Groundsmaster® 455-D

Groundsmaster® 455-D
Part No. 93804SL Rev. E
Service Manual
Groundsmaster 455-D
®
This publication provides the service technician with
information for troubleshooting, testing, and repair of
m a j o r s y s t e m s a n d c o m p o n e n t s on t he
Groundsmaster 455-D
REFER TO THE GROUNDSMASTER 455-D OPERATOR’S MANUAL FOR OPERATING, MAINTENANCE
AND ADJUSTMENT INSTRUCTIONS. Space is provided at the end of Chapter 2 in this publication to insert
the Operator’s Manuals and Parts Catalogs for your
machine. Replacement Operator’s Manuals are available by sending complete Model and Serial Number of
traction unit and cutting unit to:
The Toro Company
8111 Lyndale Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55420
The Toro Company reserves the right to change product
specifications or this publication without notice.
This safety symbol means DANGER, WARNING, or CAUTION, PERSONAL SAFETY INSTRUCTION. When you see this symbol,
carefully read the instructions that follow.
Failure to obey the instructions may result in
personal injury.
NOTE: A NOTE will give general information about the
correct operation, maintenance, service, testing or repair of the machine.
IMPORTANT: The IMPORTANT notice will give important instructions which must be followed to prevent damage to systems or components on the
machine.
© The Toro Company - 1993, 1996, 1998, 2002, 2003
This page is blank.
Chapter 2 - Product Records and Manuals
Product Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 1
Equivalents and Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 2
Torque Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 3
Maintenance Interval Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - 4
Equipment Operational and
Service Historical Report Record
Chapter 5 - Electrical System
Wiring Schematics and Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 2
Special Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 5
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 7
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 16
Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - 29
Chapter 3 - Peugeot XUD9 Diesel Engine
Chapter 6 - Axles and Brakes
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 2
Identification and Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 3
Special Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 11
Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 17
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 18
Testing and Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 27
Fuel System Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 33
Timing Belt Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 36
Injection Pump Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 40
Preparation for Engine Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 42
Engine Removal and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 43
Engine Overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - 45
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 2
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 3
Special Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 4
Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 6
Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 - 8
Chapter 7 - PTO System
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 2
Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 3
Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 - 5
Chapter 8 - Cutting Unit
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 2
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 3
Hydraulic Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 5
Hydraulic Flow Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 7
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 2
General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 3
Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 4
Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - 9
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Rev. B
Cutting Unit
PTO System
Chapter 4 - Hydraulic System
Engine
Safety Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 - 1
Special Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 11
Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 13
Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 19
Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 26
Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 - 27
Axles and Brakes Electrical System Hydraulic System
Chapter 1 - Safety
Product Records
and Manuals
Safety
Table Of Contents
This page is blank.
Safety
Table of Contents
SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Before Operating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
While Operating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
While Doing Maintenance, Troubleshooting,
Testing, Adjustments or Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Safety Instructions
The GROUNDSMASTER 455-D conforms to the American National Standards Institute’s safety standards for
riding mowers when standard rear weight ballast is
installed. Although hazard control and accident prevention partially are dependent upon the design and configuration of the machine; these factors are also
dependent upon the awareness, concern, and proper
training of the personnel involved in the operation, transport, maintenance, and storage of the machine. Improper use or maintenance of the machine can result in
injury or death. To reduce the potential for injury or
death, comply with the following safety Instructions.
CAUTION
Obey the following safety instructions. Read
and understand these instructions before operating the Groundsmaster 455-D or doing
maintenance, troubleshooting, testing, adjustments or repairs. Failure to comply with
the safety instructions may result in personal
injury.
WARNING: Engine exhaust contains carbon monoxide
which is an odorless, deadly poison. Carbon monoxide
is also known by the State of California to cause birth
defects. Do not run engine indoors or in an enclosed
area.
Before Operating
1. Read and understand the Operator’s Manual before
starting, operating, maintaining or repairing the machine. Become familiar with the controls and know how
to stop the machine and engine quickly. Replacement
Operator’s Manuals are available by sending complete
Model and Serial Number of traction unit and cutting
units to:
The Toro Company
8111 Lyndale Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55420
Use the Model and Serial Number when referring to your
machine. If you have questions about this Service Manual, please contact:
The Toro Company
Commercial Service Department
8111 Lyndale Avenue South
Minneapolis, MN 55420
Groundsmaster® 455-D
2. Never allow children to operate the machine. Do not
allow adults to operate machine without proper instruction. Only trained operators who have read this manual
should operate this machine.
3. Never operate the machine when under the influence
of drugs or alcohol.
4. Keep all shields, safety devices and decals in place.
If a shield, safety device or decal is defective, illegible
or damaged, repair or replace it before operating the
machine. Also tighten any loose nuts, bolts or screws to
ensure machine is in safe operating condition.
5. Always wear substantial shoes. Do not operate machine while wearing sandals, tennis shoes, sneakers or
when barefoot. Do not wear loose fitting clothing that
could get caught in moving parts and possibly cause
personal injury. Wearing safety glasses, safety shoes,
Page 1 - 1
Safety Instructions
Safety
Chapter 1
long pants and a helmet is advisable and required by
some local ordinances and insurance regulations.
8. Since diesel fuel is highly flammable, handle it
carefully:
6. Assure interlock switches are adjusted correctly so
engine cannot be started unless traction pedal is in
NEUTRAL and cutting unit is DISENGAGED.
A. Use an approved fuel container.
B. Do not remove fuel tank cap while engine is hot
or running.
C. Do not smoke while handling fuel.
D. Fill fuel tank outdoors and only to within an inch
from the top of the tank, not the filler neck. Do not
overfill.
E. Wipe up any spilled fuel.
7. Remove all debris or other objects that might be
picked up and thrown by the blades or fast moving
components from other attached implements. Keep all
bystanders away from operating area.
While Operating
9. Sit on the seat when starting and operating the
machine.
10. Before starting the engine:
A. Engage the parking brake.
B. Make sure traction pedal is in NEUTRAL and
cutting decks are DISENGAGED. Move axle shift to
HI or LO position.
C. After engine is started, release parking brake and
keep foot off traction pedal. Machine must not move.
If movement is evident, the neutral return mechanism is adjusted incorrectly; therefore, shut engine
off and adjust until machine does not move when
traction pedal is released. Refer to Adjusting Traction Drive for Neutral in Chapter 4 - Hydraulic
System.
11. Seating capacity is one person. Therefore, never
carry passengers.
12. Do not run engine in a confined area without adequate ventilation. Exhaust fumes are hazardous and
could possibly be deadly.
13. Check interlock switches daily for proper operation.
Do not rely entirely on safety switches – use common
sense. If a switch fails, replace it before operating the
machine. The interlock system is for your protection, so
do not bypass it. Replace all interlock switches every
two years.
14. Using the machine demands attention and to prevent loss of control:
A. Operate only in daylight or when there is good
artificial light.
B. Drive slowly. Avoid sudden stops and starts.
C. Watch for holes or other hidden hazards.
D. Look behind machine before backing up.
E. Do not drive close to a sand trap, ditch, creek or
other hazard.
Safety Instructions
F Reduce speed when making sharp turns and
turning on a hillside.
15. Traverse slopes carefully. Do not start or stop suddenly when traveling uphill or downhill. Never shift axle
when moving. Machine must be on a flat surface and /
or brakes must be engaged to prevent freewheeling.
16. Operator must be skilled and trained in how to drive
on hillsides. Failure to use caution on slopes or hills may
cause loss of control and vehicle to tip or roll possibly
resulting in personal injury or death.
17. When operating 4 wheel drive machine, always use
the seat belt and ROPS together and have seat pivot
retaining pin installed.
18. If engine stalls or loses headway and cannot make
it to the top of a slope, do not turn machine around.
Always back slowly straight down the slope.
19. Raise cutting decks and latch securely in transport
position before driving from one work area to another.
20. DON’T TAKE AN INJURY RISK! When a person or
pet appears unexpectedly in or near the mowing area,
STOP MOWING. Careless operation, combined with
terrain angles, ricochets, or improperly positioned
guards can lead to thrown object injuries. Do not resume
mowing until area is cleared.
21. Do not touch engine, muffler or exhaust pipe while
engine is running or soon after it is stopped. These areas
could be hot enough to cause burns.
22. If cutting deck strikes a solid object or vibrates
abnormally, stop immediately, turn engine off, set parking brake and wait for all motion to stop. Inspect for
damage. If damaged, repair or replace any components
before operating.
Page 1 - 2
Groundsmaster® 455-D
A. Set parking brake.
B. Move traction pedal to neutral and axle shift to Hi
or LO position.
C. Disengage cutting decks and wait for blades
to stop.
D. Stop engine and remove key from switch.
E. Do not park on slopes unless wheels are chocked
or blocked.
24. Use only a rigid tow bar if it becomes necessary to
tow machine. Use trailer for normal transport.
While Doing Maintenance, Troubleshooting, Testing, Adjustments or Repairs
25. Before servicing or making adjustments, stop engine and remove key from the switch.
26. When changing attachments, tires or performing
other service, use the correct blocks, hoists and jacks.
Always chock or block the wheels and use jack stands
or solid wood blocks to support the raised machine. If
the traction unit is not properly supported by blocks or
jack stands, the unit may move or fall resulting in injury.
27. Make sure machine is in safe operating condition by
keeping all nuts, bolts and screws tight.
28. Make sure all hydraulic line connectors are tight, and
all hydraulic hoses and lines are in good condition
before applying pressure to the system.
29. Keep body and hands away from pin hole leaks or
nozzles that eject high pressure hydraulic fluid. Use
cardboard or paper to find hydraulic leaks. Hydraulic
fluid escaping under pressure can penetrate skin and
cause injury. Fluid accidentally injected into the skin
must be surgically removed within a few hours by a
doctor familiar with this form of injury or gangrene may
result.
30. Before disconnecting or performing any work on the
hydraulic system, all pressure in system must be
relieved by lowering cutting units to the ground and
stopping engine.
32. To reduce potential fire hazard, keep engine area
free of excessive grease, grass, leaves and dirt. Clean
protective screen on back of machine frequently.
33. If engine must be running to perform maintenance
or an adjustment, keep hands, feet, clothing and other
parts of the body away from cutting units and other
moving parts. Keep all bystanders away.
34. Do not overspeed the engine by changing governor
setting. To assure safety and accuracy, have an Authorized Toro Distributor check maximum engine speed.
35. Shut engine off before checking or adding oil to the
crankcase.
36. Disconnect battery before servicing the machine. If
battery voltage is required for troubleshooting or test
procedures, temporarily connect the battery.
37. At the time of manufacture, the machine conformed
to the safety standards for riding mowers. Ballast
weight, mounted to rear of traction unit, is required for
machine to conform to safety standard. DO NOT remove ballast weight at any time. To assure optimum
performance and continued safety certification of the
machine, use genuine Toro replacement parts and accessories. Replacement parts and accessories made
by other manufacturers may result in non-conformance
with the safety standards, and the warranty may be
voided.
31. If major repairs are ever needed or assistance is
desired, contact an Authorized Toro Distributor.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 1 - 3 Rev. C
Safety Instructions
Safety
23. Before getting off the seat:
Safety Instructions
Page 1 - 4
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Chapter 2
Table of Contents
PRODUCT RECORDS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
EQUIVALENTS AND CONVERSIONS . . . . . . . . . .
Decimal and Millimeter Equivalents . . . . . . . . . .
U.S. to Metric Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TORQUE SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values - U.S. . .
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values - Metric .
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
MAINTENANCE CHARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2 Wheel Drive Quick Reference Aid . . . . . . . . . . 4
4 Wheel Drive Quick Reference Aid . . . . . . . . . . 6
EQUIPMENT OPERATION
AND SERVICE HISTORY REPORT
Record information about your Groundsmaster 455-D
on the Equipment Operation and Service History Report
Form. Use this information when referring to your machine.
Insert the Operator’s Manuals and Parts Catalogs for
your Groundsmaster 455-D at the end of this section.
Product Records
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 2 - 1 Rev. B
Product Records
Product Records
and Manuals
Product Records and Manuals
Equivalents and Conversions
Decimal and Millimeter Equivalents
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Fractions
Decimals
mm
Fractions
Decimals
mm
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
1/64 0.015625
1/32 –––––
0.03125
3/64 0.046875
1/16 ––––––––––––
0.0625
5/64 0.078125
3/32 –––––
0.9375
7/64 0.109275
1/8 –––––––––––––
0.1250
9/64 0.140625
5/32 –––––
0.15625
11/64 0.171875
3/16 ––––––––––––
0.1875
13/64 0.203125
7/32 –––––
0.21875
15/64 0.234375
1/4 –––––––––––––
0.2500
17/64 0.265625
9/32 –––––
0.28125
19/64 0.296875
5/16 ––––––––––––
0.3125
21/64 0.328125
11/32 ––––
0.34375
23/64 0.359375
3/8 –––––––––––––
0.3750
25/64 0.390625
13/32 ––––
0.40625
27/64 0.421875
7/16 ––––––––––––
0.4375
29/64 0.453125
15/32 ––––
0.46875
31/64 0.484375
1/2 –––––––––––––
0.5000
1 mm = 0.03937 in.
— 0.397
— 0.794
— 1.191
— 1.588
— 1.984
— 2.381
— 2.778
— 3.175
— 3.572
— 3.969
— 4.366
— 4.762
— 5.159
— 5.556
— 5.953
— 6.350
— 6.747
— 7.144
— 7.541
— 7.541
— 8.334
— 8.731
— 9.128
— 9.525
— 9.922
— 10.319
— 10.716
— 11.112
— 11.509
— 11.906
— 12.303
— 12.700
33/64 0.515625
17/32 –––– 0.53125
35/64 0.546875
9/16 –––––––––––– 0.5625
37/64 0.578125
19/32 –––– 0.59375
39/64 0.609375
5/8 ––––––––––––– 0.6250
41/64 0.640625
21/32 –––– 0.65625
43/64 0.671875
11/16 ––––––––––– 0.6875
45/64 0.703125
23/32 –––– 0.71875
47/64 0.734375
3/4 ––––––––––––– 0.7500
49/64 0.765625
25/32 –––– 0.78125
51/64 0.796875
13/16 ––––––––––– 0.8125
53/64 0.828125
27/32 –––– 0.84375
55/64 0.859375
7/8 ––––––––––––– 0.8750
57/64 0.890625
29/32 –––– 0.90625
59/64 0.921875
15/16 ––––––––––– 0.9375
61/64 0.953125
31/32 –––– 0.96875
63/64 0.984375
1 –––––––––––––– 1.000
0.001 in. = 0.0254 mm
— 13.097
— 13.494
— 13.891
— 14.288
— 14.684
— 15.081
— 15.478
— 15.875
— 16.272
— 16.669
— 17.066
— 17.462
— 17.859
— 18.256
— 18.653
— 19.050
— 19.447
— 19.844
— 20.241
— 20.638
— 21.034
— 21.431
— 21.828
— 22.225
— 22.622
— 23.019
— 23.416
— 23.812
— 24.209
— 24.606
— 25.003
— 25.400
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
U.S to Metric Conversions
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
To Convert
Into
Multiply By
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Linear
Measurement
Miles
Yards
Feet
Feet
Inches
Inches
Inches
Kilometers
Meters
Meters
Centimeters
Meters
Centimeters
Millimeters
1.609
0.9144
0.3048
30.48
0.0254
2.54
25.4
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Area
Square Miles
Square Feet
Square Inches
Acre
Square Kilometers
Square Meters
Square Centimeters
Hectare
2.59
0.0929
6.452
0.4047
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Volume
Cubic Yards
Cubic Feet
Cubic Inches
Cubic Meters
Cubic Meters
Cubic Centimeters
0.7646
0.02832
16.39
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Weight
Tons (Short)
Pounds
Ounces (Avdp.)
Metric Tons
Kilograms
Grams
0.9078
0.4536
28.3495
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Pressure
Pounds/Sq. In.
Kilopascal
6.895
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Work
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds
Inch-pounds
Newton-Meters
Kilogram-Meters
Kilogram-Centimeters
1.356
0.1383
1.152144
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Liquid Volume
Quarts
Gallons
Liters
Liters
0.9463
3.785
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Liquid Flow
Gallons/Minute
Liters/Minute
3.785
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Temperature
Fahrenheit
Celsius
1. Subract 32o
2. Multiply by 5/9
___________________________________________________________________________________________________
Equivalents and Conversions
Page 2 - 2
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Torque Specifications
The torque values listed below are for lubricated
threads. Plated threads are considered to be lubricated.
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values - U.S. Customary
SAE Grade Number
5
8
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Capscrew Head Markings
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Capscrew Torque - Grade 5
Cast Iron
Aluminum
ft-lb
Nm
ft-lb
Nm
Capscrew Body Size
ft-lb
Capscrew Torque - Grade 8
Cast Iron
Aluminum
Nm
ft-lb
Nm
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1/4-20
-28
7
9
9
12
6
7
8
9
11
13
15
18
9
10
12
14
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5/16-18
-24
15
17
20
23
12
14
16
19
22
24
30
33
18
19
24
25
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3/8-16
-24
30
30
40
40
20
25
25
35
40
45
55
60
30
35
40
45
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7/16-14
-20
45
50
60
65
35
40
45
55
65
70
90
95
50
55
65
75
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1/2-13
-20
70
75
95
100
55
60
75
80
95
110
130
150
75
90
100
120
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
9/16-12
-18
100
110
135
150
80
85
110
115
140
155
190
210
110
125
150
170
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5/8-11
-18
135
155
180
210
110
120
150
160
190
215
255
290
150
170
205
230
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3/4-10
-16
240
270
325
365
190
210
255
285
340
380
460
515
270
300
365
410
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7/8-9
-14
360
390
490
530
280
310
380
420
550
610
745
825
440
490
600
660
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1-8
-14
530
590
720
800
420
480
570
650
820
890
1100
1200
660
710
890
960
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values – Metric
Commercial Steel Class
8.8
10.9
12.9
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Capscrew Head Markings
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Thread
Diameter
mm
Capscrew Torque - Class 8.8
Cast Iron
Aluminum
ft-lb
Nm
ft-lb
Nm
Capscrew Torque - Class 10.9
Cast Iron
Aluminum
ft-lb
Nm
ft-lb
Nm
Capscrew Torque - Class 12.9
Cast Iron
Aluminum
ft-lb
Nm
ft-lb
Nm
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6
5
9
4
7
9
14
7
11
9
14
7
11
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7
9
14
7
11
14
18
11
14
18
23
14
18
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
8
18
25
14
18
23
32
18
25
27
36
21
28
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
10
30
40
25
30
45
60
35
45
50
70
40
55
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
12
55
70
40
55
75
105
60
80
95
125
75
100
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
14
85
115
65
90
120
160
95
125
145
195
110
150
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
16
130
180
100
140
175
240
135
190
210
290
165
220
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
18
170
®
230
Groundsmaster 455-D
135
180
240
320
Page 2 - 3
185
250
290
400
230
310
Torque Specifications
Product Records
and Manuals
Use these torque values when specific torque values
are not given. DO NOT use these values in place of
specified values.
Maintenance Schedules
Maintenance Schedules
Page 2 - 4
Rev. C
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Product Records
and Manuals
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 2 - 5 Rev. C
Maintenance Schedules
Maintenance Charts
Page 2 - 6
Groundsmaster® 455-D
EQUIPMENT OPERATION AND SERVICE HISTORY REPORT
for
GROUNDSMASTER® 455-D
TORO Model and Serial Number:__________-__________
Engine Numbers:
_____________________
Transaxle Numbers:
_____________________ _____________________
Rotary Deck Numbers:
__________-__________
Date Purchased:
____________________ Warranty Expires__________
Purchased From:
____________________
____________________
____________________
Contacts:
Parts
____________________ Phone__________________
Service
____________________ Phone__________________
Sales
____________________ Phone__________________
See your TORO Distributor/Dealer for other Publications, Manuals, and Videos from The TORO Company.
GROUNDSMASTER® 455-D Maintenance Schedule
Minimum Recommended Maintenance Intervals:
Maintenance Procedure
Inspect Air Filter, Dust Cup, and Baffle
Lubricate All Grease Fittings
Check Cutting Unit Gear Box Oil Level
Maintenance Interval & Service Type:
Every
50hrs
A Level
Service
Every
100hrs
Every
200hrs
Every
400hrs
Every
800hrs
‡ Change Engine Oil and Filter
Check Battery Level and Connections
Inspect Cooling System Hoses
B Level
Service
Service Air Cleaner Filter Element
† Inspect PTO and Cutting Unit Belts
‡ Check Electric Deck Clutches Adjustment
‡ Check Electric PTO Clutch Adjustment
† Torque Wheel Lug Nuts
C Level
Service
Replace Fuel Filter
Check Front Transaxle Oil level
Check Rear Axle Oil level (4wd)
Inspect Fuel Lines and Connections
‡ Check Engine RPM (idle and full throttle)
D Level
Service
† Inspect Engine Fan Belt
Inspect Engine Timing Belt (see note below)
Drain and Clean Fuel Tank
Change Hydraulic Oil
‡ Replace Hydraulic Oil Filter
Change Front Transaxle Oil
Pack Rear Axle Bearings (2wd)
Change Rear Axle Oil (4wd)
Check Rear Wheel Toe-in
E Level
Service
† Initial break in at 10 hours
‡ Initial break in at 50 hours
Replace Moving Hydraulic Hoses
Replace Safety Switches
Cooling System - Flush/Replace Fluid
Annual Recommendations:
Items listed are recommended every 1500 hours or
2 years whichever occurs first.
Replace PTO Belts/Cutter Deck Belts
See Operator's and Service Manual for specifications and procedures)
NOTE: Replace Timing Belt if worn, cracked or oil soaked. A new Timing Belt should be installed
any time the Belt is removed or loosened.
GROUNDSMASTER® 455-D Daily Maintenance Check List
Unit Designation:__________
Daily Maintenance:(duplicate this page for routine use)
TORO ID#:_______-_______
Daily Maintenance Check For Week Of
_____________
Maintenance Check Item
MON
TUES
WED
THURS
FRI
SAT
SUN
_____HRS _____HRS _____HRS _____HRS _____HRS _____HRS _____HRS
Safety Interlock Operation
Brake Operation
Engine Oil Level
Fuel Level
Cooling System Fluid Level
Drain Water/Fuel Separator
Optional Air Filter Precleaner
Radiator & Screen for Debris1
Unusual Engine Noises2
Unusual Operating Noises
Hydraulic System Oil Level
Hydraulic Hoses for Damage
Fluid Leaks
Tire Pressure
Instrument Operation
Cutting Unit Safety Doors
Height-of-Cut Adjustment
Clean Deck Belt area1
Condition of Blades
Lubricate All Grease Fittings3
Touch-up damaged paint
1
2
3
= Use only low pressure compressed air for debris removal. Do not use water.
= Check Glow Plugs and Injector Nozzles, if hard starting, excess smoke, or rough running is noted.
= Immediately after every washing, regardless of the interval listed.
Notation for areas of concern:
Item
Date
Inspection performed by:________________
Information
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
(See Operator's and Service Manual for specifications and procedures)
_________________________________
Inspect Cooling System Hoses
A-Service required
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
E -Service (every 800 hours)
Inspect Engine Fan Belt
Inspect Engine Timing Belt
Drain and Clean Fuel Tank
Change Hydraulic Oil & Filter
Change Front Transaxle Oil
Pack Rear Axle Bearings (2WD)
Change Rear Axle Oil (4WD)
Check Rear Wheel Toe-in
A, B, C, and D Service required
Check Cutting Unit Gear Box Oil
_______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
D -Service (every 400 hours)
Replace Fuel Filter
Check Front Transaxle Oil level
Check Rear Axle Oil level (4wd)
Inspect Fuel Lines and Connections
Check Engine RPM (Idle/Full Throttle)
A, B, and C Service required
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
(See Operator's and Service Manual for specifications and procedures)
_________________________________
Check Battery Level and Connections
Lubricate All Grease Fittings
Form No. 95-851-SL
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
Replace PTO/ Cutter Deck Belts
Coolant System - Flush/Replace Fluid
Replace Safety Switches
Replace Moving Hoses
Other - Annual Service and Specials
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
A and B Service required
Torque Wheel Lug Nuts
Check Electric PTO Clutch Adjustment
Check Electric Deck Clutches Adjustment
Inspect PTO and Cutting Unit Belts
Service Air Cleaner Filter Element
Change Engine Oil and Filter
C -Service (every 200 hours)
Inspect Air Filter, Dust Cup, & Baffle
Remarks:
B -Service (every 100 hours)
A B C D E Other
Service to perform (circle):
____________-____________
TORO I.D. #:
Date:______________
A -Service (every 50 hours)
Technician:
Hours:
Unit Designation:
(duplicate this page for routine use)
GROUNDSMASTER® 455-D Supervisor Maintenance Work Order
Chapter 3
Engine
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
IDENTIFICATION AND SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . 3
General Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Cylinder Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Cylinder Head Gasket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Camshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Valve Recess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Valve Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Valve Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Valve Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Swirl Chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Cylinder / Piston Matching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Piston Pin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Crankshaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Tightening Torques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
SPECIAL TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
ADJUSTMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Valve Clearance Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Engine Speed Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Throttle Cable Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Alternator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Fuel Injectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Fuel Injection Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Low Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Noisy Engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Pre-heating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Smoke During Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Starting Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
TESTING AND INSPECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Injection Pump Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Glow Plug Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Compression Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Groundsmaster 455-D
Injector Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Injection Pump Fuel Delivery Test . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermostat Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FUEL SYSTEM SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Priming the Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Injection Pump Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Injection Pump Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Injector Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TIMING BELT REPLACEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timing Belt Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timing Belt Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
INJECTION PUMP TIMING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Timing of Injection Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PREPARATION FOR ENGINE REPAIR . . . . . . . . .
Cylinder and Cylinder Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ENGINE REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION . . . . . . .
ENGINE OVERHAUL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Disassembly of External Components . . . . . . . .
Injection Pump Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylinder Head Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil Pump Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankshaft and Piston Removal . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylinder Head Overhaul . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Crankshaft Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pistons and Connecting Rod Assembly . . . . . . .
Oil Seal Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil Pump Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flywheel Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylinder Head Gasket Selection . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylinder Head Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cylinder Head Tightening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Valve Clearance Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assembly of External Components . . . . . . . . . .
Page 3 - 1 Rev. B
29
31
32
33
33
33
33
34
36
36
38
40
40
42
42
43
45
45
46
47
47
48
49
51
53
54
54
55
56
56
57
57
60
Engine
Engine
Table of Contents
Introduction
The following pages give information about specifications, maintenance, troubleshooting, testing and repair
of the diesel engine used in the Groundsmaster® 455-D
mowers.
Most repairs and adjustments require tools which are
commonly available in many service shops. Special
tools are described in the Special Tools section. The use
of some specialized test equipment is explained, however, the cost of the test equipment and the specialized
nature of some repairs may dictate that the work be
done at a qualified diesel engine repair facility.
Engine
Service and repair parts for the Peugeot engine used in
the Groundsmaster 455-D are supplied through TORO
Distributors. Repair parts may be ordered by TORO Part
Number. If no parts list is available be sure to provide
your dealer or distributor with the TORO Model Number
and Serial Number.
A plate, riveted to the left-hand side of the engine block
carries the Engine Serial Number. Always include the
engine serial number with parts orders and warranty
claims.
Page 3 - 2 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Identification and Specifications
General Specifications
Item
Specification
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Engine Type
Peugeot XUD9AI,
4 cycle, water cooled, 4 cylinder, vertical in-line cylinders,
single overhead cam, indirect injection, naturally aspirated.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Compression ratio
23.5 : 1
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Governor:
Mechanical centrifugal type integral with fuel injection pump.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
3000 ± 50 RPM no load
Governor Adjustment
1600 +100/–0 RPM idle speed
Engine Rotation
Counterclockwise when facing flywheel.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Crankshaft
Forged steel, induction hardened bearing surfaces,
5 main bearing supports.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Cylinder Block
Cast iron with integral cylinder liners.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Cylinder Head
Cast aluminum material with single overhead camshaft.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Timing Drive
The camshaft, water pump and fuel injection pump are
driven from the front end of the crankshaft through belt drive.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Piston and Piston Rings
Pistons are aluminum alloy castings with free-floating wrist pin.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Lubrication
Full pressure feed by gear type pump.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Oil Filter
Full flow, cartridge type, paper element with bypass.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Oil Capacity
5 liters (5.3 qt.), including oil filter.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Lubricating Oil
API class CD
SAE 15W-40
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Oil Pressure
0.5 Bar (7 PSI) minimum
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Fuel Requirements
No. 2 diesel fuel (ASTM No. 2-D).
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Fuel Filter
Replaceable paper element.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Crankcase Ventilation
Connected to intake manifold with PCV valve.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Cooling System
Water is circulated through the cylinder block and head by a
centrifugal water pump mounted at the front of the cylinder block.
The water pump operates at 1.05 times engine speed.
Water flow is 92 liters/min. at 2500 engine RPM.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Firing Order (NO. 1 CYL. IS ON FLYWHEEL END)
1-3-4-2
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Electrical System
Groundsmaster 455-D
12 volt, negative ground, 55 AMP alternator with integral regulator.
12 volt - 1.4 Kw starter motor with integral solenoid, pinion shaft type.
Page 3 - 3 Rev. B
Engine
Engine
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Cylinder Head
Cylinder head height h is measured with the camshaft
in place fitted with two bearing caps.
h is measured on the oil seal lip contact diameter (the
largest diameter).
h nominal: 157.40 to 157.75 mm
Maximum permissible bow on bottom of cylinder head:
0.07 mm (camshaft must turn freely).
Maximum permissible gasket face machining: .14 mm in relation to the measured h nominal.
Cylinder heads machined undersize are stamped R in
the area (a):
Figure 2
After machining gasket face, the following operations
must be done:
1. Valve seat machining to re-establish correct recess (see Valve Recess in this section).
2. Replacement of swirl chambers by repair dimension and correction of their protrusion (see Swirl
Chambers in this section).
3. Fitting of 0.4 mm thick compensation washers
under the valve springs (to match cylinder head
machining.
Cylinder heads manufactured with oversize camshaft
bearings (+0.5) are stamped 1 in the area (a)
Cylinder Head Gasket
Thickness identification:
Units: mm
Identification (c)
Identification (b)
Thickness
No notch
2 notches
1.61
3 notches
1.73
Figure 3
Identification and Specifications
Page 3 - 4
Rev. C
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Camshaft
Camshafts with 0.5 mm oversize bearings* are identified by a yellow paint ring (d) between the cams of
No. 1 cylinder.
* NOTE: These camshafts are installed only on exchange engines, and can be obtained on special order.
Engine
Figure 4
Valves
Units: mm
Intake
Min. Length l
øa
+0
Exhaust
112.2
8.005
7.985
øb ± 0.1
38.5
33
a
90°
90°
– 0.015
Intake: Faces x and y can machined a maximum of 0.2 mm
Exhaust: No machining is permissible.
Figure 5
Valve Recess
c
Units: mm
Intake
Exhaust
0.5 to 1.05
0.9 to 1.45
Figure 6
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 5 Rev. B
Engine
Valve Springs
Units: mm
Spring
ød
29
P1: daN
e1
18
42.4
Figure 7
Valve Guides
Units: mm
øf
øg
h
j
øk
Tolerance
0
– 0.011
+ 0.032
0
± 0.25
± 0.50
0
+ 0.2
Production
14.02
14.13
13.981
14.051
Repair 1
14.29
14.211
52.00
36.50
8.02
Repair 2
14.59
14.511
øk is obtained by machining after fitting in the cylinder head
Figure 8
Engine
Page 3 - 6 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Valve Seats
Units: mm
Intake
øa
øb
c
d
Tolerance
0
– 0.025
± 0.025
0
– 0.1
± 0.15
Production
40.161
40.361
40
40.2
6.25
6.45
8.267
8.467
Repair 1
40.461
40.3
6.45
8.467
Repair 2
40.661
40.5
6.45
8.467
Engine
Units: mm
Exhaust
øa
øb
c
d
Tolerance
0
– 0.025
± 0.025
0
– 0.1
± 0.15
Production
34.137
34.337
34
34.2
6.05
6.25
8.15
8.35
Repair 1
34.437
34.3
6.25
8.35
Repair 2
34.637
34.5
6.25
8.35
After fitting valve seats into the cylinder head, machine them
according to drawings (Fig. 9).
Figure 9
Swirl Chambers
Units: mm
øe
øf
g
h
Tolerance
+ 0.099
– 0.060
+ 0.039
+0
+ 0.020
– 0.025
+ 0.02
– 0.04
Production
32.05
32.25
32
32.2
4
4.1
3.9
4
Repair 1
32.45
32.4
4.2
4.1
Repair 2
32.65
32.6
4.3
4.2
The protrusion j must be between 0 and 0.03 mm
Dimension j is obtained by machining faces (x) and (y)
Figure 10
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 7 Rev. B
Engine
Cylinder / Piston Matching
Units: mm
Identification
(x)
CYLINDER øa
Tolerance:
+ 0.018
– 0
PISTON øb
Tolerance:
± 0.009
None
83
82.93
A1
83.03
82.96
Repair 1
R1
83.20
83.13
Repair 2
R2
83.50
83.43
Repair 3
R3
83.80
83.73
Production
NOTE: The piston øb must be measured at dimension c.
C
25.00
NOTE: The repair dimension (x) is stamped on the cylinder block
and pistons.
Figure 11
Piston Pin
Units: mm
ø external
24.994 to 25
ø internal
13.8 to 14.1
Engine
Page 3 - 8 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Crankshaft
Units: mm
Crank Pins and Journals
øa
b
øc
d
Tolerance
–0
– 0.016
± 0.003
–0
– 0.019
± 0.003
Production
50.00
1.827
60.00
1.842
Repair 1
49.70
1.977
59.70
1.992
NOTE: Repair 1 size connecting rod and main bearing shells can
be identified by white paint (1) on the edge of the shell.
Engine
Units: mm
End Float
No. 2 Journal
Half Shell Thickness
e
f
Tolerance
+ 0.05
0
± 0.025
Production
26.60
2.305
Repair 1
26.80
2.405
Repair 2
26.90
2.455
Repair 3
27.00
2.505
Units: mm
Oil Seal Contact Surface
Figure 13
øg
Tolerance
–0
– 0.087
Production
90.00
Repair 1
89.80
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 9 Rev. B
Engine
Tightening Torques
Part
Nm
Kgm
ft-lb
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Connecting rod end caps
50
5
37
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Camshaft bearing caps
17.5
1.8
13
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Camshaft gear
40
4
30
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Coolant pump
15
1.5
11
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
* Crankshaft pulley
40 + 60°
4 + 60°
30 + 60°
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Cylinder head bolts
pre-tightening
* tightening
30
70 +120°
3
7 + 120°
22
52 + 120°
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Cylinder head cover
10
1
7
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Flywheel
50
5
36
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Glow plugs
22
2.2
16
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Injector pump gear
47
4.7
33
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Injector into Cylinder Head
90
9
66
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Main bearing caps
70
7
52
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Oil pump
20
2
15
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Oil seal carrier, timing gear end
15
1.5
11
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Sump to block
20
2
15
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Timing belt tensioner
15
1.5
11
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Water drain plug
25
2.5
18
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Oil drain plug
37
3.7
27
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Tension roller pin nut
17
1.7
12
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Manifold screws
22
2.2
16
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________
Alternator bracket
17
1.7
12
* NOTE: 40 + 60° is tighten to 40 Nm then an additional 60° (60 degrees) of rotation (one flat of bolt head)
Engine
Page 3 - 10 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Special Tools
NOTE: Order special tools from the TORO SPECIAL
TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS GUIDE (COMMERCIAL
PRODUCTS). Some tools may be listed in the
Groundsmaster 455-D Parts Catalog. Some tools may
also be available from a local supplier.
TOR4033 Overhaul Tool Set
This tool kit includes tools required for overhauling the
engine. TOR4035 Tune-Up Set will also be required if
overhauling the engine.
Engine
TOR80504A1 Extension (Fig. 24)
TOR80110H Indicator Holder (Fig. 25)
TOR80110DZ 2mm Shim Cutoff Gauge (Fig. 23)
TOR80504A2 Indicator Holder (Fig. 30)
TOR80110GY Extension Rod Adapter (Fig. 24)
TOR70153A1 Main Seal Installer (Fig. 18)
TOR70153A2 Main Seal Installer Shims (Fig. 19)
TOR70153C Rear Main Seal Installer (Fig. 20)
TOR70153D Front Cover Seal Installer (Fig. 21)
TOR4035 Tune-Up Set
This tool kit includes tools required for doing timing belt
replacement, injection pump timing, injector removal
and camshaft seal replacement.
TOR976697 Camshaft Seal Installer (Fig. 31)
TOR2437T Dial Indicator (Fig. 16)
TOR70153N Flywheel TDC Locator Pin (Fig. 22)
TOR80117AM Injector Pump
Timing Tool Kit (Fig. 26)
TOR80117EZ Crankshaft Rotating Wrench (Fig.27)
TOR80149 Injector Socket (Fig. 28)
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 11 Rev. B
Engine
TOR2437T Dial Indicator
This dial indicator may be used with TOR80110H,
TOR80117AM and TOR80504A2 to accomplish any of
the following tasks: for checking the protrusion of the
swirl chambers, valve recess and measurement for
cylinder head gasket selection, adjusting the timing of
the injection pump and for checking the crankshaft and
float.
Figure 16
TOR4024T Valve Spring Compressor
This tool is used to compress valves for removal.
Figure 17
TOR70153A1 Main Seal Installer
Used to install the two side seals to the no. 1 main
bearing cap.
Figure 18
TOR70153A2 Shim Set
Used with main seal installer TOR70153A1.
Figure 19
Engine
Page 3 - 12 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
TOR70153C Rear Main Seal Installer
Used with a small hammer to install new rear main oil
seal.
Figure 20
TOR70153D Front Cover Seal Installer
Engine
Used with a small hammer to install new front crankshaft
seal.
Figure 21
TOR70153N Flywheel T.D.C. Locator Pin
Used to set injection pump timing.
Figure 22
TOR80110DZ 2mm Shim Cut Off Gauge
With Cut Off Shim
Used to gage and gut off new side seals to 2mm height.
Figure 23
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 13 Rev. B
Engine
TOR80110GY Extension Rod and Adapter
Used with TOR 80504A1 and TOR80504A2 to check
crankshaft end float.
Figure 24
TOR80110H Indicator Holder
Block used to hold dial indicator to check protrusion of
swirl chambers, valve recess and measurement for
cylinder head gasket selection.
Figure 25
TOR80117AM Timing Tool Kit For Roto Diesel DPC
Pump
Used with dial indicator to adjust timing of injection
pump.
Figure 26
TOR80117EZ Crankshaft Rotating Wrench
Used with a 1/2" drive ratchet wrench to turn the
crankshaft.
Figure 27
Engine
Page 3 - 14 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
TOR80149 Injector Socket
Used to remove and install fuel injectors.
Figure 28
TOR80504A1 Extension
Engine
Used with TOR 80110GY and TOR 80504A2 to check
crankshaft end float.
