Service Manual - Doosan Infracore

Service Manual - Doosan Infracore
SB4310E00
Jan. 2008
Service Manual
B3.3 Diesel Engine
D20S-5, D25S-5, D30S-5, D33S-5, D35C-5
D20S-3, D25S-3, D30S-3, D32S-3, D33S-3
D20G, D25G, D30G
Important Safety Information
Most accidents involving product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety
rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an
accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary training,
skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Read and understand all safety precautions and warnings before operating or performing lubrication,
maintenance and repair on this product.
Basic safety precautions are listed in the “Safety” section or the Service or Technical Manual. Additional safety
precautions are listed in the “Safety” section of the owner/operation/maintenance publication.
Specific safety warnings for all these publications are provided in the description of operations where hazards exist.
WARNING labels have also been put on the product to provide instructions and to identify specific hazards. If
these hazard warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or other persons. Warnings in this
publication and on the product labels are identified by the following symbol.
WARNING
Improper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could result
in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have read and
understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in this publication.
DOOSAN cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The warnings in
this publication and on the product are therefore not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating
technique not specifically recommended by DOOSAN is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and
others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or made unsafe by the operation, lubrication,
maintenance or repair procedures you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information available at the
time it was written. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other
items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service given to the product.
Obtain the complete and most current information before starting any job. DOOSAN dealers have the most
current information available.
1
Index
Excessive Noise (Continued) ............................... 45
Engine Vibration Excessive .................................. 46
Introduction
Complete Engine
About the Manual....................................................... 5
How to Use the Manual.............................................. 5
Symbols ..................................................................... 6
Illustrations................................................................. 7
Engine Identification
Engine Identification................................................... 8
Engine Dataplate .................................................... 8
Specifications............................................................. 9
Engine Diagrams ..................................................... 10
Engine Views ........................................................ 10
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Troubleshooting Symptoms ..................................... 21
Procedures and Techniques .................................... 21
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts.......................... 21
Engine Acceleration or Response Poor................ 22
Engine Acceleration or Response Poor (Continued)
.............................................................................. 23
Engine Will Not Crank or Cranks Slowly............... 24
Engine Will Not Crank or Cranks Slowly (Continued)
.............................................................................. 25
Engine Cranks But Will Not Start
(No Exhaust Smoke)............................................. 26
Engine Difficult to Start or Will Not Start
(Exhaust Smoke) .................................................. 27
Engine Difficult to Start or Will Not Start
(Exhaust Smoke) (Continued) .............................. 28
Engine Has Poor Respones ................................. 29
Engine Stops During Operation ............................ 30
Engine Runs Rough or Misfires ............................ 31
Engine Power Output Low .................................... 32
Engine Power Output Low (Continued) ................ 33
Excessive Exhaust (Black Smoke) ....................... 34
Excessive Exhaust (White Smoke)....................... 35
Lubricating Oil Consumption Excessive ............... 36
Lubricating Oil Contaminated ............................... 37
Fuel consumption Is Excessive ............................ 38
Coolant Contamination ......................................... 39
Coolant Loss......................................................... 40
Lubricating Oil Pressure Is Low ............................ 41
Oil Level Rises...................................................... 42
Coolant Temperature above Normal .................... 43
Excessive Noise ................................................... 44
Diesel Engine
Complete Engine ..................................................... 47
Engine Disassembly ............................................. 47
Engine Assembly.................................................. 66
Engine System
Engine System......................................................... 95
Bearing, Connecting Rod ..................................... 95
Bearing, Main ..................................................... 100
Bearing, Thrust ................................................... 105
Camshaft ............................................................ 107
Camshaft Bushings ............................................ 110
Camshaft Gear ................................................... 112
Connecting Rod.................................................. 113
Crankshaft .......................................................... 120
Crankshaft Gear, Front....................................... 125
Crankshaft Pulley ............................................... 126
Crankshaft Seal, Front........................................ 128
Crankshaft Seal, Rear ........................................ 129
Cylinder Block..................................................... 130
Gear Cover, Front............................................... 134
Idle Gear, Camshaft ........................................... 136
Piston.................................................................. 139
Piston Rings ....................................................... 142
Piston and Connecting Rod Assembly ............... 146
Gear Train Backlash, Front ................................ 156
Camshaft Thrust Bearing.................................... 157
Cylinder Head ........................................................ 158
Rocker Levers........................................................ 164
Adjusting Valve Clearance ................................. 164
Rocker Levers Assembly ....................................... 166
Rocker Lever Cover............................................... 169
Push Rods or Tubes .............................................. 170
Tappet.................................................................... 171
Complete Engine ................................................... 173
Measuring Compression Pressure ..................... 173
Testing and Adjusting the Fan Belt Tansion....... 175
Fuel System........................................................... 176
Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary ............................... 176
Injector ................................................................... 181
Testing................................................................ 181
Lubricating System ................................................ 186
Measuring Oil Pressure ...................................... 186
Lubricating Oil Cooler (If equipted)..................... 186
Lubricating Oil Pressure Regulator (Main Rifle) . 188
3
Index
Lubricating Oil Suction Tube (Block-Mounted) ... 191
Cooling System...................................................... 192
Coolant Thermostat ............................................... 194
Coolant Thermostat Housing ................................. 195
Cooling System...................................................... 196
Cooling System Diagnostics .................................. 199
Engine Compression.............................................. 205
Specifications
Specifications......................................................... 208
Valves, Valve Guides, and Springs .................... 208
Rocker Arm Shaft, Push Rod and Tappets......... 209
Cylinder Head ..................................................... 210
Cylinder Block..................................................... 211
Camshaft and Camshaft Bushing ....................... 212
Crankshaft .......................................................... 213
Timing Gear ........................................................ 214
Flywheel.............................................................. 215
Cylinder............................................................... 216
Piston.................................................................. 217
Connecting Rod, Piston Ring and Piston Pin ..... 218
Oil Pump ............................................................. 219
Regulator Valve .................................................. 220
Thermostat.......................................................... 221
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values............. 222
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values - Metric 222
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values - U.S.
Customary .......................................................... 223
Fraction, Decimal, Millimeter Conversions ......... 224
Newton-Meter to Foot-Pound Conversion Chart 225
Pipe Plug Torque Values .................................... 225
Tap-Drill Chart - U.S. Customary and Metric ...... 226
Weight and Measures - Conversion Factors ...... 227
Special Tools
Special Tools ......................................................... 228
Diesel Engine
4
Index
About the Manual
This Troubleshooting and Repair Manual is intended to aid in determining the cause of engine-related problems
and to provide recommended repair procedures.
The material in this manual covers all Signature engines. The manual is divided into sections. Each section is
equivalent to a group used in Cummins filmcard system. Some sections contain reference numbers and
procedure numbers. Reference numbers provide general information, specifications, diagrams, and service tools
where applicable. Procedure numbers are used to identify and reference specific repair procedures for correcting
the problem.
This manual is designed so the troubleshooting trees are used to locate the cause of an engine problem. The
troubleshooting trees then direct the user to the correct repair procedure. The repair procedures within a section
are in numerical order. However, the repair steps within a given procedure are organized in the order the repair
must be performed, regardless of the numerical order of the steps. The user must use the Section Contents pages
or the Index at the back of the manual to locate specific topics when not using the troubleshooting trees.
How to Use the Manual
This manual is organized to provide an easy flow from problem identification to problem correction. A list of
troubleshooting symptoms containing the most common engine problems is in the Troubleshooting Symptoms,
Section TS. The manual is designed to use the Troubleshooting Symptoms as a guide to locating the problem and
directing the end user to the correct procedure for making the repair. Complete the following steps to locate and
correct the problem.
(Step 1)
(Step 2)
(Step 3)
(Step 4)
Diesel Engine
Locate the symptom on the Section Contents pages of Section TS.
Reference to the page number where the Troubleshooting Symptom Tree is
found is made to the right of the symptom tree title.
The left column of boxes in the Troubleshooting Symptom Charts indicates a
probable cause of the problem, starting at the top with the simplest and easiest to
repair, and continuing downward to the most difficult.
The right column of boxes provides a brief description of the corrective action with
a reference number to the correct procedure used to make the repair.
Locate the probable cause in the left column; then turn to the procedure
referenced in the right column.
The Troubleshooting Symptom Charts are based on the following assumptions:
1. The engine has been installed according to the manufacturer's specifications.
2. The easiest repairs are done first.
3. "Generic" solutions cover problems with the most common applications and
original equipment manufacturer (OEM).
5
Introduction
Symbols
The following symbols have been used in this manual to help communicate the intent of the instructions. When
one of the symbols appears, it conveys the meaning defined below:
WARNING – Serious personal injury or extensive property damage can result if the
warning instructions are not followed.
CAUSION – Minor personal injury can result or a part, an assembly or the engine can be
damaged if the Caution instructions are not followed.
Indicates a REMOVAL or DISASSEMBLY step.
Indicates an INSTALLATION or ASSEMBLY step.
INSPECTION is required.
CLEAN the part or assembly.
PERFORM a mechanical or time MEASUREMENT.
LUBRICATE the part or assembly.
Indicates that a WRENCH or TOOL SIZE will be given.
TIGHTEN to a specific torque
PERFORM an electrical MEASUREMENT.
Refer to another location in this manual or another publication for additional information.
The component weighs 23kg [50lb] or more. To avoid personal injury, use a hoist or get
assistance to lift the component.
Diesel Engine
6
Introduction
Illustrations
Some of the illustrations throughout this manual are
generic and will not look exactly like the engine or
parts used in your application. The illustrations can
contain symbols to indicate an action required and an
acceptable or not acceptable condition.
th8sesa
The illustrations are intended to show repair or
replacement procedures. The procedure will be the
same for all applications, although the illustration can
differ.
Ca8vagc
Diesel Engine
7
Introduction
Engine Identification
Engine Dataplate
The engine dataplate shows specific information
about the engine. The engine serial number (ESN)
and control parts list (CPL) provide information for
ordering parts and for service needs.
NOTE:
The engine dataplate must not be changed
unless approved by Cummins Engine
Company, Inc.
00900248
00900249
Diesel Engine
8
Engine Identification
Specifications
Performance
Rated Power
Max Torque
Torque Rising
BSFC
Low Idle rpm
High Idle rpm
kW(PS)
Nm(kgf-m)
@Rated Power
@Max Torque
@Dynamo
@Truck
@Dynamo
@Truck
g/kWh
g/kWh
rpm
rpm
rpm
rpm
All Models
43.4 (59) @ 2,200 rpm
202 (20.6) @ 1,600 rpm
7.4 % for 2,200rpm rating
227 @2,200 rpm
219 @1,600 rpm
2,500 ±25
2,470 ±50
800 ±25
770 ±25
General Engine Data
Engine Weight (Dry) Less Flywheel and Electronics
Compression Ratio
Bore
Stroke
Displacement
Firing Order
Intake
Valve Clearance:
Exhaust
Rotation Viewed from the Front of the Engine
Naturally Aspirated
245 kg [540 lb]
18.8
95 mm [3.74 in]
115 mm [4.528 in]
3.26 liters [199 in³]
1-2-4-3
0.35 mm [0.014 in]
0.50 mm [0.020 in]
Clockwise
Lubrication System
Regulating Valve Opening Pressure
Total System
Standard Oil Pan Only
Lubricating Oil Pressure at Idle (Minimum Allowable)
Lubricating Oil Pressure at Rated (Minimum Allowable)
Oil Filter Differential Pressure to Open Bypass Valve
Number of liters [qt] from Low to High
Naturally Aspirated
490 kPa [71 psi]
7.5 liters [8.0 qt]
7.0 liters [7.4 qt]
69 kPa [10 psi]
245 kPa [35 psi]
98 kPa [14 psi]
1.5 liters [1.6 qt]
Cooling System
Coolant Capacity (Engine Only )
Standard Modulating Thermostat Start
Range:
Fully Open
Maximum Pressure Cap @ Sea Level
Naturally Aspirated
4.5 liters [4.75 qt]
82° C [180° F]
95° C [203° F]
50 kPa [7 psi]
Air Induction System
Maximum Allowable Intake Restriction at Rated Speed and
Load with Dirty Filter Element
Naturally Aspirated
762 mm H2O
[30 in H2O]
Exhaust System
Maximum Allowable Exhaust Restriction at Rated Speed and
Load with Dirty Filter Element
Naturally Aspirated
75 mm Hg
[3 in Hg]
Lubricating Oil Capacity:
Fuel System
Maximum Allowable Restriction to the Fuel Transfer Pump
or Filter Head Must Not Exceed
Maximum Allowable Return Line Restriction Must Not Exceed
Inlet Pressure to the Injection Pump Range
Naturally Aspirated
75 mm Hg
[3 in Hg]
190.5 mm Hg
[7.5 in Hg]
0.00 kPa [0.00 psi] to 39.0 kPa [5.00 psi]
Electrical System
Naturally Aspirated
Minimum Recommended Battery
12-VDC Starter
550 CCA
Capacity with Light Accessories*:
Minimum Recommended Battery
12-VDC Starter
730 CCA
Capacity with Heavy
Accessories**:
Maximum Allowable Resistance of
12-VDC Starter
0.0012 ohms
the Starting Circuit:
*Typical light accessories include: Alternator, small steering pump, and disengaged clutch.
**Typical heavy accessories include: Hydraulic pump and torque converter.
Diesel Engine
9
Engine Identification
Engine Diagrams
Engine Views
The following illustrations show the locations of the major external engine components, filters, and other service
and maintenance points. Some external components will be at different locations for different engine models.
Intake Side
(Naturally Aspirated)
00900138
1.
2.
3.
4.
Intake Manifold
Starting Motor
Fuel Injection Pump
Crankshaft Pulley
Diesel Engine
5. Fan
6. Fuel Filter
7. Oil Fill Cap.
10
Engine Identification
Exhaust Side
(Naturally Aspirated)
00900139
1. Oil Fill Cap
2. Thermostat Housing
3. Alternator
Diesel Engine
4. Dipstick
5. Oil Filter
6. Exhaust Manifold.
11
Engine Identification
Front View
(Naturally Aspirated)
00900140
Rear View
(Naturally Aspirated)
00900141
Diesel Engine
12
Engine Identification
Exhaust Side
(Naturally Aspirated)
00900146
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Oil Strainer
Oil Pump
Oil Cooler (Optional)
Regulator Valve
Oil Filter
Safety Valve
Crankshaft
Diesel Engine
8. Camshaft
9. Piston
10. Intake and Exhaust Valve
11. Rocker Arm
12. Timing Gear
13. Cooling Water.
13
Engine Identification
Oil Pump
00900148
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Bushing
Gear Drive (number of teeth: 7)
Pump cover
Oil Pump Drive Gear (number of teeth: 22)
Driveshaft
Drivenshaft
Driven Gear (number of teeth: 7)
8. Regulator Valve
9. Valve Spring.
Oil pump
• Type: Gear Type
• Gear drive number of teeth (7)
• Oil pump drive gear number of teeth (22)
• Driven gear number of teeth (7)
• Pump Speed: Engine Speed x 1.182.
Regulator Valve
• Set Pressure: 490 ± 50kPa [71 ± 7psi].
Diesel Engine
14
Engine Identification
Fuel System
05900870
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Fuel supply from tank
Hand priming pump
Fuel filter
Water in fuel sensor
Fuel pump
Diesel Engine
6. Fuel shutoff solenoid
7. High-pressure fuel line
8. Injector
9. Fuel drain manifold
10. Fuel return to tank.
15
Engine Identification
Fuel Injection Pump
00900150
1. Pump Holder
2. Fuel Injection Pump Drive Gear
(number of teeth: 52)
3. Drive Shaft
4. Fuel Injection Pump (Body)
5. Fuel Filter
6. Fuel Injection Pipe (No. 1)
7. Fuel Injection Pipe (No. 2)
8. Fuel Injection Pipe (No. 3)
9. Fuel Injection Pipe (No. 4)
10. Spill Tube
Diesel Engine
A. Fuel Inlet (from Fuel Tank)
B. To. Fuel Tank
C. To Fuel Injection Pump
D. To Fuel Injection Nozzle.
Fuel Injection Pump
• Maker: Zexel
• Type: VE
• Lubrication Method: Forced Lubrication with Fuel
Governor
• Type: Mechanical, All-speed Type.
16
Engine Identification
Fuel Injection Nozzle
00900151
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Fuel Drain Line Connector
Nozzle Holder
Adjusting Shim
Nozzle spring
Spring seat
Intermadiate Plate
Nozzle Body
Retaining Nut
Needle.
Diesel Engine
A. Fuel Inlet (from injection pump)
B. Fuel Injection (to cylinder)
C. Fuel Return (to fuel tank).
Fuel Injection Nozzle
• Maker: Zexel
• Injection Pressure: 40 MPa
• Adjustment of Injection Pressure: By Shim.
17
Engine Identification
Cooling System
00900147
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Radiator
Thermostat
Water Temperature Gauge
Water Pump
Water Manifold
Diesel Engine
6. Cylinder Head
7. Piston
8. Cylinder Block
9. Oil Cooler (optional).
A. From Oil Pump (oil).
18
Engine Identification
Air Intake System
00900227
1.
2.
3.
4.
Filtered Air
Air Heater
Intake Manifold
Intake Valve Port.
Diesel Engine
19
Engine Identification
Exhaust System
00900232
1. Exhaust Valve Port
2. Exhaust Manifold
Diesel Engine
20
Engine Identification
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Procedures and Techniques
A thorough analysis of the customer's complaint is the key to successful troubleshooting. The more information
known about a complaint, the faster and easier the problem can be solved.
The Troubleshooting Symptom Charts are organized so that a problem can be located and corrected by doing the
easiest and most logical things first. Complete all steps in the sequence shown from top to bottom.
It is not possible to include all the solutions to problems that can occur; however, these charts are designed to
stimulate a thought process that will lead to the cause and correction of the problem.
Follow these basic troubleshooting steps:
• Get all the facts concerning the complaint
• Analyze the problem thoroughly
• Relate the symptoms to the basic engine systems and components
• Consider any recent maintenance or repair action that can relate to the complaint
• Double-check before beginning any disassembly
• Solve the problem by using the symptom charts and doing the easiest things first
• Determine the cause of the problem and make a thorough repair
• After repairs have been made, operate the engine to make sure the cause of the complaint has been
corrected
Troubleshooting Symptoms Charts
Use the charts on the following pages of this section to aid in diagnosing specific engine symptoms. Read each
row of blocks from top to bottom. Follow through the chart to identify the corrective action.
Diesel Engine
21
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Engine Acceleration or Response Poor
This is symptom tree T-033
Cause
Correction
Fuel level is low in the tank
Fill the supply tank. Refer to the OEM service
manual.
OK
Check the vehicle brakes for dragging,
transmission malfunction, cooling fan operation
cycle time, and engine-driven units.
Vehicle parasitics are excessive
OK
Check the fuel lines, fuel connections, and fuel
filters for leaks. Check the fuel lines to the
supply tanks.
Fuel leak
OK
Fuel inlet restriction
Check for fuel inlet restriction.
OK
The pump output pressure. Replace the fuel lift
pump if necessary.
Fuel lift pump is malfunctioning
OK
Fuel pump overflow valve is malfunctioning
Check the overflow valve.
OK
Check for air in the fuel system. Repair source
of leak and bleed air from the system.
Air in the fuel system
OK
Check the air intake system for restriction.
Clean or replace the air filter and inlet piping as
necessary.
Air intake system restriction is above
specification
OK
Inspect the air intake and exhaust systems for
air leaks.
Air intake or exhaust leaks
OK
Exhaust brake adjustment is not correct
Check the exhaust brake adjustment.
OK
(Continued)
Diesel Engine
22
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Engine Acceleration or Response Poor (Continued)
Correction
Cause
Exhaust system restriction is above
specification
OK
Check the exhaust system for restriction.
Perform a pop test on the injector(s).
Injector is malfunctioning
OK
Correction
Fuel grade is not correct for the application or
the fuel quality is poor.
OK
Operate the engine from a tank of high-quality
fuel.
Check the fuel supply line from the fuel pump to
the cylinder head for sharp bends that can
cause restriction.
Fuel supply line restriction between the fuel
pump and the injection.
OK
Analyze the oil and inspect the filters to locate
an area of probable damage.
Internal engine damage
Diesel Engine
23
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Engine Will Not Crank or Cranks Slowly
This is symptom tree T-078.
Cause
Correction
Battery cables or connections are loose,
broken, or corroded (excessive resistance)
OK
Check the battery cables and connections.
Battery cables are not the correct gauge or
length
OK
Replace the battery cables with larger gauge or
shorter length cables.
Battery capacity is below specification
Replace the batteries if necessary.
OK
Check the starter interlock devices. Refer to the
starter service manual.
Starter interlock devices engaged
OK
Check the batteries and the unswitched battery
supply circuit.
Battery voltage is low
OK
Engine-driven units are engaged
Disengage engine-driven units.
OK
Starting circuit component is malfunctioning
Refer to the electric schematic.
OK
Remove the starting motor, and inspect the
gear. Refer to starter manual.
Starting motor pinion or ring gear is damaged
OK
Lubricating oil does not meet specifications for
operating conditions
OK
Change the oil and filters.
Install an oil pan heater, or drain the oil and fill
the system with warm oil.
Lubricating oil temperature is below 20℃
OK
Remove the injectors and rotate the crankshaft.
Look for the source of fluid in the cylinder.
Hydraulic lock in a cylinder
OK
(Continued)
Diesel Engine
24
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Engine Will Not Crank or Cranks Slowly (Continued)
Cause
Correction
Lubricating oil level is above specification
Check the oil level. Verify the dipstick
calibration and oil pan capacity. Fill the system
to the specified level.
OK
Analyze the oil and inspect the filters to locate
an area of probable damage.
Internal engine damage
Diesel Engine
25
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Engine Cranks But Will Not Start (No Exhaust Smoke)
This is symptom tree T-003.
Cause
Correction
Fuel level low in the tank
Fill the supply tank.
OK
Improper fuel is being used
Drain fuel and replace with correct fuel.
OK
Clogged fuel tank air breather hole
Clean the fuel tank breather.
OK
Engine does start when voltage is applied to
the fuel cut solenoid valve
OK
Troubleshoot and repair the circuit wiring.
Engine does not start when voltage is applied
to the fuel cut solenoid valve
OK
Replace the fuel cut solenoid valve.
Clogged prefilter
Clean the prefilter.
OK
Clogged fuel filter or strainer
Clean or replace the fuel filter or strainer.
OK
Clogged or leaking fuel piping
Clean and repair the fuel piping.
OK
Feed pump is damaged or seized
Replace the feed pump.
OK
Injector are plugged
Replace the injectors.
OK
Injection pump driveshaft or driveshaft key is
damaged
Diesel Engine
Repair or replace the injection pump.
26
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Engine Difficult to Start or Will Not Start (Exhaust Smoke)
This is symptom tree T-004.
Cause
Correction
Starting aid malfunctioning or heater mount
Does not become warm
OK
Replace the starting aid.
Crank speed is too slow (minimum crank
Speed: 150 rpm)
OK
Verify drive units are not engaged. Check the
Battery and recharge or replace.
Improper fuel is being used
Drain fuel and replace with correct fuel.
OK
Clogged air cleaner element
Clean or replace the air cleaner element.
OK
Clogged prefilter
Clean the prefilter.
OK
Clogged fuel filter or strainer
Clean or replace the fuel filter or strainer.
