTC 363: MegaJector internal actuator fault
detection.
•
DTC 364: MegaJector internal circuitry fault
detection.
Conditions that are only present from time to time are
called intermittents. To resolve intermittents, perform
the following steps:
•
DTC 365: MegaJector internal communication fault
detection.
•
DTC 611: COP failure (Internal GCP failure).
•
DTC 614: RTI 1 loss (internal GCP failure).
•
DTC 655: RTI 2 loss (internal GCP failure).
•
DTC 656: RTI 3 loss (internal GCP failure).
•
DTC 613: A/D loss (internal GCP failure).
•
DTC 612: Invalid interrupt (internal GCP failure).
•
DTC 615: Flash checksum invalid (internal GCP
failure).
•
DTC 616: RAM failure (internal GCP failure).
4. When using a personal computer with Ford
software, data-capturing capabilities are available
that can assist in detecting intermittents. Contact an
EDI customer service representative at (1 800 220
2700) for more information.
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) DTC
Retrieval Procedure
The engine RPM will be limited to a maximum of 1600
RPM. If the “Fault Low Rev Limit” is active, it will remain
active until the active DTC goes away and the ignition
input to the GCP (usually the ignition switch) is cycled.
DTC 511: FPP1 high voltage.
•
DTC 512: FPP1 low voltage.
•
DTC 513: FPP1 higher than IVS limit.
•
DTC 514: FPP1 lower than IVS limit.
•
DTC 523: FPP2 higher than IVS limit.
•
DTC 524: FPP2 lower than IVS limit.
•
DTC 515: FPP1 higher than FPP2.
•
DTC 516: FPP1 lower than FPP2.
•
DTC 545: IVS/Brake interlock failure.
Force to Idle
The engine RPM will be limited to a maximum of 800
2. Evaluate the symptoms and conditions described by
the customer.
3. Use strategy-based diagnosis, especially where it
relates to the elimination of bad connectors and
wiring.
Fault Low Rev Limit
•
1. Evaluate the history of DTC’s observed with this
particular engine.
NOTE: DTC’s can be retrieved from the engine control
module (GCP) by using either the MIL or an IBM
compatible personal computer or hand held Palm Pilot®
using the optional serial interface available. Refer to
Equipment Setup for information about using a personal
computer to assist with unit diagnosis.
Diagnostic
Connector
DTC’s can be retrieved by shorting the Self Test Input
(STI) connector to ground. The STI circuit is a white/
purple wire exiting pin 3 of the 42 pin connector. The STI
white/purple wire branches off to terminal “A” of the 4
pin diagnostic connector. If no DTC is stored with key
on/engine off (KOEO), a DTC 123 is flashed, indicating
that all systems are OK.
During key on/engine running (KOER) operation, with
no DTCs stored, the MIL is not illuminated. If during
08-25
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
KOER operation a DTC is stored, the MIL will illuminate
and remain on steady if the code is active.
•
Windows 95 or newer operating system
•
No speed minimum
MIL Bulb Test
•
32 MB of RAM
The MIL bulb test occurs KOEO with the STI connector
not grounded. The MIL bulb will stay on and remain on
if no DTCs are present. If DTCs are present (except
DTC 123), the MIL bulb will blink. If the MIL bulb does
not illuminate when bulb test is performed, access
diagnostic software and view the fault indicator on
screen. If the screen fault indicator is illuminated and
the MIL light is not, inspect the bulb and replace it if
damaged. If bulb is OK or does not illuminate after
replacement, refer to MIL circuit test procedure. Once
MIL bulb illumination has been verified or established,
DTCs can be extracted from the MIL as follows:
PDA Requirements:
•
Palm OS 3.0 software
•
64 K RAM
DTC Extraction
•
KOEO, short the STI circuit to a known good ground.
There will be a 5 second delay before DTCs begin
flashing.
When extracting DTCs via the MIL the following apply:
•
The flashing MIL is on for 0.4 second and off for 0.4
second.
•
The MIL is off for 1.2 seconds between digits of three
digit DTCs.
•
The MIL is off for 2.4 seconds between DTCs.
•
Each DTC repeats 3 times before the next stored
DTC begins flashing.
•
Up to 6 DTCs can be stored.
•
Once all stored DTCs are flashed, the process
repeats with the first stored DTC.
•
DTCs are flashed in the order in which they were set.
Once the DTC(s) is retrieved, refer to the appropriate
DTC chart for explanation of what caused the DTC to
set. Perform component and circuit test as required to
conduct repair.
Diagnosis Using a Personal Computer
Equipment Requirements
You will need a laptop computer (with a serial port) or
personal digital assistant (PDA) and a communications
cable/interface cable kit:
•
Kit for laptop part #: PN 2U1L-6K947-AA
•
Kit for PDA or laptop part #: PN 2U1E-6K947-AA
The required software is available from your local EDI
distributor or you can download it from:
web.fpp.ford.com
Laptop Requirements:
•
Serial port
•
800 x 600 dpi screen
08-26
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Interface Hook-up
For connection to a laptop, use kit PN 2U1L 6K947-AA.
Connect serial cable to RS232 port on the back of the
laptop computer. Connect interface cable to serial
cable. Connect interface cable to the 4 pin diagnostic
connector on the engine harness.
Laptop Computer
Serial Communication Cable
Interface Cable
To Diagnostic Connector
For connection to a PDA, use kit PN 2U1E-6K947-AA.
Connect as shown below:
PDA
To Diagnostic Connector
HotSync Cable
Interface Cable
08-27
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
GCP Software Installation
Insert CD into CD-ROM drive.
A screen will pop up telling you the name of the
destination folder.
Double click “My Computer” Icon.
Double Click CD-ROM drive letter
This will display the contents of the CD as shown.
Click next.
You will now see a screen telling you it is ready to install
the software.
Double click FPP Display icon.
You will now see a welcome screen.
Click next.
Click next.
08-28
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
You will see an Installation Success” screen when the
software is finished installing.
Using GCP Software - Menu Functions
You can begin using the technicians GCP software after
installation, by clicking Start - Programs - FPP Display FPP Display as shown.
Click Finish.
A screen will pop up asking if it is ok to reboot your
system.
Type in the Password which can be found on the label
of the CD-ROM.
Click yes.
Your system will shut down and reboot.
The software is now installed on your system in a folder
called “FPP Display”. Refer now to “Using Technicians
GCP Software” in this Section.
Place the ignition key in the ON position.
The FORD system Gauge screen should now appear
and a green banner in the upper left hand corner will
read “Connected”.
08-29
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Diagnostic Trouble Codes
Hear is an example of a DTC Dialogue Box.
The System Fault screen is used to view and clear
DTC’s, which have been set.
Checking Diagnostic Trouble Codes
The System Fault screen contains a listing of all of the
Historic and Active DTC’s set within the FORD system.
If a DTC is stored in memory, the screen will display that
fault in the Historic Faults column. If the fault condition
currently exists, the DTC will also show up in the Active
Faults column.
Opening Diagnostic Trouble Codes
Snap Shot Data
The Snap Shot Data is a listing of specific engine
system variables. These variables are recorded by the
GCP at the instant the DTC sets. By clicking on the
“View Snap Shot Data” button, a new window will pop
up and you will be able to view these variables. Here is
an example of a Snap Shot Data window.
To open a DTC, click on the DTC in the Historic Faults
column. A DTC Dialog Box will pop up on the screen.
The DTC Dialog Box contains the following useful
information:
•
If the fault occurred during the current key cycle.
•
If the fault caused current engine shutdown.
•
How many key cycles since the fault was active.
•
Snapshot Data (explained later).
•
Flight Data Recorder (explained later).
The DTC Dialogue Box also allows you to clear a single
fault by clicking on the “Clear This Fault” button and it
allows you to clear all faults by clicking on the “Click All
Faults” button.
NOTE: Record faults before clearing them. This will aid
in diagnosis.
08-30
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Data Stream - Reading Sensor & Actuator Values
Flight Data Recorder
The Flight Data Recorder is also a listing of specific
engine system variables. These variables are recorded
by the GCP for an interval of 10 seconds. The 10
second interval includes 8 seconds before the DTC sets
and 2 seconds after the DTC sets. By clicking on the
“View Flight Data Recorder Data” button, a new window
will pop up and you will be able to view these variables.