Figure 29
TOR 80504A2 Indicator Holder
Used with TOR80110GY and TOR 80504A1 to check
crankshaft end float.
Figure 30
TOR976697 Camshaft Seal Installer
Used to install camshaft seal.
Figure 31
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 15 Rev. B
Engine
.0149 - Cylinder Head Separating Levers
(Make Locally)
Used to remove cylinder head (qty. 2 required).
Units: mm
Figure 32
TOR70153H Injector Pump Gear Puller
Loosen the nut on the injector pump gear, then use this
tool to loosen the pulley from the tapered shaft on the
injector pump.
TOR70153H
Figure 33
Engine
Page 3 - 16 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Adjustments
Valve Clearance Adjustment
(See Valve Clearance Adjustment in the Engine Overhaul Section.)
Engine Speed Adjustments
Engine
Maximum fuel flow and speed adjustments are sealed
and should only be unsealed by a CAV Lucas ROTODIESEL service dealer.
Throttle Cable Adjustments
The throttle control lever at the operator’s station must
not touch the end of the slot during full range of motion
from idle (SLOW) to full engine RPM (FAST).
Adjust throttle cable at injection pump so throttle lever
on injection pump operates at full range of motion
without throttle control lever at operator’s station touching end of slot at either FAST or SLOW position.
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 17 Rev. B
Engine
Troubleshooting
Alternator
Problem
Possible Causes
Alternator is not charging.
Alternator belt loose.
Charging circuit defective.
Energizing circuit defective.
Brushes worn or seized.
Rotor winding defective.
Stator winding defective.
Regulator defective.
Output low or irregular.
Alternator belt loose.
Charging circuit defective.
Energizing circuit defective.
Brushes worn or seized.
Rotor winding defective.
Stator winding defective.
Regulator defective.
Rotor partially short-circuited.
Stator partially short-circuited.
Rectifier diode defective.
Rectifier diode short-circuited.
Battery voltage too high.
In-line diode defective.
Regulator defective.
Poor connections.
Alternator noisy.
Rectifier diode short-circuited.
Belt worn.
Alternator mounting loose.
Alternator pulley loose.
Worn bearings.
Engine
Page 3 - 18 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Problem
Possible Cause
Correction
Bad spray pattern
Carbon deposit around the orifice
Clean
Scored nozzle seat
Replace injector
Needle damaged
Replace injector
Foreign matter jammed between
nozzle seat and needle
Clean
Nozzle seat out-of-true
Replace injector
Water in fuel
Drain water and flush fuel feed
system (1)
Copper gasket not replaced
Replace gasket at each repair
Injector nut too tight on injector
body
Tighten injector nut (1)
Leaking injector
Needle seized or showing seizing
marks
Leakage collector fills too quickly
Leak between upper bearing face
of nozzle and bearing face of
injector body:
Foreign matter between
bearing faces
Clean
Unevenness
Replace injector
Blue needle point
Incorrect injection pump timing
Replace injector and adjust pump
timing again
End of injector body corroded
Running temperature of engine
too low
Check thermostat
Intermittent operation
Run machine longer. Do not start
and stop engine.
(1) In these cases, replace the injector
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 19 Rev. B
Engine
Engine
Fuel Injectors
Fuel Injection Pump
Problem
Possible Cause
Correction
Engine has no power
Defective fuel supply
Check filter cartridge and pipes
Incorrect pump timing
Correct timing
Incorrect spray, or injector pressure
out of adjustment
Check, clean and adjust injectors
Air intake restriction
Check hoses and air cleaner
Insufficient automatic advance
Have pump repaired
Discharge rates too low
Have pump repaired
Idling stop out of adjustment
Adjust stop and fast idling control
Throttle cable out of adjustment
Adjust throttle cable
Governor out of adjustment
Have pump repaired
Max. speed stop out of adjustment
Have pump repaired
Jammed discharged valve
Have pump repaired
Blocked pump governor
Have pump repaired
Defective fuel supply
Check filter cartridge and pipes
Seized pump plunger
Have pump repaired
Broken pump plunger spring
Have pump repaired
Hard discharge valve
Have pump repaired
Seized feed pump
Drain water from tank, pipes and
filter – have pump repaired
Accelerator linkage defective
Repair linkage
Air getting into feed system
Check gaskets and pipes
Defective fuel supply
Check filter cartridge
Incorrect pump timing
Correct timing
Incorrect spray, or injectors out of
adjustment
Check, clean and adjust injectors
Insufficient automatic advance
Have pump repaired
Discharge rates too high
Have pump repaired
Air intake restriction
Check hoses and air cleaner
Idling too fast
Maximum speed too high
Engine will not accelerate
Engine emits smoke
Engine
Page 3 - 20 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Problem
Possible Cause
Correction
Engine will not start
No preheating
Check glow plugs and relay
No fuel supply
Make sure tank is not empty
Check filter element and pipes
Irregular engine speed
Noisy engine
Engine stalls at idling
Vibrating engine
Engine will not stop
Groundsmaster 455-D
Defective solenoid valve
Check electric stop solenoid
Seized pump plunger
Have pump repaired
Discharge valve blocked in “stop”
position
Have pump repaired
Seized feed pump
Drain water from tank, pipes and
filter – repair pump
Defective fuel supply
Check filter cartridge and pipes
Carbon fouled injectors
Check, clean and adjust injectors
Unequal discharge rates
Have pump repaired
Faulty governor
Have pump repaired
Incorrect pump timing
Correct timing
Blocked automatic advance
Have pump repaired
Automatic advance to far advanced
Have pump repaired
Air getting into fuel system
Check gaskets and pipes
Idling stop out of adjustment
Adjust idling stop
Jammed discharge rate
Have pump repaired
Unequal discharge rate
Have pump repaired
Air in fuel system
Check fuel lines and clamps
Defective fuel injector
Check injectors
Jammed discharge valve
Have pump repaired
Key switch defective
Replace key switch
Defective electric stop solenoid
Check electric stop solenoid
Page 3 - 21 Rev. B
Engine
Engine
Check system bleeding
Low Power
Problem
Possible Causes
Engine does not give full power
Injection pump timing
Seized piston rings
Defective injector(s)
Air intake restricted
Valve leaks
Clogged fuel filter
Injection pipe restriction due to excessive tightening
of unions
Defective injection pump
Irregular idling
Defective injection pump
Air getting into fuel system
Idling stop out of adjustment
Leaky injection pipe unions
Speed fall-Off
Clogged fuel filter
Defective injection pump
Engine speed rises to maximum
Defective injection pump
Throttle cable jammed
Engine
Page 3 - 22 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Noisy Engine
Problem
Possible Causes
Knocking
Loose main bearings
Broken part
Leakage return collector clogged
Lifters out of adjustment
Foreign matter in a cylinder
Seized injector
Engine
Injection pump timing
Sheared glow plug
Timing out of adjustment
Whistling, blowing
Leaking cylinder head gasket
Leaky glow plug
Valve seats
Leaky injector
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 23 Rev. B
Engine
Pre-heating
Problem
Possible Causes
Glow plug does not glow red hot
Faulty glow plug
Faulty glow plug relay
Damaged wiring or connector
All four glow plugs burnt out / ends melted – injection
pump timing out of adjustment (engine overheating)
See Chapter 5 - Electrical System
Engine
Page 3 - 24 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Smoke During Operation
Problem
Possible Causes
Black
Defective injector
Injection pump out of adjustment
Injection pump timing
Air intake restricted
Inlet chambers clogged
Not enough advance
Defective injector
Engine
Grey
Injection pump timing
Air intake restricted
Not enough advance
Blue-Grey
Defective injector
Injection pump timing
Too much oil
Blue
Too much oil
Wear
White
Injection pump timing
Cylinder head gasket
Cold engine
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 25 Rev. B
Engine
Starting Problems
Problem
Possible Causes
Engine will not start and emits black smoke
Air intake obstructed
Defective injectors
Lack of compression (seized rings, damaged or worn
valve seats, or general wear)
Injection pump timing
Engine will not start and emits white smoke
Leaking cylinder head gasket
Engine will not start and does not emit any smoke
Frozen fuel
Injection pump does not work
Leaking injection pipe unions
Injection valve blocked
No preheating
Empty fuel tank
Feed pipe obstructed
Air getting in pipes
Tank vent plugged
Injection pump needs re-priming
Shutdown control jammed in “stop” position
Starter does not crank or cranks slowly
Battery discharged
Oil too thick
Engine seized
Faulty starter
Faulty wiring
Engine
Page 3 - 26 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Testing and Inspection
Injection Pump Timing
(See Timing of Injection Pump in the Engine Overhaul
section.)
Glow Plug Test
CAUTION
Engine
Be careful while handling or testing glow
plugs. Glow plugs become extremely hot. Accidental contact with the heated plug tip could
cause personal injury.
1. Disconnect the wire lead(s) to the glow plug.
2. Remove the glow plug.
3. Inspect the glow plug for signs of a burnt glow plug
end tube.
Figure 34
NOTE: If the metal of the glow plug end is melted, it is
a sign of cylinder overheating.
4. Connect the positive (+) battery terminal to the glow
plug terminal, and the negative (–) battery terminal to
the plug body (Fig. 34). If the glow plug glows red-hot in
9 to 12 seconds, the glow plug is operating correctly. DO
NOT leave on more than 20 seconds.
5. Replace any glow plugs that do not operate correctly.
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 27 Rev. B
Engine
Compression Test
Minimum cylinder compression is 20 bar (290 psi) at 200
rpm (normal cranking speed). The engine should be
warm - coolant temperature of 50o C (120o F).
IMPORTANT: DO NOT put oil into the combustion
chamber before performing a compression test.
Damage may result because of “hydraulic” forces
acting upon the piston and connecting rod.
1. Remove the glow plug lead wires and glow plugs from
all four cylinders.
2. Insert a compression gauge adapter into the glow
plug hole.
3. Connect a high pressure compression gauge to the
adapter.
4. Disconnect the fuel stop solenoid electrical connector
or hold the fuel stop lever in the stop position to prevent
fuel delivery during the compression test. This will
prevent wash-down of the cylinders and inaccurate
readings.
5. Crank the engine with the starter motor until you get
a stable gauge reading.
6. If the pressure is less than 20 bar (290 psi) it will be
necessary to find the cause of low compression.
7. Repeat the test for the other three cylinders. Difference between cylinders should be no more than 5 bar
(70 psi).
8. Connect the fuel stop solenoid electrical connector.
9. Install the glow plugs.
Engine
Page 3 - 28 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Injector Tests
There are several tests to examine the condition of the
injection nozzles. These tests require the use of a
nozzle tester and nozzle tester adapter.
defective, damaged or adjusted incorrectly, starting
failures, low power output, or engine knocking can
occur.
1. Securely fasten the nozzle to the adapter.
CAUTION
2. Pump the handle several times to purge air from the
nozzle mechanism.
The nozzle tester forces fuel from the nozzle
under extremely high pressure. Always point
the nozzle tip away from yourself and any
other personnel. Contact with the fuel stream,
even though it appears to be a mist can cause
fuel to penetrate clothing and skin. If fuel is
injected into the skin get proper medical attention from a doctor immediately. A serious
infection or other reaction can develop if the
injury is not properly treated. Tighten all
adapter fittings to prevent leaks. If a leak is
suspected, use a piece of cardboard, not your
hands to search for a leak.
3. Allow pressure to dissipate before performing the test.
5. Verify that starting pressure is within the following
limits:
“C” injectors 115 ± 5 bar or kg/cm2 (1668 ± 70 psi)
“D” injectors 130 ± 5 bar or kg/cm2 (1885 ± 70 psi)
6. Starting pressure can be adjusted by adding or
removing shims from the nozzle. A 0.10 mm shim thickness will cause a 10 bar or kg/cm2 (140 psi) starting
pressure difference.
To prevent possible injury, wear eye protection when operating the nozzle tester.
IMPORTANT: Always use fresh filtered fuel in the
nozzle tester. Use of dirty fuel can damage the
precision parts of the injector nozzle. It is a good
practice to:
7. Repeat the test after installing shim to verify that a
correct opening pressure has been obtained.
Chattering Test
1. Bolt the tester securely to the test bench.
Proper and free operation of the nozzle valve can be
determined by the chattering test.
2. Use a drain pan to catch fuel.
3. Flush the adapter by pumping the handle of the tester
slowly several times before attaching the nozzle to be
tested.
Injection Pressure Test
The diesel engine requires that fuel be sprayed into the
combustion chamber at a precise point in the compression stroke. The point at which this fuel injection occurs
is determined by the injection timing. If the nozzle is
Groundsmaster 455-D
1. Securely fasten the nozzle to be tested to the adapter.
2. Operate the pump handle slowly (1 - 2 strokes per
second). As the pump pressure reaches the starting
pressure the nozzle valve will chatter or buzz as it opens
and closes rapidly. A nozzle which does not chatter or
buzz may be the result of a binding or bent nozzle valve.
Page 3 - 29 Rev. B
Engine
Engine
4. Operate the pump handle slowly and observe the
gauge to determine the pressure at which the nozzle
opens and the fuel is sprayed.
Nozzle Leakage Test
A nozzle that leaks fuel from the nozzle orifice must be
replaced.
1. Securely fasten the nozzle to the adapter.
2. Wipe all fuel from the nozzle.
3. Operate the pump until the pressure is approximately
20 bar or kg/cm2 (280 psi) below opening pressure.
Maintain this pressure to the nozzle.
Good
4. Watch for leaks where the threaded nozzle body
threads into the retaining nut. Leaks in this area would
indicate a bad seat between the distance piece and/or
the body or nozzle assembly.
Bad
Bad
Figure 35
5. If leakage occurs, verify that the body is tightly fastened in the retaining nut. If the leak continues, replace
the nozzle.
6. While pressure is being applied, watch for an accumulation of fuel at the tip of the nozzle (Fig. 35). A
small amount of fuel may be present due to a previous
chattering test - this would be normal. If the fuel accumulates and drips down during the test (about ten seconds)
the nozzle assembly is defective and must be replaced.
Spray Test
For proper combustion, the nozzle must effectively
atomize the injected fuel.
1. Operate the pump handle quickly (4 - 6 strokes per
second).
2. Observe the injector nozzle spray. The spray pattern
should be finely atomized in a broad, straight stream
(Fig. 36).
Good
broad spray
fine mist
straight
3. If the nozzle fails to spray properly, it must be cleaned,
repaired or replaced.
Engine
Page 3 - 30 Rev. B
Bad
narrow spray
streaky mist
Bad
angled spray
Figure 36
Groundsmaster 455-D
Injection Pump Testing
It is possible to determine if the fuel injection pump
requires service through a process of elimination using
other fuel system tests. The following test procedure will
help isolate fuel system difficulties.
1. Make sure that fuel is being supplied to the injector
pump.
2. Check the operating condition of the injection nozzles
to make sure that the injection pressure is correct.
3. Make sure that the injection pump is providing sufficient fuel pressure to operate the nozzle by performing
the following procedures:
A. Loosen the fuel delivery pipe from the number one
nozzle.
B. Remove the nozzle from the cylinder head.
C. Connect the fuel delivery pipe to the nozzle assembly so the tip of the nozzle is pointed away from
the engine. Tighten the fitting securely.
Groundsmaster 455-D
D. Put the throttle control in the FAST position. Turn
the ignition key to the START position to crank the
engine. Observe the nozzle.
CAUTION
The injection pump forces fuel from the nozzle under extremely high pressure. Always
point the nozzle tip away from yourself and
any other personnel. Contact with the fuel
stream, even though it appears to be a mist
can cause fuel to penetrate clothing and skin.
If fuel is injected into the skin get proper
medical attention from a doctor immediately.
A serious infection or other reaction can
develop if the injury is not properly treated.
Tighten all adapter fittings to prevent leaks. If
a leak is suspected, use a piece of cardboard,
not your hands to search for a leak.
If the nozzle produces an atomized mist of fuel the
injector pump for that cylinder is operating properly.
Failure of the nozzle to inject fuel can indicate a injection
pump cylinder that is not operating correctly.
5. Repeat the test for the other cylinders.
Page 3 - 31 Rev. B
Engine
Engine
Calibration of fuel delivery volumes, pressure and distribution between pump barrels should be performed by
a professional diesel engine service shop. Special test
fixtures and equipment are required.
Thermostat Test
If the engine overheats or runs too cool, and a faulty
thermostat is suspected, the thermostat should be
tested.
1. Remove the thermostat.
2. Put the thermostat in a container of water with a
thermometer and heat the water.
Starts to open at: 81o C (178o F)
7 mm (0.28 in.) full open at 88o C (190o F)
3. If the thermostat fails to open, only partially opens, or
sticks, it should be replaced.
Figure 37
Engine
Page 3 - 32 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Fuel System Service
Priming Fuel System
1. Stop the engine. Unlatch and raise the hood
2. Fill the fuel tank.
3. Install a 3/16" hose over bleed screw. Put other end
of hose into a container to catch fuel (Fig. 38).
5.Loosen bleed screw a few turns. Pump priming
plunger until a steady stream of fuel comes out of hole
in bleed screw. When fuel stops foaming, tighten bleed
screw during down stroke of priming plunger. Wipe up
any spilled fuel.
NOTE: It may be necessary to bleed air out of the fuel
line, between the fuel filter/water separator and the
injection pump. To do this, loosen the fitting on the
injection pump (Fig. 39) and pump priming plunger until
a steady stream of fuel comes out of fitting. When fuel
stops foaming, tighten the fitting during the down stroke
of the priming plunger. Wipe up any spilled fuel.
Engine
4. Pump priming plunger until resistance is felt. Try to
start engine. If engine does not start, go to step 5.
Figure 38
1. Primer plunger
2. Bleed screw
NOTE: The high pressure fuel system is self-bleeding.
It is not necessary to open the high pressure lines.
Figure 39
1. Injection pump fitting
Injection Pump Removal
(See Injection Pump Removal in the Engine Overhaul
section.)
Injection Pump Repair
NOTE: If the pump needs to be inspected or repaired it
is recommended that it be done by an authorized CAV
Lucas ROTO DIESEL service dealer - especially during
the warranty period. Repairs by non-authorized dealers
WILL void the pump warranty.
Groundsmaster 455-D
IMPORTANT: Clean the injection pump and the area
around the injection pump before removing or servicing it. DO NOT spray water onto a hot injection
pump.
Page 3 - 33 Rev. B
Engine
Injector Service
NOTE: If injectors need to be inspected or repaired it is
recommended that it be done by an authorized CAV
Lucas ROTO DIESEL service dealer - especially during
the warranty period. Repairs by non-authorized dealers
WILL void the warranty on the injectors.
1
Removal
8
2
1. Clean top of cylinder head and injection pipes.
2. Remove injection pipes (Fig. 57, Item 12).
3
3. Disconnect injector leakage pipe.
4
4. Remove the injectors (Fig. 58, Item 19) and retrieve
the copper washer (Item 20) and flame trap washer
(Item 21).
9
5
10
6
NOTE: Never disassemble injector before checking its
operation.
7
Disassembly and Cleaning
1. Secure the injector body in a “V” type injector holder.
2. Remove the injector holder nut.
3. Remove the injector, spacer, push rod, pressure
setting spring, adjusting shims and body.
4. Dip all parts in clean diesel fuel.
5. Clean nozzle and needle in clean diesel fuel.
6. De-carbon injector nozzle using a wooden spatula.
Never use metallic objects, emery cloth or rags. Do not
attempt to grind the needle on its seat. Clean each
injector separately to matched parts are not mixed up.
The needle should slide freely and fall in the nozzle by
its own weight.
Engine
Page 3 - 34 Rev. B
Figure 40
1. Body
2. Adjusting shim
3. Pressure setting spring
4. Push rod
5. 2-sealing face spacer
6. Injector
7. Injector nut
8. Leak return connectors
9. Injector holder nut
10. Thread
Groundsmaster 455-D
Assembly
1. Check all parts for condition and cleanliness. Oil parts
before reassembly.
2. Secure the injector body in a “V” type injector holder.
3. Install the adjusting shims, spring, push rod, spacer
and injector (Fig. 40, Items 2, 3, 4, 5, 6).
4. Install the injector holder nut (Fig. 28, Item 7) and
tighten by hand.
5. Tighten injector nut to a torque of 10 Nm. Tighten the
nut an additional 22° of rotation.
NOTE: Each time an injector is removed from the engine, new washers must be installed. Fire ring washer
is installed with convex surface up.
Engine
Installation
Figure 41
1. Install new fire ring washers (Fig. 58, Item 21), convex
surface facing up.
2. Install new copper washers (Fig. 58, Item 20).
3. Install the injectors and tighten to a torque of 90 Nm
(66 ft-lb).
1. Install new flame arrestor steel washer and copper
gasket.
2. Install injector in cylinder head.
3. Install injection pipe unions on pump and injectors
and tighten by hand.
4. Moderately tighten each union, 25 Nm (18 ft-lb) max.,
on pump and injector. Over-tightening will distort the end
of the injector line.
5. Connect fuel return pipe.
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 35 Rev. B
Engine
Timing Belt Replacement
Timing Belt Removal
IMPORTANT: Never install a used belt. When the
timing belt is removed a NEW timing belt must be
installed.
SPECIAL TOOLS REQUIRED:
Tune-Up Tool Set TOR 4035
1 ea. M8 x 125 x 40 Metric Bolt
2 ea. M8 x 125 x 35 Metric Bolt
TOR 70153N
1. Slowly turn the crankshaft in the operating direction
(clockwise as viewed from the timing belt end) until the
TDC Lock Pin tool (TOR 70153N) goes into the hole in
the flywheel (Fig. 42).
Figure 42
2. Remove the crankshaft pulley bolt (Fig. 43, Item 1)
and the pulley. Note: The bolt is secured with thread
locking compound and will be difficult to remove.
3. Remove cover attachment nut (Item 5), cover clips
and timing belt covers (Item 2, 3 and 4) in the numbered
order.
5
4. Re-install the crankshaft bolt (Fig. 44, Item 1) and the
washer.
Figure 43
5. Lock the camshaft gear (Item 6) in position by installing an M8 x 125 x 40 bolt. Tighten finger tight.
6. Lock the injection pump gear (Item 7) in position with
two M8 x 125 x 35 bolts. Tighten finger tight.
IMPORTANT: To prevent damage to the face of the
injector pump housing and future timing problems,
the camshaft gear and injection pump gear locking
bolts must be tightened ONLY FINGER TIGHT.
NOTE: If the bolts in steps 5 and 6 cannot be installed
because the holes in the gears and engine block do not
align, remove the TDC Lock Pin tool and rotate the
engine (clockwise) one revolution. Install the TDC Lock
Pin, then install the bolts as instructed in steps 5 and 6.
Figure 44
Engine
Page 3 - 36 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
7. Loosen the nut (Fig. 45, Item 8) and the bolt (Item 9),
securing the roller tensioner bracket (Item 10).
8. Rotate the roller tensioner bracket square (Item A) to
compress the spring (Item 11).
A
9. Re-tighten the bolt (Item 9).
Engine
10. Remove the timing belt.
Figure 45
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 37 Rev. B
Engine
Timing Belt Installation
IMPORTANT: Never install a used belt. When the
timing belt is removed a NEW timing belt must be
installed.
C
A
1. Install the new timing belt, with the runs taut, in the
following order (Fig. 46):
Crankshaft gear (Item 13)
Fixed roller (Item 11)
Injection pump gear (Item B)
Camshaft gear (Item C)
Tensioner roller (Item 17)
Coolant pump gear (Item 10).
B
Figure 46
A
2. Loosen the bolt (Fig. 47, Item 18) and nut (Item 19)
to release the tensioner roller. DO NOT use Item A to
set tension. Tension on belt is only to be set by the spring
(Fig. 46, Item 15) when tensioner plate is free to rotate.
3. Re-tighten the bolt (Item 18), then the nut (Item 19),
when the belt is tensioned.
Figure 47
Engine
Page 3 - 38 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
4. Remove the three gear locking bolts and TDC Lock
Pin tool.
A
5. Turn the crankshaft two revolutions (clockwise).
6. Re-install the TDC Lock Pin tool TOR 70153 N and
the three gear locking bolts.
IMPORTANT: If you can not install any one of the
locking devices, repeat the Timing Belt Installation
procedures from the beginning.
7. Loosen the bolt (Fig. 48, Item 18) and nut (Item 19)
to release the tensioner roller.
Figure 48
Engine
8. Re-tighten the bolt (Item 18) then the nut (Item 19) to
a torque of 17.5 Nm (13 ft-lb).
9. Remove the three gear locking bolts.
10. Install the covers (Fig. 49, Item 2, 3 and 4), cover
clips and cover attachment nut (Item 5).
5
Figure 49
11. Install the pulley.
A. Clean with a brush and de-grease the threads of
the bolt (Fig. 50, Item 1), the bearing faces of the
washer (Item 2) and the head of the bolt (Item 1).
B. Coat the threads of the bolt (Item 1) with thread
lock LOCTITE. Install the bolt (Item 1) and washer
(Item 2) and tighten to a torque of 40 Nm (30 ft-lb).
C. Tighten the bolt 60° further (one flat).
Figure 50
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 39 Rev. B
Engine
Injection Pump Timing
Timing of Injection Pump (Pump Mounted on Engine)
b
The adjustment position for start of injection varies on
each pump (manufacturing tolerances). The adjustment
position is given by measurement “X.XX” in one of three
places on the pump (Fig. 51):
a
a. Tag on pump lever.
b. Bar code label
c. Inspection cap
NOTE: “PMH” in French = “TDC” in English.
1. Remove the cover attachment nut, cover clips and
timing belt covers.
Figure 51
2. Slowly turn the crankshaft in the operating direction
(clockwise as viewed from the timing belt end) until the
TDC Lock Pin tool (TOR 70153N) goes into the hole in
the flywheel (Fig. 52).
3. Verify that the camshaft and injection pump gears are
properly timed:
A. Lock the camshaft gear (Fig. 53, Item 6) in position
with a M8 x 125 x 40 bolt. Tighten finger tight.
B. Lock the injection pump gear (Item 7) in position
with two M8 x 125 x 35 bolts. Tighten finger tight.
NOTE: If the locking bolts cannot be installed because the holes in the gears and engine block do not
align, remove the TDC Lock Pin tool and rotate the
engine (clockwise) one revolution. Install the TDC
Lock Pin, then install the bolts as instructed.
TOR 70153N
Figure 52
IMPORTANT: To prevent damage to the face of the
injector pump housing and future timing problems,
the camshaft gear and injection pump gear locking
bolts must be tightened ONLY FINGER TIGHT.
4. Remove the three locking bolts (Fig. 53).
5. Remove the TDC Lock Pin tool TOR 70153N, then
turn the crankshaft 1/4 to 1/3 turn in the opposite direction of running (counterclockwise as viewed from the
timing belt end).
Figure 53
Engine
Page 3 - 40 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
6. Clean the area around the pump timing plug (Fig. 54,
Item d). Remove the pump timing plug.
d
b
a
7. Use Timing Tool Assembly TOR 80117 AM. Lubricate
the timing rod (Fig. 55, Item 1) with Diesel fuel, then
install the timing rod in the pump timing hole (Item d).
Check to see that the rod moves freely in the bore.
8. Install the dial indicator (metric) on the indicator
bracket (Item 2).
9. Install the indicator bracket with dial indicator on the
plug boss. Set the dial indicator to “0.00 mm”.
Figure 54
Engine
10. Slowly turn the crankshaft in the operating direction
(clockwise as viewed from the timing belt end) until the
TDC Lock Pin tool (TOR 70153N) goes into the hole in
the flywheel (Fig. 56).
11. The dial indicator should show the reading
“X.XX” ±0.04 mm engraved on the injection pump. If
adjustment is required, loosen the three bolts at the
pump flange, one bolt at the rear, and the injection lines.
Rotate the pump away from the engine, then slowly
rotate the pump toward the engine in one smooth motion
to obtain the reading “X.XX”. If you go to far and the
reading is passed, stop. Again, rotate the pump away
from the engine, then rotate the pump toward the engine
in one smooth motion.
Dial
Indicator
12. After obtaining the correct reading, be careful to
keep the pump in position and tighten the pump bolts.
13. Remove the TDC Lock Pin tool TOR 70153 N.
14. Turn the crankshaft 1/4 to 1/3 turn in the opposite
direction of running (counterclockwise as viewed from
timing belt end). Check that the indicator reads 0.00.
TOR 80117AM
15. Slowly turn the crankshaft in the operating direction
(clockwise as viewed from the timing belt end) until the
TDC Lock Pin tool (TOR 70153N) goes into the hole in
the flywheel (Fig. 56).
Figure 55
16. In this position the dial indicator mounted on the
pump should read the value “X.XX” shown on the
pump ±0.04 mm.
17. Check to make sure the three lock bolts fit in the cam
pulley and injection pump pulley (Fig. 53).
18. Repeat steps 11 and 12 if necessary.
19. Remove TDC Lock Pin tool, three lock bolts, indicator and indicator bracket. Install pump cover plug.
20. Tighten injector lines.
TOR 70153N
Figure 56
21. Install timing belt covers, clips and attachment nut.
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 41 Rev. B
Engine
Preparation For Engine Repair
1. Before cleaning and disassembly, carefully check for
problems that cannot be found after the engine has
been cleaned or disassembled (e.g. oil leaks from
cracked components, gaskets or loose fittings,
damaged air cleaner or breather hoses that could cause
cylinder wear, etc.). Make a note of any problems that
you find.
2. Clean or wash the engine exterior thoroughly before
disassembly.
IMPORTANT: Do not spray water on a hot engine.
Injection pump seizure or other failures could
result.
3. Do not disassemble or remove parts that do not
require disassembly.
4. Disassemble the engine in proper order, arranging
the parts the disassembled parts neatly. Apply clean
engine oil to all disassembled parts to prevent rust.
5. Keep the work area clean; dirt causes engine failures.
6. Be very careful when working on fuel system components. Cover the work area with clean paper. Store
components of the nozzles or injector pump in clean fuel
oil. Do not allow components to strike each other or
other objects. Wet hands with clean diesel fuel before
handling these parts.
IMPORTANT: Apply clean engine oil to all surfaces
when engine is assembled to prevent marking when
engine is first started.
Cylinder and Cylinder Block Overhaul
Before removing any parts, disassembly or overhaul of
the Peugeot engine, it is very important to understand
the nature and probable cause of the problem that made
an overhaul necessary.
When the engine trouble is caused by worn cylinders,
rings or valves, one or more of the following symptoms
will occur:
1. Low engine power, and a decrease in compression
pressure.
list can be a result of excessive fuel injection, improper
injection timing, or nozzle and injection pump wear. Poor
starting may be a result of electrical problems. Noises
may be associated with a mechanical part outside the
engine. Excess fuel or oil consumption may be the result
of leaks. (See the Troubleshooting section.)
Another indicator of the need for an overhaul is oil
consumption. Make sure the engine does not leak oil.
when the oil consumption between the oil change maintenance interval is approximately 1-1/2 times normal
(150%), engine overhaul should be considered.
2. Increased fuel consumption.
With a good knowledge of how the engine operates,
access to maintenance and compression test records,
and information in the Troubleshooting section of this
chapter, unnecessary disassembly and inspection can
be eliminated.
3. Increased lubricating oil consumption.
4. Poor engine starting.
5. Loud noises in the engine.
It is important to find the cause of the engine failure
before beginning repair. Symptoms 2 and 4 in the above
Engine
Page 3 - 42 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Engine Removal and Installation
2. Open the hood. Disconnect hood stop cable from
engine. Lower the hood. Remove left and right hinge
plates. Lift hood off chassis.
3. Disconnect positive (+) and negative (–) battery cables from battery. Loosen battery securing bolt and
remove battery.
4. Open the radiator cap. Open radiator drain valve or
remove lower radiator hose and allow coolant to drain
into a pan.
8. Disconnect and tag electrical wires that attach to the
engine or engine components: alternator, starter motor
and solenoid, ground cable, oil pressure switch, temperature gauge sender, thermoswitch, fuel stop (ETR)
solenoid, glow plugs.
9. Disconnect drive coupling from flywheel end of engine.
10. Remove upper fan shroud from radiator.
11. Disconnect throttle cable from speed control lever
on fuel injection pump. Loosen clamp and remove throttle cable and from engine bracket.
12. Remove fasteners securing engine to engine
mounts.
CAUTION
5. Loosen hose clamps and disconnect upper and lower
radiator hoses from engine and radiator.
13. Attach a short section of chain between the two lifting
brackets on the engine. Connect hoist, or block and
tackle chain at center of the short section of chain. One
person should operate hoist or block and tackle and
other person should help guide engine out of chassis.
Remove engine from chassis. Be careful when removing engine to prevent damage to engine, radiator or
other parts. Mount engine in an engine rebuilding stand.
6. Loosen hose clamp and remove fuel hose from
injector pump. Plug end of fuel line to prevent fuel
leakage. Disconnect injector return hose.
14. Remove muffler, brackets, coolant expansion tank
and accessories from engine as necessary. Drain oil
from engine and remove engine oil filter.
DO NOT open radiator cap or drain coolant if
engine or radiator is hot. Pressurized, hot
coolant can escape and cause burns.
7. Loosen hose clamp and disconnect PCV hose from
engine.
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 43 Rev. B
Engine
Engine
1. Put machine on a level surface and engage parking
brake. Turn engine OFF and remove key from ignition
switch. Allow engine and radiator to cool.
Installing the Engine
1. To install the engine, perform steps 2- 14 of Removing
the Engine in reverse order.
2. After disassembling or overhauling the engine, install
a new oil filter. Replace this filter after the first 20 to 50
hours of operation.
3. Fill the engine with the correct oil. Fill the cooling
system with a 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol antifreeze, and clean, soft water. Check for oil and coolant
leaks and repair as necessary.
Peugeot recommended Coolant/Antifreeze is available in 1 U.S.
Gallon containers under Toro Part No. 93-7213.
IMPORTANT: The anti-freeze should contain no
Borate and have a Ph of 7 to 8.5.
4. Adjust the throttle linkage.
Engine
Page 3 - 44 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Engine Overhaul
Disassembly of External Components
1. Remove TDC sensor and clutch housing centering pin.
2. Mount the engine on a stand.
3. Lock the flywheel with TOR FD86 tool.
4. Remove exhaust manifold and inlet manifold.
5. Remove the coolant manifold.
Engine
6. Remove the alternator and belt.
7. Remove the oil filter (Fig. 57, Item 10).
8. Remove the injector pipes (Item 12).
9. Remove the glow plug leads.
10. Remove the crankcase breather pipes/oil filter/filter
pipe assembly (Item 13).
11. Remove the oil pressure switch (Item 14).
Figure 57
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 45 Rev. B
Engine
12. Remove the thermostat housing cover (Fig. 58,
Item 17).
TOR 80149
13. Remove the thermostat housing (Item 18).
14. Remove the injectors (Item 19) and retrieve the
copper washer (Item 20), and flame trap washer
(Item 21).
15. Remove the glow plugs (Item 22).
Figure 58
Injection Pump Removal
1. Remove the timing belt.
2. Use injector pump gear puller TOR70153H,
remove injector pump gear (Fig. 58a, Item 5).
to
TOR70153H
Figure 58a
3. Remove the injection pump (Fig. 58b, Item 19).
4. Remove bracket (Item 20).
NOTE: If the pump needs to be inspected or repaired it
is recommended that is be done by an authorized CAV
Lucas ROTO DIESEL service dealer - especially during
the warranty period. Repairs by non-authorized dealers
WILL void the pump warranty.
IMPORTANT: Clean the injection pump and the area
around the injection pump before removing or servicing it. DO NOT spray water onto a hot injection
pump.
Engine
Page 3 - 46 Rev. B
Figure 58b
Groundsmaster 455-D
Cylinder Head Removal
1. Remove the cylinder head cover.
2. Use a Torx head T55 tool to loosen the cylinder head
bolts, working in a spiral from the outside. Remove the
cylinder head bolts.
IMPORTANT: DO NOT pry at gasket surface to
loosen cylinder head from block.
3. Use levers (0.0149) to release the cylinder head from
the block.
4. Remove the cylinder head and gasket.
Engine
Figure 59
Oil Pump Removal
1. Remove the oil pan and gasket
IMPORTANT: Use solvent and a wood or plastic
scraper to remove the silicone gasket material. Be
careful not to damage the sealing face of the block.
2. Remove the bolts (Fig. 60, Item 1, 2, and 3).
3. Remove the seal carrier plate (Item 4).
IMPORTANT: The bolt (Item 1) is a special bolt that
centers the pump in the correct location.
Figure 60
4. Remove the pump (Fig. 61, Item 5) / drive chain /
crankshaft sprocket (Item 7) assembly. NOTE: Item 6 spacer is not used on engines used in TORO machines.
Figure 61
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 47 Rev. B
Engine
Crankshaft and Piston Removal
1. Remove flywheel locking tool.
2. Remove the connecting rod end caps (Fig. 62,
Item 8), marking each cap for re-installation in the same
location.
NOTE: Connecting rods and end caps are not numbered. Once they are removed there is no way of
knowing the correct location for installation unless you
mark them for re-installation.
3. Remove the flywheel.
4. Remove the main bearing caps (Item 9) (marks are
cast-in).
Figure 62
5. Retrieve end float washers with No. 2 cap.
5. Remove the oil seal (Fig. 63, Item 10).
6. Remove the end float washers (Item 11).
7. Remove the crankshaft.
8. Remove the main bearing shells.
9. Remove the piston/connecting rod assemblies, marking each piston and connecting rod for re-installation in
the same location.
NOTE: Connecting rods and end caps are not numbered. Once they are removed there is no way of
knowing the correct location for installation unless you
mark them for re-installation.
Figure 63
10. Remove the piston pin circlips and separate the
pistons from the connecting rods.
11. Remove the plugs (Fig. 63 and 64, Item 12) from the
oil galleries.
Figure 64
Engine
Page 3 - 48 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Cylinder Head Overhaul
1. Progressively slacken the camshaft bearing caps
(Fig. 65, Item 1).
2. Remove the bearing caps (Item 1), oil seals (Item 2),
camshaft (Item 3), tappets (Item 4) and adjustment
shims (Item 5). Mark adjustment shims and tappets so
they will be re-installed in the same location – #1 intake,
#1 exhaust, #2 intake, #2 exhaust, etc.
NOTE: The shims are small and can stick to the tappets.
Engine
Figure 65
3. Use a valve compressor to remove the eight valves
(Fig. 66).
4. Use a hammer and drift to remove the swirl chambers
from the injector orifices, if necessary.
NOTE: Swirl chambers do not need to be removed
unless cylinder head is to be machined or replaced.
5. Clean the cylinder head. Use a wooden scraper and
gasket stripping solvent to clean the gasket face. DO
NOT use a metal scraper.
Figure 66
6. Check the gasket face for bow (flatness). Check
corner to corner and side to side (Fig. 67).
Maximum bow: 0.7 mm.