OK
Leakage, clogging, air in fuel system
Repair and clean the fuel filter or strainer.
OK
Injection pump timing is incorrect
Retime the injection pump.
OK
(Continued)
Diesel Engine
27
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Engine Difficult to Start or Will Not Start (Exhaust Smoke) (Continued)
Cause
Correction
Overhead adjustments are not correct
Measure and adjust the overhead settings.
OK
Inspect the rocker levers, rocker shafs, and
valve for excessive damage. Replace as
necessary.
Overhead components are damaged
OK
Replace the defective or clogged injection
nozzle
Defective or clogged injection nozzle
OK
Injection pump is malfunctioning
Repair or replace the injection pump.
OK
Worn piston ring or cylinder resulting in low
compression
Diesel Engine
Replace the worn piston ring or cylinder.
28
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Engine Has Poor Respones
This is symptom tree T-005.
Cause
Correction
Clogged air cleaner element
Clean or replace the air cleaner element
OK
Clogged fuel tank air breather hole
Clean the fuel tank breather.
OK
Clogged prefilter
Clean or replace the fuel filter or strainer.
OK
Clogged fuel filter or strainer
Clean and repair the fuel piping
OK
Clogged or leaking fuel piping
Clean and adjust the overhead settings.
OK
Overhead adjustments are not correct
Measure and adjust the overhead settings.
OK
Defective contact of valve or valve seat
Resulting in low compression
OK
Replace the cylinder head.
Replace the defective or clogged injection
nozzle.
Defective or clogged injection nozzle
OK
Injection pump is malfunctioning
Repair or replace the injection pump.
OK
Worn piston ring or cylinder resulting in low
Compression
Diesel Engine
Replace the worn piston ring or cylinder.
29
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Engine Stops During Operation
This is symptom tree T-006.
Cause
Correction
Chassis powertrain is damaged or overloaded
Refer to the OEM’s service manuals.
OK
Fuel level low in the tank
Fill the supply tank.
OK
Clogged fuel tank air breather hole
Clean the fuel tank breather.
OK
Clogged prefilter
Clean the prefilter.
OK
Clogged fuel filter or strainer
Clean and or replace the fuel filter or strainer.
OK
Clogged or leaking fuel piping
Clean and repair the fuel piping.
OK
Feed pump piston is damaged or seized
Replace the feed pump.
OK
Inspect the rocker levers, rocker shafts, and
valves for excessive damage. Replace as
necessary.
Overhead components are damaged
OK
Injection pump is malfunctioning
Replace the injection pump.
OK
Gear train damaged or seized
Refer to OEM’s service manuals.
OK
Piston or connecting rod is damaged
Replace damaged piston or connecting rod.
OK
Crankshaft bearing is damaged
Diesel Engine
Replace damaged crankshaft bearing.
30
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Engine Runs Rough or Misfires
This is symptom tree T-007.
Cause
Correction
Fuel level low in the tank
Fill the supply tank.
OK
Clogged fuel tank air breather hole
Clean the fuel tank breather.
OK
Low idle speed is adjusted too low
Adjust the low idle speed.
OK
Clogged prefilter
Clean the prefilter.
OK
Clogged fuel filter or strainer
Clean or replace the fuel filter or strainer.
OK
Line between the fuel tank and feed pump
are clogged or have air in them
OK
Clean and repair the lines.
Line between the feed pump and the injector
nozzle are clogged or have air in them
OK
Clean and repair the lines.
Injection pump is malfunctioning
Diesel Engine
Replace the injection pump.
31
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Engine Power Output Low
This is symptom tree T-008.
Cause
Correction
Improper fuel is being used
Drain and replace the fuel with the correct fuel.
OK
Clogged air cleaner element
Clean or replace the air cleaner element.
OK
Clogged fuel tank air breather hole
Clean the fuel tank breather.
OK
Full throttle can not be achieved because the
fuel lever linkage is bent or not adjusted
correctly
OK
Repair or adjust the fuel lever linkage.
Clogged prefilter
Clean the prefilter.
OK
Clogged fuel filter or strainer
Clean and or replace the fuel filter or strainer.
OK
Clogged or leaking fuel piping
Clean and repair the fuel piping.
OK
Feed pump is defective
Replace the feed pump.
OK
Overhead adjustments are not correct
Measure and adjust the overhead settings.
OK
(Continued)
Diesel Engine
32
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Engine Power Output Low (Continued)
Cause
Correction
Defective contact of valve or seat
Resulting in low compression
OK
Replace the cylinder head.
Replace the defective or clogged injection
nozzle.
Defective or clogged injection nozzle
OK
Injection pump is malfunctioning
Replace the injection pump.
OK
Worn piston ring or cylinder resulting in low
compression
Diesel Engine
Replace the worn piston ring or cylinder.
33
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Excessive Exhaust (Black Smoke)
This is symptom tree T-009.
Cause
Correction
Engine is overloaded
Check for added loading from malfunctioning
accessories or driven units, brakes dragging,
and other changes in vehicle, vessel, or
equipment loading.
OK
Inspect the air cleaner element. Replace as
needed.
Plugged air filter
OK
Exhaust system restriction
Check the exhaust system for any restrictions.
OK
Intake air leak between turbocharger and
cylinder head
OK
Inspect for air leaks.
Check and correct any leaks in the exhaust
manifold gaskets. Check for a cracked exhaust
manifold.
Exhaust leaks at the manifold
OK
Clogged nozzles
Clean the nozzles.
OK
Throttle lever, return spring, linkage or air
throttle cylinder damaged or improperly
adjusted
OK
Check for proper operation of components.
Worn piston rings (blue smoke)
Check piston rings. Replace as needed.
OK
Fuel injection timing is not correct
Diesel Engine
Check the fuel pump timing
34
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Excessive Exhaust (White Smoke)
This is symptom tree T-009.
Cause
Correction
Starting procedure is not correct
Verify the correct starting procedure. Refer to
Procedure (Normal Starting Procedure) in the
Operation and Maintenance Manual.
OK
Coolant temperature is below specification or
the intake manifold air temperature is below
specification
OK
Check the air heater or warm the coolant water
by heater core.
Verify by operating the engine from a temporary
supply of number 2 diesel fuel. Check fuel
specifications for proper fuel grade.
Poor fuel quality or wrong fuel grade
OK
Put the engine at top dead center. Check and
adjust the fuel timing.
Fuel injection pump timing is not correct
OK
Check to see if an extra sealing washer is
installed under injector. Remove any additional
sealing washer. Only one is required.
Injector sealing washer not correct
OK
Remove and test the injectors. Replace as
necessary.
Injectors worn or malfunctioning
OK
Coolant is leaking into the combustion chamber
(If equipted)
Refer to the Coolant Loss – Internal symptom
tree.
OK
Remove the fuel injection pump. Check the
calibration of the fuel injection pump.
Fuel injection pump is malfunctioning.
Diesel Engine
35
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Lubricating Oil Consumption Excessive
This is symptom tree T-010.
Cause
Correction
Lubricating oil leak (external)
Inspect the engine the external oil leaks.
Tighten the capscrews, pipe plugs, and fittings.
Replace the gaskets if necessary.
OK
Intake system is contaminated with dust
Remove and clean intake manifold.
OK
Dipstick is not calibrated correctly
Verify the dipstick is correctly marked.
OK
Breather or breather hose is clogged
Clean the breather and breather hose.
OK
Rear crankshaft seal or seal surface is
damaged
OK
Repair or replace seal and surface.
Valve stem, guide, or seal is damaged
Repair or replace the damaged component.
OK
Replace the worn or broken piston ring or
cylinder.
Worn or broken piston ring or cylinder
Diesel Engine
36
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Lubricating Oil Contaminated
This is symptom tree T-011.
Cause
Correction
Breather or breather hose is clogged
Clean the breather and breather hose.
OK
Lubricating oil filter is clogged
Replace the filter.
OK
Refer to Exhaust Gas Is Black (Incomplete
Combustion).
Exhaust gas is black
OK
Defective contact of valve or valve seat
resulting in low compression
OK
Repair the valve or valve seat.
Worn piston ring or cylinder resulting in low
Compression
Diesel Engine
Replace the worn piston ring or cylinder.
37
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Fuel consumption Is Excessive
This is symptom tree T-012.
Cause
Correction
Overloading from malfunctioning accessories
Check and repair the accessories. Refer to the
OEM’s service manuals.
OK
Refer to the operation and maintenance manual
for proper operating speeds and loads.
Operator technique is not correct
OK
Check the fuel lines, fuel connections, and fuel
filters for leaks. Check the fuel lines to the
supply tanks. Refer to the OEM’s service
manual.
Fuel leaks (external)
OK
Assure good-quality No.2 diesel fuel is being
used.
Poor-quality fuel or No.1 fuel is being used
OK
Refer to troubleshooting logic for Exhaust Gas
is Blake.
Intake or exhaust restriction
OK
Replace the defective or clogged injection
nozzle.
Defective or clogged injection nozzle
OK
Incorrect injection timing
Adjust injection timing.
OK
Injection pump is adjusted incorrectly causing
excessive injection
Diesel Engine
Adjust or replace the injection pump.
38
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Coolant Contamination
This is symptom tree T-013.
Cause
Correction
Coolant is rusty
Review the coolant change interval. Drain and
flush the system. Fill the system with the
Correct mixture of coolant and water.
OK
Lubricating oil cooler for powertrain is damaged
Refer to the OEM’s service manual.
OK
Cylinder head gasket is cracked or damaged
Replace the cylinder head or gasket.
OK
Cylinder block is cracked or porous
Diesel Engine
Replace the cylinder block.
39
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Coolant Loss
This is symptom tree T-013.1
Cause
Correction
Inspect the radiator heater, hoses, and
connection to locate the leak. If oil is present in
the coolant, check for a transmission or
lubricating oil cooler leak.
Radiator or cab heater is leaking
OK
Inspect the engine and components for seal,
gasket, or drain cock leaks.
External engine leak
OK
Review the operation for overheating and low
power. Refer to troubleshooting logic for
Coolant Temperature Above Normal.
Overheating or compression gases are leaking
Resulting in loss through the radiator overflow
OK
Check for mixing of coolant and transmission
fluid.
Transmission cooler is leaking (if equipped)
OK
Cylinder head gasket is leaking
Check or replace the head gasket.
OK
Cylinder head is cracked or porous
Check or replace the cylinder head.
OK
Cylinder block coolant passages are leaking
Diesel Engine
Check or replace the cylinder block.
40
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Lubricating Oil Pressure Is Low
This is symptom tree T-014.
Cause
Correction
Check the oil level. Verify the dipstick
calibration and the oil pan capacity. Fill the
system to the specified level.
Lubricating oil lever is below specification
OK
Oil level or pressure sensor is damaged
Replace the oil lever or oil pressure sensor.
OK
Lubricating oil filter is clogged
Replace the filter
OK
Fuel or coolant is in the lubricating oil.
Refer to Oil Level Rises symptom tree.
OK
Regulator or relief valve is not adjusted
Correctly
Adjust the regulator or relief valve.
OK
Lubricating oil pan strainer is clogged
Clean the strainer.
OK
Lubricating oil suction tube is damaged
Repair or replace the suction tube.
OK
Lubricating oil pump is damaged
Replace the oil pump.
OK
Main or rod bearing is worn or damaged
Diesel Engine
Replace the bearing
41
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Oil Level Rises
This is symptom tree T-015.
Cause
Correction
Rear crankshaft seal or seal surface is
damaged
OK
Repair or replace seal and surface
Replace the auxiliary pump. Refer to the OEM’s
service manual.
Auxiliary equipment has damaged pump seal
OK
Injector sleeve is damaged
Replace the injector sleeve.
OK
Fuel injector is leaking inside cylinder head
Replace the injector.
OK
Injector pump seal is leaking
Remove and repair the injection pump.
OK
Cylinder head or head gasket is cracked or
damaged
OK
Replace the cylinder head or gaeket.
Cylinder block is cracked or porous
Diesel Engine
Replace the cylinder block.
42
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Coolant Temperature above Normal
This is symptom tree T-016.
Cause
Correction
Inspect the engine and radiator for external
coolant leaks.
Coolant level is below specification
OK
Fan belt is slipping or the fan pulley is worn
Replace the fan belt or pulley.
OK
Water temperature gauge is malfunctioning
Replace the water temperature gauge.
OK
Radiator fin is clogged or crushed
Clean, repair, or replace the radiator.
OK
Radiator core is clogged
Clean and repair the radiator.
OK
Thermostat is defective and does not open
Replace the thermostat.
OK
Water pump is damaged
Replace the water pump.
OK
Cylinder head or head gasket is cracked or
damaged
Diesel Engine
Replace the cylinder head or graket.
43
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Excessive Noise
This is symptom tree T-017.
Cause
Correction
Belt is squeaking due to insufficient tension or
abnormally high loading
OK
Check and adjust belt tension. Make sure all the
pulleys rotate freely.
Refer to Exhaust Gas is Black troubleshooting
tree.
Exhaust leaks
OK
Gear train backlash is not adjusted correctly
Adjust the backlash for the gear train.
OK
Idler gear bushing is damaged or missing
Replace the idler gear bushing.
OK
Replace the defective or clogged injection
nozzle.
Defective or clogged injection nozzle
OK
Overhead adjustments are not correct
Measure and adjust the overhead settings.
OK
Inspect the rocker levers, rocker shafts, and
valves for excessive damage.
Overhead components are damaged
OK
(Continued)
Diesel Engine
44
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Excessive Noise (Continued)
Cause
Correction
Injection pump is adjusted incorrectly
Adjust or replace the injection pump.
OK
Worn piston ring or cylinder resulting in low
compression
Diesel Engine
Replace the worn piston ring or cylinder.
45
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Engine Vibration Excessive
This is symptom tree T-018.
Cause
Correction
Engine mounting bolts are loose or the engine
mounting cushion is broken
OK
Replace the engine mounting bolts or cushion.
Repair the alignment. Refer to the OEM’s
service manual.
Engine and powertrain is out of alignment
OK
Gear train backlash is not adjusted correctly
Adjust the backlash for the gear train.
OK
Inspect the rocker levers, rocker shafts, and
valves for excessive damage. Replace as
necessary.
Overhead components are damaged
OK
Cam bushing is worn
Replace the cam bushing.
OK
Injection pump is adjusted incorrectly
Adjust or replace the injection pump.
OK
Main bearing or connecting rod is worn or
damaged
Diesel Engine
Replace the connecting rod or main bearing.
46
Troubleshooting Symptoms
Complete Engine
Engine Disassembly
Service Tool
Part No.
3375193
or
3375194
3163625
3163292
3397890
3823137
Part Name
Unit Repair Stand or Engine Overhaul Stand
Quantity
1
Bracket
Valve Spring Compressor
Flange Puller
Piston Ring Expansion Tool
1
1
1
1
Engine Removal
NOTE:
Put tag on all hoses, lines, linkage, and
electrical connections as they are removed
to identify location and aid the installation
process.
fp8hola
WARNING
Always disconnect the negative (-) cable first.
Disconnect the battery cables.
WARNING
Allow the engine to cool before draining to avoid
burns from hot liquid.
ea8wrha
WARNING
Coolant is toxic. Keep away from children and
animals. Save for reuse or dispose of in
accordance with local regulations.
Drain the engine coolant.
Diesel Engine
47
Complete Engine
WARNING
Some state and federal agencies in the United
States of America have determined that used oil
is carcinogenic and can cause reproductive
toxicity. Avoid inhalation of vapors, ingestion,
and prolonged contact with used engine oil.
Always use the proper procedures to dispose of
the oil.
Drain the lubricating oil.
op800li
Engine Oil: 7.5 liters [1.98 U.S.gal]
Disconnect the starter cable, engine ground straps,
cab or chassis to engine hoses, tubing, electrical
wires and hydraulic lines.
Disconnect the intake and exhaust system pipes.
oi400hc
Disconnect the drive units from the flywheel housing
and flywheel.
tr400wa
Diesel Engine
48
Complete Engine
Remove all chassis components necessary to
remove the engine from the equipment.
ra400ha
Prepare a stable stand, Part No. 3375193 or 3375194,
which will prevent the engine from falling over.
Engine Weight (approx.): 255 kg [562 lb]
00900154
Remove the starting motor.
00900156
Install the bracket, Part No. 3163625, on the engine.
00900207
Diesel Engine
49
Complete Engine
WARNING
This component weighs 23 kg [50 lb] or more. To
avoid personal injury, use a hoist or get
assistance to lift this component. The engine
lifting equipment must be designed to lift the
engine without causing personal injury.
Put the engine on the stand.
00900208
Cover all the engine openings to prevent dirt and
debris from entering the engine.
00900209
Fan Pulley
WARNING
Be careful not to injure your fingers or damage
the alternator when moving the alternator toward
the cylinder block.
Loosen the mounting capscrew of the adjustment
plate (1). Loosen the alternator mounting capscrew
and nut.
Move the alternator toward the cylinder block, and
remove the belt (2).
Remove the fan pulley.
00900158
Fan
Remove the four capscrews, retainer plate, fan, and
spacer.
00900157
Diesel Engine
50
Complete Engine
Alternator
Remove the adjusting capscrew and washer.
Remove the capscrew, adjustment plate, and spacer.
Remove the remaining capscrew and alternator.
00900159
Lubricating Oil Filter
Remove the lubricating oil filter.
00900155
Dipstick Guide
Remove the dipstick and dipstick guide.
00900160
Water Pump
Remove the mounting capscrews, water pump,
gasket, and o-ring.
Discard the gasket and o-ring.
00900161
Diesel Engine
51
Complete Engine
Thermostat
Remove the two mounting capscrews, thermostat
housing, thermostat and seal.
18900025
Exhaust Manifold
Remove the eight capscrews, exhaust manifold, and
gasket.
Discard the gasket.
00900162
Fuel Injection Tubing
Remove the clamp.
Remove the sleeve nuts and the fuel injection tubing
from the fuel injection pump and the cylinder head.
00900163
Intake Manifold
Remove the eight capscrews, intake manifold, and air
inlet connection. Remove the grid heated, if equipped.
Remove the four capscrews, air inlet connection, and
o-ring. Discard the o-ring.
00900164
Diesel Engine
52
Complete Engine
Spill Tube
Remove the spring hose clamps and hose.
Remove the spill tube.
00900166
Injector
CAUTION
Be careful not to damage the tip of the injector
when removing.
Remove the mounting capscrew, washer, and injector.
NOTE:
When removing the injector, clean around
the injector, and insert a blind plug to
prevent dust or dirt from entering the engine.
NOTE:
Mark the injectors with tags showing the
cylinder number, and keep it in a safe place.
If there is no abnormality in the injector,
install it in the same position during
assembly.
00900167
Rocker Lever Cover
Remove the three capscrews, isolator assemblies,
rocker lever cover, and o-ring.
03900075
Diesel Engine
53
Complete Engine
00900251
Rocker Arm Assembly
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Rocker Shaft
Adjusting Screw Lock Nut
Pedestal Mounting Capscrews
Separating Spring
Rocker Shaft Indexing Screw
Pedestal Mounting Stud
7. Cup Plug
8. Snap Ring
9. Thrust Washer (if equipped)
10. Rocker Lever Pedestal
11. Rocker Lever
12. Adjusting Screw.
Rocker Arm Assembly
Remove the mounting capscrews and the rocker arm
assembly.
NOTE:
When removing the rocker arm, loosen the
locknut, and turn the adjustment screw
counterclockwise 2 to 3 turns.
00900169
Diesel Engine
54
Complete Engine
Pushrods
Remove the pushrods from the cylinder head.
NOTE:
Mark the pushrods with tags showing the
cylinder number, and keep it in a safe place.
If there is no abnormality in the push rod,
install it in the same position during
assembly.
00900170
Cylinder Head Assembly
WARNING
This component weighs 23 kg [50 lb] or more. To
avoid personal injury, use a hoist or get
assistance to lift this component.
Remove the mounting capscrews, cylinder head
assembly, and gasket.
Discard the gasket.
00900171
Cylinder Head Assembly - Disassembly
Using the spring pusher, Part No. 3398179, compress
the valve spring, and remove the valve collets.
00900172
Loosen the spring, and remove the spring seat and
valve spring.
00900173
Diesel Engine
55
Complete Engine
Raise the cylinder head, and remove the valve.
NOTE:
Mark the valves with tags to show the place
of installation and keep in a safe place.
00900174
Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary
CAUTION
Do not drop the nut, washer, or key. Failure to do
so will result in the need to remove the front gear
cover.
Remove the gear cover access cap.
Rotate the engine until the keyway is vertical.
05900254
Remove the nut and washer from the fuel injection
pump shaft.
Remove the injection pump support bracket.
Remove the two mounting capscrews.
Remove the fuel injection pump.
Remove the key.
00900211
PTO Shaft (if applicable)
Remove the two capscrews, flange, o-ring, and PTO
shaft.
00900177
Diesel Engine
56
Complete Engine
Lubricating Oil Pan
Remove the 24 capscrews, lubricating oil pan, and
gasket.
Discard the gasket.
00900178
Lubricating Oil Suction Tube
Remove the two mounting capscrews, lubricating oil
suction tube, and o-ring.
Discard the o-ring.
00900179
Crankshaft Pulley
Remove the capscrew and mounting plate.
00900180
Remove the crankshaft pulley using flange puller,
Part No. 3397890.
00900212
Diesel Engine
57
Complete Engine
Gear Housing Cover
Remove the 17 capscrews and the gear housing
cover.
00900181
NOTE:
A noise damper is installed on some
engines. The noise damper must be
removed prior to removing the front oil seal.
Remove the front oil seal from the gear housing cover.
00900182
Lubricating Oil Pump
Remove the five capscrews and the lubricating oil
pump.
00900183
Idler Gear
Remove the capscrew, retainer plate, and idler gear.
NOTE:
If a PTO is installed, the idler gear uses a
bearing.
00900184
Diesel Engine
58
Complete Engine
Camshaft Assembly
Remove the two mounting capscrews through the
casting holes in the camshaft gear.
00900185
Remove the thrust plate and camshaft assembly.
NOTE:
When removing the camshaft, lightly rotate
the shaft while being careful not to damage
the bushing.
00900186
Flywheel
WARNING
This component weighs 23 kg [50 lb] or more. To
avoid personal injury, use a hoist or get
assistance to lift this component.
WARNING
00900187
The pilot is short, so the flywheel can come off
suddenly.
Remove the six capscrews, retaining plate, coupling,
and flywheel.
Diesel Engine
59
Complete Engine
Flywheel Housing
WARNING
This component weighs 23 kg [50 lb] or more. To
avoid personal injury, use a hoist or get
assistance to lift this component.
Remove the nine capscrews, rear oil seal, and
flywheel housing.
00900188
Remove the rear oil seal.
00900189
Block Water Heater
NOTE:
Be sure the engine coolant has been
drained.
Disconnect the block heater electrical cord.
cs900wf
Loosen the block heater retaining nut.
Remove the block heater from the block.
cs900mb
Diesel Engine
60
Complete Engine
Piston, Connecting Rod Assembly
Remove
Rotate the crankshaft with an engine barring tool until
the pistons are below the carbon deposits, which are
found above the ring travel area.
pi900we
CAUTION
Do not use emery cloth or sandpaper to remove
carbon from the cylinder bores. Aluminum oxide
or silicon particles from these materials can
cause serious engine damage.