Here is an example of a flight Data Recorder Data
window.
Most applicable sensor and actuator values are
displayed on the Gauges Screen. The display shows
the voltage the FORD system GCP is reading and, for
sensors, the sensor value in engineering units.
This is one of three main screens (GAUGES, FAULTS
AND RAW VOLTS).
The GAUGES screen shows the following:
The FAULTS screen shows the following:
•
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP)
•
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)
•
Intake Air Temperature (IAT)
•
Fault Access
•
Throttle Position (TP)
•
System States
•
Foot Pedal Position (FPP)
•
DBW Variables
•
Battery Voltage
•
Closed Loop Control
•
Engine speed (RPM)
•
Digital Input Voltages
•
Exhaust Gas Oxygen (HO2S)
•
Diagnostic Modes
•
Hour meter
•
Historic Faults
•
Number of continuous starts
•
Active Faults
•
Run mode, power mode and fuel type
Use the
keys at the upper left corner
Use the
keys at the upper left corner
or the “page” command to toggle the three main
screens (GAUGES, FAULTS AND RAW VOLTS).
or the “page” command to toggle the three main
screens (GAUGES, FAULTS AND RAW VOLTS).
NOTE: F9 key will toggle to the last screen you were on.
NOTE: F9 key will toggle to the last screen you were on.
NOTE: If a DTC for a sensor is current, the engineering
value for that sensor may be a default, limp home value
and the voltage value will be the actual sensor voltage.
Use the voltage value when performing diagnostics
unless directed to do otherwise by the diagnostic
trouble tree.
08-31
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Plotting and Data Logging
Here is a sample of a plot.
Recording the values and voltages can be a very useful
tool while diagnosing engine problems. The FORD
diagnostic software includes real time plotting and real
time logging capabilities. These features enhance the
ability to diagnose and repair possible problems with the
FORD system. Both plotting and logging allows the user
to record, in real time, any variable that can be seen in
the FPP_Dis software. In order to record variables, the
FPP_Dis software must be “Connected” to the GCP.
Plotting
To plot a variable, you must first “TAG” the variable. To
do this, use the mouse to right click on the variable. The
variable will highlight in green to let you know it is
“TAGGED”.
Next, press the “P” key or click the Plot/Log button and
then click the Plot Tags button to invoke the plotting
feature. This begins the plot function and you can
observe the plotted variables. The plot sweeps from
right to left. To stop the plotting feature, simply click the
“STOP” button. To restart the plotter, click on the
“START” button. The maximum number of variables
that can be plotted at one time is 10. The range of the
selected variables will be shown on the Y-axis and the
time will be shown on the x-axis. You may change the
desired time interval and sample interval for the plot by
stopping the plot and typing in a new intervals.
Logging
Logging variables means the variables are stored to the
PC. During logging, there is no plot shown on the
screen. To log variables you must first “TAG” the
variables by right clicking them (same as plotting). Next,
click on Plot / Log and then Log Tags. An “Edis Log”
window will pop up. You can type in a custom log File
name or select a custom folder to save the log file to.
The default filename is “edis.log” and the default folder
is FPP_Dis. The sample interval and time interval can
also be changed from the default. To start logging, click
on the “START” button. You will see the progress bar
moving from 0 to 100%. When the logging is complete,
you can close the Edis Log box or start another log file.
If you start another log file, you must change the Log
File name or the first log file will be overwritten. To view
the contents of a saved log file, you can use Notepad or
Excel.
The following are examples showing the Edis Log box
before starting a log file and during a log file.
The plot can be saved to the PC by stopping the plot
and clicking the “SAVE” button. When saving a plot, you
will have to type in a filename. Plot files can later be
viewed with the edis_saplot software located in the
Windows Start Programs FPP_Dis folder, or the data
can be viewed in Notepad or Excel.
08-32
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Ignition System Test
The Spark Kill diagnostic mode allows the technician to disable the ignition on individual cylinders. If the Spark Kill
diagnostic mode is selected with the engine running below 1000 RPM, the minimum throttle command will lock into
the position it was in when the test mode was entered. If the Spark System Test mode is selected with the engine
running above 1000 RPM, the throttle will continue to operate normally.
Disabling Ignition Ouputs
To disable the ignition system for an individual cylinder, use the mouse to highlight the “Spark Kill” button and select
the desired coil. The spark output can be re-enabled by using the mouse to highlight the “Spark Kill” button and
selecting “Normal”. If the engine is running below 1000 RPM, the spark output will stay disabled for 15 seconds and
then re-set. If the engine is running above 1000 RPM, the spark output will stay disabled for 5 seconds and then reset. This test mode has a timeout of 10 minutes. Record the rpm drop related to each spark output disabled.
The Spark outputs are arranged in the order which the engine fires, not by cylinder number.
08-33
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Throttle Test
Injector Test
The Injector Kill mode is used to disable individual fuel
injectors. If the Injector Kill mode is selected with the
engine running below 1000 RPM, the minimum throttle
command will lock into the position it was in when the
test mode was entered. If the Injector Kill mode is
selected with the engine running above 1000 RPM, the
throttle will continue to operate normally.
Disabling Injectors
To disable an injector, use the mouse to select the
desired injector. The word “Normal” will change to the
Injector you have selected. The injector driver can be
re-enabled by selecting again. If the engine is running
below 1000 RPM, the injector driver will stay disabled
for 15 seconds and then re-set. If the engine is running
above 1000 RPM, the injector driver will stay disabled
for 5 seconds and then re-set. Record the change in
rpm or closed loop multiplier while each driver is
disabled.
To select this test mode the engine must be off, but the
key must be in the ON position.
The DBW Test mode allows the technician to control the
throttle directly (without the engine running) with the foot
pedal or entering a number into the “TPS Command”
box. It is used during the diagnostic routines specified
for FPP and TPS related faults.
FPP position displays the current position of the foot
pedal as a percentage. FPP volts display the voltage
that the GCP is reading from the FPP sensor.
TPS Command displays the commanded throttle
position expressed as a percentage, which is being sent
to the throttle. TPS Position is the actual percent of
throttle opening being sent to the GCP from the throttle.
TPS volts display the actual TPS signal voltage the
GCP is receiving from the throttle.
08-34
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
RAW VOLTS Screen
The RAW VOLTS screen shows actual voltage
readings from various circuits.
Use the
keys at the upper left corner
or the “page” command to toggle the three main
screens (GAUGES, FAULTS AND RAW VOLTS).
NOTE: F9 key will toggle to the last screen you were on.
08-35
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Visual Inspection
Intermittent Problems
Perform a careful visual and physical engine inspection
before performing any diagnostic procedure. Perform
all necessary repairs before proceeding with additional
diagnosis, this can often lead to repairing a problem
without performing unnecessary steps. Use the
following guidelines when performing a visual/physical
inspection check:
NOTE: An intermittent problem may or may not turn on
the MIL or store a DTC. Do not use the DTC charts for
intermittent problems. The fault must be present to
locate the problem.
•
•
Poor mating of the connector halves or a terminal
not fully seated in the connector (backed out).
•
Improperly formed or damaged terminals
•
Improper contact tension. All connector terminals in
the problem circuit should be carefully checked.
Inspect engine for modifications or aftermarket
equipment that can contribute to the symptom; verify
that all electrical and mechanical loads or accessory
equipment is “OFF” or disconnected before
performing diagnosis.
NOTE: Most intermittent problems are caused by faulty
electrical connections or wiring. Perform a careful visual
inspection for the following conditions:
•
Inspect engine fluids for correct levels and evidence
of leaks.
•
•
Inspect vacuum hoses for damage, leaks, cracks,
kinks and improper routing, inspect intake manifold
sealing surface for a possible vacuum leak.
Poor terminal-to-wire connections. This requires
removing the terminal from the connector body to
check.
•
•
Inspect PCV valve for proper installation and
operation.
Improperly installed aftermarket equipment or
accessories.