7. Check the condition of the valve seats and guides,
valve, valve springs, swirl chambers, camshaft, camshaft bearings and all tapped holes. (See Identification
and Specifications section.)
Figure 67
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 49 Rev. B
Engine
8. Check the protrusion of the swirl chambers
(Fig. 68, A).
Protrusion: 0 to 0.03 mm
Achieve this dimension by machining faces (a) and (b).
9. Check the valve recess (B).
Exhaust: 0.9 to 1.45 mm
Inlet: 0.5 to 1.05 mm
Achieve this dimension by machining the valve seats.
Figure 68
10. Lap in the valves.
11. Re-install the valves.
IMPORTANT: If the cylinder head has been
machined, fit compensating washers under the
valve springs. (See Identification and Specifications
section.)
12. Install the shims as removed in step 2. If replacing
cylinder head or if cylinder head has been machined,
install a basic shim (Fig. 69, Item 6) (2.425 mm thick) to
each valve stem and check that each shim is higher than
the spring cup (Item c). If a shim is not higher than the
cup, grind the top of the cup (Item c).
c
Figure 69
13. Re-install the tappets.
14. Oil the camshaft bearings.
15. Install the camshaft, with the DIST mark at the timing
gear end.
16. Progressively tighten the bearing caps to a torque
of 17.5 Nm (13 ft-lb). The bearing caps have cast-in
markings for correct installation.
Figure 70
Engine
Page 3 - 50 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Crankshaft Installation
1. Put thread lock Loctite on the oil gallery plugs and
install them in the cylinder block.
2. Install the grooved main bearing shells. (See
Crankshaft in the Inspection and Specifications section
for main bearing shell thickness.)
Engine
Figure 71
3. Install the crankshaft.
4. Install the no. 3, 4 and 5 main bearing caps.
5. Install the two end float half-washers (Fig. 72, Item
1), with the anti-friction faces towards the crankshaft.
Figure 72
6. Install the no. 2 main bearing cap (Fig. 73, Item 2)
with its two end float half-washers, with the anti-friction
faces towards the crankshaft.
Figure 73
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 51 Rev. B
Engine
7. Check crankshaft end float (Fig. 74):
A . I ns t al l t he dia l i ndi cat or, usi ng to ols
TOR 80110G1, TOR 80504 A1 and A2.
TOR 80110G1
B. End float must be between 0.07 and 0.32 mm.
NOTE: For choice of half-washer thickness see
Crankshaft in the Identification and Specifications
section.
8. Apply a thin coat of Formetanch or Permatex No. 2
sealant to surface of block where bearing cap will mate
(Fig. 73, Item a).
TOR 80504 A1-A2
Figure 74
9. Install the two new side seals (Fig. 75, Item 3) to no. 1
main bearing cap.
A2
10. Using a bolt and washer (Item 5), attach tool 80153
fitted with shims A2 to no. 1 main bearing cap (Item 4).
TOR 80153A1
11. Adjust the height (x) of the shims.
x = 0.5 mm above flat on side of rear main cap
12. Oil the shims and the housing.
IMPORTANT: To avoid stretching the side seals, fit
the cap as follows:
A. Engage it in its housing at 45°.
B. Straighten it.
C. Lower it slowly.
D. Tighten the two bearing cap bolts (Item 6) finger
tight.
E. Remove the capscrew securing the tool to the
main bearing cap and withdraw the tool horizontally.
Figure 75
Engine
Page 3 - 52 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
13. Tighten the bearing cap bolts to a torque of 70 Nm
(52 ft-lb).
14. Using shim TOR 80110DZ, cut off the side seals so
that they protrude 2 mm.
15. Check that the crankshaft rotates without tight spots.
TOR 80110DZ
Engine
Figure 76
Pistons and Connecting Rod Assembly
1. Assemble the connecting rods and pistons with the
bearing shell tab recess (Fig. 77, Item a) on the same
side as the piston crown recess (Item b).
2. Use a piston rings pliers to install the piston rings:
NOTE: The marked face of the tapered ring must be
towards the combustion chamber.
(1) – scraper ring
(2) – tapered ring
(3) – domed chrome ring
Space the ring gaps at 120° in relation to the scraper
ring gap (Item c).
Figure 77
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 53 Rev. B
Engine
3. Oil the piston and tighten the piston ring clamp
(Fig. 78, Item 4).
4. Remove the connecting rod end caps.
5. Install the pistons in the bores, matching the markings
made when removed, and aligning the crown recess
(Item a) on the oil filter side of the block.
6. Install the connecting rod end caps. Tighten the nuts
to a torque of 50 Nm (37 ft-lb).
NOTE: For choice of bearing shell thickness, see
Crankcase in Identification and Specifications section.
Figure 78
Oil Seal Installation
1. Put a new oil seal on tool TOR 70153 C.
TOR 70153C
2. Install seal with lip toward the inside of the engine
block to keep the oil in. Fit the seal by tapping fully
home with a mallet.
3. Withdraw the tool with a twisting movement.
Figure 79
Oil Pump Installation
1. Install the key (Fig. 80, Item 6).
2. Install the pump (Item 7), drive chain and sprocket
(Item 8) assembly.
Figure 80
Engine
Page 3 - 54 Rev. D
Groundsmaster 455-D
3. Install the special shoulder bolt (Fig. 81, Item 1) to
center the pump in the proper location.
4. Install the other bolts and tighten the bolts
(Item 1, 2, 3) to a torque of 20 Nm (15 ft-lb).
5. Install the seal carrier plate and a new gasket (Item 4)
and tighten the bolts to a torque of 15 Nm (11 ft-lb).
6. Put a new oil seal on tool TOR 70153 D.
7. Install the seal by tapping it fully home with a mallet.
TOR 70153D
8. Apply Formetanch or Permatex No. 2 sealant as
shown (Item a).
Engine
9. Install oil pan gasket:
XUD9A Engine: Install the oil pan gasket.
XUD9AI Engine: Apply silicone sealant to the oil
pan using the pattern shown in Figure 81a. Wait 10
minutes before installing the oil pan to allow partial
hardening of the gasket material.
10. Install the oil pan (Item 5).
11. Install the bolts (Item b).
NOTE: The two shorter bolts are installed into the main
bearing cap.
Figure 81
12. Tighten the bolts (Item b) to a torque of 20 Nm
(15 ft-lb).
13. Wait a minimum of 1 hour for the oil pan gasket to
harden before filling with oil.
Figure 81a
Flywheel Installation
1. Install the flywheel. Put Locket thread lock on the
flywheel mounting bolts.
2. Install a TORFD86 flywheel locking tool.
3. Tighten the flywheel bolts to a torque of 50 Nm
(37 ft-lb).
4. Remove the flywheel locking tool.
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 55 Rev. B
Engine
Cylinder Head Gasket Selection
1. Install the dial indicator on support TOR 80110 H and
zero it on a surface plate.
2. Turn the crankshaft and measure the protrusion of
each piston at TDC.
3. Note the maximum protrusion (Fig. 82, Item d).
4. Select a cylinder head gasket of suitable thickness.
TOR 80110H
Units: mm
Piston protrusion (d)
Thickness identification
0.56 to 0.71
2 notches
0.71 to 0.75
3 notches
0.75 to 0.79
4 notches
0.79 to 0.83
5 notches
Figure 82
Cylinder Head Installation
1. Turn the crankshaft to put the pistons at mid-stroke
with damper pulley key (Fig. 83, Item 6) at the 9 o’clock
position.
2. Clean the tapped holes in the cylinder block (12 x 150
thread).
3. Install the centralizing dowel (Item 7).
4. Install a new head gasket (dry).
5. Install the cylinder head.
6. Carefully clean the threads of the cylinder head bolts
with a brush.
7. Coat the bolt threads and washer contact faces with
MOLYKOTE G RAPID.
Figure 83
Engine
Page 3 - 56 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Cylinder Head Tightening
1. Install new washers on the bolts.
2. Pre-tighten the bolts in the order shown (Fig. 84) to a
torque of 30 Nm (22 ft-lb).
3. Tighten the bolts in the order shown to a torque of
70 Nm 52 ft-lb).
4. Tighten each bolt in the order shown an additional
120° ± 2°.
NOTE: The special cylinder head bolts (Item B) do not
require re-tightening. The bolts can be removed and
re-installed 5 times before replacing with new bolts.
Engine
Figure 84
Valve Clearance Adjustment
NOTE: If all valve parts are re-installed in their original
location it should not be necessary to adjust valve
clearance, unless the head has been machined or valves ground.
1. Install the camshaft gear. (Fig. 85, Item 1).
2. Check the valve clearance:
Units: mm
Running Clearance
Inlet
0.15
Exhaust
0.30
Tolerance
± 0.04
Set “on the rock”
Inlet 4, Exhaust 4
Inlet 1, Exhaust 1
Check
Inlet 1, Exhaust 1
Inlet 4, Exhaust 4
Inlet 2, Exhaust 3
Inlet 3, Exhaust 2
Figure 85
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 57 Rev. B
Engine
3. Remove the camshaft gear (Fig. 86, Item 1).
4. Remove the camshaft bearing caps (Item 2).
5. Remove the camshaft (Item 3).
6. Remove the tappets (Item 4).
7. Remove the basic shims (Item 5).
8. Determine the shim thickness to be fitted for each
valve. Example:
Units: mm
No. 1 Intake valve
Specified clearance
0.15
Clearance measured
0.25
Difference
Shim installed
Figure 86
+ 0.10
2.425 *
Shim to be installed
2.50
Clearance obtained
0.175
* Basic shim
9. Install the shims as determined in step 8.
10. Install the tappets.
Engine
Page 3 - 58 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
11. Apply a thin coat of Formetanch or Permatex No. 2
sealant to each end of the bearing housing at (Fig. 87,
Item a).
12. Apply MOLYKOTE G RAPID to the bearing surfaces
on the camshaft.
13. Install the camshaft (Item 3) with the DIST marking
at the timing gear end.
14. Install the camshaft bearing caps (Item 2) as shown
by cast-in markings.
Engine
15. Progressively tighten the bearing caps to 17.5 Nm
(13 ft-lb).
Figure 87
TOR 976697
16. Install a new oil seal on tool TOR 976697 on the side
where the inner flange is the farthest away (Fig. 88).
17. Use a camshaft gear or pulley bolt to install the two
camshaft oil seals.
Figure 88
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 59 Rev. B
Engine
Assembly of External Components
1. Install new fire ring washers (Fig. 89, Item 1), convex
surface facing up.
2. Install new copper washers (Item 2).
3. Install the injectors and tighten to a torque of 90 Nm
(66 ft-lb).
4. Install the pre-heat plugs (Item 4) and tighten to a
torque of 22 Nm (16 ft-lb).
5. Install the thermostat housing (Item 5) and cover
(Item 6), fitted with a new thermostat and gasket.
6. Install the cylinder head cover (Item 7), and tighten to
a torque of 10 Nm (7 ft-lb).
Figure 89
7. Install the pre-heat plug wires.
8. Install the breather pipe assembly, with oil filler pipes
and filler orifice (Fig. 90, Item 13).
9. Install the injector pipes (Item 12).
10. Install the oil pressure switch (Item 14) and tighten
to a torque of 27.5 Nm (20 ft-lb).
11. Install a new oil filter (Item 10). (See Break-in Engine
After Overhaul.)
12. Install the alternator and alternator belt.
13. Install the water inlet housing.
14. Install the exhaust manifold with new seals.
15. Install the intake manifold.
16. Remove the engine from the stand.
17. Install the clutch housing centering pin.
Figure 90
18. Install the TDC sensor.
Engine
Page 3 - 60 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Break-in Engine After Overhaul
Engine
After disassembling or overhauling the engine, install
the a new oil filter. Replace this filter with a new filter
after the first 20 to 50 hours of operation.
Groundsmaster 455-D
Page 3 - 61 Rev. B
Engine
Engine
Page 3 - 62 Rev. B
Groundsmaster 455-D
Chapter 4
Hydraulic System
Table of Contents
Groundsmaster® 455-D
TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test No. 1: Checking Traction Circuit
Working Pressure or Relief Pressure. . . . . . .
Test No. 2: Checking Counterbalance Pressure
Test No. 3: Checking Wing Deck
Counterbalance Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Test No. 4: Checking Steering Circuit
Working Pressure or Relief Pressure. . . . . . .
Test No. 5: Checking Lift Circuit
Working Pressure or Relief Pressure. . . . . . .
Test No. 6: Checking Charge Pressure
For Traction Circuit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADJUSTMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Traction Pump Neutral Adjustment . . . . . . . . . .
REPAIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing Hydraulic System Components . . . .
Traction Pump Shaft Seal Replacement . . . . . .
Traction Pump Trunnion Seal Replacement . . .
Traction Pump Check and
High Pressure Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Traction Pump Charge Pressure Relief Valve . .
Disassembly of Traction Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Assembly of Traction Pump. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Auxiliary/Steering Pump Repairs. . . . . . . . . . . .
Front Traction Motor Repairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear Axle 4wd Motor Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lift Valve Repairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steering Control Unit Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Page 4 - 1
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Table of Contents
Hydraulic System
SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Hydraulic Hose and Fitting Information . . . . . . . . 3
HYDRAULIC SCHEMATICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Two (2) Wheel Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Four (4) Wheel Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
HYDRAULIC FLOW DIAGRAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
General Auxiliary Pump Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Traction Circuit - Forward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Lift/Lower Circuit - Lifting Cutting Unit . . . . . . . . . 9
Steering Circuit - R.H. Turn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
SPECIAL TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Hydraulic Pressure Test Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Hydraulic Tester. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
System Operates Hot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Machine Travels in One Direction Only . . . . . . . 13
Traction Response is Sluggish . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Machine Will Not Travel in Either Direction . . . . 14
Four Wheel Drive Does Not Engage . . . . . . . . . 15
Four Wheel Drive Does Not Disengage . . . . . . 15
Cutting Unit(s) Do Not Lift or Lift Too Slowly . . . 16
Cutting Units Will Not Drop
or Follow Ground Contours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Cutting Unit(s) Drop From Raised Position
With Lift Valve in Centered Position . . . . . . . 17
Cutting Unit(s) Lower or Raise Too Quickly. . . . 18
Steering Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Specifications
Item
Description
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Traction Pump
Traction relief pressure
Charge pressure
Variable axial piston pump
6000 ± 100 PSI at high idle
100 +25 / – 10 PSI at 3000 ± 50 RPM
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Charge/Auxiliary Pump
Steering pressure
Gear pump with flow divider
1200 ± 100 PSI at 3000 ± 50 RPM
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Traction Motor (front)
Fixed axial piston motor
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Traction Motor (rear w/4WD)
Fixed axial piston pump
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Lift Control Valve
Lift relief pressure
Counterbalance pressure
Wing Lift Counterbalance pressure
Spool type directional control valve
2150 - 2300 PSI at high idle
600 - 650 PSI (hot oil) at 3000 ± 50 RPM
375 ± 25 PSI (hot oil) at 3000 ± 50 RPM
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Hydraulic Filter
Spin-on cartridge type
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Hydraulic Oil
* Mobil DTE 26 or equivalent
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Reservoir
Approximately 6.5 gal. U.S.
* Equivalent Hydraulic Oils
(interchangeable):
Shell Tellus 68
Amoco Rykon Oil 68
Conoco Super Hydraulic Oil 68
Exxon Nuto 68
Kendall Kenoil R & O AW 68
Pennzoil Penreco 68
Phillips Magnus A 68
Standard Energol HLP 68
Sun Sunvis 831 WR
Union Unax AW 68
Chevron AW Hydraulic Oil 68
2
1
Figure 1
1. Sight gauge
Specifications
2. Hydraulic reservoir cap
Page 4 - 2 Rev. A
Groundsmaster® 455-D
General Information
Hydraulic Hoses
When replacing a hydraulic hose, be sure that the hose
is straight (not twisted) before tightening the fittings. This
can be done by observing the imprint on the hose. Use
two wrenches; one to hold the hose straight and one to
tighten the hose swivel nut onto the fitting.
WARNING
Before disconnecting or performing any work
on the hydraulic system, all pressure in the
system must be relieved by stopping the engine and opening the bypass valve.
Keep body and hands away from pin hole
leaks or nozzles that eject hydraulic fluid under high pressure. Use paper or cardboard,
not hands, to search for leaks. Hydraulic fluid
escaping under pressure can have sufficient
force to penetrate the skin and do serious
damage. If fluid is injected into the skin, it
must be surgically removed within a few
hours by a doctor familiar with this type of
injury or gangrene may result.
Hydraulic Fitting Installation
O-Ring Face Seal (Fig. 2, 3)
Nut
1. Make sure both threads and sealing surfaces are free
of burrs, nicks, scratches, or any foreign material.
Body
Sleeve
Seal
2. Make sure the O-ring is installed and properly seated
in the groove. It is recommended that the O-ring be
replaced any time the connection is opened.
3. Lubricate the O-ring with a light coating of oil.
4. Put the tube and nut squarely into position on the face
seal end of the fitting and tighten the nut until finger tight.
Figure 2
5. Mark the nut and fitting body. Hold the body with a
wrench. Use another wrench to tighten the nut to the
correct flats from finger tight (F.F.F.T.). The markings on
the nut and fitting body will verify that the connection has
been tightened.
Size
4 (1/4 in. nominal hose or tubing)
6 (3/8 in.)
8 (1/2 in.)
10 (5/8 in.)
12 (3/4 in.)
16 (1 in.)
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Mark Nut
and Body
F.F.F.T.
.75 ± .25
.75 ± .25
.75 ± .25
1.00 ± .25
.75 ± .25
.75 ± .25
Final
Position
Initial
Position
Extend Line
Finger Tight
After Proper Tightening
Figure 3
Page 4 - 3
General Information
Hydraulic System
Hydraulic hoses are subject to extreme conditions such
as, pressure differentials during operation and exposure
to weather, sun, chemicals, very warm storage conditions or mishandling during operation or maintenance.
These conditions can cause damage or premature deterioration. Some hoses, such as reel motor hoses, are
more susceptible to these conditions than others. Inspect the hoses frequently for signs of deterioration or
damage.
SAE Straight Thread O-Ring Port - Non-adjustable
(Fig. 4)
1. Make sure both threads and sealing surfaces are free
of burrs, nicks, scratches, or any foreign material.
2. Always replace the O-ring seal when this type of fitting
shows signs of leakage.
3. Lubricate the O-ring with a light coating of oil.
O-Ring
4. Install the fitting into the port and tighten it down full
length until finger tight.
5. Tighten the fitting to the correct flats from finger tight
(F.F.F.T.).
Size
4 (1/4 in. nominal hose or tubing)
6 (3/8 in.)
8 (1/2 in.)
10 (5/8 in.)
12 (3/4 in.)
16 (1 in.)
Figure 4
F.F.F.T.
1.00 ± .25
1.50 ± .25
1.50 ± .25
1.50 ± .25
1.50 ± .25
1.50 ± .25
SAE Straight Thread O-Ring Port - Adjustable
(Fig. 5, 6)
1. Make sure both threads and sealing surfaces are free
of burrs, nicks, scratches, or any foreign material.
2. Always replace the O-ring seal when this type of fitting
shows signs of leakage.
Lock Nut
3. Lubricate the O-ring with a light coating of oil.
Back-Up Washer
4. Turn back the jam nut as far as possible. Make sure
the back up washer is not loose and is pushed up as far
as possible (Step 1).
O-Ring
5. Install the fitting into the port and tighten finger tight
until the washer contacts the face of the port (Step 2).
6. To put the fitting in the desired position, unscrew it by
the required amount, but no more than one full turn
(Step 3).
Figure 5
Step 1
Step 3
Step 2
Step 4
7. Hold the fitting in the desired position with a wrench
and turn the jam nut with another wrench to the correct
flats from finger tight (F.F.F.T.) (Step 4)
Size
4 (1/4 in. nominal hose or tubing)
6 (3/8 in.)
8 (1/2 in.)
10 (5/8 in.)
12 (3/4 in.)
16 (1 in.)
General Information
F.F.F.T.
1.00 ± .25
1.50 ± .25
1.50 ± .25
1.50 ± .25
1.50 ± .25
1.50 ± .25
Figure 6
Page 4 - 4
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Groundsmaster 455--D
Page 4 -- 5
TEST PORT
32.8/15.4
FRONT AXLE
TEST PORT
3000/1600 RPM
ENGINE
FRONT MOTOR
.913 IN3 /REV
(15.0 CC/REV)
Rev. C
110 PSI
(7.6 BAR)
6000 PSI
(408 BAR)
6000 PSI
(408 BAR)
1.50 IN3 /REV
(25.0 CC/REV)
FORWARD 16.2 GPM MAX
(61 LITERS/MIN MAX)
O
I
100 MESH
STRAINER
Hydraulic
System
1200 PSI
(83 BAR)
200--400 PSI
(13.6--27.2 BAR)
.039 ONE--WAY ORIFICE
RIGHT UNIT LIFT
CENTER UNIT LIFT
.08 ORIFICE
.020 ORIFICE
.039 ONE--WAY ORIFICE
LEFT UNIT LIFT
.020 ORIFICE
LOCKOUT DIRECTIONAL
CONTROL VALVE WITH DETENTED
LOCKOUT PLUNGER
120 PSI OPERATING TEMP.
(8.16 BAR)
F
E
D
C
B
A
3.95 GPM
(14.93 LITERS/MIN)
.31 IN 3 /REV
(5.08 CC/REV)
3.95 GPM
(14.93 LITERS/MIN)
TEST PORTS
2000 PSI
(138 BAR)
TEST PORT
2.0 TURNS
LOCK TO LOCK
L
T
STEERING CONTROL UNIT
7.4 CU INCH/REV
(121.3 CC/REV)
TEST PORT
25 PSI
(1.7
BAR)
COOLER
INLET
CHECK VALVE
FILTER
10 MICRON
P
R
STEERING CYLINDER
Hydraulic Schematic -- Two (2) Wheel Drive
T--1495--2
Hydraulic Schematics
Hydraulic Schematics
Page 4 -- 6
Rev. C
REAR MOTOR
2.01 IN3 /REV
(32.9 CC/REV)
100 PSI 1.5 GPM
(6.9 BAR)
(5.66 LITERS/MIN)
12.6:1
REAR
AXLE
TEST PORT
OVER--RUNNING CLUTCH
T
B
P
A
32.8/15.4
FRONT AXLE
TEST PORT
3000/1600 RPM
ENGINE
FRONT MOTOR
.913 IN3 /REV
(15.0 CC/REV)
110 PSI
(7.6 BAR)
6000 PSI
(408 BAR)
6000 PSI
(408 BAR)
1.50 IN 3/REV
(25.0 CC/REV)
FORWARD 16.2 GPM MAX
(61 LITERS/MIN MAX)
O
I
1200 PSI
(83 BAR)
100 MESH
STRAINER
200--400 PSI
(13.6--27.2 BAR)
TEST PORT
.039 ONE--WAY ORIFICE
RIGHT UNIT LIFT
CENTER UNIT LIFT
.08 ORIFICE
.020 ORIFICE
.039 ONE--WAY ORIFICE
LEFT UNIT LIFT
.020 ORIFICE
L
T
STEERING CONTROL UNIT
7.4 CU INCH/REV
(121.3 CC/REV)
TEST PORT
25 PSI
(1.7
BAR)
COOLER
INLET
CHECK VALVE
FILTER
10 MICRON
P
R
STEERING CYLINDER
2.0 TURNS
LOCK TO LOCK
LOCKOUT DIRECTIONAL
CONTROL VALVE WITH DETENTED
LOCKOUT PLUNGER
120 PSI OPERATING TEMP.
(8.16 BAR)
F
E
D
C
B
A
3.95 GPM
(14.93 LITERS/MIN)
.31 IN 3 /REV
(5.08 CC/REV)
3.95 GPM
(14.93 LITERS/MIN)
TEST PORTS
2000 PSI
(138 BAR)
Hydraulic Schematic -- Four (4) Wheel Drive
T--1496--2
Groundsmaster 455--D
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Wing Lift
Cylinder
Steering
Orbitrol
Wing Lift
Cylinder
Center Unit
Lift Cylinder
Check
Valve
Center Unit
Lift Cylinder
Page 4 - 7
Flow
Suction
Return
Pressure
Check
Valve
Traction
Motor
Reservoir
Aux.
Pump
Hydraulic Flow Diagrams
Traction
Motor
General Auxiliary Pump Flow
Filter
Oil Cooler
Steer
Cylinder
With all controls in neutral and the engine running, oil is drawn from the
reservoir by the auxiliary pump. This gear-type pump has a flow divider
cover. Priority flow goes to the steering valve, then through the oil cooler,
filter, and back to the traction pump. Secondary flow goes to the lift valve,
then through the counterbalance valve, oil cooler and back to the traction
pump. Return flow from the auxiliary circuit provides charge oil for the
closed loop traction circuit. Excess return flow goes over the charge relief
valve in the traction pump and back to reservoir.
ENGINE
Counter
Balance
Valve
Hydraulic System
Traction
Pump
Lift Valve
Wing Counter
Balance Valve
Hydraulic Flow Diagrams
Hydraulic Flow Diagrams
Page 4 - 8
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Flow
Suction
Return
Pressure
Traction
Motor
ENGINE
Traction Circuit – Forward
Filter
Oil Cooler
Traction
Motor
When the top of the traction pedal is pushed down, a variable displacement hydrostatic
piston pump creates a flow of oil to a fixed displacement piston motor mounted on the
two-speed axle to drive the machine forward. On two wheel drive units, this flow returns
to the traction pump and continues to operate in a closed loop. Four wheel drive units
have another piston motor connected in series with the front motor and mounted to the
steerable rear axle. On these units, flow is from the pump to the front motor, through a
solenoid valve, then to the rear motor and back to the pump, continuing in a closed loop.
An interlock switch on the front axle controls the 4wd solenoid valve to engage four
wheel drive only when the transmission is in low gear. When in four wheel drive, an
over-running clutch between the motor and rear axle automatically engages the rear
axle only when the front wheels begin to slip.
Reservoir
Aux.
Pump
Traction
Pump
4WD
Solenoid
Valve
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 9
Hydraulic Flow Diagrams
Wing Lift
Cylinder
Wing Lift
Cylinder
Center Unit
Lift Cylinder
Steering
Orbitrol
Check
Valve
Center Unit
Lift Cylinder
Flow
Suction
Return
Pressure
Check
Valve
Reservoir
Aux.
Pump
ENGINE
Filter
Counter
Balance
Valve
Oil Cooler
Hydraulic System
Oil from the secondary pressure port of the auxiliary gear type pump goes to the
three-spool valve, then through the counterbalance valve, oil cooler, filter, and back
to reservoir. Each lift valve spool controls separate lift cylinders. Check valves in
each spool section hold the cutting units in the raised position. When a lift lever is
moved to the lift position, the valve spool moves to direct oil flow to the lift cylinder,
lifting the cutting unit. An orifice in the lift port of each cylinder limits the speed of
cutting unit lifting and lowering. A counterbalance relief valve in the return line creates
a constant back pressure in the lift circuit to transfer some of the cutting unit weight
to the traction unit.
Lift Circuit – Lifting Center Cutting Unit
Lift Valve
Wing Counter
Balance Valve
Hydraulic Flow Diagrams
Page 4 - 10
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Steering
Orbitrol
Check
Valve
Flow
Suction
Return
Pressure
Check
Valve
Reservoir
Aux.
Pump
Filter
Steering Circuit – R.H. Turn
Oil Cooler
Oil flows from the priority pressure port of the gear type auxiliary pump to
the power steering valve, then through the oil cooler, filter, and back to
reservoir. Turning the steering wheel to the right (clockwise) moves the
control spool in the steering valve to meter oil to the steering cylinder for
a right turn. Turning the steering wheel to the left (counterclockwise) has
the opposite effect. Cylinder movement forces oil out the other end of the
cylinder, back to the steering valve which directs it back to reservoir.
ENGINE
Steer
Cylinder
Special Tools
NOTE: Order special tools from the TORO SPECIAL
TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS GUIDE (COMMERCIAL
PRODUCTS). Some tools may be listed in the
Groundsmaster 455-D Parts Catalog. Some tools may
also be available from a local supplier.
Hydraulic Pressure Test Kit
Hydraulic System
Used to take various pressure readings for diagnostic
tests. Quick disconnect fittings provided attach directly
to mating fittings on machine test ports without tools. A
high pressure hose is provided for remote readings.
Contains one each, 1000, 5000 and 10000 PSI gauges.
Use gauges as recommended in Testing section of this
chapter.
Figure 7
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 11
Special Tools
Hydraulic Tester - With Pressure and Flow Capabilities
Load Valve
Low Pressure
Gauge
Outlet
Hose
Flow Meter
Gauge
Protector Valve
High Pressure
Gauge
Inlet Hose
Figure 8
You must have o-ring face seal (ORFS) adapter fittings
for this tester to use it on the Groundsmaster 455-D.
1. INLET HOSE: Hose connected from the system
circuit to the inlet side of the hydraulic tester.
2. LOAD VALVE: If required, upon turning the valve to
restrict flow, a simulated working load is created in the
circuit.
4. HIGH PRESSURE GAUGE: High range gauge to
accommodate pressure beyond the capacity of the low
pressure gauge, 0 - 10,000 PSI.
5. FLOW METER: This meter measures actual oil flow
in the operation circuit, with a gauge rated at 15 GPM.
6. OUTLET HOSE: Hose from the outlet side of the
hydraulic tester to be connected to the hydraulic system
circuit.
3. LOW PRESSURE GAUGE: Low range gauge to
provide accurate reading at low pressure, 0 - 1000 PSI.
This gauge has a protector valve which cuts out
when pressure is about to exceed the normal range
for the gauge. The cutout pressure is adjustable.
Special Tools
Page 4 - 12
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Troubleshooting
The cause of an improperly functioning hydraulic system is best diagnosed with the use of proper testing
equipment and a thorough understanding of the complete hydraulic system.
A hydraulic system with an excessive increase in heat
or noise is a potential failure. Should either of these
conditions be noticed, immediately stop the machine,
turn off the engine, locate the cause of the trouble, and
correct it before allowing the machine to be used again.
Continued use of an improperly functioning hydraulic
system could lead to extensive internal component
damage.
The charts that follow contain detailed information to
assist in troubleshooting. There may possibly be more
than one cause for a machine malfunction. All causes
should be checked in the order in which they are listed
on the charts.
Refer to the Testing section of this Chapter for precautions and specific test procedures.
System Operates Hot
Cooling system not operating properly.
Clean screen, oil cooler & radiator. Repair fan or belt.
Check coolant level and add coolant if necessary.
Make sure radiator screen is properly sealed.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Low engine RPM.
Adjust - use tachometer.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Hydraulic oil level too low.
Fill to proper level.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Kinked or severely bent hose or tubing.
Replace kinked or bent hose or tubing.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Traction circuit working pressure too
high - TEST NO. 1.
Inspect brakes for binding and adjust or repair if
necessary.
Check for other cause of excessive machine load
and correct.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Damaged pump or motor(s).
Repair or replace pump or motor(s).
Machine Travels In One Direction Only
Cause
Correction
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Traction control linkage damaged or out of
adjustment.
Repair control linkage.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Pump charge check/relief valves defective.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Inspect and clean or replace pump check/relief
valves.
Page 4 - 13
Troubleshooting
Hydraulic System
Cause
Correction
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Traction Response Is Sluggish
Cause
Correction
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Brakes dragging.
Inspect brakes and adjust or repair if necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Charge pressure low - TEST NO. 6.
NOTE: Counterbalance pressure will also be
affected.
Inspect charge relief valve and adjust or repair if
necessary.
Inspect auxiliary pump and repair or replace if
necessary NOTE: Steering and lift will also be
affected if auxiliary pump is damaged.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Pump or motor damaged.
Inspect and repair or replace traction pump or motor
if necessary.
Machine Will Not Travel In Either Direction
Cause
Correction
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Front axle shift lever in neutral (middle) position.
Move shift lever to engage transmission.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Damaged front axle or rear 4wd axle.
Repair axle.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Brakes engaged.
Inspect brakes and adjust or repair if necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Hydraulic oil level too low.
Fill to proper level.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Control linkage damaged or out of adjustment.
Repair control linkage.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Charge pressure low - TEST NO. 6.
NOTE: Counterbalance pressure will also be
affected.
Inspect charge relief valve and adjust or repair if
necessary.
Inspect auxiliary pump and repair or replace if
necessary NOTE: Steering and lift will also be
affected if auxiliary pump is damaged.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Traction pressure too low - TEST NO. 1.
Inspect traction pump check/relief valves and repair
or replace if necessary.
Check for damaged pump or motor(s) and repair or
replace if necessary.
Troubleshooting
Page 4 - 14
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Four Wheel Drive Does Not Engage
Cause
Correction
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Front axle shift lever in “HI” (forward) position.
Front axle shift lever must be in “LOW” (rear) position
for four wheel drive to engage.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Electrical problem.
Check for faulty front axle HI/LOW switch, four wheel
drive solenoid or wiring and repair if necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Faulty four wheel drive solenoid valve.
Inspect and clean solenoid valve and repair or
replace if necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Faulty roller clutch.
Replace roller clutch.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Repair or replace motor.
Four Wheel Drive Does Not Disengage
Cause
Correction
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Electrical problem.
Check for faulty front axle HI/LOW switch, or wiring
and repair if necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Four wheel drive solenoid valve sticking.
Inspect solenoid valve for damage or sticking in on
position and clean or replace valve if necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Faulty roller clutch.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Replace roller clutch.
Page 4 - 15
Troubleshooting
Hydraulic System
Faulty rear axle hydraulic motor.
Cutting Unit Does Not Lift or Lift Too Slowly
Cause
Correction
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Hydraulic oil level too low.
Fill to proper level.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Low engine RPM.
Adjust engine RPM - use tachometer.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Lift arm or cylinder pivots binding.
Lubricate bushings. Inspect for damage. Repair or
replace damaged parts.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Wing deck break-away spring mechanism binding.
Lubricate and inspect for damaged or worn parts.
Repair or replace damaged or worn parts.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Lift cylinder damaged.
Check lift cylinder(s). Repair or replace if necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Low counterbalance pressure - TEST NO. 2, 3.
Adjust counterbalance pressure or replace
counterbalance relief valve if necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Low lift pressure - TEST NO. 5.
Check for restriction in pump intake line or strainer
and repair if necessary.
Check lift cylinder(s) for internal leakage and repair
or replace if necessary.
Clean relief valve in lift control valve and adjust if
necessary by adding required shims.
Inspect lift valve for internal leakage or improper
operation and repair or replace if necessary.
Inspect steering/lift pump and priority flow valve for
wear or damage and repair or replace if necessary.
Troubleshooting
Page 4 - 16
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Cutting Unit Will Not Drop or Follow Ground Contours
Cause
Correction
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Low engine RPM.
Adjust engine RPM - use tachometer.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Lift arm or cylinder pivots binding.
Lubricate bushings. Inspect for damage. Repair or
replace damaged parts.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Lift cylinder damaged.
Check lift cylinder(s) and repair or replace if
necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Counterbalance pressure to high - TEST NO. 2, 3.
Adjust counterbalance pressure or replace
counterbalance relief valve if necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Orifice in hydraulic line plugged.
Clean orifice.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Repair or replace.
Faulty lift valve.
Repair or replace lift valve.
Cutting Unit Drops From Raised Position With Lift Valve in Centered Position
Cause
Correction
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Improperly positioned valve.
Instruct operator.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Worn detent(s) in lift valve.
Repair lift valve.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Internal leakage of lift cylinder(s)
Check lift cylinder(s) and repair or replace if
necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Lift cylinder hydraulic lines or fittings leaking.
Check for leaks. Correct any leaks by replacing
o-rings and tightening connection properly. Replace
lines or fittings if necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Faulty lift valve lockout assembly.
Check for damaged o-rings on lockout plugs or seats
and repair if necessary.
Check for damaged or worn lockout poppet assembly
and replace if necessary.
Check for broken lockout spring and replace if
necessary.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 17
Troubleshooting
Hydraulic System
Worn or damaged spool detent in lift valve.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Cutting Unit Lowers or Raises Too Quickly
Cause
Correction
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Missing or improperly installed orifice in hydraulic
line.
Properly install orifice between left valve and
hydraulic hose to hydraulic lift cylinder(s). NOTE:
Orifice must be installed to avoid interference with
adapter fitting.
Steering Loss
Cause
Correction
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Steering linkage or cylinder pivots damaged, worn,
or binding.
Lubricate bushings. Inspect for damage. Repair or
replace damaged parts.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Low steering pressure - TEST NO. 4.
Check for restriction in pump intake line or strainer
and repair if necessary.
Check steering cylinder for internal leakage and
repair or replace if necessary.
Clean relief valve in steering pump and adjust or
replace if necessary.
Inspect steering/lift pump for wear or damage and
repair or replace if necessary.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Steering control unit faulty.
Repair or replace steering control unit.
NOTE: Steering loss after washing machine can be the result of “thermal shock”. Normal functions will return after
steering control unit temperature stabilizes. To prevent damage to steering control unit, DO NOT attempt to turn
steering wheel until temperature stabilizes when thermal shock is noted.
Troubleshooting
Page 4 - 18
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Testing
The most effective method for isolating problems in the
hydraulic system is by using hydraulic test equipment
such as pressure gauges and flow meters in the circuits
during various operational checks. (See the Special
Tools section in this Chapter.)
1. Thoroughly clean the machine before disconnecting
or disassembling any hydraulic components. Always
keep in mind the need for cleanliness when working on
hydraulic equipment.
2. Put caps or plugs on any hydraulic lines left open or
exposed during testing or removal of components.
CAUTION
3. The engine must be in good operating condition. Use
a tachometer when making a hydraulic test. Engine
speed can affect the accuracy of the tester readings.
Failure to use gauges with the recommended
pressure (psi) rating as listed in the test procedures could result in damage to the gauge
and possible personal injury from leaking
hot oil.
4. To prevent damage to tester or components, the inlet
and the outlet hoses must be properly connected, and
not reversed (tester with pressure and flow capabilities).
All obvious areas such as oil supply, filter, binding
linkage, loose fasteners, or improper adjustments must
be checked before assuming that a hydraulic component is the source of the problem being experienced.
WARNING
Before disconnecting or performing any work
on the hydraulic system, all pressure in the
system must be relieved by stopping the engine and lowering the cutting units.
Keep body and hands away from pin hole
leaks or nozzles that eject hydraulic fluid under high pressure. Use paper or cardboard,
not hands, to search for leaks. Hydraulic fluid
escaping under pressure can have sufficient
force to penetrate skin and do serious damage. If fluid is injected into the skin, it must be
surgically removed within a few hours by a
doctor familiar with this type of injury or gangrene may result.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
5. To minimize the possibility of damaging components,
completely open load valve in hydraulic tester (if using
tester with pressure and flow capabilities).
6. Install fittings finger tight, far enough to insure that
they are not cross-threaded, before tightening with a
wrench.
7. Position the tester hoses so that rotating machine
parts will not make contact with them and result in hose
or tester damage.