Use a scraper or a blunt-edged instrument to loosen
the carbon deposits. Do not damage the cylinder with
the scraper.
ck9bree
Remove the remaining carbon deposits with an
abrasive pad, Part Number 3823258, or equivalent.
ck9bref
Diesel Engine
61
Complete Engine
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury
CAUTION
Do not use the steel wire wheel in the piston
travel area. Operate the wheel in a circular motion
to remove the deposits.
ck9breg
NOTE:
An inferior quality wire wheel will lose steel
bristles during operation, thus causing
additional contamination.
An alternative method to remove the carbon ridge is
to use a high-quality steel wire wheel installed in a
drill or die grinder.
On pistons with anodized coatings, do not stamp the
anodized coating on the outer rim.
Mark each piston according to the cylinder location
pi900gc
Rotate the crankshaft to position the connecting rod
caps at bottom dead center for removal.
Mark each connecting rod and connecting rod cap
according to the cylinder number location.
cx9cahb
Diesel Engine
62
Complete Engine
NOTE:
Do not remove the capscrews from the
connecting rods at this time.
Loosen the connecting rod capscrews.
Use a rubber hammer to hit the connecting rod
capscrews to loosen the caps.
01d00094
Remove the connecting rod capscrews.
Remove the connecting rod cap.
01d00095
Remove the lower connecting rod bearing.
Mark the cylinder number and the letter “L” (lower) on
the flat surface of the bearing tang.
Push the connecting rod and piston assembly out of
the cylinder bore. Care must be taken not to damage
the connecting rod or bearing.
Remove the upper rod bearing.
cx9beme
Mark the cylinder number and the letter “U” (upper)
on the flat surface of the bearing tang.
cx9bega
Diesel Engine
63
Complete Engine
The piston and connecting rod assemblies must be
installed in the same cylinder number from which they
were removed, to provide proper fit of worn mating
surfaces, if parts are reused.
Use a tag to mark the cylinder number from which
each piston and rod assembly were removed.
Place the rod and piston assemblies in a container to
protect them from damage.
01c00167
Main Bearing Cap
Rotate the cylinder block so that the bottom of the
block is facing up.
00900201
Measure the end play of the crankshaft using a dial
gauge.
NOTE:
The end play measurement is necessary for
determining the wear of the thrust bearing
and abnormal wear of the crankshaft.
Crankshaft End Play
mm
0.131
0.351
MIN
MAX
in
0.0052
0.0138
00900202
Remove the mounting capscrews of the main bearing
cap.
Remove the main bearing cap and lower bearing.
NOTE:
Mark the thrust bearings so that they can be
installed into the correct position.
The main bearing cap mounting capscrews
must be replaced after each use.
00900203
Diesel Engine
64
Complete Engine
Crankshaft
CAUTION
Be careful not to hit the crankshaft against the
cylinder block and damage the sliding surface.
Remove the crankshaft.
00900204
Remove the upper main bearing.
NOTE: Mark the main bearings and thrust bearing
so that they can be installed into the correct
position.
00900205
Tappet
Remove the tappet.
00900205
Diesel Engine
65
Complete Engine
Engine Assembly
Service Tools
Part No.
3375193
or
3375194
3163625
3163292
3823137
3397773
Part Name
Quantity
Unit Repair Stand or Engine Overhaul Stand
1
Bracket
Valve Spring Compressor
Piston Ring Expansion Tool
Piston Ring Compressor
1
1
1
1
Setting the Unit in the Repair Stand
Install bracket, Part No. 3163625, to the cylinder
block.
00900213
WARNING
This component weighs 23 kg [50 lb] or more. To
avoid personal injury, use a hoist or get
assistance to lift this component. The engine
lifting equipment must be designed to lift the
engine without causing personal injury.
Put the engine block on the stand.
00900214
Diesel Engine
66
Complete Engine
Tappet
NOTE:
Rotate the engine block so that the cylinder
head side is down.
Coat the tappet with engine oil and install into the
block.
00900215
Crankshaft
CAUTION
Confirm that there is no dirt or dust stuck to the
rear face of the bearing before installation. Debris
behind the bearing can cause severe engine
damage.
NOTE:
Coat the inside face of the bearing with
engine oil (SAE 30) before installation.
Align the protrusion of the upper main bearing with
the notch in the cylinder block.
00900216
Install the upper main bearings.
CAUTION
Do not hit the crankshaft against the cylinder
block. Damage to the block or crankshaft can
occur.
Position the crankshaft and gear in the cylinder block.
00900204
Diesel Engine
67
Complete Engine
Main Bearing Cap
CAUTION
Confirm that there is no dirt or dust stuck to the
rear face of the bearing before installation. Debris
behind the bearing can cause severe engine
damage.
NOTE:
00900217
Coat the inside face of the bearing with
engine oil (SAE 30) before installation. The
number stamped on the main bearing cap
must be the same as the number stamped
on the cylinder block.
Align the protrusion in the lower main bearing with the
notch in the cap.
Install the lower main bearing into the main bearing
cap.
• Casting number or cast arrow on the main
bearing cap must face toward the front of the
engine.
• New main bearing mounting capscrews must be
used.
• Coat the capscrew threads and seat face with
engine oil.
Position the main bearing caps and capscrews.
00900218
CAUTION
Install each thrust bearing with the oil groove on
the outside. Failure to do so will cause engine
damage or failure.
CAUTION
Do not let the thrust bearings slip out of place.
Engine damage or failure will result if the thrust
bearings are not properly installed.
00900219
NOTE:
Casting number or cast arrow on the main
bearing cap must face toward the front of
the engine. The thrust bearing is located on
the main bearing closest to the rear of the
engine (No. 5). Align the lower thrust
bearing with the dowel pin.
Install the upper thrust bearing.
Diesel Engine
68
Complete Engine
Tighten the mounting capscrews in the order shown.
Torque Value:
Main Bearing
Capscrews
Step 1
2
3
113 N•m
Loosen all
completely
132 N•m
[83 ft-lb]
capscrews
[98 ft-lb]
00900220
After tightening the mounting capscrews, make sure
the crankshaft rotates smoothly
00900222
Measure the crankshaft end play using a dial
indicator.
Crankshaft End Play
mm
0.131
0.351
MIN
MAX
in
0.0052
0.0138
00900202
Diesel Engine
69
Complete Engine
Piston, and Connecting Rod Assembly
When rebuilding an engine with the original cylinder
block, crankshaft, and pistons, make sure the pistons
are installed in their original cylinders.
If replacing the piston(s), make sure the replacement
piston(s) are the same grade as the original piston(s).
If a new cylinder block or crankshaft is used, the
piston grading procedure must be performed to
determine the proper piston grade for each cylinder.
cx900ha
Install the connecting rod and piston assembly into
the Number 1 cylinder without the rings installed.
The number stamped on the connecting rod and cap
at the parting line must match and be installed on the
oil cooler side of the engine.
Install the connecting rod cap and capscrews to the
connecting rod.
ks900wk
CAUTION
The connecting rods and connecting rod caps are
not interchangeable. The connecting rods and
connecting rod caps are machined as an
assembly. Failure will result if the connecting
rods and caps are mixed.
Install the bearing shells into both the connecting rod
and the connecting rod cap.
Make sure the tang on the bearing shells is in the slot
of the connecting rod cap and connecting rod.
cx9behd
Lubricate the connecting rod bearings with clean
lubricating engine oil.
cx9bewa
Diesel Engine
70
Complete Engine
Immerse the pistons in clean 15W-40 engine
lubricating oil until the rings are covered.
Allow the excess oil to drip off the assembly.
pi800hd
Position the rings so that the ring gaps are 120
degrees apart.
pi9rihb
CAUTION
If using a strap type ring compressor, make sure
the inside end of the strap does not hook on a
ring gap and break the ring.
Use piston ring compressor, Part Number 3164330,
or equivalent, to compress the rings.
00900228
Lubricate the cylinder bore with clean 15W-40 engine
lubricating oil.
The cylinder block must be clean before assembly.
Inspect the cylinder bores for reuse.
ck9brwd
Diesel Engine
71
Complete Engine
Position the connecting rod journal for the piston to
be installed to bottom dead center (BDC).
00900231
Take care to not damage the cylinder wall when
inserting the connecting rod.
Carefully push the piston into the bore while guiding
the connecting rod to the crankshaft journal.
cx900ld
Lubricate the threads and underside of the
connecting rod capscrew heads with clean 15W-40
lubricating engine oil.
cx9cswb
WARNING
The number stamped on the rod and cap at the
parting line must match and be installed on the oil
cooler side of the engine.
Install the connecting rod cap and capscrews.
Tighten the two capscrews in alternating sequence.
Torque Value:
Step 1
Step 2
cx9cshb
Diesel Engine
72
39 n.m
[29 ft-lb]
Rotate each capscrew 90 degrees.
Complete Engine
Do not measure the clearance
connecting rod cap and crankshaft.
between
the
Measure the side clearance between the connecting
rod and crankshaft.
Connecting Rod Cap Side Clearance
Mm
in
0.20
MIN
0.0079
0.40
MAX
0.0160
cx900tb
CAUTION
To reduce the possibility of engine damage, the
crankshaft must rotate freely.
CAUTION
If the connecting rod is not properly oriented
(tang opposite the camshaft), it will contact the
camshaft and lock the engine.
ks900wk
If the connecting rod is not properly oriented (tang
opposite the camshaft), it will contact the camshaft
and lock the engine.
Camshaft Bushings
Apply Loctite primer to the outside diameter of the
camshaft bushing and the inside of the camshaft bore
of the cylinder block.
Allow the primer to dry.
Apply a bead of Loctite 609, or equivalent, to 270
degrees along the edge of the bushing that will be
installed toward the rear of the cylinder block.
cg9bswe
Diesel Engine
73
Complete Engine
CAUTION
Make sure there is no Loctite in the oil hole, or
severe engine damage can occur.
Use extreme care not to apply Loctite to the oil hole in
the camshaft bushing.
01900263
Use a small camshaft bushing driver set, Part
Number 3823942, or equivalent, to install the
camshaft bushing even with the front face of the
cylinder block.
Use a clean, lint-free cloth to wipe off any excessive
Loctite.
01900261
CAUTION
Make sure there is no Loctite in the oil hole, or
severe engine damage can occur.
Make sure the lubricating oil hole in the camshaft
bushing is aligned with the camshaft oil hole in the
cylinder block.
A 3.2-mm [0.126-in] diameter rod must be able to
pass through the lubricating oil hole.
01900264
Camshaft
Thrust Bearing
Install the thrust bearing.
00900186
Diesel Engine
74
Complete Engine
Camshaft
Install
NOTE:
When installing the camshaft, rotate the
camshaft slightly while being careful not to
damage the bushing.
Install the thrust plate, camshaft assembly, and two
capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews through the casting holes in
the camshaft gear.
00900238
Torque Value: 19 N•m
[14 ft-lb]
Measure the end play of the camshaft.
Camshaft End Play
mm
0.150
0.350
MIN
MAX
in
0.0059
0.0138
00900239
Idler Gear, Camshaft
Align the match marks of the idler gear, crankshaft
gear, and camshaft gear. The match marks are
identified as follows:
• Crankshaft Gear and Idler Gear: A
• Idler Gear and Camshaft Gear: B
• Fuel Pump and Idler Gear: C
• Lower case letters identify oil pump and
accessory drive, which are not timed.
00900241
If a PTO accessory drive is used on the engine, the
idler gear uses two bearings.
Install the idler shaft, rear bearing, rear spacer plate,
and idler gear.
Install the front bearing, plate, shim, and capscrew.
Tighten the capscrew.
Torque Value: 110 N•m
[81ft-lb]
01900258
Diesel Engine
75
Complete Engine
Measure the end play of the idler gear.
00900243
Position the fuel injection pump assembly temporarily.
Measure the backlash of each gear with a dial
indicator, 3376050, or equivalent.
00900244
Match mark alignment:
Naturally Aspirated
Backlash
A
Crankshaft gear
and idler gear
0.08 mm to 0.19 mm
[0.0031 in to 0.007 in]
B
Camshaft gear
and idler gear
0.08 mm to 0.19 mm
[0.0031 in to 0.007 in] Aspirated
Injection pump
gear and idler gear
0.07 mm to 0.29 mm
[0.003 in to 0.011 in]
a
Camshaft gear
and oil pump gear
0.15 mm to 0.30 mm
[0.006 in to 0.012 in]
b
Camshaft gear
and PTO gear
0.03mm to 0.050mm
[0.0012 in 0.0035 in]
C
Clearance Between Bushing and Shaft
End Play of Idler Gear
Diesel Engine
76
Replacement
Limit:
0.40 mm
[0.0157 in]
0.015 mm to 0.050 mm
[0.0006 in to 0.002 in]
Replacement Limit:
0.10 mm [0.0039 in]
0.03 mm to 0.09 mm
[0.0012 in to 0.0035 in]
Replacement Limit:
0.20 mm [0.0079 in]
Complete Engine
Fly Wheel Housing
NOTE:
Make sure the crankshaft oil seal is not
damaged during installation.
Lubricate the crankshaft oil seal with Lubriplate™ 105,
or equivalent.
Install the crankshaft oil seal into the flywheel housing.
Inspect the rear face of the cylinder block and
flywheel housing mounting surface for cleanliness
and raised nicks or burrs.
00900188
Install the flywheel housing over the two dowel pins.
Tighten the flywheel housing mounting capscrews in
the sequence shown in the illustration.
Torque Value: 69 N•m [51ft-lb]
16900118
Flywheel
Install the guide pins, Part Number 3376696, or
equivalent, into the empty capscrew holes 180
degrees apart.
Determine the capscrew thread design and size, and
install two T-handles in the flywheel 180 degrees
apart on a horizontal plane.
Install the coupling, retaining plate, and flywheel.
Coat all capscrews with clean lubricating engine oil.
00900187
Install four of the six mounting capscrews into the
flywheel. Hand tighten.
Remove the guide pins and install the remaining two
mounting capscrews. Hand tighten.
Diesel Engine
77
Complete Engine
Tighten the mounting capscrews in the sequence
shown in the illustration.
Torque Value: Step 1 108 N•m [80ft-lb]
Step 2 191 N•m [141ft-lb]
16900117
Oil Pump
Install the lubricating oil pump and five capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews.
00900183
Torque Value: 19 N•m
[14 ft-lb]
Measure the end play of the lubricating oil pump drive
gear.
Lubricating Oil Pump Drive Gear End Play
mm
in
0.020
MIN
0.0008
0.070
MAX
0.0028
00900240
Gear Housing Cover
NOTE:
A noise damper is installed on some
engines. The noise damper must be
installed prior to installing the front oil seal.
Install the front oil seal using tool, Part No. 3824498.
Fill 40 to 60 percent of the space in the seal lip with
grease.
00900182
Diesel Engine
78
Complete Engine
CAUTION
Do not apply excessive force to the seal lip
surface when aligning and installing the gear
housing cover. Damage to the engine will occur if
the seal is damaged.
NOTE:
Apply gasket sealant, Part No. 3823494, to
the gear housing cover mounting surface.
Install the gear housing cover and 17 capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews.
00900181
Torque Value:
19 N•m
[14 ft-lb]
Measure the distance in height between the cylinder
block and the gear housing cover.
Maximum Height Difference: 0.15 mm [0.0059 in]
00900247
Crankshaft Pulley
Align the crankshaft pulley with the crankshaft key.
Install the crankshaft pulley, mounting plate, and
capscrew.
Tighten the capscrew.
Torque Value: 93 N•m
[69 ft-lb]
00900180
Lubricating Oil Suction Tube
Install a new o-ring, oil suction tube, and two
capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value: 19 N•m
[14 ft-lb]
00900179
Diesel Engine
79
Complete Engine
Lubricating Oil Pan
NOTE:
Apply a 1-mm [0.039-in] bead of gasket
sealant, Part No. 3823494, to the mounting
surface of the lubricating oil pan.
Install a new gasket, lubricating oil pan, and 24
capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value: 32 N•m [24 ft-lb]
If the oil drain plug was removed, install the drain plug.
Torque Value: 51 N•m [38 ft-lb]
00900178
PTO Shaft (if applicable)
Align the gear of the PTO shaft with the surface teeth
of the camshaft gear.
Install the o-ring, flange, and two capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value: 19 N•m [14 ft-lb]
00900177
Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary
CAUTION
Make sure the key does not fall into the gear
housing. Failure to do so can result in engine
damage.
Install the Woodruff key into the fuel injection pump.
Align the key in the fuel injection pump with the
keyway in the injection pump gear.
fs9keaa
Install the fuel injection pump.
CAUTION
Do not attempt to pull the pump flange into the
gear housing with the mounting nuts. Damage to
fuel pump housing can occur.
Hand tighten the mounting nuts. The fuel pump must
be free to move in the slots.
fp900wi
Diesel Engine
80
Complete Engine
Install the fuel injection pump washer and nut.
Tighten the nut.
Torque Value: 70 N•m
[52 ft-lb]
Refer to the rotary fuel injection timing in this
procedure to make sure the fuel pump is timed
correctly.
ip9nuhb
Tighten the fuel injection pump mounting capscrews.
Torque Value: 31 N•m
[23 ft-lb]
Install the mounting bracket capscrews.
Torque Value: 12 N•m
Torque Value: 14 N•m
[14 ft-lb]
[23 ft-lb]
fp900wi
Install the fuel pump drive access cover.
Tighten the two capscrews.
Torque Value: 10mm
Torque Value: 12mm
13 N•m
19 N•m
[10 ft-lb]
[14 ft-lb]
14900071
Cylinder Head Assembly
NOTE:
Coat the stems of the intake and exhaust
valves and the inside of the valve guides
with engine oil.
Install the valves.
00900174
Diesel Engine
81
Complete Engine
Install the valve spring and spring seat on the valve
stem.
00900173
Install the valve cotter into the valve stem groove
while compressing the valve spring with spring
pusher, Part No. 3398179.
00900172
After releasing the valve spring, tap the top of the
valve stem with a plastic hammer to make certain the
cotter is completely fitted.
00900252
CAUTION
Remove all carbon and dirt from the contact
surfaces of the cylinder block and the cylinder
head. Remove all burrs and damage, and clean
out all the dirt from inside the cylinder block.
Failure to follow these steps will result in severe
engine damage.
Install a new cylinder head gasket with the TOP mark
facing up.
00900253
Diesel Engine
82
Complete Engine
WARNING
This component weighs 23 kg [50 lb] or more. To
avoid personal injury, use a hoist or get
assistance to lift this component.
NOTE:
Coat the capscrew threads with antifriction
compound, Part No. 3824879.
Install the cylinder head using four head capscrews
as guides.
00900254
Install the capscrews. Tighten the capscrews in the
sequence shown.
Torque Value:
Cylinder Head
Capscrews
NOTE:
00900245
Step 1
2
3
69 N•m [51 ft-lb]
108 N•m [80 ft-lb]
Rotate 90 degrees
The cylinder head capscrews can be reused
five times. Make a punch mark on the
capscrew head each time the capscrew is
used. If there are already five marks on the
capscrew head, the capscrew must be
replaced.
Push Rods
NOTE:
If there is no abnormality in the pushrods,
install them in the same position that they
were removed from during disassembly.
00900170
Diesel Engine
83
Complete Engine
00900251
Rocker Arm Assembly
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Rocker Shaft
Adjusting Screw Lock Nut
Pedestal Mounting Capscrews
Separating Spring
Rocker Shaft Indexing Screw
Pedestal Mounting Stud
7. Cup Plug
8. Snap Ring
9. Thrust Washer (only used on some engines)
10. Rocker Lever Pedestal
11. Rocker Lever
12. Adjusting Screw.
Rocker Arm Assembly
NOTE:
Check that the ball of the adjustment screw
is fitted properly into the socket of the
pushrod before tightening the capscrews. If
the valve spring tension pushes against the
rocker arm, loosen the locknut, and turn the
adjustment screw back to prevent strain on
the pushrod.
Install the rocker arm assembly and eight capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value: 25 N•m [18 ft-lb]
00900169
Diesel Engine
84
Complete Engine
Adjusting Valve Clearance
Adjust the valve clearance. Refer to Section 14.
03900077
Rocker Lever Cover
Install the o-ring into the rocker lever cover.
Install the rocker lever cover, three capscrews, and
isolator assemblies.
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value: 9 N•m
[7 ft-lb]
03900075
Injector
Coat the injectors with anti-sieze compound, Part No.
3824879, before installation.
fi9slwb
CAUTION
Be careful not to damage the tip of the injector
when installing.
NOTE:
When installing the injector, clean around
the injector, and do not allow dust or dirt to
enter the engine.
NOTE: If there is no abnormality in the injector,
install it in the same position during
assembly.
Install the injector, washer, and mounting capscrew.
Tighten the capscrew.
Torque Value: 44 N•m [33 ft-lb]
00900167
Diesel Engine
85
Complete Engine
Spill Tube
Install the spill tube.
00900166
Intake Manifold
NOTE:
Apply a 1-mm [0.039-in] bead of gasket
sealant, Part No. 3823494, to the mounting
surface of the intake manifold.
Install the air inlet connection, intake manifold, and
seven capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value: 40 N•m [30 ft-lb]
00900164
Fuel Injection Tubing
NOTE:
Before installing the fuel injection tubing,
blow compressed air through it to clean it.
Position the fuel injection tubing, and loosely install
the sleeve nuts on the fuel injection pump and the
cylinder head.
Tighten the clamp.
Tighten the banjo fittings
Torque Value: 20 N•m [15 ft-lb]
00900163
Exhaust Manifold
Install a new gasket, the exhaust manifold, and the
eight capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value: 66 N•m [49 ft-lb]
00900162
Diesel Engine
86
Complete Engine
Thermostat
Install seal, thermostat, thermostat housing, and two
mounting capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value: 19 N•m [14 ft-lb]
18900025
Water Pump
Install the o-ring, gasket, water pump, and mounting
capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value: 19 N•m [14 ft-lb]
00900161
Dipstick
NOTE:
Apply Loctite™ sealant, Part No. 3375068,
or equivalent, to the outside of the dipstick
tube.
CAUTION
Excessive sealant can run back into the engine
and cause damage to other components.
00900160
Install the dipstick guide.
Install the dipstick.
Lubricating Oil Filter
Install the lubricating oil filter.
NOTE:
Some engines will have an oil filter cooler
mounted between the oil filter and the
engine block.
00900155
Diesel Engine
87
Complete Engine
Block Water Heater
Clean the core plug hole thoroughly. Make sure there
are not burrs or sharp edges that might cut the o-ring.
cs9pxea
Lubricate the new heater o-ring with clean engine oil.
cs9orwa
The locking channel (T-Bar) should be threaded out
to the end of the bolt. If so equipped, do not remove
the retaining wire used to position the channel (T-Bar).
cs900wg
Hook the element and one leg of the channel (T-Bar)
into the hole as illustrated.
cs900wh
Diesel Engine
88
Complete Engine
Hook the other leg of the channel in the hole and
push the heater into the hole as far as possible by
hand.
cs900wi
CAUTION
Do not pull the heater into location with the
locking bolt as the channel (T-Bar) can bend or
cause the threads to strip.
If necessary, use a plastic hammer to tap the heater
in until the shoulder contacts the block.
cs900hb
Tighten the locking bolt.
Torque Value: 2.0 N•m [18 in-lb]
Do not over-tighten the locking bolt.
cs9bona
Insert the power cord into the socket being careful to
align the pins with the sockets of the power cord.
Tighten the retaining nut by hand.