•
Inspect all wires and harnesses for proper
connections and routing; bent or broken connector
pins; burned, chafed, or pinched wires; and
corrosion. Verify that harness grounds are clean and
tight.
•
Inspect GCP, sensors and actuators for physical
damage.
•
Inspect GCP grounds for cleanliness, tightness, and
proper location.
•
Inspect fuel system for adequate fuel level, and fuel
quality (concerns such as proper octane,
contamination, winter/summer blend).
•
Inspect intake air system and air filter for restrictions.
•
Inspect battery condition and starter current draw.
If no evidence of a problem is found after visual
inspection has been performed, proceed to “Diagnostic
System Check”
Operate the engine with accessories “OFF” and a
suitable multimeter connected to the suspected circuit.
An abnormal voltage when the malfunction occurs is a
good indication that there is a fault in the circuit being
monitored.
To check GCP for loss of diagnostic code memory,
disconnect the MAP sensor connector and idle the
engine until the MIL illuminates. Perform MIL DTC
retrieval procedure. DTC should be stored and kept in
memory when the ignition is turned “OFF”. If not, the
GCP is faulty. When this test is completed, make sure
that you clear the DTC from memory. An intermittent
MIL with no stored DTC may be caused by the
following:
•
Ignition coil shorted to ground and arcing at plugs.
•
MIL circuit to GCP shorted to ground.
•
Poor GCP grounds.
08-36
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Symptom Charts
illuminate the MIL light.
NOTE: If you have a symptom of the pedal not working,
and no DTC is set, go to the voltage screen and check
pedal voltage. If pedal voltage is.75-1.25 volts, and idle
validation switch says you're at idle - replace the pedal.
NOTE: EDI engines are used in many different
applications and equipment. When performing any
system diagnosis be aware of any OEM inputs or
equipment monitoring devices that may have an effect
on the engine’s performance or any of the engine’s
operating systems.
NOTE: Items listed in the possible cause column
generally do not set a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) or
Engine Performance - No Load
SYMPTOM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Engine Runs Briefly and
Shuts Down
•
•
•
•
•
•
Loss of Spark
Frozen Fuel Regulator (Dry Fuel)
Low Fuel Pressure
Air Inlet Restriction
Wiring Failure
GCP Failure
Engine Cranks But No Start
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Faulty OEM Drivers Safety Shut-Off Seat Switch
Coil Power Loss
GCP Ground Loss
GCP Power Loss
Severe Vacuum Leak (Dry Fuel)
Air Inlet Restriction
Air Inlet Leak (Dry Fuel)
Fuel Lock-Off Inoperative (Dry Fuel)
Wiring Failure
Low Fuel Pressure
Ancillary Components Binding
Engine Runs Poorly
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
High Fuel Pressure
Low Fuel Pressure
Contaminated Fuel
Incorrect Fuel Select Table Selected
Wrong GCP Installed
Actuator Air Blockage
Map Sensor Leak
Fuel Contaminated
Noise Suppression Capacitor Failure
Improper PCV Routing
Valve Timing
Low Cylinder Compression
Engine Cranks Slowly
•
•
•
•
•
•
Excessive Engine Load (Hydraulic Pump Failing, Binding
Ancillary Drive Components)
Low Battery Voltage
Incorrect Battery Specifications
Incorrect Battery Cable Size
Starter Relay
Starter Failure (Excessive Drain)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Dead Battery
Ground Loss
Ancillary Components Binding or Seized
OEM Shutdown - Oil Level Safety
Starter Lockout Relay Failure
Ignition Switch Failure
Bad Starter
Crank Control Wire Failure
Loose Connection or Corrosion
Engine Does Not Crank
08-37
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Performance - While Under Load
SYMPTOM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Engine Stalls/Quits
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Faulty OEM Drivers Safety Shut-off Seat Switch
Low Battery Voltage
Low Fuel Pressure
OEM Safety Shutdowns
Bad MAP Sensor
Air Restriction
Coil Failure
Fuel Mixer Binding (Dry Fuel)
Runs Rough
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ground Loss
Misrouted Spark Plug Wires
Fuel System Failure
Vacuum Leak
Wiring Failure
Low Fuel Pressure
Spark Plugs Fouled
Incorrect Valve Timing
Misses
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Fuel System Failure
Misrouted Spark Plug Wires
Spark Plug Gap Too High
Spark Plugs Fouled
Cracked Spark Plug Insulator
Incorrect Valve Timing
Compression Loss
Hesitation/Stumble
•
•
•
Low Fuel Pressure
Spark Plugs Fouled
MAP Sensor Vacuum Signal Loss
Surge
•
•
•
Low Fuel Pressure
Map Sensor Failure
Application or Ancillary System Momentarily Binding During
Load or Unload
Backfires
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Faulty OEM Drivers Safety Shut-off Seat Switch
Fouled Spark Plugs
Spark Plug Wire Broke
GCP Momentary Ground Loss
Excess Lean Condition
Fuel Lock-Off Leaking (Dry Fuel)
Intake Manifold Leak
Bad Intake Valve
Lack of Power
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ancillary Components Binding
Intake Air Restriction
Crossed Spark Plug Wires
Spark Plugs Fouled
Fuel System Failure
Low Fuel Pressure
Low Cylinder Compression
Spark Knock
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Poor Quality or Contaminated Fuel
Carbon Build-up
Wrong Spark Plugs (Too High Heat Range)
Fuel Delivery System
PCV System
Fuel Selection Timing
Cylinder Hot Spots
08-38
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Concerns
SYMPTOM
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Oil System Concerns
- High Oil Consumption
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) System
Oil Viscosity
External Leaks
Improper Oil Dipstick
Valve Seals
Cylinder Wall Taper Excessive
Worn Piston Rings
Cooling System Concerns
•
•
•
•
•
•
Trapped Air
Worn Drive Belt
Worn Water Pump
Stuck Thermostat
Plugged Radiator (Internal & External)
Dry Fuel System Running Rich
- Black Smoke
•
•
•
•
Ignition System
Fuel Delivery System
Sticking Fuel Injector
High Fuel Pressure
- Blue Smoke
•
•
•
PCV System
Worn Piston Rings
Worn Valve Guides
Fuel System Concerns
•
•
•
•
Leaky Lines
Contaminated Fuel
Excessive Alcohol in Fuel
Incorrect Octane Rating
Engine Noise
•
•
Low Oil Pressure
Oil Filter Restriction
Exhaust System Concerns
(visible smoke)
08-39
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Engine Control Module (GCP) - Diagnostic
Trouble Codes
CAUTION: When checking codes with the diagnostic software, the DTC terminal can NOT be grounded.
CAUTION: Removing battery power before accessing diagnostic program will erase all codes recorded.
This section contains circuit description information and
troubleshooting charts on all the DTC’s obtained by
diagnostic software or a Malfunction Indicator Lamp
(MIL). When diagnostic trouble codes are obtained by a
Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL), the following
sequence will be flashed:
•
123 will flash 3 times to indicate the beginning of the
flash code display sequence.
•
Any active DTC’s will flash 3 times each.
•
123 will flash 3 times indicating the end of the code
display sequence.
If code 123 is the only code present, the system does
not have any active codes - all systems are working
fine.
If an active DTC is present, refer to the corresponding
DTC chart. Begin with the lowest number code first.
NOTE: If you have a symptom of the pedal not working,
and no DTC is set, go to the voltage screen and check
pedal voltage. If pedal voltage is .75 - 1.25 volts, and
idle validation switch says you’re at idle - replace the
pedal.