8. Check the oil level in the reservoir.
9. Check the control linkage for improper adjustment,
binding or broken parts.
10. All hydraulic tests should be made with the hydraulic
oil at normal operating temperature.
Page 4 - 19
Testing
Hydraulic System
Before Performing Hydraulic Tests
TEST NO. 1: Checking Traction Circuit Working Pressure or Relief Pressure
WORKING Pressure Check:
1. Make sure hydraulic oil is at normal operating temperature by operating machine for approximately 10
minutes.
1
2. Lower cutting units, engage parking brake and stop
the engine.
3. Raise seat to get access to hydraulic test fittings.
Remove access cover from in front of auxiliary pump.
4. Install a 10,000 PSI gauge with extension hose onto
the traction circuit quick disconnect fitting for the function to be checked. Install gauge and hose so gauge can
be observed while sitting on seat, BUT WILL NOT
CONTACT CUTTING UNIT WHEN RAISED.
5. Operate machine while monitoring gauge.
Figure 9
1. Traction FORWARD test port
RANGE OF TESTER READINGS: 100 - 6100 PSI
RELIEF Pressure Check
CAUTION
Move machine to an open area away from
people and obstructions.
6. Set traction pedal stop for minimum ground speed
(1 MPH).
7. Start the engine and move throttle to full speed
(3000 RPM).
8. Release parking brake.
9. Engage the traction pedal to start machine in motion.
10. Maintain traction pedal engagement while momentarily engaging the brakes to bring the unit to a halt and
read gauge.
TESTER READING TO BE 6000 ± 100 PSI.
Testing
Page 4 - 20
Groundsmaster® 455-D
TEST NO. 2: Checking Counterbalance Pressure
1. Make sure hydraulic oil is at normal operating temperature by operating machine for approximately 10
minutes.
1
2. Lower cutting units, engage parking brake and stop
the engine.
3. Raise and support seat to get access to hydraulic test
fittings.
4. Install a 1000 PSI gauge into the counterbalance/lift
circuit quick disconnect fitting.
5. Start the engine, move throttle to full speed
(3000 RPM) and observe gauge.
TESTER READING: 600 - 650 PSI (oil at normal
operating temperature)
Figure 10
1. Counterbalance/lift circuit test port
6. If necessary adjust the relief valve screw until the
desired pressure is attained. Adjust nearer the high end
of the range for improved hill climbing or nearer the low
end for improved quality of cut.
Hydraulic System
Counterbalance Relief Valve Adjustment
1
CAUTION
When adjusting counterbalance relief valve,
do not unscrew relief valve adjuster too far.
Watch pressure gauge while adjusting valve.
Stop unscrewing valve adjuster when pressure no longer decreases.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Figure 11
1. Counterbalance relief valve
Page 4 - 21 Rev. A
Testing
TEST NO. 3: Checking Wing Deck Counterbalance Pressure
Wing Deck Counterbalance Pressure
1. Make sure hydraulic oil is at normal operating temperature by operating machine for approximately 10
minutes.
1
2
2. Lower cutting units, engage parking brake and stop
the engine.
3. Install a 1000 PSI gauge into the wing decks counterbalance quick disconnect fitting.
4. Start the engine, move throttle to full speed
(3000 RPM) and observe gauge.
TESTER READING: 350 - 400 PSI (oil at normal
operating temperature)
Figure 12
1. Wing deck counterbalance test port
2. Wing deck counterbalance relief valve (non-adjustable)
NOTE: The wing deck counterbalance valve is not
adjustable.
Testing
Page 4 - 22
Rev. A
Groundsmaster® 455-D
TEST NO. 4: Checking Steering Circuit Working Pressure or Relief Pressure
WORKING Pressure Check:
1. Make sure hydraulic oil is at normal operating temperature by operating machine for approximately 10
minutes.
2. Lower cutting units, engage parking brake and stop
the engine.
1
3. Raise and support the seat to get access to hydraulic
test fittings.
4. Install a 5000 PSI gauge onto steering circuit quick
disconnect fitting.
Figure 13
5. Operate machine while monitoring gauge.
1. Steering circuit test port
RANGE OF TESTER READINGS 0 - 1300 PSI.
Hydraulic System
RELIEF Pressure Check:
6. With engine running, turn the steering wheel until
heavy resistance is felt indicating that the cylinder has
reached maximum stroke.
7. Momentarily hold steering wheel against resistance
and read gauge.
TESTER READING TO BE 1200 ± 100 PSI.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 23
Testing
TEST NO. 5: Checking Lift Circuit Working Pressure or Relief Pressure
WORKING Pressure Check:
1. Make sure hydraulic oil is at normal operating temperature by operating machine for approximately 10
minutes.
1
2. Lower cutting units, engage parking brake and stop
the engine.
3. Raise and support seat to get access to hydraulic test
fittings. Remove access cover from in front of auxiliary
pump.
4. Install a 5000 PSI gauge onto lift circuit quick disconnect fitting. Put gauge and hose through opening below
seat in front of auxiliary pump so gauge can be observed
while sitting on seat.
Figure 14
1. Lift circuit test port
5. Raise center cutting unit while monitoring gauge.
RANGE OF TESTER READINGS 600 - 2800 PSI
when counterbalance setting is 600 PSI.
NOTE: Changes in counterbalance setting will affect
the lift circuit relief pressure.
RELIEF Pressure Check:
6. With engine running at full speed, engage control
lever into the “LIFT” position.
7. Momentarily hold the lever in the engaged position
after full cylinder extension and read gauge.
TESTER READING TO BE 2600 - 2800 PSI when
counterbalance setting is 600 PSI.
NOTE: Changes in counterbalance setting will affect the
lift circuit relief pressure.
Testing
Page 4 - 24
Groundsmaster® 455-D
TEST NO. 6: Checking Charge Pressure
1. Make sure hydraulic oil is at normal operating temperature by operating machine for approximately 10
minutes.
2. Lower cutting units, engage parking brake and stop
the engine.
3. Install a 1,000 PSI gauge onto the charge pressure
quick disconnect fitting.
4. Start the engine and position throttle at high idle
(3000 RPM).
1
TESTER READING TO BE 100 +25/–10 PSI.
5. If pressure is low, inspect charge relief valve and
valve seat.
Figure 15
1. Charge pressure test port
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 25 Rev. C
Hydraulic System
6. Also take a gauge reading while operating the machine in forward and reverse. Start the engine and put
the throttle at full engine RPM. Apply the brakes and
push the traction pedal forward, then reverse. If pressure is good under no load, but drops below specification when under traction load, the piston pump and/or
motor should be suspected of wear and inefficiency.
When the pump and/or motor is worn or damaged the
charge pump may not able to keep up with the internal
leakage.
Testing
Adjustments
Traction Pump Neutral Adjustment
The machine must not “creep” when traction pedal is
released. If it does creep, an adjustment is required.
1. Park machine on a level surface and shut engine off.
Make sure transaxle is engaged in HI position. Depress
only the left brake pedal and engage the parking brake.
2. Jack up right side of machine until front tire is off the
shop floor. Support machine with jack stands to prevent
it from falling accidentally.
1
3. Under left side of machine, loosen locknut on traction
adjustment cam.
2
Figure 16
WARNING
1. Traction adjustment cam
2. Locknut
Engine must be running so final adjustment
of traction adjustment cam can be performed.
To guard against possible personal injury,
keep hands, feet, face and other parts of body
away from rotating parts.
4. Start engine and run at low idle.
5. Rotate cam hex in either direction until raised wheel
is not rotating.
6. Tighten locknut to secure adjustment.
7. Stop the engine. Remove jack stands and lower
machine to ground. Release parking brake and test
drive machine to make sure it does not creep in neutral.
Adjustments
Page 4 - 2
Rev. E
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Repairs
Removing Hydraulic System Components
1. Thoroughly clean the machine before disconnecting,
removing or disassembling any hydraulic components.
Always keep in mind the need for cleanliness when
working on hydraulic equipment.
2. Put caps or plugs on any hydraulic lines or fittings left
open or exposed.
3. Put labels on disconnected hydraulic lines and hoses
for proper installation after repairs are completed.
After Repair or Replacement of Components
1. Check oil level in hydraulic reservoir and add correct
oil if necessary. Drain and refill hydraulic system reservoir and change oil filter if component failure was severe
or system is contaminated.
3. If a pump was disconnected or removed, prime
system before operating. Disconnect fuel stop solenoid
electrical connector on engine to prevent fuel delivery
to engine cylinders. Turn ignition switch to engage
starter for ten (10) seconds to prime pumps. Repeat
cranking procedure again. Connect injection pump fuel
stop solenoid electrical connector. Start engine and run
at idle speed for a minimum of two (2) minutes.
4. After disconnecting or replacing any hydraulic components, operate machine functions slowly until air is
out of system.
5. Check for hydraulic oil leaks. Shut off engine and
correct leaks if necessary. Check oil level in hydraulic
reservoir and add correct oil if necessary.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 27
Hydraulic System
2. After repairs, check control linkage for proper adjustment, binding or broken parts.
Repairs
Traction Pump Shaft Seal Replacement (Fig. 17)
Figure 17
1. Park machine on a level surface, lower cutting units,
engage parking brake and stop the engine.
2. Remove pump assembly from machine.
3. Remove retaining ring (Item 32) from pump housing.
NOTE: It may be necessary to hold inward pressure
against shaft to compress cylinder block spring while
removing retaining ring.
4. After removing retaining ring, seal carrier (Item 30)
will move out approximately 1/4 in. due to cylinder block
spring force on shaft. Lightly tap end of shaft with a soft
mallet until seal carrier can be removed from housing.
NOTE: After seal carrier is removed, the shaft and
bearing assembly are free in the housing. Do not remove shaft unless unit is positioned with mounting
flange UP. If unit is positioned horizontally when shaft is
removed, the cylinder block could move out of place,
making shaft installation difficult.
5. Remove o-ring (Item 31) from seal carrier.
Repairs
6. Put seal carrier in an arbor press and press out old
seal (Item 29). Use a properly sized pipe spacer or
socket wrench for a press tool. The seal cannot be used
again.
7. Inspect seal carrier, new seal and o-ring for damage.
Inspect sealing surface on shaft for rust, wear, or contamination. Polish sealing area on shaft if necessary.
8. Use an arbor press to press new seal into seal carrier.
Be careful not to damage seal.
NOTE: New seals are lubricated with an assembly
grease.
9. Use a seal protector tool or wrap end of shaft with thin
plastic to prevent damage to seal lip during installation.
10. Install o-ring into seal carrier and lubricate with
petroleum jelly.
11. Slide seal carrier assembly over shaft and into
housing bore. Hold inward pressure against shaft to
compress cylinder block spring while pressing seal carrier into position. Install retaining ring.
Page 4 - 28
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Hydraulic System
Traction Pump Trunnion Seal Replacement (Fig. 18)
Figure 18
1. Park the machine on a level surface, lower cutting
units, engage parking brake and stop the engine.
2. Remove control linkage from swashplate control shaft
on transmission (see Transmission Control Removal).
3. Remove hex tapping screws (Item 16) retaining trunnion seal cover (Item 35) to transmission housing.
4. Remove trunnion seal cover with lip seal (Item 34)
and o-ring (Item 18).
5. Put seal cover in an arbor press and press out old
seal. Once removed, the seal is not reusable.
6. Inspect seal cover for damage. Inspect sealing area
on shaft for rust, wear, or contamination. Polish sealing
area on shaft if necessary.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
7. Using an arbor press, press seal into position from
inside of seal cover until it bottoms out in its bore. Be
careful not to damage the seal.
8. Install o-ring onto seal cover and retain with petroleum jelly.
9. Use a seal installer tool or wrap end of swashplate
control shaft with thin plastic to prevent damage to seal
during installation.
10. Slide seal cover assembly over swashplate control
shaft onto housing. Install hex tapping screws and
tighten to a torque of 6 to 9 ft-lbs.
11. Install control linkage onto transmission. Check
machine for “creeping” when engine is running with foot
pedal in neutral position. Do Traction Control Neutral
Adjustment if necessary.
Page 4 - 29
Repairs
Traction Pump Check and High Pressure Relief Valves (Fig. 19)
Forward
Reverse
Figure 19
1. Park the machine on a level surface, lower cutting
units, engage parking brake and stop the engine.
2. Remove the check/high pressure relief valve hex plug
(Item 2).
3. Remove the valve cartridge assembly (Item 7). Inspect the valve and mating seat in the housing for
damage or foreign material. It will be necessary to
replace the center section if the seat is damaged.
IMPORTANT: The relief valves are factory set and
should not be tampered with, except to replace the
entire valve cartridge.
be removed from the special plug by pulling out at a
slight angle. When reassembling, install the check valve
spring into the special plug with its larger diameter
toward the plug, and snap the valve cartridge into position in the plug.
5. Reinstall the valve cartridges with o-rings into the
housing and tighten the plugs to a torque of 30 to
50 ft-lb.
6. Before starting the engine check the oil level in the
differential housing and add the correct oil as necessary.
Start the engine and let it run for one to two minutes,
then turn the engine off and check the oil level again.
Check the transmission for leaks.
4. The valve cartridge is retained in the special plug by
a circlip (Item 6). The check valve spring (Item 5) may
Repairs
Page 4 - 30
Rev. C
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Hydraulic System
Traction Pump Charge Pressure Relief Valve (Fig. 20)
Figure 20
1. Park the machine on a level surface, lower cutting
units, engage parking brake and stop the engine.
the parts unless shims need to be added or removed to
adjust the pressure setting.
2. Remove the charge relief valve hex plug (Item 12).
5. Inspect the poppet and mating seat in the end cap for
damage or foreign material.
3. Remove the spring (Item 9) and poppet (Item 8) from
the housing.
4. Do not interchange parts with another valve.
NOTE: The shim(s) (Item 10) which may be installed
between the spring and plug may remain inside the plug,
being held by an oil film. Make sure the same number
and thickness of shims is installed when reassembling
Groundsmaster® 455-D
6. Reinstall the poppet, spring and plug (with shims and
o-ring) into the housing. Tighten the plug to a torque of
30 to 70 ft-lb.
7. Before starting the engine check the oil level in the
differential housing and add the correct oil as necessary.
Start the engine and let it run for one to two minutes,
then turn the engine off and check the oil level again.
Check the transmission for leaks.
Page 4 - 31
Repairs
Disassembly of Traction Pump (Fig. 21)
Figure 21
1. End cap
2. Plug
3.
4. O-ring
5. Conical spring
6. Retaining ring
7. Relief valve
8. Charge relief poppet
9. Spring
10. Shim
11. O-ring
12. Charge relief plug
13. Needle bearing
14. End cap gasket
15. Pin
16. Screw
17. Trunnion cover
18. O-ring
19. Trunnion spacer
20. Shim
21. Roller bearing
22. O-ring
23. O-ring
24. Washer
25. Capscrew
26. Pump shaft
27. Ball bearing
28. Retaining ring
29. Lip seal
30. Seal carrier
Clean parts by using a clean solvent wash and air
drying. Keep parts free of foreign materials and chemicals. Protect all sealing surfaces and open cavities from
damage and foreign material.
During assembly of the pump, all surfaces which have
relative motion between two parts should be coated with
a film of clean hydraulic oil. This will assure that these
surfaces will be lubricated during start-up.
It is recommended that all gaskets, o-rings and seals be
replaced. Lightly lubricate all o-rings with clean petroRepairs
30. Seal carrier
31. O-ring
32. Retaining ring
33. Pump housing
34. Lip seal
35. Trunnion cover
36. Swash plate
37. Thrust plate
38. Cylinder block
39. Valve plate
40. Pin
41. Coupling
42. Plug
43. Pin
leum jelly before assembly. All gasket sealing surfaces
must be cleaned before installing new gaskets.
1. Before performing major repairs on the pump, remove
external components as described in previous procedures. These include the Charge Check / High Pressure
Relief Valves and Charge Relief Valve.
2. Remove pin (Item 43) from coupling (Item 41) on
output end of pump shaft. Remove the coupling.
3. Remove four (4) screws (Item 25) which retain end
cap to pump housing.
Page 4 - 32
Groundsmaster® 455-D
4. Remove end cap (Item 1) from pump housing.
IMPORTANT: The valve plate (Item 39) may stick to
the end cap. Do not allow valve plate to fall from end
cap.
5. Remove gasket (Item 14) and alignment pins
(Item 15) from end cap.
IMPORTANT: Be careful not to damage valve plate
and end cap surfaces.
an o-ring (Item 18), on the side opposite the control.
Remove these parts from the housing. (See Trunnion
Seal Replacement).
16. Remove the trunnion spacers (Item 19), shims
(Item 20) and roller bearings (Item 21) from housing and
swashplate. The bearing assemblies are a slip fit in the
housing.
17. Tilt and lift swashplate (Item 36) from housing.
Inspection and Replacement of Parts
7. Remove valve plate pins (Item 40) from end cap.
8. Lay pump housing on its side and remove cylinder
block assembly (Item 38) from housing.
9. Remove the slipper guide and piston assemblies from
cylinder block.
10. Use an o-ring pick or wire to remove thrust plate
(Item 37) from swashplate and housing.
11. Remove shaft seal carrier. (See Tandem Pump Shaft
Seal Replacement.)
12. Slide drive shaft (Item 26) and bearing assembly
(Item 27) from housing.
13. Remove retaining ring (Item 28) and press shaft out
of bearing.
14. Remove hex tapping screws (Item 16) retaining
trunnion seal cover (Item 35) and trunnion cover
(Item 17) to housing. Mark position of covers for reassembly.
18. After disassembly, thoroughly clean all parts in a
suitable solvent. Replace all o-rings, gaskets and seals.
19. Inspect all parts for damage, nicks or unusual wear
patterns. Replace all parts having unusual or excessive
wear or discoloration.
20. If scratches, which can be felt with a pencil lead, can
be found on bronze surface of valve plates or running
surface of cylinder blocks, polish or replace the parts.
21. Inspect needle bearings and drive coupling in center
section. If replacement is necessary, remove shaft needle bearings using a suitable puller. Do not damage
valve plate surface of center section.
22. Press new needle bearing (Item 13) into end cap
using a suitable press pin. When installed correctly,
bearing cage will protrude from 0.08 to 0.10 in. from
surface of end cap to serve as pilot for valve plate.
IMPORTANT: When installing the needle bearing,
the printed (numbered) end of the bearing cage
must face the press pin.
23. Install a new cylinder block kit if brass slippers on
pistons are scored or excessively rounded at edges.
15. The trunnion seal cover assembly includes an o-ring
(Item 18) and lip seal (Item 34) on the control side and
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 33
Repairs
Hydraulic System
6. Carefully remove valve plate (Item 39) from end cap.
It may be necessary to pry valve plate off with a small
screwdriver.
Assembly of Traction Pump (Fig. 22)
Figure 22
1. End cap
2. Plug
3.
4. O-ring
5. Conical spring
6. Retaining ring
7. Relief valve
8. Charge relief poppet
9. Spring
10. Shim
11. O-ring
12. Charge relief plug
13. Needle bearing
14. End cap gasket
15. Pin
16. Screw
17. Trunnion cover
18. O-ring
19. Trunnion spacer
20. Shim
21. Roller bearing
22. O-ring
23. O-ring
24. Washer
25. Capscrew
26. Pump shaft
27. Ball bearing
28. Retaining ring
29. Lip seal
30. Seal carrier
1. Clean and lightly oil parts before assembly. Tighten
all threaded parts to recommended torque value.
IMPORTANT: Most parts have critical, high tolerance surfaces. Use caution to prevent damage to
these surfaces during assembly. Protect exposed
surfaces, openings and ports from damage and
foreign material.
2. Install swashplate (Item 36) into housing. Make sure
swashplate control shaft is located on correct side of
housing (note marks made during disassembly). Install
Repairs
30. Seal carrier
31. O-ring
32. Retaining ring
33. Pump housing
34. Lip seal
35. Trunnion cover
36. Swash plate
37. Thrust plate
38. Cylinder block
39. Valve plate
40. Pin
41. Coupling
42. Plug
43. Pin
swashplate roller bearings (Item 21) into housing and
onto swashplate trunnions. Install shims (Item 20) and
trunnion spacers (Item 19).
3. Install trunnion cover (Item 17) with o-ring (Item 18)
onto housing and over swashplate trunnion.
4. Use an arbor press to press a new seal (Item 34) into
trunnion seal cover (Item 35). Outer face of seal should
be pressed flush with outer surface of seal cover. Be
careful not to damage the seal.
Page 4 - 34
Groundsmaster® 455-D
5. Install trunnion seal cover (Item 35) with o-ring
(Item 18), seal (Item 34) and trunnion bearing into housing and over swashplate trunnion (see Trunnion Seal
Replacement). Wrap end of swashplate control shaft
with thin plastic to prevent damage to seal lip during
installation.
6. Install hex tapping screws (Item 16) and tighten to a
torque of 6 to 9 ft-lb.
7. Using caution to not damage the sealing surface,
press ball bearing (Item 27) onto drive shaft (Item 26).
Install bearing retaining ring (Item 28) onto shaft.
13. Coat back (steel side) of valve plate (Item 39) with
petroleum jelly to hold it in position and install valve plate
onto end cap (Item 1), with the bronze face visible. The
notch on the valve plate must engage the locating pin.
14. Install the two (2) alignment pins (Item 15) and install
new gasket (Item 14) onto end cap.
15. Assemble end cap (with valve plate installed onto
pump housing. When properly assembled, cylinder
block spring will hold end cap away from housing approximately 1/8 in.
16. Install the four (4) screws (Item 25) and washers
(Item 24) that retain housing to end cap and evenly
tighten to a torque of 45 to 54 ft-lb.
9. Install input shaft seal (Item 29), seal carrier (Item 30)
and o-ring (Item 31) as described in Traction Pump
Shaft Seal Replacement. Coat thrust plate (Item 37)
with petroleum jelly and install onto swashplate
(Item 36). The thrust plate is reversible.
10. Assemble cylinder block kit (Item 38) by installing
piston assemblies into the slipper guide. Lubricate pistons and cylinder block bores. Install assembled guide
and pistons into cylinder block by inserting pistons into
cylinder block bores. The pistons and bores are not
selectively fitted, so no specific piston and bore orientation is required.
IMPORTANT: Be sure all parts are properly aligned.
Do not force end cap into position on housing.
17. Rotate the pump shaft to make sure pump is assembled correctly. When properly assembled, a maximum
torque of 7 ft-lb should be required to turn shaft.
18. Install coupling (Item 41) to output end of pump shaft
and secure in place with the pin (Item 43).
19. Assemble the following components as described in
previous procedures:
11. Lay the pump on its side and install cylinder block
kit into the housing.
Charge Check / High Pressure Relief Valves
Charge Relief Valve
12. Install valve plate locating pins (Item 40) into
end cap.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 35
Repairs
Hydraulic System
8. Install drive shaft and bearing into housing.
Auxiliary/Steering Pump No. 92-7761 (S/N 69999 and Below) (Fig. 23)
Figure 23
1. Dowel pin
2. Idler gear assembly
3. Drive gear assembly
4. Capscrew
5. Shaft seal
6. Washer
7. Front plate assembly
8. Needle bearing
9. O-ring seal
10. O-ring seal (moulded)
11. Bearing seal
12. Backup gasket
13. Wear plate
14. Body assembly
15. O-ring seal
16. O-ring seal
17. Relief valve assembly
18. Plug assembly
19. O-ring
20. Disc
21. Spring
22. Back plate assembly
23. Spool assembly
24. Plug assembly
25. O-ring
27. Coupling
28. Hex capscrew
(Item 7) from back plate (Item 22). Body (Item 14) will
remain with either front plate or back plate.
Disassembly of Auxiliary/Steering Pump
1. Thoroughly clean outside of pump.
2. Use a sharp tool or marker to mark across front plate
(Item 7), body (Item 14) and back plate (Item 22). This
will assure proper reassembly.
6. If front plate was removed first, remove wear plate
(Item 13) from body gear pockets.
7. Remove drive gear assembly (Item 3) and idler gear
assembly (Item 2) from body.
3. Clamp pump in a vise, with the shaft up.
8. To separate body (Item 14) from plate it remains with,
put drive gear assembly (Item 3) in a bushing and tap
protruding end with a plastic hammer or soft mallet.
4. Remove capscrews (Item 28).
5. Remove pump from vise, hold pump in hands and
bump shaft against a wood block to separate front plate
Repairs
9. Remove o-ring (Item 9) from front plate and
back plate.
Page 4 - 36 Rev. C
Groundsmaster® 455-D
10. Remove backup-up gasket (Item 12) from
front plate.
5. If gear width is less than 0.636", the gear assembly
should be replaced.
11. Remove bearing seal (Item 11) from front plate by
prying with a sharp tool.
6. Be sure snap rings are in grooves on either side of
drive and idler gears.
12. Remove molded o-ring (Item 10) from front plate by
prying with a screwdriver.
7. If edge of gear teeth are sharp, break edge with emery
cloth.
13. Remove shaft seal (Item 5) from front plate by prying
with a screwdriver.
FRONT PLATE (Item 7) AND BACK PLATE (Item 22)
1. Remove relief valve (Item 17) from back plate.
NOTE: Do not disassemble relief valve cartridge assembly – it must be replaced as an assembly.
2. Remove hex plugs (Item 24, 18) flow divider spool
(Item 23), spring (Item 21) and disk (Item 20).
1. Oil groove in bushings in both front plate and back
plate should be in line with dowel pin holes and 180
apart.
2. If I.D. of bushings in front plate or back plate exceed
0.755", front or back plate should be replaced (bushings
are not available separately).
3. Bushings in front plate should be flush with face of
front plate.
Inspect Auxiliary/Steering Pump Parts
4. Check for scoring on face of back plate. If wear
exceeds 0.0015", back plate should be replaced.
GENERAL
BODY (Item 14)
1. Clean and dry all parts.
1. Check inside gear pockets for excessive scoring or
wear.
2. Remove all nicks and burrs from all parts with emery
cloth.
2. Body should be replaced if I.D. of gear pocket exceeds 1.713".
GEAR ASSEMBLY (Item 2, 3)
FLOW DIVIDER / FLOW CONTROL / RELIEF VALVE
1. Check drive shaft spline for twisted or broken teeth.
1. Check disk (Item 20) for wear.
2. Inspect both drive gear and idler gear shafts at
bushing points and seal area for rough surfaces and
excessive wear.
3. If shaft measures less than 0.748" in bushing area,
the gear assembly should be replaced (one gear assembly may be replaced separately; shafts and gears
are available as assemblies only).
2. Check spring (Item 21) for weakness or breakage.
3. Wash back plate in clean solvent, then direct compressed air into relief valve and flow divider cavities in
back plate to remove any contamination.
4. Inspect gear face for scoring and excessive wear.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 37
Repairs
Hydraulic System
Disassembly of Back Plate Assembly (Flow Divider
/ Flow Control / Relief Valve)
Figure 23
General Auxiliary/Steering Pump Information
Assembly of Back Plate Parts
It is important that the relationship of the back plate
(Item 22), body (Item 14), wear plate (Item 13) and front
plate (Item 7) is correct. You will note two half moon
cavities in the body which must face away from the front
plate. NOTE: The smaller half moon port cavity must be
on the pressure side of the pump. Side of wear plate
with mid section cut out must be on suction side of
pump. Suction side of back plate is always side with
larger port boss.
1. Install relief valve (Item 17) with new o-rings
(Item 15, 16).
Repairs
2. Install flow divider spool (Item 23), plug (Item 24) with
new o-ring (Item 19), spring (Item 21), disk (Item 20) and
other plug (Item 18) with new o-ring (Item 19).
Page 4 - 38
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Assembly of Auxiliary/Steering Pump
1. The wear plate (Item 13), bearing seal (Item 11),
molded o-ring (Item 10), back-up gasket (Item 12), shaft
seal (Item 5) and o-rings (Item 9) should be replaced as
new parts.
6. Put wear plate (Item 13) on top of back-up gasket with
bronze face up. The side with the mid section cut away
must be on suction side of pump.
7. Dip gear assemblies (Item 2, 3) into oil and slip into
front plate bushings.
2. Install o-ring (Item 9) in groove of front plate (Item 7).
8. Install o-ring (Item 9) in groove in back plate (Item 22).
3. Tuck back-up gasket (Item 12) into groove in front
plate with open part of “V” section down.
9. Slide back plate over gear shafts until dowel pins
(Item 1) are engaged.
4. Put molded o-ring (Item 10) in groove in front plate.
Put bearing seal (Item 11) over molded o-ring - groove
side down.
10. Install bolts (Item 4) and washers (Item 28). Tighten
evenly to a torque of 25 - 28 ft-lb.
5. Apply a thin coat of heavy grease to both milled faces
of body (Item 14). Slip body onto front plate - half moon
port cavities in body must face away from front plate.
12. Put a 1-5/16" O.D. sleeve over the shaft and press
in shaft seal until flush with front surface of front plate.
Hydraulic System
NOTE: The small half moon port cavity must be on the
pressure side of the pump.
11. Install washer (Item 6). Liberally oil shaft seal
(Item 5) and carefully work over drive shaft, being careful not to cut rubber sealing lip.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 39
Repairs
Gear Pump No. 94--8297 (S/N 70001 & Up) (Fig. 23a)
8
9
7
1
6
10
5
4
11
3
12
2
1
13
15
14
16
1
1
6
5
4
21
17
2
18
19
13
20
Figure 23a
1. O--ring
2. Body asm.
3. Drive gear asm.
4. Wear plate
5. Backup gasket
6. Seal
7. Front plate
Repairs
8. Washer
9. Cap screw
10. Shaft seal
11. Washer
12. Plug
13. Idler gear
14. Gear
Page 4 -- 39.1 Rev. C
15. Key
16. Adaptor plate
17. O--ring
18. Washer
19. O--ring
20. Valve
21. Back plate asm.
Groundsmaster 455--D
Repair Information
Work in a clean area, cleanliness is extremely important
when repairing hydraulic pumps. Before disconnecting
the lines, clean port area of pump. Disconnect hydraulic
lines, removing pump assembly from vehicle and plug
ports. Thoroughly clean the outside of pump. After
cleaning then remove port plugs and drain oil.
Disassembly
1. Scribe a line, at an angle, across front plate (7), bodies (2), adapter plate (16) and backplate (21). This will
assure proper reassembly.
NOTE: To maintain maximum pump efficiency, keep
body, gears and wear plates for each section together.
DO NOT mix parts between different sections.
2. Clamp pump in vise, shaft end up.
11. Remove the wear plates (4) from front plate (7) and
adapter plate (16).
12. Remove o--rings (1) from front plate (7), adapter
plate (16), and backplate (21).
13. Remove backup gaskets (5) and balance pressure
seals (6) from front plate (7) and adapter plate (16) by
prying out with a sharp tool.
14. Remove shaft seal (10) and washer (11) from front
plate (7) by prying with a screw driver. Be careful not to
damage seal bore.
15. Remove relief valve (20) from backplate assembly
(21).
16. Remove O--ring (17), backup washer (18), and O-ring (19) from relief valve (20).
Inspect Parts for Wear General
1. Clean and dry all parts.
4. Remove pump from vise, hold pump in hands and
bump shaft against wooden block to separate pump
sections. Front body (2) will remain with either front plate
(7) or adapter plate (16).
2. Remove nicks and burrs from all parts with emery
cloth.
5. Place front idler gear (13) back into gear pocket and
tap protruding end with soft face hammer to remove
front body (2) from the front plate (7) or adaptor plate
(16).
1. Check spline drive shaft for twisted or broken teeth.
Also check for damaged keyway, on drive shaft, that
drives the slip fit gear of the rear pump.
6. Remove adapter plate (16) from body (2) by tapping
on the adapter plate with a plastic hammer or rawhide
mallet.
2. Inspect both the drive gear and idler gear shafts at
bushing points and seal area for rough surfaces and excessive wear.
7. Remove backplate (21) from body (2) by tapping on
backplate with plastic hammer or rawhide mallet.
3. Replace gear assembly if shaft is worn in bushing
area. (One gear assembly may be replaced separately;
shafts and gears are available as assemblies only. The
slip fit gear is available separately).
8. Remove rear idler gear (13), slip fit gear (14) and key
(15).
9. Remove drive gear assembly (3) from adapter plate
(16).
10. Place rear idler gear (13) back into gear pocket and
tap protruding end with soft face hammer to remove rear
body (2) from the backplate assembly (21) or adaptor
plate (16).
Groundsmaster 455--D
Gear Assembly Inspection
4. Inspect gear face for scoring and excessive wear.
5. Assure that snap rings are in grooves on either side
of drive and idler gears.
6. If edge of gear teeth are sharp, break edge with
emery cloth.
Page 4 -- 39.2
Rev. C
Repairs
Hydraulic
System
3. Remove the eight cap screws (9).
Front Plate, Backplate
and Adapter Plates Inspection
4. Place balance pressure seal (6) in groove in front
plate (7) and adapter plate (16).
1. Oil groove in bushings in front plate, backplate and
adapter plates should be in line with dowel pin holes and
180 degrees apart. This positions the oil grooves closest
to respective dowel pin holes.
5. Apply a thin coat of petroleum jelly to both milled gear
pockets of front body (2). Slip body onto front plate (7)
with half moon port cavities in body facing away from
front plate.
2. Replace the backplate, front plate or adapter plates
if bushings are worn (Bushings are not available as separate items).
NOTE: The small half moon port cavity must be on the
pressure side of pump.
3. Bushings in front plate and backup gasket side of
adapter plates should be flush with face of plate.
4. Check for scoring on face of backplate or adapter
plates.
Body Inspection
1. Check bodies inside gear pockets for excessive scoring or wear.
2. Replace bodies if l.D. of gear pockets is worn.
6. Place wear plate (4) on top of backup gasket (5) with
bronze face up. The side with the mid section cut away
must be on suction side of pump.
7. Dip drive gear assembly (3) and idler gear assembly
(13) into oil. Slip both gear assemblies into gear pocket
of front body (2) and into front plate bushings.
8. Place wear plate (4) on top of backup gasket (5) with
bronze face up. The side with the mid section cut away
must be on suction side of pump.
9. Install adapter plate (16) in place on front body (2).
Check positioning marks.
General Information
It is important that the relationship of the backplate,
adapter plates, bodies, wear plate and front plate is correct. You note two half moon cavities in the body which
must face away from the front plate or adapter plate.
Note: The smaller half moon port cavity must be on the
pressure side of the pump. The side of wear plate with
mid section cut out must be on suction side of pump.
Suction side of backplate or adapter plate is the side with
larger port boss.
Reassembly
10. Install rear body (2) onto adapter plate (16).
11. Install key (15) in slot of drive gear shaft (3). Dip slip
fit gear (13) in oil and slip on shaft and into gear pocket
of rear body (2). Check key for proper alignment.
12. Dip idler gear (13) in oil and install in gear pocket of
rear body (2).
13. Position backplate (21) over shafts until dowel pins
in body are engaged.
1. Replace the wear plates (4), seals (6), backup gaskets (5), shaft seal (10) and o--rings (1) as new parts.
14. Secure with cap screws (9) and washers (8). Tighten
cap screws evenly in a crisscross pattern to 25 to 28 ft-Ibs. [34 to 38 Nm] torque.
2. Install o--rings (1) in groove of front plate (7), adapter
plate (16), and backplate (21) with a small amount of petroleum jelly to hold in place.
15. Place washer (11) over drive shaft into housing. Liberally oil shaft seal (10) and install over drive shaft carefully so that rubber sealing lips are not cut.
3. Tuck backup gasket (5) in front plate (7) and adapter
plate (16) with open part of “V” section down.
16. Place a sleeve over shaft and press in shaft seal (10)
.20 in. (5.08mm) below front surface of front plate.
Repairs
Page 4 -- 39.3 Rev. C
Groundsmaster 455--D
Hydraulic
System
This page is blank.
Groundsmaster 455--D
Page 4 -- 39.4
Rev. C
Repairs
Front Traction Motor Repairs (Fig. 24)
Figure 24
1. Valve plate
2. Cylinder block kit
3. Shaft assembly
4. Plug
5. O-ring seal
6. Lip seal
7. Sleeve
8. Roller bearing
9. Housing
10. Thrust plate
11. Gasket
12. Bearing
Shaft Seal Replacement
The lip type shaft seal (Item 6) can be replaced without
disassembly of the motor; however, replacement of the
seal requires removal of the motor from the transaxle.
13. Straight
14. End cap assembly
15. Flat washer
16. Capscrew
17. Retaining ring
Prior to installing the new seal, polish the shaft extension, wrap it in thin plastic and lubricate with hydraulic
oil to insure that the seal is not damaged during assembly. Slide the seal over the shaft and press it into the
housing bore.
Pry the seal carefully out of the housing bore, using care
not to distort the housing or damage the bore or shaft.
Once removed, the seal is not reusable.
Repairs
Page 4 - 40
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Figure 25
When the four (4) cap screws (Item 16) are loosened,
the internal spring loading will cause the end cap
(Item 14) to separate slightly. Loosen these screws
evenly to prevent distortion of parts. If separation does
not occur as screws are loosened, tap end cap with soft
hammer until parts separate.
IMPORTANT: All surfaces exposed are critical and
caution must be used to avoid damage.
Note the orientation of housing (Item 9) to end cap
(Item 14). To insure proper assembly scribe a line
across housing and end cap for an assembly guide.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
The end cap (Item 14) can now be removed from the
motor, however, be certain that the valve plate (Item 1)
does not fall and become damaged. If the valve plate
tends to lift off with the end cap (Item 14), hold it in place
on the end cap and remove both parts together. If the
valve plate remains on the cylinder block, remove it at
this time.
The end cap is actually an assembly consisting of a
needle bearing which is a press fit in the end cap and
the valve plate locating pin (Item 13). Inspect the bearing (Item 12) and remove if replacement is required.
Page 4 - 41
Repairs
Hydraulic System
Major Repair
Figure 26
Lift out the cylinder block assembly (Item 2). The pistons
may come out of cylinder block bores. There is no
special orientation of piston to bore that needs to be
maintained.
Do not attempt to disassemble the spring and other
parts from the center bore of the cylinder block. The
entire cylinder block assembly (Item 2) should be replaced if any of its components are damaged.
Remove thrust plate (Item 10) from counter bore in
motor housing (Item 9). Visually inspect both sides for
damage and flatness.
The retaining ring (Item 17) must be removed prior to
removal of shaft and bearing. The output shaft seal must
be removed to expose the retaining ring (See Shaft Seal
Replacement). The motor shaft (Item 3) and bearing
(Item 8) can be pressed out of the motor housing.
Visually inspect wear surfaces of valve plate, cylinder
block and slippers for damage. Check to be sure pistons
are free in bores.
Repairs
Page 4 - 42
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Press shaft (Item 3) and bearing (Item 8) together, then
press into housing (Item 9). Install retaining ring
(Item 17) if used.
Lubricate thrust plate (Item 10) and insert in counterbore
of housing (Item 9).