Do not apply power until the cooling system is filled,
and run the engine long enough for the thermostats to
open and ensure all the air has escaped.
cs900hc
Diesel Engine
89
Complete Engine
Alternator
Install the alternator and capscrew.
Install the spacer, mounting capscrew, and
adjustment plate.
Loosely install the washer and adjustment capscrew.
00900159
Fan Pulley
Install the fan pulley.
00900255
Position the fan belt (2) into the fan pulley groove,
and loosely tighten the adjustment capscrew (1).
00900158
Diesel Engine
90
Complete Engine
WARNING
Be careful not to injure your fingers or damage
the alternator when adjusting the belt tension.
Insert a bar or pipe between the alternator and the
cylinder block. Raise the alternator to adjust the fan
tension.
NOTE: The belt must deflect 7 mm to 10 mm [0.28
in to 0.39 in] when pushed with fingerpressure of 6 kg [13 lb] at a point midway
between the fan pulley and the crankshaft
pulley.
00900257
Tighten the adjustment capscrew (1).
Torque Value:
Mounting
Capscrew
Adjustment
Capscrew
31 N•m
[23 ft-lb]
31 N•m
[23 ft-lb]
Fan
Install the spacer, fan, four capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value: 31 N•m [23 ft-lb]
00900157
Remove the covers on all the engine openings that
were installed to prevent dirt and debris from entering
the engine.
00900209
Diesel Engine
91
Complete Engine
WARNING
This component weighs 23 kg [50 lb] or more. To
avoid personal injury, use a hoist or get
assistance to lift this component. The engine
lifting equipment must be designed to lift the
engine without causing personal injury.
Engine Weight (approx.) 330 kg [660 lb]
Remove the engine from the stand.
00900208
Remove the bracket, Part No. 3163625, from the
engine.
00900207
Install the starting motor.
NOTE:
The o-ring is used only on wet flywheel
housings.
00900156
Install all the chassis components that were removed
during removal of the engine from the equipment.
Diesel Engine
92
Complete Engine
Connect the drive units to the flywheel housing and
flywheel.
tr400wa
`
Connect the intake and exhaust system pipes.
oi400ha
Connect the starter cable, engine ground straps, cab
or chassis to engine hoses, tubing, electrical wires,
and hydraulic lines.
WARNING
Always connect the negative (-) cable last.
Connect the battery cables.
sb8coma
WARNING
Some state and federal agencies in the United
States of America have determined that used oil
is carcinogenic and can cause reproductive
toxicity. Avoid inhalation of vapors, ingestion, and
prolonged contact with used engine oil. Always
use the proper procedures to dispose of the oil.
Fill the engine with lubricating oil.
Engine Oil 6.5 liters [1.7 u.s.gal]
07900034
Diesel Engine
93
Complete Engine
WARNING
Coolant is toxic. Keep away from children and
animals. Save for reuse or dispose of in
accordance with local regulations.
Fill the engine with engine coolant.
ra800wn
NOTE:
Remove all tags that were put on all hoses,
lines, linkage, and electrical connections as
they were removed to identify location
during the removal process.
fp8hola
Diesel Engine
94
Complete Engine
Engine System
Bearing, Connecting Rod
Normally, worn bearings can be detected by reduced
oil pressure, but if this wear goes undetected, the
excessive clearance will increase the impact between
the bearing and crankshaft, causing a distinct
knocking sound.
cx9beva
A connecting rod noise occurs when the engine is not
loaded. Check by first applying a load, and then
unloading and listening for the noise.
oi900vd
The connecting rod bearing shells are identified by
steel-stamped characters on the back of the bearings.
The characters indicate either standard (STD) or the
amount of oversize (OS).
mb900gb
Use a barring tool to rotate the crankshaft to the
bottom dead center (BDC) position of the connecting
rod.
cx900wf
Diesel Engine
95
Engine System
Remove the connecting
connecting rod caps.
rod
capscrews
and
cx9csma
Remove the lower bearing shell from the connecting
rod cap, and mark it with the letter L (lower) and the
cylinder number from which it was removed.
cx9begc
Push the connecting rod away from the crankshaft to
allow the upper bearing shell to be removed.
cx9beme
Remove the upper bearing shell, and mark it with the
letter U (upper) and the cylinder number from which it
was removed.
cx9bega
Diesel Engine
96
Engine System
WARNING
When using solvents, acids, or alkaline materials
for cleaning, follow the manufacturer's recommendations for use. Wear goggles and protective
clothing to reduce the possibility of personal
injury.
WARNING
cx9beecf
Some solvents are flammable and toxic. Read the
manufacturer's instructions before using.
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury.
Clean the bearing and connecting rod caps with
solvent.
Dry with compressed air.
Inspect the connecting rod caps, connecting rod
bearing saddles, and capscrews for nicks, cracks,
burrs, scratches, or fretting.
cx900sg
Inspect the bearings for damage. Refer to Parts
Reuse Guidelines, for more information on bearing
inspection.
Replace any bearings that have the following
damage:
•
•
•
•
•
•
cx2besa
Diesel Engine
97
Pits
Flakes
Corrosion
Lock tang damage
Scratches
Heavy wear.
Engine System
Inspect the bearing shell seating surface for nicks or
burrs.
If nicks or burrs can not be removed with an abrasive
pad, Part Number 3823258, or equivalent, the
bearings must be replaced.
If the bearings are damaged, they must be replaced
as a set. For more detailed information on bearing
damage, see Analysis and Prevention of Bearing
Failures.
cx9besa
NOTE:
NOTE:
Connecting rod bearings are identified with
the part number and size stamped on the
back.
Oversize service rod bearings are available
for use with a crankshaft that has been
machined undersize.
Determine the size of the removed rod bearing, and
obtain a set of the same size.
ks900ge
Use an outside diameter ball-tipped micrometer to
measure the connecting rod bearing thickness.
B3.3 Connecting Rod Bearing Thickness
mm
in
Standard
3.80
MIN
0.1496
4.00
MAX
0.1575
B3.3 Connecting Rod Bearing Thickness for
Oversize Bearings
mm
in
0.25mm
4.05
MIN
0.1594
4.25
MAX
0.1673
0.50mm
4.30
MIN
0.1693
4.50
MAX
0.1772
0.75mm
4.55
MIN
0.1772
4.75
MAX
0.1870
1.00mm
4.80
MIN
0.1890
5.00
MAX
0.1968
cx9beta
Diesel Engine
98
Engine System
NOTE:
Bearing shells are identified by steelstamped characters on the back of the
bearings to indicate either standard (STD)
or oversize (OS).
A crankshaft that is machined undersize on the
connecting rod or main bearing journals is marked on
the front counterweight. If the crankshaft is marked,
check the bearing shell part number to make sure the
correct bearing size is used.
mb900gb
NOTE:
Used bearings must be installed in the same
location from which they were removed.
Refer to Procedure 001-054 for connecting rod
bearing installation instructions.
01900184
Diesel Engine
99
Engine System
Bearing, Main
NOTE:
The end play measurement is necessary for
determining the wear of the thrust bearing
and abnormal wear of the crankshaft.
Measure the crankshaft end play using a dial
indicator, Part Number 3824564, or equivalent, and
magnetic base, Part Number 3377399, or equivalent.
Crankshaft End Play
Mm
0.131
0.351
00900202
NOTE:
NOTE:
MIN
MAX
in
0.0052
0.0138
Mark the thrust bearings so the bearings
can be installed in the correct position
during assembly.
The main bearing cap mounting capscrews
must be replaced after each use.
Remove the mounting capscrews of the main bearing
cap.
Remove the main bearing cap and lower bearing.
00900203
Diesel Engine
100
Engine System
WARNING
When using solvents, acids, or alkaline materials
for cleaning, follow the manufacturer's recommendations for use. Wear goggles and protective
clothing to reduce the possibility of personal
injury.
WARNING
mb200gb
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause bodily injury.
CAUTION
Do not use a scraper or a wire brush. The
bearings can be damaged.
NOTE:
Make sure the bearings are marked for
location. The bearings must be installed in
their original locations, if used again.
Use solvent and a soft bristle brush to clean bearings.
Dry with compressed air.
Inspect all main bearing caps and main bearing
crankshaft journals for dents, cracks, deep scoring,
overheating, and other damage.
mb900si
Determine the size of the main bearing removed and
obtain the same size for installation.
Refer to Part Reuse Guidelines for the dimensions of
the standard and undersize main bearing journals.
mb900gg
Diesel Engine
101
Engine System
NOTE:
If the crankshaft journals or main caps are
damaged, the engine will need to be
removed to complete the overhaul.
Inspect the crankshaft journals for deep scratches,
indications of overheating, and other damage.
ks9bdsb
CAUTION
Confirm that there is no dirt or dust stuck to the
rear face of the bearing before installation.
Remove debris behind the bearing before
installation.
Coat the inside face of the bearing with clean SAE30
engine lubricating oil before installation. The number
stamped on the main bearing cap must be the same
as the number stamped on the cylinder block.
00900217
Align the protrusion in the lower main bearing with the
notch in the cap.
Install the lower main bearing into the main bearing
cap.
NOTE:
New main bearing mounting capscrews
must be used.
The casting number or cast arrow on the main
bearing cap must face toward the front of the engine.
Coat the capscrew threads and seat face with clean
SAE30 engine lubricating oil.
Position the main bearing caps and capscrews.
00900218
Diesel Engine
102
Engine System
CAUTION
Install each thrust bearing with the oil groove on
the outside. Failure to do so will cause engine
damage.
WARNING
Do not let the thrust bearings slip out of place.
Engine damage will result if the thrust bearings
are not properly installed.
00900219
The casting number or cast arrow on the main
bearing cap must face toward the front of the engine.
The thrust bearing is located on the main bearing
closest to the rear of the engine (number 5). Align the
lower thrust bearing with the dowel pin.
Install the upper thrust bearing.
Tighten the mounting capscrews in the order shown
in the illustration.
Torque Value:
Step 1
113 N•m [83 ft-lb]
Step 2
Loosen all capscrews completely.
Step 3
132 N•m [98 ft-lb]
00900220
After the mounting capscrews are tightened, make
sure the crankshaft rotates smoothly.
0090022
Diesel Engine
103
Engine System
NOTE:
Mark the lower main bearings and the two
lower thrust bearings so that they can be
installed in the correct position.
Remove the upper thrust bearing.
00900205
Diesel Engine
104
Engine System
Bearing, Thrust
WARNING
When using solvents, acids, or alkaline materials
for cleaning, follow the manufacturer's recommendations for use. Wear goggles and protective
clothing to reduce the possibility of personal
injury.
WARNING
mb200gb
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause bodily injury.
CAUTION
Do not use a scraper or a wire brush. The
bearings can be damaged.
NOTE:
Make sure the bearings are marked for
location. The bearings must be installed in
their original locations, if used again.
Use solvent and a soft bristle brush to clean bearings.
Dry with compressed air.
NOTE:
If damage is found on any of the thrust
bearings, make sure to inspect the
crankshaft, block, and main bearing caps for
damage as well.
Inspect the thrust bearings for scratches, galling,
uneven wear, or other damage.
Replace the thrust bearings, if damage is found.
01c00324
Diesel Engine
105
Engine System
Inspect the crankshaft journals for deep scratches,
indications of overheating, and other damage.
Replace the crankshaft if excessive damage is found.
ks9bdsb
Determine the size of the thrust bearings removed,
and obtain the same size for installation.
Refer to Part Reuse Guidelines for the dimensions of
the standard and undersize main bearing journals.
mb900gg
CAUTION
Confirm that there is no dirt or dust stuck to the
rear face of the bearing before installation. Debris
behind the bearing can cause severe engine
damage.
Coat the inside face of the bearing with clean SAE30
engine lubricating oil before installation.
Align the protrusion in the thrust bearing with the
notch in the cylinder block.
00900216
Install the upper thrust bearing into the cylinder block.
Diesel Engine
106
Engine System
Camshaft
Remove the two mounting capscrews through the
casting holes in the camshaft gear.
`
00900185
WARNING
When using a steam cleaner, wear safety glasses
or a face shield, as well as protective clothing.
Hot steam can cause serious personal injury.
WARNING
When using solvents, acids, or alkaline materials
for cleaning, follow the manufacturer's recommendations for use. Wear goggles and protective
clothing to reduce the possibility of personal
injury.
cg900ea
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause bodily injury.
Use solvent or steam to clean the camshaft.
Dry with compressed air.
CAUTION
Do not touch the machined surfaces with bare
hands; this can cause rust to form on the
camshaft.
Before the camshaft is touched, lubricate the
camshaft with clean engine lubricating oil.
cg900va
Diesel Engine
107
Engine System
NOTE:
When a new camshaft is installed; new
tappets and push tubes must be installed
also.
Inspect the bearing journals for cracking, pitting, or
scoring.
Contact a Cummins Authorized Repair Location for
pitting reuse criteria.
cg9shsb
Inspect the camshaft gear teeth for pitting.
Inspect for cracks at the roots of the teeth.
cg9grsa
Measure the outside diameter of camshaft bearing
journals.
Camshaft Bearing Journals
Journal
Standard
Number1,
cg900tc
108
Shaft
Hole
-0.080
+0.030
Standard
Clearance
Clearance
Limit
to
to
-0.110
-0.040
0.040 to
Number2,
50.5 mm
mm
mm
0.140 mm
0.25 mm
and
[2.00 in]
[-0.003
[0.001
[0.016 to
[0.010 in]
0.006 in]
Number3
Diesel Engine
Tolerance
Size
to
to
-0.004
-0.002
in]
in]
Engine System
Measure the bend (1) of the camshaft.
Bend of Camshaft
Mm
0.03
in
0.0012
MAX
Measure the camshaft lobe height (2) and thrust
clearance (3).
Camshaft Lobe Height
Standard MIN
Repair Limits MAX
42.69 mm
42.20 mm
[1.681 in]
[1.661 in]
Exhaust 43.04 mm
42.50 mm
[1.694 in]
[1.673 in]
Valves
Intake
01900247
2
3
Thrust Clearance
Standard MIN
Repair Limits MAX
0.150 to 0.350 mm 0.50 mm [0.0197 in]
[0.0059 to 0.0138 in]
NOTE:
When installing the camshaft, rotate the
camshaft slightly while being careful not to
damage the bushing.
Install the thrust plate, camshaft assembly, and two
capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews through the casting holes in
the camshaft gear.
Torque Value:
19 N•m
[14 ft-lb]
00900238
Measure the end play of the camshaft.
Camshaft End Play
Mm
0.150
0.350
MIN
MAX
in
0.0059
0.0138
00900239
Diesel Engine
109
Engine System
Camshaft Bushings
Initial Check
Inspect the camshaft bore for damage and excessive
wear.
01900259
Measure the camshaft bore.
Camshaft Bore Diameter
Mm
53.53
MAX
in
2.107
01900260
Use a small bushing driver set, Part Number 3823942,
or equivalent, to remove the camshaft bushing from
the number 1 camshaft bore.
01900261
NOTE:
Make sure the camshaft bore in the cylinder
block and the outside diameter of the
bushing are clean of oil and dirt.
Mark the camshaft bushing and cylinder block and
align the lubricating oil hole in the cylinder block with
the lubricating hole in the camshaft bushing.
01900262
Diesel Engine
110
Engine System
Apply Loctite primer to the outside diameter of the
camshaft bushing and the inside of the camshaft bore
of the cylinder block.
Allow the primer to dry.
Apply a bead of Loctite 609, or equivalent, to 270
degrees along the edge of the bushing that will be
installed toward the rear of the cylinder block.
cg9bswe
CAUTION
Make sure there is no Loctite in the oil hole, or
severe engine damage can occur.
Use extreme care not to apply Loctite to the oil hole in
the camshaft bushing.
01900263
Use a small camshaft bushing driver set, Part
Number 3823942, or equivalent, to install the
camshaft bushing even with the front face of the
cylinder block.
Use a clean, lint-free cloth to wipe off any excessive
Loctite.
01900261
`
CAUTION
Make sure there is no Loctite in the oil hole, or
severe engine damage can occur.
Make sure the lubricating oil hole in the camshaft
bushing is aligned with the camshaft oil hole in the
cylinder block.
A 3.2-mm [0.126-in] diameter rod must be able to
pass through the lubricating oil hole.
01900264
Diesel Engine
111
Engine System
Measure the installed camshaft bushing (1).
Camshaft Bushing Bore Inside Diameter
Mm
in
50.50
MIN
1.988
53.60
MAX
1.992
01900265
Camshaft Gear
WARNING
When using solvents, acid, or alkaline materials
for
cleaning,
follow
the
manufacturer's
recommendations for use. Wear goggles and
protective clothing to avoid personal injury.
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause bodily injury.
cg9geea
Use solvent to clean the camshaft gear.
Dry with compressed air.
NOTE:
If nicks or burrs can not be removed with
abrasive pad, Part Number 3823258, or
equivalent, replace the camshaft and
camshaft gear. Refer to Procedure 001-008
for camshaft removal.
Inspect the camshaft gear for cracked, chipped, or
broken teeth.
Inspect the camshaft gear teeth for discoloration or
signs of excessive heat (bluing).
cg9gesc
If any damage is present, replace the camshaft and
camshaft gear. Refer to Procedure 001-008 for
camshaft removal.
NOTE:
Diesel Engine
112
If there is damage to the camshaft gear
teeth or there are signs of excessive heat,
make sure to inspect the associated idler
and oil pump gears for damage.
Engine System
Connecting Rod
CAUTION
Prevent damage to the capscrews. Nicks in the
body of the capscrew can cause an area of stress
that can fail during engine operation. Damage to
the threads will cause torque values to be
incorrect and will damage the mating parts.
bp8csba
WARNING
When using a steam cleaner, wear safety glasses
or a face shield, as well as protective clothing.
Hot steam can cause serious injury.
WARNING
When using solvents, acids, or alkaline materials
for
cleaning,
follow
manufacturer's
recommendations for use. Wear goggles and
protective clothing to reduce the possibility of
personal injury.
cx8bdea
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury.
Use solvent or steam to clean the capscrews,
connecting rod, and connecting rod cap.
Dry with compressed air.
Use a soft bristle brush to clean the oil drilling.
Diesel Engine
113
Engine System
CAUTION
Repair of rolled threads by use of a thread die is
not recommended. The die can create a sharp
corner on the minor diameter (root) of the threads.
This sharp corner can cause an area of increased
stress.
Inspect the capscrews for the following:
• Damaged threads
• Rust or corrosion-caused pitting
• Nicks, bent, stretched, or galled.
bp8cssa
The capscrew must be replaced if it has any of the
listed damage.
Inspect the connecting rod and connecting rod cap for
damage.
Replace the connecting rod if the I-beam or
connecting rod cap is damaged.
Inspect the connecting rod and connecting rod cap for
fretting damage on the mating surfaces.
The connecting rod and connecting rod cap must be
replaced as an assembly if fretting damage is visible
on either piece.
cx900sf
Check the bearing surface for nicks or burrs.
If it is not possible to remove any nicks or burrs with a
fine emery cloth, the connecting rod must be replaced.
cx8behf
Diesel Engine
114
Engine System
Inspect the connecting rod piston pin bushing for
damage.
Replace any connecting rod piston pin bushing that
has evidence of scoring, galling, or scuffing.
Replace any bushing that has turned in the bore.
Special tools and precision machining are required to
replace bushings. If Cummins Inc. approved tools and
procedures are not available, the connecting rod must
be replaced.
01c00145
CAUTION
The connecting rod cap numbers must match the
numbers on the connecting rod and must be
installed with the characters aligned to prevent
damage to the connecting rods and crankshaft.
CAUTION
Use a vise with brass jaws to hold the connecting
rod. Notches, scratches, or dents in the I-beam
area can cause engine failure.
00900193
Place the connecting rod into a vise with brass jaws.
Install the connecting rod cap onto the connecting rod.
Lubricate the threads of the capscrews with clean
engine oil.
Thread the capscrews into the connecting rod and
hand tighten.
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value:
Step 1
Step 2
Diesel Engine
115
39 n.m
[29 ft-lb]
Rotate each capscrew 90 degrees.
Engine System
Measure the connecting rod crankshaft bore inside
diameter with a bore dial indicator.
Connecting Rod Crankshaft Bore Inside
Diameter
Mm
in
61.00
MIN
2.402
61.025
MAX
2.403
If the connecting rod crankshaft bore inside diameter
is not within specifications, the connecting rod must
be replaced.
cx1brtc
Measure the connecting rod piston pin bushing inside
diameter.
Connecting Rod Piston Pin Bushing Inside
Diameter
Mm
in
33.00
MIN
1.299
33.025
MAX
1.300
If the connecting rod crankshaft bore inside diameter
is not within specifications, the connecting rod must
be replaced.
cx1bstb
This procedure describes the magnetic particle
inspection for the connecting rod and connecting rod
cap.
Use a magnetic particle testing machine.
The connecting rod and connecting rod cap must be
assembled during this process.
Use the residual method. Apply head shot amperage.
Adjust the amperage to 1500 ampere direct current or
rectified alternating current.
cx8bdsc
Check for cracks.
The connecting rod must be replaced if any cracks
are visible.
Diesel Engine
116
Engine System
Use the residual method. Apply coil shot amperage.
Amperage (Ampere Turns)
Minimum
2600 amperage
current
Maximum
direct
2800 amperage
current
direct
Ampere turn is an electrical current of one ampere
flowing through the coil, multiplied by the number of
turns in the coil.
01400343
Check for cracks.
The connecting rod must be replaced if any
indications are visible in the critical (shaded) areas.
01400344
WARNING
When using a steam cleaner, wear safety glasses
or a face shield, as well as protective clothing.
Hot steam can cause serious injury.
`
WARNING
When using solvents, acids, or alkaline materials
for cleaning, follow manufacturer's recommendations for use. Wear goggles and protective
clothing to reduce the possibility of personal
injury.
cx800kd
CAUTION
The connecting rod must be demagnetized
completely and cleaned thoroughly. Any small
metal particles will cause engine damage.
Demagnetize the connecting rod.
Use solvent or steam to clean the connecting rod.
Diesel Engine
117
Engine System
This procedure describes the magnetic particle
inspection for connecting rod capscrews.
bp8csse
Use a Magnaflux or similar magnetic particle testing
machine.
Use the continuous method. Apply a head shot of 300
to 400 amperes direct current or rectified alternating
current.
bp8cssb
Use an ultraviolet light. Check for indications of
cracks.
The magnetic particles tend to form on sharp corners
and edges. Do not mistake these for cracks.
Any indications of cracks are not acceptable.
bp8cssc
Prepare the machine for a coil shot.
Make sure the capscrew is near one side of the coil
and not in the center.
Apply 1000 to 1350 ampere-turns.
bp8cssd
`
Diesel Engine
118
Engine System
Use an ultraviolet light. Check for indications of
cracks.
Any indications of cracks are not acceptable.
bp8cssc
WARNING
When using solvents, acids or alkaline materials
for
cleaning,
follow
the
manufacturer's
recommendations for use. Wear goggles and
protective clothing to reduce the possibility of
personal injury.
WARNING
bp8csea
Wear eye and face protection when using
compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can cause
personal injury.
CAUTION
The capscrew must be demagnetized completely
and cleaned thoroughly. Any small metal particles
will cause engine damage.
Demagnetize the capscrew thoroughly.
Use solvent to clean the capscrew and dry with
compressed air.