08-40
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC)
Diagnostic Trouble Code (DTC)
DTC 111
Closed Loop Multiplier High (LPG)
DTC 353
MegaJector Delivery Pressure Higher than Expected
DTC 112
HO2S Open/Inactive (Bank 1)
DTC 354
MegaJector Delivery Pressure Lower than Expected
DTC 113
HO2S Open/Inactive (Bank 2)
DTC 355
MegaJector Communication Lost
DTC 121
Closed Loop Multiplier High Bank 1 (Gasoline)
DTC 361
MegaJector Voltage Supply High
DTC 122
Closed Loop Multiplier Low Gank 1 (Gasoline)
DTC 362
MegaJector Voltage Supply Low
DTC 124
Closed Loop Multiplier Low (LPG)
DTC 363
MegaJector Internal Actuator Fault Detection
DTC 125
Closed Loop Multiplier High (Natural Gas)
DTC 364
MegaJector Internal Circuitry Fault Detection
DTC 126
Closed Loop Multiplier Low (Natural Gas)
DTC 365
MegaJector Internal Communication Fault Detection
DTC 131
Closed Loop Multiplier High Bank 2 (Gasoline)
DTC 411
Coil Driver #1 Open
DTC 132
Closed Loop Multiplier Low Bank 2 (Gasoline)
DTC 412
Coil Driver #1 Shorted
DTC 141
Adaptive Lean Fault (High Limit - Gasoline)
DTC 413
Coil Driver #2 Open
DTC 142
Adaptive Rich Fault (Low Limit Gasoline)
DTC 414
Coil Driver #2 Shorted
DTC 143
Adaptive Learn High (LPG)
DTC 511
FPP1 High Voltage
DTC 144
Adaptive Learn Low (LPG)
DTC 512
FPP1 Low Voltage
DTC 145
Adaptive Learn High (Natural Gas)
DTC 513
FPP1 Higher Than IVS Limit
DTC 146
Adaptive Learn Low (Natural Gas)
DTC 514
FPP1 Lower Than IVS Limit
DTC 161
System Voltage Low
DTC 521
FPP2 High Voltage
DTC 162
System Voltage High
DTC 522
FPP2 Low Voltage
DTC 211
IAT High Voltage
DTC 531
TPS1 (Signal Voltage) High
DTC 212
IAT Low Voltage
DTC 532
TPS1 (Signal Voltage) Low
DTC 213
IAT Higher Than Expected 1
DTC 533
TPS2 (Signal Voltage) High
DTC 214
IAT Higher Than Expected 2
DTC 534
TPS2 (Signal Voltage) Low
DTC 215
Oil Pressure Low
DTC 535
TPS1 Higher Than TPS2
DTC 221
CHT/ECT High Voltage
DTC 536
TPS1 Lower Than TPS2
DTC 222
CHT/ECT Low Voltage
DTC 537
Throttle Unable to Open
DTC 223
CHT Higher Than Expected 1
DTC 538
Throttle Unable to Close
DTC 224
CHT Higher Than Expected 2
DTC 545
Governor Interlock Failure
DTC 231
MAP High Pressure
DTC 551
Max Govern Speed Override
DTC 232
MAP Low Voltage
DTC 552
Fuel Rev Limit
DTC 234
BP High Pressure
DTC 553
Spark Rev Limit
DTC 235
BP Low Pressure
DTC 611
COP Failure
DTC 242
Crank Sync Noise
DTC 612
Invalid Interrupt
DTC 243
Never Crank Synced At Start
DTC 613
A/D Loss
DTC 244
Camshaft Sensor Loss
DTC 614
RTI 1 Loss
DTC 245
Camshaft Sensor Noise
DTC 615
Flash Checksum Invalid
DTC 253
Knock Sensor Open
DTC 616
RAM Failure
DTC 254
Excessive Knock Signal
DTC 631
External 5V Ref Lower Than Expected
DTC 311
Injector Driver #1 Open
DTC 632
External 5V Ref Higher Than Expected
DTC 312
Injector Driver #1 Shorted
DTC 655
RTI 2 Loss
DTC 313
Injector Driver #2 Open
DTC 656
RTI 3 Loss
DTC 314
Injector Driver #2 Shorted
DTC 315
Injector Driver #3 Open
DTC 316
Injector Driver #3 Shorted
DTC 321
Injector Driver #4 Open
DTC 322
Injector Driver #4 Shorted
DTC 351
Fuel Pump Loop Open or High Side Short to Ground
DTC 352
Fuel Pump High Side Shorted to Power
08-41
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
DTC Charts
??need DTC charts??
08-42
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
5. Install special tool 303-507 and turn the crankshaft
pulley bolt to position the No. 1 cylinder at top dead
center (TDC).
Camshaft Position (CMP) Sensor Replacement
CMP Sensor
6. Remove 2 bolts and CKP sensor.
CKP Sensor
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer to section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of the CMP Sensor.
3. Disconnect CMP electrical connector.
4. Remove bolt and CMP Sensor.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
•
•
•
Use a new o-ring seal
Lubricate o-ring with clean engine oil prior to installation
Tighten bolt to 7 Nm (62 lb-in).
7. Install an M6 bolt in the position shown.
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor Removal
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer to section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of the CKP Sensor.
3. Disconnect CKP electrical connector.
4. Remove plug.
08-43
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Crankshaft Position (CKP) Sensor Installation
6. Install the plug:
•
Tighten to 10 Nm (89 lb-in)
1. Position CKP sensor and loosely install the 2 bolts.
NOTE: The CKP sensor alignment tool is supplied with
the new sensor and is not available separately.
7. Reconnect or install any other component that was
removed.
8. Reconnect battery cable -- refer to section 6.
2. Adjust the CKP sensor with the alignment tool and
tighten 2 bolts.
• Tighten to 7 Nm (62 lb-in).
3. Connect CKP sensor electrical connector
4. Remove the M6 bolt.
5. Remove special tool 303-507.
08-44
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Cylinder Head Temperature (CHT) Sensor Replacement
Heated Oxygen Sensor (HO2S) Replacement
Boot
CHT Sensor
HO2S Sensor
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer to section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of the CHT Sensor.
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer to section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of the HO2S Sensor.
3. Pull back the CHT sensor cover and disconnect
electrical connector.
3. Disconnect HO2S electrical connector.
4. Remove the CHT Sensor.
NOTE: Use penetrating oil to assist in removal.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
•
4. Remove HO2S sensor using special tool 303-476.
Tighten CHT sensor to 12 Nm (9 lb-ft).
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT) Sensor
- Replacement
(??need procedure??)
5. Reverse procedure to install:
•
•
08-45
Apply a light coat of anti-seize lubricant to the
threads of the sensor.
Tighten sensor to 40 Nm (30 lb-ft).
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
Knock Sensor (KS) - Replacement
Temperature Manifold Absolute Pressure
(TMAP) Sensor - Replacement
Knock
Sensor
TMAP Sensor
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer to section 6.
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of the knock sensor.
1. Disconnect battery ground cable -- refer to section 6.
3. Disconnect KS sensor electrical connector.
NOTE: The KS sensor is a one-time use item and a new
KS sensor must be installed.
4. Remove bolt and KS sensor and discard sensor.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
•
•
Install a new KS sensor
Tighten bolt to 20 Nm (15 lb-ft).
2. Remove or disconnect any component to allow
access and removal of the TMAP sensor.
3. Disconnect TMAP electrical connector.
4. Remove bolt and TMAP Sensor.
5. Reverse procedure to install:
•
•
Use a new o-ring seal
Tighten bolt to ?? Nm (?? lb-??).
Actuator/Throttle Position (TP) Sensor Replacement
(??need procedure??)
08-46
DSG-423 ENGINE CONTROLS
SPECIFICATIONS
GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS
Description
Nm
lb.ft.
lb.in.
CHT Sensor
12
9
CMP Sensor
7
62
CKP Sensor
7
62
ECT Sensor
HO2S Sensor
40
30
Knock Sensor
20
15
TMAP Sensor
SPECIAL TOOLS
HO2S Removal Tool
303-476
08-47
DSG-423 METRICS
INDEX
Subject
Page
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 09 - 2
Nomenclature for Bolts .................................................................................................................................. 09 - 2
Bolt Strength Identification ............................................................................................................................ 09 - 3
Hex Nut Strength Identification ..................................................................................................................... 09 - 3
Other Types of Parts....................................................................................................................................... 09 - 4
English/Metric conversion ............................................................................................................................. 09 - 5
Decimal and Metric Equivalents .................................................................................................................... 09 - 6
Torque Conversion ......................................................................................................................................... 09 - 6
J1930 Terminology List .................................................................................................................................. 09 - 7
09
09 -1
DSG-423 METRICS
INTRODUCTION
Most threaded fasteners are covered by specifications that define required mechanical properties, such as tensile
strength, yield strength, proof load and hardness. These specifications are carefully considered in initial selection of
fasteners for a given application. To ensure continued satisfactory vehicle performance, replacement fasteners used
should be of the correct strength, as well as the correct nominal diameter, thread pitch, length, and finish.