Assemble cylinder block parts if necessary and lubricate
with clean hydraulic oil. There is no special orientation
of piston to bore that needs to be maintained.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Place the housing assembly in a horizontal position.
Slide cylinder block assembly (Item 2) over shaft and
engage spline. Be certain that pistons and thrust plate
remain in place. When properly installed a slight spring
tension can be felt when pushing on cylinder block.
Lubricate exposed surface of cylinder block with clean
hydraulic oil.
Page 4 - 43
Repairs
Hydraulic System
Figure 27
Figure 28
Repairs
Page 4 - 44
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Properly orient the end cap (Item 14) and housing (Item
9). Refer to previously scribed lines for assembly guide.
Press the bearing (Item 11) into end cap (Item 14)
leaving 3/32 to 1/8 inch of bearing protruding beyond
face. The valve plate (Item 1) pilots on this bearing.
Insert locating pin (Item 13) into end cap. Lubricate the
slotted side of the motor valve plate (Item 1) and slip it
over the locating pin and protruding bearing.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Place gasket (Item 11) on housing (Item 9), then install
end cap and valve plate. Hold the valve plate so it does
not drop off during assembly.
Install four (Item 4) screws (Item 16) and tighten alternately until the end cap and housing are pulled completely together. Torque to 27-37 ft. lbs. Check for proper
internal assembly by slowly rotating motors shaft while
tightening these screws.
Page 4 - 45
Repairs
Hydraulic System
Figure 29
Rear Axle 4WD Motor Repairs (Fig. 30)
Figure 30
1. Capscrew
2. Back plate
3. O-ring
4. Bearing
5. Cam plate insert
6. Housing
7. Bearing
8. Retaining ring
9. Thrust race
10. Thrust bearing
Disassembly of Rear Axle 4WD Motor
11. Spacer
12. Drive shaft
13. Retaining ring
14. Rotating assembly
DO NOT attempt to disassemble the spring and other
parts from the center bore of the cylinder block. The
entire rotating assembly (Item 14) should be replaced if
any of its components are damaged.
1. Clean outside of motor thoroughly.
2. Clamp shaft in a protected jaw vise with back plate
end up.
3. Remove six capscrews (Item 1) from back plate
(Item 2).
7. Remove camplate insert (Item 5) from housing.
8. Remove retaining ring (Item 13) from housing.
9. Remove spacer (Item 11) from housing.
4. Use a plastic mallet and tap the back plate (Item 2)
to loosen it.
10. Remove drive shaft (Item 12) with thrust bearing
from housing.
5. Remove o-ring (Item 3) from back plate.
6. Remove complete rotating assembly (Item 14) from
housing assembly.
Repairs
11. Remove retaining rings (Item 8) from shaft and
remove thrust races (Item 9) and thrust bearing
(Item 10).
Page 4 - 46
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Inspection of Rear Axle 4WD Motor Parts
Assembly of Rear Axle 4WD Motor Parts
1. Wash all parts thoroughly in a suitable solvent.
1. Lubricate all moving parts with clean hydraulic oil
before assembly.
2. Examine needle bearings (Item 4) and (Item 7) in
housing and back plate. Make sure they are free of
excessive play and remain in the bearing cage. If needle
bearings are damaged, housing (Item 6) or back plate
(Item 2) should be replaced (bearings are not available
separately).
3. Inspect thrust races (Item 9) and thrust bearing
(Item 10). All surfaces should be free of any signs of
wear or fretting.
2. Install one retaining ring (Item 8) in rear groove of
drive shaft (Item 12). Install one thrust race (Item 9),
thrust bearing (Item 10) and second thrust race (Item 9)
on drive shaft. Install second retaining ring (Item 8) in
front groove on drive shaft.
3. Install shaft assembly in housing (Item 6) and install
spacer (Item 11).
4. Install retaining ring (Item 13).
5. Inspect the pistons. The O.D. surface should be
smooth and free of scoring. the shoes should be snug
fit to the piston. The face of the shoes should be flat and
free of scoring or flaking. DO NOT LAP SHOES on
pistons.
6. Inspect piston block. The bores should be free of
scoring. The surface that contacts the back plate should
be smooth and free of grooves or metal buildup. DO
NOT LAP PISTON BLOCK.
5. Assemble rotating assembly (Item 14) by installing
pivot, spider and pistons in cylinder block.
6. Lubricate camplate insert (Item 5) and install in
housing.
7. Install rotating assembly (Item 14) in housing. The
piston shoes must contact the camplate insert (Item 5).
Make sure all parts in the proper position.
8. Install new o-ring (Item 3) on back plate (Item 2).
9. Install back plate on housing.
7. Inspect the camplate insert (Item 5). The surface
should show no signs of scoring or grooves.
10. Install six (6) capscrews (Item 1) and tighten evenly
to a torque of 15 - 18 ft-lb.
8. Inspect the flat surface of the back plate (Item 2). The
surface should be free of excessive scoring or metal
build-up. DO NOT LAP BACK PLATE.
9. Inspect the drive shaft (Item 12) for fretting in the
bearing areas.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 47
Repairs
Hydraulic System
4. Inspect spider and pivot of rotating assembly. Conical
surfaces should be free of wear and score marks.
Lift Valve Repairs (Fig. 31)
Figure 31
1. Plug
2. Disc
3. Spring
4. Detent plunger
5. O-ring seal
6. Plug
7. O-ring seal
8. Body
9. O-ring seal
10. Back-up washer
11. Plug
12. O-ring Seal
13. Spool
14. Lock nut
15. Washer
16. Plug
17. O-ring seal
18. Washer
19. Washer
20. Washer
21. Spring
22. Poppet
23. Seat
24. Wiper seal
25. Bushing
26. Washer
Disassembly of Lift Valve
27. Spring
28. Spacer
29. Retaining ring
30. Cap
31. Plunger
32. Plug
33. Spring
34. Poppet
35. Seat
36. O-ring seal
37. Plunger
4. Remove bushings (Item 25) and o-rings (Item 12)
from spools.
1. Plug all ports and clean outside of valve thoroughly.
5. Remove plugs (Item 11).
2. Remove spool caps (Item 30). Do not remove retaining rings (Item 28) from spools unless spring (Item 27)
is broken.
3. Remove spools (Item 13) from valve body (Item 8).
NOTE: Spools and spool bores are matched sets. Be
sure each spool is identified with the correct body
spool bore.
Repairs
6. Remove plugs (Item 32), springs (Item 33), poppets
(Item 34), seats (Item 35) and plungers (Item 37, 31).
IMPORTANT: Check location and positioning of
plungers when removing from body to assure
proper assembly.
Page 4 - 48
Groundsmaster® 455-D
2. Install new o-rings (Item 12) in proper grooves in
spool bores.
8. Remove plugs (Item 1), disks (Item 2), springs
(Item 3) and detent plungers (Item 4).
9. Remove locknut (Item 14), washer (Item 15), plug
(Item 16), washers (Item 18, 19, 20), spring (Item 21)
and poppet (Item 22).
IMPORTANT: Do not remove seat (Item 23). Seat has
been set to a predetermined depth and locked
in place.
10. Remove all o-rings and back-up rings from all plugs
and seats.
3. Install relief valve components (Items 22, 21, 20, 19,
18) with new o-ring (Item 17) on plug (Item 16).
4. Install plugs (Item 11) with new back-up washers
(Item 10) and o-rings (Item 9).
5. Install plungers (Item 37, 31).
IMPORTANT: Check location and positioning of
plungers during installation.
Inspection of Lift Valve
6. Install new o-rings (Item 36) on seats (Item 35). Install
new back-up washers (Item 10) and o-rings (Item 9) on
plugs (Item 32).
1. Remove all nicks and burrs from parts and inspect for
excessive wear.
7. Install seats (Item 35), new poppets (Item 34),
springs (Item 33) and plugs (Item 32).
2. Inspect all plungers and poppet seats for burrs or
roughness.
8. Install plugs (Item 6) with new o-rings (Item 7).
3. Inspect spool springs (Item 27), Relief valve spring
(Item 21), lockout springs (Item 33) and detent springs
(Item 3) for breakage.
4. If spools have excessive wear, the valve becomes
non-serviceable as the spools and spool bores are
matched and damaged spools cannot be replaced.
5. Inspect relief valve poppet (Item 22) for breakage
or wear.
9. Install detent plungers (Item 4), springs (Item 3), discs
(Item 2) and plugs (Item 1) with new o-rings (Item 5).
10. If retaining ring (Item 29) has been removed to
replace spool spring (Item 27), install washer (Item 26),
spring (Item 27), spacer (Item 28) and secure with
retaining ring (Item 29).
11. Slide bushings (Item 25) over spools. Slide new
o-rings (Item 12) over spools and position next to bushings. Dip spools in clean hydraulic oil and install spool
assemblies in proper location.
Assembly of Lift Valve
1. Thoroughly clean and dry all parts. Apply a light
coating of clean hydraulic oil to parts prior to assembly.
12. Install spool caps (Item 30) and tighten to a torque
of 20 - 25 ft-lb.
13. Install new wiper seals (Item 24).
NOTE: All o-rings, back-up washers, wiper seals and
nylon poppets should be replaced as new items.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 49
Repairs
Hydraulic System
7. Remove plugs (Item 6).
Steering Control Unit Repair (Fig. 32)
Figure 32
1. Set screw
2. Dust seal
3. Retaining ring
4. Gland seal bushing
5. Seal
6. Quad ring seal
7. Bearing race
8. Thrust (needle) bearing
9. Housing
10. Control sleeve
11. Centering springs
12. Control spool
13. Seal
14. Spacer plate
15. Drive
16. Gerotor
17. Spacer
18. End cap
20. Centering pin
21. Check ball retainer
22. Check ball
23. Seal
24. Check ball seat
25. Seal
Disassembly
Cleanliness is extremely important when repairing a
steering control unit. Work in a clean area. Before
disconnecting lines, clean port area of unit thoroughly.
Use a wire brush to remove foreign material and debris
from around exterior joints of the unit.
Repairs
Although not all drawings show the unit in a vise, it is
recommended that you keep the unit in the vise during
disassembly. Follow the clamping procedures explained
in the instructions.
Page 4 - 50
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Meter (Gerotor) End Disassembly
1. Clamp unit in vise, meter end up. Clamp lightly on
edges of mounting area. Use protective material on vise
jaws. Housing distortion could result if jaws are overtightened.
Figure 33
2. Remove 5/16" cap screws.
3. Remove end cap.
Hydraulic System
4. Remove seal from end cap.
Figure 34
5. Remove meter. Be careful not to drop star.
6. Remove seal from meter.
Figure 35
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 51
Repairs
7. Remove drive.
8. Remove spacer plate.
9. Remove seal from housing.
Figure 36
Control End Disassembly
10. Remove housing from vise. Place housing on a
clean soft cloth to protect surface finish. Use a thin blade
screwdriver to pry retaining ring from housing.
Figure 37
11. Rotate spool and sleeve until pin is horizontal. Push
spool and sleeve assembly forward with your thumbs
just far enough to free gland bushing from housing.
Remove bushing.
Figure 38
Repairs
Page 4 - 52
Groundsmaster® 455-D
12. Remove quad-ring seal from seal gland bushing.
13. Use a thin blade screwdriver to pry dust seal from
seal gland bushing. Do not damage bushing.
Figure 39
Hydraulic System
14. Remove 2 bearing races and the needle thrust
bearing from spool and sleeve assembly.
Figure 40
15. Remove spool and sleeve assembly from 14 hole
end of housing.
IMPORTANT: Do not bind spool and sleeve in housing. Rotate spool and sleeve assembly slowly when
removing from housing.
16. Push pin from spool and sleeve assembly.
Figure 41
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 53
Repairs
17. Push spool partially from control end of sleeve, then
remove six (6) centering springs from spool carefully
by hand
18. Push spool back through and out of sleeve. Rotate
spool slowly when removing from sleeve.
Figure 42
19. Remove seal from housing.
20. Remove set screw from housing.
21. Screw a #10-24 machine screw into end of check
ball seat. Then by pulling on screw, with a pliers, lift seat
out of housing.
22. Remove two (2) seals from check valve seat.
23. Tip housing to remove check ball and check ball
retainer.
Figure 43
Repairs
Page 4 - 54
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Reassembly
Check all mating surfaces. Replace any parts that have
scratches or burrs that could cause leakage. Clean all
metal parts in clean solvent. Blow dry with air. Do not
wipe dry with cloth or paper towel because lint or other
matter can get into the hydraulic system and cause
damage. Do not use a coarse grit or try to file or grind
these parts.
NOTE: Lubricate all seals with clean petroleum jelly
such as Vaseline.
Do not use excessive lubricant on seals for meter
section.
Refer to parts listings covering your steering control unit
when ordering replacement parts. A good service policy
is to replace all old seals with new seals.
Control End Reassembly
Hydraulic System
1. Use a needle nose pliers to lower check ball retainer
into check valve hole of housing. Make sure retainer is
straight (not tilted on edge) in housing.
2 Install check ball in housing.
3 Lubricate 5/8" diameter seal and 7/16" diameter seal.
Install seals on check ball seat as shown
4. Lubricate check ball seat and seals thoroughly before
installing seat in housing. When installing seat do not
twist or damage seals. Install check ball seat in housing,
insert open end of seat first. Push check ball seat to
shoulder of hole.
5. Install set screw. Use a 1/4" allen wrench to torque
set screw to 100 inch pounds. To prevent interference,
make sure top of set screw is slightly below housing
mounting surface.
Figure 44
6. Assemble spool and sleeve carefully so that the
spring slots line up at the same end. Rotate spool while
sliding parts together. Some spool and sleeve sets have
identification marks, align these marks as shown. Test
for free rotation. Spool should rotate smoothly in sleeve
with finger tip force applied at splined end.
Figure 45
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 55
Repairs
7. Bring spring slots of both parts in line and stand parts
on end of bench. Insert spring installation tool through
spring slots of both parts. Tool is available from a Eaton
Hydraulics supplier as Eaton part no. 600057. Position
three (3) pairs of centering springs (or 2 sets of 3 each)
on bench so that extended edge is down and arched
center section is together. In this position, insert one end
of entire spring set into spring installation tool with spring
notches facing sleeve.
8. Compress extended end of centering spring set and
push into spool sleeve assembly withdrawing installation tool at the same time.
9. Center the spring set in the parts so that they push
down evenly and flush with the upper surface of the
spool and sleeve.
10. Install pin through spool and sleeve assembly until
pin becomes flush at both sides of sleeve.
Figure 46
11. Position the spool and sleeve assembly so that the
splined end of the spool enters the fourteen (14) hole
end of housing first.
IMPORTANT: Be extremely careful that the parts do
not tilt out of position while inserting. Push parts
gently into place with slight rotating action, keep pin
nearly horizontal. Bring the spool assembly entirely
within the housing bore until the parts are flush at
the meter end or 14 hole end of housing. Do not pull
the spool assembly beyond this point to prevent the
cross pin from dropping into the discharge groove
of the housing. With the spool assembly in this flush
position, check for free rotation within the housing
by turning with light finger tip force at the
splined end.
Figure 47
12. Place housing on clean, lint free cloth. Install 2-1/8"
diameter seal in housing.
13. Install two (2) bearing races and the needle thrust
bearing in the order shown .
Figure 48
Repairs
Page 4 - 56
Groundsmaster® 455-D
14. Install 1-1/4" diameter dust seal in seal gland bushing, flat or smooth side of dust seal must face down
towards bushing.
15. Install the quad-ring seal in seal gland bushing.
Smooth seal in place with your finger. Do not use any
seal that falls freely into pocket of bushing, see Fig. 60.
16. Install seal gland bushing over the spool end with a
twisting motion. Tap the bushing in place with a rubber
hammer. Make sure the bushing is flush against the
bearing race.
Figure 49
Hydraulic System
17. Install retaining ring in housing. After installing ring,
tap on ring end or pry with screwdriver around entire
circumference of ring to properly seat ring in groove.
Figure 50
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 57
Repairs
18. Clamp housing in vise, as shown. Clamp lightly on
edges of mounting area. Do not over tighten jaws.
NOTE: Check to insure that the spool and sleeve are
flush or slightly below the 14 hole surface of the housing.
IMPORTANT: Clean the upper surface of the housing by wiping with the palm of clean hand. Clean
each of the flat surfaces of the meter section parts
in a similar way when ready for reassembly. Do not
use cloth or paper to clean surfaces.
Figure 51
19. Install 3" diameter seal in housing.
20. Install spacer plate. Align bolt holes in spacer plate
with tapped holes in housing.
Figure 52
Repairs
Page 4 - 58
Groundsmaster® 455-D
21. Rotate spool and sleeve assembly until pin is parallel with port face. Install drive, make sure you engage
drive with pin, To assure proper alignment, mark drive
as shown (ref. B). Note relationship between slotted end
of drive to splined end of drive when marking.
Figure 53
Hydraulic System
22. Install 3" diameter seal in meter.
Figure 54
23. With seal side of meter toward spacer plate, align
star valleys (ref. A) on drive (ref. B). Note the parallel
relationship of reference lines A, B, C, and D. Align bolt
holes without disengaging meter from drive.
Figure 55
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 4 - 59
Repairs
24. Install 3" diameter seal in end cap.
25. Install end cap on gerotor, align holes.
Figure 56
26. Install seven (7) DRY cap screws with new seal
washers in end cap. Pre-tighten screws to 150 inch
pounds, then torque screws to 275 inch pounds in
sequence shown.
Figure 57
Repairs
Page 4 - 60
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Chapter 5
Electrical System
Table of Contents
Battery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Injection Pump (ETR) Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gauges and Indicator Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Temperature Shut-Down Switch . . . . . . . .
Temperature Gauge Sender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Oil Pressure Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuel Gauge Sender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4WD Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wing Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PTO Clutch and Wing Cutting Unit Clutch. . . . .
REPAIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Battery Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fuses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Traction (Neutral) Switch Replacement . . . . . . .
4WD Solenoid Coil Replacement . . . . . . . . . . .
Axle Hi/Low Switch Replacment . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wing Switch Replacement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23
23
24
25
25
26
26
27
27
28
29
29
30
31
32
32
33
Electrical System
WIRING SCHEMATICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Engine Crank and Start Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Engine Run Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Engine Run and Mowing Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
SPECIAL TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
TROUBLESHOOTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Starting Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
General Run and Transport Problems. . . . . . . . 10
Cutting Operation Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Verify Interlock Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Ignition Key Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Seat Switch, Relay and Time Delay Capacitor . 17
Traction (Neutral) Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Axle Hi/Low Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
PTO Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Start, Cutting Unit,
Time Delay and High Temp. Relays . . . . . . . 21
Glow Relay and Glow Plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 5 - 1
Table of Contents
Wiring Schematics
RED
B
S
Page 5 -- 1.1 Rev. C
TERMINAL S
TERMINAL I
TERMINAL B
TERMINAL A
TERMINAL Y
DETAIL A
VIO
RED
ALTERNATOR
F
B
AGC 30 AMP
FUSE HOLDER
BLUE
RED
BATTERY
STARTER
BK
BK
OR
BK
2 3
6 4
5 1
PLUGS
RELAY
STARTER
OR
30
GREY
87
TERMINAL X
GLOW
GLOW
RED
85
86 87A
LINK
FUSIBLE
BROWN
RELAY
GLOW
PINK
RED
GREY
WHITE
WHITE
WHITE
B
I
X
PINK
Y
E.T.R. SOLENOID
S
WHITE
CAP.
SEAT
SW.
A
30
’C’
TRACTION
SW.
(105_C)
DIODE
’SWITCHED’
FUSES
GN
’B’
GN
85
30
Vio
ALT.
GN
’LO’
BK
GN
BK
86
87
(NO)
87A
(NC)
VIO/R
VIO/R
OIL
BN
SW. (NO)
HOUR.
SW.
PRESS.
RED
BK
BK
HORN
BK
BN
G
S I
FUEL
SENDER
FUEL
S/N 49999 & Below
TEMP.
SW.
BK
R/H WING CLUTCH
BK
RED
RED
L/H WING CLUTCH
BK
PTO CLUTCH
WING SWITCHES
VARI.
BN
G
S I
TEMP.
HORN SW.
TIMER
TIME
DELAY
RELAY
BLUE
30
87
87A
85 (NC) (NO)
86
B
A
GREY
VIO/R
OIL
GN
BK
RED
C.U . RELAY
AXLE HI/LOW
4WD SOL.
(4WD ONLY)
’N’ OR ’HI’
VIO/R
’N.O.’
YEL
PTO SW.
’RELAY’
’ACC’
SEE DETAIL A
VIO/R
TEMP
ON/OFF
’D’ ’E’ ’A’
IGNITION SW.
WHITE
YELLOW
DELAY
RELAY
’N.C.’
’C’
YEL
BU/BK
RELAY
WHITE
87A
30 (NC)
87
(NO)
85 86
BLUE
RED
RED
TEMP.
87A
87
85 (NC) (NO)
TIME
86
TEMP.
RED
INJECTION PUMP
BK
BK
’HOT’ FUSES
;DECK’
’RUN’
Wiring Schematics
Groundsmaster 455--D
Groundsmaster 455--D
Page 5 -- 1.2 Rev. C
Wiring Schematics
RED
B
S
TERMINAL I
TERMINAL S
TERMINAL B
TERMINAL Y
TERMINAL A
ALTERNATOR
F
B
RED
85
86
GREY
TERMINAL X
GLOW
GLOW
BK
87A
GREY
OR
BK
PLUGS
STARTER
RELAY
87
OR
30
FUSIBLE
LINK
FUSE HOLDER
AGC 30 AMP
DETAIL A
VIO
RED
BLUE
RED
BATTERY
STARTER
BK
PINK
GLOW
RELAY
2 3
6 4
5 1
RED
87A
85 (NC)
86
S
PINK
A
B
I
SEAT
SWITCH
WATER IN FUEL
Y
X
2
’SWITCHED’
FUSES
’ACC’
3
’N.O.’
TEMP
ON/OFF
(105_C)
BLACK
’B’
’A’
DIODE
’E’
GN
GN
85
30
ALT.
GN
V10
’LO’
’N’ OR ’HI’
BK
GN
BK
86
(NO)
87A
(NC)
87
VIO/R
VIO/R
BN
OIL
C.U . RELAY
AXLE HI/LOW
SWITCH (NO)
4WD SOLENOID
(4WD ONLY)
VIO/R
PTO SWITCH
YELLOW
’RELAY’
SEE DETAIL A
VIO/R
WATER SENSOR
1
WHITE
’C’
’D’
’C’
’N.C.’
YELLOW
TIME
DELAY
RELAY
WHITE
IGNITION SWITCH
W/F
WHITE
87
(NO)
30
BU/BK
87A YELLOW
86
(NC)
87
(NO)
85
TEMP.
RELAY
30
BLUE
RED
RED
CAPACITOR
TEMP.
RED
E.T.R. SOLENOID
INJECTION PUMP
GREY
WHITE
WHITE
WHITE
BK
BK
’HOT’ FUSES
’RUN’
;DECK’
B
A
BK
HORN
BN
VARIABLE
TEMP.
SWITCH
BK
RED
BN
G
S I
FUEL
BK
FUEL
SENDER
BK
R/H WING CLUTCH
RED
L/H WING CLUTCH
BK
PTO CLUTCH
S/N 50001 -- 59999
BK
G
S I
TEMP.
WING SWITCHES
TIME
DELAY
RELAY
BLUE
(NO)
87
30
RED
TIMER
87A
85 (NC)
86
HORN SWITCH
HOUR.
VIO/R
GREY
OIL
PRESSURE
SWITCH
GN
BK
TRACTION
SWITCH (N.O.)
(Closed in Neutral)
RED
Wiring Schematics
Page 5 -- 1.3 Rev. C
Groundsmaster 455--D
+
VIO
F
TERMINAL I
TERMINAL S
TERMINAL B
TERMINAL Y
TERMINAL A
OR
85
GLOW
BK
30
RELAY
STARTER
BK
6 4
(--)
IGINITION
SWITCH
W
B
I
Y
X
YEL
2
VIO/R
Y
W
W
’C’
’D’
3
C.U.
RELAY
GN
1
2
3
4
5
6
GN
GN
85
30
BK
BK
BN
WARNING
LIGHTS
#1
VIO/R
RED
2
3
RED
WARNING
LIGHTS
#2
Y
--
+
BK
HOUR
RED
HORN
BK
VARIABLE
TEMP
SWITCH
BU/R
FUEL
G I
S
FUEL
SENDER
BN
RED
RED
WING SWITCHES
RED
BK
BK
R/H WING CLUTCH
RED
L/H WING CLUTCH
BK
PTO CLUTCH
S/N 60001 & UP
G I
S
BLUE
TEMP
BK
TIME
87
DELAY
(NO) RELAY
30
B
TIMER
A
87A
85 (NC)
86
RED
HORN SWITCH
VIO/R
GN
GREY
BK
WATER DEGASS SENSOR
1
BLUE
1
2
3
4
5
6
RED
AXLE HI/LOW
SWITCH (NO)
’N’ OR ’HI’
VIO/R
GN
’LO’
RED
BK/Y
(NC)
86
87
(NO)
87A
4WD SOLENIOD
(4WD ONLY)
VIO/R
’A’
PTO SWITCH
OIL
PRESSURE
BK SWITCH
DIODE
VIO
BK
BLUE
’SWITCHED’
FUSES
’ACC’
5A
’E’
’B’
’N.O.’
’RELAY’
5A
BU
TEMP
ON/OFF
(105[C)
BU/BK
TRACTION
SWITCH
Y BK
’C’
’N.C.’
SEE DETAIL A
DIODE
TIME
DELAY
87
(NO) RELAY
30
87
Y
87A
(NC)
BU
86
(NO)
30
85
TEMP
RELAY
WATER IN FUEL SENSOR
E.T.R. SOLENOID
INJECTION PUMP
PINK
S
A
SEAT
SWITCH
1
87A
85 (NC)
86
RED
RED
RED
RED
W CAPACITOR
(+)
W
BK
’HOT’ FUSES
’RUN’
15A
’DECK’
30A
GREY
PINK
RED
GLOW
RELAY
2 3
5 1
OR
OR
PLUGS
87
FUSE--50A
GREY
86 87A
BN
TERMINAL X
DETAIL A
RED
FUSE
80A
BLUE
B
STARTER
B
S
RED
BATTERY
--
RED
ALTERNATOR
BK
Groundsmaster 455--D
Page 5 -- 1.4 Rev. C
Wiring Schematics
Wiring Schematics
+
ALTERNATOR
F
B
STARTER
B
S
Page 5 - 2 Rev. C
DETAIL A
OR
OR
BK
TERMINAL X
TERMINAL I
START
RUN
3
2
CIRCUIT
B+I+S
B+I+A
W
W
(+)
W
BK
BK
IGNITION
SWITCH
A
PINK
S
SEAT
SWITCH
X+Y
NONE
"MAKE"
I
B
30
RED
87A
X
Y
W
Y
VIO/R
30
87
(NO)
85
W
'N.C.'
15A
30A
RUN
5A
5A
DECK
FUSES
RELAY
ACC
'SWITCHED'
FUSES
'ACC'
'RELAY'
'C'
'D'
Y
'C'
SEE DETAIL A
TIME
DELAY
RELAY
W
87
(NO)
(NC)
BU/BK
Y
86
87A
TEMP
RELAY
RED
BLUE
(NC)
CAPACITOR
(-)
85
86
TEMP
RED
E.T.R. SOLENOID
INJECTION PUMP
IGNITION SWITCH
NONE
'RUN'
'DECK'
'HOT' FUSES
GREY
PINK
RED
GLOW
RELAY
4
1
6
5
STARTER
RELAY
GLOW PLUGS
87
OFF
GLOW
BK
30
87A
POSITION
FUSE
HOLDER
AGC
30 AMP
RED
85
86
TERMINAL S
VIO
RED
BLUE
GREY
FUSIBLE
LINK
TERMINAL B
TERMINAL Y
RED
RED
BATTERY
-
TERMINAL A
BK
BROWN
DIODE
'B'
GN
VIO/R
VIO/R
'LO'
GN
VIO
GN
85
30
ALT
AXLE HI/LOW
SWITCH (NO)
BK
86
(NC)
87
(NO)
87A
BK
4WD SOLENIOD
(4WD ONLY)
GN
C.U.
RELAY
'N' OR 'HI'
VIO/R
PTO SWITCH
'E'
'A'
TRACTION
SWITCH
'N.O.'
TEMP
ON/OFF
(105 C)
BN
OIL
RED
GN
OIL
PRESSURE
SWITCH
A
B
85
86
TIMER
(NC)
87A
HORN
BK
-
+
30
BK
HORN SWITCH
HOUR
VIO/R
GREY
BK
BK
RED
BK
RED
FUEL
SENDER
BK
R/H WING CLUTCH
BN
G I
S
FUEL
BK
L/H WING CLUTCH
WING SWITCHES
VARIABLE
TEMP
SWITCH
BN
G I
S
TEMP
BLUE
TIME
DELAY
87
RELAY
(NO)
RED
PTO CLUTCH
Wiring Schematics
Engine Crank and Start Circuit (S/N 49999 and Below)
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Groundsmaster® 455-D
+
ALTERNATOR
F
B
STARTER
B
S
Page 5 - 3 Rev. C
DETAIL A
OR
OR
BK
TERMINAL X
TERMINAL I
START
RUN
3
2
B+I+S
B+I+A
NONE
W
W
(+)
W
BK
BK
IGNITION
SWITCH
S
PINK
A
SEAT
SWITCH
X+Y
NONE
"MAKE"
Wiring Schematics
87A
X
Y
W
Y
VIO/R
30
W
'N.C.'
15A
30A
RUN
5A
5A
DECK
FUSES
RELAY
ACC
'SWITCHED'
FUSES
'ACC'
'RELAY'
'C'
'D'
Y
'C'
SEE DETAIL A
TIME
DELAY
RELAY
W
87
(NO)
Y
(NC)
BU/BK
86
87A
Electrical System
I
B
30
RED
87
(NO)
85
TEMP
RELAY
RED
BLUE
(NC)
CAPACITOR
(-)
85
86
TEMP
RED
E.T.R. SOLENOID
INJECTION PUMP
IGNITION SWITCH
CIRCUIT
'RUN'
'DECK'
'HOT' FUSES
GREY
PINK
RED
GLOW
RELAY
4
1
6
5
STARTER
RELAY
GLOW PLUGS
87
OFF
GLOW
BK
30
87A
POSITION
FUSE
HOLDER
AGC
30 AMP
RED
85
86
TERMINAL S
VIO
RED
BLUE
GREY
FUSIBLE
LINK
TERMINAL B
TERMINAL Y
RED
RED
BATTERY
-
TERMINAL A
BK
BROWN
DIODE
'B'
GN
VIO/R
VIO/R
'LO'
GN
VIO
GN
85
30
ALT
AXLE HI/LOW
SWITCH (NO)
BK
86
(NC)
87
(NO)
87A
BK
4WD SOLENIOD
(4WD ONLY)
GN
C.U.
RELAY
'N' OR 'HI'
VIO/R
PTO SWITCH
'E'
'A'
TRACTION
SWITCH
'N.O.'
TEMP
ON/OFF
(105 C)
BN
OIL
RED
GN
OIL
PRESSURE
SWITCH
A
B
85
86
TIMER
(NC)
87A
HORN
BK
-
+
30
BK
HORN SWITCH
HOUR
VIO/R
GREY
BK
BK
RED
BK
RED
FUEL
SENDER
BK
R/H WING CLUTCH
BN
G I
S
FUEL
BK
L/H WING CLUTCH
WING SWITCHES
VARIABLE
TEMP
SWITCH
BN
G I
S
TEMP
BLUE
TIME
DELAY
87
RELAY
(NO)
RED
PTO CLUTCH
Engine Run Circuit (S/N 49999 and Below)
Wiring Schematics
+
ALTERNATOR
F
B
STARTER
B
S
Page 5 - 4 Rev. C
DETAIL A
OR
OR
BK
TERMINAL X
TERMINAL I
START
RUN
3
2
B+I+S
B+I+A
NONE
W
W
(+)
W
BK
BK
IGNITION
SWITCH
S
PINK
A
SEAT
SWITCH
X+Y
NONE
"MAKE"
B
I
87A
X
Y
W
Y
30A
15A
5A
5A
DECK
FUSES
'SWITCHED'
FUSES
'ACC'
RELAY
RUN
'C'
'D'
Y
'RELAY'
SEE DETAIL A
W
'N.C.'
'C'
Y
(NC)
TIME
DELAY
RELAY
W
87
(NO)
ACC
VIO/R
30
87
(NO)
30
RED
BU/BK
86
87A
TEMP
RELAY
85
RED
BLUE
(NC)
CAPACITOR
(-)
85
86
TEMP
RED
E.T.R. SOLENOID
INJECTION PUMP
IGNITION SWITCH
CIRCUIT
'RUN'
'DECK'
'HOT' FUSES
GREY
PINK
RED
GLOW
RELAY
4
1
6
5
STARTER
RELAY
GLOW PLUGS
87
OFF
GLOW
BK
30
87A
POSITION
FUSE
HOLDER
AGC
30 AMP
RED
85
86
GREY
TERMINAL S
VIO
RED
BLUE
FUSIBLE
LINK
TERMINAL B
TERMINAL Y
RED
RED
BATTERY
-
TERMINAL A
BK
BROWN
DIODE
'B'
GN
VIO/R
VIO/R
'LO'
GN
VIO
GN
85
30
ALT
87
AXLE HI/LOW
SWITCH (NO)
BK
86
(NC)
(NO)
87A
BK
4WD SOLENIOD
(4WD ONLY)
GN
C.U.
RELAY
'N' OR 'HI'
VIO/R
PTO SWITCH
'E'
'A'
TRACTION
SWITCH
'N.O.'
TEMP
ON/OFF
(105 C)
BN
OIL
RED
GN
OIL
PRESSURE
SWITCH
A
B
85
86
TIMER
(NC)
87A
HORN
BK
-
+
30
BK
HORN SWITCH
HOUR
VIO/R
GREY
BK
BK
RED
BK
R/H WING CLUTCH
RED
BK
BN
G I
S
FUEL
BK
L/H WING CLUTCH
FUEL
SENDER
WING SWITCHES
VARIABLE
TEMP
SWITCH
BN
G I
S
TEMP
BLUE
TIME
DELAY
87
RELAY
(NO)
RED
PTO CLUTCH
Engine Run and Mow Circuits (S/N 49999 and Below)
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Special Tools
NOTE: Order special tools from the TORO SPECIAL
TOOLS AND APPLICATIONS GUIDE (COMMERCIAL
PRODUCTS). Some tools may be available from a local
supplier.
Continuity Tester
Battery powered test lamp which is helpful in testing for
continuity of circuits and electrical components when
the current is off.
Figure 1
Electrical System
Volt - Ohm - Amp Meter
The meter can test electrical components and circuits
for current, resistance, or voltage draw.
Figure 2
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 5 - 5
Special Tools
Skin-Over Grease
Special non-conductive grease which forms a light
protective skin to help waterproof electrical switches
and contacts.
Figure 3
Special Tools
Page 5 - 6
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Troubleshooting
Study the operating characteristics preceding the electrical failure to help identify the area of difficulty. Try to
isolate the failure to a specific functional system; then
check that area, repairing one component at a time.
Attempting to repair more than one system at one time
will lead to confusion.
CAUTION
Remove all jewelry, especially rings and
watches, before doing any electrical troubleshooting or testing. Disconnect the battery cables unless the test requires battery
voltage.
Possible Causes and Corrections in the troubleshooting
charts should be checked in the order in which they are
listed.
For effective troubleshooting and repairs, you MUST
have a good understanding of the electrical circuits and
components used on this machine. (See Electrical
Schematics and Diagrams section of this chapter.)
If the machine being repaired has any interlock switches
by-passed, they must be reconnected for proper troubleshooting and safety.
Starting Problems
Condition
Possible Cause
Correction
Starter solenoid clicks, but starter
will not crank. (If solenoid clicks,
problem is not in interlock
system.)
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Low battery charge
Charge battery. Replace battery if
it will not hold a charge.
Loose or corroded battery cables.
Loose or corroded ground.
Clean and tighten, or repair as
necessary.
Faulty wiring at starter.
Repair wiring.
Loose starter mounting bolts.
Clean mounting surface and
tighten bolts.
Faulty starter.
Repair or replace starter.
Faulty starter solenoid.
Replace starter solenoid.
Page 5 - 7
Troubleshooting
Electrical System
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Starting Problems (continued)
Condition
Possible Cause
Correction
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Nothing happens when start
attempt is made.
Troubleshooting
Battery is dead.
Charge battery. Replace battery if
it will not hold a charge.
Loose or corroded battery cables.
Loose or corroded ground.
Clean and tighten or repair as
necessary.
“Run” fuse open.
Check fuse and replace if fuse is
open. If fuse burns out often, find
and correct cause.
Fusible link open.
Replace fusible link.
Temp. switch or relay faulty.
Test temp. switch and relay.
Replace if faulty.
Temp relay wiring loose, corroded
or damaged.
Repair wiring.
Traction switch out of adjustment
or faulty.
Test traction switch. Adjust or
replace traction switch if faulty.
Traction switch wiring loose,
corroded or damaged.
Repair wiring.
PTO switch engaged or faulty.
Make sure PTO switch is OFF.
Test switch and replace if faulty.
PTO switch wiring loose, corroded
or damaged.
Repair wiring.
Ignition switch faulty.
Test ignition switch. Replace if
faulty.
Ignition switch wiring loose,
corroded or damaged.
Repair wiring.
Start relay faulty.
Test start relay. Replace if faulty.
Start relay wires loose, corroded or
damaged.
Clean and tighten or repair as
necessary.
In-line 30 amp starter solenoid fuse
open.
Check fuse and replace if fuse is
open. If fuse burns out often, find
and correct cause.
Starter solenoid wiring loose,
corroded or damaged.
Clean and tighten or repair as
necessary.
Starter solenoid faulty.
Replace starter.
Page 5 - 8
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Starting Problems (continued)
Condition
Possible Cause
Correction
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Engine cranks, but does not start
(if engine cranks, cause of
problem is not in interlock
system).
Injection pump ETR solenoid
wiring loose or corroded.
Clean and tighten or repair as
necessary.
Injection pump ETR solenoid faulty.
Test solenoid. Replace if faulty.
Glow relay faulty.
Test glow relay. Replace if faulty.
Glow relay/glow plug wiring loose,
corroded or damaged.
Check wiring and connections.
Clean, tighten or repair as
necessary.
Glow plugs faulty.
Test glow plugs and replace if
faulty.
Engine or fuel system problem.
See Troubleshooting section of
Chapter 3 - Engine.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Engine cranks (but should not)
with traction pedal out of neutral.
Traction switch out of adjustment
or faulty.
Adjust or replace traction switch.
Engine cranks (but should not)
with PTO switch ON.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
PTO switch faulty.
Page 5 - 9
Replace PTO switch.
Troubleshooting
Electrical System
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
General Run and Transport Problems
Condition
Possible Cause
Correction
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Engine continues to run (but
should not) when traction pedal is
depressed with no operator on
seat.