Diesel Engine
119
Engine System
Crankshaft
WARNING
This assembly weighs 23 kg [50 lb] or more. To
reduce the possibility of personal injury, use a
hoist or get assistance to lift this assembly.
CAUTION
Be careful not to hit the crankshaft against the
cylinder block and damage the sliding surface.
00900204
Remove the main bearings. Refer to Procedure 001006.
Remove the crankshaft from the cylinder block.
Use fine crocus cloth to polish the machined surfaces.
Use a bristle brush to clean the oil drillings.
ks200ec
NOTE:
If more than two threaded holes are
damaged in one end, the crankshaft must
be replaced.
Inspect the threaded capscrew holes for damage.
Use one of the following methods to repair any
threaded holes:
• Chase the threads
• Use the threaded insert kit, Part Number 3822709,
or equivalent.
ks900sf
Diesel Engine
120
Engine System
Measure the front and rear oil seal contact areas for a
wear groove.
Crankshaft Front and Rear Oil Seal Wear Groove
Mm
in
0.25
MAX
0.010
If the wear groove exceeds the specification, replace
the crankshaft.
ks8seta
Inspect the crankshaft connecting rod and main
journals for deep scoring, overheating, or other
damage.
ks900kb
NOTE:
Oversize thrust bearings are available if the
thrust distance is not within specifications. If
the crankshaft must be machined to use an
oversize thrust bearing, refer to the
Alternative Repair Manual, Bulletin 3379035,
for machining instructions.
Measure the thrust clearance (1).
Crankshaft installed or crankshaft thrust width minus
block thrust width + bearing width.
01900249
Crankshaft Thrust Clearance
Mm
0.131
0.351
Diesel Engine
121
MIN
MAX
in
0.0052
0.0138
Engine System
Measure the main journal (2).
Connecting Rod Bearing Journal Diameter
mm
Standard
0.25mm
01900249
0.50mm
0.75mm
1.00mm
in
69.86
MIN
2.750
70.00
MAX
2.756
69.61
MIN
2.741
69.75
MAX
2.746
69.36
MIN
2.731
69.50
MAX
2.736
69.11
MIN
2.721
69.25
MAX
2.726
68.86
MIN
2.711
69.00
MAX
2.717
Bearing Clearance (2) = Main bearing inside diameter
with bearing installed minus crankshaft journal
diameter. Refer to procedure 001-026.
Measurements
mm
Bearing
Clearance
0.043 to 0.103
in
[0.0.0017 to
0.0041]
Check the roundness (2) of the bearing journal.
Connecting Rod Bearing Journal
mm
in
Out-ofRoundness
0.020
MAX 0.0008
Measure the connecting rod crankshaft pin journal (3).
Connecting Rod Crankshaft Pin Journal Diameter
Standard
0.25 mm
0.50 mm
0.75 mm
1.00 mm
Diesel Engine
122
mm
56.91
57.00
56.66
56.75
56.41
56.50
56.16
56.25
55.91
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
in
2.241
2.244
2.231
2.234
2.221
2.224
2.211
2.215
2.201
56.00
MAX
2.205
Engine System
Measure the clearance of the crankshaft pin journal
(3)
Measurements
mm
Bearing
Clearance
0.029 to 0.089
in
0.0011
to 0.0035
Check the roundness (3) of the connecting rod
crankshaft pin journal.
Connecting Rod Crankshaft Pin Journal
mm
in
01900249
Out-ofRoundness
0.020 MAX 0.0008
Measure the bend of the crankshaft (4).
Measurements
mm
in
Crankshaft
0.09
0.0035
Bend
WARNING
This assembly weighs 23 kg [50 lb] or more. To
reduce the possibility of personal injury, use a
hoist or get assistance to lift this assembly.
CAUTION
Do not hit the crankshaft against the cylinder
block. Failure to do so can result in damage to the
block or crankshaft.
00900204
Lubricate the upper main bearings with clean engine
lubricating oil.
Install the upper main bearings. Refer to Procedure
001-006.
Position and install the crankshaft and gear into the
cylinder block.
Install the lower main bearings and bearing caps.
Refer to Procedure 001-006
Diesel Engine
123
Engine System
NOTE:
The crankshaft must rotate freely by hand.
02900058
Diesel Engine
124
Engine System
Crankshaft Gear, Front
NOTE:
If there is damage to the front crankshaft
gear teeth or there are signs of excessive
heat, make sure to inspect the associated
idler gear for damage.
Inspect the crankshaft gear teeth for discolorations or
signs of excessive heat (bluing).
Inspect for cracks and broken or chipped teeth.
If any damage is present, replace the crankshaft and
crankshaft gear. Refer to Procedure 001-016 for
crankshaft removal.
ks8gesa
Diesel Engine
125
Engine System
Crankshaft Pulley
Remove the capscrew and mounting plate.
Use a standard puller, Part Number ST 647, or
equivalent, to remove the crankshaft pulley.
00900180
WARNING
When using a steam cleaner, wear safety glasses
or a face shield, as well as protective clothing.
Hot steam can cause serious personal injury.
WARNING
When using solvents, acids, or alkaline materials
for
cleaning,
follow
the
manufacturer's
recommendations for use. Wear goggles and
protective clothing to reduce the possibility of
personal injury.
01900251
WARNING
Some solvents are flammable and toxic. Read the
manufacturer's instructions before using.
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury.
Clean the crankshaft pulley with steam or solvent.
Dry with compressed air.
Diesel Engine
126
Engine System
Inspect the pulley for cracks, excessive wear in the
belt grooves, or other damage.
Inspect the mating surface and pulley bore areas for
damage.
da2pusa
Align the crankshaft pulley with the crankshaft key.
Install the crankshaft pulley, mounting plate, and
capscrew.
Tighten the capscrew.
14mm Capscrew
With PTO
14 mm Capscrew
Without PTO
00900180
18 mm Capscrew All
Diesel Engine
127
176 n.m
[130 ft lb ]
93 n.m
[69 ft lb ]
372 n.m
[274 ft lb ]
Engine System
Crankshaft Seal, Front
NOTE:
A noise dampener is installed on some
engines. The noise dampener must be
removed prior to removing the front
crankshaft seal.
Use a pry bar or suitable tool to remove the front
crankshaft seal from the front gear cover.
00900182
Clean the gear cover seal bore and crankshaft
surface of all oil, dirt, and seal residue.
ks900ek
NOTE:
If the crankshaft has excessive wear, the
crankshaft must be replaced.
Inspect the crankshaft for excessive wear.
ks901sx
Fill 40 to 60 percent of the space in the seal lip with
grease.
Use a crankshaft seal installer, Part Number 3164900,
or equivalent, to install the seal in the front gear cover.
Install the noise dampener, if equipped.
00900182
Diesel Engine
128
Engine System
Crankshaft Seal, Rear
Use a pry bar or suitable tool to remove the rear
crankshaft seal.
00900189
CAUTION
The seal lip and the sealing surface on the
crankshaft must be free from all residue to reduce
the possibility of seal leaks.
Clean and dry the rear crankshaft sealing surface.
Clean and dry the flywheel housing seal bore.
Inspect the crankshaft sealing area and flywheel
housing bore for burrs or raised material. Remove the
burrs or raised material with crocus cloth.
bp900vc
Fill 40 to 60 percent of the space in the seal lip with
grease.
Use crankshaft seal installer, Part Number 3164900,
or equivalent, to install the crankshaft seal.
00900189
Diesel Engine
129
Engine System
Cylinder Block
Diagnosis of cylinder block cooling and lubrication
malfunctions has been discussed in those respective
sections. The potential problems with the cylinder, the
camshaft bore, and the crankshaft main journals are
discussed in this section.
ck900kb
Malfunctions of the cylinder block, such as leaks or
tappet bore wear, require a visual or dimensional
inspection to isolate the problem.
ck900kc
The cylinder bores are machined directly into the
cylinder block during production. The size and
condition of the cylinder bore is critical to engine
performance and life. During repair, make sure to
inspect the cylinder bores carefully. It will also be
necessary to deglaze the cylinder walls before
reassembly. A 30-degree crosshatch pattern is
needed to seat the new piston rings.
ck9brwb
The cylinder bores can be rebored in a machine shop
and fitted with an oversize service piston.
ck9brwc
Diesel Engine
130
Engine System
The head surface of the block is also critical to
sealing the cylinder bores. Inspect the surface
carefully during repair before assembly.
ck900wf
Use a strong solution of hot water and laundry
detergent to clean the cylinder bores.
ck9breh
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause bodily injury.
CAUTION
Clean the cylinder bores immediately after
deglazing, or premature wear of the bores and
rings can result.
ck9brei
Rinse the cylinder bores until the detergent is
removed.
Dry the cylinder block with compressed air.
Diesel Engine
131
Engine System
NOTE:
Make sure to remove the tape covering the
tappet and lubricating oil holes after the
cleaning process is complete.
Check the cylinder bore cleanliness by wiping with a
white, lint-free, lightly oiled cloth. If grit residue is still
present, repeat the cleaning process until all residue
is removed.
ck9brej
NOTE:
Make sure to remove the covering from the
piston cooling nozzles.
Remove the protective tape and cloth, and clean the
crankshaft journals.
ks900ej
WARNING
When using solvents, acids, or alkaline materials
for
cleaning,
follow
the
manufacturer's
recommendations for use. Wear goggles and
protective clothing to reduce the possibility of
personal injury.
WARNING
cg900eb
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury.
Use a solvent and a brush to clean any residue that
possibly has splashed on the camshaft.
Inspect the camshaft lobes and tappet faces for signs
of wear or damage. Refer to Procedure 001-008.
Diesel Engine
132
Engine System
Measure the surface flatness (1)(warpage limit).
Surface Flatness
Standard
Repair Limit
0.00 to 0.08 mm
0.15 mm [0.006 in]
[0.00 to 0.003 in]
Measure the inner diameter of the main bearing (2).
Inner Diameter of Main Bearing (Bearing Installed)
01900252
Standard
0.25
0.50
0.75
1.00
mm
70.00
70.20
69.25
69.75
69.50
69.70
69.25
69.45
69.00
69.20
in
2.756
2.764
2.726
2.746
2.736
2.744
2.726
2.734
2.717
2.724
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
MIN
MAX
Measure the inner diameter of the camshaft bushing
(3).
Camshaft Bushing Inside Diameter
Standard
Repair Limit
50.50 mm [1.988 in]
50.60 mm [1.992 in]
Measure the cylinder bore (1).
Cylinder Bore Dimensions
Standard
Bore
Out of
Roundness
Taper
01900253
Diesel Engine
133
Inside
Diameter
95.00 mm
[3.740 in]
0.022 mm
[0.0008 in]
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Tolerance
Repair
Limit
95.15 mm
[3.746 in]
0.02 mm
[0.0008 in]
Engine System
Gear Cover, Front
Remove the 17 capscrews, front gear cover, cover
plate, and gasket.
Discard the gasket.
00900181
WARNING
When using solvents, acids, or alkaline materials
for
cleaning,
follow
the
manufacturer's
recommendations for use. Wear goggles and
protective clothing to reduce the possibility of
personal injury.
WARNING
01900254
Some solvents are flammable and toxic. Read the
manufacturer's instructions before using.
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury.
Clean the front gear cover and cover gasket surface
with solvent. Dry with compressed air.
Clean the cylinder block gasket surface.
Inspect the front gear cover and cover plate for
cracks or other damage.
01900255
Diesel Engine
134
Engine System
CAUTION
Apply gasket sealant, Part Number 3164067, or
equivalent, to the gear cover mounting surface.
Install the new gasket, gear cover, and 17 capscrews.
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value:
19n.m [14 ft-lb ]
00900181
Diesel Engine
135
Engine System
Idle Gear, Camshaft
NOTE:
If a PTO accessory drive is used on the
engine, the idler gear uses two bearings.
Remove the capscrew, plate, shim, and front bearing.
Remove the idler gear, rear spacer plate, rear bearing,
and idler shaft.
01900258
WARNING
When using solvents, acid, or alkaline materials
for
cleaning,
follow
the
manufacturer's
recommendations for use. Wear goggles and
protective clothing to avoid personal injury.
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause bodily injury.
cg9geea
Use solvent to clean the idler gear.
Dry with compressed air.
NOTE:
If the burrs or raised material can not be
removed with an abrasive pad, or equivalent,
the camshaft idler gear must be replaced.
Inspect the idler gear for cracked, chipped, or broken
teeth.
Inspect the idler shaft bore for burrs.
cg9gesc
Diesel Engine
136
Engine System
NOTE:
If the burrs or raised material can not be
removed with an abrasive pad, or equivalent,
the camshaft idler gear shaft must be
replaced.
Inspect the idler shaft nose for burrs.
Always connect the negative (-) cable last.
Connect the battery cables.
cg900sj
Align the match marks on the idler gear, crankshaft
gear, and camshaft gear. The match marks are
identified as follows:
A. Crankshaft gear and idler gear
B. Idler gear and camshaft gear
C. Fuel pump and idler gear
NOTE:
Lower case letters identify oil pump and
accessory drive, which are not timed.
NOTE:
If a PTO accessory drive is used on the
engine, the idler gear uses two bearings.
00900241
Install the idler shaft, rear bearing, rear spacer plate,
and idler gear.
Install the front bearing, plate, shim, and capscrew.
Tighten the capscrew.
Torque Value:
110 n.m [81 ft-lb ]
01900258
Measure the end play of the idler gear.
00900243
Diesel Engine
137
Engine System
Position the fuel injection pump assembly temporarily.
Measure the backlash of each gear with a dial
indicator, 3376050, or equivalent.
00900244
Diesel Engine
138
Engine System
Piston
WARNING
When using solvents, acids, or alkaline materials
for
cleaning,
follow
the
manufacturer's
recommendations for use. Wear goggles and
protective clothing to reduce the possibility of
personal injury.
WARNING
pi900ec
Some solvents are flammable and toxic. Read the
manufacturer's instructions before using.
CAUTION
Do not use the bead-blast method to clean the
piston. The piston can be damaged by blast
material embedded in the aluminum.
CAUTION
Do not clean the pistons in an acid tank. The
piston can be damaged by the acid.
Soak the pistons in cold parts cleaner.
Soaking the pistons overnight will usually loosen the
carbon deposits.
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury.
Wash the pistons and rods in a strong solution of
detergent in hot water.
Dry with compressed air.
pi900ed
Diesel Engine
139
Engine System
CAUTION
Do not use a ring groove cleaner and make sure
not to scratch the ring sealing surface in the
piston groove.
Clean the remaining deposits from the ring grooves
with the square end of a broken ring.
pi900ee
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause bodily injury.
Wash the pistons again in a strong solution of
detergent in hot water.
Dry with compressed air.
pi900ed
NOTE:
If severe piston damage has occurred,
check the turbocharger, cylinder head, and
exhaust components for damage from
debris.
Inspect the piston for damage and excessive wear.
Check the top, ring grooves, skirt, and pin bore.
pi900sb
Measure the piston skirt diameter.
Piston Skirt Diameter
mm
in
94.85
MIN
3.734
95.00
MAX
3.740
pi900tc
Diesel Engine
140
Engine System
Measure the pin bore.
NOTE:
Measure the pin bore in the center area of
the bore. The bore profile is tapered on the
edges and will result in a measurement
error.
Piston Pin Bore Diameter
mm
30.00
pi9brtc
Diesel Engine
141
in
NOM
1.181
Engine System
Piston Rings
Inspect the piston rings for the following:
• Abrasive wear
• Scuffing and scoring
• Oil ring plugged with deposits.
Abrasive wear is indicated by concentrated vertical
scratches (B). The chromium plating is worn through
and the face of the ring has a brighter finish, when
compared to the dull satin finish of a new ring (A).
Abrasive wear can be caused by:
pi9risb
•
•
•
•
Ingested abrasive material
Inadequate cleaning during a previous repair
Particles embedded in the liner.
Scuffing and scoring.
Scuffing and scoring is indicated by heavy scratches,
metal discoloration, and voids (B).
Scuffing and scoring can be caused by:
•
•
•
•
•
Engine overheating
Oil dilution
Improper maintenance of the lubrication system
Piston cooling nozzle malfunction.
Oil ring plugged by deposits.
Scuffing and scoring on the piston rings indicates a
breakdown of the oil film on the cylinder liner wall,
causing transfer of material from the piston ring face
to the cylinder liner.
pi9risc
Oil ring plugging is indicated by deposits on the oil
ring grooves (B).
Oil ring plugging can be caused by:
• Low engine operating temperatures - long periods
of idling or a cooling system malfunction
• Extended oil change intervals
• Use of the wrong grade of engine oil
• Use of a poor-quality engine oil.
Plugging of the oil ring drains restricts oil drain back,
which floods the piston ring belt area, resulting in a
loss of oil control.
pi9risd
Diesel Engine
142
Engine System
Width of Piston Groove
mm
in
Top
2.0
NOM
0.079
Second
2.0
NOM
0.079
Oil Control
4.0
NOM
0.158
Use a new piston ring to measure the clearance in
the ring groove.
pi900te
Top
Second
Oil Control
Piston Ring Clearance
mm
0.06
MIN
0.10
MAX
0.03
MIN
0.07
MAX
0.03
MIN
0.07
MAX
in
0.0024
0.0039
0.0012
0.0028
0.0012
0.0028
Position each ring in the cylinder below the ring
reversal area, and use a piston to square it with the
bore.
pi9rita
Use a feeler gauge to measure the piston ring gap.
Piston Ring Gap
mm
Top
Second
Oil Control
pi9ritc
Diesel Engine
143
in
0.30
MIN
0.012
0.45
MAX
0.018
0.30
MIN
0.012
0.45
MAX
0.018
0.25
MIN
0.0098
0.45
MAX
0.018
Engine System
Identify the ring sets for installation in the cylinder
where the end gap was measured.
pi9rige
CAUTION
If a ring expander tool is being used, be careful
not to over expand the ring.
The top surface of the top and intermediate rings are
identified as illustrated.
The oil control ring can be assembled with either side
up.
pi9rise
Position the oil ring expander in the control ring
groove.
pi9rigb
Install the oil control ring with the end gap 180
degrees from the ends of the expander.
pi9rihc
Diesel Engine
144
Engine System
NOTE:
Make certain that the dot and the word
“TOP” are facing up when installing the
piston rings.
Use piston ring expander, Part Number 3823137, or
equivalent, to install the intermediate ring.
pi900ac
NOTE:
The top ring
appearance.
has
a
shiny
chrome
Use piston ring expander, Part Number 3823137, or
equivalent, to install the top ring.
`
pi900ad
Position the rings so the ring gap are 120 degrees
apart.
pi9rihb
Diesel Engine
145
Engine System
Piston and Connecting Rod Assembly
There are a number of power-related problems,
including excessive lubricating oil consumption,
smoke, blowby, and poor performance, that can be
caused by inadequate sealing between the piston
rings and the cylinder walls. A blowby measurement
can help detect the problem. Refer to Procedure 014010 for blowby measurement.
pi900ka
A free-floating, hollow piston pin is used to attach the
piston to the connecting rod. Lubricating the pin and
journal is accomplished by residual spray from piston
cooling.
pi9piga
Rotate the crankshaft with an engine barring tool until
the pistons are below the carbon deposits, which are
found above the ring travel area.
pi900we
Diesel Engine
146
Engine System
CAUTION
Do not use emery cloth or sandpaper to remove
carbon from the cylinder bores. Aluminum oxide
or silicon particles from these materials can
cause serious engine damage.
Use a scraper or a blunt-edged instrument to loosen
the carbon deposits. Do not damage the cylinder with
the scraper.
ck9bree
Remove the remaining carbon deposits with an
abrasive pad, Part Number 3823258, or equivalent.
ck9bref
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury
CAUTION
Do not use the steel wire wheel in the piston
travel area. Operate the wheel in a circular motion
to remove the deposits.
ck9breg
NOTE:
An inferior quality wire wheel will lose steel
bristles during operation, thus causing
additional contamination.
An alternative method to remove the carbon ridge is
to use a high-quality steel wire wheel installed in a
drill or die grinder.
Diesel Engine
147
Engine System
On pistons with anodized coatings, do not stamp the
anodized coating on the outer rim.
Mark each piston according to the cylinder location.
pi900gc
Rotate the crankshaft to position the connecting rod
caps at bottom dead center for removal.
Mark each connecting rod and connecting rod cap
according to the cylinder number location.
cx9cahb
NOTE:
Do not remove the capscrews from the
connecting rods at this time.
Loosen the connecting rod capscrews.
Use a rubber hammer to hit the connecting rod
capscrews to loosen the caps.
01d00094
Remove the connecting rod capscrews.
Remove the connecting rod cap.
01d00095
Diesel Engine
148
Engine System
Remove the lower connecting rod bearing.
Mark the cylinder number and the letter “L” (lower) on
the flat surface of the bearing tang.
Push the connecting rod and piston assembly out of
the cylinder bore. Care must be taken not to damage
the connecting rod or bearing.
Remove the upper rod bearing.
cx9beme
Mark the cylinder number and the letter “U” (upper)
on the flat surface of the bearing tang.
cx9bega
The piston and connecting rod assemblies must be
installed in the same cylinder number from which they
were removed, to provide proper fit of worn mating
surfaces, if parts are reused.
Use a tag to mark the cylinder number from which
each piston and rod assembly were removed.
Place the rod and piston assemblies in a container to
protect them from damage.
01c00167
Use piston ring expander, Part Number 3823137, or
equivalent to remove the piston rings.
pi901ac
Diesel Engine
149
Engine System
Remove the piston pin retaining rings.
cx9rrma
NOTE:
Heating the piston is not required.
Remove the piston pin.
Remove the connecting rod from the piston.
pi9pima
Make sure the FRONT marking on the piston and the
numbers on the connecting rod and cap are oriented
as illustrated.
pi900gd
Install the retaining ring in the pin groove on the front
side of the piston.
pi9rrhb
Diesel Engine
150
Engine System
Lubricate the pin and pin bores with clean 15W-40
engine lubricating oil.
pi9piwa
NOTE:
Pistons do not require heating to install the
pin; however, the pistons do need to be at
room temperature or above.
Install the connecting rod.
Install the piston pin.
pi9pima
Install the second retaining ring.
cx9rrma
Use the piston ring expander, Part Number 3823137,
or equivalent, to install the piston rings.
pi901ac
Diesel Engine
151
Engine System
When rebuilding an engine with the original cylinder
block, crankshaft, and pistons, make sure the pistons
are installed in their original cylinders.
If replacing the piston(s), make sure the replacement
piston(s) are the same grade as the original piston(s).
If a new cylinder block or crankshaft is used, the
piston grading procedure must be performed to
determine the proper piston grade for each cylinder.
cx900ha
Install the connecting rod and piston assembly into
the Number 1 cylinder without the rings installed.
The number stamped on the connecting rod and cap
at the parting line must match and be installed on the
oil cooler side of the engine.
Install the connecting rod cap and capscrews to the
connecting rod.
cx9cshb
CAUTION
The connecting rods and connecting rod caps are
not interchangeable. The connecting rods and
connecting rod caps are machined as an
assembly. Failure will result if the connecting
rods and caps are mixed.
Install the bearing shells into both the connecting rod
and the connecting rod cap.
cx9behd
Make sure the tang on the bearing shells is in the slot
of the connecting rod cap and connecting rod.
Lubricate the connecting rod bearings with clean
lubricating engine oil.
cx9bewa
Diesel Engine
152
Engine System
Immerse the pistons in clean 15W-40 engine
lubricating oil until the rings are covered.