Most original equipment fasteners (English or Metric system) are identified with markings or numbers indicating the
strength of the fastener. These markings are described in the pages that follow. Attention to these markings is
important to ensure that the proper replacement fasteners are used.
Further, some metric fasteners, especially nuts, are colored blue. This metric blue identification is in most cases a
temporary aid for production start-up, and color will generally revert to normal black or bright after start-up.
English or Metric system fasteners are available through your Ford Parts and Service operation.
NOMENCLATURE FOR BOLTS
English System Bolt, 1/2 - 13 x 1
G = Grade Marking (bolt strength)
L = Length (inches) **
T = Thread Pitch (thread/inch)
D = Nominal Diameter (inches)
Metric System Bolt, M12 - 1.75 x 25
P = Property Class (bolt strength) *
L = Length (millimeters) **
T = Thread Pitch (thread width crest to crest mm)
D = Nominal Diameter (millimeters)
* The Property class is an Arabic numeral distinguishable from the slash SAE English grade system.
** The length of all bolts is measured from the underside of the head to the end.
09 -2
DSG-423 METRICS
BOLT STRENGTH IDENTIFICATION
English System
English (inch) bolts: Identification marks correspond to bolt strength, increasing number of slashes represent
increasing strength.
Metric System
Metric (mm) bolts: Identification class numbers correspond to bolt strength, increasing numbers represent
increasing strength. Common metric fastener bolt strength property are 9.8 and 10.9 with the class identification
embossed on the bolt head.
HEX NUT STRENGTH IDENTIFICATION
English System - Grade Identification
HEX NUT
Grade 5
(3 dots)
Metric System - Class Identification
HEX NUT
Grade 8
(6 dots)
HEX NUT
Property Class 9
(Arabic 9)
Increasing dots represent increasing strength.
HEX NUT
Property Class 10
(Arabic 10)
May also have blue finish or paint daub on hex flat.
Increasing numbers represent increasing strength.
09 -3
DSG-423 METRICS
OTHER TYPES OF PARTS
Metric identification schemes vary by type of part, most often a variation of that used of bolts and nuts. Note that
many types of English and Metric fasteners carry no special identification if they are otherwise unique.
Stamped U-Nuts
Tapping, thread forming and certain
other case hardened screws
Studs, Large studs may carry the property class number.
Smaller studs use a geometric code on the end.
CLASS 10.9
09 -4
CLASS 9.8
CLASS 8.8
DSG-423 METRICS
ENGLISH/METRIC CONVERSION
TO CONVERT
FROM
TO
TO
FROM
TO CONVERT
FROM
TO
MULTIPLY BY
DIVIDE BY
Energy
MULTIPLY BY
DIVIDE BY
Distance
inches
TO
FROM
kW.h
Joules (J)
lb/ft
Joules (J)
3,600,000
1.3558
Btu
Joules (J)
1055.06
mm
25.4
inches
m
0.0254
Kcal
Joules (J)
4186.8
feet
mm
304.8
HP.h
kW.h
0.7457
feet
m
0.3048
PS.h
kW.h
0.7355
yards
m
0.9144
km
1.609
mile
Temperature
degree Farenheit (°F)
Area
degree Celsius (°C)
(°F-32) x 0.556
Torque
in2
mm2
645.16
ft.2
m2
lb./ft.
Nm
1.35582
0.0929
lb./in.
Nm
0.11298
ft.2
cm2
6.45
yds2
m2
0.8361
Power
Volume
in3
cm3
in3
mm3
16387.0
in3
1 liter
0.016387
yard3
m3
0.7646
pint (us)
1 liter
0.47318
16.3871
pint (uk)
1 liter
0.56826
quart (us)
1 liter
0.94635
gallon (us)
1 liter
3.7854
gallon (uk)
1 liter
4.5461
ft.3
1 liter
28.3168
m3
0.02832
ft.3
g
28.3495
lb.
kg
0.45359
ton
kg
907.18
ton (US)
tonne
0.90718
tonne
1.01605
ton (UK)
Density
Force
lbf
Newton (N)
kilogram
Newton (N)
9.807
ounce
Newton (N)
0.2780
4.44822
Pressure & Stress
1000 kpa
Bar
1000
lbf/in2 (psi)
kPa
6.895
lbf/in2 (psi)
N/M2
6894.76
lbf/in2
(psi)
Bar
0.0689
lbf/in2 (psi)
N/mm2
0.00689
lbf/m2 (psi)
mmHg
51.715
“H2O
kPa
0.2491
“H2O
mmH2O
25.4
“Hg
mmHG
25.4
ton (US)/in2
N/mm2
13.7894
ton (UK)/in2
N/mm2
15.4443
Velocity
ft./sec.
m/s
0.3048
ft./sec.
km/h
1.09728
miles/h
m/s
0.44694
miles/h
km/h
1.609
Acceleration
in./sec2
m/s2
0.0254
ft./sec2
m/s2
0.3048
Light
foot candle
lumens/sq meter
kW
PS
kW
0.7457
0.7355
HP
PS
1.01387
Specific Fuel Consumption
Mass
oz.
HP
10.764
09 -5
lb./hp.h
g/kW.h
miles/gal
kilometers/liter (km/L)
608.277
0.4251
gal/miles
liters/kilometer (L/km)
2.3527
DSG-423 METRICS
DECIMAL AND METRIC EQUIVALENTS
FRACTIONS
DECIMAL INCH
METRIC MM
1/64
.015625
.397
1/32
.03125
.794
3/64
.046875
1.191
1/16
.0625
5/64
.078125
3/32
TORQUE CONVERSION
Newton
Meters
(Nm)
Pound
Feet
(lb-ft)
Newton
Meters
(Nm)
Pound
Feet
(lb-ft)
1.588
1
0.7376
1
1.356
1.984
2
1.5
2
2.7
.09375
2.381
3
2.2
3
4.0
7/64
.109375
2.778
1/8
.125
3.175
4
3.0
4
5.4
9/64
.140625
3.572
5
3.7
5
6.8
4.4
6
8.1
5/32
.15625
3.969
6
11/64
.171875
4.366
7
5.2
7
9.5
3/16
.1875
4.763
8
5.9
8
10.8
13/64
.203125
5.159
7/32
.21875
5.556
15/64
.234375
5.953
9
6.6
9
12.2
10
7.4
10
13.6
11.1
15
20.3
1/4
.250
6.35
15
17/64
.265625
6.747
20
14.8
20
27.1
9/32
.28125
7.144
25
18.4
25
33.9
19/64
.296875
7.54
5/16
.3125
7.938
30
22.1
30
40.7
21/64
.328125
8.334
35
25.8
35
47.5
29.5
40
54.2
11/32
.34375
8.731
40
23/64
.359375
9.128
50
36.9
45
61.0
3/8
.375
9.525
60
44.3
50
67.8
25/64
.390625
9.922
13/32
.40625
10.319
70
51.6
55
74.6
27/64
.421875
10.716
80
59.0
60
81.4
7/16
.4375
11.113
90
66.4
65
88.1
29/64
.453125
11.509
100
73.8
70
94.9
15/32
.46875
11.906
110
81.1
75
101.7
31/64
.484375
12.303
1/2
.500
12.7
120
88.5
80
108.5
33/64
.515625
13.097
130
95.9
90
122.0
103.3
100
135.6
17/32
.53125
13.494
140
35/64
.546875
13.891
150
110.6
110
149.1
9/16
.5625
14.288
160
118.0
120
162.7
37/64
.578125
14.684
19/32
.59375
15.081
170
125.4
130
176.3
39/64
.609375
15.478
180
132.8
140
189.8
140.1
150
203.4
5/8
.625
15.875
190
41/64
.640625
16.272
200
147.5
160
216.9
21/32
.65625
16.669
225
166.0
170
230.5
43/64
.671875
17.066
11/16
.6875
17.463
250
184.4
180
244.0
45/64
.703125
17.859
23/32
.71875
18.256
47/64
.734375
18.653
3/4
.750
19.05
49/64
.765625
19.447
25/32
.78125
19.844
51/64
.796875
20.241
13/16
.8125
20.638
53/64
.828125
21.034
27/32
.84375
21.431
55/64
.859375
21.828
7/8
.875
22.225
57/64
.890625
22.622
29/32
.90625
23.019
59/64
.921875
23.416
15/16
.9375
23.813
61/64
.953125
24.209
31/32
.96875
24.606
63/64
.984375
25.003
1
1.00
25.4
09 -6
DSG-423 METRICS
J1930 TERMINOLOGY LIST
Certain Ford Component names have been changed in this Service Manual to conform to Society of Automotive
Engineers (SAE) directive J1930.