Seat switch plunger depressed
with no operator on seat.
Check for seat support spring
that is broken, missing or stuck in
down position.
Check for binding seat pivot
hinge.
Check for waterlogged seat.
Seat switch faulty or out of
adjustment.
Test seat switch. Adjust or
replace if faulty.
Time delay relay faulty.
Test relay. Replace if faulty.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Engine kills when traction pedal
is depressed or PTO switch is
turned ON.
Operator sitting too far forward on
seat (seat switch not depressed).
Instruct operator.
Seat hinge, support pin or spring
binding, preventing seat switch
from closing.
Repair seat pivot and support.
Seat switch is faulty or out of
adjustment.
Test seat switch. Adjust or
replace if faulty.
Seat switch wiring loose, corroded
or damaged.
Repair wiring.
Time delay relay faulty.
Test relay. Replace if faulty.
Time delay wiring loose, corroded
or damaged.
Repair wiring.
“Relay” fuse open.
Check fuse and replace if fuse is
open. If fuse burns out often, find
and correct cause.
Ignition switch faulty.
Test ignition switch. Replace if
faulty.
Ignition switch or fuse wiring loose,
corroded or damaged.
Repair wiring.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4WD is engaged (but should not
be) with axle in “HI” range.
Troubleshooting
Axle HI/LOW switch faulty.
Test HI/LOW switch. Replace
switch if faulty.
4WD solenoid valve faulty.
Test 4WD solenoid valve.
Replace if faulty.
Page 5 - 10
Groundsmaster® 455-D
General Run and Transport Problems (continued)
Condition
Possible Cause
Correction
___________________________________________________________________________________________
4WD does not engage.
Axle in HI range.
Axle must be in Low range for
4WD to engage.
Axle HI/LOW switch or plunger
faulty.
Test HI/LOW switch. Check for
proper installation and operation
of plunger assembly. Replace
switch or repair plunger if faulty.
Axle HI/LOW switch wiring loose,
corroded or damaged.
Repair wiring.
4WD solenoid valve faulty.
Test 4WD solenoid valve.
Replace if faulty.
4WD solenoid wiring loose,
corroded or damaged.
Repair wiring.
Problem is not electrical.
See Troubleshooting section of
Chapter 4 - Hydraulic System.
Battery does not charge.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Loose or broken wire(s).
Repair wiring.
Faulty alternator.
Check alternator belt tension.
Test alternator and replace if
faulty.
Dead battery.
Charge battery. Replace battery if
it will not hold a charge.
Alternator warning lamp is faulty or
burnt out.
Replace lamp.
Alternator waring lamp wiring
loose, corroded or damaged.
Repair wiring.
Page 5 - 11
Troubleshooting
Electrical System
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Cutting Unit Operation Problems
Condition
Possible Cause
Correction
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Engine continues to run (but
should not) when PTO switch is
ON with no operator on the seat.
Seat switch plunger depressed
with no operator on seat.
Check for seat support spring
that is broken, missing or stuck in
down position.
Check for binding seat pivot
hinge.
Check for waterlogged seat.
Seat switch faulty or out of
adjustment.
Test seat switch. Adjust or
replace if faulty.
Time delay relay faulty.
Test relay. Replace if faulty.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Wing cutting unit runs (but should
not) when raised, but shuts off
with PTO switch.
Wing switch faulty.
Test switch. Replace if faulty.
Make sure switch is properly
installed.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Wing cutting units shut off when
raised, but cutting units do not
shut off with PTO switch.
Cutting unit relay faulty.
Test relay. Replace if faulty.
PTO switch faulty.
Test switch. Replace if faulty.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Cutting units run (but should not)
with axle in “HI” range.
Troubleshooting
Axle HI/LOW switch or plunger
faulty.
Test HI/LOW switch. Check for
proper installation and operation
of plunger assembly. Replace
switch or repair plunger if faulty.
Cutting unit relay faulty.
Test cutting unit relay. Replace if
faulty.
Page 5 - 12
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Cutting Unit Operation Problems (continued)
Condition
Possible Cause
Correction
No cutting units Operate.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Axle in HI range.
Axle must be in Low range for
cutting units to operate.
“Deck” fuse open.
Check fuse and replace if fuse is
open. If fuse burns out often, find
and correct cause.
“Relay” fuse open.
Check fuse and replace if fuse is
open. If fuse burns out often, find
and correct cause.
PTO clutch air gap out of
adjustment.
Check air gap and adjust if
necessary.
PTO clutch faulty.
Test clutch. Repair or replace if
faulty.
PTO clutch wiring loose, corroded
or damaged.
Repair wiring.
Cutting unit relay faulty.
Test relay. Replace relay if faulty.
Cutting unit relay wiring loose,
corroded or damaged.
Repair wiring.
Transaxle shift linkage out of
adjustment (not closing Hi/Low
switch in Low range).
Check linkage and adjust if
necessary.
Axle HI/LOW switch or plunger
faulty.
Test switch. Check for proper
installation and operation of
plunger assembly. Replace
switch or repair plunger if faulty.
Axle HI/LOW switch wiring loose,
corroded or damaged.
Repair wiring.
PTO switch faulty.
Test switch. Replace if faulty.
PTO switch wiring loose, corroded
or damaged.
Repair wiring.
Problem not electrical.
See Chapter 7 - PTO System.
Page 5 - 13
Troubleshooting
Electrical System
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Cutting Unit Operation Problems (continued)
Condition
Possible Cause
Correction
__________________________________________________________________________________________
One wing cutting unit does not
operate.
Wing switch faulty.
Test switch. Replace if faulty.
Wing switch wiring loose, corroded
or damaged.
Repair wiring.
Wing clutch air gap out of
adjustment.
Check air gap and adjust if
necessary.
Wing clutch faulty.
Test clutch. Repair or replace if
faulty.
Wing clutch wiring loose, corroded
or damaged.
Repair wiring.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Center cutting unit operates, but
neither wing cutting unit operates.
Troubleshooting
Time delay relay faulty.
Test relay. Replace relay if faulty.
Time delay relay wiring loose
corroded or damaged.
Repair wiring.
Timer faulty.
Test timer. Replace timer if faulty.
Timer wiring loose, corroded or
damaged.
Repair wiring.
Page 5 - 14
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Verify Interlock System Operation
The purpose of the interlock system is to prevent the
engine from cranking or starting unless the traction
pedal is in NEUTRAL and the cutting unit engagement
switch is DISENGAGED. In addition, the engine will stop
when the cutting unit engagement switch is engaged or
traction pedal is depressed with operator off the seat.
5. Raise off the seat and depress the traction pedal while
engine is running and the cutting unit engagement
switch is DISENGAGED. The engine should stop within
2 seconds. If engine stops, the switch is operating
correctly – continue operation. If engine does not stop,
there is a malfunction in the interlock system.
1. In a wide open area free of debris and bystanders,
lower cutting unit to the ground. Stop engine.
2. Move cutting unit engagement switch to DISENGAGED position and remove foot from traction pedal so
it is fully released.
3. Rotate the ignition key to START Engine should start.
If engine starts, proceed to step 4. If engine does not
start, there may be a malfunction in the interlock system.
THE INTERLOCK SWITCHES ARE FOR THE
OPERATOR’S PROTECTION, SO DO NOT
DISCONNECT THEM. CHECK OPERATION
OF THE SWITCHES DAILY TO ASSURE INTERLOCK SYSTEM IS OPERATING. IF A
SWITCH IS DEFECTIVE, REPLACE IT BEFORE OP ERATING. REGARDLESS IF
SWITCHES ARE OPERATING PROPERLY OR
NOT, REPLACE THEM EVERY TWO YEARS
TO ASSURE MAXIMUM SAFETY. DO NOT
RELY ENTIRELY ON SAFETY SWITCHES USE COMMON SENSE!
Electrical System
4. Raise off the seat and engage the cutting unit engagement switch while the engine is running. The engine
should stop within 2 seconds. If engine stops, the switch
is operating correctly – proceed to step 5. If engine does
not stop, there is a malfunction in the interlock system.
CAUTION
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 5 - 15
Troubleshooting
Testing
This section will define components, and the tests that
can be performed on those components, when those
parts are disconnected from the electrical system.
CAUTION
For accurate resistance and/or continuity checks, electrically disconnect the component being tested from the
circuit (e.g. unplug the seat switch connector before
doing a continuity check).
When testing electrical components for continuity with a volt-ohm meter or continuity
tester, make sure that power to the circuit has
been disconnected.
NOTE: Electrical troubleshooting of any 12 Volt power
connection can also be performed through voltage drop
tests without disconnection of the component.
Ignition Key Switch
The ignition (key) switch has three positions (OFF, RUN
and START). The terminals are marked as shown.
The circuitry of the ignition switch is shown in the chart.
With the use of a continuity tester, the switch functions
may be tested to determine whether all circuits are being
completed while the key is moved to each position.
Y
A
B
S
I
X
Figure 4
POSITION
OTHER
CIRCUITS
MADE
CONTINUITY
AMONG
TERMINALS
1.
OFF
NONE
2.
RUN
B+I+A
3.
START
B+I+S
NONE
X+Y
NONE
Figure 5
Testing
Page 5 - 16
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Seat Switch, Relay and Time Delay Capacitor
The seat switch is a normally open (N.O.) switch that
closes when the operator is on the seat. With no operator on the seat, there is an open circuit to the time delay
capacitor and relay coil. If the PTO switch or traction
switch is open and the operator raises off the seat, the
engine will stop after a delay of 1 to 2 seconds.
Seat Switch Test
3
2
1
1. Raise the seat to get access to the seat switch wiring
connector.
2. Disconnect the seat switch wiring connector and
install a continuity tester or ohm meter between the two
leads of the seat switch.
3. Lower the seat. The continuity tester should show no
continuity.
Figure 6
1. Seat switch
2. Time delay capacitor
3. Seat switch relay
NOTE: Make sure the compression spring and pin holds
the seat up off the seat switch when there is no operator
on the seat.
4. Have the operator sit on the seat, slowly depressing
the seat switch. The continuity tester should show continuity as the seat approaches the bottom of its travel.
To test the relay, disconnect the relay wire connector
and install a continuity tester between the relay terminals (terminals 30 and 87). The relay should make and
break continuity at terminals 30 and 87 as 12 V.D.C. is
connected and disconnected to terminal 85 with terminal 86 connected to ground.
Electrical System
Relay Test
Figure 7
Relay
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 5 - 17
Testing
Traction (Neutral) Switch
The traction switch is a normally closed and opens when
traction pedal is depressed in either direction.
IMPORTANT: The traction switch has three (3) terminals. Make sure the wires are connected to the
“COMMON” and “N.O.” terminals.
Test the switch by disconnecting the wires from the
switch terminals and connecting a continuity tester
across the COMMON and N.O. terminals. With the
engine turned off, slowly push the traction pedal in a
forward and reverse direction while watching the continuity tester. There should be indications that the traction
switch is opening and closing. Allow the traction pedal
to return to neutral. There should be continuity across
the terminals. (See Replacing the Traction Switch in the
Repairs section of this chapter for replacement and
adjustment procedures.)
1
NOTE: Apply “Loctite 271” or equivalent to threads of
switch screws before installing.
Loctite 271
Figure 8
1. Traction (neutral) switch
Testing
Page 5 - 18
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Axle Hi/Low Switch
The axle hi/low switch is normally open (N.O.) when the
transaxle is in neutral or hi range. This prevents the
cutting units or 4WD from engaging while the transaxle
is neutral or hi range. The switch closes when the axle
shift rod is moved to low range, which pushes the switch
button in.
1
1. Disconnect the switch wire connector and install a
continuity tester or ohm meter between the two leads of
the switch.
2. With the axle in neutral or hi range, the switch should
show no continuity. With the axle in low range the switch
should show continuity.
Figure 11
1. Axle Hi/Low switch
Electrical System
NOTE: For proper operation, the switch must be
screwed all the way in. Debris in the switch could cause
the switch to not open and close properly. Shift linkage
that is out of adjustment can also cause improper switch
operation.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 5 - 19
Testing
PTO Switch
To test the PTO switch independent of wiring harness,
disconnect wire connector from the switch terminals.
When the switch is ON, there should be continuity
between terminals A – B only. When the switch is OFF,
terminals C – D and B – E should show continuity.
1
Figure 13
1. PTO switch
Figure 14
1. PTO switch terminals
Testing
Page 5 - 20
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Start, Cutting Unit, Time Delay and High Temp. Relays
To test the relay, disconnect the relay wire connector
and install a continuity tester between the relay terminals (terminals 30 and 87). The relay should make and
break continuity at terminals 30 and 87 as 12 V.D.C. is
connected and disconnected to terminal 85 with terminal 86 connected to ground.
1
Figure 15
1. Start relay
2
3
Electrical System
1
Figure 16
1. Cutting unit relay
2. High temp. relay
3. Wing deck time delay relay
Figure 17
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 5 - 21
Testing
Glow Relay and Glow Plugs
1. Attach an amp meter to glow plug circuit. Turn ignition
switch to ON. Meter may have an initial reading as high
as 100 amps.
A. If amp meter shows a reading for 5 to 12 seconds,
the glow relay is operating. If there is no reading, go
to step 2.
B. Turn ignition switch OFF, then ON again. A reading of 48 amps should be observed. Go to step 3.
1
2. To test the circuit:
A. Check with a test light at buss bar connection for
glow plugs at cylinder head. Turn the ignition switch
ON. If the light glows, power is being supplied from
glow relay. If light does not glow check wiring or
relay.
Figure 19
1. Glow relay
B. Check relay with a test light connected at terminal#5 on relay (glow plugs connection).Turn ignition
switch ON. If the light glows, the power relay is
working. If the light does not glow, check for power
to relay by moving to terminal #1 (power from battery). If the light glows, check for power from ignition
switch by moving to terminal #3.
4. Glow plug test:
A. Warm up the glow plugs, then check for total draw
of all four (4) glow plugs:
if draw is 48 amps all four (4) are OK.
if draw is 36 amps, then one (1) is faulty.
if draw is 24 amps, then two (2) are faulty.
if draw is 12 amps, then three (3) are faulty.
if draw is 0 amps, then all are faulty.
if draw is more than 48 amps (60 to 100 amps) there is a short
in one or more of the glow plugs (see Glow Plugs in Testing
section of Chapter 3 - Engine.
NOTE: The glow relay has a built in temperature sensor
and timer. Battery voltage is always available at terminal #1. When voltage is sensed at terminal 3 (ignition
switch turned to ON) power is directed to terminals #5
(glow plugs) and #6 (glow indicator light). At 68°F (20°C)
the glow indicator light will turn off after 5 seconds, then
the glow plugs will turn off after 12 seconds. At
32°F (0°C) the glow indicator light will turn off after
10 seconds, then the glow plugs will turn off after
18 seconds.
Testing
Page 5 - 22
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Battery
Use a hydrometer to test the battery. Charge the battery
if necessary (see Battery Service).
Electrolyte specific gravity
1
Fully charged: 1.250 - 1.280
Discharged: less than 1.240
Figure 20
Injection Pump (ETR) Solenoid
The Groundsmaster® 455-D has an energize-to-run
(ETR) fuel stop solenoid. The solenoid will stop injector
pump fuel delivery with any electrical failure in the RUN
circuit.
1. Disconnect the wire from the solenoid.
1
Electrical System
2. Remove the solenoid from the injector pump.
3. Connect a 12 volt battery so that a wire from positive
(+) battery terminal is connected to switch terminal.
Touch a wire from the negative (–) battery terminal to
solenoid body. The plunger should retract.
NOTE: You can also test operation without removing the
solenoid from the injector pump. Listen for an audible
“click” as the solenoid extends and retracts while doing
step 3 of the above procedure. This will not show if the
solenoid is fully extending and retracting.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 5 - 23
Figure 21
1. Injection pump (ETR) solenoid
Testing
Gauges and Indicator Lights
Oil Pressure Light
Test the lamp by disconnecting the wires and applying
12 V.D.C. between the lamp wiring terminals.
Oil pressure lamp should come on when the ignition key
switch is in the RUN position with the engine not running
or if the oil pressure switch closes during operation - oil
pressure below 7 psi (0.5 kg/cm2).
Test the lamp by disconnecting the wire from oil pressure switch and grounding it against the engine. The
light should come on when the wire is grounded with the
ignition switch in the ON position.
Amp Light
The amp light should come on when the ignition key
switch is in the RUN position with the engine not running
or if the charging circuit is not operating properly during
operation.
NOTE: If amp light or amp is faulty or lamp is burnt out,
the alternator will not charge properly.
Test the lamp by disconnecting the wires and applying
12 V.D.C. between the lamp wiring terminals.
Temperature Light
The temperature light should come on only if the high
temperature shut-down switch and relay has stopped
the engine - coolant temperature above 221o F (105oC).
Test the lamp and relay by disconnecting the wire from
high temperature shut-down switch and grounding it
against the engine. The light should come on when the
wire is grounded with the ignition switch in the ON
position.
Hourmeter
Test the hourmeter by connecting a 12 volt battery so
the positive (+) battery terminal is connected to the
positive terminal on the hourmeter. Connect the negative (–) battery terminal to the negative (–) terminal on
the alternator. The hourmeter should operate as
12 V.D.C. is applied between the terminals.
Temperature Gauge and Fuel Level Gauge
Glow Light
The glow light should come on for 5 to 12 seconds after
the ignition key switch is turned ON.
Testing
To test a gauge, use a commercial gauge tester. If a
commercial gauge tester is not available, substitute a
new gauge or test the sending unit.
Page 5 - 24
Groundsmaster® 455-D
High Temperature Shut-Down Switch
1. Lower the coolant level in the engine and remove the
high temperature shut-down switch.
2. Put the switch in a container of oil with a thermometer
and heat the oil.
1
3. The switch is normally open (N.O.) and should close
at approximately 221o F (105o C).
2
CAUTION
Handle hot oil with special care to prevent
personal injury or fire.
Figure 22
Electrical System
1. High temperature shut-down switch
2. Temperature gauge sender
Figure 23
Temperature Gauge Sender
1. Lower the coolant level in the engine and remove the
temperature gauge sender.
2. Put the switch in a container of oil with a thermometer
and heat the oil.
3. With an Ohm meter connected as shown, the following resistance readings should be indicated.
90.5 - 117.5 ohm at 160o F (70o C)
21.3 - 26.3 ohm at 207o F (115o C)
CAUTION
Figure 24
Handle hot oil with special care to prevent
personal injury or fire.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 5 - 25
Testing
Engine Oil Pressure Switch
The switch is normally closed (NC) and opens with
pressure.
The switch opens at approximately 8 psi.
1. Turn ignition key switch ON. Oil pressure lamp should
be on.
If lamp is not on:
1
1. Disconnect wire from switch and touch wire to a good
ground, such as the engine block.
2. If lamp comes on, replace switch.
3. If lamp does not come on check wiring between lamp
and switch for continuity.
Figure 25
1. Engine oil pressure switch
If lamp is on with engine running:
1. Shut off engine immediately.
2. Check switch by disconnecting wire with ignition
switch in ON position. Light should go out.
3. If light is still on, check for short circuit in wiring.
4. Install test gauge in engine oil pressure switch port.
Start engine and check for 30 psi minimum at 1500 rpm.
If engine pressure is good, replace switch. If engine
pressure is low, DO NOT operate the engine.
Fuel Gauge Sender
1. Disconnect wire and remove the fuel gauge sender
from the fuel tank.
2. Install an ohm meter between the terminal and base.
3. With arm completely down (empty position), resistance should be 240 - 260 ohms.
4. With arm completely up (full position), resistance
should be 29 - 34 ohms.
NOTE: Bend float arm, if necessary, to get proper gauge
reading for a 1/2 full tank.
CAUTION
Make sure the sending unit is completely dry
(no fuel on it) before testing. Perform test
away from fuel tank to prevent an explosion
or fire from sparks.
Testing
Page 5 - 26
Groundsmaster® 455-D
4WD Solenoid
1. Disconnect the wire connector.
2. Connect a 12 volt battery so the positive (+) battery
terminal is connected to colored solenoid lead. Connect
the negative (–) battery terminal to black lead. The valve
spool should retract completely as 12 V.D.C is applied
between leads.
1
2
3. If valve spool does not operate properly check for
binding or damage to valve.
4. If valve moves smoothly, but does not engage when
12 V.D.C is applied to solenoid leads, replace
solenoid coil.
5. If valve still does not operate after replacing solenoid
coil, replace the valve.
Figure 28
1. 4WD solenoid
2. Indicator
Wing Switch
The wing switch is closed with the wing cutting unit
lowered and open when wing cutting unit is raised.
1
Electrical System
IMPORTANT: The wing switches have three (3) terminals. Make sure the wires are connected to the
“COMMON” and “N.O.” terminals.
Test the switch by disconnecting the wiring connector
for the switch and connecting a continuity tester across
the terminals. With the engine running and the P.T.O.
DISENGAGED (OFF), raise and lower the affected wing
cutting unit while watching the continuity tester. With the
wing raised, there should be no continuity. When the
wing is lowered there should be continuity.
Figure 29
1. Wing switch
(Shown from below wing with wing in raised position)
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 5 - 27
Testing
P.T.O. Clutch and Wing Clutch
1. Park machine on a level surface, engage parking
brake, lower the cutting units and turn engine OFF.
1
2. Disconnect electrical connector from affected clutch.
Continuity Test
Connect a continuity tester or ohmmeter to the two (2)
terminals of the electrical connector on the clutch. If
continuity is not present, replace the clutch or electromagnet part of the clutch (see Chapter 7 - P.T.O System
or Chapter 8 - Cutting Unit).
Operation Check
Connect a 12 volt battery to the terminals of the electrical connector on the clutch. The clutch should engage
when voltage is applied to the terminals.
NOTE: Make sure clutch air gap is adjusted to 0.011 0.021 inches (see Chapter 7 - P.T.O. System or
Chapter 8 - Cutting Unit).
Figure 30
1. P.T.O. clutch
1
Figure 31
1. Wing clutch
Testing
Page 5 - 28
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Repairs
IMPORTANT: Before welding on the machine, disconnect both battery cables from the battery and
disconnect the terminal connector from the alternator to prevent damage to the electrical system.
Battery Service
IMPORTANT: To prevent damage to electrical components, do not operate the engine with the battery
cables disconnected.
Electrolyte Specific Gravity
Keep the terminals and entire battery case clean. To
clean the battery, wash the entire case with a solution
of baking soda and water. Rinse with clear water. Do not
get the soda solution into the battery because damage
to the battery will result. Coat the battery posts and cable
connectors with skin-over grease, or petroleum jelly to
prevent corrosion.
Battery Specifications
Fully charged: 1.250 - 1.280
Discharged: less than 1.240
BCI Group 26 SMF–5 Battery:
530 Amp Cranking Performance at 0o F (–17 o C)
85 min. Reserve Capacity at 80o F (27 o C)
Check for loose battery hold-downs. A loose battery may
crack or cause the container to wear and leak acid.
CAUTION
2
Electrical System
Check the electrolyte solution to make sure the level is
above the plates. If the level is low (but above the plates
inside the battery), add water so the level is to the
bottom of the cap tubes. If the level is below the plates,
add water only until the plates are covered and then
charge the battery. After charging, fill the battery to the
proper level.
1
Figure 32
Do not charge a frozen battery because it can
explode and cause injury. Let the battery
warm to 60o F (16o C) before connecting to a
charger.
1. Positive (+) terminal
2. Negative (–) terminal
Charge the battery in a well-ventilated place
so that gases produced while charging can
dissipate. Since the gases are explosive, keep
open flame and electrical spark away from the
battery; do not smoke. Nausea may result if
the gases are inhaled. Unplug the charger
from the electrical outlet before connecting or
disconnecting the charger leads from the battery posts.
Figure 33
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 5 - 29
Repairs
Fuses
The electrical system is protected by twelve (4) fuses
located under the control panel to the operator’s right.
NOTE: It is not always possible to see if a fuse is faulty.
It is recommended that you check for faulty fuses with
a continuity tester, not visually.
4
2
3
1
The starter circuit is also protected by a 30A in-line fuse
between the start relay and starter solenoid (S/N 59999
and below). The alternator charging circuit is protected
by a 80A in-line fuse (S/N 60001 and up).
Figure 34
1. ACC fuse
2. RELAY fuse
3. DECK fuse
4. RUN fuse
FUSES
Repairs
1. ACC
5A
2. RELAY
5A
3. DECK
30A
4. RUN
15A
Page 5 - 30 Rev. C
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Traction (Neutral) Switch Replacement
1. Remove the two wires that are connected to the
traction switch.
2. Have a helper push the traction pedal down into either
the FORWARD or REVERSE position; this will take the
switch arm tension off of the switch. Loosen two (2)
screws and remove the switch.
3. Install new switch. DO NOT over-tighten screws as
the switch case could break.
NOTE: Have a helper hold the traction pedal down while
installing the switch.
4. Reconnect the two wires to the new switch. Make sure
that one wire is connected to the “COMMON” terminal,
and one wire is connected to the “NORMALLY OPEN”
(N.O.) terminal.
1
IMPORTANT: The traction switch has three (3) terminals. If the two (2) wires are not connected to the
“COMMON” and “NORMALLY OPEN” (N.O.) terminals, the engine will be unable to start and the safety
interlock circuit will not function properly.
NOTE: Apply “Loctite 271” or equivalent to threads of
switch screws before installing.
Loctite 271
Figure 35
Electrical System
1. Traction (neutral) switch
CAUTION
If the wires are not correctly installed to the
switch, the engine could start with the traction pedal in forward or reverse.
5. Coat the switch terminals and wires with skin-over
grease.
6. Check traction control neutral adjustment. (See Traction Control Neutral Adjustment in the Adjustments section of Chapter 4 - HYDRAULIC SYSTEM.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 5 - 31
Repairs
4WD Solenoid Coil Replacement
1. Park machine on a level surface, engage parking
brake, lower the cutting units and turn engine OFF.
2. Disconnect solenoid electrical connector.
1
3. Remove coil nut.
4. Remove coil assembly.
5. Install new coil assembly and secure with coil nut.
Apply “Locktite 242" or equivalent to threads on end of
stem tube before installing nut. Tighten nut to a torque
of 15 in-lb. Over-tightening may damage coil nut or
cause solenoid valve to malfunction.
Figure 36
6. Connect electrical connector.
1. 4WD solenoid
Axle Hi/Low Switch Replacement
1. Park machine on a level surface, engage parking
brake, lower the cutting units and turn engine OFF.
2
2. Disconnect Hi/Low switch electrical connector.
3. Remove Hi/Low switch with o-ring, spring & ball
guide, spring, plunger and switch pin guide.
4. Before installing new switch, clean spring & ball
guide, spring and plunger with cleaning solvent. Replace any worn or damaged parts. After parts are dry,
coat spring & ball guide, spring, plunger and inside of
switch pin guide with No. 2 multi-purpose grease.
6
5
4
3
5. Install a new o-ring, then install the new switch.
1
6. Connect electrical connector.
NOTE: For proper operation, the switch must be
screwed all the way in. Improper lubrication or debris in
the switch could cause the switch to not open and close
properly. Shift linkage that is out of adjustment can also
cause improper switch operation.
Repairs
Page 5 - 32
Figure 37
1. Hi/Low Switch
2. O-ring
3. Spring & ball guide
4. Spring
5. Plunger
6. Switch pin guide
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Wing Switch Replacement
1. Park machine on a level surface, engage parking
brake, lower the cutting units and turn engine OFF.
2. Remove deck covers.
3. Disconnect wing switch electrical connector.
4. Remove boot, spring, nut and washer, then remove
the wing switch. Disconnect wiring assembly from
switch terminals.
1
5. Install wire assembly on new wing switch. Make sure
that one wire is connected to the “COMMON” terminal,
and one wire is connected to the “NORMALLY OPEN”
(N.O.) terminal.
IMPORTANT: The wing switch has three (3) terminals. If the two (2) wires are not connected to the
“COMMON” and “NORMALLY OPEN” (N.O.) terminals, the safety interlock circuit will not function
properly.
Figure 38
1. Wing switch
(Shown from below wing with wing in raised position)
CAUTION
6. Coat switch terminals and wires with skin-over
grease.
7. Install new switch. Apply Loctite 242 or equivalent
switch threads before installing nut. Tighten nut to a
torque of 75 - 100 in-lb. Install spring and boot.
4
1
5
2
6
3
Figure 39
1. Wire assembly
2.Wing switch
3. Washer
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 5 - 33
4. Nut
5. Spring
6. Boot
Repairs
Electrical System
If the wires are not correctly installed to the
switch, the wing deck could operate when in
the raised position.
Repairs
Page 5 - 34
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Chapter 6
Axles and Brakes
Table of Contents
2
3
3
4
6
6
6
7
REPAIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Wheel Bearing Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Front Axle Removal and Disassembly. . . . . . . . 10
Transaxle Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Rear 4WD Axle Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Axles and Brakes
SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Four-Matic 4WD Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPECIAL TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADJUSTMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Brake Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rear Axle Toe-In Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transaxle Shift Linkage Adjustment . . . . . . . . . .
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 6 - 1
Table of Contents
Specifications
Item
Specification
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Tire pressure
20 PSI front and rear
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Wheel bolt torque
85 - 100 ft-lb rear, 45 - 55 ft-lb front
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Front axle hub nut torque
300 - 350 ft-lb
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Transaxle adapter plate screw torque
65 ft-lb
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Front axle housing cap screw torque
100 ft-lb
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Rear wheel toe-in
0.25 in.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Service brake adjustment
1.5 in. “free travel” in pedal
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Front axle lubricant
SAE 80-90W EP gear lube
144 oz. (4.5 U.S. qt.) capacity
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Rear 4WD axle lubricant
SAE 80-90W EP gear lube
80 oz. (2.5 U.S. qt.) capacity
1
1
2
Figure 1
Figure 2
1. Front axle dipstick cap
Specifications
1. Rear axle check plug
Page 6 - 2
2. Rear axle fill plug
Groundsmaster® 455-D
General Information
TM
Four-Matic 4WD Over-Running Clutch Operation
There are two hydraulic drive motors on the
Groundsmaster 455-D, 4WD; one for the front axle and
one for the rear axle. The drive for the rear axle incorporates an OVER-RUNNING (ROLLER) CLUTCH THAT
49 RPM
Unlocked
Locked
50 RPM
TRANSMITS POWER ONLY IN THE FORWARD DIRECTION
49 RPM
(Fig. 3).
49 RPM
Rear
Axle
Shaft
Front and rear axle gear ratios and tire sizes were
carefully selected so that during normal operation, the
REAR AXLE SHAFT TURNS SLIGHTLY FASTER THAN THE
REAR AXLE MOTOR.
Any time the front wheels begin to slip (such as when
climbing a steep hill), the forward movement of the
traction unit slows. This causes the rear axle shaft
speed to slow down. As soon as the rear axle shaft is
turning the same speed as the rear motor, the roller
clutch will engage and power will be transmitted from
the rear motor to the rear wheels – four wheel drive
(Fig. 3).
Rear
Motor
Shaft
Figure 3
When the traction unit is turning, the rear wheels swing
out in a larger arc and must travel faster than the front
wheels. In this condition, the rear wheels and axle shaft
are turning faster than the rear motor and the roller
clutch is disengaged (Fig. 4).
Figure 4
Axles and Brakes
NOTE: The Four-Matic four wheel drive system may not
operate properly if the tires are replaced by different size
tires, or if proper tire pressure is not maintained.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 6 - 3
General Information
Special Tools
Order special tools from the TORO SPECIALS TOOLS
AND APPLICATIONS GUIDE (COMMERCIAL
PRODUCTS).
Rear 4WD Axle Tools
TOR4030 – Differential Case Gauge
Used to determine the number of shims required
between the 4WD rear axle differential housing.
Figure 5
TOR4039 – Pilot Bushing Driver
Used to install the pilot bushing into ends of 4WD
rear axle.
Figure 6
TOR4040 – Pinion Nut Tool
Used to remove or install the pinion (sleeve) nut on the
4WD rear axle.
Figure 7
Special Tools
Page 6 - 4
Groundsmaster® 455-D
TOR4041 – Bevel Gear Remover
Used to separate the bevel gears from their shafts in the
ends of the 4WD rear axle.
Figure 5
TOR4042 – Pinion Gauge
Used to determine the number of shims required to
properly position the 4WD rear axle pinion.
Figure 6
TOR4043 – Oil Seal Installation Tool
Used to install the oil seals in the ends of the 4WD
rear axle.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 6 - 5
Axles and Brakes
Figure 7
Special Tools
Adjustments
Brake Adjustment
Adjust service brakes when there is more than 1.5 in.
“free travel” of brake pedal, or when brakes do not work
effectively. Free travel is the distance the brake pedal
moves before braking resistance is felt.
To reduce free travel of brake pedals, tighten nut on
brake rod adjuster, 1/2 turn at a time, until you get
desired “free travel” in pedal.
1
1
Figure 11
1. Brake rod adjuster
Rear Axle Toe-in Adjustment
1. Measure center-to-center distance (at axle height) at
front and rear of steering tires. Front measurement must
be 1/4 in. less than rear measurement.
2. To adjust, loosen clamps at both ends of tie rods.
3. Rotate tie rod to move front of tire inward or outward.
4. Tighten tie rod clamps when adjustment is correct.
1
Figure 12
1. Tie rod clamps
Adjustments
Page 6 - 6
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Transaxle Shift Linkage Adjustment
1. Remove steering tower cover.
Measure from end of shaft to edge of transaxle.
2. Move axle shift lever forward to transport (high speed)
position. Measure shaft dimension from side of
transaxle case to end of shaft (Fig. 13). Adjust upper
linkage length at top eye rod if necessary to get proper
dimension (Fig. 14).
Low position
1.2 - 1.3 in. (30 - 33 mm)
3. Move axle shift lever rearward to mow (low speed)
position. Measure shaft dimension from side of
transaxle case to end of shaft. Adjust linkage length at
top eye rod if necessary to get proper dimension.
HIgh position
2.6 - 2.7 in. (66 - 69 mm)
4. Move axle shift lever forward to transport (high speed)
position and verify that the dimension is correct.
Transaxle
5. Move axle shift lever rearward to mow (low speed)
position. Start the engine and with decks in down position turn on PTO engagement switch. The cutting unit
should engage. When axle shift lever is moved to N or
transport position, the cutting unit should disengage. If
the cutting unit does not disengage there is a problem
in the axle hi-low switch circuit (see Chapter 5 - Electrical System).
Figure 13
2
Figure 14
1. Axle shift lever
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 6 - 7
2. Upper linkage
Adjustments
Axles and Brakes
1
Repairs
Wheel Bearing Service (2WD Rear Axle)
1. Jack up rear of machine until tire is off the floor.
Support machine with jack stands or blocks to prevent
it from falling.
7. Use No. 2 general purpose lithium base grease
containing E.P. additive. Pack both bearings with
grease. Install one bearing into the cup on inboard side
of wheel hub. Lubricate the inside of the new lip seal
and press it into the wheel hub.
2. Remove dust cap from end of wheel spindle.
3. Remove cotter pin, slotted nut and washer. Slide
wheel off of spindle shaft.
IMPORTANT: The lip seal must be pressed in so it is
flush with the end of the hub. The lip of the seal must
be toward the bearing.
4. Pull seal out of wheel hub.
8. Pack inside of wheel hub with some grease (not full).
Install remaining bearing into bearing cup.
5. Remove bearings from both sides of wheel hub.
Clean the bearings in solvent. Make sure the bearings
are in good operating condition. Clean the inside of the
wheel hub. Check the bearing cups for wear, pitting or
other noticeable damage. Replace worn or damaged
parts.
9. Slide the wheel onto the spindle shaft and secure it
in place with the flat washer and slotted nut. DO NOT
tighten the nut or install the cotter pin.
10. Adjust preload on the wheel bearings (see Adjusting
Rear Wheel Bearings).
6. If bearing cups were removed from the wheel hub,
press them into the hub until they seat against the
shoulder.
2
7
8
9
1
9
8
6
5
3
4
Figure 15
1. Wheel hub
2. Wheel spindle
3. Dust cap
Repairs
4. Cotter pin
5. Slotted nut
6. Washer
Page 6 - 8
7. Seal
8. Bearing cone
9. Bearing cup
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Adjusting Rear Wheel Bearings
1. Remove dust cap from end of wheel spindle. Remove
cotter pin retaining slotted nut in place.
2. Rotate the wheel by hand and tighten the slotted nut
until the bearing binds SLIGHTLY. Then, loosen the nut
until the nearest slot and hole in the spindle line up.
Reinstall the cotter pin to retain the slotted nut in place.
NOTE: The correct end play of the adjusted assembly
is 0.002 - 0.005 inches.
1
3. Remove jack stands or blocks and lower machine to
floor.
Figure 16
1. Cotter pin and slotted nut
Axles and Brakes
4. Put a coating of grease on the inside of the dust cap.
Install dust cap on end of wheel spindle.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 6 - 9
Repairs
Front Axle Removal and Disassembly
Figure 17
Install belleville
washers (Item 28)
as shown
Figure 18
Repairs
Page 6 - 10
Groundsmaster® 455-D
5. Remove brake disks (Item 4) and brake actuator
(Item 5).
Front Axle Removal
1. Drain oil from transaxle.
2. Jack up front of machine and support chassis frame
with jack stands.
3. Remove front wheels. Remove nuts (Fig. 18,
Item 19). Use a puller to pull each wheel hub (Item 13)
off of shafts. Remove belleville washers (Item 28).
4. Remove roll pin (Fig. 17, Item 42). Remove capscrews (Item 43, 44) securing shift rod support (Item 10)
to transaxle. Remove hex flange head screws (Item 12)
securing transaxle support bracket (Item 13) to
transaxle.
6. Remove adapter plate (Item 2) and transaxle spacer
(Item 1).
7. To remove axle from housing, remove retaining ring
(Item 21) from outboard end of housing, then tap lightly
with a mallet from inside out. A seal ring (Item 20) and
a pressed on, sealed ball bearing (Item 22) will be on
the end of the axle.
8. Do steps 2 - 7 for axle housing on other side.
Front Axle Assembly
Reverse steps 1 - 8 under Front Axle Disassembly.
5. Clean all exterior surfaces of axle and transaxle.
6. Remove capscrews (Fig. 18, Item 38) and disconnect
hydraulic motor (Item 37) from transaxle. DO NOT
disconnect hoses from hydraulic motor.
7. Disconnect brake linkage rod eyes from brake linkage arms. NOTE: Brake linkage is spring loaded.
To install axle assemblies into transaxle case, grease
axle spline ends heavily. Push axle through seal. Use
caution to prevent damage to seal when axle splines
are going through seal.
Front Axle Installation
Reverse steps 1 - 10 under Front Axle Removal.
9. Support axle assembly, then remove U-bolts (Fig. 18,
Item 23) securing axle to frame.
10. Carefully lower and pull axle assembly out from
under machine.