Allow the excess oil to drip off the assembly.
pi800hd
Position the rings so that the ring gaps are 120
degrees apart.
pi9rihb
CAUTION
If using a strap type ring compressor, make sure
the inside end of the strap does not hook on a
ring gap and break the ring.
Use piston ring compressor, Part Number 3164330,
or equivalent, to compress the rings.
01d00296
Lubricate the cylinder bore with clean 15W-40 engine
lubricating oil.
The cylinder block must be clean before assembly.
Inspect the cylinder bores for reuse.
ck9brwd
Diesel Engine
153
Engine System
Position the connecting rod journal for the piston to
be installed to bottom dead center (BDC).
cx900wf
Take care to not damage the cylinder wall when
inserting the connecting rod.
Carefully push the piston into the bore while guiding
the connecting rod to the crankshaft journal.
cx900ld
Lubricate the threads and underside of the
connecting rod capscrew heads with clean 15W-40
lubricating engine oil.
cx9cswb
CAUTION
The number stamped on the rod and cap at the
parting line must match and be installed on the oil
cooler side of the engine.
Install the connecting rod cap and capscrews.
Tighten the two capscrews in alternating sequence.
Torque Value:
Step1
Step2
cx9cshb
Diesel Engine
154
39 n.m [29 ft-lb]
Rotate each capscrew 90 degrees.
Engine System
NOTE:
Do not measure the clearance between the
connecting rod cap and crankshaft.
Measure the side clearance between the connecting
rod and crankshaft.
Connecting Rod Cap Side Clearance
mm
in
0.20
0.40
MIN
MAX
0.0079
0.0160
cx900tb
CAUTION
To reduce the possibility of engine damage, the
crankshaft must rotate freely.
CAUTION
If the connecting rod is not properly oriented
(tang opposite the camshaft), it will contact the
camshaft and lock the engine.
ks900wk
Check for freedom of rotation as the connecting rod
caps are installed. If the crankshaft does not rotate
freely, check the installation of the connecting rod
bearings and the bearing size.
Diesel Engine
155
Engine System
Gear Train Backlash, Front
This check must be performed after the gear cover is
removed or before installation.
The adjacent (engaging) gear must not turn as the
gear being measured is turned.
Position a dial indicator so the tip is contacting the
surface of the gear tooth as shown. Do not allow the
mating gear to turn.
Rotate the gear being measured clockwise. Position
the indicator to zero (0). Rotate the gear
counterclockwise and read the indicator.
01600087
Measure the gear backlash (1).
Timing Gear Backlash
Gear
A
B
01900256
0.08 to 0.19 mm
and idler gear
[0.0031 to 0.007 in]
Camshaft gear
0.08 to 0.19 mm
and idler gear
[0.0031 to 0.007 in]
gear and idler
gear
Camshaft gear
a
and oil pump
gear
b
Limit
Crankshaft gear
Injection pump
C
Replacement
Standard
0.07 to 0.29 mm
0.40 mm
[0.003 to 0.011 in]
[0.0157 in]
0.07 to 0.29 mm
[0.003 to 0.011 in]
Camshaft gear
0.15 to 0.30 mm
and PTO gear
[0.006 to 0.012 in]
Measure the clearance between the idler gear
bushing and shaft (2).
Clearance Between Idler Gear Bushing and Shaft
Standard
Replacement Limit
0.015 to 0.050 mm
[0.0006 to 0.002 in]
0.10 mm [0.0039 in]
Measure the end play of the idler gear (3).
01900257
End Play of Idler Gear
Standard
Replacement Limit
0.03 to 0.09 mm
0.20 mm [0.0079 in]
[0.0012 to 0.0035 in]
Diesel Engine
156
Engine System
Camshaft Thrust Bearing
Remove the thrust bearing.
00900186
CAUTION
The bearings can separate during engine
operation. Do not use room temperature
vulcanized (RTV) sealant to hold the bearings
together for assembly or the thickness can be too
great when the room temperature vulcanized
(RTV) sealant cures.
NOTE:
01400029
The camshaft thrust bearing has two
bearings. Both have a steel back with an
aluminum overlay. The thrust bearing must
be installed with the smooth sides against
each other.
Inspect the thrust bearing for damage.
Measure the bearing thickness.
Camshaft Thrust Bearing Thickness
mm
in
0.150
0.350
MIN
MAX
0.0059
0.0138
Install the thrust bearing.
00900186
Diesel Engine
157
Engine System
Cylinder Head
WARNING
This component weighs 23 kg [50 lb] or more. To
reduce the possibility of personal injury, use a
hoist or get assistance to lift this component.
Remove the mounting capscrews, cylinder head
assembly, and gasket.
Discard the gasket.
00900171
Use a valve spring compressor, Part Number
3163292, or equivalent, to compress the valve
spring(s), and remove the valve collets.
00900172
Loosen the spring, and remove the spring seat and
valve spring.
00900173
NOTE:
When removing the valve(s), mark them in
the location where the valve was installed.
This will aid in the assembly procedure.
Raise the cylinder head, and remove the valve.
00900174
Diesel Engine
158
Engine System
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury.
Wash the cylinder head in hot, soapy water solution.
After rinsing, use compressed air to dry the cylinder
head.
02900072
WARNING
When using solvents,
acids, or alkaline
materials for cleaning, follow the manufacturer's
recommendations for use. Wear goggles and
protective clothing to reduce the possibility of
personal injury.
CAUTION
knlcsea
Do not use caustic or acidic solutions to clean the
cylinder head capscrews. Use of this type of
solvent can cause corrosion to the capscrews.
Use a petroleum-based
capscrews.
solvent
to
clean
the
Clean the capscrew thoroughly with a wire brush or a
soft wire wheel, or use a non-abrasive bead blast to
remove deposits from the shank and the threads.
Inspect the cylinder head for cracks.
If a crack is found, and the crack does not extend into
the valve seat the cylinder head can be used again.
kn900ko
Diesel Engine
159
Engine System
Measure the cylinder head for surface flatness (1).
Cylinder Head Flatness(warping limit)
mm
in
0.00
MIN
0.00
0.05
MAX
0.002
The maximum repair limit on the cylinder head is 0.30
mm [0.012 in].
02900128
Inspect the cylinder head capscrews for damaged
threads, corroded surfaces, or a reduced diameter
(due to capscrew stretching).
knlcssa
Do not use the cylinder head capscrews again
under the following conditions:
• Corrosion or pitting that exceeds 1 sq. cm [0.155 sq.
in] in area
• 10 mm [3/8 in] x 10 mm [3/8 in] is an acceptable
area
• 13 mm [1/2 in] x 13 mm [1/2 in] is not an
acceptable area
• Corrosion or pitting that exceeds 0.12 mm [0.005
in] in depth
knlcssb
• Corrosion or pitting is located with 3.2 mm [1/8 in]
of the fillet
• Corrosion or pitting is located within 3.2 mm [1/8 in]
of the threads
• Stretched beyond “free length” maximum.
Reference the following steps for capscrew lengths
knlcssc
Diesel Engine
160
Engine System
If the capcrews are not damaged, they can be used
again throughout the life of the engine unless the
specified “free length” is exceed.
To check the capscrew “free length”, place the head
of the capscrew in the appropriate slot with the flange
against the base of the slot. Refer to the
manufacturer's specifications for the correct size of
the cylinder head capscrews.
02900009
If the end of the capscrew touches the foot of the
gauge, the capscrew is too long and must be
discarded and replaced.
02900010
Immediately after cleaning and inspecting the
capscrew. Apply a film of clean lubricating engine oil
to all capscrews that are to be used again.
kn9cswb
Coat the stems of the intake and exhaust valves and
the inside of the valve guides with clean lubricating
engine oil.
00900174
Diesel Engine
161
Engine System
Install the valve spring and spring seat on the valve
stem.
00900173
Install the valve collet onto the valve stem groove
while compressing the valve spring with the valve
spring compressor, Part Number 3163292, or
equivalent.
00900172
After releasing the valve spring, tap the top of the
valve stem with a plastic hammer to make sure the
valve cotter is completely seated.
00900252
Measure the cylinder head valve seat recession (2).
Valve Seat Specifications
mm
in
Intake
1.00±0.100
NOM
0.039±0.004
Exhaust
0.90±0.100
NOM
0.035±0.004
Repair limit on the intake valve seat is 2.00 mm 0.079
in].
Repair limit on the exhaust valve seat is 1.90 mm
0.075 in].
00900130
Valve seat angle (4) is 45 degrees with a tolerance of
± 0° 15'. Repair limit condition is judged by vacuum
test.
Diesel Engine
162
Engine System
Measure the injector nozzle protrusion (3) on the
cylinder head
Injector Nozzle Protrusion
mm
In
2.84
MIN
0.112
3.40
MAX
0.138
The tolerance allowance on the nozzle protrusion is
2.700 to 3.500 mm [0.106 to 0.138 in].
00900129
CAUTION
Remove all carbon and dirt from the contact
surfaces of the cylinder block and cylinder head.
Remove all burrs and debris from the cylinder
block. Failure to do so can result in severe engine
damage.
Install a new cylinder head gasket with the “TOP”
mark facing up.
00900253
WARNING
This component weighs 23 kg [50 lb] or more. To
reduce the possibility of personal injury, use a
hoist or get assistance to lift this component.
Coat the capscrew(s) threads with antiseize
compound, Part Number 3824879, or equivalent.
Install the cylinder head using four head capscrews
as guides.
00900254
The cylinder head capscrews can be used up to five
times. Make a punch mark on the capscrew head
each time the capscrew is used. If there are already
five marks on the capscrew head, the capscrew must
be replaced..
Install the capscrews. Tighten the capscrews in the
sequence shown.
Torque Value:
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
00900245
Diesel Engine
163
69 n.m
[51 ft-lb]
108 n.m
[80 ft-lb]
Rotate 90 degrees
Engine System
Rocker Levers
Adjusting Valve Clearance
Remove the cylinder head cover.
03900075
Rotate the crankshaft in the normal direction.
While watching the movement of the intake valve of
No. 4 cylinder, bring the No.1 cylinder into
compression top dead center position
Align the TOP engraved mark on the crankshaft
pulley (1) with pointer (2).
NOTE:
• The engraved mark on the crankshaft pulley will
read “1.4 TOP.”
• The No. 4 intake valve will start to open when the
No. 1 cylinder comes near compression top dead
center.
0390076
Loosen the lock nut (3) on the adjustment screw (4).
Insert the feeler gauge (5) between the valve stem (6)
and the rocker arm (7).
Adjust the clearance with the adjustment screw until
slight drag is felt on the feeler gauge.
Valve Clearance (Engine Hot or Cold)
Intake Valve
Exhaust Valve
0.35 mm
0.50 mm
0.014 in
0.020 in
0390077
Diesel Engine
164
Engine System
NOTE:
Adjust intake and exhaust clearances in the
following firing order by rotating the
crankshaft 180 degrees in the normal
direction: 1-2-4-3.
0390078
Adjust the valve clearances for intake valves No. 1
and No. 3.
Adjust the valve clearances for exhaust valves No. 1
and No. 2.
0390079
Rotate the crankshaft in the normal direction one
revolution.
Adjust the valve clearances for intake valves No. 2
and No. 4.
Adjust the valve clearances for exhaust valves No. 3
and No. 4.
0390078
Tighten the locknut to secure the adjustment screw.
Locknut Torque Value
N•m
ft-lb
39.2
MIN
28.9
49
MAX
36.1
0390080
Diesel Engine
165
Engine System
Rocker Levers Assembly
The rocker lever assembly contains the following
components:
1. Rocker shaft
2. Adjusting screw locking nut
3. Rocker lever
4. Adjusting screw.
03900102
5. Rocker lever indexing screw
6. Pedestal mounting stud
7. Cup plug
8. Snap ring
9. Thrust washer (if equipped)
10. Rocker lever pedestal
11. Separating spring
12. Pedestal mounting capscrews.
03900103
NOTE:
When removing the rocker arm, loosen the
locknut, and turn the adjustment screw
counterclockwise 2 to 3 turns.
Remove the mounting capscrews and the rocker lever
assembly.
03900169
Remove the snap rings for each rocker lever.
Remove the rocker lever shaft and thrust washers (if
equipped).
Remove the rocker lever pedestals and rocker levers.
Remove the locknut and adjusting screw from rocker
lever.
03900104
Diesel Engine
166
Engine System
Clean all parts in a strong solution of detergent in hot
water.
03900105
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury.
The pedestals are made from powdered metal and will
continue to show wetness after they have been
cleaned and dried.
Rinse parts with clean hot water.
03900106
Dry parts with compressed air.
Inspect the rocker lever for cracks, excessive wear in
the bore, and the contact surface of the valve stem.
rh9bdsa
Measure the rocker lever bore.
Rocker Lever Bore Diameter
mm
19
NOM
in
0.75
rh9brta
Diesel Engine
167
Engine System
Inspect the pedestal and shaft bore.
Measure the pedestal shaft bore.
Rocker Lever Pedestal Bore
mm
in
19
NOM
0.75
03900107
Install the locknut and adjusting screw in the rocker
lever.
Install the rocker lever pedestals and rocker levers.
Install the rocker lever shaft and thrust washers (if
equipped).
Install the snap rings for each rocker lever.
03900104
NOTE:
Check that the ball of the adjustment screw
is fitted properly into the socket of the
pushrod before tightening the capscrews. If
the valve spring tension pushes against the
rocker arm, loosen the locknut, and turn the
adjustment screw back to prevent strain on
the pushrod.
NOTE:
Tighten the middle pedestal capscrew first.
Install the rocker lever assembly and mounting
capscrews.
00900169
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value:
Diesel Engine
168
25 n.m
[18 ft-lb ]
Engine System
Rocker Lever Cover
Remove the three capscrews, isolator assemblies, orings, and rocker lever cover.
Remove the gasket. Discard the gasket.
03900075
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury.
Clean the rocker lever cover with a strong solution of
detergent in hot water.
Dry the rocker lever cover with compressed air.
03900109
Inspect the rocker lever cover for cracks and other
damage.
03900110
Install the new gasket.
Install the rocker lever cover,
assemblies, and three capscrews.
o-rings,
isolator
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value:
9 n.m
[80 in-lb ]
03900075
Diesel Engine
169
Engine System
Push Rods or Tubes
NOTE:
Mark the push rods with tags showing the
location. Keep the push rods from getting
damaged. Install the push rod in the same
location during assembly.
Remove the push rods from the cylinder head.
00900170
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury.
Clean the push rods in a strong solution of detergent
in hot water.
Dry with compressed air.
pr900ea
Inspect the push rod ball and socket for signs of
scoring.
Check for cracks where the ball and the socket are
pressed into the tube.
pr900sd
NOTE:
When a push rod is replaced, the
corresponding tappet must be replaced
also.
Check the push rods for roundness and straightness.
Use a round feeler gauge on a flat surface.
Straightness or Bend of push Rod
mm
pr1bdsb
Diesel Engine
0.30
170
in
MAX
0.012
Engine System
Lubricate the push rod ends with clean lubricating
engine oil.
Install the push rods into the cylinder head in the
location as marked.
00900170
Tappet
NOTE:
Mark the location of the tappets if tappets are
to be used again.
Remove the tappets.
00900206
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury.
Clean the tappets with a strong solution of detergent in
hot water.
Dry the tappets with compressed air.
04900033
When a new camshaft is installed, new tappets and
push tubes must also be installed.
When the tappets need to be replaced,
corresponding push tubes must also be replaced.
the
pr900sd
Diesel Engine
171
Engine System
Inspect the face of the tappet for excessive wear,
cracks, and other damage.
Visual Limits
(A) - Normal contact (exaggerated)
(B) and (C) - Irregular contact (do not reuse).
bp9tasa
Pit marks on the tappet face are acceptable.
The following criteria defines the size of the pits
allowed:
1. A single pit can not be greater than 2 mm [0.078 in].
2. Interconnection of pits is not allowed.
3. Total pits when added together must not exceed 6mm [0.236-in] in diameter or total of 4 percent of the
tappet face.
kf900sa
4. No pitting is allowed on the edges of the wear face
of the tappet.
Measure the valve stem diameter 28 mm [1.1 in] from
the face of the tappet.
Valve Tappet Stem Diameter
mm
16
in
NOM
0.63
kf900to
Lubricate the tappets with clean lubricating engine oil.
Install the tappets.
00900206
Diesel Engine
172
Engine System
Complete Engine
Measuring Compression Pressure
WARNING
WARNING
To avoid personal injury, keep hands, long hair,
jewelry, and loose fitting or torn clothing away
from fans and other moving parts.
Exhaust manifold and muffler are hot. Do not
touch the exhaust manifold or muffler or personal
injury will occur.
Adjust the overhead. Refer to Adjusting Valve
Clearance procedure.
0390077
Remove the spill tube.
0390166
Disconnect the fuel injection tubing.
NOTE: Disconnect the fuel shut-off solenoid.
0390163
Diesel Engine
173
Engine System
CAUTION
Do not allow dirt or foreign matter to get into the
cylinder. Foreign objects in the cylinder can cause
severe engine damage.
Remove the nozzle holder assembly for each cylinder.
Remove the injector.
0390167
Lubricate the sealing lips of the sleeve with anti-seize
compound. Assemble the injector, sealing sleeve, a
new copper sealing washer, and the hold-down clamp.
Use only one washer.
NOTE: A light coat of clean 15W-40 engine oil
between the washer and injector can help
hold the washer in place during installation.
fi9slwb
Install the adapter to the nozzle holder mounting
section of the cylinder to be measured. Tighten the
adapter.
Adapter Capscrews
N•m
ft-lb
39
MIN
29
49
MAX
36
14900059
Connect the compression gauge to the adapter.
NOTE: Most compression leakage can be prevented
by applying a small amount of oil to the
mounting section of the adapter.
14000060
Diesel Engine
174
Engine System
Crank the engine with the starting motor. Read the
gauge when the pointer is stabilized.
Engine Compression
kPa
1965
2944
MIN
NOM
psi
285
427
14000062
Testing and Adjusting the Fan Belt
Tansion
Testing the Fan Belt Tension
Check the amount the fan belt deflects when pushed
with a force of 6 kg [13.2 lb] at a point midway
between the fan pulley and the alternator pulley.
Fan Belt Deflection
mm
in
7.0
MIN
0.28
10.0
MAX
0.39
fa9blsh
Adjusting the Fan Belt Tension
Loosen the mounting capscrew of the alternator (1)
and belt tension adjustment capscrew (2).
14000068
Using a bar, raise the alternator, and adjust the fan
belt tension.
Tighten the adjustment capscrew and the mounting
capscrew.
Torque Value:
Adjustment
Capscrew
31 N•m
[23 ft-lb]
Mounting
Capscrew
66 N•m
[49 ft-lb]
00900257
Diesel Engine
175
Engine System
Fuel System
Fuel Injection Pump, Rotary
CAUTION
Do not drop the nut, washer, or key. Failure to do
so will result in the need to remove the front gear
cover.
Remove the gear cover access cap.
Rotate the engine until the keyway is vertical.
Remove the nut and washer from the fuel injection
pump shaft.
05900254
Remove the injection pump support bracket.
Remove the two mounting capscrews.
Remove the fuel injection pump.
Remove the key.
fs9keaa
Inspect the fuel injection pump body for cracks or
other damage
05900868
Diesel Engine
176
Engine System
CAUTION
Make sure the key does not fall into the gear
housing. Failure to do so can result in engine
damage.
Install the Woodruff key into the fuel injection pump.
Align the key in the fuel injection pump with the
keyway in the injection pump gear.
fs9keaa
Install the fuel injection pump.
CAUTION
Do not attempt to pull the pump flange into the
gear housing with the mounting nuts. Damage to
fuel pump housing can occur.
Hand tighten the mounting nuts. The fuel pump must
be free to move in the slots.
fp900wi
Install the fuel injection pump washer and nut..
Torque Value : 70 n.m [52 ft-lb ]
Refer to the rotary fuel injection timing in this
procedure to make sure the fuel pump is timed
correctly.
ip9nuhb
Tighten the fuel injection pump mounting capscrews.
Torque Value: 31 n.m
[23 ft-lb ]
Install the mounting bracket capscrews.
12 mm
14 mm
19
31
n.m
n.m
[14 ft-lb ]
[23 ft-lb ]
fp900wi
Diesel Engine
177
Engine System
Install the fuel pump drive access cover.
Tighten the two capcrews.
10 mm
12 mm
13
19
n.m
n.m
[10 ft-lb ]
[14 ft-lb ]
14900071
Set the number 1 cylinder at compression top dead
center (TDC) by aligning the pointer on the gear cover
to the TDC line on the crankshaft pulley.
05900857
The fuel pump drive access cover can be removed to
confirm the timing marks are aligned between the fuel
pump drive gear and the idler gear if easier than
removing the valve cover. This is to confirm that the
engine is at TDC.
14900071
Remove the distributor head bolt and copper washer
from the injection pump.
Discard the copper washer.
14900074
Diesel Engine
178
Engine System
NOTE:
Check that the stylus end of the dial gauge
contacts the plunger head and is not
bottomed out.
Install the dial gauge, Part Number 3377259, or
equivalent, into the distributor head.
5p9towa
Rotate the crankshaft in the opposite direction of
normal engine rotation (counterclockwise) slightly, until
the dial gauge stops moving.
Set the dial gauge pointer to zero (0).
Slowly rotate the crankshaft in the normal direction
of engine rotation until the dial indicator reads the
following:
Measurements
mm
14900077
Distributor Head Timing
1.0±0.3
in
0.04±0.01
Check the degree markings on the crankshaft pulley
with the pointer and that is the timing of the engine.
If the timing needs to be adjusted, rotate the
crankshaft approximately 45 degrees in the reverse
direction of engine rotation.
Rotate the crankshaft in the normal direction of engine
rotation until the pointer on the gear cover lines up
with the correct timing mark on the crankshaft pulley
as stated on the dataplate.
05900857
Loosen the fuel injection pump support bracket, then
loosen the injection pump mounting capscrews.
Rotate the fuel pump until the dial indicator reads 1.0
± 0.3 mm [0.04 ± 0.01 in].
Tighten the fuel injection pump mounting capscrews,
then the support bracket.
Torque Value: 31 n.m [23 ft-lb ]
14900078
Diesel Engine
179
Engine System
Remove the dial gauge.
Install the distributor head bolt and new copper washer
into the fuel injection pump.
Torque Value: 17 n.m
[13 ft-lb ]
14900074
Install the fuel pump drive access cover.
10 mm
12 mm
13 n.m [10 ft-lb ]
19 n.m [14 ft-lb ]
14900071
If the fuel lines are opened, the low-pressure lines can
be vented by pumping the hand lever on the fuel filter
head.
00900221
Diesel Engine
180
Engine System
WARNING
Do not vent the fuel system on a hot engine; this
can cause fuel to spill onto a hot exhaust manifold,
which can cause a fire.
WARNING
Fuel is flammable. Keep all cigarettes, flames, pilot
lights, arcing equipment, and switches out of the
work area and areas sharing ventilation to reduce
the possibility of severe personal injury or death
when working on the fuel system.
fs900wg
Vent the high-pressure fuel lines.
Loosen the fitting at the number 1 injector.
Place the fuel control in the run position.
Crank the engine so air can vent from the fuel lines.
Tighten the fitting.