SAE J1930 standardizes automotive component names for all vehicle manufacturers.
New Term
New Acronym
Old Terms (Acronyms)
Accelerator Pedal
AP
Accelerator
Air Cleaner
ACL
Thermac Air Cleaner
Air Cleaner Element
ACL Element
Air Cleaner Element (ACL Element)
Air Cleaner Housing
ACL Housing
Air Cleaner Housing (ACH)
Air Cleaner Housing Cover
ACL Housing Cover
Air Cleaner Housing Cover (ACL Housing Cover)
Air Conditioning
A/C
Air Conditioning (AC)
Air Conditioning Clutch
A/C Clutch
Air Conditioning Clutch (ACC)
Air Conditioning Cycling Switch
A/C Cycling Switch
Air Conditioning Cycling Switch (ACCS)
Air Conditioning Sensor
A/C Sensor
Air Conditioning Sensor (A/C Sensor)
Air Conditioning System
A/C System
Air Conditioning System (SCS)
Automatic Transaxle
A/T
Electronic Automatic Transaxle (EATX)
Automatic Transmission
A/T
Electronic Automatic Transmission (EATX)
Barometric Pressure
BARO
Barometric Pressure (BARO)
Barometric Pressure Sensor
BARO Sensor
- Absolute Pressure Sensor (APS)
- Barometric Pressure Sensor (BP Sensor
Battery Positive Voltage
B+
Battery Positive Voltage (B+)
Camshaft Position
CMP
Sync Pickup
Camshaft Position Sensor
CMP Sensor
- Camshaft Position Sensor (CPS)
- Camshaft Sensor
- Cylinder Identification Sensor
(Cylinder ID Sensor) (CID)
Canister
Canister
Canister
Carburetor
CARB
Feed Back Carburetor (FBC)
Central Multiport Fuel Injection
Central MFI
- Central Multiport Fuel Injection (CMFI)
- Fuel Injection (FI)
Charge Air Cooler
CAC
- After Cooler
- Inter Cooler
Closed Loop
CL
Closed Loop System (CLS)
Closed Throttle Position
CTP
Closed Throttle Position (CTP)
Closed Throttle Position Switch
CTP Switch
Closed Throttle Switch
Clutch Pedal Position
CPP
Clutch Pedal Position (CPP)
Clutch Pedal Position Switch
CPP Switch
- Clutch Engage Switch (CES)
- Clutch Start Switch
- Clutch Switch
Compact Disc Read Only memory
CDROM
Compact Disc Read Only Memory (CDROM)
09 -7
DSG-423 METRICS
New Term
New Acronym
Old Terms (Acronyms)
Continuous Fuel Injection
CFI
- Continuous Injection System (CIS)
- Continuous Injection System - Electronic
(continuous Injection System-E) (CIS-E)
- Fuel Injection (FI)
- K-Jetronic
- KE-Jetronic
- KE-Motronic
Continuous Fuel Injection system
CFI System
Continuous Injection System (CIS)
Continuous Trap Oxidizer
CTOX
- Continuous Trap Oxidizer (CTO)
- Trap Oxidizer - Continuous (TOC)
Crankshaft Position
CKP
- Crankshaft Position (CP)
- Position Indicator Pulse (PIP)
Crankshaft Position Sensor
CKP Sensor
- Crankshaft Position Sensor (CPS)
- Crank Angle Sensor
Data Link Connector
DLC
- Assembly Line Communication Link (ALCL)
- Assembly Line Diagnostic Link (ALDL)
- Self Test Connector
- Vehicle in Process Connector (VIP Connector)
Diagnostic Test Mode
DTM
Modes
Diagnostic Trouble Code
DTC
Self Test Codes
Differential Pressure Feedback Gas Recirculation
System
Differential Pressure
Feedback EGR
System
Differential Pressure Feedback EGR System
Direct Fuel Injection
DFI
- Direct Injection (DI)
- Direct Injection - Diesel (DID)
- Fuel Injection (FI)
Distributor Ignition
DI
- Capacitive Discharge Ignition (CDI)
- Closed Bowl Distributor
- Electronic Ignition (EI) (with Distributor)
- Electronic Spark Advance Control (ESAC)
- High Energy Ignition (HEI)
- Remote Mount Thick Film Ignition
(Remote Mount TFI)
- Thick Film Ignition (TFI)
Distributor Ignition Capacitor
DI Capacitor
Condenser
Distributor Ignition Control Module
Distributor ICM
Electronic Distributor Ignition System Module
(EDIS Module)
Distributor Ignition System
DI System
Electronic Distributor Ignition System (EDIS)
Early Fuel Evaporation
EFE
Early Fuel Evaporation (EFE)
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory
EEPROM
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only
Memory (E2PROM)
Electronic Continuous Fuel Injection System
Electronic CFI System
Continuous Injection System - Electronic
(Continuous Injection System-E) (CIS-E)
Electronic engine Control
Electronic EC
Electronic Engine Control (EEC)
Electronic Ignition
EI
- Computer Controlled Coil Ignition (C3I)
- Distributorless Ignition (DLI)
- Electronic Ignition (EI) (without distributor)
- Integrated Direct Ignition (IDI)
Electronic Ignition System
EI System
- Direct Ignition System (DIS)
- Distributorless Ignition System (DIS)
- Electronic Distributorless Ignition System
(EDIS)
Engine Control
EC
Electronic Engine Control (EEC)
Engine Control Module
ECM
Engine Control Module (ECM)
09 -8
DSG-423 METRICS
New Term
New Acronym
Old Terms (Acronyms)
Engine Coolant Level
ECL
Engine Coolant Level (ECL)
Engine Coolant Level Indicator
ECL Indicator
Engine Coolant Level Indicator
Engine Coolant Temperature
ECT
Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT)
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor
ECT Sensor
- Coolant Temperature Sensor (CTS)
- Engine Coolant Temperature Sender
(ECT Sender)
Engine Coolant Temperature Switch
ECT Switch
Coolant Temperature Switch (CTS)
Engine Speed
RPM
- Crankshaft Speed
- Revolutions Per Minute (RPM)
Engine Speed Sensor
RPM Sensor
Crankshaft Speed Sensor
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
EPROM
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
(EPROM)
Evaporative Emission
EVAP
Evaporative Emission (EVAP)
Evaporative Emission Canister
EVAP Canister
- Canister
- Charcoal Canister
Evaporative Emission Canister Purge
EVAP Canister Purge
- EVAP CANP
- Canister Purge (CANP)
Evaporative Emission Canister Purge Valve
EVAP Canister Purge
Valve
- Canister Purge Valve
- Canister Purge Vacuum Switching Valve
(Canister Purge VSV)
- Duty Solenoid for Purge Valve
- Evaporative Emission Purge Valve
(EVAP Purge Valve)
- Vacuum Solenoid Valve (Canister) (VSV)
- Vacuum Solenoid Valve (EVAP) (VSV)
Evaporative Emission System
EVAP System
Evaporation Emission Control System (EECS)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation
EGR
Digital Exhaust Gas Recirculation (Digital EGR)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Backpressure
Transducer
EGR Backpressure
Transducer
Backpressure Transducer
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Diagnostic Valve
EGR Diagnostic
EGR Diagnostic Valve
Exhaust Gas Recirculation System
EGR System
EGR System
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature
EGRT
EGR Temperature
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Temperature Sensor
EGRT Sensor
Recirculated Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor
(REGTS)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Thermal Vacuum Valve
EGR TVV
EGR Thermal Vacuum Valve (EGR TVV)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Vacuum Regulator
Solenoid
EGR Vacuum
Regulator Solenoid
EGR Vacuum Regulator Solenoid (EVR
Solenoid)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Vacuum Regulator Valve
EGR Vacuum
Regulator Valve
EGR Vacuum Regulator Valve (EVRV)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve
EGR Valve
EGR Valve (EGRV)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve Control
EGR Valve Control
EGR Valve Control (EGRVC)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation Valve Position Sensor
EGR Valve Position
Sensor
EGR Valve Position Sensor (EVP Sensor)
Fan Control
FC
- Electro-Drive Fan Control (EDF Control)
- Engine Coolant Fan Control
- High Electro-Drive Fan Control (HEDF Control)
- Radiator Fan Control
Fan Control Module
FC Module
Fan Control Module
09 -9
DSG-423 METRICS
New Term
New Acronym
Old Terms (Acronyms)
Fan Control Relay
FC Relay
- Fan Motor Control Relay
- Radiator Fan Relay
Feedback Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation
Feedback Pressure
EGR
Pressure Feedback Exhaust Gas Recirculation
Feedback Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation
Sensor
Feedback Pressure
EGR Sensor
Pressure Feedback Exhaust Gas Recirculation
(PFE) Sensor
Flash Electrically Erasable Programmable Read
Only Memory
FEEPROM
Flash EEPROM
Flash Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
FEPROM
Flash EPROM
Flexible Fuel
FF
Flexible Fuel (FF)
Flexible Fuel Sensor
FF Sensor
- Alcohol Concentration Sensor
- Fuel Concentration Sensor
- Fuel Quality Sensor
- Percent Alcohol Sensor
- Variable Fuel Sensor
Forth Gear
4GR
Fourth Gear (4GR)
Fuel Level Sensor
Fuel Level Sensor
Fuel Sensor
Fuel Pressure
Fuel Pressure
Fuel Pressure
Fuel Pressure Regulator
Fuel Pressure
Regulator
Fuel Regulator
Fuel Pump
FP
Fuel Pump (FP)
Fuel Pump Module
FP Module
- Fuel Module
- Fuel Sender
- Fuel Tank Unit
- In Tank Module
Fuel Pump Relay
FP Relay
Fuel Pump Relay
Fuel Trim
FT
Adaptive Fuel Strategy
Generator
GEN
Alternator (ALT)
Governor
Governor
Governor
Governor Control Module
GCM
Governor Electronic Module (GEM)
Ground
GND
Ground (GRD)
Heated Oxygen Sensor
HO2S
- Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor
(HEGO Sensor)
- Heated Oxygen Sensor (HOS)
High Speed Fan Control Switch
High Speed FC Switch
High speed Fan Control Switch
(High Speed FC Switch)
Idle Air Control
IAC
- Idle Air Bypass Control
- Idle speed Control (ISC)
- Idle Speed Control Bypass air
(ISC BPA)
Idle Air Control Thermal Valve
IAC Thermal Valve
Fast Idle Thermo Valve
Idle Air Control Valve
IAC Valve
- Air Valve
- Fast Idle Thermo Valve
- Idle Air Control Valve (IACV)
Idle Speed Control
ISC
Throttle Opener
Idle Speed Control Actuator
ISC Actuator
Idle Speed Control Actuator (ISC Actuator)
Idle Speed Control Solenoid Vacuum
ISC Solenoid Vacuum
Valve
- Throttle Opener Vacuum Switching Valve
(Throttle Opener VSV)
- Vacuum Solenoid Valve (Throttle) (VSV)
09 -10
DSG-423 METRICS
New Term
New Acronym
Old Terms (Acronyms)
Ignition Control
IC
- Electronic Spark Advance (ESA)
- Electronic spark Timing (EST)
Ignition Control Module
ICM
- Distributorless Ignition System Module
(DIS Module)
- Thick Film Ignition Module (TFI Module)
Indirect Fuel Injection
IFI
- Fuel Injection (FI)
- Indirect Fuel Injection (IDFI)
- Indirect Diesel Injection (IDI)
Inertia Fuel Shutoff
IFS
Inertia Fuel Shutoff (IFS)
Inertia Fuel Shutoff Switch
IFS Switch
- Inertia Switch
- Inertia Fuel - Shutoff Switch
Intake Air
IA
Intake Air
Intake Air Duct
IA Duct
Intake Air Duct
Intake Air System
IA System
Air Intake System
Intake Air Temperature
IAT
- Air Charge Temperature (ACT)
- Manifold Air Temperature (MAT)
- Throttle Body Temperature (TBT)
- Vane Air Temperature (VAT)
Intake Air Temperature Sensor
IAT Sensor
- Air Temperature Sensor (ATS)
- Intake Air Temperature Sensor (IATS)
- Manifold Air Temperature Sensor (MATS)
Keep Alive Random Access Memory
Keep Alive RAM
Keep Alive memory (KAM)
Knock Sensor
KS
Detonation Sensor (DS)
Long Term Fuel Trim
Long Term FT
- Block Learn Matrix (BLM)
- Block Learn Memory (BLM)
- Block Learn Multiplier (BLM)
Low Speed Fan Control Switch
Low Speed FC Switch
Low Speed Fan Control Switch
(Low Speed FC Switch)
Malfunction Indicator Lamp
MIL
- Check Engine
- Service Engine Soon
Manifold Absolute Pressure
MAP
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP)
Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor
MAP Sensor
- Intake Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor
- Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor (MAPS)
- Pressure Sensor (P-Sensor)
Manifold Differential Pressure
MDP
Manifold Differential Pressure (MDP)
Manifold Differential Pressure Sensor
MDP Sensor
Vacuum Sensor (VAC Sensor)
Manifold Surface Temperature
MST
Manifold Surface Temperature (MST)
Manifold Vacuum Zone
MVZ
Manifold Vacuum Zone (MVZ)
Manifold Vacuum Zone Switch
MVZ Switch
Vacuum Switches
Mass Air Flow
MAF
- Air Flow Control (AFC)
- Air Flow Meter
Mass Air Flow Sensor
MAF Sensor
- Air Flow Meter
- Air Flow Sensor (AFS)
- Hot Wire Anemometer
Mixture Control
MC
- Feed Back Control (FBC)
- Mixture Control (M/C)
Mixture Control Solenoid
MC Solenoid
Mixture Control Solenoid (MCS)
09 -11
DSG-423 METRICS
New Term
New Acronym
Old Terms (Acronyms)
Multiport Fuel Injection
MFI
- D-Jetronic
- Digital Fuel Injection (EFI)
- Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI)
- Fuel Injection (FI)
- L-Jetronic
- LH-Jetronic
- Motronic
- Multipoint Injection (MPI)
- Multiport Injection (MPI)
- Port Fuel Injection (PFI)
- Programmed Fuel Injection (PGM-FI)
- Tuned Port Injection (TPI)
Nonvolatile Random Access Memory
NVRAM
- Keep Alive Memory (KAM)
- Nonvolatile Memory (NVM)
Oil Pressure Sensor
Oil Pressure Sensor
Oil Pressure Sender
Oil Pressure Switch
Oil Pressure Switch
Oil Pressure Switch
On-Board Diagnostic
OBD
Self Test
Open Loop
OL
Open Loop (OL)
Oxidation Catalytic Converter
OC
- Continuous Oxidation Catalyst (COC)
- Oxidation Catalyst (OC)
Oxygen Sensor
O2S
- Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor
(EGO Sensor, EGOS)
- Exhaust Gas Sensor (EGS)
- Exhaust Oxygen Sensor (EOS)
- Lambda
- Oxygen Sensor (O2 Sensor, OS)
Park/Neutral Position
PNP
Park/Neutral (P/N)
Park/Neutral Position Switch
PNP Switch
- Neutral Drive Switch (NDS)
- Neutral Gear Switch (NGS)