Front Axle Disassembly
If a new transaxle is installed, determine correct shim to
use behind spiral bevel gear on hydraulic motor by
subtracting actual motor flange face to sleeve dimension from dimension stamped on transaxle or attached
to tag.
Dimensional Range
Pinion Shim
2.6000 - 2.6155
0.038 (82-5390)
2.6156 - 2.6225
0.045 (82-5380)
2.6226 - 2.6400
0.052 (82-5400)
1. Remove skid plate (Fig. 18, Item 25).
NOTE: Before removing axle housings, scribe alignment marks across transaxle housing, adapter plate
and axle housing for proper reassembly.
2. Remove remaining capscrews securing axle housing
(Item 11) to transaxle and carefully pull axle housing and
shaft (Item 27) away from transaxle.
After Assembly
1. Fill transaxle with approximately 144 oz. (4.5 U.S. qt.)
of SAE 80-90W EP gear lube.
2. Check for hydraulic oil leaks.
3. Remove axle housing cover (Item 8).
3. Check adjustment of transaxle shift linkage.
4. Remove cotter pin and clevis pin to disconnect brake
clevis from brake actuator.
4. Check brake “free play” adjustment.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 6 - 11
Repairs
Axles and Brakes
8. Disconnect and put covers on hydraulic lines that run
under axle assembly or that go through bulkhead brackets connected to axle assembly. Mark hydraulic lines for
proper reassembly.
Transaxle Service
NOTE: This illustration shows a different hydrostatic drive mounting surface
and differential than what is used on
the Toro Groundsmaster 455-D.
Figure 19
Figure 20
Repairs
Page 6 - 12
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Transaxle Disassembly
Transaxle Assembly
1. Clean all exterior surfaces of transaxle.
Reverse steps 1 - 8 under Transaxle Disassembly,
watching out for the following:
2. Put the transaxle on a work bench with cover side up.
Remove screws. Lift cover (Fig. 20, Item 16) off and
discard gasket (Item 4).
1. After shift rod is in position, install ball, then spring
and bolt. Turn bolt in until head of bolt contacts case.
3. Remove differential assembly and thrust washers
(Item 8A and 9).
2. Be sure that thrust washers and spacers are between
every shaft and case and cover.
4. Remove large drive gear (Item 18) from input shaft
bevel gear assembly.
3. Threads of differential bolts must be coated with
standard stud Loctite. Install differential assembly so
bolt heads are facing away from gear on output shaft.
5. Before removing shifter rod and fork, the bolt
(Item 22), spring (Item 24) and ball (Item 23) should be
removed at the outside of the case.
6. Remove shifting rod (Item 36), fork (Item 35) and
shifter gears (Item 19).
4. Install new gasket. It may be helpful to dampen gasket
with oil to get it to lie flat.
5. After installing cover, install new brake shaft oil seal
(Item 51), shifter rod oil seal (Item 25) and axle shaft oil
seals (Item 7).
7. Remove output shaft assembly.
6. To install axle assemblies into transaxle case, grease
axle spline ends heavily. Push axle through seal. Use
caution to prevent damage to seal when axle splines are
going through seal.
8. Remove shifter / brake shaft assembly.
Inspection
1. Check case and cover for leaks or cracks.
6. Install hi/low interlock switch (Fig. 17, Item 17) into
transaxle case if removed.
2. Remove and discard all oil seals. Do not replace seals
until unit is reassembled.
3. Inspect needle bearings and replace if necessary.
Axles and Brakes
Use an arbor press and properly sized tool to remove
and install needle bearings. When installing bearings, apply pressure to bearing from stamped side.
Bearings should be pressed in 0.015 to 0.020 in.
below the thrust surface.
4. Check gear teeth for wear, pitting or breakage.
5. Inspect bearing surfaces for smoothness.
Figure 21
6. Inspect gears and shafts for out of round.
7. Splines should allow a smooth fit. Rotate meshing
parts for a better fit if binding seems excessive.
Thrust Washers
8. Check shift detent spring for tension and ball for wear.
9. Check shifter rod grooves for wear. Be sure snap ring
sharp edges go away from shifter fork.
Thrust Washer
10. Inspect shifter fork for straightness and wear.
Thrust Bearing
Shims
11. Check differential for loose or damaged parts.
12. Check differential carrier ball bearings for wear and
smoothness of rotation and replace if necessary.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 6 - 13
Figure 22
Repairs
Rear 4WD Axle Service
Axle Housing (A)
Axle Housing (B)
Figure 23
Figure 24
Repairs
Page 6 - 14
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Disassembly
The two gear cases, right and left can be removed from
the housing without requiring the entire axle to be disassembled.
3
1. Remove tie rod by disconnecting rod end ball joint on
each end. Disconnect hydraulic cylinder rod end from
drag link arm.
2. Remove bolts (Fig. 23, Item 23 and 21) securing gear
case to axle housing and pull gear case complete with
final drive case.
NOTE: Of four (4) bolts securing the gear case, the one
on the bottom right side (viewed from center of axle) is
a reamer bolt (Item 21).
1
2
Figure 25
1. Tie rod
2. Drag link
3. Hydraulic cylinder
Disassembling Final Drive Case
1. Remove bearing holder (Fig. 24, Item 19) from final
drive case. The holder will come out together with the
wheel shaft (Item 21).
2. Pull draglink arm or tie rod arm off final drive case.
Be sure to recover the thrust washer.
3. Remove the bolts securing top cover (Item 4) to gear
case and remove the cover to expose the top end of final
drive shaft (Item 2). Use special tool TOR4041 to drive
lightly on the exposed shaft end so that the final drive
case will slide off the gear case.
Figure 26
4. Remove bottom cover (Item 9) from final drive case
to expose bottom end of shaft. Use special tool
TOR4041 to drive the shaft out and take out the 15T
bevel pinion (Item 11)).
Axles and Brakes
Disassembling Wheel Shaft
1. Use a gear puller to draw the bevel gear (Item 13)
and ball bearing (Item 12) off wheel shaft.
2. Remove shaft from bearing holder by lightly tapping
on the shaft.
Figure 27
3. Remove retaining ring (Item 17) from holder and
remove bearing outer race and oil seal (Item 20).
Figure 28
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 6 - 15
Repairs
Install seal so garter spring
faces hydraulic motor
Figure 29
Disassembling Axle Housing
4. Pull out differential shaft (Fig. 23, Item 14) from
housing (B).
1. Remove axle from machine before disassembling:
A. Jack up rear of machine and support from frame
with jack stands.
B. Remove wheels from axle.
C. Remove hydraulic motor. Do not disconnect hydraulic lines from motor.
D. Support axle with a jack, then remove axle pivot
pin to separate axle from frame.
E. Pull axle out from under machine and put on a
work bench.
F. Be sure to account for thrust washers between
axle pivot and frame.
2. Remove bolts (Fig. 29, Item 5) securing adapter to
axle housing and remove adapter.
5. Remove differential gear assembly (Fig. 23, Items
3 - 11) from axle housing (A).
6. Pull out differential shaft from housing (A).
Disassembling Sleeve Assembly
1. Remove sleeve (Item 4) from adaptor case.
Straighten tab washer (Fig. 29, Item 8) and use special
tool TOR4040 to remove sleeve (lock) nut (Item 9).
2. Use a press or tap lightly on shaft end to force pinion
shaft out of case.
3. Remove oil seal (Item 6) and bearings (Item 1 and
11) as necessary.
3. Separate axle housing by removing bolts.
Repairs
Page 6 - 16 Rev. C
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Inspection
Clean the disassembled parts by washing in cleaning
solvent. Inspect gears and pinions to be sure their teeth
are in good condition. Check to be sure that each
bearing rotates smoothly. Examine housings for cracks.
Reassembly
Replace damaged or worn parts as necessary. Oil or
grease the surfaces of rotating or sliding parts before
assembling. Grease oil seals and o-rings before
installing.
Assembling Pinion Shaft
1. Fit two outer races of tapered roller bearings into
sleeve, positioning each race as shown.
Oil seal flush
with case face
2. Fit inner race of tapered roller bearing to gear side of
pinion shaft, pushing it all the way against the pinion
shoulder.
Sleeve (lock) nut
3. Insert pinion shaft into sleeve. Fit other inner race to
shaft and install o-ring and bushing. Pinion shaft is now
securely installed inside the sleeve.
O-ring
Sleeve
Tapered roller
Bearings
Pinion shaft
Bushing
Oil seal garter
spring facing toward
hyd. motor
4. Grease oil seal and install it between sleeve and
bushing, making outer end face flush with mating face
of sleeve. Install seal with garter spring facing toward
hydraulic motor.
Figure 30
5. Grease o-ring. Install o-ring, tab washer and lock nut.
Tighten lock nut with special tool TOR4040 to specified
preload on bearings.
0.04 ∼ 0.06 kg-m
(0.29 ∼ 0.43 ft-lb)
Axles and Brakes
Pinion shaft bearing preload
NOTE: Make sure pinion shaft has no end play when
checking bearing preload.
6. After obtaining specified preload, secure lock nut by
bending tab washer.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 6 - 17 Rev. C
Repairs
Adjusting Pinion Shaft Cone Center
“Cone Center” is the distance from the mating face of
axle housing to end face of pinion. This distance can be
increased or decreased by installing removing shims.
Cone center specification
43 ± 0.05mm
(1.69 ± 0.002 in.)
Shim stock for this adjustment is available in the following thicknesses:
Thickness
Part No.
Shim set
77-4010
0.1 mm (0.004 in.)
76-7410
0.2 mm (0.008 in.)
76-7420
0.4 mm (0.016 in.)
77-7430
Figure 31
Using gauge TOR4042 for cone center adjustment,
determine the required thickness of shim by proceeding
as follows:
1. Apply grease to o-rings. Install o-rings to sleeve, then
install sleeve assembly into adapter case.
2. Put gauge alternately on pinion shaft and select the
shim so that with the short gauge, a clearance will occur
between the gauge end and case face, but with the long
gauge, a similar clearance will occur between the gauge
and pinion end face.
TOR4042
3. Apply grease to o-ring and fit to mating face of sleeve.
Attach adapter case to axle housing (A) and secure by
tightening bolts to proper torque.
Adapter bolt torque
2.5 ∼ 3.0 kg-m
(18 ∼ 22 ft-lb)
Figure 32
Repairs
Page 6 - 18
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Adjusting Backlash
Backlash specification
0.25 ∼ 0.35 mm
(0.010 ∼ 0.014 in.)
Adjust shim thickness (between bearing housing of axle
housing (A) and bearing) to get specified backlash.
Shim stock for this adjustment is available in these
thicknesses:
Thickness
Part No.
Shim set
77-4000
0.1 mm (0.004 in.)
76-7290
0.2 mm (0.008 in.)
76-7300
0.4 mm (0.016 in.)
76-7310
Figure 33
Shim Between Differential and Axle Housing (B)
After obtaining specified backlash, determine amount of
shims needed:
TOR4038
1. Put gauge TOR4038 on axle housing (A) and read
clearance (a) between ball bearing and gauge.
2. Select from shim stock (shown above for backlash
adjustment) to match clearance (a).
Axles and Brakes
Figure 34
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 6 - 19
Repairs
Assembling Axle Housing
1. Coat mating faces of two housings (A) and (B) with
sealant and attach selected shim to face of housing (B).
Put the two housings together and fasten them by
tightening bolts to following torque value:
Torque specification
2.5 ∼ 3.0 kg-m
(18 ∼ 22 ft-lb)
2. Fit ball bearings to out end of each differential shaft,
then mount pinion (14T) and retain pinion by installing
circlip. The ball bearings have a groove cut in the end
faces of the inner and outer races. Be sure to position
the bearing to its grooved end is on inner side as shown.
Figure 35
3. Install o-rings to spacers. Insert differential shafts
through spacers then install differential shaft and spacer
to each axle housings.
Assembling Gear Case and Final Case
1. Use tool TOR4039 to install bushing into final case.
2.Grease oil seal and use tool TOR4043 to carefully fit
it to final case, making sure the seal is properly aligned.
NOTE: The steel part of this oil seal is so thin that the
seal can distort at the time of installation.
3. Insert final drive shaft into gear case, bringing its large
diameter end to top side and fitting pinion (14T) onto
splined end. Install inner race of upper tapered roller
bearing as shown.
4. Fit bearing out race into gear case. Apply sealant to
mating face of holder and secure to case by tightening
bolts to following torque value:
Torque specification
Figure 36
2.5 ∼ 3.0 kg-m
(18 ∼ 22 ft-lb)
NOTE: Be sure to wrap each bolt with sealing tape
before installation.
5. Attach final case to gear case while fitting pinion (15T)
onto splined end of shaft.
6. Install tapered roller bearing. Apply sealant to mating
face of cover and secure cover to final case. Tighten
bolts to above listed torque value:
7. Wrap drain plug with sealing tape and install in bottom
cover.
Figure 37
8. Turn final case around gear case by hand and check
for smooth rotation.
Repairs
Page 6 - 20
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Installing Drag Link and Tie Rod Arm
1. Carefully insert bushing into arm.
2. Put arm into position over holder, fitting it to final case
and secure to case with bolts.
3. Check thrust clearance. Proper thrust clearance is
0 to 0.2 mm (0.008in.). If necessary reduce clearance
to specification by shimming. Shim stock for this adjustment is available in the following thicknesses:
Shim Part No.
TIE ROD ARM
Shim Part No.
DRAG LINK ARM
Shim set
77-4050
77-4040
0.8 mm (0.03 in.)
76-7820
76-7700
1.0 mm (0.04 in.)
76-7970
76-7760
1.2 mm (0.05 in.)
76-7980
76-7780
1.4 mm (0.055 in.)
76-7990
76-7790
Thickness
Figure 38
4. After selecting required shim, remove the arm. Apply
multi-purpose lithium base grease to OD part of holder.
Install holder on arm with shim and secure to final case
by tighten reamer bolts to following torque value:
Torque specification
8.5 ∼ 9.5 kg-m
(61 ∼ 69 ft-lb)
Installing Gear Case Assembly to Axle Housing
Axles and Brakes
1. To check backlash between pinions (14T) –– one on
final drive shaft and one on differential shaft –– temporarily fit gear case to axle housing and tighten two bolts
diametrically opposite. DO NOT use black reamer bolt
for this temporary assembly.
2. Install a dial indicator to final case, putting gauge
spindle to tooth on pinion (15T pinion on bottom end of
final drive shaft). Take a backlash reading.
Pinion (14T) backlash
0.2 ∼ 0.4 mm
(0.008 ∼ 0.016 in.)
Figure 39
3. If reading is outside of specified range, remove gear
case and adjust shim between pinion (14T) on differential shaft and ball bearing. Shim stock for this adjustment
is available in the following thicknesses:
Thickness
Part No.
Shim set
77-4020
0.1 mm (0.004 in.)
76-7520
0.2 mm (0.008 in.)
76-7530
0.4 mm (0.016 in.)
76-7540
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 6 - 21
Repairs
4. After obtaining proper pinion backlash, grease o-ring
and fit it to mating face of axle housing. Secure gear
case to housing by tightening bolts to the following
torque value:
Torque specification
5.0 ∼ 6.0 kg-m
(36 ∼ 43 ft-lb)
Reassembling Wheel Shaft
1. Grease oil seal and fit it to bearing holder.
2. Insert shaft into holder. Install ball bearing and retain
bearing by installing circlip.
Figure 40
3. Mount bevel gear (29T) on splined end of shaft.
4. Fit bearing holder (complete with shaft and bevel
gear) to final case and temporarily secure it bolting.
Leave bolts lightly tightened.
NOTE: Inner ball bearing is left out at this time.
5. Check backlash between bevel gear (29T) and pinion
(15T) by installing dial indicator on tip of wheel shaft.
Adjust shim between bevel gear (29T) and ball bearing
if reading is outside of specification:
Bevel gear (29T) backlash
0.2 ∼ 0.4 mm
(0.008 ∼ 0.016 in.)
Shim stock for this adjustment is available in the following thicknesses:
Thickness
Part no.
Shim set
77-4030
0.1 mm (0.004 in.)
76-7890
0.2 mm (0.008 in.)
76-7900
0.4 mm (0.016 in.)
76-7910
Figure 41
2 piece inner
wheel bearing
Flange of inner race
faces bevel gear
Add Loctite to
inner race bore
6. After obtaining proper backlash, remove bearing
holder. Apply Loctite 680 (or equivalent) to inner race
bore of bearing. Press inner race of bearing onto wheel
shaft and clean off excess Loctite. Install outer portion
of bearing. Apply sealant to mating face of final case and
attach holder. Tighten bolts to following torque value:
Torque specification
Figure 42
2.5 ∼ 3.0 kg-m
(18 ∼ 22 ft-lb)
7. Use a torque wrench as shown to check final case for
torque required to turn it around gear case and make
sure that no more than 0.03 kg-m (0.22 ft-lb) is required.
Figure 43
Repairs
Page 6 - 22 Rev. C
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Installing Axle on Machine
1. Support axle under machine with a jack.
2. Install axle pivot pin to secure axle to frame. Make
sure to install thrust washers between axle pivot and
frame.
3. Install hydraulic motor to adaptor housing.
4. Install wheels to axle. Tighten wheel bolts to a torque
of 85 - 100 ft-lb.
5. Fill axle with SAE 80-90W EP gear lube. Lubricant
capacity is approximately 80 oz. (2.5 U.S. qt.).
6. Check rear wheel toe-in and adjust if necessary.
0.25 in.
Axles and Brakes
Rear wheel toe-in
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 6 - 23 Rev. A
Repairs
Repairs
Page 6 - 24
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Chapter 7
PTO (Power Take-Off) System
Table of Contents
2
2
3
3
4
5
5
7
PTO Drive Pulley and Bearing Service . . . . . . . . 7
PTO Clutch Removal and Installation . . . . . . . . . 8
Lower Pulley and Bearing Service . . . . . . . . . . 10
PTO Shaft and Bearing Service . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Driveshaft Removal and Installation . . . . . . . . . 12
Driveshaft Universal Joint Replacement . . . . . . 13
PTO Clutch Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
PTO System
SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SPECIAL TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ADJUSTMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PTO Belt Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PTO Clutch Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
REPAIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PTO Belt Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Engine Coupling Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 7 - 1 Rev. A
Table of Contents
Specifications
Item
Specification
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
PTO Clutch air gap
0.011 - 0.021 inches
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Belt adjustment
180 ft-lb torque
(20 inch long torque wrench
in square hole of clutch plate)
Special Tools
Order special tools from TORO SPECIAL TOOLS AND
APPLICATIONS GUIDE (Commercial Products).
Some tools may be listed in the Groundsmaster 455-D
Parts Catalog. Tools may also be available from a local
supplier.
Bearing Locknut Wrench (TOR4050)
Use this tool (TOR4050) to remove and install the PTO
drive pulley bearing locknut (Fig. 6, Item 1).
Bearing Locknut Wrench (TOR4051)
Use this tool (TOR4051) to remove and install the PTO
lower driven pulley bearing locknut (Fig. 10, Item 30).
Specifications
Page 7 - 2 Rev. A
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Adjustments
PTO Belt Adjustment
1
1. Remove (2) screws securing PTO belt cover to adapter plate and (1) screw securing belt cover to tab on
spring anchor. Remove cover.
2
Figure 1
1. PTO belt cover
2. Adapter plate
2. Loosen (3) flange screws and flange nuts securing
adapter plate to clutch plate.
1
4
2
3
Figure 2
1. PTO belt
2. Adapter plate
3. Clutch plate
4. Flange nuts (3)
3. Insert end of 1/2" drive, 20" long,torque wrench into
square hole in clutch plate. With wrench handle parallel
to ground, pull wrench upward until 180 ft-lbs. of torque
is applied to tension belt.
5. Install PTO belt cover.
PTO System
4. Tighten flange screws and flange nuts locking
adjustment.
1
Figure 3
1. Square hole
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 7 - 3
Adjustments
PTO Clutch Adjustment
1. To adjust clutch, tighten or loosen locknuts on flange
studs.
2. Check adjustment by inserting feeler gauge through
slots next to flange studs.
1
3. The proper disengaged clearance between the clutch
plates is 0.011 - 0.021 inches. It will be necessary to
check this clearance at each of the three slots to ensure
the plates are parallel to each other.
2
Figure 3
1. PTO clutch
2. Flange studs
Adjustments
Page 7 - 4
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Repairs
PTO Belt Replacement
1
1. Remove (2) screws securing PTO belt cover to adapter plate and (1) screw securing belt cover to tab on
spring anchor. Remove cover.
2
Figure 4
1. PTO belt cover
2. Adapter plate
2. Remove tension on belt by loosening three (3) flange
screws and flange nuts securing adapter plate to
clutch plate.
1
4
2
3
Figure 5
3. Clutch plate
4. Flange nuts (3)
PTO System
1. PTO belt
2. Adapter plate
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 7 - 5
Repairs
45 ft-lb
4
3
6
5
NOTE: Always use new
coupler flange head screws
(Items 2 and 6) when
repairing PTO systems.
4
3
7
9
2
8
10
1
6
13
11
Install with steel
shell toward spline
12
8
14
Index to get wrench
clearance for hex flange
screws (Item 6)
15
16
17
150 - 200 ft-lb
18
16
45 ft-lb
19
20
Figure 6
1. Bearing locknut
2. Hex flange head screw
3. Hex head capscrew
4. Flat washer
5. Locknut
6. Hex flange head screw
7. Engine
8. Rubber coupling
9. Retaining ring
10. Grease seal
11. Splined hub
12. Spacer
13. Driveshaft
14. Pulley plug
3. Remove three (3) flange head screws (Fig. 6, Item 6)
and spacers (Item 12) securing rubber coupling (Item 8)
to PTO pulley (Item 15).
4. Push driveshaft into splined hub, as shown in
Figure 7, so belts can be removed between rubber
coupling and PTO pulley.
15. PTO pulley
16. Bearing
17. Bearing spacer
18. Bearing housing
19. Main adapter plate
20. Lock washer
Driveshaft (push into
hub to remove belts
between rubber coupling)
5. Remove belts.
6. Install new belts in pulley grooves, then connect
driveshaft to rubber coupling. Make sure spacers
(Item 12) are installed, then install new flange head screws
and torque to 45 ft-lb.
Flange Head Screw (3)
Rubber Coupling
Figure 7
7. Adjust PTO Belt (see PTO Belt Adjustment).
8. Install PTO belt cover.
NOTE: Check belt tension and adjust if necessary after
first 25 hours of operation.
Repairs
Page 7 - 6 Rev. E
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Engine Coupling Service
1. Remove three (3) flange head screws (Fig. 6, Item 6)
securing driveshaft (Item 13) to rubber coupling
(Item 8). Make sure you account for spacers (Item 12).
2. Remove three (3) flange head screws (Item 6) securing rubber coupling to engine. Be sure you account for
flat washers (Item 4).
3. Push driveshaft into splined hub (Item 11) and remove
coupling assembly.
5. Install grease seal (Item 10) so steel shell is towards
spline. secure seal in place with retaining ring (Item 9).
NOTE: Seal (Item 10) is retained with Loctite on units
with Serial Number 20001 - 29999.
6. When assembling parts, index driveshaft and splined
hub to get clearance for hex flange screws that secure
driveshaft to rubber coupling.
7. Install new fasteners (Item 6) and torque to 45 ft-lb.
4. Inspect rubber couplings, driveshaft and splined hub
and replace as necessary.
8. Lubricate slip joint with No. 2 General Purpose Lithium Base Grease at grease fitting on coupling.
PTO Drive Pulley and Bearing Service
NOTE: A special tool (TOR4050) is required remove and
install the bearing locknut (Fig. 6, Item 1).
1. Remove engine coupling assembly (see Engine Coupling Service).
2. Disconnect hydraulic pump assembly from bearing
housing (Item 18). NOTE: To prevent contamination of
hydraulic system do not disconnect hydraulic lines from
pump assembly.
3. Loosen belt tension and remove PTO belts (see PTO
Belt Replacement).
4. Remove four (4) flange screws (Item 2) securing
bearing housing (Item 18) to main adapter plate
(Item 19), then remove bearing housing and PTO drive
pulley assembly.
5. Remove bearing locknut (Item 1) and lockwasher
(Item 20.)
10. Install bearing spacer (Item 17) and press other
bearing (Item 16) into bearing housing until bearings
contact the spacer. When installing bearing, press on
OUTER race of bearing.
11. Make sure plug (Item 14) is installed in pulley
(Item 15).
12. Use a press to push the bearing housing and bearings onto the pulley (Item 15). Press on INNER race of
bearing.
13. Install lockwasher (Item 2) and bearing locknut
(Item 1) to pulley shaft. Use special tool (TOR4050) and
a torque wrench to tighten locknut. Tighten to a torque
of 150 - 200 ft-lb.
14. Install bearing housing and pulley assembly to main
adapter plate (Item 19) and secure with four (4) flange
screws (Item 2).
15. Install belts on PTO drive pulley.
6. Use a press to remove pulley (Item 15).
8. Inspect bearings and pulley. Replace parts if worn or
damaged.
9. Use a press to install one bearing (Item 16) into
bearing housing (Item 18). When installing bearing,
press on OUTER race of bearing
Groundsmaster® 455-D
16. Apply Never-Seez or equivalent to spline of hydraulic pump shaft, then install hydraulic pump assembly.
17. Install engine coupling assembly (see Engine Coupling Service).
18. Add No. 2 General Purpose Lithium Base Grease at
grease fitting on bearing housing (Fig. 6, Item 18).
Page 7 - 7 Rev. E
Repairs
PTO System
7. Use a suitable puller to remove bearings (Item 16).
Remove bearing spacer (Item 17).
PTO Clutch Removal and Installation
19
18
NOTE: Always use new
coupler flange head screws
(Items 2 and 6) when
repairing PTO systems.
17
16
15
150 - 200 ft-lb
14
29
20
22
27
Apply NeverSeez to bore
28 27
30
32
10
26
31
25
35 - 40 ft-lb
45 ft-lb
12
5
6
29
27
9
7
39 38
22
23
34
37
40 7
Rotate in direction of
shaft rotation before
tightening setscrew
26
33
4
Loctite 242
16
11
10
43
8
13
Apply Never-Seez
to spline and bearing mount
8
21 22 23 24
26
3
41
2
45 ft-lb
27
1
35
6
42
22
Loctite 242
30 - 35 ft-lb
36
8
Figure 8
1. Socket head screw
2. Bearing collar
3. Set screw
4. Bearing
5. PTO shaft
6. Flange head screw
7. Flat washer
8. Hex washer head screw
9. Wire harness
10. J-clamp
11. Hex head bolt
12. Screw
13. Clutch adapter
14. Lower bearing housing
15. Lower bearing spacer
Repairs
16. Ball bearing
17. Lower pulley
18. Key
19. Belt set
20. Locknut
21. Spacer
22. Rubber mount
23. Special screw
24. Flange head screw
25. Wire cover
26. Thrust washer
27. Locknut
28. Flange head nut
29. Hex head capscrew
Page 7 - 8
30. Bearing locknut
31. Main wire harness
32. Lockwasher
33. Clutch spacer
34. Clutch plate
35. Belt cover
36. Flat washer
37. Clutch
38. Washer
39. Flange head screw
40. Rubber flange
41. Locknut
42. Washer
43. Grease fitting
Groundsmaster® 455-D
1. Disconnect clutch electrical connector.
2. Loosen PTO shaft bearing collar (Fig. 8, Item 2) to allow
shaft movement.
3. Remove three (3) bolts (Item 11) securing clutch adapter
(Item 13) to clutch.
4. Remove three (3) flange head screws (Item 6) and flat
washers (Item 7) securing rubber flange (Item 40) to clutch
adapter (Item 13).
P.T.O. Clutch
5. Remove clutch adapter (Item 13).
6. Remove flange head screw (Item 39) and washer (Item
38) securing clutch assembly (Item 37) to shaft of lower
pulley (Item 17).
Figure 9
7. Remove the clutch assembly. Make sure you acount for
the key (Item 18) and clutch spacer (Item 33).
8. Before installing clutch assembly, apply Never-Seez or
equivalent to bore of clutch (Item 13). Install clutch spacer
(Item 33) and install key (Item 18) in keyway on shaft of
lower pulley (Item 17).
9. Align key on lower pulley with keyway in clutch bore and
install clutch assembly on lower pulley shaft. Make sure key
engages both clutch sections.
NOTE: Mark keyway location on end of shaft. Mark keyway
slot on outer clutch bearing. Install clutch asssembly on shaft
by lining up the marks.
10. Make sure hole in clutch field rotor plate is aligned with
pin on clutch plate. Apply Loctite 242 or equivalent to flange
head screw (Item 39) then secure clutch in place with flange
head screw and special washer (Item 38). Tighten flange
head screw to a torque lof 30 - 35 ft-lb.
11. Connect clutch electrical connector. Adjust clutch air gap
(see Clutch Adjustment in the Adjustments section of this
chapter).
PTO System
12. Install PTO shaft to clutch and retighten bearing collar
(Item 2).
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 7 - 9 Rev. E
Repairs
Lower Pulley and Bearing Service
19
18
NOTE: Always use new
coupler flange head screws
(Items 2 and 6) when
repairing PTO systems.
17
16
15
150 - 200 ft-lb
14
29
20
22
27
Apply NeverSeez to bore
28 27
30
32
10
26
31
25
35 - 40 ft-lb
45 ft-lb
12
5
6
29
27
9
7
39 38
22
23
34
37
3
41
2
45 ft-lb
27
1
35
6
40 7
Rotate in direction of
shaft rotation before
tightening setscrew
26
33
4
Loctite 242
16
11
10
43
8
13
Apply Never-Seez
to spline and bearing mount
8
21 22 23 24
26
Loctite 242
30 - 35 ft-lb
42
22
36
8
Figure 10
1. Socket head screw
2. Bearing collar
3. Set screw
4. Bearing
5. PTO shaft
6. Flange head screw
7. Flat washer
8. Hex washer head screw
9. Wire harness
10. J-clamp
11. Hex head bolt
12. Screw
13. Clutch adapter
14. Lower bearing housing
15. Lower bearing spacer
16. Ball bearing
17. Lower pulley
18. Key
19. Belt set
20. Locknut
21. Spacer
22. Rubber mount
23. Special screw
24. Flange head screw
25. Wire cover
26. Thrust washer
27. Locknut
28. Flange head nut
29. Hex head capscrew
NOTE: A special tool (TOR4051) is required remove and
install the bearing locknut (Fig. 10, Item 30).
30. Bearing locknut
31. Main wire harness
32. Lockwasher
33. Clutch spacer
34. Clutch plate
35. Belt cover
36. Flat washer
37. Clutch
38. Washer
39. Flange head screw
40. Rubber flange
41. Locknut
42. Washer
43. Grease fitting
3. Remove four (4) locknuts (Fig. 10, Item 20) and
special screws (Item 23) securing lower bearing housing
(Item 14) to clutch plate (Item 34).
1. Remove PTO clutch (see PTO Clutch Removal and
Installation.
4. Remove lower bearing housing and pulley assembly.
2. Loosen belt tension and remove PTO belts (see PTO
Belt Replacement).
5. Remove bearing locknut (Item 30) and lockwasher
(Item 32).
Repairs
Page 7 - 10 Rev. E
Groundsmaster® 455-D
6. Use a press to remove pulley (Item 17).
7. Use a puller to remove bearings (Item 16). Remove
bearing spacer (Item 15).
8. Inspect bearings and pulley. Replace parts if worn or
damaged.
9. Use a press to install one bearing (Item 16) into lower
bearing housing (Item 14). When installing bearing,
press on OUTER race of bearing
10. Install lower bearing spacer (Item 15) and press
other bearing (Item 16) into bearing housing until bearings contact the spacer. When installing bearing, press
on OUTER race of bearing.
11. Use a press to push the lower bearing housing and
bearings onto the lower pulley (Item 17). Press on
INNER race of bearing.
12. Install lockwasher (Item 32) and bearing locknut
(Item 30) to pulley shaft. Use special tool (TOR4051)
and a torque wrench to tighten locknut. Tighten to a
torque of 150 - 200 ft-lb.
13. Install lower bearing housing and pulley assembly
to main clutch plate (Item 34) and secure with four (4)
special screws (Item 23) and locknuts (Item 20).
14. Install belts on PTO drive pulley.
15. Install clutch.
PTO Shaft and Bearing Service
1. Remove driveshaft between cutting unit and tractor.
2. Loosen setscrew (Fig. 10, Item 3) and turn bearing
collar (Item 2) in opposite direction of shaft rotation to
remove.
3. Remove socket head screws (Item 1) and locknuts
(Item 27) securing bearing (Item 4) to rubber mounts
(Item 22).
9. Install PTO shaft with rubber flange to clutch adapter
(Item 13) with new flange head screws (Item 6) and
and washers (Item 7). Tighten screws to a torque
of 45 ft-lb.
10. Inspect rubber mounts (Item 22) and replace if worn
or damaged.
11. Install bearing (Item 4) so screws (Item 1) and
locknuts (Item 27) are snug, but not tight.
12. Rotate PTO shaft by hand so self-aligning bearing
can find proper alignment position. Tighten locknuts
(Item 27).
4. Remove bearing (Item 4).
5. To remove PTO shaft, remove three (3) flange head
screws (Item 6) and flat washers (Item 7) securing
rubber flange (Item 40) to clutch adapter (Item 13).
6. Remove PTO shaft (Item 5) with rubber flange
(Item 40) attached.
13. Set bearing collar (Item 2) against bearing, then turn
collar in direction of shaft rotation to lock. Apply Loctite
242 or equivalent to setscrew (Item 3) before installing.
14. Lubricate bearing (Item 4) with No. 2 General Purpose Lithium Base Grease.
7. Replace PTO shaft if bent or if splines are damaged.
PTO System
8. Install rubber flange (Item 40) to PTO shaft with new flange
head screws (Item 6) flat washers (Item 7) and locknuts
(Item 41). Tighten fasteners to a torque of 45 ft-lb.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 7 - 11 Rev. E
Repairs
Driveshaft Removal and Installation
1. To prevent possible PTO engagement, disconnect
wire harness connector.
1
Figure 11
1. Wire harness connector
2. Remove socket head capscrews securing driveshaft
yoke to gearbox input shaft.
3. Slide yoke off of gearbox input shaft.
1
Figure 12
1. Socket head capscrew
4. Remove socket head capscrews securing driveshaft
yoke to PTO shaft.
5. Slide yoke off of PTO shaft.
1
DANGER
DO NOT start the engine and engage the PTO
switch when PTO shaft is not connected to
gearbox on cutting unit. If engine is started
and PTO shaft is allowed to rotate, serious
injury could result.
Figure 13
6. To install the driveshaft, apply Never-seez or equivalent to splines of gearbox input shaft and PTO shaft,
then reverse steps 1 - 5 of above instructions. Tighten
socket head capscrews at each end of driveshaft to a
torque of 20 - 25 ft-lb.
Repairs
Page 7 - 12
1. Socket head capscrew
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Driveshaft Universal Joint Replacement
1. Remove the driveshaft. (See Driveshaft Removal and
Installation in this section of the book.)
2. Separate the two sections of the driveshaft.
3. Use a press or large vise to remove the cross and
bearings by putting a small socket against one roller and
a large socket against the yoke on the opposite side. As
the vise is closed, the small socket will force the cross
to push the opposite roller part way into the large socket.
4. When the roller is forced part way out, grasp the roller
and strike the yoke to complete removal. DO NOT spill
the needle bearings.
5. When replacing the U-joint, pack the roller bearings
with multi-purpose grease. Pack carefully to eliminate
trapped air. Install seals.
Figure 13
6. Start one of the rollers in the yoke. Insert from the
bottom with the open side of the roller up to prevent loss
of the needles. Make sure that each roller contains all
of the needles.
7. Insert one of the cross trunnions into the roller. Start
the other roller making certain it slips over the trunnion.
8. When partially seated, put the two rollers between the
vise jaws. Squeeze until FLUSH with the yoke. Stop
when flush; DO NOT OVER-TIGHTEN.
Figure 14
9. Tap on each roller until fully seated (use a brass drift
or socket that is the full width of the roller.
10. Grease the fitting SLOWLY until it starts to show at
the seals. Use a low pressure hand grease gun or a
power gun equipped with a pressure relief valve. A high
pressure grease gun can blow the rollers out of the
yokes with the tremendous pressure; seals may also be
damaged.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 7 - 13
PTO System
11. Test the action of the assembled joint. It should move
throughout its range without binding. If a slight bind
exists, hit the yoke lugs with a soft hammer. this will
usually free the joint. If it does not, disassemble and
check for the source of binding.
Repairs
PTO Clutch Service
Figure 15
1. Retaining ring
2. Bearing
3. Brake plate
4. Bearing collar
5. Armature ass’y (Items 1, 2, 4, 5)
6. Field coil assembly
7. Field bearing
NOTE: Individual parts (such as bearings) in the field
rotor assembly or armature assembly are not serviceable and must be replaced as an assembly.
1. Remove the clutch assembly (see Clutch Removal
and Installation in this section of the book).
2. Remove the three (3) lock nuts (Fig. 15, Item 10).
Remove the brake plate (Item 3) and three (3) springs
(Item 9).
Repairs
8. Field rotor ass’y (Items 6, 7, 8)
9. Spring
10. Locknut
3. Separate the armature assembly (Item 5) from the
field rotor assembly (Item 8).
4. Reassemble the two clutch halves (armature assembly and field rotor assembly).
5. Install the three (3) springs (Item 9) over the studs.
Install the brake plate (Item 3) and the three (3) locknuts
(Item 10).
Page 7 - 14
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Chapter 8
Cutting Unit
Table of Contents
Inspecting and Sharpening Blade . . . . . . . . . . .
Blade Spindle Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gearbox Removal and Installation . . . . . . . . . .
Gearbox Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deck Clutch Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wing Pivot Arm Installation
and Ball Joint Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Door Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wing Cylinder Installation
and Ball Joint Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Center Deck Lift Arm Ball Joint Service. . . . . . .
Idler Pulley Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wing Deck Spring Loaded
Locking Mechanism Service . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
17
20
22
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Cutting Unit
SPECIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Pivot Cutting Cutting Unit Upright . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
ADJUSTMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Height of Cut Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Safety Door Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Blade Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Belt Tension Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Wing Deck Clutch Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
REPAIRS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Separating Cutting Unit From Traction Unit . . . . 9
Mounting Cutting Unit To Traction Unit . . . . . . . 10
Drive Belt Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Front Castor Arm Bushing Service . . . . . . . . . . 13
Castor Wheel and Bearing Service . . . . . . . . . . 14
Blade Removal and Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 1
Table of Contents
Specifications
Item
Specification
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Cutting width
126"
54" center section
36" each wing
90" with one wing up
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Height of cut range
1" - 5"
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Height of cut adjustment
1/2" increments
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Blade bolt torque
85 - 110 ft-lb
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Spindle nut torque
150 - 170 ft-lb
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
0.016 ± 0.005"
Wing deck clutch air gap
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Gearbox lubricant (Fig. 1)
SAE 80W90 API GL-5 gear lube
1
2
Figure 1
1. Filler plug
2. Check plug
Specifications
Page 8 - 2
Groundsmaster® 455-D
General Information
Pivot (Tilt) Cutting Unit Upright
NOTE: Drive front wheels onto ramps before doing this
procedure so there is room for cutting unit to pivot (tilt)
upright.