Torque Value: 30 n.m [22 ft-lb ]
Continue this process through the remaining three
injectors until the engine runs smoothly.
Injector
Testing
WARNING
Keep your body clear of test spray. Fluid can be
injected into the bloodstream causing blood
poisoning and possible death.
NOTE:
All nozzles must be tested for opening
pressure, chatter and spray pattern.
fi900sa
Diesel Engine
181
Engine System
Check the opening pressure.
a. Open valve.
b. Operate lever at one stroke per second.
c. Read pressure indicated when spray begins.
Nominal Injector Opening Pressure: 19.6 Mpa
[2843 psi]
fi900de
If the opening pressure is out of specification,
disassemble the injector and change the shims in
order to change the opening pressure.
NOTE: .01 mm [0.0039 in] shim thickness equals 41
bar [595 psi].
fi900oa
Leakage Test
a. Open the valve.
b. Operate the lever to hold pressure 20 bar [290 psi]
below opening pressure.
c. No drops should fall from the tip within 10 seconds.
fi900df
Chatter Test
The chatter test indicates the ability of the needle
valve to move freely and correctly atomize the fuel. An
audible sound should be heard as the valve rapidly
opens and closes. A well optimized spray pattern
should be seen.
Used nozzles should not be evaluated for chatter at
lower speeds. A used nozzle can generally be used if it
passes the leakage test.
fi900dd
Diesel Engine
182
Engine System
Disassembly
Remove the copper sealing washer and discard.
filsema
Clamp the nozzle holder in a soft jawed vise and
remove the nozzle nut.
fi900fb
Remove the nozzle needle valve and intermediate
plate.
NOTE: To avoid damage, place the injector nozzle
and needle valve in a suitable bath of clean
test oil.
fi900fc
Remove the nozzle holder from the vise; then remove
the pressure spindle, pressure spring, and shims.
fi900fd
Diesel Engine
183
Engine System
Assembly
NOTE:
Make sure all mating surfaces and pressure
faces are clean and lubricated with fuel oil
before assembly.
fi900ab
WARNING
Install the same thickness of shims that were
removed in disassembly. Use the pressure spring
to make sure the shims are installed flat.
Install the shims.
fi900ha
Clamp the nozzle holder in a soft jawed vise and
install the spindle.
fi900ce
Install the intermediate plate.
fi900ad
Diesel Engine
184
Engine System
Install the needle valve and nozzle assembly.
fi900ce
Install the nozzle nut.
fi900ob
Diesel Engine
185
Engine System
Lubricating System
Measuring Oil Pressure
WARNING
When measuring the oil pressure, be careful not to
get caught in rotating parts. always remove or
install plug or oil pressure gauges with the engine
stopped.
Remove the oil pressure sensor, and install the
pressure gauge.
14900086
NOTE:
Measure the oil pressure while the engine is
warm (oil temperature minimum: 82° C [180°
F]).
Start the engine, and measure the oil pressure.
Lubricating Oil Pressure
kPa
210
MIN
ft-lb
30
700
MAX
102
14900087
Lubricating Oil Cooler (If equipted)
Disconnect the two cooling lines from the cylinder
block and the lubricating oil cooler.
Remove the lubricating oil cooler (horizontal mount)
from the cylinder block.
07900329
Diesel Engine
186
Engine System
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury.
Clean the lubricating oil cooler housing and hoses with
a strong solution of detergent in hot water.
Dry the components with compressed air.
07900330
Inspect the lubricating oil cooler and hoses for cracks
or other damage.
07900331
Install the lubricating oil cooler (horizontal mount) on
the lubricating oil filter head adapter.
Torque Value: 79 n.m
[58 ft-lb ]
Connect the two cooling lines to the cylinder block and
the lubricating oil cooler.
07900329
Diesel Engine
187
Engine System
Lubricating Oil Pressure Regulator (Main Rifle)
Remove the pin that holds the regulator spring and
valve in the lubricating oil pump.
Remove the lubricating oil pressure regulator from the
lubricating oil pump.
07900322
Inspect the valve spring and body for damage or
excessive wear.
Inspect the valve for scoring.
Replace the lubricating oil pump if damage is found.
07900323
Diesel Engine
188
Engine System
Measure the clearance between the regulator body
and valve (1).
Valve and
Body
Clearance
Standard
Clearance
Valve
Body
0.050 mm
0.020 mm
to
to
to
11 mm
-0.077 mm
-0.020 mm
0.097 mm
[0.43 in]
[0.002in]
[0.008 in]
[0.001 in]
to
to
to
[0.003 in]
[0.008 in]
[0.004 in]
07900324
1
Standard
Tolerance
Size
0.030
Measure the valve spring length (2).
Valve Spring Length
Standard
2
A
Repair
Limit
Free
Installed
Installed
Free
Length
Length
Load
Length
33.1 mm
27.8 mm
2.44 kg
[1.30 in]
[1.09 in]
[5.38 lb]
N/A
Installed
Load
2.30 kg
[5.07 lb]
Replace the lubricating oil pump if not within
specification.
Install the lubricating oil pressure regulator assembly
into the lubricating oil pump.
Install the retaining pin that holds the regulator in the
lubricating oil pump.
07900322
Diesel Engine
189
Engine System
Remove the five mounting capscrews (2) and spacer
(3).
Remove the lubricating oil pump (1).
07900326
Inspect the lubricating oil pump housing for damage.
Measure the axial (1) and radial (2) clearance.
Axial and Radial Pump Gear Clearance
Inspection
Standard
Item
07900327
1
Axial
2
Radial
Clearance
Limit
0.030 to 0.085 mm
0.10 mm
[0.0012 to 0.0033 in]
[0.0039 in]
0.045 to 0.090 mm
0.13 mm
[0.0018 to 0.0035 in]
[0.0051 in]
Install the lubricating oil pump (1).
Install the spacer (3) and five mounting capscrews (2).
Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value: 19 n.m
[14 ft-lb ]
07900326
Diesel Engine
190
Engine System
Lubricating Oil Suction Tube
(Block-Mounted)
Remove the two mounting capscrews from the
lubricating oil suction tube.
Remove the lubricating suction tube and o-ring from
the cylinder block.
Discard the o-ring.
00900179
WARNING
When using solvents, acids, or alkaline materials
for
cleaning,
follow
the
manufacturer's
recommendations for use. Wear goggles and
protective clothing to reduce the possibility of
personal injury.
WARNING
op9tbeb
Some solvents are flammable and toxic. Read the
manufacturer's instructions before using.
WARNING
Wear appropriate eye and face protection when
using compressed air. Flying debris and dirt can
cause personal injury.
Clean the lubricating oil suction tube and o-ring
surfaces.
Dry with compressed air.
Inspect the lubricating oil suction tube for cracks or
other damage.
07900325
Diesel Engine
191
Engine System
Install the o-ring and lubricating suction tube onto the
cylinder block.
Install the two mounting capscrews into the lubricating
oil suction tube. Tighten the capscrews.
Torque Value: 19 n.m [14 ft-lb]
00900179
Cooling System
Loosen the alternator mounting capscrew (3) and the
belt tension adjustment capscrew (2).
Move the alternator down the adjustment bar until the
drive belt is loose.
Remove the drive belt (1).
08900318
Inspect the drive belt for the following:
• Cracks
• Glazing
• Tears or cuts
• Excessive wear.
fa8blsa
Install the drive belt.
Using a breaker bar, raise the alternator on the
adjustment bar (1), and adjust the fan belt tension to
specification.
00900257
Diesel Engine
192
Engine System
Measure the belt tension in the center span of the
pulleys.
Check the belt tension using a click-type belt tension
gauge, Part Number 3822524, or equivalent, or a
Burroughs gauge, Part Number ST-1138, or
equivalent.
Fan Belt Deflection
n
fa9blsb
New Belts
Used Belts
lb
324
MIN
73
378
MAX
85
216
MIN
49
270
MAX
61
Loosen the mounting capscrew of the alternator (1)
and belt tension adjustment capscrew (2).
14900068
Using a breaker bar, raise the alternator, and adjust
the fan belt tension to specification.
Tighten the adjustment capscrew and the mounting
capscrew.
Adjustment Capscrew 31 n.m [23 ft-lb ]
Mounting Capscrew 66 n.m [49 ft-lb ]
00999257
Diesel Engine
193
Engine System
Coolant Thermostat
Remove the thermostat and seal from the water pump
cavity.
08900320
CAUTION
Do not let dirt or debris fall into the thermostat
cavity when cleaning the gasket surfaces. Failure
to do so can cause engine damage.
Clean the mating surfaces.
08900321
Inspect the thermostat (1) for damage such as
obstructions caused by debris, broken springs, or
stuck or missing vent pins.
Make sure the thermostat is clean and free from
corrosion.
08900322
Diesel Engine
194
Engine System
NOTE:
Do not allow the thermostat or thermometer
to touch the side of the container.
Suspend the thermostat and a 100°C [212°F]
thermometer in a container of well-mixed water.
Heat the water slowly at a temperature of 77°C
[171°F] so the wax element in the thermostat has
sufficient time to react to the rising water temperature.
The thermostat thermal open lift is 8 mm [0.315 in]
when immersed in hot water for 4 to 5 minutes.
ec900nc
Install the seal and thermostat into water pump cavity.
08900320
Coolant Thermostat Housing
Remove the two capscrews and the thermostat
housing from the water pump.
08900325
Inspect the thermostat housing for cracks or other
damage.
08900326
Diesel Engine
195
Engine System
Install the thermostat housing onto the water pump.
08900325
Cooling System
WARNING
Do not remove the pressure cap from a hot engine.
Wait until the coolant temperature is below 50°C
[120°F] before removing the pressure cap. Heated
coolant spray or steam can cause personal injury.
WARNING
Coolant is toxic. Keep away from children and pets.
If not reused, dispose of in accordance with local
environmental regulations.
oi900vb
Drain the cooling system by opening the drain valve
on the radiator and removing the plug in the bottom of
the water inlet. A drain pan with a capacity of 20 liters
[5 gal] will be adequate in most applications.
Check for damaged hoses and loose or damaged
hose clamps. Replace, as necessary.
Check the radiator for leaks, damage, and buildup of
dirt. Clean and repair, as necessary.
ra9hosa
Diesel Engine
196
Engine System
During filling, air must be vented from the engine
coolant passages. The air vents through the “jiggle
pin” openings to the top radiator hose and out the fill
opening. Additional venting is provided for engine
equipped with a aftercooler. Open the petcock during
filling.
Adequate venting is provided for a fill rate of 10
liters/minute [2.6 gal/minute].
08900314
NOTE:
Do not install the radiator cap. The engine
must be operated without the cap for this
process.
Fill the system with a mixture of sodium carbonate and
water (or a commercially available equivalent).
Use 0.5 kg [1.0 lb] of sodium carbonate for every 23
liters [6 gal] of water.
ra900wd
WARNING
Coolant is toxic. Keep away from children and pets.
If not reused, dispose of in accordance with local
environmental regulations.
Operate the engine for 5 minutes with a coolant
temperature above 82°C [180°F].
Shut the engine off, and drain the cooling system.
oi800w10
CAUTION
The cooling system must be filled properly to
prevent air locks in the cooling passages. Failure
to vent the cooling system properly, can cause
damage to the cooling system.
Fill the cooling system with clean water.
Make sure to vent the engine and aftercooler (if
equipped) for complete filling.
ra900we
Do not install the radiator cap.
Diesel Engine
197
Engine System
WARNING
Coolant is toxic. Keep away from children and pets.
If not reused, dispose of in accordance with local
environmental regulations.
Operate the engine for 5 minutes with a coolant
temperature above 82°C [180°F].
Shut the engine off, and drain the cooling system.
oi800w10
If the water being drained is still dirty, the system must
be flushed again until the water is clean.
CAUTION
The cooling system must be filled properly to
prevent air locks in the cooling passages. Failure
to vent the cooling system properly, can cause
damage to the cooling system.
Adequate venting is provided for a fill rate of 10
liters/minute [2.6 gal/minute].
08900314
CAUTION
Do not use water alone for coolant. Damage from
corrosion can severely damage the engine cooling
system.
Use a mixture of 50-percent water and 50-percent
ethylene glycol antifreeze to fill the cooling system.
ra800wn
Diesel Engine
198
Engine System
WARNING
Do not remove the pressure cap from a hot engine.
Wait until the coolant temperature is below 50°C
[120°F] before removing the pressure cap. Heated
coolant spray or steam can cause personal injury.
Install the pressure cap. Operate the engine until it
reaches a temperature of 82°C [180°F], and check for
coolant leaks.
ra800sa
Check the coolant level again to make sure the system
is full of coolant, or that the coolant level has risen to
the hot level in the recovery container on the system, if
equipped.
Cooling System Diagnostics
When you troubleshoot overheating, remember that
too much oil in the oil pan can cause additional heat
from friction when the rod journals are submerged in
oil.
oi90lva
Overfilling with oil raises the oil temperature that is
transferred to the coolant system at the oil cooler.
The system is designed to use a specific quantity of
coolant. If the coolant level is low, the engine will run
hot.
NOTE:
The engine or system has a leak if frequent
addition of coolant is necessary. Find and
repair the leak.
ra900ve
Diesel Engine
199
Engine System
CAUTION
The engine coolant passages must be completely
filled with coolant.
During operation, entrapped air mixes with the coolant,
which results in cavitation corrosion and poor heat
transfer. Highly aerated coolant can cause localized
overheating of the cylinder head and block, which can
result in a cracked head, scored cylinder, or blown
head gasket.
ra900bd
During filling, air must be vented from the engine
coolant passages. The air vents through the jiggle pin
openings to the top radiator hose and out the fill
opening. Additional venting is provided for engines
equipped with an aftercooler. Open the petcock during
filling.
NOTE:
Adequate venting is provided for a fill rate of
10 liters/minute [2.6 gal/minute].
NOTE:
Excess air in the cooling system can lead to
overheating and low coolant levels.
NOTE:
A 50-percent mixture of antifreeze and water
must be premixed before filling the system.
The ability of antifreeze to remove heat from
the engine is not as good as water, so
pouring antifreeze into the engine first could
contribute to an overheated condition before
the liquids are completely mixed.
ra9vapa
A mixture of 50-percent ethylene-glycol base
antifreeze is required for operation of the engine in
temperature environments above -37°C [-35°F]. A
mixture of 40-percent water and 60-percent antifreeze
is recommended for temperatures below -37°C [-35°F].
Do not use more than 60-percent antifreeze.
ra800wn
Refer to Cummins Coolant Requirements and
Maintenance for additional cooling system information.
Diesel Engine
200
Engine System
CAUTION
Never use water alone for coolant. Damage from
corrosion can be the result of using water alone
for coolant. The small holes in the head gasket are
especially susceptible to plugging. These holes
are orifices and their size is critical. Do not enlarge
the size of the orifices. To do so will disturb the
coolant flow and will not solve an overheating
problem.
ra900be
Water will cause rust formation, reducing the flow in
the smaller coolant passages.
CAUTION
A sudden loss of coolant from a heavily loaded
engine can result in severe damage to the pistons
and cylinder bore.
Also, water used as a coolant for even a relatively
short period can result in the cup plugs rusting through,
allowing the coolant to leak.
ck9epka
An incorrect or malfunctioning cap can result in the
loss of coolant and the engine running hot.
ra900vf
Diesel Engine
201
Engine System
Air in the coolant can result in loss of coolant from the
overflow when the aerated coolant is hot. The heated
air expands, increasing the pressure in the system,
causing the cap to open.
Similarly, coolant can be displaced through the
overflow if the head gasket leaks compression gases
to the coolant system.
The operating pressure of the coolant system and the
lubricating system can result in the mixing of the fluids
if there is a leak between the systems: head gasket, oil
cooler, etc.
ra900vg
Transmission fluid can also leak into the coolant
through radiator bottom tank transmission oil coolers.
Water Pump
The water pump pulls coolant from the bottom of the
radiator and pumps it through the engine back to the
top of the radiator for cooling. Reduced or interrupted
flow will result in the engine running hot.
wo9hoka
The pump is belt-driven from the crankshaft pulley. An
automatic belt tensioner is used to prevent the belt
from slipping on the pump pulley. A malfunction of the
tensioner will cause the water pump impeller to rotate
at a slower speed, reducing the amount of coolant flow.
fa9besa
Diesel Engine
202
Engine System
The coolant flow can also be reduced if the inlet hose
to the water pump collapses. A hose will usually not
collapse while the engine is running at low speed.
Check the hose while the engine is running at rated
speed.
NOTE:
Be sure the engine is warm, a minimum of
95°C [203°F], so the thermostat is open.
wi9hoka
A worn or malfunctioning water pump will not produce
the flow required to prevent the engine from running
hot. However, be sure to check the other possibilities
indicated in the Troubleshooting Logic before checking
the flow or replacing the pump.
wp900sc
As stated in the coolant discussion, an obstruction in
the passages can interrupt flow.
kn9gkpa
The following steps are for troubleshooting the
Radiator, Fans, and Shutters:
Air forced through the fins of the radiator by a fan
cools the coolant pumped through the radiator.
Environmental debris (paper, straw, lint, dust, etc.) can
obstruct the fins and stop the flow of air, which will
reduce the cooling effect of the radiator.
ra900sa
Diesel Engine
If the fan is belt-driven, a slipping belt will result in
slower fan speed and reduced cooling. A
malfunctioning automatic belt tensioner can be the
problem.
Check the bearings in the fan hub and other pulleys to
make sure they are not causing excessive belt
vibration and slippage.
203
Engine System
Shutters are designed to control airflow across the
radiator. If the shutters fail to open when needed, the
engine can run hot. Failure of the shutters to close can
result in too much airflow and the engine running cold.
Make sure that the air temperature sensor is
functioning correctly. Check the air-operated shutter
controls. Check for air leaks.
fn900kd
Diesel Engine
204
Engine System
Engine Compression
WARNING
To reduce the possibility of personal injury, keep
hands, long hair, jewelry, and loose fitting or torn
clothing away from fans and other moving parts.
Measure the engine compression pressure while the
engine is a minimum temperature of 50°C [122°F].
Adjust the overhead. Refer to Procedure 003-004.
03900077
Remove the fuel drain line.
06900274
WARNING
Fuel is flammable. Keep all cigarettes, flames, pilot
lights, arcing equipment, and switches out of the
work area and areas sharing ventilation to reduce
the possibility of severe personal injury or death
when working on the fuel system.
Remove the high-pressure fuel lines.
Disconnect the fuel shutoff valve.
00900163
Diesel Engine
205
Engine System
WARNING
While testing the injectors, keep hands and body
parts away from the injector nozzle. Fuel coming
from the injector is under extreme pressure and
can cause serious injury by penetrating the skin.
CAUTION
Do not allow dirt or debris to enter into the
cylinder port. Debris and foreign objects in the
cylinder can cause severe engine damage.
0090016
Remove the nozzle holder assembly for each cylinder.
Remove the injector for each cylinder.
Lubricate the sealing lips of the sleeve with antiseize
compound, Part Number 3824879, or equivalent.
Assemble the injector, sealing sleeve, a new copper
washer (use only one washer), and the injector holddown clamp.
A light coat of clean 15W-40 lubricating engine oil
between the washer and the injector can help hold the
washer in place during installation of the injector.
fi9slwb
Install the compression adapter, Part Number
3164627, or equivalent, to the nozzle holder mounting
section of the cylinder to be measured..
Tighten the compression adapter.
Torque Value: 44 n.m [33 ft-lb ]
14900059
Diesel Engine
206
Engine System
Most compression leakage can be prevented by
applying a small amount of lubricating engine oil to the
mounting section of the compression adapter.
Connect the compression gauge to the compression
adapter.
14900060
Start the engine.
With the pointer on the gauge stabilized, check and
read the gauge.
Engine Compression
kPa
2944
psi
NOM
427
Remove the compression gauge when test is
complete.
14900062
Install the fuel drain line.
06900274
Install the high-pressure fuel lines.
Connect the fuel shutoff valve.
00900163
Diesel Engine
207
Engine System
Specifications
Valves, Valve Guides, and Springs
18900014
Ref
Inspection Item
Standard
Remarks
VALVES
Intake
Nominal:
8 mm
[0.3130 in]
Stem Diameter
3
Exhaust
Clearance Limit:
0.20 mm
[0.0079 in]
1.40 to 1.60 mm
[0.0551 to 0.0630 in]
Repair Limit:
1.00 mm
[0.039 in]
0.35 mm
[0.0138 in]
0.50 mm
[0.0197 in]
Tolerance:
±0.02 mm
[±0.0008 in]
14.5 mm
[0.571 in]
Tolerance:
±0.2 mm
[±0.0079 in]
Free-Length
49.2 mm
[1.94 in]
Repair Limit:
48.5 mm
[1.90 in]
Installed Length
40.5 mm
[1.59 in]
—
Clearance Between Guide and Stem
Exhaust
Intake
Head Thickness
Exhaust
1
Tolerance:
-0.050 mm
[-0.0020 in]
-0.065 mm
[-0.0026 in]
0.035 to 0.065 mm
[0.0014 to 0.0026 in]
0.050 to 0.080 mm
[0.0020 to 0.0031 in]
Intake
2
Tolerance:
-0.035 mm
[-0.0014 in]
-0.050 mm
[-0.0020 in]
Valve Clearance
(at Cold and Warm)
Intake
Exhaust
VALVE GUIDE
5
Protrusion Above Cylinder Head
Surface
Intake
Exhaust
VALVE SPRING
4
18.5 ±0.9 kg
[40.8±2.0 lb]
Installed Load
Squareness
Diesel Engine
—
208
Repair Limit:
16.5 kg
[36.4 lb]
Repair Limit:
1.85
Specifications
Rocker Arm Shaft, Push Rod and Tappets
18900016
Ref
1
Inspection Item
Standard
VALVE ROCKER ARM SHAFT
Diameter of Shaft
19 mm
[0.75 in]
Diameter of Rocker Arm Shaft Hole
Nominal:
19 mm
[0.75 in]
0.010 to 0.050 mm
[0.0004 to 0.0020 in]
Clearance Between Rocker Arm and Shaft
Bend of Shaft
—
Remarks
Tolerance:
-0.020 mm
[-0.0008 in]
Tolerance:
0.030 mm
[0.0012 in]
0.010 mm
[0.0004 in]
Clearance Limit:
0.12 mm
[0.0047 in]
Repair Limit:
0.20 mm
[0.0079 in]
PUSH ROD
2
Bend of Push Rod
—
Repair Limit:
0.30 mm
[0.012 in]
0.012 to 0.048 mm
[0.0005 to 0.0020 in]
Clearance Limit:
0.12 mm
[0.0047 in]
TAPPET
3
Clearance Between Tappet and Tappet Hole
Diesel Engine
209
Specifications
Cylinder Head
18900011
Ref
1
2
Inspection Item
Standard
CYLINDER HEAD
Surface Flatness (Warpage Limit)
0.00 to 0.05 mm
[0.00 to 0.002 in]
Intake
1.00 ±0.100 mm
[0.039 ±0.004 in]
Exhaust
0.90 ±0.100 mm
[0.035 ±0.004 in]
Valve Seat
3
Nozzle (Protrusion)
4
Valve Seat
Diesel Engine
3.12 ±0.28 mm
[0.123 ±0.011 in]
Angle
45°
210
Remarks
Repair Limit:
0.30 mm
[0.012 in]
Repair Limit:
2.00 mm
[0.079 in]
Repair Limit:
1.90 mm
[0.075 in]
Tolerance:
2.700 to 3.500 mm
[0.106 to 0.138 in]
Repair Limit: Judge
Tolerance:
condition of contact
±0°15'
surface by vacuum test.