- Neutral Position Switch (NPS)
- Neutral Safety Switch
Periodic Trap Oxidizer
PTOX
Trap Oxidizer - Periodic (TOP)
Positive Crankcase Ventilation
PCV
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV)
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (Valve)
PCV Valve
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV valve)
Power Steering Pressure
PSP
Power Steering Pressure (PSP)
Power Steering Pressure Switch
PSP Switch
Power Steering Pressure Switch
(P/S Pressure Switch, PSPS)
Powertrain Control Module
PCM
- Electronic Control Assembly (ECA)
- Electronic Control Unit 4 (ECU4)
- Electronic Engine Control Processor
(EEC Processor)
- Microprocessor Control Unit (MCU)
- Single Board Engine Control (SBEC)
- Single Module Engine Control (SMEC)
Pressure Transducer Exhaust Gas Recirculation
System
Pressure Transducer
EGR System
Pressure Transducer EGR System
Programmable Read Only Memory
PROM
Programmable Read Only memory (PROM)
Pulsed Secondary Air Injection
PAIR
- Air Injection Reactor (AIR)
- Air Injection Valve (AIV)
- Pulsair
- Thermactor II
Pulsed Secondary Air Injection Valve
PAIR Valve
Reed Valve
Random Access Memory
RAM
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Read Only memory
ROM
Read Only Memory (ROM)
09 -12
DSG-423 METRICS
New Term
New Acronym
Old Terms (Acronyms)
Relay Module
RM
Integrated Relay Module
Scan Tool
ST
Scan Tool
Secondary Air Injection
AIR
- Air Injection (AI)
- Air Injection Reactor (AIR)
- Thermac
- Thermactor
Secondary Air Injection Bypass
AIR Bypass
- Air Management 1 (AM1)
- Secondary Air Injection Bypass (AIRB)
- Thermactor Air Bypass (TAB)
Secondary Air Injection Bypass Valve
AIR Bypass Valve
Secondary Air Bypass Valve (SABV)
Secondary Air Injection Check Valve
AIR Check Valve
Secondary Air Check Valve
Secondary Air Injection Control Valve
AIR Control Valve
- Air Control Valve
- Secondary Air Check Valve (SACV)
Secondary Air Injection Diverter
AIR Diverter
- Air Management2 (AM2)
- Secondary Air Injection Diverter (AIRD)
- Thermactor Air Diverter (TAD)
Secondary Air Injection Pump
AIR Pump
Air Injection Pump (AIP)
Secondary Air Injection Switching Valve
AIR Switching Valve
Secondary Air Switching Valve (SASV)
Sequential Multiport Fuel Injection
SFI
- Fuel Injection (FI)
- Sequential Electronic Fuel Injection (SEFI)
- Sequential Fuel Injection (SFI)
Service Reminder Indicator
SRI
- Check Engine
- Engine Maintenance Reminder (EMR)
- Oxygen Sensor Indicator (OXS)
- Service Engine Soon
Short Term Fuel Trim
Short Term FT
Integrator (INT)
Smoke Puff Limiter
SPL
Smoke Puff Limiter (SPL)
Supercharger
SC
Supercharger (SC)
Supercharger Bypass
SCB
Supercharger Bypass (SCB)
Supercharger Bypass Solenoid
SCB Solenoid
Supercharger Bypass Solenoid (SBS)
System Readiness Test
SRT
System Readiness Test (SRT)
Thermal Vacuum Valve
TVV
Thermal Vacuum Switch (TVS)
Third Gear
3GR
Third Gear (3GR)
Three Way Catalytic Converter
TWC
Three Way Catalytic Converter (TWC)
Three Way + Oxidation Catalytic Converter
TWC + OC
Dual Bed
Throttle Body
TB
Fuel Charging Station
Throttle Body Fuel Injection
TBI
- Central Fuel Injection (CFI)
- Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI)
- Fuel Injection (FI)
- Monotronic
- Single Point Injection (SPI)
Throttle Position
TP
Throttle Position (TP)
Throttle Position Sensor
TP Sensor
- Throttle Position Sensor (TP)
- Throttle Potentiometer
Throttle Position Switch
TP Switch
Throttle Position Switch (TPS)
Torque Converter Clutch
TCC
- Converter Clutch Control (CCC)
- Converter Clutch Override (CCO)
- Viscous Converter Clutch (VCC)
09 -13
DSG-423 METRICS
New Term
New Acronym
Old Terms (Acronyms)
Torque Converter Clutch Relay
TCC Relay
Lock Up Relay
Torque Converter Clutch Solenoid Valve
TCC Solenoid Valve
Lock Up Solenoid Valve (LUS)
Transmission Control Module
TCM
Transmission Control Module
Transmission Range
TR
- Park, Reverse, Neutral, Drive, Low (PRNDL)
- Selection Lever Position (SLP)
- Transmission Range Selection (TRS)
Transmission Range Sensor
TR Sensor
Manual Lever Position Sensor (MLP Sensor)
Transmission Range Switch
TR Switch
- Manual Range Position Switch (MRPS)
- Transmission Position Switch
- Transmission Range Selection Switch (TRSS)
Turbocharger
TC
Turbo
Vehicle Speed Sensor
VSS
- Distance Sensor
- Pulse Generator (PG)
Voltage Regulator
VR
voltage Regulator (VR)
Volume Air Flow
VAF
- Air Flow Control (AFC)
- Air Flow Meter
- Vane Air Flow
Volume Air Flow Sensor
VAF Sensor
- Air Flow Meter
- Air Flow Sensor (AFS)
Warm Up Oxidation Catalytic Converter
WU-OC
Light Off Catalyst
Warm Up Three Way Catalytic Converter
WU-TWC
Light Off Catalyst
Wide Open Throttle
WOT
Full Throttle
Wide Open Throttle Switch
WOT Switch
Wide Open Throttle Switch (WOTS)
09 -14
EDI DISTRIBUTORS
North America - Canada
ONTARIO,
QUEBEC,
MONITOBA
M-K Power
Products Corp.
5641 McAdam Road
Mississauga, Ontario,
Canada, L4Z-1N9
ALBERTA,
Industrial Engines, 14355 120th Avenue
SASKATCHEWAN Ltd.
Edmonton, Alberta Canada,
T5L 2R8
905-890-5323
780-484-6213
North America - United States
ALABAMA
M&I Ford
30762 State Highway 181
Daphne, AL 36526
800-633-1834
CALIFORNIA
Powertech
Engines Inc.
2933 E. Hamilton Avenue
Fresno, CA 93721
559-264-1776
FLORIDA
Engine
Distributors, Inc.
259 Ellis Rd South
Jacksonville, FL 32254
800-342-3576
Engine
Distributors, Inc.
2917 S. W. Second Ave.
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33315
800-257-6605
MICHIGAN
Engine Center, Inc. 2351 Hilton Road
Ferndale, MI 48220
800-726-8870
MISSOURI
C K Power
Products
314-868-8620
NEBRASKA
Anderson
5532 Center Street
Industrial Engines Omaha, NE 68106
Co.
402-558-8700
NEW JERSEY
Engine
Distributors, Inc.
400 University Court
Blackwood, NJ 08012
800-220-2700
NORTH
CAROLINA
Engine
Distributors, Inc.
303 Interstate Drive
Archdale, NC 27263 3148
800-220-7080
OHIO
Graham Ford Inc.
707 W. Broad St.
Columbus, OH 43222
614-464-6000
North Coast Ford
Industrial
11885 Bellaire Road
Cleveland, OH 44135
216-251-5800
PENNSYLVANIA
Pitt Auto Electric
1241 Freedom Road
Cranberry Twp., PA 16066
724-778-8200
WASHINGTON
Pacific Torque
18060 Des Moines Memorial
Drive, Burien, WA 98148
206-241-8300
1100 Research Blvd.
St. Louis, MO 63132
Appendix - 1
EDI Worldwide Service
Engine Distributors Inc
400 University Court
Blackwood NJ 08012
Service/Warranty
1-800-220-2700
1-856-228-7298
1-856-228-5657(fax parts & service)
1-856-228-5531(fax sales)
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