1. Lower center and wing cutting units to the ground,
then raise center cutting unit slightly, until rear deck
straps hang freely on lift arm brackets. Stop engine after
cutting unit is raised. Set parking brake.
1
1
2. Disconnect (3) hydraulic lines (quick couplers) and
wire harness at rear of deck.
2
3. Remove hairpin cotters and H.O.C. pins securing rear
deck straps to H.O.C. brackets on deck. Start engine
and lower center deck to ground.
3
Figure 2
4. Remove socket head screws securing drive shaft
yoke gear box input shaft. Slide yoke off shaft.
1. Hydraulic line couplers
2. Wire harness
3. Rear deck straps
CAUTION
Do not start the engine and engage the PTO
switch when PTO shaft is not connected to
gear box on cutting unit. If engine is started
and PTO shaft is allowed to rotate, serious
injury could result.
5. Sit on seat, start the engine and slowly raise the
center cutting unit allowing cutting unit to pivot upright.
Stop the engine and remove the key from the ignition
switch.
1
2
Figure 3
Pivot Cutting Unit Down into Operating Position
1. Sit on seat, start the engine and slowly lower the
cutting units to the ground, then raise center cutting unit
slightly, so rear deck straps can be mounted to lift arm
brackets. Stop engine after cutting unit is raised. Set
parking brake.
1. Drive shaft yoke
2. Gearbox input shaft
2. Line up holes in yoke and input shaft of gear box.
Slide yoke onto shaft and secure together with socket
head screws. Torque screws to 20 - 25 ft-lb.
Cutting Unit
3. Secure rear deck straps to H.O.C. brackets on deck
with hair pin cotters and H.O.C. pins. Start engine and
lower center cutting unit completely to floor. Make sure
all lift levers are in the float position, then stop the
engine.
4. Connect wire harness and (3) hydraulic lines couplers
at rear of deck.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 3 Rev. A
General Information
Adjustments
Height of Cut Adjustment
The height of cut is adjustable from 1 to 5 inches in 1/2
inch increments. Positioning the castor wheel axles in
the top holes of the castor forks or pivots (see Chart
below) allows low range height of cut settings from 1 to
3-1/2 inches. Positioning the castor wheel axles in the
lower holes of the front castor forks or rear castor pivots
allows (see Chart below) high range height of cut settings from 2-1/2 to 5 inches.
1. Start the engine and raise the cutting unit so height
of cut can be changed. Stop engine after cutting unit is
in raised position.
2. Position all castor wheel axles in the same holes in
the castor forks or pivots.
Figure 4
Adjustments
Page 8 - 4
Groundsmaster® 455-D
2
Front Castor Wheels
1. Remove lynch pin from spindle shaft and slide spindle
out of front castor arm. Slide spacers onto spindle shaft
to get desired height of cut.
3
4
2. Push castor spindle through front castor arm install
remaining spacers onto spindle and install lynch pin to
secure assembly.
1
NOTE: Make sure washer remains on bottom of spindle
shaft.
Figure 5
1. Front castor wheel
2. Lynch pin
3. Spacers
4. Washer
Rear Castor Wheels
1. Remove hairpin cotter and H.O.C. pin securing rear
castor pivot arm to deck bracket.
2. Align the pivot arm holes with selected height of cut
bracket holes in the deck frame, install H.O.C. pin and
secure with hairpin cotter.
1
Figure 6
1. Rear castor pivot
Rear Deck Straps
1. Lower center and wing cutting units to the ground,
then raise center cutting unit slightly, until rear deck
straps hang freely on lift arm brackets. Stop engine after
cutting unit is raised.
1
2. Remove hairpin cotter and H.O.C. pin securing rear
deck strap to H.O.C. bracket on deck.
3. Slide deck strap forward or backward until holes in
strap are aligned with selected height of cut bracket
holes in the deck frame, install H.O.C. pin and secure
with hairpin cotter.
2
Figure 7
Cutting Unit
1. Rear deck straps
2. Lift arm brackets
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 5 Rev. A
Adjustments
Safety Door Adjustment
On each side of the center deck is a safety door that
opens and closes as the wing decks are lowered and
raised. The doors open to provide overlap of the cutting
blades when the wing units are down. The doors close
to provide safety and protection when the wing units are
raised. Check to make sure the forward, lower edge of
door is even or 1/4" higher then lower edge of door guide
when wing decks are in the fully raised, transport position. If an adjustment to the door is required, proceed as
follows:
1. Loosen am nuts securing ball joints to threaded rod.
2. Rotate threaded rod to raise or lower edge of door
until is even or 1/4" higher then lower edge of door guide
when wing decks are in the fully raised, transport position.
3. Tighten jams nuts to lock adjustment.
Figure 8
CAUTION
1. Safety door
2. Door guide
3. Ball joint
4. Threaded rod
Check for proper operation of the safety
doors each time the deck is cleaned and repair as needed.
Adjustments
Page 8 - 6
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Blade Adjustment
To assure proper operation of the cutting unit, there
must be 0.25 ± 0.12" clearance between the tips of the
wing and center cutting unit blades.
1. Raise cutting unit so blades are visible and block
center deck section so it cannot fall accidentally. Wing
decks must be horizontal to center cutting unit.
2. Rotate a center and adjoining wing blade so there
blade tips are aligned. Measure distance between blade
tips, distance should be approximately 0.25 ± 0.12".
3. To adjust distance, locate adjuster bolt on rear outside
corner of center cutting unit. Loosen jam nut on adjuster
bolt. Loosen or tighten adjuster bolts until 0.25 ± 0.12"
clearance is attained, then tighten jam nut.
Figure 9
4. Repeat procedure on opposite side of cutting deck.
IMPORTANT: Blade plane is adjusted at the factory
and should not need further adjustment.
2
1
Figure 10
Cutting Unit
1. Adjuster bolt
2. Jam nut
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 7
Adjustments
Belt Tension Adjustment
Each cutting unit drive belt is individually tensioned by
a self tensioning spring loaded idler. When the idlers are
properly adjusted, the black plastic sleeve should be
flush (even) with the edge of the idler support. When
1/2" of the plastic sleeve is exposed, an adjustment is
required. To assure proper operation of the cutting unit,
check adjustment of spring loaded idler after first 10
hours of operation and every time maintenance on the
belt is required.
2
0 - 1/2"
3
1
1. Lower cutting unit to the shop floor. Remove belt
covers from center and wing cutting units.
2. Measure the length of the exposed black plastic
sleeve. If distance is 0 to 1/2", spring loaded idler is
properly adjusted and belt tension is correct. If dimension is not correct, proceed to next step.
3. Loosen (2) flange head nuts securing idler adjust or
tube to top of cutting deck.
Figure 11
1. Spring loaded idler
2. Idler support
3. Black plastic sleeve
4. Loosen jam nut on adjusting screw and rotate screw
until the black plastic sleeve is flush (even) with the edge
of idler support.
5. When distance is attained, tighten jam nut on adjusting screw and (2) flange head nuts securing idler adjuster tube to top of cutting deck.
6. Check adjustment on other adjusters and repeat
procedure if required.
Wing Deck Clutch Adjustment
The deck clutches are adjustable to ensure proper
engagement and blade braking.
1
1. To adjust clutch, tighten or loosen locknuts on flange
studs.
2. Check adjustment by inserting feeler gauge through
slots next to flange studs.
3. The proper disengaged clearance between the clutch
plates is 0.011 - 0.021 inches. It will be necessary to
check this clearance at each of the three slots to ensure
the plates are parallel to each other.
2
Figure 12
1. Clutch
2. Flange studs
Adjustments
Page 8 - 8
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Repairs
Separating Cutting Unit From Traction Unit
1. Lower center and wing cutting units to the ground:
then raise center cutting unit slightly, until rear deck
straps hang freely on lift arm brackets. Stop engine after
cutting unit is raised. Set parking brake.
2. Remove hairpin cotters and H.O.C. pins securing rear
deck straps to H.O.C. brackets on deck. Start engine
and lower center cutting unit completely to floor. Make
sure all lift levers are in float position, then stop the
engine.
2
1
4
3
3. Disconnect (3) hydraulic lines (quick couplers) and
wire harness at rear of deck.
4. Remove socket head screws securing drive shaft
yoke gear box input shaft. Slide yoke off shaft.
Figure 13
1. Push arm
2. Castor arm
3. Ball joint mount
4. Capscrews & washers
CAUTION
Do not start the engine and engage the PTO
switch when PTO shaft is not connected to
gear box on cutting unit. If engine is started
and PTO shaft is allowed to rotate, serious
injury could result.
5. Remove (4) capscrews, flat washers and flange nuts
securing ball joint mounts to castor arms on cutting unit.
6. Roll the cutting unit away from the traction unit.
Alternate Method
1. Lower center and wing cutting units to the ground, set
parking brake and stop engine.
1
1
4
2. Disconnect (3) hydraulic lines (quick couplers) and
wire harness at rear of deck.
4. Remove two (2) capscrews and locknuts securing
cutting unit carrier frames to traction unit lift arms.
5. Slowly back traction unit away from cutting unit.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
2
Figure 14
1. Hydraulic lines (quick couplers)
2. Wire harness connector
3. Cutting unit carrier frame
4. Traction unit lift arm
Page 8 - 9 Rev. A
Repairs
Cutting Unit
3. Remove socket head screws securing drive shaft
yoke gear box input shaft. Slide yoke off shaft.
3
Mounting Cutting Unit to Traction Unit
1. With cutting unit on a level surface, move traction unit
into position, aligning drive shaft yoke with gear box
input shaft and lift arm ball joints with mounting holes in
castor arms. Shut engine off.
2. Secure ball joint mounts to castor arms with capscrews, flat washers and flange nuts. Flat washers to
be positioned to outside of castor arm. Tighten capscrews and flange nuts to a torque of 80 - 90 ft-lb.
2
1
4
3
3. Line up holes in yoke and input shaft of gear box.
Slide yoke onto shaft and secure together with socket
head screws. Torque screws to 20 - 25 ft-lb.
4. Start engine, raise center cutting unit slightly, so rear
deck straps can be mounted on lift arm brackets. Stop
engine after cutting unit is raised.
5. Secure rear deck straps to H.O.C. brackets on deck
with hair pin cotters and H.O.C. pins. Start the engine
and lower center cutting unit completely to floor. Make
sure all lift levers are in the float position, then stop the
engine.
Figure 15
1. Push arm
2. Castor arm
3. Ball joint mount
4. Capscrews & washers
1
1
4
6. Connect wire harness and (3) hydraulic lines couplers
at rear of deck.
3
2
Figure 16
1. Hydraulic lines (quick couplers)
2. Wire harness connector
3. Cutting unit carrier frame
4. Traction unit lift arm
Repairs
Page 8 - 10
Rev. A
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Drive Belt Replacement
Signs of a worn belt are: squealing when belt is rotating,
blades slipping when cutting grass, frayed edges, burn
marks and cracks. Replace a belt if any of these conditions are evident.
IMPORTANT: When installing new belts, do not
force over pulleys or kink belt in place. This could
fracture cords in belt, resulting in reduced belt life.
NOTE: Check tension of new belts after first 25 hours
of operation.
2
1
1. Lower cutting unit to the shop floor. Remove belt
covers from center and wing cutting units.
Figure 17
(Left wing shown)
To Remove Wing Deck Belts
2. To relieve tension on wing belt, pull back on idler
pulley until holes in idler adjuster tube and tube sleeve
are aligned. Thread a 5/16-18 capscrew into holes
retaining parts.
1. Spring loaded idler pulley
2. Stationary idler pulley
3. Remove hairpin cotter securing clutch rod to front of
cutting deck and disconnect rod from deck. Unplug
clutch wire from harness.
1
4. To ease right wing belt removal, loosen or remove
stationary idler pulley next to right wing’s inner spindle
pulley.
5. To relieve tension on center deck belt, pull back on
idler pulley until holes in idler adjuster tube and tube
sleeve are aligned. Thread a 5/16-18 capscrew into
holes retaining parts.
2
Figure 18
Cutting Unit
1. Clutch rod
2. Clutch wire
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 11 Rev. A
Repairs
To Remove Center Deck Belt
6. Wing deck belts must be removed before center deck
belt can be removed, repeat steps 1 - 3 on previous
page.
7. Remove (2) flange head screws securing drive shaft
cover to gear box support and remove cover.
14. While holding idler pulley adjuster in position, carefully remove capscrew securing idler adjust or tube to
tube sleeve. Allow idler pulley to release, tensioning
belt.
15. Check idler pulley adjustment (see Belt Tension
Adjustment).
16. Reinstall belt covers.
8. Remove capscrews and nuts securing front of gear
box support to deck channels and loosen capscrews
securing rear of gear box support to deck channels.
NOTE: Check tension of new belts after first 25 hours
of operation.
9. Raise front of gearbox support and remove old belt
from around gear box pulley and remaining pulleys.
1
10. Route new belts around appropriate pulleys as
shown.
IMPORTANT: When installing new belts, do not
force over pulleys or kink belt in place. This could
fracture cords in belt, resulting in reduced belt life.
11. Remount gear box support to deck channels with
capscrews and nuts previously removed.
12. Reinstall drive shaft cover to gear box support with
(2) flange head screws previously removed.
13. Remount clutch rod to deck with hairpin cotter and
plug clutch connector into harness.
2
2
Figure 19
1. Gearbox support
2. Capscrews & nuts
Belt Routing
Figure 20
Repairs
Page 8 - 12 Rev. A
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Front Castor Arm Bushing Service
To check the bushings, move castor fork back and forth
and from side to side. If castor spindle is loose inside
the bushings, bushings are worn and must be replaced.
1. Raise cutting unit so wheels are off floor and block it
so it cannot fall accidentally.
2. Remove lynch pin and spacer(s) from top of castor
spindle.
2
1
2
3. Pull castor spindle out of mounting tube. Allow
spacer(s) to remain on bottom of spindle.
4. Insert pin punch into top or bottom of mounting tube
and drive bushing out of tube. Also drive other bushing
out of tube. Clean inside of tubes to remove dirt.
5. Apply grease to inside and outside of new bushings.
Using a hammer and flat plate, drive bushings into
mounting tube.
6. Inspect castor spindle for wear and replace it if
damaged.
Figure 21
1. Bushing
2. Front castor arm tube
Cutting Unit
7. Push castor spindle through bushings and mounting
tube. Slide spacer(s) onto spindle. Install lynch pin on
castor spindle to retain all parts in place.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 13
Repairs
Castor Wheel and Bearing Service
A wobbly castor wheel usually indicates a worn bearing.
1. Remove locknut from capscrew holding castor wheel
assembly between front castor fork or rear castor pivot
arm. Grasp castor wheel and slide capscrew out of fork
or pivot arm.
2. Remove bearing from wheel hub and allow bearing
spacer to fall out. Remove bearing from opposite side
of wheel hub.
2
1
3. Check the bearings, spacer and inside of wheel hub
for wear. Replace defective parts.
4. To assemble the castor wheel, push bearing into
wheel hub. Slide bearing spacer into wheel hub. Push
other bearing into open end of wheel hub to captivate
the bearing spacer inside the wheel hub.
3
4
5. Install castor wheel assembly between castor fork
and secure in place with capscrew and locknut.
6. Lubricate castor wheel bearing through grease fitting,
using No. 2 general purpose lithium base grease.
Figure 22
1. Castor wheel
2. Front castor fork
3. Bearing (2)
4. Bearing spacer
3
1
4
2
Figure 22
1. Castor wheel
2. Rear castor pivot arm
Repairs
Page 8 - 14
3. Bearing (2)
4. Bearing spacer
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Blade Removal and Installation
The blade must be replaced if a solid object is hit, the
blade is out of balance or if the blade is bent. Always
use genuine TORO replacement blades to be sure of
safety and optimum performance. Never use replacement blades made by other manufacturers because
they could be dangerous.
3
2
CAUTION
Do not try to straighten a blade that is bent,
and never weld a broken or cracked blade.
Always use a now blade to assure continued
safety certification of the product.
1
85 - 110 ft-lb
Figure 23
1. Raise cutting unit to highest position, shut the engine
off and engage the parking brake. Engage locking
latches to prevent cutting unit from falling accidentally.
1. Blade bolt
2. Flat washer (S/N below 30001)
3. Anti-scalp cup
2. Grasp end of blade using a rag or thickly padded
glove. Remove blade bolt, washer (if equipped) antiscalp cup and blade from spindle shaft.
NOTE: Units with S/N below 30001 will have a hex bolt
and flat washer securing the blade. Units with S/N
30001 & up will have a hex flange bolt securing
the blade.
Cutting Unit
3. Install blade sail facing toward cutting unit with antiscalp cup, lockwasher and blade bolt. Tighten blade bolt
to 85 - 110 ft-lb.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 15 Rev. A
Repairs
Inspecting and Sharpening Blade
1. Raise cuffing unit to highest position, shut the engine
off and engage the parking brake. Engage locking
latches to prevent cutting unit from falling accidentally.
2. Examine cutting ends of the blade carefully, especially where the flat and curved parts of the blade meet.
Since sand and abrasive material can wear away the
metal that connects the flat and curved parts of the
blade, check the blade before using the machine. If wear
is noticed, replace the blade (see Cutting Blade Removal and Installation).
3. Inspect cutting edges of all blades. Sharpen the
cutting edges if they are dull or nicked. Sharpen only the
top of the cutting edge and maintain the original cutting
angle to make sure of sharpness. The blade will remain
balanced if same amount of metal is removed from both
cutting edges.
Figure 24
4. To check blade for being straight and parallel, lay
blade on a level surface and check its ends. Ends of
blade must be slightly lower than the center, and cutting
edge must be lower than the heel of the blade. This
blade will produce good quality of cut and require minimal power from the engine. By contrast a blade that is
higher at the ends than the center, or if cutting edge is
higher than the heel, the blade is bent or warped and
must be replaced.
5. Install blade sail facing toward cutting unit with antiscalp cup, lockwasher and blade bolt. Tighten blade bolt
to 85 - 110 ft-lb.
Repairs
Page 8 - 16 Rev. A
Figure 25
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Blade Spindle Service
Removing Spindle and
Bearings From Spindle Housing
1. Lower the cutting unit, shut the engine off and engage
the parking brake.
1
2. Remove deck covers from top of cutting unit. Release
belt tension (see Belt Tension Adjustment).
3. Remove belt from spindle to be serviced (see Belt
Replacement).
2
4. If removing spindle with clutch, remove clutch rod.
Unplug clutch electrical connector from harness.
Figure 26
5. Start the engine and raise the cutting unit. Turn the
engine OFF and remove the key from the key switch.
Engage locking latches to prevent cutting unit from
falling accidentally.
1. Clutch rod
2. Clutch electrical connector
Rubber grommet
Cable tie
Rubber grommet
Hair pin cotter
Clutch rod
Clutch electrical
connector
Cutting Unit
Figure 27
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 17 Rev. A
Repairs
6. Remove the hex flange head screws (Item 8) and lock
nuts (Item 10) securing spindle housing to deck. Slide
spindle housing assembly out the bottom of the cutting unit.
1
2
3
150 - 170 ft-lb
18
7. Remove the nut (Item 2) and washer (Item 18)
retaining the spindle pulley or clutch on the spindle
shaft. Slide the pulley or clutch (Item 3), spacer (Item 5)
and pulley (Item 6) off of the shaft. Make sure you
account for the key (Item 4).
4
5
6
7
NOTE: There are three (3) different types of spindle
housing assemblies. The type with the clutch is shown.
8. If the spindle shaft (Item 11) will be replaced, remove
the blade bolt (Item 16), and blade (Item 13) from the
spindle shaft. Otherwise, the blade may be left on the
spindle shaft.
Small spacer
Large spacer
Retaining ring
Bearing
17
8
9
10
NOTE: Units with S/N below 30001 will have a hex bolt
and flat washer securing the blade. Units with S/N
30001 & up will have a hex flange bolt securing the
blade.
11
7
12
9. Press the spindle shaft (Item 11) out of the spindle
housing (Item 9) using an arbor press. The spacer
(Item 12) remains on the spindle shaft as the shaft is
being removed.
13
10. The seals (Item 7) will be removed next; however,
notice the lip of the seal. The lip of the upper seal faces
inward, and the lip of the lower seal faces outward.
Therefore, new seals must always be installed with the
lip facing in the proper direction. Now remove the seals
from spindle housing.
15
11. Allow the bearings and small spacer to fall out of the
spindle housing.
12. Using a punch and hammer, drive both of the
bearing cups out of the spindle housing. Also drive the
large spacer out of the housing.
14
16
85 - 110 ft-lb
Figure 28
1. Grease fitting
2. Lock nut
3. Clutch
4. Square key
5. Spacer
6. Pulley
7. Wave seal
8. Hex flange head screw
9. Spindle housing
10. Flange nut
11. Spindle shaft
12. Spindle spacer
13. Blade
14. Anti-scalp cup
15. Flat washer
15. (S/N below 30001)
16. Blade bolt
17. Bearing assembly
18. Washer
13. A large retaining ring is inside the spindle housing.
The retaining ring is difficult to remove and it is recommended that it be left in place unless damaged.
IMPORTANT: If new bearings will be installed into a
used spindle housing that has the original snap ring
installed, discard the large snap ring that came with
the bearings because it is not needed. However, new
bearings with their matched spacer and snap ring
must always be installed when the spindle housing
is being replaced. Replacement bearings are sold
only with a matched snap ring and spacer set. These
parts cannot be purchased separately.
Figure 28a
Repairs
Page 8 - 18 Rev. C
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Installing Spindle, Bearings
and Seals Into Spindle Housing
IMPORTANT: If a new spindle housing is being used,
new bearings and the matched snap ring set must
be installed; refer to step 1 below. Never use the old
bearings, spacer, and snap ring with a new spindle
housing. By contrast, use only new bearings with
cups and spacer - not the large snap ring because
it is not required - when installing bearings into a
used spindle housing that still has a snap ring
installed: refer to step 2 below.
10. Slide the pulley end of the spindle assembly through
the hole in the cutting unit. Mount the spindle assembly
in place with the eight (8) hex flange head bolts and
flange nuts.
11. Install the belt and adjust belt tension.
12. Install the clutch rod and connect the clutch electrical
connector to the wire harness.
13. Install the belt covers.
1. Install the large retaining ring into the groove in the
bore of the spindle housing. Make sure the retaining ring
is seated in the groove.
2. Using an arbor press, push the large spacer into the
top of the spindle housing; tightly against the snap ring.
The spacer must contact the snap ring to be sure of the
correct assembly of the parts.
3. Thoroughly oil the bearing cups and using an arbor
press, push the bearing cups, smallest inside diameter
first, into the top and bottom of the spindle housing. The
top bearing cup must contact the spacer that was installed in step 2, and the bottom bearing cup must
contact the snap ring to be sure of the correct assembly
of parts. Insure that the assembly is correct by supporting the first cup and pressing the second against it.
Figure 29
4. Apply a film of grease on the lips of both seals, then
install the bearing and the seal into the bottom of the
spindle housing. Remember, the bottom seal must have
the lip facing outward, not toward the inside of the
spindle housing.
5. Check the spindle shaft to make sure it is free of burrs
and nicks that could possibly cut the seals and thoroughly lubricate both the shaft and seal lips.
Figure 30
6. Slide the small, thick spacer into the spindle housing.
Then install the bearing and seal into the top of the
spindle housing. The lip of the seal must face inward.
7. Slide the spacer onto the spindle shaft. Carefully slide
the spindle shaft through the spindle housing. The bottom seal and spacer fit together when the spindle is
installed.
8. Attach grease gun to grease fitting and fill cavity with
grease until grease starts to come out of lower seal.
9. Push the pulley, or pulley, spacer and clutch onto the
spindle shaft and retain the parts together with the large
flat washer and nut. Tighten the nut to 150 - 170 ft-lb
and rotate the spindle shaft to be sure that the shaft
rotates freely.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 19
Rev. C
Cutting Unit
Figure 30a
Repairs
Gearbox Removal and Installation
Removing Gearbox and Drive Pulley
1. To relieve tension on center deck belt, pull back on
idler pulley until holes in idler adjuster tube and tube
sleeve are aligned. Thread a 5/16-18 capscrew into
holes retaining parts.
1
2. Disconnect drive shaft from gearbox input shaft.
2
CAUTION
Do not start the engine and engage the P.T.O.
when the P.T.O. shaft is not connected to the
gearbox. If engine is started and the P.T.O.
shaft is allowed to rotate, serious injury could
result.
2
Figure 31
1. Gearbox support
2. Capscrews & nuts
4. Remove (2) flange head screws securing drive shaft
cover to gearbox support and remove cover.
5. Remove four (4) sets of capscrews and nuts securing
gearbox support to deck channels.
6. Remove gearbox support with gearbox attached.
7. Loosen two (2) capscrews securing pulley to gearbox
output shaft and slide pulley off of gearbox output shaft.
8. Remove four (4) capscrews securing gearbox to
gearbox support and remove gearbox.
Figure 32
Repairs
Page 8 - 20
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Installing Gearbox and Drive Pulley
1. If replacing rubber mounts for gearbox support, use
soapy water or lubricant to ease installation. Install
left-hand mounts from top and right-hand mounts from
bottom of bracket as shown.
2. Install gearbox to support bracket with with four (4)
capscrews.
3. Slide pulley onto gearbox output shaft and secure by
tightening two (2) capscrews.
4. Check the alignment of the gearbox pulley with
adjacent spindle pulleys. Loosen and relocate the gearbox pulley, if necessary.
7. Install drive shaft cover to gear box support with (4)
flange head screws.
8. While holding idler pulley adjuster in position, carefully remove capscrew securing idler adjuster tube to
tube sleeve. Allow idler pulley to release, tensioning
belt.
9. Check idler pulley adjustment (see Belt Tension Adjustment).
10. Install belt covers.
11. Remove the gear box fill plug and check plug. Add
SAE 80W90 API GL-5 gear lube until level is to the
bottom of the check plug hole. Install plugs in gear box.
Cutting Unit
5. Mount rear end of gearbox support to deck channels.
Leave capscrews and nuts loose. Lift front of gearbox
support and install belt around gearbox pulley.
6. Secure front of gear box support to deck channels
with capscrews and nuts. Tighten capscrews and nuts
securing rear of gearbox support to deck channels.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 21
Repairs
Gearbox Repair
Figure 33
5. If oil seal (Item 13) is removed, it will be destroyed.
To remove the oil seal, cut it out of the bore with a screw
driver or chisel. Be careful not to damage the bore.
Gear Box Disassembly
1. Drain lubricant from gear box.
2. Remove capscrews (Item 1) and lift out shaft and cap
assemblies.
NOTE: Mark each gear (Item 10 and 21) so they are
installed on the proper shaft (Item 8 or 19) when
reassembled.
3. Remove thru cap (Item 14) and bearing cones
(Item 4, 11) from shaft (Item 8).
4. Remove bearing cup (Item 12) from thru cap (Item 14)
by putting a punch through the shaft bore and through
the seal and then tapping against the back of the bearing
cup until driven out of the cap.
6. Remove locknut (Item 23) and lockwasher (Item 22).
7. Press shaft (Item 19) back through seal end of hub
(Item 17). When inner bearing cone (Item 15) is free,
gear (Item 21) and key (Item 20) may be removed from
the shaft. Remove other bearing cone and seal
(Item 18).
8. To remove the bearing cups (Item 16) from the hub
(Item 17) a slide hammer puller may be used, or if this
is not available, the bearing cups may be knocked out
with a punch by coming down through the opposite hub
bore and tapping against the back side of the bearing
cup until it comes out.
9. Remove the plugs (Item 6) from the housing.
Repairs
Page 8 - 22
Groundsmaster® 455-D
13 11
12
23
22
1
14
7
10
9
5
6
19
8
18
3
4
2
21
17
16
15
Figure 34
8. Press a bearing cup (Item 16) into outer end of hub
(Item 17).
NOTE: Apply a coating of lubricating oil to bearings
before assembling.
1. Start with input shaft (Item 8) and put gear (Item 9)
over shaft so tooth side is towards turned end of shaft.
Align keyway in gear with keyway in shaft and install one
of keys (Item 9) in keyway.
2. Press bearing cone (Item 4) over turned end of shaft.
3. Put bearing cone (Item 11) over other end of shaft and
down against hub side of gear.
4. Put thru cap (Item 14) down, with machined surface
facing up. Install a new seal (Item 13) into thru cap with
open side toward machined side of thru cap.
5. Install bearing cup (Item 12) into cap (Item 2).
6. Take input shaft and gear assembly and wrap end of
shaft with a piece of shim stock to keep from cutting oil
seal on splines. Put cap assembly down over shaft so
bearing cone (Item 11) on shaft mates with bearing cup
(Item 12) in cap. Remove shim stock from shaft that was
used to protect seal.
9. Install shaft through outer end of hub so bearing cone
on shaft mates with bearing cone in hub.
10. Press a bearing cup (Item 16) into inner end of hub
(Item 17).
11. Press a bearing cone (Item 15) onto threaded end
of shaft so it mates with bearing cone in hub.
12. Install gear (Item 21) over shaft so tooth side is
towards threaded end of shaft. Align keyway in gear with
keyway in shaft and install a key in keyway.
13. Install lockwasher (Item 22) and locknut (Item 23).
Tighten locknut while turning shaft until there is no end
play in shaft. Do not over tighten. shaft should have a
very slight amount of bearing drag when turned.
14. Wrap splined end of output shaft (Item 19) with a
piece of shim stock to prevent damage to oil seal. Install
a new oil seal (Item 18) over shaft and into hub so open
side is facing towards inside of hub.
15. Install plugs (Item 6) into tapped holes in housing.
7. Press a bearing cone (Item 15) onto splined end of
output shaft (Item 19).
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 23
Repairs
Cutting Unit
Gearbox Pre-Assembly
13 11
12
23
22
1
14
7
10
9
5
6
19
8
18
3
4
2
21
17
16
15
Figure 35
Gearbox Final Assembly
1. Bearing drag for input shaft (Item 8) is adjusted by
amount of gaskets (Item 7) used between thru cap
(Item 14), and housing machined surfaces.
2. Put two 0.015 in. gaskets on machined surface of
housing, then install shaft and thru cap assembly in
housing so bearing cone (Item 4) on shaft assembly and
bearing cup (Item 3) in blank cap (Item 2) are mating.
Align holes in caps with holes in gaskets and housing.
3. Install capscrews and tighten.
4. shaft (Item 8) should have a very slight amount of
bearing drag when turned. If shaft turns hard, cap must
be removed and gasket(s) need to be added. If shaft
has no bearing drag, or has end play, thru cap (Item 14)
must be removed and gasket(s) taken out. thru cap must
be adjusted to where shaft has no end play and only a
slight amount of bearing drag.
Repairs
5. Gear lash is adjusted by amount of gaskets (Item 7)
used between hub (Item 17), and housing machined
surfaces.
6. Put two 0.015 in. gaskets on machined surface of
housing, then install shaft and hub assembly in housing.
Align holes in hub with holes in gaskets and housing.
7. Install capscrews and tighten.
8. output shaft (Item 19) should turn freely with a slight
amount of bearing drag and no sticking or binding. If
shaft turns hard, hub (Item 17) must be removed and
gasket(s) need to be added. If shaft has free play
(backlash), cap must be removed and gasket(s) taken
out. hub must be adjusted to where shaft has minimal
backlash and only a slight amount of bearing drag.
assembly must turn freely without sticking or binding.
9. After installing gear box on cutting unit, fill it with SAE
80W90 API GL-5 lubricant to level of check plug.
Page 8 - 24
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Deck Clutch Service
Failure to get clutch engagement would likely be caused
by a clutch air gap that is too large (see Clutch Adjustment), a circuit fault in clutch electromagnet, or other
electrical problem (see Troubleshooting section of
Chapter 5 - Electrical System).
NOTE: It is recommended that clutch be serviced in
sub-assemblies, however, some individual parts of
clutch can be replaced.
1. Follow steps 1 - 7 under Blade Spindle Service to
remove clutch.
2. Remove three (3) locknuts (Item 9) and springs
(Item 10).
3. Separate clutch into two halves; field rotor assembly
(Items 1 - 4) and armature and pulley assembly (Items
5 - 8).
4. To replace pulley bearing (Item 7):
A. Remove retaining ring (Item 8).
B. Put armature and pulley assembly, pulley side
down, in an arbor press. Press on bearing collar
(Item 6) to remove bearing and collar. If bearing is
removed, it MUST be replaced.
C. Press collar out of bearing.
D. Make sure both inside and outside race of new
bearing is on a flat surface and press collar into
bearing.
E. Put armature and pulley assembly in arbor press,
pulley side up. Put spacers in three (3) locations
between pulley and armature plate to prevent damage to springs. Three (3) stacks of flat washers can
be used for spacers. Make sure extended part of
collar is facing down and press on outer bearing race
to install bearing and collar.
Figure 36
1. Field rotor ass’y
1. (Items 1 - 4)
2. Field bearing
3. Retaining ring
4. Field coil ass’y
5. Armature & pulley ass’y
5. (Items 5 - 8)
6. Bearing collar
7. Pulley bearing
8. Retaining ring
9. Locknut
10. Spring
11. Brake plate
F. Install retaining ring.
Cutting Unit
5. Assemble clutch halves, install on spindle shaft and
adjust air gap (see Clutch Adjustment and Clutch Replacement).
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 25
Repairs
Wing Pivot Arm Installation and Ball Joint Service
When assembling wing pivot arms, adjust ball joint
thread engagement to get a length of 8.06" for proper
blade plane setting, then tighten jam nut (also see Blade
Adjustment).
IMPORTANT: Before installing wing pivot arms,
clean tapered surfaces of ball joints and mounting
bosses on deck with solvent degreaser.
Apply Loctite 242 or equivalent to nut securing ball joint
and tighten to a torque of 150 - 180 ft-lb. Make sure two
(2) flat washers are installed under nut.
Loctite 242
1.44"
Loctite 242
150 - 180 ft-lb
8.06"
Clean tapered surfaces
of all ball joints and
mounting bosses with
solvent degreaser
If more than 0.34" of ball
joint stud extends through nut,
add washers as needed
Figure 37
Repairs
Page 8 - 26
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Safety Door Service
When assembling safety door actuator, adjust threaded
rod to get a dimension of 6.25" between center of each
ball joint.
Apply Loctite 242 or equivalent to threads of each ball
joint before installing in deck and safety door.
After installing actuator, adjust threaded rod so lower
edge of door is even to 0.25" higher than lower edge of
door guide when wing decks are in fully raised (transport) position, then tighten jam nuts (see Safety Door
Adjustment).
6.25"
Loctite 242
Threaded
rod
Safety door
Door guide
Cutting Unit
Figure 38
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 27
Repairs
Wing Cylinder Installation and Ball Joint Service
When assembling wing cylinders, adjust ball joint thread
engagement to get a retracted length of 17.00" to eliminate movement of wing decks in the fully raised (transport) position, then tighten jam nut.
IMPORTANT: Before installing wing cylinders, clean
tapered surfaces of ball joints and mounting bosses
on deck with solvent degreaser.
Apply Loctite 242 or equivalent to nuts securing ball
joints and tighten to a torque of 150 - 180 ft-lb. Make
sure two (2) flat washers are installed under each nut.
Clean tapered surfaces
of all ball joints and
mounting bosses with
solvent degreaser
Loctite 242
150 - 180 ft-lb
If more than 0.34" of
ball joint stud extends through
nut, add washers as needed
17.00"
(Retracted)
Figure 39
Repairs
Page 8 - 28
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Clean tapered surfaces
of all ball joints and
mounting bosses with
solvent degreaser
If more than 0.34"
of ball joint stud extends
through nut, add
washers as needed
Clean tapered surfaces
of all ball joints and
mounting bosses with
solvent degreaser
Loctite 242
150 - 180 ft-lb
2.50"
Figure 40
Center Deck Lift Arm Ball Joint Service
IMPORTANT: Before install ball joints to deck, clean
tapered surfaces of ball joints and mounting bosses
on deck with solvent degreaser.
Cutting Unit
When installing center deck lift arm ball joints (Fig. 40),
adjust ball joint thread engagement to get a dimension
of 2.50 ± 0.12" from the lift arm end to center of ball joint.
Tighten jam nut after ball joint is fastened to deck.
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 29
Repairs
Idler Pulley Service
Apply Loctite 242 or equivalent to threads of bolt securing idler pulley to deck. Tighten bolt to a torque of 35 to
40 ft-lb.
Make sure center idler pulley on center deck is installed
in hole closest to edge of pulley support. Install in
adjacent hole if using optional high speed (larger diameter) gearbox pulley.
When installing V-groove idler pulleys, make sure bolt
heads are facing down.
Loctite 242
35 - 40 ft-lb
Loctite 242
35 - 40 ft-lb
Install idler pulley
in hole closest to edge
of pulley support
Install V-groove
idler pulleys so bolt
heads are facing down
With optional high speed
(larger diameter) gearbox pulley,
install idler pulley in this hole
Figure 41
Loctite 242
35 - 40 ft-lb
Loctite 242
35 - 40 ft-lb
Install V-groove
idler pulleys so bolt
heads are facing down
Figure 42
Repairs
Page 8 - 30
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Wing Deck Spring Loaded Locking Mechanism Service
rod back, until large clevis pin is loose, then remove
clevis pin.
WARNING
4. Remove socket head screw to relieve spring tension
and remove locking mechanism.
This mechanism is spring loaded. Use proper
disassembly procedures to prevent possible
personal injury.
To install locking mechanism:
1. Replace worn or damaged parts in mechanism.
NOTE: Some early production units were not equipped
with rod caps and socket head screws. These parts
must be used for the following procedure. Order Toro
Parts 92-4036, Cap – Rod and 92-4037, Screw – Hex
Socket Hd.
To disassemble:
2. Place rod cap on bracket so large end is facing spring
support rod and install socket head screw.
3. Tighten socket head screw, pulling spring support rod
back, until lock pivot is aligned with holes in deck, then
install clevis pin and cotter pin to secure spring loaded
locking mechanism.
1. Remove socket head screw.
2. Reverse rod cap so large diameter end is facing
spring support rod, then re-install socket head screw.
3. Remove cotter pin from large clevis pin in center of
lock. Tighten socket head screw, pulling spring support
4. Remove socket head screw. Reverse rod cap so
small end is facing spring support rod, apply NeverSeez or equivalent to threads of socket head screw and
install screw to secure rod cap on end of spring support rod.
Socket head screw
Never-Seez
Rod cap
Cotter pin
Spring
Lock
Spring support rod
Large clevis pin
Cutting Unit
Figure 43
Groundsmaster® 455-D
Page 8 - 31
Repairs
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Commercial Products
© The Toro Company
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