Specifications
Cylinder Block
18900012
Ref
1
2
3
Inspection Item
Standard
CYLINDER BLOCK
0.00 to 0.08 mm
[0.00 to 0.003 in]
Repair Limit:
0.15 mm
[0.006 in]
STD
70.000 mm
[2.756 in]
Repair Limit:
70.200 mm
[2.764 in]
U/S 0.25
69.750 mm
[2.746 in]
Repair Limit:
69.950 mm
[2.754 in]
U/S 0.50
69.500 mm
[2.736 in]
Repair Limit:
69.700 mm
[2.744 in]
U/S 0.75
69.250 mm
[2.726 in]
Repair Limit:
69.450 mm
[2.734 in]
U/S 1.00
69.000 mm
[2.717 in]
Repair Limit:
69.200 mm
[2.724 in]
50.500 mm
[1.988 in]
Repair Limit:
50.600 mm
[1.992 in]
Surface Flatness (Warpage Limit)
Inner Diameter of
Main Bearing
Inner Diameter of Cam Bushing
Diesel Engine
Remarks
211
Specifications
Camshaft and Camshaft Bushing
18900015
Ref
1
2
3
Inspection Item
Standard
CAMSHAFT
Remarks
Naturally Aspirated
Naturally Aspirated
—
0.03 mm
[0.0012 in]
Intake
42.69 mm
[1.681 in]
Repair Limit:
42.20 mm
[1.661 in]
Exhaust
43.04 mm
[1.694 in]
Repair Limit:
42.50 mm
[1.673 in]
0.150 to 0.350 mm
[0.0059 to 0.0138 in]
Repair Limit:
0.50 mm
[0.0197 in]
Bend of Shaft
Cam
Height
Thrust
Clearance
CAMSHAFT BUSHING
4
Clearance
to
Cam
Diesel Engine
No. 1
No. 2
No. 3
0.040 to 0.140 mm
[0.0016 to 0.0055 in]
212
Repair Limit:
0.25 mm
[0.0098 in]
Specifications
Crankshaft
18900019
Ref
Inspection Item
1
Thrust Clearance
STD
U/S 0.25
Main Journal
2
U/S 0.50
U/S 0.75
U/S 1.00
Standard
CRANKSHAFT
0.131 to 0.351 mm
[0.0052 to 0.0138 in]
70.000 mm
[2.756 in]
69.75 mm
[2.746 in]
69.50 mm
[2.736 in]
69.25 mm
[2.726 in]
69.00 mm
[2.717 in]
Roundness
—
Clearance
STD
U/S 0.25
Crank Pin Journal
3
U/S 0.50
U/S 0.75
U/S 1.00
0.043 to 0.103 mm
[0.0017 to 0.0041 in]
57.000 mm
[2.244 in]
56.750 mm
[2.234 in]
56.500 mm
[2.224 in]
56.250 mm
[2.215 in]
56.000 mm
[2.205 in]
Roundness
Clearance of Crank Pin Journal
4
—
0.029 to 0.089 mm
[0.0011 to 0.0035 in]
Bend of Crankshaft
Diesel Engine
—
213
Remarks
Repair Limit: 0.40 mm
[0.016 in]
Repair Limit: 69.86 mm
[2.750 in]
Repair Limit: 69.61 mm
[2.741 in]
Repair Limit: 69.36 mm
[2.731 in]
Repair Limit: 69.11 mm
[2.721 in]
Repair Limit: 68.86 mm
[2.711 in]
Repair Limit: 0.020 mm
[0.0008 in]
Clearance Limit: 0.25 mm
[0.0098 in]
Repair Limit: 56.91 mm
[2.241 in]
Repair Limit: 56.66 mm
[2.231 in]
Repair Limit: 56.41 mm
[2.221 in]
Repair Limit: 56.16 mm
[2.211 in]
Repair Limit: 55.91 mm
[2.201 in]
Repair Limit: 0.020 mm
[0.0008 in]
Clearance Limit: 0.22 mm
[0.0087 in]
Repair Limit: 0.09 mm
[0.0035 in]
Specifications
Timing Gear
18900018
Ref
Inspection Item
Standard
Remarks
TIMING GEAR
Naturally Aspirated
1
Bend of Shaft
A
Crankshaft gear
and idler gear
0.08 mm to 0.19 mm
[0.0031 in to 0.007 in]
B
Camshaft gear
and idler gear
0.08 mm to 0.19 mm
[0.0031 in to 0.007 in]
C
Injection pump
gear and idler gear
0.07 mm to 0.29 mm
[0.003 in to 0.011 in]
a
Camshaft gear
and oil pump gear
0.07 mm to 0.29 mm
[0.003 in to 0.011 in]
b
Camshaft gear
and PTO gear
0.15 mm to 0.30 mm
[0.006 in to 0.012 in]
2
Clearance Between Bushing and Shaft
0.015 mm to 0.050 mm
[0.0006 in to 0.002 in]
3
End Play of Idler Gear
0.03 mm to 0.09 mm
[0.0012 in to 0.0035 in]
Diesel Engine
214
Replacement
Limit:
0.40 mm
[0.0157 in]
Replacement
Limit:
0.10 mm
[0.0039 in]
Replacement
Limit:
0.20 mm
[0.0079 in]
Specifications
Flywheel
18900013
Ref
Inspection Item
Standard
FLYWHEEL
Remarks
1
Face Runout of Flywheel Housing
—
Repair Limit:
0.30 mm
[0.012 in]
2
Radial Runout of Flywheel Housing
—
Repair Limit:
0.35 mm
[0.014 in]
3
Face Runout of Flywheel
—
Repair Limit:
0.15 mm
[0.0059 in]
4
Radial Runout of Flywheel
—
Repair Limit:
0.20 mm
[0.079 in]
Diesel Engine
215
Specifications
Cylinder
18900020
Ref
Inspection Item
Bore
1
Standard
CYLINDER
STD
Tolerance:
0.022 mm
[0.0008 in]
ID:
95.00 mm
[3.740 in]
Roundness of Cylinder
—
Cylindricity of Cylinder
—
Diesel Engine
216
Remarks
Repair Limit:
ID:
95.15 mm
[3.746 in]
Repair Limit:
0.02 mm
[0.0008 in]
Specifications
Piston
18900020
Ref
Inspection Item
Standard
Remarks
PISTON
1
Diameter
3
STD
Top
2
Clearance
Between
Piston Ring
Groove and
Piston Ring
4
ID:
95.00 mm
[3.740 in]
0.06 to 0.10 mm
[0.0024 to 0.0039 in]
Second
0.03 to 0.07 mm
[0.0012 to 0.0028 in]
Oil
2.0 mm
[0.079 in]*
Repair Limit:
ID:
94.85 mm
[3.734 in]
Repair Limit:
0.15 mm
[0.0059 in]
2.0 mm
[0.079 in]*
Repair Limit:
0.20 mm
[0.0079 in]
4.0 mm
[0.158 in]*
Repair Limit:
0.15 mm
[0.0059 in]
*Width of Groove (Nominal)
Diesel Engine
217
Specifications
Connecting Rod, Piston Ring and Piston Pin
18900022
Ref
Inspection Item
Standard
PISTON PIN
Nominal OD:
30.00 mm
[1.181 in]
—
0.004 to 0.018 mm
[0.0002 to 0.0007 in]
Clearance Limit:
0.05 mm
[0.002 in]
Outer Diameter
1
Clearance
Remarks
PISTON RING
A
B
Piston Ring Gap
C
Top
0.30 to 0.45 mm
[0.012 to 0.018 in]
Clearance Limit:
2.00 mm
[0.079 in]
Second
0.30 to 0.45 mm
[0.012 to 0.018 in]
Clearance Limit:
2.00 mm
[0.079 in]
Oil
0.25 to 0.45 mm
[0.0098 to 0.018 in]
Clearance Limit:
1.50 mm
[0.059 in]
CONNECTING ROD
2
Bend (B)/Torsion (T)
3
Inner Diameter of Bushing Hole
Maximum:
0.20/0.30 mm
[0.0078/0.0118 in]
Repair Limit:
0.25/0.35 mm
[0.0098/0.0138 in]
33.00 mm
[1.299 in]
Tolerance:
0.025 mm
[0.001 in]
CONNECTING ROD BUSHING
1
Clearance Between Bushing and
Piston Ring (Small End)
0.020 to 0.039 mm
[0.0008 to 0.0015 in]
Nominal OD:
30.00 mm
[1.18 in]
Clearance Limit:
0.100 mm
[0.0039 in]
CONNECTING ROD BEARING
4
Inner Diameter
Diesel Engine
57.00 mm
[2.244 in]
STD
218
Repair Limit:
57.20 mm
[2.252 in]
Specifications
Oil Pump
18900017
Ref
Inspection Item
1
Standard
Remarks
Axial
0.030 to 0.085 mm
[0.0012 to 0.0033 in]
Clearance Limit:
0.10 mm
[0.0039 in]
Radial
0.045 to 0.090 mm
[0.0018 to 0.0035 in]
Clearance Limit:
0.13 mm
[0.0051 in]
Clearance of Pump Gear
2
Diesel Engine
219
Specifications
Regulator Valve
18900023
Ref
Inspection Item
Standard
Standard
Size
1
Clearance
Between
Valve and Body
11 mm
[0.43 in]
Tolerance
Shaft
Hole
-0.050mm
-0.077mm
0.020 mm
-0.020mm
0.030 to
0.097 mm
[0.002 in]
[0.003 in]
[0.0008 in]
[0.0008 in]
[0.001 to
0.004 in]
Standard
2
Regulator Valve
SprIng
Naturally
Aspirated
3
Regulator Valve
Set Pressure
Diesel Engine
Remarks
Standard
Clearance
Clearance
Limit
Repair Limit
Replace
FreeLength
Installed
Length
Installed
Load
FreeLength
Installed Load
33.1 mm
[1.30 in]
27.8 mm
[1.09 in]
2.44 kg
[5.38 lb]
—
2.30 kg
[5.07 lb]
Standard: 5.0 ±0.5 kg/cm
220
Repair or
Replace
Spring
Specifications
Thermostat
18900024
Ref
1
Inspection Item
Thermostat
Standard
THERMOSTAT
Cracking Temperature:
82° C ±2° C [180° F ±2° F]
Fully Open Temperature:
95° C [203° F]
Fully Open Lift:
Minimum: 8 mm [0.315 in] (when
immersed in a hot water bath at
95° C [203° F] for 4 to 5 minutes)
Diesel Engine
221
Remarks
(Fully Open: Shall open fully
when immersed in hot water
bath at a temperature between
77° C [171° F] and 95° C [203°
F] for 4 to 5 minutes)
Replace
Specifications
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values
CAUTION
When replacing capscrews, always use a capscrew of the same measurement and strength as the
capscrew being replaced. Using the wrong capscrews can result in engine damage.
Metric capscrews and nuts are identified by the grade number stamped on the head of the capscrew or on the
surface of the nuts. U.S. Customary capscrews are identified by radial lines stamped on the head of the capscrew.
The following examples indicate how capscrews are identified:
17800017
17800016
NOTE:
1. Always use the torque values listed in the following tables when specific torque values are not available.
2. Do not use the torque values in place of those specified in other sections of this manual.
3. The torque values in the table are based on the use of lubricated threads.
4. When the ft-lb value is less than 10, convert the ft-lb value to in-lb to obtain a better torque with an in-lb torque
wrench. Example: 6 ft-lb equals 72 in-lb.
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values - Metric
Body
Size
Diameter
mm
6
7
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Diesel Engine
Torque
Cast Iron
N•m
ft-lb
9
5
14
9
23
17
45
33
80
60
125
90
195
140
280
200
400
290
Aluminum
N•m
ft-lb
7
4
11
7
18
14
30
25
55
40
90
65
140
100
180
135
-
Torque
Cast Iron
N•m
ft-lb
13
10
18
14
33
25
65
50
115
85
180
133
280
200
390
285
550
400
222
Aluminum
N•m
ft-lb
7
4
11
7
18
14
30
25
55
40
90
65
140
100
180
135
-
Torque
Cast Iron
N•m
ft-lb
14
9
23
18
40
49
70
50
125
95
195
145
290
210
400
290
-
Aluminum
N•m
ft-lb
7
4
11
7
18
14
30
25
55
40
90
65
140
100
180
135
-
Specifications
Capscrew Markings and Torque Values - U.S. Customary
Capscrew Body Size
1/4 - 20
- 28
5/16 - 18
- 24
3/8 - 16
- 24
7/16 - 14
- 20
1/2 - 13
- 20
9/16 - 12
- 18
5/8 - 11
- 18
3/4 - 10
- 16
7/8 - 9
- 14
1-8
- 14
Diesel Engine
Cast Iron
Aluminum
Cast Iron
Aluminum
N•m
ft-lb
N•m
ft-lb
N•m
ft-lb
N•m
ft-lb
9
12
20
23
40
40
60
65
95
100
135
150
180
210
325
365
490
530
720
800
7
9
15
17
30
30
45
50
70
75
100
110
135
155
240
270
360
390
530
590
8
9
16
19
25
35
45
55
75
80
110
115
150
160
255
285
380
420
570
650
6
7
12
14
20
25
35
40
55
60
80
85
110
120
190
210
280
310
420
480
15
18
30
33
55
60
90
95
130
150
190
210
255
290
460
515
745
825
1100
1200
11
13
22
24
40
45
65
70
95
110
140
155
190
215
340
380
550
610
820
890
8
9
16
19
25
35
45
55
75
80
110
115
150
160
255
285
380
420
570
650
6
7
12
14
20
25
35
40
55
60
80
85
110
120
190
210
280
310
420
480
223
Specifications
Fraction, Decimal, Millimeter Conversions
Fraction
inch
mm
Fraction
inch
mm
1/64
0.0156
0.397
33/64
0.5156
13.097
1/32
0.0313
0.794
17/32
0.5313
13.494
3/64
0.0469
1.191
35/64
0.5469
13.891
1/16
0.0625
1.588
9/16
0.5625
14.288
5/64
0.0781
1.984
37/64
0.5781
14.684
3/32
0.0938
2.381
19/32
0.5938
15.081
7/64
0.1094
2.778
39/64
0.6094
15.478
1/8
0.1250
3.175
5/8
0.6250
15.875
9/64
0.1406
3.572
41/64
0.6406
16.272
5/32
0.1563
3.969
21/32
0.6563
16.669
11/64
0.1719
4.366
43/64
0.6719
17.066
3/16
0.1875
4.763
11/16
0.6875
17.463
13/64
0.2031
5.159
45/64
0.7031
17.859
7/32
0.2188
5.556
23/32
0.7188
18.256
15/64
0.2344
5.953
47/64
0.7344
18.653
1/4
0.2500
6.350
3/4
0.7500
19.050
17/64
0.2656
6.747
49/64
0.7656
19.447
9/32
0.2813
7.144
25/32
0.7813
19.844
19/64
0.2969
7.541
51/64
0.7969
20.241
5/16
0.3125
7.938
13/16
0.8125
20.638
21/64
0.3281
8.334
53/64
0.8281
21.034
11/32
0.3438
8.731
27/32
0.8438
21.431
23/64
0.3594
9.128
55/64
0.8594
21.828
3/8
0.3750
9.525
7/8
0.8750
22.225
25/64
0.3906
9.922
57/64
0.8906
22.622
13/32
0.4063
10.319
29/32
0.9063
23.019
27/64
0.4219
10.716
59/64
0.9219
23.416
7/16
0.4375
11.113
15/16
0.9375
23.813
29/64
0.4531
11.509
61/64
0.9531
24.209
15/32
0.4688
11.906
31/32
0.9688
24.606
31/64
0.4844
12.303
63/64
0.9844
25.003
1/2
0.5000
12.700
1
1.0000
25.400
Conversion Factor: 1 inch = 25.4 mm
Diesel Engine
224
Specifications
Newton-Meter to Foot-Pound Conversion Chart
N•m
1
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
12
14
15
16
18
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
NOTE:
ft-lb
N•m
ft-lb
N•m
ft-lb
8.850756 in-lb
55
41
155
114
44 in-lb
60
44
160
118
53 in-lb
65
48
165
122
62 in-lb
70
52
170
125
71 in-lb
75
55
175
129
80 in-lb
80
59
180
133
89 in-lb
85
63
185
136
0.737562 ft-lb
90
66
190
140
9
95
70
195
144
10
100
74
200
148
11
105
77
205
151
12
110
81
210
155
13
115
85
215
159
15
120
89
220
162
18
125
92
225
165
22
130
96
230
170
26
135
100
235
173
30
140
103
240
177
33
145
107
245
180
37
150
111
250
184
To convert from Newton-Meters to Kilogram-Meters divide Newton-Meters by 9.803.
Pipe Plug Torque Values
Size
Thread
in
1/16
1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
Diesel Engine
Actual Thread O.D.
in
0.32
0.41
0.54
0.68
0.85
1.05
1.32
1.66
1.90
Torque
Torque
In Aluminum Components
N•m
ft-lb
5
45 in-lb
15
10
20
15
25
20
35
25
45
35
60
45
75
55
85
65
In Cast Iron or
Steel Components
N•m
ft-lb
15
10
20
15
25
20
35
25
55
40
75
55
95
70
115
85
135
100
225
Specifications
Tap-Drill Chart - U.S. Customary and Metric
NOTE ON SELECTING TAP-DRILL SIZE: The tap drill size shown on this card give the theoretical tap drill size for
approximately 60% and 75% of full thread depth. Generally, it is recommended that drill sizes be selected in the
60% range as these sizes will provide about 90% of the potential holding power. Drill sizes in the 75% range are
recommended for shallow hole tapping (less than 1 1/2 times the hole diameter) in soft metals and mild steel.
17800013
Diesel Engine
226
Specifications
Weight and Measures - Conversion Factors
Quantity
U.S. Customary
Metric
Unit Name
sq. inch
Abbreviation
in2
sq. foot
pounds per
horsepower hour
ft2
miles per gallon
mpg
gallons per mile
gpm
pounds force
inch
foot
horsepower
pounds force per
sq. inch
inches of mercury
inches of water
lbf
in
ft
hp
Unit Name
sq. millimeters
sq. centimeters
sq. meter
grams per
kilowatt hour
kilometers per
liter
liters per
kilometer
Newton
millimeters
millimeters
kilowatt
psi
in Hg
in H2 O
inches of mercury
in Hg
inches of water
in H2 O
bars
bars
bars
bars
fahrenheit
pound force per
foot
pound force per
inch
miles/hour
gallon (U.S.)
gallon (Imp*)
cubic inch
cubic inch
in3
Weight
(mass)
pounds (avoir.)
Work
British Thermal
Unit
British Thermal
Unit
horsepower hours
Area
.
Fuel
Consumption
Fuel
Performance
Force
Length
Power
Pressure
Temperature
Torque
Velocity
Volume:
liquid
displacement
Diesel Engine
From U.S.
Customary
To Metric
Multiply By
Abbr.
mm2
cm2
m2
g/kWhr
From Metric
To U.S.
Customary
Multiply By
645.16
6.452
0.0929
0.001550
0.155
10.764
608.277
0.001645
km/l
0.4251
2.352
l/km
2.352
0.4251
N
mm
mm
kW
4.4482
25.40
304.801
0.746
0.224809
0.039370
0.00328
1.341
kilopascal
kPa
6.8948
0.145037
kPa
kPa
3.3769
0.2488
0.29613
4.019299
mm Hg
25.40
0.039370
°F
kilopascal
kilopascal
millimeters of
mercury
Millimeters of
water
kilopascals
millimeters of
mercury
centigrade
ft-lb
lb/hp-hr
mm H2
O
kPa
25.40
0.039370
100.001
0.00999
mm Hg
750.06
0.001333
°C
(°F-32) 1.8
(1.8x°C) +32
Newton-meter
N•m
1.35582
0.737562
in-lb
Newton-meter
N•m
0.113
8.850756
mph
gal.
gal.
in3
kilometers/hour
liter
liter
liter
cubic
centimeter
kph
l
l
l
1.6093
3.7853
4.546
0.01639
0.6214
0.264179
0.219976
61.02545
cm3
16.387
0.06102
lb
kilograms
kg
0.4536
2.204623
BTU
joules
J
1054.5
0.000948
BTU
kilowatt-hour
kW-hr
0.000293
3414
hp-hr
kilowatt-hour
kW-hr
0.746
1.341
227
Specifications
Special Tools
Style
Diesel Engine
Tool No.
Tool name
ST 647
Standard Puller
3163086
Lubriplate™ Multi-Purpose Lubricant
3163720
Dowel Pin Extractor
3164067
Silicone Sealant
3164438
Depth Gauge Assembly
228
Special Tools
Style
Diesel Engine
Tool No.
Tool name
3164900
Crankshaft Seal Installer
3375066
Sealant
3375068
Sealant
3822709
Thread Repair Inserts
3823258
Abrasive Pad
229
Special Tools
Style
Diesel Engine
Tool No.
Tool name
3823942
Small Bushing Driver Set
4918219
Precision Straightedge
3822509
Injector Bore Brush
3824379
Antiseize Lubricant
4918219\
Precision Straightedge
230
Special Tools
Style
Diesel Engine
Tool No.
Tool name
ST 647
Standard Puller
3164488
Digital Multimeter
3164489
Digital Multimeter
3164491
Pressure/Vacuum Module
3375326
Bearing Separator Tool
231
Special Tools
Style
Diesel Engine
Tool No.
Tool name
3377462
Digital Optical Tachometer
3823705
Graduated Beaker
3824510
QD Contact Cleaner
4918193
Injection Timing Gauge Kit
4818677
Fuel Pump Drive Gear Retention Tool
232
Special Tools
Style
Diesel Engine
Tool No.
Tool name
4918679
Fuel Return Flow Hose (Fuel Pump)
ST 1273
Pressure Gauge
3164325
Fuel System Leak Tester
3164617
Fuel Return Flow Hose (fuel rail pressure
relief valve)
3164706
Injector Remover
233
Special Tools
Style
Diesel Engine
Tool No.
Tool name
3376579
Filter Cutter
3376946
Injection Nozzle Tester
3376947
Injector Nozzle Cleaning Kit
3400157
Fuel Filter Wrench
3823705
Graduated Beaker
234
Special Tools
Style
Diesel Engine
Tool No.
Tool name
3824879
Antiseize Lubricant
3163338
Black Light Lamp
3164067
Silicone Sealant
3164491
Pressure/Vacuum Module
3375273
Pressure Gauge Kit
235
Special Tools
Style
Diesel Engine
Tool No.
Tool name
3376579
Tube (Filter) Cutter
3400157
Oil Filter Wrench
3400158
Oil Filter Wrench
3823876
Lubricating Oil Cooler Test Kit
CC-2800
Refractometer
236
Special Tools
Style
Diesel Engine
Tool No.
Tool name
ST-1138
Belt Tension Gauge
3164488
Digital Multimeter
3164489
Digital Multimeter
3375066
Sealant
3376050
Dial Indicator Assembly
237
Special Tools
Style
Diesel Engine
Tool No.
Tool name
3377399
Magnetic Base Indicator Holder
3822524
Belt Tension Gauge
3822985
Combustion Leak Test Kit
3822994
Engine Coolant Analyzer
3824319
Coolant Dam/Pressure Tester
238
Special Tools
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